Tests, Surveys and Pools

Tests, Surveys and Pools
Tests, Surveys, and Pools
You can use tests and surveys to measure student knowledge, gauge progress, and gather information from
students. You create tests and surveys and then deploy them in a course area. When you add a test or survey to a
content area, it is "deployed."
You assign points to test questions for grading evaluation, but survey questions are not scored.
Survey results are anonymous, but you can see whether a student has completed a survey and view aggregate
results for each survey question. To learn more, see Test and Survey Results.
Before You Begin
Consider the following questions when you create an assessment:
• Do I need a test or survey?
• Are special instructions needed?
• How many questions?
• What type of questions?
• For tests, what is the point value associated with each question?
• Will partial credit be acceptable for some or all test questions?
• Are some test questions very difficult and may count as extra credit?
Wired Connections Are Best
Remind your students that it is best to take tests using a wired connection. Wireless connections are more prone
to network issues. The stability of the signal depends on how long and how much bandwidth users draw, similar
to 4G phone data connections.
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About Creating Tests and Surveys
After you add a test or survey to a content area, properties such as availability and presentation options are
managed there. To learn more, see Create Tests and Surveys.
After you add a test or survey to a content area, the Test Options or Survey Options page appears. To learn
more, see Deploy Tests and Surveys.
Note: You can view and grade tests submitted by students in the Grade Center. You cannot view or
grade them from the content area where they are deployed.
Specify Question Settings
Before you begin adding questions, you can change the test or survey's question settings. Question settings
include options to change default point values for a test, add images, files, or web links to answers, and designate
questions as extra credit.
To learn more, see Question Settings.
In this section...
• Create Tests and Surveys
• Test and Survey Options
• Edit Tests and Questions
• Test and Survey Canvas
• Deploy Tests and Surveys
• Delete Tests and Surveys
• Test and Survey Question Status
• Test and Survey Results
• Question Settings
• Question Metadata
• Question Types
• Reuse Questions
• Grade Tests
• Item Analysis
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• Resolve Student Issues With Tests
• Respondus
• Kryterion Konnect Online Proctoring
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Create Tests and Surveys
After you build a test or survey, you create questions or add existing questions from tests, surveys, and pools.
Then, you deploy the test or survey in a course area, such as a content area or folder. When you add a test or
survey to a content area, it is "deployed."
Survey questions are not graded, and student responses are anonymous.
About Question Settings
On the Test or Survey Canvas, click Question Settings on the action bar to change settings for different aspects
of a test or survey. You can perform the following actions:
• Enable additional feedback boxes for individual answers within a question. If you do not select this
option, a single feedback box for the entire question is provided by default.
• Add images, files, or web links to questions and answers.
• Add metadata to questions.
• Determine default point values for questions in tests.
• Designate questions as extra credit, and enabling negative and partial credit scoring.
• Specify display options, such as numbering options for answers.
To learn more, see Question Settings.
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How to Build a Test or Survey and Add New Questions
You add questions to tests and surveys in the same way, but you add no points to survey questions. Before
students take a test, you can add new questions exactly where you want them.
1. On the Control Panel, expand the Course Tools section and click Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the Tests, Surveys, and Pools page, click Tests.
3. On the Tests page, click Build Test on the action bar.
4. On the Test Information page, type a name. Optionally, provide a description and instructions.
5. Click Submit.
6. On the Test Canvas, point to Create Question on the action bar and select a question type.
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7. On the Create/Edit page, provide the necessary information to create a question.
8. Click Submit.
-ORYou can add new questions exactly where you want them on the Test Canvas. Click the plus sign before or
after another question and choose a question type.
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9. On the Test Canvas, you can change a question's point value.
a. Click a question's current point value.
b. In the Update Points pop-up box, edit the points.
c. Click Submit.
10. Continue adding questions.
11. Click OK. The test is added to the list on the Tests page and is ready to deploy in a course area.
Reorder Questions
By default, when you create new questions with the Create Question drop-down list, they are added to the end
of the test or survey. On the Test or Survey Canvas, reorder questions by pointing to a question to show the
double-tipped arrow and then dragging it to its new location.
Alternatively, use the keyboard accessible reordering tool (
) on the action bar. Click a question and use the up and down arrows below the title box to adjust the order.
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Note: Changing question order only affects new test attempts, assuming the test is not set to
display questions in random order. Attempts already submitted retain the order as originally
viewed when the test was taken.
Questions are numbered automatically in the order they are added, and the question numbers update when
items are reordered or randomized. Therefore, use caution when referring to specific question numbers in the
questions' text.
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Test and Survey Options
You can read this page in its entirety, or click the Table of Contents icon
in the upper right and choose a topic that interests you.
About Unavailable Tests and Surveys
You manage availability on the Test Options or Survey Options page.
Unavailable and deleted tests and surveys differ in the following ways:
• Unavailable tests and surveys deployed in a content area do not appear to students. When Edit Mode is
ON, instructors and course builders can see unavailable tests.
◦ You can limit test and survey availability to a specific time period with the Display After and Display
Until dates and times. If the link to a test or survey is available, but neither date is set, it is
immediately and always available.
• If you delete a test or survey from a content area in your course, it is removed from that location. You can
deploy it again as needed. You can deploy each test and survey in one location only.
• If you delete a test or survey from the tests or surveys tool pages, it is permanently deleted from your
course. This is irreversible. You can access the tests and surveys tools in the Course Tools section of the
Control Panel.
Test and Survey Availability Options
When you deploy a test or survey to a content area, you set the availability and feedback options. To make
changes to the options, access its contextual menu and click Edit the Test Options or Edit the Survey Options.
The following table provides descriptions of the test and survey availability options. Click the images to enlarge
them in your browser. Use your browser's back function to return to the topic.
Option
Description
Make the Link
Available
You can set this to available, and then use the Display After and Display Until
fields to limit the amount of time the link appears.
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Option
Description
Add a New
Announcement for this
Test/Survey
You can create an announcement for a test or survey. The
announcement includes the date and states, "An assessment has been made
available in [Course area that includes the link to the assessment]."
If an announcement was previously posted using this feature, the date and time of
the most recent announcement appears.
Multiple Attempts
You can allow students to take a test or survey multiple times. The status of
multiple attempts appears to students at the top of the test or survey. Select
Allow Unlimited Attempts to allow students to take it as many times as they
want. Select Number of Attempts and provide the amount of attempts.
With multiple attempts for a test, you can also select which attempt's score to use
in the Grade Center from the Score attempts using drop-down list.
Force Completion
If you select Force Completion, students must complete the test or survey when
they launch it. Students may only access the test or survey ONE TIME. The Save
function is available for students to save the questions as they work through
them, but they may not exit and reenter the test or survey. In the instructions,
Force Completion is noted and explained to students. If you do not enable Force
Completion, students may save their progress, navigate away, and return to
complete the test or survey.
If students accidentally close their browsers, leave the test or survey page, or lose
power or their internet connections, they cannot continue. They must contact you
to allow them to start over with a new attempt.
You may want to reserve the Force Completion option for when students are on
campus taking a proctored test and connected to an Ethernet cable instead of WiFi. If issues occur, an instructor can be available to reset the test.
Alternatively, use the Set Timer options to reduce receiving emails from panicked
students who accidentally left a test or survey with Force Completion enabled.
Set Timer
Set a time limit for finishing a test or survey. Type the amount of time in the hours
and minutes boxes. During a timed test, the time elapsed is displayed to students.
As students approach the time limit, a one-minute warning appears.
When an attempt is complete, student completion time is available in the Test
Information section.
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Option
Description
Note: If a student saves and exits the test, the timer continues. For
example, if he begins the test on Tuesday, saves and exits it, then
completes it on Thursday, his completion time will be 48 hours.
If you set the timer, turn on Auto-Submit to automatically save and submit a test
or survey when time expires. Without enabling auto-submit, students have the
option to continue after time expires. Tests and surveys are flagged as submitted
after the timer expired. You have the option to adjust the grade based on the
time.
You may find it advantageous to use the Set Timer options and not the Force
Completion option. For example, if a student loses his internet connection for 10
minutes on a timed test, at least he can access the test again and continue. If you
enabled the Forced Completion option, he cannot access the test again and must
contact you to reset the test.
Display After
Optionally, select the date and time when the test or survey will become available
to students. You can control availability through the Make the Link Available
option without setting specific dates.
Display Until
Optionally, select the date and time the test or survey will be made unavailable to
students.
Password
You can require and type a password for students to use to access a test or
survey. Passwords have a limit of 15 characters and are case sensitive.
Restrict Location
You can require students to take the test or survey in a specific location. Students
outside of this location are not able to take the test or survey.
Note: This is based on a range of IP addresses created by your
institution. If your institution has not created this range, this option
does not appear.
To learn more, see Restrict Tests by Location.
Test Availability
Exceptions
For existing availability settings, you can make exceptions for individual students
or groups. Use exceptions to provide an accommodation to a student who is
disabled, or for technology and language differences.
Example:
For a test with one attempt, you can allow more attempts for a student who is
blind and using screen reader technology for the first time.
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Option
Description
If the settings exist for a test or survey, you can create the following exceptions:
• Number of attempts
• Timer
• Availability
• Force completion
• Restrict location
Due Date
If you use grading periods in the Grade Center, set a due date to easily include
that test or survey in a grading period and on the calendar in the My Blackboard
menu.
Due Date and Late Submissions
To prevent late submissions, you can select the check box for Do not allow
students to start the Test/Survey if the due date has passed. Students receive
a message after the due date, notifying them that the test or survey can no longer
be completed.
When you allow late submissions, they are clearly marked on the following pages:
• Needs Grading
• View All Attempts
• Review Test Submission
• Grade Details
Feedback Options
In the Show Results and Feedback to Students section, you can set which results and feedback are available to
students after they complete a test or survey. You can set one or two rules using the drop-down lists. You cannot
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choose some rules in combination. After you select a rule in the first drop-down list, some may not appear in the
second drop-down list.
If conflicts in rules occur, the most permissive settings for that user or group of users is granted. For example,
students will receive the greatest number of attempts and longest availability time.
The following image shows the two default options applied to tests: After Submission and Score per
Question. If you make no changes in this section, students see their overall test scores and the scores earned for
each individual question after they submit their tests. Select more options to determine what else they see, such as
the correct answers or your feedback.
Important: Students can always see their overall test scores. You cannot change that option from this
page. If you do not want them to see their scores yet, access the Grade Center column's contextual
menu and hide the column from students. However, when you hide a test column from students, they
see nothing about the test in My Grades. When they access the test in the content area, they receive a
message stating when they submitted the test. No scores appear.
The following table provides descriptions of the test and survey feedback options. Click the images to enlarge
them in your browser. Use your browser's back function to return to the topic.
Option
Description
When
You must make a selection. Set when appropriate test results and feedback are
shown to students:
• After Submission: This is the default option.
• One-time View: After students submit their tests or surveys, the selected
results and feedback options are in effect for students to view ONCE.
However, students can always view the scores they earned unless you hide
the Grade Center column from students. Immediately after a student
navigates away from the test or survey, any other results and feedback
are restricted. You can change the setting -OR- add another rule for a
second viewing. A second rule is not combined with the one-time view rule,
but is applied separately. To learn more, see One-time View for Results and
Feedback.
• On Specific Date: View results and feedback after the selected date and
time.
• After Due Date
• After Availability and End Date
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Option
Description
• After Attempts are graded: After all students submit the test or survey,
and all attempts are graded, results and feedback are made available to
students. If one or more students do not submit an attempt, you must
assign a grade of 0 so that all students can view the chosen results and
feedback.
Score per Question
Show the score earned for each test question. This is a default option for tests
only. Clear the check box if you do not want to show scores for individual
questions.
Answers
You can allow students to see information about their answers:
• All Answers: Show all answer options.
• Correct: Show the correct answers—tests only.
• Submitted: Show all of a student’s submitted answers.
Example 1: Show more feedback
When students access their tests, they see their overall scores, each question's
score, and all answer options. They see their submitted answers marked as
correct or incorrect, and any feedback provided.
Example 2: Show less feedback to discourage cheating
If students are taking a test at different times, you can make a limited amount of
feedback available until all students submit the test.
For the first rule, select After Submission in the first drop-down list and clear the
check box for Score per Question. Make no other selections. After submitting
their tests, students can only see their overall test scores.
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Option
Description
For the second rule, select After Due Date, and select options to show more
results and feedback. You can create an announcement to notify students that
additional feedback is available to view.
Feedback
Show instructor-generated feedback for each question. This option appears only
for tests.
Show Incorrect
Questions
Show the questions a student answered incorrectly or partially incorrectly. This
option appears only for tests. You might consider only showing incorrect
questions when allowing multiple attempts so that students can focus their
studying on those areas.
One-time View for Results and Feedback
In the Show Test Results and Feedback to Students section, you can select One-time View. After students
submit their tests, the results and feedback options you selected are in effect for students to view ONCE. However,
students can always view the overall test scores they earned. Immediately after a student navigates away from the
test, any other options you chose are restricted. You can apply a second rule to allow students to view newly
selected options at a later time. The second rule is not combined with the one-time view rule, but is applied
separately.
The ability to select different options for each rule allows you to show some test results and feedback initially, and
then more later.
Example:
Rule #1: Select One-time View and Show Incorrect Questions. Select no other options so that while other
students are still allowed to take the test, no one can share the correct answers.
Rule #2: Select all of the following options:
• After Due Date
• Score per Question
• All Answers
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• Correct
• Submitted
• Feedback
After the due date, students see their scores along with all answer options. They also see their submitted answers
marked as correct or incorrect and any instructor feedback.
Self-Assessment Options
By default, a deployed test is included in Grade Center calculations. However, you may allow students to take tests
for review or practice without impacting Grade Center calculations.
You can turn the test into a self-assessment by hiding students’ scores in the Grade Center. This allows students to
take tests to reinforce learning without feeling pressure about a score affecting their total grades. Select the
appropriate options in the Show Test Results and Feedback to Students section so they are able to see how
they did. If you select all options, students will see the answers they selected and which ones are correct.
Option
Description
Include this Test in
Grade Center Score
Calculations
You can include this test in Grade Center calculations. If the test is not included,
the score does not affect any Grade Center calculations.
Hide Results for this
Test Completely from
Instructor and the
Grade Center
You can hide this test score from you and exclude it from Grade Center
calculations. The display in the Grade Center will read Complete/Incomplete and
N/A or zero appears on the Grade Details page. You cannot see students'
answers to questions. Students are able to view their own scores.
Selecting this option makes Include this Column in Other Grade Center
Calculations and Show Statistics (average and median) for this Column to
Students in My Grades unavailable when editing column information in the
Grade Center.
Test or Survey Presentation
The following table describes the options for presenting questions in tests and surveys.
Option
Description
All at Once
Present the entire assessment on one screen. Students scroll through all the
questions and can move up and down from question to question. When selected,
you may not choose Prohibit Backtracking.
One at a Time
Displays one question at a time. The screen includes navigation tools to move
between questions. The Submit function only appears on the last page of the
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Option
Description
assessment. You may also select Prohibit Backtracking and Randomize
Questions.
Prohibit Backtracking
Prevents students from going back to questions they have already answered. If
you do not allow backtracking, questions are presented one at a time and the <<,
<, and >> functions do not appear to users during the test or survey.
Randomize Questions
Display questions in a random order each time the assessment is taken. If you
include references to the question numbers as they appear on the Test Canvas,
do not use this option because the random order changes the question
numbering.
In this section...
• Restrict Tests by Location
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Restrict Tests by Location
You can deliver tests in a specific physical location.
As increasing numbers of institutions are delivering high-stakes tests using Blackboard Learn, there is an
increased desire on the part of course facilitators, instructors, and administrators to prevent students from
cheating. High-stakes tests are often delivered to students in proctored lab environments to ensure that students
can be identified—using an ID—and monitored while taking a test. However, if students can access the test from
any location during the testing window, students could conspire to have someone else take the test on their
behalf, compromising the security of the testing environment.
IP addresses identify specific computers and are a good method to enforce the location-restriction requirements
described above. The first step is for your institution to create a range of IP addresses to correspond to one or
more network segments that are used exclusively in the testing environments.
Important: If your institution has not created a range of IP addresses for location restriction, you will
not be able to restrict a test to a specific location. The option will not appear.
How to Restrict a Test by Location
1. For a test, access its Test Options page.
2. Select a location from the Restrict Location drop-down list.
3. Click Submit.
Test Availability Exceptions
At times, you might need to allow a student or a group of students to take the test from somewhere outside of
specified location (IP range). In this case, you can use the Test Availability Exceptions to exclude specified
students or groups of students from the location restriction.
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Students with this exception enabled will be able to take the test from any location, even if it is restricted for other
students.
In a high-stakes testing situation you or the proctor can override a restriction that has been enforced by the
system. On the Test Begin page, you can see the individual instances when users were prevented from accessing
a test, along with an option to override this restriction to allow a user to continue taking the test.
Note: These restrictions are logged by the system in the event that later review is required.
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Edit Tests and Questions
On the Test Canvas, you can add, edit, and delete questions in a test. You can also add question sets or random
blocks, reorder questions, and edit a test's information before students submit attempts.
Access the Test Canvas from the Grade Center, the Course Tools section in the Control Panel, and by accessing
a deployed test in a course area, such as a content area or folder.
After students submit attempts, the ability to modify a test is limited. Once a test has attempts associated with it,
you cannot add a question, modify the number of questions in a question set, or change a random block
definition or options.
Access Tests From the Grade Center
1. Access the Grade Center.
2. In the column heading for the test, access the contextual menu and click Edit Test. The Test Canvas
appears.
Access Tests From the Course Tools Section
1. In the Control Panel, expand the Course Tools section and click Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the Tests, Surveys, and Pools page, click Tests.
3. On the Tests page, access a test's contextual menu and click Edit. The Test Canvas appears.
Access Tests From a Course Area
You can edit a test that is deployed in a course area, such as a content area or folder. In this example, a test is
edited from a content area.
1. In a content area, access a test's contextual menu.
2. Click Edit the Test. The Test Canvas appears.
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How to Edit Test Questions
1. On the Test Canvas, access a question's contextual menu.
2. Click Edit. The question's Create/Edit page appears.
How to Change Point Values
You can change possible points awarded for answering questions correctly.
1. On the Test Canvas, select the check box for each question requiring a change.
2. On the action bar, type a number in the Points box.
3. Click Update or Update and Regrade to make your changes.
-OR-
1. On the Test Canvas, click a question's current point value.
2. In the Update Points pop-up box, edit the points, set the question as Extra Credit, or give Full Credit.
3. Click Submit or Submit and Regrade to make your changes.
In both cases, new grades are recalculated for all previously submitted tests. To remove a question's Extra Credit
or Full Credit designation, click the question's current point value and clear the appropriate check box.
Note: You will not be able to add extra credit or partial credit for questions unless you chose these
options in Question Settings on the action bar.
How to Delete Test Questions
After you deploy a test and students submit attempts, you can delete questions. All affected submissions are
regraded. If a test has one or more attempts in progress, you cannot delete questions.
1. On the Test Canvas, select the check box for each question to delete.
2. On the action bar, click Delete and Regrade.
The question numbers update after one or more questions are deleted. New grades are recalculated for all
previously submitted tests.
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Reorder Questions When Submissions Exist
By default, when you create new questions using the Create Question drop-down list, they are added to the end
of the test. Reorder questions using the drag-and-drop function or the keyboard accessible reordering tool.
Note: Changing question order only affects new test attempts, assuming the test is not set to
display questions in random order. Attempts already submitted retain the order as originally
viewed when the test was taken.
Questions are automatically numbered in the order they are added, and the question numbers update when
questions are reordered or randomized. Therefore, use caution when referring to specific question numbers in
the questions' text.
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Test and Survey Canvas
Access the Test or Survey Canvas from the Grade Center, the Course Tools section in the Control Panel, and by
accessing a deployed test in a course area, such as a content area or folder.
On the Test or Survey Canvas, you can:
• Edit the name and instructions before students submit attempts. Access the title's contextual menu and
click Edit.
• Change question settings, such as setting the default point value for test questions and options for
scoring. Survey questions are not graded, and student responses are anonymous.
• Create questions.
• Edit, reorder, and delete questions.
• Select any or all questions and change point values. For tests, you can also change the point values of
existing questions even after students submit attempts. Any submissions affected by test changes
are regraded.
• Reuse and find questions.
• Add question sets and random blocks.
• Upload questions.
After students submit attempts, the ability to modify a test is limited. Once a test has attempts associated with it,
you cannot add a question, modify the number of questions in a question set, or change a random block
definition or options.
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Deploy Tests and Surveys
After you create a test or survey, the next step is to deploy it—make it available—to users in your course.
This is a two-step process:
1. Add the test or survey to a course area.
2. Make it available.
About Unavailable Tests and Surveys
You manage availability on the Test Options or Survey Options page.
Unavailable and deleted tests and surveys differ in the following ways:
• Unavailable tests and surveys deployed in a content area do not appear to students. When Edit Mode is
ON, instructors and course builders can see unavailable tests.
◦ You can limit test and survey availability to a specific time period with the Display After and Display
Until dates and times. If the link to a test or survey is available, but neither date is set, it is
immediately and always available.
• If you delete a test or survey from a content area in your course, it is removed from that location. You can
deploy it again as needed. You can deploy each test and survey in one location only.
• If you delete a test or survey from the tests or surveys tool pages, it is permanently deleted from your
course. This is irreversible. You can access the tests and surveys tools in the Course Tools section of the
Control Panel.
How to Add a Test or Survey to a Content Area
Before you can deploy a test or survey, you need to create it and add questions. To learn more, see Create Tests
and Surveys.
1. Navigate to the course area where you want to add a test or survey.
2. On the action bar, point to Assessments and click Test or Survey.
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3. Select a test or survey from the Add Test or Add Survey list.
4. Click Submit. The Test or Survey Options page appears.
How to Make a Test or Survey Available
After you deploy a test or survey in a course area, you set its availability.
1. On the Test Options or Survey Options page, click Yes to Make the Link Available to users. Use the
Display After and Display Until fields to limit the amount of time the link appears.
2. Set the availability, feedback, and presentation options for a test or survey.
3. Click Submit.
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Delete Tests and Surveys
You can delete a test before or after you deploy it. After you deploy a test, you must consider whether students
have submitted attempts before deleting it.
Delete a Deployed Test or Survey From a Content Area
Without Attempts
When you delete a test or survey from a content area, the assessment itself is not deleted. It is still available on
the Tests or Surveys page where you can edit, redeploy, or delete it from the system.
If students have not attempted to take the test or survey, you may safely delete it from the content area without
any loss of data.
If you deploy a test or survey again, it is considered new. No connection or shared data exists between the first
and second deployments. The Grade Center treat each deployment as separate Grade Center items.
Delete a Deployed Test or Survey From a Content Area
With Attempts
If students have already taken an assessment, be cautious and consider the consequences before deleting it.
Tip: You can make an assessment unavailable rather than delete it.
Deleting an assessment with attempts has consequences. After clicking delete, a warning appears with options:
• Preserve scores in the Grade Center for this Test, but delete all attempts for this Test. This option
deletes the assessment from the content area. Any grades in the Grade Center related to this assessment
will remain, but the attempt itself will be deleted. In this instance, the grade stays but the assessment and
any attempts are deleted. You cannot view any of the students' responses to questions. This can have
serious consequences, for example, if an essay question still needs to be graded. You cannot grade the
question after deleting the assessment because the details of the attempt were deleted.
• Remove this content item, the Grade Center item for this Test, all grades for this Test, and all
attempts for this Test. This option deletes the assessment from the content area and erases any record
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of the assessment from the Grade Center. This will destroy all record of student performance on the
assessment.
Use the following steps to delete an assessment from a content area:
1. Access the assessment's contextual menu and click Delete.
2. Click OK in the dialog box.
3. Click Preserve scores in the Grade Center for this Test, but delete all attempts for this Test -ORDelete this content item, the Grade Center item for this Test, all grades for this Test, and all
attempts for this Test. (See previous explanations.)
Delete a Test or Survey From the Tool
On the Tests or Surveys page, access the item's contextual menu and click Delete.
If the Delete function does not appear in the contextual menu, you have deployed it in a content area. Follow the
instructions for deleting a deployed test or survey before trying to delete it from the Tests or Surveys page.
Removing a test or survey deletes it, but does not have any impact on the Grade Center.
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Test and Survey Question Status
The test and survey question completion status feature provides students with a quick up-to-date view of their
progress in an assessment at all times. Students can see which questions they have completed and how many are
incomplete.
Question Completion Status Tool
The Save Answer function next to each question provides a visual reminder to students to save their work
periodically.
During an assessment, the question completion status appears at the top of the page, following the instructions. It
remains at the top of the page even as the student scrolls down through an assessment. Use the double arrows to
expand or collapse the status section.
When a student answers a question and moves to the next question in a question-by-question assessment, the
status box is updated to show that the previous question was answered. If the student does not answer a
question and moves to the next question, the status box shows that the previous question was not answered.
A student can navigate to another question by clicking the question number in the status box. This is only
applicable to test questions set to display all at once -OR- question by question where backtracking is permitted.
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When questions appear all at once, students can use the Save function for each question. Alternatively, students
may answer several questions and then click Save at the bottom of the page. Both Save functions update the
question completion status.
After students complete their tests and surveys, you can view statistical information about the results. To learn
more, see Test and Survey Results.
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Test and Survey Results
From the Grade Center, you can view statistical information about your tests and surveys. For example, you can
view what percentage of your students chose each multiple choice answer for one of your tests.
Because surveys are ungraded, a check mark appears in the Grade Center cell for submitted surveys.
How to View Test or Survey Results
1. From the Grade Center, navigate to a test or survey’s column.
2. Access the column's contextual menu and click Attempts Statistics. The results display on the
Statistics page.
Note: Because surveys are anonymous, you cannot view any student's individual answers. If you
included an open-ended essay question in the survey, all responses are listed.
Download Results
In the Grade Center, each test or survey column's contextual menu also has a Download Results option. You
can compile the questions and answers in a spreadsheet to review offline.
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When you download test results, it includes the users' names and usernames. Unlike tests, surveys are intended
to gather opinions from students where they can reply honestly because their anonymity is protected. As a result,
when you download survey results, the results will not include any information that identifies each user.
Downloaded test and survey results do not include statistical information.
Formatting Options
When you download information, you can select the delimiter type for the downloaded results for the test or
survey. Comma-delimited files (CSV) have data items separated by commas. Tab-delimited files (TXT) have data
items separated by tabs.
Note: If you pasted test or survey information from an HTML or Word document when creating
your questions and answers, you may see HTML code in your spreadsheet.
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Question Settings
On the Question Settings page, you can adjust question settings for a test, survey, or pool. Question settings
include:
• Enabling feedback for individual answers.
• Adding images, files, or web links to individual feedback.
• Adding images, files, or web links to answers.
• Determining default point values for questions in tests.
• Specifying whether or not to offer partial, negative, and extra credit.
• Adding metadata to questions.
• Determining display options such as numbering and ordering of answers.
How to Change Question Settings
In this example, a test is accessed. Use the same steps to access surveys and pools.
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1. On the Control Panel, expand the Course Tools section and click Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the Tests, Surveys, and Pools page, click Tests.
3. On the Tests page, access the test's contextual menu and click Edit.
4. On the Test Canvas, click Question Settings on the action bar.
5. On the Test Question Settings page, make your changes to the following options.
Option
Description
Provide feedback for
individual answers
Allow response feedback boxes for individual answers rather than just one
set of feedback boxes for correct or incorrect answers. You cannot provide
individual feedback for answers to True/False, Ordering, and Matching
questions.
Add images, files, and
web links to
individual feedback
Allow adding images, files, and web links to individual feedback you provide.
Add images, files, and
web links to answers
Allow adding images, files, and web links to answers you provide.
Add categories,
topics, levels of
difficulty, keywords
and instructor notes
to questions
Allow adding categories, topics, levels of difficulty, and keywords metadata to
questions. When searching for questions from a pool or other tests and
surveys, you may search for questions by these criteria. To learn more, see
Question Metadata.
Specify default points
when creating
questions
You can automatically assign all questions in a test the same default point
value. To be effective, you must set the default point value before creating
questions. If you change the default point value, only new questions will have
the new value. Questions you created before the modification have the old
point value.
Note: You cannot specify a default point value for questions in
pools or surveys.
Specify partial credit
options for answers
Make partial credit available for questions included in a test. If selected, an
option to give partial credit appears when you create or edit questions.
Note: The partial credit option does not appear for pools or
surveys.
Specify negative
points options for
answers
Make negative points available for questions included in a test. The partial
credit option must be enabled before the negative points option will appear.
Negative points—used to penalize wrong answers or guesses—are typed as a
negative percentage value in the partial credit box for each incorrect answer.
If selected, an option to allow for negative scoring for answers appears when
you create or edit questions.
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Option
Description
Note: The negative points option does not appear for pools or
surveys.
Provide option to
assign questions as
extra credit
Make extra credit available for questions included in the test. If selected,
extra credit is assigned for each question individually after you create it.
Note: The extra credit option does not appear for pools or
surveys.
Specify random
ordering of answers
Allow answers to appear in a random order. If selected, the option appears
when you create or edit each question.
Specify the horizontal
or vertical display of
answers
Select whether answers appear vertically or horizontally. If selected, the
option appears when you create or edit each question.
Specify numbering
options for answers
Determine the answer numbering such as 1 2, 3 or A, B, C. If selected, the
option appears when you create or edit each question.
Tip: When the answer is a number, test takers can confuse
numbers that denote the order of the answers as part of answer
itself. To avoid confusion, use letters to denote the order of
answers.
6. Click Submit.
Scoring Options
On the Question Settings page, you can enable partial credit, negative points, or extra credit for questions. When
you select these scoring options, they appear when you create questions. If you do not select the options for these
question settings, they do not appear as choices when you create questions.
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When you add partial credit, negative points, or extra credit questions to your test, mention how scoring will work
in the test or question instructions to inform students how your tests are scored.
How to Assign Partial Credit
When you enable partial credit, a portion of the total points for a question is awarded when an answer is not
entirely correct. You can enable partial credit during question creation or when editing a question.
Partial credit is available for the following question types:
• Calculated Formula
• Fill in Multiple Blanks
• Jumbled Sentence
• Matching
• Multiple Answer
• Multiple Choice
• Opinion Scale/Likert Question
• Ordering
• Quiz Bowl
For example, you include the following Multiple Choice question with four answers: "What is on a beach?" If the
correct answer, "sand," is awarded 5 points, but another choice is "the ocean," you can set partial credit to 40%,
awarding 2 points for that answer. If partial credit is enabled but negative points is not, valid percentage values for
a question are 0.0 to 100.0.
Note: The partial credit option does not appear for pools or surveys.
Use the following steps to enable the partial credit option and use it for individual questions:
1. On the Test Canvas, click Question Settings on the action bar.
2. On the Test Question Settings page, select Specify partial credit options for answers.
3. Click Submit.
4. For each appropriate question, select the check box for Allow Partial Credit.
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5. For each incorrect answer, type a value in the Partial Credit % box. This number is read as a percent.
For example, typing 50 will give the student 50% of the question’s possible points for selecting that
answer. Zero is an acceptable value.
6. Click Submit.
After students submit attempts, you may not disable the partial credit option on the Test Question Settings
page. To remove the partial credit option from an individual question in a test with attempts, clear the question's
check box for Allow Partial Credit. Click Submit and Update Attempts and then OK. All test attempt scores are
recalculated.
Tip: If you make partial credit available, mention this in the test instructions to encourage a greater
degree of test participation.
How to Use Negative Points
You can penalize students' incorrect answers with negative points. Use this feature for multiple choice tests to
discourage guessing. You can enable the negative points option during question creation or when editing a
question.
Negative points for incorrect answers are available for the following question types:
• Matching
• Multiple answer
• Multiple choice
For example, if a Multiple Choice question awards 5 points for a correct answer and 0 points for skipping it, you
can set -20% (or -1 point) for each of the incorrect answers. Valid negative point percentage values for a question
are -100.0 to -0.0.
Note: The negative points option does not appear for pools or surveys.
Use the following steps to enable the negative points option and use it for individual questions:
1. On the Test Canvas, click Question Settings on the action bar.
2. On the Test Question Settings page, select Specify negative points options for answers.
Note: The negative points option appears only if you enabled the Specify partial credit
options for answers option.
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3. Click Submit.
4. For each appropriate question, select the check boxes for Allow Partial Credit and Allow Negative
Scores for Incorrect Answers.
5. For each incorrect answer, type a negative percentage in the Partial Credit % box. For example, typing
-50 will subtract 50% of the question’s possible points from a student’s total grade for selecting that
answer. Zero is an acceptable value.
6. Click Submit.
After students submit attempts, you may not disable the negative points option on the Test Question Settings
page. To remove the negative points option from an individual question in a test with attempts, clear the
question's check box for Allow Partial Credit, which also disables negative scoring. Click Submit and Update
Attempts and then OK. All test attempt scores are recalculated.
Tip: If you are using negative points as a guessing deterrent, mention this in the test instructions.
How to Award Extra Credit
When you enable extra credit and apply it to an individual question, a correct answer results in adding the points
listed in the question's Points box to the points earned for the test. An incorrect answer does not result in a point
deduction. Questions designated as extra credit are removed from the total points calculation for the purpose of
grading. If a student answers all questions correctly on a test with an extra credit question, he or she is awarded a
score greater than 100% on the test. You enable extra credit after you create questions.
Note: The extra credit option does not appear for pools or surveys.
1. On the Test Question Settings page, select Provide option to assign questions as extra credit.
2. Click Submit.
3. For each appropriate question, click the Points box.
4. In the pop-up box, select the check box for Extra Credit.
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5. Click Submit.
To remove extra credit for an individual question, click the Points box. In the pop-up box, clear the Extra Credit
check box. You may disable extra credit for the entire test on the Test Question Settings page.
Tip: If you make extra credit available, mention it in the question or in the test instructions.
Negative Points
(Flash movie | 4m 13s)
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Question Metadata
You can create metadata values for questions to help organize them for future use. You can use the metadata
values you create for one question when you create other questions in the same course. On the Find Questions
page, use these metadata values to help search for questions to reuse. To learn more, see Reuse Questions.
You can add the following metadata values to questions:
• Categories
• Topics
• Levels of Difficulty
• Keywords
The question metadata options are only available if Add categories, topics, levels of difficulty, and keywords
to questions selected in Question Settings.
Example: Question Using Metadata
You create the following True/False question: The capital of Slovenia is Ljubljana.
You apply the following metadata to the question:
• Category: Geography
• Topic: Former Yugoslavia
• Levels of Difficulty: Low
• Keywords: World Capitals
This question appears in the active filter on the Find Questions page when you select Geography, Former
Yugoslavia, or Low.
How to Add Metadata to a Question
1. On the test, survey, or pool canvas, point to Create Question and create a new question -OR- click Edit
in an existing question's contextual menu.
2. The Categories and Keywords section appears in different places depending on the type of question,
but always just before Instructor Notes. To add a category, topic, level of difficulty, or keyword, click
Add.
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Note: If the Categories and Keywords section does not appear on the Create/Edit pages for
a question, this usually means you did not select the check box for Add categories, topics,
levels of difficulty, and keywords to questions in Question Settings for the assessment.
3. Type a new category, topic, level of difficulty, or keyword in the box and click OK. You can also type
multiple items, separating each with a comma.
4. Click Choose from Existing to select an existing category, topic, level of difficulty, or keyword. If no
choices exist, this option does not appear.
5. Click Submit.
How to Manage Question Metadata
1. Access a question's contextual menu and click Edit.
2. To delete a category, topic, level of difficulty, or keyword, click the X next to the metadata element.
-OR-
3. Click Add and type a new category, topic, level of difficulty, or keyword in the box and click OK.
4. Click Submit.
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Question Types
In this section...
• Calculated Formula Questions
• Calculated Numeric Questions
• Either/Or Questions
• Essay Questions
• File Response Questions
• Fill in Multiple Blanks Questions
• Fill in the Blank Questions
• Hot Spot Questions
• Jumbled Sentence Questions
• Matching Questions
• Multiple Answer Questions
• Multiple Choice Questions
• Opinion Scale and Likert Questions
• Ordering Questions
• Quiz Bowl Questions
• Short Answer Questions
• True or False Questions
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Calculated Formula Questions
Calculated Formula questions present students with a question that requires them to make a calculation and
respond with a numeric answer. The numbers in the question change with each user and are pulled from a range
that you set. The correct answer is a specific value or a range of values. You may grant partial credit for answers
falling within a range. Calculated Formula questions are graded automatically.
In this example, the numbers 6 and 9 are randomly generated from a range of values set by an instructor.
An instructor created this question by typing the following question text:
If a small glass can hold [x] ounces of water, and a large glass can hold [y] ounces of water, what is the total
number of ounces in 4 large and 3 small glasses of water?
When a student views the question, the variables [x] and [y] are replaced with values that are generated randomly
from number ranges that an instructor specifies.
Before You Begin
The process for adding a calculated question to an assessment has three steps:
• Create the question and formula
• Define the values for the variables
• Confirm the variables and answers
How to Create the Question and Formula
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and select Calculated Formula.
3. The Question Text must contain at least one variable. Surround variables with square brackets.
Variables are replaced by values when shown to students.
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Variables can be letters, digits (0-9), periods (.), underscores (_) and hyphens (-). Variables cannot contain the
letters "e," "i" and "pi" because they are reserved. You cannot reuse variable names. Variables can contain
more than one character, such as [ab] or [cd]. All other occurrences of the opening rectangular bracket ("[")
should be preceded by the backslash ("\").
4. The Answer Formula is the mathematical expression used to find the correct answer. Choose
operators from the buttons across the top of the Answer Formula box. In the example, the formula is
4y+3x.
The formula is not visible to students—it is used by the system to determine the correct answer to the
question.
The answer formula tool is written by WIRIS. To learn more, see the WIRIS manual [PDF].
5. In the Options area, leave the Answer Range at zero if the answer must be exact. Alternatively, set a
range for correct answers. You can also Allow Partial Credit and select Units Required.
To learn more, see How to Set Answer Options.
6. Click Next to proceed.
How to Define the Variables
Use the next page in the process to define the question's variables and select options for the automatically
generated set of answers.
1. In the Define Variables section, provide the Minimum Value and Maximum Value for each variable.
When the question is presented to a student, Blackboard Learn replaces the variable with a value that
is randomly selected from the range you defined. You can use scientific notation in the value boxes.
Select the number of Decimal Places for each variable's value.
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Note: The number of decimal places you select can affect the minimum and maximum
values of a variable. For example, you set the minimum value as 0.0000004 and the
maximum value as 1, and you choose 2 decimal places. The system rounds both numbers to
2 decimal places, therefore the system generates variables in the answer sets with values
between 0.00 and 1.00.
2. In the Answer Set Options section, use the Calculate Answers To drop-down list to select the number
of Decimals or Significant Figures for the generated correct answers. Type the number of Answer
Sets, which is the number of possible variations of the question. Select whether the Correct Answer
Format is normal or exponential.
3. Click Next to view the answer sets generated by the system.
How to Edit the Answer Sets
The last page in the process displays the answer sets that were generated by the system. Each set represents one
of the possible variations of the question that can be presented to students.
1. You can change the values of the variables in each answer set by typing in the boxes. Click Calculate to
update the calculated answers and save your changes before submitting.
2. Click Remove in an answer set's row to delete it and have the system automatically replace it with
another set. If you want to reduce the number of sets, click Go Back and change the number of answer
sets under Answer Set Options.
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3. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers and add metadata. To learn more,
see Question Metadata. You must enable the options for feedback and metadata on the Question
Settings page for those options to appear in individual questions.
4. Click Submit -OR- Submit and Create Another to add the question to the test.
How to Set Answer Options
On the first page of question creation, you can select Allow Partial Credit or Units Required. After you select the
check box, more options appear.
In the preceding example:
• An answer that is within plus or minus 4 is awarded 100% of the point total.
• An answer that is within the partial credit range of plus or minus 5 to 8 is awarded 50% of the point total.
The available options are:
• Answer Range: The range of answers that are awarded full credit. Select whether it is a Numeric range or
a Percentage range. If the answer must be exact, type zero for the range.
• Allow Partial Credit: Allow partial credit on a less accurate range of answers. Set the Partial Credit Points
Percentage to be awarded if the student’s answer is within the partial credit range.
• Units Required: The unit of measurement must be provided in the student’s answer. Type the Answer
Units and Units Points Percentage to be awarded if the units are entered correctly.
Examples
The following examples use variables in equations. You can see how the instructor crafted the question text and
the resulting student view of the question.
Example 1
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Example 2
video
Creating a Calculated Formula Question (Flash video | 3m 19s)
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Calculated Numeric Questions
With Calculated Numeric questions, students are presented with a question that requires a numeric answer. The
question does not need to be a mathematical formula. You can provide a text question that requires a numeric
answer. It resembles a Fill in the Blank question in which the correct answer is a number.
You can specify an exact numeric answer, or you can specify an answer and an allowable range.
Calculated Numeric questions are graded automatically.
Note: Calculated numeric answers must be numeric, not alphanumeric (for example, 42, not fortytwo).
How to Create a Calculated Numeric Response Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Calculated Numeric.
3. Type the Question Text and the Correct Answer. This value must be a number.
4. Type the Answer Range. If the answer must be exact for students to receive credit, type 0. Any value
that is less than or more than the Correct Answer by less than the Answer Range value will be marked
as correct.
5. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers.
6. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Example
If the average human body temperature under normal conditions ranges between 36.5 and 37.5 degrees Celsius,
what is the average human body temperature in degrees Fahrenheit?
Creating a Calculated Numeric Question (Flash video | 2m 30s)
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Either/Or Questions
In Either/Or questions, students are presented with a statement and asked to respond using a selection of
predefined two-choice answers, such as:
• Yes/No
• Agree/Disagree
• Right/Wrong
• True/False
This question type is useful in surveys to gauge users' opinions. It is a slight variation on the true/false question
type, with more options for answer choices.
How to Create an Either/Or Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Either/Or.
3. Type the Question Text and select a pair of Answer Choices from the drop-down list.
4. Select the Correct Answer.
5. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers.
6. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Example
Hamlet's famous monologue, "To be or not to be...," is a meditation on suicide.
Agree/Disagree
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Essay Questions
Essay questions require students to type an answer in a text box. You can type directly in the text box or paste a
question from another application, such as a simple text editor like Notepad or TextEdit.
You grade Essay questions manually.
Note: When creating Essay questions, you can use the math and equation editor. To learn more,
see Using the Math Editor.
How to Create an Essay Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Essay.
3. On the Create/Edit Essay Question page, type the Question Text.
4. Optionally, type a sample Answer.
5. Optionally, associate a rubric by clicking Add Rubric. To learn more, see Rubrics.
6. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Alternatives to Essay Questions
Other question types that allow student input include:
• File Response questions
• Fill in the Blank questions
• Fill in Multiple Blanks questions
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• Short Answer questions allow you to limit the length of the response. Like Essay questions, Short Answer
questions are manually graded.
Creating an Essay Question (Flash video | 2m)
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File Response Questions
File Response questions require students to upload a file from their computers or from the Content Collection as
the answer to the question. You grade these questions manually. Students can work on something before a test
and submit it with the test, particularly if it requires a large amount of text.
Submitting the answer this way also allows you to download, review, and assess the submission later without an
active internet connection, although you will still need to access the Grade Center to assign a grade.
Note: You cannot add File Response questions to surveys.
How to Create a File Response Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click File Response.
3. Type the Question Text and feedback for correct and incorrect answers.
4. Optionally, associate a rubric by clicking Add Rubric. To learn more, see Rubrics.
5. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Example
Create a diagram of a simple relational database. Upload this file in JPG/JPEG format.
Alternatives to File Response Questions
You can also use Essay questions for questions. Short Answer questions allow you to limit the size of the answer
box for the response.
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Other question types that allow student input are:
• Fill in the Blank questions
• Fill in Multiple Blanks questions
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Fill in Multiple Blanks Questions
In Fill in Multiple Blanks questions, students are presented with text containing up to 10 blanks. Each blank can
have a maximum of 100 answers. Students complete the sentence by typing the appropriate word or phrase for
each blank. For questions with a single blank, use Fill in the Blank Questions.
Fill in Multiple Blanks questions are graded automatically. Answers are scored based on whether the student
answer matches the correct answers you provide. You can require student answers to match exactly, contain part
of the correct answer, or match a pattern that you specify. You choose whether or not the answer is case sensitive.
To create a Fill in the Multiple Blanks question, type the question text as the students see it, but replace the
missing information with variables in square brackets. For example, " The oceanic crust is made of [a] and [b] and
is [c] [d] thick.” Variables can consist of letters, digits (0-9), periods ( . ), underscores ( _ ) and hyphens ( - ). Variable
names must be unique and cannot be reused.
Note: In restored courses, case sensitivity is turned off for all existing Fill in Multiple Blanks
questions. Edit those questions and select Case Sensitive, if needed.
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How to Create a Fill in Multiple Blanks Question
Fill in Multiple Blanks questions have two parts: the question and the set of answers. Phrase the question so that it
is apparent where the answer goes. Variables must be unique and placed within square brackets [ ]. Separate sets
of answers are defined for each variable. Bracketed variables appear as text boxes to students.
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Fill in Multiple Blanks.
3. On the Create/Edit Fill in Multiple Blanks Question page, type the question, adding the variables in
square brackets.
4. Select Allow Partial Credit if you want to allot each correct answer a fraction of the total point value.
5. Click Next.
6. On the next Create/Edit page, select the number of answers from the drop-down list for each variable.
A single variable can have more than one possible answer.
7. Type answers in the Answer boxes.
8. Select Exact Match, Contains, or Pattern Match from each answer’s drop-down list to specify how it
will be evaluated against the student’s answer.
9. Select the Case Sensitive check box if you want the answer to take capitalization into account.
10. Click Next.
11. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers, and add question metadata. To learn
more, see Question Metadata.
12. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
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Note how the answers are constructed for the example question. For variable C, the evaluation method is "Exact
Match," since it is a number pulled directly from the textbook. Variable D has two answers, to allow both “km” and
“kilometer.” The evaluation method for both is "Contains" to allow for minor spelling variations, such as plural or
not plural.
Partial Credit
Select the Allow Partial Credit check box to award a percentage of the total points when students provide correct
answers for some of the blanks. The amount of partial credit is assigned automatically, depending on the
question’s possible points and the number of answers. This option only appears if you selected it on the Question
Settings page. To learn more, see Question Settings.
Answer Sets for Each Variable
Keep the answers simple and limited to as few words as possible. Limit answers to one word to avoid extra spaces
between words or the order of the words causing a student answer to be scored as incorrect.
• Select Contains from the drop-down list in the answer to allow for abbreviations or partial answers. This
option counts a student's answer as correct if it includes the word or words you specify. For example, set
up a single answer that contains Franklin so that Benjamin Franklin, Franklin, B Franklin, B. Franklin, and
Ben Franklin are all counted as correct answers. This eliminates the need for you to list all acceptable
possibilities for the answer Benjamin Franklin.
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• Provide additional answers that allow for common spelling errors or select Pattern Match from the dropdown list in the answer to create a regular expression that allows for spelling variations.
Pattern Match
Pattern Match is an advanced technique that enables you to use regular expressions when specifying correct
answers to allow for some variability in the answers that will be counted as correct. They enable you to count
certain patterns as correct, rather than an exact text match. For example, regular expressions enable grading of
the wide range of possible answers that are typical of scientific data.
In a regular expression, most characters in the string match only themselves and are called literals. Some
characters have special meaning and are called metacharacters. You can conduct an internet search on regular
expressions for a complete list. Here are a few examples:
• A dot (.) matches any single character except newline characters.
• Brackets [ ] match anything inside the square brackets for one character.
• A dash (-) inside square brackets allows you to define a range. For example, [0123456789] could be
rewritten as [0-9].
• A question mark (?) makes the preceding item in the regular expression optional. For example,
Dec(ember)? will match Dec and December.
Simple string examples:
• b.t - matches with bat, bet, but, bit, b9t because any character can take the place of the dot (.).
• b[aeui]t matches bat, bet, but, bit.
• b[a-z]t would accept any three-letter combination that begins with b and ends with t. A number would
not be accepted as the second character.
• [A-Z] matches any uppercase letter.
• [12] matches the target character to 1 or 2.
• [0-9] matches the target character to any number in the range 0 to 9.
When you select Pattern Match for an answer, you can click Check Pattern to open a new window where you
test your pattern to be sure it will produce the results you want. After testing and editing the pattern, click Save &
Exit to save your modified pattern as the answer.
Type feedback for students when they give a correct or an incorrect answer. Feedback is optional. When partial
credit is awarded, students receive the feedback message for correct answers.
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Fill in the Blank Questions
Fill in the Blank questions consist of a phrase, sentence, or paragraph with a blank space indicating where the
student should provide the missing word or words. Use Fill in Multiple Blanks Questions to create a question
with multiple answers.
Answers are scored based on whether the student answer matches the correct answers you provide. You can
require student answers to match exactly, contain part of the correct answer, or match a pattern that you specify.
You choose whether or not the answer is case sensitive.
The maximum number of answers is 100.
Note: In restored courses, case sensitivity is turned off for all existing Fill in the Blank questions.
Edit those questions and select Case Sensitive, if needed.
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How to Create a Fill in the Blank Question
Fill in the Blank questions have two parts: the question and the set of answers. Phrase the question so that it is
apparent where the answer goes in the context of the question, and so that there is only one answer. A text box
appears following the question for students to type their answers.
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Fill in the Blank.
3. Type the Question Text.
4. To add more than one answer, select from the Number of Answers drop-down list. To delete an
answer, click Remove.
5. Type each answer and select Contains, Exact Match, or Pattern Match to specify how the answer is
evaluated against a student's answer. For Contains and Exact Match, select the check box if the answer is
Case Sensitive.
6. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers, and add question metadata. To learn
more, see Question Metadata.
7. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
About Creating Answers
Keep the answers simple and limited to as few words as possible. Limit answers to one word to avoid extra spaces
between words or the order of the words causing a student answer to be scored as incorrect.
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• Select Contains from the drop-down list in the answer to allow for abbreviations or partial answers. This
option counts a student's answer as correct if it includes the word or words that you specify, matching
both capitalization and punctuation. For example, set up a single answer that contains Franklin so that
answers such as "Benjamin Franklin", "Franklin", "B Franklin", "B. Franklin", and "Ben Franklin" are
counted as correct, but a single answer such as "franklin", "Benjamin", and "B. franklin" would be counted
as incorrect. This eliminates the need for you to list all acceptable possibilities for the answer "Benjamin
Franklin."
• Provide additional answers that allow for common spelling errors or select Pattern Match from the dropdown list in the answer to create a regular expression that allows for spelling, spacing, or capitalization
variations.
Pattern Match
Pattern Match is an advanced technique that enables you to use regular expressions when specifying correct
answers to allow for some variability in the answers that will be counted as correct. They enable you to count
certain patterns as correct, rather than an exact text match. For example, regular expressions enable grading of
the wide range of possible answers that are typical of scientific data.
In a regular expression, most characters in the string match only themselves and are called literals. Some
characters have special meaning and are called metacharacters. You can conduct an internet search on regular
expressions for a complete list. Here are a few examples:
• A dot (.) matches any single character except newline characters.
• Brackets [ ] match anything inside the square brackets for one character.
• A dash (-) inside square brackets allows you to define a range. For example, [0123456789] could be
rewritten as [0-9].
• A question mark (?) makes the preceding item in the regular expression optional. For example,
Dec(ember)? will match Dec and December.
Simple string examples:
• b.t - matches with bat, bet, but, bit, b9t because any character can take the place of the dot (.).
• b[aeui]t matches bat, bet, but, bit.
• b[a-z]t would accept any three-letter combination that begins with b and ends with t. A number would
not be accepted as the second character.
• [A-Z] matches any uppercase letter.
• [12] matches the target character to 1 or 2.
• [0-9] matches the target character to any number in the range 0 to 9.
When you select Pattern Match for an answer, you can click Check Pattern to open a new window where you
test your pattern to be sure it will produce the results you want. After testing and editing the pattern, click Save &
Exit to save your modified pattern as the answer.
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Type feedback for students when they give a correct or an incorrect answer. Feedback is optional. When partial
credit is awarded, students receive the feedback message for correct answers.
Example
_____ is the silicate mineral with the lowest melting temperature and the greatest resistance to weathering,
and as a result, it makes up the great bulk of sand-sized particles.
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Hot Spot Questions
With Hot Spot questions, students are presented with an image and are asked to select a particular area.
Examples of Hot Spot questions include:
• Anatomy: Locate different parts of the body.
• Geography: Locate areas on a map.
• Foreign Language: Select different articles of clothing.
Hot Spot questions are graded automatically.
Have the image file ready before you create the question. You can upload the image file from your computer or
link to it from Course Files or the Content Collection. Images must be GIF, JIF, JPG, JPEG, PNG, TIFF, and WMF files.
Although no limitations exist, take into consideration the size of the image and make adjustments using an image
editing application before uploading the file.
How to Create a Hot Spot Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. Point to Create Question and click Hot Spot.
3. On the Create/Edit Hot Spot Question page, type the question.
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4. In the Upload Image section, locate the image file. Click Browse My Computer to upload a file from
your computer. You can also upload a file from the course's storage repository:
◦ If Course Files is the course's storage repository, click Browse Course.
-OR-
◦ If your institution licenses content management, click Browse Content Collection.
5. Click Next.
6. On the next Create/Edit page, the image appears. Press and drag the mouse pointer to create a
rectangle over the correct answer. When students select a point within the rectangle, they receive
credit for a correct answer. The area of the hot spot is defined by pixels. If needed, click Clear to
remove the rectangle and start again.
7. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers, and question metadata. To learn more,
see Question Metadata.
8. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Creating a Hot Spot Question (Flash video | 3m 29s)
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Jumbled Sentence Questions
Jumbled Sentence questions require students to complete a sentence by selecting words or phrases from a dropdown list. The same drop-down list appears for all blanks and can include both correct answers and distractors.
Up to 100 different words or phrases can appear on the list.
Jumbled Sentence questions are graded automatically.
Type the question text as students see it, but replace the missing information with variables in square brackets.
For example, “Single water molecules are held together by [a] bonds and multiple water molecules are held
together by [b] bonds. The kind of bond where atoms are sharing electrons, but are not sharing them equally is
[c].” Variables can consist of letters, digits (0-9), periods ( . ), underscores ( _ ) and hyphens ( - ). Variable names
must be unique, and you cannot reuse them.
How to Create a Jumbled Sentence Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Jumbled Sentence.
3. On the Create/Edit Jumbled Sentence Question page, type the question, adding the variables in
square brackets.
4. Select Allow Partial Credit if you want to allot each correct answer a fraction of the total point value.
5. Select the Number of Answers from the drop-down list. Click Remove to delete extra answers.
6. Type answers in the Answer boxes. The list can include only correct answers or both correct answers
and distracters. On the next page, you select the correct answer for each variable.
7. Click Next.
8. On the next Create/Edit page, use the drop-down list to select the correct answer for each variable.
9. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers, and question metadata. To learn more,
see Question Metadata.
10. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
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Partial Credit
You can specify partial credit for Jumbled Sentence questions. Partial credit gives a percentage of the question’s
possible points for a partially correct answer. To learn more, see How to Assign Partial Credit.
Note: You must enable the options to specify partial credit on the Question Settings page to use
them for individual questions.
Creating a Jumbled Question (Flash video | 3m 52s)
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Matching Questions
Matching questions allow students to pair items in one column to items in another column. You may include a
different numbers of questions and answers in a matching question. For example, the question may include a list
of animals and a list of food they eat (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore). Students would match each animal with
their diet.
Students are granted partial credit for matching questions if they answer part of the question correctly. For
example, if the question is worth eight points and a student gives the correct answers for half of the matches, they
will receive four points.
How to Create a Matching Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Matching.
3. Type the Question Text.
4. Select the Options, such as how answers are numbered or whether to allow partial credit.
5. Select the Number of Questions from the drop-down list. The default number of question items is 4
and the maximum is 100. If you want less than 4 question items, you can click Remove.
6. Type question-answer sets in the Question/Answer Pair boxes.
7. Optionally, you can select Add unmatched answer choices and specify a number to increase the
question’s difficulty.
8. For Answer Order, drag answers to the positions you want them to appear.
9. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers, and question metadata. To learn more,
see Question Metadata.
10. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
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Specify Partial or Negative Credit
You can specify partial or negative credit for Matching questions. Partial credit rewards students whose answer
demonstrates incomplete mastery of the material. Use negative credit to discourage guessing.
Note: You must enable the options to specify partial or negative credit on the Question
Settings page to use them for individual questions. The option to allow negative scores will not
appear unless you selected the option to allow partial credit.
To learn more, see How to Assign Partial Credit and How to Use Negative Points.
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Multiple Answer Questions
Multiple answer questions allow students to choose more than one answer. Use this type of question when more
than one answer is correct. For example, in the medical field, use this type of question to select symptoms
associated with a medical condition.
How to Create a Multiple Answer Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Multiple Answer.
3. Type the Question Text.
4. The default number of answers is 4. If you want to increase this, select the Number of Answers from
the drop-down list. To reduce the number of answers, click Remove next to the answer boxes to
delete them. A multiple answer question cannot have fewer than 2 answers or more than 100.
5. Complete the Answer box for each answer.
6. Select the correct answers by clicking the Correct check box for each answer.
7. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers.
8. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Example
Which of the following are viable methods for traveling from London to Paris?
1. air
2. ferry
3. walk
4. rail
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Specify Partial or Negative Credit
You can specify partial or negative credit for Multiple Answer questions. Partial credit rewards students whose
answer demonstrates incomplete mastery of the material. Use negative credit to discourage guessing.
Note: You must enable the options to specify partial or negative credit on the Question
Settings page to use them for individual questions. The option to allow negative scores will not
appear unless you selected the option to allow partial credit.
To learn more, see How to Assign Partial Credit and How to Use Negative Points.
Creating a Multiple Answer Question
(Flash movie | 3m 35s)
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Multiple Choice Questions
Multiple choice questions allow students several choices with only one correct answer.
Note: Use Multiple Answer Questions to create multiple choice questions with more than one
answer.
How to Create a Multiple Choice Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Multiple Choice.
3. On the Create/Edit Multiple Choice Question page, type the question.
4. The default number of choices is 4. If you want to increase this, select the Number of Answers from
the drop-down list. To reduce the number of answers, click Remove next to the answer boxes to
delete them. A multiple choice question cannot have fewer than 2 answers or more than 100 answers.
5. Type an Answer in each box.
6. Select the Correct answer by clicking the appropriate option. Only one correct answer is selected.
7. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers. If you allowed partial credit, answers that
are partially correct will receive the feedback for an incorrect answer.
8. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Specify Partial or Negative Credit
You can specify partial or negative credit for Multiple Choice questions. Partial credit rewards students whose
answer demonstrates incomplete mastery of the material. Use negative credit to discourage guessing.
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Note: You must enable the options to specify partial or negative credit on the Question
Settings page to use them for individual questions. The option to allow negative scores will not
appear unless you selected the option to allow partial credit.
To learn more, see How to Assign Partial Credit and How to Use Negative Points.
Creating a Multiple Choice Question
(Flash movie | 2m 54s)
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Opinion Scale and Likert Questions
Opinion Scale/Likert questions are designed to measure students’ attitudes or reactions using a comparable scale.
By default, five answer choices appear, ranging from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree, and a sixth option
that allows students to select Not Applicable. You can change the text of the answer choices and adjust the
number of answers from 2 to 100.
Opinion Scale/Likert questions are graded automatically.
Opinion Scale/Likert questions are ideal for surveys. If you include the questions in a test, you must select a
correct answer. If you require just an opinion, change the point value to zero so the question does not affect the
test total.
How to Create an Opinion Scale/Likert Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Opinion Scale/Likert.
3. On the Create/Edit Opinion Scale/Likert Question page, type a question or statement.
4. Select Answer Numbering and Answer Orientation from the drop-down lists or leave the defaults.
5. Select the Number of Answers from the drop-down list or leave the default of six. Click Remove to
delete an answer box.
6. To change the default answers, or to add answers if you have increased the number of possible
answers, type an answer in each box.
7. If you are creating this question in a test, select the correct answer.
8. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers, and question metadata. To learn more,
see Question Metadata.
9. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
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Partial Credit
You can specify partial credit for Opinion Scale/Likert questions. Partial credit gives a percentage of the question’s
possible points for a partially correct answer. To learn more, see How to Assign Partial Credit.
Note: You must enable the options to specify partial credit on the Question Settings page to use
them for individual questions.
Creating a Likert Question (Flash video | 3m 18s)
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Ordering Questions
Ordering questions require students to provide an answer by selecting the correct order of a series of items. For
example, you can give students a list of historical events and ask them to place these events in chronological
order.
Students are granted partial credit for ordering questions if they answer part of the question correctly. For
example, if the question is worth eight points and the student gives the correct order for half of the items, they will
receive four points.
How to Create an Ordering Question
When you create an Ordering question, you add the answers in the correct order and later set the order that they
display to students.
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Ordering.
3. Type the Question Text.
4. The default number of answers is 4. If you want to increase this, select the Number of Answers from
the drop-down list. To reduce the number of answers, click Remove to the right of one or more
answer boxes to delete them. An ordering question cannot have fewer than 2 answers or more than
100.
5. Type an Answer in each box.
6. Click Next.
7. Press and drag the answers in the Display Order column to determine how they appear.
8. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers.
9. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
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Example
Order the four oceans in size, with the largest first.
Pacific
Indian
Atlantic
Arctic
Partial Credit
You can specify partial credit for Ordering questions. Partial credit gives a percentage of the question’s possible
points for a partially correct answer. To learn more, see How to Assign Partial Credit.
Note: You must enable the options to specify partial credit on the Question Settings page to use
them for individual questions.
Creating an Ordering Question (Flash video | 3m 12s)
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Quiz Bowl Questions
With Quiz Bowl questions, students are presented with an answer and they must provide the question. Student
responses must be in the form of a question that begins with an interrogative, such as who, what, or where. For
example, the statement, "It is the only country that is a continent," requires the answer, "What is Australia?"
Tip: Add instructions to the initial statement asking students to respond in the form of a question.
Remind students to use a question mark. Incorrect end punctuation results in no credit for the
response.
Quiz Bowl questions are graded automatically.
When you create a Quiz Bowl question, you provide:
• The statement to which students must answer with an appropriate question.
• All possible interrogatives the question could begin with—who, what, where, and so on.
• All possible correct answer phrases, including variations in spellings, plurals, and common abbreviations.
By default, when the system scores the question, a correct response contains any one of the interrogatives you
added, immediately followed by any one of the phrases you added, including end punctuation.
How to Create a Quiz Bowl Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Quiz Bowl.
3. On the Create/Edit Quiz Bowl Question page, type a statement that students can provide the question
to.
4. Select the Number of Interrogatives from the drop-down list. You can add up to 103 interrogatives.
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5. If necessary, type or edit the interrogatives. Remove interrogatives using the Remove function.
6. Type the answer phrase. Optionally, select the number of answer phrases if more than one is needed.
The maximum number of answer phrases is 100.
7. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers, and question metadata. To learn more,
see Question Metadata.
8. Click Submit.
Partial Credit
You can specify partial credit for Quiz Bowl questions. Partial credit gives a percentage of the question’s possible
points for a partially correct answer. To learn more, see How to Assign Partial Credit.
Note: You must enable the options to specify partial credit on the Question Settings page to use
them for individual questions.
Creating a Quiz Bowl Question (Flash video | 3m 30s)
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Short Answer Questions
Short Answer questions are similar to Essay questions. Student responses are not limited in length, but the
number of rows you set for the text box size can let students know your expectations. The maximum number of
rows is six.
Both Essay questions and Short Answer questions are graded manually.
How to Create a Short Answer Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click Short Answer.
3. Type the Question Text.
4. Determine the Number of Rows to Display in the Answer Field by selecting a number from the dropdown list. The number of rows is intended as a guideline for student response length. It does not
impose an absolute limit on answer length.
5. Type an example of a correct answer in the Answer Text box.
6. Optionally, associate a rubric by clicking Add Rubric. To learn more, see Rubrics.
7. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Example
Explain briefly what CCD (carbonate compensation depth) is, and how it governs the distribution of calcium
carbonate on the sea floor.
Creating a Short Answer Question (Flash video | 2m 57s)
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True or False Questions
True/False questions allow students to choose either true or false in response to a statement question. True and
false answer options are limited to the words True and False.
How to Create a True/False Question
1. Access a test, survey, or pool. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the action bar, point to Create Question and click True/False.
3. On the Create/Edit True/False Question page, type the question in the form of a statement that
students can answer with true or false.
4. Select the correct answer: True or False.
5. Optionally, type feedback for correct and incorrect answers.
6. Click Submit and Create Another -OR- Submit to add the question to the test.
Creating a True or False Question (Flash video | 2m 25s)
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Reuse Questions
You can reuse questions from all existing tests, surveys, and pools in your course.
About the Find Question Page
You can use the Find Questions page to filter and select questions when adding individual questions or a random
block to a test. To learn more, see Random Blocks.
The Find Questions page consists of the active filter area that displays all the questions that meet your search
criteria. This is a dynamic list that changes automatically as you select or clear criteria. The Selected Questions
area displays the questions you have already selected, eliminating the need to scroll up and down long lists of
questions.
Important: When reusing a question, questions in tests that are already linked somewhere else will not
appear in searches and will not be selectable.
Finding questions can be made easier by using metadata when creating questions. To learn more, see Question
Metadata.
Copy and Link to Questions
On the Find Questions page, you can choose to Copy a Question from an existing test to a new test -OR-& Link
to the original question in the new test. The difference between linking and copying is that changes to a linked
question show in any test that contains that question. When you copy a question, your changes appear only in the
new copy.
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Copy a Question
Benefits
Disadvantages
When you copy a question, you can
modify the new copy without concern
about impacting other tests.
Changes made to one instance of the
question are not reflected in the other
instances.
If you want changes to show in all
instances of that question, you must
locate and modify each copied instance of
the question individually.
Link to Original
Question
Linking maintains uniformity. Changes to
a linked question in any test are reflected
in all tests where the question is linked.
Changes to a linked question appear in all
tests where that question occurs. You
cannot select which tests are changed.
In a test, linked questions are indicated by
an icon. When you edit a linked test
question, the status message lists other
tests that contain the linked question.
The option to link or copy is only available
When you edit linked questions that
appear in tests with completed or inprogress attempts, you are warned that
your change will affect those attempts
before you proceed.
on the Find Questions page. To remove
the link from question, you need to delete
the linked question from the test and add
it again as a copy. You can add new
questions only to tests that are not
deployed.
How to Find Questions
1. Access a test, survey, or pool canvas and point to Reuse Question and click Find Questions.
2. In the Find Question pop-up window, choose to Copy selected questions or to Link to original
questions.
3. In the Browse Criteria section, expand the criteria sections and select specific criteria. You can search
within pools, tests, question types, categories, topics, levels of difficulty, and keywords. All questions
meeting those criteria are displayed. You can also use the Search current results box to type a phrase,
word, or part of a word to find matching questions.
4. Select the check boxes for the questions you want to add to the assessment. They are added to the
Selected Questions area at the bottom of the screen. You can expand the area to view your list of
questions. You can remove questions by clicking the red X next to the question. This action only
removes it from this collection; it does not delete the question.
5. Click Submit. The questions are added to your test, survey, or pool.
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About the Browse Criteria Section
As you select criteria from the Browse Criteria section, the relevant questions appear in the active filter list. The
selected criteria appear above the active filter list as a reference. The active filter list will be empty if there are no
matching questions. The criteria categories for searching for questions include:
• Pools: These are instructor-created collections of questions, usually related to each other, which you can
include as an entire group in a test, survey, or another larger pool.
• Tests: This includes both tests (which are graded) and surveys (which are not).
• Question types: This allows you to select one or more of the question types, including:
• Categories: Selects among the assigned categories of questions.
• Topics: Selects among the assigned topics of questions.
• Levels of Difficulty: Selects among the levels of difficulty assigned to questions.
• Keywords: Selects by assigned question keywords.
The questions you select through this process appear in the Selected Questions area at the bottom of the page.
Note: The questions you can find may be limited according to your specific access permissions.
Question Finder (Flash video | 4m 36s)
Tagging Questions (Flash video | 3m 8s)
In this section...
• Random Blocks
• Question Sets
• Question Pools
• Upload Questions
• Import or Export Tests, Surveys, and Pools
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Random Blocks
When creating a test, you can use random blocks to be sure that each student receives a different version of the
test. A random block is a set of questions retrieved at random from one or more question pools to be presented
each time the test is taken.
Before You Begin
• Unlike question sets, random blocks draw questions from pools only. You can use more than one pool to
draw your questions from.
• You cannot add a random block of questions from another test or survey.
• You cannot include a random block in a survey or a pool.
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• You can choose to have the number of questions that are displayed be less than the total number of
questions in the random block. For example, 3 questions display out of 50 total—the questions are
randomly distributed so that each student may see different sets of questions.
• You can choose to have the number of questions that are displayed be equal to the total number of
questions in the random block. Then, all students receive the same questions, but in a different random
order for each student.
• You cannot use the search function or browse metadata when making your question selection for
random blocks.
How to Create a Random Block of Questions in a Test
When you add questions to a test using the random block feature, each question is linked, not copied. Therefore,
if you change the original question, the revised version of the question appears.
1. Create or access a test.
2. On the Test Canvas, point to Reuse Question and click Create Random Block to begin searching for
questions.
3. In the Create Random Block pop-up window, select the check boxes for one or more pools.
4. Select the check box for at least one question type to include in the test. All questions that meet the
criteria appear in the right side of the pop-up window.
5. Click Submit. The Test Canvas appears and displays a success message. The random block of
questions is added to the test.
6. Click the Number of Questions to display field to access the pop-up box and type the number of
questions to display to students. Use a number less than the total number of questions to be sure that
different questions are presented each time the test is accessed. Click Submit.
7. Click the Points per question field to access the pop-up box. Type a point value per question. This
point value is assigned to each question in the random block. You cannot assign separate point values
for individual questions in the same random block. Therefore, you may want to only include questions
of approximately the same difficulty.
8. Click Preview questions that match selected criteria to expand or collapse the list of questions. You
can view and edit individual questions.
Important: You cannot delete questions within a random block. If you don’t want a question to be
included in your random block, remove it from the pool it appears in.
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Edit and Delete Random Blocks
From the test with the random block, access the random block's contextual menu to edit or delete it. From the
Test Canvas, you can change the point value for each question in the random block or the number of questions
to be used in the test.
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Question Sets
A question set is a collection of questions retrieved from selected tests and pools.You specify how many questions
to display in the set. The specific questions displayed are randomly chosen each time the test is taken.
For each question set, you can specify:
• The pools and tests that it will draw from.
• The type of questions to draw from.
• The number of questions to draw from.
If the number of questions you choose to display is less than the list of questions—for example, 3 out of 50—then
the questions are randomly distributed so that each user may be viewing a different set of three questions. You
can choose to display the same questions to all users by selecting all the questions listed.
How to Create Question Sets
1. Access a test. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the Test Canvas page, point to Reuse Question and click Create Question Set.
3. In the pop-up window, search for questions in the Browse Criteria panel.
4. Select the questions to include in the test. You can also select the check box in the header row to select
all the currently displayed questions.
5. Review your selected questions.
6. Click Submit.
How to Add or Delete Questions in a Question Set
To add questions to the set:
1. On the Test Canvas page, locate the question set and click Questions in the Set to expand it.
2. To add questions to the set, click Add Questions. In the pop-up window, use the criteria to find and
select the questions to add to the question set. You do not need to reselect the questions already in
the question set. This procedure adds questions to what is already present.
3. Review your selected questions and click Submit.
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To delete questions from the set:
• Select the questions to be removed and click Remove Question. This action does not delete the original
linked source for the question.
Use Question Sets in Tests
In a test, a question set shows the total number of questions in the set, and the currently set number of questions
to display to a student taking the test. The default is one.
You can change the number in the Number of Questions to display box. To be sure students are presented with
a different question set each time, type a number less than the total number of questions.
In the Points per question box, type the points students can earn for each question in the set. For example, if
you set it to 10, and the question set presents 2 out of 5 questions, the question set has a total of 20 points that
students can earn for correct answers. You cannot assign separate point values for individual questions in the
same question set.
Because of the randomized format of question sets, use caution when referring to specific question content or
numbering, as the questions displayed will change with each attempt.
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Question Pools
Pools are collections and groups of questions that you can include in tests and surveys. For example, you might
have a set of 10 or 20 related questions you want to reuse in several tests or surveys, or even across multiple
courses. The advantage of using a pool is you do not have to remember all those questions and manually add
them to each test or survey.
The Pool Canvas
The Pool Canvas for a question pool presents an inventory of all the questions that you can manage and search.
You can edit the pool name and instructions, create or edit questions, and upload questions. Use the check boxes
to select individual questions or all questions, and then delete them or change the point values.
When you select pool questions for a test, links are created between the test and the pool questions. Changes to
linked questions produce a warning message that the changes take effect everywhere the question appears.
When you create pool questions that are intended for use in surveys (which are not graded), correct answers must
be added during question creation. Then, you can use the questions in tests as well as surveys. These answers will
be ignored after the question is added to a survey.
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How to Build a Pool
1. On the Control Panel, expand the Course Tools section and click Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the Tests, Surveys, and Pools page, click Pools.
3. On the Pools page, click Build Pool on the action bar.
4. Complete the Pool Information page and click Submit.
5. To add questions, you can Create Questions, Upload Questions, or Find Questions in other tests,
surveys, and pools.
6. Click OK to return to the Pools page.
How to Edit Existing Pools
1. On the Pools page, access a pool's contextual menu and click Edit.
2. Add questions, delete questions, or change point values.
3. Click OK to return to the Pools page.
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How to Edit Questions in a Pool
After students start taking a test, you should not make changes to pool questions deployed in the test. If you edit a
pool question after students have submitted a test it was included in, students will view the new modified
question when they view their grades and feedback. They will not view the original question.
Linked questions are indicated by a globe icon. Changes to linked questions produce a warning message that the
changes take effect everywhere the question appears.
If a question has attempts, changing it will require any submitted attempts to be regraded and may affect test
scores. If this happens, affected instructors and students are notified.
Use the following steps to edit a question in a pool:
1. On the Pools page, access a pool's contextual menu and click Edit.
2. On the Pool Canvas, you can filter the list of questions by making selections in the Browse Criteria
panel.
3. Access a question's contextual menu and click Edit to make your changes.
4. Click Submit to commit your changes in all tests where that question appears. Alternatively, you can
Save as New to create a new question, which does not require regrading of existing attempts.
Building a Pool (Flash video | 2m 39s)
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Upload Questions
You can write questions offline in a specially formatted text file and upload it into tests, surveys, and question
pools. Once uploaded, you can edit and use the questions exactly like the questions that you create inside
Blackboard Learn.
Before You Begin
The following information is important to note when uploading questions:
• The uploaded file must meet the file format guidelines detailed in this topic.
• The questions in the uploaded file must meet the question format guidelines detailed in this topic.
• Questions that contain an error will fail to upload. Questions without errors will upload successfully.
• The system does not check for duplicate questions. You must manage this.
• Uploaded questions automatically default to the point value that they are assigned when uploaded. If you did
not set a default value, questions will automatically have a point value of zero. Then, you must enter a point
value for each question.
How to Upload Questions
1. Create or edit an existing assessment. To learn more, see Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. From the test, survey, or pool canvas, click Upload Questions on the action bar.
3. Click Browse to locate the file.
4. Optionally, type a number in the Points per question box to set a default value for all questions. If left
blank, all questions will be set to a value of zero, but you can edit the individual question values at any
time after the upload is complete.
5. Click Submit and click OK. The questions appear on the test, survey, or pool canvas. You can edit and
reorder the questions as necessary.
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File Format Guidelines
Each file containing questions to be uploaded must conform to the following guidelines:
• Each file must be a tab-delimited TXT file. You can edit this file in Microsoft
®
Excel
®
or in a text editor.
• Blackboard recommends that each batch file not exceed 500 records because of time-out restrictions
associated with most browsers.
• Do not include a header row in the file.
• Do not include blank lines between records. The blank line will be processed and return an error.
• Include only one question per row.
• The first field in every row defines the type of question.
• Separate each field in a row using a TAB.
•
correct, incorrect, true, false and other words that identify answers must be in English.
Question Format Guidelines
To be uploaded successfully, the questions in the text file must conform to the guidelines detailed in the following
table.
When uploaded to a survey, the correct|incorrect answer designation is ignored, but the file must
follow the same format as described for tests and pools.
Note: Questions that contain an error will fail to upload. Questions without errors will upload
successfully.
Question Type
Structure
Multiple Choice
MC TAB question text (TAB
correct|incorrect)
answer text
TAB
Text within ( ) may be repeated for each of the answers that are part of the
Multiple Choice question. The maximum number of answers is 100.
Multiple Answer
MA TAB question text (TAB
correct|incorrect)
answer text
TAB
Text within ( ) may be repeated for each of the answers that are part of the
Multiple Answer question. The maximum number of answers is 100.
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Question Type
Structure
True/False
TF TAB
Essay
ESS TAB
question text
question text
TAB true|false
TAB [example]
Text within [ ] is optional. You may choose to add a sample essay question or leave
this blank.
Ordering
ORD TAB
question text
(TAB
answer text)
Text within ( ) may be repeated for each of the answers that are part of the
Ordering question. The maximum number of answers is 100. The order entered in
the file is the correct order. The system will randomly order the answers.
Matching
MAT TAB
question text
(TAB
answer text
TAB
matching text)
Text within ( ) may be repeated for each of the answers that are part of the
Matching question. The maximum number of answers is 100. The system will
randomly order the answers and their question. When uploading a matching
question, there must be a one-to-one relationship between questions and
answers. If not, correct answers may be marked incorrect if more than one answer
has the same value.
Fill in the Blank
FIB TAB
question text
(TAB
answer text)
Text within ( ) may be repeated for each of the answers that are part of the Fill in
the Blank question. The maximum number of answers is 100.
Fill in Multiple Blanks
FIB_PLUS TAB question text TAB variable1 TAB
answer2 TAB TAB variable2 TAB answer3
answer1
TAB
The format consists of a list of variable-answers where each variable-answer is
composed of the variable name and a list of correct answers for that variable.
Variable-answers are delimited by an empty field.
The maximum number of variables is 10.
File Response
FIL TAB
Numeric Response
NUM TAB question text TAB answer TAB
[optional]tolerance
Short Answer
SR TAB
question text
Opinion/Likert Scale
OP TAB
question text
question text
TAB
sample answer
The maximum number of answers is 100.
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Question Type
Structure
Jumbled Sentence
JUMBLED_SENTENCE TAB question text TAB choice1 TAB
variable1 TAB choice2 TAB TAB choice3 TAB variable2
The format consists of a list of choices-answers where each choice-answer
consists of the choice followed by the list of variables for which that choice is the
correct answer. An empty field indicates the end of a choice answer. A choice
immediately followed by an empty field indicates that choice is not the correct
answer for any variable.
The maximum number of answers is 100.
Quiz Bowl
QUIZ_BOWL TAB
question_word2 TAB
TAB question_word1 TAB
TAB phrase2
question text
phrase1
The format consists of a list of valid question words followed by an empty field
and a list of valid answer phrases.
The maximum number of interrogatives is 103.
The maximum number of answer phrases is 100.
Example: File Structure in Excel
Uploading Test Questions From Microsoft Excel (Flash video | 3m 25s)
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Import or Export Tests, Surveys, and Pools
You can import test banks and question pools made available by your textbook publisher. Check your specific
publisher's website for instructions on how to export and save the questions in a format that is compatible with
importing to Blackboard Learn.
You can also export tests, surveys, and pools as ZIP files that you or other instructors can import to other courses.
This is an effective way to share them and to save them for later use.
How to Import a Test, Survey, or Pool
1. On the Control Panel, expand the Course Tools section and click Tests, Surveys, and Pools.
2. On the Tests, Surveys, and Pools page, click the item you want to import, such as Pools.
3. Click Import on the action bar.
4. On the Import page, locate the file. Click Browse My Computer to upload a file from your computer.
You can also upload a file from the course's storage repository:
• If Course Files is the course's storage repository, click Browse Course.
-OR-
• If your institution licenses content management, click Browse Content Collection.
• Click Submit.
How to Export a Test, Survey, or Pool
1. Access the contextual menu for a test, survey, or pool and click Export.
2. Click OK in the pop-up window to save the file.
Note: If your institution licenses content management, two export options will appear in the
contextual menu. To save the file to your computer, choose Export to Local Computer. To
save the file in the Content Collection, choose Export to Content Collection.
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Troubleshooting
Only test, survey, and pool packages exported from Blackboard Learn may be imported.
If they are in the proper format, you can import tests and surveys created by others at other institutions or
created with older versions of Blackboard Learn.
To learn about formatting the questions types in tests, surveys, and pools, see Upload Questions.
Exporting and Importing a Test (Flash video | 2m 12s)
Uploading Test Questions From Microsoft Excel (Flash video | 3m 25s)
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Grade Tests
A Grade Center column is created automatically for each test you create and link in your course. A test that has
been submitted, but not graded, is indicated with an exclamation mark—the needs grading icon. Although
Blackboard Learn scores many question types, you must grade some questions manually such as Essays, Short
Answer, and File Response.
Tests that you need to grade are accessed from the Needs Grading page or from the Grade Center. To learn
more, see the Needs Grading Page.
You have the options to grade tests anonymously, to grade all responses to a specific question, and to give full
credit for all responses to a question. You can also delete questions from a test or clear a test attempt to allow a
student to retake a test.
How to Access Test Attempts From the Needs Grading
Page
For courses with many enrolled students and gradable items, the Needs Grading page can help you determine
which tests need grading first. For example, you can sort by the due date so that your final tests are graded before
your institution's deadline.
If you have a designated turnaround schedule set for all gradable items, the Needs Grading page allows you to
customize the view of items with a needs grading status. You can sort and filter the list and grade the most urgent
tests first.
To access the Needs Grading page:
1. On the Control Panel, expand the Grade Center section.
2. Click Needs Grading. The total number of items to grade appears on the Needs Grading page.
To filter and sort attempts:
1. Use the Filter drop-down lists to narrow the list of items to grade by Category, Item, User, and Date
Submitted. For example, make selections in both the Category and User drop-down lists to display
tests submitted by a particular user.
2. Click Go. The filtered items appear on the Needs Grading page.
3. Click a column heading to sort the tests. For example, sort the tests by Item Name.
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4. On the action bar, click Grade All to begin grading test attempts.
5. The filtered test attempts are placed in a queue for easy navigation among items. Test attempts
appear on the Grade Test page in the order you sorted and filtered them on the Needs Grading page.
How to Access Test Attempts From the Grade Center
The Grade Center shows all gradable items. The number of items may influence how you organize your time for
grading tasks. You may also find it beneficial to view a student's previous grades as you grade.
To access the Grade Center:
1. On the Control Panel, expand the Grade Center section.
2. Click Full Grade Center or the Tests smart view, if available, to access test attempts.
To grade a single test:
1. Locate the cell for a student’s test containing an exclamation mark.
2. Access the cell's contextual menu and click Attempt. The Grade Test page appears.
To grade all attempts for a particular test:
1. Access the test column's contextual menu.
2. Click Grade Attempts. The Grade Test page appears.
About the Grade Test Page
Access the Grade Test page from the Needs Grading page or the Grade Center. You can navigate among users
and attempts, view rubrics, grade anonymously, and view information about a test.
On the action bar, you can perform the following actions:
• Click Hide User Names to grade attempts anonymously, if needed. Click Show User Names to display
user information.
• Click View Rubric to view the rubrics you associated with a test's column in the Grade Center. To learn
more, see Rubrics.
• Click Jump to and select another attempt to view or grade.
Expand the Test Information link to view the following information:
• Status: Shows the status of the test—Needs Grading, In Progress, or Completed.
• Score: The score awarded for the test. If the test needs grading, this number is blank.
• Time Elapsed: If you chose the Set Timer option, the time a student spent taking the test is recorded and
appears here.
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• Started Date: The date the student began.
• Submitted Date: The date the student submitted the test for grading.
• Instructions: Any instructions associated with the test.
• Clear Attempt: Clears the current test attempt. Use when you want to give a student another chance to
start over on a test. For example, if a student started a test that forced completion and a technical issue
prevented him from finishing, you could allow him to retake the test.
• Submit Attempt: This function overrides an In Progress test attempt and submits it for grading.
Note: If a test is listed as in progress, either you or the student taking it must submit the test for
you to grade it.
How to Use the Grade Test Page
You access the Grade Test page from the Needs Grading page or the Grade Center.
Note: If you allowed multiple attempts for a test, a student's grade is not released until you have
graded all of the attempts.
1. On the Grade Test page, type a score for each question. You can overwrite scores for questions
graded automatically.
2. Optionally, if you associated a rubric with Essay, Short Answer, or File Response questions, click View
Rubric to grade the question using the rubric. To learn more, see Rubrics.
3. Optionally, add Response Feedback specific to the individual question. The Response Feedback box
only appears for certain question types, such as Essays.
4. Optionally, type comments in the Feedback to User box.
5. Optionally, type comments in the Grading Notes box. This text is not seen by students.
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6. Click Save and Exit to return to the Full Grade Center, the Needs Grading page, or the Grade Details
page, depending on where grading began.
-ORClick Save and Next to display the next user, when available.
-ORUse the arrows on the action bar to display the previous or next user, when available.
How to Grade Tests With User Names Hidden
You can choose to grade tests with user names hidden for an impartial evaluation of student work. Grading
anonymously allows you to remain objective and not unduly influenced by a student's behavior or previous
performance. This practice can also contribute to the student-instructor relationship because students are
assured that grading was unbiased.
When grading anonymously, all identifying information is hidden and assessment attempts appear in random
order. Each student is assigned a number, such as Student 8.
From the Needs Grading page:
1. Access a test attempt's contextual menu.
2. Click Grade with User Names Hidden. The Grade Test page appears.
From the Grade Center:
1. Access the test column heading's contextual menu.
2. Click Grade with User Names Hidden. The Grade Test page appears.
From the Grade Test page:
1. On the action bar, click Hide User Names.
2. Click OK. If grading was in progress, any unsaved changes to the open attempt are lost. The Grade
Test page refreshes, a new attempt appears, and all identifying information is hidden.
How to Grade Tests by Question
For each test, you can choose to grade all responses to a specific question. This allows you to move from test to
test, viewing and scoring the same question for each student. Grading this way can save time as you concentrate
only on the answers for a single question. You can see how all students responded, providing immediate feedback
about how the group performed on that particular question. Also, grading by question is useful when you want to
revisit a question that requires a score adjustment for all or many students.
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At the same time, you can grade questions with user names hidden. All test attempts remain in needs grading
status until you have graded all of the responses for all questions.
1. In the Grade Center, access a test column's contextual menu and click Grade Questions.
–OROn the Needs Grading page, access a test's contextual menu and click Grade by Question.
2. On the Grade Questions page, you can filter the questions by status: Graded, Needs Grading, or In
Progress. You may also select the check box for Grade with User Names Hidden, if needed.
3. For each question, click the number in the Responses column.
4. On the Grade Responses page, expand the Question Information link to view the question. If you did
not previously select anonymous grading, click Hide User Names on the action bar. Click OK in the
pop-up window to verify the action.
5. Click Edit next to the score for a user.
6. Type a grade in the Score box. Optionally, add Response Feedback specific to the individual question.
The feedback box only appears for certain question types, such as Essays. Click Submit.
7. Optionally, if you associated a rubric with Essay, Short Answer, or File Response questions, click View
Rubric to grade the question using the rubric. To learn more, see Rubrics.
8. After grading all student responses, click Back to Questions to return to the Grade Questions page.
How to Give or Remove Full Credit
You can Give Full Credit for all test submissions for the question you are viewing. Subsequent submissions are
given full credit as well. After giving full credit, you can Remove Full Credit to revert to the automatic grade or to
a previously entered manual grade.
1. In the Grade Center, access a test column heading's contextual menu and click Grade Questions.
–OROn the Needs Grading page, access a test's contextual menu and click Grade by Question.
2. On the Grade Questions page, you can filter the questions by status: Graded, Needs Grading, or In
Progress. You may also select the check box for Grade Responses Anonymously, if needed.
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3. For each question, click the number in the Responses column.
4. On the Grade Responses page, expand the Question Information link to view the question.
5. Click Give Full Credit to assign full credit for the question -OR- Remove Full Credit.
6. Click Back to Questions to return to the Grade Questions page.
How to Delete Questions
You can delete questions freely before you deploy a test -OR- after you deploy it, but no students have taken the
test. However, if test submissions exist, deleting a question removes it from the test, along with any possible
points earned. Test attempts are regraded as if the question was not included in the test.
1. In the Grade Center, access a test column heading's contextual menu and click Edit Test.
-OROn the Control Panel, click Tests, Surveys, and Pools in the Course Tools section. Access a test's
contextual menu and click Edit.
2. On the Test Canvas, select one or more questions to delete and click Delete and Regrade.
-ORAccess a test question's contextual menu and click Delete and Regrade.
3. Click OK to return to the previous page.
Automatic Regrading
(Flash movie | 2m 58s)
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Item Analysis
Item analysis provides statistics on overall test performance and individual test questions. This data helps you
recognize questions that might be poor discriminators of student performance. You can use this information to
improve questions for future test administrations or to adjust credit on current attempts.
Roles with grading privileges—instructors, graders, and teaching assistants—access item analysis in three
locations within the assessment workflow. It is available in the contextual menu for a:
• Test deployed in a content area.
• Deployed test listed on the Tests page.
• Grade Center column.
You can run item analyses on deployed tests with submitted attempts, but not on surveys. Access previously run
item analyses under the Available Analysis heading -OR- select a deployed test from the drop-down list and click
Run to generate a new report. The new report's link appears under the Available Analysis heading or in the
status receipt at the top of the page.
For best results, run item analyses on single-attempt tests after all attempts have been submitted and all manually
graded questions are scored. Interpret the item analysis data carefully and with the awareness that the statistics
are influenced by the number of test attempts, the type of students taking the test, and chance errors.
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How to Run an Item Analysis on a Test
You can run item analyses on tests that include single or multiple attempts, question sets, random blocks, autograded question types, and questions that need manual grading. For tests with manually graded questions that
have not yet been assigned scores, statistics are generated only for the scored questions. After you manually
grade questions, run the item analysis again. Statistics for the manually graded questions are generated and the
test summary statistics are updated.
1. Go to one of the following locations to access item analysis:
◦ A test deployed in a content area.
◦ A deployed test listed on the Tests page.
◦ A Grade Center column for a test.
2. Access the test's contextual menu and click Item Analysis.
3. In the Select Test drop-down list, select a test. Only deployed tests are listed.
4. Click Run.
5. View the item analysis by clicking the new report's link under the Available Analysis heading -OR- by
clicking View Analysis in the status receipt at the top of the page.
About the Test Summary on the Item Analysis Page
The Test Summary is located at the top of the Item Analysis page and provides data on the test as a whole.
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1. Edit Test provides access to the Test Canvas.
2. The Test Summary provides statistics on the test, including:
◦ Possible Points: The total number of points for the test.
◦ Possible Questions: The total number of questions in the test.
◦ In Progress Attempts: The number of students currently taking the test that have not yet
submitted it.
◦ Completed Attempts: The number of submitted tests.
◦ Average Score: Scores denoted with an * indicate that some attempts are not graded and that the
average score might change after all attempts are graded. The score displayed here is the average
score reported for the test in the Grade Center.
◦ Average Time: The average completion time for all submitted attempts.
◦ Discrimination: This area shows the number of questions that fall into the Good (greater than 0.3),
Fair (between 0.1 and 0.3), and Poor (less than 0.1) categories. A discrimination value is listed as
Cannot Calculate when the question's difficulty is 100% or when all students receive the same
score on a question. Questions with discrimination values in the Good and Fair categories are
better at differentiating between students with higher and lower levels of knowledge. Questions in
the Poor category are recommended for review.
◦ Difficulty: This area shows the number of questions that fall into the Easy (greater than 80%),
Medium (between 30% and 80%) and Hard (less than 30%) categories. Difficulty is the percentage
of students who answered the question correctly. Questions in the Easy or Hard categories are
recommended for review and are indicated with a red circle.
Note: Only graded attempts are used in item analysis calculations. If there are attempts
in progress, those attempts are ignored until they are submitted and you run the item
analysis report again.
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About the Question Statistics Table on the Item Analysis
Page
The question statistics table provides item analysis statistics for each question in the test. Questions that are
recommended for your review are indicated with red circles so that you can quickly scan for questions that might
need revision.
In general, good questions have:
• Medium (30% to 80%) difficulty.
• Good or Fair (greater than 0.1) discrimination values.
Questions that are recommended for review are indicated with red circles. They may be of low quality or scored
incorrectly. In general, questions recommended for review have:
• Easy ( > 80%) or Hard ( < 30%) difficulty.
• Poor ( < 0.1) discrimination values.
1. Filter the question table by question type, discrimination category, and difficulty category.
2. Investigate a specific question by clicking its title and reviewing its Question Details page.
3. Statistics for each question are displayed in the table, including:
◦ Discrimination: Indicates how well a question differentiates between students who know the
subject matter those who do not. A question is a good discriminator when students who answer
the question correctly also do well on the test. Values can range from -1.0 to +1.0. Questions are
flagged for review if their discrimination value is less than 0.1 or is negative. Discrimination values
cannot be calculated when the question's difficulty score is 100% or when all students receive the
same score on a question.
Discrimination values are calculated with the Pearson correlation coefficient. X represents the scores of
each student on a question and Y represents the scores of each student on the assessment.
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The following variables are the standard score, sample mean, and sample standard deviation,
respectively:
◦ Difficulty: The percentage of students who answered the question correctly. Difficulty values can
range from 0% to 100%, with a high percentage indicating that the question was easy. Questions in
the Easy (greater than 80%) or Hard (less than 30%) categories are flagged for review.
Difficulty levels that are slightly higher than midway between chance and perfect scores do a better job
differentiating students who know the tested material from those who do not. It is important to note
that high difficulty values do not assure high levels of discrimination.
◦ Graded Attempts: Number of question attempts where grading is complete. Higher numbers of
graded attempt produce more reliable calculated statistics.
◦ Average Score: Scores denoted with an * indicate that some attempts are not graded and that the
average score might change after all attempts are graded. The score displayed here is the average
score reported for the test in the Grade Center.
◦ Standard Deviation: Measure of how far the scores deviate from the average score. If the scores
are tightly grouped, with most of the values being close to the average, the standard deviation is
small. If the data set is widely dispersed, with values far from the average, the standard deviation is
larger.
◦ Standard Error: An estimate of the amount of variability in a student's score due to chance. The
smaller the standard error of measurement, the more accurate the measurement provided by the
test question.
How to View Question Details on a Single Question
You can investigate a question that is flagged for your review by accessing its Question Details page. This page
displays student performance on the individual test question you selected.
1. On the Item Analysis page, scroll down to the question statistics table.
2. Select a linked question title to display the Question Details page.
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1. Use the arrows to page through questions sequentially or to skip to the first or last question.
2. Click Edit Test to access the Test Canvas.
3. The summary table displays statistics for the question, including:
◦ Discrimination: Indicates how well a question differentiates between students who know the
subject matter those who do not. The discrimination score is listed along with its category: Poor
(less than 0.1), Fair (0.1 to 0.3), and Good (greater than 0.3). A question is a good discriminator
when students who answer the question correctly also do well on the test. Values can range from
-1.0 to +1.0. Questions are flagged for review if their discrimination value is less than 0.1 or is
negative. Discrimination values cannot be calculated when the question's difficulty score is 100% or
when all students receive the same score on a question.
Discrimination values are calculated with the Pearson correlation coefficient. X represents the scores of
each student on a question and Y represents the scores of each student on the assessment.
The following variables are the standard score, sample mean, and sample standard deviation,
respectively:
◦ Difficulty: The percentage of students who answered the question correctly. The difficulty
percentage is listed along with its category: Easy (greater than 80%), Medium (30% to 80%), and
Hard (less than 30%). Difficulty values can range from 0% to 100%, with a high percentage
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indicating that the question was easy. Questions in the easy or hard categories are flagged for
review.
Difficulty levels that are slightly higher than midway between chance and perfect scores do a better job
differentiating students who know the tested material from those who do not. It is important to note
that high difficulty values do not assure high levels of discrimination.
◦ Graded Attempts: Number of question attempts where grading is complete. Higher numbers of
graded attempt produce more reliable calculated statistics.
◦ Average Score: Scores denoted with an * indicate that some attempts are not graded and that the
average score might change after all attempts are graded. The score displayed here is the average
score reported for the test in the Grade Center.
◦ Std Dev: Measure of how far the scores deviate from the average score. If the scores are tightly
grouped, with most of the values being close to the average, the standard deviation is small. If the
data set is widely dispersed, with values far from the average, the standard deviation is larger.
◦ Std Error: An estimate of the amount of variability in a student's score due to chance. The smaller
the standard error of measurement, the more accurate the measurement provided by the test
question.
◦ Skipped: Number of students who skipped this question.
4. The question text and answer choices are displayed. The information varies depending on the
question type:
Type of Information Provided
Question Types
Number of students who selected each answer
choice
Multiple Choice
-ANDdistribution of those answers among the class
quartiles.
Multiple Answer
True/False
Either/Or
Opinion Scale/Likert
Number of students who selected each answer
choice.
Matching
Ordering
Fill in Multiple Blanks
Number of students who got the question correct,
incorrect, or skipped it.
Calculated Formula
Calculated Numeric
Fill in the Blank
Hot Spot
Quiz Bowl
Question text only.
Essay
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Type of Information Provided
Question Types
File Response
Short Answer
Jumbled Sentence (also includes the answers
students chose from)
Answer Distributions
The distribution of answers among the class quartiles is included for Multiple Choice, Multiple Answer, True/False,
Either/Or, and Opinion Scale/Likert question types. The distribution shows you the types of students who selected
the correct or incorrect answers.
• Top 25%: Number of students with total test scores in the top quarter of the class who selected the
answer option.
• 2nd 25%: Number of students with total test scores in the second quarter of the class who selected the
answer option.
• 3rd 25%: Number of students with total test scores in the third quarter of the class who selected the
answer option.
• Bottom 25%: Number of students with total test scores in the bottom quarter of the class who selected
the answer option.
Symbol Legend
Symbols appear next to the questions to alert you to possible issues:
• Review recommended: This condition is triggered when discrimination values are less than 0.1 or when
difficulty values are either greater than 80% (question was too easy) or less than 30% (question was too
hard). Review the question to determine if it needs revision.
• Question may have changed after deployment: Indicates that a part of the question changed since the
test was deployed. Changing any part of a question after the test has been deployed could mean that the
data for that question might not be reliable. Attempts submitted after the question was changed may
have benefited from the change. This indicator helps you interpret the data with this in mind.
Note: This indicator is not displayed for restored courses.
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• Not all attempts have been graded: Appears for a test containing questions that require manual
grading, such as essay questions. In a test containing an essay question with 50 student attempts, this
indicator shows until the instructor grades all 50 attempts. The item analysis tool uses only attempts that
have been graded at the time you run the report.
• (QS) and (RB): Indicate that a question came from a question set or random block. Due to random
question delivery, it is possible that some questions get more attempts than others.
About Item Analysis and Multiple Attempts, Question
Overrides, and Question Edits
The item analysis tool handles multiple attempts, overrides, and other common scenarios in the following ways:
• When students are allowed to take a test multiple times, the last submitted attempt is used as the input
for item analysis. For example, a test allows three attempts and Student A has completed two attempts
with a third attempt in progress. Student A's current attempt counts toward the number listed under In
Progress Attempts and none of Student A's previous attempts are included in the current item analysis
data. As soon as Student A submits the third attempt, subsequent item analyses will include Student A's
third attempt.
• Grade Center overrides do not impact the item analysis data because the item analysis tool generates
statistical data for questions based on completed student attempts.
• Manually graded questions or changes made to the question text, correct answer choice, partial credit, or
points do not update automatically in the item analysis report. Run the analysis again to see if the
changes affected the item analysis data.
Examples
Item analysis can help you improve questions for future test administrations or fix misleading or ambiguous
questions in a current test. Some examples are:
• You investigate a multiple choice question that was flagged for your review on the item analysis page.
More Top 25% students choose answer B, even though A was the correct answer. You realize that the
correct answer was miskeyed during question creation. You edit the test question and it is automatically
regraded.
• In a multiple choice question, you find that nearly equal numbers of students chose A, B, and C. Examine
the answer choices to determine if they were too ambiguous, if the question was too difficult, or if the
material was not covered.
• A question is recommended for review because it falls into the hard difficulty category. You examine the
question and determine that it is a hard question, but you keep it in the test because it is necessary to
adequately test your course objectives.
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Resolve Student Issues With Tests
Submit a Test for a Student
If a student was unable to submit a test, but had completed the work, you can submit the attempt so that you can
grade the attempt.
1. In the Grade Center, locate the cell containing the attempt, which displays the in progress icon.
2. Access the cell's contextual menu and click View Grade Details.
3. On the Grade Details page, click View Attempt.
4. Be sure the answers were saved.
Note: If multiple questions are marked with No Answer, you can Clear Attempt. The student
will have to take the test again.
5. Click Test Information to expand the section.
6. If you are satisfied with the student's test attempt, click Submit Attempt.
7. Click OK to confirm the attempt submission.
Clear a Test Attempt
If a student experiences a technical problem while taking a test or needs an additional attempt, you can help by
clearing the test attempt. When you clear an attempt, the grade is cleared from the Grade Center and the student
can retake the test.
1. On the Grade Details page, click Clear Attempt.
2. Click OK to confirm and remove the attempt.
3. On the Grade History tab, the action is recorded with "Attempt Grade Cleared." In the Grade Center,
no grade or icon appears in the student's test cell.
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Test Access Log
Instructors and other users who are granted permission can view a test attempt's Access Log for a list of times of
various student interactions with the test. The log can help to confirm whether a student began a test or ran into
problems during a test.
Note: Access logs are not currently available for mobile-compatible tests that students submit in
the Mobile Learn app.
1. On the Control Panel, expand the Grade Center section.
2. Click Tests.
3. Locate the cell for the student’s test that you want to investigate.
Note: The cell must contain either a grade or a Needs Grading exclamation mark for an
access log to be generated. If you submitted the test for the student, an access log is not
generated, unless the student clicked Save All Answers.
4. Access the cell's contextual menu and click Attempt.
5. On the Grade Test page, expand the Test Information section.
6. Click Access Log.
The Access Log shows a detailed list of every interaction a student had with the test for that attempt. The
log shows the time the test was started, when each question was saved, and when it was submitted.
An unusual gap in activity might be interpreted as a connectivity problem if the student claims to have had
one. However, the system cannot determine what caused the time gap—it can only show that it occurred.
Be aware that the time spent on a question may include time that the student spent looking at other
questions before saving that answer.
http://help.blackboard.com/en-us/Learn/9.1_2014_04/Instructor/110_Tests_Surveys_Pools/150_Resolve
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http://help.blackboard.com/en-us/Learn/9.1_2014_04/Instructor/110_Tests_Surveys_Pools/150_Resolve
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Respondus
®
Respondus is a third-party tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published
directly to Blackboard, ANGEL, Desire2Learn, Pearson eCollege, Canvas, Moodle, and other learning systems.
Exams can be created offline using a familiar Windows environment, or moved from one LMS to another.
To learn more, visit the Respondus website.
http://help.blackboard.com/en-us/Learn/9.1_2014_04/Instructor/110_Tests_Surveys_Pools/160_Respon
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