SOP-007 - Aemera

SOP-007 - Aemera
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 1of 17
1. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE
The Alberta Precipitation Quality Monitoring Program uses the MIC Type AU
Precipitation Collector to collect samples of wet precipitation on a weekly basis for later
chemical analysis. The main objectives of the program are to monitor changes and
trends in the quality of precipitation in Alberta and to provide a data base which may be
used to determine the effects of wet deposition of chemical species on the environment.
This procedure describes the operation and maintenance of the Meteorological
Instruments of Canada (MIC) precipitation collector. The MIC precipitation collector has
been configured for a variety of applications including Mercury deposition sampling. The
collector is simple and versatile for wet and dry deposition collection. The collector is
triggered by wet deposition via the wetness sensor, which opens the cover to the wet
deposition collector. If it is configured with a dry deposition collector, the cover then
covers the dry deposition collector during rain events.
This method adheres to the requirements of the current Air Monitoring Directive (AMD).
In some cases the limits and specifications exceed the requirements of the current AMD.
It should be considered that the current and any future amendments of the AMD will be
used as the benchmark for requirements and criteria for ambient air monitoring practices
conducted in the Province of Alberta. Information used to write this procedure was also
taken from sources identified in the reference section.
2. PRINCIPLE OF THE METHOD
Basically, the unit consists of a standard polyethylene bucket mounted on a stand; a
moveable cover for the bucket and specially designed precipitation sensors, which are
mounted on a common support. A picture of the collector is shown in Figure 1.1. The
housing is of stainless steel construction with splash screens and quick release
fasteners for the body cover.
The MIC precipitation collector is a simple design, and can be configured for wet only, or
wet and dry deposition collection. For wet deposition collection, it can be configured with
a bucket only to collect the sample. A mechanical cover covers the wet deposition
collector bucket when it is not raining/snowing. During dry periods the automatic cover
stays on the precipitation collection bucket to prevent the entrance of unwanted dry
particulate matter and to reduce evaporation.
When rain or snow falls upon the sensor grids, a relay is energized and the motor, acting
through a chain and sprocket and torque limiter drive system, moves the cover from the
precipitation bucket to the other side of the stand and switches off. When the
precipitation stops, the sensor grids dry out causing the relay to de-energize and move
the cover, automatically to the original position.
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 2of 17
Samples are then collected manually on a frequency determined by the particular study
that collector is employed in. These samples are returned to the laboratory for analysis.
Sample Bucket
Body cover and
splash screen
On/Off Switch
Sensor grids
Automatic
Moving Cover
Figure 1.1 Precipitation Collector
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 3of 17
3. MEASUREMENT RANGE AND SENSITIVITY
The range of this unit would be the volume of precipitation that it could hold. As this
volume is quite large, it defeats the purpose of sampling as the manual sample collection
should be completed at a frequency that would not allow the collector to come even
close to its full volume.
Sensitivity is governed by the wetness sensor that triggers the cover to open and close.
When new, the sensitivity is quite high (one raindrop will trigger the cover). This sensor
needs routine maintenance to ensure proper operation. See section 9 for details on
these procedures.
The chemical parameters measured in the laboratory for each weekly precipitation
sample include:
a) pH
b) specific conductance
c) acidity (by Gran’s plot)
d) sulphate
e) nitrate
f)
ammonium
g) sodium
h) chloride
i)
potassium
j)
calcium
k) magnesium
l)
ortho-phosphate
4. EQUIPMENT AND APPARATUS
The MIC precipitation collectors are no longer manufactured. Yankee Environmental
Systems Inc. in the USA or GHM Engineering in Oakland Ontario have built a new
generation unit that performs the same tasks as the MIC collector.
When using the existing MIC collector, apparatus required are:

Field sample sheets to record sample information
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011

Sample jars to hold sample while shipping to the lab

Distilled water to rinse the sample bucket

Shipping container or cooler

Disposable Poly Gloves

Wiping cloths to wipe out the bucket
Page No.: 4of 17
5. INTERFERENCES
Interferences with both wet and dry precipitation collection are windblown debris that
gets in to the sample bucket during deployment. Any debris found should be left in the
bucket for the lab to handle.
Ice and snow build up on the wetness sensor will cause the sensor to not function
properly. If this is observed during visits, it should be cleaned and dried.
6. PRECISION AND ACCURACY
Precision and accuracy is determined by the laboratory method of analysis. See the
laboratory methods for these values depending on the analysis performed.
7. SITE REQUIREMENTS
Site location of the MIC collector should be determined according to the intended
application of the monitoring data. The detailed requirements for selection of sites for
precipitation collection in Alberta can be found in the Station Site Criteria section of the
AMD. The US EPA Siting Requirements for Meteorological Equipment – Volume II,
Section 2.0.8 is also a useful resource.
8. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
All the installation requirements as specified by the manufacturer in the installation
procedures of the operations manual as well as the general requirements below must be
followed.
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 5of 17
PRECIPITATION QUALITY MONITORING SITE SELECTION CRITERIA
Site criteria is as per US. National Atmospheric Deposition Program - NADP Manual
2009-09. http://nadp.isws.illinois.edu Some criteria are summarized below
Reason
Criteria
1. Height above ground, 1-3m
To reduce or eliminate the
influence of ground level absorbing
surfaces such as grass and other
foliage.
2. The distance between the sample
Trees and vegetation can cause
collector and the drip line of the tree
disturbances of airflow patterns
must be at least twice the height of
and affect the collection of
the tree or at least 10m away
precipitation.
whichever is greater.
3. Elevation angle to top of any
To reduce or eliminate the influence
obstruction, <30 degrees
of turbulence.
Angle of projection from top of instrument
to tops of trees is less than 45 degrees
4. Distance from major stationary fuel
To prevent non-representative
combustion or industrial source (greater
effects on regional precipitation
than 25 tonnes/day SO2 or NOx) >30km
quality
5. Distance from dust source
To reduce or eliminate the influence
(i.e., roads), >100m
of dust on precipitation quality.
6. Distance from AC power source no
To prevent significant loss of voltage
greater than 100m
in power cord.
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Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 6of 17
7. Instrument orientation, an
To allow deposition into the bucket
East-West direction
without
undue
influence
of
turbulence caused by the physical
presence of the instrument.
8. Site security; within areas that
To prevent tampering and vandalism
allow restricted access or no access
unauthorized personnel.
by the public.
10. Flat and grassy terrain
To reduce or eliminate the influence
of local dust source on precipitation
quality.
11. Sampler must be at least 5 m from objects >1 meter tall and >5cm in width or depth
Note that the ultimate choice for each site will be a compromise optimizing these various
criteria.
9. OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The following table of activities must be performed when collecting samples from an MIC
precipitation collector. The following documentation must be available to the operators
on site: operational and maintenance manual(s), and station site documentation.
9.1 Collection of Samples & Precipitation Measurement
At the end of the week the collection bucket must be removed from the collector and
taken indoors for transferring the sample into sample bottles and/or prepared for
shipment to the laboratory.
Where the sampler is located at the worksite of the operator, when the precipitation is in
the form of rain, composite sampling is to be used. After each rain episode during a
given week, the sample is poured into the sample container(s) to minimize evaporation
loss. The accumulated composite sample is sent to the laboratory for analysis at the
end of the week.
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 7of 17
Even if no precipitation occurred during the week, a Sample History Form must still be
completed noting that there was NO SAMPLE. Without a submitted form to confirm a
dry week, a “No Data” will be registered in the database since analysis lab personnel
and data base managers cannot differentiate this from missing or destroyed samples.
Scheduled analysis for sample volumes provided:
NOTE : send in any sample greater than 1 millilitre (ml)
Sample Volume
Analysis conducted
75 ml and over
full suite - pH, ions, Grans acidity, conductivity
50 to 74 ml
pH, ions, Grans acidity
10 to 49 ml
pH, ions
1-9 ml
pH
9.1.1 The Precipitation Sample
HANDLING OF PRECIPITATION SAMPLES
Precautions
Careful handling of equipment and especially the samples to prevent contamination is
extremely important. The dissolved substances in the precipitation sample have a low
concentration and any contamination will yield erroneous results. No smoking is allowed
during sample handling periods. Disposable gloves are to be worn when handling
samples.
Note: Do not touch the inside surface of the collection buckets, except while wearing
sterile disposable gloves.
Definition of End of Week
If precipitation is occurring at the station during the collection period wait until the end of
precipitation before obtaining the sample.
Note: All references to time shall use the 24-hour clock. Use Mountain Standard or
Daylight Saving Time – whichever is in effect at the time.
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 8of 17
The Precipitation Sample
The following steps describe the method of removal and handling of the precipitation
sample in the collector:

Activate the sensor with a wet finger. Wait until the hood moves away from the
bucket and reaches the other side, then turn off the power switch.

Remove the precipitation collection bucket from the collector and carry indoors.

If the sample is frozen, allow it to melt at room temperature before proceeding to
the next step.

Put on a pair of disposable gloves. Carefully pour the precipitation sample from
the collection bucket into the 40oz. (1136 ml) sterilized sample shipping bottle
and fill until within about 1 in. (2.5 cm) from the top. Screw top snugly onto the
sample shipping bottle. Repeat for the second or more sample bottle with
remaining sample if necessary. In rare cases where there is more sample than
will fit into the sample bottles provided, fill the last bottle, then empty it and pour
the remaining sample into it. Make note of this on the Sample History Form.
Store sample at room temperature prior to shipping.

Where the sampler is located at the worksite of the operator, rain samples are
transferred after each episode or on the next working day. Note: the bucket is
not rinsed after each transfer during a given weekly sample period. Snow
samples are left in the bucket for entire sampling period.

Each week, rinse the collection bucket with de-ionized water, wipe the bucket dry
with a clean wiping cloth, repeat the rinse and allow it to drain before retuning it
to the collector for the next weekly sample.

Return the collection bucket to the precipitation collector. Turn the power switch
back to “on” position and make sure the hood returns to cover the bucket.

Before the start of next weekly sampling, remove hood gasket and wash the
surface with de-ionized water. Replace the gasket at the same time as the
collection bucket is returned to the collector. Clean disposable gloves must be
worn when handling the gasket.
Note: Ensure that the bucket handles are aligned with the sampler, otherwise the
handles will interfere with movements of the automatic cover.
Note: Send all sample collected as the amount of sample is measured at lab.
9.1.2
RECORDING OF SAMPLE DATA
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AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 9of 17
Consistent with careful handling of precipitation is the recording of sample data
pertinent to every collected sample. The Precipitation Sample History form is
provided for this purpose.
Completing the Precipitation Sample History Form
The information below is a guide in completing the sample history form:
Entry
Heading
STATION
Station Name
MONTH
Month of the Year
COLLECTOR
Enter the collector name and number
(eg. MIC Type AU #05)
COLLECTION PERIOD
From
year/Month/Day/Hour
to
Year/Month/Day/Hour using whichever time
(MST or DST) is in effect
DATE SHIPPED
Enter date of sample shipment to the
laboratory
PRECIP SAMPLE SENT TO LAB
Enter Y (yes) or N (no). The sample history
(Y/N)
form has to be sent to the laboratory weekly
whether or not there is measurable sample
collected for the week
DAY, PRECIPITATION,
Enter information on day of occurrence,
STANDARD GAUGE,
precipitation episodes, and field
FIELD COMMENTS
observations related to sampling
DAY
Enter day of occurrence of the observations
PRECIPITATION OCCURRENCE
Enter 0 = no, 1 = yes or 2 = uncertain for
the day
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 10of 17
PRECIPITATION TYPE
Enter 1 = rain, 2 = snow, 3 = freezing rain,
4 = mixed, or 5 = dew or frost if there is
precipitation occurrence
PRECIPITATION TIME
Select the appropriate time period for its
occurrence
NO. OF DAYS
Enter the number of days since last visit.
FIELD COMMENTS
Enter brief statements related to the sample
quality, instrument operation and nature of
events. Examples are:
a) particles in sample
b) organic material in sample (eg. Leaf,
grass)
c) insect(s) in sample
d) collector open when precipitation not
occurring
e) partial sample, part of the event
missed/collector does not open during
event
f)
poor hood-bucket seal
g) power failure with an estimate of the lost
time
h) construction at or near site
i)
snow ploughing or lawn mowing at the
site
j)
blowing snow collected
k) smoke/odor/ash detected at site
l)
rain or snow gauge not operating
Note: Any objects found n the collector shall
not be removed by the operator. They
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 11of 17
should be sent to the lab as part of the
sample.
OPERATOR’S INITIALS
The initial of the person who carried out the
task on that day.
SUPPLY ORDER
Enter the appropriate quantity of the items
required.
Circle the size L (large), M
(medium), or S (small) of the disposable
gloves required. Supplies will be shipped to
the operator on receipt of the notice.
SAMPLE ASSESSMENT
Mark either “sample quality OK” or “sample
quality
unsure”
depending
on
the
observations
OPERATOR
Sign by the station operator before sending
the form with the sample to the laboratory.
An example of a blank and completed Precipitation Sample History form are shown
on the following pages.
9.1.3
SHIPPING OF SAMPLE
After completion of the Precipitation Sample History form, compete sample identification
labels on the sample bottle, as shown below, and place onto the sample bottle(s):
ALBERTA ENVIRONMENT
Station:
Month:
Year:
Collector:
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AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 12of 17
These labeled bottle(s) containing precipitation are sent to the laboratory with the
original Precipitation Sample History form.
The collection bucket must be rinsed, a Precipitation Sample History form and a
Preventive Maintenance form completed and submitted even if no precipitation sample is
collected.
Laboratory Address
After placing the sample(s) in the shipping container, ship to:
Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures
Sustainable Ecosystems
Bag 4000
Vegreville, Alberta
T9C 1T4
9.2 Maintenance Procedure
Maintenance procedures and checks should be completed every time the site is visited
unless other wise stated. This maintenance will enable the operator to ensure smooth
operation of the precipitation collector. Conduct the following procedures:

Testing the wetness sensor – the sensor that triggers the cover to open and
close should be tested every visit. Simply wet the sensor with some water, and
the cover should open. If it does not, consult the manual for troubleshooting
steps.

Sensor grids - The sensor grids are exposed to weather, dust, dirt and pollutants
and must be kept clean to avoid malfunctioning (See Diagram 1.1). the grids
should be cleaned every two weeks during the regular check. Turn the power off
and use a damp sponge or cloth to wipe the grids; use a mild detergent, if
necessary, but be sure to wipe away any dry film that may appear on the grid.
Proper operation of the grids can be checked at the same time by touching a
damp finger to each. The cover should move almost immediately.
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 13of 17

Sensor grid Heater - The sensor grid heater laminated to the underside of the
sensor grids accelerates evaporation. A temperature of approximately 40C in
ambient air is maintained by the heater. The operation of the heater can be
tested by placing a hand just slightly above the surface of each grid and feeling
the warmth from the grid.

Moving Cover - To help minimize sample contamination, the cover should be
kept clean and free of debris. This should be checked on a routine basis. During
winter months the observer may have to remove build-ups contaminate the
exposed cylinder.

Cover mechanism –Ensure the arms are not bent and move freely during open
and close cycles. If there are any unusual noises, hesitation in the movement,
consult the operations manual for troubleshooting procedures.

Ice Build-ups - During the winter months the gap between the cover arms and the
housing (see figure 1.1) will be susceptible to icing, which could cause instrument
damage. Routine checks should be made to ensure the removal of any ice buildups in this area. Also check for snow/ice accumulation on the support plate of
the bucket holder since failure to do so may result in damage to the drive
mechanism due to improper closing of the cover.

Check that the gasket pad seals the top of the sample bucket. Replace the
gasket annually. To replace the gasket wet the sensor grid so the cover moves
off the sample bucket. Turn off the power while the cover is off the sample
bucket. Replace the gasket and turn the power on. Ensure the pad seats
properly when cover closes.

Chain Tension - Disconnect power cord and remove screen and body cover.
Check the tension on the chain by moving the automatic cover slightly back and
forth. If there is more than ½ cm (1/8”) movement, the chain requires
retensioning.

As a last check, please make sure all of the screws are secure on any of the
moving components, especially the moving cover. The screws tend to work
loose over time and fall out. The kit has some spare nuts and bots if needed.
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 14of 17
9.3 Adjustments
Motor
Fuse
Heater Socket
CAM Vane
Switches
Control Board
Heater Adjustment
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AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 15of 17
Figure 3.1 Internal View of Collector
9.3.1 There are two items that can be adjusted:
a) CAM Limit Switches- With the cover on the left bucket, and the sensor boards dry,
switch on the main switch. No mechanical movement will occur, however on the
P.C. board the 4th LED from the top will be lit green, indicating the cover is properly
seated on the left bucket. With a wetted finger touch either of the two sensor boards.
After a short delay you will see the second LED from the top light up yellow,
indicating the sensor board is wet. {this yellow light may only come on very briefly, it
depends on the amount of wetness on the sensor board (s)} Right after this yellow
light comes on you will hear the mechanical motor direction relay click and
immediately after the noiseless solid state relay will start the motor, moving the cover
to the right bucket, or the top of the right leg if no bucket is used on that side. As the
cover reaches its right limit the cam-vane will block the 2nd photo cell, switch off the
motor, reset the direction relay and light the third LED from the top (green). This
indicates that the cover is properly seated on the right side. Wait until the delay
cycle times out, about 1 ½ to 2 minutes. When it times out the motor will start
driving the cover back to the left and the green LED will turn off. When the cover is
seated properly on the left again the,green LED will light up again. This completes
the operating cycle and the instrument is now ready for operation. Switch off the
power, unplug the cord and replace the body and screen cover. (see figure 3.1)
b) Sensor Sensitivity Control – To increase the sensitivity of the heated sensor grids
which control the movement of the bucket cover, turn the potentiometer on control
board counterclockwise, and vice versa (see figure 3.1)
9.3.2
To retension the drive chain:
i) Move the automatic cover to a neutral position between the two bucket
housings and, using a 7/16” socket, slightly loosen the four (4) bolts holding
the motor base plate to the chassis.
ii) Push the motor away from the large sprocket while wiggling the automatic
cover.
iii) Hold the motor and retighten the four bolts.
iv) Recheck the tension as given in 9.2.
Reconnect power cord and run the automatic cover from one side to another several
times (by touching a damp finger to one of the sensors to ensure a smooth movement).
If any unusual noises occur, the chain is over-tightened and readjustment of the chain
tension is necessary.
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 16of 17
Periodically apply a small amount of light grease to the chain. Ensure that no grease
gets on the torque limiter clutch pads (See Figure 3.1).
10. CALIBRATION
There is no calibration procedure for MIC precipitation collector
11. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
EM-007a MIC operator’s manual
12. LITERATURE REFERENCES
US EPA Siting Requirements for Meteorological Equipment – Volume II, Section 2.0.8
Alberta Environment Air Monitoring Directive – 1989 & 2006
Alberta Precipitation Quality Monitoring Program Operations Manual - May 1987
National Atmospheric Deposition Program 2009-09
13. REVISION HISTORY
Revision 1.0 June 28, 2010 - Add NADP as a site criteria specification reference
Revision 1.1 December 2, 2010- 9.1.3 Change name of lab at Vegreville
Revision 1.2 January 17, 2010 slight change to procedure in 9.1.1
14. APPROVAL
Approved by:
Harry Benders
Date: January 17, 2011
---THIS DOCUMENT MUST NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED--Additional copies are available from the Air Monitoring Manager or designate
AENV Air Monitoring and Audit Centre
Title:
Standard Operating Procedure for Meteorological Instruments of
Canada (MIC) precipitation collector
Procedure No: SOP-007
Title:
Revision No: 1.2 January 17,2011
Page No.: 17of 17
Air Monitoring Manager
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