Logger Safety Checklist Booklet

Logger Safety Checklist Booklet
Logger Safety
Checklist Booklet
Date put in use: __________________________
Booklet Identification
(Use one booklet per logging crew and shop location)
Company: _______________________________________________________________________
Crew Name or Number: ____________________________________________________________
Owner(s):________________________________________________________________________
Address:_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Phone: __________________________________________________________________________
Date to request new booklet: _________________________________________________________
(12 months from receipt)
Paper for this publication donated by Domtar Paper Co. LLC, Plymouth, NC.
Printed on Domtar Lynx® Opaque Ultra—FSC Certified and part of the Domtar EarthChoice®
family of papers. Cover pages—65 lb. Lynx Opaque Ultra Cover Smooth,
Text pages—65 lb. Lynx Opaque Ultra Text Smooth.
1,500 copies of this public document were printed at a cost of $315.00, or $.21 per copy.
Revised 2010
Table Of Contents
How to use this booklet .......................................................................................................... 2
Extreme danger conditions .................................................................................................... 3
Quick safety checklist ............................................................................................................. 4
Company training policy ......................................................................................................... 5
Company safety policy ........................................................................................................... 6
Minimum safety rules ............................................................................................................. 7
Company drug and alcohol policy .........................................................................................11
What to expect from an NCDOL inspection ..........................................................................12
Safety meeting topics ............................................................................................................13
Safety meeting records .........................................................................................................14
Personal protective equipment requirements ........................................................................26
Equipment operation manuals...............................................................................................27
Lockout/tagout policy ............................................................................................................28
Hazard communication (HAZCOM) program ........................................................................29
HAZCOM materials master list ..............................................................................................31
Emergency response plan for hazardous materials ..............................................................32
First aid training record .........................................................................................................34
First aid kit contents ..............................................................................................................35
Bloodborne pathogen exposure control plan .........................................................................36
Hearing conservation—what it means to employers .............................................................38
Hearing conservation program ..............................................................................................40
Heat stress management program ........................................................................................41
Annual heat stress training ....................................................................................................42
Job safety and health and associated posters ......................................................................44
Safe behavior observations ...................................................................................................45
Information and phone numbers ...........................................................................................48
Local hospital information .....................................................................................................49
NCDOL logging operations interpretive guide .......................................................................51
Free on-site safety consultation ............................................................................................71
Logger safety checklist booklet order form ............................................................................72
1
How to Use This Booklet
Keep this booklet on the job site at all times.
Booklets should be used for a one year period. Another should be requested prior to the
twelfth month (see back page for ordering information).
Blank lines (____________) require written information such as company name or
signatures and dates, etc. Record all entries in ink. You may photocopy materials out of
this book and keep this book as a master copy.
This booklet contains sample forms, sample policies and guidelines for maintaining safety
records. Formats are suggested and can be modified by each operation. Use of this booklet
and completion of suggested forms will assist with OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
Act) requirements as related to logging operations. A list of agencies and contacts is
included for additional information and consultation.
This booklet is not a safety manual with everything you will need. It is intended to be
a record of activities and a source of useful information. Each company is
encouraged to begin its own manual with detailed information to backup this booklet.
Special thanks to the N.C. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Division,
for guidance in development and technical review of this publication.
2
Extreme Danger Conditions
Be alert for these AT ALL TIMES:
Are workers exposed to overhead hazards wearing hardhats?
Are lodged or hung trees flagged and pulled down as soon as possible?
Does the loader operator avoid swinging the boom over other workers?
Do deckmen maintain a safe distance from the loader?
Does the feller check for overhead hazards before felling a tree?
Do chain saw fellers avoid working during high wind conditions?
Are workers a safe distance from trees being felled?
Are workers a safe distance from moving skidders and pull logs?
3
Quick Safety Checklist
Date: ______________
YES
NO
All employees properly trained in the safest way to perform their job(s).
_____
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All employees in visual or audible contact with another employee.
_____
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All employees wearing hardhats when exposed to overhead hazards.
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Chain saw operators wearing all required personal protective equipment.
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All equipment operated a safe distance from other equipment and employees.
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Adequate handholds and footing surfaces provided on equipment.
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YES
NO
General Operation
Loader/Deck Area
Operator does not swing boom or loads over workers.
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Truck drivers exit cab and stay safe distance from loading operation.
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All employees on ground stay safe distance from loading area.
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Loader has protective cab guarding.
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Logs placed properly on trucks (tightly secured below standards).
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YES
NO
Minimum two tree length distance between felling and closest workers.
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All lodged and hung trees pulled down as soon as possible.
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Chain saw safety devices present and operational.
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Overhead hazards checked before felling.
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High wind condition avoided when manually felling.
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Manual fellers have provided a clear path of retreat.
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Felling Operations
Chain saw used properly to prevent saw kickback.
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Manual felling cuts result in directional felling.
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Domino tree felling or using pusher trees prohibited.
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All employees maintain at least 300 feet from high speed disc cutters.
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High speed cutter teeth, teeth holders and disc properly maintained.
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Protective cab structure and guards on mechanical cutters in place.
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Undercut (notch) is at an appropriate depth and no bypass present—both cuts shall meet.
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Proper hinge wood is present at two corners or continuous across the stump.
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No swing cuts are allowed.
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YES
NO
Area clearly identified and free of random equipment movement.
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Skidder operators have clear view of approach and eye contact with limbers.
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Limbers/bucker determine direction of limb or log movement before cutting.
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Spring poles cut and removed safely.
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Chain saws controlled during cuts and traveling between cuts.
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Manual Limbing and Bucking
YES
NO
Adequate guarding of cab front, sides and rear.
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Safe operating speeds and seat belts worn.
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Passengers prohibited.
_____
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Skidding Operation
4
Company Training Policy
How and when employees are trained:
How existing employees receive refresher training:
How training is documented (equipment, first aid, HAZCOM, hearing conservation,
minimum safety rules, safety meeting, personal protective gear, emergency response, etc.):
Safety workshops or training courses (locations, who will attend):
What training materials are used (videos, handouts, checklists, etc.):
Time schedule for training new and existing employees:
5
Company Safety Policy
Our policy includes the following:
1. A responsible employee in a position of authority will be appointed Safety Coordinator.
________________________________________ has been appointed to fill this position.
2. Owners, supervisors, foremen and employees are responsible for implementing this
policy by working in a safe manner.
3. Regularly scheduled safety meetings will be held with all employees.
4. All accidents will be reported, investigated and actions taken to prevent reoccurrence.
5. All new employees will be trained in safe working practices for the particular jobs and
closely supervised until they are signed off and they are fully capable of safe performance.
6. All employees are required to use personal protective equipment provided by this
company or the employee. Equipment will be kept in good condition.
7. Employees will report any and all accidents to their immediate supervisor.
8. All employees are expected to cooperate in keeping work areas clean and free of
hazards. Employees will report any observed hazard to their immediate supervisor.
9. Each employee is required to keep a safe distance from other employees while moving
equipment.
10. Employees will operate equipment as instructed in a safe and reasonable manner.
11.
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13.
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6
Minimum Safety Rules
1. All accidents, no matter how slight, must be reported to your supervisor IMMEDIATELY.
2. Any employee injured on the job or requiring medical treatment must first report the injury
to her/his supervisor on the same shift it occurs. A medical emergency is an open wound
requiring stitches, loss of consciousness, or any injury involving broken bones. If you go to
the Emergency Room or to a physician on your own, you may have to pay your own bill.
The company has the right to refuse payment when the company has approved a medical
provider for treatment and you elect to use the services of another physician without
obtaining consent from the company.
3. Personnel protective equipment (hard hats, chaps, eye protection, ear protection, gloves,
etc.) will be provided and must be worn in designated areas at all times.
Designated areas where personal protective equipment is required are as follows:
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
4. All workers must wear adequate footwear. Tennis shoes, platform shoes, sandals, etc.,
are not acceptable.
5. Use of alcohol and/or illegal narcotic drugs on the job or the debilitating effects of their
prior use shall not be permitted and shall be grounds for immediate termination of
employment. Personnel on each shift should inform their supervisor of the medications they
are taking.
6. Machine guards and/or protective shields, barricades, safety devices, etc., shall not be
removed except by authorized personnel such as mechanics, maintenance personnel, etc.,
and shall be reinstalled as soon as maintenance activities are completed. Such
machinery/equipment is not to be operated until a maintenance person declares it operable.
7. Machine and equipment operators must ensure that all guards and shields are in place
and in proper working condition prior to beginning and during operations. Such
machinery/equipment is not to be operated until a maintenance person declares it operable.
8. Equipment shall be LOCKED AND TAGGED OUT prior to performing any maintenance,
making any adjustments, or removing debris. Allow coast down time for all parts to
completely stop moving before starting work. Make sure the equipment is at a “zero
energy” state.
9. When “jump starting” mobile equipment, employees must insure that its running gear is in
neutral, brakes are locked, head/blades and/or buckets are lowered, and that no safety
device designed to prevent machine movement is being bypassed.
7
10. HORSEPLAY and running shall not be permitted on the premises, to include all work
areas inside and outside the buildings and parking lots.
11. If you are unfamiliar with an operation or machine, you must first check with your
supervisor prior to proceeding. The company is required to sign you off as ‘trained’ before
you operate equipment.
12. Any unsafe condition noted must be reported to your supervisor, who is responsible for
having the conditions corrected prior to proceeding.
13. When mobile equipment (skidders, dozers, front end loaders, feller bunchers, etc.) are
not in operation or parked, blades, buckets, cutting heads, etc., must be lowered to ground
level.
14. Employees must wear seat belts when mobile equipment is being operated, i.e.,
skidders, dozers, loaders, feller bunchers, tractor-trailers, or other vehicles are being
operated or when riding as a passenger in a vehicle.
15. Hitching a ride on any mobile equipment (skidders, dozers, front-end loaders, feller
bunchers, etc.) is not allowed.
16. Employees shall not talk, signal, or distract in any manner another employee while they
or you are operating moving and/or mobile equipment, i.e., chain saws, skidders, loaders,
feller bunchers, etc.
17. Before starting manual felling, the employee cutting the tree must make sure all other
employees are a safe distance away from the manual felling tree stump.
18. Workers must keep a minimum distance of at least two tree lengths between
themselves and mobile equipment and/or felling operations.
19. Never leave a lodged or hung tree. The area in which the lodged tree is located is to be
flagged and the skidder operator immediately notified to pull the hazardous tree to the
ground immediately.
20. Employees working on the ground (stumpers, limbers, skidder operators, etc.) shall
always observe for overhead hazards (lodged trees, hung limbs, etc.).
21. Employees cutting down trees shall have a clear path of retreat before beginning a cut
to ensure that a line of escape is available.
22. Always plan the direction of fall of any tree being felled. Proper undercut must be made
on all trees where necessary. Never cut a standing tree completely through. Sufficient wood
should be left between the undercut and the felling cut that the tree can hinge to prevent
kickback.
23. Chain saw operators must always grip the saw firmly with both hands, wrap the front
hand-hold bar with the thumb and never cut with the tip of the chain saw blade.
8
24. All chain saws must be equipped with a properly functioning chain brake, throttle
interlock and chain catch. Chain saw operators must wear protective chaps, eye and face
protection and hearing protection.
25. Employees shall avoid standing between logs that may roll while being bucked, or
position themselves so as to be thrown or struck while logs or the loader is moving poles.
26. Knuckleboom loader operators must never swing the boom over employees.
27. Loader operators shall never load log trucks more than ½ the height of the diameter of
the top-most logs over stationary standards. The load may be rounded in the middle so as
to secure and balance the load.
28. Do not set up the loader or deck under power lines or over underground utilities.
29. Truck drivers must be at a safe distance away from the truck during loading or
unloading operations.
30. When in the immediate vicinity of a log truck each employee shall constantly be aware
of and position himself in such manner so as to ensure that he will not be struck by material
falling from the truck.
31. All truck drivers must comply with all state and federal laws, statutes, and regulations
relating to highway safety (speed and weight limits, driving time, stop signs, etc.)
32. Each employee will be trained in, and required to use, proper lifting techniques and
body mechanics. When confronted with lifting and/or moving any object for which the
employee must exert more force than that required in the normal performance of his routine
duties, he is to either seek the assistance of an adequate number of employees to lift
and/or move the object in a safe manner, or lift and/or move it by mechanical means.
NOTE: These safety rules have been developed for the protection of your safety and
health. Abiding by these rules will make our operation more efficient and successful;
however, repeated violation of these safety rules will be grounds for termination of
employment. The following actions may be taken for repeated violations:
_______________________________________________________________
First Offense:
Second Offense: _______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Third Offense:
Other disciplinary actions:
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
9
I have read and understand the safety rules listed above and agree to comply with the
company’s safety requirements.
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE:
DATE:
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10
Company Drug and Alcohol Policy
As a condition of employment, I hereby agree to the following rules and regulations pertaining
to illegal drugs, alcohol and legally prescribed medical drugs:
1. I agree to notify my employer of the need for me to take any prescription drug.
2. I agree not to operate any equipment or motor vehicle while taking a prescribed drug that may
impair the safe performance of my duties.
3. I agree never to drink alcohol when operating equipment on the job.
4. I agree never to use any illegal or controlled substance while employed.
5. I agree never to report for work while under the influence of alcohol or illegal drugs. I will advise
my supervisor upon reporting to work if I am taking medication prescribed by a doctor.
6. I agree that if I am asked to take a test for illegal or controlled substances and refuse, that refusal
will constitute my immediate voluntary resignation.
7. I agree that if I violate any of the above rules and regulations, my employment will be terminated
immediately.
8. I understand that an N.C. workers’ compensation claim may be denied if testing is positive for
alcohol or controlled substances.
Date:
_________________________________
_________________________________
Signed:
_________________________________
_________________________________
Witness:
_________________________________
_________________________________
Form may be used as master, photocopies may be made. Signed forms should be kept with employees’
personnel files.
11
What to Expect From an NCDOL Inspection
An NCDOL Inspector’s Credentials
When an NCDOL compliance officer arrives at the establishment or inspection site, he or she will display
official credentials. The compliance officer will ask to meet with the employer or an appropriate employer
representative. Employers should always ask to see the compliance officer’s credentials.
Opening Conference
In the opening conference, the compliance officer will explain how and why the establishment or site was
selected for an inspection. The officer will instruct whether the inspection will be comprehensive or partial.
Also, the compliance officer will determine whether the establishment or site is undergoing consultation from
an NCDOL funded consultant program or whether an inspection exemption is being pursued or has been
received. If so, the inspection may be terminated. The compliance officer will also specify the following:
•
•
•
•
•
State the purpose of the visit.
Explain the scope of the inspection.
Ascertain the correct mailing address, telephone number, number of employees, etc.
Preview the accident and injury records (OSHA form 300), and written safety and health programs
Determine whether there are any trade secrets at the establishment or site as a result of questioning
the employer or employer’s representative. Trade secrets are treated confidentially. The employer
will be asked to select an employee representative to accompany the compliance officer during the
inspection. This selection process may include a bargaining agency representative, safety committee
selection or employee’s selection.
The Inspection Process
The inspection tour will likely proceed from the beginning of the work process to the finished product. The
compliance officer will observe safety and health conditions and practices, interview employees privately, and
make every effort to minimize any work interruptions. The compliance officer will also, if appropriate, take
photos, examine records, collect samples, monitor employee’s exposure, and survey existing engineering
controls.
Closing Conference
At the conclusion of inspection, the compliance officer will conduct a closing conference with the employer
and the employee representative(s). A free discussion will take place of the alleged violations of the NCDOL
standards or referenced (ANSI, NEC, etc.) standards that were observed during the inspection. Additional
problems and needs may be discussed (safety and health).
The compliance officer will not indicate any specific proposed penalties. The employer is informed of
appeal rights and can request an informal conference or notice of contestment. The employer has 15
working days from the time of receiving the citation and proposed penalty to notify the OSH director in
writing.
12
Safety Meeting Topics
Frequent safety meetings are very useful with a short weekly meeting recommended. A
more lengthy and detailed meeting will be necessary for some areas. Topics with an
asterisk * are required by NCDOL to be reviewed annually with employees.
Use the enclosed SAFETY MEETING forms to document these monthly meetings.
Personal Protective Equipment +
Review of Equipment Operation Manuals +
Lockout/Tagout Procedures/ZES (zero energy state) * +
Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) +
Emergency Response Plan +
First Aid +
Bloodborne Pathogens * +
Hearing Conservation Program * +
Fire Extinguisher Training *
Driver Training/DOT Review *
Company Safety Policies *
Heat Stroke and Heat Exhaustion +
Log and Transport Truck Inspection *
* denotes training required by NCDOL on an annual basis
+ denotes sample safety meeting forms enclosed
13
Safety Meeting Record
Date:
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Brief outline of discussion (or staple in training material):
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Employees in attendance (signatures):
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Safety Meeting Record
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Safety Meeting Record
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Safety Meeting Record
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Safety Meeting Record
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Safety Meeting Record
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Safety Meeting Record
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24
Safety Meeting Record
Date:
Location:
Topic:
Presented
by:
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Brief outline of discussion (or staple in training material):
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Employees in attendance (signatures):
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
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25
Personal Protective Equipment
Hazard Assessment
Check (√ ) what is required:
EQUIPMENT
Hard Hat
Face Screen
Eye Protection
Hearing Protection
Safety Shoes
Saw Chaps
Gloves
Seatbelt
Other:
__________
__________
__________
__________
LOADER
SKIDDER/
BUNCHER
SAWHAND
TRUCK
DRIVER
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
I understand the above company requirements for proper use of personal protective
equipment.
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE:
_________________________________________________
DATE:
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
26
Equipment Operation Manuals
Equipment operation manuals must be with each machine on the job site. Use them as
training materials with each new employee before the new job begins. Review the manuals
each year with all employees who will operate that specific piece of equipment.
EQUIPMENT:
OPERATOR(S):
_______________________ _______________________
DATE OF
REVIEW/TRAINING:
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________ _______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________ _______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________ _______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________ _______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________ _______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________ _______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
27
Lockout/Tagout Policy
1. All logging equipment, transport vehicles, and implements will have a lockout or tagout
procedure to protect employees conducting service or maintenance. Actions will be based
on procedures in the equipment operator’s manual.
2. Equipment will be shut down and placed in a zero energy state (ZES) for areas on the
equipment where work will be performed. Examples of energy include gravity (rolling down
a hill, broken floor jack), hydraulic pressure (falling boom, falling blade, arms or grapple
closing), electrical (equipment switch-on, shock), chemical (ignited fuel can), and air
pressure (changing tires).
3. Persons authorized to service and repair equipment must eliminate energy from the
affected equipment and lockout or tagout the equipment to be sure that another person
does not energize the equipment. Tags and locks should be readily available and all
employees trained in their use. Locks are a prevention tool and tags are a warning tool.
4. When maintenance must be performed on any elevated attachment, chain or block the
blade or lifting devices with a positive means of support to prevent injuries. If welding on
any piece of equipment, disconnect the battery to prevent potential injury.
5. No person is to remove or bypass a lockout or tagout device. Only the employee who
placed the tag or lock may remove it.
6. Replace all guards prior to starting the equipment.
I have read the above policy on lockout and tagout. I understand and agree to follow the
stated procedures.
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE:
______________________________________________
DATE:
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
______________________________________________
____________________
28
Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Program
This HAZCOM Program was developed to make employees aware of chemical hazards.
Information is provided to employees about chemicals used on the job through a master list
of chemical names, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) kept on the job site in a booklet,
proper labeling of containers, training for new employees and annual reviews for all
employees.
The HAZCOM Program Coordinator for this company is ____________________________
(name). The Coordinator is responsible for overseeing the program.
Complete Chemical List
A list of any hazardous materials used on our job sites is available at
____________________________________________________ (location). This list is
updated as needed.
Master Chemical List
A list of common and frequently used hazardous materials is available at
_____________________________________________________________ (location).
This list is kept with the MSDS file on the job site and has an MSDS for each chemical
listed. First ad treatments are shown.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Information on hazardous materials found on the job site is available to any and all
employees. The MSDS file is found on the job site at
_______________________________________ (location).
Container Labeling
Hazardous material containers will be clearly labeled as to: contents, correct hazard
warning or symbol, name and address of manufacturer. Labeling is not required for portable
containers intended for immediate use.
Training
1. New employees must attend a training session before working with hazardous materials.
This training is to cover:
• Information contained in MSDS.
• Physical and health hazards for job site chemicals.
• How presence or release of materials is detected.
• How to protect against hazards by personal protective equipment, special handling.
2. All employees must receive annual refresher training in the above as well as immediate
training if a new material is added or a new hazard is determined.
29
3. Supervisors must receive training adequate to answer employee questions and monitor
job site hazards.
4. Any outside contractor will be advised of any hazards existing on the job site and the
location of MSDSs. Proper labeling and MSDS for any chemical brought on the job site
must be present.
Additional information
Any employee can obtain additional information by contacting the designated HAZCOM
Program Coordinator listed above.
The HAZCOM Program above has been reviewed with me, and I fully understand my rights
and responsibilities.
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE:
__________________________________________________
DATE:
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
__________________________________________________
____________________
30
HAZCOM Materials Master List
An MSDS for each of materials listed below is available at:
_________________________________
Materials:
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________________ ________________________________
This master list was prepared by and will be updated by:
_____________________________________________
31
Emergency Response Plan for Hazardous
Materials
Most spills will involve fuel oil, motor oil or hydraulic oil. Only fuel oil is classified as a
hazardous material. The following actions will be used to handle leaks and spills and to
prevent any environmental damage.
Designated persons will be trained as a first response team. Training will include: how to
contain spills, how to cleaning up spills, recognizing hazards in clean up and limits on ability
to clean up.
Reporting the spill
Report any and all leaks or spills to your immediate supervisor. The reporting sequence is
as follows:
Employee to Supervisor, Supervisor to Company Owner, and then N.C. Emergency
Management, if required. Phone Number: 1-800-858-0368.
Spills that threaten lives or have significant environmental threat must be reported
immediately. If you cannot reach someone in the chain of command, then report directly to
N.C. Emergency Management.
When talking to N.C. Emergency Management, be sure to include the following:
• give good directions to spill site
• do not hang up until directed to do so
• record name of person to whom you spoke to and the time you spoke with them
• write a brief report including calls made, public agency answers and responses, and
actions taken by you and other company employees
Handling the spill
If the material is listed as hazardous or you do not know what it is:
• do not attempt containment or clean up
• stay a safe distance away
• allow no one to enter the area, use flagging if necessary
• large volumes of gasoline or other volatile substances should be avoided
• call and wait for the first response team
If the material is known and not hazardous:
• stop the release if you have been trained and no other dangers exist.
32
Emergency Response Plan
The “First Response Team” of trained employees is:
__________________________________
_________________________________
__________________________________
_________________________________
__________________________________
_________________________________
__________________________________
_________________________________
__________________________________
_________________________________
Spill cleanup tools and supplies consist of:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
and are located at:_________________________________________________________
The following employees have reviewed this emergency response plan and understand
their duties.
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE:
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
33
DATE:
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
_________________
First Aid Training Record
The following employees have completed the indicated training. Photocopies of signed
certification cards are on file at:
_____________________________________________________ (location).
Completion Dates:
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE:
FIRST AID:
CPR:
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
BLOODBORNE
PATHOGENS:
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
Exact requirements for which employees must complete this training are stated in the
NCDOL Logging Operations Interpretive Guide, which is located in the last section of this
booklet.
34
First Aid Kit Contents
Kits must be available on each job site and in transport vehicles.
Large Kits—Located on job site at:
____________________________________________________
The contents of the first-aid kit listed should be adequate for small work sites, consisting of
approximately two or three employees. When larger operations or multiple operations are
being conducted at the same location, additional first aid kits should be provided at the
work site or additional quantities of supplies should be included in the first aid kits.
Contents include:
1. Gauze pads (at least 4x4 inches)
2. Two large gauze pads (at least 8x10 inches)
3. Box of adhesive bandages (band-aids)
4. One package gauze roller bandage at least 2 inches wide
5. Two triangular bandages
6. Wound cleaning agent, such as sealed moistened towelettes
7. Scissors
8. At least one blanket
9. Tweezers
10. Adhesive tape
11. Latex gloves
12. Resuscitation equipment, such as resuscitation bag, airway or pocket mask
13. Two elastic wraps
14. Splint
15. Directions for requesting emergency assistance
Compact Kits—carried by chain saw operators working away from the logging deck
Kits, at a minimum, should contain:
1. Wound compress
2. Latex gloves
3. Assorted band-aids
4. Antiseptic swipes
Items should be packaged to remain clean and dry.
Contents lists are based on the Federal OSHA Logging Operations Standard and the NCDOL
Logging Operations Interpretive Guide.
35
Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan
This plan has been developed to minimize and prevent exposure of employees to disease
causing microorganisms in human blood. All employees who could be exposed to blood or
infectious materials are involved in this program. The OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens
Standard applies to those persons who are first aid trained and those who would be
exposed while not in a first aid capacity.
Bloodborne Pathogens
Those agents, primarily viruses, present in human blood, semen, vaginal secretions,
internal body fluids, and any body fluid contaminated with blood. Urine, feces, and vomit are
not considered infectious unless contaminated with blood. The two worst pathogens are
considered to be HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and HBV (Hepatitis B Virus).
Of these two, HBV is the most prevalent and most contagious, while HIV/AIDS can be fatal.
Hazards
HIV/AIDS and HBV can be spread in the workplace by blood contact with an open wound
(scratch or cut), blood contact with mucous membranes (mouth, eyes, nose), or being stuck
with a used hypodermic needle (diabetic use).
Clothing and other materials can become contaminated and can be sites for infection. An
employee can be exposed by using improperly cleaned equipment where blood and/or
body fluids are present, such as touching and removing blood-soaked clothing or
bandages. Someone away from the job can also be affected, such as a spouse or garbage
collector who comes in contact with the contaminated material.
Prevention
Protective Equipment: protective items must be used during administration of first aid or
CPR (disposable rubber gloves, eye protection, and mouthpiece or airway device). These
must be readily available on the job site.
Handling: once-used rubber gloves must be disposed of. Employees must wash their hands
immediately after removal of disposable gloves. Equipment in contact with blood or body
fluids must be washed immediately with soap and water.
Clothing and Articles: personal clothing and equipment must be cleaned, laundered,
disposed of or replaced, if contaminated. The boss logger supervises the disposal as
needed. Consider calling the local health department or other medical authorities for
disposal assistance. Sharp objects must be placed in puncture-proof bags.
Housekeeping: All equipment and work areas exposed to blood or other body fluids must
be cleaned with a disinfectant. All tarps and protective covers should be cleaned or
replaced, if contaminated. Eating, drinking, smoking, and applying contact lenses are
prohibited in work areas where there is a possibility of contact with human blood or body
fluids.
36
Hepatitis B Vaccinations: Any person who has had an occupational exposure has the right
to request a series of three injections. The boss logger may arrange for the three injections
over a six-month period prior to exposure or offer this series within 24 hours of a first-time
exposure. The employee is not required to take the vaccination, but if he or she declines,
then a declination form must be signed stating that decision. Refer to 29 CFR 1910.1030,
Appendix A—Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination (Mandatory).
After Exposure and the Follow-up: The employee reports the exposure immediately to his
supervisor. The boss logger writes down the method of exposure, and details of the
incident. Personal data such as identification can be included in the medical file. Blood from
the victim and exposed person is collected and tested. Medically indicated treatment to
prevent disease will be given to the employee. Counseling of the employee regarding
results of the finding and documentation from the health care provider will be given to the
employee. A record of illnesses of the employee after the incident shall be documented for
one year by the employer.
Training
An annual training session will address this plan. Names of attendees and the names of
certified individuals will be documented. It is recommended that this be done in conjunction
with first aid/CPR training.
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE: (*) indicates first aid responder
_______________________________________________________
DATE:
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
_______________________________________________________
_________________
Recordkeeping
• Maintain employee illness records for one year after exposure.
• Maintain training records for three years.
• Maintain employee medical records for thirty years after leaving employment.
37
Hearing Conservation—What It Means to
Employers
Hearing loss can happen slowly over a period of time, or it can happen instantly with
exposure to a loud, sudden noise. Either way, it can affect you as an employer.
If your employees work in conditions where they have to shout to be heard, your company
probably falls within OSHA guidelines with regard to hearing conservation. Effective April
1983, OSHA amended the requirements for occupational noise exposure. The Hearing
Conservation Amendment reduced the allowable noise exposure for employees to 85
decibels per eight-hour period. Most machinery used in the lumber and logging industry
ranges from 85 to 110 decibels.
If you have such noise levels, you should have a hearing conservation program in place.
You might say. “I provide hearing protection, isn’t that enough?” Not according to OSHA.
A complete hearing conservation program consists of five areas:
• Sound level measurements
• Audiometric testing and evaluation
• Hearing protection
• Education
• Recordkeeping
Sound Level Measurements
You have to know how loud your equipment is to know if you should have a program.
These measurements determine what type of hearing protection your employees should
use. They also help determine who should be included in the program. Many insurance
companies will measure your sound levels free of charge. The N.C. Department of Labor
also has a program to measure noise levels for small businesses, although sometimes
there’s a waiting period. You can also take your own sound level measurements if you have
a calibrated sound level meter. Most industrial audio logical companies can explain how to
use this equipment. Some companies may allow you to borrow a sound level meter. These
options can save your company money; however, certain criteria must be met.
Audiometric Testing
Hearing tests are conducted at least once each year. The first test is called the baseline
test. This determines the employee’s hearing threshold, the level at which they can just
hear a tone presented at each frequency. Each year thereafter the employee is retested.
The results are compared to the baseline to measure any changes in hearing. An
audiologist or medical professional makes appropriate recommendations; a change in
hearing protection, ensuring employees are wearing their protection correctly, medical
referral. If there is a significant change at certain frequencies, known as a standard
threshold shift (STS), the incident is recorded on the OSHA-300 forms.
38
Hearing Protection
Employees should be provided with adequate hearing protection. This can be in the form of
formable, disposable ear plugs, hard rubber plugs, ear muffs, customized hearing protection, etc. There are a variety of different options. It’s not enough, however, just to provide
hearing protection. As an employer, it’s also your responsibility to make sure that the
hearing protection is worn and it is worn correctly. Hearing protection should be treated just
like other protective devices. How do you handle an employee who doesn’t wear safety
glasses or an employee who doesn’t wear safety boots?
Education
Education is considered to be one of the most important aspects of the hearing conservation program. NCDOL requires that specific topics be covered in safety sessions, which
should be conducted each year. Employees are much more likely to wear their hearing
protection if they see how it can protect them.
Recordkeeping
When NCDOL inspectors come into the workplace, one of the first things they request is
documentation. Written documentation proves that testing and training were conducted.
You should keep all employee test results, sound level measurements and records of
educational sessions (who attended, topics covered). It is important not only to have a
hearing conservation program to avoid OSHA citations, but also to protect the health and
well-being of your employees. Hearing loss is painless, progressive, permanent and
preventable!
39
Hearing Conservation Program
Protecting the hearing of employees is a priority. This operation will take the following steps
to help prevent hearing loss:
1. All employees will wear hearing protection in areas where noise levels are above 85
decibels.
2. Noise levels can be expected to be in the following ranges at full power:
• Chain saw (105-110 decibels)
• Skidder (100-105 decibels)
• Loader (100-105 decibels)
• Chipper (100-110 decibels)
• Grinder (100-110 decibels)
• Feller buncher (100-110 decibels)
An annual noise level check, listed above, should be made to identify high noise areas.
3. Employee training will be conducted for those exposed to noise above 85 decibels. This
will include:
• A safety meeting on hearing conservation.
• A discussion on proper types of protection and their uses.
• Being told to wear hearing protection.
• Documentation on a safety meeting record form.
4. Employees exposed to noise over 85 decibels will wear one of the following approved
types of protection:
• Moldable inserts,
• Ear muffs attached to hardhats, or
• Ear muffs attached to head band.
40
Heat Stress Management Program
Our policy is to provide as safe a workplace as possible for our employees and all employees are
expected to cooperate as a condition of employment. All employees will be trained on the
recognition and prevention of heat related illnesses using the Heat Stress Program.
Emergency Procedures:
In the event of a heat related incident, medical emergency or personal injury, notify
_______________or your supervisor, or call 911 as soon as possible. First aid and emergency
cooling will be provided until emergency medical assistance arrives. If the person can be moved,
carry by stretcher, or walk the individual to the break area to administer first aid or emergency
cooling. If the injuries do not allow for movement, then give first aid or emergency cooling at that
location.
Company Policy:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Managers, supervisors, and employees are responsible for implementing this policy.
All employees will be trained in safe working practices and heat illness prevention.
Cool potable water is available at the service truck. Employees are encouraged to drink
water and stay away from caffeinated drinks.
Employees are encouraged to take breaks in the a shaded area or in other cool areas.
Employees are allowed to self-relieve themselves as needed for water breaks.
Supervisors and employees are instructed to watch out for each other. Training is provided
to supervisors and employees on heat related illnesses.
For new employees or employees not naturally acclimatized, a lighter workload and longer
rest periods will be allowed for the first 3-5 days of work. Natural acclimatization will be
determined by previous similar work experiences and weather temperature and humidity
during those previous work experiences.
On days when the temperature exceeds 90º and relative humidity exceeds 40% and work
demand requires moderate to heavy work, employees are encouraged to drink 5 to 7
ounces of water every 20 minutes while working in these conditions.
After you have read and fully understand the Safety Rules, please sign and date.
EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE
DATE
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
_________________________________________________
____________________
41
Annual Heat Stress Training
Background: In the wood product industries most work is performed outside or in a facility that
can not be air-conditioned. The high temperatures are accompanied with high humidity levels
during the summer months. When these conditions exist, employees are more likely to encounter
heat-related illnesses.
What must an employee know: As a supervisor or employee, you should know how to
recognize a victim of heat-related illness. Understanding the signs of heat-related illnesses could
protect you and others from heat stroke. Employees must watch each other and familiarize
themselves with the symptoms of heat illnesses.
Some symptoms to watch for:
• Red flushed skin
• Weakness
• Dizziness
• Nausea
• Seizures
• Headache
• Rapid pulse
• Unconsciousness
• An internal body temperature of 106-degrees or higher
High temperatures and humidity stress the body's ability to cool itself, and heat illness becomes a
special concern during hot weather. There are three major forms of heat illnesses: heat cramps,
heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, with heat stroke being a life threatening condition.
•
Heat Cramps - Heat cramps are muscle spasms which usually affect the arms, legs, or
stomach. Frequently they don't occur until sometime later after work, at night, or when
relaxing. Heat cramps are caused by heavy sweating, especially when water is replaced by
drinking, but not salt or potassium. Although heat cramps can be quite painful, they usually
don't result in permanent damage. To prevent them, drink electrolyte solutions such as
Gatorade during the day and try eating more fruits like bananas.
•
Heat Exhaustion - Heat exhaustion is more serious than heat cramps. It occurs when the
body's internal air-conditioning system is overworked, but hasn't completely shut down. In
heat exhaustion, the surface blood vessels and capillaries which originally enlarged to cool
the blood collapse from loss of body fluids and necessary minerals. This happens when you
don't drink enough fluids to replace what you're sweating away.
The symptoms of heat exhaustion include: headache, heavy sweating, intense thirst,
dizziness, fatigue, loss of coordination, nausea, impaired judgment, loss of appetite,
hyperventilation, tingling in hands or feet, anxiety, cool moist skin, weak and rapid pulse
(120-200), and low to normal blood pressure.
42
•
Heat Stroke - Heat stroke is a life threatening illness with a high death rate. It occurs
when the body has depleted its supply of water and salt, and the victim's body temperature
rises to deadly levels. A heat stroke victim may first suffer heat cramps and/or the heat
exhaustion before progressing into the heat stroke stage, but this is not always the case. It
should be noted that, on the job, heat stroke is sometimes mistaken for heart attack. It is
therefore very important to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of heat stroke and to check for them anytime an employee collapses while working in a hot environment.
The early symptoms of heat stroke include a high body temperature (103 degrees F); a
distinct absence of sweating (usually); hot red or flushed dry skin; rapid pulse; difficulty
breathing; constricted pupils; any/all the signs or symptoms of heat exhaustion such as
dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, or confusion, but more severe; bizarre behavior; and
high blood pressure. Advance symptoms may be seizure or convulsions, collapse, loss of
consciousness, and a body temperature of over 108° F.
First Aid Actions: evaluate the symptoms and follow these actions:
•
Heat exhaustion: Take the employee to the break room near the well for emergency
cooling or CPR/first aid treatment. Have them lie down with their feet slightly elevated.
Loosen their clothing, apply cool, wet cloths or fan them. Have them drink water or
electrolyte drinks. Try to cool them down, and have them checked by medical personnel.
Victims of heat exhaustion should avoid strenuous activity for at least a day, and they should
continue to drink water to replace lost body fluids.
•
Heat stroke: Call 911 and get an ambulance on the way as soon as possible. It is vital to
lower a heat stroke victim's body temperature. Seconds count. Pour water on them, fan
them, or apply cold packs.
What an employee can do: Employees can take other preventive measures to combat the heat.
Know and react to symptoms of heat related health problems. Learn and use the following:
Smart Safety Rules.
• Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day.
• Don't drink alcohol or drinks with caffeine
• Don’t eat heavy meals before working in the heat. Eat light. The more calories you take in,
the more body heat you produce.
• Don’t wear dark, tight fitting clothes
• Cover as much of your body as possible.
• Choose the proper type and amount of clothing. Cotton allows skin to breathe and absorbs
sweat.
• Wide-brimmed hats protect from direct sunlight.
Don’t depend on thirst to signal when and how much to drink. Instead, try to drink 5 to 7 ounces
of fluids every 15 to 20 minutes.
43
Job Safety and Health and Associated Posters
POSTER
OSHA 300
ID NUMBER
NONE
CONTACT
http://www.nclabor.com/pubs.htm
#Forms
State OSH Poster Requirements:
- Safety and Health on the Job
- Wage and Hour Act
- Workers’ Compensation Notice
- Unemployment Insurance
NONE
ETTA
N.C. Dept. of Labor
1101 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699-1101
Phone: (919) 807-2875
Equal Employment Opportunity
(Federal)
O-383-798
EEOC
1309 Annapolis Drive
Raleigh, NC 27608-2129
Minimum Wage Standards
Polygraph Protection Act
Family Leave Act
WH-1462
U.S. Department of Labor
Wage and Hour Division
4407 Bland Rd, Suite 260
Raleigh, NC 27609
(919) 790-2741
Noise Exposure
1910.95
E.A.R. Corporation
5457 W. 79th Street
Indianapolis, IN 26267-0940
Phone: (317) 692-6666
(800) 678-4163
These posters are displayed in the following locations for all employees to see:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
44
Safe Behavior Observations
Safe behavior observations are simple notes on how an employee is observed working.
Work behavior is the key to eliminating accidents because it involves all aspects of
equipment, job site terrain, weather, and human behavior and decisions. Potential hazards
should be identified for major job activities using supervisor and crew input. Write in how to
avoid these hazards on the forms. Later, observations should be made by a supervisor or
another employee and the results shared with the employee observed. Points of interest
should also be shared at crew safety meetings.
The following Safe Behavior Observation forms are suggested for the following jobs or work
sites:
• Chain saw operation (example attached)
• Shop area
• Skidder operation
• Loader operation and deck area
• Feller-buncher operation
• Haul truck operation
• Crawler tractor operation
• Chipper operation
45
Safe Behavior Observations
Job: Chain Saw Operation (EXAMPLE)
Behavior
Inspect chain saw before use for proper chain tension, good repair, loose bolts and screws,
levels of fuel and chain lubricant, filter condition and that all safety features work. Wear
necessary personal protective gear. Start saw from a stable surface clear of debris and
combustible material. Position body properly and pull starter rope after setting chain brake,
turning on switch, and positioning choke. Once started, release trigger and be sure chain
does not move in idle. Never carry saw unless chain brake is on or engine off. Keep blade
pointed to the rear when transporting. Inspect work area for hazards and plan an escape
route before cutting. Never cut above shoulder level. Keep chain teeth sharp. Control the
saw at all times with the thumb wrap around the top saw handle bar. Use open-faced cuts
and back cuts to directionally fell trees. Limbing and topping must be done to prevent
turning or rolling of logs. Take rest breaks when necessary.
OBSERVATIONS (CHECK):
1. Chainsaw inspection
SAFE:
UNSAFE:
COMMENTS:
____________
____________
______________________
2. Saw started properly
____________
____________
______________________
3. Inspection of starting site and
cutting area
4. Proper carrying technique
____________
____________
______________________
____________
____________
______________________
5. Inspection of work area
____________
____________
______________________
6. Escape route planned
____________
____________
______________________
7. Saw never used above shoulder
level
8. Saw in control at all times
____________
____________
______________________
____________
____________
______________________
____________
____________
______________________
____________
____________
______________________
____________
____________
______________________
9. Proper open-faced cuts and
back cuts
10. Logs stable when limping and
topping
11. Adequate work breaks taken
Total Observations Safe:
_________________________
Total Observations Unsafe:
_________________________
% Safe Observations:
_________________________
By: ______________________________________ Date: ______________________
46
Safe Behavior Observations
(Use as master—may be photocopied)
Job:
Behavior:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
OBSERVATIONS (CHECK:)
SAFE:
UNSAFE:
COMMENTS:
1. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
2. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
3. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
4. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
5. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
6. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
7. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
8. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
9. _________________________
___________
__________
_________________
Total Observations Safe:
_________________________
Total Observations Unsafe:
_________________________
% Safe Observations:
_________________________
By: ______________________________________ Date: ______________________
47
Information and Phone Numbers
N.C. Forestry Association
Raleigh, NC
(919) 843-3943 or 1-800-231-7723
Fax: (919) 832-6288
Email: trainingrequest@ncforestry.org
Forestry Mutual Insurance Co.
Raleigh, NC
(919) 755-5790 or 1-800-849-7788
N.C. Association of Professional
Loggers
Raleigh, NC
(919) 271-9050
contact@ncloggers.com
N.C. Division of Forest Resources
Raleigh, NC
(919) 733-2162
NCDOL (General Information)
Raleigh, NC
1-800-625-2267
NCDOL (Education, Training &
Technical Assistance)
Raleigh, NC
919-807-2875
NCDOL (Courtesy Consultation
Inspections)
Raleigh, NC
N.C. Emergency Management
(919) 807-2899
Your Company’s Insurance Agent
Other Important Numbers
1-800-858-0368
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
48
Local Hospital Information
Directions and phone numbers for local hospitals for:
Rescue squad phone number(s):
Area________________________________________ Phone _____________________
Area________________________________________ Phone _____________________
Area________________________________________ Phone _____________________
Hospital(s):
City/County _________________________________
Phone _____________________
City/County _________________________________
Phone _____________________
City/County _________________________________
Phone _____________________
Sketch of nearby roads leading to hospitals (new for each logging site):
Nearest helicopter landing area if evacuation is required:
List landmarks visible to helicopter pilot:
Ground positioning system (GPS) coordinates:
Latitude: ___________ Longitude: ___________
49
[This page left blank intentionally.]
50
NCDOL Logging Operations Interpretive Guide
The N.C. Forestry Association (NCFA), Forestry Mutual Insurance Company (FMIC), N.C.
Association of Professional Loggers (NCAPL), and the N.C. Department of Labor,
Occupational Safety and Health Division cooperated to provide a clear and concise
interpretation of current federal logging operation standards. This guide is used by all
persons, agencies, and companies seeking to comply with the federal standards as applied
to N.C. logging conditions and common practices.
The NCFA, NCAPL and FMIC are committed to work closely with public agencies to
promote a full and complete understanding of regulations that impact logging operations.
One goal is to continually improve the educational and training materials that are provided
to loggers and NCDOL personnel alike. This interpretative guide is an effort to provide
some clarification to promote a better understanding of the most recently adopted safety
and health standards for the logging industry. Persons using this interpretive guide who
have suggestions for improvement or clarification are asked to contact the Education,
Training and Technical Assistance Bureau standards section at 919-807-2878.
The following interpretive guide is organized in two columns with the federal logging
standard on the left and the NCDOL interpretation on the right. Readers should be familiar
with first the federal standard, and then how the N.C. interpretation is used. Disclaimer:
The federal logging standard within this document may not be all inclusive.
51
29 CFR 1910.266
NCDOL Interpretation
(b) SCOPE and APPLICATION:
(1) Standard establishes safety practices, means, methods, and
operations for all types of logging regardless of end use of
wood—pulpwood and timber harvesting, sawlogs, veneer bolts,
poles, pilings and other forest products. Standard does not cover
the construction or use of cable yarding system.
(2) Standard applies to all logging operations as defined by this
section
(3) Hazards and working conditions not specifically addressed
by this section are covered by other applicable sections of Part
1910.
(c) DEFINITIONS. Placed at the end of this table due to
formatting.
(d) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.
(1) Personal Protective Equipment (i) The employer shall assure
that personal protective equipment, including any such
equipment provided by an employee, is maintained in a
serviceable condition.
(ii) The employer shall assure that personal protective
equipment is inspected before initial use during each work shift.
Defects or damage shall be repaired, or the unserviceable
equipment shall be replaced before work is commenced.
(iii) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and
assure that each employee handling wire rope wears hand
protection which provides adequate protection from puncture
wounds, cuts and lacerations.
[60 FR 47035, Sept. 8, 1995]
(iv) The employer shall provide at no cost to the employee, and
assure that each employee who operates a chain saw wears leg
protection constructed with cut resistant material such as ballistic
nylon or other leg protection the employer demonstrates
provides equivalent protection. The leg protection shall cover the
full length of the thigh to the top of the boot on each leg to
protect against contact with a moving chain saw. Exception: This
requirement does not apply when an employee is working as a
climber if the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is
posed by wearing leg protection in the particular situation, or
when an employee is working from a vehicular mounted
elevating and rotating work platform meeting the requirements of
29 CFR 1910.68.
[Standard amended at 60 FR 47035, Sept. 8, 1995]
52
N.C.G.S. 95-129 (1) General Duty Clause—
may be applicable to serious conditions not
covered by any of the specific standards of
Part 1910.
If PPE is worn/removed from the site by the
employee, the employee could be charged
with the cost of the equipment. [Ref.
1910.132 (h)]
“Serviceable condition” shall mean the
equipment is capable of providing at least
the personal protection designed by the
manufacturer as determined by visual
inspections and user reports.
“Repaired” shall mean restoring the
equipment to such condition that will afford
at least its original protection for the user.
Adopted the requirement for hand
protection. Leather or heavy duty puncture
resistant gloves shall be worn by employees
who handle wire rope.
Leg protectors that bear certification by a
recognized testing facility are suitable. The
equipment must be maintained and used
according to the instructions of the
manufacturer. Cuts or tears in the protective
material shall mean the protector is no
longer in serviceable condition. Superficial
cuts to the outer fabric shall be repaired
before returned to use, to prevent debris
from entering the cut.
(v) The employer shall assure that each employee wears foot
protection, such as heavy-duty boots that are waterproof or
water repellant, cover and provide support to the ankle. The
employer shall assure that each employee who operates a chain
saw wears foot protection that is constructed with cut-resistant
material which will protect the employee against contact with a
running chain saw. Sharp, calk-soled boots or other slip resistant
type boots may be worn where the employer demonstrates that
they are necessary for the employee’s job, the terrain, the timber
type, and the weather conditions, provided that foot protection
otherwise required by this paragraph is met.
[Standard amended at 60 FR 47035, Sept. 8, 1995]
(vi) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and
assure that each employee who works in an area where there is
potential for head injury from falling or flying objects wears head
protection meeting the requirements of Subpart I of Part 1910.
(vii) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and
assure that each employee wears the following:
(A) Eye protection meeting the requirements of Subpart I of Part
1910 where there is potential for eye injury due to falling or flying
objects; and
(B) Face protection meeting the requirements of Subpart I of
Part 1910 where there is potential for facial injury such as, but
not limited to, operating a chipper. Logger-type mesh screens
may be worn by employees performing chain saw operations
and yarding.
(Note to paragraph (d) (I) (vii): The employee does not have to
wear a separate eye protection device where face protection
covering both the eyes and face is worn.)
[Standard amended at 60 FR 47035, Sept. 8, 1995]
(2) First-aid kits.
(i) The employer shall provide first-aid kits at each worksite
where trees are being cut (e.g., felling, bucking, limbing) at each
active landing, and on each employee transport vehicle.
[Standard amended at 60 FR 47035, Sept. 8, 1995]
(ii) At a minimum, each first-aid kit shall contain the items listed
in Appendix A at all times.
53
Employees other than chain saw operators
shall wear heavy-duty safety boots that are
water-repellent, cover and provide support
at the ankle. All chain saw operators shall
wear heavy-duty boots that are waterrepellent, cover, and provide support at the
ankle, and made with materials that the
manufacturer declares to be cut resistant.
Reference 1910.136(a) Each affected
employee shall use protective footwear
when working in areas where there is a
danger of foot injuries due to falling or
rolling objects, or objects piercing the sole,
and where such employee’s feet are
exposed to electrical hazards. ANSI Z411991—Footwear purchased after July 5,
1994 or Z41-1-1967—Footwear purchased
before July 4, 1994.
NCDOL will consider safety footwear which
is labeled as meeting the requirements of
the new ASTM standards as equivalent to
the ANSI Z41.1 standards.[see OSH SN
70].
Equipment must conform to ANSI 89.11986. The ANSI decal will be placed inside
the hat.
The employer shall provide, at no cost to
the employee, safety glasses and facial
screen for each chain saw operator unless
the employer can demonstrate a greater
hazard. Safety glasses must meet ANSI
Z87.1-1989, or be equally effective. The
ANSI number will be found on the inside of
one of the stems of the safety glasses.
Refer to definition of “worksite”. Worksite—
Where trees are being cut; that includes
limbing, bucking, trimming and felling.
Fellers/stumpers and other chain saw
operators, working away from the landing
shall be issued and carry a compact first-aid
kit that contains supplies to control bleeding
and infection. Other first-aid kits must
comply with Appendix A of the standard.
(iii) The employer also may have the number and content of firstaid kits reviewed and approved annually by a health care
provider. [Standard amended at 60 FR 47035, Sept. 8, 1995]
(iv) The employer shall maintain the contents of each first-aid kit
in a serviceable manner.
(3) Seat belts.
(i) through (vi) requires the employer to assure: seat belt be
provided for each vehicle or machine operator; each employee
uses the seat belt while the equipment is being operated;
employee(s) securely and tightly fasten the seat belt; each
machine seat belt meets the requirements of the Society of
Automotive Engineers Standard SAE J386, June 1995; and seat
belts are maintained in serviceable condition.
(4)—Fire extinguishers.
The employer shall provide and maintain portable fire
extinguishers on each machine and vehicle in accordance with
the requirements of Subpart L of Part 1910.
(5) Environmental conditions.
All work shall terminate and each employee shall move to a
place of safety when environmental conditions, such as but not
limited to, electrical storms, strong winds which may affect the
fall of a tree, heavy rain or snow, extreme cold, dense fog, fires,
mudslides, and darkness, create a hazard for the employee in
the performance of the job. [Standard amended at 60 FR 47035,
Sept. 8, 1995]
(6) Work areas.
(i) Employees shall be spaced and the duties of each employee
organized so the actions of one employee not create a hazard
for any other employee.
(ii) The distance between adjacent occupied work areas shall be
at least two tree lengths of the trees being felled; on any slope
where rolling or sliding trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable a
distance of greater than two tree lengths shall be maintained.
(iii) Each employee performing a logging operation at a logging
work site shall work in a position or location that is within visual
or audible contact with another employee.
[Standard amended at 60 FR 47035, Sept. 8, 1995]
(iv) The employer shall account for each employee at the end of
each work shift.
(7) Signaling and signal equipment.
(i) Hand signals or audible contact, such as but not limited to,
whistles, horns, or radios shall be utilized whenever noise,
distance, restricted visibility, or other factors prevent clear
understanding of normal voice communication between
employees.
(ii) Engine noise, such as from a chain saw, is not an acceptable
means of signaling. Other locally and regionally recognized
signals may be used.
(iii) Only a designated person shall give signals, except in an
emergency.
54
Compact first-aid kits shall include at a
minimum: wound compress, latex gloves,
assorted band-aids, antiseptic wipes. Items
should be packaged to remain clean and
dry.
Ensure that kits are adequately supplied
and replenished as necessary; assure that
contents are clean and sterile.
Commercially available seat belts properly
installed according to manufacturer’s
recommendations.
Portable chemical fire extinguishers shall be
at least 2A: 10 BC. Operable pressurized
water extinguishers are considered optional
on equipment.
The employer shall provide flood lighting
equipment for the work area during night
operations.
The employer shall assure a means of
continuous communication between
employees. Each employee shall remain in
visual or audible contact at all times.
Provided local and regional recognized
signals are as effective.
“Designated person‘’ is one who has the
necessary knowledge, training, and
experience to perform specific job task.
(ii) The employer shall notify the power company immediately if
a felled tree makes contact with any power line. Employees shall
remain clear of the area until the power company advises that
there are no electrical hazards.
(8) Overhead electric lines.
(i) Logging operations near overhead electric lines shall be done
in accordance with the requirements of 26 CFR 1910.333(c)(3).
*Recommended a 100 ft. buffer be
maintained during logging operation near
power lines. 100 ft. buffer will be measured
from furthest reach of implements or felled
timber. A safety log plan shall be provided
within the buffer zone.
Any vehicle or machine which elevates its
parts or materials near energized overhead
lines shall be operated so that a clearance
of 10 feet (305 cm) is maintained. If voltage
is more than 50 KV, clearance shall be
increased 4 inches (10 cm) for every 10KV
over that voltage.
The employer shall notify the power company immediately if a
felled tree makes contact with any power line. Employees shall
remain clear of the area until the power company advises that
there are no electrical hazards.
(9) Flammable and combustible liquids.
(i) Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored, handled,
transported and used in accordance with the requirements of
Subpart H of Part 1910.
(ii) Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be transported
in the driver compartment or in any passenger occupied area of
a machine or vehicle.
(iii) Each machine, vehicle and portable powered tool shall be
shut off during fueling. Diesel powered machines and vehicles
may be fueled while they are at idle, provided that continued
operation is intended and that the employer follows safe fueling
and operating procedures. [Standard amended at 60 FR 47035,
Sept. 8, 1995]
(iv) Flammable and combustible liquids, including chain-saw and
diesel fuel may be used to start a fire, provided the employer
assures that in the particular situation its use does not create a
hazard for an employee. [Standard amended at 60 FR 47035,
Sept. 8, 1995]
(10) Explosives and blasting agents.
(i) Explosives and blasting agents shall be stored, handled,
transported, and used in accordance with the requirements of
Subpart H of Part 1910. (ii) Only a designated person shall
handle or use explosives or blasting agents. (iii) Explosives and
blasting agents shall not be transported in the driver
compartment or in any passenger occupied area of a machine or
vehicle.
(e) Hand and Portable Powered Tools.
(1) General Requirements.
(i) Employer shall assure that each hand and portable powered
tool, including any provided by an employee, is maintained in
serviceable condition.
55
Plastic safety containers of up to five
gallons capacity may be used if approved
by UL, FM, or other recognized testing
facility and the container is marked for
contents. [NCDOL OSH SN 18]
Combustible liquids such as diesel fuel and
kerosene may be used to start a fire if it
does not create a hazard for the employee,
or an EPA hazard.
(ii) Employer shall assure that each tool, including any tool
provided by an employee, is inspected prior to initial use during
each work shift. At a minimum, the inspection shall include the
following:
(A) Handles and guards, to assure that they are tight-fitting,
properly shaped, free of splinters and sharp edges, and in place;
(B) Controls, to assure proper function;
(C) Chain-saw chains, to assure proper adjustment; (D) Chainsaw mufflers, to assure that they are in place and operable;
(E) Chain brakes and nose shielding devices, to assure that they
are in place and function properly; (F) Heads of shock, impactdriven and driving tools, to assure that there is no mushrooming;
(G) Cutting edges, to assure that they are sharp and properly
shaped; and (H) All other safety devices, to assure that they are
in place and function properly.
(iii) The employer shall assure that each tool is used only for
purposes for which it has been designed.
(iv) When the head of any shock, impact-driven or driving tool
begins to chip, it shall be repaired or removed from service.
Nothing in this rule prohibits the employer
from allowing the tool user or operator from
performing the work shift inspection
provided that such inspection and the
required content of the inspection are
accomplished in the manner and time frame
specified.
(v) The cutting edge of each tool shall be sharpened in
accordance with manufacturer's specifications whenever it
becomes dull during the workshift.
(vi) Each tool shall be stored in the provided location when not
being used at a work site.
(vii) Racks, boxes, holsters or other means shall be provided,
arranged and used for the transportation of tools so that a
hazard is not created for any vehicle operator or passenger.
(2) Chain saws.
(i) Each chain saw placed into initial service after the effective
date of this section shall be equipped with a chain brake and
shall otherwise meet the requirements of the ANSI B173.1-1991
“Safety Requirements for Gasoline—Powered Chain Saws.”
Each chain saw placed into service before the effective date of
this section shall be equipped with a protective device that
minimizes chain saw kickback. No chain saw kickback device
shall be removed or otherwise disabled.
(ii) Each gasoline powered chain saw shall be equipped with a
continuous pressure throttle control system which will stop the
chain when pressure on the throttle is released.
(iii) The chain saw shall be operated and adjusted in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
(iv)The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (3 m) from any
open flame or other source of ignition. [Standard amended at 60
FR 47036, Sept. 8, 1995]
(v) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the
fueling area.
(vi) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where
otherwise firmly supported. Drop starting a chain saw is
prohibited.
(vii) The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake
engaged.
(viii) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of
both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the
employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by
keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation.
56
Effective date was April 1, 1995, in North
Carolina. Devices that shall be used to
reduce kickback action include: chain brake,
reduced kickback bars and chains. Chain
saws must meet ANSI standards with chain
brake, throttle, and chain retainer device.
(ix) Chain saw operators shall be certain of footing before
starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or
at a distance that could cause the operator to become off
balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on
the saw.
(x) Prior to felling any tree, the chain saw operator shall clear
away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere
with cutting the tree or using the retreat path.
(xi) Chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead.
(xii) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent
operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.
(xiii) The chain saw shall be shut off or the throttle released
before the feller starts his retreat.
(xiv) Chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be
engaged whenever the saw is carried further than 50 feet (15.2
m). The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake
engaged when the chain saw is carried less than 50 feet if
conditions such as terrain, underbrush and slippery surfaces,
may create a hazard.
(f) Machines.
(1) General Requirements.
(i) Employer shall assure that each machine, including any
machine provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable
condition.
(ii) The employer shall assure that each machine, including any
machine provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use
during each workshift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or
the unserviceable machine shall be replaced before work is
commenced.
(iii) Employer shall assure that operating and maintenance
instructions are available on the machine or in the area where
the machine is being operated. Each machine operator and
maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and
maintenance instructions.
(2) Machine operations.
(i) The machine shall be started and operated only by a
designated person.
(ii) Stationary logging machines and their components shall be
anchored or otherwise stabilized to prevent movement during
operation.
(iii) The rated capacity of machine(s) shall not be exceeded.
(iv) To maintain stability, the machine must be operated within
the limitations imposed by the manufacturer as described in the
operating and maintenance instructions for that machine.
(v) Before starting or moving any machine, the operator shall
determine that no employee is in the path of the machine.
(vi) The machine shall be operated only from the operator’s
station or as otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.
(vii) The machine shall be operated at such a distance from
employees and other machines such that operation will not
create a hazard for an employee.
57
Overhead shall be defined as operation
conducted above shoulder height.
Passenger vehicles used principally for
highway use and transport of people would
not be a “machine” as defined in this
section. “Machine” means stationary or
mobile equipment having a self-contained
power plant, which is operated off-road and
used in the processing or movement of
material.
(viii) No employee other than the operator shall ride on any
mobile machine unless seating, seat belts, and other protection
equivalent to that provided for the operator are provided.
(ix) No employee shall ride on any load.
(x) Before the operator leaves the operator’s station of a
machine, it shall be secured as follows:
(A) The parking brake or brake locks shall be applied. (B) The
transmission shall be placed in the manufacturer’s specified park
position; and
(C) Each moving element such as, but not limited to blades,
buckets, saws and shears, shall be lowered to the ground or
otherwise secured.
(xi) If a hydraulic or pneumatic storage device can move the
moving elements such as, but not limited to, blades, buckets,
saws and shears, after the machine is shut down, the pressure
or stored energy from the element shall be discharged as
specified by the manufacturer.
(xii) The rated capacity of any vehicle transporting a machine
shall not be exceeded.
Standard also includes grapples which shall
be lowered.
Shut down and bleeding of pressure and
stored energy shall be in accordance with
manufacturer’s recommendations.
(xiii) The machine shall be loaded, secured and unloaded so that
it will not create a hazard for any employee.
(3) Protective structures
(i) Each tractor, skidder, swing yarder, log stacker, log loader
and mechanical felling device such as tree shears or fellerbuncher placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, shall
be equipped with falling object protective structure (FOPS)
and/or rollover protective structure (ROPS). The employer shall
replace FOPS or ROPS which have been removed from any
machine. Exception: This requirement does not apply to
machines which are capable of 360 degree rotation.
[Amended at 60 FR 47036, Sept. 8, 1995]
(ii) (A) ROPS shall be tested, installed, and maintained in
serviceable condition. (B) Each machine manufacturer after
August 1, 1996, shall have ROPS tested, installed, and
maintained in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers
SAE J1040, April 1988, “Performance Criteria for Rollover
Protective Structure (ROPS) for Construction, Earthmoving,
Forestry, and Mining Machines.”
[Amended at 60 FR 47036, Sept. 8, 1995]
(iii) FOPS shall be installed, tested and maintained in with the
Society of Automotive Engineers SAEJ231, January 1981,
“Minimum Performance Criteria for Falling Object Protective
Structures (FOPS).”
(iv) ROPS and FOPS shall meet the requirements of the Society
of Automotive Engineers SAE J397, April 1988, “Deflection
Limiting Volume—ROPS/FOPS Laboratory Evaluation.”
(v) Each protective structure shall be of size that does not
impede the operator’s normal movement.
(vi) The overhead covering of each cab shall be of solid material
and shall extend over the entire canopy.
58
Solid material does include Lexan.
(vii) Each machine manufactured after August 1, 1996, shall
have a cab that is fully enclosed with mesh material with
openings no greater than 2 inches (5.08 cm) at its least
dimension. The cab may be enclosed with other material(s)
where the employer demonstrates such material provides
equivalent protection and visibility. Exception: Equivalent
visibility is not required for the lower portion of the cab where
there are control panels or similar obstructions in the cab, or
where visibility is not necessary for safe operation of the
machine. [Amended at 60 FR 47036, Sept. 8, 1995]
(viii) Each machine manufactured on or before August 1, 1996,
shall have a cab which meets the requirements specified in
paragraph (f)(3)(vii) or a protective canopy for the operator
which meets the following requirements. (A) The protective
canopy shall be constructed to protect the operator from injury
due to falling trees, limbs, saplings or branches which might
enter the compartment side areas and from snapping winch
lines or other objects; (B) The lower portion of the cab shall be
fully enclosed with solid material, except at entrances, to prevent
the operator from being injured from obstacles entering the cab;
(C) The upper rear portion of the cab shall be fully enclosed with
open mesh material with openings of such size as to reject the
entrance of an object larger than 2 inches in diameter. It shall
provide maximum rearward visibility; and (D) Open mesh shall
be extended forward as far as possible from the rear corners of
the cab sides so as to give the maximum protection against
obstacles, branches, etc., entering the cab.
(ix) The enclosure of the upper portion of each cab shall allow
maximum visibility.
(x) When transparent material is used to enclose the upper
portion of the cab, it shall be made of safety glass or other
material that the employer demonstrates provides equivalent
protection and visibility.
(xi) Transparent material shall be kept clean to assure operator
visibility.
(xii) Transparent material that may create a hazard for the
operator, such as but not limited to, cracked, broken or
scratched safety glass, shall be replaced.
(xiii) Deflectors shall be installed in front of each cab to deflect
whipping saplings and branches. Deflectors shall be located so
as not to impede visibility and access to the cab.
(xiv) The height of each cab entrance shall be at least 52 inches
(1.3 m) from the floor of the cab.
(xv) Each machine operated near cable yarding operations shall
be equipped with sheds or roofs of sufficient strength to provide
protection from breaking lines.
(4) Overhead guards.
Each forklift shall be equipped with an overhead guard meeting
the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, ASME B56.6-1992 (with addenda), “Safety Standard
for Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks.”
(5) Machine access.
(i) Machine access systems meeting the specifications of the
Society of Automotive Engineers, SAEJ185, June 1988,
“Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road
Machines,” shall be provided for each machine where the
operator must climb onto the machine to enter the cab or to
perform maintenance.
59
Doors of open mesh metal, or equivalent
material, shall be installed on the cab of
machines to prevent saplings, branches,
broken poles, etc., from entering entrances
of the cab of mobile machines on the site.
Does not include logging equipment with
enclosed canopy.
(ii) Each machine cab shall have a second means of egress.
(iii) Walking and working surfaces of each machine and machine
work station shall have a slip-resistant surface to assure safe
footing.
(iv) The walking and working surface of each machine shall be
kept free of waste, debris and any other material which might
result in fire, slipping, or falling.
(6) Exhaust Systems.
(i) The exhaust pipes on each machine shall be located so
exhaust gases are directed away from the operator.
(ii) Exhaust pipes on each machine shall be mounted or guarded
to protect each employee from accidental contact.
(iii) The exhaust pipes shall be equipped with spark arresters.
Engines equipped with turbochargers do not require spark
arresters.
(iv) Each machine muffler provided by the manufacturer, or their
equivalent, shall be in place at all times the machine is in
operation.
(7) Brakes.
(i) Service brakes shall be sufficient to stop and hold each
machine and its rated load capacity on the slopes over which it
is being operated.
(ii) Each machine placed into initial service after September 8,
1995, shall also be equipped with: backup or secondary brakes
that are capable of stopping the machine regardless of the
direction of travel or whether the engine is running; and parking
brakes that are capable of continuously holding a stopped
machine stationary.
(8) Guarding.
(i) Each machine shall be equipped with guarding to protect
employees from exposed moving elements, such as but not
limited to, shafts, pulleys, belts on conveyors, and gears, in
accordance with the requirements of subpart O of Part 1910.
Applicable to machines placed into initial
service after September 8, 1995. Older
machines are permitted to remain in service
provided the service braking system and, if
available, the emergency brake system are
inspected and maintained at the designed
level of effectiveness.
Guarding satisfies the requirements of
subpart O when it is in the form of specially
constructed barrier or when the structure of
the machine itself prevents employee
contact with the moving elements of the
machine.
(ii) Each machine used for debarking, limbing and chipping shall
be equipped with guarding to protect employees from flying
wood chunks, logs, chips, bark, limbs and other material in
accordance with the requirements of subpart O of Part 1910.
(iii) The guarding on each machine shall be in place at all times
the machine is in operation.
(g) Vehicles.
(1) The employer shall assure that each vehicle used to perform
any logging operation is maintained in serviceable condition.
(2) The employer shall assure that each vehicle used to perform
any logging operation is inspected before initial use during each
work shift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the
unserviceable vehicle shall be replaced before work is
commenced.
(3) The employer shall assure that operating and maintenance
instructions are available in each vehicle. Each vehicle operator
and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and
maintenance instructions.
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Applicable only to vehicles that the employer
owns, rents, or leases.
Applicable only to vehicles that the employer
owns, rents, or leases.
Applicable only to vehicles that the employer
owns, rents, or leases.
(4) The employer shall assure that each vehicle operator has a
valid operator’s license for the class of vehicle being operated.
Tractor trailers, trucks, and other vehicles
and equipment used in the transportation of
logs or similar products will be included in
the on-site inspections process. DOT CDL
(Commercial Drivers License) mandates a
pre-trip inspection, records of these pre-trip
inspections will be inspected to ensure
operators compliance with load and vehicle
pre-trip safety inspection criteria. A referral
to DOT may be necessary.
(5) Mounting steps and handholds shall be provided for each
vehicle wherever it is necessary to prevent an employee from
being injured when entering or leaving the vehicle.
(6) The seats of each vehicle shall be securely fastened.
(7) The requirements of (f)(2)(iii), (f)(2)(v), (f)(2)(vii),
(f)(2)(x),(f)(2)(xiii), and (f)(7) of this section shall also apply to
each vehicle used to transport any employee off public roads or
to perform any logging operation, including any vehicle provided
by an employee.
(h) Tree Harvesting.
Applicable to employee provided vehicles
only when the use is at the request of the
employer and the use is during the usual
work shift at a logging site or when the
operation is moving to a different location.
(1) General Requirements.
(i) Trees shall not be felled in a manner that will create a hazard
for an employee, such as but not limited to, striking a rope,
cable, power line, or machine.
(ii) The immediate supervisor shall be consulted when unfamiliar
or unusual hazardous conditions necessitate the supervisor’s
approval before cutting is commenced.
(iii) While manual felling is in progress, no yarding machine shall
be operated within two tree lengths of trees being manually
felled. Exception: This provision does not apply to yarding
machines performing tree pulling operations.
(iv) No employee shall approach a feller closer than two tree
lengths of the trees being felled until the feller has
acknowledged that it is safe to do so, unless the employer
demonstrates that a team of employees is necessary to
manually fell a particular tree.
(v) No employee shall approach a mechanical felling operation
closer than two tree lengths of the trees being felled until the
machine operator has acknowledged that it is safe to do so.
(vi) Each danger tree shall be felled, removed or avoided. Each
danger tree, including lodged trees and snags, shall be felled or
removed using mechanical or other techniques that minimize
employee exposure before work is commenced in the area of
the danger tree. If the danger tree is not felled or removed, it
shall be marked and no work shall be conducted within two tree
lengths of the danger tree unless the employer demonstrates
that a shorter distance will not create a hazard for an employee.
(vii) Each danger tree shall be carefully checked for signs of
loose bark, broken branches and limbs or other damage before
they are felled or removed. Accessible loose bark and other
damages that may create a hazard for an employee shall be
removed or held in place before felling or removing the tree.
(viii) Felling on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs
is reasonably foreseeable shall be done uphill from, or on the
same level as, previously felled trees.
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Tree pulling means a coordinated, planned
effort involving guide cables, manual feller,
and cable tensioning equipment. A safety
plan must be in place that all participating
employees understand and follow.
(ix) Domino felling of trees is prohibited.
A single tree with another pusher tree is
also prohibited.
(2) Manual felling
(i) Before felling is started, the feller shall plan and clear a retreat
path. The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the
expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that
such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternate
path. Once the backcut has been made the feller shall
immediately move a safe distance away from the tree on the
retreat path.
(ii) Before each tree is felled, conditions such as but not limited
to, snow and ice accumulation, the wind, the lean of the tree,
dead limbs, and the location of other trees, shall be evaluated by
the feller and precautions taken so a hazard is not created for an
employee.
(iii) Each tree shall be checked for accumulation of snow and
ice. Accumulations of snow and ice that may create a hazard for
an employee shall be removed, before felling is commenced in
the area or the area shall be avoided.
(iv) When a spring pole or other tree under stress is cut, no
employee other than the feller shall be closer than two tree
lengths when the stress is released.
(v) An undercut shall be made in each tree being felled unless
the employer demonstrates that felling the particular tree without
an undercut will not create a hazard for an employee. The
undercut shall be of a size so the tree will not split and will fall in
the intended direction.
(vi) A backcut shall be made in each tree being felled. The
backcut shall sufficient hinge to hold the tree to the stump during
most of its fall so that the hinge is able to guide the tree’s fall in
the intended direction.
(vii) The backcut shall be above the level of the horizontal face
cut in order to provide an adequate platform to prevent kickback.
Exception: The backcut may be at or below the horizontal face
cut in tree pulling operations.
(3) Bucking and limbing.
(i) Bucking and limbing on any slope where rolling or sliding of
trees or log is reasonably foreseeable shall be done on the uphill
side of each tree.
(ii) Before bucking or limbing wind-thrown trees, precautions
shall be taken to prevent the root wad, butt or logs from striking
an employee. These precautions include, but are not limited to,
chocking or moving the tree to a stable position.
(4) Chipping.
(in woods locations) (i) Chipper access covers or doors shall not
be opened until the drum or disc is at a complete stop.
(ii) Infeed and discharge ports shall be guarded to prevent
contact with the discs, knives, or blower blades.
(iii) The chipper shall be shut down and locked out in
accordance with the requirements of 1910.147 when an
employee performs any servicing or maintenance.
(iv) Detached trailer chippers shall be chocked during usage on
any slope where rolling or sliding of the chipper is reasonably
foreseeable.
(5) Yarding.
(i) No log shall be moved until each employee is in the clear.
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Swing cutting is not allowed.
Placement of backcut, face cut and
undercut will be accomplished to guide the
direction of the felling tree.
29 CFR 1910.147 states the specific
requirements for shut down and lock out of
equipment.
(ii) Each choker shall be hooked and unhooked from the uphill
side or end of the log, unless the employer demonstrates that it
is not feasible in the particular situation to hook or unhook the
choker from the uphill side. Where the choker is hooked or
unhooked from the downhill side or end of the log, the log shall
be securely chocked to prevent rolling, sliding or swinging.
(iii) Each choker shall be positioned near the end of the log or
tree length.
(iv) Each machine shall be positioned during winching so the
machine and winch are operated within their designed limits.
(v) No yarding line shall be moved unless the yarder operator
has clearly received and understood the signal to do so. When
in doubt, the yarder operator shall repeat the signal as it is and
wait for a confirming signal before moving any line.
(vi) No load shall exceed the rated capacity of the pallet, trailer,
or other carrier.
(vii) Towed equipment, such as but not limited to, skid pans,
pallets, arches, and trailers shall be attached to each machine or
vehicle in such a manner as to allow a full 90 degree turn; to
prevent overrunning of the towing machine or vehicle; and to
assure that the operator is always in control of the towed
equipment.
(viii) The yarding machine or vehicle, including its load, shall be
operated with safe clearance from all obstructions that may
create a hazard for an employee.
(ix) Each yarded tree shall be placed in a location that does not
create a hazard for an employee and an orderly manner so that
the trees are stable before bucking or limbing is commenced.
(6) Loading and unloading.
(i) The transport vehicle shall be positioned to provide working
clearance between the vehicle and the deck.
(ii) Only the loading or unloading machine operator and other
personnel the employer demonstrates are essential shall be in
the loading or unloading work area during this operation.
(iii) No transport vehicle operator shall remain in the cab during
loading and unloading if the logs are carried or moved over the
truck cab, unless the employer demonstrates that it is necessary
for the operator to do so. Where the transport vehicle operator
remains in the cab, the employer shall provide operator
protection, such as but not limited to, reinforcement of the cab.
(iv) Each log shall be placed on a transport vehicle in an orderly
manner and tightly secured.
(v) The load shall be positioned to prevent slippage or loss
during handling and transport.
(vi) Each stake and chock which is used to trip loads shall be so
constructed that the tripping mechanism is activated on the side
opposite the release of the load.
(vii) Each tie down shall be left in place over the peak log to
secure all logs until the unloading lines or other protection the
employer demonstrates is equivalent has been put in place. A
stake of sufficient strength to with stand the shifting or moving
logs shall be considered equivalent protection provided that the
logs are not loaded higher than the stake.
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(viii) Each tie down shall be released only from the side on which
the unloading machine operates, except as follows: (A) When
the tie down is released by a remote control device; and (B)
When the employee making the release is protected by racks,
stanchions or other protection the employer demonstrates is
capable of withstanding the force of the logs.
(7) Transport.
The transport vehicle operator shall assure that each tie down is
tight before transporting the load. While en route, the operator
shall check and tighten the tie downs whenever there is reason
to believe that the tie downs have loosened or the load has
shifted.
(8) Storage.
Each deck shall be constructed and located so that it is stable
and provides each employee with enough room to safely move
and work in the area.
(I) Training.
(1) The employer shall provide training for each employee,
including supervisors, at no cost to the employee.
(2) Frequency of training shall be provided as follows:
(i) As soon as possible but not later than the effective date of
this section for initial training for each current and new
employee.
(ii) Prior to initial assignment for each new employee.
(iii) Whenever the employee is assigned new work task, tools,
equipment, machines or vehicles; and
(iv) Whenever an employee demonstrates unsafe job
performance.
(3) Content.
At a minimum, training shall consist of the following elements:
(i) Safe performance of assigned work task.
(ii) Safe use, operation and maintenance of tools, machines and
vehicles the employee uses or operates, including emphasis on
understanding and following the manufacturer’s operating and
maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions.
(iii) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the
employee’s specific work task including the use of measures
and work practices to prevent or control those hazards.
(iv) Recognition, prevention and control of other safety and
health hazards in the logging industry.
(v) Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer’s
work site; and
(vi) the requirements of this standard.
(4) Training of an employee due to unsafe job performance, or
assignment of new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or
vehicles; may be limited to those elements in paragraph (l)(3) of
this section which are relevant to the circumstances giving rise
to the need for training.
(5) Portability of training.
(i) Each current employee who has received training in the
particular elements specified in paragraph (l)(3) of this section
shall not be required to be retrained in those elements.
(ii) Each new employee who has received training in the
particular elements specified in paragraph (l)(3) of this section
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shall not be required to be retrained in those elements prior to
initial assignment.
(iii) The employer shall train each current and new employee in
those elements for which the employee has not received
training.
(iv) The employer is responsible for ensuring that each current
and new employee can properly and safety perform the work
tasks and operate the tools, equipment, machines, and vehicles
used in their job.
(6) Each new employee and each employee who is required to
be trained as a specific (l)(2) of this section, shall work under the
close supervision of a designated person until the employee
demonstrates to the employer the ability to safety perform their
new duties independently.
(7) First-aid training.
(i) The employer shall assure that each employee, including
supervisors, receives or has received first-aid and CPR training
meeting at least the requirements specified in Appendix B.
(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee’s first-aid and
CPR training and/or certificate of training remain current.
(8) All training shall be conducted by a designated person.
(9) The employer shall assure that all training required by this
section is presented in a manner that the employee is able to
understand. The employer shall assure that all training materials
used are appropriate in content and vocabulary to the
educational level, literacy, and language skills of the employees
being trained.
(10) Certification of training.
(i) The employer shall verify compliance with paragraph (i) of this
section by preparing a written certification record. The written
certification shall contain the name or other identity of the
employee trained, the date(s) of the training, and the signature
of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the
employer. If the employer relies on training conducted prior to
the employee’s hiring or completed prior to the effective date of
this section, the certification record shall indicate the date the
employer determined the prior training was adequate.
(ii) The most recent training certificate shall be maintained.
(11) Safety and health meetings.
The employer shall hold safety and health meetings as
necessary and at least each month for each employee. Safety
and health meetings may be conducted individually, in crew
meetings, in larger groups, or as part of other staff meetings.
65
The employer shall arrange that each
logging crew has at least two “designated”
employees who are certified in first-aid and
CPR to immediately respond and to provide
emergency assistance if needed at any
work site during logging operations.
(j) APPENDICES
Appendices A and B of this section are mandatory. The information contained in Appendix C of
1910.266 is non-mandatory and is not included in this booklet.
Appendix A to 1910.266—First-Aid Kits (Mandatory)
The following list sets forth the minimally acceptable number and type of first-aid supplies for first-aid
kits required under paragraph (d)(2) of the logging standard. The contents of the first-aid kit listed
should be adequate for small work sites, consisting of approximately two to three employees. When
larger operations or multiple operations are being conducted at the same location, additional first-aid
kits should be provided at the work site or additional quantities of supplies should be included in the
first-aid kits:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Gauze pads (at least 4x4 inches).
Two large gauze pads (at least 8x10 inches)
Box adhesive bandages (band-aids)
One package gauze roller bandage at least 2 inches wide
Two triangular bandages
Wound cleaning agent such as sealed moistened towelettes.
Scissors
At least one blanket
Tweezers
Adhesive tape
Latex gloves
Resuscitation equipment such as resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask
Two elastic wraps
Splint
Directions for requesting emergency assistance
Appendix B to 1910.266—First-aid and CPR Training (Mandatory)
The following is deemed to be the minimal acceptable first-aid and CPR training program for
employees engaged in logging activities. First-aid and CPR training shall be conducted using the
conventional methods of training such as lecture, demonstration, practical exercise and examination
(both written and practical). The length of training must be sufficient to assure that trainees understand
the concepts of first aid and can demonstrate their ability to perform the various procedures contained
in the outline below. As a minimum first-aid and CPR training shall consist of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The definition of first-aid
Legal issues of applying first aid (Good Samaritan Laws)
Basic anatomy
Patient assessment and first-aid for the following:
a. Respiratory arrest
b. Cardiac arrest
c. Hemorrhage
d. Lacerations/abrasions
e. Amputations
f. Musculoskeletal injuries
g. Shock
h. Eye injuries
i. Burns
j. Loss of consciousness
k. Extreme temperature exposure (hypothermia/hyperthermia)
l. Paralysis
m. Poisoning
66
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.
u.
v.
Loss of mental functioning (psychosis/hallucinations, etc.)
Artificial ventilation
Drug overdose
CPR
Application of dressings and slings
Treatment of strains, sprains, and fractures
Immobilization of injured persons
Handling and transporting injured persons
Treatment of bites, stings, or contact with poisonous plants or animals
Appendix C to 1910.266—Comparable ISO Standards (Non-mandatory)
The International Labor Organization (ISO) standards listed in Appendix C are comparable to the
corresponding Society of Automotive Engineers (Standards that are referenced in 1910.266).
Utilization of the ISO standards in lieu of the corresponding SAE standards should result in a machine
that meets the OSHA standard.
Appendix D—Definitions
1910.266(c) definitions
1. This standard establishes safety practices, means, methods and operations for all types of
logging, regardless of the end use of the wood. These types of logging include, but are not
limited to, pulpwood and timber harvesting and the logging of sawlogs, veneer bolts, poles,
pilings and other forest products. This standard does not cover the construction or use of cable
yarding systems.
2. This standard applies to all logging operations as defined by this section.
3. Hazards and working conditions not specifically addressed by this section are covered by other
applicable sections of Part 1910.
4. Definitions applicable to this section.
Arch—An open-framed trailer or built-up framework used to suspend the leading ends of trees or logs
when they are skidded.
Backcut (felling cut)—The final cut in a felling operation.
Ballistic nylon—A nylon fabric of high tensile properties designed to provide protection from
lacerations.
Barber-chair—Vertical split of a tree during the falling procedure. Generally a result of improper facing
and/ or backcutting. Characterized by a portion of the fallen tree being left on the stump. (from
forestry.about.com/library/glossary/bllogglb.htm)
Buck—To cut a felled tree into logs.
Butt—The bottom of the felled part of a tree.
Bypass—Situation created when the two cuts of the undercut (free cut) do not meet exactly, i.e. one
bypasses the other. Creates undesirable results such as barber chairing, cracked tree butts, excessive
fiber pull and misdirected fall of the tree.
(from forestry.about.com/library/glossary/bllogglb.htm)
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Cable yarding—The movement of felled trees or logs from the area where they are felled to the
landing on a system composed of a cable suspended from spars and/or towers. The trees or logs may
be either dragged across the ground on the cable or carried while suspended from the cable.
Chock—A block, often wedge shaped, which is used to prevent movement; e.g., a log from rolling, a
wheel from turning.
Choker—A sling used to encircle the end of a log for yarding. One end is passed around the load, then
through a loop eye, end fitting or other device at the other end of the sling. The end that passed
through the end fitting or other device is then hooked to the lifting or pulling machine.
Danger tree—A standing tree that presents a hazard to employees due to conditions such as, but not
limited to, deterioration or physical damage to the root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction
and lean of the tree.
Debark—To remove bark from trees or logs.
Deck—A stack of trees or logs.
Designated person—An employee who has the requisite knowledge, training and experience to
perform specific duties.
Domino felling—The partial cutting of multiple trees which are left standing and then pushed over with
a pusher tree.
Fell (fall)—To cut down trees.
Feller (faller)—An employee who fells trees.
Grounded – The placement of a component of a machine on the ground or on a device where it is
firmly supported.
Guarded—Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable
enclosures, covers, casings, shields, troughs, railings, screens, mats, or platforms, or by location, to
prevent injury.
Health care provider—A health care practitioner operating within the scope of his/her license,
certificate, registration or legally authorized practice.
Landing—Any place where logs are laid after being yarded, and before transport from the work site.
Limbing—To cut branches off felled trees.
Lodged tree (hung tree)—A tree leaning against another tree or object which prevents it from falling
to the ground.
Log—A segment sawed or split from a felled tree, such as, but not limited to, a section, bolt, or tree
length.
Logging operations—Operations associated with felling and moving trees and logs from the stump to
the point of delivery, such as, but not limited to, marking, felling, bucking, limbing, debarking, chipping,
yarding, loading, unloading, storing, and transporting machines, equipment and personnel from one
site to another.
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Machine—A piece of stationary or mobile equipment having a self-contained powerplants, that is
operated off-road and used for the movement of material. Machines include but are not limited to
tractors, skidders, front-end loaders, scrapers, graders, bulldozers, swing yarders, log sackers and
mechanical felling devices, such as tree shears and feller-bunchers.
Rated capacity—The maximum load a system, vehicle, machine or piece of equipment was designed
by the manufacturer to handle.
Root wad—The ball of a tree root and dirt that is pulled from the ground when a tree is uprooted.
Serviceable condition—A state or ability of a tool, machine, vehicle or other device to operate as it
was intended by the manufacturer.
Skidding—The yarding of trees or logs by pulling or towing them across the ground.
Slope (grade)—The increase or decrease in altitude over a horizontal distance expressed as a
percentage. For example, a change of altitude of 20 feet (6 m) over a horizontal distance of 100 feet
(30 m) is expressed as a 20 percent slope.
Snag—Any standing dead tree or portion thereof.
Spring pole—A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling which is under stress or tension due to the
pressure or weight of another object.
Tie down—Chain, cable, steel strips or fiber webbing and binders attached to a truck, trailer or other
conveyance as a means to secure loads and to prevent them from shifting or moving when they are
being transported.
Undercut—A notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the tree fall and to prevent splitting or
kickback.
Vehicle—A car, bus, truck, trailer or semi-trailer that is used for transportation of employees or
movement of material.
Winching—The winding of cable or rope onto a spool or drum.
Yarding—The movement of logs from the place they are felled to a landing.
Appendix E
CPL 02-01-019 (CPL 2-1.19) Logging Operations, Inspection Procedures and Interpretive Guidance
can be found at
www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1525
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Free On-Site Safety Consultation
Upon request, a consultant from Consultative Services can visit your logging site to offer
advice on reducing hazards and eliminating injuries. The consultant will evaluate your
equipment and procedures and help you establish a work site safety program. The consultant
will contact you directly to arrange a meeting after receiving your request.
Request for On-Site Safety Consultation
Logging Operations
(Please print)
Company Name: ____________________________________________________________
Contact Person:
____________________________________________________________
Title:
____________________________________________________________
Mailing Address: ____________________________________________________________
Site Address:
____________________________________________________________
Work Phone:
____________________ Cell Phone:
E-Mail Address:
____________________________________________________________
___________________________
Number of employees at your worksite ___________
Mail To:
N.C. Department of Labor
or Fax To:
N.C. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Division
Occupational Safety and Health
Consultative Services Bureau
Consultative Services Bureau
1101 Mail Service Center
(919) 807-2902
Raleigh, NC 27699-1101
Or Call:
Consultative Services Bureau
(919) 807-2899
Give information requested above.
KEEP
A copy for your request on the job site.
71
Logger Safety Checklist Booklet Order Form
To reorder a new Logger Safety Checklist Booklet, please fill out the form below and mail it to
the NCFA at 1600 Glenwood Avenue, Suite I, Raleigh, NC 27608. One Logger Safety Checklist Booklet is available to an NCFA business each year at no charge; there will be a $10.00
shipping and handling charge for non-members or for each additional booklet ordered. For
more information or questions, call the NCFA at (919) 834-3943 or 1-800-231-7723.
Logger Safety Checklist Booklet Order Form
Company: ______________________________________________________________
Address: _______________________________________________________________
City/State/Zip: ___________________________________________________________
Phone: ________________________________________________________________
Please send me ______________ copy(s) of the Logger Safety Checklist Booklets.
NCFA Member – Business
-YES
-NO
One (1) Logger Safety Checklist Booklet @ No Charge
To NCFA Members
=
Each additional Logger Safety Checklist
Booklet ($10.00 each)
Or to Non-NCFA Members
___________ X $10.00
= __________
Total Enclosed
= __________
Please make check payable to the NCFA and mail to:
1600 Glenwood Avenue, Suite I, Raleigh, NC 27608
72
$0.00
For technical assistance or training on OSHA standards and their interpretation, contact:
N.C. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Division
Education, Training and Technical Assistance Bureau
1-800-625-2267
1-919-807-2875
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