Allied | Pike | Instruction manual | Allied Pike Instruction manual

AVT Pike
Technical Manual
V3.1.0
13 February 2007
Allied Vision Technologies GmbH
Taschenweg 2a
D-07646 Stadtroda / Germany
Legal notice
For customers in the U.S.A.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a residential environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not
installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference
to radio communications. However there is no guarantee that interferences will not occur in
a particular installation. If the equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:
•
•
•
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the distance between the equipment and the receiver.
Use a different line outlet for the receiver.
Consult a radio or TV technician for help.
You are cautioned that any changes or modifications not expressly approved in this manual
could void your authority to operate this equipment. The shielded interface cable recommended in this manual must be used with this equipment in order to comply with the limits
for a computing device pursuant to Subpart B of Part 15 of FCC Rules.
For customers in Canada
This apparatus complies with the Class B limits for radio noise emissions set out in the Radio
Interference Regulations.
Pour utilisateurs au Canada
Cet appareil est conforme aux normes classe B pour bruits radioélectriques, spécifiées dans le
Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique.
Life support applications
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where
malfunction of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Allied
customers using or selling these products for use in such applications do so at their own risk
and agree to fully indemnify Allied for any damages resulting from such improper use or sale.
Trademarks
Unless stated otherwise, all trademarks appearing in this document of Allied Vision
Technologies are brands protected by law.
Warranty
The information provided by Allied Vision Technologies is supplied without any guarantees or
warranty whatsoever, be it specific or implicit. Also excluded are all implicit warranties concerning the negotiability, the suitability for specific applications or the non-breaking of laws
and patents. Even if we assume that the information supplied to us is accurate, errors and
inaccuracy may still occur.
Copyright
All texts, pictures and graphics are protected by copyright and other laws protecting intellectual property. It is not permitted to copy or modify them for trade use or transfer, nor may
they be used on web sites.
Allied Vision Technologies GmbH 02/2007
All rights reserved.
Managing Director: Mr. Frank Grube
Tax ID: DE 184383113
Support:
Taschenweg 2A
D-07646 Stadtroda, Germany
Tel.: +49 (0)36428 6770
Fax: +49 (0)36428 677-28
e-mail: info@alliedvisiontec.com
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 9
Document history .......................................................................................................... 9
Conventions used in this manual...................................................................................... 9
Styles ...................................................................................................................... 9
Symbols .................................................................................................................. 10
Before operation .......................................................................................................... 10
Declarations of conformity ...........................................................................11
Safety instructions ............................................................................................12
Reference documents applicable in the United States......................................................... 12
Reference documents applicable in Europe ....................................................................... 12
Reference documents applicable in Japan......................................................................... 12
Cautions...................................................................................................................... 13
Environmental conditions .............................................................................................. 13
PIKE types and highlights .............................................................................14
FireWire ....................................................................................................................17
Overview ..................................................................................................................... 17
Definition ............................................................................................................... 17
IEEE 1394 standards ................................................................................................. 17
Why use FireWire? .................................................................................................... 17
FireWire in detail .......................................................................................................... 18
Serial bus................................................................................................................ 18
FireWire connection capabilities ................................................................................. 19
Capabilities of 1394a (FireWire 400)............................................................................ 20
IIDC V1.3 camera control standards ........................................................................ 20
Capabilities of 1394b (FireWire 800) ........................................................................... 20
IIDC V1.31 camera control standards ...................................................................... 20
Compatibility between 1394a and 1394b...................................................................... 21
Compatibility example .......................................................................................... 21
Image transfer via 1394a and 1394b ........................................................................... 22
1394b bandwidths.................................................................................................... 23
Requirements for PC and 1394b.............................................................................. 23
Requirements for laptop and 1394b ........................................................................ 24
Example1: 1394b bandwidth of PIKE cameras ........................................................... 25
Example 2: More than one PIKE camera at full speed ................................................. 25
FireWire Plug & play capabilities................................................................................. 26
FireWire hot plug precautions..................................................................................... 26
Operating system support .......................................................................................... 26
1394a/b comparison ................................................................................................. 27
System components .........................................................................................28
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Camera lenses.......................................................................................................... 30
Specifications .......................................................................................................32
PIKE F-032B / F-032B fiber ............................................................................................ 33
PIKE F-032C / F-032C fiber............................................................................................. 35
PIKE F-100B / F-100B fiber ............................................................................................ 37
PIKE F-100C / F-100C fiber............................................................................................. 39
PIKE F-145B / F-145B fiber ............................................................................................ 41
PIKE F-145C / F-145C fiber............................................................................................. 43
PIKE F-210B / F210B fiber ............................................................................................. 45
PIKE F-210C / F-210C fiber............................................................................................. 47
PIKE F-421B / F-421B fiber ............................................................................................ 49
PIKE F-421C / F-421 C fiber............................................................................................ 51
Spectral sensitivity ....................................................................................................... 53
Camera dimensions ..........................................................................................58
PIKE standard housing (2 x 1394b copper) ....................................................................... 58
PIKE (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)................................................................................... 59
Tripod adapter ............................................................................................................. 60
Pike W90 (2 x 1394b copper).......................................................................................... 61
Pike W90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper) ............................................................................ 62
Pike W90 S90 (2 x 1394b copper).................................................................................... 63
Pike W90 S90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper) ...................................................................... 64
Pike W270 (2 x 1394b copper) ........................................................................................ 65
Pike W270 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)........................................................................... 66
Pike W270 S90 (2 x 1394b copper) .................................................................................. 67
Pike W270 S90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)..................................................................... 68
Cross section: C-Mount (VGA size filter) ........................................................................... 69
Cross section: C-Mount (large filter) ................................................................................ 70
Adjustment of C-Mount.................................................................................................. 71
F-Mount, K-Mount, M39-Mount ....................................................................................... 72
Cross section: M39-Mount.......................................................................................... 72
Camera interfaces .............................................................................................73
PIKE fiber.................................................................................................................... 74
IEEE 1394b port pin assignment ..................................................................................... 76
Camera I/O connector pin assignment ............................................................................. 77
Status LEDs.................................................................................................................. 80
On LED (green) ........................................................................................................ 80
Status LED............................................................................................................... 80
Operating the camera .................................................................................................... 82
Control and video data signals........................................................................................ 82
Inputs .................................................................................................................... 82
Triggers.............................................................................................................. 84
Input/output pin control........................................................................................... 85
IO_INP_CTRL 1-2 ................................................................................................. 86
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Trigger delay ....................................................................................................... 87
Outputs .................................................................................................................. 89
IO_OUTP_CTRL 1-4 ............................................................................................... 93
Output modes...................................................................................................... 94
Pixel data.................................................................................................................... 96
Description of the data path ......................................................................100
Block diagrams of the cameras .....................................................................................
Black and white cameras .........................................................................................
Color cameras ........................................................................................................
Sensor ......................................................................................................................
Channel balance .........................................................................................................
Channel adjustment with SmartView 1.5 ....................................................................
White balance ............................................................................................................
One-push automatic white balance ...........................................................................
Automatic white balance .........................................................................................
Auto shutter ..............................................................................................................
Auto gain ..................................................................................................................
Manual gain...............................................................................................................
Brightness (black level or offset) ..................................................................................
Horizontal mirror function ...........................................................................................
Shading correction......................................................................................................
Automatic generation of correction data....................................................................
Requirements ....................................................................................................
Algorithm .........................................................................................................
Loading a shading image out of the camera ...............................................................
Loading a shading image into the camera ..................................................................
Look-up table (LUT) and gamma function.......................................................................
Loading an LUT into the camera ...............................................................................
Binning (b/w models) .................................................................................................
2 x 2 Binning ........................................................................................................
Vertical binning .....................................................................................................
Horizontal binning .................................................................................................
Full binning...........................................................................................................
Sub-sampling .............................................................................................................
High SNR mode (High Signal Noise Ratio) ......................................................................
Frame memory and deferred image transport...................................................................
Deferred image transport.........................................................................................
HoldImg mode .......................................................................................................
FastCapture mode...................................................................................................
Color interpolation (BAYER demosaicing) .......................................................................
Sharpness..................................................................................................................
Hue and saturation .....................................................................................................
Color correction..........................................................................................................
GretagMacbeth ColorChecker ................................................................................
Color correction coefficients ................................................................................
Switch color correction on/off .............................................................................
100
100
101
102
102
102
104
106
107
109
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113
113
114
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139
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Color conversion (RGB Æ YUV) .....................................................................................
Bulk Trigger ...............................................................................................................
Level Trigger..............................................................................................................
Serial interface...........................................................................................................
139
139
139
140
Controlling image capture ..........................................................................145
Trigger modi ..............................................................................................................
Bulk Trigger (Trigger_Mode_15)................................................................................
Trigger delay .........................................................................................................
Trigger delay advanced register............................................................................
Exposure time ............................................................................................................
Exposure time offset ...............................................................................................
Minimum exposure time ..........................................................................................
Extended shutter....................................................................................................
One-Shot...................................................................................................................
One-Shot command on the bus to start of exposure.....................................................
End of exposure to first packet on the bus .................................................................
Multi-shot .................................................................................................................
ISO_Enable / Free-Run ................................................................................................
Asynchronous broadcast ..............................................................................................
Jitter at start of exposure ............................................................................................
145
147
150
151
152
152
152
153
154
155
155
156
157
157
158
Video formats, modes and bandwidth .................................................159
PIKE F-032B / PIKE F-032C...........................................................................................
PIKE F-100B / PIKE F-100C...........................................................................................
PIKE F-145B / PIKE F-145C...........................................................................................
PIKE F-210B / PIKE F-210C...........................................................................................
PIKE F-421B / PIKE F-421C...........................................................................................
Area of interest (AOI) .................................................................................................
Autofunction AOI ...................................................................................................
Frame rates................................................................................................................
Frame rates Format_7 .............................................................................................
PIKE F-032: AOI frame rates.....................................................................................
PIKE F-100: AOI frame rates.....................................................................................
PIKE F-145: AOI frame rates.....................................................................................
PIKE F-210: AOI frame rates.....................................................................................
PIKE F-421: AOI frame rates.....................................................................................
159
161
163
165
167
169
171
172
176
177
178
179
180
181
How does bandwidth affect the frame rate? ...................................182
Test images ...............................................................................................................
Loading test images ...............................................................................................
Test images for b/w cameras....................................................................................
Test images for color cameras ..................................................................................
YUV4:2:2 mode ..................................................................................................
Mono8 (raw data) ..............................................................................................
184
184
184
185
185
185
Configuration of the camera ......................................................................186
Camera_Status_Register............................................................................................... 186
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Example................................................................................................................
Sample program .....................................................................................................
Example FireGrab ...............................................................................................
Example FireStack API ........................................................................................
Configuration ROM ......................................................................................................
Implemented registers.................................................................................................
Camera initialize register.........................................................................................
Inquiry register for video format...............................................................................
Inquiry register for video mode ................................................................................
Inquiry register for video frame rate and base address .................................................
Inquiry register for basic function.............................................................................
Inquiry register for feature presence .........................................................................
Inquiry register for feature elements .........................................................................
Inquiry register for absolute value CSR offset address ..................................................
Status and control register for feature .......................................................................
Feature control error status register ..........................................................................
Video mode control and status registers for Format_7..................................................
Quadlet offset Format_7 Mode_0 ..........................................................................
Quadlet offset Format_7 Mode_1 ..........................................................................
Format_7 control and status register (CSR) ............................................................
Advanced features ......................................................................................................
Version information inquiry .....................................................................................
Advanced feature inquiry.........................................................................................
Camera status ........................................................................................................
Maximum resolution ...............................................................................................
Time base .............................................................................................................
Extended shutter....................................................................................................
Test images ...........................................................................................................
Look-up tables (LUT) ..............................................................................................
Loading a look-up table into the camera ...............................................................
Shading correction .................................................................................................
Reading or writing shading image from/into the camera ..........................................
Automatic generation of a shading image..............................................................
Non-volatile memory operations...........................................................................
Memory channel error codes ................................................................................
Deferred image transport.........................................................................................
Frame information..................................................................................................
Input/output pin control.........................................................................................
Triggers............................................................................................................
IO_INP_CTRL 1-2 ...............................................................................................
IO_OUTP_CTRL 1-4 .............................................................................................
Output mode .....................................................................................................
Delayed Integration enable......................................................................................
Auto shutter control ...............................................................................................
Auto gain control ...................................................................................................
Autofunction AOI ...................................................................................................
Color correction .....................................................................................................
Trigger delay .........................................................................................................
187
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197
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209
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234
234
234
234
234
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235
236
237
238
239
240
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Mirror image..........................................................................................................
AFE channel compensation (channel balance).............................................................
Soft Reset .............................................................................................................
High SNR mode (High Signal Noise Ratio) ..................................................................
User profiles ..........................................................................................................
Error codes .......................................................................................................
Reset of error codes ...........................................................................................
Stored settings ..................................................................................................
GPDATA_BUFFER.....................................................................................................
241
241
242
242
243
244
244
245
246
Firmware update ...............................................................................................247
Glossary .................................................................................................................248
Index.........................................................................................................................268
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Introduction
Introduction
Document history
Version
Date
Remarks
V2.0.0
07.07.2006
New Manual - RELEASE status
PRE_V3.0.0
22.09.2006
Minor corrections
Added Pike F-145
Pike F-210 AOI frame rates corrected: Chapter PIKE F-210: AOI
frame rates on page 180
New advanced registers: Chapter Advanced features on page
216
V3.0.1
29.09.2006
Minor corrections
V3.1.0
13.02.2007
Changed camera status register (Table 112: Camera status register on page 222)
Added description for the following mode Output state follows
PinState bit (Table 39: Output routing on page 94)
Added M39-Mount for Pike F-201 and F-421 (Chapter F-Mount,
K-Mount, M39-Mount on page 72)
Table 1: Document history
Conventions used in this manual
To give this manual an easily understood layout and to emphasize important
information, the following typographical styles and symbols are used:
Styles
Style
Function
Example
Bold
Programs, inputs or highlighting bold
important things
Courier
Code listings etc.
Input
Upper case
Register
REGISTER
Table 2: Styles
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Introduction
Style
Function
Example
Italics
Modes, fields
Mode
Parentheses and/or blue
Links
(Link)
Table 2: Styles
Symbols
Note
This symbol highlights important information.
L
Caution
a
www
Ý
This symbol highlights important instructions. You have to
follow these instructions to avoid malfunctions.
This symbol highlights URLs for further information. The URL
itself is shown in blue.
Example:
http://www.alliedvisiontec.com
Before operation
We place the highest demands for quality on our cameras. This Technical
Manual is the guide to the installation and setting up of the camera for operation. You will also find the specifications and interfaces here.
Please read through this manual carefully before operating the camera.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Declarations of conformity
Declarations of conformity
Allied Vision Technologies declares under its sole responsibility that the following products
Category Name
Model Name
Digital Camera (IEEE 1394)
PIKE F-032B
PIKE F-032C
PIKE F-032B fiber
PIKE F-032C fiber
PIKE F-100B
PIKE F-100C
PIKE F-100B fiber
PIKE F-100C fiber
PIKE F-145B
PIKE F-145C
PIKE F-145B fiber
PIKE F-145C fiber
PIKE F-210B
PIKE F-210C
PIKE F-210B fiber
PIKE F-210C fiber
PIKE F-421B
PIKE F-421C
PIKE F-421B fiber
PIKE F-421C fiber
Table 3: Model names
to which this declaration relates are in conformity with the following standard(s) or other normative document(s):
• EN 55022
• EN 55024
• EN 61000
• FCC Class B
• RoHS (2002/95/EC)
Following the provisions of 89/336/EEC directive(s), amended by directive
91/263 EEC, 92/31/EEC and 93/68/EEC.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Safety instructions
Safety instructions
Note
•
L
•
•
There are no switches or parts inside the camera that
require adjustment. The guarantee becomes void upon
opening the camera casing.
If the product is disassembled, reworked or repaired by
other than a recommended service person, AVT or its
suppliers will take no responsibility for the subsequent
performance or quality of the camera.
The camera does NOT generate dangerous voltages
internally. However, because the IEEE 1394b standard
permits cable power distribution at voltages higher
than 24 V, various international safety standards apply.
Reference documents applicable in the United
States
The reference documents include
• Information Processing and Business Equipment, UL 478
• National Electric Code, ANSI/NFPA 70
• Standard for the Protection of Electronic Computer/Data-Processing
Equipment, ANSI/NFPA 75
Reference documents applicable in Europe
The reference documents include materials to ensure the European Union CE
marking as follows:
• Telecommunications Terminal Equipment (91/263/EEC)
• EMC Directive (89/339/EEC)
• CE Marking Directive (93/68/EEC)
• LOW Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC) as amended by the CE Marking
Reference documents applicable in Japan
The reference documents include:
• Electronic Equipment Technology Criteria by the Ministry of Trading and
Industry (Similar to NFPA 70)
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Safety instructions
•
•
•
Wired Electric Communication Detailed Law 17 by the Ministry of Posts
and Telecom Law for Electric Equipment
Dentori law issued by the Ministry of Trading and Industry
Fire law issued by the Ministry of Construction
Cautions
Caution
•
a
•
•
•
Make sure NOT to touch the shield of the camera cable
connected to a computer and the ground terminal of
the lines at the same time.
Use only DC power supplies with insulated cases. These
are identified by having only TWO power connectors.
Although IEEE 1394b is functionally plug and play, the
physical ports may be damaged by excessive ESD (electrostatic discharge), when connected under powered
conditions. It is good practice to ensure proper grounding of computer case and camera case to the same
ground potential, before plugging the camera cable
into the port of the computer. This ensures that no
excessive difference of electrical potential exists
between computer and camera.
If you feel uncomfortable with the previous advice or if
you have no knowledge about the connectivity of an
installation, we strongly recommend powering down all
systems before connecting or disconnecting a camera.
Environmental conditions
Housing temperature (when camera in use): + 5 °C ... + 50 °C
Ambient temperature during storage:
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C
Relative humidity:
20 % … 80 % without condensation
Protection:
IP 30
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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PIKE types and highlights
PIKE types and highlights
With Pike cameras, entry into the world of digital image processing is simpler
and more cost-effective than ever before.
With the new Pike, Allied Vision Technologies presents the broadest range of
cameras in the market with IEEE 1394b interfaces. Moreover, with daisy chain
as well as Direct Fiber technology they gain the highest level of acceptance
for demanding areas of use in manufacturing industry.
Allied Vision Technologies can provide users with a range of products that
meet almost all the requirements of a very wide range of image applications.
The industry standard IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.Link) facilitates the simplest
computer compatibility and bidirectional data transfer using the plug & play
process. Further development of the IEEE 1394 standard has already made
800 Mbit/second possible – and the firewire roadmap is already envisaging
1600 Mbit/second, with 3.2 Gbit/second as the next step. Investment in this
standard is therefore secure for the future; each further development takes
into account compatibility with the preceding standard, and vice versa,
meaning that IEEE 1394b is reverse-compatible with IEEE 1394a. Your applications will grow as technical progress advances.
For further information on FireWire read Chapter FireWire on page 17.
The AVT Pike family consists of five IEEE 1394b C-Mount cameras, which are
equipped with highly sensitive high-quality CCD sensors.
Each of these cameras is available in black/white and color versions.
A large selection of different sensor sizes (type 1/3, type 2/3, type 1,
type 1.2) and resolutions ensures the suitability of the cameras for all applications.
The Pike family consists of the following models:
Pike type
Sensor
Picture size
Frame rates,
full resolution
PIKE F-032B/C
Type 1/3 KODAK KAI-340
640 (h) x 480 (v)
Up to 202 fps
PIKE F-032B/C fiber
Progressive Scan CCD imager
PIKE F-100B/C
Type 2/3 KODAK KAI-1020
1000 (h) x 1000 (v)
Up to 59.9 fps
PIKE F-100B/C fiber
Progressive Scan CCD imager
PIKE F-145B/C
Type 2/3 SONY ICX285
1388 (h) x 1038 (v)
Up to 30 fps
PIKE F-145B/C fiber
Progressive Scan CCD imager
Table 4: PIKE camera types
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PIKE types and highlights
Pike type
Sensor
Picture size
Frame rates,
full resolution
PIKE F-210B/C
Type 1 KODAK KAI-2093
1920 (h) x 1080 (v)
Up to 31 fps
PIKE F-210B/C fiber
Progressive Scan CCD imager
PIKE F-421B/C
Type 1.2 KODAK KAI-4021
2048 (h) x 2048 (v)
Up to 15 fps
PIKE F-421B/C fiber
Progressive Scan CCD imager
Table 4: PIKE camera types
Operating in 8-bit and 14-bit mode, the cameras ensure very high quality
images under almost all circumstances. The Pike is equipped with an asynchronous trigger shutter as well as true partial scan, and integrates numerous
useful and intelligent Smart Features for image processing.
Note
•
L
•
•
Warning
a
All color models are equipped with an optical filter to
eliminate the influence of infrared light hitting the
sensor. Please be advised that, as a side effect, this filter reduces sensitivity in the visible spectrum. The optical filter is part of the back focus ring, which is
threaded into the C-Mount.
B/w models come with a sensor protection glass
mounted in the back focus ring.
Changing filters is achieved by changing back focus
rings with the appropriate filter already mounted.
Please be advised that back focus adjustment will be
necessary in order to match C-Mount distance of
17.526 mm after changing back focus ring. Ask your
dealer for further information or assistance.
Mount/dismount lenses and filters in a dust-free environment, and do not use compressed air (which can push dust
into cameras and lenses).
Use only optical quality tissue/cloth if you must clean a
lens or filter.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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PIKE types and highlights
Warning
Special warning for all PIKE models with GOF connectors:
a
GOF connectors are very sensitive. Any dust or dirt may cause
damage.
•
•
•
•
Always keep the GOF connector and optical fiber plug
clean.
If GOF connection is not in use, keep GOF dust cover on
the GOF connector.
Reduce mating cycles to a minimum to prevent abrasion.
Please note that optical fiber cables have a very limited
deflection curve radius.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
FireWire
Overview
FireWire provides one of the most comprehensive, high-performance, costeffective solutions platforms. FireWire offers very impressive throughput at
very affordable prices.
Definition
FireWire (also known as i.Link or IEEE 1394) is a personal computer and
digital video serial bus interface standard, offering high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data services. FireWire has low implementation costs and a simplified and adaptable cabling system.
Figure 1: FireWire Logo
IEEE 1394 standards
FireWire was developed by Apple Computer in the late 1990s, after work
defining a slower version of the interface by the IEEE 1394 working committee in the 1980s. Apple's development was completed in 1995. It is defined
in IEEE standard 1394 which is currently a composite of three documents:
• the original IEEE Std. 1394-1995
• the IEEE Std. 1394a-2000 amendment
• the IEEE Std. 1394b-2002 amendment
FireWire is used to connect digital cameras, especially in industrial systems
for machine vision. An advantage over USB is its faster effective speed and
higher power distribution capabilities. Multi-camera applications are easier
to set up than in USB.
Why use FireWire?
Digital cameras with on-board FireWire (IEEE 1394a or 1394b) communications conforming to the IIDC standard (V1.3 or V1.31) have created costeffective and powerful solutions options being used for thousands of different applications around the world. FireWire is currently the premier robust
digital interface for industrial applications for many reasons, including:
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Guaranteed bandwidth features to ensure fail-safe communications
Interoperability with multiple different camera types and vendors
Diverse camera powering options, including single-cable solutions up to
45 W
Effective multiple-camera solutions
Large variety of FireWire accessories for industrial applications
Availability of repeaters and optical fibre cabling
Forwards and backward compatibility blending 1394a and 1394b
Both real-time (isochronous) and demand-driven asynchronous data
transmission capabilities
FireWire in detail
Serial bus
Briefly summarized, FireWire is a very effective way to utilize a low-cost
serial bus, through a standardized communications protocol, that establishes
packetized data transfer between two or more devices. FireWire offers real
time isochronous bandwidth for image transfer with guaranteed low latency.
It also offers asynchronous data transfer for controlling camera parameters,
such as gain and shutter, on the fly. As illustrated in the diagram below,
these two modes can co-exist by using priority time slots for video data
transfer and the remaining time slots for control data transfer.
Figure 2: 1394a data transmission
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
In case of 1394b no gaps are needed due to parallel arbitration, handled by
bus owner supervisor selector (BOSS) (see the following diagram). Whereas
1394a works in half duplex transmission, 1394 does full duplex transmission.
Cycle Sync: 1394b
Parallel arbitration, handled by BOSS, can eliminate gaps
Figure 3: 1394b data transmission
Additional devices may be added up to the overall capacity of the bus, but
throughput at guaranteed minimum service levels is maintained for all
devices with an acknowledged claim on the bus. This deterministic feature is
a huge advantage for many industrial applications where robust performance
is required. Such is the case when it is not acceptable to drop images within
a specific time interval.
FireWire connection capabilities
FireWire can connect together up to 63 peripherals in an acyclic network
structure (hubs). It allows peer-to-peer device communication (between digital cameras), to take place without using system memory or the CPU.
But even more importantly, a FireWire camera can directly, via direct memory access (DMA), write into or read from the memory of the computer with
almost no CPU load.
FireWire also supports multiple hosts per bus. FireWire requires only a cable
with the correct number of pins on either end (normally 6 or 9). It is
designed to support plug-and-play and hot swapping. Its six-wire cable can
supply up to 54 W of power per port at 36 V, allowing moderate-consumption
devices to operate without a separate power cord.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
Capabilities of 1394a (FireWire 400)
FireWire 400 (S400) is able to transfer data between devices at 100, 200 or
400 MBit/s data rates. Although USB 2.0 claims to be capable of higher
speeds (480 Mbit/s), FireWire is, in practice, not slower than USB 2.0.
The 1394a capabilities in detail:
• 400 Mbit/s
• Hot-pluggable devices
• Peer-to-peer communications
• Direct Memory Access (DMA) to host memory
• Guaranteed bandwidth
• Multiple devices (up to 45 W) powered via FireWire bus
IIDC V1.3 camera control standards
IIDC V1.3 released a set of camera control standards via 1394a which established a common communications protocol on which most current FireWire
cameras are based.
In addition to common standards shared across manufacturers, a special
Format_7 mode also provided a means by which a manufacturer could offer
special features (smart features), such as:
• higher resolutions
• higher frame rates
• diverse color modes
as extensions (advanced registers) to the prescribed common set.
Capabilities of 1394b (FireWire 800)
FireWire 800 (S800) was introduced commercially by Apple in 2003 and has
a 9-pin FireWire 800 connector (see details in Chapter IEEE 1394b port pin
assignment on page 76). This newer 1394b specification allows a transfer
rate of 800 MBit/s with backward compatibilities to the slower rates and 6pin connectors of FireWire 400.
The 1394b capabilities in detail:
• 800 Mbit/s
• All previous benefits of 1394a (see above)
• Interoperability with 1394a devices
• Longer communications distances (up to 500 m using GOF cables)
IIDC V1.31 camera control standards
Twinned with 1394b, the IIDC V1.31 standard arrived in January 2004, evolving the industry standards for digital imaging communications to include I/
O and RS232 handling, and adding further formats. At such high bandwidths
it has become possible to transmit high-resolution images to the PC’s memory at very high frame rates.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
Compatibility between 1394a and 1394b
1394a port
1394b port
1394b camera
1394a camera
1394a camera connected to 1394b bus
1394b camera connected to 1394a bus
The cable explains dual compatibility: This cable
serves to connect an IEEE 1394a camera with its
six-pin connector to a bilingual port (a port which
can talk in a- or b-language) of a 1394b bus.
The cable explains dual compatibility: In this case,
the cable connects an IEEE 1394b camera with its
nine-pin connector to a 1394a port.
In this case the b-camera communicates in
In this case the b-bus communicates in a-language a-language with the camera achieving
a-performance
and a-speed with the camera achieving
a-performance
Figure 4: 1394a and 1394b cameras and compatibility
Compatibility example
It’s possible to run a 1394a and a 1394b camera on the 1394b bus.
You can e.g. run a PIKE F-032b and a MARLIN F-033b on the same bus:
• PIKE F-032b @ S800 and 120 fps (5120 bytes per cycle, 64% of the
cycle slot)
• MARLIN F-033b @ S400 and 30 fps (1280bytes, 32% of the cycle slot)
Bus runs at 800 Mbit/s for all devices. Data from Marlin’s port is up-converted
from 400 Mbit/s to 800 Mbit/s by data doubling (padding), still needing 32%
of the cycle slot time. This doubles the bandwidth requirement for this port,
as if the camera were running at 60 fps. Total consumption is thus 5120 +
2560 = 7680 bytes per cycle.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
Image transfer via 1394a and 1394b
Technical detail
1394a
1394b
Transmission mode
Half duplex (both pairs needed) Full duplex (one pair needed)
400 Mbit/s data rate
1 Gbit/s signaling rate, 800
Mbit/s data rate
aka: a-mode, data/strobe (D/S)
mode, legacy mode
10b/8b coding (Ethernet), aka:
b-mode (beta mode)
Devices
Up to 63 devices per network
Number of cameras
Up to 16 cameras per network
Number of DMAs
4 to 8 DMAs (parallel) cameras / bus
Real time capability
Image has real time priority
Available bandwidth acc. IIDC
(per cycle 125 µs)
4096 bytes per cycle
8192 bytes per cycle
~ 1000q @ 400 Mbit/s
~ 2000q @ 800 Mbit/s
(@1 GHz clock rate)
For further detail read Chapter Frame rates on page 172.
Max. image bandwidth
31.25 MByte/s
62.5 MByte/s
Max. total bandwidth
~45 MByte/s
~85 MByte/s
Multiple busses per PC
Multiple busses per PC
limit: PCI bus
limit: PCI (Express) bus
Number of busses
CPU load
Almost none for DMA image transfer
Gaps
Gaps negatively affect asynchro- No gaps needed, BOSS mode for
nous performance of widespread
parallel arbitration
network (round trip delay),
reducing efficiency
Table 5: Technical detail comparison: 1394a and 1394b
Note
The bandwidth values refer to the fact:
L
1 MByte = 1024 kByte
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
1394b bandwidths
According to the 1394b specification on isochronous transfer, the largest
data payload size of 8192 bytes per 125 µs cycle is possible with a bandwidth
of 800 Mbit/s.
For further details read Chapter How does bandwidth affect the frame rate?
on page 182.
Requirements for PC and 1394b
One PIKE camera connected to a PC’s 1394b bus saturates the standard PCI
bus.
1394b also requires low latency for data transmission (due to small receiveFIFO). In order to get the most out of your camera-to-PC configuration, we
recommend the following chipsets for your PC:
• 915 (SONOMA) with ICH-6 south-bridge or
• 945 chipset (Core duo) with 82801GBM/82801GHM
For multi-camera applications one of the following bus cards is needed:
• PCI ExpressCard with potential 250 MByte/s per lane (up to four supported by chipset) or
• 64-bit PCI-X card (160 MByte/s)
Figure 5: Block diagram of modern PC (915 chipset by INTEL)
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
Requirements for laptop and 1394b
As mentioned above, 1394b requires low latency for data transmission (small
receive-FIFO). In order to get the most out of your camera-to-laptop configuration, we recommend the following chipset for your laptop:
• Mobile PCI-Express chipset
Because most laptops have (only) one PC-card interface, it is possible to connect one PIKE camera to your laptop at full speed. Alternatively laptops with
an additional 1394 ExpressCard interface can be used.
Figure 6: ExpressCard Logo, ExpressCard/54 (SIIG)
Figure 7: ExpressCard technology
www
ExpressCard is a new standard set by PCMCIA.
Ý
For more information visit:
http://www.expresscard.org/web/site/
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
24
FireWire
Example1: 1394b bandwidth of PIKE cameras
PIKE model
Resolution
Pike F-032 B/C
VGA
Pike F-100 B/C
Frame rate
Bandwidth
202 fps
61.61 MByte/s
1 megapixel
60 fps
57.62 MByte/s
Pike F-145 B/C
1.45 megapixel
30 fps
41.41 MByte/s
Pike F-210 B/C
2.1 megapixel
31 fps
62.5 MByte/s
Pike F-421 B/C
4 megapixel
15 fps
62.5 MByte/s
Table 6: Bandwidth of PIKE cameras
Note
All data are calculated using Raw8 / Mono8 color mode.
L
Example 2: More than one PIKE camera at full speed
Due to the fact that one PIKE camera saturates a 32 bit PCI bus, you are
advised to use either a PCI-Express card and/or multiple 64-bit PCI bus cards,
if you want to use 2 or more PIKE cameras simultaneously (see the following
table).
# cameras
PC hardware required
1 PIKE camera at full speed
1 x 32-bit PCI bus card (85 MByte/s)
2 or more PIKE cameras at full speed PCI-ExpressCard and/or
Multiple 64-bit PCI bus cards
Table 7: Required hardware for multiple camera applications
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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FireWire
FireWire Plug & play capabilities
FireWire devices implement the ISO/IEC 13213 configuration ROM model for
device configuration and identification, to provide plug & play capability. All
FireWire devices are identified by an IEEE EUI-64 unique identifier (an extension of the 48-bit Ethernet MAC address format) in addition to well-known
codes indicating the type of device and protocols it supports. For further
details read Chapter Configuration of the camera on page 186.
FireWire hot plug precautions
Although FireWire devices can be hot-plugged without powering down equipment, we recommend turning the computer power off, before connecting a
digital camera to it via a FireWire cable.
Operating system support
Operating system
1394a
1394b
Linux
Full support
Full support
Apple Mac OS X
Full support
Full support
Windows XP
With service pack 2 the default speed for 1394b is S100 (100 Mbit/s).
A download and registry modification is available from Microsoft to
restore performance to either S400 or S800.
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/885222
Alternatively use the drivers of SP1 instead.
We strongly recommend to install AVT FirePackage, which replaces the
Microsoft driver. (See PIKE Getting Started Manual for details.)
Windows Vista
Full support from beginning
Support only with service pack,
coming later.
Table 8: FireWire and operating systems
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
26
FireWire
1394a/b comparison
Interface
IEEE 1394a
IEEE 1394b
Maximum bit rate
400 Mbit/s
800 Mbit/s
Isochronous (video) mode
Yes
Yes
Bandwidth/total usable
bandwidth
Video: 31.25 MByte/s (80%)
Total: ~45 MByte/s
Video: 62.5 MByte/s (80%)
Total: ~85 MByte/s
Topology
Peer-to-peer (On the go)
Peer-to-peer
Single cable distance in
copper or other media
•
•
•
•
•
4.5 m, worst case
10 m, typical camera
application
500 m GOF
7.5 m copper
500 m GOF
Max. distance copper using
repeaters
70 m
70 m
Bus power
Up to 1.5 A and 36 V
Up to 1.5 A and 36 V
Motherboard support
Many
Some
PC load
Very low
Very low
OS support
Windows, Linux
Windows, Linux
Main applications
Multimedia electronics
Multimedia electronics
Camera standard
IIDC V1.3
IIDC V1.31
Devices per bus
63; 4 (8) simult./ card
accord. to 4 (8) DMAs typical
63; 4 simult./ card
accord. to 4 DMAs typical
Table 9: 1394a and 1394b comparison
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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System components
System components
Each camera package consists of the following system components:
AVT PIKE
4.5 m cable with screw locking
Color version:
Jenofilt 217 IR cut filter (built-in)
B/w version:
only protection glass (no filter)
CD with driver and documentation
Optional: tripod adapter
Optional: GOF cable
Optional: HIROSE connector for
cable mount HR10A-10P-12S
Figure 8: System components
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
28
System components
The following illustration shows the spectral transmission of the IR cut filter:
Figure 9: Spectral transmission of Jenofilt 217
Note
L
www
Ý
Note
L
To demonstrate the properties of the camera, all examples in
this manual are based on the FirePackage OHCI API software
and the SmartView application.
These utilities can be obtained from Allied Vision
Technologies (AVT). A free version of SmartView is available
for download at:
www.alliedvisiontec.com
The camera also works with all IIDC (formerly DCAM) compatible IEEE 1394 programs and image processing libraries.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
29
System components
Camera lenses
AVT offers different lenses from a variety of manufacturers. The following
table lists selected image formats depending on camera type, distance and
the focal length of the lens.
Focal length
for type 1/3 sensors
PIKE F-032
Distance = 0.5 m
Distance = 1 m
4.8 mm
0.375 m x 0.5 m
0.75 m x 1 m
8 mm
0.22 m x 0.29 m
0.44 m x 0.58 m
12 mm
0.145 m x 0.19 m
0.29 m x 0.38 m
16 mm
11 cm x 14.7 cm
22 cm x 29.4 cm
25 mm
6.9 cm x 9.2 cm
13.8 cm x 18.4 cm
35 mm
4.8 cm x 6.4 cm
9.6 cm x 12.8 cm
50 mm
3.3 cm x 4.4 cm
6.6 cm x 8.8 cm
Table 10: Focal length vs. field of view (PIKE F-032)
Focal length
for type 2/3 sensors
PIKE F-100/F-145
Distance = 0.5 m
Distance = 1 m
4.8 mm
0.7 m x0.93 m
1.4 m x 1.86 m
8 mm
0.4 m x 0.53 m
0.8 m x 1.06 m
12 mm
0.27 m x 0.36 m
0.54 m x 0.72 m
16 mm
0.2 m x 0.27 m
0.4 m x 0.54 m
25 mm
12.5 cm x 16.625 cm
25 cm 33.25 cm
35 mm
8.8 cm x 11.7 cm
17.6 cm x 23.4 cm
50 mm
6 cm x 7.98 cm
12 cm x 15.96 cm
Table 11: Focal length vs. field of view (PIKE F-100/F-145)
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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System components
Focal length
for type 1 sensors
PIKE F-210
Distance = 0.5 m
Distance = 1 m
8 mm
0.6 m x 0.8 m
1.2 m x 1.6 m
12 mm
0.39 m x 0.52 m
0.78 m x 1.16 m
16 mm
0.29 m x 0.38 m
0.58 m x 0.76 m
25 mm
18.2 cm x 24.2 cm
36.4 cm x 48.8 cm
35 mm
12.8 cm x 17.02 cm
25.6 cm x 34.04 cm
50 mm
8.8 cm x 11.7 cm
17.6 cm x 23.4 cm
Table 12: Focal length vs. field of view (PIKE F-210)
Note
L
Lenses with focal lengths < 35 mm will very likely show excessive shading in the edges of the image due to the fact that
the image size of the sensor is slightly bigger than the
C-mount itself and due to micro lenses on the sensor's pixel.
Ask your dealer if you require non C-Mount lenses.
Focal length
for type 1.2 sensors
PIKE F-421
Distance = 0.5 m
Distance = 1 m
35 mm
15.4 cm x 20.4 cm
30.7 cm x 40.8 cm
50 mm
10.6 cm x 14.0 cm
21.1 cm x 28.1 cm
Table 13: Focal length vs. field of view (PIKE F-421)
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Specifications
Specifications
Note
H-binning means horizontal binning.
L
V-binning means vertical binning.
H-sub-sampling means horizontal sub-sampling.
V-sub-sampling means vertical sub-sampling.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
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Specifications
PIKE F-032B / F-032B fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 1/3 (diag. 5.92 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI340
Effective picture elements
648 (H) x 488 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 31: Pike C-Mount dimensions (VGA size filter for Pike F032) on page 69)
Picture sizes
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_5 and Mode_6)
640 x 480 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
320 x 480 pixels (Format_7 Mode_1, 2 x H-binning)
640 x 240 pixels (Format_7 Mode_2, 2 x V-binning)
320 x 240 pixels (Format_7 Mode_3, 2 x full binning)
320 x 480 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
640 x 240 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
320 x 240 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps; 60 fps; 120 fps
up to 202 fps in Format_7 (Mono8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-22 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
26 … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 105 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), real-time
shading correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, binning,
sub-sampling, High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Table 14: Specification PIKE F-032B / F-032B fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
33
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Power consumption
Typical 5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 5.75 watt (@ 12 V DC)
(full resolution and maximal frame rates)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
IR cut filter, IR pass filter, host adapter card, angled head, power
out (HIROSE), API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 14: Specification PIKE F-032B / F-032B fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
34
Specifications
PIKE F-032C / F-032C fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 1/3 (diag. 5.92 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI340
Effective picture elements
648 (H) x 488 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 31: Pike C-Mount dimensions (VGA size filter for Pike F032) on page 69)
Picture sizes
320 x 240 pixels (Format_0 Mode_1)
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_2 to Mode-5)
640 x 480 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
320 x 480 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
640 x 240 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
320 x 240 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Color modes
Raw8, Raw16, Mono8, YUV4:2:2, YUV4:1:1, RGB8
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps; 60 fps; 120 fps
up to 202 fps in Format_7 (Mono8, Raw8)
up to 139 fps (YUV 4:1:1)
up to 105 fps (YUV 4:2:2, Raw 16)
up to 70 fps (RGB8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-20 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
26 … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 105 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), AWB (auto
white balance), color correction, hue, saturation, real-time shading
correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, sub-sampling,
High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Table 15: Specification PIKE F-032C / F-032C fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
35
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 5.75 watt (@ 12 V DC)
(full resolution and maximal frame rates)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
Protection glass, host adapter card, angled head, power out
(HIROSE), API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 15: Specification PIKE F-032C / F-032C fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
36
Specifications
PIKE F-100B / F-100B fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 2/3 (diag. 10.5 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI1020
Effective picture elements
1000 (H) x 1000 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_5 and Mode_6)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_2 and Mode_6)
1000 x 1000 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
500 x 1000 pixels (Format_7 Mode_1, 2 x H-binning)
1000 x 500 pixels (Format_7 Mode_2, 2 x V-binning)
500 x 500 pixels (Format_7 Mode_3, 2 x full binning)
500 x 1000 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
1000 x 500 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
500 x 500 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps; 60 fps
up to 59.9 fps in Format_7 (Mono8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-22 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
75 µs … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 32 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), real-time
shading correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, binning,
sub-sampling, High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Table 16: Specification PIKE F-100B / F-100B fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
37
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 5.75 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
IR cut filter, IR pass filter, host adapter card, angled head, power
out (HIROSE), API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 16: Specification PIKE F-100B / F-100B fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
38
Specifications
PIKE F-100C / F-100C fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 2/3 (diag. 10.5 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI1020
Effective picture elements
1000 (H) x 1000 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
320 x 240 pixels (Format_0 Mode_1)
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_2 to Mode_5)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_0 to Mode_2)
1000 x 1000 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
500 x 1000 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
1000 x 500 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
500 x 500 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Color modes
Raw8, Raw16, Mono8, YUV4:2:2, YUV4:1:1, RGB8
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps; 60 fps; 120 fps
up to 59.9 fps in Format_7 (Mono8)
up to 43 fps (YUV 4:1:1)
up to 32 fps (YUV 4:2:2, Raw16)
up to 21 fps (RGB8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-20 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
75 µs … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 32 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), AWB (auto
white balance), color correction, hue, saturation, real-time shading
correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, sub-sampling,
High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Table 17: Specification PIKE F-100C / F-100C fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
39
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 5.75 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
Protection glass, host adapter card, angled head, power out
(HIROSE), API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 17: Specification PIKE F-100C / F-100C fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
40
Specifications
PIKE F-145B / F-145B fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 2/3 (diag. 11.2 mm) type progressive scan SONY ICX285
Effective picture elements
1392 (H) x 1040 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_5 and Mode_6)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_2 and Mode_6)
1024 x 768 pixels (Format_1 Mode_5 and Mode_7)
1280 x 960 pixels (Format_2 Mode_2 and Mode_6)
1388 x 1038 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
692 x 1038 pixels (Format_7 Mode_1, 2 x H-binning)
1388 x 518 pixels (Format_7 Mode_2, 2 x V-binning)
692 x 518 pixels (Format_7 Mode_3, 2 x full binning)
692 x 1038 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
1388 x 518 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
692 x 518 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
6.45 µm x 6.45 µm
ADC
14 bit
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps
up to 30.02 fps in Format_7 (Mono8)
up to 22.70 fps in Format_7 (Mono16)
Gain control
Manual: 0-32 dB (0.0358 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
36 µs … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 22 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), real-time
shading correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, binning,
sub-sampling, High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Table 18: Specification PIKE F-145B / F-145B fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
41
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 5.75 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
IR cut filter, IR pass filter, host adapter card, angled head, power
out (HIROSE), API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 18: Specification PIKE F-145B / F-145B fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
42
Specifications
PIKE F-145C / F-145C fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 2/3 (diag. 11.2 mm) type progressive scan SONY ICX285
Effective picture elements
1392 (H) x 1040 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
320 x 240 pixels (Format_0 Mode_1)
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_2 to Mode_5)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_0 to Mode_2)
1024 x 768 pixels (Format_1 Mode_3 to Mode_5)
1280 x 960 pixels (Format_2 Mode_0 to Mode_2)
1388 x 1038 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
692 x 1038 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
1388 x 518 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
692 x 518 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
6.45 µm x 6.45 µm
ADC
14 bit
Color modes
Raw8, Raw16, Mono8, YUV4:2:2, YUV4:1:1, RGB8
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps; 60 fps
up to 30.02 fps in Format_7 (Mono8, Raw8)
up to 30.02 fps (YUV 4:1:1)
up to 22.70 fps (YUV 4:2:2, Raw16)
up to 15.14 fps (RGB8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-32 dB (0.0358 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
36 µs … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 22 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), AWB (auto
white balance), color correction, hue, saturation, real-time shading
correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, sub-sampling,
High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Table 19: Specification PIKE F-145C / F-145C fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
43
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 5.75 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
Protection glass, host adapter card, angled head, power out
(HIROSE), API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 19: Specification PIKE F-145C / F-145C fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
44
Specifications
PIKE F-210B / F210B fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 1 (diag. 15.3 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI2093
Effective picture elements
1928 (H) x 1084 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_5 and Mode_6)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_2 and Mode_6)
1024 x 768 pixels (Format_1 Mode_5 and Mode_7)
1280 x 960 pixels (Format_2 Mode_2 and Mode_6)
1600 x 1200 pixels (Format_2 Mode_5 and Mode_7)
1920 x 1080 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
960 x 1080 pixels (Format_7 Mode_1, 2 x H-binning)
1920 x 540 pixels (Format_7 Mode_2, 2 x V-binning)
960 x 540 pixels (Format_7 Mode_3, 2 x full binning)
960 x 1080 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
1920 x 540 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
960 x 540 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps
up to 30 fps in Format_7 (Mono8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-22 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
77 … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External Trigger Shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 15 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), real-time
shading correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, binning,
sub-sampling, High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Table 20: Specification PIKE F-210B / F-210B fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
45
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5.5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 6.25 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
IR cut filter, IR pass filter
M39-Mount suitable for e.g. Voigtländer optics
Adjustable M39-Mount: 28.80 mm (in air); M39 x 26 tpi
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 24.2 mm (see Figure 34:
Pike M39-Mount dimensions (only Pike F-210 and Pike F-421) on
page 72)
host adapter card, angled head, power out (HIROSE),
API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 20: Specification PIKE F-210B / F-210B fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
46
Specifications
PIKE F-210C / F-210C fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 1 (diag. 15.3 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI2093
Effective picture elements
1928 (H) x 1084 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
320 x 240 pixels (Format_0 Mode_1)
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_2 to Mode_5)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_0 to Mode_2)
1024 x 768 pixels (Format_1 Mode_3 to Mode_5)
1280 x 960 pixels (Format_2 Mode_0 to Mode_2)
1600 x 1200 pixels (Format_2 Mode_3 to Mode_5)
1920 x 1080 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
960 x 1080 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
1920 x 540 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
960 x 540 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Color modes
Raw8, Raw16, Mono8, YUV4:2:2, YUV4:1:1, RGB8
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps; 30 fps
up to 30 fps (Mono8, Raw8)
up to 21 fps (YUV 4:1:1)
up to 15 fps (YUV 4:2:2, Raw16)
up to 10 fps (RGB8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-20 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
77 … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 15 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Table 21: Specification PIKE F-210C / F-210C fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
47
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), AWB (auto
white balance), color correction, hue, saturation, real-time shading
correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, sub-sampling,
High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5.5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 6.25 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
Protection glass
M39-Mount suitable for e.g. Voigtländer optics
Adjustable M39-Mount: 28.80 mm (in air); M39 x 26 tpi
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 24.2 mm (see Figure 34:
Pike M39-Mount dimensions (only Pike F-210 and Pike F-421) on
page 72)
host adapter card, angled head, power out (HIROSE),
API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 21: Specification PIKE F-210C / F-210C fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
48
Specifications
PIKE F-421B / F-421B fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 1.2 (diag. 21.4 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI4021
Effective picture elements
2056 (H) x 2062 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_5 and Mode_6)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_2 and Mode_6)
1024 x 768 pixels (Format_1 Mode_5 and Mode_7)
1280 x 960 pixels (Format_2 Mode_2 and Mode_6)
1600 x 1200 pixels (Format_2 Mode_5 and Mode_7)
2048 x 2048 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
1024 x 2048 pixels (Format_7 Mode_1, 2 x H-binning)
2048 x 1024 pixels (Format_7 Mode_2, 2 x V-binning)
1024 x 1024 pixels (Format_7 Mode_3, 2 x full binning)
1024 x 2048 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
2048 x 1024 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
1024 x 1024 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps
up to 15 fps in Format_7 (Mono8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-22 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
93 … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 6 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), real-time
shading correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, binning,
sub-sampling, High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Table 22: Specification PIKE F-421B / F-421B fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
49
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5.5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 6.25 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
IR cut filter, IR pass filter
M39-Mount suitable for e.g. Voigtländer optics
Adjustable M39-Mount: 28.80 mm (in air); M39 x 26 tpi
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 24.2 mm (see Figure 34:
Pike M39-Mount dimensions (only Pike F-210 and Pike F-421) on
page 72)
host adapter card, angled head, power out (HIROSE),
API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 22: Specification PIKE F-421B / F-421B fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
50
Specifications
PIKE F-421C / F-421 C fiber
Feature
Specification
Image device
Type 1.2 (diag. 21.4 mm) type progressive scan KODAK IT CCD
KAI4021
Effective picture elements
2056 (H) x 2062 (V)
Lens mount
Adjustable C-Mount: 17.526 mm (in air); Ø 25.4 mm (32 tpi)
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 12.5 mm
(see Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100,
F-145, F-210, F-421) on page 70)
Picture sizes
320 x 240 pixels (Format_0 Mode_1)
640 x 480 pixels (Format_0 Mode_2 to Mode_5)
800 x 600 pixels (Format_1 Mode_0 to Mode_2)
1024 x 768 pixels (Format_1 Mode_3 to Mode_5)
1280 x 960 pixels (Format_2 Mode_0 to Mode_2)
1600 x 1200 pixels (Format_2 Mode_3 to Mode_5)
2048 x 2048 pixels (Format_7 Mode_0)
1024 x 2048 pixels (Format_7 Mode_4, 2 out of 4 H-sub-sampling)
2048 x 1024 pixels (Format_7 Mode_5, 2 out of 4 V-sub-sampling)
1024 x 1024 pixels (Format_7 Mode_6, 2 out of 4 full sub-sampling)
Cell size
7.4 µm x 7.4 µm
ADC
14 bit
Color modes
Raw8, Raw16, Mono8, YUV4:2:2, YUV4:1:1, RGB8
Frame rates
1.875 fps; 3.75 fps; 7.5 fps; 15 fps
up to 15 fps (Mono8, Raw8)
up to 10 fps (YUV 4:1:1)
up to 7 fps (YUV 4:2:2, Raw16)
up to 5 fps (RGB8)
Gain control
Manual: 0-20 dB (0.0353 dB/step); auto gain (select. AOI)
Shutter speed
93 … 67.108.864 µs (~67s); auto shutter (select. AOI)
External trigger shutter
Programmable, trigger level control, single trigger,
bulk trigger, programmable trigger delay
Internal FIFO memory
Up to 6 frames
# look-up tables
4 user programmable (14 bit Æ 14 bit); gamma (0.45 and 0.7)
Table 23: Specification PIKE F-421C / F-421C fiber
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
51
Specifications
Feature
Specification
Smart functions
AGC (auto gain control), AEC (auto exposure control), AWB (auto
white balance), color correction, hue, saturation, real-time shading
correction, LUT, 64 MByte image memory, mirror, sub-sampling,
High SNR, storable user sets
Two configurable inputs, four configurable outputs
RS-232 port (serial port, IIDC V1.31)
Transfer rate
100 Mbit/s, 200 Mbit/s, 400 Mbit/s, 800 Mbit/s
Digital interface
IEEE 1394b (IIDC V1.31), 2 x copper connectors (bilingual) (daisy
chain)
fiber: IEEE 1394b, 2 connectors: 1 x copper (bilingual), 1 x GOF
connector (2 x optical fiber on LCLC), (daisy chain)
Power requirements
DC 8 V - 36 V via IEEE 1394 cable or 12-pin HIROSE
Power consumption
Typical 5.5 watt (@ 12 V DC); fiber: typical 6.25 watt (@ 12 V DC)
Dimensions
96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H); incl. connectors, w/o tripod
and lens
Mass
250 g (without lens)
Operating temperature
+ 5 °C ... + 50 °C housing temperature (without condensation)
Storage temperature
- 10 °C ... + 60 °C ambient temperature (without condensation)
Regulations
EN 55022, EN 61000, EN 55024, FCC Class B, DIN ISO 9022, RoHS
(2002/95/EC)
Options
Protection glass
M39-Mount suitable for e.g. Voigtländer optics
Adjustable M39-Mount: 28.80 mm (in air); M39 x 26 tpi
Mechanical Flange Back to filter distance: 24.2 mm (see Figure 34:
Pike M39-Mount dimensions (only Pike F-210 and Pike F-421) on
page 72)
host adapter card, angled head, power out (HIROSE),
API (FirePackage, Direct FirePackage, Fire4Linux)
Table 23: Specification PIKE F-421C / F-421C fiber
Note
L
The design and specifications for the products described
above may change without notice.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
52
Specifications
Spectral sensitivity
Figure 10: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-032B
Figure 11: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-032C
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
53
Specifications
Figure 12: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-100B
Figure 13: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-100C
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
54
Specifications
Figure 14: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-145B
Figure 15: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-145C
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
55
Specifications
Figure 16: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-210B
Figure 17: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-210C
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Specifications
Figure 18: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-421B
Figure 19: Spectral sensitivity of Pike F-421C
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Camera dimensions
Camera dimensions
PIKE standard housing (2 x 1394b copper)
Note: different from GOF version
see next page
Body size: 96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H)
Mass: 250 g (without lens)
Figure 20: Camera dimensions (2 x 1394b copper)
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Camera dimensions
PIKE (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
Note: different from 2 x copper version
see previous page
Body size: 96.8 mm x 44 mm x 44 mm (L x W x H)
Mass: 250 g (without lens)
Figure 21: Camera dimensions (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
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Camera dimensions
Tripod adapter
This tripod adapter is only designed for standard housings, but not for the
angled head versions.
Note
L
If you need a tripod adapter for angled head versions, please
contact AVT support.
Figure 22: Tripod dimensions
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Camera dimensions
Pike W90 (2 x 1394b copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 90 degrees clockwise, so that it views
upwards.
Figure 23: Pike W90 (2 x 1394b copper)
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Camera dimensions
Pike W90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 90 degrees clockwise, so that it views
upwards.
Figure 24: Pike W90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
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Camera dimensions
Pike W90 S90 (2 x 1394b copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 90 degrees clockwise, so that it views
upwards.
The sensor is also rotated by 90 degrees clockwise.
Figure 25: Pike W90 S90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
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Camera dimensions
Pike W90 S90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 90 degrees clockwise, so that it views
upwards.
The sensor is also rotated by 90 degrees clockwise.
Figure 26: Pike W90 S90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
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Camera dimensions
Pike W270 (2 x 1394b copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 270 degrees clockwise, so that it views
downwards.
Figure 27: Pike W270 (2 x 1394b copper)
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Camera dimensions
Pike W270 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 270 degrees clockwise, so that it views
downwards.
Figure 28: Pike W270 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
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Camera dimensions
Pike W270 S90 (2 x 1394b copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 270 degrees clockwise, so that it views
downwards.
The sensor is also rotated by 90 degrees clockwise.
Figure 29: Pike W270 S90 (2 x 1394b copper)
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Camera dimensions
Pike W270 S90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
This version has the sensor tilted by 270 degrees clockwise, so that it views
downwards.
The sensor is also rotated by 90 degrees clockwise.
Figure 30: Pike W270 S90 (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
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Camera dimensions
Cross section: C-Mount (VGA size filter)
PIKE F-032 cameras are equipped with VGA size filter.
Figure 31: Pike C-Mount dimensions (VGA size filter for Pike F-032)
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Camera dimensions
Cross section: C-Mount (large filter)
PIKE F-100, PIKE F-145, PIKE F-210, PIKE F-421 are equipped with a large
filter.
Figure 32: Pike C-Mount dimensions (large filter for Pike F-100, F-145, F-210, F-421)
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Camera dimensions
Adjustment of C-Mount
PIKE cameras allow the precise adjustment of the back focus of the C-Mount
by means of a back focus ring which is threaded into the C-Mount and held
by two screws on either side of the camera. The mechanical adjustment of
the imaging device is important in order to achieve a perfect alignment with
the focal point of the lens.
This adjustment is made before leaving the factory to conform to the standard of 17.526 mm and should normally not require adjustment in the field.
However, if the back focal plane of your lens does not conform to the CMount back-focus specification or if you have e.g. removed the IR cut filter,
renewed adjustment may be required in the field.
loosen screw on both sides
Figure 33: Back focus adjustment
Do the following:
1.
Loosen screws (location as shown above by arrow) with an Allen key
(1.3 x 50; Order#: K 9020411).
2.
With the lens set to infinity or a known focus distance, set the camera
to view an object located at 'infinity' or the known distance.
3.
Rotate the C-Mount ring and lens forward or backwards on its thread
until the object is in sharp focus. Be careful that the lens remains
seated in the C-Mount.
4.
Once focus is achieved, tighten the two locking screws without applying
excessive torque.
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Camera dimensions
F-Mount, K-Mount, M39-Mount
Note
L
Note
L
For other mounts (e.g. F-Mount, K-Mount) please contact
your distributor.
Pike F-201 and Pike F-421 can be equipped at factory site
with M39-Mount instead of C-Mount.
M39-Mount is ideally suited for Voigtländer (aka Voigtlander)
short focal length optics. See drawing below for further
details.
Please ask AVT or your local dealer if you require further information.
Cross section: M39-Mount
Figure 34: Pike M39-Mount dimensions (only Pike F-210 and Pike F-421)
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Camera interfaces
In addition to the two status LEDs (see Chapter Status LEDs on page 80),
there are three jacks located at the rear of the camera.
• The 12-pin camera I/O connector provides different control inputs and
output lines.
• Both IEEE 1394b connectors with screw lock mechanism provide access
to the IEEE 1394 bus and thus makes it possible to control the camera
and output frames. Connect the camera by using either of the connectors. The other connector can be used to daisy chain a second camera.
12-pin camera
I/O connector
Status LEDs
Yellow
Green
(Trg/S2)
(Com/S1)
IEEE 1394b connector
(copper)
IEEE 1394b connector
(copper)
Figure 35: Rear view of camera (2 x 1394b copper)
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PIKE fiber
All PIKE cameras are also available as fiber version with 1 x GOF connector
and 1 x copper connector.
The GOF connector is of the following type: 2 x optical fiber on LCLC
The GOF transmission uses MMF (multi-mode fiber at 850 nm).
Connect the camera by using either of the connectors. The other connector
can be used to daisy chain a second camera. In case of long distances
between PC and camera, use the GOF connector for the long distance and the
IEEE 1394b connector for optional daisy-chaining. Please ensure that you use
a GOF hub on the PC side for reconversion from GOF to copper (order number
E3000074 (with mounting plate) or E3000084 (with top-hat rail)). Alternatively use PCI or PCIExpress cards with built in GOF port. Ask your dealer for
availability and details of these cards.
Power
Dust cover off
Optical connection ok
Figure 36: GOF hub
Figure 37: PCI Express card (1 x GOF, 2 x 1394 bilingual)
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Camera interfaces
IEEE 1394b connector GOF
(2x optical fiber on LCLC)
Dust cover off
IEEE 1394b connector
(copper)
Figure 38: Rear view of camera (1394b: 1 x GOF, 1 x copper)
Warning
Special warning for all PIKE models with GOF connectors:
a
GOF connectors are very sensitive. Any dust or dirt may cause
damage.
•
•
•
•
Always keep the GOF connector and optical fiber plug
clean.
If GOF connection is not in use, keep GOF dust cover on
the GOF connector.
Reduce mating cycles to a minimum to prevent abrasion.
Please note that optical fiber cables have a very limited
deflection curve radius.
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IEEE 1394b port pin assignment
The IEEE 1394b connector is designed for industrial use and has the following
pin assignment as per specification:
4
3
2
1
5
6 7 8
9
Figure 39: IEEE 1394b connector
Pin
Signal
1
TPB-
2
TPB+
3
TPA-
4
TPA+
5
TPA (Reference ground)
6
VG (GND)
7
N.C.
8
VP (Power, VCC)
9
TPB (Reference ground)
Table 24: IEEE 1394b pin assignment
Note
L
Cables with latching connectors on one or both sides can be
used and are available with lengths of 5 m or 7.5 m. Ask your
local dealer for more details.
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Camera interfaces
Camera I/O connector pin assignment
The camera I/O connector is also designed for industrial use and, in addition
to providing access to the inputs and outputs on the camera, it also provides
a serial interface for e.g. the firmware update. The following diagram shows
the pinning as viewed in pin direction.
The connector is available in straight and angled version under the following
numbers:
Order text
Order number
PC-12P 12-Pin
HR10A-10P-12S
cable connector female
K7600040
PC-12PW 12-Pin
HR10A-10LT-12S
angled cable connector female
K7600044
Table 25: Order numbers: I/O connector
Note
L
AVT supplies suitable I/O cables of different lengths (up to
10 m) as shown below.
Order text
Length
Order number
Trigger cable
12-pin HIROSE female to BNC
2.0 m
E1000648
Trigger cable
12-pin HIROSE female to BNC
5.0 m
E1000772
Trigger cable
12-pin HIROSE female to open end
2.0 m
E1000728
Trigger cable
12-pin HIROSE female to open end
10.0 m
E1000736
I/O cable
12-pin HIROSE female to open end
2.0 m
E1000746
I/O cable
12-pin HIROSE female to open end
3.0 m
E1000732
Table 26: Order numbers: trigger and I/O cables
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Camera interfaces
Order text
Length
I/O cable
12-pin HIROSE female to open end
I/O cable
Order number
5.0 m
E1000786
10.0 m
E1000749
12-pin HIROSE female to open end
Table 26: Order numbers: trigger and I/O cables
Figure 40: Camera I/O connector pin assignment
Pin
Signal
Direction
Level
Description
1
External GND
GND for RS232 External Ground for RS232 and
and ext. power external power
2
ExtPower
+8...+36 V DC Power Supply
3
CameraOut4
Out
Open emitter
Camera Output 4 (GPOut4)
default: -
4
CameraIn1
In
CMOS / TTL
max. 5 V
Camera Input 1 (GPIn1)
default: Trigger
5
CameraOut3
Out
Open emitter
Camera Output 3 (GPOut3)
default: Busy
6
CameraOut1
Out
Open emitter
Camera Output 1 (GPOut1)
default: IntEna
Table 27: Camera I/O connector pinning
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Pin
Signal
Direction
Level
Description
7
CameraIn GND
In
Common GND
for inputs
Camera Common Input Ground
(In GND)
See Figure 44: Input Ground
(InGND) (Pin no. 7 from camera I/O connector) on page 84
8
RxD_RS232
In
RS232
Terminal Receive Data
9
TxD_RS232
Out
RS232
Terminal Transmit Data
10
CameraOutPower
In
Common VCC
for outputs
max. 35 V DC
Camera Output Power
for digital outputs (OutVCC)
11
CameraIn2
In
CMOS/TTL
max. 5 V
Camera Input 2 (GPIn2)
default: -
12
CameraOut2
Out
Open emitter
Camera Output 2 (GPOut2)
default: -
Table 27: Camera I/O connector pinning
Note
GP = General Purpose
L
Note
L
Pin 1 is not internally bridged with pin 7 to avoid ground
noise being induced in the camera and to prevent ground
loops. Use pin 1 only if you want to power the camera by
HIROSE or to connect to the serial interface of the camera in
combination with pin 8 and 9.
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Camera interfaces
Status LEDs
On LED (green)
The green power LED indicates that the camera is being supplied with sufficient voltage and is ready for operation.
Status LED
The following states are displayed via the LED:
State
Description
Com/S1 (green)
Asynchronous and isochronous data transmission
active (indicated asynchronously to transmission
via the 1394 bus)
Trg/S2 (yellow)
LED on - waiting for external trigger
LED off - triggered / internal sync
Table 28: LED indication
Blink codes are used to signal warnings or error states:
Class S1
Error code S2
Warning
1 blink
DCAM
2 blinks
MISC
3 blinks
FPGA boot error
FPGA
4 blinks
Stack
5 blinks
1-5 blinks
Stack setup
1 blink
Stack start
2 blinks
No FLASH object
1 blink
No DCAM object
1 blink
Register mapping
3 blinks
VMode_ERROR_STATUS
1 blink
FORMAT_7_ERROR_1
2 blinks
FORMAT_7_ERROR_2
3 blinks
Table 29: Error codes
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Camera interfaces
The following sketch illustrates the series of blinks for a Format_7_error_1:
Figure 41: Warning and error states
You should wait for at least 2 full cycles because the display of blinking codes
starts asynchronously - e.g. on the second blink from S2.
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Operating the camera
Power for the camera is supplied either via the FireWire™ bus or the camera
I/O connector's pin 2.
The input voltage must be within the following range:
Vcc min.: +8 V
Vcc max.: +36 V
Note
•
L
•
An input voltage of 12 V is recommended for most efficient use of the camera
As mentioned above: The camera I/O supplies power to
the camera via a diode. This means that there is no
power out at pin 2 if the camera is powered via the bus.
Consult the factory if you need power output at this pin
instead of power in.
Control and video data signals
The camera has 2 inputs and 4 outputs. These can be configured by software.
The different modes are described below.
Inputs
All inputs have been implemented as shown in the diagram below.
+3.3 V
+3.3 V
390
LP
fg=480kHz
GND
InGND
4k7
VCC
GPIn1
HCPL-063L
GND
Figure 42: Input schematics
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Flux voltage from LED type 1.5 V at 10 mA
Initial on-current:
5 mA
Max. off-current:
0.25 mA
Max. input current:
15 mA
Min. pulse width
2.2 µs
Table 30: Input characteristics: Flux voltage
Cycle delay of the optocoupler
tpdLH:
2275 ns
tpdHL:
2290 ns
Table 31: Input characteristics: Cycle delay
The inputs can be connected directly to +5 V. If a higher voltage is used, an
external resistor must be placed in series. Use at +12 V a 820 Ω resistor and
at +24 V a 2.2 kΩ resistor.
Caution
Voltages above +45 V may damage the optical coupler.
a
The optocoupler inverts all input signals. Inversion of the signal is controlled
via the IO_INP_CTRL1..2 register (see Table 32: Input configuration register
on page 85).
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Figure 43: Input block diagram
390R
390R
In1 – Pin 4
In2 – Pin 11
InGND – Pin 7
Figure 44: Input Ground (InGND) (Pin no. 7 from camera I/O connector)
Triggers
All inputs configured as triggers are linked by AND. If several inputs are being
used as triggers, a high signal must be present on all inputs in order to generate a trigger signal. Each signal can be inverted. The camera must be set
to external triggering to trigger image capture by the trigger signal.
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Camera interfaces
Input/output pin control
All input and output signals running over the camera I/O connector are controlled by an advanced feature register.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000300
IO_INP_CTRL1
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..6]
Reserved
Polarity
[7]
0: Signal not inverted
1: Signal inverted
---
[8..10]
Reserved
InputMode
[11..15] Mode
see Table 33: Input routing
on page 86
0xF1000304
IO_INP_CTRL2
---
[16..30] Reserved
PinState
[31]
RD: Current state of pin
Same as
IO_INP_CTRL1
Table 32: Input configuration register
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Camera interfaces
IO_INP_CTRL 1-2
The Polarity flag determines whether the input is low active (0) or high
active (1). The input mode can be seen in the following table. The PinState
flag is used to query the current status of the input.
For inputs, the PinState bit refers to the inverted output side of the optical
coupler. This means that an open input sets the PinState bit to 1.
ID
Mode
Default
0x00
Off
0x01
Reserved
0x02
Trigger input
0x03
Reserved
0x06..0x0F
Reserved
0x10..0x1F
Reserved
Input 1
Table 33: Input routing
Note
L
If you set more than 1 input to function as a trigger input,
all trigger inputs are anded.
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Camera interfaces
Trigger delay
The cameras feature various ways to delay image capture based on external
trigger.
With IIDC V1.31 there is a standard CSR at Register F0F00534/834h to control
a delay up to FFFh x time base value. The following table explains the inquiry
register and the meaning of the various bits.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF0F00534
TRIGGER_DELAY_INQUIRY Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
Abs_Control_Inq
[1]
Capability of control with
absolute value
-
[2]
Reserved
One_Push_Inq
[3]
One-push auto mode (controlled automatically by the
camera once)
Readout_Inq
[4]
Capability of reading out the
value of this feature
ON_OFF
[5]
Capability of switching this
feature ON and OFF
Auto_Inq
[6]
Auto mode (controlled automatically by the camera)
Manual_Inq
[7]
Manual mode (controlled by
user)
Min_Value
[8..19]
Minimum value for this feature
Max_Value
[20..31] Maximum value for this feature
Table 34: Trigger delay inquiry register
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Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF0F00834
TRIGGER_DELAY
Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature:
0:N/
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the
value field
1: Control with value in the
absolute value CSR. If this
bit=1 the value in the value
field has to be ignored.
-
[2..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Write ON or OFF this feature, ON=1 Read: Status of
the feature; OFF=0
-
[7..19]
Reserved
Value
[20..31]
Value
Table 35: Trigger Delay CSR
The cameras also have an advanced register which allows even more precise
image capture delay after receiving a hardware trigger.
Trigger delay advanced register
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000400
TRIGGER_DELAY
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
-
ON_OFF
[6]
Trigger delay on/off
---
[7..10]
-
DelayTime
[11..31]
Delay time in µs
Table 36: Trigger Delay Advanced CSR
The advanced register allows the start of the integration to be delayed by
max. 221 µs, which is max. 2.1 s after a trigger edge was detected.
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Camera interfaces
Note
•
L
•
Switching trigger delay to ON also switches external
Trigger_Mode_0 to ON.
This feature works with external Trigger_Mode_0 only.
Outputs
The camera has 4 non-inverting outputs with open emitters. These are shown
in the following diagram:
OutVCC – Pin 10
GPOut1 – Pin 6
GND
TCMD4000
R
GND
GPOut2 – Pin 12
GND
TCMD4000
R
GND
GPOut3 – Pin 5
GND
TCMD4000
R
GND
GPOut4 – Pin 3
GND
GND
TCMD4000
R
Figure 45: Output schematics with external resistors R (pin no. from camera I/O connector)
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Camera interfaces
Parameter
Test condition
Value
Collector emitter voltage
Max. 35 V
Emitter collector voltage
Max. 7 V
Emitter current
Max. 50 mA
Collector current
Max. 80 mA
Collector peak current
tp/T=0.5
100 mA
t p ≤ 10ms
Power dissipation
100 mW
OutVCC
Resistor value
5V
1 kΩ
12 V
2.4 kΩ
24 V
4.7 kΩ
Note
L
•
•
•
•
Voltage above +45 V may damage the optical coupler.
The output connection is different to the AVT Dolphin
series to achieve higher output swing.
Depending on the voltage applied at OutVCC and the
type of input which you want to drive, it may be necessary to switch an external resistor in series between
GPOut1...4 and ground.
See Figure 45: Output schematics with external resistors
R (pin no. from camera I/O connector) on page 89.
Typical delay is not more than 40 µs.
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Camera interfaces
Figure 46: Output schematics: switching times
Parameter
Symbol
Value
Condition
Delay time
td
1.00 µs
Rise time
tr
2.60 µs
OutVCC = 5 V
Storage time
ts
48.00 µs
Resistor value = 1 kΩ
Fall time
tf
400.00 µs
Output features are configured by software. Any signal can be placed on any
output.
The main features of output signals are described below:
Signal
Description
IntEna (Integration Enable) signal
This signal displays the time in which exposure
was made. By using a register this output can be
delayed by up to 1.05 seconds.
Fval (Frame valid) signal
This feature signals readout from the sensor. This
signal Fval follows IntEna.
Busy signal
This indicator appears when the exposure is being
made; the sensor is being read from or data transmission is active. The camera is busy.
Table 37: Output signals
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Figure 47: Output block diagram
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IO_OUTP_CTRL 1-4
The outputs (Output mode, Polarity) are controlled via 4 advanced feature
registers (see Table 38: Output configuration register on page 93).
The Polarity field determines whether the output is inverted or not. The Output mode can be viewed in the table below. The current status of the output
can be queried and set via the PinState.
It is possible to read back the status of an output pin regardless of the output
mode. This allows for example the host computer to determine if the camera
is busy by simply polling the BUSY output.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000320
IO_OUTP_CTRL1
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..6]
Reserved
Polarity
[7]
0: Signal not inverted
1: Signal inverted
---
[8..10]
Reserved
Output mode
[11..15] Mode
see Table 39: Output routing
on page 94
---
[16..30] Reserved
PinState
[31]
RD: Current state of pin
WR: New state of pin
0xF1000324
IO_OUTP_CTRL2
Same as
IO_OUTP_CTRL1
0xF1000328
IO_OUTP_CTRL3
Same as
IO_OUTP_CTRL1
0xF100032C
IO_OUTP_CTRL4
Same as
IO_OUTP_CTRL1
Table 38: Output configuration register
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Output modes
ID
Mode
Default / description
0x00
Off
0x01
Output state follows PinState bit Using this mode, the Polarity bit
has to be set to 0 (not inverted).
This is necessary for an error free
display of the output status.
0x02
Integration enable
0x03
Reserved
0x04
Reserved
0x05
Reserved
0x06
FrameValid
0x07
Busy
0x08
Follow corresponding input
(Inp1Æ Out1, Inp2 Æ Out2)
0x09..0x0F
Reserved
0x10..0x1F
Reserved
Output 1
Output 2
Table 39: Output routing
PinState 0 switches off the output transistor and produces a low level over
the resistor connected from the output to ground.
The following diagram illustrates the dependencies of the various output signals.
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Figure 48: Output impulse diagram
Note
The signals can be inverted.
L
Caution
a
Firing a new trigger while IntEna is still active can result in
missing image.
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Camera interfaces
Note
•
L
•
Note that trigger delay in fact delays the image capture whereas the IntEna_Delay only delays the leading
edge of the IntEna output signal but does not delay the
image capture.
As mentioned before, it is possible to set the outputs
by software. Doing so, the achievable maximum frequency is strongly dependent on individual software
capabilities. As a rule of thumb, the camera itself will
limit the toggle frequency to not more than 700 Hz.
Pixel data
Pixel data are transmitted as isochronous data packets in accordance with
the 1394 interface described in IIDC V1.31. The first packet of a frame is
identified by the 1 in the sync bit (sy) of the packet header.
sync bit
0-7
8-15
data_length
16-23
tg
channel
24-31
tCode
sy
header_CRC
Video data payload
data_CRC
Table 40: Isochronous data block packet format. Source: IIDC V1.31
Field
Description
data_length
Number of bytes in the data field
tg
Tag field
shall be set to zero
channel
Isochronous channel number, as programmed in the iso_channel
field of the cam_sta_ctrl register
tCode
Transaction code
shall be set to the isochronous data block packet tCode
Table 41: Description of Data Block Packet Format
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Camera interfaces
Field
Description
sy
Synchronization value (sync bit)
This is one single bit. It indicates the start of a new frame.
It shall be set to 0001h on the first isochronous data block of a frame,
and shall be set to zero on all other isochronous blocks
Video data payload
Shall contain the digital video information
Table 41: Description of Data Block Packet Format
The video data for each pixel are output in either 8-bit or 14-bit format. Each
pixel has a range of 256 or 16384 shades of gray. The digital value 0 is black
and 255 or 16383 is white. In 16-bit mode the data output is MSB aligned.
The following table provides a description of the video data format for the
different modes. (Source: IIDC V1.31)
Figure 49: YUV 4:2:2 and YUV 4:1:1 format: Source: IIDC V1.31 specification
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Figure 50: Y8 and Y16 format: Source: IIDC V1.31 specification
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Figure 51: Data structure: Source: IIDC V1.31 specification
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Description of the data path
Description of the data path
Block diagrams of the cameras
The following diagrams illustrate the data flow and the bit resolution of
image data after being read from the CCD sensor chip in the camera. The individual blocks are described in more detail in the following paragraphs.
Black and white cameras
14 bit
14 bit
Horizontal
masking
Test-Pattern
14 bit
HSNR
control
16 bit
8 Bit
1394b
Analog
Gain
IEEE 1394b
interface
Analog
Offset
Frame
memory
Camera control
Analog
ADC
14 bit
Channel
balance
14 bit
Horizontal
mirror
Horizontal
sub-sampling
14 bit
LUT
Shading
correction
14 bit
Sensor
HIROSE I/O
RS232
Figure 52: Block diagram b/w camera
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Sensor
Analog
8 bit
16 bit
Analog
Sharpness
HSNR
control
Offset
8 bit
14 bit
ADC
Camera control
Hue
Saturation
Color correction
Color conversion
Horizontal
sub-sampling
Camera control
Analog
8 bit
14 bit
14 bit
IEEE 1394b
interface
Horizontal
masking
Channel
balance
1394b
14 bit
14 bit
LUT
White balance
14 bit
14 bit
Test-Pattern
Color
interpolation
Frame
memory
Gain
Shading
correction
Horizontal
mirror
Description of the data path
Color cameras
14 bit
HIROSE I/O
RS232
16 bit
Figure 53: Block diagram color camera
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Sensor
The PIKE family is equipped with various sensor types and resolutions. CCD
types are available in color and monochrome.
The following table provides an overview (all models also with fiber):
Model
PIKE F-032B
PIKE F-032C
PIKE F-100B
PIKE F-100C
Techn Manu- Sensor
facturer Type
CCD
KODAK
CCD
KODAK KAI-1020 type 2/3 10.5 mm
PIKE F-145B
PIKE F-145C CCD
PIKE F-210B
PIKE F-210C
PIKE F-421B
PIKE F-421C
Optical Sensor Micro- Chip Size
Format diag.
lens
[mm]
SONY
KAI-340 type 1/3
6 mm
Pixel Size Eff. Pixels
[µm]
Yes
4.74x3.55
7.4x7.4
648x488
Yes
7.4x7.4
7.4x7.4
1000x1000
Yes
ICX285 type 2/3 11.2 mm EXview
HAD
CCD
KODAK KAI-2093 type 1 15.3 mm
Yes
CCD
KODAK KAI-4021 type 1.2 21.4 mm
Yes
10.2x8.3 6.45 x 6.45 1392x1040
15.9x8.6
7.4x7.4
1928x1084
16.67x16.05 7.4x7.4
2056x2062
Table 42: Sensor data
Channel balance
All KODAK PIKE sensors are read out via two channels: the first channel for
the left half of the image and the second channel for the right half of the
image (divided by a central vertical line).
All KODAK equipped cameras come with a sensor-specific pre-adjusted channel balance.
However in some cases it may be advantageous to carry out a fine adjustment
with the so-called channel balance.
To carry out an adjustment in an advanced register: see Table 130: Channel
balance register on page 241.
Channel adjustment with SmartView 1.5
Prerequisites:
• Test sheet with continuous b/w gradient
• PIKE camera with defocused lens
• PIKE color cameras set to RAW8 and RAW16
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Description of the data path
•
In case of using AOI, be aware that the middle vertical line (+/- 20
pixel) is part of the AOI.
To carry out an adjustment in SmartView, perform the following steps:
1.
In SmartView click Extras Æ Adjust channels... or use Alt+Ctrl+A.
The following window opens:
Figure 54: SmartView: channel adjustment
Note
Program button is only available for AVT factory.
L
2.
To perform an automatic channel adjustment, click on Do one-push
adjustment.
3.
If the adjustment is not sufficient, repeat this step or adjust by clicking
the arrow buttons.
The two channels are automatically adjusted. For the channel adjustment a
region from +/- 20 pixel around the middle vertical is taken into account.
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Description of the data path
before
after
Figure 55: Example of channel adjustment: PIKE F-032B
White balance
PIKE color cameras have both manual and automatic white balance. White
balance is applied so that non-colored image parts are displayed non-colored. From the user's point, the white balance settings are made in register
80Ch of IIDC V1.31. This register is described in more detail below.
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Description of the data path
Register
Name
Field
Bit
0xF0F0080C
WHITE_BALANCE Presence_Inq [0]
Description
Presence of this feature:
0: N/A
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the Value field
1: Control with value in the Absolute
value CSR
If this bit=1, the value in the Value field
will be ignored.
-
[2..4]
Reserved
One_Push
[5]
Write 1: begin to work (self-cleared after
operation)
Read:
1: in operation
0: not in operation
If A_M_Mode = 1, this bit will be ignored.
ON_OFF
[6]
Write: ON or OFF this feature
Read: read a status
0: OFF
1: ON
A_M_MODE
[7]
Write: set mode
Read: read current mode
0: MANUAL
1: AUTO
U/B_Value
[8..19]
U/B value
This field is ignored when writing the
value in Auto or OFF mode.
If readout capability is not available, reading this field has no meaning.
V/R_Value
[20..31] V/R Value
This field is ignored when writing the
value in Auto or OFF mode.
If readout capability is not available, reading this field has no meaning.
Table 43: White balance register
The values in the U/B_Value field produce changes from green to blue; the
V/R_Value field from green to red as illustrated below.
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Description of the data path
Figure 56: U/V slider range
Type
Range
Range in dB
PIKE color cameras
0 ... 568
± 10 dB
Table 44: Manual gain range of the various PIKE types
The increment length is ~0.0353 dB/step.
One-push automatic white balance
To configure this feature in control and status register (CSR): See Table 43:
White balance register on page 105.
The camera automatically generates frames, based on the current settings of
all registers (GAIN, OFFSET, SHUTTER, etc.).
For white balance, in total 9 frames are processed. For the white balance
algorithm the whole image or a subset of it is used. The R-G-B component
values of the samples are added and are used as actual values for both the
one-push and the automatic white balance.
This feature uses the assumption that the R-G-B component sums of the samples shall be equal; i.e., it assumes that the average of the sampled grid pixels is to be monochrome.
Note
L
The following ancillary conditions should be observed for successful white balance:
•
•
There are no stringent or special requirements on the
image content, it requires only the presence of monochrome pixels in the image.
Automatic white balance can be started both during
active image capture and when the camera is in idle
state.
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Description of the data path
If the image capture is active (e.g. IsoEnable set in register 614h), the
frames used by the camera for white balance are also output on the 1394 bus.
Any previously active image capture is restarted after the completion of
white balance.
Automatic white balance can also be enabled by using an external trigger.
However, if there is a pause of >10 seconds between capturing individual
frames this process is aborted.
The following flow diagram illustrates the automatic white balance sequence.
Figure 57: Automatic white balance sequence
Finally, the calculated correction values can be read from the
WHITE_BALANCE register 80Ch.
Automatic white balance
The auto white balance feature continuously optimizes the color characteristics of the image.
For the white balance algorithm the whole image or a subset of it is used.
To set position and size of the control area (Auto_Function_AOI) in an
advanced register: see Table 126: Advanced register for autofunction AOI on
page 238.
AUTOFNC_AOI affects the auto shutter, auto gain and auto white balance features and is independent of the Format7 AOI settings. If this feature is
switched off the work area position and size follow the current active image
size.
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Description of the data path
Within this area, the R-G-B component values of the samples are added and
used as actual values for the feedback.
The following drawing illustrates the AUTOFNC_AOI settings in greater detail.
AOI: X-size
0,0
AF_AREA_POSITION: Left,Top
AOI: Y-size
Sampling grid for Auto-Function
AF_AREA_SIZE: Height: n x 4
AF_AREA_SIZE: Width: n x 4
Figure 58: AUTOFNC_AOI positioning
The algorithm is based on the assumption that the R-G-B component sums of
the samples are equal, i.e., it assumes that the mean of the sampled grid pixels is to be monochrome.
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Description of the data path
Auto shutter
In combination with auto white balance, PIKE cameras are equipped with
auto-shutter feature.
When enabled, the auto shutter adjusts the shutter within the default shutter
limits or within those set in advanced register F1000360h in order to reach
the reference brightness set in auto exposure register. Target grey level
parameter in SmartView corresponds to Auto_exposure register 0xF0F00804
(IIDC). Increasing the auto exposure value increases the average brightness
in the image and vice versa.
The applied algorithm uses a proportional plus integral controller (PI controller) to achieve minimum delay with zero overshot.
To configure this feature in control and status register (CSR):
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF0F0081C
SHUTTER
Presence_Inq [0]
Presence of this feature:
0: N/A
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the Value field
1: Control with value in the Absolute value CSR
If this bit=1, the value in the Value field will be
ignored.
-
[2..4]
Reserved
One_Push
[5]
Write 1: begin to work (self-cleared after operation)
Read:
1: in operation
0: not in operation
If A_M_Mode = 1, this bit will be ignored.
ON_OFF
[6]
Write: ON or OFF this feature
Read: read a status
0: OFF
1: ON
A_M_MODE
[7]
Write: set mode
Read: read current mode
0: MANUAL
1: AUTO
-
[8..19]
reserved
Table 45: Shutter CSR
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Description of the data path
To configure auto shutter control in an advanced register: See Table 124:
Auto shutter control advanced register on page 236.
Auto gain
All PIKE cameras are equipped with auto gain feature.
To configure this feature in an advanced register: See Table 125: Advanced
register for auto gain control on page 237.
When enabled auto gain adjusts the gain within the default gain limits or
within the limits set in advanced register F1000370h in order to reach the
brightness set in auto exposure register as reference.
Increasing the auto exposure value increases the average brightness in the
image and vice versa.
The applied algorithm uses a proportional plus integral controller (PI controller) to achieve minimum delay with zero overshot.
The following table shows both the gain and auto exposure CSR.
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Description of the data path
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF0F00820
GAIN
Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature:
0: N/A
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the value field
1: Control with value in the absolute
value CSR
If this bit=1 the value in the value field
has to be ignored.
-
[2..4]
Reserved
One_Push
[5]
Write: Set bit high to start
Read: Status of the feature:
Bit high: WIP
Bit low: Ready
ON_OFF
[6]
Write: ON or OFF this feature
Read: read a status
0: OFF
1: ON
A_M_MODE
[7]
Write: set mode
Read: read current mode
0: MANUAL
1: AUTO
-
[8..19]
reserved
Value
[20..31] Read/Write Value
This field is ignored when writing the
value in Auto or OFF mode.
If readout capability is not available,
reading this field has no meaning.
Table 46: Gain
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Description of the data path
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF0F00804
AUTO_EXPOSURE Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature:
0: N/A
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the value field
1: Control with value in the absolute
value CSR
If this bit=1 the value in the value field
has to be ignored.
-
[2..4]
Reserved
One_Push
[5]
Write: Set bit high to star
Read: Status of the feature:
Bit high: WIP
Bit low: Ready
ON_OFF
[6]
Write: ON or OFF this feature
Read: read a status
0: OFF
1: ON
A_M_MODE
[7]
Write: set mode
Read: read current mode
0: MANUAL
1: AUTO
-
[8..19]
Reserved
Value
[20..31] Read/Write Value
This field is ignored when writing the
value in Auto or OFF mode.
If readout capability is not available,
reading this field has no meaning.
Table 47: Auto Exposure CSR
To configure auto gain control in an advanced register: See Table 125:
Advanced register for auto gain control on page 237.
Note
•
L
•
•
Values can only be changed within the limits of gain
CSR.
Changes in auto exposure register only have an effect
when auto gain is active.
Auto exposure limits are 50..205. (SmartViewÆCtrl1
tab: Target grey level)
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Manual gain
PIKE cameras are equipped with a gain setting, allowing the gain to be manually adjusted on the fly by means of a simple command register write.
The following ranges can be used when manually setting the gain for the analog video signal:
Type
Range
Range in dB
PIKE color cameras
0 ... 565
0 ... 20 dB
PIKE b/w cameras
1 ... 630
0 ... 22 dB
PIKE F-145B
0 ... 900
0 ... 32 dB
PIKE F-145C
0 ... 900
0 ... 32 dB
Table 48: Manual gain range of the various PIKE types
The increment length is ~0.0353 dB/step.
The increment length for the PIKE F-145B/C is ~0.0358 dB/step.
Note
•
L
•
Setting the gain does not change the offset (black
value)
A higher gain produces greater image noise. This
reduces image quality. For this reason, try first to
increase the brightness, using the aperture of the camera optics and/or longer shutter settings.
Brightness (black level or offset)
It is possible to set the black level in the camera within the following ranges:
0 ... +16 gray values (@ 8 bit)
Increments are in 1/16 LSB (@ 8 bit)
Note
L
•
Setting the gain does not change the offset (black
value).
The IIDC register brightness at offset 800h is used for this purpose.
The following table shows the BRIGHTNESS register.
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Description of the data path
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF0F00800
BRIGHTNESS
Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature:
0: N/A
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the value
field
1: Control with value in the absolute
value CSR
If this bit= 1 the value in the value
field has to be ignored
-
[2..4]
Reserved
One_Push
[5]
Write: Set bit high to start
Read: Status of the feature:
Bit high: WIP
Bit low: Ready
ON_OFF
[6]
Write ON or OFF this feature ON=1
Read: Status of the feature OFF=0
A_M_MODE
[7]
Set bit high for Auto feature Read for
Mode; 0= MANUAL; 1= AUTO
-
[8..19]
Reserved
Value
[20..31]
Read/Write Value; this field is
ignored when writing the value in
Auto or OFF mode; if readout capability is not available reading this field
has no meaning
Table 49: Brightness
Horizontal mirror function
All PIKE cameras are equipped with an electronic mirror function, which mirrors pixels from the left side of the image to the right side and vice versa.
The mirror is centered to the actual FOV center and can be combined with all
image manipulation functions, like binning, shading and DSNU.
This function is especially useful when the camera is looking at objects with
the help of a mirror or in certain microscopy applications.
To configure this feature in an advanced register: See Table 129: Mirror control register on page 241.
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Description of the data path
Note
The use of the mirror function with color cameras and image
output in RAW format has implications on the BAYERordering of the colors.
L
Mirror OFF: R-G-G-B for Pike 145C
Mirror ON: G-R-B-G Pike 145 C
Mirror OFF: G-R-G-B for all other Pikes
Mirror ON: R-G-G-B for all other Pikes
Figure 59: Mirror and Bayer order
Note
During switchover one image may be temporarily corrupted.
L
Shading correction
Shading correction is used to compensate for non-homogeneities caused by
lighting or optical characteristics within specified ranges.
To correct a frame, a multiplier from 1...2 is calculated for each pixel in
1/256 steps: this allows for shading to be compensated by up to 50%.
Besides generating shading data off-line and downloading it to the camera,
the camera allows correction data to be generated automatically in the camera itself.
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Description of the data path
Note
•
L
•
•
Shading correction does not support the mirror function.
If you use shading correction, don’t change the mirror
function.
Due to binning and sub-sampling in the Format_7
modes use only the modes from the following table to
build the shading image.
If using the following mode...
... then build the shading image, using...
Format_7 Mode_0
Format_7 Mode_0
Format_7 Mode_1
Format_7 Mode_0
Format_7 Mode_2
Format_7 Mode_2
Format_7 Mode_3
Format_7 Mode_2
Format_7 Mode_4
Format_7 Mode_0
Format_7 Mode_5
Format_7 Mode_5
Format_7 Mode_6
Format_7 Mode_5
Table 50: Building shading image in Format_7 modes
There are two storing possibilities:
• After generating the shading image in the camera, it can be uploaded to
the host computer for nonvolatile storage purposes.
• The shading image can be stored in the camera itself.
The following pictures describe the process of automatic generation of correction data (PIKE F-032C). Surface plots and histograms were created using
the ImageJ program.
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Description of the data path
255.0
surface plot
0.0
0.0
48
els
pi x
640.
histogram
0
els
0 pix
256
Count: 307200
Mean: 135.337
StdDev. 30.497
Min: 79
Max. 19
Mode: 88 (4200)
Figure 60: Shading correction: Source image with non-uniform illumination
•
•
•
On the left you see the source image with non-uniform illumination.
The surface plot on the right clearly shows a gradient of the brightness
(0: brightest Æ 255: darkest pixels).
The histogram shows a wide band of gray values.
By defocusing the lens, high-frequency image data is removed from the
source image, therefore its not included in the shading image.
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Description of the data path
Automatic generation of correction data
Requirements
Shading correction compensates for non-homogeneities by giving all pixels
the same gray value as the brightest pixel. This means that only the background must be visible and the brightest pixel has a gray value of less than
255 when automatic generation of shading data is started.
It may be necessary to use a neutral white reference, e.g. a piece of paper,
instead of the real image.
Algorithm
After the start of automatic generation, the camera pulls in the number of
frames set in the GRAB_COUNT register. Recommended values are 2, 4, 8, 16,
32, 64, 128 or 256. An arithmetic mean value is calculated from them (to
reduce noise).
After this, a search is made for the brightest pixel in the mean value frame.
The brightest pixel(s) remain unchanged. A factor is then calculated for each
pixel to be multiplied by, giving it the gray value of the brightest pixel.
All of these multipliers are saved in a shading reference image. The time
required for this process depends on the number of frames to be calculated
and on the resolution of the image.
Correction alone can compensate for shading by up to 50% and relies on full
resolution data to minimize the generation of missing codes.
How to proceed:
Figure 61: Automatic generation of a shading image
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Description of the data path
To configure this feature in an advanced register: See Table 119: Shading
control register on page 230.
Note
•
The SHDG_CTRL register should not be queried at very
short intervals. This is because each query delays the
generation of the shading image. An optimal interval
time is 500 ms.
•
The calculation of shading data is always carried out at
the current resolution setting. If the AOI is later larger
than the window in which correction data was calculated, none of the pixels lying outside are corrected.
For Format_7 mode, it is advisable to generate the
shading image in the largest displayable frame format.
This ensures that any smaller AOIs are completely covered by the shading correction.
The automatic generation of shading data can also be
enabled when image capture is already running. The
camera then pauses the running image capture for the
time needed for generation and resumes after generation is completed.
Shading correction can be combined with the image
mirror and gamma functionality.
Changing binning modes involves the generation of
new shading reference images due to a change in the
image size.
L
Note
L
•
•
•
•
After the lens has been focused again the image below will be seen, but now
with a considerably more uniform gradient.
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Description of the data path
255.0
surface plot
0.0
p
0.0
48
ls
ixe
histogram
0p
640.
ixels
0
256
Count: 307200
Mean: 157.039
StdDev: 2.629
Min: 139
Max: 162
Mode: 158 (84449)
Figure 62: Example of shaded image
•
•
•
On the left you see the image after shading correction.
The surface plot on the right clearly shows nearly no more gradient of
the brightness (0: brightest Æ 255: darkest pixels). The remaining gradient is related to the fact that the source image is lower than 50% on
the right hand side.
The histogram shows a peak with very few different gray values.
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Loading a shading image out of the camera
GPDATA_BUFFER is used to load a shading image out of the camera. Because
the size of a shading image is larger than GPDATA_BUFFER, input must be
handled in several steps:
Query limits from
register:
SHDG_INFO and
GPDATA_INFO
Set EnableMemRD
to true (1)
Set AddrOffset to 0
Read n databytes
of
GPDATA_BUFFER
Increase
AddrOffset by n
bytes
Repeat steps until
all data is read
Check
EnableMemRD for
no change
Set EnableMemRD
to false (0)
Figure 63: Uploading shading image to host
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Loading a shading image into the camera
GPDATA_BUFFER is used to load a shading image into the camera. Because
the size of a shading image is larger than GPDATA_BUFFER, input must be
handled in several steps (see also Chapter Reading or writing shading image
from/into the camera on page 231):
Query limits from
register:
SHDG_INFO and
GPDATA_INFO
Set EnableMemWR
to true (1)
Set AddrOffset to 0
Write n databytes
in
GPDATA_BUFFER
Increase
AddrOffset by n
bytes
Repeat steps until
all data is written
Check
EnableMemWR for
no change
Set EnableMemWR
to false (0)
Figure 64: Loading the shading reference image
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Look-up table (LUT) and gamma function
The AVT PIKE camera provides sixteen (0-15) user-defined look-up tables
(LUT). The use of one LUT allows any function (in the form Output = F(Input))
to be stored in the camera's RAM and to be applied on the individual pixels
of an image at run-time.
The address lines of the RAM are connected to the incoming digital data,
these in turn point to the values of functions which are calculated offline,
e.g. with a spreadsheet program.
This function needs to be loaded into the camera's RAM before use.
One example of using an LUT is the gamma LUT:
There are two gamma LUTs (gamma=0.7 and gamma=0.45)
Output = (Input)0.7 and Output = (Input)0.45
These two gamma LUTs are used with all PIKE models.
It is known as compensation for the nonlinear brightness response of many
displays e.g. CRT monitors. The look-up table converts the incoming 14 bits
from the digitizer to outgoing up to 14 bits.
Output = f (Input)
Pike, gamma=0.45
Pike, gamma=0.7
16000
14000
12000
Output
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
Input
Figure 65: LUTs with gamma=0.45, gamma=0.7
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Note
L
•
•
•
•
The input value is the 14-bit value from the digitizer.
The two gamma LUTs use LUT 14 and 15.
Gamma 1 (gamma=0.7) switches on LUT 14, gamma 2
(gamma=0.45) switches on LUT 15. After overriding
LUT 14 and 15 with a user defined content, gamma
functionality is no longer available until the next full
initialization of the camera.
LUT content is volatile if you do not use the user profiles to save the LUT.
Loading an LUT into the camera
Loading the LUT is carried out through the data exchange buffer called
GPDATA_BUFFER. As this buffer can hold a maximum of 2 kB, and a complete
LUT at 16384 x 14 bit is 28 kByte, programming can not take place in a one
block write step because the size of an LUT is larger than GPDATA_BUFFER.
Therefore input must be handled in several steps. The flow diagram below
shows the sequence required to load data into the camera.
Query limits from
register:
LUT_INFO and
GPDATA_INFO
Set EnableMemWR
to true (1)
Set AddrOffset to 0
Write n databytes
in
GPDATA_BUFFER
Offset is increased
in camera after n
bytes are written
Repeat steps until
all data is written
Check
EnableMemWR for
no change
Set EnableMemWR
to false (0)
Figure 66: Loading an LUT
To configure this feature in an advanced register: See Table 118: LUT control
register on page 227.
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Description of the data path
Binning (b/w models)
2 x 2 Binning
Binning is the process of combining neighboring pixels while being read out
from the CCD chip.
PIKE b/w cameras have this feature.
Binning is used primarily for 3 reasons:
• a reduction in the number of pixels and thus the amount of data while
retaining the original image area angle
• an increase in the frame rate (vertical binning only)
• a brighter image, also resulting in an improvement in the signal-tonoise ratio of the image
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-noise separation specify the
quality of a signal with regard to its reproduction of intensities. The value
signifies how high the ratio of noise is in regard to the maximum achievable
signal intensity.
The higher this value, the better the signal quality. The unit of measurement
used is generally known as the decibel (dB), a logarithmic power level. 6 dB
is the signal level at approximately a factor of 2.
However, the advantages of increasing signal quality are accompanied by a
reduction in resolution.
Binning is possible only in video Format_7. The type of binning used
depends on the video mode.
Note
L
Changing binning modes involves the generation of new
shading reference images due to a change in the image size.
In general, we distinguish between two types of binning — which can also
be combined.
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Description of the data path
Vertical binning
Vertical binning increases the light sensitivity of the camera by a factor of
two by adding together the values of two adjoining vertical pixels output as
a single pixel. At the same time this normally improves signal-to-noise separation by about 3 dB.
Figure 67: Vertical binning
This reduces vertical resolution, depending on the model.
Note
L
If vertical binning is activated the image may appear to be
over-exposed and may require correction.
Use Format_7 Mode_2 to activate vertical binning.
Note
L
The image appears vertically compressed in this mode and
no longer exhibits a true aspect ratio.
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Description of the data path
Horizontal binning
In horizontal binning adjacent horizontal pixels in a line are combined in
pairs.
This means that in horizontal binning the light sensitivity of the camera is
also increased by a factor of two (6 dB). Signal-to-noise separation improves
by approx. 3 dB. Horizontal resolution is lowered, depending on the model.
Use Format_7 Mode_1 to activate horizontal binning.
Figure 68: Horizontal binning
Note
L
The image appears horizontally compressed in this mode
and does no longer show true aspect ratio.
If horizontal binning is activated the image may appear to
be over-exposed and must eventually be corrected.
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Description of the data path
Full binning
If horizontal and vertical binning are combined, every 4 pixels are consolidated into a single pixel. At first two horizontal pixels are put together and
then combined vertically.
This increases light sensitivity by a total of a factor of 4 and at the same time
signal-to-noise separation is improved by about 6 dB. Resolution is reduced,
depending on the model.
Use Format_7 Mode_3 to activate full binning.
Figure 69: Full binning
Sub-sampling
Sub-sampling is the process of skipping neighboring pixels (with the same
color) while being read out from the CCD chip.
All PIKE models, both color and b/w, have this feature.
Sub-sampling is used primarily for 2 reasons:
• A reduction in the number of pixels and thus the amount of data while
retaining the original image area angle and image brightness
Similar to binning mode the cameras support horizontal, vertical and h+v
sub-sampling mode.
Use Format_7 Mode_4 to activate horizontal sub-sampling. The different
sub-sampling patterns are shown below.
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Description of the data path
Figure 70: Horizontal sub-sampling (b/w and color)
Note
L
The image appears horizontally compressed in this mode and
no longer exhibits a true aspect ratio.
Use Format_7 Mode_5 to activate vertical sub-sampling.
The different sub-sampling patterns are shown below.
Figure 71: Vertical sub-sampling: (b/w and color)
Note
L
The image appears vertically compressed in this mode and no
longer exhibits a true aspect ratio.
Use Format_7 Mode_6 to activate h+v sub-sampling.
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Description of the data path
The different sub-sampling patterns are shown below.
Figure 72: H+V sub-sampling: (b/w and color)
Note
L
Changing sub-sampling modes involves the generation of new
shading reference images due to a change in the image size.
High SNR mode (High Signal Noise Ratio)
To configure this feature in an advanced register: See Table 132: High Signal
Noise Ratio (HSNR) on page 242.
In this mode the camera grabs and averages a set number of images and outputs one image with the same bit depth and the same brightness. This means
that the camera will output an 8-bit averaged image when an 8-bit image
format is selected.
Because of the fact that normally uncorrelated (photon-, amplifier-) noise
dominates over correlated noise (fixed pattern noise), adding two images
will double (6 dB) the gray levels but only increase the noise levels by 2
(3 dB).
This enhances both the dynamic range as well as the signal-to-noise ratio.
Consequently adding 256 8-bit images will lead to a potential signal-to-noise
enhancement of 24 dB or a resulting bit depth of 16 bit.
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Description of the data path
Note
•
L
•
•
•
The averaged image is output at a lower frame rate
being exactly the fraction: frame rate/number of
images.
The camera must be in idle before turning this feature
on.
The potential SNR enhancement may be lower when
using more than 8-bit original bit depth.
Select 16-bit image format in order to take advantage
of the full potential SNR and DNR (DyNamic Range)
enhancements.
Frame memory and deferred image transport
An image is normally captured and transported in consecutive steps. The
image is taken, read out from the sensor, digitized and sent over the 1394
bus.
Deferred image transport
As all PIKE cameras are equipped with built-in image memory, this order of
events can be paused or delayed by using the deferred image transport feature.
PIKE cameras are equipped with 64 MB of RAM. The table below shows how
many frames can be stored by each model. The memory operates according
to the FIFO (first in, first out) principle. This makes addressing for individual
images unnecessary.
Model
Memory size
PIKE F-032B/C
PIKE F-032B/C fiber
PIKE F-100B/C
PIKE F-100B/C fiber
PIKE F-145B/C
PIKE F-145B/C fiber
PIKE F-210B/C
PIKE F-210B/C fiber
PIKE F-421B/C
PIKE F-421B/C fiber
105 frames
32 frames
22 frames
15 frames
6 frames
Table 51: FIFO memory size
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Description of the data path
Deferred image transport is especially useful for multi-camera applications:
Assuming several cameras acquire images concurrently. These are stored in
the built-in image memory of every camera. Until this memory is full, the limiting factor of available bus bandwidth, DMA- or ISO-channel is overcome.
Image transfer is controlled from the host computer by addressing individual
cameras one after the other and reading out the desired number of images.
To configure this feature in an advanced register: See Table 121: Deferred
image configuration register on page 233.
HoldImg mode
By setting the HoldImg flag, transport of the image over the 1394 bus is
stopped completely. All captured images are stored in the internal
ImageFiFo. The camera reports the maximum possible number of images in
the FiFoSize variable.
Note
L
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pay attention to the maximum number of images that
can be stored in FiFo. If you capture more images than
the number in FiFoSize, the oldest images are overwritten.
The extra SendImage flag is set to true to import the
images from the camera. The camera sends the number
of images set in the NumOfImages parameter.
If NumOfImages is 0, all images stored in FIFO will be
sent.
If NumOfImages is not 0, the corresponding number of
images will be sent.
If the HoldImg field is set to false, all images in
ImageFIFO will be deleted. No images will be sent.
The last image in the FiFo will be corrupted, when
simultaneously used as input buffer while being read
out. In this case read out one image less than max.
buffer size.
NumOfImages is incremented after an image was read
out of the sonsor and therefore stored into the onboard
image FIFO.
NumOfImages is decremented after the last isochronous packet of an image was handed over to the
IEEE1394 chipset of the camera.
The following screenshot shows the sequence of commands needed to work
with deferred mode.
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Description of the data path
Figure 73: Example: Controlling deferred mode (SmartView - Direct Access; PIKE F-032C)
For a description of the commands see the following table:
#
rw Address
10 rd
F1000260
Value
Description
82006900h Check how many images are left in FiFo
9
wr F1000260
86006901h Read out the second image of FiFo
8
rd
82006901h Check how many images are left in FiFo
7
wr F1000260
86006901h Read out the first image of FiFo
6
rd
82006902h Check that two images are in FiFo
5
wr F0F0061C
82000000h Do second one-shot
4
wr F0F0061C
82000000h Do first one-shot
3
wr F1000260
82006900h Switch deferred mode on
2
rd
80006900h Check pres. of deferred mode and FiFo size (69h Æ 105 frames)
1
wr F0F00614
F1000260
F1000260
F1000260
00000000h Stop continuous mode of camera
Table 52: Example: Controlling deferred mode (SmartView - Direct Access; PIKE F-032C)
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Description of the data path
FastCapture mode
Note
This mode can be activated only in Format_7.
L
By setting FastCapture to false, the maximum frame rate both for image
acquisition and read out is associated with the packet size set in the
BYTE_PER_PACKET register. The lower this value is, the lower the attainable
frame rate is.
By setting FastCapture to true, all images are recorded at the highest possible frame rate, i.e. the setting above does not affect the frame rate for the
image intake but only the read out. The speed of the image transport over
the 1394 bus can be defined via the BytesPerPacket register. This mode is
ideal for applications where a burst of images need to be recorded at the
highest sensor speed but the output can be at a lower frame frequency to
save bandwidth.
Similar to the HoldImg mode, captured images will be stored in the internal
image FIFO, if the transport over the 1394 bus is slower than images are captured.
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Color interpolation
(BAYER demosaicing)
The color sensors capture the color information via so called primary color
(R-G-B) filters placed over the individual pixels in a BAYER mosaic layout.
An effective BAYER Æ RGB color interpolation already takes place in all PIKE
color version cameras.
In color interpolation a red, green or blue value is determined for each pixel.
An AVT proprietary BAYER demosaicing algorithm is used for this interpolation (max. 3x3), optimized for both sharpness of contours as well as reduction of false edge coloring.
x
Figure 74: Bayer demosaicing (example of 3x3 matrix)
Color processing can be bypassed by using so-called RAW image transfer.
RAW-mode is primarily used to
• save bandwidths on the IEEE 1394 bus
• achieve higher frame rates
• use different BAYER demosaicing algorithms on the PC (for Pike F-145
the first pixel of the sensor is RED, for all other Pikes the first pixel is
GREEN followed by RED).
Note
L
If the PC does not perform BAYER to RGB post-processing, the
b/w image will be superimposed with a checkerboard pattern.
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Description of the data path
Sharpness
The PIKE color models are equipped with a two step sharpness control, applying a discreet horizontal high pass in the Y channel as shown in the next
three line profiles.
Sharpness 0, 1 and 2 is calculated with the following scheme:
Sharpness value
0
0
1
0
1
-0.25
+1.5
-0.25
2
-0.5
2
-0.5
Table 53: Sharpness scheme
Figure 75: Sharpness: left: 0, middle: 1, right: 2
Note
L
Sharpness does not show any effect on PIKE color models in
the Raw8 and Raw16 format, because color processing is put
off in all Raw formats.
To configure this feature in feature control register: See Table 105: Feature
control register on page 213.
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Description of the data path
Hue and saturation
PIKE CCD color models are equipped with hue and saturation registers.
The hue register at offset 810h allows the color of objects to be changed
without altering the white balance, by +/- 40 steps (+/- 10°) from the nominal perception. Use this setting to manipulate the color appearance after
having carried out the white balance.
The saturation register at offset 814h allows the intensity of the colors to be
changed between 0 and 200% in steps of 1/256.
This means a setting of zero changes the image to black and white and a setting of 511 doubles the color intensity compared to the nominal one at 256.
To configure this feature in feature control register: See Table 105: Feature
control register on page 213.
Note
L
Hue and saturation do not show any effect on PIKE color
models in the Raw8 and Raw16 format, because color processing is switched off in all Raw formats.
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Description of the data path
Color correction
Before converting to the YUV format, color correction on all color models is
carried out after BAYER demosaicing via a matrix as follows:
red* = Crr × red + Cgr × green + Cbr × blue
green* = Crg × red + Cgg × green + Cbg × blue
blue* = Crb × red + Cgb × green + Cbb × blue
Formula 1: Color correction
GretagMacbeth ColorChecker
Sensor-specific coefficients Cxy are scientifically generated to ensure that
GretagMacbeth™ ColorChecker®-colors are displayed with highest color fidelity and color balance.
These coefficients are stored in user set 0 and can not be overwritten (factory
setting).
Color correction coefficients
You can change the color-correction coefficients according to your own
needs. Changes are stored in the user settings.
Note
If you need technical assistance, call the AVT support.
L
Note
•
L
•
•
•
A number of 1000 equals a color correction coefficient
of 1.
Color correction values range -1000..+2000 and are
signed 32 bit.
In order for white balance to work properly ensure that
the row sum equals 1000.
The maximum row sum is limited to 2000.
To configure the color correction coefficients in an advanced register: See
Table 127: Color correction on page 239.
To change the color-correction coefficients in SmartView, go to Adv3 tab.
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Description of the data path
Switch color correction on/off
Color correction can also be switched off in YUV mode:
To configure this feature in an advanced register: See Table 127: Color correction on page 239.
Note
Color correction is deactivated in RAW mode.
L
Color conversion (RGB Æ YUV)
The conversion from RGB to YUV is made using the following formulae:
Y =
0.3 × R + 0.59 × G + 0.11 × B
U = – 0.169 × R – 0.33 × G + 0.498 × B + 128
V = 0.498 × R – 0.420 × G – 0.082 × B + 128
Formula 2: RGB to YUV conversion
Note
•
L
•
As mentioned above: Color processing can be bypassed
by using so-called RAW image transfer.
RGB Æ YUV conversion can be bypassed by using RGB8
format and mode. This is advantageous for edge color
definition but needs more bandwidth (300% instead of
200% relative to b/w or RAW consumption) for the
transmission, so that the maximal frame frequency will
drop.
Bulk Trigger
See Chapter Trigger modi on page 145 and the following pages.
Level Trigger
See Trigger Mode 1 in Chapter Trigger modi on page 145.
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Description of the data path
Serial interface
All PIKE cameras are equipped with the SIO (serial input/output) feature as
described in IIDC V1.31. This means that the PIKE’s serial interface can be
used as a general RS232 interface.
Data written to a specific address in the IEEE 1394 address range will be sent
through the serial interface. Incoming data of the serial interface is put in a
camera buffer and can be polled via simple read commands from this buffer.
Controlling registers enable the settings of baud rates and the check of buffer
sizes and serial interface errors.
Note
L
•
•
Hardware handshaking is not supported.
Typical PC hardware does not usually support
230400 bps or more.
Base address for the function is: F0F02100h.
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Description of the data path
To configure this feature in access control register (CSR):
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
000h
SERIAL_MODE_REG
Baud_Rate
[0..7]
Baud rate setting
WR: Set baud rate
RD: Read baud rate
0: 300 bps
1: 600 bps
2: 1200 bps
3: 2400 bps
4: 4800 bps
5: 9600 bps
6: 19200 bps
7: 38400 bps
8: 57600 bps
9: 115200 bps
10: 230400 bps
Other values reserved
Char_Length
[8..15]
Character length setting
WR: Set data length (7 or 8 bit)
RD: Get data length
7: 7 bits
8: 8 bits
Other values reserved
Parity
[16..17] Parity setting
WR: Set parity
RD: Get parity setting
0: None
1: Odd
2: Even
Stop_Bit
[18..19] Stop bits
WR: Set stop bit
RD: Get stop bit setting
0: 1
1: 1.5
2: 2
-
[20..23] Reserved
Buffer_Size_Inq [24..31] Buffer Size (RD only)
This field indicates the maximum size of
receive/transmit data buffer.
If this value=1, Buffer_Status_Control
and SIO_Data_Register Char 1-3 should
be ignored.
Table 54: Serial input/output control and status register (SIO CSR)
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Description of the data path
Offset
Name
0004h
Field
Bit
Description
SERIAL_CONTROL_REG RE
[0]
Receive enable
RD: Current status
WR:
0: Disable
1: Enable
TE
[1]
Transmit enable
RD: Current status
WR:
0: disable
1: Enable
-
[2..7]
Reserved
TDRD
[8]
Transmit data buffer ready
Read only
0: not ready
1: ready
-
[9]
Reserved
RDRD
[10]
Receive data buffer ready
Read only
0: not ready
1: ready
-
[11]
Reserved
ORER
[12]
Receive data buffer overrun error
Read: current status
WR:
0: no error (to clear status)
1: Ignored
FER
[13]
Receive data framing error
Read: current status
WR:
0: no error (to clear status)
1: Ignored
PER
[14]
Receive data parity error
Read: current status
WR:
0: no error (to clear status)
1: Ignored
-
[15..31] Reserved
SERIAL_STATUS_REG
Table 54: Serial input/output control and status register (SIO CSR)
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Description of the data path
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
008h
RECEIVE_BUFFER_
STATUS_CONTRL
RBUF_ST
[0..7]
SIO receive buffer status
RD: Number of bytes pending in receive
buffer
WR: Ignored
RBUF_CNT
[8..15]
SIO receive buffer control
RD: Number of bytes to be read from the
receive FiFo
WR: Number of bytes left for readout
from the receive FiFo
-
[16..31] Reserved
TBUF_ST
[0..7]
SIO output buffer status
RD: Space left in TX buffer
WR: Ignored
TBUF_CNT
[8..15]
SIO output buffer control
RD: Number of bytes written to transmit
FiFo
WR: Number of bytes to transmit
-
[16..31] Reserved
-
Reserved
00Ch
TRANSMIT_BUFFER_
STATUS_CONTRL
010h
..
0FFh
100h
104h
..
1FFH
SIO_DATA_REGISTER
CHAR_0
[0..7]
Character_0
RD: Read character from receive buffer
WR: Write character to transmit buffer
SIO_DATA_REGISTER
CHAR_1
[8..15]
Character_1
RD: Read character from receive
buffer+1
WR: Write character to transmit
buffer+1
SIO_DATA_REGISTER
CHAR_2
[16..23] Character_2
RD: Read character from receive
buffer+2
WR: Write character to transmit
buffer+2
SIO_DATA_REGISTER
CHAR_3
[24..31] Character_3
RD: Read character from receive
buffer+3
WR: Write character to transmit
buffer+3
SIO_DATA_REGISTER_
ALIAS
[0..31]
Alias SIO_Data_Register area for block
transfer
Table 54: Serial input/output control and status register (SIO CSR)
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Description of the data path
To read data:
1.
Query RDRD flag (buffer ready?) and write the number of bytes the host
wants to read to RBUF_CNT.
2.
Read the number of bytes pending in the receive buffer RBUF_ST (more
data in the buffer than the host wanted to read?) and the number of
bytes left for reading from the receive FiFo in RBUF_CNT (host wanted
to read more data than were in the buffer?).
3.
Read received characters from SIO_DATA_REGISTER, beginning at char 0.
4.
To input more characters, repeat from step 1.
To write data:
1.
Query TDRD flag (buffer ready?) and write the number of bytes to send
(copied from SIO register to transmit FiFo) to TBUF_CNT.
2.
Read the available data space left in TBUF_ST (if the buffer can hold
more bytes than are to be transmitted) and number of bytes written to
transmit buffer in TBUF_CNT (if more data is to be transmitted than fits
in the buffer).
3.
Write character to SIO_DATA_REGISTER, beginning at char 0.
4.
To output more characters, repeat from step 1.
Note
•
L
•
Contact your local dealer if you require further information or additional test programs or software.
AVT recommends the use of Hyperterminal™ or other
communication programs to test the functionality of
this feature. Alternatively use SmartView to try out this
feature.
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Controlling image capture
The cameras support the SHUTTER_MODES specified in IIDC V1.31. For all
models this shutter is a global pipelined shutter; meaning that all pixels are
exposed to the light at the same moment and for the same time span.
Pipelined means that the shutter for a new image can already happen, while
the preceding image is transmitted.
In continuous modes the shutter is opened shortly before the vertical reset
happens, thus acting in a frame-synchronous way.
Combined with an external trigger, it becomes asynchronous in the sense
that it occurs whenever the external trigger occurs. Individual images are
recorded when an external trigger impulse is present. This ensures that even
fast moving objects can be grabbed with no image lag and with minimal
image blur.
The external trigger is fed as a TTL signal through Pin 4 of the camera I/O
connector.
Trigger modi
The cameras support IIDC conforming Trigger_Mode_0 and Trigger_Mode_1
and special Trigger_Mode_15 (bulk trigger).
Trigger Mode
Description
Trigger_Mode_0
Sets the shutter time according to the value set in the shutter (or extended shutter) register
Trigger_Mode_1
Sets the shutter time according to the active low time of the pulse applied (or
active high time in the case of an inverting input)
Trigger_Mode_15 Is a bulk trigger, combining one external trigger event with continuous or oneshot or multishot internal trigger
Table 55: Trigger modi
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Controlling image capture
External Trigger input, as applied at input pin
External Trigger input, after inverting opto coupler
Shutter register value
External Trigger input, as applied at pin
External Trigger input,
after inv. Opto.
Integration Time
Figure 76: Trigger_mode_0 and 1
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Controlling image capture
Bulk Trigger (Trigger_Mode_15)
Trigger_Mode_15 is an extension to the IIDC trigger modes. One external
trigger event can be used to trigger a multitude of internal image intakes.
This is especially useful for:
• Grabbing exactly one image based on the first external trigger.
• Filling the camera's internal image buffer with one external trigger without overriding images.
• Grabbing an unlimited amount of images after one external trigger (surveillance)
The Figure below illustrates this mode.
External Trigger input, after inverting optocoupler
N x image; N: continuous, one_shot, multi_shot
Figure 77: Trigger_Mode_15
The functionality is controlled via bit [6] and bitgroup [12-15] of the following register:
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Controlling image capture
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF0F00830
TRIGGER_MODE
Presence_Inq
[0]
Presence of this feature:
0: N/A
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the Value field
1: Control with value in the Absolute
value CSR
If this bit = 1 the value in the Value
field has to be ignored
-
[2..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Write: ON or OFF this feature
Read: read a status
0: OFF
1: ON
In this bit = 0, other fields will be read
only.
Trigger_Polarity [7]
Select trigger polarity
(Except for software trigger)
If Polarity_Inq is 1:
Write to change polarity of the trigger
input.
Read to get polarity of the trigger input.
If Polarity_Inq is 0:
Read only.
0: Low active input
1: High active input
Trigger_Source
[8..10]
Select trigger source
Set trigger source ID from trigger source
ID_Inq
Trigger_Value
[11]
Trigger input raw signal value
read only
0: Low
1: High
Trigger_Mode
[12..15] Trigger_Mode
(Trigger_Mode_0..15)
-
[16..19] Reserved
Parameter
[20..31] Parameter for trigger function, if
required (optional)
Table 56: Trigger_Mode_15 (Bulk Trigger)
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The screenshots below illustrate the use of Trigger_Mode_15 on a register
level:
• Line #1switches continuous mode off, leaving viewer in listen mode.
• Line #2 prepares 830h register for external trigger and Mode_15.
Left = continuous
Middle = one shot
Right = multi shot
Line #3 switches camera back to
continuous mode. Only one
image is grabbed precisely with
the first external trigger.
Line #3 toggles One_Shot bit [0]
of the One_Shot register 61C so
that only one image is grabbed,
based on the first external trigger.
Line #3 toggles Multi_Shot bit
[1] of the One_Shot register 61C
so that Ah images are grabbed,
starting with the first external
trigger.
To repeat rewrite line three.
To repeat rewrite line three.
To repeat rewrite line three.
Table 57: Description: Using Trigger_Mode_15: Continuous, oneshot, multishot
Figure 78: Using Trigger_Mode_15: Continuous, oneshot, multishot
Note
Shutter for the images is controlled by shutter register.
L
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Trigger delay
As already mentioned earlier the cameras feature various ways to delay image
capture based on external trigger.
With IIDC V1.31 there is a standard CSR at Register F0F00534/834h to control
a delay up to FFFh x time base value. The following table explains the Inquiry
register and the meaning of the various bits.
Register
Name
0xF0F00534 TRIGGER_DLY_INQUIRY
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this feature (read only)
Abs_Control_Inq [1]
Capability of control with absolute value
-
[2]
Reserved
One_Push_Inq
[3]
One Push auto mode (controlled
automatically by the camera
once)
ReadOut_Inq
[4]
Capability of reading out the
value of this feature
On_Off_Inq
[5]
Capability of switching this feature ON and OFF
Auto_Inq
[6]
Auto Mode (controlled automatically by the camera)
Manual_Inq
[7]
Manual Mode (controlled by
user)
Min_Value
[8..19]
Minimum value for this feature
Max_Value
[20..31] Maximum value for this feature
Table 58: Trigger Delay Inquiry register
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Controlling image capture
Name
0xF0F00834
Field
Bit
Description
[0]
Presence of this feature:
0: N/A
1: Available
Abs_Control
[1]
Absolute value control
O: Control with value in the Value field
1: Control with value in the Absolute
value CSR
If this bit = 1, the value in the Value
field has to be ignored
-
[2..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Write: ON or OFF this feature
Read: read a status
0: OFF
1: ON
In this bit = 0, other fields will be read
only.
-
[7..19]
Reserved
Value
[20..31] Value
TRIGGER_DELAY Presence_Inq
If you write the value in OFF mode, this
field will be ignored.
If ReadOut capability is not available,
then the read value will have no meaning.
Table 59: Trigger Delay CSR
Trigger delay advanced register
In addition, the cameras have an advanced register which allows even more
precise image capture delay after receiving a hardware trigger.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000400
TRIGGER_DELAY Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
-
ON_OFF
[6]
Trigger delay on/off
---
[7..10]
-
DelayTime
[11..31]
Delay time in µs
Table 60: Trigger Delay Advanced CSR
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The advanced register allows start of the integration to be delayed by max.
221 µs, which is max. 2.1 s after a trigger edge was detected.
Note
•
L
•
Switching trigger delay to ON also switches external
Trigger_Mode_0 to ON.
This feature works with external Trigger_Mode_0 only.
Exposure time
The exposure (shutter) time for continuous mode and Trigger_Mode_0 is
based on the following formula:
Shutter register value x time base + offset
The register value is the value set in the corresponding IIDC 1.31 register
(SHUTTER [81Ch]). This number is in the range between 1 and 4095.
The shutter register value is multiplied by the time base register value (see
Table 115: Time base ID on page 224). The default value here is set to 20 µs.
A camera-specific offset is also added to this value. It is different for the
camera models:
Exposure time offset
Camera model
Exposure time offset
PIKE F-032
15 µs
PIKE F-100
42 µs
PIKE F-145
32 µs
PIKE F-210
38 µs
PIKE F-421
65 µs
Table 61: Camera-specific exposure time offset
Minimum exposure time
Camera model
Minimum exposure time
Effective min. exp. time
= Min. exp. time + offset
PIKE F-032
11 µs
26 µs
PIKE F-100
43 µs
85 µs
Table 62: Camera-specific minimum exposure time
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Controlling image capture
Camera model
Minimum exposure time
Effective min. exp. time
= Min. exp. time + offset
PIKE F-145
4 µs
36 µs
PIKE F-210
39 µs
77 µs
PIKE F-421
28 µs
93 µs
Table 62: Camera-specific minimum exposure time
Example: PIKE F-032
Camera
Register value
PIKE F-032
Time base (default)
100
20 µs
Table 63: Register value and time base for PIKE F-032
register value x time base = exposure time
100 x 20 µs + 15 µs = 2015 µs exposure time
The minimum adjustable exposure time set by register is 11 µs. Æ The real
minimum exposure time of PIKE F-032 is then 11 µs + 15 µs = 26 µs.
Extended shutter
The exposure time for long-term integration of up to 67 seconds can be
extended via the advanced register: EXTENDED_SHUTTER
Register
Name
Field
0xF100020C
EXTD_SHUTTER Presence_Inq
Bit
Description
[0]
Indicates presence of this feature (read
only)
---
[1.. 5]
ExpTime
[6..31]
Exposure time in µs
Table 64: Extended shutter configuration
The longest exposure time, 3FFFFFFh, corresponds to 67.11 sec.
The lowest possible value of ExpTime is camera-specific (see Table 62: Camera-specific minimum exposure time on page 152).
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Controlling image capture
Note
•
L
•
•
•
Exposure times entered via the 81Ch register are mirrored in the extended register, but not vice versa.
Longer integration times not only increase sensitivity,
but may also increase some unwanted effects such as
noise and pixel-to-pixel non-uniformity. Depending on
the application, these effects may limit the longest
usable integration time.
Changes in this register have immediate effect, even
when the camera is transmitting.
Extended shutter becomes inactive after writing to a
format/mode/frame rate register.
One-Shot
The camera can record an image by setting the OneShot bit in the 61Ch register. This bit is automatically cleared after the image is captured. If the camera is placed in Iso_Enable mode (see Chapter ISO_Enable / Free-Run on page
157), this flag is ignored.
If OneShot mode is combined with the external trigger, the OneShot command is used to arm it. The following screenshot shows the sequence of commands needed to put the camera into this mode. It enables the camera to
grab exactly one image with an external trigger edge.
If there is no trigger impulse after the camera has been armed, OneShot can
be cancelled by clearing the bit.
Figure 79: One-shot control (SmartView)
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Controlling image capture
#
Read/
Write
Address
Value
Description
7
wr
F0F0061C
80000000
Do one-shot.
6
rd
F0F0061C
00000000
Read out one-shot register.
5
wr
F0F00830
82000000
Switch on external trigger mode 0.
4
rd
F0F00830
80000000
Check trigger status.
3
wr
F0F00614
00000000
Stop Free-run.
2
rd
F0F00614
80000000
Check Iso_Enable mode (ÆFree-run).
1
rd
F0F00614
00000000
This line is produced by SmartView.
Table 65: One-shot control: descriptions
One-Shot command on the bus to start of
exposure
The following sections describe the time response of the camera using a single frame (OneShot) command. As set out in the IIDC specification, this is a
software command that causes the camera to record and transmit a single
frame.
The following values apply only when the camera is idle and ready for use.
Full resolution must also be set.
Feature
Value
OneShot Æ Microcontroller-Sync
≤ 150 µs (processing time in the
microcontroller)
µC-Sync/ExSync Æ Integration-Start 8 µs
Table 66: Values for one-shot
Microcontroller-Sync is an internal signal. It is generated by the microcontroller to initiate a trigger. This can either be a direct trigger or a release for
ExSync if the camera is externally triggered.
End of exposure to first packet on the bus
After the exposure, the CCD sensor is read out; some data is written into the
FRAME_BUFFER before being transmitted to the bus.
The time from the end of exposure to the start of transport on the bus is:
710 µs ± 62.5 µs
This time 'jitters' with the cycle time of the bus (125 µs).
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Controlling image capture
Timebase x Shutter + Offset = Exposure Time
< 150 s
Pike F-033: 15 µs
Pike F-100: 42 µs
Pike F-145: 32 µs
Pike F-210: 38 µs
Pike F-421: 65 µs
< 710 s
+/-62.5 s
Figure 80: Data flow and timing after end of exposure
Multi-shot
Setting multi-shot and entering a quantity of images in Count_Number in
the 61Ch register enables the camera to record a specified number of images.
The number is indicated in bits 16 to 31. If the camera is put into Iso_Enable
mode (see Chapter ISO_Enable / Free-Run on page 157), this flag is ignored
and deleted automatically once all the images have been recorded.
If multi-shot mode is activated and the images have not yet all been captured, it can be cancelled by resetting the flag. The same result can be
achieved by setting the number of images to 0.
Multi-shot can also be combined with the external trigger in order to grab a
certain number of images based on an external trigger. This is especially
helpful in combination with the so called Deferred_Mode to limit the number of grabbed images to the FIFO size.
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Controlling image capture
ISO_Enable / Free-Run
Setting the MSB (bit 0) in the 614h register (ISO_ENA) puts the camera into
ISO_Enable mode or Continuous_Shot. The camera captures an infinite series
of images. This operation can be quit by deleting the 0 bit.
Asynchronous broadcast
The camera accepts asynchronous broadcasts. This involves asynchronous
write requests that use node number 63 as the target node with no acknowledge.
This makes it possible for all cameras on a bus to be triggered by software
simultaneously - e.g. by broadcasting a One_Shot. All cameras receive the
One_Shot command in the same IEEE 1394 bus cycle. This creates uncertainty for all cameras in the range of 125 µs.
Inter-camera latency is described in Chapter Jitter at start of exposure on
page 158.
The following screenshot shows an example of broadcast commands sent with
the Firedemo example of FirePackage:
Figure 81: Broadcast one-shot
•
•
Line 1 shows the broadcast command, which stops all cameras connected to the same IEEE 1394 bus. It is generated by holding the
<shift> key down while clicking on <Write>.
Line 2 generates a broadcast One_Shot in the same way, which forces
all connected cameras to simultaneously grab one image.
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Controlling image capture
Jitter at start of exposure
The following chapter discusses the latency time which exists for all CCD
models when either a hardware or software trigger is generated, until the
actual image exposure starts.
Owing to the well-known fact that an Interline Transfer CCD sensor has both
a light sensitive area and a separate storage area, it is common to interleave
image exposure of a new frame and output that of the previous one. It makes
continuous image flow possible, even with an external trigger.
The uncertain time delay before the start of exposure depends on the state
of the sensor. A distinction is made as follows:
FVal is active Æ the sensor is reading out, the camera is busy
In this case the camera must not change horizontal timing so that the trigger
event is synchronized with the current horizontal clock. This introduces a
max. uncertainty which is equivalent to the line time. The line time depends
on the sensor used and therefore can vary from model to model.
FVal is inactive Æ the sensor is ready, the camera is idle
In this case the camera can resynchronize the horizontal clock to the new
trigger event, leaving only a very short uncertainty time of the master clock
period.
Model
Camera (while FVal)
Camera idle
Pike F-032
± 4.9 µs
± 8.3 ns
Pike F-100
± 8.2 µs
± 8.3 ns
Pike F-145
± 16 µs
± 8.3 ns
Pike F-210
± 14.25 µs
± 8.3 ns
Pike F-421
± 15 µs
± 8.3 ns
Table 67: Jitter at exposure start
Note
L
•
Jitter at the beginning of an exposure has no effect on
the length of exposure, i.e. it is always constant.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Video formats, modes and bandwidth
The different PIKE models support different video formats, modes and frame
rates.
These formats and modes are standardized in the IIDC (formerly DCAM) specification.
Resolutions smaller than the generic sensor resolution are generated from
the center of the sensor and without binning.
Note
•
L
•
The maximum frame rates can only be achieved with
shutter settings lower than 1/framerate. This means
that with default shutter time of 40 ms, a camera will
not achieve frame rates higher than 25 frames/s. In
order to achieve higher frame rates, please reduce the
shutter time proportionally.
The following tables assume that bus speed is
800 Mbit/s. With lower bus speeds (e.g. 400, 200 or
100 Mbit/s) not all frame rates may be achieved.
PIKE F-032B / PIKE F-032C
Format Mode Resolution Color mode 240
fps
0
120
fps
60
fps
30
fps
15
fps
7.5
fps
3.75
fps
1.875
fps
0
160 x 120 YUV444
1
320 x 240 YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
2
640 x 480 YUV411
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
3
640 x 480 YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
x
4
640 x 480 RGB8
x
x
x
x
x
x
5
640 x 480 Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
640 x 480 Mono16
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x*
Table 68: Video fixed formats PIKE F-032B / PIKE F-032C
*: Color camera outputs RAW image, which needs to be converted outside of
camera.
Frame rates with shading are only achievable with 1394b (S800).
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format Mode Resolution Color mode
Maximal S800 frame rates for Format_7 modes
640 x 480 Mono8
Mono16
202.53 fps (Mono8)
105.96 fps (Mono16)
640 x 480 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
139.13 fps (YUV411)
105.96 fps (YUV422,Raw16)
202.53 fps (Mono8,Raw8)
70.48 fps (RGB8)
1
320 x 480 Mono8
Mono16
202.53 fps (Mono8), 2x H-binning
202.53 fps (Mono16), 2x H-binning
2
640 x 240 Mono8
Mono16
372.09 fps (Mono8), 2x V-binning
207.79 fps (Mono16), 2x V-binning
3
320 x 240 Mono8
Mono16
372.09 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V binning
372.09 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V binning
4
320 x 480 Mono8
Mono16
202.53 fps (Mono8), 2x H-sub-sampling
202.53 fps (Mono16), 2x H-sub-sampling
320 x 480 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
202.53 fps (YUV411), 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
202.53 fps (YUV422,Raw16), 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
202.53 fps (Mono8,Raw8), 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
139.13 fps (RGB8), 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
0
7
5
6
640 x 240
Mono8
Mono16
372.09 fps (Mono8), 2x V-sub-sampling
207.79 fps (Mono16), 2x V-sub-sampling
640 x 240 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
271.19 fps (YUV411), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
207.79 fps (YUV422,Raw16), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
372.09 fps (Mono8,Raw8), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
139.13 fps (RGB8), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
320 x 240 Mono8
Mono16
372.09 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V sub-sampling
372.09 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V sub-sampling
320 x 240 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
372.09 fps (YUV411), 2x/4x H+V sub-sampling
372.09 fps (YUV422,Raw16), 2x/4x H+V sub-sampling
372.09 fps (Mono8,Raw8), 2x/4x H+V sub-sampling
271.19 fps (RGB8), 2x/4x H+V sub-sampling
Table 69: Video Format_7 modes PIKE F-032B / PIKE F-032C
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-100B / PIKE F-100C
Format Mode Resolution
0
1
Color mode 240
fps
120
fps
60
fps
30
fps
15
fps
7.5
fps
3.75
fps
1.875
fps
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
0
160 x 120
YUV444
1
320 x 240
YUV422
2
640 x 480
YUV411
x
x
x
x
x
x
3
640 x 480
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
x
4
640 x 480
RGB8
x
x
x
x
x
x
5
640 x 480
Mono8
xx*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
640 x 480
Mono16
x
x
x
x
x
x
0
800 x 600
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
1
800 x 600
RGB8
x
x
x
x
2
800 x 600
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
3
1024 x 768
YUV422
4
1024 x 768
RGB8
5
1024 x 768
Mono8
6
800 x 600
Mono16
x
x
x
x
7
1024 x 768
Mono16
x
Table 70: Video fixed formats PIKE F-100B / F-100C
*: Color camera outputs RAW image, which needs to be converted outside of
camera.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format Mode Resolution
0
Color mode
Maximal S800 frame rates for Format_7 modes
1000 x 1000 Mono8
Mono16
59.93 fps (Mono8)
32.59 fps (Mono16)
1000 x 1000 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
43.36 fps (YUV411)
32.59 fps (YUV422,Raw16)
59.93 fps (Mono8,Raw8)
21.77 fps (RGB8)
1
500 x 1000
Mono8
Mono16
59.93 fps (Mono8), 2x H-binning
59.93 fps (Mono16), 2x H-binning
2
1000 x 500
Mono8
Mono16
98.16 fps (Mono8), 2x V-binning
64.78 fps (Mono16), 2x V-binning
3
500 x 500
Mono8
Mono16
98.16 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V binning
98.16 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V binning
4
500 x 1000
Mono8
Mono16
59.93 fps (Mono8), 2x H-sub-sampling
59.93 fps (Mono16), 2x H-sub-sampling
500 x 1000
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
59.93 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
59.93 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
59.93 fps (Mono8,Raw8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
43.36 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
1000 x 500
Mono8
Mono16
98.16 fps (Mono8), 2x V-sub-sampling
64.78 fps (Mono16), 2x V-sub-sampling
1000 x 500
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
86.49 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
64.78 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
98.16 fps (Mono8,Raw8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
43.36 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
500 x 500
Mono8
Mono16
98.16 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V-sub-sampling
98.16 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V-sub-sampling
500 x 500
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
98.16 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
98.16 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
98.16 fps (Mono8,Raw8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
86.49 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
7
5
6
Table 71: Video Format_7 modes PIKE F-100B / F-100C
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-145B / PIKE F-145C
Format Mode Resolution
0
1
2
Color mode 240
fps
120
fps
60
fps
30
fps
15
fps
7.5
fps
3.75
fps
1.875
fps
x
x
x
x
x
x
0
160 x 120
YUV444
1
320 x 240
YUV422
2
640 x 480
YUV411
x
x
x
x
x
3
640 x 480
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
4
640 x 480
RGB8
x
x
x
x
x
5
640 x 480
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
640 x 480
Mono16
x
x
x
x
x
0
800 x 600
YUV422
x
x
x
x
1
800 x 600
RGB8
x
x
x
2
800 x 600
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
3
1024 x 768
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
4
1024 x 768
RGB8
x
x
x
x
5
1024 x 768
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
800 x 600
Mono16
x
x
x
x
7
1024 x 768
Mono16
x
x
x
x
x
0
1280 x 960
YUV422
x
x
x
x
1
1280 x 960
RGB8
x
x
x
x
2
1280 x 960
Mono 8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
3
1600 x 1200 YUV422
4
1600 x 1200 RGB8
5
1600 x 1200 Mono8
6
1280 x 960
x
x
x
x
7
1600 x 1200 Mono16
Mono16
x x*
Table 72: Video fixed formats PIKE F-145B / F-145C
*: Color camera outputs RAW image, which needs to be converted outside of
camera.
Frame rates with shading are only achievable with 1394b (S800).
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format Mode Resolution
0
Color mode
Maximal S800 frame rates for Format_7 modes
30.02 fps (Mono8)
22.70 fps (Mono16)
1388 x 1038 Mono8
Mono16
30.02 fps (YUV411)
22.70 fps (YUV422,Raw16)
30.02 fps (Mono8,Raw8)
15.14 fps (RGB8)
1388 x 1038 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
1
692 x 1038
Mono8
Mono16
29.91 fps (Mono8), 2x H-binning
30.02 fps (Mono16), 2x H-binning
2
1388 x 518
Mono8
Mono16
50.47 fps (Mono8), 2x V-binning
45.33 fps (Mono16), 2x V-binning
3
692 x 518
Mono8
Mono16
50.47 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V binning
50.47 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V binning
4
692 x 1038
Mono8
Mono16
29.91 fps (Mono8), 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (Mono16), 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
692 x 1038
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
1388 x 518
Mono8
Mono16
1388 x 518
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
30.02 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (YUV422) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
30.13 fps (Raw16) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (Mono8,Raw8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
692 x 518
Mono8
Mono16
30.02 fps (Mono8), 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (Mono16), 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
692 x 518
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
7
5#
6#
30.02 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
29.91 fps (Mono8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (Raw8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (Mono8), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (Mono16), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (YUV422) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
30.13 fps (Raw16) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (Mono8,Raw8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
30.02 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
Table 73: Video Format_7 modes PIKE F-145B / F-145C
#: Vertical sub-sampling is done via concealing certain lines, so the frame rate is not
frame rate = f (AOI height)
but
frame rate = f (2 x AOI height)
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-210B / PIKE F-210C
Format Mode Resolution
0
1
2
Color mode 240
fps
120
fps
60
fps
30
fps
15
fps
7.5
fps
3.75
fps
1.875
fps
x
x
x
x
x
x
0
160 x 120
YUV444
1
320 x 240
YUV422
2
640 x 480
YUV411
x
x
x
x
x
3
640 x 480
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
4
640 x 480
RGB8
x
x
x
x
x
5
640 x 480
Mono 8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
640 x 480
Mono 16
x
x
x
x
x
0
800 x 600
YUV422
x
x
x
x
1
800 x 600
RGB8
x
x
x
2
800 x 600
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
3
1024 x 768
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
4
1024 x 768
RGB8
x
x
x
x
5
1024 x 768
Mono 8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
800 x 600
Mono16
x
x
x
x
7
1024 x 768
Mono16
x
x
x
x
x
0
1280 x 960
YUV422
x
x
x
x
1
1280 x 960
RGB8
x
x
x
x
2
1280 x 960
Mono 8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
3
1600 x 1200 YUV422
4
1600 x 1200 RGB8
5
1600 x 1200 Mono8
6
1280 x 960
x
x
x
x
7
1600 x 1200 Mono16
Mono16
x x*
Table 74: Video fixed formats PIKE F-210B / F-210C
*: Color camera outputs RAW image, which needs to be converted outside of
camera.
Frame rates with shading are only achievable with 1394b (S800).
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format Mode Resolution
0
Color mode
Maximal S800 frame rates for Format_7 modes
31.43 fps (Mono8)
15.76 fps (Mono16)
1920 x 1080 Mono8
Mono16
21.02 fps (YUV411)
15.76 fps (YUV422,Raw16)
31.43 fps (Mono8,Raw8)
10.52 fps (RGB8)
1920 x 1080 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
1
960 x 1080
Mono8
Mono16
32.06 fps (Mono8), 2x H-binning
31.43 fps (Mono16), 2x H-binning
2
1920 x 540
Mono8
Mono16
51.45 fps (Mono8), 2x V-binning
31.43 fps (Mono16), 2x V-binning
3
960 x 540
Mono8
Mono16
51.45 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V binning
51.45 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V binning
4
960 x 1080
Mono8
Mono16
32.06 fps (Mono8), 2x H-sub-sampling
31.43 fps (Mono16), 2x H-sub-sampling
960 x 1080
tbd
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
1920 x 540
Mono8
Mono16
1920 x 540
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
960 x 540
Mono8
Mono16
960 x 540
YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8,RGB8
7
5#
6#
32.06 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
31.43 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
32.06 fps (Mono8,Raw8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
21.02 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (Mono8), 2x V-sub-sampling
31.43 fps (Mono16), 2x V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
31.43 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (Mono8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
32.06 fps (Raw8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
21.02 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (YUV422) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
32.06 fps (Raw16) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (Mono8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
32.06 fps (Raw8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
31.94 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
Table 75: Video Format_7 modes PIKE F-210B / F-210C
#: Vertical sub-sampling is done via concealing certain lines, so the frame rate is not
frame rate = f (AOI height)
but
frame rate = f (2 x AOI height)
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-421B / PIKE F-421C
Format Mode Resolution
0
1
2
Color
Mode
240
fps
120
fps
60
fps
30
fps
15
fps
7.5
fps
3.75
fps
1.875
fps
0
160 x 120
YUV444
1
320 x 240
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
2
640 x 480
YUV411
x
x
x
x
x
3
640 x 480
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
4
640 x 480
RGB8
x
x
x
x
x
5
640 x 480
Mono8
xx
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
640 x 480
Mono16
x
x
x
x
x
0
800 x 600
YUV422
x
x
x
x
1
800 x 600
RGB8
x
x
x
2
800 x 600
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
3
1024 x 768
YUV422
x
x
x
x
x
4
1024 x 768
RGB8
x
x
x
x
5
1024 x 768
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
800 x 600
Mono16
x
x
x
x
7
1024 x 768
Mono16
x
x
x
x
x
0
1280 x 960
YUV422
x
x
x
x
1
1280 x 960
RGB8
x
x
x
x
2
1280 x 960
Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
3
1600 x 1200 YUV422
x
x
x
x
4
1600 x 1200 RGB8
x
x
x
5
1600 x 1200 Mono8
x x*
x x*
x x*
x x*
6
1280 x 960
Mono16
x
x
x
x
7
1600 x 1200 Mono16
x
x
x
x
Table 76: Video fixed formats PIKE F-421-B / PIKE F-421C
*: Color camera outputs RAW image, which needs to be converted outside of
camera.
Frame rates with shading are only achievable with 1394b (S800).
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format Mode Resolution
Color
Mode
Maximal S800 frame rates for Format_7 modes
2048 x 2048 Mono8
Mono16
15.61 fps (Mono8)
7.81 fps (Mono16)
2048 x 2048 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
10.41 fps (YUV411)
7.81 fps (YUV422,Raw16)
15.61 fps (Mono8,Raw8)
5.21 fps (RGB8)
1
1024 x 2048 Mono8
Mono16
16.11 fps (Mono8), 2x H-binning
15.61 fps (Mono16), 2x H-binning
2
2048 x 1024 Mono8
Mono16
28.83 fps (Mono8), 2x V-binning
15.61 fps (Mono16), 2x V-binning
3
1024 x 1024 Mono8
Mono16
28.83 fps (Mono8), 2x H+V binning
28.93 fps (Mono16), 2x H+V binning
4
1024 x 2048 Mono8
Mono16
16.11 fps (Mono8), 2x H-sub-sampling
15.61 fps (Mono16), 2x H-sub-sampling
1024 x 2048 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
16.11 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
15.61 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
16.11 fps (Mono8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
16.15 fps (Raw8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
10.41 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H-sub-sampling
2048 x 1024 Mono8
Mono16
28.83 fps (Mono8), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
15.61 fps (Mono16), 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
2048 x 1024 YUV411
YUV422,
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
20.81 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
15.61 fps (YUV422,Raw16) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
28.83 fps (Mono8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
28.93 fps (Raw8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
10.41 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x V-sub-sampling
1024 x 1024 Mono8
Mono16
28.83 fps (Mono8), 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
28.93 fps (Mono16), 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
1024 x 1024 YUV411
YUV422
Raw16
Mono8
Raw8
RGB8
28.83 fps (YUV411) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
28.83 fps (YUV422) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
28.93 fps (Raw16) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
28.83 fps (Mono8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
28.93 fps (Raw8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
20.81 fps (RGB8) 2x/4x H+V-sub-sampling
0
7
5
6
Table 77: Video Format_7 modes PIKE F-421-B / PIKE F-421C
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Area of interest (AOI)
The camera’s image sensor has a defined resolution. This indicates the maximum number of lines and pixels per line that the recorded image may have.
However, often only a certain section of the entire image is of interest. The
amount of data to be transferred can be decreased by limiting the image to
a section when reading it out from the camera. At a lower vertical resolution
the sensor can be read out faster and thus the frame rate is increased.
Note
The setting of AOIs is supported only in video Format_7.
L
While the size of the image read out for most other video formats and modes
is fixed by the IIDC specification, thereby determining the highest possible
frame rate, in Format_7 mode the user can set the upper left corner and
width and height of the section (area of interest = AOI) he is interested in
to determine the size and thus the highest possible frame rate.
Setting the AOI is done in the IMAGE_POSITION and IMAGE_SIZE registers.
Attention should be paid to the increments entered in the UNIT_SIZE_INQ
and UNIT_POSITION_INQ registers when configuring IMAGE_POSITION and
IMAGE_SIZE.
AF_AREA_POSITION and AF_AREA_SIZE contain in the respective bits values
for the column and line of the upper left corner and values for the width and
height.
Note
L
For more information see Table 107: Format_7 control and
status register on page 214.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Figure 82: Area of interest (AOI)
Note
•
L
•
The left position + width and the upper position +
height may not exceed the maximum resolution of the
sensor.
The coordinates for width and height must be divisible
by 4.
In addition to the AOI, some other parameters have an effect on the maximum frame rate:
• the time for reading the image from the sensor and transporting it into
the FRAME_BUFFER
• the time for transferring the image over the FireWire™ bus
• the length of the exposure time.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Autofunction AOI
Use this feature to select the image area (work area) on which the following
autofunctions work:
• auto shutter
• auto gain
• auto white balance
In the following screenshot you can see an example of the autofunction AOI:
work area
Figure 83: Example of autofunction AOI (Show work area is on)
Note
L
For more information see Chapter Autofunction AOI on page
238.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Frame rates
An IEEE 1394 camera requires bandwidth to transport images.
The IEEE 1394b bus has very large bandwidth of at least 62.5 MByte/s for
transferring (isochronously) image data. Per cycle up to 8192 bytes (or
around 2000 quadlets = 4 bytes@ 800 Mbit/s) can thus be transmitted.
Note
All bandwidth data is calculated with:
L
1 MByte = 1024 kByte
Depending on the video format settings and the configured frame rate, the
camera requires a certain percentage of maximum available bandwidth.
Clearly the bigger the image and the higher the frame rate, the more data is
to be transmitted.
The following tables indicate the volume of data in various formats and
modes to be sent within one cycle (125 µs) at 800 Mbit/s of bandwidth.
The tables are divided into three formats:
Format
Resolution
max. Video Format
Format_0
up to VGA
640 x 480
Format_1
up to XGA
1024 x 768
Format_2
up to UXGA
1600 x 1200
Table 78: Overview fixed formats
They enable you to calculate the required bandwidth and to ascertain the
number of cameras that can be operated independently on a bus and in which
mode.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format Mode
0
Resolution
240
fps
120
fps
60
fps
30
fps
15
fps
7.5
fps
160 x 120 YUV (4:4:4)
4H
640p
480q
2H
320p
240q
1H
160p
120q
1/2H
80p
60q
1/4H
40p
30q
1/8H
20p
15q
8H
4H
2H
2560p 1280p 640p
1280q 640q 320q
1H
320p
160q
1/2H
160p
80q
1/4H
80p
40q
1/8H
40p
20q
8H
4H
2H
1H
5120p 2560p 1280p 640p
1920q 960q 480q 240q
1/2H
320p
120q
1/4H
160p
60q
4H
2H
1H
2560p 1280p 640p
1280q 640q 320q
1/2H
320p
160q
1/4H
160p
80q
4H
2H
1H
2560p 1280p 640p
1280q 960q 480q
1/2H
320p
240q
1/4H
160p
120q
8H
4H
2H
1H
5120p 2560p 1280p 640p
1280q 640q 320q 160q
1/2H
320p
80q
1/4H
160
p40q
4H
2H
1H
2560p 1280p 640p
1280q 640q 320q
1/2H
320p
160q
1/4H
160p
80q
24 bit/pixel
1
320 x 240 YUV (4:2:2)
16 bit/pixel
2
640 x 480 YUV (4:1:1)
12 bit/pixel
3
640 x 480 YUV (4:2:2)
16 bit/pixel
0
4
640 x 480 RGB
24 bit/pixel
5
640 x 480 (Mono8)
8 bit/pixel
6
640 x 480 Y (Mono16)
16 Bit/pixel
7
3.75
fps
Reserved
Table 79: Format_0
As an example, VGA Mono8 @ 60 fps requires four lines (640 x 4 = 2560 pixels/byte) to transmit every 125 µs: this is a consequence of the sensor's line
time of about 30 µs, so that no data needs to be stored temporarily. It takes
120 cycles (120 x 125 µs = 15 ms) to transmit one frame, which arrives every
16.6 ms from the camera. Again no data need to be stored temporarily.
Thus around 64% of the available bandwidth (at S400) is used. Thus one camera can be connected to the bus at S400.
The same camera, run at S800 would require only 32% of the available bandwidth, due to the doubled speed. Thus up to three cameras can be connected
to the bus at S800.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format Mode Resolution
0
800 x 600 YUV (4:2:2)
16 bit/pixel
1
240
fps
120
fps
60
fps
800 x 600 RGB
800 x 600 Y (Mono8)
8 bit/pixel
3
4
1024 x 768 YUV (4:2:2)
8 bit/pixel
6
800 x 600 (Mono16)
16 bit/pixel
7
1.875
fps
6/16H
250p
125q
3H
3/2H 3/4H
3072p 1536p 768p
1536q 768q 384q
3/8H
384p
192q
3/16H
192p
96q
3/2H 3/4H
1536p 768p
384q 576q
3/8H
384p
288q
3/16H
192p
144q
6H
3H
3/2H 3/4H
6144p 3072p 1536p 768p
1536q 768q 384q 192q
3/8H
384p
96q
3/16H
192p
48q
5H
5/2H 5/4H 5/8H
4000p 2000p 1000p 500p
2000q 1000q 500q 250q
5/16H
250p
125q
1024 x 768 RGB
1024 x 768 Y (Mono)
3.75
fps
10H
5H
5/2H 5/4H 5/8H
8000p 4000p 2000p 1000p 500p
2000q 1000q 500q 250q 125q
24 bit/pixel
5
7.5
fps
5/2H 5/4H 5/8H
2000p 1000p 500p
1500q 750q 375q
16 bit/pixel
1
15
fps
5H
5/2H 5/4H 5/8H
4000p 2000p 1000p 500p
2000q 1000q 500q 250q
24 bit/pixel
2
30
fps
1024 x 768 Y (Mono16)
3H
3/2H 3/4H
3072p 1536p 768p
1536q 768q 384q
16 bit/pixel
3/8H
384p
192q
3/16H
192p
96q
Table 80: Format_1
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Format
Mode
Resolution
60
fps
0
1280 x 960 YUV (4:2:2)
30
fps
16 bit/pixel
1
1280 x 960 RGB
24 bit/pixel
2
1280 x 960 Y (Mono8)
4H
5120p
1280q
8 bit/pixel
3
1600 x 1200 YUV(4:2:2)
16 bit/pixel
2
4
15
fps
7.5
fps
3.75
fps
1.875
fps
2H
2560p
1280q
1H
1280p
640q
1/2H
640p
320q
1/4H
320p
160q
2H
2560p
1920q
1H
1280p
960q
1/2H
640p
480q
1/4H
320p
240q
2H
2560p
640q
1H
1280p
320q
1/2H
640p
160q
1/4H
320p
80q
5/2H
4000p
2000q
5/4H
2000p
1000q
5/8H
1000p
500q
5/16H
500p
250q
5/4H
2000p
1500q
5/8H
1000p
750q
5/16
500p
375q
5/2H
4000p
1000q
5/4H
2000p
500q
5/8H
1000p
250q
5/16H
500p
125q
2H
2560p
1280q
1H
1280p
640q
1/2H
640p
320q
1/4H
320p
160q
5/2H
4000p
2000q
5/4H
2000p
1000q
5/8H
1000p
500q
5/16H
500p
250q
1600 x 1200 RGB
24 bit/pixel
5
1600 x 1200 Y (Mono) 8
bit/pixel
6
5H
8000p
2000q
1280 x 960 Y (Mono16)
16 bit/pixel
7
1600 x 1200Y(Mono16)
16 bit/pixel
Table 81: Format_2
As already mentioned, the recommended limit for transferring isochronous
image data is 2000q (quadlets) per cycle or 8192 bytes (with 800 Mbit/s of
bandwidth).
Note
L
•
•
If the cameras are operated with an external trigger the
maximum trigger frequency may not exceed the highest
continuous frame rate, so preventing frames from being
dropped or corrupted.
IEEE 1394 adapter cards with PCILynx™ chipsets (predeccessor of OHCI) have a limit of 4000 bytes per cycle.
The frame rates in video modes 0 to 2 are specified and set fixed by IIDC
V1.31.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
Frame rates Format_7
In video Format_7 frame rates are no longer fixed.
For the different sensors, different values apply.
Frame rates may be further limited by bandwidth limitation from the IEEE
1394 bus.
Details are described in the next chapter.
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-032: AOI frame rates
Frame rate = f(AOI height)
PIKE F-032
1600
1400
Frame rate / fps
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
AOI height / pixel
Figure 84: Frame rates PIKE F-032 as function of AOI height
Frame rate / fps
AOI height / pixel
Tframe / ms
480
202.53
4.93
300
301.89
3.31
240
372.09
2.68
150
516.13
1.93
120
592.59
1.68
60
941.18
1.06
30
1230.77
0.81
14
1454.55
0.68
Table 82: Frame rates PIKE F-032 as function of AOI height
Note
Tframe = 1 / frame rate
L
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-100: AOI frame rates
Frame rate = f(AOI height)
PIKE F-100
280
260
240
220
Frame rate / fps
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
AOI height / pixel
Figure 85: Frame rates PIKE F-100 as function of AOI height
Frame rate / fps
AOI height / pixel
1000
960
600
480
300
240
150
120
60
30
10
59.93
61.78
87.43
100.63
132.23
146.79
179.78
192.77
225.35
246.15
262.30
Tframe / ms
16.68
16.18
11.43
9.93
7.56
6.81
5.56
5.18
4.43
4.06
3.81
Table 83: Frame rates PIKE F-100 as function of AOI height
Note
Tframe = 1 / frame rate
L
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Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-145: AOI frame rates
Frame rate = f(AOI height)
PIKE F-145
160
140
Frame rate / fps
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
AOI height / pixel
Figure 86: Frame rates PIKE F-145 as function of AOI height
Frame rate / fps
AOI height / pixel
1038
1024
960
600
480
300
240
150
120
60
30
10
30.02
30.36
31.94
45.58
53.16
70.48
79.60
98.16
105.96
125.98
139.13
149.53
Tframe / ms
33.31
32.94
31.31
21.94
18.81
14.19
12.56
10.19
9.44
7,94
7.19
6.69
Table 84: Frame rates PIKE F-145 as function of AOI height
Note
Tframe = 1 / frame rate
L
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
179
Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-210: AOI frame rates
Frame rate = f(AOI height)
Pike F-210
140
Frame rate / fps
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
50
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150
Figure 87: Frame rates PIKE F210 as function of AOI height
Frame rate / fps
AOI height / pixel
1080
960
600
480
300
240
150
120
60
30
10
31.43
35.01
48.34
55.36
70.48
78.05
91.43
98.16
111.89
120.30
128.00
Tframe / ms
31.82
28.56
20.69
18.06
14.19
12.81
10.94
10.19
8.94
8.31
7.81
Table 85: Frame rates PIKE F-210 as function of AOI height
Note
Tframe = 1 / frame rate
L
In Format_7 Mode_5 and Mode_6 the Pike F-210 has a frame
rate of:
frame rate ~ f(2 x AOI height)
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
180
Video formats, modes and bandwidth
PIKE F-421: AOI frame rates
Frame rate = f(AOI height)
PIKE F-421
140
120
Frame rate / fps
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200
AOI height / pixel
Figure 88: Frame rates PIKE F-421 as function of AOI height
Frame rate / fps
AOI height / pixel
2048
1200
1024
960
600
480
240
120
60
30
14
15.61
25.44
28.93
30.36
43.13
49.84
73.73
95.81
113.48
124.03
132.23
Tframe / ms
64.06
39.30
34.56
32.93
23.18
20.06
13.56
10.43
8.81
8.06
7.56
Table 86: Frame rates PIKE F-421 as function of AOI height
Note
Tframe = 1 / frame rate
L
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
181
How does bandwidth affect the frame rate?
How does bandwidth affect the frame
rate?
In some modes the IEEE 1394b bus limits the attainable frame rate. According to the 1394b specification on isochronous transfer, the largest data payload size of 8192 bytes per 125 µs cycle is possible with bandwidth of
800 Mbit/s. In addition, there is a limitation, only a maximum number of
65535 (216 -1) packets per frame are allowed.
The following formula establishes the relationship between the required
Byte_Per_Packet size and certain variables for the image. It is valid only for
Format_7.
BYTE_PER_PACKET = frame rate × AOI_WIDTH × AOI_HEIGHT × ByteDepth × 125µs
Formula 3: Byte_per_Packet calculation (only Format_7)
If the value for BYTE_PER_PACKET is greater than 8192 (the maximum data
payload), the sought-after frame rate cannot be attained. The attainable
frame rate can be calculated using this formula:
(Provision: BYTE_PER_PACKET is divisible by 4):
BYTE_PER_PACKET
frame rate ≈ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AOI_WIDTH × AOI_HEIGHT × ByteDepth × 125µs
Formula 4: Maximum frame rate calculation
ByteDepth based on the following values:
Mode
bit/pixel
Mono8, Raw8
byte per pixel
8
1
Mono16, Raw16
16
2
YUV4:2:2
16
2
YUV4:1:1
12
1.5
RGB8
24
3
Table 87: ByteDepth
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
182
How does bandwidth affect the frame rate?
Example formula for the b/w camera
Mono16, 1392 x 1040, 30 fps desired
BYTE_PER_PACKET = 30 × 1392 × 1040 × 2 × 125µs = 10856 > 8192
8192
⇒ frame rate reachable ≈ ------------------------------------------------------------ = 22.64
1392 × 1040 × 2 × 125µs
Formula 5: Example maximum frame rate calculation
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
183
How does bandwidth affect the frame rate?
Test images
Loading test images
FirePackage
Direct FirePackage
Fire4Linux
1. Start SmartView.
1. Start SmartView for WDM.
1. Start cc1394 viewer.
2. Click the Edit settings
button.
2. In Camera menu click
Settings.
2. In Adjustments menu click
on Picture Control.
3. Click Adv1 tab.
3. Click Adv1 tab.
3. Click Main tab.
4. In combo box Test images
choose Image 1 or another
test image.
4. In combo box Test images
choose Image 1 or another
test image.
4. Activate Test image check
box on.
5. In combo box Test images
choose Image 1 or another
test image.
Table 88: Loading test images in different viewers
Test images for b/w cameras
The b/w cameras have two test images that look the same. Both images show
a gray bar running diagonally (mirrored at the middle axis).
• Image 1 is static.
• Image 2 moves upwards by 1 pixel/frame.
Figure 89: Gray bar test image
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
184
How does bandwidth affect the frame rate?
Test images for color cameras
The color cameras have 1 test image:
YUV4:2:2 mode
Figure 90: Color test image
Mono8 (raw data)
Figure 91: Bayer-coded test image
The color camera outputs Bayer-coded raw data in Mono8 instead of - as
described in IIDC V1.31 - a real Y signal. The first pixel of the image is always
the red pixel from the sensor. (Mirror must be switched off.)
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
185
Configuration of the camera
Configuration of the camera
All camera settings are made by writing specific values into the corresponding registers.
This applies to:
• values for general operating states such as video formats and modes,
exposure times, etc.
• extended features of the camera that are turned on and off and controlled via corresponding registers (so-called advanced registers).
Camera_Status_Register
The interoperability of cameras from different manufacturers is ensured by
IIDC, formerly DCAM (Digital Camera Specification), published by the IEEE
1394 Trade Association.
IIDC is primarily concerned with setting memory addresses (e.g. CSR:
Camera_Status_Register) and their meaning.
In principle all addresses in IEEE 1394 networks are 64 bits long.
The first 10 bits describe the Bus_Id, the next 6 bits the Node_Id.
Of the subsequent 48 bits, the first 16 bits are always FFFFh, leaving the
description for the Camera_Status_Register in the last 32 bits.
If in the following, mention is made of a CSR F0F00600h, this means in full:
Bus_Id, Node_Id, FFFF F0F00600h
Writing and reading to and from the register can be done with programs such
as FireView or by other programs developed using an API library (e.g.
FirePackage).
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
186
Configuration of the camera
Every register is 32 bit (big endian) and implemented as follows (MSB = Most
Significant Bit; LSB = Least Significant Bit):
Far left
Bit
Bit
Bit
0
1
2
...
MSB
Bit
Bit
30
31
LSB
Table 89: 32-bit register
Example
This requires, for example, that to enable ISO_Enabled mode (see Chapter
ISO_Enable / Free-Run on page 157), (bit 0 in register 614h), the value
80000000 h must be written in the corresponding register.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
187
Configuration of the camera
Offset of Register: (0x0F00614)
ISO_Enable
Write 80000000 and click Write
Content of register: 80000000
= 1000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
Figure 92: Enabling ISO_Enable
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
188
Configuration of the camera
Offset of Register: (0x1000040)
ADV_FNC_INQ
Content of register: FAE3C401
= 1111 1010 1110 0011 1110 0100 0000 0001
ExtdShutter
Testimage
Look-up tables
Shading
DeferredTrans
Trigger Delay
Misc. features
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
ColorCorr
GP_Buffer
UserProfiles
VersionInfo
TimeBase
1
High SNR
Bit
0
SoftReset
Bit
MaxResolution
Table 90: Configuring the camera (PIKE F-421C)
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Table 91: Configuring the camera: registers
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
189
Configuration of the camera
Sample program
The following sample code in C/C++ shows how the register is set for video
mode/format, trigger mode etc. using the FireGrab and FireStack API.
Example FireGrab
…
// Set Videoformat
if(Result==FCE_NOERROR)
Result= Camera.SetParameter(FGP_IMAGEFORMAT,MAKEIMAGEFORMAT(RES_640_480,
CM_Y8, FR_15));
// Set external Trigger
if(Result==FCE_NOERROR)
Result= Camera.SetParameter(FGP_TRIGGER,MAKETRIGGER(1,0,0,0,0));
// Start DMA logic
if(Result==FCE_NOERROR)
Result=Camera.OpenCapture();
// Start image device
if(Result==FCE_NOERROR)
Result=Camera.StartDevice();
…
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
190
Configuration of the camera
Example FireStack API
…
// Set framerate
Result=WriteQuad(HIGHOFFSET,m_Props.CmdRegBase+CCR_FRAMERATE,(UINT32)m_Parms.F
rameRate<<29);
// Set mode
if(Result)
Result=WriteQuad(HIGHOFFSET,m_Props.CmdRegBase+CCR_VMODE,(UINT32)m_Parms.Video
Mode<<29);
// Set format
if(Result)
Result=WriteQuad(HIGHOFFSET,m_Props.CmdRegBase+CCR_VFORMAT,(UINT32)m_Parms.Vid
eoFormat<<29);
// Set trigger
if(Result)
{
Mode=0;
if(m_Parms.TriggerMode==TM_EXTERN)
Mode=0x82000000;
if(m_Parms.TriggerMode==TM_MODE15)
Mode=0x820F0000;
WriteQuad(HIGHOFFSET,m_Props.CmdRegBase+CCR_TRGMODE,Mode);
}
// Start continous ISO if not oneshot triggermode
if(Result && m_Parms.TriggerMode!=TM_ONESHOT)
Result=WriteQuad(HIGHOFFSET,m_Props.CmdRegBase+CCR_ISOENABLE,0x80000000);
…
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
191
Configuration of the camera
Configuration ROM
The information in the Configuration ROM is needed to identify the node, its
capabilities and which drivers are required.
The base address for the configuration ROM for all registers is
FFFF F0000000h.
Note
If you want to use the DirectControl program to read or write
to a register, enter the following value in the Address field:
L
F0F00000h + Offset
The ConfigRom is divided into
• Bus info block: providing critical information about the bus-related
capabilities
• Root directory: specifying the rest of the content and organization,
such as:
– Node unique ID leaf
– Unit directory and
– Unit dependant info
The base address of the camera control register is calculated as follows based
on the camera-specific base address:
Offset 0-7
Bus info block
16-23 24-31
400h
04
29
0C
C0
404h
31
33
39
34
…. ASCII for 1394
408h
20
00
B2
03
…. Bus capabilities
40Ch
00
0A
47
01
…. Node_Vendor_Id, Chip_id_hi
410h
Root directory
8-15
Serial number
…. Chip_id_lo
414h
00
04
B7
85
418h
03
00
0A
47
41Ch
0C
00
83
C0
420h
8D
00
00
02
424h
D1
00
00
04
According to IEEE1212, the root directory
may have another length. The keys (e.g.
8D) point to the offset factors rather than
the offset (e.g. 420h) itself.
Table 92: Config ROM
The entry with key 8D in the root directory (420h in this case) provides the
offset for the Node unique ID leaf.
To compute the effective start address of the node unique ID leaf:
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
192
Configuration of the camera
To compute the effective start address of the node unique ID leaf
currAddr
= node unique ID leaf address
destAddr
= address of directory entry
addrOffset
= value of directory entry
destAddr
= currAddr + (4 * addrOffset)
= 420h + (4 * 000002h)
= 428h
Table 93: Computing effective start address
420h + 000002 * 4 = 428h
Offset
Node unique ID leaf
0-7
8-15
16-23
24-31
428h
00
02
5E
9E
....CRC
42Ch
00
0A
47
01
….Node_Vendor_Id,Chip_id_hi
430h
00
00
Serial number
Table 94: Config ROM
The entry with key D1 in the root directory (424h in this case) provides the
offset for the unit directory as follows:
424h + 000004 * 4 = 434h
Offset
Unit directory
0-7
8-15
16-23
24-31
434h
00
03
93
7D
438h
12
00
A0
2D
43Ch
13
00
01
02
440h
D4
00
00
01
Table 95: Config ROM
The entry with key D4 in the unit directory (440h in this case) provides the
offset for unit dependent info:
440h + 000001 * 4 = 444h
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
193
Configuration of the camera
Offset
0-7
8-15
16-23
24-31
444h
00
0B
A9
6E
....unit_dep_info_length, CRC
Unit dependent info 448h
44Ch
40
3C
00
00
....command_regs_base
81
00
00
02
....vender_name_leaf
450h
82
00
00
06
....model_name_leaf
454h
38
00
00
10
....unit_sub_sw_version
458h
39
00
00
00
....Reserved
45Ch
3A
00
00
00
....Reserved
460h
3B
00
00
00
....Reserved
464h
3C
00
01
00
....vendor_unique_info_0
468h
3D
00
92
00
....vendor_unique_info_1
46Ch
3E
00
00
65
....vendor_unique_info_2
470h
3F
00
00
00
....vendor_unique_info_3
Table 96: Config ROM
And finally, the entry with key 40 (448h in this case) provides the offset for
the camera control register:
FFFF F0000000h + 3C0000h * 4 = FFFF F0F00000h
The base address of the camera control register is thus:
FFFF F0F00000h
The offset entered in the table always refers to the base address of
F0F00000h.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
194
Configuration of the camera
Implemented registers
The following tables show how standard registers from IIDC V1.31 are implemented in the camera. Base address is F0F00000h. Differences and explanations can be found in the third column.
Camera initialize register
Offset
Name
Notes
000h
INITIALIZE
Assert MSB = 1 for Init.
Table 97: Camera initialize register
Inquiry register for video format
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
100h
V_FORMAT_INQ
Format_0
[0]
Up to VGA (non compressed)
Format_1
[1]
SVGA to XGA
Format_2
[2]
SXGA to UXGA
Format_3
[3..5]
Reserved
Format_6
[6]
Still Image Format
Format_7
[7]
Partial Image Format
-
[8..31]
Reserved
Table 98: Format inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
195
Configuration of the camera
Inquiry register for video mode
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
180h
V_MODE_INQ
Mode_0
[0]
160 x 120 YUV 4:4:4
(Format_0)
Mode_1
[1]
320 x 240 YUV 4:2:2
Mode_2
[2]
640 x 480 YUV 4:1:1
Mode_3
[3]
640 x 480 YUV 4:2:2
Mode_4
[4]
640 x 480 RGB
Mode_5
[5]
640 x 480 Mono8
Mode_6
[6]
640 x 480 Mono16
Mode_X
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_MODE_INQ
Mode_0
[0]
800 x 600 YUV 4:2:2
(Format_1)
Mode_1
[1]
800 x 600 RGB
Mode_2
[2]
800 x 600 Mono8
Mode_3
[3]
1024 x 768 YUV 4:2:2
Mode_4
[4]
1024 x 768 RGB
Mode_5
[5]
1024 x 768 Mono8
Mode_6
[6]
800 x 600 Mono16
Mode_7
[7]
1024 x 768 Mono16
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_MODE_INQ
Mode_0
[0]
1280 x 960 YUV 4:2:2
(Format_2)
Mode_1
[1]
1280 x 960 RGB
Mode_2
[2]
1280 x 960 Mono8
Mode_3
[3]
1600 x 1200 YUV 4:2:2
Mode_4
[4]
1600 x 1200 RGB
Mode_5
[5]
1600 x 1200 Mono8
Mode_6
[6]
1280 x 960 Mono16
Mode_7
[7]
1600 x 1200 Mono16
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
184h
188h
18Ch
…
Reserved for other V_MODE_INQ_x for Format_x.
Always 0
197h
198h
V_MODE_INQ_6 (Format_6)
Always 0
Table 99: Video mode inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
196
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
19Ch
V_MODE_INQ
Mode_0
[0]
Format_7 Mode_0
(Format_7)
Mode_1
[1]
Format_7 Mode_1
Mode_2
[2]
Format_7 Mode_2
Mode_3
[3]
Format_7 Mode_3
Mode_4
[4]
Format_7 Mode_4
Mode_5
[5]
Format_7 Mode_5
Mode_6
[6]
Format_7 Mode_6
Mode_7
[7]
Format_7 Mode_7
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
Table 99: Video mode inquiry register
Inquiry register for video frame rate and base
address
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
200h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
Reserved
(Format_0, Mode_0)
FrameRate_1
[1]
Reserved
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_0, Mode_1)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
204h
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
197
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
208h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_0, Mode_2)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_0, Mode_3)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_0, Mode_4)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
20Ch
210h
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
198
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
214h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_0, Mode_5)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
(Format_0,
Mode_6)
[0]
1.875 fps
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
218h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
21Ch
…
Reserved V_RATE_INQ_0_x (for other Mode_x of
Format_0)
Always 0
21Fh
220h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
Reserved
(Format_1, Mode_0)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
199
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
224h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
Reserved
(Format_1, Mode_1)
FrameRate_1
[1]
Reserved
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
Reserved
(Format_1, Mode_2)
FrameRate_1
[1]
Reserved
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
228h
22Ch
V_RATE_INQ (Format_1, FrameRate_0
Mode_3)
FrameRate_1
[0]
1.875 fps
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
200
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
230h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_1, Mode_4)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_1, Mode_5)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_1, Mode_6)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
240 fps (V1.31)
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
234h
238h
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
201
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
23Ch
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_1, Mode_7)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_0)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
Reserved
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_1)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
Reserved
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
240h
244h
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
202
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
248h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_2)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
120 fps (V1.31)
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_3)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
Reserved
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_4)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
Reserved
FrameRate_6
[6]
Reserved
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
24Ch
250h
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
203
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
254h
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_5)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
Reserved
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_6)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
Reserved
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved (zero)
V_RATE_INQ
FrameRate_0
[0]
1.875 fps
(Format_2, Mode_7)
FrameRate_1
[1]
3.75 fps
FrameRate_2
[2]
7.5 fps
FrameRate_3
[3]
15 fps
FrameRate_4
[4]
30 fps
FrameRate_5
[5]
60 fps
FrameRate_6
[6]
Reserved
FrameRate_7
[7]
Reserved
-
[8..31]
Reserved
258h
25Ch
260h
…
Reserved V_RATE_INQ_y_x (for other Format_y, Mode_x)
2BFh
2C0h
V_REV_INQ_6_0 (Format_6, Mode0)
Always 0
2C4h
..
Reserved V_REV_INQ_6_x (for other Mode_x of Format_6) Always 0
2DFh
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
204
Configuration of the camera
Offset
2E0h
2E4h
2E8h
2ECh
2F0h
2F4h
2F8h
2FCh
Name
Field
V-CSR_INQ_7_0
V-CSR_INQ_7_1
V-CSR_INQ_7_2
V-CSR_INQ_7_3
V-CSR_INQ_7_4
V-CSR_INQ_7_5
V-CSR_INQ_7_6
V-CSR_INQ_7_7
Bit
Description
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_0
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_1
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_2
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_3
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_4
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_5
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_6
[0..31]
CSR_quadlet offset for Format_7
Mode_7
Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
205
Configuration of the camera
Inquiry register for basic function
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
400h
BASIC_FUNC_INQ Advanced_Feature_Inq
[0]
Inquiry for advanced features (Vendor unique Features)
[1]
Inquiry for existence of
Vmode_Error_Status register
Feature_Control_Error_Status_Inq [2]
Inquiry for existence of
Feature_Control_Error_Status
Opt_Func_CSR_Inq
[3]
Inquiry for Opt_Func_CSR
-
[4..7]
1394b_mode_Capability
[8]
Inquiry for
1394b_mode_Capability
-
[9..15]
Reserved
Cam_Power_Cntl
[16]
Camera process power ON/
OFF capability
-
[17..18] Reserved
One_Shot_Inq
[19]
One Shot transmission
capability
Multi_Shot_Inq
[20]
Multi Shot transmission
capability
-
[21..27] Reserved
Memory_Channel
[28..31] Maximum memory channel
number (N) If 0000, no
user memory available
Vmode_Error_Status_Inq
Table 101: Basic function inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
206
Configuration of the camera
Inquiry register for feature presence
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
404h
FEATURE_HI_INQ
Brightness
[0]
Brightness Control
Auto_Exposure
[1]
Auto_Exposure Control
Sharpness
[2]
Sharpness Control
White_Balance
[3]
White_Balance Control
Hue
[4]
Hue Control
Saturation
[5]
Saturation Control
Gamma
[6]
Gamma Control
Shutter
[7]
Shutter Control
Gain
[8]
Gain Control
Iris
[9]
Iris Control
Focus
[10]
Focus Control
Temperature
[11]
Temperature Control
Trigger
[12]
Trigger Control
Trigger_Delay
[13]
Trigger_Delay Control
White_Shading
[14]
White_Shading Control
Frame_Rate
[15]
Frame_Rate Control
[16..31] Reserved
408h
FEATURE_LO_INQ
Zoom
[0]
Zoom Control
Pan
[1]
Pan Control
Tilt
[2]
Tilt Control
Optical_Filter
[3]
Optical_Filter Control
[4..15]
Reserved
Capture_Size
[16]
Capture_Size for Format_6
Capture_Quality
[17]
Capture_Quality for Format_6
[16..31] Reserved
40Ch
OPT_FUNCTION_INQ
-
[0]
Reserved
PIO
[1]
Parallel Input/Output control
SIO
[2]
Serial Input/Output control
Strobe_out
[4..31]
Strobe signal output
Table 102: Feature presence inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
207
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
410h
..
Reserved
Address error on access
47Fh
480h
Advanced_Feature_Inq Advanced_Feature_Quadlet_Offset [0..31]
Quadlet offset of the advanced
feature CSR's from the base
address of initial register
space (Vendor unique)
This register is the offset for
the Access_Control_Register
and thus the base address for
Advanced Features.
Access_Control_Register does
not prevent access to
advanced features. In some
programs it should still always
be activated first. Advanced
Feature Set Unique Value is
7ACh and CompanyID is
A47h.
484h
PIO_Control_CSR_Inq
PIO_Control_Quadlet_Offset
[0..31]
Quadlet offset of the
PIO_Control CSR's from the
base address of initial register
space (Vendor unique)
488h
SIO_Control_CSR_Inq
SIO_Control_Quadlet_Offset
[0..31]
Quadlet offset of the
SIO_Control CSR's from the
base address of initial register
space (Vendor unique)
48Ch
Strobe_Output_CSR_Inq Strobe_Output_Quadlet_Offset [0..31]
Quadlet offset of the
Strobe_Output signal CSR's
from the base address of initial register space (Vendor
unique)
Table 102: Feature presence inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
208
Configuration of the camera
Inquiry register for feature elements
Register
Name
0xF0F00500 BRIGHTNESS_INQUIRY
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
Abs_Control_Inq
[1]
Capability of control with
absolute value
-
[2]
Reserved
One_Push_Inq
[3]
One Push auto mode (Controlled automatically by the
camera once)
Readout_Inq
[4]
Capability of reading out the
value of this feature
ON_OFF
[5]
Capability of switching this
feature ON and OFF
Auto_Inq
[6]
Auto Mode (Controlled automatically by the camera)
Manual_Inq
[7]
Manual Mode (Controlled by
user)
Min_Value
[8..19]
Min. value for this feature
Max_Value
[20..31]
Max. value for this feature
504h
AUTO_EXPOSURE_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
508h
SHARPNESS_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
50Ch
WHITE_BAL_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
510h
HUE_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
514h
SATURATION_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
518h
GAMMA_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
51Ch
SHUTTER_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
520h
GAIN_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
524h
IRIS_INQ
Always 0
528h
FOCUS_INQ
Always 0
52Ch
TEMPERATURE_INQ
Same definition as Brightness_inq.
Table 103: Feature elements inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
209
Configuration of the camera
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
530h
TRIGGER_INQ
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
Abs_Control_Inq
[1]
Capability of control with
absolute value
-
[2..3
Reserved
Readout_Inq
[4]
Capability of reading out the
value of this feature
ON_OFF
[5]
Capability of switching this
feature ON and OFF
Polarity_Inq
[6]
Capability of changing the
polarity of the trigger input
[7..15]
Reserved
534h
Trigger_Mode0_Inq [16]
Presence of Trigger_Mode 0
Trigger_Mode1_Inq [17]
Presence of Trigger_Mode 1
Trigger_Mode2_Inq [18]
Presence of Trigger_Mode 2
Trigger_Mode3_Inq [19]
Presence of Trigger_Mode 3
[20..31
Reserved
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
Abs_Control_Inq
[1]
Capability of control with
absolute value
-
[2]
Reserved
One_Push_Inq
[3]
One Push auto mode Controlled automatically by the
camera once)
Readout_Inq
[4]
Capability of reading out the
value of this feature
ON_OFF
[5]
Capability of switching this
feature ON and OFF
Auto_Inq
[6]
Auto Mode (Controlled automatically by the camera)
Manual_Inq
[7]
Manual Mode (Controlled by
user)
Min_Value
[8..19]
Min. value for this feature
Max_Value
[20..31]
Max. value for this feature
TRIGGER_DELAY_INQUIRY Presence_Inq
538 .. 57Ch
Reserved for other FEATURE_HI_INQ
580h
ZOOM_INQ
Always 0
584h
PAN_INQ
Always 0
Table 103: Feature elements inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
210
Configuration of the camera
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
588h
TILT_INQ
Always 0
58Ch
OPTICAL_FILTER_INQ
Always 0
Reserved for other
FEATURE_LO_INQ
Always 0
590
..
5BCh
5C0h
CAPTURE_SIZE_INQ
Always 0
5C4h
CAPTURE_QUALITY_INQ
Always 0
Reserved for other
FEATURE_LO_INQ
Always 0
5C8h
..
5FCh
600h
CUR-V-Frm_RATE/Revision Bits [0..2] for the frame rate
604h
CUR-V-MODE
Bits [0..2] for the current video mode
608h
CUR-V-FORMAT
Bits [0..2] for the current video format
60Ch
ISO-Channel
Bits [0..3] for channel, [6..7] for ISO speed
610h
Camera_Power
614h
ISO_EN/Continuous_Shot
618h
Memory_Save
Always 0
61Ch
One_Shot, Multi_Shot,
Count Number
See text
620h
Mem_Save_Ch
Always 0
624
Cur_Mem_Ch
Always 0
628h
Vmode_Error_Status
Always 0
Bit 0: 1 for start continuous shot; 0 for stop continuos shot
Error in combination of Format/Mode/ISO Speed:
Bit(0): No error; Bit(0)=1: error
Table 103: Feature elements inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
211
Configuration of the camera
Inquiry register for absolute value CSR offset
address
Offset
Name
Notes
700h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_0
Always 0
704h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_1
Always 0
708h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_2
Always 0
70Ch
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_3
Always 0
710h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_4
Always 0
714h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_5
Always 0
718h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_6
Always 0
71Ch
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_7
Always 0
720h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_8
Always 0
724h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_9
Always 0
728h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_10
Always 0
72Ch
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_11
Always 0
730h
ABS_CSR_HI_INQ_12
Always 0
Reserved
Always 0
734
..
77Fh
780h
ABS_CSR_LO_INQ_0
Always 0
784h
ABS_CSR_LO_INQ_1
Always 0
788h
ABS_CSR_LO_INQ_2
Always 0
78Ch
ABS_CSR_LO_INQ_3
Always 0
790h
..
Reserved
Always 0
7C0h
ABS_CSR_LO_INQ_16
Always 0
7C4h
ABS_CSR_LO_INQ_17
Always 0
Reserved
Always 0
7BFh
7C8h
..
7FFh
Table 104: Absolute value inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
212
Configuration of the camera
Status and control register for feature
The OnePush feature, WHITE_BALANCE, is currently implemented. If this flag
is set, the feature becomes immediately active, even if no images are being
input (see Chapter One-push automatic white balance on page 106).
Offset
Name
Notes
800h
BRIGHTNESS
See above
804h
AUTO-EXPOSURE
See above
Note: Target grey level parameter in SmartView corresponds to Auto_exposure register 0xF0F00804 (IIDC).
808h
SHARPNESS
See above
80Ch
WHITE-BALANCE
See above
Always 0 for Mono
810h
HUE
See above
Always 0 for Mono
814h
SATURATION
See above
Always 0 for Mono
818h
GAMMA
See above
81Ch
SHUTTER
see Advanced Feature time base
see Table 45: Shutter CSR on page 109
820h
GAIN
See above
824h
IRIS
Always 0
828h
FOCUS
Always 0
82Ch
TEMPERATURE
Always 0
830h
TRIGGER-MODE
Can be effected via advanced feature IO_INP_CTRLx.
Reserved for other FEATURE_HI
Always 0
880h
Zoom
Always 0
884h
PAN
Always 0
888h
TILT
Always 0
88Ch
OPTICAL_FILTER
Always 0
Reserved for other FEATURE_LO
Always 0
CAPTURE-SIZE
Always 0
834h
..
87C
890
..
8BCh
8C0h
Table 105: Feature control register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
213
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Notes
8C4h
CAPTURE-QUALITY
Always 0
8C8h
Reserved for other FEATURE_LO
Always 0
..
8FCh
Table 105: Feature control register
Feature control error status register
Offset
Name
Notes
640h
Feature_Control_Error_Status_HI
Always 0
644h
Feature_Control_Error_Status_LO
Always 0
Table 106: Feature control error register
Video mode control and status registers for
Format_7
Quadlet offset Format_7 Mode_0
The quadlet offset to the base address for Format_7 Mode_0, which can be
read out at F0F002E0h (according to Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
on page 197) gives 003C2000h.
4 x 3C2000h = F08000h so that the base address for the latter (Table 107:
Format_7 control and status register on page 214) equals
F0000000h + F08000h = F0F08000h.
Quadlet offset Format_7 Mode_1
The quadlet offset to the base address for Format_7 Mode_1, which can be
read out at F0F002E4h (according to Table 100: Frame rate inquiry register
on page 197) gives 003C2400h.
4 x 003C2400h = F09000h so that the base address for the latter (Table 107:
Format_7 control and status register on page 214) equals
F0000000h + F09000h = F0F09000h.
Format_7 control and status register (CSR)
Offset
Name
Notes
000h
MAX_IMAGE_SIZE_INQ
According to IIDC V1.31
004h
UNIT_SIZE_INQ
According to IIDC V1.31
Table 107: Format_7 control and status register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
214
Configuration of the camera
Offset
Name
Notes
008h
IMAGE_POSITION
According to IIDC V1.31
00Ch
IMAGE_SIZE
According to IIDC V1.31
010h
COLOR_CODING_ID
See note
014h
COLOR_CODING_INQ
According to IIDC V1.31
034h
PIXEL_NUMER_INQ
According to IIDC V1.31
038h
TOTAL_BYTES_HI_INQ
According to IIDC V1.31
03Ch
TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ
According to IIDC V1.31
040h
PACKET_PARA_INQ
See note
044h
BYTE_PER_PACKET
According to IIDC V1.31
Table 107: Format_7 control and status register
Note
•
L
•
•
•
•
For all modes in Format_7, ErrorFlag_1 and
ErrorFlag_2 are refreshed on each access to the
Format_7 Register.
Contrary to IIDC DCAM V1.31, registers relevant to
Format_7 are refreshed on each access. The Setting_1
bit is automatically cleared after each access.
When ErrorFlag_1 or ErrorFlag_2 are set and Format_7
is configured, no image capture is started.
Contrary to IIDC V1.31, COLOR_CODING_ID is set to a
default value after an INITIALIZE or reset.
Contrary to IIDC V1.31, the UnitBytePerPacket field is
already filled in with a fixed value in the
PACKET_PARA_INQ register.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
215
Configuration of the camera
Advanced features
The camera has a variety of extended features going beyond the possibilities
described in IIDC V1.31 The following chapter summarizes all available
advanced features in ascending register order.
The following table gives an overview of all available registers:
Register
Register name
Remarks
0XF1000010
VERSION_INFO1
0XF1000018
VERSION_INFO3
see Table 109: Version information register on
page 218
0XF1000040
ADV_INQ_1
0XF1000044
ADV_INQ_2
0XF1000048
ADV_INQ_3
0XF100004C
ADV_INQ_4
0xF1000100
CAMERA_STATUS
see Table 112: Camera status register on page 222
0XF1000200
MAX_RESOLUTION
see Table 113: Max. resolution inquiry register on
page 223
0XF1000208
TIMEBASE
see Table 114: Time base configuration register on
page 223
0XF100020C
EXTD_SHUTTER
see Table 116: Extended shutter configuration register on page 225
0XF1000210
TEST_IMAGE
see Table 117: Test image configuration register
on page 226
0XF1000240
LUT_CTRL
see Table 118: LUT control register on page 227
0XF1000244
LUT_MEM_CTRL
0XF1000248
LUT_INFO
0XF1000250
SHDG_CTRL
0XF1000254
SHDG_MEM_CTRL
0XF1000258
SHDG_INFO
0XF1000260
DEFERRED_TRANS
see Table 121: Deferred image configuration register on page 233
0XF1000270
FRAMEINFO
0XF1000274
FRAMECOUNTER
see Table 122: Frame information configuration
register on page 234
0XF1000300
IO_INP_CTRL1
0XF1000304
IO_INP_CTRL2
0XF1000308
IO_INP_CTRL3
0XF100030C
IO_INP_CTRL4
see Table 111: Advanced feature inquiry register
on page 220
see Table 119: Shading control register on page
230
see Table 32: Input configuration register on page
85
Table 108: Advanced registers summary
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
216
Configuration of the camera
Register
Register name
Remarks
0XF1000320
IO_OUTP_CTRL1
0XF1000324
IO_OUTP_CTRL2
see Table 38: Output configuration register on
page 93
0XF1000328
IO_OUTP_CTRL3
0XF100032C
IO_OUTP_CTRL4
0XF1000340
IO_INTENA_DELAY
see Table 123: Delayed integration enable configuration register on page 235
0XF1000360
AUTOSHUTTER_CTRL
0XF1000364
AUTOSHUTTER_LO
see Table 124: Auto shutter control advanced register on page 236
0XF1000368
AUTOSHUTTER_HI
0XF1000370
AUTOGAIN_CTRL
see Table 125: Advanced register for auto gain
control on page 237
0XF1000390
AUTOFNC_AOI
0XF1000394
AF_AREA_POSITION
see Table 126: Advanced register for autofunction
AOI on page 238
0XF1000398
AF_AREA_SIZE
0XF10003A0
COLOR_CORR
Pike color cameras only
see Table 127: Color correction on page 239
0xF10003A4
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC11 = Crr
0xF10003A8
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC12 = Cgr
0xF10003AC
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC13 = Cbr
0xF10003B0
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC21 = Crg
0xF10003B4
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC22 = Cgg
0xF10003B8
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC23 = Cbg
0xF10003BC
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC31 = Crb
0xF10003C0
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC32 = Cgb
0xF10003C4
COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC33 = Cbb
0XF1000400
TRIGGER_DELAY
see Table 128: Trigger delay advanced CSR on page
240
0XF1000410
MIRROR_IMAGE
see Table 129: Mirror control register on page 241
0XF1000420
AFE_CHN_COMP
see Table 130: Channel balance register on page
241
0XF1000510
SOFT_RESET
see Table 131: Soft reset register on page 242
0XF1000520
HIGH_SNR
see Table 132: High Signal Noise Ratio (HSNR) on
page 242
0X1000550
USER PROFILES
see Table 133: User profiles on page 243
0XF1000424
Pike color camera only
see Table 127: Color correction on page 239
0XF1000428
Table 108: Advanced registers summary
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
217
Configuration of the camera
Register
Register name
Remarks
0XF1000FFC
GPDATA_INFO
see Table 136: GPData buffer register on page 246
0XF1001000
GPDATA_BUFFER
...
0XF100nnnn
Table 108: Advanced registers summary
Note
L
Advanced features should always be activated before accessing them.
Note
•
L
•
Currently all registers can be written without being
activated. This makes it easier to operate the camera
using Directcontrol.
AVT reserves the right to require activation in future
versions of the software.
Version information inquiry
The presence of each of the following features can be queried by the 0 bit of
the corresponding register.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000010
VERSION_INFO1
µC type ID
[0..15]
Always 0
µC version
[16..31]
Bcd-coded version number
[0..31]
Reserved
Camera type ID
[0..15]
See Table 110: Camera type
ID list on page 219.
FPGA version
[16..31]
Bcd-coded version number
[0..31]
Reserved
0xF1000014
0xF1000018
VERSION_INFO3
0xF100001C
0xF1000020
---
[0..31]
Reserved
0xF1000024
---
[0..31]
Reserved
0xF1000028
---
[0..31]
Reserved
0xF100002C
---
[0..31]
Reserved
0xF1000030
OrderIDHigh
[0..31]
8 Byte ASCII Order ID
0xF1000034
OrderIDLow
[0..31]
Table 109: Version information register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
218
Configuration of the camera
The µC version and FPGA firmware version numbers are bcd-coded, which
means that e.g. firmware version 0.85 is read as 0x0085 and version 1.10 is
read as 0x0110.
The FPGA type ID (= camera type ID) identifies the camera type with the help
of the following list:
ID
Camera type
101
PIKE F-032B
102
PIKE F-032C
103
PIKE F-100B
104
PIKE F-100C
105
PIKE F-145B
106
PIKE F-145C
107
PIKE F-210B
108
PIKE F-210C
109
-
110
-
111
PIKE F-421B
112
PIKE F-421C
Table 110: Camera type ID list
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
219
Configuration of the camera
Advanced feature inquiry
This register indicates with a named bit if a feature is present or not. If a
feature is marked as not present the associated register space might not be
available and read/write errors may occur.
Note
L
Ignore unnamed bits in the following table: these bits might
be set or not.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
0xF1000040
ADV_INQ_1
MaxResolution
TimeBase
ExtdShutter
TestImage
FrameInfo
Sequences
VersionInfo
--Look-up tables
Shading
DeferredTrans
HDR mode
----TriggerDelay
Mirror image
Soft Reset
High SNR
Color Correction
--User Sets
--GP_Buffer
[0]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19..20]
[21]
[22..30]
[31]
Description
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Table 111: Advanced feature inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
220
Configuration of the camera
Register
Name
Field
Bit
0xF1000044
ADV_INQ_2
Input_1
Input_2
--Output_1
Output_2
Output_3
Output_4
--IntEnaDelay
--Camera Status
[0]
[1]
[2..7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12..15]
[16]
[17..31]
[0]
---
[1..3]
Auto Shutter
[4]
Auto Gain
[5]
Auto FNC AOI
[6]
---
[7..31]
HDR Pike
[0]
---
[18..31]
0xF1000048
0xF100004C
ADV_INQ_3
ADV_INQ_4
Description
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Table 111: Advanced feature inquiry register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
221
Configuration of the camera
Camera status
This register allows to determine the current status of the camera. The most
important flag is the Idle flag.
If the Idle flag is set the camera does not capture and does not send any
images (but images might be present in the image FIFO).
The ExSyncArmed flag indicates that the camera is set up for external triggering. Even if the camera is waiting for an external trigger event the Idle
flag might get set.
Other bits in this register might be set or toggled: just ignore these bits.
Note
•
L
•
Excessive polling of this register may slow down the
operation of the camera. Therefore the time between
two polls of the status register should not be less than
5 milliseconds. If the time between two read accesses
is lower than 5 milliseconds the response will be
delayed.
Depending on shutter and isochronous settings the status flags might be set for a very short time and thus
will not be recognized by your application.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000100
CAMERA_STATUS
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..23]
Reserved
ID
[24..31] Implementation ID = 0x01
---
[0..14]
Reserved
ExSyncArmed
[15]
External trigger enabled
---
[16..27] Reserved
ISO
[28]
---
[29..30] Reserved
Idle
[31]
0xF1000104
Isochronous transmission
Camera idle
Table 112: Camera status register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
222
Configuration of the camera
Maximum resolution
This register indicates the highest resolution for the sensor and is read-only.
This register normally outputs the MAX_IMAGE_SIZE_INQ Format_7 Mode_0
value.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000200
MAX_RESOLUTION
MaxHeight
[0..15]
Sensor height
(read only)
MaxWidth
[16..31] Sensor width
(read only)
Table 113: Max. resolution inquiry register
Time base
Corresponding to IIDC, exposure time is set via a 12-bit value in the corresponding register (SHUTTER_INQ [51Ch] and SHUTTER [81Ch]).
This means that a value in the range of 1 to 4095 can be entered.
PIKE cameras use a time base which is multiplied by the shutter register
value. This multiplier is configured as the time base via the TIMEBASE register.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000208
TIMEBASE
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..7]
Reserved
ExpOffset
[8..19]
Exposure offset in µs
---
[20..27] Reserved
Timebase_ID
[28..31] See Table 115: Time base ID
on page 224.
Table 114: Time base configuration register
The time base IDs 0-9 are in bits 28 to 31. See Table 115: Time base ID on
page 224.
Default time base is 20 µs: This means that the integration time can be
changed in 20 µs increments with the shutter control.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
223
Configuration of the camera
Note
Time base can only be changed when the camera is in idle
state and becomes active only after setting the shutter value.
L
The ExpOffset field specifies the camera specific exposure time offset in
microseconds (µs). This time (which should be equivalent to Table 61: Camera-specific exposure time offset on page 152) has to be added to the exposure time (set by any shutter register) to compute the real exposure time.
If ExpOffset = zero: unknown exposure time offset.
ID
Time base in µs
0
1
1
2
2
5
3
10
4
20
5
50
6
100
7
200
8
500
9
1000
Default value
Table 115: Time base ID
Note
L
The ABSOLUTE VALUE CSR register, introduced in IIDC V1.3, is
not implemented.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
224
Configuration of the camera
Extended shutter
The exposure time for long-term integration of up to 67 seconds can be
entered with µs precision via the EXTENDED_SHUTTER register.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF100020C
EXTD_SHUTTER
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
ExpTime
[6..31]
Exposure time in µs
Table 116: Extended shutter configuration register
The minimum allowed exposure time depends on the camera model. To determine this value write 1 to the ExpTime field and read back the minimum
allowed exposure time.
The longest exposure time, 3FFFFFFh, corresponds to 67.11 sec.
Note
•
L
•
•
•
Exposure times entered via the 81Ch register are mirrored in the extended register, but not vice versa.
Changes in this register have immediate effect, even
when camera is transmitting.
Extended shutter becomes inactive after writing to a
format / mode / frame rate register.
Extended shutter setting will thus be overwritten by
the normal time base/shutter setting after Stop/Start
of FireView or FireDemo.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
225
Configuration of the camera
Test images
Bits 8-14 indicate which test images are saved. Setting bits 28-31 activates
or deactivates existing test images.
By activating any test image the following auto features are automatically
disabled:
• auto gain
• auto shutter
• auto white balance
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000210
TEST_IMAGE
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this feature
(read only)
---
[1..7]
Reserved
Image_Inq_1
[8]
Presence of test image 1
0: N/A
1: Available
Image_Inq_2
[9]
Presence of test image 2
0: N/A
1: Available
Image_Inq_3
[10]
Presence of test image 3
0: N/A
1: Available
Image_Inq_4
[11]
Presence of test image 4
0: N/A
1: Available
Image_Inq_5
[12]
Presence of test image 5
0: N/A
1: Available
Image_Inq_6
[13]
Presence of test image 6
0: N/A
1: Available
Image_Inq_7
[14]
Presence of test image 7
0: N/A
1: Available
---
[15..27]
Reserved
TestImage_ID
[28..31]
0: No test image active
1: Image 1 active
2: Image 2 active
…
Table 117: Test image configuration register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
226
Configuration of the camera
Look-up tables (LUT)
Load the look-up tables to be used into the camera and choose the look-up
table number via the LutNo field. Now you can activate the chosen LUT via
the LUT_CTRL register.
The LUT_INFO register indicates how many LUTs the camera can store and
shows the maximum size of the individual LUTs.
The possible values for LutNo are 0..n-1, whereas n can be determined by
reading the field NumOfLuts of the LUT_INFO register.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000240
LUT_CTRL
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Enable/disable this feature
---
[7..25]
Reserved
LutNo
[26..31] Use look-up table with LutNo
number
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..4]
Reserved
EnableMemWR
[5]
Enable write access
---
[6..7]
Reserved
AccessLutNo
[8..15]
Reserved
AddrOffset
[16..31] byte
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..2]
Reserved
BitsPerValue
[3..7]
Bits used per table item
NumOfLuts
[8..15]
Maximum number of look-up
tables
MaxLutSize
[16..31] Maximum look-up table size
(bytes)
0xF1000244
0xF1000248
LUT_MEM_CTRL
LUT_INFO
Table 118: LUT control register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
227
Configuration of the camera
Note
L
The BitsPerValue field indicates how many bits are read from
the LUT for any gray-value read from the sensor. To determine
the number of bytes occupied for each gray-value round-up
the BitsPerValue field to the next byte boundary.
Examples:
• BitsPerValue = 8 Æ 1 byte per gray-value
• BitsPerValue = 14 Æ 2 byte per gray-value
Divide MaxLutSize by the number of bytes per gray-value in
order to get the number of bits read from the sensor.
Note
L
Note
L
Pike cameras have the gamma feature implemented via a
built-in look-up table. Therefore you can not use gamma and
your own look-up table at the same time. Nevertheless you
may combine a gamma look-up table into your own look-up
table.
When using the LUT feature and the gamma feature pay
attention to the following:
•
•
•
•
gamma ON Æ look-up table is switched ON also
gamma OFF Æ look-up table is switched OFF also
look-up table OFF Æ gamma is switched OFF also
look-up table ON Æ gamma is switched OFF
Loading a look-up table into the camera
Loading a look-up table into the camera is done through the
GPDATA_BUFFER. Because the size of the GPDATA_BUFFER is smaller than a
complete look-up table the data must be written in multiple steps.
To load a lookup table into the camera:
1.
Query the limits and ranges by reading LUT_INFO and GPDATA_INFO.
2.
Set EnableMemWR to true (1).
3.
Set AccessLutNo to the desired number.
4.
Set AddrOffset to 0.
5.
Write n lookup table data bytes to GPDATA_BUFFER (n might be lower
than the size of the GPDATA_BUFFER; AddrOffset is automatically
adjusted inside the camera).
6.
Repeat step 5 until all data is written into the camera.
7.
Set EnableMemWR to false (0).
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
228
Configuration of the camera
Shading correction
Owing to technical circumstances, the interaction of recorded objects with
one another, optical effects and lighting non-homogeneities may occur in
the images.
Because these effects are normally not desired, they should be eliminated as
far as possible in subsequent image editing. The camera has automatic shading correction to do this.
Provided that a shading image is present in the camera, the on/off bit can
be used to enable shading correction.
The on/off and ShowImage bits must be set for saved shading images to be
displayed.
Note
L
•
•
•
Always make sure that the shading image is saved at
the highest resolution of the camera. If a lower resolution is chosen and ShowImage is set to true, the image
will not be displayed correctly.
The shading image is computed using the current video
settings. On fixed video modes the selected frame rate
also affects the computation time.
The build process will not work, if a MONO16/RGB16
format is active.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
229
Configuration of the camera
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000250
SHDG_CTRL
Presence_Inq
[0]
BuildError
[1]
--ShowImage
BuildImage
ON_OFF
Busy
MemChannelSave
[2..3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
MemChannelLoad
[9]
MemChannelClear
--MemChannelError
[10]
[11..15]
[16..19]
MemoryChannel
[20..23]
GrabCount
Presence_Inq
[24..31]
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
Could not built shading
image
Reserved
Show shading data as image
Build a new shading image
Shading on/off
Build in progress
Save shading data in flash
memory
Load shading data from flash
memory
Erase flash memory
Reserved
Indicates memory channel
error. See Table 120: Memory
channel error description on
page 232.
Set memory channel number
for save and load operations
Number of images
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..4]
Reserved
EnableMemWR
[5]
Enable write access
EnableMemRD
[6]
Enable read access
---
[7]
Reserved
AddrOffset
[8..31]
In bytes
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..3]
Reserved
MaxMemChannel
[4..7]
Maximum number of available
memory channels to store
shading images
MaxImageSize
[8..31]
Maximum shading image size
(in bytes)
0xF1000254
0xF1000258
SHDG_MEM_CTRL
SHDG_INFO
Table 119: Shading control register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
230
Configuration of the camera
Reading or writing shading image from/into the camera
Accessing the shading image inside the camera is done through the
GPDATA_BUFFER. Because the size of the GPDATA_BUFFER is smaller than a
whole shading image the data must be written in multiple steps.
To read or write a shading image:
1.
Query the limits and ranges by reading SHDG_INFO and GPDATA_INFO.
2.
Set EnableMemWR or EnableMemRD to true (1).
3.
Set AddrOffset to 0.
4.
Write n shading data bytes to GPDATA_BUFFER (n might be lower than
the size of the GPDATA_BUFFER; AddrOffset is automatically adjusted
inside the camera).
5.
Repeat step 4 until all data is written into the camera.
6.
Set EnableMemWR and EnableMemRD to false.
Automatic generation of a shading image
Shading image data may also be generated by the camera. To use this feature
make sure all settings affecting an image are set properly. The camera uses
the current active resolution to generate the shading image.
To generate a shading image:
1.
Set GrabCount to the number of the images to be averaged before the
correction factors are calculated.
2.
Set BuildImage to true.
3.
Poll the SHDG_CTRL register until the Busy and BuildImage flags are
reset automatically.
The maximum value of GrabCount depends on the camera type and the number of available image buffers. GrabCount is automatically adjusted to a
power of two.
Do not poll the SHDG_CTRL register too often, while automatic generation is
in progress. Each poll delays the process of generating the shading image.
An optimal poll interval time is 500 ms.
Non-volatile memory operations
Pike cameras support storing shading image data into non-volatile memory.
Once a shading image is stored it is automatically reloaded on each camera
reset.
MaxMemChannel indicates the number of so-called memory channels/slots
available for storing shading images.
To store a shading image into non-volatile memory:
1.
Set MemoryChannel to the desired memory channel and
MemoryChannelSave to true (1).
2.
Read MemoryChannelError to check for errors.
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
231
Configuration of the camera
To reload a shading image from non-volatile memory:
1.
Set MemoryChannel to the desired memory channel and
MemChannelLoad to true (1).
2.
Read MemChannelError to check for errors.
To clear already stored shading image data in non-volatile memory (shading
image data won't be loaded on camera resets):
1.
Set MemoryChannel to the desired memory channel and
MemChannelClear to true (1).
2.
Read MemChannelError to check for errors.
Memory channel error codes
ID
Error description
0x00
No error
0x01
Memory detection error
0x02
Memory size error
0x03
Memory erase error
0x04
Memory write error
0x05
Memory header write error
0x0F
Memory channel out of range
Table 120: Memory channel error description
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
232
Configuration of the camera
Deferred image transport
Using this register, the sequence of recording and the transfer of the images
can be paused. Setting HoldImg prevents transfer of the image. The images
are stored in ImageFIFO.
The images indicated by NumOfImages are sent by setting the SendImage
bit.
When FastCapture is set (in Format_7 only), images are recorded at the highest possible frame rate.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000260
DEFERRED_TRANS
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..4]
Reserved
SendImage
[5]
Send NumOfImages now
(auto reset)
HoldImg
[6]
Enable/Disable deferred
transport mode
FastCapture
[7]
Enable/disable fast capture
mode
---
[8..15]
Reserved
FiFoSize
[16..23] Size of FiFo in number of
images (read only)
NumOfImages
[24..31] Write: Number of images to
send
Read: Number of images in
buffer
Table 121: Deferred image configuration register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
233
Configuration of the camera
Frame information
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000270
FRAMEINFO
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
ResetFrameCnt
[1]
Reset frame counter
---
[1..31]
Reserved
FrameCounter
[0..31]
Number of captured frames
since last reset
0xF1000274
FRAMECOUNTER
Table 122: Frame information configuration register
The FrameCounter is incremented when an image is read out of the sensor.
The FrameCounter does not indicate whether an image was sent over the
IEEE 1394 bus or not.
Input/output pin control
See Chapter Input/output pin control on page 85
Triggers
See Chapter Triggers on page 84
IO_INP_CTRL 1-2
See Chapter IO_INP_CTRL 1-2 on page 86
IO_OUTP_CTRL 1-4
See Chapter IO_OUTP_CTRL 1-4 on page 93
Output mode
See Chapter Output modes on page 94
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
234
Configuration of the camera
Delayed Integration enable
A delay time between initiating exposure on the sensor and the activation
edge of the IntEna signal can be set using this register. The on/off flag activates/deactivates integration delay. The time can be set in µs in DelayTime.
Note
•
•
L
Please note that only one edge is delayed.
If IntEna_Out is used to control an exposure, it is possible to have a variation in brightness or to precisely
time a flash.
Figure 93: Delayed integration timing
Register
Name
0xF1000340 IO_INTENA_DELAY
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Enable/disable integration
enable delay
---
[7..11]
Reserved
DELAY_TIME
[12..31]
Delay time in µs
Table 123: Delayed integration enable configuration register
PIKE Technical Manual V3.1.0
235
Configuration of the camera
Auto shutter control
The table below illustrates the advanced register for auto shutter control.
The purpose of this register is to limit the range within which auto shutter
operates.
Register
Name
0xF1000360 AUTOSHUTTER_CTRL
0xF1000364 AUTOSHUTTER_LO
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..31]
Reserved
---
[0..5]
Reserved
MinValue
[6..31]
Minimum auto shutter value
lowest possible value: 10 µs
0xF1000368 AUTOSHUTTER_HI
---
[0..5]
Reserved
MaxValue
[0..31]
Maximum auto shutter value
Table 124: Auto shutter control advanced register
Note
•
L
•
•
Values can only be changed within the limits of shutter
CSR.
Changes in auto exposure register only have an effect
when auto shutter is enabled.
Auto exposure limits are: 50..205 (SmartViewÆCtrl1
tab: Target grey level)
When both auto shutter and auto gain are enabled, priority is given to
increasing shutter when brightness decreases. This is done to achieve the
best image quality with lowest noise.
For increasing brightness, priority is given to lowering gain first for the same
purpose.
MinValue and MaxValue limits the range the auto shutter feature is allowed
to use for the regulation process. Both values are initialized with the minimum and maximum value defined in the standard SHUTTER_INQ register
(multiplied by the current active timebase).
If you change the MinValue and/or MaxValue and the new range exceeds the
range defined by the SHUTTER_INQ register, the standard SHUTTER register
will not show correct shutter values. In this case you should read the
EXTENDED_SHUTTER register for the current active shutter time.
Changing the auto shutter range might not affect the regulation, if the regulation is in a stable condition and no other condition affecting the image
brightness is changed.
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Configuration of the camera
If both auto gain and auto shutter are enabled and if the shutter is at its
upper boundary and gain regulation is in progress, increasing the upper auto
shutter boundary has no effect on auto gain/shutter regulation as long as
auto gain regulation is active.
Note
L
As with the Extended Shutter the value of MinValue and
MaxValue must not be set to a lower value than the minimum
shutter time.
Auto gain control
The table below illustrates the advanced register for auto gain control.
Register
Name
0xF1000370 AUTOGAIN_CTRL
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..3]
Reserved
MaxValue
[4..15]
Maximum auto gain value
---
[16..19]
Reserved
MinValue
[20..31]
Minimum auto gain value
Table 125: Advanced register for auto gain control
MinValue and MaxValue limits the range the auto gain feature is allowed to
use for the regulation process. Both values are initialized with the minimum
and maximum value defined in the standard GAIN_INQ register.
Changing the auto gain range might not affect the regulation, if the regulation is in a stable condition and no other condition affecting the image
brightness is changed.
If both auto gain and auto shutter are enabled and if the gain is at its lower
boundary and shutter regulation is in progress, decreasing the lower auto
gain boundary has no effect on auto gain/shutter regulation as long as auto
shutter regulation is active.
Both values can only be changed within the range defined by the standard
GAIN_INQ register.
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Configuration of the camera
Autofunction AOI
The table below illustrates the advanced register for autofunction AOI.
AOI means area of interest.
Use this feature to select the image area (work area) on which the following
autofunctions work:
• auto shutter
• auto gain
• auto white balance
Note
Autofunction AOI is independent from Format_7 AOI settings.
L
If you switch off autofunction AOI, work area position and
work area size follow the current active image size.
To switch off autofunctions, carry out following actions in the
order shown:
1. Uncheck Show AOI check box (SmartView Ctrl2 tab).
2. Uncheck Enable check box (SmartView Ctrl2 tab).
Switch off Auto modi (e.g. Shutter and/or Gain) (SmartView
Ctrl2 tab).
As a reference it uses a grid of up to 65534 sample points equally spread over
the AOI.
Register
Name
0xF1000390 AUTOFNC_AOI
0xF1000394 AF_AREA_POSITION
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..3]
Reserved
ShowWorkArea
[4]
Show work area
---
[5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Enable/disable AOI (see note
above)
---
[7]
Reserved
YUNITS
[8..19]
Y units of work area/pos.
beginning with 0 (read only)
XUNITS
[20..31]
X units of work area/pos.
beginning with 0 (read only)
Left
[0..15]
Work area position (left
coordinate)
Top
[16..31]
Work area position (top
coordinate)
Table 126: Advanced register for autofunction AOI
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Configuration of the camera
Register
Name
0xF1000398 AF_AREA_SIZE
Field
Bit
Description
Width
[0..15]
Width of work area size
Height
[16..31]
Height of work area size
Table 126: Advanced register for autofunction AOI
The possible increment of the work area position and size is defined by the
YUNITS and XUNITS fields. The camera automatically adjusts your settings to
permitted values.
Note
L
If the adjustment fails and the work area size and/or work
area position becomes invalid, then this feature is automatically switched off.
Read back the ON_OFF flag, if this feature does not work as
expected.
Color correction
To switch off color correction in YUV mode: see bit [6]
Register
Name
0xF10003A0 COLOR_CORR
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Color correction on/off
default: on
Write: 02000000h to switch
color correction OFF
Write: 00000000h to switch
color correction ON
Reset
[7]
Reset to defaults
---
[8..31]
Reserved
Table 127: Color correction
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Configuration of the camera
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF10003A4 COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC11 = Crr
[0..31]
0xF10003A8 COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC12 = Cgr
[0..31]
0xF10003AC COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC13 = Cbr
[0..31]
A number of 1000 equals a
color correction coefficient
of 1.
0xF10003B0 COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC21 = Crg
[0..31]
0xF10003B4 COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC22 = Cgg
[0..31]
0xF10003B8 COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC23 = Cbg
[0..31]
0xF10003BC COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC31 = Crb
[0..31]
0xF10003C0 COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC32 = Cgb
[0..31]
0xF10003C4 COLOR_CORR_COEFFIC33 = Cbb
[0..31]
Color correction values
range -1000..+2000 and are
signed 32 bit.
In order for white balance
to work properly ensure that
the row sum equals to 1000.
The maximum row sum is
limited to 2000.
...
Reserved for testing purposes
0xF10003FC
Don’t touch
0xF10003A4
Table 127: Color correction
For an explanation of the color correction matrix and for further information
read Chapter Color correction on page 138.
Trigger delay
Register
Name
0xF1000400 TRIGGER_DELAY
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Trigger delay on/off
---
[7..10]
Reserved
DelayTime
[11..31]
Delay time in µs
Table 128: Trigger delay advanced CSR
The advanced register allows start of the integration to be delayed via
DelayTime by max. 221 µs, which is max. 2.1 s after a trigger edge was
detected.
Note
Trigger delay works with external trigger modes only.
L
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Configuration of the camera
Mirror image
PIKE cameras are equipped with an electronic mirror function, which mirrors
pixels from the left side of the image to the right side and vice versa. The
mirror is centered to the actual FOV center and can be combined with all
image manipulation functions, like binning and shading.
Register
Name
0xF1000410 MIRROR_IMAGE
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
Mirror image on/off
1: on
0: off
Default: off
---
[7..31]
Reserved
Table 129: Mirror control register
AFE channel compensation (channel balance)
All KODAK PIKE sensors are read out via two channels: the first channel for
the left half of the image and the second channel for the right half of the
image.
Channel gain adjustment (PIKE color cameras only RAW8 and RAW16) can be
done via the following two advanced registers:
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..7]
Reserved
Save as default
[8]
Set to 1, if you want to save
your own values.
---
[9..31]
Reserved
0xF1000424 CHANNEL_ADJUST_VALUE ---
[0..15]
Reserved
[16..31]
Signed 16 bit value
-8192...0...+8191
0xF1000420 CHANNEL_ADJUST_CTRL
Balance_Value
SmartView shows only:
-2048...0...+2047
Table 130: Channel balance register
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Configuration of the camera
Soft Reset
Register
Name
0xF1000510 SOFT_RESET
Field
Bit
Description
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this
feature (read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
Reset
[6]
Initiate reset
---
[7..19]
Reserved
Delay
[20..31]
Delay reset in 10 ms steps
Table 131: Soft reset register
The SOFT_RESET feature is similar to the INITIALIZE register, with the following differences:
• 1 or more bus resets will occur
• the FPGA will be rebooted
The reset can be delayed by setting the Delay to a value unequal to 0 - the
delay is defined in 10 ms steps.
Note
When SOFT_RESET has been defined, the camera will respond
to further read or write requests but will not process them.
L
High SNR mode (High Signal Noise Ratio)
With High SNR mode enabled the camera internally grabs GrabCount images
and outputs a single averaged image.
Register
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0xF1000520
HIGH_SNR
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this feature
(read only)
---
[1..5]
Reserved
ON_OFF
[6]
High SNR mode on/off
---
[7..22]
Reserved
GrabCount
[23..31]
Number of images (min. 2)
2n images with n=1..8 (automatically)
Table 132: High Signal Noise Ratio (HSNR)
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Configuration of the camera
Note
The camera must be idle to toggle this feature on/off.
L
User profiles
Within the IIDC specification user profiles are called memory channels. Often
they are called user sets. In fact these are different expressions for the following: storing camera settings into a non-volatile memory inside the camera.
Offset
Name
Field
Bit
Description
0x1000550
USER_PROFILE
Presence_Inq
[0]
Indicates presence of this feature
(read only)
Error
[1]
An error occurred
---
[2..7]
Reserved
SaveProfile
[8]
Save settings to profile
RestoreProfile [9]
Load settings from profile
SetDefaultID
[10]
Set Profile ID as default
---
[11..19]
Reserved
ErrorCode
[20..23]
Error code
See Table 134: User profiles: Error
codes on page 244.
---
[24..27]
Reserved
ProfileID
[28..31]
ProfileID (memory channel)
Table 133: User profiles
In general this advanced register is a wrapper around the standard memory
channel registers with some extensions. So to query the number of available
user profiles you have to check the Memory_Channel field of the
BASIC_FUNC_INQ register at offset 0x400 (see IIDC V1.31 for details).
The ProfileID is equivalent to the memory channel number and specifies the
profile number to store settings to or to restore settings from. In any case
profile #0 is the hard-coded factory profile and cannot be overwritten.
After an initialization command, startup or reset of the camera, the ProfileID
also indicates which profile was loaded on startup, reset or initialization.
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Configuration of the camera
Note
•
L
•
The default profile is the profile that ist loaded on
power-up or an INITIALIZE comman.
A save or load operation delays the response of the
camera until the operation is completed. At a time only
one operation can be performed.
To store the current camera settings into a profile:
1.
Write the desired ProfileID with the SaveProfile flag set.
2.
Read back the register and check the ErrorCode field.
To restore the settings from a previous stored profile:
1.
Write the desired ProfileID with the RestoreProfile flag set.
2.
Read back the register and check the ErrorCode field.
To set the default profile to be loaded on startup, reset or initialization
1.
Write the desired ProfileID with the SetDefaultID flag set.
2.
Read back the register and check the ErrorCode field.
Error codes
ErrorCode #
Description
0x00
No error
0x01
Profile data corrupted
0x02
Camera not idle during restore operation
0x03
Feature not available (feature not present)
0x04
Profile does not exist
0x05
ProfileID out of range
0x06
Restoring the default profile failed
0x07
Loading LUT data failed
0x08
Storing LUT data failed
Table 134: User profiles: Error codes
Reset of error codes
The ErrorCode field is set to zero on the next write access.
You may also reset the ErrorCode
• by writing to the USER_PROFILE register with the SaveProfile,
RestoreProfile and SetDefaultID flag not set.
• by writing 00000000h to the USER_PROFILE register.
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Configuration of the camera
Stored settings
The following table shows the settings stored inside a profile:
Standard registers
Standard registers
(Format_7)
Advanced registers
Cur_V_Frm_Rate
Cur_V_Mode
Cur_V_Format
ISO_Channel
ISO_Speed
BRIGHTNESS
AUTO_EXPOSURE (Target grey level)
SHARPNESS
WHITE_BALANCE (+ auto on/off)
HUE (+ hue on)
SATURATION (+ saturation on)
GAMMA (+ gamma on)
SHUTTER (+ auto on/off)
GAIN
TRIGGER_MODE
TRIGGER_POLARITY
TRIGGER_DELAY
ABS_GAIN
IMAGE_POSITION (AOI)
IMAGE_SIZE (AOI)
COLOR_CODING_ID
BYTES_PER_PACKET
TIMEBASE
EXTD_SHUTTER
IO_INP_CTRL
IO_OUTP_CTRL
IO_INTENA_DELAY
AUTOSHUTTER_CTRL
AUTOSHUTTER_LO
AUTOSHUTTER_HI
AUTOGAIN_CTRL
AUTOFNC_AOI (+ on/off)
COLOR_CORR (on/off + color correction
coefficients)
TRIGGER_DELAY
MIRROR_IMAGE
HIGH_SNR
LUT_CTRL (LutNo; ON_OFF is not saved)
SHDG_CTRL (on/off + ShowImage)
DEFERRED_TRANS (HoldImg +
NumOfImages)
CHANNEL_ADJUST_CTRL
CHANNEL_ADJUST_VALUE
Table 135: User profile: stored settings
The user can specify which user profile will be loaded upon startup of the
camera.
This frees the user software from from having to restore camera settings, that
differ from default, after every cold start. This can be especially helpful if
third party software is used which may not give easy access to certain
advanced features or may not provide efficient commands for quick writing
of data blocks into the camera.
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Configuration of the camera
Note
•
L
•
•
•
•
A profile save operation automatically disables capturing of images.
A profile save or restore operation is an uninterruptable
(atomic) operation. The write response (of the asynchronous write cycle) will be sent after completion of
the operation.
Restoring a profile will not overwrite other settings
than listed above.
If a restore operation fails or the specified profile does
not exist, all registers will be overwritten with the
hard-coded factory defaults (profile #0).
Data written to this register will not be reflected in the
standard memory channel registers.
GPDATA_BUFFER
GPDATA_BUFFER is a general purpose register that regulates the exchange of
data between camera and host for:
• writing look-up tables (LUTs) into the camera
• uploading/downloading of the shading image
GPDATA_INFO
GPDATA_BUFFER
Register
Buffer size query
indicates the actual storage range
Name
0xF1000FFC GPDATA_INFO
Field
Bit
Description
---
[0..15]
Reserved
BufferSize
[16..31]
Size of GPDATA_BUFFER
(byte)
0xF1001000
…
GPDATA_BUFFER
0xF10017FC
Table 136: GPData buffer register
Note
L
•
•
Read the BufferSize before using
GPDATA_BUFFER can be used by only one function at a
time.
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Firmware update
Firmware update
Firmware updates can be carried out via FireWire cable without opening the
camera.
Note
For further information:
L
•
•
Read the application note: How to update Guppy/Pike
firmware at AVT website or
Contact your local dealer.
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Glossary
Glossary
4:1:1
YUV4:1:1 is a color mode (see YUV).
Chroma subsampling means that a lower resolution for the color (chroma)
information in an image is used than for the brightness (intensity or luma)
information.
Because the human eye is less sensitive to color than intensity, the chroma
components of an image need not be as well defined as the luma component, so many video systems sample the color difference channels at a
lower definition (i.e., sample frequency) than the brightness. This reduces
the overall bandwidth of the video signal without much apparent loss of
picture quality. The missing values will be interpolated or repeated from
the preceding sample for that channel.
Sampling systems and ratios: The subsampling in a video system is usually
expressed as a three part ratio. The three terms of the ratio are: the number
of brightness (luminance, luma or Y) samples, followed by the number of
samples of the two color (chroma) components: U then V, for each complete sample area. For quality comparison, only the ratio between those
values is important, so 4:4:4 could easily be called 1:1:1; however, traditionally the value for brightness is always 4, with the rest of the values
scaled accordingly.
YUV4:1:1 means: chroma subsampling, the horizontal color resolution is
quartered. This is still acceptable for lower-end and consumer applications.
Uncompressed video in this format with 8-bit quantization uses 6 bytes for
every macropixel (4 pixels in a row).
4:2:2
YUV4:2:2 is a color mode (see YUV).
For detailed explanation of chroma subsampling see 4:1:1.
In YUV4:2:2 color mode each of the two color-difference channels has half
the sample rate of the brightness channel, so horizontal color resolution is
only half that of 4:4:4.
ADC
ADC = analog digital converter
An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a
device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers.
Typically, an ADC converts a voltage to a digital number. A digital-toanalog converter (DAC) performs the reverse operation.
AEC
AEC = auto exposure control
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Glossary
AFE
AFE = analog front end
The AFE conditions the analog signal received from the image sensor and
performs the analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.
AGC
AGC = auto gain control
AGC means that the electronic amplification of the video signal is automatically adjusted to compensate for varying levels of scene illumination.
Aliasing
Phenomenon of interference which occurs when a signal being sampled
contains frequencies that are higher than half the sampling frequency. Typically can be seen as ragged edges on horizontal lines.
Analog front end
see AFE
AOI
AOI = area of interest
see area of interest
Area of interest
Area of interest readout (AOI) refers to a camera function whereby only a
portion of the available pixels are read out from the camera. For example,
it is possible to read out a 10 x 20 pixel rectangular area of pixels from a
camera that has a total resolution of 648 x 488. The result is a much faster
frame rate and less data to be processed. This is also referred to as partial
scan. Various autofunctions (auto shutter, auto gain, auto white balance)
act on the AOI.
Asynchronous shutter
The camera CCD starts to accumulate electrons on receipt of an external
trigger pulse.
Asynchronous
transmission mode
Asynchronous transmission mode is a mode supported by IEEE 1394
(FireWire). IEEE 1394 supports asynchronous data transmission, which
includes receipt datagrams that indicate that the data was transmitted
reliably to the 1394 device. Asynchronous data transfers place emphasis
on delivery rather than timing. The data transmission is guaranteed, and
retries are supported. An example for an asynchronous transmission mode
is the one-shot comand. All cameras receive the one-shot command in the
same IEEE 1394 bus cycle. This creates uncertainty for all cameras in the
range of 125 µs.
AWB
AWB = auto white balance
A system for automatically setting the white balance in digital cameras.
see white balance
Bayer, Dr. Bryce E.
Dr. Bryce E. Bayer (Eastman Kodak) is the inventor of the so-called BAYER
patent (20 July 1976).
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Glossary
BAYER
Patent of Dr. Bryce E. Bayer of Eastman Kodak. This patent refers to a particular arrangement of color filters used in most single-chip digital image
sensors used in digital cameras to create a color image. The filter pattern
is 50% green, 25% red and 25% blue, hence is also called RGBG or GRGB
BAYER demosaicing
BAYER demosaicing is the process of transforming the BAYER mosaic back
to RGB.
BAYER filter
see BAYER mosaic
BAYER mosaic
A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color
filters on a square grid of photo sensors. The term derives from the name
of its inventor, Bryce Bayer of Eastman Kodak, and refers to a particular
arrangement of color filters used in most single-chip digital cameras.
Bryce Bayer's patent called the green photo sensors luminance-sensitive
elements and the red and blue ones chrominance-sensitive elements. He
used twice as many green elements as red or blue to mimic the human eye's
greater resolving power with green light. These elements are referred to as
samples and after interpolation become pixels.
The raw output of Bayer-filter cameras is referred to as a Bayer Pattern
image. Since each pixel is filtered to record only one of the three colors,
two-thirds of the color data is missing from each. A demosaicing algorithm
is used to interpolate a set of complete red, green, and blue values for each
point, to make an RGB image. Many different algorithms exist.
Big endian
Byte order: big units first (compare: little endian)
Binning
Binning is the process of combining neighboring pixels while being read
out from the CCD chip.
Binning factor
Binning factor is the number of pixels to be combined on a CCD during binning. A binning factor of 2x2 means that the pixels in two rows and two
columns (a total of four pixels) are combined for CCD readout.
Bit depth
Bit depth is the number of bits that are digitized by the A/D converter.
Bitmap
A raster graphics image, digital image, or bitmap, is a data file or structure
representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, on a
computer monitor, paper, or other display device.
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Glossary
Blooming
A pixel on a digital camera sensor collects photons which are converted
into an electrical charge by its photo diode. Once the full well capacity of
the pixel is full, the charge caused by additional photons will overflow and
have no effect on the pixel value, resulting in a clipped or overexposed
pixel value. Blooming occurs when this charge flows over to surrounding
pixels, brightening or overexposing them in the process. As a result detail
is lost. Blooming can also increase the visibility of purple fringing.
BMP bitmap
The BMP (bit mapped) format is used internally in the Microsoft Windows
operating system to handle graphics images. These files are typically not
compressed resulting in large files. The main advantage of BMP files is
their wide acceptance and use in Windows programs. Their large size makes
them unsuitable for file transfer. Desktop backgrounds and images from
scanners are usually stored in BMP files.
CCD
charge-coupled device
CCD readout
CCDs are analog devices. In order to obtain a digital signal that is appropriate for doing quantitative analysis, it is necessary to convert the analog
signal to a digital format. When light is gathered on a CCD and is ready to
be read out, a series of serial shifts and parallel shifts occurs. First, the
rows are shifted in the serial direction towards the serial register. Once in
the serial register, the data is shifted in the parallel direction out of the
serial register, into the output node, and then into the A/D converter
where the analog data is converted into a digital signal.
CDS
CDS = correlated double sampling
Charge-coupled
device
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a sensor for recording images, consisting
of an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer
its electric charge to one or other of its neighbors. CCDs are used in digital
cameras and are manufactured in a wide variety of formats, architectures,
and grades.
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Glossary
CMOS
CMOS (pronounced see-moss) stands for complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor
CMOS is a major class of integrated circuits. CMOS chips include microprocessor, microcontroller, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. The
central characteristic of the technology is that it only uses significant
power when its transistors are switching between on and off states. Consequently, CMOS devices use little power and do not produce as much heat
as other forms of logic. CMOS also allows a high density of logic functions
on a chip.
CMOS image sensors also allow processing circuits to be included on the
same chip, an advantage not possible with CCD sensors, which are also
much more expensive to produce.
C-Mount
A standard lens interface used on digital cameras. It is a 1 inch diameter,
32 tpi (=threads per inch) interface with a flange-to-image plane distance
of 17.526 mm.
Color aliasing
Color aliasing is caused by the color filters on a single CCD camera. A small
white line on a black background that registers on individual pixels in a
CCD will be interpreted as a line containing single pixels of each of the primary colors registered.
Color reproduction
Color reproduction is the process to reproduce colors on different devices.
Two common methods used for reproducing color are additive color mixtures and subtractive color mixtures.
Correlated double
sampling
abbr. CDS
CS-Mount
A relatively new industry standard used on digital cameras. It is a 1 inch
diameter, 32 tpi (=threads per inch) interface with a flange-to-image plane
distance of 12.526 mm.
CSR
CSR = Camera_Status_Register
CSR architecture
A convenient abbreviation of the following reference:
Correlated double sampling is a sampling technique used to achieve higher
precision in CCD readout. The sampling circuit is reset to a predetermined
reference level and then the actual pixel voltage is sampled in order to find
the difference between the two. Using the resulting correlation minimizes
read noise, especially in ultra-low-noise cameras.
ISO/IEC 13213 : 1994 [ANSI/IEEE Std 1212, 1994 Edition], Information
Technology — Microprocessor systems — Control and Status Register
(CSR) Architecture for Microcomputer Buses.
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Glossary
Dark current
Dark current is the accumulation of electrons within a CCD or CMOS image
sensor that are generated thermally rather than by light. This is a form of
noise that is most problematic in low light applications requiring long
exposure times.
Dark noise
Dark noise is the statistical variation of the dark current, equal to the
square root of the dark current. Dark current can be subtracted from an
image, while dark noise remains. Also called dark current noise.
dB
abbr. of decibel
see decibel
DCAM
DCAM = digital camera specification
DCAM or IIDC is a software interface standard for communicating with cameras over FireWire. It is a standardized set of registers etc. If a camera is
DCAM compliant then its control registers and data structures comply with
the DCAM spec. Such a camera can be truly plug & play in a way that other
cameras are not. Recent specifications are IIDC V1.30 and IIDC V1.31.
Decibel
Decibel (abbr. dB) is a measurement unit of dynamic range.
Depth of field
Depth of field refers to the in-focus region of an imaging system. When
using a lens, especially in close proximity, objects at and near a certain
distance will be in focus whereas other objects in the field of view that are
closer or farther away will appear fuzzy, or out of focus. The depth of the
region that appears in focus is called the depth of field. Generally speaking, the depth of field will be large if the lens aperture is small (large fnumber), and the depth of field will be small with a wide aperture (small
f-number).
Digital camera
A digital camera is an electronic device to transform images into electronic
data. Modern digital cameras are typically multifunctional and the same
device can take photographs, video, and/or sound.
Digital photography
Digital photography uses an electronic sensor to record the image as a
piece of electronic data.
There are two main types of sensors:
•
•
charge-coupled device (CCD)
CMOS semiconductor
There are also two main types of sensor mechanisms:
•
•
Area array
Linear array (very rare, only limited to the highest-end)
An area array sensor reads the entire image plane at once, whereas a linear
array sensor works more like a flatbed scanner.
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Dynamic range
The ratio of the maximum signal relative to the minimum measurable signal
often measured in decibels or dBs.
The largest possible signal is directly proportional to the full well capacity
of the pixel. The lowest signal is the noise level when the sensor is not
exposed to any light, also called the noise floor.
Practically, cameras with a large dynamic range are able to capture shadow
detail and highlight detail at the same time. Dynamic range should not be
confused with tonal range.
Exposure time
Exposure time is the amount of time that the sensor is exposed to the light
and thus accumulates charge. This is the control that is used first (before
gain and offset) to adjust the camera.
Field of view
Field of view (FOV) is the area covered by the lens' angle of view.
FireWire
FireWire (also known as i.Link or IEEE 1394) is a personal computer (and
digital audio/video) serial bus interface standard, offering high-speed
communications. It is often used as an interface for industrial cameras.
Fixed pattern noise
abbr. FPN
If the output of an image sensor under no illumination is viewed at high
gain a distinct non-uniform pattern, or fixed pattern noise, can be seen.
This fixed pattern can be removed from the video by subtracting the dark
value of each pixel from the pixel values read out in all subsequent frames.
Dark fixed pattern noise is usually caused by variations in dark current
across an imager, but can also be caused by input clocking signals abruptly
starting or stopping or if the CCD clocks do not closely match one another.
Mismatched CCD clocks can result in high instantaneous substrate currents,
which, when combined with the fact that the silicon substrate has some
non-zero resistance, can cause in the substrate potential bouncing.
The pattern noise can also be seen when the imager is under uniform illumination. An imager which exhibits a fixed pattern noise under uniform
illumination and shows no pattern in the dark is said to have light pattern
noise or photosensitivity pattern noise. In addition to the reasons mentioned above, light pattern noise can be caused by the imager becoming
saturated, the non-uniform clipping effect of the anti-blooming circuit,
and by non-uniform, photosensitive pixel areas often caused by debris covering portions of some pixels.
FOV
FOV = field of view
see field of view
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Glossary
FPN
FPN = fixed pattern noise
Related with the dark current is its electrical behavior to be regionally different on the sensor. This introduces a structural spatial noise component,
called fixed pattern noise, although it’s not meant temporal, visible with
low illumination conditions.
FPN is typically more dominant with CMOS sensors than with CCD, where it
can be ignored mostly.
This noise nfpn [%] is usually quantified in % of the mean dark level.
Frame
An individual picture image taken by a digital camera. Using an interlaced
camera, a frame consists of 2 interlaces fields.
Frame grabber
A component of a computer system designed for digitizing analog video
signals.
Frame rate
Frame rate is the measure of camera speed. The unit of this measurement
is frames per second (fps) and is the number of images a camera can capture in a second of time. Using area of interest (AOI) readout, the frame
rate can be increased.
Full binning
If horizontal and vertical binning are combined, every 4 pixels are consolidated into a single pixel. At first, two horizontal pixels are put together
and then combined vertically.
This increases light sensitivity by a total of a factor of 4 and at the same
time signal-to-noise separation is improved by about 6 dB. Resolution is
reduced, depending on the model.
See also: horizontal binning and vertical binning
Gain
Gain is the same as the contrast control on your TV. It is a multiplication
of the signal. In math terms, it controls the slope of the exposure/time
curve. The camera should normally be operated at the lowest gain possible,
because gain not only multiplies the signal, but also multiplies the noise.
Gain comes in very handy when you require a short exposure (say, because
the object is moving and you do not want any blur), but do not have adequate lighting. In this situation the gain can be increased so that the
image signal is strong.
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Gamma
Gamma is the exponent in a power-law relationship between video or pixel
values and the displayed brightness.
Each pixel in a digital image has a certain level of brightness ranging from
black (0) to white (1). These pixel values serve as the input for your computer monitor. Due to technical limitations, CRT monitors output these values in a nonlinear way:
Output = Inputgamma
When unadjusted, most CRT monitors have a gamma of 2.5 which means
that pixels with a brightness of 0.5, will be displayed with a brightness of
only 0.52.5= 0.18 in non-colormanaged applications. LCDs, in particular
those on notebooks, tend to have rather irregularly shaped output curves.
Calibration via software and/or hardware ensures that the monitor outputs
the image based on a predetermined gamma curve, typically 2.2 for Windows, which is approximately the inverse of the response of the human
vision. The sRGB and Adobe RGB color spaces are also based on a gamma
of 2.2.
A monitor with a gamma equal to 1.0 would respond in a linear way (Output = Input) and images created on a system with a gamma of 2.2 would
appear flat and overly bright in non-color managed applications.
GIF
GIF = Graphics Interchange Format
GIF is one of the most common file formats used for images in web pages.
There are two versions of the format, 87a and 89a. Version 89a supports
animations, i.e. a short sequence of images within a single GIF file. A
GIF89a can also be specified for interlaced presentation.
Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet is an industry standard interface used for high-speed computer networks that is now being adapted as a camera interface. This generalized networking interface is being adapted for use as a standard
interface for high-performance machine vision cameras that is called GigE
Vision.
GigE Vision
GigE Vision is a new interface standard, published by the AIA, for high-performance machine vision cameras. GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), on the other
hand, is simply the network structure on which GiGE Vision is built. The
GigE Vision standard includes both a hardware interface standard (Gigabit
Ethernet), communications protocols, and standardized camera control
registers. The camera control registers are based on a command structure
called GenICam. GenICam seeks to establish a common software interface
so that third party software can communicate with cameras from various
manufacturers without customization. GenICam is incorporated as part of
the GigE Vision standard. GigE Vision is analogous to FireWire's DCAM, or
IIDC interface standard and has great value for reducing camera system
integration costs and for improving ease of use.
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Glossary
Global pipelined
shutter
A global pipelined shutter assures that the integration for all pixels starts
and stops at the same moment in time. The integration of the next image
is possible during the readout of the previously captured image.
Global shutter
All pixels are exposed to the light at the same moment and for the same
time span.
HDR mode
HDR = high dynamic range
High dynamic range
In the high dynamic range mode various nonlinearity points, the so-called
knee-points (and integration time as a second parameter) can be freely
adjusted, leading to increased dynamic range. This enables the high
dynamic range of the sensor to be compressed into 8 bit, preserving interesting details of the image. This mode is also known as multiple slope.
Horizontal binning
In horizontal binning adjacent horizontal pixels in a line are combined in
pairs.
This means that in horizontal binning the light sensitivity of the camera is
also increased by a factor of two (6 dB). Signal-to-noise separation
improves by approx. 3 dB. Horizontal resolution is lowered, depending on
the model.
See also: vertical binning and full binning
Host computer
Host computer is the primary or controlling computer for a digital camera.
HSV color space
The HSV (hue, saturation, value) model, also called HSB (hue, saturation,
brightness), defines a color space in terms of three constituent components:
•
•
•
Hue
Hue, the color type (such as red, blue, or yellow)
Saturation, the vibrancy of the color and colorimetric purity
Value, the brightness of the color
A hue refers to the gradation of color within the optical spectrum, or visible spectrum, of light. Hue may also refer to a particular color within this
spectrum, as defined by its dominant wavelength, or the central tendency
of its combined wavelengths. For example, a light wave with a central tendency within 565-590 nm will be yellow.
In an RGB color space, hue can be thought of as an angle ϕ in standard
position. The other coordinates are saturation and brightness.
IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
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Glossary
IEEE 1394
Trade Association
IEEE 1394 Trade Association is a non-profit industry association devoted
to the promotion of and growth of the market for IEEE 1394-compliant
products.
Participants in working groups serve voluntarily and without compensation
from the Trade Association. Most participants represent member organizations of the 1394 Trade Association. The specifications developed within
the working groups represent a consensus of the expertise represented by
the participants.
Background of the Trade Association and IEEE 1394
The 1394 Trade Association was founded in 1994 to support the development of computer and consumer electronics systems that can be easily
connected with each other via a single serial multimedia link. The IEEE
1394 multimedia connection enables simple, low cost, high bandwidth isochronous (real time) data interfacing between computers, peripherals, and
consumer electronics products such as camcorders, VCRs, printers, PCs, TVs,
and digital cameras. With IEEE 1394 compatible products and systems,
users can transfer video or still images from a camera or camcorder to a
printer, PC, or television, with no image degradation. The 1394 Trade Association includes more than 170 companies and continues to grow.
Members of the 1394 Trade Association
The 1394 Trade Association is comprised of more than 170 member companies. Membership is still in a rapid growth phase, with approximately
one company a week joining the 1394 TA. The membership consists of a
number of companies of every size in almost every sector of the electronics
industry. Some of the best known names in the 1394 TA membership are
Sony, Intel, Microsoft, JVC, Matsushita, Compaq, NEC, Philips, Samsung,
among other well respected electronics institutions.
Organization of the 1394 Trade Association
The 1394 TA is incorporated as a nonprofit trade organization. Its Board of
Directors and Chair are volunteers elected from the membership of the
association. The 1394 TA maintains an office in Southlake, Texas, with paid
staff that execute the programs organized by the 1394 TA membership.
IIDC
The 1394 Trade Association Instrumentation and Industrial Control Working
Group, Digital Camera Sub Working Group
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Glossary
IIDC V1.3
IIDC V1.3
IIDC 1394-based Digital Camera Specification Version 1.30 July 25, 2000
The purpose of this document is to act as a design guide for digital camera
makers that wish to use IEEE 1394 as the camera-to-PC interconnect.
Adherence to the design specifications contained herein do not guarantee,
but will promote interoperability for this class of device. The camera registers, fields within those registers, video formats, modes of operation, and
controls for each are specified. Area has been left for growth. To make
application for additional specification, contact the 1394 Trade Association Instrumentation and Industrial Control Working Group, Digital Camera
Sub Working Group (II-WG DC-SWG).
http://www.1394ta.org/Technology/Specifications/
IIDC V1.31
IIDC V1.31 was published in January 2004, evolving the industry standards
for digital imaging communications to include I/O and RS232 handling,
and adding additional formats.
Image processing
In the broadest sense, image processing includes any form of information
processing in which the input is an image. Many image processing techniques derive from the application of signal processing techniques to the
domain of images — two-dimensional signals such as photographs or
video.
Typical problems are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Infrared
Geometric transformations such as enlargement, reduction, and rotation
Color corrections such as brightness and contrast adjustments, quantization, or conversion to a different color space
Combination of two or more images, e.g. into an average, blend, difference, or image composite
Interpolation, demosaicing, and recovery of a full image from a
mosaic image (e.g. a Bayer pattern, etc.)
Noise reduction and other types of filtering, and signal averaging
Edge detection and other local operators
Segmentation of the image into regions
Infrared (abbr. IR) is the region beyond the visible spectrum at the red
end, typically greater than 770 nm.
see IR cut filter
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Glossary
Interline transfer CCD
Interline transfer CCD or just interline CCD is a type of CCD in which the
parallel register is subdivided so that, like a Venetian blind, opaque strips
span and mask the columns of pixels. The masks act as storage areas. When
the CCD is exposed to light, the image accumulates in the exposed areas
(photosites) of the parallel register. In the serial register, the entire image
is under the interline mask when it shifts for CCD readout. It is possible to
shift the integrated charge quickly (200 ns) under the storage areas. Since
these devices function as a fast shutter (or gate), they are also sometimes
referred to as gated interline CCDs.
See microlens
IR
IR = infrared
IR cut filter
As color cameras can see infrared radiation as well as visible light, these
cameras are usually equipped with an IR cut filter, to prevent distortion of
the colors the human eye can see. To use the camera in very dark locations
or at night, this filter can be removed, to allow infrared radiation to hit
the image sensor and thus produce images.
Isochronous
transmission mode
Isochronous transmission mode is a mode supported by IEEE 1394
(FireWire). IEEE 1394 supports a guaranteed data path bandwidth and
allows for real-time transmission of data to/from 1394 devices. Isochronous data transfers operate in a broadcast manner, where one or many
1394 devices can listen to the data being transmitted. The emphasis of
isochronous data transfers is placed on guaranteed data timing rather
than guaranteed delivery. Multiple channels (up to 16) of isochronous
data can be transferred simultaneously on the 1394 bus. Since isochronous transfers can only take up a maximum of 80 percent of the 1394 bus
bandwidth, there is enough bandwidth left over for additional asynchronous transfers.
(See also Asynchronous transmission mode).
Jitter
Small, rapid variations in a waveform due to mechanical disturbances or to
changes in the characteristic of components. They are caused by variations
in supply voltages, imperfect synchronizing signals, circuits, etc.
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Glossary
JPEG, JPG
The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image files are files in a lossy
format. The DOS filename extension is JPG, although other operating systems may use JPEG. Nearly all digital cameras have the option to save
images in JPEG format, some at different compression levels, such as fine
and standard. The JPEG format supports full color and produces relatively
small file sizes. Fortunately, the compression in most cases does not
detract noticeably from the image. But JPEG files do suffer generational
degradation when repeatedly edited and saved. Photographic images are
best stored in a lossless non-JPEG format if they will be re-edited in future,
or if the presence of small artifacts (blemishes), due to the nature of the
JPEG compression algorithm, is unacceptable. JPEG is also used as the
image compression algorithm in many Adobe PDF files.
Linux
Linux is an open source operating system within the Unix family. Because
of its robustness and availability, Linux has won popularity in the open
source community and among commercial application developers.
Little endian
Byte order: little units first (compare: big endian)
Lux
The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI unit of illuminance. It is used in photometry
as a measure of the intensity of light, with wavelengths weighted according to the luminosity function, a standardized model of human brightness
perception. In English, lux is used in both singular and plural.
Machine vision
Machine vision is the application of cameras and computers to cause some
automated action based on images received by the camera(s) in a manufacturing process. Generally, the term machine vision applies specifically
to manufacturing applications and has an automated aspect related to the
vision sensors. However, it is common to use machine vision equipment
and algorithm outside of the manufacturing realm.
Megapixel
Megapixel refers to one million pixels - relating to the spatial resolution of
a camera. Any camera that is roughly 1000 x 1000 or higher resolution
would be called a megapixel camera.
Microlens
Microlens is a type of technology used in some interline transfer CCDs
whereby each pixel is covered by a small lens which channels light directly
into the sensitive portion of the CCD.
OCR
OCR = Optical Character Recognition
Offset
Offset is just the same as the brightness control on your TV. It is a positive
DC offset of the image signal. It is used primarily to set the level of black.
Generally speaking, for the best signal, the black level should be set so
that it is near zero (but not below zero) on the histogram. Increasing the
brightness beyond this point just lightens the image but without improving the image data.
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OHCI
OHCI = Open Host Controller Interface
One-push autofocus
Focus hold mode that can be automatically readjusted as required by the
user (one-push autofocus trigger) assuming that the required subject is
within the focusing limits of the camera lens.
One-push white
balance
AVT color cameras have not only manual but also one-push white balance.
For white balance, in total a number of frames are processed and a grid of
a number of samples is equally spread over the whole image area.
The R-G-B component values of the samples are added and are used as
actual values for both the one-push and the automatic white balance.
This feature uses the assumption that the R-G-B component sums of the
samples are equal; i.e., it assumes that the average of the sampled grid pixels is to be monochrome.
Opaque mask
In CCD imaging technology, a light-impenetrable material that is used to
shield selected parts of a photosensitive surface. Opaque masks are used
in interline transfer CCDs and frame transfer CCDs.
Open Host Controller
Interface
Open Host Controller Interface (OHCI) describes the standards created by
software and hardware industry leaders (including Microsoft, Apple,
Compaq, Intel, Sun Microsystems, National Semiconductor, and Texas
Instruments) to assure that software (operating systems, drivers, applications) works properly with any compliant hardware.
Optical Character
Recognition
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) refers to the use of machine vision
cameras and computers to read and analyze human-readable alphanumeric
characters to recognize them.
Optocoupler
An optocoupler is a device that uses a short optical transmission path to
transfer a signal between elements of a circuit, typically a transmitter and
a receiver, while keeping them electrically isolated. Advantage: Since the
signal goes from an electrical signal to an optical signal back to an electrical signal, electrical contact along the path is broken.
PCI-Express
PCI-Express (PCIE) is the next generation bus architecture and is compatible with the current PCI software environment while offering low-cost
with scalable performance for the next generation of computing and communications platforms. PCIE is a serial technology with point-to-point connection to provide 2.5 Gbit/s per lane which is 2 times faster than current
PCI technology. PCIE is scalable to form multiple lanes like x1, x2, x4, x8,
x16, and x32.
PDF
Portable Document Format
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Glossary
PxGA
Pixel Gain Amplifier
Pixel
Pixels are generally thought of as the smallest complete sample of an
image. The definition is highly context sensitive. For example, we can
speak of pixels in a visible image (e.g. a printed page) or pixels carried by
one or more electronic signal(s), or represented by one or more digital
value(s), or pixels on a display device, or pixels in a digital camera (photosensor elements). This list is not exhaustive and depending on context
there are several synonyms which are accurate in particular contexts, e.g.
pel, sample, bytes, bits, dots, spots, superset, triad, stripe set, window,
etc. We can also speak of pixels in the abstract, in particular when using
pixels as a measure of resolution, e.g. 2400 pixels per inch or 640 pixels
per line. Dots is often used to mean pixels, especially by computer sales
and marketing people, and gives rise to the abbreviation DPI or dots per
inch.
The more pixels used to represent an image, the closer the result can
resemble the original. The number of pixels in an image is sometimes
called the resolution, though resolution has a more specific definition. Pixels can be expressed as a single number, as in a three-megapixel digital
camera, which has a nominal three million pixels, or as a pair of numbers,
as in a 640 by 480 display, which has 640 pixels from side to side and 480
from top to bottom (as in a VGA display), and therefore has a total number
of 640 × 480 = 307,200 pixels.
The color samples that form a digitized image (such as a JPG file used on
a web page) are also called pixels. Depending on how a computer displays
an image, these may not be in one-to-one correspondence with screen pixels. In areas where the distinction is important, the dots in the image file
may be called texels.
In computer programming, an image composed of pixels is known as a bitmapped image or a raster image. The word raster originates from analogue
television technology. Bitmapped images are used to encode digital video
and to produce computer-generated art.
QE
QE = quantum efficiency
Quadlet
Four bytes of data
Quantum efficiency
Quantum efficiency (abbr. QE) is the measure of the effectiveness of an
imager to produce electronic charge from incident photons. Especially
important to perform low-light-level imaging.
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Glossary
RAW
RAW is a file option available on some digital cameras. It usually uses a
lossless compression and produces file sizes much smaller than the TIFF
format. Unfortunately, the RAW format is not standard among all camera
manufacturers and some graphic programs and image editors may not
accept the RAW format. The better graphic editors can read some manufacturer's RAW formats, and some (mostly higher-end) digital cameras also
support saving images in the TIFF format directly. There are also separate
tools available for converting digital camera raw image format files into
other formats.
Readout
Readout refers to how data is transferred from the CCD or CMOS sensor to
the host computer. Readout rate is an important specification for high-resolution digital cameras. Higher readout rates mean that more images can
be captured in a given length of time.
RGB
The RGB color model utilizes the additive model in which red, green, and
blue light are combined in various ways to create other colors. The very
idea for the model itself and the abbreviation RGB come from the three primary colors in additive light models.
Note that the RGB color model itself does not define what exactly is meant
by red, green and blue, so that the same RGB values can describe noticeably different colors on different devices employing this color model. While
they share a common color model, their actual color spaces can vary considerably.
Rolling shutter
Some CMOS sensors operate in rolling shutter mode only so that the rows
start, and stop, exposing at different times. This type of shutter is not suitable for moving subjects except when using flash lighting because this
time difference causes the image to smear. (see global shutter)
RS-232
RS-232 is a long-established standard that describes the physical interface
and protocol for low-speed serial data communication between devices.
This is the interface that e.g. a computer uses to talk to and exchange data
with a digital camera.
Saturation
In color theory, saturation or purity is the intensity of a specific hue. It is
based on the color's purity; a highly saturated hue has a vivid, intense
color, while a less saturated hue appears more muted and grey. With no saturation at all, the hue becomes a shade of grey. Saturation is one of three
coordinates in the HSL color space and the HSV color space.
The saturation of a color is determined by a combination of light intensity
and how much it is distributed across the spectrum of different wavelengths. The purest color is achieved by using just one wavelength at a
high intensity such as in laser light. If the intensity drops the saturation
also drops.
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Glossary
Scalable mode
Scalable mode allows selection of an area within a full image for output.
Sensitivity
Sensitivity is a measure of how sensitive the camera sensor is to light
input. Unfortunately there is no standardized method of describing sensitivity for digital CCD or CMOS cameras.
Shading
The variation of the brightness or relative illumination over the surface of
an object, often caused by color variations or surface curvature.
Signal-to-noise ratio
also called SNR
Signal-to-noise ratio specifies the quality of a signal with regard to its
reproduction of intensities. The value signifies how high the ratio of noise
is in regard to the maximum wanted signal intensity expected.
The higher this value, the better the signal quality. The unit of measurement used is generally known as the decibel (dB), a logarithmic power
level. 6 dB is the signal level at approximately a factor of 2.
However, the advantages of increasing signal quality are accompanied by
a reduction in resolution.
Signal-to-noise
separation
Signal-to-noise separation specifies the quality of a signal with regard to
its reproduction of intensities. The value signifies how high the ratio of
noise is in regard to the maximum wanted signal intensity expected.
The higher this value, the better the signal quality. The unit of measurement used is generally known as the decibel (dB), a logarithmic power
level. 6 dB is the signal level at approximately a factor of 2.
However, the advantages of increasing signal quality are accompanied by
a reduction in resolution.
Smart camera
A term for a complete vision system contained in the camera body itself,
including imaging, image processing and decision making functions. While
the common smart cameras are intended just for the dedicated systems,
the latest PC technology enables development of devices fully compatible
with desktop PCs. This category of smart cameras thus provides a standard
API and thus much wider functionality.
Smear
Smear is an undesirable artifact of CCDs that appears in the picture as a
vertical streak above and below a very bright object in the scene. Smear is
caused by parasitic light getting into the vertical transfer registers. It is
greatly reduced by the microlens-type of CCD used in Hyper HAD and Power
HAD sensors. Almost suppressed in FIT CCDs.
SNR
SNR = signal-to-noise ratio
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Square pixel
Pixels of the same x and y dimensions (pixel aperture ratio PAR = 1). In the
case of rectangular (non-square) pixels (usual in TV) one must maintain
the aspect ratio when measuring objects, because the dimensions of stored
frames aren't equal to true dimensions; resolutions along x and y axes
aren't the same. Use of square pixels solves such problems - picture elements are equally arrayed in both directions, and allow easy addressing.
Thus aspect ratio of the image does not require adjustment. This is needed
in image processing tasks requiring accurate image measuring.
Aspect ratio: The ratio of horizontal to vertical dimension of the illuminated sensing area.
Pixel aperture dimension ratio: Defines the pixel dimension (the ratio of its
width to height). This parameter describes the resolution (granularity) and
the reproduction behavior of an image sensor area.
Aspect ratio deviation: Shows the ratio between frame store data and true
dimensions of an image.
Sub-sampling
Sub-sampling is the process of skipping neighboring pixels (with the same
color) while being read out from the CMOS or CCD chip.
CMOS equipped MARLIN models, both color and b/w have this feature (FW
> 2.03).
E.g. the CCD model MARLIN F-146C is also equipped with this mode, acting
as a preview mode. Because it is realized digitally there is no further speed
increase.
Sub-sampling is used primarily for 2 reasons:
•
A reduction in the number of pixels and thus the amount of data
while retaining the original image area angle and image brightness
• CMOS: an increase in the frame rate.
Similar to binning mode the cameras support horizontal, vertical and h+v
sub-sampling mode.
Trigger
Trigger is an input to an industrial digital camera than initiates the image
capture sequence. Otherwise, an electrical signal or set of signals used to
synchronize a camera, or cameras, to an external event.
The term trigger is sometimes used in the sense of a trigger shutter.
Trigger shutter
A trigger shutter is a shutter mode with random timing or even with random shutter speed. Such randomness is controlled by the trigger signal
mentioned above.
USB
Universal Serial Bus (USB) provides a serial bus standard for connecting
devices, usually to computers such as PCs, but is also becoming commonplace on digital cameras.
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Vertical binning
Vertical binning increases the light sensitivity of the camera by a factor
of two by adding together the values of two adjoining vertical pixels output as a single pixel. At the same time this normally improves signal-tonoise separation by about 2 dB.
See also: full binning and horizontal binning
WDM
WDM = Windows Driver Model
In computing, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) - also known (somewhat
misleadingly) at one point as the Win32 Driver Model - is a framework for
device drivers that was introduced with Windows 98 and Windows 2000 to
replace VxD, which was used on older versions of Windows such as Windows
95 and Windows 3.1 and the Windows NT Driver Model.
White balance
A function enabling adjustment of the image colors to make the white
objects really appear as white. Thus one can avoid color shifts caused e.g.
by differing illumination conditions.
YUV
The YUV model defines a color space in terms of one luminance and two
chrominance components. YUV is used in the PAL and NTSC systems of television broadcasting, which are the standards in much of the world.
YUV models human perception of color more closely than the standard RGB
model used in computer graphics hardware, but not as closely as the HSL
color space and HSV color space.
Y stands for the luminance component (the brightness) and U and V are
the chrominance (color) components.
YUV signals are created from an original RGB (red, green and blue) source.
The weighted values of R, G and B are added together to produce a single
Y signal, representing the overall brightness, or luminance, of that spot.
The U signal is then created by subtracting the Y from the blue signal of
the original RGB, and then scaling; and V by subtracting the Y from the
red, and then scaling by a different factor.
An advantage of YUV is that some of the information can be discarded in
order to reduce bandwidth. The human eye has fairly little color sensitivity:
the accuracy of the brightness information of the luminance channel has
far more impact on the image discerned than that of the other two.
(See also 4:2:2 and 4:1:1)
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Index
Index
Numbers
B
1394a data transmission ........................... 18
1394b
bandwidths ....................................... 23
requirements laptop............................ 24
1394b data transmission ........................... 19
bandwidth .............................................159
affect frame rate ...............................182
available ..........................................173
deferred image transport ....................132
FastCapture ......................................134
frame rates.......................................172
limitation of IEEE 1394 bus ................176
RGB8 format .....................................139
save in RAW-mode .............................135
BAYER demosaicing .......................... 135, 138
BAYER mosaic.........................................135
BAYER to RGB
color interpretation ...........................135
binning .................................................125
full..................................................128
horizontal ........................................127
vertical ............................................126
BitsPerValue...........................................227
black level .............................................113
black value ............................................113
black/white camera
block diagram ...................................100
blink codes ............................................. 80
block diagram
b/w camera ......................................100
color camera.....................................101
block diagrams
cameras ...........................................100
BRIGHTNESS............................. 113, 114, 213
Brightness
inquiry register .................................207
brightness
auto shutter .....................................109
average............................................110
decrease ..........................................236
IIDC register.....................................113
increase .................................... 113, 236
level......................................... 117, 120
LUT .................................................123
nonlinear .........................................123
reference .................................. 109, 110
setting ............................................113
sub-sampling ....................................128
A
Abs_Control (Field) ..... 105, 109, 111, 112, 114
Abs_Control_Inq (Field) ............................ 87
AccessLutNo (Field).................................227
Access_Control_Register ..........................208
AddrOffset .............................................230
AddrOffset (Field) ...................................227
Advanced feature inquiry .........................220
Advanced feature inquiry register ..............220
Advanced features...................................216
activate ...........................................218
base address .....................................208
inquiry.............................................206
advanced register
auto shutter control...........................236
Algorithm
correction data .................................118
AOI................................................119, 169
correction data .................................119
area of interest (AOI) .......................119, 238
Asynchronous broadcast...........................157
auto exposure
limits ..............................................236
target grey level.........................112, 236
auto gain........................................110, 236
auto shutter............................. 107, 109, 236
auto shutter control (advanced register) ....236
AUTOFNC_AOI.........................................107
AUTOFNC_AOI positioning ........................108
automatic generation
correction data .................................118
automatic white balance ..........................107
AUTO_EXPOSURE .....................................112
Auto_Exposure CSR..................................112
Auto_Inq ................................................ 87
A_M_MODE (Field)....... 105, 109, 111, 112, 114
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Index
variation ..........................................235
Brightness Control ..................................207
brightness (table) ...................................114
BRIGHTNESS_INQUIRY .............................209
Brightness_inq. ......................................209
buffer
LUT .................................................124
bulk trigger.....................................145, 147
busy signal ............................................. 91
Bus_Id ..................................................186
C
camera
operating .......................................... 82
rear view........................................... 73
camera dimensions................................... 58
camera interfaces..................................... 73
Camera lenses.......................................... 30
Camera status (register)...........................222
cameras
block diagram ...................................100
CAMERA_STATUS .....................................222
Camera_Status_Register ...........................186
CCD.......................................................102
CD
driver and documentation.................... 28
channel balance......................................102
chip size................................................102
C-Mount ................................................. 14
color
correction ........................................135
color camera
block diagram ...................................101
Color correction ........................ 138, 139, 239
color correction ......................................138
Color Correction (Field) ............................220
color information ....................................135
Com (LED state)....................................... 80
common GND
inputs............................................... 79
common vcc
outputs............................................. 79
controlling
image capture...................................145
correction
color ...............................................135
correction data
algorithm .........................................118
AOI .................................................119
automatic generation.........................118
requirements ....................................118
shading ...........................................115
CSR.......................................................186
Cycle delay
input characteristics ........................... 83
optocoupler....................................... 83
D
data exchange buffer
LUT .................................................124
data packets ........................................... 96
data path ..............................................100
data payload size ...............................23, 182
DCAM ........................................29, 159, 186
declaration of conformity.......................... 11
deferred image transport............ 131, 132, 233
diagonal ................................................102
Digital Camera Specification .....................186
digitizer ................................................124
document history....................................... 9
DSNU
horizontal mirror function ..................114
E
effective pixels .......................................102
emitter................................................... 89
EN 55022................................................ 11
EN 55024................................................ 11
EN 61000................................................ 11
EnableMemWR (Field) ..............................227
End of exposure......................................155
environmental conditions.......................... 13
error codes
LED .................................................. 80
error states ............................................. 80
Exposure time
(Field) .............................................153
exposure time ........................................152
81 Ch register ...................................154
example ...........................................153
extended shutter...............................225
formula............................................152
longest ............................................153
long-term integration ........................153
minimum .........................................153
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Index
ExpressCard............................................. 24
technology ........................................ 24
ExpressCard/54 ........................................ 24
ExpTime (Field).......................................153
EXTD_SHUTTER........................................225
extended shutter ....................................153
configuration....................................153
FireDemo..........................................225
FireView ...........................................225
inactive ....................................154, 225
register............................................225
Trigger mode ....................................145
EXTENDED_SHUTTER.................................153
External GND ........................................... 78
external trigger ....................................... 84
F
FastCapture
bandwidth........................................134
deferred image transport ....................233
false................................................134
only Format_7...................................134
FastCapture (Field) ..................................233
FCC Class B.............................................. 11
FireDemo
Extended shutter ...............................225
FirePackage
OHCI API software .............................. 29
FireView
Extended shutter ...............................225
FireWire
connecting capabilities ....................... 19
definition.......................................... 17
serial bus .......................................... 18
FireWire 400............................................ 20
FireWire 800............................................ 20
FireWire™ bus.......................................... 82
firmware update .....................................247
Flux voltage
input characteristics ........................... 83
LED .................................................. 83
focal length ............................................ 30
FORMAT_7_ERROR_1 ................................. 80
FORMAT_7_ERROR_2 ................................. 80
FOV.......................................................114
FPGA Boot error ....................................... 80
frame rates
bandwidth........................................172
bandwidth limitation .........................176
bus speed.........................................159
Format_7 .........................................176
maximum .........................................159
tables ..............................................172
video mode 0....................................175
video mode 2....................................175
Frame valid ............................................. 91
Free-Run................................................157
Full binning ...........................................128
Fval ....................................................... 91
Fval signal .............................................. 91
G
Gain......................................................111
gain
auto ................................................110
auto exposure CSR .............................110
AUTOFNC_AOI ...................................107
manual ............................................113
manual gain range...................... 106, 113
ranges .............................................113
gain CSR................................................112
GAIN (Name)..........................................111
GAIN (register) .......................................106
gamma function .....................................123
CCD models.......................................119
gamma LUT ............................................123
global pipelined shutter...........................145
global shutter ........................................145
GND for RS232......................................... 78
GPDATA_BUFFER ....................... 121, 122, 124
GRAB_COUNT..........................................118
H
hardware trigger ................................88, 151
HoldImg
field ................................................132
flag .................................................132
mode...............................................132
set ..................................................233
HoldImg (Field) ......................................233
Horizontal binning ..................................127
horizontal mirror function ........................114
hue
offset ..............................................137
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Index
I
IEEE 1394 ............................................... 29
declaration of conformity .................... 11
IEEE 1394 standards ................................. 17
IEEE 1394 Trade Association .....................186
IEEE 1394b
Pike family ........................................ 14
pin assignment .................................. 76
IEEE 1394b connector............................... 73
IIDC..........................................29, 159, 186
data structure .................................... 99
isochronous data block packet format.... 96
pixel data.......................................... 96
trigger delay...................................... 87
video data format............................... 97
Y16 .................................................. 98
Y8 .................................................... 98
YUV 4:1:1.......................................... 97
YUV 4:2:2.......................................... 97
IIDC V1.31 .............................................145
IIDC V1.31 camera control standards........... 20
image capture
controlling .......................................145
IMAGE_POSITION ....................................169
IMAGE_SIZE ...........................................169
input
block diagram .................................... 84
characteristics ................................... 83
configuration register ......................... 85
max. current ...................................... 83
schematics ........................................ 82
signals.............................................. 83
type ................................................. 90
input characteristics
Cycle delay ........................................ 83
input mode ............................................. 86
input voltage .......................................... 82
InputMode (Field) .................................... 85
inputs ............................................... 73, 77
common GND ..................................... 79
general ............................................. 82
in detail............................................ 82
triggers............................................. 84
voltage ............................................. 83
input/output pin control..........................234
Inquiry register
basic function...................................206
Integration Enable signal .......................... 91
IntEna............................................... 78, 95
IntEna signal ....................................91, 235
internal trigger.......................................145
interpolation
BAYER demosaicing ...........................135
Bayer to RGB ....................................135
color ...............................................135
IO_INP_CTRL1 ......................................... 85
IO_INP_CTRL2 ......................................... 85
IO_OUTP_CTRL1 ....................................... 93
IO_OUTP_CTRL2 ....................................... 93
IO_OUTP_CTRL4 ....................................... 93
IR cut filter............................................. 28
Isochronous data block packet format......... 96
IsoEnable
white balance ...................................107
ISO_Enable ............................................157
ISO_Enable mode....................................157
Iso_Enable mode
multi-shot........................................156
one-shot ..........................................154
J
Jenofilt 217 IR cut filter ........................... 28
jitter.............................................. 155, 158
at exposure start ...............................158
L
latching connectors.................................. 76
LED
Com ................................................. 80
current ............................................. 83
error codes ........................................ 80
flux voltage ....................................... 83
indication ......................................... 80
on (green)......................................... 80
status.......................................... 73, 80
Trg ................................................... 80
yellow .............................................. 80
Legal notice .............................................. 2
look-up table
user-defined .....................................123
look-up table (LUT) .......................... 123, 227
LUT.......................................................227
data exchange buffer .........................124
example ...........................................123
gamma ............................................123
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Index
general ............................................123
loading into camera...........................124
volatile ............................................124
LutNo (Field)..........................................227
LUT_CTRL...............................................227
LUT_INFO...............................................227
LUT_MEM_CTRL .......................................227
M
Manual_Inq............................................. 87
Maximum resolution (register) ..................223
MaxLutSize (Field)...................................227
MaxResolution (Field) ..............................220
MAX_RESOLUTION ...................................223
Max_Value .............................................. 87
microlens...............................................102
Min_Value............................................... 87
mirror function
horizontal ........................................114
Multi-Shot .............................................156
multi-shot .............................................156
external trigger .................................156
N
No DCAM object ....................................... 80
No FLASH object ...................................... 80
Node_Id ................................................186
non-uniform illumination .........................117
NumOfLuts (Field) ...................................227
O
OFFSET
automatic white balance ....................106
offset
800h ...............................................113
CCD .................................................113
configuration ROM.............................192
factors .............................................192
hue .................................................137
initialize register...............................195
inquiry register video format ...............195
inquiry register video mode.................196
saturation ........................................137
setting brightness .............................113
setting gain......................................113
OHCI API
FirePackage ....................................... 29
One-Shot ...............................................154
values..............................................155
oneshot
Trigger_Mode_15...............................145
using Trigger_Mode_15 ......................149
OneShot bit ...........................................154
OneShot mode ........................................154
One_Push (Field) .........105, 109, 111, 112, 114
One_Push_Inq ......................................... 87
ON_OFF .................................................. 87
ON_OFF (Field) .......................................105
operating
camera ............................................. 82
optical filter............................................ 15
optocoupler ............................................ 83
cycle delay ........................................ 83
output
block diagram .................................... 92
signals.............................................. 91
Output configuration register .................... 93
Output mode ........................................... 93
output mode ........................................... 93
ID ..............................................94, 234
Output mode (Field) ................................. 93
output pin control ................................... 94
outputs ............................................. 77, 89
common vcc ...................................... 79
general ............................................. 82
non-inverting .................................... 89
registers ........................................... 93
set by software .................................. 96
OutVCC ................................................... 79
P
partial scan............................................. 15
PI controller ..........................................110
picture size ............................................. 14
PIKE
Camera types ..................................... 14
PIKE F-032B (Specification)....................... 33
PIKE F-032C (Specification)....................... 35
PIKE F-100B (Specification)....................... 37
PIKE F-100C (Specification)....................... 39
PIKE F-145B (Specification)....................... 41
PIKE F-145C (Specification).................. 43, 45
PIKE F-210B (Specification)....................... 45
PIKE F-210C (Specification)....................... 47
PIKE F-421B (Specification)....................... 49
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Index
PIKE F-421C (Specification) ....................... 51
Pike types............................................... 14
PIKE W270 .............................................. 60
Pike W270 S90......................................... 60
pin assignment
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
pin control.............................................234
PinState flag ........................................... 93
PinState (Field) ....................................... 85
pixel size ...............................................102
plus integral controller ............................110
Polarity ............................................. 85, 93
Power
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
power
cable ................................................ 12
connectors ........................................ 13
DC.................................................... 13
GND.................................................. 78
LED .................................................. 80
power down ............................................ 13
Presence_Inq .......................................... 85
Presence_Inq (Field) ..........................87, 105
protection glass....................................... 28
R
Readout_Inq ........................................... 87
rear view of camera .................................. 73
Reference documents
Europe .............................................. 12
Japan ............................................... 12
USA.................................................. 12
register .................................................105
Register mapping ..................................... 80
Requirements
correction data .................................118
RGB to YUV
formula............................................139
RGB8 format...........................................139
RoHS (2002/95/EC) .................................. 11
RS232 .................................................... 79
RxD_RS232.............................................. 79
S
safety instructions ................................... 12
saturation
offset ..............................................137
scan....................................................... 15
sensor
size .................................................. 14
sensor size.............................................102
sensor type ............................................102
sequence
automatic white balance ....................107
deferred mode ..................................132
loading a LUT ...................................124
OneShot...........................................154
white balance ...................................107
shading
correction data .................................115
shading correction ........................... 115, 229
shading image................................. 116, 117
automatic generation.........................118
delay ...............................................119
Format_7 .........................................119
generation .......................................120
load into camera ...............................122
load out of camera ............................121
shading images ......................................229
shading reference image ..........................118
SHDG_CTRL ..................................... 119, 230
SHDG_INFO ............................................230
SHDG_MEM_CTRL.....................................230
SHUTTER................................................109
Shutter CSR............................................109
shutter time
formula............................................152
SHUTTER_MODES.....................................145
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).......................125
signal-to-noise separation........................125
size
sensor .............................................. 14
SmartView .............................................. 29
SNR ......................................................125
specifications.......................................... 32
spectral sensitivity
MF-033B ........................................... 53
spectral transmission
IR cut filter ....................................... 29
Jenofilt 217 ...................................... 29
Stack setup ............................................. 80
Stack start .............................................. 80
standard housing ..................................... 58
status LED .............................................. 80
styles ....................................................... 9
sub-sampling .........................................128
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Index
brightness ........................................128
symbols ............................................... 9, 10
system components .................................. 28
T
Target grey level
corresponds to Auto_exposure.............213
Target grey level (auto exposure) .......112, 236
Target grey level (SmartView)
corresponds to auto exposure..............109
test image .............................................184
Bayer-coded .....................................185
b/w cameras .....................................184
color ...............................................185
color cameras ...................................185
configuration register ........................226
gray bar ...........................................184
save ................................................226
TEST_IMAGE ...........................................226
time base ..............................................153
exposure time ...................................152
setting.............................................225
trigger delay................................87, 150
time response.........................................155
TIMEBASE .......................................216, 223
TimeBase (Field) .....................................220
timebase (Register) .................................223
TPAIEEE 1394b........................................ 76
TPA(R)
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
TPA+ ...................................................... 76
TPBIEEE 1394b........................................ 76
TPB(R)
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
TPB+ ...................................................... 76
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
Trg (LED state) ........................................ 80
trigger
bulk .........................................145, 147
control image capture ........................145
delay ........................................... 87, 96
edge................................................. 88
external ......................................80, 145
hardware.....................................88, 151
impulse............................................154
IntEna .............................................. 95
internal ...........................................145
latency time .....................................158
microcontroller .................................155
one-shot ..........................................154
signal ............................................... 84
software...........................................157
synchronize ......................................158
trigger delay ..........................................150
advanced CSR ..............................88, 151
advanced register .........................88, 151
off ................................................... 88
on.................................................... 88
Trigger Delay CSR ...............................88, 151
trigger delay inquiry register ..................... 87
trigger function ......................................148
Trigger modi ..........................................145
trigger shutter
asynchronous..................................... 15
triggers .................................................. 84
input................................................ 84
TRIGGER_DELAY .................................88, 151
TRIGGER_DELAY_INQUIRY....................87, 150
Trigger_Delay_Inquiry register ..................150
TRIGGER_MODE .......................................148
Trigger_Mode .........................................148
Trigger_Mode_0 .................................89, 145
Trigger_Mode_1 ......................................145
Trigger_Mode_15 ............................. 145, 147
Trigger_Polarity ......................................148
Trigger_Source .......................................148
Trigger_Value .........................................148
tripod adapter .................................... 28, 60
Tripod dimensions.................................... 60
true partial scan ...................................... 15
types
Pike cameras ..................................... 14
U
UNIT_POSITION_INQ................................169
UNIT_SIZE_INQ.......................................169
U/B_Value (Field) ...................................105
U/V slider range .....................................106
V
VCC
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
Vendor unique Features............................206
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Index
Vertical binning ......................................126
VG (GND)
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
video data format
IIDC V1.31 ........................................ 97
video format
available bandwidth...........................172
frame rate ........................................172
MF-080 .............................. 161, 162, 163
video formats .........................................159
video Format_7
AOI .................................................169
video mode
CUR-V-MODE .....................................211
Format_7 .........................................214
inquiry register .................................196
sample C code...................................190
video mode 0 .........................................175
video mode 2 .........................................175
VMode_ERROR_STATUS.............................. 80
VP
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
VP (Power, VCC)
IEEE 1394b........................................ 76
V/R_Value (Field)....................................105
W
white balance.........................................105
auto shutter .....................................109
AUTOFNC_AOI ...................................107
automatic .......................... 104, 106, 107
automatic sequence ...........................107
conditions........................................106
general ............................................104
Hue register .....................................137
manual ............................................104
one-push automatic...........................106
register............................................105
register 80Ch ....................................104
six frames ........................................106
trigger .............................................107
WHITE_BALANCE ..............................105, 107
www.alliedvisiontec.com ........................... 29
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