Western Star Driver`s Manual

Western Star Driver`s Manual
®
WESTERN STAR
Driver’s Manual
STI-444-6
A24-01242-000
Foreword
Introduction
This manual provides information needed to operate
and understand the vehicle and its components.
More detailed information is contained in the Owner’s
Warranty Information for North America booklet and
in the vehicle’s workshop and maintenance manuals.
Custom-built Western Star vehicles are equipped
with various chassis and cab components. Not all of
the information contained in this manual applies to
every vehicle. For details about components in your
vehicle, refer to the chassis specification pages included in all new vehicles and to the vehicle specification decal located inside the vehicle.
For your reference, keep this manual in the vehicle
at all times.
IMPORTANT: Descriptions and specifications in
this manual were in effect at the time of printing.
Western Star Trucks reserves the right to discontinue models and to change specifications or
design at any time without notice and without
incurring obligation. Descriptions and specifications contained in this publication provide no
warranty, expressed or implied, and are subject
to revisions and editions without notice.
Environmental Concerns and
Recommendations
Whenever you see instructions in this manual to discard materials, you should first attempt to reclaim
and recycle them. To preserve our environment, follow appropriate environmental rules and regulations
when disposing of materials.
Event Data Recorder
This vehicle is equipped with one or more devices
that record specific vehicle data. The type and
amount of data recorded varies depending on how
the vehicle is equipped (such as the brand of engine,
if an air bag is installed, or if the vehicle features a
collision avoidance system, etc.).
This vehicle is equipped with an event data recorder
(EDR). The main purpose of an EDR is to record
data in certain crash or near-crash situations, such
as air bag deployment or hitting a road obstacle, that
will assist in understanding how a vehicle’s systems
performed. The EDR is designed to record data related to vehicle dynamics and safety systems for approximately 60 seconds. This data can help provide
a better understanding of the circumstances in which
crashes and injuries occur. Data recorded includes
the following items:
• how various systems in the vehicle were oper-
ating
• engine system information
• how far (if at all) the driver was depressing the
accelerator
• if the driver was depressing the brake pedal
• how fast the vehicle was traveling
NOTE: Data is not recorded by the EDR under
normal driving conditions. Personal data such
as name, gender, age, and crash location are
not recorded. However, other parties such as
law enforcement could combine the EDR data
with the type of personally identifying data routinely acquired during a crash investigation.
To read data recorded by an EDR, special equipment
is required, and access to the vehicle or the EDR is
needed. In addition to the vehicle manufacturer, other
parties that have the special equipment, such as law
enforcement, can read the information if they have
access to the vehicle or the EDR.
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
Compliance
This vehicle must be regularly inspected and maintained as indicated in the Western Star Maintenance
Manual, and in the Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections
and Maintenance chapter in this manual, in order to
continue satisfactory performance and ensure coverage of the vehicle under the manufacturer’s warranty.
Many maintenance procedures ensure that the vehicle and engine continue to comply with applicable
emissions standards. Maintenance procedures, using
components engineered to comply with greenhouse
gas emissions and fuel efficiency regulations, may be
performed by an authorized Daimler Trucks North
America dealer, an independent outlet, or the vehicle
owner or operator.
The vehicle owner is responsible for determining the
suitability of replacement components to maintain
STI-444-6 (12/15)
A24-01242-000
Printed in U.S.A.
Foreword
compliance with federal and local jurisdictional regulations. Components including, but not limited to,
tires, cab/sleeper side extenders, chassis fairings,
bumper, hood, vehicle speed limiters, and idle reduction timers are specifically designed and manufactured to exacting standards for regulatory fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions compliance. It
is important that these components are always replaced with components that meet or exceed the performance of the originally installed components.
Place de Ville Tower C, 330 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N5.
For additional road safety information, please visit
the Road Safety website at: www.tc.gc.ca/
roadsafety.
Customer Assistance Center
Having trouble finding service? For over-the-road
breakdown assistance, customer concerns, literature
requests, and the location of the nearest dealer, call
1-866-850-STAR (7827). Call night or day, weekdays
or weekends. Our people are knowledgeable, professional, and committed to following through to help
you keep your truck moving.
Reporting Safety Defects
If you believe that your vehicle has a defect which
could cause a crash or could cause injury or
death, you should immediately inform the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in
addition to notifying Western Star Trucks.
If the NHTSA receives similar complaints, it may
open an investigation, and if it finds that a safety
defect exists in a group of vehicles, it may order a
recall and remedy campaign. However, NHTSA
cannot become involved in individual problems
between you, your dealer, or Western Star Trucks.
To contact NHTSA, you may call the Vehicle
Safety Hotline toll-free at 1-888-327-4236 (TTY:
1-800-424-9153); go to www.safercar.gov; or
write to: Administrator, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey
Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590. You can also
obtain other information about motor vehicle safety
from www.safercar.gov.
Canadian customers who wish to report a safetyrelated defect to Transport Canada, Defect Investigations and Recalls, may telephone the toll-free
hotline 1-800-333-0510, or contact Transport
Canada by mail at: Transport Canada, ASFAD,
© 2001–2016 Daimler Trucks North America LLC. All rights reserved. Daimler Trucks North America LLC is a Daimler
company.
No part of this publication, in whole or part, may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Daimler Trucks North America LLC. For additional information, please contact Daimler Trucks North
America LLC, Service Systems and Documentation, P.O. Box 3849, Portland OR 97208–3849 U.S.A. or refer to
www.Daimler-TrucksNorthAmerica.comand www.WesternStarTrucks.com.
Contents
Chapter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Page
Introduction, Environmental Concerns and Recommendations,
Event Data Recorder, Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Compliance,
Customer Assistance Center, Reporting Safety Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreword
Vehicle Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Vehicle Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Driver Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Climate Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Seats and Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Cab and Sleeper Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Engine Starting, Operation, and Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Optional Engine Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Brake Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Manual Transmissions and Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Automated and Automatic Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
Drive Axles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Fifth Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1
Trailer Couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Headlight Aiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Vehicle Appearance and Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
In An Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1
Pre- and Post-Trip Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.1
1
Vehicle Identification
Component Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component GWR Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emissions Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
Vehicle Identification
Component Information Label
NOTE: Labels shown in this chapter are examples only. Actual specifications may vary from
vehicle to vehicle.
1
The component information label lists the vehicle
model, identification number, and major component
models. It also lists the major assemblies and installations shown on the chassis specification sheet.
One copy of the component information label is attached to the inside of the glove box; another copy is
inside the rear cover of the Owner’s Warranty Information for North America booklet. An illustration of
the label is shown in Fig. 1.1.
2
06/28/2011
f602081
1. Certification Label
2. Noise Emission Label
Fig. 1.2, Label Locations
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels
06/28/2011
f080173
Fig. 1.1, Component Information Label
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels
NOTE: Due to the variety of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) certification requirements, not all of the labels shown will apply
to your vehicle.
The FMVSS labels are attached to the driver-side
door frame B-pillar, as shown in Fig. 1.2. Tractors
with or without fifth wheels purchased in the U.S. are
certified by means of a certification label. See
Fig. 1.3.
Trucks built without a cargo body that are intended
for service in the U.S. have an incomplete vehicle
certification label attached by the final-stage manufacturer. See Fig. 1.4. This label will be attached to
the incomplete vehicle document included with the
vehicle, and certifies that the vehicle conforms to all
applicable FMVSS regulations in effect on the date of
completion.
1.1
In Canada, tractors with fifth wheels are certified by
means of a statement of compliance label with the
Canadian National Safety Mark attached to the
driver-side door frame B-pillar. See Fig. 1.5.
Trucks built without a cargo body and tractors built
without a fifth wheel that are intended for service in
Canada have an incomplete vehicle certification label
(similar to Fig. 1.4) attached to the driver-side
B-pillar. After completion of the vehicle, a complete
certification label must be attached by the final-stage
manufacturer to certify that the vehicle conforms to
all applicable Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(CMVSS) regulations in effect on the date of
completion.
Component GWR Label
The component GWR label is located on the A-pillar
of the driver-side door frame. The label provides
maximum GWR ratings for each component.
See Fig. 1.6 for a typical component GWR label.
Vehicle Identification
06/28/2011
f080175
Fig. 1.3, Vehicle Certification Label
06/28/2011
f080174
Fig. 1.4, Incomplete Vehicle Certification Label
(3)]. It is the owner’s responsibility to maintain the
vehicle so that it conforms to EPA regulations.
EPA Noise Emission Control Label
A vehicle noise emission control label (Fig. 1.9) is
located on the driver-side B-pillar as shown in
Fig. 1.2. It is the owner’s responsibility to maintain
the vehicle so that it conforms to EPA regulations.
10/10/2006
f080024
Fig. 1.5, Canadian National Safety Mark
Emissions Labels
Aftertreatment System Indicators
Label
Engines and vehicles manufactured after December
31, 2006 and domiciled in the U.S. or Canada are
required to meet all EPA regulations effective as of
the vehicle build date, and are equipped with an
emission aftertreatment system (ATS). Vehicles domiciled outside of the U.S. and Canada may not
have aftertreatment equipment, depending upon local
statutory emissions guidelines. See Table 1.1.
A warning label on the driver-side visor contains important warning indicators in the instrument cluster
that pertain to the ATS. See Fig. 1.7 or Fig. 1.8.
It is a violation of U.S. federal law to alter exhaust
plumbing, ATS, or other components in any way that
would bring the engine/vehicle out of compliance with
certification requirements [Ref: 42 U.S.C. S7522(a)
IMPORTANT: Certain Western Star incomplete
vehicles may be produced with incomplete noise
control hardware. Such vehicles will not have a
vehicle noise emission control information label.
For such vehicles, it is the final-stage manufacturer’s responsibility to complete the vehicle in
conformity to U.S. EPA regulations (40 CFR Part
205) and label it for compliance.
Vehicle Emission Control Information
Label
Model year 2013 and later vehicles meet additional
requirements as specified by federal greenhouse gas
and fuel efficiency regulations (GHG14). Model year
2017 and later vehicles meet similar requirements as
specified by GHG17 requirements. These vehicles
are equipped with components that increase fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. Components
may include, but are not limited to, low rolling resistance tires; aerodynamic devices such as hood, cab
side extenders, and fuel tank fairings; vehicle speed
limiters; and idle shutdown timers.
1.2
Vehicle Identification
06/28/2011
f080172
Fig. 1.6, Component GWR Label
EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM INFORMATION
INDICATOR
LAMP(S)
STOP
CHECK
(Solid)
Level 1
(Flashing)
Level 2
WARNING
(Flashing)
Level 3
Level 4
Indicator Lamp
Message(s)
Filter Regeneration
Recommended.
Filter
Regeneration
Necessary
Parked Regeneration
Required − Engine
Derate
Service Regeneration Required.
Engine Derate To Idle Only.
Diesel Particulate
Filter Condition
Filter is reaching
capacity.
Filter is now
reaching maximum
capacity.
Switch.
Filter has reached
maximum capacity.
Filter has exceeded maximum
capacity.
Required Action
Bring vehicle to
highway speeds to
allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration or
perform a Parked
Regeneration.
To avoid engine
derate, bring vehicle
to highway speeds
to allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration, or
perform a Parked
Regeneration as
soon as possible.
Vehicle must be
parked, and a Parked
Regeneration must
be performed.
Engine will begin
derate.
Vehicle must be parked, and a
Service Regeneration must be
performed. Check engine
operator’s manual for details.
Engine will shut down.
HEST (High Exhaust
System Temperature)
Flashing
A regeneration is in
progress.
Solid
Exhaust components
and exhaust gas are at
high temperature. When
stationary, keep away
from people and
flammable materials or
vapors.
For a driver performed Parked Regeneration, vehicle must be equipped with a dash mounted Regeneration Switch.
02/20/2009
f080156
Fig. 1.7, ATS Indicators, EPA07
Applicable Emissions System Based on Build Date and EPA Regulations
Build Date
Regulation: Emissions Components
EPA07 (reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions to 1.1 g/bhp-hr, and reduce
January 1, 2007–December 31,
particulate matter emissions to 0.01 g/bhp-hr): Aftertreatment device (ATD) containing
2009
a diesel particulate filter that traps soot and ash.*
EPA10 (reduce NOx emissions to 0.2 g/bhp-hr): EPA07-type ATD, with additional
January 1, 2010–December 31,
selective catalyst reduction (SCR) technology that utilizes diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)
2012
to convert NOx to nitrogen and water vapor.
GHG14: Aerodynamic and fuel efficiency components including, but not limited to,
From March 5, 2012–December
tires, cab/sleeper side extenders, chassis fairings, bumper, hood, vehicle speed
31, 2015
limiters, and idle reduction timers specifically designed to meet regulatory fuel
efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions standards.
1.3
Vehicle Identification
Applicable Emissions System Based on Build Date and EPA Regulations
Build Date
Regulation: Emissions Components
GHG17: GHG14 components plus OBD16 instrumentation and sensor upgrades, and
From January 1, 2016
component technology that meets NHTSA and EPA 2017 fuel efficiency and
greenhouse gas emission standards (GHG17) requirements.
* Cummins, Detroit, and Mercedes-Benz ATD’s are also equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst to break down pollutants.
Table 1.1, Applicable Emissions System Based on Build Date and EPA Regulations
IMPORTANT
DPF Regen Needed
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
regeneration is needed.
If flashing, regenerate as soon as
possible. Engine derate possible.
Hot exhaust can cause fire.
Hot Exhaust
Keep flammables and people away
from exhaust.
DEF Refill Needed
DEF
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) level is
low. Engine derate likely.
Refill tank with certified DEF.
See operator’s manual for complete instructions.
24−01656−000
11/30/2010
f080162
Fig. 1.8, ATS Indicators, EPA10 and Newer
MANUFACTURED BY:
VIN:
VEH FAMILY CD:
GVWR−KG
GVWR−LBS
VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
DATE OF MANUFACTURE:
REGULATORY CLASS:
EMISSION CONTROL IDENTIFIERS:
THIS VEHICLE COMPLIES WITH U. S. EPA REGULATIONS FOR XXXX HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES.
SEE OWNER’S MANUAL FOR PROPER MAINTENANCE OF THIS VEHICLE.
U PART NO. 24−01177−060 REV A
03/06/2012
06/28/2011
f080184
f080171
Fig. 1.9, Vehicle Noise Emission Control Label
Fig. 1.10, Vehicle Emission Control Information Label
A Vehicle Emission Control Information Label is located on the driver-side door. See Fig. 1.10. It is the
1.4
Vehicle Identification
owner’s responsibility to maintain the vehicle so that
it conforms to EPA and NHTSA regulations.
Certified Clean Idle Label
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) requires
model year 2008 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines to be equipped with a non-programmable engine shutdown system that automatically shuts down
the engine after five minutes of idling in order to limit
emissions of particulate matter and NOx.
Certified vehicles are equipped with a label placed
near the bottom edge of the driver-side door. See
Fig. 1.11.
CERTIFIED
CLEAN IDLE
02/20/2012
f080179
Fig. 1.11, CARB Clean Idle Label
1.5
2
Vehicle Access
Door Locks and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grab Handles and Access Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back-of-Cab Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hood Opening and Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
2.2
2.5
2.7
Vehicle Access
Door Locks and Handles
2
To unlock either door from outside the cab, insert the
key in the lock and turn it one-quarter turn towards
the front of the vehicle. See Fig. 2.1. Turn the key
back to the original position to remove it. Pull out on
the paddle latch to open the door.
1
1
2
f720394
03/21/2001
1. Lock
2. Paddle Latch
11/02/2011
1. Unlock Button
Fig. 2.1, Exterior Door Handle
To lock either door from outside the cab, insert the
key in the lock and turn it one-quarter turn towards
the rear of the vehicle. Turn the key back to the original position to remove it. If the door is closed, it will
now be locked. If the door is open, close the door
firmly.
To lock either door from inside the cab, push the lock
button down. Pull the lock button up to unlock the
door from the inside.
To open either door from inside the cab, pull the lock
button up, then pull the interior door latch out and
push the door outwards.
To unlock both doors, press the unlock button. To
lock both doors, press the lock button. See Fig. 2.2.
2.1
2. Lock Button
Fig. 2.2, Key Fob
Key Fob Programming
A maximum of four fobs can be programmed to work
on one vehicle. Whenever a new fob will be used, all
existing fobs must be reprogrammed at the same
time. Any existing fobs that were previously programmed will no longer work on the vehicle unless
they are all reprogrammed at the same time.
1.
Remove the passenger-side electrical access
panel, located next to the glove box. See
Fig. 2.3.
2.
Locate the 2-wire connector in the area between
the auxiliary and main power distribution modules (PDMs) with circuit 443* and ground.
Remote Keyless Entry
Remote keyless entry is optional on Western Star
vehicles. The remote entry key fob can be used to
unlock the doors from outside the cab.
f545852
NOTE: If the 2-wire connector cannot be located, the connector may be hanging below the
PDM. In this case, remove the heater cover
panel, which is located below the fuse panel.
3.
Use a short length of wire or a paperclip to short
the two terminals together three times within five
seconds.
4.
Wait three seconds.
Vehicle Access
be especially careful when entering or exiting the
vehicle.
Always maintain three-point contact with the vehicle when entering or exiting the cab. Threepoint contact means both feet and one hand, or
both hands and one foot.
When steps are mounted on battery box covers,
make sure that the cover is latched and secure
before using the steps.
A
2
1
3
f543948a
11/04/2011
A. The two-wire connector is located next to the
auxiliary power distribution module.
1. Glove Box
2. Main Power Distribution Module
3. Auxiliary Power Distribution Module
Fig. 2.3, Passenger-Side Electrical Access Panel
(removed)
5.
Press and hold the first fob’s lock button for two
seconds. The LED in the fob will flash while the
button is held.
6.
Press the lock button on the second fob for one
second. The LED in the fob will flash while the
button is held.
7.
Repeat step 6 for any additional fobs.
NOTE: The system will exit program mode after
one minute of no activity.
Grab Handles and Access
Steps
The grab handles, access steps, and steering wheel
are all part of the cab access system. Use these
"helping hands" when getting into or out of the cab.
They will increase your security and comfort.
Do not step on the fuel tank, battery box, frame,
etc. unless adequate slip resistant surfaces and
handholds are provided.
Do not jump from the vehicle.
For ease of entry and exit, there are multiple grab
handles: a handle on the A-pillar (optional on the
driver’s side), handles on the inside of the door, and
sidewall grab handles. In addition, the steering wheel
may be used to provide a secure handhold. There
are at least two access steps to provide secure
footholds.
IMPORTANT: Vehicles built before November 7,
2011 have lower door grab handles on the inside of each door. Vehicles built on or after November 7, 2011 have lower pockets on the inside of each door, which may be used as a
secure handhold.
Entering the Driver’s Side
1.
Open the driver-side door and place anything
that you are carrying in the cab.
2.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with your right
hand. See Fig. 2.4 or Fig. 2.5.
3.
Grasp the lower door pocket or grab handle with
your left hand.
4.
Place your right foot on the bottom step, and pull
yourself up.
5.
Place your left foot on the top step.
6.
Grasp the steering wheel or A-pillar grab handle,
if equipped, with your left hand.
7.
Step into the cab with your right foot first, and
grasp the steering wheel with your right hand.
CAUTION
Slipping or falling from the vehicle can result in
personal injury or property damage.
Wet or dirty shoes greatly increase the chance of
slipping or falling. If your shoes are wet or dirty,
2.2
Vehicle Access
2
3
5
4
2
4
5
3
6
1
f720392
08/17/2011
1. Lower Door Handle
2. Door Lock Button
3. Upper Door Grab
Handle
4. Door Latch
5. Sidewall Grab Handle
Fig. 2.4, Driver-Side Cab Access (vehicles built before
November 7, 2011)
Exiting the Driver’s Side
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands. Place
them in an accessible location on the seat or
cab floor and make sure they will not get in your
way as you exit, then retrieve them after you
have exited the cab.
CAUTION
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
1.
Grasp the steering wheel with both hands, place
your left foot on the top step, and stand on the
threshold, facing into the cab.
2.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with your right
hand. See Fig. 2.4 or Fig. 2.5.
3.
Move your right foot to the bottom step.
2.3
1
08/17/2011
1. Lower Door Pocket
2. Upper Door Pocket
3. Door Latch
f720729
4. A-Pillar Grab Handle
5. Sidewall Grab Handle
Fig. 2.5, Driver-Side Cab Access (vehicles built
November 7, 2011 and later)
4.
Move your left hand to the lower door pocket or
grab handle.
5.
Step to the ground with your left foot first.
Entering the Passenger’s Side
1.
Open the passenger-side door and place anything that you are carrying in the cab.
2.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with your left
hand. See Fig. 2.6 or Fig. 2.7.
3.
Grasp the lower door pocket or grab handle with
your right hand.
4.
Place your left foot on the bottom step.
5.
Place your right foot on the top step and move
your right hand to the A-pillar grab handle.
Vehicle Access
1
2
3
4
4
3
2
6
5
f720393
08/17/2011
1. A-Pillar Grab Handle
2. Door Latch
3. Upper Door Grab
Handle
4. Door Lock Button
5. Lower Door Grab
Handle
6. Sidewall Grab Handle
1
Fig. 2.6, Passenger-Side Cab Access (vehicles built
before November 7, 2011)
6.
7.
Place your left foot on the top step, then move
your left hand to the A-pillar grab handle.
Step into the cab with your left foot first.
08/17/2011
1. Sidewall Grab Handle
2. Door Latch
3. A-Pillar Grab Handle
Exiting the Passenger’s Side
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands. Place
them in an accessible location on the seat or
cab floor and make sure they will not get in your
way as you exit, then retrieve them after you
have exited the cab.
CAUTION
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
1.
Grasp the A-pillar grab handle with both hands,
then place your right foot on the top step while
facing inward. See Fig. 2.6 or Fig. 2.7.
5
f720728
4. Upper Door Pocket
5. Lower Door Pocket
Fig. 2.7, Passenger-Side Cab Access (vehicles built
November 7, 2011 and later)
2.
Place your left foot on the top step.
3.
Move your left hand to the sidewall grab handle.
4.
Move your right foot to the bottom step.
5.
Move your right hand to the lower door pocket or
grab handle.
6.
Step to the ground with your left foot first.
Entering the Driver’s Side, RightHand-Drive Vehicles
1.
Open the driver-side door, and place anything
that you are carrying in the cab.
2.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with your left
hand.
2.4
Vehicle Access
3.
Grasp the lower door pocket or grab handle with
your right hand.
3.
Grasp the lower door pocket or grab handle with
your left hand.
4.
Place your left foot on the bottom step.
4.
Place your right foot on the bottom step.
5.
Place your right foot on the top step.
5.
6.
Move your right hand to the steering wheel or
A-pillar grab handle, if equipped.
Place your left foot on the top step and move
your left hand to the A-pillar grab handle.
6.
Step into the cab with your left foot first, and
grasp the steering wheel with your left hand.
Place your right foot on the top step, then move
your right hand to the A-pillar grab handle.
7.
Step into the cab with your right foot first.
7.
Exiting the Driver’s Side, Right-HandDrive Vehicles
Exiting the Passenger’s Side, RightHand-Drive Vehicles
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands. Place
them in an accessible location on the seat or
cab floor and make sure they will not get in your
way as you exit, then retrieve them after you
have exited the cab.
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to exit the cab
while carrying any items in your hands. Place
them in an accessible location on the seat or
cab floor and make sure they will not get in your
way as you exit, then retrieve them after you
have exited the cab.
CAUTION
CAUTION
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
Always face in when exiting the cab. Do not attempt to exit with your back to the cab, as you
would going down a flight of stairs. It is easier to
slip or lose your balance. If you slip when exiting
in this way, there is a greater likelihood of personal injury.
1.
Grasp the steering wheel with both hands, place
your right foot on the top step, and stand on the
threshold, facing into the cab.
1.
Grasp the A-pillar grab handle with both hands,
then place your left foot on the top step while
standing up from the seat facing inward.
2.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with your left
hand.
2.
Place your right foot on the top step.
3.
3.
Move your left foot to the bottom step.
Move your right hand to the sidewall grab
handle.
4.
Move your right hand to the lower door pocket or
grab handle.
4.
Move your right foot to the bottom step.
5.
5.
Step to the ground with your right foot first.
Move your left hand to the lower door pocket or
grab handle.
6.
Step to the ground with your left foot first.
Entering the Passenger’s Side, RightHand-Drive Vehicles
1.
Open the passenger-side door and place anything that you are carrying in the cab.
2.
Grasp the sidewall grab handle with your right
hand.
2.5
Back-of-Cab Access
When trailer air and electrical connections cannot be
reached conveniently from the ground, Federal Motor
Carrier Safety Regulations require that tractors have
adequate back-of-cab access. Grab handles are typically located on the backwall of the cab or sleeper, or
on the inside of the cab extender, if equipped. See
Vehicle Access
Fig. 2.8. A grab handle may also be provided on the
exhaust stack. Steps may be mounted on the fuel
tank(s), battery or tool box(es), or on metal brackets
secured to the frame rail. A deck plate is mounted
across the top of the frame rails. All other areas are
not meant to support back-of-cab access
2
CAUTION
Follow these rules for back-of-cab access. Failing
to follow these rules could lead to a fall, and possible personal injury.
Never step on any exterior part unless it has a
slip-resistant surface meant for safe stepping. If
the surface is movable, such as a battery box
cover with a slip-resistant surface, be certain it is
firmly secured.
3
Be careful not to trip on items such as chains or
air lines in the back-of-cab area.
Always follow safety procedures for back-of-cab
access, maintaining three-point contact—both
hands and one foot, or both feet and one hand—
whenever moving around, and always face in toward the deck plate when climbing up or down.
Wet or dirty shoes, steps, or grab rails greatly
increase the chance of slipping or falling. If your
shoes or the contact areas are wet or dirty, clean
and dry them as much as possible before accessing the back of cab area, and be especially
careful when climbing or standing on the vehicle.
Never jump onto, or off of, a vehicle; doing so
creates a very high likelihood of a fall and personal injury.
IMPORTANT: Climb onto, and down from, behind the cab while facing in toward the vehicle,
as you would on a ladder. Do not climb up or
down facing out away from the vehicle.
Accessing Back-of-Cab Area
WARNING
External surfaces of the exhaust system remain
hot after the engine has been shut down. When
accessing the back of the cab or sleeper, do not
touch any part of the exhaust system other than
the exhaust-mounted grab handle, if equipped, or
severe burns could occur.
1
1
09/24/2007
f602335
1. Steps
2. Grab Handle
3. Deck Plate
Fig. 2.8, Back-of-Cab Access
1.
Facing the deck plate, grasp the grab handle
with both hands. Reach up as far as is comfortable.
2.
Place one foot on the bottom step and pull yourself up.
3.
Place your other foot on the top step.
4.
Move your lower hand to a higher position on the
grab handle.
5.
Step onto the deck plate.
Exiting Back-of-Cab Area
1.
Face the center of the vehicle and grasp the
sidewall grab handle with both hands.
2.
Place one foot at a time on the top step.
2.6
Vehicle Access
3.
Move your upper hand to a lower position on the
grab handle.
4.
Move one foot to the bottom step.
5.
Step to the ground with your upper foot first.
Closing the Hood
1.
Grasp and lift the grab handle to tilt the hood
toward the closed position.
2.
As the hood goes over center, put one foot on
the bumper step and slowly lower the hood with
both hands on the grab handle. See Fig. 2.9.
Hood Opening and Closing
The hood can be raised to a full-open position. A
spring helps you to raise the hood, and to lower it to
the operating position. In the operating position, the
hood is secured to the cab-mounted cowl by a holddown latch on each side.
Opening the Hood
1.
Release both hood hold-down latches by pulling
the ends outward.
NOTICE
Do not let the hood free-fall to the full-open position. To do so could cause damage to the hood
or hood springs.
2.
Using the bumper step for leverage, slowly tilt
the hood with both hands on the grab handle.
See Fig. 2.9.
f880526
03/22/2001
Fig. 2.9, Hood Opening and Closing
3.
2.7
As the hood starts to open, put your foot on the
ground, and walk backwards as you pull. The
hood will stop in the full-open position.
IMPORTANT: Make sure that both latches are
fully engaged before operating the vehicle.
3.
Make sure the hood is flush with the cowl, then
secure the hood by engaging both hood holddown latches.
3
Instruments
Warning and Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optional Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overhead Instrument Panel, Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
3.3
3.6
3.8
Instruments
• STOP engine
Warning and Indicator Lights
Vehicles built since January 1, 2007 are equipped
with a located behind the steering wheel, and contains all standard and optional warning and indicator
lamps, or telltales.
See Table 3.1 for a listing of standard and commonly
used optional telltales.
The following fixed-position lamps are standard:
• trailer antilock braking system (ABS)
• tractor ABS
• parking brake engaged
The following lamps are optional:
• rear suspension air pressure
• check transmission
• left-turn signal
• transmission temperature
• high-beam headlights
• service transmission
• daytime running lights
• wheel spin
• right-turn signal
• unfastened seat belt
• low air pressure
• intake heater
• wait to start (EPA10 and newer vehicles)
• water in fuel
• high exhaust system temperature (HEST)
• fuel filter restriction
• diesel particulate filter (DPF) status
• optimized idle
• malfunction indicator lamp (MIL)
• power takeoff (PTO) engaged
• CHECK engine
CHECK Engine
3.1
Common Lightbar Lamps
Indicates a critical engine condition (low oil pressure, low coolant
level, high coolant temperature, high DPF soot level, or
uncontrolled DPF regeneration). Correct the condition as soon as
possible. If the condition worsens, the STOP engine lamp will
illuminate.
Indicates a serious fault which requires engine shutdown
immediately. The engine protection system will reduce the
maximum engine torque and speed, and, if the condition does not
improve, will shut down the engine within 30 to 60 seconds.
STOP Engine
The driver must safely bring the vehicle to a stop on the side of the
road and shut down the engine as soon as the red light is seen. If
the engine shuts down while the vehicle is in a hazardous location,
restart the engine after turning the key to the OFF position for a
few seconds. Move the vehicle to a safer location.
Slow (10-second) flashing indicates a regeneration (regen) is in
progress.
High Exhaust System Temperature
(HEST)
Solid illumination indicates high exhaust temperatures at the outlet
of the tail pipe, when speed is below 5 mph (8 km/h). It does not
signify the need for service; it only alerts the vehicle operator to
high exhaust temperatures when a regen is in progress.
Instruments
Common Lightbar Lamps
Solid illumination indicates a regen is required. Change to a more
challenging duty cycle (such as highway driving ) to raise exhaust
temperatures for at least twenty minutes, or perform a parked
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
regen.
Status
Blinking indicates that a parked regen is required immediately. An
engine derate and shutdown will occur.
WATER
IN FUEL
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
Indicates an engine emissions-related fault. See the engine
operation manual for details.
Left-Turn Arrow
Flashes on and off whenever the outside left-turn signal lights are
activated.
Right-Turn Arrow
Flashes on and off whenever the outside right-turn signal lights are
activated.
High-Beam Headlights
Indicates the high-beam headlights are on.
Daytime Running Lights
Indicates the daytime running lights are on.
Tractor ABS
Indicates a problem with the truck/tractor ABS is detected. Repair
the vehicle ABS immediately to ensure full braking capability.
Trailer ABS
Indicates a problem with the trailer ABS is detected. Repair the
trailer ABS immediately to ensure full braking capability.
Low Air Pressure
Activates with an audible warning when air pressure in the primary
or secondary reservoir falls below 70 psi (483 kPa).
Parking Brake
Indicates the parking brake is engaged.
Power Takeoff (PTO)
Indicates that the PTO function is engaged.
Unfastened Seat Belt
Illuminates with the ignition ON and the driver seat belt unfastened.
Water In Fuel
Indicates that the fuel may contain water. The driver must drain
any water collected in the fuel/water separator.
3.2
Instruments
Common Lightbar Lamps
WAIT
TO START
CHECK
TRANS
WHEEL
SPIN
Fuel Filter Restriction
Indicates the fuel filter has been clogged and requires service.
Wait To Start
Illuminates when starting the engine during cold conditions. Wait
until the lamp goes out before turning the ignition key to START.
Transmission Overheat
Indicates high transmission temperature.
Check Transmission
Indicates an undesirable transmission condition.
Service Transmission
Indicates a transmission service is due.
Rear Suspension Low Air Pressure
Indicates that the rear suspension air pressure is below operating
range.
Wheel Spin
Indicates that the ATC function is engaged.
Table 3.1, Common Lightbar Lamps
Engine Protection System
WARNING
When the red STOP engine lamp illuminates,
most engines are programmed to shut down automatically within 30 seconds. The driver must
immediately move the vehicle to a safe location
at the side of the road to prevent causing a hazardous situation that could cause bodily injury,
property damage, or severe damage to the engine.
The STOP engine lamp illuminates when the engine
protection system is activated. On some engines, the
engine protection system will derate the engine, allowing it to run at lower rpm and slower vehicle
speed. Drive the vehicle to a safe location or to a
service facility.
On other engines, the engine protection system will
shut down the engine. It will first derate the engine,
then shut it down completely 30 to 60 seconds after
the indicator illuminates (depending on the critical
3.3
fault type) if the condition does not improve. Bring
the vehicle to a stop on the side of the road before
the engine shuts down.
Some vehicles may have a shutdown-override
switch, which may be used to momentarily override
the shutdown sequence. See Chapter 10 for detailed
information regarding the shutdown process.
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to restart the engine while the vehicle is moving. Bring the vehicle to a safe stop, then restart the engine.
To restart the engine, turn the ignition switch to OFF,
leave it there a few seconds, then turn the switch to
START. The engine will run for a short period and
shut down again if the condition does not improve.
Standard Instruments
Standard instruments are present on every vehicle.
They are listed here in alphabetical order, to make
the information easier to find.
Instruments
Coolant Temperature Gauge
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
NOTICE
NOTICE
A sudden increase in coolant temperature may
indicate engine or cooling system failure. Bring
the vehicle to a safe stop and investigate the
cause to prevent further damage. Do not operate
the engine until the cause has been determined
and corrected.
A sudden decrease or absence of oil pressure
may indicate mechanical failure. Bring the vehicle
to a safe stop and investigate the cause to prevent further damage. Do not operate the engine
until the cause has been determined and corrected.
During normal engine operation, the coolant temperature gauge (Fig. 3.1) should read between 175
and 195°F (79 and 91°C). If the temperature remains
below 160°F (71°C) or exceeds the maximum temperature shown in Table 3.2, inspect the cooling system to determine the cause.
The engine oil pressure gauge (Fig. 3.2) displays the
current engine oil pressure. If engine oil pressure
falls below the minimum levels shown in Table 3.3,
the CHECK engine lamp will illuminate. If the condition does not improve, the STOP engine lamp will
illuminate and an audible warning will sound. The
engine will then derate or shut down, depending on
the type of engine protection system installed.
If coolant temperature rises above the maximum
temperature listed in Table 3.2, the CHECK engine
lamp will illuminate. If the condition does not improve, the STOP engine lamp will illuminate and an
audible warning will sound. The engine will then derate or shut down, depending on the type of engine
protection system installed.
05/14/2001
f610537
Fig. 3.2, Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
05/11/2001
f610535
Fig. 3.1, Coolant Temperature Gauge
Maximum Coolant Temperature
Engine Make
Temperature: °F (°C)
Caterpillar
215 (101)
Cummins
225 (107)
Detroit Diesel
215 (101)
Mercedes-Benz
203 (95)
Minimum Oil Pressure *
At Idle Speed:
At Rated RPM:
Engine Model
psi (kPa)
psi (kPa)
Caterpillar
10–20 (69–138) 30–45 (207–310)
Cummins
15 (103)
35 (241)
Detroit Diesel
14 (97)
55 (350)
Mercedes-Benz
7 (50)
36 (250)
* Pressures apply with the engine at operating temperature. Oil pressure
may be higher on a cold engine. Observe and record pressures when the
engine is new to create a guide for checking engine condition.
Table 3.3, Minimum Oil Pressure
Table 3.2, Maximum Coolant Temperature
3.4
Instruments
Fuel/Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Gauge, EPA10 and Newer
The fuel and DEF levels are measured in a dual purpose fuel/DEF gauge. See Fig. 3.3.
Air pressure gauges (Fig. 3.4) register the pressure
in the primary and secondary air systems. Normal
pressure with the engine running is 100 to 120 psi
(689 to 827 kPa) in both systems.
1
5
2
4
05/14/2001
11/09/2009
3
f611046
1.
2.
3.
4.
f610556
Fig. 3.4, Air Pressure Gauge (reservoir A shown)
Diesel Fuel Level Indicator
DEF Symbol
DEF Level Indicator
Low DEF Warning Lamp (activates below 10%
DEF)
5. Low Fuel Warning Lamp (activates at 1/8 tank of
fuel)
A low air pressure warning lamp and audible warning, connected to both the primary and secondary
systems, activate when air pressure in either system
drops below a minimum pressure of 65 to 75 psi
(448 to 517 kPa).
Fig. 3.3, Fuel/DEF Gauge, EPA10 and Newer Vehicles
When the engine is started, the warning lamp and
audible warning remain on until air pressure in both
systems exceeds minimum pressure.
The diesel fuel level is indicated at the top of the
gauge, with a low-fuel warning lamp that illuminates
when the diesel fuel level registers 1/8th of capacity.
The DEF level is indicated in the lightbar on the
lower portion of the gauge. There is a low DEF level
warning lamp that illuminates amber when the DEF
level reaches 10% of capacity. See Chapter 11 for
details of the DEF gauge functions.
Primary and Secondary Air Pressure
Gauges
WARNING
If air pressure falls below minimum pressure, the
braking ability of the vehicle will be limited. Slow
the vehicle down and bring it to a gradual stop.
Do not attempt to move the vehicle until air pressure has risen above the minimum level. Moving
a vehicle without adequate braking power could
cause an accident resulting in property damage,
personal injury, or death.
3.5
Speedometer
Three speedometer face options are available. The
U.S. version of the speedometer (Fig. 3.5) registers
speed in both miles per hour (mph) and kilometers
per hour (km/h), with mph in larger numbers.
The metric version of the speedometer face reverses
this arrangement, with km/h in larger numbers. The
metric-only version, installed on vehicles bound for
Australia, shows km/h exclusively.
Tachometer
The tachometer (see Fig. 3.6) indicates engine
speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) and serves as
a guide for shifting the transmission and keeping the
engine in the appropriate rpm range. For low idle and
rated rpm, see the engine identification plate.
Voltmeter
The voltmeter (see Fig. 3.7) indicates the vehicle
charging system voltage when the engine is running
Instruments
12
14
10
16
VOLTS
07/01/2003
Fig. 3.7, Voltmeter
Miles
09/09/2004
f610666
f610530a
Fig. 3.5, Speedometer (U.S. version)
started or when electrical devices in the vehicle are
being used.
If the voltmeter shows an undercharged or overcharged condition for an extended period, have the
charging system and batteries checked at a repair
facility.
On a vehicle equipped with a battery isolator system,
the voltmeter measures the average voltage of all the
batteries when the engine is running. When the engine is stopped, the voltmeter shows only the isolated battery voltage and does not indicate the voltage of the engine-starting batteries.
Optional Instruments
Optional instruments are not found on every vehicle.
They are listed here in alphabetical order, to make
the information easier to find.
05/11/2001
f610532
Fig. 3.6, Tachometer
and the battery voltage when the engine is stopped.
By monitoring the voltmeter, the driver can stay
aware of potential battery charging problems and
have them fixed before the batteries discharge
enough to create starting difficulties.
The voltmeter will normally show approximately 13.7
to 14.1 volts when the engine is running. The voltage
of a fully charged battery is 12.7 to 12.8 volts when
the engine is stopped. A completely discharged battery will produce only about 12.0 volts. The voltmeter
will indicate lower voltage as the vehicle is being
Air Restriction Gauge
The air intake restriction gauge measures the
vacuum on the engine side of the air cleaner. On
standard installations, it is mounted on the air intake
duct in the engine compartment. See Fig. 3.8.
As an option for easier viewing, an air intake restriction gauge may be located under the lightbar. See
Fig. 3.9.
NOTE: Rain or snow can wet the air filter, causing a temporarily higher than normal reading.
Air intake restriction vacuum is measured in inches
of water (inH2O). For vehicles equipped with a
graduated indicator or a restriction gauge on the
dash, check the gauge with the engine off. If the air
3.6
Instruments
Air Intake Maximum Restriction Values (inH2O)
GHG14
EPA07 and
and
Pre-EPA07
EPA10
Engine Make
GHG17
Engines
Engines
Engines
Detroit
20
22
18
Cummins
25
25
25
Mercedes-Benz
22
22
–
Caterpillar
25
–
–
Table 3.4, Air Intake Maximum Restriction Values
02/12/2015
f090514
Fig. 3.8, Air Intake Restriction Indicator, Graduated
05/14/2001
f610551
Fig. 3.10, Ammeter
05/14/2001
f610552
Fig. 3.9, Air Intake Restriction Gauge
restriction value equals or exceeds the value shown
in Table 3.4, the air cleaner element needs to be
replaced.
TRACTOR
APPL.
Ammeter
The ammeter (Fig. 3.10) gauge displays current flowing to and from the battery. When the batteries are
charging, the meter needle moves to the positive
side of the gauge. When the batteries are being discharged, the needle moves to the negative side. A
consistent negative reading when the engine is running indicates a possible problem with the charging
system.
3.7
PSI
05/14/2001
f610549
Fig. 3.11, Tractor Application Air Gauge
Application Air Pressure Gauge
The application air pressure gauge (Fig. 3.11) registers the air pressure being used to apply the brakes,
and should be used for reference only. The gauge
will not register until the foot pedal is depressed or
the hand brake lever is applied.
Instruments
Drive Axle Oil Temperature Gauges
NOTICE
A sudden increase in oil temperature that is not
caused by a load increase may indicate mechanical failure. Bring the vehicle to a safe stop and
investigate the cause to prevent further damage.
Do not operate the vehicle until the cause has
been determined and corrected.
• Detroit Diesel engines: 200 to 230°F (93 to
110°C)
Under heavy loads, such as when climbing steep
grades, temperatures that exceed the normal oil temperature range for a short period are not unusual. If
the temperature returns to normal when the load decreases, there is no problem.
During normal operation, drive axle oil temperature
gauges (Fig. 3.12) should read between 160 and
220°F (71 and 104°C).
05/11/2001
REAR
REAR
Fig. 3.13, Engine Oil Temperature Gauge
F
04/16/2013
f610533
Turbocharger Boost Pressure Gauge
f610547
Fig. 3.12, Rear Drive Axle Oil Temperature Gauge
The turbocharger boost pressure gauge (Fig. 3.14)
measures the pressure in the intake manifold, in excess of atmospheric pressure, being created by the
turbocharger.
Under heavy loads, such as when climbing steep
grades, temperatures that exceed the normal oil temperature range for a short period are not unusual. If
the temperature returns to normal when the load decreases, there is no problem.
Engine Oil Temperature Gauge
NOTICE
A sudden increase in oil temperature that is not
caused by a load increase may indicate mechanical failure. Bring the vehicle to a safe stop and
investigate the cause to prevent further damage.
Do not operate the engine until the cause has
been determined and corrected.
During normal operation, the engine oil temperature
gauge (Fig. 3.13) should read as follows:
• Cummins engines: 180 to 225°F (82 to 107°C)
05/14/2001
f610540
Fig. 3.14, Turbocharger Boost Pressure Gauge
Overhead Instrument Panel,
Optional
The optional overhead instrument panel may hold a
citizen’s band (C/B) radio, AM/FM radio, and storage
area with netting. The underside of the overhead
3.8
Instruments
console also holds the sun visors and the optional
dome/reading light assembly. For more information
on the dome/reading light assembly, see Chapter 7.
3.9
4
Driver Controls
Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Ignition Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Lighting Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Horn Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Powertrain Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
AWD Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
Windshield Wiper Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
Brake Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12
Adjustable Steering Column Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Suspension/Trailer Connection Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Climate Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14
Seat Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
Driver Controls
Control Panels
DataStar Display Module
NOTE: Western Star vehicles are offered with
various chassis and body components. Because
of the various options, the information contained
in this chapter may not apply to every vehicle.
The DataStar display module, shown in Fig. 4.3, displays operator-selected vehicle and engine parameters for the time and distance of up to six different
trips. Four keys allow the operator to scroll through
the vehicle parameters, set the time and alarm, and
reset trip logs.
The right-hand dash control panel contains a face
vent, the majority of the driver switch controls, automated and automatic transmission controls, and the
DataStar display module, if equipped. If there is a
dash-mounted air intake restriction indicator, it is
often mounted on the right-hand panel as well.
The ignition switch control panel (below the righthand dash panel) contains the ignition switch, cigarette lighter, and climate controls.
Battery input powers the DataStar display and must
be continuously connected for the clock to maintain
the time. When the ignition is on, the DataStar is fully
functional. Turning the ignition off puts the DataStar
display into sleep mode, and the display turns off to
reduce current drain. When the ignition is turned on
again, the DataStar display will come up in the same
mode it was in when the ignition was turned off.
The lightbar and instrument gauges are located behind the steering wheel.
Ignition Switch
NOTE: Control locations may vary from those
shown depending on vehicle options.
The ignition switch has four positions: OFF, ACCESSORY, ON, and START. See Fig. 4.4.
Figure 4.1 shows typical lower dash panel controls;
figure 4.2 shows typical upper dash panel controls
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
16
17
18
19
21
06/06/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
11
12
13
Headlights
Dash Lights
Clearance Lights
Trailer Clearance Lights
Driving Lights
Backup Lights (sometimes labeled
Hook Up Lights)
7. Fog Lights
15
14
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Wipers On/Intermittent
Wipers High/Low
Windshield Washer
Interaxle Lock
Differential Lock
Lift Axle
Fifth Wheel Slide Control
Fig. 4.1, Lower Dash Control Panel
4.1
f610499
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
Suspension Height
Engine Brake
Engine Brake Speed
Engine Brake Speed
Blank
Parking Brake Control Valve
Trailer Air Supply Valve
Driver Controls
1
2
3
5
4
6
8
9
10
11
7
f610560a
10/30/2006
1. Cruise Control On/Off
2. Cruise Control Set/Decelerate
Resume/Accelerate
3. Request/Inhibit Regen
4.
5.
6.
7.
Engine Fan
Engine Diagnosis (EPA07 only)
Idle Speed
DataStar
8.
9.
10.
11.
Mirror Defog
Driver-Side Mirror Adjust
Passenger-Side Mirror Adjust
Power Window
Fig. 4.2, Upper Dash Control Panel
In the OFF position, the key slot is vertical. The key
can be inserted and removed only in the OFF position.
The following functions are operable when the ignition switch is in the OFF position (regardless of
whether the key is inserted):
SET CONTRAST: 52%
MORE
LESS
• high-beam headlights
• taillights
05/26/2009
f545540
• brake lights
• road lights
Fig. 4.3, DataStar LCD Display Module
• dome lights
• clearance lights
• turn signals
• hazard warning lights
2
• utility and baggage lights
• spotlights
• electric horn
• clock
• refrigerator
05/07/2001
1. Ignition Switch
1
f610492
• television
2. Cigarette Lighter
Fig. 4.4, Ignition Switch and Cigarette Lighter
4.2
Driver Controls
Turn the key counterclockwise to the ACCESSORY
position. In addition to all the functions that are operable with the ignition switch in the OFF position, the
following functions are operable when the switch is in
the ACCESSORY position:
6
5
5
• radio/stereo system
• heater and A/C fan
• mirror defog
• windshield wipers
• beacons
• power windows
7
4
7
3
• windshield washer
• outside air temperature display
Turn the key clockwise past the OFF position to the
ON position. With the switch in the ON position, the
warning and indicator lamps illuminate. Wait for three
seconds before starting the engine.
2
1
02/08/2005
Turn the key clockwise past the ON position to the
START position and start the engine. Do not operate
the starter longer than thirty seconds, and wait at
least two minutes between starting attempts to allow
the starter to cool. Release the key the moment the
engine starts.
Switching on the ignition and releasing the parking
brake automatically activates the daytime running
lights, if equipped. The daytime running lights will
operate until the parking brake is applied or the
headlights are turned on.
Lighting Controls
IMPORTANT: Unless otherwise noted below,
press the upper half of the switch to activate the
desired light(s). Press the lower half of the
switch to turn the light(s) off.
Exterior Light Controls
Exterior light controls are listed here in alphabetical
order. See Fig. 4.5 for exterior light locations. At the
rear of the vehicle there are taillights, brake lights
with turn signals, backup lights, and optional utility
lights.
See Fig. 4.6 for exterior and interior light switches.
4.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
f544575
Fog Light
Road Light
Dual Headlights
Turn Signal/SideMarker Lights
5. Clearance Light
6. Identification Lights
7. Clearance Light
Fig. 4.5, Exterior Lights
Backup Lights
NOTE: Depending on the mounting, backup
lights are sometimes referred to as hook-up
lights.
Backup lights activate only when the vehicle is in reverse, and are designed to be used while backing up
at night.
Clearance Lights
Press the upper half of the clearance lights switch to
activate all clearance lamps including back-of-sleeper
and mirrors.
Driving Lights
Driving lights are designed to extend the range of the
high-beam headlights, and can only be activated
when the headlight high-beams are on. When headlights are dimmed, the driving lights automatically
turn off.
Driver Controls
1
2
CL / ID
HEAD
LIGHTS
DASH
08/22/2011
Headlights Switch
Tractor Clearance Lights Switch
Driving Lights Switch
Fog Lights Switch
9
SLEEPER
LIGHTS
8
5
4
DRIVING
LIGHTS
LIGHTS
LIGHTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
3
BACKUP
LIGHTS
FOG
LIGHTS
TRAILER
CL / ID
LIGHTS
HEAD LT.
INTERRUPT
7
5. Backup Lights Switch (sometimes
labeled Hook Up Lights)
6. Headlight Interrupt Switch
6
f545815
7. Trailer Clearance Lights Switch
8. Sleeper Lights Switch
9. Dash Lights Switch
Fig. 4.6, Exterior and Interior Light Switches
Fog Lights
Headlight Interrupt
Fog lights are designed to reduce glare in foggy conditions. The headlights must be on and set on low
beam for the fog lights to activate.
When the headlight interrupt switch is activated, the
daytime running lights blink. The headlight interrupt
switch only operates when the headlights are on.
Hazard Warning Lights
Headlights
The hazard flasher switch is located underneath the
turn signal lever, as shown in Fig. 4.7. Pull the hazard light switch tab out to activate all of the turn signal lights and both of the telltales on the lightbar will
flash. To cancel the hazard lights, move the turn signal lever up or down.
The headlight switch is operated by pushing the
upper half of the switch once for the parking lights,
illuminating the taillights and side marker lamps on
both the tractor and trailer. Pressing the upper half of
the switch a second time activates the headlights. An
audible warning will sound if the lights are left on
when the ignition is turned off.
Western Star vehicles may be equipped with an optional hazard light switch located on the right-hand
dash panel. To operate the hazard lights, press the
upper half of the switch. To cancel the hazard lights,
press the lower half of the switch.
High-Beam Headlights
With the low-beam headlights on, push the button on
the end of the turn-signal lever to turn on the highbeam headlights. See Fig. 4.7. Push the button
again to turn the high-beams off.
4.4
Driver Controls
Interior Light Controls
5
6
The cab is equipped with a dome light and optional
high-intensity reading lights. The sleeper section is
equipped with accessory lights and high-intensity
reading lights. Baggage compartments may be
equipped with accessory lights.
When the panel lights are on, most switch icons are
backlit with a colored light to allow the driver to find
switches more easily in the dark. When a switch is
activated, the lightbar on the switch is backlit with a
colored light.
Dash Lights
4
3
2
05/07/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1
f610493
Tilt/Telescopic Steering Column Lever
Hazard Warning Light Tab
Turn Signal Lever
High-Beam Headlight Switch
Electric Horn
Trailer Brake Hand Control Valve Lever
Fig. 4.7, Steering Column-Mounted Controls
When the high-beam headlights are on, a blue light
illuminates on the lightbar.
Trailer Clearance Lights
The trailer clearance lights switch activates the trailer
clearance lamps independent of the tractor lamps.
Turn Signals
The turn-signal switch is typically a non-canceling
combination turn-signal, hazard, and headlightdimmer unit that mounts to a bracket on the left side
of the steering column. See Fig. 4.7.
Moving the turn signal switch down turns on the leftturn signal; moving it up turns on the right-turn signal. To manually cancel the signal, move the lever to
the neutral position.
When a turn signal is activated, a green telltale light
flashes on the lightbar.
On a self-canceling turn signal switch, the switch automatically returns to the neutral position when the
steering wheel returns to the straight ahead position
after a turn.
4.5
The dash lights switch is operated by pushing the
upper half of the switch and holding to obtain the
brightness desired. Pushing and holding the lower
half of the switch will dim the dash lights.
Overhead Console Lights
In cabs with an overhead console, there is an optional overhead light assembly containing a diffuse
dome light and clear reading lights.
Rear Dome Light
The standard rear dome light is installed on the back
of the cab above the rear window.
Horn Controls
Air Horn
The air horn is controlled by a wire lanyard hanging
from the center of the overhead console. Pull downward on the lanyard to sound the air horn.
Electric Horn
The electric horn button is located in the center of
the steering wheel. See Fig. 4.7. To sound the horn,
press down on the button. The horn will sound as
long as the button is pressed, up to 60 seconds.
Driver Controls
Powertrain Controls
Axle Switches
Aftertreatment System Regen
Switches
Axle switch controls are listed here in alphabetical
order.
NOTE: See Chapter 11 for detailed information
about the operation of the regeneration (regen)
switches and the aftertreatment system (ATS).
NOTE: See Chapter 16 for detailed information
about axle switch functions.
Differential Lock Switch
The regen request switch is used to initiate a parked
regen. See Fig. 4.8.
Some vehicles may be equipped with an optional
regen request/inhibit switch; see Fig. 4.9. To request
a parked regen, press the upper half of the switch.
To stop a regen in progress or prevent the start of a
regen, press the lower half of the switch. Regen will
not occur until the switch is no longer active.
07/22/2011
f545803
Fig. 4.10, Forward Drive Axle Differential Lock Switch
08/02/2011
f610852a
Fig. 4.8, Regen Request Switch
07/22/2011
f545804
Fig. 4.11, Rear Drive Axle Differential Lock Switch
11/01/2006
Fig. 4.9, Regen Request/Inhibit Switch
f610852
The differential lock switch, as shown in Fig. 4.10 or
Fig. 4.11, provides maximum traction for slippery
conditions by forcing the wheels on each drive axle
governed by the switch to rotate together. Engagement can be at any speed, provided the wheels are
not slipping or spinning.
4.6
Driver Controls
Interaxle Lock Switch
The interaxle lock switch allows the driver to lock the
drive axles together, causing the drive axle shafts to
rotate together. See Fig. 4.12. Use this feature only
under adverse road conditions where greater traction
is needed.
LIFT
AXLE
08/22/2011
f545817
Fig. 4.13, Lift Axle Switch
Cruise Control Switches
NOTE: See Chapter 10 for detailed information
about cruise control operation.
07/22/2011
f545802
Fig. 4.12, Interaxle Lock Switch
On/Off Switch
Press the upper half of the cruise control on/off
switch to activate it. See Fig. 4.14.
Leave the control in the UNLOCK position for normal
highway operation. When a spinning or slipping action occurs at any of the drive wheels, press the
upper half of the switch to LOCK the differential and
prevent the wheels from spinning.
NOTICE
CRUISE
CONTROL
Do not shift into LOCK while the rear wheels are
spinning. Come to a halt before engaging to prevent damage to the interaxle and main differentials.
Do not permit rear wheels to spin freely for more
than ten seconds when traction is lost. Shift into
LOCK to prevent damage to the interaxle and
main differentials.
Lift Axle Switch
The lift axle switch controls the lift axle operation.
See Fig. 4.13. Pushing the upper half of the switch
will lower the lift axle.
4.7
SET/DECEL
RES/ACCEL
07/15/2011
f545790
1. Cruise Control On/Off Switch
2. Cruise Control Set/Resume Switch
Fig. 4.14, Cruise Control Switches
NOTE: Cruise control is canceled if the brake or
clutch pedal is depressed, or engine speed
drops below 1200 rpm.
Driver Controls
Set/Decelerate/Resume/Accelerate Switch
The set/decelerate/resume/accelerate switch can
only be used when cruise control has been activated.
See Fig. 4.14.
M
Press the upper half of the switch momentarily to set
the cruise speed (with the engine running at the desired speed). Press and hold the upper half of the
switch to decelerate slowly. Release the switch when
the desired speed is reached.
Press the lower half of the switch momentarily to resume the previously set cruise speed. Press the
lower half of the switch and hold to accelerate slowly.
Release the switch when the desired speed is
achieved.
NOTICE
When the cruise control is engaged, do not attempt to shift gears without using the clutch
pedal. Failure to follow this precaution will result
in a temporarily uncontrolled increase in engine
speed. Transmission damage and gear stripping
could result.
Engine Brake Switches
HIGH
MED
LOW
ENGINE
BRAKE
07/15/2011
f545791
1. Engine Brake On/Off
2. Engine Brake Intensity Switch
Fig. 4.15, Engine Brake Switches
Engine Diagnostic Switch (EPA07
vehicles)
The engine diagnostic switch is used to signal the
engine ECM to flash codes on the indicator light.
Press the upper half of the switch once to activate it.
See Fig. 4.16.
NOTE: See Chapter 10 for detailed information
about engine brake operation.
Whenever vehicle braking is required on good road
conditions, the engine brake may be used in conjunction with the service brakes. There is no time
limit for operation of the engine brake. However, an
engine brake does not provide the precise control of,
and is not a substitute for, service brakes.
ENGINE
DIAGN
Two dash-mounted switches control the engine
brake:
• The ENGINE BRAKE switch is used to turn the
engine brake on and off. See Fig. 4.15.
• The HIGH/MED/LOW engine brake intensity
switch (HIGH/LOW in some cases) controls the
amount of engine braking. When the engine
brake is on, the status bar illuminates, indicating the current intensity setting.
08/22/2011
f545819
Fig. 4.16, Engine Diagnostic Switch
Engine Fan Switch
Press the upper half of the engine fan switch to override the automatic fan control and cause the engine
fan to run continuously. See Fig. 4.17. This switch is
intended for temporary use, or if the automatic fan
control fails. Press the lower half of the switch to return to automatic fan control.
4.8
Driver Controls
ENGINE
FAN
08/22/2011
ENGINE
BRAKE
f545818
07/18/2011
Fig. 4.17, Engine Fan Switch
f545792
Fig. 4.18, Exhaust Brake Switch
Exhaust Brake Switch
NOTE: See Chapter 10 for detailed information
about exhaust brake operation.
An exhaust brake is an optional auxiliary braking system that assists but does not replace the service
brake system on vehicles with Cummins engines.
The exhaust brake may be used in conjunction with
the service brakes in off-highway and mountain driving as well as in traffic or high-speed highway driving. Exhaust brakes are not intended for use as the
primary braking system during vehicle operation.
To turn the exhaust brake on, press the upper half of
the rocker switch. See Fig. 4.18.
The exhaust brake turns itself off automatically. In
addition, depressing the accelerator or clutch pedal
deactivates the exhaust brake. The ABS, when active, also deactivates the exhaust brake.
IDLE
SPEED
08/22/2011
f545820
Fig. 4.19, Idle Speed Switch (Cummins engines)
2.
The idle speed switch may be installed on vehicles
with Cummins engines to change the idle speed of
the engine. See Fig. 4.19.
Press the PTO switch. See Fig. 4.20. When the
light is steadily illuminated, the PTO is engaged
and ready to operate. In stationary mode, the
vehicle must remain in neutral with the parking
brake set.
3.
To activate the mobile mode, shift from neutral to
reverse, 1st, or 2nd gear. The clutch will open
and the PTO will disengage for a moment.
Power Takeoff Controls
4.
Touch the accelerator pedal to close the clutch
and engage the PTO in mobile mode. The PTO
may be operated with the transmission in reverse, neutral, 1st, or 2nd gear only.
Idle Speed Switch
Engine power takeoffs (PTO) are devices used to tap
into engine power to run auxiliary devices, such as
hydraulic pumps that power additional equipment.
The following instructions are general guidelines for
operating a PTO.
1.
4.9
Set the parking brake and put the transmission in
neutral.
NOTE: Do not attempt to change gears while
the vehicle is moving. The transmission will ignore the request.
Driver Controls
Eaton Fuller automated transmissions use a shift selection module. See Fig. 4.21. Shifts can be made
automatically, or manually using the shift selection
module.
ON
3
PTO
PTO
OFF
08/22/2011
f545816
2
SERVICE
1
SHIFT
Fig. 4.20, PTO Switch
5.
To end the mobile mode, bring the vehicle to a
stop. The clutch will open and shut down power
to the PTO.
6.
To resume stationary mode, shift to neutral. The
PTO will engage.
7.
To end stationary mode, press the dash switch.
When the light in the switch goes out, power to
the PTO is shut off.
Transmission Controls
Manual Transmissions
NOTE: See Chapter 14 for complete manual
transmission operating instructions.
if equipped, the transmission range control and splitter valves are attached to the gear shift knob.
To operate a range-shift transmission, move the shift
knob through all the low-range gear positions and
then pull the range-preselection lever up to move into
the high-range ratios. Use the same shift knob positions in both the low and high ranges.
Dependent on the transmission model, some ratios
can be split using the splitter-control button (located
on the side of the shift knob).
Eaton Automated Transmissions
NOTE: See Chapter 15 for complete automated
transmission operating instructions.
R
4
N
5
D
6
MANUAL
7
LOW
8
EATON FULLER
TRANSMISSIONS
07/20/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
f611129
Upshift/Downshift Buttons
Service Needed Indicator
PTO Activation Button
Reverse Mode Button
Neutral Button
Drive Mode Button
Manual Mode Selector
Low Mode Button
Fig. 4.21, Shift Selection Module, UltraShift and
AutoShift Transmissions
The current gear is displayed on the gear indicator.
At the start of a shift, the current gear continues to
display until the transmission has been pulled into
neutral. As the transmission is synchronizing for the
new (target) gear, the gear indicator flashes the number of the target gear. When the shift is complete,
the gear indicator displays the new gear, without
flashing.
Allison Automatic Transmissions
NOTE: See Chapter 15 for complete automatic
transmission operating instructions.
HD-series automatic transmissions have six forward
speeds and one reverse speed. These transmissions
4.10
Driver Controls
have electronic shift controls that can be programmed to allow the use of different numbers of
geared speeds. See Fig. 4.22.
To engage the steer axle, press the upper half of the
rocker switch. To disengage it, press the lower half of
the switch.
Transfer Case Range Switch
CAUTION
Before selecting the neutral (N-TRL) position,
stop the vehicle and set the parking brake to prevent the vehicle from rolling and causing damage
and/or personal injury.
1
2
NOTICE
To prevent damage to the transfer case and the
driveline, stop the vehicle and put the transmission in neutral before using the range switch.
IMPORTANT: Use this switch only when the
steer axle has been engaged.
f600369a
10/31/94
1. Indicator Panel
2. MODE ID Lamp
Fig. 4.22, Allison Shift Selector
AWD Controls
The AWD switch allows the driver to direct power to
the steer axle. For more information about transfer
cases and driven steer axles, see Chapter 16.
There are two transfer case range switches: a twoposition rocker switch with LO and HIGH RANGE,
and a three-position switch that has a neutral (NTRL) position in the middle for vehicles with a power
take-off (PTO) unit. See Fig. 4.24.
For operating guidelines for Meritor MTC transfer
cases, see Chapter 16.
1
AWD Operation Switch
LO
RANGE
The AWD operation switch (LOCKED AWD) is a twoposition rocker switch. See Fig. 4.23.
HIGH
RANGE
2
LO
N−TRL
HIGH
RANGE
01/06/2015
LOCKED
f610808
1. Two-Position Switch
2. Three-Position Switch
AWD
Fig. 4.24, Transfer Case Range Switches
08/10/2006
f610807
Fig. 4.23, AWD Operation Switch
4.11
Windshield Wiper Controls
The windshield wipers are operated by two rocker
switches located on the lower right-hand dash control
panel. See Fig. 4.25. The 3-position ON–WIPER–
INT DELAY switch turns the wipers on and off, and
Driver Controls
controls intermittent wiper operation. The HIGH/LOW
switch controls constant speed wiper operation.
hand dash control panel. See Fig. 4.25. Press and
hold the upper half of the washer switch to spray the
windshield. Release the switch when enough washer
fluid has been sprayed on the windshield.
Brake Controls
NOTE: See Chapter 12 for detailed information
about brake systems.
ON
−WIPER−
INT DELAY
HIGH
WASHER
LOW
08/23/2011
Parking Brake Control Valve
The parking brake control valve applies both the tractor and trailer spring parking brakes. See Fig. 4.26,
Item 2. Pushing the knob in releases the spring parking brakes.
f545824
Fig. 4.25, Windshield Wiper Switches
To turn the windshield wipers on at a constant speed,
press the upper half of the ON–WIPER–INT DELAY
switch. Press the upper half of the HIGH/LOW switch
to select high speed; press the lower of the HIGH/
LOW switch to select low speed.
If the trailer is not equipped with spring parking
brakes, pulling out the parking brake valve applies
the tractor parking brakes and the trailer service
brakes.
1
2
To turn the windshield wipers off, move the ON–
WIPER–INT DELAY switch to the middle (WIPER)
position.
To turn the windshield wipers on intermittently, press
the lower half of the ON–WIPER–INT DELAY switch.
The default intermittent interval is six seconds.
The interval can be changed by turning the wipers off
for a specific period of time, then pressing the lower
half of the ON-WIPER-INT DELAY switch again to
activate the desired interval. See Table 4.1 for
settings.
Setting Intermittent Wiper Operation
Switch Off Interval
Wiper Interval
Less than 1 second
1 second
Interval set to the period switch
1 to 25 seconds
is in the Off position (1 to 25
seconds)
25 to 50 seconds
25 seconds
More than 50 seconds
6 seconds
Table 4.1, Setting Intermittent Wiper Operation
The windshield washers are operated by a rocker
switch labeled WASHER, located on the lower right-
f610291
03/10/99
1. Trailer Air Supply Valve (red knob)
2. Parking Brake Control Valve (yellow knob)
Fig. 4.26, Brake Valve Knobs
Trailer Air Supply Valve
The trailer air supply valve charges the trailer air
supply system and releases the trailer spring parking
brakes. See Fig. 4.26, Item 1.
Pull the trailer air supply valve out before disconnecting a trailer or when operating a vehicle without a
trailer.
Trailer Brake Lever
The trailer brake lever, located on the right-hand side
of the steering column is used for applying the trailer
service brakes without applying the truck or tractor
service brakes. See Fig. 4.7, Item 6. The valve can
be partially or fully applied, but in any partially-on
4.12
Driver Controls
position it will be overridden by a full application of
the service brake pedal. Moving the lever down applies the trailer brakes, while moving it up releases
the trailer brakes. The lever will automatically return
to the up position when it is released.
Antilock Braking System
The Meritor WABCO® Antilock Braking System
(ABS) controls wheel speed during emergency stops
or wheel lock situations.
During emergency or reduced-traction stops, fully
depress the brake pedal until the vehicle comes to a
safe stop. Do not pump the brake pedal. With the
brake pedal fully depressed, the ABS will control all
wheels to provide steering control and a reduced
braking distance.
Vehicles with ABS may have Automatic Traction Control (ATC). The ATC system automatically limits
wheel spin during reduced-traction situations. If the
vehicle has ATC, there will be an ATC switch located
on the right-hand control panel. See Fig. 4.27.
Pressing the switch will temporarily allow more drive
wheel spin. Pressing the switch again will cause the
system to go back to normal operation.
an extended period of time may damage the vehicle brake system.
Adjustable Steering Column
Controls
Adjust the seat to the desired ride position, then tilt
or telescope the steering column as needed using
the steering column lever in Fig. 4.7.
To tilt the steering column, pull the lever up toward
the driver. Tilt the wheel to the desired position and
release the lever.
To telescope the steering column, push the lever
down (away from the driver) and pull or push the
steering wheel to the desired position. Release the
lever to lock the steering column in place.
WARNING
Make sure that the control lever is back in the
neutral position and the steering column is
locked before driving the vehicle. Never tilt the
column while driving the vehicle. Doing so could
cause loss of vehicle control, personal injury,
and property damage.
Suspension/Trailer Connection
Controls
Air-Suspension Dump Control Switch
NOTICE
Do not operate the vehicle over uneven ground
such as ramps, speed bumps, curbs, etc., with
the air springs deflated. Doing this may lead to
air bag separation from the piston, preventing the
suspension air springs from inflating.
05/15/2001
f610494
Fig. 4.27, ATC Switch
NOTICE
The ATC option is intended to be used under
specific slippery conditions that require momentary increased wheel spin. Using this option for
4.13
The suspension dump switch allows the air in the air
suspension to be quickly exhausted, lowering the
rear of the vehicle. Fig. 4.28. This makes it easier to
connect to, or disconnect from, a trailer.
Driver Controls
07/22/2011
f545805
Fig. 4.28, Air-Suspension Dump Switch
NOTICE
Never exhaust air from the suspension while
driving. When the air is exhausted, the suspension will not absorb road shocks and components may be damaged.
To lower the rear of the vehicle, press the upper half
of the rocker momentarily. To raise the suspension to
its normal height, press the lower half of the switch.
Fifth Wheel Slide Control Switch
NOTICE
07/22/2011
f545806
Fig. 4.29, Fifth Wheel Slide Control Switch
Climate Controls
NOTE: See Chapter 5 for detailed climate control panel operating instructions.
The climate control panel allows you to control the
heating, ventilating, defrosting, and air conditioning
functions. Western Star vehicles have several heater
and air conditioner options.
Options for the cab include:
• heater only
• heater and air conditioner
• heater and air conditioner with automatic tem-
perature control (ATC)
Do not activate the fifth wheel slide control valve
while the vehicle is in motion. To do so could
cause damage to the fifth wheel member, the
kingpin, the cab or trailer, and ultimately to the
drivetrain.
The fifth wheel air slide switch permits repositioning
of the sliding fifth wheel from inside the cab. See
Fig. 4.29. Moving the air slide control valve switch to
the lock position deactivates the control valve and
locks the fifth wheel to the baseplate. Moving the
switch to the unlock position activates the control
valve and unlocks the fifth wheel slide mechanism,
allowing changes to the total length of the tractortrailer and changes to axle loads to comply with varying jurisdictional laws. For detailed operating instructions for fifth wheel slide, coupling, and uncoupling
procedures, refer to Chapter 17.
Options for a sleeper unit include:
• no heater or air conditioner
• heater only
• heater and air conditioner
• heater and air conditioner with ATC
The ATC feature automatically controls the heating
and cooling system to maintain the cab and sleeper
air temperature close to the temperature set by the
user. The ATC adjusts the air temperature blown
through the air outlets to maintain the selected temperature.
4.14
Driver Controls
Seat Controls
NOTE: See Chapter 6 for detailed information
about seat controls and adjustments.
WARNING
Keep hands, tools, and other objects away from
the scissor points under the seats. Failure to do
so could cause personal injury.
The following is a description of adjustments that can
be made to various Western Star seats. Not all seats
have all of the adjustments listed below. See
Fig. 4.30.
• Backrest Tilt: This adjustment enables the
backrest to pivot forward or backward.
• Lumbar Support: Lumbar support changes
the shape of the backrest to give more or less
support to the occupant’s lumbar (lower back)
area. This adjustment is either mechanical or
air controlled, depending on make and model
of the seat.
• Isolator: This feature reduces the amount of
road shock by isolating the occupant from the
motion of the vehicle, and allowing the upper
seat to move in a simple pendulum motion. A
lockout feature is used whenever the isolator is
not desired.
• Height Adjustment: This adjustment moves
the entire seat up or down. The adjustment is
either manually- or air-controlled, depending on
the make of the seat.
• Bottom Cushion Angle (fore-and-aft bottom
cushion height): This adjustment enables the
occupant to raise or lower the front or back of
the bottom cushion. This adjustment is easier
to perform when all weight is removed from the
seat.
• Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide (seat track adjust-
ment): This adjustment moves the entire seat
forward or backward on its track.
• Seat Tilt: This adjustment allows the seat as-
sembly (back and bottom cushions) to tilt forward or backward.
• Headrest Adjustment: This adjustment
changes the angle of the upper part of the
4.15
backrest to provide head and upper back
support.
Driver Controls
1
3
4
2
8
5
6
7
f910149a
10/26/2000
1.
2.
3.
4.
Backrest Tilt
Lumbar Support
Isolator
Height Adjustment
5. Bottom Cushion Angle (fore-andaft cushion height)
6. Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide (seat
track adjustment)
7. Seat Tilt
8. Headrest Adjustment
Fig. 4.30, General Seat Adjustments
4.16
5
Climate Controls
Climate Control Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Cab Climate Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Sleeper Climate Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
Climate Controls
Climate Control Options
The climate control panel allows you to control the
heating, ventilating, defrosting, and air conditioning
functions. Western Star vehicles have several heater
and air conditioner options.
On vehicles equipped with ATC, the AUTO setting on
the fan switch places the heater and air conditioner
system in the automatic fan speed control mode.
When the fan switch is set to AUTO, the fan speed
will vary as necessary to maintain the temperature
set by the user.
Options for the cab include:
Temperature Control Switch
• heater only
• heater and air conditioner
• heater and air conditioner with automatic tem-
perature control (ATC)
Options for a sleeper unit include:
• no heater or air conditioner
• heater only
• heater and air conditioner
• heater and air conditioner with ATC
The ATC feature automatically controls the heating
and cooling system to maintain the cab and sleeper
air temperature close to the temperature set by the
user. The ATC adjusts the air temperature blown
through the air outlets to maintain the selected temperature.
Cab Climate Control Panels
The standard cab climate control panel has a fan
switch, a temperature control switch, and a mode
control switch that allows the driver to control heating, cooling, defrosting, and ventilating. The control
panel may also be equipped with an optional A/C
switch and/or an optional BUNK switch. See Fig. 5.1.
Vehicles equipped with ATC have an LED display.
See Fig. 5.2.
Controls
Fan Switch
The fan switch activates the fan, which forces fresh
air or recirculated air through the air outlets. The fan
switch has four fan speed settings and an off position. See Fig. 5.1.
To operate the fan switch, turn the fan switch clockwise to increase airflow; turn the fan switch counterclockwise to decrease airflow.
5.1
To select the desired temperature:
• Vehicles Without ATC: Turn the switch to the
left (counterclockwise) for cool air, or to the
right (clockwise) for hot air.
• Vehicles With ATC: Press and release the right
side of the temperature up/down switch to increase the temperature to the desired setting.
Press and release the left side of the temperature up/down switch to decrease the temperature to the desired setting. Press and hold the
temperature up/down switch to change the desired temperature in large increments.
Mode Control Switch
The mode control switch allows the driver to control
the flow of air through the face outlets, the floor outlets, the defrost (windshield) outlets, or a combination
of these outlets to provide six air selection modes.
See Fig. 5.3.
• Face Mode (using recirculating air): Directs all
airflow through the face or instrument panel
outlets, using recirculated air.
• Face Mode (using fresh air): Directs all airflow
through the face or instrument panel outlets,
using fresh air.
• Bi-Level Mode: Directs the airflow equally to
the face outlets and the floor outlets.
• Floor Mode: Directs all airflow through the floor
outlets.
• Floor/Defrost Mode: Directs the airflow equally
to the floor outlets and the defrost outlets.
• Defrost Mode: Directs all airflow through the
defrost outlets.
NOTE: The face mode using recirculating air is
the only mode that recirculates the air in the
cab. All other modes draw in fresh air from outside the vehicle.
Climate Controls
2
3
4
1
BUNK
02/10/2003
1. Fan Off Position
2. Fan Switch
3. Temperature Control Switch
A/C
7
6
4. Mode Control Switch
5. Air Conditioner Switch
f610640
5
6. Bunk Switch
7. Indicator
Fig. 5.1, Cab Climate Control Panel, No ATC
2
Automatic Temperature Control
3
1
6
4
5
f610628
12/13/2002
1. Fan Off Position
2. LED Display
3. Mode Control Switch
4. Bunk Switch (optional)
5. Temperature Up/Down Switch
6. Fan Switch
Fig. 5.2, Cab Climate Control Panel With ATC
Bunk Switch
The optional BUNK switch allows the driver to control
the sleeper heater and air conditioner from the cab.
Press the BUNK switch to turn the sleeper heater
and air conditioner on. When the bunk switch is on,
the indicator light is on. The sleeper heater and air
conditioner can still be controlled from the sleeper
when the BUNK switch is on.
Air Conditioner (A/C) Switch
The air conditioner cools and dehumidifies the air
inside the cab. Press the optional A/C switch to turn
5.2
Climate Controls
3
4
ing the right side of the temperature up/down switch
for five seconds. The current error status will be
shown on the LED display. Press the right side of the
temperature up/down switch again repeatedly to
scroll the display through any existing error codes. If
an error code is displayed, contact your Western Star
dealer for service.
5
2
6
1
Modes
Recirculation Mode
02/06/2003
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Fig. 5.3, Mode Control Switch Settings
the air conditioner on or off. When the air conditioner
is on, the A/C switch illuminates.
IMPORTANT: Operate the air conditioner at
least five minutes each month, even during cool
weather. This helps prevent drying and cracking
of the refrigerant compressor seals and reduces
the chance of refrigerant leaks in the system.
LED Display, Vehicles With ATC Only
The LED display shows the temperature to which the
heater or air conditioner has been set in degrees
Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius.
Changing Temperature Units
The temperature units can be changed from Fahrenheit (°F) to Celsius (°C) or from Celsius to Fahrenheit
by turning the ignition on, turning the fan switch off,
and pressing and holding the left side of the temperature up/down switch for five seconds. The current temperature unit will then be shown on the LED
display. Press the left side of the temperature up/
down switch again to toggle between °F and °C.
Changing the temperature units on the cab climate
control panel will also effect the sleeper climate control panel.
Error Codes
Error codes can be displayed by turning the ignition
on, turning the fan switch off, and pressing and hold-
5.3
WARNING
f610641
Face Mode (recirculating air)
Face Mode (fresh air)
Bi-Level Mode
Floor Mode
Floor and Defrost Mode
Defrost Mode
Do not use the recirculation mode when the
heater is on and the vehicle is in motion. Driving
with the recirculation mode on while the heater is
on may cause the windows to be obscured by
moisture or ice, which could result in an accident
possibly causing personal injury or property
damage.
Do not use the recirculation mode for more than
20 minutes at a time because the air inside the
cab may become stuffy and the windows may
become obscured by moisture, which could result in an accident possibly causing personal injury or property damage.
When the mode control switch (see Fig. 5.3) is
turned to the face mode using recirculating air, the
air in the cab is recirculated through the heater and
air conditioner system. This is the only mode that
uses recirculated air. Fresh air, or outside air, is circulated through the heating and air conditioning system when any other mode is selected.
The recirculation mode can be used to prevent dusty
or smoky air from entering the cab, or to decrease
the time required to cool or heat the cab interior during extreme outside temperature conditions. When
the outside air is clear or the desired cab temperature is reached, change the mode control switch to a
fresh-air mode. The recirculation mode can be used
when the air conditioner is on whether the vehicle is
moving or not.
Defrost Mode
The defrost mode is used to deice, defrost, or defog
the windows.
NOTE: When the defrost mode is on, the air
conditioner is on. The air conditioner is used to
Climate Controls
dehumidify the air entering the cab and to remove the moisture from the windshield.
Temperature Control Switch
Sleeper Climate Control Panels
The standard sleeper climate control panel has a fan
switch, a temperature control switch, and a power
switch that allow you to control the heating and air
conditioning functions in the sleeper. A vehicle with
an air conditioner has an air conditioner switch on
the control panel. See Fig. 5.4.
Vehicles with ATC have button controls instead of
switch controls. See Fig. 5.5.
To select the desired temperature, turn the switch to
the left (counterclockwise) for cool air, or to the right
(clockwise) for hot air.
Air Conditioner (A/C) Switch
The air conditioner cools and dehumidifies the air
inside the sleeper. Press the optional A/C switch to
turn the air conditioner on or off.
Controls, Vehicles With ATC
Controls, Vehicles Without ATC
The controls for the sleeper heater and air conditioner are located on the right side of the ATC
sleeper control panel. See Fig. 5.5.
Power Switch and Indicator
Power Switch and Indicator
The power switch is used to turn the sleeper heater
and air conditioner on and off. When the heater or air
conditioner is on, the indicator illuminates.
Fan Switch
The fan switch controls the fan speed and forces air
through the air outlets. The fan switch has three
speed settings and an off position. See Fig. 5.4.
To operate the fan switch, turn the switch clockwise
to increase airflow; turn the fan switch counterclockwise to decrease airflow.
1
02/11/2003
1. Fan Switch
2. Power Switch
Turn the sleeper heater and air conditioner on by
pressing the ON button. The current set temperature
is displayed for five seconds, after which it returns to
the time display. When the heater or air conditioner
is on, the indicator illuminates. To turn the sleeper
heater and air conditioner off, press the OFF button.
Fan Switch
To operate the fan switch, press the fan up or fan
down button repeatedly to incrementally increase or
decrease the fan speed. Press either button for at
3
2
5
4
3. Indicator
4. Temperature Control Switch
f610642
5. Air Conditioner Switch
Fig. 5.4, Sleeper Climate Control Panel, No ATC
5.4
Climate Controls
2
3
4
5
6
ON
PM
ALARM
TIME
OFF
SET +
AUTO
1
7
DISP
SET −
Automatic Temperature Control
01/14/2003
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
10
Alarm Button
Time Button
Fan Up Button
Heater and Air Conditioner On Button
Heater and Air Conditioner Off Button
9
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
8
f610629
Temperature Up Button
Temperature Down Button
Automatic Fan Button
Fan Down Button
Display Button
Fig. 5.5, Sleeper Climate Control Panel With ATC
least two seconds to continuously increase or decrease the fan speed. The fan speed setting is displayed on the sleeper control panel in 10 percent
increments. When the highest or lowest fan speed is
selected, HI or LO is displayed. The display returns
to the time display five seconds after a fan up/down
button is pressed and released.
In the ATC mode, fan speed is determined by the
system as required. The fan speed is based on the
difference between the set point temperature and the
actual sleeper cab temperature. The greater the difference, the greater the fan speed. The AUTO fan
function is disabled when either the fan up or fan
down button is pressed.
Temperature Control Switch
Temperature is displayed with a three-digit annotation
and can be displayed either in degrees Celsius or
degrees Fahrenheit. A capital "C" or "F" is displayed
for the appropriate temperature scale.
To select the desired temperature, press the temperature up or temperature down button repeatedly
to incrementally increase or decrease the set temperature. Press either button for at least two seconds
to continuously increase or decrease the set tem-
5.5
perature. The temperature setting is displayed on the
sleeper control panel. The display returns to the time
display five seconds after a temperature up/down
button is pressed and released.
The temperature units can be changed from °F to °C
or from °C to °F by pressing the temperature up and
temperature down buttons simultaneously. Changing
the temperature units on the ATC sleeper control
panel will also change the temperature units on the
ATC cab control panel.
Auto Button
Press the AUTO button to enable automatic control
of the fan speed. The display will show the current
set temperature for five seconds, then return to the
time display. When in the automatic mode, the fan
speed can vary to maintain the temperature set by
the user. When automatic control is turned on, the
indicator above the AUTO button illuminates.
Alarm Button
Momentarily press the ALARM button to turn the
alarm on and to illuminate the alarm indicator above
the ALARM button. Momentarily press the button
again to deactivate the alarm.
Climate Controls
When pressing the ALARM button, the display shows
the alarm time setting for five seconds before returning to the current time display. If the ALARM button
is pressed and held down continuously for more than
one second, the alarm time setting can be viewed
without changing the state of the alarm indicator. If
either the SET+ or SET– buttons are pressed simultaneously with the ALARM button held down, the
alarm time setting will increase or decrease. When
the ALARM button is released after changing the
alarm time, the alarm will be turned on and the indicator will be illuminated. When the ALARM is sounding, press the ALARM button to turn the alarm off
and to reset the alarm for the next 24-hour cycle.
To set the snooze function, press any button on the
control panel, except the ALARM button, when the
alarm is sounding. The alarm will sound again after
seven minutes. The alarm indicator flashes when the
snooze function is set.
be off. All clock functions, including the alarm, will
continue to work internally.
Temperature Slave Mode Feature
The temperature slave mode allows the set temperature of the cab heater and air conditioner to be automatically tied to the sleeper heater and air conditioner. In this mode, the set temperature in the
vehicle will be the same whether the set temperature
is changed on the cab climate control panel or the
sleeper climate control panel. To enable the temperature slave mode, press the SET+ and SET– buttons
simultaneously. The display will read S–ON when the
temperature slave mode is enabled.
Time Button
To disable the temperature slave mode, press the
SET+ and SET– buttons simultaneously. The display
will read S–OFF indicating that the temperature slave
mode is disabled. When disabled, the temperatures
for the cab and sleeper can be changed independently for separate temperature control. If you wish
to maintain a temperature in the sleeper that is different than the temperature in the front of the cab, it is
recommended that a curtain be used between the
sleeper and the front of the cab.
The clock controls are located on the left side of the
ATC sleeper control panel under the display. The display will show the clock time as the default mode.
Turning on the Sleeper Air Conditioner
When the Cab Air Conditioner is Off
Press the TIME button to display the current time. If
the TIME button is held down and either the SET+ or
SET– buttons are pressed simultaneously with the
TIME button, the clock setting will increase or decrease.
The sleeper ATC control panel can turn on the air
conditioner even if the cab HVAC unit is turned off
but the engine is running. By pressing the ON button,
the ATC sleeper control panel will turn on the cab
unit and the bunk indicator light on the cab control
panel will be illuminated. If cooling is needed in the
sleeper, the cab HVAC unit will switch on to a low
blower fan setting and the A/C compressor clutch will
engage. If cooling is no longer required in the
sleeper or if heat is needed, the cab unit fan and the
compressor clutch will be turned off after a fiveminute delay.
To cancel the snooze function, press the ALARM button. This will also reset the alarm for the next 24hour cycle.
Display Button
Press the DISP button to allow the display and illumination of the control panel to scroll through three illumination levels: bright, dim, and off. If you want the
alarm, time, or temperature setting to be displayed
when the display is in the off mode, press the
ALARM, TIME, or temperature up/down buttons to
display the corresponding display for five seconds.
After five seconds, the display will turn off. If the
alarm sounds while in the display off mode, the current time will be displayed simultaneously. The display will remain on for five minutes, then turn off.
When the vehicle ignition is not powered, the sleeper
climate control panel is in a power-saving mode and
the display and illumination of the control panel will
Accessory Heaters
Optional accessary heaters are available from the
factory in several configurations. Familiarize yourself
with the equipment on your specific vehicle, and follow the manufacturer’s operating and maintenance
instructions.
5.6
Climate Controls
WARNING
Do not operate fuel-operated heaters in an area
where flammable vapors, including gasoline or
diesel fumes, are present, such as at filling stations and tank farms. Turn off a fuel-operated
heater and allow it shut down completely before
entering an area where flammable gases or liquids are present. Heaters continue to operate for
up to three minutes after being turned off.
Failure to observe these precautions could cause
an explosion or fire, resulting in serious property
damage, and personal injury or death.
5.7
6
Seats and Restraints
Seats, General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Western Star High-Back Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bostrom Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABTS Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seat Belts and Tether Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sleeper Compartment Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.4
6.5
6.9
Seats and Restraints
• Lumbar Support changes the shape of the
Seats, General Information
backrest to give more or less support to the
occupant’s lumbar (lower back) area. This adjustment is either mechanical or air controlled,
depending on the seat model.
Unless otherwise noted, all seat adjustments should
be made while seated and before the engine is
started.
• Isolator feature reduces the amount of road
Due to the high degree of adjustability of mid- and
high-back air suspension seats, it is possible to combine the seat back recline adjustment and the seat
slide adjustment so that the seat back contacts the
back wall. Use care when adjusting the seat to prevent damage to the seat and the cab interior.
shock by isolating the occupant from the motion of the vehicle, and allowing the upper seat
to move in a simple pendulum motion. A lockout feature is used whenever the isolator is not
desired.
• Height Adjustment moves the entire seat up or
WARNING
down. The adjustment is either manually- or
air-controlled, depending on the seat model.
Keep hands, tools, and other objects away from
the scissor points under the seats. Failure to do
so could cause personal injury.
• Bottom Cushion Angle (fore-and-aft bottom
cushion height) enables the occupant to raise
or lower the front or back of the bottom cushion. This adjustment is easier to perform when
all weight is removed from the seat.
The following is a description of adjustments that can
be made to various Western Star seats. Not all seats
have all of the adjustments listed below. See
Fig. 6.1.
• Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide (seat track adjustment)
moves the entire seat forward or backward on
its track.
• Backrest Tilt enables the backrest to pivot for-
ward or backward.
1
3
4
2
8
5
6
7
f910149a
10/26/2000
1.
2.
3.
4.
Backrest Tilt
Lumbar Support
Isolator
Height Adjustment
5. Bottom Cushion Angle (fore-andaft cushion height)
6. Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide (seat
track adjustment)
Fig. 6.1, General Seat Adjustments
6.1
7. Seat Tilt
8. Headrest Adjustment
Seats and Restraints
• Seat Tilt allows the seat assembly (back and
Backrest Tilt
bottom cushions) to tilt forward or backward.
To tilt the backrest, lean forward slightly to remove
pressure from the cushion, then turn the knob forward or rearward to achieve the desired position.
• Headrest Adjustment changes the angle of the
upper part of the backrest to provide head and
upper back support.
Lumbar Support
Western Star High-Back Seat
To adjust the lumbar support, use the lumbar support
switches on the side of the seat.
See Fig. 6.2 for seat adjustment controls. Not all
models of the seat have all the adjustments listed
below.
1
6
4
2
10
9
3
5
8
7
07/18/2007
f910576
NOTE: Not all models of the seat have all the adjustment controls shown.
1. Rear Cushion Height Adjustment
Knob
2. Fore/Aft Isolator
3. Front Cushion Height Adjustment
Knob
4.
5.
6.
7.
Bottom Cushion Extension Handle
Fore/Aft Seat Slide Lever
Backrest Tilt Knob
Heater Button
8. Shock Absorber Lever
9. Height Adjustment Switch
10 Lumbar Support Switches
Fig. 6.2, Western Star High-Back Seat
6.2
Seats and Restraints
Height Adjustment
To raise or lower the height of the seat, use the
height adjustment switch on the side of the seat.
Bottom Cushion Extension
To adjust the fore-and-aft position of the seat cushion, remove your weight from the seat, then lift up
and pull forward on the cushion adjustment handle.
To return the cushion to the aft position, lift up and
push rearward.
ate with the key in accessory mode. Optimized Idle
may also turn seat heating off to reduce stress on
the batteries.
Bostrom Seat
See Fig. 6.3 for Bostrom seat adjustment controls.
Fore/Aft Seat Slide
To adjust the fore-and-aft position of the entire seat,
move the fore-and-aft seat adjustment lever to the
left and slide the seat forward or backward to the
desired position. Move the lever back to its original
position to lock the seat in place.
1
6
Fore/Aft Isolator
To engage the isolator, turn the isolator knob rearward to the unlocked position. Turn the isolator knob
forward to the locked position when the isolator feature is not desired.
Shock Absorber
To adjust the amount of damping the shock absorber
provides, move the lever up to increase damping;
move the lever down to decrease damping.
Front Cushion Height
To adjust the height of the front of the cushion, remove your weight from the seat, then turn the adjustment knob toward the front of the seat (clockwise) to
increase cushion height. To lower the cushion height,
turn the adjustment knob toward the rear of the seat
(counterclockwise).
Rear Cushion Height
To adjust the height of the rear of the seat cushion,
remove your weight from the seat and turn the rear
cushion adjustment knob to one of three positions.
Heater
To turn on the heat option, press the button. To turn
off the heat option, press the button again. If the vehicle has Optimized Idle, seat heating will not oper-
6.3
2
5
3
12/03/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
4
f910131a
Backrest Tilt Lever
Lumbar Support Switches (LSO models)
Height Adjustment Switch
Bottom Cushion Tilt Knob
Isolator and Fore/Aft Seat Slide Lever
Lumbar Support Knob (non-LSO models)
Fig. 6.3, Bostrom Seat Adjustment Controls
Backrest Tilt
To tilt the backrest, lean forward slightly to remove
pressure from the cushion and hold the backrest tilt
lever rearward. Lean forward or backward slowly to
the desired position and release the lever to lock the
backrest in place.
Lumbar Support
To increase lumbar support on luxury seat option
(LSO) models, press the plus sign on the lumbar
support switch. To decrease lumbar support, press
the minus sign on the switch.
To increase lumbar support on non-LSO models, rotate the lumbar support knob forward. To decrease
lumbar support, rotate the knob rearward.
Seats and Restraints
Height Adjustment
To raise the seat, press the upper portion of the
height adjustment switch. To lower the seat, press
the lower portion of the switch.
Bottom Cushion Tilt
7
To adjust the bottom cushion tilt, rotate the bottom
cushion tilt knob to increase or decrease tilt.
6
Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide
To adjust the fore-and-aft position of the entire seat,
hold the fore-and-aft adjustment lever to the left and
slide the seat forward or backward to the desired
position.
4
Isolator
To engage the isolator, put the isolator lever in the
center position. Lock out the isolator by moving the
lever to the right.
National Seat
See Fig. 6.4 for National seat adjustment controls.
Backrest Tilt
To tilt the backrest, turn the backrest tilt knob until
the desired position is reached.
Lumbar Support
To adjust the lumbar support, use the lumbar support
switch on the side of the seat.
Height Adjustment
1
5
11/14/2000
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3
2
f910445
Backrest Tilt Knob
Lumbar Support Switch
Height Adjustment Switch
Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide Lever
Bottom Cushion Fore-and-Aft Slide Handle
Isolator Handle
Rear Cushion Adjustment Knob
Fig. 6.4, National 2000 Series Seat Adjustment Controls
desired position. Move the lever back to its original
position to lock the seat in place.
Isolator
To engage the isolator, turn the isolator lever to the
horizontal position. Lock out the isolator by turning
the isolator lever down.
To raise or lower the height of the seat, use the
height adjustment switch on the side of the seat.
Rear Cushion Adjustment
Bottom Cushion Fore-and-Aft Slide
To adjust the height of the rear of the seat cushion,
remove your weight from the seat and turn the rear
cushion adjustment knob to one of three positions.
To adjust the bottom cushion, lift the bottom cushion
adjustment handle and pull forward or push back to
the desired setting.
Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide
ABTS Seat
See Fig. 6.5 for ABTS (all-belts-to-seat) seat adjustment controls.
To adjust the fore-and-aft position of the entire seat,
move the fore-and-aft seat adjustment lever to the
left and slide the seat forward or backward to the
6.4
Seats and Restraints
Track Adjustment
To adjust the fore-and-aft position of the entire seat,
lift the track adjustment handle and slide the seat to
the desired position.
Isolator
Pull up the isolator control handle to lock out the isolation movement.
10
Lumbar Adjustment
Push the middle rocker switch to adjust the lower
lumbar bag. Push the forward switch to adjust the
upper lumbar bag.
9
8
Seat Height Adjustment
Push the seat height adjustment switch to raise or
lower the seat suspension.
Seat Tilt Control
7
Set the seat tilt control to one of the five positions to
set cushion rake adjustment.
1
Backrest Adjustment
6
11/30/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
5
4
2
3
f910676
Cushion Extension Adjustment Lever
Track Adjustment Handle
Isolator Control Handle
Upper Lumbar Adjustment Switch
Lower Lumbar Adjustment Switch
Seat Height Adjustment Switch
Seat Tilt Control
Recliner Handle
Armrest Control Knob
Shoulder Belt Height Control
Fig. 6.5, ABTS Seat Adjustment Controls
To tilt the backrest backward, pull up on the recliner
handle while leaning backward. To tilt the backrest
forward, pull up on the recliner handle while leaning
forward.
Armrest Adjustment
Rotate the control knob, located on the underside of
the armrest, to set the desired angle of the armrest.
Shoulder Belt Height Control
Adjust the shoulder belt height. The height can be
adjusted vertically by 3 inches (75 mm).
Cushion Extension Adjustment
Seat Belts and Tether Belts
Move the cushion extension adjustment lever to the
left and move the seat cushion to the desired position.
Seat belt assemblies are designed to secure persons
in the vehicle to help reduce the chance of injury or
the amount of injury resulting from accidents or sudden stops. For this reason, Daimler Trucks North
America LLC (DTNA) urges that the driver and all
passengers, regardless of age or physical condition,
use seat belts when riding in the vehicle.
6.5
Seats and Restraints
WARNING
Always use the vehicle’s seat belt system when
operating the vehicle. Failure to do so can result
in severe personal injury or death.
Seat belt assemblies in DTNA vehicles meet Federal
Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 209, "Type 1" and
"Type 2" requirements.
When transporting a child, always use a child restraint system or the vehicle seat belts as appropriate. To determine whether a child restraint system is
required, review and comply with applicable state
and local laws. Any child restraint used must comply
with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213,
"Child Restraint Systems." When providing a child
restraint system, always carefully read and follow all
instructions pertaining to installation and usage for
the child. Make certain the child remains in the restraint system at all times when the vehicle is in
motion.
In addition to seat belt assemblies, tether belts are
installed on suspension-type seats. Tether belts help
secure the seat to the floor and are intended to restrain the seat and seat belt in case of an accident or
sudden stop.
Inspect the seat belts and tether belts (if so
equipped).
1.
Check the web for fraying, cuts, extreme dirt and
dust, or for severe fading from exposure to sunlight, especially near the buckle latch plate and in
the D-loop guide area.
2.
Check operation of the buckle, latch, Komfort
Latch or Sliding Komfort Latch (if equipped), web
retractor, and upper seat belt mount on the door
pillar. Check all visible components for wear or
damage.
3.
Check the seat belt and tether belt connection
points and tighten any that are loose.
Seat Belt Operation
Seat Belt With Komfort Latch or Sliding
Komfort Latch
NOTE: For vehicles not equipped with the Komfort Latch or the Sliding Komfort Latch, see the
seat belt operation under the heading ThreePoint Seat Belt.
WARNING
IMPORTANT: Seat belts have a finite life which
may be much shorter than the life of the vehicle.
Regular inspections and replacement as needed
are the only assurance of adequate seat belt
security over the life of the vehicle.
Wear three-point seat belts only as described
below. Three-point seat belts are designed to be
worn by one person at a time. In case of an accident or sudden stop, personal injury or death
could result from misuse.
Seat Belt Inspection
Fasten the seat belts before driving. Fastening a
three-point seat belt while driving creates a hazard.
WARNING
Inspect and maintain seat belts. When any part of
a seat belt system needs replacement, the entire
seat belt must be replaced, both retractor and
buckle side. Any time a vehicle is involved in an
accident, and the seat belt system was in use,
the entire vehicle seat belt system must be replaced before operating the vehicle. Do not attempt to modify the seat belt system; doing so
could change the effectiveness of the system.
Failure to replace worn or damaged seat belts, or
making any modifications to the system, may result in personal injury or death.
When engaged and used properly, the Komfort Latch
(Fig. 6.6) and the Sliding Komfort Latch (Fig. 6.7)
introduce a small amount of slack into the seat belt,
resulting in a more comfortable ride.
1.
Slowly pull the link end of the seat belt out of the
retractor and pull it across your lap (from outboard to inboard) far enough to engage the
buckle. If the retractor locks too soon, allow the
belt to retract slightly, then slowly pull it out
again.
2.
Fasten the seat belt by pushing the latch into the
buckle. Listen for an audible click. See Fig. 6.8.
3.
Tug on the seat belt to make sure it is securely
fastened. If the buckle unlatches, repeat this
6.6
Seats and Restraints
B
A
f910004a
01/18/95
Fig. 6.8, Fastening the Three-Point Belt
03/11/2010
WARNING
f910620
A. Disengaged
B. Engaged
Before activating the Komfort Latch or the Sliding Komfort Latch, make sure the amount of
slack in the shoulder strap is set as described
below. Excess slack in the shoulder strap reduces the effectiveness of the seat belt, and increases the risk of injury or death in an accident.
Fig. 6.6, Komfort Latch
5.
11/18/2010
f910621a
Fig. 6.7, Sliding Komfort Latch
step. If the problem continues, replace the seat
belt.
4.
6.7
Snug the seat belt to your waist.
Position the shoulder strap diagonally across
your chest with the adjustable D-loop bracket (if
equipped). The shoulder strap must be centered
on your shoulder and chest, away from your face
and neck. See Fig. 6.9. If desired, engage the
Komfort Latch or Sliding Komfort Latch as follows.
If equipped with a Sliding Komfort Latch, make
sure that the shoulder strap is snug against your
chest. Without loosening the shoulder strap,
push the Sliding Komfort Latch switch to the
"ON" position. See Fig. 6.7. To activate the latch
lean forward until you hear a click. This will allow
for approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) of slack between your chest and the shoulder harness.
Once engaged, the latch will allow you to lean
forward about 5 inches (13 cm) without having to
reset the latch. Leaning forward more than 5
inches (13 cm) will disengage the Sliding Komfort Latch, requiring it to be reset.
If equipped with a Komfort Latch, pull on the
shoulder strap to lessen the pressure of the strap
Seats and Restraints
on your shoulder and chest. Allow no more than
1 inch (2.5 cm) of slack between your chest and
the shoulder harness. More slack can significantly reduce the seat belt effectiveness in an
accident or a sudden stop. While holding the belt
slack, press the Komfort Latch lever up, clamping the seat belt webbing (Fig. 6.10 and
Fig. 6.11).
01/06/95
f910006a
Fig. 6.11, Locking the Komfort Latch
A
B
C
08/09/2010
f910634
A. Correct—Belt is centered on your shoulder and
chest, away from your face and neck.
B. Wrong—Belt must not rub against face or neck.
C. Wrong—Belt must not hang off shoulder.
If equipped with a Komfort Latch, unbuckle the
seat belt (Fig. 6.12), then release the Komfort
Latch by giving the shoulder belt a quick tug. If
you lean forward against the shoulder belt, the
Komfort Latch will automatically release, and will
need to be reset.
Fig. 6.9, Proper Shoulder Strap Fit
A
01/06/95
f910048a
A. 1 Inch (2.5 cm) Maximum
Fig. 6.10, Adjusting Shoulder Harness Clearance,
Komfort Latch
6.
Unbuckle the seat belt and release the Komfort
Latch or the Sliding Komfort Latch as follows.
If equipped with a Sliding Komfort Latch, unbuckle the seat belt (Fig. 6.12), then tug on the
shoulder belt to release the Sliding Komfort
Latch, or press the Sliding Komfort latch to the
"OFF" position, then unbuckle the seat belt.
01/18/95
f910049a
Fig. 6.12, Releasing the Three-Point Seat Belt
NOTE: Neither the Komfort Latch nor the Sliding
Komfort Latch need to be manually released in
an emergency situation. Each will release by
itself under rough road or other abnormal conditions. Make sure the seat belt is completely retracted when it is not in use.
6.8
Seats and Restraints
Three-Point Seat Belt
NOTE: For vehicles equipped with the Komfort
Latch or the Sliding Komfort Latch, see the seat
belt operation under the heading Seat Belt With
Komfort Latch or Sliding Komfort Latch.
WARNING
Wear three-point seat belts only as described
below. Three-point seat belts are designed to be
worn by one person at a time. In case of an accident or sudden stop, personal injury or death
could result from misuse.
Fasten the seat belts before driving. Fastening a
three-point seat belt while driving creates a hazard.
1.
Slowly pull the link end of the three-point seat
belt out of the retractor and pull it across your
lap (from outboard to inboard) far enough to engage the buckle. If the retractor locks too soon,
allow the belt to retract slightly, then slowly pull it
out again.
2.
Fasten the seat belt by pushing the latch into the
buckle. Listen for an audible click. See Fig. 6.8.
3.
Tug on the seat belt to make sure it is securely
fastened. If the buckle unlatches, repeat this
step. If the problem continues, replace the seat
belt.
4.
Snug the seat belt to your waist.
5.
Position the shoulder strap diagonally across
your chest with the adjustable D-loop bracket (if
equipped). The shoulder strap must be centered
on your shoulder and chest, away from your face
and neck. See Fig. 6.9.
6.
To unbuckle the seat belt, press the release button on the buckle. See Fig. 6.12.
NOTE: Make sure the seat belt is completely
retracted when it is not in use.
6.9
Sleeper Compartment
Restraints
WARNING
Do not use the sleeper compartment while the
vehicle is in motion unless a bunk restraint is
installed and used. Not using the bunk restraint
increases the chance of injury, or the degree of
injury, from accidents or sudden stops to all occupants of the vehicle.
On vehicles equipped with a sleeper compartment,
bunk restraints should be used whenever the sleeper
compartment is occupied and the vehicle is moving.
Restraints are designed to lessen the chance of injury or the amount of injury resulting from accidents
or sudden stops.
Bunk Restraint Adjustment
1.
Make sure the belt is attached to the bunk support and sleeper wall.
2.
To lengthen the belt, tip the link end downward
and pull the link until it connects with the buckle.
3.
After the belt is connected, shorten it by pulling
on the loose end until the belt is snug, but comfortable. Be sure the belts are not twisted. See
Fig. 6.13.
Seats and Restraints
A
1
2
3
f910472
08/18/2011
A. Pull on the loose end to shorten the belt.
1. Belt
3. Release Buckle
2. Connector
Fig. 6.13, Bunk Restraint Adjustment
6.10
7
Cab and Sleeper Features
Windows and Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Cab Amenities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Sleeper Amenities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Cab and Sleeper Features
Windows and Mirrors
Power Mirrors
The standard outside mirrors are mounted on the
door frame. There is a primary rear view mirror and a
convex mirror.
MIRROR
DEFOG
Power mirrors are controlled by two switches
mounted on the dash control panel. See Fig. 7.1.
The switches allow the driver to rotate the mirrors on
a horizontal plane.
08/18/2011
f545813
To defog the mirror(s), press the upper half of the switch.
To turn off heat to the mirror(s), press the lower half of
the switch.
Fig. 7.2, Mirror Defog Switch
MIRROR
08/18/2011
f545814
Fig. 7.1, Mirror Control Switch
Optional mirrors may be mounted on the outside of
the cab. Cab-mounted mirrors are controlled by
switches located in the overhead console.
1
One or both outside mirrors may be heated to clear
fog, frost, or ice.
To defog the mirrors, press the upper half of the mirror defog switch (MIRROR DEFOG). See Fig. 7.2.
When the mirror defog switch is on, the status bar
illuminates.
Down-View Mirror
An optional down-view mirror may be installed on the
door frame to allow the driver a view of the area adjacent to the side of the cab. See Fig. 7.3.
Windows
The windows in both doors are normally operated by
window cranks.
Power windows are optional, and may be installed on
one or both sides. Power window switches (POWER
7.1
08/18/2011
f602461
1. Down-View Mirror (passenger side shown)
Fig. 7.3, Down-View Mirror
Cab and Sleeper Features
WINDOW) may be located on the door, or on the
dash control panel.
To raise the window, press the upper half of the
switch. To lower the window, press the lower half of
the switch. See Fig. 7.4.
To activate the cigar lighter, push in the element
knob. It will pop out when heated. Grasp the element
knob and pull it out of the socket.
To remove the ash tray, push down on the center
bar, and swing outwards. To install the ash tray, insert in the opening then swing upwards until the bar
snaps into place.
Cup Holders
Single and dual cup holders are optional, and are
located below the right-hand dash control panel.
Glove Box
POWER
WINDOW
08/18/2011
f545812
Fig. 7.4, Power Window Switch
Cab Amenities
Western Star vehicles are available with many optional features. The following are some of those
options.
The glove box (Fig. 7.6) is located on the right side
of the dash face, and is equipped with a lock. To lock
the latch, insert the key in the lock, and turn it ½-turn
clockwise. Remove the key. To unlock the latch, insert the key in the lock, and turn it ½-turn counterclockwise.
The glove box door is hinged at the bottom. To open
the unlocked door, push the button in with your
thumb and pull gently on the tang-style latch. The
door will swing downwards, then stop in the open
position. To close the door, swing it upwards, and put
gentle pressure on the latch. The door will be secured, but not locked.
Cigar Lighter/Accessory Plug
The cigar lighter/accessory plug (Fig. 7.5) is located
on the lower right-hand dash panel, above the ignition switch. The ash tray is located to the left of the
cigar lighter.
1
1
2
2
3
03/21/2001
1. Fuse/Relay Panel
2. Fuse/Relay Panel
f610481
3. Glove Box
Fig. 7.6, Passenger-Side Dash Panels
03/21/2001
f610479
1. Ash Tray
2. Cigar Lighter
Fig. 7.5, Ash Tray and Lighter
7.2
Cab and Sleeper Features
Electronic Device Mount
Some vehicles may be equipped with an optional
electronic device mounting station and 12 volt outlet
on the dash. The standard bolt pattern allows the
mounting of a variety of devices including navigation
systems, cell phone holders, portable music players,
and other electronic devices. Mounting systems can
be found at www.ram-mount.com.
Lighting
See Chapter 4 for detailed information regarding
lighting controls.
NOTE: See Chapter 5 for detailed information
regarding sleeper climate controls and the digital clock.
Baggage Compartment Doors
To unlock, insert the baggage door key in the lock
and turn counterclockwise 1/4-turn. Push the button,
and the latch will spring open. To lock, press the
latch in, turn the key clockwise 1/4-turn, then remove
the key. If the baggage compartment door is unlocked, it can be opened simply by pushing the
button.
Lighting
Storage Areas
There is a storage bin located on the right-hand side
of the overhead console (Fig. 7.7). This storage bin
has an elastic mesh cover to keep objects in place.
Some vehicles have an elastic-topped pouch, located
on the rear cab panel between the seats. If the vehicle has a passenger bench seat, there are storage
areas on the front of and inside the seat base.
Reading lamps are operated manually with a rocker
switch. The light beam direction is adjustable by
moving the lens assembly in the desired direction.
There are other courtesy lamps provided in the
sleeper. These will operate when a cab door is
opened. Some sleepers have light switches located
on the cab or sleeper instrument panels.
Remote Engine Start
The remote engine start option (Fig. 7.8) includes a
key switch, ignition light, CHECK engine warning
light, and a STOP engine warning light. To activate
the sleeper start controls, turn on the sleeper start
switch on the dash, then turn the sleeper key switch
to ON. Return the engine control to the cab by first
turning the cab key switch ON and set the sleeper
start switch to OFF.
1
Sleeper Door
2
3
f610480
03/21/2001
1. Double Reading Lamp (optional)
2. Storage Bin
3. Single Reading Lamp (optional)
Fig. 7.7, Overhead Console Area
Sleeper Amenities
Western Star sleepers are available with many optional features. The following are some of those
options.
7.3
The sleeper door is not intended for entry or exit.
The door is intended only as a convenient means to
stow or remove personal belongings in the sleeper
area. To open the sleeper door, reach behind the
latch cover at the rear upper corner, locate the flat
handle, and push down.
IMPORTANT: The sleeper doors are two-stage
latching. When closing the doors, ensure that
they are completely latched to prevent wind
noise and water intrusion.
Cab and Sleeper Features
4
1
2
3
05/14/2001
f610564
1. Sleeper Start
2. Digital Clock
3. Climate Control Panel
4. Warning Lights
Fig. 7.8, Sleeper Control Panel
Sliding Side Window
The sliding side window is locked with an over-center
toggle lever. When unlocked, the window may be
adjusted to suit.
Vent
The air vent is operated using a simple, over-center
latch. The vent will open in two directions. Push the
knob firmly forward or back to open. The center position is closed.
7.4
8
Electrical System
Vehicle Power Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Battery Disconnect Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Battery Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3
Electrical System
Vehicle Power Distribution
Power Distribution, EPA10 and Newer
There are three standard power distribution modules
(PDMs) on vehicles that are compliant with EPA10
and newer regulations: the dash electrical panel, the
powertrain PDM, and the powernet distribution box
(PNDB). See Fig. 8.1 for the typical locations of the
power distribution modules located in the engine
compartment.
IMPORTANT: The covers on the underhood
PDM units must be in place to protect against
water splash and dust intrusion.
The powertrain PDM houses many of the fuses and
relays for the engine, transmission, and aftertreatment system (ATS). There is a label on the cover of
the powertrain PDM identifying the fuses and relays.
The PNDB houses up to three MIDI fuses and four
ATO fuses. A label on the cover of the PNDB identifies the fuses.
1
2
3
08/17/2011
f545811
1. MEGA Fuse Location (EPA07 and earlier vehicles)
2. Powertrain PDM (EPA10 and newer vehicles)
3. PNDB (EPA10 and newer vehicles)
Fig. 8.1, PDM Locations
8.1
Electrical System
Vehicles may also be equipped with a secondary
PNDB. The secondary PNDB sources power to any
of the following:
• fleet management communications
• trailer end-of-frame connection
• shore power inverter
• bodybuilder PDM (housing any fuses and re-
lays necessary for customer-installed truck
body equipment)
The dash electrical panel is located inboard of the
passenger-side glove box. Access to the panel is
achieved by removing the four screws located in
each corner of the panel cover. See Fig. 8.2. A decal
showing the layout of the fuses, breakers, and relays
is on the back of the panel cover. See Fig. 8.3.
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1
2
f543949
1. Decal Option Panel
2. Decal Main Panel
Fig. 8.3, Electrical Panel Decals
1
Battery Disconnect Switches
Your Western Star vehicle may be equipped with a
cab load disconnect switch (CLDS) or a battery isolation switch.
2
Cab Load Disconnect Switch, EPA10
and Newer
The optional CLDS (Fig. 8.4) is used to minimize
draw on the battery, and should be turned off when
the vehicle is parked for an extended period of time.
11/13/2001
f543947
1. Electrical Panel Cover
2. Mounting Screws
Fig. 8.2, Dash Panel
Pre-EPA10 Power Distribution
Vehicles that are not compliant with EPA10 or newer
regulations have one PDM in the engine compartment (see Fig. 8.1) and two MEGA fuses in the dash
electrical panel.
The dash electrical panel is located inboard of the
passenger-side glove box. Access to the panel is
achieved by removing the four screws located in
each corner of the panel. See Fig. 8.2. A decal,
showing the layout of the fuses, breakers and relays,
is on the back of the panel cover. See Fig. 8.3.
When the CLDS is set to OFF, it signals the PNDB to
disconnect battery power to the circuits powered by
the MIDI fuses.
The CLDS is mounted on the cab floor outboard of
the driver’s seat, on the lower driver-side dash panel,
or near the battery box.
IMPORTANT: The ignition should be turned OFF
before using the CLDS.
Pre-EPA10 Battery Isolation Switch
The optional battery isolation switch (see Fig. 8.5) is
located on the cab floor outboard of the driver’s seat,
on a bracket near the driver-side kick panel below
the dash, or near the battery box. The battery isolation switch disconnects the power to most cab circuits and engine power wiring. Use it whenever the
8.2
Electrical System
Battery Access
The batteries on a Western Star vehicle may be located in a variety of locations, including under the
passenger seat, under the cab, behind the cab, or
under the sleeper bunk, if equipped. Some vehicles
may have two batteries in the step compartments on
both sides of the vehicle.
05/13/2009
f545527
Fig. 8.4, Cab Load Disconnect Switch
vehicle is to be put out of service for extended periods.
IMPORTANT: The battery isolation switch does
not completely isolate the batteries from the
electrical system. For service operations that
require that the batteries be disconnected, always shut down the engine and remove the
negative battery cables.
NOTE: Whenever battery power is disconnected, clocks, radios, and the Datastar contrast
must be reset.
06/01/2001
f610529
Fig. 8.5, Battery Isolation Switch
8.3
9
Engine Starting, Operation,
and Shutdown
Engine
Engine
Engine
Engine
Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1
9.1
9.3
9.3
Engine Starting, Operation, and Shutdown
Engine Starting
This engine chapter is to serve as a guide for best
practices only. Each engine model may have operating characteristics that are unique to that particular
engine, and will be documented in the engine manufacturer’s literature. Always refer to specific instructions and recommendations from the engine manufacturer.
NOTE: Before starting the engine, read Chapter 3 for detailed information on how to read the
instruments and see Chapter 4 for detailed information on how to operate the controls. Read
the engine manufacturer’s operating instructions
before starting the engine.
WARNING
Never pour fuel or other flammable liquid into the
air inlet opening in the air intake in an attempt to
start the vehicle. This could result in a flash fire
causing serious personal injury or property
damage.
1.
Before engine start-up, complete the engine pretrip inspections in Chapter 23.
2.
Set the parking brake.
3.
Place the transmission in neutral. On vehicles
with manual transmissions, fully depress the
clutch pedal.
4.
Turn the ignition switch to the ON position. The
buzzer will sound for three seconds.
During cold conditions, the WAIT TO START
lamp may illuminate. Wait until the lamp goes out
before turning the ignition key to START.
NOTE: The length of time the WAIT TO START
lamp remains illuminated depends on the ambient temperature. The lower the ambient temperature, the longer the lamp will be illuminated.
NOTE: The engine electronics supply the correct amount of fuel for starting the engine. Accelerator pedal pressure is unnecessary and
could interfere with engine starting.
5.
Turn the ignition key to the START position. Release the key the moment the engine starts.
6.
Apply load gradually during the warm-up period.
9.1
NOTICE
If the oil pressure gauge indicates no oil pressure, shut down the engine within approximately
ten seconds to avoid engine damage.
7.
Check the oil pressure gauge for any drop in lubricating oil pressure or mechanical malfunction
in the lubricating oil system.
Cold-Weather Starting
See the engine manufacturer’s operation manual for
starting aids that are approved for specific engines.
Starting After Extended Shutdown
Before engine start-up, complete the engine pretrip
inspections in Chapter 23.
NOTICE
Failure to eliminate water-diluted lubricating oil
may lead to serious engine damage at startup.
An engine in storage for an extended period of time
(over winter, for example) may accumulate water in
the oil pan through normal condensation of moisture
on the internal surfaces of the engine. Oil diluted by
water cannot provide adequate bearing protection at
start-up. For this reason, change the engine oil and
filters after extended storage.
Engine Operation
Safety and Environmental
Considerations
All engines on Western Star vehicles comply with the
requirements of the Federal (U.S.) Clean Air Act.
Once an engine is placed in service, the responsibility for meeting both state and local regulations is with
the owner/operator.
IMPORTANT: Depending upon local jurisdictional emissions guidelines, vehicles that are
domiciled outside of the U.S. and Canada may
not have engines and/or emissions aftertreatment systems that are compliant with EPA07,
EPA10, GHG14, or GHG17 regulations.
Engine Starting, Operation, and Shutdown
NOTICE
It is extremely important that the following guidelines be followed for engines that comply with
EPA07 or newer regulations, or damage may
occur to the aftertreatment device, and the warranty may be compromised.
• Use ultralow-sulfur diesel with 15 ppm sul-
fur content or less.
• Do not use fuel blended with used engine
lube oil or kerosene.
• Use only engine lube oil with a sulfated ash
level less than 1.0 wt%; currently referred
to as CJ-4 oil.
Adequate maintenance of the engine and the diesel
particulate filter (DPF) are the responsibility of the
owner/operator, and are essential to keep the emission levels low. Good operating practices, regular
maintenance, and correct adjustments are factors
that will help keep emissions within the regulations.
The driver should be familiar with the vehicle warning
system in order to bring the vehicle to a safe stop if
the engine malfunctions. If the driver doesn’t understand how the warning system works, an engine
shutdown could occur, causing a safety hazard. See
Chapter 10 for more information.
Engine Break-In
Each engine must pass a full-load operating test on
a dynamometer before shipment, thereby eliminating
the need for a break-in. Before running the engine
for the first time, follow the instructions in the engine
manufacturer’s operation manual specific to your
engine.
Normal Operation
WARNING
Do not operate the engine in an area where flammable vapors such as gasoline or diesel fumes
are present. Shut off the engine when in an area
where flammable liquids or gases are being
handled. Failure to observe these precautions
could result in serious injury or death.
Every engine has an operating range in which it performs most efficiently. The operating range extends
from maximum torque rpm at the low end, to engine
rated speed at the high end. Most engines deliver
best fuel economy when operated in the low- and
mid-speed segments of the efficiency range and produce maximum horsepower at rated speed, which is
also the recommended maximum speed of the engine. For further engine-specific information, refer to
the engine manufacturer’s operation manual.
Prolonged idling of engines is not recommended, and
is illegal in some states. Idling produces sulfuric acid,
that is absorbed by the lubricating oil, and eats into
bearings, rings, valve stems, and engine surfaces. If
you must idle the engine for cab heat or cooling, use
the high idle function of the cruise control switches.
An idle speed of 900 rpm should be enough to provide cab heat in ambient temperatures that are
above freezing.
If the engine is programmed with the idle shutdown
timer, ninety seconds before the preset shutdown
time, the CHECK engine light will begin to flash at a
rapid rate. If the position of the clutch pedal or service brake changes during this final ninety seconds
the idle shutdown timer will be disabled until reset.
Cold-Weather Operation
Satisfactory performance of a diesel engine operating
in low ambient temperatures requires modification of
the engine, surrounding equipment, operating practices, and maintenance procedures. The lower the
temperature, the greater the amount of modification
required. For service products approved for use in
cold weather for your engine, see the engine manufacturer’s engine operation manual.
If satisfactory engine temperature is not maintained,
maintenance costs will increase due to greater engine wear. If the engine coolant gets too cold, raw
fuel will wash the lubricating oil off the cylinder walls
and dilute the crankcase oil, causing all moving parts
of the engine to suffer from poor lubrication.
If the engine is in good mechanical condition and the
precautions necessary for cold-weather operation are
taken, ordinary cold weather will not cause difficulty
in starting or loss of efficiency.
The following points are important to observe when
operating in cold weather:
• Check for cracks in the batteries, for corrosion
of the terminals, and for tightness of the cable
clamps at the terminals.
9.2
Engine Starting, Operation, and Shutdown
• Charge the batteries to full capacity. Replace
damaged batteries.
• If equipped, turn off the load disconnect switch
Engine Shutdown
1.
after the engine is shut down, to prevent battery discharge.
NOTICE
• Have the alternator output checked at an au-
thorized service provider.
• Check the condition and tension of the drive
belts.
• Refer to the engine manufacturer’s operation
manual for recommended heaters, lowviscosity lubricating oils, winter-grade fuels,
and approved coolants.
With the vehicle stopped, set the parking brake
and place the transmission in neutral.
Idle the engine one to two minutes before shutting it down. After hard operation, shutting down
the engine without idling may cause damage to
the turbocharger.
2.
Allow the engine to idle one to two minutes before shutting it down.
NOTICE
NOTICE
For Detroit engines (EPA07 and newer), use of a
winterfront is not recommended, as it can cause
false fault codes with the engine and aftertreatment system, and possible emission component
failures.
If using a winterfront, leave at least 25% of the grille
opening exposed in sectioned stripes that run perpendicular to the charge-air-cooler tube-flow direction. This assures even cooling across each tube,
and reduces header-to-tube stress, and possible
chance of component failure. For engine-specific
guidelines, see below:
Cummins and Mercedes-Benz engines: A winterfront
may be used to improve cab heating while idling, and
only when the ambient temperature remains below
10°F (-12°C).
Detroit engines (EPA07 and newer): Use of a winterfront is not recommended. Using a winterfront can
cause excessive fan run time, increased fuel consumption, and failure of the DEF system heaters to
operate correctly, resulting in fault codes, poor performance, and power reduction. A winterfront should
only be used temporarily in the following situations:
• to improve cab heating while idling in an ex-
tremely cold ambient temperature;
• when the ambient temperature remains below
-22°F (-30°C) and the engine is unable to
maintain a running coolant temperature of
175°F (80°C) during normal over-the-road operation.
9.3
Except in an emergency, do not shut down the
engine when the coolant temperature is above
194°F (90°C). To do so could damage the engine.
3.
Turn off the ignition switch and shut down the
engine.
Engine Cooling
The cooling system used on all Western Star vehicles is a pressure type system. This raises the
coolant boiling point, permitting higher operating temperatures. The coolant supplied in your vehicle will
be a 50/50 mix of antifreeze and water, giving protection down to –35°F (–37°C). It is recommended that
an antifreeze mixture be used at all times, as, in addition to providing frost protection, it is a more effective coolant, and has a higher boiling point than tap
water.
Over-concentration of antifreeze or coolant conditioner can cause silicate to precipitate out of the
coolant, forming silica gel on cooling system heat
transfer surfaces (fuel coolers, oil coolers, radiators,
and heater cores), resulting in reduced coolant flow
and overheating.
Hard water (with high levels of calcium and magnesium ions) encourages formation of silica gel. Do not
use softened water as the salt used to artificially
soften it is corrosive. Most engine manufacturers prefer the use of distilled or de-ionized water to reduce
the potential and severity of silicate dropouts.
Never exceed a 60/40 antifreeze-to-water ratio. If the
level is low, add a 50/50 antifreeze solution to maintain solution concentrations. Note that checking the
Engine Starting, Operation, and Shutdown
engine coolant level is part of the pretrip inspection.
See Chapter 23 for more information.
9.4
10
Optional Engine Systems
Engine Protection—Warning and Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Idle Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cruise Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary Braking Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Takeoff (PTO) Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.5
Optional Engine Systems
Engine Protection—Warning
and Shutdown
Do not operate the vehicle further until the problem
causing the shutdown has been corrected.
The driver should be familiar with the vehicle warning
system in order to bring the vehicle to a safe stop if
the engine malfunctions. If the driver doesn’t understand how the warning system works, an engine
shutdown could occur.
The engine will begin a warning and shutdown process if the engine coolant temperature, coolant level,
engine oil pressure, or exhaust aftertreatment system
(ATS) reach preset levels. On some engines, the engine will also begin the warning and shutdown process when the engine oil temperature or the intake
air temperature reach preset levels. Detroit Diesel
engines will begin the warning and shutdown process
if water is detected in the fuel.
CHECK
07/09/2009
1
1. Malfunction Indicator
Lamp (MIL)
STOP
2
3
f611036
2. CHECK Engine Lamp
3. STOP Engine Lamp
Fig. 10.1, Engine Warning Lights
See Chapter 11 for the warning and shutdown
modes associated with the ATS.
Some vehicles may have a shutdown-override
switch, which can be used to momentarily override
the shutdown sequence. This switch resets the shutdown timer, restoring power to the level before the
derate for another 30 or 60 seconds (depending on
the critical fault type). The switch must be pressed
again after five seconds to obtain a subsequent
override.
Electronic engine protection is programmable as an
option, and can be specified as one of the following
modes: DERATE and SHUTDOWN (factory default),
WARNING, or OFF.
In WARNING mode, the amber CHECK engine lamp
will flash and a buzzer will sound. The engine electronics log the event for diagnostic purposes. The
CHECK engine lamp will go out if the problem stops.
See the engine manufacturer’s operation manual for
specific details for your vehicle.
WARNING
When the red STOP engine or engine protection
light illuminates, most engines are programmed
to shut down automatically within 30 seconds.
The driver must immediately move the vehicle to
a safe location at the side of the road to prevent
causing a hazardous situation that could cause
bodily injury, property damage, or severe damage
to the engine.
In DERATE and SHUTDOWN mode, the red STOP
engine lamp will illuminate when the problem is serious enough to reduce power or speed. See
Fig. 10.1. Engine power will ramp down, then the
engine will shut down if the problem continues. The
driver has 30 or 60 seconds (depending on the critical fault type) after the STOP engine lamp illuminates to move the vehicle safely off the road. If the
vehicle cannot be moved to a safe location within
that time, the engine can be restarted by turning the
ignition switch OFF for at least five seconds, then
back ON. Repeat this action until the vehicle is safely
off the road.
10.1
In OFF mode, the individual sensor indicator lamps
will illuminate if a problem exists, but no shutdown
action will be started and the event will not be recorded.
Engine Idle Limiting
Idle Shutdown Timer
This feature is an optional 1- to 100-minute idle shutdown system. Its purpose is to conserve fuel by
eliminating excessive idling and allowing a turbocharger cool-down period. Idle shutdown timing and
parameters are programmable. See the engine
manufacturer’s operation manual for specific details
for your vehicle.
California Engine Idle Limit
In order to meet the California Air Resources Board
(CARB) engine idle limiting standard, vehicles are
equipped with an engine idle shutdown feature. The
automatic shutdown feature is required on all
Optional Engine Systems
California-certified engines (with the exception of engines used in specific vehicle types that are exempt
from the requirement). Owners that wish to have the
shutdown feature disabled on vehicles operating in
California should consult with California authorities to
determine if their vehicle qualifies for the exemption.
When the CARB engine idle limiting feature is enabled, the engine will typically shut down after five
minutes of continuous idling when the transmission is
in neutral and the parking brake is set. It will also
shut down after 15 minutes when the transmission is
in neutral, with the parking brake off. See the engine
manufacturer’s operation manual for specific details
for your vehicle.
CRUISE
CONTROL
Cruise Control
WARNING
Do not use the cruise control system when driving conditions do not permit maintaining a constant speed, such as in heavy traffic or on roads
that are winding, icy, snow-covered, slippery, or
roads with a loose driving surface. Failure to follow this precaution could cause a collision or
loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in personal injury or property damage.
RES/ACCEL
07/15/2011
After an automatic shutdown, the engine may be restarted and operated normally.
Activating or momentarily changing the position of
the brake pedal, clutch pedal, accelerator pedal,
shutdown override switch, or parking brake during
the final 30 seconds will cause the shutdown timer to
reset.
SET/DECEL
f545790
Fig. 10.2, Cruise Control Switches
Cruise at a particular speed
1.
Press the upper part of the cruise control on/off
switch to turn cruise control on.
2.
Hold the accelerator pedal down until the speedometer reaches the desired speed.
NOTE: Cruise control is cancelled if the brake
or clutch pedal is depressed, or engine speed
drops below 1200 rpm.
3.
Press the upper half of the Set/Resume/
Accelerate/Decelerate switch momentarily to set
the cruise speed (with the vehicle moving at the
desired speed).
To decrease cruise speed, press and hold the
upper half of the Set/Resume/Accelerate/
Decelerate switch to decelerate slowly. Release
the switch when the desired speed is achieved.
To increase cruise speed, press and hold the
lower half of the Set/Resume/Accelerate/
Decelerate switch to accelerate slowly. Release
the switch when the desired speed is achieved.
NOTICE
When the cruise control is engaged, do not attempt to shift gears without using the clutch
pedal. Failure to follow this precaution will result
in a temporarily uncontrolled increase in engine
speed. Transmission damage and gear stripping
could result.
Disengage cruise control
Cruise control is activated by two dash-mounted
switches: an on/off switch (CRUISE CONTROL) and
a Set/Decelerate/Resume/Accelerate switch. See
Fig. 10.2.
1.
NOTE: The speed memory is lost whenever the
ignition is turned off or the cruise control system
is turned off.
Depress the brake pedal (automatic or manual
transmissions)
or
10.2
Optional Engine Systems
Depress the clutch pedal (manual transmissions
only).
NOTE: To resume the preselected cruise speed,
increase vehicle speed to above minimum
cruise control speed and momentarily press the
lower half of the Set/Resume/Accelerate/
Decelerate switch. Cruise will return to the last
speed selected.
2.
Press the lower half of the on/off switch.
Auxiliary Braking Applications
Engine Brake
Each engine manufacturer uses a specific engine
brake for their engine. Regardless of the manufacturer, the engine brake is operated with the principles
outlined in this chapter. Refer to the engine manufacturer’s operation manual for details of their particular
engine brake product.
property damage. Service brakes are the primary
vehicle braking system.
Two dash-mounted switches (Fig. 10.3) control the
engine brake:
• The on/off switch (ENGINE BRAKE), is used to
turn the engine brake on and off.
• The engine brake intensity switch (HIGH/MED/
LOW or, in some cases, HIGH/LOW) controls
the amount of engine braking. When the engine brake is on, a status bar illuminates on
the intensity switch, indicating the current setting.
Since the engine brake is most effective at rated engine speed, gear selection is very important. Gearing
down the vehicle within the limits of the rated engine
speed makes the engine brake more effective. Recommended engine braking speed is above 1800 rpm
and below the rated speed.
WARNING
To avoid injury from loss of vehicle control, do
not activate the engine brake system under the
following conditions:
M
ENGINE
BRAKE
• on wet or slippery pavement, unless the
vehicle is equipped with antilock braking
system (ABS) and you have had prior experience driving under these conditions;
HIGH
MED
LOW
• when driving without a trailer or pulling an
empty trailer;
• if the tractor drive wheels begin to lock, or
there is fishtail motion after the engine
brake is activated.
Whenever vehicle braking is required on good road
conditions, the engine brake may be used in conjunction with the service brakes. There is no time
limit for operation of the engine brake. However, an
engine brake does not provide the precise control of,
and is not a substitute for, service brakes.
WARNING
Usage of the engine brake as the primary braking
system can cause unpredictable stopping distances, that could result in personal injury or
10.3
07/15/2011
f545791
Fig. 10.3, Engine Brake Switches
WARNING
The engine brake must be disengaged when
shifting gears using the clutch pedal. If the engine brake is engaged when the transmission is
in neutral, the braking power of the engine brake
can stall the engine, which could result in loss of
vehicle control, possibly causing personal injury
and property damage.
"Control speed" is the speed at which the engine
brake performs 100 percent of the required downhill
braking, resulting in a constant speed of descent.
Optional Engine Systems
dash switch to maintain constant speed of descent. Grade descent speed should be such that
the service brakes are used infrequently and remain cool, thus retaining their effectiveness.
The control speed varies, depending on vehicle
weight and the downhill grade.
For faster descent, select a higher gear than that
used for control speed. Service brakes must then be
used intermittently to prevent engine overspeed and
to maintain desired vehicle speed.
For slower descent, select a lower gear, being careful not to overspeed the engine. Occasional deactivation of the engine brake may be necessary to maintain the designated road speed under these
conditions.
If the engine is equipped with both cruise control and
an engine brake, the engine brake can operate automatically while cruise control is activated. The maximum amount of braking is selected with the dash
switches. When the vehicle returns to the set cruise
speed, the engine brake will turn off.
The engine brake will only operate when the accelerator and clutch pedals are fully released.
Vehicles equipped with ABS have the ability to turn
the engine brake off if wheel slip is detected. The
engine brake will automatically turn back on once
wheel slip is no longer detected.
4.
For maximum retarding, maintain the top governed speed of the engine through the appropriate selection of gears. When shifting gears, the
engine brake will disengage when the clutch
pedal is depressed, then engage when the clutch
pedal is released.
5.
To cancel the engine brake application, press the
lower half of the on/off switch.
Exhaust Brake
An exhaust brake is an optional auxiliary braking system that assists but does not replace the service
brake system on vehicles with Cummins engines.
Exhaust brakes are not intended for use as the primary braking system during vehicle operation.
The exhaust brake is controlled by a dash-mounted
rocker switch. See Fig. 10.4.
Engine Brake Operation
Depending on the brake type, the engine brake may
be disabled when engine temperature falls below a
set level.
ENGINE
BRAKE
NOTICE
Do not allow the engine to exceed its governed
speed, or serious engine damage could result.
To operate the engine brake after the engine is
warmed up and the vehicle is in motion:
1.
Remove your feet from both the clutch and accelerator pedals.
2.
Press the upper half of the on/off switch to turn
the engine brake on. The engine brake will engage at the rate last set on the engine brake intensity switch.
3.
Press the upper or lower half of the intensity
switch to select the desired braking intensity.
07/18/2011
f545792
Fig. 10.4, Exhaust Brake Switch
To turn the exhaust brake on, press the upper half of
the switch.
The exhaust brake turns itself off automatically. In
addition, depressing the accelerator or clutch pedal
deactivates the exhaust brake. The ABS, when active, also deactivates the exhaust brake.
Use the intensity switch set at the LOW position
when driving on flat, open stretches of road. If
the service brakes are still required to slow down
on a grade, switch to a higher setting on the
10.4
Optional Engine Systems
• The exhaust brake retards the vehicle with
Exhaust Brake Operation
a smooth braking effect.
WARNING
• During a descent, the tachometer usually
shows a drop in rpm, depending on the
grade and the vehicle load.
Do not use the exhaust brake when driving on
slippery or low-traction road surfaces. Failure to
follow this precaution could result in a loss of
vehicle control and possible personal injury or
property damage.
1.
2.
3.
Before starting the engine, make sure that the
exhaust brake is off. Wait until the engine has
reached normal operating temperature before
activating the exhaust brake.
When approaching a downhill grade, press the
upper half of the exhaust brake switch to turn the
exhaust brake on. When the exhaust brake is on,
the status bar is illuminated.
Remove your feet from the accelerator and
clutch pedals.
NOTICE
• Depending on the grade and vehicle load,
the retarding force of the exhaust brake
may be noticeable.
5.
Apply the service brakes to reduce engine rpm
or make a slower descent by using a lower gear.
6.
Make sure the exhaust brake is turned off before
shutting down the engine.
Power Takeoff (PTO) Governor
Engine power takeoffs (PTO) are devices used to tap
into engine power to run auxiliary devices, such as
hydraulic pumps that power additional equipment.
The following are general guidelines for operating a
PTO.
• Set the parking brake and put the transmission
in neutral.
Do not allow the engine to exceed its governed
speed, or serious engine damage could result.
• Press the upper half of the PTO switch. When
NOTE: The exhaust brake is only active when
engine speed is between 1100 and 2700 rpm.
the status bar light is steadily illuminated, the
PTO is engaged and ready to operate. In stationary mode, the vehicle must remain in neutral with the parking brake set.
4.
While going down a grade, use a low enough
gear to safely descend with a minimum application of the service brakes. As a general guideline, use the same gear as you would to ascend
the hill.
The following conditions should exist if the brake
is operating properly:
• A slight change in the sound of the engine
may be noticeable.
• Exhaust smoke should appear normal.
• Engine temperature should remain in the
normal operating range.
• Road speed will usually decrease when the
exhaust brake is applied during a descent.
When the vehicle is carrying a heavy load
or the grade is extremely steep, you may
need to apply the service brakes occasionally.
10.5
• To activate the mobile mode, shift from neutral
to reverse, 1st, or 2nd gear. The clutch will
open and the PTO will disengage for a moment.
• Touch the accelerator pedal to close the clutch
and engage the PTO in mobile mode. The
PTO may be operated with the transmission in
neutral or reverse, 1st, or 2nd gears only. Do
not attempt to change gears while the vehicle
is moving. The transmission will ignore the request.
• To deactivate mobile mode, bring the vehicle to
a stop. The clutch will open and shut down
power to the PTO.
• To resume stationary mode, shift to neutral.
The PTO will engage.
• To deactivate stationary mode, press the lower
half of the PTO switch. When the light in the
switch goes out, power to the PTO is shut off.
11
Emissions and Fuel
Efficiency
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Consumption Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
EPA-Regulated Emissions Aftertreatment Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Diesel Exhaust Fluid and Tank, EPA10 and Newer Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
and Fuel Consumption
Standards
• Use ultralow-sulfur diesel with 15 ppm sul-
Vehicles and/or engines manufactured after December 31, 2006 and domiciled in the U.S. or Canada
are required to meet all EPA and NHTSA regulations
effective as of the vehicle build date. Engines manufactured between January 1, 2007 and December 31,
2009 meet EPA07 requirements. Engines manufactured between January 1, 2010 and December 31,
2012 meet EPA10 requirements. Engines manufactured from January 1, 2013 meet NHTSA and EPA
2014 fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emission
standards (GHG14) requirements. Engines manufactured from January 1, 2016 meet NHTSA and EPA
2017 fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emission
standards (GHG17) requirements.
• Engine lube oil must have a sulfated ash
Model year 2013 and later vehicles meet additional
requirements as specified by GHG14 requirements.
Model year 2017 and later vehicles meet similar requirements as specified by GHG17 requirements.
These vehicles are equipped with components that
increase fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions.
Components may include, but are not limited to, lowrolling resistance tires; aerodynamic devices such as
hood, cab/sleeper extenders, and fuel tank fairings;
vehicle speed limiter; and idle shutdown timer. If replacement of any drag-reducing component is required, the replacement component must meet or
exceed the drag reduction performance of the originally installed component in order to maintain compliance with GHG14 and GHG17.
EPA-Regulated Emissions
Aftertreatment Systems
IMPORTANT: Depending on local jurisdictional
guidelines, vehicles that are domiciled outside of
the U.S. and Canada may not have emissions
aftertreatment systems (ATS) that are compliant
with EPA regulations.
NOTICE
Follow these guidelines for engines that comply
with EPA07 or newer regulations, or damage may
occur to the aftertreatment device (ATD) and the
warranty may be compromised.
11.1
fur content or less.
• Do not use fuel blended with used engine
lube oil or kerosene.
level less than 1.0 wt %; currently referred
to as CJ-4 oil.
IMPORTANT: Using non-specification fuels or
oils can lead to shortened diesel particulate filter
(DPF) cleaning or replacement intervals. For
example, using CJ-4+ oil with 1.3% sulfated ash
(30% more ash content) may result in the need
for DPF cleaning or replacement 20 to 30%
sooner than would normally be required.
IMPORTANT: See the engine manufacturer’s
operation manual for complete details and operation of the ATS.
EPA07 Engines
Engines built between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 are required to meet EPA07 guidelines
for reduced exhaust emissions of particulate matter
and nitrogen oxides (NOx). NOx is limited to just
over 1 gram per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr),
and particulate matter cannot exceed 0.01 g/bhp-hr.
The EPA07 ATS varies according to engine manufacturer and vehicle configuration, but the exhaust muffler is replaced by an aftertreatment device (ATD).
Inside the ATD, the exhaust first passes over the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), then passes through
the diesel particulate filter (DPF), which traps soot
particles. The soot is burned to ash during a process
called regeneration (regen).
EPA10 and Newer Engines
The EPA mandates that all engines built after December 31, 2009 must reduce the level of emissions
exhausted by the engine to the following levels:
• Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) – 0.2 g/bhp-hr
• Particulate Matter (PM) – .01 g/bhp-hr
To meet EPA guidelines, engines that are compliant
with EPA10 and newer regulations use an ATS that
has, in addition to a DOC/DPF device like that used
in an EPA07 ATD, a Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR) devide to reduce NOx downstream of the engine. After exhaust gases leave the DPF, a controlled
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
quantity of diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is injected into
the exhaust stream. In the presence of heat, DEF is
converted to ammonia gas, which reacts with NOx in
the selective catalyst chamber to yield nitrogen and
water vapor, which exit through the tailpipe.
function of the switch varies by the engine make and
model in the vehicle. See the engine operation
manual for switch operation details.
Regeneration
The harder an engine works, the better it disposes of
soot. If the exhaust temperature is high enough, a
process called passive regeneration (regen) occurs
as the vehicle is driven normally. However, if the engine isn’t running hot enough, the electronic controls
may initiate an active regen, whereby extra fuel is
injected into the exhaust stream to superheat and
reduce the soot trapped in the DPF to ash. Active
regen happens only when the vehicle is moving
above a certain speed, determined by the engine
manufacturer. See your engine operation manual for
complete details. Both active and passive regen happen automatically, without driver input.
WARNING
Active regeneration can occur automatically anytime the vehicle is moving. The exhaust gas temperature could reach 1500°F (800°C), which is hot
enough to cause a fire, heat damage to objects
or materials, or personal injury to persons near
the exhaust outlet. The exhaust temperature can
remain high even after the vehicle has stopped.
When stopping the vehicle shortly after an automatic regen, ensure the exhaust outlets are directed away from structures, trees, vegetation,
flammable materials, and anything else that may
be damaged or injured by exposure to high heat.
08/02/2011
f610852a
Fig. 11.1, Regen Switch
Some vehicles may be equipped with a regen
request/inhibit switch. See Fig. 11.2. To stop a regen
in progress or prevent the start of a regen, press the
lower half of the switch. Regen is then delayed until
the switch is no longer active.
NOTE: The regen switch can initiate a parked
regen only when the DPF lamp is illuminated.
See Regen Switches, below, for instructions on
preventing automatic regen if necessary.
When operating conditions do not allow for ATD filter
cleaning by active or passive regen, the vehicle may
require a driver-activated parked regen. When this
occurs, the DPF lamp illuminates, indicating that a
regen is required. The driver must either bring the
vehicle up to highway speed to increase the load
(thus starting an active regen), or park the vehicle
and initiate a parked regen. See Regen Switches,
below, for instructions on initiating a parked regen.
Regen Switches
The regen request switch, located on the dash, is
used to initiate a parked regen. See Fig. 11.1. The
11/01/2006
f610852
Fig. 11.2, Regen Request/Inhibit Switch
WARNING
During parked regen, exhaust temperatures are
very high and could cause a fire, heat damage to
11.2
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
objects or materials, or personal injury to persons near the exhaust outlet.
Before initiating a parked regen, make certain the
exhaust outlets are directed away from structures, trees, vegetation, flammable materials, and
anything else that may be damaged or injured by
prolonged exposure to high heat.
To initiate a parked regen, perform the following
steps.
1.
Park the vehicle away from all flammable materials, put the transmission in neutral, and set the
parking brake.
2.
Start and warm the engine until the coolant temperature is at least 150°F (66°C).
3.
Press and hold the regen switch for five seconds. The engine will increase rpm and initiate
the regen process. As the regen process is initiated, engine rpm increases and the HEST lamp
illuminates to indicate extremely high exhaust
temperatures.
IMPORTANT: The driver must remain with the
vehicle during the entire regen cycle.
4.
5.
The regen cycle will finish after 20 to 60 minutes,
at which time engine idle speed drops to normal
and the vehicle can be driven normally. The
HEST lamp is extinguished when vehicle speed
exceeds 5 mph (8 km/h) or the system has
cooled to normal operating temperature.
To stop a parked regen at any time during the
process:
• depress the clutch pedal, brake pedal, or
accelerator pedal;
• press and hold the regen inhibit switch until
idle returns to normal;
• shut down the engine.
ATS Warning Lamps
There are three warning lamps that alert the driver of
high exhaust temperature, the need to perform a
parked regen or service the DPF, or of an engine
fault that affects emissions. A decal attached to the
driver’s sun visor explains the ATS warning lamps.
See Fig. 11.3.
11.3
See Fig. 11.4 for an explanation of the ATS warnings, and actions required to avoid engine protection
sequences.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
A steadily illuminated yellow malfunction indicator
lamp (MIL) indicates an engine fault that affects the
emissions. See Fig. 11.5.
DPF Lamp
When soot accumulates in the DPF and the DPF status lamp illuminates, see Fig. 11.6, perform a parked
regen or bring the vehicle up to highway speed to
increase the load (thus starting an active regen).
If the DPF status lamp blinks while the CHECK engine lamp is illuminated, initiate a parked regen immediately in order to prevent an engine derate.
If the red STOP engine lamp illuminates with the
blinking DPF lamp and the CHECK engine lamp,
begin a parked regen in order to prevent an engine
shutdown. Park the vehicle and perform a parked
regen.
High Exhaust System Temperature
(HEST) Lamp
Slow (10-second) flashing of the high exhaust system temperature (HEST) lamp indicates that a
parked regen is in progress, and the engine’s high
idle speed is being controlled by the engine software,
not the vehicle driver.
Steady illumination of the HEST lamp alerts the
driver of high exhaust temperature during the regen
process if the vehicle speed is below 5 mph (8 km/
h), or during a parked regen. See Fig. 11.7.
Maintenance
Authorized service facilities must perform any DPF
service. For warranty purposes, maintain a record
that includes:
• date of cleaning or replacement;
• vehicle mileage;
• particulate filter part number and serial number.
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
IMPORTANT
DPF Regen Needed
1
2
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
regeneration is needed.
If flashing, regenerate as soon as
possible. Engine derate possible.
Hot exhaust can cause fire.
Hot Exhaust
Keep flammables and people away
from exhaust.
3
DEF Refill Needed
DEF
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) level is
low. Engine derate likely.
Refill tank with certified DEF.
See operator’s manual for complete instructions.
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24−01656−000
f080161
Fig. 11.3, Warning Lamp Decal, Sun Visor
Diesel Exhaust Fluid and Tank,
EPA10 and Newer Engines
Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is used in the ATS to
lower NOx in the exhaust stream. DEF is colorless
and close to odorless (it may have a slightly pungent
odor similar to ammonia). It is nontoxic, nonflammable, and biodegradable. It is mildly corrosive to
aluminum, but does not affect the strength or structure of the aluminum.
White crystals may be noticeable around components that come into contact with DEF. The crystals
are easily removed with water.
DEF consumption varies depending on ambient conditions and vehicle application.
Freezing Conditions
DEF freezes to slush at around 12°F (-11°C). It is not
damaged or destroyed if frozen, and is fully usable
when thawed. The DEF in the tank is allowed to
freeze while a vehicle is non-operational. At start-up,
normal operation of the vehicle is not inhibited if the
DEF is frozen; an immersion heater with engine coolant flowing through it warms the DEF once the engine is running, allowing the SCR system to operate.
Pre-2013 DEF supply lines are electrically-heated
and are purged when the engine is shut down; complete purging of the DEF lines requires approximately
five minutes after the engine is shut down.
DEF supply lines with engine model year 2013 and
newer are designed to survive freezing conditions
while containing DEF, so purging is not required.
11.4
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
EXHAUST AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM INFORMATION
WARNING
INDICATOR
LAMP(S)
CHECK
(Solid)
(Flashing)
Level 1
Level 2
(Flashing)
CHECK
STOP
(Flashing)
Level 3
Level 4
Indicator Lamp
Message(s)
Filter Regeneration
Recommended
Filter Regeneration
Necessary
Parked Regeneration
Required − Engine
Derate
Parked Regeneration Required −
Engine Shut Down
Diesel Particulate
Filter Condition
Filter is reaching
capacity.
Filter is now
reaching maximum
capacity.
Switch.
Filter has reached
maximum capacity.
Filter has exceeded
maximum capacity.
Required Action
Bring vehicle to
highway speeds to
allow for an Automatic
Regeneration or
perform a Parked
Regeneration.
To avoid engine
derate bring vehicle
to highway speeds
to allow for an
Automatic
Regeneration or
perform a Parked
Regeneration as
soon as possible.
Vehicle must be
parked and a Parked
Regeneration must
be performed −
engine will begin
derate.
Vehicle must be parked and a
Parked Regeneration or Service
Regeneration must be performed.
Check engine operator’s manual
for details −engine will shut down.
HEST (High Exhaust
System Temperature)
Flashing
A regeneration is in
progress.
Solid
Exhaust Components
and exhaust gas are
at high temperature.
When stationary, keep
away from people and
flammable materials
or vapors.
For a driver performed Parked Regeneration, vehicle must be equipped with a dash mounted Regeneration Switch.
See Engine Operator’s Manual for complete Regeneration Instructions.
06/29/2009
24−01583−000B
f080147
Fig. 11.4, ATS Warning Lamps
09/25/2006
f610814a
Fig. 11.5, Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
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f610815a
Fig. 11.6, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Status Lamp
DEF Tank
Fuel/DEF Gauge
Engines that are compliant with EPA10 and newer
regulations are equipped with a DEF tank located on
the driver’s side of the vehicle behind the battery box
or forward of the fuel tank. See Fig. 11.8. The DEF
tank has a 19 mm filler neck inlet that prevents the
hose from a diesel outlet from being inserted, and
has a blue cap for easy identification.
The diesel fuel and DEF levels are measured in a
dual-purpose gauge. See Fig. 11.9.
Fuel level is indicated at the top of the gauge. Below
the fuel level, a low fuel warning lamp illuminates
amber when the fuel level drops below 1/8th of the
capacity.
The lower portion of the gauge has a DEF warning
lamp that illuminates amber when the DEF tank is
near empty, and a lightbar that indicates the level of
11.5
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
DEF Warnings and Engine Limits
IMPORTANT: Ignoring the DEF warning lights
results in limited engine power, with the application of a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed limit.
DEF Level Low—Initial Warning
When the DEF level is low, the following lamps notify
the driver. See Fig. 11.10. Refill the DEF tank in
order to cancel the warning sequence.
09/25/2006
f610816a
Fig. 11.7, High Exhaust System Temperature (HEST)
Lamp
• One bar of the DEF level indicator illuminates
amber—DEF very low, refill DEF.
• The DEF warning lamp illuminates solid amber.
DEF Empty
When the DEF level reads empty, the following
lamps notify the drive. See Fig. 11.11.
• One bar of the DEF level indicator flashes
red—DEF empty, refill DEF.
• The DEF warning lamp flashes amber.
• The MIL lamp illuminates.
Pre-2013 Detroit engines: Power is limited, with a 55
mph (90 km/h) speed limit.
Cummins and 2013 Detroit engines: Power is limited
with progressively harsher engine power limits
applied.
1
2
f470541
07/24/2009
1. DEF Tank
2. Fuel Tank
Fig. 11.8, DEF Tank Located Forward of the Fuel Tank
DEF in the tank. The DEF light bar illuminates as follows.
• Four bars illuminated green—Between 75%
and 100% full
• Three bars illuminated green—Between 50%
and 75% full
• Two bars illuminated green—Between 25%
and 50% full
• One bar illuminated green—Between approxi-
mately 10% and 25% full
• One bar illuminated amber—DEF very low, re-
fill DEF
• One bar flashing red—DEF empty, refill DEF
DEF Tank Empty and Ignored
If the empty warning is ignored and the DEF tank is
not refilled, the red STOP engine lamp illuminates in
addition to the MIL lamp and CHECK engine lamp
(on vehicles with a Cummins ISB or ISC/L engine.)
See Fig. 11.12.
If the DEF is not refilled, a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed
limit is applied after the next engine shutdown, while
parked and idling, or if a fuel refill is detected.
DEF Contamination or SCR Tampering
NOTICE
Once contaminated DEF or tampering has been
detected, the vehicle must be taken to an authorized service facility to check the SCR system for
damage and to deactivate the warning lights and
engine limits.
11.6
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
1/2
1/2
1/2
ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
E
F
E
DEF
E
1
F
E
DEF
F
E
2
A
F
DEF
F
E
B
F
C
11/08/2010
f611037
A. Green bars—DEF level indicators
B. One bar illuminated amber—DEF very low, refill DEF
1. Low Fuel Warning Lamp
C. One bar flashing red—DEF empty, refill DEF
2. DEF Warning Lamp
Fig. 11.9, Fuel/DEF Gauge
A
A
B
B
07/09/2009
f470537
A. DEF Warning Lamp (illuminated)
B. DEF Lightbar (one bar amber)
Fig. 11.10, DEF Level Low Initial Warning
If contaminated DEF or tampering with the ATS is
detected, the DEF warning light flashes and the MIL
lamp illuminates to warn the driver. The CHECK engine lamp also illuminates on vehicles with a Cummins ISB or ISC/L engine. See Fig. 11.12.
• Detroit engines: Engine power is limited with
progressively harsher limits applied. If the fault
is not corrected, the STOP engine light illuminates and a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed limit is applied after the next engine shutdown, while
parked and idling, or if a fuel refill is detected.
• Cummins engines: Engine power is limited with
progressively harsher limits applied. If the fault
is not corrected, the STOP engine light illumi-
11.7
11/08/2010
f470539a
NOTE: MIL illuminates. CHECK engine lamp illuminates
if Cummins ISB or ISC/L engine. Engine power is limited.
A. DEF Warning Lamp (flashing)
B. DEF Lightbar (one bar flashing red)
Fig. 11.11, DEF Empty Warning
nates and a 5 mph (8 km/h) speed limit is applied after the next engine shutdown, or while
parked and idling.
Emissions and Fuel Efficiency
A
B
11/08/2010
f470540a
NOTE: STOP engine light and MIL illuminate, engine
power is limited, speed limit of 5 mph (8 km/h)
A. DEF Warning Lamp (flashing)
B. DEF Lightbar (one bar flashing red)
Fig. 11.12, DEF Empty and Ignored Warning
11.8
12
Brake Systems
Air Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Meritor WABCO® Antilock Braking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3
Roll-Stability Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5
Brake Systems
Air Brake System
General Information, Brake System
A dual air brake system consists of two independent
air systems that use a single set of brake controls.
Each system has its own reservoirs, plumbing, and
brake chambers. The primary system operates the
service brakes on the rear axle; the secondary system operates the service brakes on the front axle.
Service brake signals from both systems are sent to
the trailer.
Brake System Operation
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle with the front brakes
backed off or disconnected. Backing off or disconnecting the front brakes will not improve vehicle handling and may lead to loss of vehicle
control, resulting in property damage or personal
injury.
Before driving your vehicle, allow time for the air
compressor to build up a minimum of 100 psi (690
kPa) pressure in both the primary and secondary
systems. Monitor the air pressure system by observing the dual system air pressure gauge and the lowair-pressure warning light and buzzer. The warning
light and buzzer shut off when air pressure in both
systems reaches 64 to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa).
IMPORTANT: Before driving the vehicle, secure
all loose items in the cab so that they will not fly
forward during a full brake application. Make
sure all passengers are wearing seat belts.
During normal brake stops, depress the foot brake
control pedal until braking action slows down the vehicle. Increase or decrease the pressure on the
pedal so that the vehicle comes to a smooth, safe
stop. Apply the spring parking brakes if the vehicle is
to be parked.
When parking a vehicle attached to a trailer that
does not have spring parking brakes, apply the tractor parking brakes. Chock the trailer tires before disconnecting the vehicle from the trailer.
IMPORTANT: An air brake proportioning system
may be used in tractor air brake systems when
the vehicle is not equipped with antilock braking
system (ABS). When operating in bobtail mode,
12.1
the rear brake chambers (on which the axle
load has been greatly reduced) receive reduced
(proportional) air pressure, while the front axle
brake chambers receive full (normal) air pressure. This results in a different brake pedal
"feel," as the pedal seems to require more travel
and/or effort to slow or stop the vehicle. However, the air brake proportioning system actually
improves vehicle control when the tractor is in
bobtail mode. When the tractor is towing a
trailer, the rear brake chambers will receive full
(normal) application air pressure.
NOTE: If equipped with main and auxiliary
transmissions, do not shift both transmissions
into neutral while the vehicle is rolling. Shifting
both transmissions back into gear would be difficult while the vehicle is rolling.
On tractor-trailer vehicles, if both the primary and
secondary systems become inoperative, the trailer
service brakes or spring parking brakes will automatically apply when air pressure drops below 35 to 45
psi (241 to 310 kPa). The tractor spring parking
brakes will automatically apply when air pressure
drops below 20 to 30 psi (138 to 207 kPa). On
straight trucks, spring parking brakes will apply when
air pressure drops below 20 to 30 psi (138 to 207
kPa). Do not wait for the brakes to apply automatically. When the warning light and buzzer first come
on, immediately bring the vehicle to a safe stop. Before continuing operation of the vehicle, correct the
cause of the air loss.
WARNING
If a trailer or combination vehicle is not equipped
with spring parking brakes, do not park it by pulling out only the trailer air supply valve knob.
This would apply only the trailer service brakes.
If air were to bleed from the trailer brake system,
the trailer brakes would release, possibly causing
an unattended runaway vehicle.
WARNING
Do not use the trailer service brakes for parking;
they are not designed for this purpose. If air
bleeds out of the trailer air tank during parking,
the vehicle could roll, causing serious personal
injury or property damage.
Brake Systems
NOTICE
5
Never apply the service and spring parking
brakes simultaneously. To do so transmits excessive input force to the brake components, which
could damage or cause eventual failure of brake
actuating components.
6
Do not use the spring parking brakes if the service brakes are hot, such as after descending a
steep grade. To do so could damage the brakes.
Allow hot brakes to cool before using the spring
parking brakes.
Do not use the spring parking brakes during
freezing temperatures if the service brakes are
wet. To do so could cause them to freeze. If the
brakes are wet, drive the vehicle in low gear and
lightly apply the brakes to heat and dry them.
4
3
2
05/07/2001
Brake Controls
The trailer brake lever is used for applying the trailer
brakes without applying the truck or tractor service
brakes. It is usually mounted on the steering column.
See Fig. 12.1. The valve can be partially or fully applied, but in any partially on position it will be overridden by a full application of the service brake pedal.
Moving the lever clockwise (down) applies the trailer
brakes, while moving it counterclockwise (up) releases the trailer brakes. The lever will remain in the
selected position until it is manually moved.
The red octagonal-shaped knob actuates the trailer
air supply valve. See Fig. 12.2. After the vehicle’s air
hoses are connected to a trailer and the pressure in
both air systems is at least 65 psi (448 kPa), the
trailer air supply valve must be pushed in. It should
stay in to charge the trailer air supply system and to
release the trailer spring parking brakes.
Pull the trailer air supply valve out before disconnecting a trailer or when operating a vehicle without a
trailer. If pressure in both air systems drops to 35 to
45 psi (241 to 310 kPa), the trailer air supply valve
automatically pops out, exhausting the trailer air supply, and applying the trailer service or spring parking
brakes.
The yellow diamond-shaped knob actuates the parking brake valve. See Fig. 12.2. Pulling out the parking brake valve applies both the tractor and trailer
spring parking brakes and automatically causes the
trailer air supply valve to pop out.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1
f610493
Tilt/Telescopic Steering Column Lever
Four-Way Hazard Flasher
Turn Signal Lever
Headlight Dimmer Switch
Electric Horn
Trailer Brake Control Lever
Fig. 12.1, Trailer Brake Control Lever
1
2
f610291
03/10/99
1. Trailer Air-Supply-Valve Knob
2. Parking-Brake-Valve Knob
Fig. 12.2, Brake Valve Knobs
If the trailer is not equipped with spring parking
brakes, pulling out the parking brake valve applies
the tractor spring parking brakes and the trailer service brakes. When the tractor and trailer parking
brakes (or trailer service brakes) are both applied,
the trailer brakes are released by pushing in the
trailer air supply valve, leaving the tractor parking
brakes applied. Air pressure in the primary or secondary reservoir must be at least 65 psi (448 kPa)
12.2
Brake Systems
before the tractor spring parking brakes, or the trailer
service or spring parking brakes, can be released.
secondary air system will continue to operate the
front brakes and the trailer brakes (if equipped).
On trailers not equipped with spring parking brakes,
chock the trailer tires before disconnecting the truck
or tractor.
Secondary Air System
When parking a truck or tractor with a trailer (combination vehicle), and the trailer is not equipped with
spring parking brakes, apply the truck or tractor
spring parking brakes.
Brake System Conditions
The warning light and buzzer come on if air pressure
drops below 64 to 76 psi (441 to 524 kPa) in either
system. If this happens, check the dual system air
pressure gauge to determine which system has low
air pressure. Although the vehicle’s speed can be
reduced using the foot brake control pedal, either the
front or rear service brakes will not be operating at
full capacity, causing a longer stopping distance.
Bring the vehicle to a safe stop and have the air system repaired before continuing.
IMPORTANT: In the event of a total loss of service brakes with full system air pressure, use
the parking brake control valve (yellow knob) to
bring the vehicle to a complete stop in the safest location possible.
Before a vehicle with insufficient system air pressure
can be moved, the spring parking brakes must be
released by applying an external air source at the
gladhands, or by manually caging the parking brake
springs.
WARNING
Do not release the spring parking brakes and
then drive the vehicle. There would be no means
of stopping the vehicle, which could result in serious personal injury or vehicle damage. Before
releasing the spring parking brakes, make the
connection to a towing vehicle or chock the tires.
After correcting the brake system problem, uncage
the spring parking brakes before resuming normal
vehicle operation.
Primary Air Brake System
Loss of air pressure in the primary air system causes
the rear service brakes to become inoperative. The
12.3
Loss of air pressure in the secondary air system
causes the front axle brakes to become inoperative.
The primary air system will continue to operate the
rear service brakes and the trailer brakes (if
equipped).
Automatic Slack Adjusters
Automatic slack adjusters should never be manually
adjusted except during routine maintenance of the
foundation brakes (e.g., replacing shoes), during
slack adjuster installation, or in an emergency situation.
When the brake pushrod stroke exceeds the legal
brake adjustment limit on a vehicle, there is likely a
mechanical problem with the foundation brake components or the adjuster is improperly installed.
Visit a repair facility as soon as possible when
brakes equipped with automatic slack adjusters are
determined to be out of adjustment.
NOTICE
Manually adjusting an automatic slack adjuster to
bring the pushrod stroke within legal limits is not
repairing. In fact, continual adjustment of automatic slack adjusters may result in premature
wear of the adjuster itself. Further, the improper
adjustment of some automatic slack adjusters
may cause internal damage to the adjuster,
thereby preventing it from properly functioning.
Meritor WABCO® Antilock
Braking System
The Meritor WABCO Antilock Braking System (ABS)
is an electronic wheel speed monitoring and control
system that works with the standard air brake system. ABS passively monitors vehicle wheel speed at
all times, and controls wheel speed during emergency stops or wheel lock situations.
IMPORTANT: For proper ABS system operation,
do not change tire sizes. The sizes of the tires
installed during production are programmed into
the electronic control unit. Installing different
Brake Systems
sized tires could result in a reduced braking
force, leading to longer stopping distances.
ABS includes signal-generating tone wheels and sensors located in the wheel hubs of each sensed
wheel. The sensors transmit vehicle wheel speed
information to an electronic control unit (located behind the center dash). The control unit’s main circuit
interprets the speed sensor signals and calculates
wheel speed, wheel retardation, and a vehicle reference speed. If the calculations indicate wheel lockup,
the main circuit signals the appropriate modulator
valve to reduce braking pressure. During emergency
braking, the modulator valve alternately reduces, increases, or maintains air pressure supply in the
brake chamber to prevent front and rear wheel
lockup.
The Meritor WABCO ABS combines one front-axle
control channel with one rear-axle control channel to
form one control circuit. For example, the sensor and
modulator valve on the left-front axle form a control
circuit with the sensor and modulator valve on the
right-rear axle. If, during vehicle operation, the safety
circuit senses a failure in any part of the ABS, the
tractor ABS warning lamp illuminates and the control
circuit where the failure occurred is switched to normal braking action. The remaining control circuit will
retain the ABS effect. Even if the ABS is completely
inoperative, normal braking ability is maintained. An
exception would be if a modulator valve (or combination modulator valve) is damaged and inoperative. As
these components are an integral part of the air
brake system, normal braking may be impaired or
inoperative.
Although the ABS improves vehicle control during
emergency braking situations, the driver still has the
responsibility to change driving styles depending on
existing traffic and road conditions. For example, the
ABS cannot prevent an accident if the driver is
speeding or following too closely.
During emergency or reduced-traction stops, fully
depress the brake pedal until the vehicle comes to a
safe stop. Do not pump the brake pedal. With the
brake pedal fully depressed, the ABS will control all
wheels to provide steering control and a reduced
braking distance.
ABS, Trailer Compatibility
The Meritor WABCO ABS is designed to communicate with a trailer ABS, if they are compatible. Com-
patibility will result in the illumination of the trailer
ABS lamp during vehicle start-up and fault detection.
See Fig. 12.3.
1
WHEEL
SPIN
3
2
07/15/2011
f610752
1. ATC Warning Light
2. Tractor ABS Warning
Light
3. Trailer ABS Warning
Light
Fig. 12.3, ABS Dash Lights
The trailer ABS lamp will not illuminate unless a compatible trailer is connected to the tractor. The dashmounted lamp will operate as follows when a compatible trailer is properly connected to the tractor:
• When the ignition key is turned to the ON posi-
tion, the trailer ABS lamp will illuminate momentarily, then turn off.
• If the lamp illuminates momentarily during ve-
hicle operation, then shuts off, a fault was detected and corrected.
• If the lamp illuminates and stays on during ve-
hicle operation, there is a fault with the trailer
ABS. Repair the trailer ABS system immediately to ensure full antilock braking capability.
IMPORTANT: If a compatible trailer is connected, and the lamp is not illuminating momentarily when the ignition key is turned to the ON
position, it is possible that the lamp is burnt out.
Automatic Traction Control
Vehicles with electronic engines and ABS may have
Automatic Traction Control (ATC). On these vehicles,
the ATC system automatically limits wheel spin during reduced-traction situations. In normal braking applications, the standard air brake system is in effect.
If the vehicle has ATC, there will be a momentarycontact rocker switch on the dash labeled Deep Mud
and Snow with an ATC icon. See Fig. 12.4. Pressing
12.4
Brake Systems
the switch will temporarily allow more drive wheel
spin. Pressing the switch again will cycle the system
back to normal operation.
warning lights go out if all of the tractor’s ABS components are working.
IMPORTANT: If any of the ABS warning lights
do not work as described above, or come on
while driving, repair the ABS immediately to ensure full antilock braking capability.
Roll-Stability Control
The roll-stability control system automatically reduces
engine power, applies the engine brake, and/or applies the tractor and trailer brakes when the acceleration sensor detects that the vehicle is at risk of rolling
over. The control can intervene even before an advisory message is displayed.
05/15/2001
f610494
Fig. 12.4, Deep Mud and Snow Switch
An additional solenoid valve is installed. During
reduced-traction situations, the ATC solenoid valve
controls air pressure to the modulator valves and
they in turn increase, hold, or reduce pressure to the
appropriate brake chambers to provide better traction
whenever wheel spin occurs.
A decal (Fig. 12.5) on the auxiliary dash panel, and
an amber-colored dash indicator light (Fig. 12.6), indicate that the vehicle is equipped with the rollstability system components.
The dash indicator light illuminates whenever the rollstability control system intervenes. See Fig. 12.6.
NOTE: The roll-stability control indicator is located on the lightbar in place of the standard
WHEEL SPIN indicator.
When the ATC system is in the NORMAL mode, it
will apply gentle braking to the spinning wheel, to
feed power to the wheel(s) with better traction. If
both wheels are spinning, the system will signal the
engine to reduce power.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
lamp indicates traction
OR roll control event.
Follow instructions in
driver’s manual.
NOTICE
24−01204−000
07/11/2003
The deep snow and mud option is intended to be
used under specific slippery conditions that require momentary increased wheel spin. Using
this option for an extended period of time may
damage the vehicle brake system.
ATC includes a deep snow and mud option to increase available traction on extra soft surfaces like
snow, mud, or gravel. The activation of the deep
snow and mud option is indicated by a flashing
WHEEL SPIN lamp.
After the ignition switch is turned on, the tractor ABS
lamp and the WHEEL SPIN indicator lamp come on
for about three seconds. After three seconds, the
12.5
f080125
Fig. 12.5, Roll-Stability Decal
WARNING
The Roll Stability Control system is intended only
as an aid for a conscientious and alert driver.
Carefully read the information in this manual to
understand this system and its limitations. The
Roll Stability Control system is not a substitute
for safe driving procedures. Failure to drive
safely, and use the system properly, could result
in personal injury and/or death and property
damage.
Brake Systems
06/26/2003
f602128
Fig. 12.6, Roll-Stability Indicator Lamp
12.6
13
Steering System
Power Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Steering System
Power Steering System
The power steering system includes the integral
power steering gear, hydraulic hoses, power steering
pump, reservoir, steering wheel and column, and
other components. Some models are also equipped
with a separate hydraulic power cylinder on the right
side of the front axle, or a right-hand slave gear.
The power steering pump, driven by the engine, provides the power assist for the steering system. If the
engine is not running, there is no power assist. If the
power-assist feature does not work due to hydraulic
fluid loss, steering pump damage, or some other
cause, bring the vehicle to a safe stop. Do not drive
the vehicle until the cause of the problem has been
corrected.
ing wheel spokes should be at the 3 o’clock and 9
o’clock positions or within 10 degrees of these positions. See Fig. 13.1.
10
10
1
2
10
10
WARNING
Driving the vehicle without the power-assist feature of the steering system requires much greater
effort, especially in sharp turns or at low speeds,
which could result in an accident and possible
injury.
NOTICE
Never steam clean or high-pressure wash the
steering gear. Internal damage to gear seals, and
ultimately the steering gear, can result.
Drivers should carefully use the power available with
a power steering system. If the front tires become
lodged in a deep chuckhole or rut, drive the vehicle
out instead of using the steering system to lift the
tires out of the hole.
NOTICE
Avoid turning the tires when they are against a
curb, as this places a heavy load on steering
components and could damage them.
An optional power steering fluid cooler mounted in
front of the radiator or behind the cab is available.
Certain applications may limit or require the use of a
power steering fluid cooler.
Steering Wheel Adjustment
When there is no load on the vehicle and the front
tires are pointed straight ahead, the standard steer-
13.1
06/06/2003
f461970
1. 9 o’Clock
2. 3 o’Clock
Fig. 13.1, Steering Wheel Centered
14
Manual Transmissions and
Clutch
Eaton® Fuller® Transmission Operation Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton Fuller Splitter and Range-Shift Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton Fuller Deep Reduction Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1
14.1
14.4
14.7
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
Eaton® Fuller® Transmission
Operation Tips
Eaton Fuller Splitter and
Range-Shift Transmissions
Refer to the Eaton website (www.roadranger.com)
for additional information.
Combination splitter and range-shift transmissions
allow the choice of two splitter ratios in each gear, as
well as the additional ratios provided by a low range
and a high range.
Follow these important operation principles:
• For all conditions, use the highest gear that is
still low enough to start the vehicle moving with
the engine at or near idle speed, and without
slipping the clutch excessively.
When operating on-highway with no load or
under ideal conditions, use 1st gear to start the
vehicle moving forward.
When operating off-road or under adverse conditions, use LOW gear to start the vehicle moving forward.
• Use the clutch brake to stop gear rotation
when shifting into LOW or reverse while the
vehicle is stationary. The clutch brake is actuated by depressing the clutch pedal all the way
to the floor.
• Partially disengage the clutch to break engine
torque during normal gear shifts.
• Double-clutch between all upshifts and down-
shifts that require movement of the shift knob.
Splitting of gears does not require movement
of the shift knob.
• Never push the range-preselection lever down
into low range while operating in high range,
except when downshifting from 5th gear to 4th
gear.
• Do not shift from high range to low range at
high vehicle speeds.
• Never make a range shift or a splitter shift
while the vehicle is in reverse.
• Never move the range-preselection lever with
the transmission in neutral while the vehicle is
moving.
• Skip ratios while shifting only when operating
conditions permit, depending on the load,
grade, and road speed.
• Never coast with the transmission in neutral.
14.1
General Information, Range-Shift
Transmissions
IMPORTANT: Not all ratios are used in each
range, and the shift patterns vary between
transmissions. Read the shift pattern decal on
the dash for the operating instructions for the
transmission installed in your vehicle.
The range-preselection lever selects the low or high
range for each transmission ratio. It is used once
during an upshift sequence and once during a downshift sequence.
To operate a range-shift transmission, move the gear
shift lever through all the low-range gear positions
and then pull the range-preselection lever up to
move into the high-range ratios.
IMPORTANT: Always preselect range shifts
when upshifting or downshifting. Preselection
requires that the range lever be moved to the
necessary position before starting to shift. Preselecting range shifts prevents damage to the
transmission and provides for smoother shifts.
General Information, Splitter Control
Dependent on the transmission model, some ratios
can be split using the splitter-control button (located
on the side of the gear shift lever).
IMPORTANT: Always preselect splitter shifts.
Preselection requires that the splitter-control
button be moved to the necessary position before starting to shift. Preselecting splitter shifts
allows for smoother and faster shifting. Complete the shift immediately after preselecting the
split to avoid unnecessary wear on transmission
components.
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
Eaton Fuller 13-Speed Splitter and
Range-Shift Transmissions
Eaton Fuller 13-speed transmissions have thirteen
forward speeds and two reverse speeds. Each transmission consists of a 5-speed front section and a
3-speed auxiliary section. The auxiliary section contains low- and high-range ratios, plus a splitter gear.
See Fig. 14.1 for the shift pattern.
Hi
R
Lo
5 5
Dir OD
7 7
Dir OD
1
3
1
5.
Upshift from LOW (or 1st gear) through 4th gear,
double-clutching when moving the gear shift
lever, and accelerating to 80 percent of engine
governed speed.
6.
While in 4th gear, pull the range-preselection
lever up into high range and move the splittercontrol button to the low (rearward) position.
Double-clutch into 5th gear, engage the clutch,
and accelerate.
7.
Upshift progressively through the high range
gears.
To shift from 5th direct to 5th overdrive (or 5th
underdrive to 5th direct on RT model transmissions), move the splitter-control button to the
high position, then immediately release the accelerator. Press and release the clutch pedal,
then, accelerate again.
A
N
B
LOW
6 6
Dir OD
8 8
Dir OD
2
4
03/13/96
A. High Range
B. Low Range
1. Splitter Control Button
C
D
Continue upshifting through the shift pattern.
Double-clutch when moving the gear shift lever
(6th to 7th, etc.); single-clutch during split shifts
(6th direct to 6th overdrive, etc.).
f260044a
C. High (forward)
D. Low (rearward)
Fig. 14.1, Eaton Fuller 13-Speed Transmission Shift
Pattern
LOW gear is used only as a starting gear; it is never
used with the transmission in high range. The other
four ratios are used once in the low range and once
again in the high range.
High range gear ratios can be split by using the
splitter-control button with the underdrive ratio (RT
models), or overdrive ratio (RTO models). Low range
gear ratios cannot be split.
Downshifting
IMPORTANT: Never use the clutch brake when
downshifting, or as a brake to slow the vehicle.
1.
To downshift from 8th overdrive to 8th direct (or
8th direct to 8th underdrive on RT model transmissions), move the splitter-control button to the
low position, then immediately release the accelerator. Press and release the clutch pedal, then
accelerate once the transmission has shifted.
2.
Start the downshift from 8th direct to 7th overdrive by moving the splitter-control button to the
high position, then double-clutch into 7th gear.
Upshifting
1.
Put the transmission in neutral. Start the engine
and bring the air system pressure up to 100 to
120 psi (689 to 827 kPa).
3.
Downshift progressively through each of the high
range gears, alternating the procedures in steps
1 and 2 above until reaching 5th direct.
2.
Position the range-preselection lever down, in
low range.
4.
3.
Make sure the splitter-control button is in the low
(rearward) position. See Fig. 14.1.
When in 5th direct and ready for the downshift to
4th, push the range-preselection lever down and
move the splitter-control button to the high position. Double-clutch into 4th gear, engage the
clutch, and accelerate.
4.
To start the vehicle moving, press the clutch
pedal to the floor, shift into LOW or 1st gear,
then engage the clutch with the engine at or near
idle speed. Accelerate to 80 percent of engine
governed speed.
5.
Continue downshifting from 4th gear to 1st gear,
as conditions require.
14.2
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
Eaton Fuller 18-Speed Splitter and
Range-Shift Transmissions
Eaton Fuller 18-speed transmissions have eighteen
forward speeds and four reverse speeds. Each transmission consists of a 5-speed front section and a
4-speed auxiliary section. The auxiliary section contains low- and high-range ratios, plus a splitter gear.
See Fig. 14.2.
drive (rearward) position (Fig. 14.2). Doubleclutch into 1st gear.
Continue upshifting through the shift pattern.
Double-clutch when moving the gear shift lever
(1st to 2nd to 3rd to 4th); single-clutch during
split shifts (1st direct to 1st overdrive, etc.).
5.
While in 4th gear, pull the range-preselection
lever up into high range and move the splittercontrol button to the low position. Double-clutch
into 5th gear, engage the clutch, and accelerate.
1
R
5
Dir
1
Dir
5
OD
1
OD
7
Dir
3
Dir
7
OD
3
OD
A
N
LOW LOW
Dir OD
6
Dir
2
Dir
6
OD
2
OD
8
Dir
4
Dir
8
OD
4
OD
A. High Range
B. Low Range
1. Splitter Control Button
6.
B
C
03/13/96
D
f260157a
C. Overdrive (forward)
D. Direct Drive (rearward)
LOW gear in the front section is used only as a starting gear; it is never used when the transmission is in
high range. LOW gear can be split, to provide both a
direct and an overdrive ratio.
Upshifting
1.
Put the transmission in neutral. Start the engine
and bring the air system pressure up to 100 to
120 psi (689 to 827 kPa).
2.
Position the range-preselection lever down, in
low range and make sure the splitter-control button is in the low position. See Fig. 14.2.
4.
14.3
To start the vehicle moving, press the clutch
pedal to the floor, shift into LOW, then engage
the clutch with the engine at or near idle speed.
To shift from LOW direct to LOW overdrive,
move the splitter-control button into the overdrive
(forward) position, then immediately release the
accelerator. Press and release the clutch pedal,
and accelerate.
Upshift from LOW overdrive to 1st direct by first
moving the splitter-control button into the direct
Upshift progressively through the high range
gears.
To shift from 5th direct to 5th overdrive (or 5th
underdrive to 5th direct on RT model transmissions), move the splitter-control button to the
high position, then immediately release the accelerator. Press and release the clutch pedal,
and accelerate.
Continue upshifting through the shift pattern.
Double-clutch when moving the gear shift lever
(6th to 7th, etc.); single-clutch during split shifts
(6th direct to 6th overdrive, etc.).
Fig. 14.2, Eaton Fuller 18-Speed Transmission Shift
Pattern
3.
When in 4th overdrive, use the rangepreselection lever and the splitter-control button
to upshift to 5th gear.
Downshifting
IMPORTANT: Never use the clutch brake when
downshifting, or as a brake to slow the vehicle.
1.
To downshift from 8th overdrive to 8th direct (or
8th direct to 8th underdrive on RT model transmissions), move the splitter-control button to the
low position, then immediately release the accelerator. Press and release the clutch pedal, then
accelerate once the transmission has shifted.
2.
Start the downshift from 8th direct to 7th overdrive by moving the splitter-control button to the
high position, then immediately double-clutch into
7th gear.
3.
Downshift progressively through each of the high
range gears, alternating the procedures in steps
1 and 2 above until reaching 5th direct.
4.
When in 4th overdrive, push the rangepreselection lever down and move the splittercontrol button to the high position. Double-clutch
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
through into 4th gear, engage the clutch, and
accelerate.
5.
Continue downshifting from 4th overdrive to 4th
direct, then 4th direct to 3rd overdrive, etc.
Double-clutch when moving the gear shift lever
(4th to 3th, etc.); single-clutch during split shifts
(4th direct to 3rd overdrive, etc.).
Eaton Fuller 10-Speed Range-Shift
Transmissions
Eaton Fuller 10-speed transmissions have ten selective, evenly-spaced forward ratios. Each transmission
consists of a 5-speed front section, and a 2-speed
auxiliary section. The ten forward speeds are obtained by twice using a 5-speed shift pattern: the first
time in low range, the second time in high range.
See Fig. 14.3 for the shift patterns, noting that the
4th/9th and the 5th/10th shift positions in the RT (direct ratio) transmissions are directly opposite in the
RTO (overdrive ratio) transmissions.
A
Hi
R
Lo
7
2
B
8
3
10
5
7
2
R
Lo
C
N
6
1
Hi
9
4
D
N
6
1
03/13/96
A. RT Transmissions
B. RTO Transmissions
10
5
8
3
4.
Upshift progressively from 1st gear through 5th
gear, double-clutching when moving the gear
shift lever.
5.
When in 5th gear and ready to move to 6th gear,
pull the range-preselection lever up into the high
range. Double-clutch into 6th gear, engage the
clutch, and accelerate.
NOTE: If after attempting to shift into the high
range the transmission remains in neutral, the
range synchronizer protection device may be
activated. Move the gear shift lever to neutral to
allow the range shift to complete, then shift back
into gear.
6.
Downshifting
IMPORTANT: Never use the clutch brake when
downshifting, or as a brake to slow the vehicle.
1.
Downshift progressively through each of the high
range gears, double-clutching between shifts.
2.
When in 5th gear and ready to move to 4th gear,
push the range-preselection lever down into the
low range. Double-clutch into 4th gear, engage
the clutch, and accelerate.
3.
Downshift progressively through the low range
gears, double-clutching when moving the gear
shift lever, as conditions require.
9
4
f260043a
C. High Range
D. Low Range
Fig. 14.3, Eaton Fuller 10-Speed RT and RTO
Transmissions Shift Patterns
Upshift progressively through the high range
gears, double-clutching when moving the gear
shift lever and accelerating to 80 percent of engine governed speed.
Upshifting
Eaton Fuller Deep Reduction
Transmissions
1.
General Information
Put the transmission in neutral. Start the engine
and bring the air system pressure up to 100 to
120 psi (689 to 827 kPa).
2.
Position the range-preselection lever down, in
low range.
3.
To start the vehicle moving, press the clutch
pedal to the floor; shift into 1st gear, then engage
the clutch with the engine at or near idle speed.
Accelerate to 80 percent of engine governed
speed.
Eaton Fuller 10-speed deep reduction transmissions
have a 5-speed front section, and a 2-speed auxiliary
section, with a deep reduction gear. The low-low,
deep reduction gear is used only when operating
under adverse conditions. Low gear in the front section is used only for rough, off-highway conditions, as
a starting ratio. The remaining four forward positions
are used once in the low range and once in the high
range. See Fig. 14.4 for the shift pattern, noting that
the 3rd/7th and 4th/8th shift positions in RT-LL transmissions are opposite of the RTO-LL transmissions.
14.4
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
1
A
5
1
8
4
6
2
5
1
7
3
loads and steep inclines.
N
D
6
2
E
8
4
F
03/13/96
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
1.
f260026a
All RTO Transmissions
All RT Transmissions
High Range
Low Range
Deep Reduction IN (forward)
Deep Reduction OUT (rearward)
Deep Reduction Button
Fig. 14.4, Eaton Fuller 10-Speed Deep Reduction Shift
Patterns
Eaton Fuller 15-speed deep reduction transmissions
have a 5-speed front section, and a 2-speed auxiliary
section. They also have five additional deep reduction ratios. The 5-speed front section and the low
and high range sections provide ten evenly and progressively spaced forward speeds. The five deep reduction ratios are also evenly and progressively
spaced; however, they do overlap the low range ratios, and should be used only when operating under
adverse conditions. See Fig. 14.5 for the shift patterns, noting that the 4th/9th, and the 5th/10th shift
positions in RT (direct ratio) transmissions are directly opposite to the RTO (overdrive ratio) positions.
Use the following tips when shifting:
• Use the clutch brake to stop gear rotation
when shifting into low-low, low-1st (whichever
is used as a starting ratio) or reverse, when
the vehicle is stationary.
• For normal upshifts and downshifts, only a par-
tial disengagement of the clutch is necessary
to break engine torque.
• When making the shift from a deep reduction
ratio to a low range ratio, move the deep reduction button from a forward position to a
rearward position, then complete the shift immediately.
14.5
rearward position to a forward position when
the transmission is in high range.
7
3
• Deep reduction gears are best suited for heavy
C
N
• Never move the deep reduction button from a
B
Upshifting Deep Reduction
Transmissions
There are several patterns of upshifting, depending
on the vehicle load and the road conditions. See
Table 14.1 for suggested shifting sequences.
The following instructions are recommended for starting a loaded vehicle moving under adverse conditions.
1.
Put the transmission in neutral. Start the engine,
and bring the vehicle air system pressure up to
100 to 120 psi (689 to 827 kPa).
2.
Position the range preselection lever down, into
low range.
3.
Move the deep reduction button to the forward
position, to engage the deep reduction gears.
4.
Depress the clutch pedal to the floor; shift into
low-low gear (10-speed transmissions) or 1st
gear of deep reduction (15-speed transmissions);
then engage the clutch, with the engine at or
near idle speed, to start the vehicle moving. Accelerate to 80 percent of engine governed speed.
5.
For 10-speed transmissions:
When ready for the next upshift, move the deep
reduction button rearward, then momentarily depress the clutch pedal. Do not move the shift
lever.
For 15-speed transmissions:
Shift upward from 1st gear of deep reduction to
5th gear of deep reduction, double-clutching between shifts and accelerating to 80 percent of
engine governed speed. See Table 14.1.
When ready for the next upshift, move the deep
reduction button rearward, then double-clutch
into 4th gear.
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
10
A
Lo Hi
R
DR
B
9
7
9
2
2
DR Lo
4
4
DR Lo
1
8
Lo Hi
R
DR
7
6
5
1
1
DR Lo
8
3
3
DR Lo
2
3
N
2
5
4
6
1
5
3
10
6
2
1
5
5
DR Lo
10
5
5
DR Lo
4
4
N
7
2
2
DR Lo
6
1
1
DR Lo
7
8
9
3
3
DR Lo
4
4
DR Lo
3
03/13/96
A.
1.
2.
3.
f260045a
Eaton Fuller RT transmissions shift pattern
High Range
4. High Range
Low Range
5. Low Range
Deep Reduction
B. Eaton Fuller RTO transmissions shift pattern
6. Forward for IN
7. Rearward for OUT
Fig. 14.5, Eaton Fuller 15-Speed Model Shift Patterns
Transmission Model
Eaton Fuller Shift Progressions
Deep Reduction
Low Range
Adverse Conditions
Off-Highway and
On-Highway and Ideal
Only
Adverse Conditions
Conditions
R
R
10-Speed RTO
1
R
4
1
High Range
All Conditions
R
4
6
LOW
LOW−
LOW
2
R
10-Speed RT
2
3
1
R
3
2
1
R
3
R
2
DR
5
DR
2
4
R
2
Lo
5
Lo
f260339
R
2
Lo
3
DR
4
DR
1
Lo
3
Lo
f260341
R
2
DR
4
DR
4
Lo
1
Lo
3
Lo
f260342
R
2
Lo
4
Lo
5
R
7
4
6
8
2
Lo
DR
3
DR
5
DR
f260345
1
Lo
3
Lo
5
Lo
1
Lo
f260346
3
Lo
9
f260344
4
R
7
5
6
8
10
Lo
15-Speed RT
1
10
Lo
f260343
R
8
6
DR
7
f260340
Lo
15-Speed RTO
1
5
6
4
f260338
f260335
7
f260337
LOW
LOW−
LOW
8
3
f260336
f260333
f260335
R
5
Lo
f260347
f260348
Table 14.1, Eaton Fuller Shift Progressions
6.
Shift upward from low gear (10-speed transmissions) or 4th gear (15-speed transmissions), to
the top gear in low range (see Table 14.1),
double-clutching between shifts, and accelerating
to 80 percent of engine governed speed.
14.6
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
7.
8.
While in the top gear of the low-range shift pattern, flip the range preselection lever up. Doubleclutch into the bottom gear in high range (see
Table 14.1).
With the transmission in high range, shift progressively upward through each of the high
range gears (see Table 14.1), double-clutching
between shifts.
Downshifting Deep Reduction
Transmissions
1.
With the transmission in high range, shift progressively downward to the bottom gear in high
range, double-clutching between shifts.
2.
When in the bottom gear of the high-range shift
pattern, push the range preselection lever down.
Double-clutch into the top gear of the low-range
shift pattern.
IMPORTANT: Never move the deep reduction
button to a forward position when the transmission is in high range.
3.
With the transmission in low range, downshift
through the low range gears, as conditions require.
Clutch
Clutch General Information
To ensure long service life of the clutch, start in the
right gear, be alert to clutch malfunctions, and know
when to adjust the clutch.
Typical operation will not break down the clutch friction surfaces. Heat and wear are almost nonexistent
when a clutch is fully engaged. However, during the
moment of engagement, when the clutch is picking
up the load, considerable heat is generated. If a
clutch slips excessively, high temperatures develop
quickly between the flywheel, driven discs, and pressure plates. An improperly adjusted or slipping clutch
can generate temperatures high enough to destroy
the clutch.
Clutch Operation
Clutch Break-In
The clutch may slip for a short time while the friction
surfaces break-in on a new or newly-installed clutch.
14.7
NOTICE
Do not allow the clutch to slip longer than two
seconds. Clutch slippage for longer than two
seconds may severely damage the clutch disc,
pressure plate, or flywheel. Damage caused by
clutch slippage due to improper break-in is not
warrantable.
During initial operation of a new vehicle or a vehicle
with a new clutch, check for clutch slippage during
acceleration. If the clutch slips, decelerate until the
clutch does not slip. Allow the clutch to cool 15 to 30
seconds, then gradually accelerate again. If the
clutch continues to slip, repeat the procedure as
many as five times. If the clutch slips after five attempts, stop the vehicle and allow the clutch to cool
for at least one hour. Notify your Western Star dealer
of the problem.
Moving the Vehicle in the Proper Gear
An empty vehicle can be started in a higher gear
than can a partially- or fully-loaded vehicle. Select
the gear combination that allows the vehicle to start
moving with an idling engine or, if necessary, just
enough throttle to prevent stalling the engine.
Gear Shifting Techniques
Upshift into a higher gear only when the vehicle
speed allows the transmission input shaft speed to
match the flywheel speed when engaging the clutch.
This technique results in the smallest speed difference between the clutch disc and the flywheel, and
causes the least heat and wear on the clutch assembly. When downshifting, increase the input shaft
speed to match the flywheel by slightly revving the
engine.
Vehicle Loading
Clutches are designed for specific vehicle applications and loads.
NOTICE
Exceeding vehicle load limits can result in damage to the clutch and the entire powertrain.
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
Clutch Brake
Apply the clutch brake by depressing the clutch
pedal all the way to the floor plate. The last part of
pedal travel will compress the clutch brake plates
together, stopping the transmission input shaft. The
clutch brake stops the transmission gears from rotating in order to quickly engage a transmission gear
after idling in neutral.
NOTICE
Never apply the clutch brake when making downshifts or upshifts. If the clutch brake is applied
when the vehicle is moving, the clutch brake will
try to stop or decelerate the vehicle, causing
rapid wear of the clutch brake friction discs. Considerable heat will be generated, causing damage
to the release bearings and the transmission
front bearings.
Using the Clutch
Use the clutch pedal only when starting the engine,
launching the vehicle from a stop, or shifting. To
launch a stationary vehicle, depress the clutch pedal
all the way to the floor plate (see Clutch Brake
above) and shift from neutral to a low gear. Slowly
raise your foot until the clutch starts to engage. In
this position the clutch is starting to connect the
transmission input shaft to the flywheel and is causing the most heat and wear. Slightly increase the engine speed and smoothly allow the clutch pedal to
return to the rest position. Do not allow the clutch to
remain in the partially-engaged position any longer
than necessary to obtain a smooth start.
Double-clutch to shift gears while the vehicle is moving. Depress the clutch pedal most of the way in, but
not all the way to the floor plate. Depressing the
clutch pedal to the floor plate will engage the clutch
brake. Shift the transmission into neutral and fully
release the clutch pedal. When upshifting, wait for
the engine speed to decrease to the road speed.
When downshifting, increase the engine speed to
match the road speed. Fully release the clutch pedal
after completing the shift.
NOTICE
Riding the clutch while driving is damaging to
the clutch because partial clutch engagement
causes slippage and heat. Resting your foot on
the clutch pedal will also put a constant thrust
load on the release bearing, thinning the bearing
lubricant and increasing the wear on the bearing.
Holding the Vehicle On an Incline
Always use the vehicle service brakes to prevent the
vehicle from rolling backwards while stopped on a
hill. Slipping the clutch on a hill to maintain vehicle
position will quickly damage the clutch assembly.
Coasting
Coasting with the clutch pedal depressed and the
transmission in a low gear can cause high driven
disc speed. The clutch speed can be much higher
under these conditions than when the engine is driving the clutch. This condition creates a hazardous
situation due to the lack of vehicle control and due to
the high clutch disc speed. Engaging the clutch
under these conditions can cause component damage because of the shock loads to the clutch and
drivetrain.
WARNING
Always shift into the gear that is correct for the
traveling speed of the vehicle and engage the
clutch. Coasting with the clutch disengaged can
prevent engagement of the correct transmission
gear which can cause loss of vehicle control,
possibly resulting in personal injury or property
damage.
High clutch disc speeds while coasting can also
cause the clutch facing to be thrown off the disc.
Flying debris from the clutch can cause injury to
persons in the cab.
Clutch Maintenance
Checking the Clutch Adjustment
Report erratic clutch operation as soon as possible to
give maintenance personnel a chance to inspect, lubricate, and adjust the clutch components. Notice
any gradual decrease in the distance the clutch
pedal moves before resistance is felt.
NOTICE
Operating the vehicle with incorrect free pedal
could result in clutch damage.
14.8
Manual Transmissions and Clutch
A correctly adjusted clutch must have about 3/4 inch
(19 mm) of travel at the top of its stroke before a
stronger resistance can be felt. See Fig. 14.6. If the
free pedal travel is less than this distance, have the
clutch adjusted.
Check the clutch free pedal travel daily and note it in
the driver’s report.
first or reverse gear from neutral with the clutch
pedal fully depressed, the clutch pedal is out of adjustment or the clutch brake is worn and needs to be
replaced.
Lubricating the Clutch Release Bearing
NOTICE
Failure to lubricate the release bearing and linkage as recommended could result in release
bearing and clutch damage.
On vehicles equipped with a greaseable release
bearing, the release bearing should be lubricated at
regular intervals. See the Western Star Maintenance
Manual for intervals and procedures.
02/09/96
f250306
A. Free Pedal
Fig. 14.6, Clutch Free Pedal Travel
Adjusting the Clutch
Clutches have an internal adjustment and external
linkage adjustment. See Group 25 of the Western
Star Workshop Manual for clutch adjustment procedures and specifications.
NOTICE
Operating the vehicle with the clutch improperly
adjusted could result in clutch or clutch brake
failure.
Checking the Clutch Brake Operation
Clutch brake operation can be felt as an increased
resistance as the clutch pedal approaches the bottom of its stroke. If the gears grind when shifting into
14.9
15
Automated and Automatic
Transmissions
Eaton® Fuller® Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
Allison Automatic Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5
Automated and Automatic Transmissions
Eaton® Fuller® Automated
Transmissions
Refer to the Eaton website (www.roadranger.com)
for additional information.
3
PTO
General Information, Automated
Transmissions
The Eaton Fuller UltraShift is a heavy-duty fully automated transmission. The UltraShift uses a dry clutch
system, so no clutch pedal is required to shift gears.
The Eaton Fuller AutoShift transmission requires the
driver to use the clutch to start and stop the vehicle.
However, the driver does not need to use the clutch
to shift gears.
The Eaton Fuller automated transmissions use a shift
selection module located on the dash control panel.
See Fig. 15.1. Shifts can be made automatically, or
manually using the shift selection module.
The current gear is displayed on the indicator shown
in Fig. 15.2. At the start of a shift, the current gear
continues to display until the transmission has been
pulled into neutral. As the transmission is synchronizing for the new (target) gear, the gear indicator
flashes the number of the target gear. When the shift
is complete, the gear indicator displays the new gear,
without flashing.
Automated Transmission Operation
2
SERVICE
1
SHIFT
R
4
N
5
D
6
MANUAL
7
LOW
8
EATON FULLER
TRANSMISSIONS
07/20/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
f611129
Upshift/Downshift Buttons
Service Needed Indicator
PTO Activation Button
Reverse Mode Button
Neutral Button
Drive Mode Button
Manual Mode Selector
Low Mode Button
Fig. 15.1, Shift Selection Module, UltraShift and
AutoShift Transmissions
Modes
The shift selection module controls the driving mode,
which includes drive, manual, reverse, or low.
IMPORTANT: In all modes but low, it is possible
to shift manually by pressing the upshift or
downshift selectors as needed. When the engine speed is within 75 rpm of the load-based
shift point for an automatic shift, the transmission will advance the shift.
Drive Mode
Press the drive mode button (D) on the shift selection module to put the transmission in drive mode.
In drive mode, upshifts and downshifts are made by
the transmission without driver intervention. The
transmission will shift automatically when the driver
15.1
f610680
10/13/2003
NOTE: The gear indicator displays the current gear. In
this example, it displays first gear.
Fig. 15.2, Gear Indicator
Automated and Automatic Transmissions
presses the drive mode button (D) and depresses
the accelerator pedal.
If driving conditions require, it is still possible to request a manual shift. The transmission will make the
shift if the engine speed is within 75 rpm of the loadbased shift point for that gear.
If the vehicle is stopped while in drive mode, the
upshift/downshift buttons can be used to change the
starting gear. This selection becomes the default
starting gear until it is changed by the driver again,
or the vehicle is shut down.
The transmission controller adapts to the working
conditions of each vehicle and its driver. After
power-up or a load change, it needs to learn the new
conditions. While learning, it may hold a gear too
long before upshifting. If this occurs, start the upshift
manually. It may take three or four shifts before the
transmission succeeds in learning the new loadbased shift points, but after that it will handle the
shifting automatically.
Reverse Mode
To put the transmission in reverse, press the reverse
mode button on the shift selection module.
The UltraShift transmission has two reverse gears:
reverse low and reverse high. The AutoShift transmission may have multiple reverse gears. To shift
manually between the reverse gears, press the upshift or downshift arrow button until the desired reverse gear is displayed.
Reverse low is the default reverse gear. When reverse low is selected, the letter R displays on the
gear indicator. See Fig. 15.3. When reverse high is
selected, the letter H is displayed.
Automatic skip shifts may occur in drive mode if conditions are appropriate.
Manual Mode
In manual mode, upshifts and downshifts are made
by the driver. This allows the driver to respond to a
wide range of driving conditions, such as blind corners, tight curves, and steep hills.
To change to manual mode, press the manual mode
button (MANUAL) on the shift selection module. If
manual mode is selected while the vehicle is moving,
the current gear will be maintained until the driver
requests a shift using the proper upshift/downshift
arrow button. If the manual mode is selected while
the vehicle is not moving, the starting gear will be
maintained until the driver requests a shift. In downhill situations in particular, the driver must be alert to
vehicle speed by downshifting and/or using the service brakes as needed. A shift request will be refused
if the selected gear would cause engine overspeed
or excessive lugging.
To upshift, press the upshift arrow button on the shift
selection module; to downshift, press the downshift
arrow button. See Fig. 15.1. A shift request will be
refused if the selected gear would cause engine
overspeed or excessive lugging.
10/14/2003
f610681
Fig. 15.3, Gear Indicator: Reverse Low Gear
IMPORTANT: Under normal conditions, do not
select reverse with the vehicle moving forward.
The vehicle must be moving at less than two miles
per hour (3 km/h) before selecting reverse. If reverse
is selected when the vehicle is moving faster, an audible alert will sound and continue sounding at threesecond intervals until the vehicle slows to the proper
speed or the driver selects the drive mode.
Low Mode
Low mode should be used to maximize engine braking and minimize the use of the brake pedal. It is
most useful when descending steep hills or when
coming to a stop. Engine speed will be increased by
200 rpm and shift points will be offset by 200 rpm.
To select low mode, press the low mode button
(LOW) on the shift selection module. When in low,
15.2
Automated and Automatic Transmissions
the current gear is maintained. Requests to upshift
are not enabled.
IMPORTANT: If the engine is approaching overspeed, the transmission controller will override
the current gear setting and upshift to prevent
engine damage.
If low mode is selected from neutral while the vehicle
is stopped, the vehicle will start up in first gear and
stay there until the engine approaches overspeed.
Neutral
IMPORTANT: Always start the engine with the
transmission in neutral (N) and the parking
brake set.
f610678
10/13/2003
Fig. 15.4, Gear Indicator: Power Up Dot Display
WARNING
Do not coast in neutral. Coasting in neutral can
cause an accident, possibly resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
Neutral is always available during operation, whatever the vehicle speed. When in neutral, requests to
upshift or downshift are ignored. If the driver selects
drive mode while the vehicle is moving in neutral, the
transmission will shift into the appropriate gear given
the engine speed.
When shifting from neutral, always depress the brake
pedal. If the brake pedal is not depressed, the transmission will not shift and an audible alert will sound.
To reset the transmission, select neutral again and
attempt the shift again, this time with the brake pedal
depressed.
3.
Before shutting down the engine, return the transmission to neutral.
On vehicles with an AutoShift transmission, depress the clutch pedal all the way to the floor.
4.
Apply the service brake and start the engine.
5.
On vehicles with an AutoShift transmission, release the clutch to allow the speed sensor on the
input shaft to get a reading, then depress the
clutch pedal again.
Powering Up
1.
2.
15.3
With the parking brake set, turn the ignition
switch on and allow the shift selection module to
power up. The gear indicator will show the dot
display, arranged in a square pattern. All dots in
the pattern should light up, without gaps or
spaces. See Fig. 15.4.
Wait for the gear indicator to show a solid N. See
Fig. 15.5. When the N is solid (not flashing), the
transmission controller is powered up.
f610679
10/13/2003
Fig. 15.5, Gear Indicator: Neutral
NOTE: When in drive mode, the transmission
defaults to second gear when starting off. If desired, the driver can select to start off in first
gear. No other start gear is available.
6.
Select the desired mode (drive, manual, low, or
reverse), then select the desired starting gear.
Automated and Automatic Transmissions
WARNING
When starting or stopping on hills and grades,
use extra care to prevent the vehicle from rolling
back. A rollback accident could cause death, serious personal injury, or property damage.
7.
On a level grade, release the parking and service brakes.
8.
Move the vehicle forward by doing one of the
following:
• Vehicles with an UltraShift transmission:
depress the accelerator pedal.
• Vehicles with an AutoShift transmission:
release the clutch and depress the accelerator pedal.
Powering Down
1.
On vehicles equipped with an Autoshift transmission, depress the clutch pedal to the floor.
2.
Bring the vehicle to a halt
3.
Apply the service brakes.
4.
Select neutral (N) on the shift selection module.
When the N on the gear indicator is solid (not
flashing), the transmission controller is ready to
power down.
5.
Set the parking brake and shut down the engine.
Upshifting
To request an upshift, push the upshift arrow button
on the shift selection module. If the gear is available,
the transmission will upshift and the new gear will
display on the gear indicator. If the gear requested is
unavailable, a tone will sound.
Upshifts are not available in low mode, except to prevent engine overspeed.
NOTE: The AutoShift transmission is able to
perform triple upshifts when the next three
higher gears are available and conditions are
appropriate.
Skip shifts can be performed only in manual mode.
To skip shift, press the upshift button twice or three
times. The number of the gear engaged will appear
on the gear indicator.
Downshifting
To request a downshift, push the downshift arrow
button on the shift selection module. If the gear is
available, the transmission will downshift and the
new gear will display on the gear indicator. If the
gear requested is unavailable, a tone will sound.
Before starting down a hill, downshift to a speed that
you can control without hard pressure on the service
brakes. Before entering a curve, downshift if necessary. This lets you use some power through the
curve to help the vehicle be more stable in the turn.
It also allows you to regain speed faster as you
come out of the curve.
NOTE: The AutoShift transmission is able to
perform triple downshifts when the next three
lower gears are available and conditions are
appropriate.
Skip shifts can be performed only in manual mode.
To skip shift, press the downshift button twice or
three times. The number of the gear engaged will
appear on the gear indicator.
For best engine braking, select low mode while moving. In low, downshifts are performed at higher rpm
than in drive.
IMPORTANT: If the engine is approaching overspeed, the transmission controller will override
the current gear setting and upshift to prevent
engine damage.
Transmission Diagnostics
Clutch Protection Fault, UltraShift
Transmissions
Even though a vehicle with an UltraShift transmission
does not have a clutch pedal, it does have a mechanical clutch. As you slowly increase and decrease
engine rpm from a stop, the mechanical clutch is engaging and disengaging, just like slipping the clutch
with a manual transmission. Excessive clutch slippage creates heat and reduces the life of the clutch.
Conditions that can cause clutch damage include:
• Using the accelerator pedal to hold the vehicle
on a hill
• Starting the vehicle from a stop in a gear that’s
too high
• Overloading the vehicle
15.4
Automated and Automatic Transmissions
• Using high idle with the vehicle in gear
The transmission controller is programmed to prevent
clutch damage. When the clutch overheats, the following alerts take place:
appear on the gear indicator when the vehicle is restarted.
Complete the following steps.
1.
Set the parking brake.
2.
Turn off the ignition and wait at least two minutes.
3.
The alerts continue until the clutch cools, the accelerator pedal is released, or the clutch is fully engaged.
Depress the brake pedal and release the parking
brake.
4.
On vehicles with an AutoShift transmission, depress the clutch partway to the floor.
System Problem
5.
Select neutral by pressing the neutral button (N)
on the shift selection module, then turn on the
ignition key. Do not attempt to start the engine
yet.
6.
Release the pressure on the brake pedal slightly.
7.
Once the transmission is in neutral, a solid N will
appear on the gear indicator and the vehicle will
start. Apply the service brakes and start the engine.
8.
If the gear indicator continues to display a dash,
contact an authorized Western Star or Eaton service facility.
• The TRANS TEMP light comes on
• The gear indicator displays "C," then "A"
• A warning tone sounds at one-second intervals
In the event of a problem, complete the following
steps.
1.
Note the driving conditions at the time the problem occurred.
2.
Record the status of the transmission at the time
of the problem (current mode, current gear, engine speed, etc.).
3.
Complete the transmission reset procedure.
Transmission Reset Procedure
In some cases, proper transmission operation can be
restored by resetting the transmission controller.
1.
When it is safe to do so, stop the vehicle.
Allison Automatic
Transmissions
2.
Select neutral by pressing the neutral button (N)
on the shift selection module.
Refer to the Allison website for additional information
(www.allisontransmission.com).
3.
Set the parking brake.
4.
Shut down the engine.
General Information, Allison
Transmissions
5.
Wait at least two minutes.
6.
Restart the engine.
7.
If the problem continues or the transmission
doesn’t achieve neutral after power-up, contact
an authorized Western Star or Eaton service facility.
Locked In Gear
If the vehicle is shut down while in gear, the transmission may become locked in gear. The transmission will attempt to get to neutral during the next
power-up if neutral is selected on the shift selection
module. If neutral can’t be achieved, a dash (–) will
15.5
HD-series automatic transmissions have six forward
speeds and one reverse speed. These transmissions
have electronic shift controls that can be programmed to allow the use of different numbers of
geared speeds. For instance, the transmission can
be programmed to operate as a 4-speed, 5-speed, or
6-speed unit in the "primary" shift mode. If needed, a
"secondary" shift mode can be programmed to provide another shift configuration to optimize vehicle
use under different operating conditions.
To activate a secondary shift mode, or other special
functions programmed into the electronic control unit
(ECU), press the Mode button. See Fig. 15.6.
"MODE ON" is displayed in the indicator panel just
Automated and Automatic Transmissions
above the push buttons. A label just above the Mode
button identifies the special function.
sion fluid and will result in severe damage to the
transmission.
NOTICE
Do not allow the vehicle to coast in neutral. This
can result in severe transmission damage.
The following tips highlight important operation principles.
1
• Start the engine, then check the digital display
2
on the shift selector. Under "Select" at the top
of the unit, the display should always show the
"primary" shift mode. Under "Monitor," the current gear should be displayed.
• Use reverse to back the vehicle. Completely
stop the vehicle before shifting from a forward
gear to reverse, or from reverse to forward.
There is only one reverse gear.
• Select drive (D) for all normal driving condif600369a
10/31/94
1. Indicator Panel
2. Mode ID
Fig. 15.6, Allison Push Button Shift Selector
NOTE: Each time a button is pressed on the
shift selector, a short beep will be heard. This
indicates that the ECU has received input to
change operation.
The HD-series transmission is designed to warn the
driver of transmission malfunctions. The driver should
know the extent of the warning system in order to
safely operate the vehicle.
Allison Transmission Operation
WARNING
Never shift from neutral (N) to drive (D) or reverse (R) at engine speeds above idle. The vehicle will lurch forward or backward, which could
cause property damage and personal injury.
NOTICE
The engine should never be operated for more
than thirty seconds at full throttle with the transmission in gear and the output stalled. Prolonged
operation of this type will overheat the transmis-
tions. The vehicle will start out in 1st gear, and
as speed increases, the transmission will upshift through each gear automatically. As the
vehicle slows down, the transmission will
downshift automatically.
• The pressure of your foot on the accelerator
pedal influences the automatic shifting. When
the pedal is fully depressed, the transmission
will automatically upshift near the governed
speed of the engine. A partially depressed
pedal will cause the upshifts to occur at a
lower engine speed.
• Occasionally the road, load, or traffic conditions
make it desirable to restrict the automatic shifting to a lower range. The lower the gear range,
the greater the engine braking power.
Use the up or down buttons on the shift selector to reach the desired gear. The "SELECT"
indicator will display your choice, and the
"MONITOR" indicator will show the selected
gear once it is reached. In the lower gear
ranges, the transmission will not upshift above
the highest gear selected unless the engine
governed speed is exceeded.
• Use neutral and apply the parking brake when
the vehicle is parked with the engine running.
15.6
16
Drive Axles
Drive Axles with Differential Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Interaxle Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2
Transfer Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3
Drive Axles
Drive Axles with Differential
Lock
The driver-controlled differential lock feature (side-toside wheel lock, traction control, or traction equalizer)
provides maximum traction for slippery conditions by
forcing the wheels on each drive axle governed by
the switch to rotate together. When the differential
lock is engaged, the clutch collar completely locks
the differential case, gearing, and axle shafts together, maximizing the traction of both wheels.
Differential Lock Switch
There are several differential lock options available:
07/22/2011
• a switch to control the differential lock on the
f545804
Fig. 16.2, Rear Drive Axle Differential Lock Switch
forward drive axle (see Fig. 16.1).
WARNING
Locking the wheels when the vehicle is traveling
down steep grades or when the wheels are slipping could damage the differential and/or lead to
loss of vehicle control, causing personal injury
and property damage.
NOTICE
Engage the differential lock only when the vehicle is stopped or moving at less than 5 mph (8
km/h). Engaging the differential lock at high
speeds can cause internal axle damage.
07/22/2011
f545803
1.
With the engine running, press the upper half of
the differential lock switch to engage the differential lock.
2.
If the vehicle is moving, briefly let up on the accelerator to relieve torque on the gearing, allowing the differential to fully lock.
Fig. 16.1, Forward Drive Axle Differential Lock Switch
• a switch to control the differential lock on the
middle drive axle.
• a switch to control the differential lock on the
rear drive axle (see Fig. 16.2).
WARNING
Differential Lock Operation
NOTE: On some vehicles, the differential lock
system is connected through the low speed
range of the transmission. If this system is used,
the transmission must be in the low speed
range for the wheels to fully lock. In addition,
shifting out of low speed range will also disengage the differential lock.
16.1
Be especially careful when driving under slippery
conditions with the differential locked. Though
forward traction is improved, the vehicle can still
slip sideways, causing possible loss of vehicle
control, personal injury, and property damage.
3.
Drive cautiously and do not exceed 25 mph (40
km/h). When the differential is fully locked, the
Drive Axles
turning radius will increase because the vehicle
understeers. See Fig. 16.3.
Interaxle Lock Switch
The interaxle lock switch allows the driver to lock the
drive axles together. See Fig. 16.4.
A
B
f350079a
02/09/96
A. Turning Radius When the Differential Lock is
Engaged (understeer condition)
B. Turning Radius When the Differential Lock is
Disengaged
Fig. 16.3, Turning Radii
4.
Press the lower half of the differential lock switch
to disengage the differential lock after leaving
poor road conditions.
07/22/2011
Fig. 16.4, Interaxle Lock Switch
Interaxle Lock Operation
NOTE: If the differential lock is engaged when
the engine is shut down, the differential lock will
disengage.
5.
If the vehicle is moving, briefly let up on the accelerator to allow the wheels to fully unlock, then
resume driving at normal speed.
f545802
NOTICE
The interaxle lock should not be engaged on a
vehicle with obviously spinning wheels. Engagement at high speed or power can damage the
axle(s).
Interaxle Lock
1.
The interaxle lock (axle lock, interaxle differential
lockout) feature is available on vehicles wth tandemor tridem-drive axles. The interaxle lock causes the
drive axle shafts to rotate together, and is recommended for use under adverse road conditions
where greater traction is needed.
With the engine running, press the upper half of
the interaxle lock switch to engage the interaxle
lock. Do not wait until traction is lost and the tires
are spinning before engaging the interaxle lock.
2.
If the vehicle is moving, briefly let up on the accelerator until the interaxle lock engages.
See the axle manufacturer’s website for more information.
When engaged, the interaxle lock essentially makes
the driveshaft a solid connection between the drive
axles. Power entering the forward drive axle is transmitted straight through to the rearmost axle(s). Driveline torque is now delivered equally and the drive
axles, and wheels, turn together at the same speed.
The interaxle lock increases drivetrain and tire wear
and should be used only when improved traction is
required.
NOTICE
Do not operate the vehicle continuously with the
interaxle locked during extended good road conditions. To do so could result in damage to the
axle gearing and excessive driveline and tire
wear.
3.
Proceed over poor road conditions with caution.
4.
Press the lower half of the interaxle lock switch
to disengage the interaxle lock after leaving poor
road conditions.
16.2
Drive Axles
NOTE: If the interaxle lock is engaged when the
engine is turned off, the interaxle lock will disengage.
Follow the operating guidelines in Table 16.1 when
driving a vehicle equipped with a Meritor MTC transfer case.
5.
Engaging and Disengaging the Steer
Axle
If the vehicle is moving, briefly let up on the accelerator to allow the interaxle lock to disengage,
then resume driving at normal speed. Once the
interaxle lock disengages, the indicator light will
go off.
Dash-mounted switches control the transfer case
functions; see Chapter 4 for more information.
IMPORTANT: The wheels must not slip during
engagement of the steer axle driveline.
Transfer Cases
Meritor MTC Series
Some vehicles are equipped with a Meritor MTC Series transfer case for part-time 4x4, 6x6, or 8x8 operation. Meritor MTC Series transfer cases have two
gear sets: HIGH RANGE and LO RANGE.
WARNING
Do not engage a Meritor MTC Series transfer
case when driving on normal highway conditions.
Severe personal injury and/or damage to components can result when the transfer case is misused.
To engage the steer axle driveline, drive the vehicle
at a constant speed below 10 mph (16 km/h) and
press the AWD switch. An audible engagement may
be heard.
To disengage the steer axle, drive the vehicle at a
constant speed below 10 mph (16 km/h) and press
the AWD switch. An audible disengagement may be
heard. If the steer axle driveline does not disengage,
the steer axle driveline coupling may be in a bind.
Turn the steering wheel back and forth while driving,
or briefly drive the vehicle in reverse.
IMPORTANT: Steer axle engagement is limited
to 20% or less of annual vehicle mileage.
Disengaged Steer Axle
Range
Traction Conditions
Engaged Steer Axle
Applicable
Vehicle
Speeds
Traction Conditions
When more traction is needed at
Most normal driving conditions (such as
0 mph (0
moderate to low vehicle speeds on dirt
HIGH
dry or wet pavement or mixed road
km/h) to
or gravel surface with shallow to
RANGE
surfaces) when moderate to high
maximum
moderate grades (8% maximum), icy or
vehicle speeds are appropriate.
vehicle speed
snow-covered roads, or hard-packed
sand.
When maximum power and maximum
traction is needed on steeper grades
LO
Not applicable. Do not use LO RANGE unless the steer
(15% maximum), deeply rutted tracks,
RANGE
axle is engaged.
deep mud or snow, extremely rocky
surfaces, or soft, loamy sand.
IMPORTANT: Engaging the steer axle will increase the turning radius of the vehicle.
Table 16.1, Operating Guidelines, Meritor MTC Transfer Cases
16.3
Applicable
Vehicle
Speeds
20 mph (32
km/h) or less
15 mph (24
km/h) or less
Drive Axles
Shifting Between HIGH RANGE and LO
RANGE
MTC Series transfer cases use an air cylinder to shift
between HIGH RANGE and LO RANGE. A dashmounted switch operates the shift mechanism (see
Chapter 4 for more information).
Shift between HIGH RANGE and LO RANGE, as
follows:
1.
Stop the vehicle.
2.
Shift the transmission to NEUTRAL.
3.
Apply the parking brake.
4.
Move the dash-mounted switch to the HIGH or
LO RANGE position to pressurize the shift
mechanism in the transfer case. An audible engagement may be heard (which is normal).
5.
Shift the transmission to FIRST gear and apply
light torque to test the engagement.
If the shifter does not engage when shifting from
HIGH RANGE to LO RANGE, shift the transmission into REVERSE, then NEUTRAL, and apply
light torque to engage the LO RANGE.
Engaging PTO
Some vehicles are equipped with a PTO mounted to
a Meritor MTC transfer case. For these vehicles, engage the PTO only when the transfer case is in neutral, the transmission is in neutral/park, and the parking brake is applied. To begin using the PTO, select
the drive gear based on the PTO system operators
manual.
16.4
17
Fifth Wheels
Fifth
Fifth
Fifth
Fifth
Wheels, General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1
17.1
17.5
17.7
Fifth Wheels
Fifth Wheels, General
Information
NOTICE
WARNING
Do not use any fifth wheel that fails to operate
properly. Doing so may cause loss of vehicle
control, possibly resulting in severe personal injury or death.
Do not operate the vehicle over uneven ground
such as ramps, speed bumps, curbs, etc. with
the air springs deflated. Doing this may lead to
air bag separation from the piston, preventing the
suspension air springs from inflating.
Fifth Wheel Lubrication
WARNING
Air-Suspension Dump Valve
WARNING
Never exhaust air from the suspension while
driving. The suspension will not absorb road
shocks, possibly damaging components, and vehicle handling may be compromised. This could
result in loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in severe personal injury or death.
The air-suspension dump valve may be used to adjust the vehicle height in order to aid with coupling to
or uncoupling from a trailer. See Fig. 17.1. When the
switch is set to DOWN, the air-suspension dump
valve deflates the air springs to lower the rear of the
vehicle. In the UP position, the automatic ride-control
valves operate for normal driving.
Keep the fifth wheel plate lubricated to prevent
binding between the tractor and trailer. A binding
fifth wheel could cause erratic steering and loss
of vehicle control, possibly resulting in personal
injury or death.
The standard fifth wheel plate must be kept well lubricated with chassis grease to prevent friction and
binding between the vehicle fifth wheel plate and the
trailer.
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, inspect the condition
of the low-lube pads. There should be no damaged
or missing pieces. Slight puckering at the outside
edges is normal.
For lubrication instructions, see Group 31 of the
Western Star Maintenance Manual.
Fifth Wheel Coupling
Fifth wheel coupling is activated with the lock control
handle located on either the right or left side of the
fifth wheel. Coupling is complete when the kingpin
has been forced into the jaws and the lock control
handle has moved to the locked position.
NOTICE
07/22/2011
Fig. 17.1, Air-Suspension Dump Valve
17.1
f545805
Some fifth wheels may be mounted on sliding
rails. Before attempting to couple a trailer to a
sliding fifth wheel, the slide feature must be
locked to prevent the top plate from sliding rapidly forward or rearward, causing damage to the
fifth wheel or kingpin.
Fifth Wheels
Coupling, Fontaine and Holland Fifth
Wheels
1
NOTE: For a tractor equipped with a Jost fifth
wheel, see the heading Coupling, Jost Fifth
Wheel below.
1.
Chock the front and rear trailer tires.
2.
Ensure the fifth wheel jaw is fully open and the
operating rod is in the unlocked position. See
Fig. 17.2 or Fig. 17.3.
2
1
3
1
A
f310447
11/02/2010
2
1. Safety Latch
2. Operating Rod
(locked)
3. Operating Rod
(unlocked)
Fig. 17.3, Holland Simplex SE Locking Mechanism
1
D
A
C
B
2
10/26/2010
f310110a
NOTE: Make sure the safety latch is down when the
control handle is locked.
A. Unlocked
1. Safety Latch
B
B. Locked
2. Lock Control Handle
Fig. 17.2, Fontaine Locking Mechanism
3.
Make sure the fifth wheel top plate is tilted so the
ramps are as low as possible.
4.
Position the tractor so that the center of the fifth
wheel is in line with the trailer kingpin. The kingpin should be in a position to enter the throat of
the locking mechanism.
10/28/2010
f311124
A. Fifth wheel must lift
trailer
B. Adjust trailer height
C. Ramps tilted down
D. 4 to 8 inches
Fig. 17.4, Trailer Connection Point, Standard Fifth
Wheel Plate
NOTICE
Attempting to couple at the wrong height may
cause improper coupling, which could result in
damage to the fifth wheel or kingpin.
5.
Adjust the trailer height if required.
17.2
Fifth Wheels
When lockup has occurred, the fifth wheel control handle moves to the locked position. Make
sure that the safety latch is down over the lock
control handle to hold the control handle in the
locked position (the safety latch will only rotate
down if the operating rod is fully retracted in the
locked position). See Fig. 17.2 or Fig. 17.3.
For a standard fifth wheel plate, the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel approximately 4 to
8 inches (10 to 20 cm) behind the fifth wheel
pivot. See Fig. 17.4.
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, the fifth wheel
must slide freely under the trailer, and the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel at the pivot. See
Fig. 17.5.
B
A
B
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f311126
A. No gap between trailer
and fifth wheel
Fig. 17.6, Coupling Inspection
A
9.
09/10/2010
f311125
A. Adjust trailer height
B. Ramps tilted down
Fig. 17.5, Trailer Connection Point, Low-Lube Fifth
Wheel Plate
6.
With the fifth wheel lock opening aligned with the
trailer kingpin, back the tractor slowly toward the
trailer. After sliding under the trailer, stop to avoid
hitting the kingpin too hard, then resume backing
slowly until the fifth wheel locks.
trailer air system lines and the electrical cable to
the trailer. Take care to prevent dirt or foreign
material from entering the air system lines.
NOTICE
Set the tractor parking brake.
11. Charge the air brake system and check that the
A visual inspection is required by law. Some improper couplings can pass a pull test. Sound is
not reliable. Get out of the cab and look. Incorrect coupling could cause the trailer to disconnect, possibly resulting in serious personal injury
or death.
17.3
10. After lockup is completed, connect the tractor-to-
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, do not lift the
trailer as this may damage the fifth wheel plate.
WARNING
8.
Release the tractor parking brake. Test for kingpin lockup by slowly inching the tractor forward,
pulling on the trailer against the chocks.
Always make sure the connection hanger keeps
the trailer air hoses and electrical cables positioned so that they do not rub on anything. Rubbing may wear through hoses or cables, resulting
in air leaks, or exposed or broken wires, potentially affecting trailer brake or electrical systems.
For a standard fifth wheel plate, the fifth wheel
must lift the trailer.
7.
B. Kingpin inside lock
Perform a coupling inspection, checking that
there is no gap between the bottom of the trailer
and the fifth wheel, and that the kingpin is securely locked. See Fig. 17.6.
air connections do not leak.
WARNING
Incorrect fifth wheel lock adjustment could cause
the trailer to disconnect, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
12. With the trailer tires chocked and the brakes set,
check for clearance between the kingpin and the
fifth wheel jaws by moving the tractor forward
and backward against the locked kingpin. If slack
is present, uncouple the trailer and have the fifth
Fifth Wheels
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, the fifth wheel
must slide freely under the trailer, and the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel at the pivot. See
Fig. 17.5.
wheel inspected and adjusted by a certified
technician.
Coupling, Jost Fifth Wheel
NOTE: For a tractor equipped with a Fontaine
or Holland fifth wheel, see the heading Coupling, Fontaine and Holland Fifth Wheels
above.
1.
Tilt the ramp down.
2.
Open the kingpin locks. See Fig. 17.7.
1
2
f610291
03/10/99
1. Trailer Air Supply Valve Knob
2. Parking Brake Valve Knob
A
Fig. 17.8, Brake Valve Knobs
8.
Back the tractor under the trailer.
For a standard fifth wheel plate, the fifth wheel
must lift the trailer.
09/10/2010
For a low-lube fifth wheel plate, do not lift the
trailer as this may damage the fifth wheel plate.
f311128
A. Lock held open by catch mechanism
Fig. 17.7, Jost Release Handle Unlocked
3.
Back the tractor close to the trailer, centering the
kingpin on the fifth wheel.
4.
Chock the trailer tires.
5.
Connect the air lines and electrical cable.
6.
Ensure that the trailer air supply valve (trailer
brake) is pulled out, and that the trailer parking
brakes are set. See Fig. 17.8.
NOTICE
9.
After sliding under the trailer, stop to avoid hitting
the kingpin too hard, then resume backing slowly
until the fifth wheel locks.
10. Set the tractor parking brake.
WARNING
A visual inspection is required by law. Some improper couplings can pass a pull test. Sound is
not reliable. Get out of the cab and look. Incorrect coupling could cause the trailer to disconnect, possibly resulting in serious personal injury
or death.
11. Perform a physical check for positive kingpin
Attempting to couple at the wrong height may
cause improper coupling, which could result in
damage to the fifth wheel or kingpin.
7.
Adjust the trailer height (if required).
For a standard fifth wheel plate, the trailer
should contact the fifth wheel approximately 4 to
8 inches (10 to 20 cm) behind the pivot. See
Fig. 17.4.
lockup, ensuring that there is no gap between
the trailer and the fifth wheel. See Fig. 17.6.
12. Ensure that the release handle is in the locked
position adjacent to the casting. See Fig. 17.9.
13. Release the tractor parking brake and test for
kingpin lockup by slowly moving the tractor forward, pulling on the trailer against the chocks.
17.4
Fifth Wheels
OK
OK
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f311127
Fig. 17.9, Jost Release Handle Locked
Fifth Wheel Uncoupling
To unlock the mechanism, manually rotate
the safety indicator toward the rear of the
fifth wheel. See Fig. 17.10, View B.
Manual Uncoupling
1.
Set the tractor and trailer parking brakes.
2.
Chock the trailer rear wheels.
3.
Lower the trailer landing gear until the weight is
removed from the fifth wheel.
4.
Disconnect the tractor-to-trailer air system lines
and electrical cable. Plug the air lines to prevent
dirt or foreign material from entering the lines.
5.
Verify that both the parking brake and trailer air
supply knobs are out (see Fig. 17.8), the tractor
and trailer parking brakes are set, and that the
trailer is prepared for uncoupling.
6.
Release the kingpin locking mechanism following
the instructions for each manufacturer listed
below.
6.1
6.2
Fontaine: Lift the safety latch and pull the
lock control handle to the unlocked position. See Fig. 17.2.
Holland: In the locked position the safety
indicator swings freely over the operating
rod. See Fig. 17.10, View A.
Pull the operating rod out. When the
upper operating rod shoulder is outside
the slot, raise the handle and place the
shoulder of the upper rod against the plate
casting, above the slot. See Fig. 17.10,
View C.
The fifth wheel is now in the lock position
and is ready for uncoupling. As the tractor
pulls away from the trailer the kingpin
forces the jaw to rotate, contacting the
lock. Continued rotation of the jaw forces
the lock to move outward, and drops the
upper rod back into the slot. See
Fig. 17.10, View D. The wheel is now
ready for coupling.
6.3
7.
Jost: Pull the retractable handle out, then
secure it in the open position with the
catch. See Fig. 17.7.
Release the tractor parking brake, then drive forward slowly, allowing the trailer to slide down the
fifth wheel and pick-up ramps.
Air-Actuated Uncoupling
An air-actuated kingpin release valve is optional with
all fifth wheels. See Fig. 17.11.
17.5
Fifth Wheels
3
1
A
4
C
2
B
D
11/02/2010
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.
2.
f311133
Locked Position
Unlatched Position (safety indicator rotated towards the rear of the fifth wheel)
Lock Position (upper rod resting against casting above slot)
Open Position (ready for coupling)
Safety Indicator
3. Upper Rod
Operating Rod
4. Plate Casting
Fig. 17.10, Holland Kingpin Locking Mechanism
NOTE: In the event of an air system failure, airactuated kingpins can be manually released following the instructions for manual unlocking.
WARNING
Once the kingpin release valve has been pulled
the kingpin lock is released. The vehicle MUST
NOT be driven with the trailer until the trailer has
been uncoupled and coupled again. Failure to do
so may result in separation of the trailer from the
17.6
Fifth Wheels
tractor, possibly causing serious personal injury
or death.
5.
Drive out from under the trailer.
Preparing the Trailer for Uncoupling
Air-Activated Kingpin Unlock, Jost Fifth
Wheels
Before using the air valve to unlock a fifth wheel
kingpin, prepare the trailer as follows.
1.
1.
Set the tractor and trailer parking brakes.
2.
Chock the rear trailer tires.
3.
Lower the trailer landing gear until the weight is
removed from the fifth wheel.
4.
Disconnect the tractor-to-trailer air lines and electrical cable. Plug the air lines to prevent dirt or
foreign material from entering the lines.
Air-Activated Kingpin Unlock, Fontaine
and Holland Fifth Wheels
1.
Verify that both the parking brake and trailer-air
supply knobs are out (see Fig. 17.8), the tractor
and trailer parking brakes are set, and that the
trailer is prepared for uncoupling.
NOTE: If the tractor parking brake is not set, the
air-actuated kingpin-release valve will not activate.
2.
Pull and hold the kingpin release valve
(Fig. 17.11) until the kingpin lock mechanism
opens and locks in place.
Verify that both the parking brake and trailer air
supply knobs are out (see Fig. 17.8), the tractor
and trailer parking brakes are set, and that the
trailer is prepared for uncoupling.
NOTE: If the trailer parking brake is not set, the
air-actuated valve will not activate.
2.
Release the tractor parking brake.
3.
Pull and hold the kingpin release valve, then
drive forward slowly.
4.
After the trailer has slid down the fifth wheel and
pick-up ramps, let go of the kingpin release
valve.
Fifth Wheel Slide
WARNING
Adjust the fifth wheel slide correctly, and do not
overload any tractor axle by incorrectly loading
the trailer. Incorrect slide adjustment or improper
axle loading could cause erratic steering and
loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
On sliding fifth wheel assemblies, the fifth wheel
plate is attached to rails that allow forward and rearward movement of the fifth wheel in order to optimally distribute the load across the axles. Slots are
evenly spaced along the slide rails, and retractable
wedges are positioned through the slots to hold the
fifth wheel in the desiposition.
The amount of load distribution on the front steering
axle and rear drive axle(s) will have a direct effect on
the steering control of the tractor. Determine the front
and rear axle weights by weighing the tractor on
scales designed for this purpose.
10/26/2010
f611102
Fig. 17.11, Air-Actuated Kingpin Release Valve
3.
Let go of the kingpin release valve.
4.
Release the tractor parking brake.
17.7
The maximum axle weight ratings are shown on the
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)
label or Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(CMVSS) label attached to the driver-side door
frame. The desired load on the axle is no less than
80 percent of the maximum axle weight rating, but in
Fifth Wheels
no instances should the axle load exceed the maximum axle weight rating given on the FMVSS or
CMVSS label.
Manual Slide Operation
Use the following procedure to manually slide the
fifth wheel. See Fig. 17.12.
1
10/26/2010
f310050
Fig. 17.13, Sliding Fifth Wheel Manual Release,
Fontaine
5
4
6
3
2
07/25/95
8
f310190
1. Locking Wedge
2. Slide Release Pull Handle
Fig. 17.12, Manual Release Sliding Fifth Wheel,
Fontaine
1.
2.
Stop the tractor and trailer in a straight line on
level ground. Pull the trailer air supply knob to
set the trailer parking brakes.
Set the tractor parking brake, then release the
sliding mechanism using the appropriate method
for the fifth wheel manufacturer.
2.1
2.2
Fontaine: Lift the slide release pull handle
to disengage it from the guide plate. Then,
pull out the handle until it is in the unlocked position and can be positioned
against the guide plate to hold it out. The
handle will stay in the unlocked position
until it is manually disengaged from the
guide plate. See Fig. 17.13.
Holland: Pull the operating rod out. Make
sure both side plungers have released.
See Fig. 17.14.
3
2
7
1
10/26/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
f310445
Baseplate
Bolted Stop
Baseplate Rail
Fifth Wheel Mount
5.
6.
7.
8.
Slider Saddle Plate
Safety Latch
Operating Rod
Operating Lever
Fig. 17.14, Sliding Fifth Wheel Manual Release, Holland
Simplex
3.
Lower the trailer landing gear just enough to remove the weight from the tractor.
4.
Chock the front and rear trailer tires to prevent
the trailer from moving.
NOTICE
When moving the fifth wheel to the desiposition,
be sure the trailer landing gear will not at any
time come in contact with the tractor frame or
17.8
Fifth Wheels
other components. Make sure that the front of
the trailer will not come in contact with the rear
of the cab or with other components if they extend beyond the rear of the cab.
5.
Release the tractor parking brake, then slowly
move the tractor forward or backward until the
fifth wheel is in the desilocation.
WARNING
For Jost fifth wheels, the mechanism activates as
shown in Fig. 17.17.
2.
Lower the trailer landing gear just enough to remove the weight from the tractor.
3.
Pull the trailer air supply knob to set the trailer
parking brakes.
4.
Slowly move the tractor forward or backward
until the fifth wheel is in the desilocation.
Check that the locking wedges have seated in the
slots. Failure to achieve complete lockup may
allow disengagement of the tractor from the
trailer, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
6.
Set the tractor parking brake, then lock the sliding member in position using one of the following
methods:
6.1
6.2
Fontaine: Disengage the slide release
pull handle from the guide plate. The slide
release pull handle is spring-loaded in the
locked position and will seek the locked
position when disengaged from the guide
plate. After the slide release pull handle
returns to the fully locked position, visually
and physically check the locking wedges
to make sure they are fully inserted into
the slots in the slide rails. Make sure the
handle is locked in position against the
guide plate.
07/22/2011
f545806
Fig. 17.15, Fifth Wheel Slide Switch
1
Holland: Raise the operating rod so that it
is free to move inward. Make sure that the
lock pins have seated in the base plate
rail holes and the operating rod moves
into the locked position.
NOTE: The fifth wheel may need to be moved
slightly to enable the locking wedges to enter
the fully locked position.
Air Slide Operation
The slide feature may be operated with a dashmounted switch that operates an air cylinder that
locks and unlocks the slide.
07/25/95
1.
1. Locking Wedge
Press the top half of the air-slide switch to enable the air-slide feature. See Fig. 17.15
Ensure the locking plungers have released. See
Fig. 17.16.
17.9
2
f310189
2. Air Cylinder
Fig. 17.16, Air-Operated Sliding Fifth Wheel, Fontaine
Fifth Wheels
that the plungers have engaged by tugging the
tractor forward while the trailer brakes are locked
and the tires are chocked.
NOTE: The fifth wheel may need to be moved
slightly to enable the locking wedges to fully
lock.
A
B
09/10/2010
f311131
A. Unlocked
B. Locked
Fig. 17.17, Jost Sliding Fifth Wheel
NOTICE
Ensure the trailer landing gear does not come in
contact with the tractor frame or other components, and that the front of the trailer will not
come in contact with the rear of the cab or other
components if they extend beyond the rear of the
cab.
5.
Set the tractor parking brake.
WARNING
Check that the locking wedges have seated in the
slots. Failure to achieve complete lockup may
allow disengagement of the tractor from the
trailer, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
6.
Press the lower half of the air-slide switch to disable the air-slide feature. Visually inspect the
locking wedges or plungers to make sure that
they are fully inserted in the slide rail slots. Verify
17.10
18
Trailer Couplings
Air-Suspension Dump Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Premier Trailer Couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Trailer Couplings
Air-Suspension Dump Valve
WARNING
Never exhaust air from the suspension while
driving. The suspension will not absorb road
shocks, possibly damaging components, and vehicle handling may be compromised. This could
result in loss of vehicle control, possibly resulting in severe personal injury or death.
The air-suspension dump valve may be used to adjust the vehicle height in order to aid with coupling to
or uncoupling from a trailer. See Fig. 18.1. When the
switch is set to DOWN, the air-suspension dump
valve deflates the air springs to lower the rear of the
vehicle. In the UP position, the automatic ride-control
valves operate for normal driving.
07/22/2011
Trailer couplings are attached to the rear closing
crossmember. The Premier trailer couplings
(Fig. 18.2) are designed for use with trailers having a
maximum gross weight of 100,000 lbs (45 455 kg).
The Premier 2200 and 2400 trailer couplings are airadjusted couplings with a rigid pintle hook. An air
chamber mounted forward of the coupling operates a
push rod, which pushes against a shoe inside the
coupling. The shoe maintains constant pressure on
the eye of the trailer drawbar when it’s over the pintle
hook. This takes up any slack in the trailer connection, providing smoother towing and less wear on the
pintle hook. The air pressure is activated when the
trailer brakes are released.
Trailer Hookup
1.
Chock the front and rear tires of the trailer.
2.
Push the latch lock towards the mounting plate
as far as possible. Then, while holding the latch
lock in place against the mounting plate, pull the
top of the latch as far as possible toward the
pintle hook.
3.
While holding the latch in place, release the latch
lock.
4.
Back the vehicle up until the drawbar eye is over
the pintle hook, then lower the trailer.
5.
Pull the top of the latch as far as possible toward
the pintle hook. Then, while holding the latch in
position, push the latch lock towards the mounting plate.
6.
While holding the latch lock in place against the
mounting plate, release the latch.
7.
Release the latch lock and make sure it is fully
seated in the slot on top of the latch.
f545805
Fig. 18.1, Air-Suspension Dump Valve
NOTICE
Do not operate the vehicle over uneven ground
such as ramps, speed bumps, curbs, etc. with
the air springs deflated. Doing this may lead to
air bag separation from the piston, preventing the
suspension air springs from inflating.
Premier Trailer Couplings
General Information
IMPORTANT: Before operating the Premier coupling, refer to the Premier website
18.1
(www.premier-mfg.com) for complete safety,
operation, and maintenance instructions.
NOTICE
Always make sure the connection hanger keeps
the trailer air hoses and electrical cables positioned so that they do not rub on anything. Rubbing may wear through hoses or cables, resulting
in air leaks, or exposed or broken wires, potentially affecting trailer brake or electrical systems.
8.
Connect the trailer’s electrical and air lines.
Trailer Couplings
1
1
2
2
3
3
A
B
12/08/2010
f311138
A. Premiere 2400 Trailer Coupling
1. Latch Lock
2. Latch
B. Premiere 2200 Trailer Coupling
3. Pintle Hook
Fig. 18.2, Premiere 2200 and 2400 Trailer Couplings
Trailer Release
1.
Set the vehicle and trailer parking brakes.
6.
While holding the latch in place, release the latch
lock.
7.
Slowly drive the vehicle away from the trailer.
WARNING
If a trailer or combination vehicle is not equipped
with spring parking brakes, do not park it by pulling out only the trailer air supply valve knob.
This would apply only the trailer service brakes.
If air were to bleed from the trailer brake system,
the trailer brakes would release, possibly causing
an unattended runaway vehicle.
2.
Chock the front and rear tires of the trailer.
3.
Disconnect the trailer air and electrical lines.
Plug the air lines to keep them free of dirt.
4.
Take the weight of the trailer drawbar eye off the
pintle hook.
5.
Push the latch lock towards the mounting plate
as far as possible. Then, while holding the latch
lock in this position, pull the top of the latch as
far as possible toward the pintle hook.
18.2
19
Headlight Aiming
Preliminary Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Checking Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Adjusting Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Headlight Aiming
Preliminary Checks
Before checking or adjusting the headlight aim, complete the following inspection:
If the center of any projection is more than 3.9 in
(100 mm) to the side of the marks made in step
4, adjust the horizontal aim of that headlight.
7.
Check the vertical adjustment of the low beams.
The center of each beam projection should fall
on or near the marks made during step 4. See
Fig. 19.2.
8.
Use Table 19.1 to determine the maximum vertical distance allowable between the marks on the
wall and the center of each low-beam projection.
• Check that the hood is closed and latched.
• Remove any large amounts of mud or ice from
the underside of the fenders.
• Check the springs for sagging or broken
leaves.
• Check the suspension for proper functioning of
If the distance between either projection center
and the mark made on the wall or screen is
greater than the maximum distance given in
Table 19.1, adjust the vertical positioning of that
headlight.
the leveling mechanism. On cabs with air suspensions, make sure that the height is properly
adjusted.
• Check for damage to the hood and hinge as-
sembly. Repair as necessary.
• With the vehicle unloaded, check that the tires
are inflated to the recommended air pressure.
• Clean the headlight lenses. Use a soft cloth
with mild, non-caustic soap or detergent, and
water.
Checking Headlight Aim
1.
Park the vehicle on a level surface, 25 ft (7.6 m)
away from, and perpendicular to, a vertical
screen or wall. Shut down the engine and set the
parking brake. Chock the tires.
2.
On each headlight, find the bulb center behind
the headlight lens.
3.
Measure the distance from the ground to the
center of each headlight bulb (Fig. 19.1, Item A).
Note those distances.
4.
On the screen or wall, mark the locations of each
headlight bulb center using the distances found
in step 3. See Fig. 19.1, Items 2 and 3.
5.
Turn on the low-beam headlights.
NOTE: See the following heading, Adjusting
Headlight Aim, for adjustment instructions.
6.
19.1
Check the horizontal aim of the low beams. The
center of each beam projection should fall on or
near the marks made during step 4 (Fig. 19.1,
Items 2 and 3).
9.
Turn on the high-beam headlights. Ensure the
beam projections are parallel to the ground. If
the beam projections are not parallel to the
ground, adjust the positioning of the high-beam
bulbs.
Adjusting Headlight Aim
NOTE: Western Star vehicles are offered with
various headlight assembly options. Because of
the various options, the location of adjustment
screws on your vehicle’s headlight assembly
may vary from what is shown here.
For adjustment screw locations on a vehicle with
dual rectangular headlight assemblies, see Fig. 19.3.
For adjustment screw locations on a vehicle with
dual round headlight assemblies, see Fig. 19.4. For
adjustment screw locations on a 4700 model, see
Fig. 19.5.
Turn the adjustment screw in either direction until the
beam pattern meets the acceptable standard.
Headlight Aiming
2
3
A
A
B
B
m)
.6
7
(
ft
25
1
09/02/2011
A.
B.
1.
2.
f545809
Measure the distance from the ground to the center of each headlight bulb.
Mark where the center of each headlight projection should appear.
Screen or Wall
3. Center of Left-Hand Headlight Projection
Center of Right-Hand Headlight Projection
Fig. 19.1, Headlight Aiming Screen/Wall
A
1
2
3
09/12/2011
f545833
1. Low-Beam Angle Upper Limit
2. Ideal Low-Beam Projection
3. Low-Beam Angle Lower Limit
Fig. 19.2, Vertical Low-Beam Headlight Variation Limits
19.2
Headlight Aiming
Distance Between Ground
and Headlight: in (mm)
22–36 (560–900)
36–48 (900–1200)
48–54 (1200–1400)
Vertical Low-Beam Headlight Variation Limits
Desired Variation (Fig. 19.2, Upper Limit (Fig. 19.2, Item
Item 2) : in (mm)
1): in (mm) up
0
3.9 (100)
2 (50) down
2 (50)
2.5 (64) down
1.6 (40)
Lower Limit (Fig. 19.2, Item
3): in (mm) down
3.9 (100)
6 (150)
6.5 (165)
Table 19.1, Vertical Low-Beam Headlight Variation Limits
1
2
3
09/14/2011
02/17/2005
f544577a
NOTE: The vertical adjustment screws are on top of
each bulb; the horizontal adjustment screws are on the
side of each bulb.
Fig. 19.3, Adjustment Screw Locations, Dual
Rectangular Headlights
19.3
f545834
1. Horizontal Adjustment Screw
2. Vertical Adjustment Screw
3. Bezel Mounting Screw
Fig. 19.4, Adjustment Screw Locations, Dual Round
Headlights
Headlight Aiming
3
2
1
4
08/18/2011
f545810
NOTE: Adjustment screw locations may vary.
1. Headlight Lens
2. Horizontal Adjusting Screw
3. Turn Signal
4. Vertical Adjusting Screw
Fig. 19.5, Single Headlight Assembly (4700 model
shown)
19.4
20
Vehicle Appearance and
Care
Cab Washing and Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Chrome Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dashboard Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Velour Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Star Gauge Face Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care of Exterior Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1
20.1
20.1
20.2
20.2
20.3
20.3
Vehicle Appearance and Care
Cab Washing and Polishing
IMPORTANT: Carefully read all instructions before using or applying any cleaner or product to
the vehicle or components. Failure to follow
manufacturers’ recommendations can result in
damage to the finish.
To protect the finish of a new vehicle, follow these
guidelines carefully:
• During the first 30 days, rinse the vehicle fre-
quently with water. If the vehicle is dirty, use a
mild liquid soap. Do not use detergent.
• During the first 30 days, do not use anything
abrasive on the vehicle. Brushes, chemicals,
and cleaners may scratch the finish.
• During the first 120 days, do not wax the
vehicle.
To extend the life of the vehicle’s finish, follow these
guidelines:
• Avoid washing the vehicle in the hot sun.
• Always wash the vehicle with water. After the
cab is completely washed, dry it with a towel or
chamois.
• Do not dust painted surfaces with a dry cloth,
as this will scratch the paint.
• Do not remove ice or snow from a painted sur-
face with a scraper of any sort.
• To prevent damage to the finish, wax it regu-
larly. Before waxing, if the finish has become
dull, remove oxidized paint using a cleaner
specifically designed for this purpose. Remove
all road tar and tree sap before waxing. Western Star Trucks recommends using a high
quality brand of cleaner or cleaner-polish and
polishing wax.
• Do not let diesel fuel or antifreeze stand on a
painted surface. If either should occur, rinse
the surface off with water.
• To prevent rust, have any nicks or other dam-
age on the finish touched up as soon as possible.
• Park the vehicle in a sheltered area whenever
possible.
20.1
To prevent delamination and deterioration of labels
and stickers on the cab, follow these guidlines carefully:
• Do not pressure wash the label or sticker or
surfaces near it.
• Do not use strong alkaline soaps on or near
the label or sticker.
Care of Fiberglass Parts
Wash unpainted fiberglass air fairings and shields
monthly with a mild detergent, such as dishwashing
liquid. Avoid strong alkaline cleansers.
Apply a wax specifically designed for fiberglass.
Care of Chrome Parts
To prevent rust, keep chrome parts clean and protected at all times. This is especially important during
winter driving and in coastal areas where there is
exposure to salt air.
When cleaning chrome, use clean water and a soft
cloth or sponge. A mild detergent may also be used.
Sponge gently, then rinse. If necessary, use a nonabrasive chrome cleaner to remove stubborn rust or
other material. Do not use steel wool.
To help protect chrome after cleaning, apply a coat of
polishing wax to the surface. Never use wax on components that are exposed to high heat, such as exhaust pipes.
Dashboard Care
NOTICE
When cleaning the dashboard, instrument panel,
or gauge lens covers, do not use Armor-All Protectant®, STP Son-of-a-Gun®, window cleaner, or
other equivalent treatments. These cleaners contain vinyl plasticizers which can cause stress
crazing in the interior plastic panels and can result in cracking of the panels. Some cleaners can
also have an adverse effect on the clear plastic
of instrument panels and gauge lens covers, resulting in a foggy or cloudy appearance. This
type of damage is not covered by vehicle warranty.
Vehicle Appearance and Care
To clean the dashboard, instrument panel, and gauge
lens covers, use a cloth dampened with warm soapy
water. Make certain to wring the cloth out well before
cleaning, as excess water will damage the electrical
components.
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning
To prevent soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing to remove dust and dirt is recommended. Harsh
cleaning agents can cause permanent damage to
vinyl upholstery.
sinks and tiles, are abrasive and must be used with
caution as they can scratch the vinyl or give it a permanent dull appearance.
Nail Polish and Nail Polish Remover
Prolonged contact with these substances causes permanent damage to vinyl. Careful blotting immediately
after contact minimizes damage. Do not spread the
liquid during removal.
Paint, Shoe Heel Marks
To preserve the upholstery and prevent damage,
carefully review the following sections for recommended cleaning procedures. Waxing or refinishing
improves soil resistance for all vinyls. Any hard wax,
such as that used on automobiles, may be used.
Paint should be removed immediately. Do not use
paint remover or liquid-type brush cleaner on vinyl.
An unprinted cloth, dampened with naphtha or turpentine may be used. Use care to prevent contact
with parts of the upholstery that are not vinyl.
If stains do not respond to any of the treatments described above, it is sometimes helpful to expose the
vinyl to direct sunlight for up to 30 hours. Mustard,
ball point ink, certain shoe polishes, and dyes often
bleach out in direct sunlight, leaving the vinyl undamaged.
Shoe Polish
Ball Point Ink
Ball point ink can sometimes be removed if rubbed
immediately with a damp cloth, using water or rubbing alcohol. If this does not work, try the procedure
used for sulfide stains.
Most shoe polishes contain dyes which penetrate
vinyl and stain it permanently. Shoe polish should be
wiped off as quickly as possible using naphtha or
lighter fluid. If staining occurs, try the procedure used
for sulfide stains.
Sulfide Stains
Harden the gum with an ice cube wrapped in a plastic bag, then scrape it off with a dull knife. Remove
any remaining traces of gum with an all-purpose light
oil (peanut butter will also work). Wipe off the gum
and oil substance.
Sulfide compounds, such as those found in eggs and
some canned goods, can stain after prolonged contact with vinyl. Remove these stains by placing a
clean, unprinted piece of cloth over the spotted area
and pouring a liberal amount of 6 percent hydrogen
peroxide onto the cloth. Allow the saturated cloth to
remain on the spot for 30 to 60 minutes. For stubborn spots, allow the saturated cloth to remain on the
area overnight. Use caution to prevent the solution
from seeping into the seams, where it can weaken
the cotton thread.
Dirt
Tars, Asphalts, and Creosote
Wash the upholstery with warm water and mild soap,
such as saddle or oil soap. Apply soapy water to a
large area and allow to soak for a few minutes, then
rub briskly with a cloth to remove the dirt. This can
be repeated several times, as necessary.
Each of these items stains vinyl after prolonged contact. They should be wiped off immediately and the
area carefully cleaned, using a cloth dampened with
naphtha.
If dirt is deeply imbedded, use a soft bristle brush
after applying the soap.
Velour Upholstery Cleaning
Chewing Gum
If dirt is extremely difficult to remove, wall-washing
preparations normally found around the home can be
used. Powdered cleaners, such as those used for
To prevent soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing to remove dust and dirt is recommended. Spot
clean with a mild solvent or an upholstery shampoo,
20.2
Vehicle Appearance and Care
or the foam from a mild detergent. When using a solvent or a dry-cleaning product, follow the instructions
carefully, and clean only in a well-ventilated area.
Avoid any product that contains carbon tetrachloride
or other toxic materials. With either method, pretest a
small area before proceeding. Use a professional
upholstery cleaning service when extensive cleaning
is needed.
Chewing Gum or Wax
Harden the gum or wax with an ice cube wrapped in
a plastic bag, then scrape it off with a dull knife. Excess wax can be absorbed by placing a thick white
blotter over the wax and heating with a warm (not
hot) iron. Remove the remainder by using the procedure for grease and oil-based stains.
Grease and Oil-Based Stains
Dampen a small absorbent cloth with dry-cleaning
solvent or spot remover. Apply the cloth carefully to
the spot from the outer edge to the center. Pat and
blot the spot with a clean, dry cloth. Repeat as necessary, turning the cloth so that the stain does not
redeposit on the fabric.
Mildew
Brush the dry fabric with a soft brush. Sponge with
detergent, and blot. If the fabric is colorfast, dilute a
teaspoon of bleach in one quart (one liter) of cool
water. Apply with a swab, directly on the mildew
stain. Dab repeatedly with clear, cool water, and blot
dry.
Sugar and Water-Based Stains
Apply water-based detergent or cleaner, working in
circular motions. Pat and blot as dry as possible. Repeat, if necessary, before drying thoroughly.
Star Gauge Face Care
Use only a damp cloth to clean gauge faces. A mild
detergent solution may be used. Wipe dry with a
clean dry cloth.
Care of Exterior Lights
Clean the headlight lenses by hand only. Use a flannel cloth with mild, non-caustic soap or detergent,
and water.
20.3
NOTICE
Do not use a power buffer, paper towels, chemical solvents, or abrasive cleaners on the headlight lens, all of which can remove the UV coating
from the surface, and result in yellowing of the
lens.
21
In An Emergency
Hazard Warning Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Filter Replacement, DAVCO Fuel/Water Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting with Jumper Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire in the Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.1
21.1
21.1
21.1
21.2
21.4
21.6
In An Emergency
Hazard Warning Lights
separator) a spin-on fuel filter element may be supplied in the cab.
The hazard warning light flasher (Fig. 21.1) is typically part of the multifunction turn signal switch. To
operate the hazard lights, pull the tab out. All of the
turn signal lights and both of the indicator lights on
the control panel will flash. To cancel the hazard
warning lights, push the turn signal control lever either up or down, then return the lever to its neutral
position.
Western Star vehicles may be equipped with an optional hazard warning light switch located on the
right-hand dash panel. To operate the hazard lights,
press the upper half of the switch. To cancel the hazard warning lights, press the lower half of the switch.
WARNING
Use extreme care when placing flares in emergency situations that involve exposure to flammable substances such as fuel. An explosion or
fire could occur causing serious personal injury.
If there is an emergency while driving, cautiously pull
off the road, paying attention to other traffic. Turn on
the hazard warning lights. Place the flares and reflector along the side of the road to alert other drivers
that an emergency situation exists.
Emergency Filter
Replacement, DAVCO Fuel/
Water Separator
If the filter cover on the DAVCO fuel/water separator
is broken, it will not be possible to operate the vehicle. A standard spin-on filter will correct this problem.
Refer to the DAVCO website (www.davcotec.com)
for additional information, .
P
FO US
H
P R
FO UL TE
LE
R L
TI
LT
WARNING
06/14/2001
f610501
Fig. 21.1, Hazard Warning Light Switch Tab (left-hand
drive shown)
Fire Extinguisher
An optional factory-installed fire extinguisher may be
located in the cab by the driver’s door, between the
seats, or in the sleeper baggage compartment, if
equipped.
Emergency Kit
An optional emergency triangle reflector package,
flare kit, and (on vehicles with a DAVCO fuel/water
21.1
Fluid circulated through the fuel/water separator
to heat the fuel may be diesel fuel returned from
the engine, or engine coolant. Drain the fuel/
water separator only when the engine and fluids
have cooled. Draining it when the engine is hot
could cause severe personal injury due to scalding.
If returning fuel is released into the atmosphere,
its vapors can ignite in the presence of any ignition source. Do not expose the fuel to, or work
with the fuel system near, open flame or intense
heat. To do so could cause fire, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or property damage.
1.
Shut down the engine and set the parking brake.
Chock the tires.
IMPORTANT: When draining fluid from a fuel/
water separator, drain the fluid into an appropriate container, and dispose of it properly. Many
In An Emergency
2.
VENT CAP
jurisdictions now issue fines for draining fuel/
water separators onto the ground.
Put a clean receptacle under the fuel/water separator and attach a piece of hose to the drain
valve, to direct fuel into the receptacle.
FOR REMOVAL OF TOP COLLAR ONLY
NOTE: Use a hose with a ½-inch pipe thread to
fit the drain valve on a Fuel Pro 382.
3.
Remove the vent cap (Fig. 21.2, Item 4) and
open the drain valve (Fig. 21.2, Item 1). Drain
the fuel to just below the collar level, then close
the drain valve.
02/16/2009
f470277
Fig. 21.3, DAVCO Collar Wrench
the fuel/water separator from sealing, and an air
leak will result.
4
3
5
7.
Ensure that the drain valve is closed.
8.
Remove the filter grommet from the filter stud, if
equipped.
9.
Fill the housing to the top with clean diesel fuel.
10. Install a standard engine spin-on filter (part num-
2
ber FF105 or equivalent) on the filter stud.
11. Install the cover O-ring, clear cover, and the col-
lar. Hand-tighten the collar.
6
12. Install the O-ring in the vent cap, then install and
hand-tighten the vent cap on the fuel/water separator.
1
05/05/2009
1. Drain Valve
2. Lower Housing
3. Clear Cover
f470506b
4. Vent Cap
5. Collar
6. Inlet Port/Check Valve
Fig. 21.2, DAVCO Fuel/Water Separator (Fuel Pro 382
shown)
4.
Using a DAVCO collar wrench (Fig. 21.3), remove the clear cover and collar.
NOTE: Broken vent cap and collar warranty
claims will not be accepted if any tool other than
a DAVCO collar wrench, p/n 380134, 382002, or
232007, is used for removal. During installation,
the vent cap and collar are to be handtightened only, not tightened with a wrench.
5.
Remove the filter and dispose of it in an environmentally acceptable manner.
6.
Clean all threads and sealing surfaces very thoroughly. Even a small amount of dirt will prevent
13. Start the engine. When the lubricating oil
reaches its normal operating pressure, increase
engine speed to high idle for one to two minutes
to purge air from the system.
Starting with Jumper Cables
WARNING
Batteries release explosive gas. Do not smoke
when working around batteries. Put out all flames
and remove all sources of sparks or intense heat
in the vicinity of the battery. Do not allow the vehicles to touch each other. Do not lean over the
batteries when making connections, and keep all
other persons away from the batteries. Failure to
follow these precautions could lead to severe
personal injury as a result of an explosion or
acid burns.
21.2
In An Emergency
NOTICE
Make sure both electrical systems are the same
voltage. Electronic devices on both vehicles can
be damaged when connected to a vehicle with a
different operating voltage.
POS JUMP
START STUD
3
2
NEG JUMP
START STUD
IMPORTANT: Do not attempt to jump start a
damaged or frozen battery.
1.
Set the parking brake and turn off all lights and
other electrical devices. Ensure that the vehicles
are not touching and both ignition switches are
turned to the OFF position.
2.
Access the batteries by removing the battery box
cover, if equipped.
1
01/07/2011
NOTICE
Always connect the batteries and jumper cables
correctly (positive-to-positive and negative-tonegative). Connecting a charging device backwards (positive-to-negative) can severely damage
the vehicle electrical content and cause nonwarrantable failures.
IMPORTANT: On vehicles equipped with optional jump start posts, connect to these posts
instead of the battery terminals. Jump start
posts may be installed in various locations on
the vehicle. See Fig. 21.4.
3.
Connect the positive (+) jumper cable to the
positive terminal or jump start post on the discharged battery. See Fig. 21.5.
4.
Connect the other end of the positive jumper
cable to the positive terminal or jump start post
on the booster battery providing the charge.
WARNING
Do the next step exactly as instructed and do not
allow the clamps of one cable to touch the
clamps of the other cable. Otherwise, a spark
could occur near a battery, possibly resulting in
severe personal injury from explosion or acid
burns.
5.
21.3
Connect the negative (-) jumper cable to the
negative terminal or jump start post on the
booster battery.
f545726
1. Frame Rail
2. Negative Jump Start Post
3. Positive Jump Start Post
Fig. 21.4, Possible Jump Start Post Location
(passenger-side engine compartment)
6.
Connect the other end of the negative jumper
cable to the negative ground stud on the vehicle
requiring the jump start.
7.
Start the engine of the vehicle providing the jump
start and let the engine run a few minutes to
charge the batteries of the other vehicle.
8.
Attempt to start the engine of the vehicle receiving the jump. Do not operate the starter longer
than 30 seconds, and wait at least two minutes
between starting attempts to allow the starter to
cool.
9.
When the engine starts, let it idle a few minutes.
WARNING
Do the next step exactly as instructed and do not
allow the clamps of one cable to touch the
clamps of the other cable. Otherwise, a spark
could occur near a battery, possibly resulting in
severe personal injury from explosion or acid
burns.
10. Disconnect the negative jumper cable from the
jump started vehicle.
11. Disconnect the negative jumper cable from the
vehicle that provided the jump start.
In An Emergency
4
D
B
3
E
2
+
−
−
+
+
−
−
+
−
+
C
−
+
1
A
01/07/2011
f545725
Disconnect jumper cables in the REVERSE order that they were connected.
A.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Discharged Battery
C. Positive Jumper Cable
E. Booster Battery
Negative Ground Stud
D. Negative Jumper Cable
1st Connection: Positive Jumper Cable to Discharged Battery
2nd Connection: Positive Jumper Cable to Booster Battery
3rd Connection: Negative Jumper Cable to Booster Battery
4th Connection: Negative Jumper Cable to Negative Ground Stud (discharged battery)
Fig. 21.5, Jumper Connections
12. Disconnect the positive cable from the vehicle
that provided the jump start.
13. Disconnect the other end of the positive cable
from the jump started vehicle.
Towing
When it is necessary to tow the vehicle, make sure
the instructions below are closely followed to prevent
damage to the vehicle.
14. Install the battery box cover, if equipped.
WARNING
Do not tow an unbraked vehicle if the combined
weight of both vehicles is more than the sum of
21.4
In An Emergency
the gross axle weight ratings (GAWR) of the towing vehicle. Otherwise brake capacity will be inadequate, which could result in personal injury or
death.
ing. Known as reeving, this practice is not permissible in most industrial applications of towing
and hoisting. Reeving can overload the hooks
and result in damage to the vehicle.
Front Towing Hookup
6.
Attach the towing device. Due to the many variables that exist in towing, positioning the lifting
and towing device is the sole responsibility of the
towing-vehicle operator.
7.
On vehicles equipped with an air fairing, measure the distance from the ground to the bumper,
or from the ground to a frame bracket.
8.
Lift the vehicle, and secure the safety chains. If
extra towing clearance is needed, remove the
front wheels.
1.
Disconnect the batteries at the negative terminals.
NOTICE
Failure to remove the driveline(s) or the drive
axle shafts when towing the vehicle with the rear
wheels on the ground could result in damage to
the transmission and other parts.
2.
3.
Remove the driveline and the interaxle driveline
(if equipped), or the axle shafts for each axle that
may touch the ground during the towing process.
For any axle shaft that has been removed, cover
the ends of the hubs with metal plates or plywood cut to fit the axle opening, and drilled to fit
the axle shaft studs. This prevents lubricant from
leaking out and will keep contaminants from getting into and damaging the wheel bearings and
axle lubricant.
If the driveline(s) were removed, ensure the
U-joint caps are secure so they will not come off.
NOTICE
Failure to protect the frame rails from the chains
could cause damage, leading to eventual frame
failure.
4.
If a vehicle with tandem rear axles is to be lifted
and towed, chain the forward rear-axle assembly
to the vehicle frame. This will prevent the forward
rear-axle assembly from dropping and keep its
wheels off the ground while being towed.
Use protection to keep the chains from damaging
the frame.
5.
Remove the bumper extension and chrome bumper, if so equipped. Remove the bumper fairing,
if so equipped.
NOTICE
Do not pass a sling (for example, a rope or chain)
from one tow hook to another to fasten for tow-
21.5
WARNING
Failure to lower the vehicle could result in the air
fairing striking an overhead obstruction, such as
a bridge or overpass, and causing vehicle damage or personal injury.
9.
On vehicles equipped with an air fairing, repeat
the measurement taken in step 8. The difference
between the two measurements must not exceed
14 inches (36 cm). If necessary, lower the vehicle.
10. Connect the clearance lights, taillights, and sig-
nal lights. Connect any special towing lights required by local regulations.
WARNING
Failure to chock the tires or connect the tow
truck’s air brake system before releasing the
spring parking brakes could allow the disabled
vehicle to suddenly roll. This could cause property damage or personal injury.
11. Chock the tires on the disabled vehicle and con-
nect the towing vehicle’s air brake system to the
vehicle being towed. Then, release the spring
parking brakes and remove the chocks.
In An Emergency
Rear Towing Hookup
NOTICE
Using a rear towing hookup on a vehicle
equipped with a roof fairing could cause damage
to the cab structure.
If reverse towing at speeds above 45 mph (70
kph) is necessary, hold down the cab with tension straps looped over the cab shocks and
under the frame rails. Failure to do so could
allow the wind load to lift the cab unexpectedly,
resulting in damage to the air springs and other
components.
1.
If the vehicle is equipped with cab air suspension, and reverse towing at speeds above 45
mph (70 kph) is necessary, hold down the cab as
follows:
1.1
Drain the air from the cab air springs.
1.2
Loop a 2-inch (5-cm) ratchet-style tension
strap (rated 2000 lb [900 kg] minimum
work load) over the top of the cab shock
and under the frame rail. See Fig. 21.6.
Tighten the strap for a snug fit. If the cab
is equipped with two or more shocks, restrain the aftmost shock on each side of
the vehicle.
2.
Place the front tires straight forward and secure
the steering wheel in this position.
3.
Disconnect the battery ground cables.
NOTICE
Failure to protect the frame rails from the chains
could cause damage, leading to eventual frame
failure.
4.
On dual drive axles, using protection to keep the
chains from damaging the vehicle frame, chain
the forward-rear drive axle to the frame.
5.
Attach the towing device.
NOTE: Due to the many variables that exist in
towing, positioning the lifting and towing device
is the sole responsibility of the towing-vehicle
operator.
06/24/2014
f602530
NOTE: Typical cab air suspension shown.
Fig. 21.6, Tension Strap Installed to Hold Down the Cab
6.
Lift the vehicle and secure the safety chains. If
extra clearance is needed, remove the bumper
extension if equipped.
7.
Connect the clearance lights, taillights, and signal lights. Also connect any special towing lights
required by local regulations.
Fire in the Cab
According to data from the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration, the incidence of fire in heavyand medium-duty trucks is rare. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard #302 limits the flammability of
specified materials used inside the cab, but despite
this, most materials will burn. The cab of this vehicle
contains urethane foam, which is flammable.
WARNING
Urethane foam is flammable! Do not allow any
flames, sparks, or other heat sources such as
cigarettes or light bulbs to contact urethane
foam. Urethane foam in contact with such heat
sources could cause a serious, rapid fire, which
21.6
In An Emergency
could result in death, severe burns, or gas poisoning, as well as damage to the vehicle.
In Case of a Cab Fire
As quickly as possible, bring the vehicle to a safe
stop, apply the parking brake, turn off the ignition,
and get out of the vehicle.
21.7
22
Pre- and Post-Trip
Checklists
Periodic Inspections and Maintenance, General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1
Fluids Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2
Pre- and Post-Trip Checklists
Periodic Inspections and
Maintenance, General
Information
5
6
Regulations in Canada and the U.S. clearly indicate
that it is the driver’s responsibility to perform an inspection, and ensure the complete road-worthiness
of a vehicle, before placing it into service. Commercial vehicles may be subject to inspection by authorized inspectors, and an unsafe vehicle can be taken
"out of service" until the driver or owner repairs it.
Use the following checklists to ensure that vehicle
components are in good working condition before
each trip. Careful inspections eliminate stops later to
fix overlooked or forgotten items.
The checklists in this chapter can be copied and kept
as a record that the procedures have been completed. For details on how to inspect each item on
the checklists, see the corresponding procedure
(step number) in Chapter 23.
NOTE: Checklists in this chapter correspond
with the procedures and steps in Chapter 23,
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance. Your vehicle may not be equipped with
all components listed below.
Daily Pretrip Inspection Checklists
See the following tables for a list of procedures that
should be performed daily, before the first trip. Place
a check mark in the complete (Comp.) column to
indicate a procedure has been performed.
Inspector
Date
Suspension and Slack Adjusters
Suspension components
Slack adjusters
Comp.
1
2
Wheels and Tires
Wheel Covers
Tire condition
Tire inflation
Rims and wheel components
Comp.
1
2
3
4
22.1
Comp.
2
3
4
Saddle Tank Areas
Drain air reservoirs (without automatic drain
valves)
Fuel tank(s) secure
Frame rails and crossmembers
Visible exhaust components
Engine Compartment
Leakage under engine
Air intake system
Engine oil level
Power steering reservoir level
Engine coolant level
Visible engine wiring
Frame rails
Comp.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
Checklists
Wheels and Tires
Comp.
Wheel bearing oil seals and lubrication levels
Mud Flaps
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Cab
Comp.
Reset dash-mounted air intake restriction
indicator
Air-pressure warning systems
Air governor cut-in and cut-out pressures
Air pressure build-up time
Air system leakage
Air pressure reserve
Mirrors, windows, windshield
Horn, windshield wipers, windshield washers
Heater and defroster
Interior lights
Exterior lights
Seat belts and tether belts
Fuel level
Mirror adjustment
Service brakes
Backup alarm
Pre- and Post-Trip Checklists
Weekly Post-trip Inspection Checklist
Fluids Added
See the following table for procedures that should be
performed weekly, post-trip. Place a check mark in
the complete (Comp.) column to indicate a procedure has been performed.
Use the following table to note any fluids that were
added during the inspection and maintenance procedures.
Inspector
1
2
3
4
5
6
Engine Compartment
Windshield washer reservoir level
Air intake restriction indicator
Allison transmission fluid level
Water in fuel/water separator
Steering components
Serpentine drive belts
Date
Comp.
Fluids Added During Inspection
Fluid
Amount Added
Wheel Bearing Oil Seal
Lubricant
Engine Oil
Power Steering Fluid
Engine Coolant
Windshield Washer Fluid
Automatic Transmission
Fluid
Hydraulic Clutch Fluid (DOT
4 brake fluid)
Monthly Post-trip Inspection
Checklists
See the following tables for procedures that should
be performed monthly, post-trip. Place a check mark
in the complete (Comp.) column to indicate a procedure has been performed.
Inspector
Date
Brake Components
Brake system components
Brake chambers
Air brake lines
Flex air hoses
Brake linings and brake drums
Brake lining thickness
Comp.
Comp.
2
3
Saddle Tank Areas
Drain air reservoirs (with automatic drain
valves)
Batteries (location may vary)
Aerodynamic components
Engine Compartment
Hood and bumper
Hydraulic clutch reservoir
Radiator and heater hoses
Steering wheel play
Comp.
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
22.2
23
Pre- and Post-Trip
Inspections and
Maintenance
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1
Daily Pretrip Inspections and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1
Weekly Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.9
Monthly Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.12
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
• spring hangers
Safety Precautions
• shocks
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these
steps could result in serious personal injury or
death.
• suspension arms
• suspension brackets
• axle seats
• bushings
2.
Inspect slack adjusters for signs of damage. See
Fig. 23.1, Fig. 23.2, or Fig. 23.3.
Daily Pretrip Inspections and
Maintenance
4
Complete the following inspection and maintenance
procedures to ensure that vehicle components are in
good working condition before each trip. A driver that
is familiar with the vehicle and drives it regularly can
perform the daily inspections, then add the weekly
and monthly post-trip inspections as scheduled.
7
3
2
If the driver does not operate the vehicle on a consistent basis, all daily, weekly, and monthly inspection and maintenance procedures should be performed before the trip.
IMPORTANT: The pre- and post-trip checklists,
inspections, and maintenance procedures detailed in this chapter are not all-inclusive.
Refer to other component and body manufacturers’ instructions for specific inspection and
maintenance instructions, as well as local, state,
and federal guidelines.
NOTE: If any system or component does not
pass this inspection, it must be corrected before
operating the vehicle. Whenever equipment requires adjustment, replacement, and/or repair,
see the Western Star Workshop Manual for procedures and specifications.
5
6
8
9
1
10
f421398
06/17/2003
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
7/16-inch Adjusting Nut
Grease Fitting
Boot
Link
Brake Chamber Piston Rod
Clevis
½-inch Clevis Pin
1/4-inch Clevis Pin
Grease Relief Opening
Slack Adjuster Spline
Fig. 23.1, Gunite Automatic Slack Adjuster
• Inspect slack adjuster boots, if equipped,
for cuts or tears.
Suspension and Slack Adjuster
Inspection
• Inspect anchor straps, if equipped, for
Walk around the vehicle and visually inspect suspension and slack adjuster components.
• Look for worn clevis pins on brake cham-
1.
• Look for missing or damaged cotter pins
Inspect the following suspension components for
signs of structural damage, cracks, or wear.
• springs
23.1
damage.
ber pushrods.
on the clevis pins.
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
1
2
3
4
3
5
6
7
9
8
4
8
7
6
2
5
10/11/2005
A
f421397
A. Rotate the control arm toward the brake chamber
until you can feel it contacting the internal stop.
1. Clevis
2. Slack Adjuster
3. Clevis Pin
4. Manual Adjusting Nut
5. Control Arm
6. Control-Arm Washers and Nut
7. Anchor Strap Slot
8. Anchor Strap
9. Brake Chamber
Fig. 23.2, Haldex Automatic Slack Adjuster
• Ensure chamber piston rods are in line
with the slack adjusters.
Wheel and Tire Inspection
Walk around the vehicle and visually inspect each
wheel and tire assembly.
IMPORTANT: Wheel covers decrease drag force
as a vehicle moves, thereby improving fuel efficiency. If replacement of a wheel cover is necessary, the replacement cover must meet or exceed the drag reduction performance of the
originally installed cover in order to maintain
compliance with greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency regulations (GHG14).
1.
If the vehicle was originally equipped with wheel
covers, ensure all wheel covers are present. Inspect wheel covers for damage or wear. Remove
wheel covers from rear drive wheels, if equipped,
9
01/31/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1
10
f422530
Grease Fitting (if equipped)
Slack Adjuster Housing
Brake Chamber Pushrod
Clevis
Clevis Pin (large)
Clevis Pin (small)
Actuator Rod
Boot
Manual Adjusting Nut
Camshaft Splines
Fig. 23.3, Meritor Automatic Slack Adjuster
prior to inspecting the tires and wheel components.
NOTE: During wheel cover installation, ensure
the V-notch in the liner inner retaining ring is
centered on the valve stem. The inner and outer
retaining rings should be uniformly aligned to
each other and to the wheel rim. The outer retaining ring of the liner is equipped with two
canvas flaps. When installing the face cover,
make sure the cover retaining ring is inserted
between the two canvas flaps on the liner outer
retaining ring so that the Velcro strips line up
23.2
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
between the face cover and the liner. Make certain the detachable view cover is centered on
the face cover, and the Velcro strips are
pressed firmly in place.
2.
finger-tight
• bulges, cracks, cuts, and penetrations
• oil contamination (petroleum derivatives will
soften the rubber and destroy the tire)
• tread depth—if tread is less than 4/32 inch
(3 mm) on any front tire, or less than 2/32
inch (1.5 mm) on any rear tire, replace the
tire
• debris lodged between duel tire sets
IMPORTANT: Low-rolling resistance (LRR) tires
minimize wasted energy as a tire rolls, thereby
decreasing rolling effort and improving fuel efficiency. If tire replacement is necessary, replacement tires must meet or exceed the rolling resistance of the originally installed tires in order to
maintain compliance with greenhouse gas and
fuel efficiency regulations (GHG14).
Contact your tire manufacturer/supplier to determine the rolling resistance of the originally installed tires. Visit www.epa.gov/smartway for
additional information and resources.
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle with underinflated or
overinflated tires. Incorrect inflation can stress
the tires and make the tires and rims more susceptible to damage, possibly leading to rim or
tire failure and loss of vehicle control, resulting
in serious personal injury or death.
A weekly pressure loss of 4 psi (28 kPa) or more
in a tire may indicate damage. The tire should be
inspected and, if necessary, repaired or replaced
by a qualified tire service facility.
IMPORTANT: The load and cold inflation pressure must not exceed the rim or wheel manufacturer’s recommendations, even though the
tire may be approved for a higher load inflation.
Consult the rim or wheel manufacturer for the
correct tire inflation pressure for the vehicle
load.
4.
Examine each rim and wheel component. Check
the wheel nuts or rim nuts for indications of
looseness.
4.1
Remove all dirt and debris from the assembly. Rust streaks or metal build-up
around stud holes, or out-of-round or worn
stud holes, may be caused by loose wheel
nuts.
WARNING
Have any worn or damaged wheel components
replaced by a qualified person using the wheel
manufacturer’s instructions and the wheel industry’s standard safety precautions and equipment.
Otherwise a vehicle or workshop accident could
occur, possibly resulting in serious personal injury or death.
4.2
Inspect for broken, cracked, badly worn,
bent, rusty, or sprung rings and rims. See
Fig. 23.4.
Check tire inflation.
For inflation pressures and maximum loads, see
the tire manufacturer’s guidelines. Inflate the tires
to the applicable pressures if needed.
If a tire has been run flat or under-inflated, check
the wheel and tire for damage before adding air.
23.3
NOTICE
Inspect each tire for the following:
• valve stem caps on every tire, screwed on
3.
Keep compressed air reservoirs and lines dry
during tire inflation. Use well-maintained inline
moisture traps and service them regularly.
NOTICE
Use the recommended torque values and follow
the proper tightening sequence. Insufficient
wheel nut torque can cause wheel shimmy, resulting in wheel damage, stud breakage, and extreme tire tread wear. Excessive wheel nut torque
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
02/09/95
f400001
Fig. 23.4, Worn Stud Holes
can break studs, damage threads, and crack
discs in the stud hole area.
4.3
10
Make sure all wheel nuts are tightened. If
tightening is necessary, use the tightening
pattern in Fig. 23.5 or Fig. 23.6.
When tightening a 12-stud wheel rim, use
the tightening sequence in Fig. 23.7 for
each of the three stages of tightening as
follows:
• Stage 1—Tighten each nut 50 lbf·ft
8
3
6
5
4
7
(68 N·m)
• Stage 2—Tighten each nut 100 lbf·ft
1
9
2
f400081a
08/23/93
(136 N·m)
• Stage 3—Tighten each nut 150 lbf·ft
Fig. 23.5, Tightening Sequence, 10-Stud Disc Wheels
(203 N·m)
5.
6.
1
Inspect the outboard side of all wheel hubs and
the hub oil seal area on the inboard side of each
wheel for signs of oil leakage. If any oil is found
on wheel and tire or brake components, remove
the vehicle from service until the leak has been
fixed.
7
If needed, fill the hubs to the level indicated on
the hub cap. See Group 35 of the Western Star
Maintenance Manual for recommended lubricants.
5
Check that mud flaps are undamaged and hang
10 inches (25.4 cm) or less from the ground.
4
6
3
03/08/2012
2
8
f400052a
Fig. 23.6, Tightening Sequence, 8-Stud Disc Wheels
23.4
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
1
3.
Inspect visible frame rails for missing bolts, shiny
areas, or rust streaks. Check all visible crossmembers for damage or signs of looseness.
4.
Inspect visible components of the exhaust system to ensure connections are tight.
5
8
10
11
4
Inspect upstream of the aftertreatment device
(ATD), if equipped, for cracking or signs of leaks,
such as soot trails. Inspect downstream of the
ATD for signs of exhaust leaks, such as blistering or warping of nearby components.
3
6
9
Engine Compartment Inspection
12
02/02/2012
7
2
1.
Check the ground underneath the engine for fuel,
oil, or coolant leaks.
2.
Inspect the air intake system for leaks or damage.
f400364
Fig. 23.7, Tightening Sequence, 12-Stud Wheel Rims
Saddle Tank Areas Inspection
NOTICE
WARNING
When draining the air reservoir, do not look into
the air jets or direct them toward anyone. Dirt or
sludge particles may be in the airstream and
could cause injury.
Failure to maintain a sealed air intake system
could allow the entry of dirt and contaminants
into the engine. This could adversely affect engine performance and result in engine damage.
2.1
Push the reset button on the air intake
restriction indicator located on the air
cleaner, if equipped.
2.2
Check the air intake duct from the air
cleaner to the engine intake. Make sure
the duct components are secure and airtight.
2.3
Check the vacuator (spitter) valve(s) for
damage, and make sure the lips of the
valve(s) are pliable and free of debris.
NOTICE
If the water drained from the air reservoirs is
cloudy or oily, it may indicate a problem with the
compressor. If oil is allowed to contaminate the
air dryer, it will not remove the water from the air
brake system, which could adversely affect braking.
1.
Drain the brake system air reservoirs (reservoirs
without automatic drain valves only).
3.
Check the engine oil level.
WARNING
Never operate the engine with the fuel tank shutoff valves partially closed. This could damage the
fuel pump, causing sudden loss of engine power,
possibly resulting in serious personal injury due
to reduced vehicle control.
2.
Ensure fuel tanks are secured to their mounting
brackets and that the mounting brackets are secured to the frame.
If equipped with fuel tank shutoff valves, be sure
the valves are fully open.
23.5
NOTICE
Operating the engine with the oil level below the
minimum fill (or "add") mark or above the maximum fill (or "full") mark could result in engine
damage.
3.1
Check the oil level with the vehicle parked
on a level surface. See the engine manufacturer’s guidelines for engine shutdown
time requirements prior to checking the oil
level.
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
IMPORTANT: On engines that comply with
EPA07 or newer regulations, use CJ-4 engine oil with less than 1% sulfated ash. Failure to use CJ-4 oil may void the warranty on
emission aftertreatment components.
3.2
4.
engine after refilling and check the sight
glass again when the engine is at operating temperature.
1
If the oil level is at or below the minimum
fill (or "add") mark on the dipstick, add
enough oil to maintain the level between
the minimum and maximum fill marks. See
the engine operation manual for recommended lubricants.
Check the power steering reservoir fluid level.
The power steering fluid level should be between
the MIN COLD mark and the middle mark just
above it. See Fig. 23.8. If needed, fill the reservoir with automatic transmission fluid that meets
Dexron III or TES-389 specifications.
2
3
06/06/2001
f500354
1. Surge Tank
1
2. Filler Cap
Fig. 23.9, Steel Surge Tank
• Translucent Surge Tank: If the coolant is
05/21/2007
low, fill the surge tank to the FULL line with
a 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze.
See Fig. 23.10. Start the engine after refilling and check the level again when the
engine is at operating temperature.
f462079
1. Filler Cap
Fig. 23.8, Power Steering Fluid Reservoir (configuration
may vary)
NOTICE
Low coolant could result in engine overheating,
which could cause engine damage.
IMPORTANT: The surge tank must be cool to
check the coolant level.
5.
Check the engine coolant level in the radiator
surge tank.
• Steel Surge Tank: Ensure coolant is visible
in the sight glass. See Fig. 23.9. If coolant
is not visible, add a 50/50 mixture of water
and antifreeze to the surge tank until coolant is visible in the sight glass. Start the
6.
Inspect visible engine wiring for damage or
looseness. See Fig. 23.11. Check for loose wiring, chafed insulation, and damaged or loose
hold-down clamps.
7.
Inspect visible frame rails for missing bolts, shiny
areas, or rust streaks.
Cab Inspection
1.
Push the reset button on the dash-mounted air
intake restriction indicator, if equipped.
2.
With the ignition switch in the OFF position,
check the air-pressure warning system.
2.1
If not previously drained, drain the air reservoirs using moderate brake applications
until pressure in both reservoirs is less
than 70 psi (483 kPa).
23.6
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
2
1
09/07/2011
f200745
1. Filler Cap
2. Sight Glass
3. Low Coolant Sensor
2
1
Fig. 23.10, Plastic Surge Tank
2.2
3.
Turn the ignition to the ON position. The
ICU will complete a full gauge sweep and
bulb check, and the warning buzzer will
sound. Ensure the BRAKE AIR lamp remains illuminated and the warning buzzer
continues to sound after the gauge sweep
is complete.
04/12/2010
Fig. 23.11, Visible Engine Wiring
Start the engine and ensure the BRAKE
AIR lamp goes out and the buzzer silences when pressure reaches approximately 70 psi (483 kPa) in both air reservoirs.
The air governor should cut out at approximately 120 psi (827 kPa). For vehicles with an optional dryer reservoir
module (DRM), the cut-out pressure is
approximately 130 psi (896 kPa).
3.2
4.
23.7
4.1
With the air system fully charged, make
one full brake application and note the air
pressure reading on the primary air
gauge.
4.2
Further reduce air pressure using moderate brake applications, then run the engine at governed rpm.
4.3
Note the time that the pressure reaches
the previously noted reading on the primary air gauge, then note the time that
the air pressure reaches cut-out pressure.
4.4
If it takes longer than 30 seconds to reach
cut-out pressure after the primary air
gauge passes the previously noted pressure (noted after one full brake application), eliminate any leaks or replace the air
compressor before operating the vehicle.
Check air governor cut-in and cut-out pressures.
3.1
With the engine idling, apply the brake
pedal several times. The air governor
should cut in when pressure in the primary
air reservoir (top air gauge) reaches approximately 100 psi (689 kPa).
Check air pressure build-up time.
f545646
1. Powertrain PDM (PTPDM)
2. Powernet Distribution Box (PNDB)
5.
Check air leakage in the system.
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
5.1
With the parking brake applied, the transmission out of gear, and the air system
fully charged, release the service brakes
and shut down the engine.
5.2
Wait one minute and note the air pressure
drop in psi (kPa) per minute from the primary air reservoir.
If the pressure drop exceeds the limits
shown in Table 23.1, eliminate any leaks
before operating the vehicle.
6.
10.1
Turn on the headlights and leave them on.
Ensure all equipped gauge bulbs illuminate in the dash message center.
10.2
Ensure all equipped driver control
switches illuminate.
10.3
Ensure both turn signal indicator bulbs
illuminate in the dash message center
when the turn signal switch is activated.
11. Check the operation of all exterior lights. See
Fig. 23.12.
Check the air pressure reserve.
With the engine still off, make one full brake application and observe the pressure drop on the
primary air gauge. If pressure drops more than
25 psi (172 kPa), eliminate any leaks before operating the vehicle.
Maximum Allowable Air Leakage
Pressure Drop:
psi (kPa) Per Minute
Description
Released Applied
Truck or Tractor Only
2 (14)
3 (21)
Truck or Tractor w/Single Trailer
3 (21)
4 (28)
1
5
2
3
Table 23.1, Maximum Allowable Air Leakage
4
WARNING
When cleaning windshields and windows, always
stand on the ground or on a secure ladder or
platform. Use a long-handled window cleaner. Do
not use the cab steps, tires, fenders, fuel tanks,
engine, or under-hood components to access the
windshield or windows. Doing so could cause a
fall and result in an injury.
7.
8.
9.
Inspect the mirrors, window glass, and windshield for cracks or other damage.
Ensure that the horn, windshield wipers, and
windshield washers are operating properly.
These devices must be in good working order for
safe vehicle operation.
Ensure the heater and defroster are operating
properly.
06/06/2001
f602091
1. Clearance Lights
2. Turn Signal Light
3. Headlight
4. Driving/Fog Lights
5. Marker Lights
Fig. 23.12, Exterior Lights
11.1
Activate the high-beam headlights and
hazard warning lights.
11.2
Exit the cab and check that all exterior
lights and reflectors are clean and intact.
11.3
Check that the brake lights, taillights,
headlights, turn signals, marker lights,
identification lights, and clearance lights
are working properly.
12. Inspect the seat belts and tether belts.
10. Check the operation of all interior lights.
23.8
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
WARNING
Inspect and maintain seat belts. When any part of
a seat belt system needs replacement, the entire
seat belt must be replaced, both retractor and
buckle side. Any time a vehicle is involved in an
accident, and the seat belt system was in use,
the entire vehicle seat belt system must be replaced before operating the vehicle. Do not attempt to modify the seat belt system; doing so
could change the effectiveness of the system.
Failure to replace worn or damaged seat belts, or
making any modifications to the system, may result in personal injury or death.
12.1
Check the web for fraying, cuts, extreme
dirt and dust, or for severe fading from
exposure to sunlight, especially near the
buckle latch plate and in the D-loop guide
area.
12.2
Check operation of the buckle, latch, Komfort Latch or Sliding Komfort Latch (if
equipped), web retractor, and upper seat
belt mount on the door pillar. Check all
visible components for wear or damage.
12.3
Check the seat belt and tether belt connection points and tighten any that are
loose.
13. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank(s). To keep
condensation to a minimum, fuel tanks should be
filled at the end of each day.
14. Adjust the rearview and down view mirrors as
necessary.
15. Test the service brakes.
15.1
With the engine running and air system
fully charged, set the parking brake.
15.2
Put the vehicle in the lowest gear and
gently attempt to move it forward. The vehicle should not move.
If the vehicle moves, the parking brakes
are not operating correctly and must be
repaired before the vehicle is operated.
16. Test the backup alarm
16.1
Release the parking brake and put the
transmission in reverse.
16.2
Move the vehicle slightly backward to ensure that the backup alarm is operating
correctly.
Weekly Post-Trip Inspections
and Maintenance
Engine Compartment Inspection
WARNING
Never fill fuel tanks to more than 95 percent of
their liquid capacity. This could make them more
likely to rupture from impact, possibly causing
fire and resulting in serious personal injury or
death by burning.
Do not mix gasoline or alcohol with diesel fuel.
This mixture could cause an explosion, possibly
resulting in serious personal injury or death. Do
not fill the fuel tanks in the presence of sparks,
open flames, or intense heat. These could ignite
the fuel, possibly causing severe burns.
IMPORTANT: On engines that comply with
EPA07 or newer regulations, use ultralow-sulfur
diesel (ULSD) with 15 ppm sulfur content or
less. Failure to use ULSD fuel may void the
warranty on emission components.
23.9
WARNING
Washer fluids may be flammable and poisonous.
Do not expose washer fluid to an open flame or
any burning material, such as a cigarette. Always
comply with the washer fluid manufacturer’s recommended safety precautions.
1.
Check the windshield washer reservoir fluid level.
The reservoir is usually located near the righthand frame rail.
2.
After resetting the air intake restriction indicator
during the daily pretrip inspection, check the indicator again with the engine off.
2.1
Check an indicator with graduations to see
if air restriction exceeds the value shown
in Table 23.2.
Check a go/no-go indicator without graduations to see if the colored bar shows
through the clear window.
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
DAVCO Models: Remove the vent cap
and open the drain. See Fig. 23.14.
Air Intake Maximum Restriction Values (inH2O)
GHG14
EPA07 and
and
Pre-EPA07
EPA10
Engine Make
GHG17
Engines
Engines
Engines
Detroit
20
22
18
Cummins
25
25
25
Mercedes-Benz
22
22
–
Caterpillar
25
–
–
ConMet Models: Check the water level in
the sight bowl, if so equipped. To drain the
water, loosen the valve at the bottom and
allow the water to run out. See Fig. 23.15.
6
5
Table 23.2, Air Intake Maximum Restriction Values
4
2.2
2.3
3.
4.
3
If air restriction exceeds the maximum allowable value, operate the vehicle for one
more day, making sure not to run the engine over rated rpm. Refer to the engine
operation manual for more information on
rated rpm for your engine.
7
2
If air restriction exceeds the maximum
value again, replace the air cleaner. For
instructions, refer to Group 09 of the
Western Star Workshop Manual.
8
1
9
If the vehicle is equipped with an Allison automatic transmission, check the automatic transmission fluid level.
10
11
Check for water in the fuel/water separator, if
equipped.
IMPORTANT: When draining fluid from a
fuel/water separator, drain the fluid into an
appropriate container and dispose of it properly. Many jurisdictions now issue fines for
draining fuel/water separators onto the
ground.
4.1
Place a suitable container under the fuel/
water separator.
02/03/2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
4.3
4.4
Mounting Head
Mounting Bolts (qty 2)
Filter Element
Sight Bowl
Drain Plug
Stop draining fluid when fuel begins to
drain out.
Alliance/Racor Models: turn the drain plug
clockwise to close it.
If the engine is equipped with a built-in
water separator, loosen the drain valve,
and allow the water to run out. Close the
drain valve, taking care not to overtighten
it.
Alliance/Racor Models: Turn the drain plug
counterclockwise to open it. See
Fig. 23.13.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Fig. 23.13, Alliance Fuel/Water Separator Assembly and
Installation
NOTE: A hose may be used to direct water
into the container. Use a hose with a ½-inch
pipe thread on DAVCO models.
4.2
f470552
Washers (qty 2)
Nuts (qty 2)
Frame Rail
Fuel Outlet Port
Fuel Inlet Port
Priming Pump
DAVCO Models: close the drain valve.
Install and hand-tighten the vent cap.
ConMet Models: close and tighten the
valve finger-tight.
5.
Inspect the steering components.
23.10
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
10
9
8
7
6
f470167
11/30/95
5
Fig. 23.15, ConMet Fuel/Water Separator
4
11
5.1
Inspect tie rods, steering arms, and the
drag link for signs of looseness (i.e., shiny
spots or rust tracks).
5.2
Check the steering gear mounting bolts
and pitman arm nut for signs of looseness.
5.3
Check the drag link nuts for missing cotter
pins.
5.4
Inspect the steering intermediate shaft and
end yokes for excessive looseness or
other damage.
3
12
2
NOTICE
13
1
05/05/2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Inlet Port/Check Valve
Lower Housing
Bypass Valve
Filter Element
Spring
Cover O-Ring
Clear Cover
Do not drive with a drive belt that is visibly worn
or damaged. If it fails, the lack of coolant flow
could rapidly cause damage to engine components.
f470530
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Vent Cap O-Ring
Vent Cap
Collar
120VAC Pre-Heater
12VDC Pre-Heater
Drain Valve
Fig. 23.14, DAVCO Fuel/Water Separator (Fuel Pro 482
shown)
23.11
6.
Inspect the serpentine drive belts for signs of
glazing, frayed edges, breaks, cracks, or oil contamination.
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
Monthly Post-Trip Inspections
and Maintenance
Brake Component Inspection
Walk around the vehicle and visually the brake system components for visible damage.
1.
Inspect all visible brake system components for
missing fasteners or signs of looseness, such as
rust tracks.
NOTICE
If the external breather tube or breather cap is
missing or incorrectly installed, road dirt and debris can adversely affect the operation of the
brake chamber. Once inside of the chamber, dirt
and debris can cause the internal parts of the
chamber to deteriorate faster.
2.
Inspect the exterior surfaces of brake chambers
for damage. Make sure that breather holes are
open and free of debris.
NOTICE
If the water drained from the air reservoirs is
cloudy or oily, it may indicate a problem with the
compressor. If oil is allowed to contaminate the
air dryer, it will not remove the water from the air
brake system, which could adversely affect braking.
1.
NOTE: Battery locations vary between vehicles.
2.
Battery posts, terminals, and related accessories
contain lead and lead compounds, chemicals
known to the State of California to cause cancer
and reproductive harm. To prevent possible personal injury, always wash your hands after handling battery parts and related accessories.
Inspect air brake lines for dents, swelling, kinks,
twisting, abrasion, and damage, especially near
moving parts.
4.
Inspect flex air hoses for deterioration or signs of
abrasion.
5.
Inspect for cracked, worn, or oil-contaminated
brake linings and brake drums (or rotors).
6.
Check the thickness of the brake linings. Replace brake linings on all brake assemblies on
the axle if any brake linings are worn to less than
approximately 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) at the thinnest
point.
Saddle Tank Areas Inspection
WARNING
When draining the air reservoir, do not look into
the air jets or direct them toward anyone. Dirt or
sludge particles may be in the airstream and
could cause injury.
Inspect the batteries.
WARNING
NOTE: Do not route air brake lines on top of
anything likely to be stepped on.
3.
Drain the brake system air reservoirs (reservoirs
with automatic drain valves only).
2.1
Remove the battery box cover and inspect
all visible battery cables for loose wiring or
damage.
2.2
Check that the battery hold-down is secure.
IMPORTANT: Aerodynamic components decrease drag force as a vehicle moves, thereby
improving fuel efficiency. If replacement of an
aerodynamic component is necessary, replacement components must meet or exceed the
drag reduction performance of the originally installed component in order to maintain compliance with greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency
regulations (GHG14).
3.
Inspect the following aerodynamic components, if
equipped, for structural damage, cracks, or wear.
• Chassis fairings
• Roof fairing/deflector
• Side skirts
• Cab/sleeper extenders
• Battery access cover
23.12
Pre- and Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance
Engine Compartment Inspection and
Adjustments
IMPORTANT: If replacement of the hood or
bumper is necessary, the replacement component must meet or exceed the drag reduction
performance of the originally installed item in
order to maintain compliance with greenhouse
gas and fuel efficiency regulations (GHG14).
1.
Inspect the bumper and hood for structural damage, cracks, or wear.
2.
Check the hydraulic clutch reservoir, if equipped.
If necessary, add DOT 4 brake fluid.
3.
Inspect the radiator and heater hoses, including
the clamps and support brackets.
3.1
Inspect the radiator and charge air cooler
for damage and accumulated debris.
Straighten bent or damaged fins to permit
airflow across all areas of the cores.
NOTE: When traveling through areas of high
insect concentration, it may be necessary to
clean the exterior of the radiator or the
charge air cooler core as often as every 200
miles (320 km).
3.2
Make sure the radiator inlet and outlet
hoses are pliable and are not cracking or
ballooning.
3.3
Make sure the heater hoses are pliable
and are not cracking or ballooning.
3.4
Tighten hose clamps as necessary.
IMPORTANT: Do not overtighten hose
clamps, as hose life can be adversely affected.
3.5
Ensure hose support brackets are securely fastened. Make sure hoses are not
located near sources of wear, abrasion, or
high heat.
IMPORTANT: When replacing hoses, install
service-type knitted or braided yarn-reinforced
neoprene hose. Extended-service-life silicone
hoses may also be used. See the Alliance Parts
Catalog at www.alliancebrandparts.com or
contact your Freightliner Dealer.
4.
Check the steering wheel for excessive play.
23.13
4.1
Start the engine. With the front tires
straight ahead, turn the steering wheel
until motion is observed at the front
wheels.
4.2
Align a reference mark on the steering
wheel to a rule, then slowly turn the steering wheel in the opposite direction until
motion is again detected at the wheels.
4.3
Measure the lash (free play) at the rim of
the steering wheel. Excessive lash exists
if steering wheel movement exceeds 2-1/2
inches (64 mm) with a 20-inch (508-mm)
steering wheel, or 2-1/4 inches (57 mm)
with an 18-inch (450-mm) steering wheel.
4.4
If there is excessive lash, check the steering system for wear or incorrect adjustment before operating the vehicle.
Index
Subject
Page
A
ABTS Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4
Armrest Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Backrest Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Cushion Extension
Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Isolator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Lumbar Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Seat Height Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Seat Tilt Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Shoulder Belt Height Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Track Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Adjustable Steering Column
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Adjusting Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Air Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Automatic Slack Adjusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3
Brake System Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3
Brake System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
General Information, Brake
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Air-Suspension Dump Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Allison Automatic Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5
Allison Transmission
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6
General Information, Allison
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5
Auxiliary Braking Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Engine Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Exhaust Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4
AWD Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
AWD Operation Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
Transfer Case Range Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
B
Back-of-Cab Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Back-of-Cab Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting Back-of-Cab Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Disconnect Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cab Load Disconnect
Switch, EPA10 and Newer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pre-EPA10 Battery Isolation
Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bostrom Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backrest Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom Cushion Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Height Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lumbar Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-1
2.5
2.6
2.6
8.3
8.2
8.2
8.2
6.3
6.3
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.3
Subject
Page
Brake Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antilock Braking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parking Brake Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Air Supply Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Brake Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12
4.13
4.12
4.12
4.12
C
Cab Amenities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Cigar Lighter/Accessory Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Cup Holders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Electronic Device Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Glove Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Storage Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Cab Climate Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3
Cab Washing and Polishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
Care of Fiberglass Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Care of Chrome Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
Care of Exterior Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3
Checking Headlight Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1
Daily Pretrip Inspection
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1
Monthly Post-trip Inspection
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2
Weekly Post-trip Inspection
Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2
Climate Control Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Climate Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14
Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.7
Clutch General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.7
Clutch Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.8
Clutch Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.7
Component GWR Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Component Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
DataStar Display Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Cruise Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2
Cruise at a particular speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2
Disengage cruise control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2
D
Daily Pretrip Inspections and
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1
Cab Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.6
Index
Subject
Page
Engine Compartment
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5
Saddle Tank Areas
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5
Suspension and Slack
Adjuster Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1
Wheel and Tire Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.2
Dashboard Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
Diesel Exhaust Fluid and Tank,
EPA10 and Newer Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4
DEF Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5
DEF Warnings and Engine
Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6
Diesel Exhaust Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4
Fuel/DEF Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5
Door Locks and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Remote Keyless Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Drive Axles with Differential
Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Differential Lock Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Differential Lock Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
E
Eaton Fuller Deep Reduction
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Downshifting Deep
Reduction Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upshifting Deep Reduction
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton Fuller Splitter and
Range-Shift Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton Fuller 10-Speed
Range-Shift Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton Fuller 13-Speed
Splitter and Range-Shift
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton Fuller 18-Speed
Splitter and Range-Shift
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information, RangeShift Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information, Splitter
Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton® Fuller® Automated
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automated Transmission
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information,
Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eaton® Fuller® Transmission
Operation Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4
14.7
14.4
14.5
14.1
14.4
14.2
14.3
14.1
14.1
15.1
15.1
15.1
15.4
14.1
Subject
Page
Emergency Filter Replacement,
DAVCO Fuel/Water Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1
Emergency Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1
Emissions Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Aftertreatment System
Indicators Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Certified Clean Idle Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5
EPA Noise Emission Control
Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Vehicle Emission Control
Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Engine Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3
Engine Idle Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
California Engine Idle Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Idle Shutdown Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Engine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Cold-Weather Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2
Engine Break-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2
Normal Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2
Safety and Environmental
Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Engine Protection—Warning
and Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Engine Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3
Engine Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Cold-Weather Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Starting After Extended
Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
EPA-Regulated Emissions
Aftertreatment Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
ATS Warning Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
EPA07 Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
EPA10 and Newer Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Regeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2
F
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Fifth Wheel Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1
Coupling, Fontaine and
Holland Fifth Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2
Coupling, Jost Fifth Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.4
Fifth Wheel Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.7
Air Slide Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.9
Manual Slide Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.8
Fifth Wheel Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5
Air-Actuated Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5
Manual Uncoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5
Fifth Wheels, General
Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1
Air-Suspension Dump Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1
I-2
Index
Subject
Page
Fifth Wheel Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire in the Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In Case of a Cab Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fluids Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1
21.1
21.6
21.7
22.2
G
Grab Handles and Access
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Entering the Driver’s Side,
Right-Hand-Drive Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
Entering the Driver’s Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Entering the Passenger’s
Side, Right-Hand-Drive
Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Entering the Passenger’s
Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Exiting the Driver’s Side,
Right-Hand-Drive Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Exiting the Driver’s Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Exiting the Passenger’s
Side, Right-Hand-Drive
Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
Exiting the Passenger’s Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
and Fuel Consumption
Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
H
Hazard Warning Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1
Hood Opening and Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
Closing the Hood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
Opening the Hood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7
Horn Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Air Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Electric Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
I
Ignition Switch . . . . . . . . .
Interaxle Lock . . . . . . . . .
Interaxle Lock Operation
Interaxle Lock Switch . .
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. 4.1
16.2
16.2
16.2
L
Lighting Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Exterior Light Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Interior Light Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
I-3
Subject
Page
M
Meritor WABCO® Antilock
Braking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3
ABS, Trailer Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4
Automatic Traction Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4
Monthly Post-Trip Inspections
and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.12
Brake Component Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.12
Engine Compartment
Inspection and
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.13
Saddle Tank Areas
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.12
N
National Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backrest Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bottom Cushion Fore-and-Aft
Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fore-and-Aft Seat Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Height Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lumbar Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Cushion Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
O
Optional Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Restriction Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ammeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Air Pressure
Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drive Axle Oil Temperature
Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Oil Temperature
Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbocharger Boost
Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overhead Instrument Panel,
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
P
Periodic Inspections and
Maintenance, General
Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1
Power Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Steering Wheel Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Power Takeoff (PTO) Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5
Powertrain Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
Aftertreatment System
Regen Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
Index
Subject
Page
Axle Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
Cruise Control Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Engine Brake Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
Engine Diagnostic Switch
(EPA07 vehicles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
Engine Fan Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
Exhaust Brake Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Idle Speed Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Power Takeoff Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Transmission Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
Preliminary Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Premier Trailer Couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Trailer Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Trailer Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2
R
Roll-Stability Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5
S
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1
Seat Belts and Tether Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5
Seat Belt Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6
Seat Belt Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6
Seat Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
Seats, General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Sleeper Amenities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Baggage Compartment
Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Remote Engine Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Sleeper Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Sliding Side Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4
Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4
Sleeper Climate Control Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
Accessory Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
Controls, Vehicles With ATC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
Controls, Vehicles Without
ATC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
Sleeper Compartment
Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.9
Bunk Restraint Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.9
Standard Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3
Coolant Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
Fuel/Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF) Gauge, EPA10 and
Newer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Primary and Secondary Air
Pressure Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Speedometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Subject
Page
Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Voltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Star Gauge Face Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3
Starting with Jumper Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2
Suspension/Trailer Connection
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Air-Suspension Dump
Control Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Fifth Wheel Slide Control
Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14
T
Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Towing Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Towing Hookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transfer Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meritor MTC Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4
21.5
21.6
16.3
16.3
V
Vehicle Power Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Power Distribution, EPA10
and Newer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Pre-EPA10 Power
Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Velour Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Chewing Gum or Wax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3
Grease and Oil-Based Stains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3
Mildew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3
Sugar and Water-Based
Stains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3
Vinyl Upholstery Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Ball Point Ink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Chewing Gum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Dirt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Nail Polish and Nail Polish
Remover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Paint, Shoe Heel Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Shoe Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Sulfide Stains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
Tars, Asphalts, and Creosote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2
W
Warning and Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Engine Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3
Weekly Post-Trip Inspections
and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.9
Engine Compartment
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.9
Western Star High-Back Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2
Backrest Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2
I-4
Index
Subject
Page
Bottom Cushion Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Fore/Aft Isolator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Fore/Aft Seat Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Front Cushion Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Height Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Lumbar Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2
Rear Cushion Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Shock Absorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Windows and Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Down-View Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Power Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Windshield Wiper Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
I-5
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