2015 ITA Guidebook - USC Center for Excellence in Teaching

2015 ITA Guidebook  - USC Center for Excellence in Teaching
A Guidebook for
International
Teaching Assistants
August 2015
Table of
Contents
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PANEL
What to Expect as an ITA ..................................................................... 1
MODULE 1
Introductions & Overview ..................................................................... 2
MODULE 2
Presentation 1: Presenting a Confident Self Image………………… .... 6
MODULE 3
Effective Communication & Interaction; Presenting Information:
Useful Classroom Expressions; Components of Defining a Term ........ 7
MODULE 4
Presentation 1 Feedback; Blackboard Resources; Pronunciation ..... 16
MODULE 5
Presentation 2: Term Presentation #1 ................................................ 21
MODULE 6
Language of the University: Key Expressions & Strategies ............... 23
MODULE 7
Presentation 2 Feedback; Intonation, Rhythm & Stress in
Message Units; Language of the University: Asking, Requesting &
Suggesting .......................................................................................... 30
MODULE 8
ITA/Student Relations: Sticky Situations & Resources for Help ......... 36
MODULE 9
Handling Questions in the Classroom ............................................... 39
MODULE 10
Presentation 3: Term Presentation #2 ................................................ 46
MODULE 11
Presentation 3 Feedback; Pronunciation, Language & Discourse;
Institute Wrap-up ................................................................................ 48
APPENDIX I
The Language of Using Visual Aids ................................................... 49
APPENDIX II
Leading a Class Discussion ............................................................... 54
APPENDIX III
Support Systems for TAs .................................................................... 56
Panel
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CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
Panel Discussion with Professors & TA Advisors
USC Professors and TA advisors will share their some of their experiences with
international teaching assistants and discuss some of the university’s
expectations of ITAs.
On the index cards handed out to you, write one or two questions you would like
to ask a Professor or TA Advisor. For example:
What can I do if I feel my TA duties are taking up much
more time than I’d expected or had been told?
Who can I talk to if a student in class is complaining to me
about course-related issues (too much homework, difficulty
understanding the professor’s lectures, etc.)?
NOTES:
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Module
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CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
MODULE 1: Introductions: Instructor & Classmates;
Review of ITA Exam Criteria; Overview of Objectives;
Intro to Presentation 1
PART 1
TASK 1: ICEBREAKER
Your instructor will ask you to participate in an activity to get to know your
classmates.
TASK 2: INTRODUCING YOUR PARTNER: Introduce your partner to
the class, sharing a few interesting things you learned about him/her.
TASK 3: REVIEW OF ITA EXAM CRITERIA
Your instructor will provide a review of the ITA Exam criteria and can answer
some related questions you may have.
TASK 4: OVERVIEW OF OBJECTIVES & MODULES
Your instructor will provide a brief overview of the week’s objectives and
the lessons you’ll be covering in this Guidebook.
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Introduction & Overview
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Introduction to Presentation 1: First Day of ClassSetting the Tone with Effective Verbal/Non-Verbal
Communication
The First Class Meeting
During the first week of classes, many students will be “shopping around,” that is,
while they have registered for their courses already, they will still be deciding
which courses they will keep, which they will add, and which they will drop. The
impression you make in your first class meeting will help them decide whether or
not to add, drop, or remain in your section of a course. The students’ decisions to
stay will be affected by 1) how you set the tone and 2) your ability to
communicate, verbally and nonverbally.
Setting the Tone for the Class
While many of the students in your section may not have purchased the required
textbook yet, you can still set a positive tone for the rest of the semester by
showing your enthusiasm for the class material and getting to know the students.
Do not waste the first class session by dismissing the students as soon as you
have gone over the syllabus and the course requirements. There are many
things you can do on that first day to excite your students about the course. Here
are a few suggestions:
!
Tell your students about yourself. Tell the students your name, what
you would like to be called in class, something about your background
(personal and academic), and how you are specially prepared to teach
this course. Students will feel more comfortable participating in class if you
set the standard for communication.
!
Get to know your students. Ask their names and find out some
background information about them.
!
Try to find out what the students might already know about
the subject by asking them about their prior educational
experience.
!
Ask the students about their expectations for the class. What do they
think they will learn in the course? List their ideas on the board and then
tell them which are accurate.
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Introduction & Overview
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Point out to the students in advance what they should pay attention to
for the next class meeting, e.g. the first reading or homework assignment.
These actions will communicate to your students that you are interested in them
and in teaching the course. Research has shown that if you have a positive
attitude toward your students, they will be more forgiving of foreign accents and
grammatical inaccuracies.
Effective Communication Requires Conscious Effort
All teachers – ITAs, TAs, and even tenured professors – find effective classroom
communication challenging. You, as an ITA, may face unique challenges due to
pronunciation, language, and/or culturally-based differences. Even so, you will
need to be effective verbal communicators speaking in a way that is easy for
your students to comprehend. Nonverbally, you want to communicate genuine
respect and friendliness toward the students.
!
For verbal communication, it is easier to control the volume and rate of
your speech than it is to control aspects of your pronunciation, such as
particular sounds and intonation, so you should be aware of two general
qualities of your voice:
Speak with enough volume:
A loud voice (not too loud, it will make students anxious) shows confidence and
implies authority. Be aware that if you speak too softly, students may not hear
important points and they may doubt your ability to manage the class or lab.
Speak slowly in the classroom:
While American undergraduates can obviously understand fast speech, they may
not be used to a foreign accent, so make an effort to slow down your rate of
speech in class. In addition, it is important in any learning environment to
emphasize and repeat key concepts, which naturally involves slowing down the
rate of speech.
!
Our nonverbal behavior conveys a lot about our attitude about the
class and our students.
1. Make eye contact with your students! This will keep them engaged in
the subject and attentive to what you have to say. You will also be able
to monitor their ability to understand you by observing their facial expressions.
2. Face the students when you talk to them; don’t keep your back to your
audience for long, even when writing on the blackboard.
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Introduction & Overview
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3. It’s okay to walk around the front of the room as you talk. Using gestures and
facial expressions also helps to clarify language and emphasize key ideas. Be
aware that crossing your arms puts an invisible barrier between you and your
audience.
4. Maintain a relaxed posture and a relaxed facial expression. If you are too
serious or stern, the students will feel distanced from you and positive interaction
will not occur.
*****************************************
PRESENTATION PREPARATION
For your first presentation, you will introduce yourself to your ‘students’ and give
a brief description of the class you’ll be a TA for.
Set the tone using the suggestions above. Students will decide whether they
want to stay or not depending on the tone and communication.
Consider the following as you prepare your ideas:
1. What can you do to help the students accept you as their TA? How can you
show them that you are approachable, friendly, and concerned about their
learning?
2. Students may be concerned about their ability to understand you and whether
you will be able to understand them. It may be wise to approach this subject right
from the beginning. Therefore, you should keep in mind the advantage of
acknowledging your English differences (accented speech) and/or problems
(grammatical errors, lack of knowledge of slang expressions) rather than
apologizing for them. What could you say on the first day to put the students at
ease and set a positive tone for the semester? How will you work together with
your students to overcome potential language difficulties?
3. How will you know if the students have understood you? Will you monitor their
faces, ask frequently if they understand, and/or encourage them to ask specific
questions?
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CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
MODULE 2
PRESENTATION 1: Presenting a confident image of
yourself and introducing your class (Video-recorded)
During your presentation, your peers, instructor and uSC will provide you
with feedback. Complete the various components on the form you receive
from your instructor. Please write neatly, as your forms will be returned to
your instructor who will provide them to each presenter.
NOTES:
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Module
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CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
MODULE 3
Effective Communication & Interaction; Presenting
Information: Useful Classroom Expressions;
Components of Defining a Term
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Preview Questions
How should I speak in the classroom?
What can I say to...
! introduce a class or lab?
! give examples/emphasize important points?
! invite questions and support participation?
! conclude a class session?
! work through a problem?
Effective Communication & Interaction- Discuss the following with your
classmates:
1. How do teachers/TAs in your country start a class? Do they engage in any small
talk with students?
2. As a TA, would you engage in small talk with your students at the beginning (or
end) of class? Please explain. What are some safe /common small talk topics?
3. What are some things a TA could say (or do) upon entering a classroom (with
students already there)?
4. What strategies can help a TA demonstrate confidence while speaking in front of
a class or interacting with students?
5. Discuss some phrases TAs can use to introduce a lesson.
6. How can a TA determine what information students are familiar with, before
providing answers or reviewing material from a professor’s lecture?
7. What can a TA do or say to encourage participation & questions?
8. What steps can a TA take to ensure that information is presented as effectively
as possible?
Classroom interaction is unlikely to be successful if a TA does not present the
course material in an interactive manner. You should think about how to speak in
the classroom, using common words and phrases that not only assist effective
communication, but also provide not only strategies to help students learn but
also ways for you to continue developing your own English language skills.
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Useful Classroom Expressions
Many different phrases are used to organize presentations and to identify for the
student what type of information is being presented. Such phrases are used to
introduce a topic, give examples and emphasize main points, invite questions
and support participation, and to conclude a teaching session.
Introduce a discussion section or lab by giving an overview of what you
will cover:
“What we are going to cover today is . . .”
“Today, we are going to talk about . . .”
“Last time we talked about . . ., today we will go on to . . .”
“Today’s topic is . . .”
“The purpose of our lab experiment today is . . .”
Give examples and emphasize main points with clear language clues, so
that students know what requires specific attention:
“Let me give you an example . . .”
“For instance/For example . . .”
“Now, there are two things that are really important. First, . . .”
“What this means is that . . .”
“Now pay attention to this next part . . .”
Invite questions and support participation by giving students the opportunity
to express their ideas and comments, and encouraging their attempts to
participate in the class even if their responses are not correct. Part of learning
is making mistakes too.
“What do you think?”
“Could you explain that a little more?”
“Can you think of an example?”
“Who can tell me what our next step is?”
“Exactly.”
“Almost. Consider…. Now, what do you think?”
Conclude a class or lecture topic with a brief summary of the main points.
“To summarize . . .”
“What we have been talking about is . . .”
“The important points to remember are . . .”
“So far (up until now), we have been discussing . . ., in the next class we will . . .”
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“Who can summarize what we have done so far?”
Language for the Lab or Office Hours
The lab and the TA’s office are usually more personal settings for TAs and
students to interact. Working one-on-one with students provides another
opportunity for your students to see you as interested, helpful, and friendly.
Encourage their questions by being open and aware of potentially difficult
subject matter.
“How’s it going, (use first name)? / What’s up?”
“Any problems with the class so far?”
“How are you doing with (possibly difficult point/problem)?
“Where should we start?” (To begin working through a problem)
“What should we do next?”
“What do you remember about this step/part?”
“And so what’s our answer?”
Here are some steps that you can take to present information successfully:
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1. Consider the purpose of your lesson. Is it to teach a new concept? Review
key ideas from a lecture? Explain how to conduct an experiment?
2. Consider your students’ preparation. How much do they already know
about this subject? How can I find out what they don’t know yet? How will this
information affect my presentation?
3. Make connections for the students. While you might be quite familiar with
the material, it may be new to your students. Try to connect the new material to
something the students already know or have already learned in class. Take a
minute or two at the beginning of class to review what was covered last time. You
should also make these connections any time you introduce new concepts.
4. Preview for the students what will be covered in a particular class period.
You might want to write on the blackboard the things you wish to accomplish that
day. This provides the students with a framework for the class session.
5. Use transitions, technically known as discourse cues or markers, to
signal a move from one topic to the next, or to show how one idea is related to
another. Here are some examples:
•
•
“This is the first step.”
“Now pay close attention to this part because this is the part you have to
know.”
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• “What I’d like to do next is focus on . . .”
6. Repeat key words or concepts. Students need to hear new concepts
repeated in order to understand them. Paraphrase your ideas – repeat your
message in different words.
For example:
“The first law of thermodynamics relates to conservation of energy, and states
that energy can be neither built up nor destroyed. In any system, no energy can
be created without an exactly equivalent lessening of the total energy in the
system.” Paraphrase: “Energy won’t run uphill.”
7. Reinforce an important principle by showing the principle in practice, such
as in a lab setting. Visual aids, the blackboard, and handouts can also be used to
demonstrate a principle.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Tomorrow, you will be presenting information in the form of a term or concept in
your field of study. Remember to consider the seven points above and the
expressions you’ve just reviewed as you prepare your presentation.
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Components of Defining a Term
When defining a term or concept, it is important to make the information relevant
(applicable) to the students’ lives. They will learn the material better if they know
why the information is important and how it relates to other concepts they may
already know.
In this module, we will focus on making the term relevant to the students so that
the meaning is clear and presented in a way that students can easily understand.
You will also receive feedback from your peers and instructor following your term
presentation, to help you improve in these areas, before you take the ITA exam.
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Before Giving the Definition
Before you define a term or concept, it is important to provide motivation and
make connections to what the students already know. The questions below will
help you. The examples given are adapted from “The New Science of Skin and
Scuba Diving”:
1. Why do the students need to know this term?
“Temperature and pressure are probably the most important factors with
which sports divers are concerned…”
2. How much do they already know about this term and about the related
subject?
“Though the beginner may feel that some of the detail is excessive, it is
certain that a reasonable understanding of these phenomena will help to
increase the pleasures and reduce the hazards to be encountered in
diving.”
3. What related ideas and concepts do the students already know that will
help them understand this new term?
“Just as pressure builds in the middle ear as we ascend or descend in a
plane, it also builds as we ascend or descend into the water”
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Defining the Term
It is important to remember to give a clear and concise definition of the term or
concept.
4. What is the formal definition of this term?
SCUBA:
“The term SCUBA is an acronym for Self-contained, Underwater,
Breathing Apparatus, utilizing a portable supply of compressed gas (as
air), supplied at a regulated pressure and used for breathing while
swimming underwater
5. Could this term be defined differently in other contexts?
DIVING: “Since the word ‘diving’ is applied to just about any method of
getting underwater, we shall have to narrow the definition a bit for the
purposes of this book.”
Making it Relevant
When defining the term, there are several ways to make it relevant and clear to
your students. To do this, think about the following questions:
6. What practical examples will make the term clear to your students?
“For example, in ice, the water molecules are held in a crystalline structure
because the forces of attraction between water molecules are greater than
the energy required for free movement”
7. What personal examples or stories will help explain the term?
“The accident which gave rise to the term ‘squeeze’ was what happened
when a diver’s air hose broke near the surface and vented the helmet to a
lower pressure. He was thus ‘squeezed’ into the helmet as he
descended”
8. What analogies can be made to concepts the students already
understand? Is there a pattern, relationship, or function similar to the term
you are defining?
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“As you descend into the water, you may have to yawn or swallow so that
the air will pass through the tubes in your ears easily. It may even be
necessary to grab your nose and blow. But if you blow too hard, the ‘trap
door’ (the area between the throat and ear) may just shut tighter.”
9. What terms compare or contrast with this term?
“If one lifts a 2-ounce fish line sinker he refers to it as ‘heavy,’ but a large
block of balsa wood… is called ‘light,’ even though it weighs twice as
much. The term density explains this discrepancy”
10. What is the origin of this word (prefix, root, suffix meanings)? What
language is it from? Is it made from an acronym?
“Seaward refers to moving in the direction (ward) of the open sea.”
“Scuba comes from the acronym self-contained underwater breathing
apparatus”
11. Will a drawing or diagram of the term help your students understand it
more clearly?
“The relationship between these three scales is shown by the following
conversion equations”
Task 1: Presentation Analysis
As you read the following example from a linguistics course, decide which of the
questions were answered. Which questions were not answered? Is this
definition clear or would it be better with more information?
Before we continue our discussion of second language acquisition, I would like to
explain an important concept, affective domain. This term is basic to any
discussion of personality. It has been useful in discussing the personality
variables that we observe in second language learners. Affective domain refers
to the feelings and emotions that everyone experiences, the emotional side of
human behavior. It can be contrasted to the cognitive side, which refers to our
rational and analytical abilities, our ability to learn, analyze and remember. An
example of a personality factor which falls within the affective domain is the idea
of self-esteem or self-confidence. Self-esteem relates to how you view yourself.
In second language acquisition, we often assume that students who are very
self-confident will be successful in language acquisition. Another example is
motivation. Lack of motivation or lack of a desire to learn another language often
results in slow progress.
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Task 2: Practice Making it Relevant
Work alone or with others from a similar field to think of a term or concept that is
important for a basic understanding of your field. Take a few minutes to answer
as many of the questions below that you can about the term. When you have
finished, explain your term to a partner or small group of students who are
unfamiliar with your field.
1. Why do the students need to know this term?
2. How much do they already know about this term and about the related
subject?
3. What related ideas and concepts do the students already know that will
help them understand this new term?
4. What is the formal definition of this term?
5. Could this term be defined differently in other contexts?
6. What practical examples will make the term clear to your students?
7. What personal examples or stories will help explain the term?
8. What analogies can be made to concepts the students already
understand? Is there a pattern, relationship, or function similar to the term
you are defining?
9. What terms compare or contrast with this term?
10. What is the origin of this word (prefix, root, suffix meanings)? What
language is it from? Is it made from an acronym?
11. Will a drawing or diagram of the term help your students understand it
more clearly?1
Term Presentation Practice: Introducing a Term
Refer to the Terms List from your department, and choose a term you would like
to present to your classmates today. Keep in mind the information learned in
previous sections regarding transition words and language used for presenting
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information. Your presentation will be recorded and assessed by your instructor
and peers, and you will complete a Self-Evaluation form after watching your
presentation video on Blackboard.
Step 1: Consider how you would present your term to undergraduate students,
assuming that they are NOT familiar with the term. Make an effort to provide a
framework for the new information: use transitions and appropriate expressions
to connect the information, and if necessary, repeat or paraphrase key ideas or
concepts.
Step 2: Plan a short presentation of four to five minutes to explain the term.
After your presentation, your classmates will ask you questions related to the
term.
Presenting the information:
1. Overview: Welcome the students to and tell them what you will cover during
this period. Introduce your topic with an attention getter.
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2. Visual Information: Write down the term (and brief outline) on the
blackboard. Go over the key points related to the topic.
3. Topics: What can you say about the content to stimulate interest in the
students? What parts might you want to emphasize? Do you know any additional
information?
4. Closing: What could you say in your closing to make the students feel that
your topic is interesting and helpful? What impression will you give them
concerning your role as the instructor?
5. Questions: How will you know whether the students have understood you?
Will you monitor their faces, ask frequently if they understand, encourage them to
ask specific questions? Be prepared to answer questions about your topic.
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CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
Module
4
MODULE 4: Presentation 1 Feedback; Blackboard
Resources; Targeted Areas of Pronunciation
Presentation 1 Feedback: Language Review
When you receive presentation feedback from your instructor, compare it to your
Self Evaluation to see which areas of language, pronunciation, content, and nonverbal communication are evaluated similarly or differently.
After reading the feedback, correct your language errors while determining which
types of errors you most commonly make.
Pair Work: Discuss your language corrections with a partner. Next, try to correct
your pronunciation errors (vowels/ consonants/ word stress, etc.) by reading
each word aloud and practicing the proper pronunciation with your partner.
Mark the words and/or sounds you find challenging, so you can practice those
after reviewing some pronunciation components with your instructor.
Our uSC will also be moving around the class to help students with error
correction and pronunciation.
Practicing Outside of Class:
Once you have determined your areas of weakness (in language/pronunciation),
you can refer to the Blackboard Resources (outside of class time) and bookmark
some helpful websites so you can practice individually and improve upon the
areas posing the greatest challenges to you.
Blackboard Resources
If you were asked to explore some online resources on Blackboard, share two of
the most helpful TLC resources you found, and explain how and why these
resources are particularly useful.
And remember to be patient as you practice.
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Targeted Areas of Pronunciation: Vowels, Consonants,
and Word Stress; Terms List from Department
Each language has a unique inventory of vowel and consonant sounds that occur
in combinations to make the syllables and words of the language. Attention to
the exact features of the pronunciation of the individual sounds in American
English and how these differ from your native language sounds will put you in a
better position to understand and pronounce American English well.
Vowels
Understanding with the vowel chart makes it possible to learn new sounds
physically, as opposed to relying on the ear, which may not be able to hear
unfamiliar sounds. Your ability to hear the new sounds will improve as you learn
to form them physically.
The vowel chart (Figure A below) fits into the middle of the mouth as shown in
the simple cross-section of the head (Figure B).
The role of the tongue: Note that the left side of the chart points toward the lips,
and the right side points toward the throat. The upside down, backward "e"
symbol (schwa) in the middle of the chart would be located in the middle of your
mouth.
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Each point on the chart is a position in the mouth where the tongue moves to
make a different vowel sound.
Now try some vowel sounds: Look in a mirror and say the sound "eeeee" as in
the word "see." Next say "aaaah" as in "father." Alternate saying these two
sounds a few times: "eeeee, aaaah, eeeeh, aaaah. “Do you see your tongue
moving in the mirror? Notice that the front of your tongue moves up and forward
to just behind the gum ridge for "eeeeh," then down and back for "aaaah."
In the same way, each symbol and key word on the chart represent a position in
the mouth to which the tongue moves to form a vowel. If you don't move it
anywhere, and just leave your tongue relaxed in the middle of the mouth and
let out some voiced air, you get the sound "uh," shown in the middle of the vowel
chart with the "schwa “symbol: /əә/. This is a very important sound for the
American accent, as it's the most common vowel sound heard in American
English.
TASK 1- With a partner, take turns reading the following words, and underline
the schwa sound(s) in each:
allow, petition, support, campus, vitamin, possible, compose, upon
The lips and jaw position help, too. It's important to notice how the lips and jaw
shape vowel sounds. When you properly pronounce the vowels along the front of
the vowel chart (moving down from "see" to "cat"), you'll note that your jaw is
high and just slightly open for vowels like /i/, as in "see", and it opens more
and drops lower as you move down the chart to the vowel sound /æ/, as in
"cat."
TASK 2- With your palm facing down, place your hand directly under your chin
as you pronounce various “high” jaw vowels, (e.g., “see”) and “low” jaw vowels,
(e.g., “cat”), paying attention to how your jaw pushes your hand down when
pronouncing the latter.
With a partner, take turns reading the following words, paying attention to jaw
position for each vowel sound (keeping your hand under your chin):
Seem, room, frame, built, roll, done, grand, frown, caught
TIP: Check your mouth, tongue and jaw positions by looking in a mirror
when you practice pronunciation.
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Targeted Areas of Pronunciation
Consonants
Two lips
Teeth & Lip
Teeth &Tongue
Tongue Tip
Stop Sounds
Voiced
Voiceless
be
poor
do
to
Tongue Front
Continuant Sounds
Voiced
Voiceless
We
White
Van
Fill
/ð/
/θ/
Then
Thin
this
Thick
the
strength
zip, lip,
So
run
/ʒ/
/ʃ/
vision
show, she
pleasure
sugar,
/dʒ/
Joe
judge
soldier
Nasal
Voiced
man
no
/tʃ/
China chip,
chin, nature
/y/
yes
use
Tongue Back
get, go,
guard
kiss
Throat
/ŋ/
sing, ring,
finger
Hot
TASK: Practice reading the words with specific vowels and consonants that your
Instructor noted on the feedback form for Presentation 1.
References
Byrd, P., Constantinides, J.C., & Pennington, M.C. (1989). Foreign Teaching
Assistants Manual. New York: Collier Macmillan
http://www.thedialectcoach.com/content.asp?ContentId=542
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Targeted Areas of Pronunciation
Pronunciation: Word Stress
As a general rule, every English word spoken in isolation contains one major
syllable, which is stressed. A stressed syllable is usually louder, and its vowel is
longer and higher pitched than the vowel of an unstressed syllable. Often, the
vowel of an unstressed syllable is shortened or weakened to the neutral schwa
/əә/ vowel.
The words below are commonly occurring words in an academic context that
non-native speakers may stress incorrectly. They are grouped according to the
syllable that receives the strongest stress. These are all important words, which
you should practice pronouncing until you are confident that a native speaker
would not misunderstand you.
Stress on 1st Syllable
Inference
Exercises
Necessary
Concentrate
Management
Library
Reference
controversy
Stress on 2nd Syllable
Assignment
Discussion
Activity
Conclusion
Impossible
Experience
Prediction
Material
Stress on 3rd Syllable
Information
Education
Introduction
University
Satisfactory
Academic
Hypothetical
Controversial
TASK 1: Refer to the Terms List from your field, and add terms in your field to
this list. Practice reading words from your list with similar suffixes as some of
those above (sion, tion, ity, ic, ical, etc.) paying attention to syllable stress
patterns.
TASK 2: With a partner, read and correct any word stress errors your instructor
may have noted on the Presentation Feedback form. F SOUT
References
Byrd, P., Constantinides, J.C., & Pennington, M.C. (1989). Foreign Teaching
Assistants Manual. New York: Collier Macmillan.
http://www.thedialectcoach.com/content.asp?ContentId=542
20
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
Module
5
MODULE 5
Presentation 2: Term Presentation #1 (Video-recorded)
You will present your term to the class and the video of your presentation will be
uploaded to Blackboard for you to review after class.
Students should listen attentively while the speaker is presenting and be
prepared to ask some questions after each presentation.
Homework:
Watch your video on Blackboard (Term Presentation 1 Folder>your instructor’s
name) and complete the Self Evaluation form below.
Term Presentation- Self Evaluation
PART 1:
PRONUNCIATION
LANGUAGE
DISCOURSE (FLUENCY /TEACHING/INTERACTION, ETC.)
21
Term Presentation #1
Module
5
PART 2: Term Presentation Evaluation Form
Provide a (√+) for very good, (√) for satisfactory, & (–) if needs improvement
1. Term written clearly on
the board and good use
of board – wrote down
outline and key words
2. Term presented clearly
and examples/ practical
uses were provided
3. Showed relevance/
importance of term
4. Explanation not too
technical; no jargon
5. Responded well to
questions, rephrasing,
and asking for
confirmation
6. Good eye contact,
relaxed posture and
facial expressions
7. Good volume/rate of
speech
Strengths
Areas needing further improvement
22
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
Module
6
MODULE 6: Language of the University:
Key Expressions & Strategies
Preview Questions
• How can I find out what part of the teaching material the student does not
understand?
• How should I respond to students’ incorrect answers in class?
• How can I give clear directions and organize tasks effectively?
Asking Questions: Finding out What Students Know
All teaching includes helping students to learn from themselves. In the classroom
this often translates into being skilled at eliciting information from students. In
many teaching situations, students can learn more from your questions than from
your answers. Here are some sample questions that a TA might ask when:
- The student has just provided an incorrect answer to a homework problem.
TA: “How did you start?”
- The student stops in the middle of solving a problem.
TA: “So what do you do with this information? Do you know?”
- The student has completed an incorrect step in a homework assignment.
TA: “Could you explain what you did in this step?”
These are not rhetorical questions. In each case the TA expects the students to
explain their thinking process so that he or she can step in once they have
identified where the student made a wrong move.
When you find the point of error, you might:
! Remind students of what was said in class
! Show how they took the same step in another similar situation
! Ask the class for feedback and intervention
! Point out a helpful passage in the textbook
Responding to Student Answers
Students can respond to a question in three ways: by answering it correctly, by
getting part of the answer right, or by giving an incorrect answer. In every case
the student expects some kind of feedback from the teacher. Here are some
ways American teachers respond to student questions:
23
Language of the University – Key Expressions
Module
6
Module
!
If a student gives the correct answer, the teacher might say one of the
following to give positive feedback and encourage all of the students:
Okay, Yes, That’s right! Excellent!’, Perfect!, Nice job!. To make the
feedback more personal, the teacher can add the student’s name. For
example, a teacher could respond by saying, “Good work, Lee.”
!
If a student gives an answer that is partially correct, teachers also like
to start out by saying, “Okay,” but then add, “That’s part of it; now can
anyone else help us out from this point?” This way the teacher has
acknowledged the effort of the first student and opened up the problem to
the rest of the class, thus inviting more interaction and participation.
!
Lastly, if a student’s answer is incorrect, teachers in the United States
try to begin their response with a positive or neutral word before getting
back to the question. This is true even if the teacher suspects that the
student was ill-prepared or not paying attention. Teachers do not openly
criticize students or their answer. For example, a teacher would not say,
“You are wrong,” or “That is wrong.” If you say such things in the
classroom you will appear too mechanical and unfeeling. A more expected
approach would be:
“Let’s go back. You were doing fine until you got right here. Then you
missed a step right around this point.”
“Close. Can you try again?”
“I understand what you’re saying, but that’s not exactly what’s needed
here. Think about the example I gave you a few minutes ago.”
The teacher might also need to restate or rephrase the question if most of the
students cannot get the correct answer. When most of the class is having
trouble understanding a point, the teacher might need to review the material
again in a different way. If you think you may have been partly to blame for the
confusion, you might consider using one of the following three statements.
Taking partial responsibility will help maintain a relaxed atmosphere that
encourages students to speak up and make mistakes without embarrassment.
!
!
!
24
“Maybe I didn’t express the question clearly. Let me try again.”
“I guess I didn’t cover that material well enough.”
“Sorry, I think I might have confused you.”
Language of the University – Key Expressions
Module
6
TASK 1: Applying the Strategies
For each case below, write out a teacher response that reflects the strategies
discussed in this section.
Case #1: You have just finished teaching the class a key concept in your field.
Because you want to make sure the students have understood it, you call on a
student to repeat back to you the main points. The student has a confused look
on his face and says, “I have no idea. I’m totally lost.” Many other students say,
“Me too!” What do you say?
Case #2: You presented a mini-lesson to your class last week on how to solve
a particular type of equation. The students have been practicing the equation on
homework problems for over a week. In class you ask a student to provide the
answer to problem #1 and she gives an incorrect answer. What do you do?
Case #3: Your duty as a TA is to run a discussion section in which you go over
the homework problems assigned by the course professor who gives the
students weekly lectures. You are not required to attend the lectures that the
students must attend. While you are in the middle of solving a homework
problem on the board, a student raises his hand and asks for the definition of a
particular term that you have used in your equation. You are stunned for a
moment because you had assumed that all of the students knew this information
already, and that you were just reviewing it. Now you wonder what else they
might not know yet. What do you do?
Case #4: At the end of a lab experiment you ask students why a particular
reaction occurred. A student gives an answer that is only partially correct. How
should you respond?
25
Language of the University – Key Expressions
Module
6
Organizing Tasks and Giving Clear Directions
Sometimes the most difficult part of a lesson is organizing tasks and giving clear
instructions. Students will generally do what you ask them to as long as they
know what it is you are asking them to do! Here are some helpful tips to follow
when giving directions:
•
Give a reason for your request.
•
Try to make instructions as clear and succinct as possible. Avoid long,
wordy directions.
•
When putting students in pairs or groups, try to use their names instead of
calling each student, “You.”
•
Confirm students’ understanding.
•
Use proper stress and intonation.
If students are already in the middle of a task and you need to give them further
direction, be sure to get everyone’s attention first. What are expressions you
could use to do this?
TASK 2: Applying the Strategies
Your instructor will give each student a strip of paper stating (or dealing with) a
situation which needs to be addressed, or a task which students need to
complete. You will play the role of the TA as well as classroom students.
The tasks are simple but they require the TA to use effective classroom
management strategies, including getting the students’ attention, using concise
language, and giving clear instructions. Using some of the strategies you have
learned so far, address the situation or give directions to the class for your
assigned activity. In some situations, the TA may need to be firm (but polite), so
remember to use the proper tone along with simple and clear language to
effectively communicate your message.
Before each TA begins, all the students in class should engage in a conversation
with their partners, so that the TA can practice getting everyone’s attention prior
to speaking.
26
Language of the University – Key Expressions
Module
6
When you receive your activity strip, make sure you understand what you need
to do, and ask your instructor to clarify any doubts you may have.
Please note: If the task requires physical movement, the students in class may
need to stand up and move around to complete the TA’s instructions.
After each student completes an activity strip, discuss what worked well, and if
anything could have been done differently to make the activity go more smoothly.
Classroom Terms and Definitions
TASK 3: Matching Classroom Expressions
These are common expressions that are used in the classroom. Match each term
with its definition.
Terms
1. Partial credit
2. To grade on a curve
3. Multiple choice test
4. Closed-book test
5. Midterm exam
6. Incomplete
7. Take-home exam
8. Extra-credit
9. Make-up exam
10. Pass/fail or Credit/Non-credit
11. Add/drop
12. Open-book test
13. Supplementary textbook
14. Review session
15. Prerequisite
Definitions
A. ___ A grade given to a student for a class in which he/she has not completed
all of the req5uired work.
B. ___ A test that students complete at home.
C. ___ Additional points earned by a student who does work in addition to what is
normally required.
D. ___ A test question that forces students to choose the best of several given
answers.
27
Language of the University – Key Expressions
Module
6
E. ___ A textbook that is recommended for additional study but that is not
required for the course.
F. ___ A test that is given after the scheduled time for students who missed the
original test.
G. ___ A test given halfway through a course that covers material up to that time.
H. ___ A course that must be taken before another course.
I. ___ A policy in which grades are based on a normal distribution curve.
J. ___ A test answer that is not completely correct and receives less than
maximum points.
K. ___ A time period in which a student may join or leave a class without it
affecting his/her grade.
L. ___ A test in which students may not use any notes or books.
M. ___ An extra class held for those students who want help with the material to
be covered on a test.
N. ___ An in-class test for which students can use their textbooks and notes.
O. ___ A grade for a class in which a student does not receive a letter grade.
45
TASK 4: Fill in the Blanks
Using the above expressions, complete the dialogue below, then practice reading
it with a partner, paying attention to intonation and rhythm.
TA: Does anyone have questions about the syllabus?
Student: Yes. Is there a (1) ___________________ in this class?
TA: Yes, there is. Halfway through the semester you will have a test on the
material we’ve covered in class.
Student: Will it be (2) _____________________ or closed-book?
TA: You will be able to use your notes and books for the test, but you will do it in
class. It’s not a (3) ____________ ____________.
28
Language of the University – Key Expressions
Module
6
Student: What about the grading scale? Do you (4) _________ __ ___
_________?
TA: No. I give grades based on a set scale: 90% is an A; 80% is a B, etc. I
also give (5) ____________ ____________, so you can do extra work to improve
your grade if you do badly on the test.
Student: That’s cool. But what if we don’t do all of the work for the course?
TA: Then, you’ll probably receive an (6) _________________ instead of a
regular grade. But if you have taken the (7) _________________, Algebra I and
Algebra
II, you should be prepared for the class. I also recommend you read the
(8)____________ __________. They are not required reading, but they will
also help you do well in class.
TA: Any more questions about the course before we start the class?
Student: If I decide that I don’t want the course, when is the last day I can (9)
________ ____________ without it affecting my grade?
TA: That’s a good question . . . I’m not quite sure. I’ll find out and get back to
you. But remember, the class is (10) ________________, so you won’t be
graded. If you do the work at a satisfactory level, you’ll pass the class.
References
Byrd, P., Constantinides, J.C., & Pennington, M.C. (1989). Foreign Teaching
Assistants Manual. New York: Collier Macmillan.
Parrot, R. & Smith, S. (1999). “Teaching in the Multicultural Classroom,”
http://www.sws.cornell.edu/OIS/tadw/Multicultural.htm.
Smith, J., Meyers, C.M., Burkhalter, A.J. (1992). Communicate: Strategies for International Teaching
Assistants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Regents / Prentice Hall.
29
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
Module
7
MODULE 7: Presentation 2 Feedback; Intonation,
Rhythm, & Stress in Message Units;
Language of the University: Asking, Requesting &
Suggesting
Presentation 2 Feedback: Language Review
When you receive presentation feedback from your instructor, compare it to your
Self Evaluation to see which areas of language, pronunciation, content, and nonverbal communication are evaluated similarly or differently.
After reading the feedback, correct your language errors while determining which
types of errors you made. Consider the feedback you have received on both
presentations so far, to determine which areas were consistently stronger or
weaker.
Pair Work: Discuss your language corrections with a partner.
Our uSC will also be moving around the class to help students with error
correction.
Intonation, Rhythm, & Stress in Message Units
Every language has its own rhythm, the pattern of how words are stressed or
unstressed. The rhythm of English depends upon the contrast (or alternation)
between strong and weak syllables (or beats). If you say every syllable of every
word equally, your rhythm will sound “choppy” to a native speaker. If you don’t
put any special stress on any of the words or syllables you say, your speech will
sound run together and slurred to a native speaker. In either case, it will be very
hard for someone to understand you, and your listener will probably start to “tune
you out.”
Good rhythm in English involves stressing content words and reducing function
words.
Content words carry meaning (i.e. nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, etc.).
Function words (i.e. prepositions, articles, conjunctions, etc.) primarily
serve a grammatical purpose.
In general, the vowels in function words are reduced to schwa / ǝ /.
30
Language of the University
Module
7
Example: I went to the park and read a book.
The underlined words in the example above are functions words, and would
receive less emphasis (or stress) than the content words (I, went, park, read,
book).
Message Units
Speakers help listeners process their message by breaking their utterances into
message units. A message unit is a string of words that belong together as one
unit in the mind of the speaker.
Message units are often separated from each other by a brief pause (/). Each
message unit has its own intonation, and most message units have ONE primary
stress.
Example: In today’s lesson, / we will look at message units / and have
some practice / marking them in sentences / and using them in speech.
Which words in the above example would receive primary stress?
TASK 1
Read the following sentences aloud, focusing on the message units.
1. A gene/ is an element of the germ-plasm/ that controls transmission of a
hereditary characteristic.
2. The gross national product/ is the total value/ of all the goods and
services/ that are produced by a nation / during a specified period of time.
3. The term geostrophic/ refers to a deflective force/ caused by the rotation
of the earth.
4. A phoneme/ is the smallest unit of speech/ that distinguishes one meaning
from another/ in a given language or dialect.
5. In a meritocracy/ you are chosen or moved ahead/ based on your talents
or personal achievements.
6. A syllogism/ is a kind of deductive reasoning/ in formal argumentation/ that
consists of a major and minor premise/ and a conclusion.
7. A. Is there anyone here who can tell us/ how to calculate the mean?
B: You add up all the scores, / then divide by the total number of scores.
31
Language of the University
Module
7
TASK 2: Intonation, Rhythm, & Stress in Message Units
1. Consider a term from your field, and write at least five sentences which
could be included in the term definition. Share your sentences with your
partner, and help your partner address any language errors you may
notice.
2. Divide your sentences into message units, distinguishing content words
from function words by underlining the content words.
3. Circle the primary stress in each message unit.
4. Draw intonation patterns over the sentences, and mark linking within
words and across words, for proper rhythm.
5. Take turns reading your sentences to your partner, focusing as much as
possible on the above components.
Language of the University: Intonation for Asking,
Requesting, and Suggesting
When speaking any language, a person makes the voice rise and fall in pitch.
Except in cases of special emphasis or contrast, an English clause or sentence
has the major pitch change on the last major content word. This is entirely
appropriate, considering that it is also a pattern in English for the most important
or new information to be placed at or near the end of a sentence. The final
position is called the “focal” or highlighted position. In this position, the major
pitch change in the sentence draws attention to this highlighted position.
In statements or information questions (who, what, where, when, why), the pitch
typically rises and then falls on the last major content word or phrase.
" I want you to take out your study sheets now.
" Where is your study sheet?
In yes/no questions, the pitch of the voice tends to be high and/or to rise on the
last major content word.
" Do you know the answer to this question?
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Language of the University
Module
7
In the “continuation” intonational pattern, the voice is high or rises on all the items
other than the last one to show more information is coming. Falling intonation
generally indicates finality, whereas rising or high intonation generally indicates
non-finality.
" The reason could be the obvious one, or it could be a not-so-obvious one.
TASK 1: Mark the intonation patterns, then with a classmate, practice
reading the sentences and questions below.
1. The first chapter is a very important one.
2. Who can tell me the answer to this question?
3. Have you done yesterday’s homework assignment yet?
4. Do you agree with all the opinions expressed here?
5. Will you be able to finish your research paper on time?
6. You will have to take a make-up exam or else retake the course.
7. Either he is late, or he just completely forgot about the appointment.
8. We can talk about that during my office hours next week.
9. The undergraduate students in my afternoon class often arrive late.
10. There are four things you need to do by the end of the course: turn in
your lab reports, turn in your class notes, schedule a meeting with me, and
then turn in your final papers.
33
Language of the University
Module
7
More on Asking, Requesting, and Suggesting
When you need to have your students follow directions, do you a favor, or pay
attention to a warning, your choice of words to communicate your intention is
very important. Consider the differences in the following statements and
questions:
A. Lower the flame!
B. I think you might consider lowering the flame on that burner.
C. It would be a really good idea, if you don’t mind, to lower the flame on
that burner.
D. Would you please lower the flame on that burner?
A. Close the door; it’s noisy out there.
B. Would you please close the door? It’s noisy out there.
C. Could you get the door?
A. Pass your homework papers forward now.
B. Pass your homework papers forward please.
C. Would you all kindly pass your homework papers forward please?
A7
When should you use imperative forms?
When should you use polite, but informal directives?
34
Language of the University
Module
7
TASK 2: Using the Most Appropriate Request Forms
Using the language forms and intonation patterns we have
discussed, make suggestions, requests and give warnings.
1. Request that students read and summarize Chapter 3 for the next class.
2. Suggest that students form study groups to prepare for the midterm.
3. Request that students put away all lab equipment before leaving.
4. Warn a pair of students that unless they dry their beaker completely before
putting dry ice into it, the experiment won’t work.
5. Ask permission to erase what you have written on the blackboard.
6. Suggest that a student explain her point.
7. Request that a student repeat his question.
8. Warn a student that he has been boiling his solution for too long.
9. Request that the class look closely at the diagram on page 130.
10. Encourage a student to identify the specific part of the problem that she does
not understand.
11. Request that the class make a list of unfamiliar terms from the reading.
12. Warn students that the time allowed for the completing the test is quickly
approaching.
13. Ask students to stop talking as it is causing a great distraction.
14. Request everyone’s attention while you explain a key point.
15. Warn students that those not wearing safety goggles cannot perform the
chemistry experiment or stay in the classroom.
16. Request that students change lab partners each week.
References
Byrd, P., Constantinides, J.C., & Pennington, M.C. (1989). Foreign Teaching
Assistants Manual. New York: Collier Macmillan.
35
Module
8
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
Module 8
ITA/Student Relations: Sticky Situations
& Resources for Help
Preview Questions
• How can I handle and resolve difficult classroom situations?
• Does the university offer any formal avenues of support to improve my
teaching?
• How can I find out about informal avenues of support for advice and
reflection about my work?
Task 1: Classroom Management- Handling and Resolving Difficult
Situations
Directions: With the following situations, discuss the situation and suggest a)
appropriate initial response, b) feasible long-term solutions 3) proper support
systems to consult.
Situation #1
One student in your class is persistently challenging your teaching ability by
intentionally asking difficult questions that may be irrelevant. The student often says
your answers are not complete and are sometimes wrong. You overhear the student
saying you are a terrible TA to other students. After several classes you notice that
this student has been successful in winning support from other students. A group of
dissident students that refuse to listen to you has formed.
Situation #2
A student who you find attractive has begun coming to your office hours quite often.
This student seems to show a romantic interest in you. You can not stop thinking
about this student and you are sure this is the “real thing”. You are certain the “vibe”
is there and would like to date the student.
Situation #3
At the beginning of the semester you gave your email address and telephone
number to your students because you wanted to be as accessible as possible to
assist them. Two weeks into the semester you start to get crank phone calls in the
middle of the night. At first you think it is just a wrong number, but as they persist you
become convinced it is one or more of your students playing a prank.
36
Sticky Situations & Resources for Help
Module
8
Situation #4
A student comes to you with a rough draft of a paper and asks you to look at it and
give some advice. As you are looking at it you become very suspicious about the
students work. It appears to have been copied verbatim from the internet or a text.
You ask the student several questions about the content of the paper, but the
student is unable to explain fundamental concepts relevant to the content.
Situation #5
At the beginning of the semester, one student asked for an extension on an
assignment. The student seemed sincerely apologetic and had a valid excuse for
the work being late. The day the next assignment is due, several students ask for
extensions, but you tell them they will be downgraded for turning in the assignment
late. They begin complaining loudly, “That’s unfair! You gave that other student an
extension last week!”
Situation #6
A good student whom you have bonded with has begun telling you about some
personal problems. At first you listen, because you are fond of the student and would
sincerely like to help the student. Gradually, the student begins showing signs of
depression. One day the student says, “I don’t know what to do. I don’t have any
friends here. I think I am failing two classes. Everything seems so dark. I can’t talk
to my parents. They don’t understand me. You are the only one who listens to me...”
Situation #7
A few students are constantly eating and talking during your class. At first, you say
nothing because they sit in the back and are not that disruptive. As the semester
continues, more students bring food to class and assume that it is okay to “socialize”
while you are trying to teach. The atmosphere becomes one that is not conducive for
teaching. You are constantly competing with the noise the students are making.
Situation #8
Many students do poorly on the first exam. Upon receiving it back, they are
obviously upset. Several of the students begin blaming your teaching and lack of
proper language skills for their bad grades. They ask if they can get into another
section with a different TA.
Situation #9
An attractive female student attends class regularly dressed as if she were going out
to a night-club. Several male students make unwelcome comments about her
appearance. One day, she starts to cry and runs out of the room.
37
Sticky Situations & Resources for Help
Module
8
Situation #10
Near the end of the semester, when you are busy with your own course work, the
course instructor wants you to grade 75 exams. You know the exam was very long
and each test will take at least 20 minutes to grade. You are angry because the
instructor had not mentioned earlier in the semester that this would be your task.
Situation #11
After the midterm exam, you realize that most of the students missed an important
question because you gave them the wrong information during the study session.
Situation #12
Your supervising professor tells you she will be attending a conference and will be
gone the next week. She gives some notes and tells you to teach the class. Later,
after she has already left, you realize the notes are from the previous week.
Situation #13
In the middle of class a student has a seizure. The student falls to the floor in
convulsions. The student makes strange noises and his eyes roll back so you can
only see the whites of his eyes. Some students are shocked, others are laughing.
Situation #14
While you are proctoring an exam, you notice one student is using a “cheat sheet”.
Situation #15
During a review session, one student becomes belligerent and starts using profanity.
There is apparently no reason for this behavior. The student approaches you and
you can smell alcohol on the student’s breath. It smells like Tequila.
Task 2: Resources for Help
There are a variety of helpful resources available to TAs. Refer to Appendix III of
this Guidebook for a list of these resources.
38
Module
9
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
MODULE 9
Handling Questions in the Classroom
Preview Questions:
• Do students in the U.S. ask the teacher a lot of questions in class?
• Is there a strategy that I should use to respond to student questions?
• Am I expected to provide answers to all of the students’ questions?
What to Expect in the United States
In the United States university classroom, students are expected to ask
questions. When students ask questions it shows the teacher that they are alert,
thoughtful, and interested in the subject matter. Teachers anticipate and
welcome student questions because they help the teacher assess student
comprehension. Teachers do not perceive students’ questions as a threat to their
authority. In contrast, when students do not ask questions, the teacher may
assume that the students are bored, lost (do not understand the subject matter),
or perhaps too intimidated to speak up in class. In an interactive classroom
environment such as we have in the U.S., you should anticipate questions from
the students and recognize that this kind of student-teacher interaction is
considered a normal part of the learning process.
Steps for Responding to Questions
In brief, you can follow these five steps when faced with a question in class:
!
!
!
!
!
Identify the question.
Acknowledge the question, verbally or nonverbally, within three seconds.
Repeat or rephrase the question.
Answer the question as concisely as possible.
Get confirmation from the student. Check with the student to make sure
you did indeed answer the question that was asked.
1. Identifying the Question
Aside from being prepared to answer student questions, as an ITA you first face
the challenge of identifying questions in the classroom. Undergraduates may not
articulate their questions using typical question formats such as a WH- question,
a choice question using OR, or a YES/NO question of some kind. Students’
statements or exclamations are often questions in disguise.
39
Handling Questions in the Classroom
Module
9
For example:
Student (looking at the incorrect result of his science experiment):
“My solution doesn’t look the way your example did!”
The real underlying question that the student is asking might be:
“Why did I get this result?” or
“What went wrong with my experiment?” or
“Can you help me to figure out what I did wrong?”
TASK 1: Identifying Underlying Questions
In each case below, the student is trying to elicit a response from the TA.
With a partner, alternate playing the student and TA roles. The TA should identify
the students question and rephrase it into a clear question to confirm what the
student is really asking. The italicized words should receive added stress.
Example:
Student: “Antibodies neutralize antigens. At least that’s what I thought you said
the other day.”
TA (Identify real question): Don’t antibodies neutralize antigens?
1. Student: “So if we know the equilibrium price we can determine the
equilibrium quantity?”
TA (Identify real question):
2. Student: “I didn’t catch the part about interest rate spreads.”
TA (Identify real question):
3. Student: “Uh-oh. The answer I got was 5.”
TA (Identify real question):
4. Student: “But I thought you said it didn’t matter if we kept the minus sign in
here because we’re not worried about the direction of the vectors in this lab. Now
it seems like you’re worried about it.”
TA (Identify real question):
5. Student: “I thought you said last week that we have to apply Mendel’s Law to
understand this kind of problem, and now you’re telling us we have to use this
other law. I’m totally confused.”
TA (Identify real question):
6. Student: “In your example where there are two people on a raft and one
jumps off, and the weight pushes the raft in the opposite direction, I don’t get how
to calculate the effect of the jump on the raft.”
40
Handling Questions in the Classroom
Module
9
TA (Identify real question):
7. Student: “I’m not sure I really get what you said about how work and power
are different.”
TA (Identify real question):
*******************************************************
2. Acknowledging the Question
Acknowledging student questions can be done either verbally, by saying
something like, “That’s a good question!” or nonverbally, by looking at the student
while nodding your head and keeping a thoughtful expression on your face,
and/or making a “Hmm . . .” sound. In any case, you should give some indication
that you have heard the question within three seconds. If you wait longer, the
student will wonder if you have even understood that a question was asked.
What you don’t want to do is freeze up or become tense because you hadn’t
expected someone to ask a question.
It is also important that you do not discourage students by responding negatively
to their questions. If a student asks a question, you should treat him/her with
respect by taking the question seriously, even if the question shows that the
student does not understand an elementary principle of the material you are
covering. Never respond by saying something like, “That was a dumb question”
or “You should know that from lecture.” This tone sounds punitive and students
will feel demoralized by such a response. They will also not feel comfortable
asking questions in the future.
TASK 2: Acknowledging Questions
What are some other ways that you can verbally or nonverbally acknowledge a
question? Write some other responses here:
*******************************************************
3. Repeating or Rephrasing the Question
This is the most important step! While it is important for all teachers to restate
a student’s question, it is especially important for nonnative speakers. Repeating
or restating a student’s question:
!
!
!
Allows the student to know that you understood the question.
Helps other students in the class to hear the question.
Gives you a chance to rephrase the question so that it is clearer or more
appropriate.
41
Handling Questions in the Classroom
!
!
Module
9
Keep in mind that undergraduates do not always ask questions in a coherent
way and may not be as familiar with the terminology in your field. They may
need your help to rephrase or reframe a question.
Provides you with a little more time to consider a response to the question.
Restating or rephrasing questions often involves changing the grammar of the
original question.
For Example:
Student: “Can we email this assignment to you or do we need to give it to you in
class?
TA: “You want to know whether you can submit it via email rather than in person?”
Student: “How come my mixture didn’t turn blue like it was supposed to?”
TA: “You want to know why you didn’t get the right result?” or “You want to know
what went wrong?”
TASK 3: Restating Questions
In pairs or with the whole class, practice restating or rephrasing the following
questions. Use the phrases in parentheses to start your response. Pay attention to
any grammatical changes you might need to make.
1. “When’s the homework assignment due again?” (Okay. Can I have everyone’s
attention? Someone has asked. . .)
2. “How come we have to use that type of sum to figure out an integral if we already
have formulas for it?” (That’s a good question. He wants to know . . .)
3. “Are we going to have a review session before the midterm exam?”
(Did everyone hear that? She wants to know . . .)
4. “So, for this problem, you said that M stands for what exactly?” (So you’re having
trouble understanding . . .)
5. “Can we apply this equation to any system or does it only hold true for closed
systems?” (If I’m not mistaken, you’re asking . . .)
*******************************************************
4. Responding to Student Questions
After you restate the question and clarify any misunderstandings, you should
consider how to respond to it. In some cases, it’s best to provide an answer that is
brief and accurate. Long responses can take time away from other students who
have questions and from time needed to cover class material. Avoid getting into a
42
Handling Questions in the Classroom
Module
9
long conversation with a single student as this could cause other students to become
frustrated and bored. Suggest that the student with the question see you in your
office hours if more time is needed to explain an answer.
Another point to keep in mind is that when students ask questions, it’s an ideal
opportunity for you to find out what they have understood so far. Sometimes it will be
appropriate to refrain from automatically supplying an answer. You could instead
reply with a question of your own (a “question” answer).
Example:
Student: “I still don’t understand the Doppler effect.”
TA: “Can you tell me which part you don’t understand?”
Student: “You said something about a change in frequency of waves and
pitch, but I don’t understand what makes those changes.”
TA: “Okay. Did you understand what I said about the speed at which the
source and the observer move toward each other? Do you remember the
example I gave about the train?” (The TA continues to explain and asks for
confirmation that the student has understood.)
Even when the student wants you to confirm his/her answer, don’t respond
automatically with a “That’s correct.” Rather, encourage the student to think
through his/her response by saying, “What do you think? And why?” This
way, the student will be forced to explain his/her rationale and you will see
where the student might need additional help. For example:
Student: “So then relationship marketing is different from peer to peer marketing,
right?”
TA: “What do you think?” OR “Yes, can you tell me how?”
TASK 4: Responding to a Question
Pair Work: With a partner, decide whether the following questions require
A) a short answer response or
B) a question response
If you think both could be options for some, discuss why.
Example:
a. When do we have to turn in our term project? (A: Short answer response)
b. I’m not sure I understand what Dr. Collins means about “fear of failure”, so
can you go over it again?” (B: Question response)
1. What was the answer to number five on the quiz yesterday?
2. I don’t know how that example relates to globalization. I’m just really lost.
43
3
Handling Questions in the Classroom
Module
9
3. So, what does realism exactly mean again?
4. Does the Theory of Relativity state that both space and time are relative?
5. Do I need to use the formula you explained yesterday to solve this?
6. Are there any negative effects of mass media on society?
7. What exactly is the importance of direct response advertising?
5. Getting Confirmation from the Student
After you give your answer, check to see if the student is satisfied with your
response. If you provided an answer that does not match the student’s intended
question, you will have to go back to step two and try again to understand the
question the student is asking.
Here are some phrases you can use:
“Did I answer your question?”
“Is that what you were asking about?”
“Does that help/make sense?”
“Do you understand it better now?”
“Is that clear?”
TASK 5: Role-play
With a partner, consider what went wrong in the interaction below and how the
ITA could have responded more appropriately. With a partner, write a dialogue
based on this scene, applying what you know about handling questions. Lastly,
perform this role-play for the class.
It was the end of a math discussion section, and the ITA had just announced that
she wanted her students to hand in their homework on the due date. (Many of
the students had been handing in their homework late.) At that point, a U.S.
student asked if he could hand in the homework that was due for class that day
during her office hour, which was at a later time on the same day. At first she
laughed. When he repeated his question, she paused for a long time. At that
point, the bell that signaled the end of class rang, so everyone started picking up
their belongings and standing up to leave, which created a lot of noise in the
room. The student who had not yet received an answer to his question asked the
question again in a different way: “Do you want it now or can I hang on to it until I
see you in your office hour?” She answered, “Right,” an inappropriate response
to a question using or. He asked one more time, and she finally gave him an
answer, but there was so much noise that hardly anyone heard her. The student
later reported that he thought the ITA had misunderstood his question because of
her inappropriate responses. During an interview with the ITA after class, she
said that she had in fact understood his question but was unprepared for it
44
Handling Questions in the Classroom
Module
9
because she had not expected it. Both the student and the ITA said that all of the
noise and movement made the situation worse.
(This scenario and exercise come from Smith, Meyers, and Burkhalter, 1992, p. 90).
Helpful Tips for Difficult Situations
What happens if you are unable to understand a student’s question
because of language or pronunciation? You can handle the problem in
three ways:
!
Admit that you do not understand the question and ask the student to
rephrase it.
!
Repeat the student’s words as you understand them, or rephrase the
question yourself. Then ask the student if you have understood it correctly
(a confirmation check); say,
“Did you ask me if ______?” or “Is this what you said: ____________?”
!
Ask another student to restate the question without showing disrespect to
the first student. For example, say, “Perhaps someone else can help us
restate the question.”
What do you do if you can’t answer a question? Here are some
suggestions:
! Repeat the question to the class and see if anyone in the class would like
to attempt to answer it. If you recognize an answer that is correct, praise
the student who responded! If you do not recognize the right answer,
perhaps what others say will trigger the correct answer in your mind.
!
If nothing useful occurs to you, be honest: Simply say, “That’s a good
question, but unfortunately, I can’t think of the answer right now. I’ll find
out the answer and let you know in our next class. And if any of you have
time, see if you can find the answer too, and let us know.” By making it an
interesting challenge, you have turned a potentially risky situation into a
learning experience. When you handle this type of situation calmly and
confidently, you do not lose your student’s respect; rather, you increase it!
References:
Pica, T., Barnes, G., & Finger, A. (1990) Teaching Matters. New York, NY: Newbury House Publishers.
Smith, J., Meyers, C, & Stice. (1992). Communicate: Strategies for International
Teaching Assistants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Regents/Prentice Hall.
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CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
MODULE 10
Presentation 3: Term Presentation #2 (Video-recorded)
Refer back to Module 3 – Task 2.
Choose one of the terms you were given and prepare your term presentation.
Keep in mind the points just reviewed in the previous Module on handling
questions in the classroom. Try to apply these strategies when answering your
classmates’ questions during or following your presentation.
You will again be evaluated by your instructor, and for homework, you will be
completing the Self Evaluation form after watching your video on Blackboard
(Term Presentation 2 folder).
Term Presentation- Self Evaluation
PART 1:
PRONUNCIATION
LANGUAGE
DISCOURSE (Fluency, Teaching, Interaction, Etc.)
46
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10
Term Presentation #2
Module
10
PART 2: Term Presentation 2- Evaluation Form
Provide a (√+) for very good, (√) for good, and (–) if needs improvement
1. Term written clearly on the board
and good use of board – wrote
down outline and key words
2. Term presented clearly and
examples and/or practical uses
were provided
3. Showed relevance/ importance of
term
4. Explanation not too technical; no
jargon
5. Responded well to questions,
rephrasing, and asking for
confirmation
6. Good eye contact, relaxed
posture and facial expressions
7. Good volume/rate of speech
Strengths:
Areas needing further improvement:
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CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
Module
11
Module 11: Presentation 3 Feedback; Pronunciation,
Language & Discourse; Institute Wrap-Up
Task 1: Your instructor & uSC will provide you with feedback on yesterday’s term
presentation.
1. Review the feedback forms and note how they compare to your SelfEvaluation.
2. After reading the feedback, correct the language errors, and with a
partner, review the language corrections. Next, practice reading the words
you mispronounced.
Task 2: Ask your instructor to explain any comments which seem unclear. Try to
keep the feedback in mind when presenting your term for the ITA Exam.
Task 3: (If time allows): Practice presenting your term with a partner and give
each other some feedback on the three components below:
Pronunciation
Language
Discourse
48
50
Appendix
I
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
APPENDIX I
The Language of Using Visual Aids
Preview Questions
How do I prepare visual aids?
How do I use visual aids in the classroom?
How do I present graphs and tables?
How do I emphasize trends and patterns in graphs and tables?
Using Graphs and Tables
Information is presented graphically in many academic disciplines. As an ITA you may
find yourself discussing charts and graphs from textbooks, research articles, and lab
reports. Many of these graphs and tables will contain important statistical information,
and it is essential that you are able to present and discuss the data with your students.
Preparing Visual Aids
• Keep visual aids simple and clear.
• Each visual aid should focus on only one idea. It is better to show several simple
visual aids than to put too much information on one.
• Be sure that your visual aids are aimed at the appropriate technical level of your
listeners.
• Visual aids should be neatly prepared with as few words as possible. The lettering
and numbers should be large and easy to read. Colors should be bright and in sharp
contrast to the background.
Guidelines for Using Visual Aids
• Stand to the side when you present visual aids so that the students can see them.
You can use a pointer so that your body does not block someone’s view.
• You do not need to explain every item of information on the visual aid. Instead, you
should focus on any important points or trends.
• When you show your visual aid you should continue to face your students. You
should be familiar enough with the visual aid that you do not have to keep looking at
it.
• Limit the number of visual aids that you use.
49
Appendix I
Appendix
I
Do not stop talking while you are showing the visual aid. You should explain and
interpret the visual aid as you are showing it to the listeners.
•
The Language of Using Visual Aids
• Show each visual aid only when you are discussing it. Show the visual aid
when you want people to look at it and then remove it when you move on
to another point.
• Before your class, make sure that the room has the necessary outlets in
the right place. Check that all the equipment is working correctly.
Graphs
There are four key questions that you must answer when presenting a graph:
1. What is the subject of the graph?
2. What do the X and Y axes/bars/components of the pie chart represent?
3. What trend does the graph illustrate?
4. What predictions can you make from the graph?
Useful Expressions
1. This graph shows . . .
This graph illustrates . . .
The bars represent . . .
The components/parts/segments represent . . .
2. The horizontal axis represents . . .
The vertical axis represents . . .
3. The line on the graph illustrates the relationship between ______ and
______.
The bars show that _______ increased steadily/went up dramatically.
The graph illustrates that _______ dropped/went down slightly.
The bars show that _____ decreased gradually while ______ declined sharply.
The graph illustrates that _______ remained (relatively) stable.
There was a significant/steep increase/rise in _________.
There was a gradual/steady decline/drop in _________.
The components in the pie show the percentage of ______ devoted to each
_____.
We can see that ______ makes up the largest percentage.
50
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I
4. By examining this graph, we can predict that _________.
If this trend holds, ____________.
If this pattern continues, ______________.
If these percentages remain unchanged, _______________.
Example A (See Figure 1)
1. The subject of the graph: This graph shows the growth in the world’s
population from 1750 to 2000, and estimates growth to 2150.
2. The axis: The horizontal axis represents years with fifty year intervals marked.
The vertical axis represents the world’s population in units of a billion.
3. The graph’s trend: The world’s population has increased steadily since 1750
from less than two billion people to more than six billion people.
4. Predictions: If this trend continues, there will be approximately ten billion
people in the world by 2150.
Human Population: Fundamentals of Growth
Population Growth and Distribution
________________________________________________________________
World Population Growth, 1750–2150
Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects, The 1998 Revision; and
estimates by the Population Reference Bureau.
___________________________________________________________
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I
Graph Description
This graph shows the growth in the world’s population from 1750 to 2000, and
estimates growth to 2150. The horizontal axis represents years with fifty year
intervals marked. The vertical axis represents the world’s population in units of a
billion. The world’s population has increased steadily since 1750 from less than
two billion people to more than six billion people. If this trend continues, there
will be approximately ten billion people in the world by 2150.
TASK 1: Presenting a Graph
Work with a partner and prepare a description of a graph by answering the four
key questions:
1. What is the subject of the graph?
2. What do the X and Y axes/bars/components of the pie chart represent?
3. What trend does the graph illustrate?
4. What predictions can you make from the graph?
TABLES
There are four key questions that you must answer when presenting a table:
1. What is the subject of the table?
2. What do the columns represent?
3. What order is the data arranged in?
4. What conclusions can be drawn from the information in the table?
Useful Expressions
1. This table shows . . .
This table illustrates . . .
2. The left-hand column indicates . . .
The right-hand column indicates . . .
The middle column represents . . .
The column on the far left represents . . .
3. The data are presented in chronological order.
The data are arranged alphabetically.
The data are arranged in numerical order, with the highest number at the top of
the column and the lowest number at the bottom.
4. By studying the table we can see that . . .
The table shows that . . .
Module
52
58
Appendix I
Appendix
I
Example B (See Table 1 below)
1. Subject of the table: This table shows the breakdown of the U.S. population
under 40, by age and gender.
2. The columns: The left-hand column indicates the age of the population. The
middle column represents the number of males in each age range, and the righthand column shows the number of females in each age range.
3. The order of the data: The data are presented in ascending order, with the
youngest population range at the top of the column, and the oldest range at the
bottom of the column.
4. Conclusions: By studying this table we can see that there are more males in
the population in the five youngest age ranges. In contrast, there are more
females in the population in the three oldest age ranges.
Table 1: United States Population (Under 40 Years) by Age & Sex (Population in
Thousands)
AGE
00-04
05-09
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
MALE
9,639
10,122
10,196
10,237
9,502
8,926
9,721
11,105
——Year 2000——
FEMALE
9,227
9,659
9,712
9,672
9,098
8,993
9,904
11,209
Table Description
This table shows the breakdown of the U.S. population under 40, by age and
gender in 2000. The data are presented in ascending order, with the youngest
population range at the top of the column, and the oldest range at the bottom of
the column. The left-hand column indicates the age of the population. The middle
column represents the number of males in each age range, and the right-hand
column shows the number of females in each age range. By studying this table
we can see that there are more males in the population in the five youngest age
ranges. In contrast, there are more females in the population in the three oldest
age ranges.
TASK 2: Presenting a Table
Work with a partner and prepare a description of a table by answering the four
key questions:
1. What is the subject of the table?
2. What do the columns represent?
3. What order is the data arranged in?
4. What conclusions can be drawn from the information in the table?
53
Appendix
II
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
APPENDIX II
Leading a Class Discussion
Preview Questions
How do I prepare for a discussion?
What types of questions should I ask?
How do I encourage student participation?
Discussion leading is a common duty of teaching assistants, especially those in
the social sciences and humanities. In order to have active discussions, keep in
mind the following tips.
Pre-Discussion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Since students usually have read more than what can be covered in one
class period, select the most important aspects of the reading for
discussion.
Tell students in advance which sections of the reading they should expect
to discuss.
Prepare good questions. What types of questions should you prepare?
Write the discussion topics and goals on the blackboard at the beginning
of class.
Type up a handout with your discussion questions.
Use a variety of discussion techniques, such as
______________________.
If you notice that students are not doing the reading, what should you do?
During the Discussion
Greet the class and state the discussion topic. For example:
“Good morning. Today we are going to talk about __________________.”
You may want to start off with some general comprehension questions
about the reading before moving on to questions which elicit opinions and
analysis.
• If you are having a whole-class discussion, be sure all the students are
involved, not just the talkative ones. List three ways you can do this:
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
•
•
•
54
Appendix II
Appendix
II
When a student is speaking, be sure to use such active listening
techniques as:
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
•
Be sure to clarify unclear questions/answers.
Give positive feedback to insightful answers and interesting ideas.
Expressions you can use include: good answer, excellent point,
_____________________________________.
• Be open to different ideas and opinions; in a discussion there is often no
right/wrong answer.
• If a discussion becomes too heated, you will need to diffuse the situation
by saying something like, “I can see we have some very strong opinions
here. Perhaps we can agree to disagree.” What are some other
sentences/expressions you could use?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
•
•
•
•
•
Be aware of the pace of the discussion and keep it moving.
Periodically summarize the discussion.
Wrap up the discussion by restating the main points that were discussed,
issues that were resolved, conclusions reached, and/or topics for further
discussion.
** Keep in mind that a discussion is not a lecture. Your role is to facilitate the
discussion, to clarify difficult points, and to maintain an environment which
encourages participation and an exchange of ideas.
** See Teaching Nuggets, Modules 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 for further information about
discussion leading and group participation.
55
Appendix
III
CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING
APPENDIX III
SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR TAs
informal avenues of support for advice and reflection
Formal Avenues of Support
1. The Center for Excellence in Teaching (CET)
http://www.usc.edu/cet or (213) 740-9040 or usccet@usc.edu
CET’s group of Faculty Fellows provides USC teaching assistants many
programs and materials to improve teaching and learning at USC.
• Sign up at the CET website, http://www.usc.edu/cet, to the weekly CET email
updates. These emails list upcoming events offered by CET faculty.
• Attend the Principles of Teaching Series throughout the semester. Every
other week CET offers a "brown bag" discussion of some teaching topic
("brown bag" means you can bring your own lunch). For instance, they have
"The Art of the Lecture" and "the Art of Discussion Leading".
• Read the CET Teaching Nuggets for new teaching ideas and strategies. This
book is distributed to all new TAs at USC and is available from the CET office.
A pdf version is available at their website.
• Visit the CET library. This is a selective library of practical works on teaching
and learning, all of which are available for browsing or borrowing. Also
available is a variety of instructional videotapes on such subjects as lecturing,
discussion• Leading, effective advising, collaborative learning, and interacting with
students.
• Classroom Observation (or Videotaping). Individual faculty as well as TAs who
are interested in developing their teaching skills can arrange to be videotaped
in the classroom and receive feedback from one of the CET’s Faculty Fellows.
The Faculty Fellows are a select group of professors noted for their
outstanding ideas, approaches, and techniques for teaching. They are also
willing to observe a class (without videotaping) and provide constructive
comments. Meetings can be arranged by contacting CET a few days in
advance.
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III
Module
Support Systems for TAs
2. Departmental Faculty Advisors
Each department will assign a faculty advisor who will counsel and review your
progress on a yearly basis.
• Every TA should have a faculty mentor in regard to their teaching. Although the
faculty mentor may be your research advisor, this need not be the case. Each
semester (and sometimes mid-semester) your students will formally evaluate
your teaching. You and your faculty mentor should review your teaching
evaluations at the end of each semester. This will help you to learn where your
strengths are as well as where you need further development as a TA.
• Meet with your faculty advisor frequently to review material and discuss your
students’ progress.
• When you are unable to teach (or perform your duties), you should contact the
instructor or arrange to be replaced according to a pre-established procedure.
Find out what that procedure is in your department!
3. The American Language Institute (ALI)
The ALI (http://dornsife.usc.edu/ali/) offers several courses for nonnative English
speakers to improve their communicative ability. Most of you will take an English
exam before the beginning of the semester. Based on your exam results, you
may be required to take an English course to help increase your language
proficiency so that you can meet the academic standards of the university.
Several elective courses are also offered by the ALI.
4. The Office of International Students (OIS)
OIS offers assistance and support to international students. OIS is dedicated to
facilitating students’ adjustment into a new academic environment. OIS offers a
pre-semester orientation program for new international students. Check the USC
website for more details (http://www.usc.edu/student-affairs/OIS/). Their office is
located in the Student Union Building.
Informal Avenues of Support
5. Departmental Assistance
As a TA, you should check with colleagues in your department to find out what
resources are available.
57
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III
The secretary in each department can be a valuable source of information. Make
friends with this person!
Subscribe to relevant email listservs. TAs can check with their departments to
find out what professional and academic listservs are available in their field.
6. Experienced TAs
Seek advice from other TAs in your department. Ask around for help when you
need it!
• In some departments the TAs meet regularly for informal lunches or talks. Ask
the departmental secretary or more experienced TAs to find out what goes on
in your department.
7. Students
You can also elicit feedback from students.
• Talk to students casually and try to get clues about what may help facilitate
their understanding of course material. This confirms that there is an open line
of communication between you (the TA) and students. It also shows students
that their TA is interested in helping them succeed academically.
8. Teacher reflection
It is important that all TAs reflect on their interaction with students and try to
discover ways of improving their teaching. You could do this with other TAs or
with your faculty mentor.
Other Available Avenues of Support
9. The Graduate Student Bill of Rights
The Graduate Student Bill of Rights document is available at:
http://www.usc.edu/org/gpss/information/billofrights.html. TAs should read
through this document to become more familiar with their rights and
responsibilities. For example, graduate students have the right to refuse doing
tasks that are not closely related to their field. (However, they should realize that
this refusal may have future political ramifications.)
10. The Graduate and Professional Student Senate (GPSS)
Through its programs, GPSS aims at providing community development, the
advocation of rights, and the highest quality service to graduate students on both
campuses (University Park and Health Science Campus) at USC. More
information on the services and academic resources that GPSS provides is
available at: http://www.gpssusc.com/
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11. Student Counseling Services - Division of Student Affairs
Student Counseling Services is committed to helping USC students creatively
handle the stresses and challenges in their academic and personal goals. There
are groups to help all students with problems they may face in their personal,
academic or professional lives at USC. Be sure to take advantage of this service
if you are feeling a lot of stress! A complete list of these groups is available at:
http://www.usc.edu/student-affairs/Health_Center/cs.index.shtml.
Module
12. Office of Student Conduct - Division of Student Affairs
The office addresses problems involving academic integrity. They also publish a
booklet appropriately named Trojan Integrity: A Faculty Desk Reference. The
policies in this booklet and other academic integrity publications are excerpted
from the university student conduct policies published in SCampus. The booklet
has sections on preventing academic dishonesty, confronting acts of cheating,
reporting violations and handling disruptive classroom behavior. In addition to the
booklet, “Trojans for Integrity” will send a representative to your class with copies
of the booklet to discuss issues concerning academic integrity. They can be
reached via email at: tfi@usc.edu.
More information about student conduct is available from the office’s website at:
http://www.usc.edu/student-affairs/SJACS/
References
Handbook for graduate assistants
http://www.usc.edu/schools/GraduateSchool/current_guidelines_forms.html
The Center for Excellence in Teaching
http://cet.usc.edu/
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