Promise Technology FASTtrak100 LP User`s manual

RAID User’s Manual
RAID20276-216
Copyright
Copyright by Promise Technology, Inc. (“Promise”), 2002. No part
of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
without the expressed, written permission of Promise.
Trademarks
All trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
Important data protection information
You should back up all data before installing any drive controller or
storage peripheral. Promise is not responsible for any loss of data
resulting from the use, disuse or misuse of this or any other
Promise product.
Notice
Although Promise has attempted to ensure the accuracy of the
content of this manual, it is possible that this document may contain
technical inaccuracies, typographical, or other errors. Promise
Technology, Inc. assumes no liability for any error in this
publication, and for damages, whether direct, indirect, incidental,
consequential or otherwise, that may result from such error,
including, but not limited to loss of data or profits.
Promise provides this publication “as is” without warranty of any
kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to implied
warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
The published information in the manual is subject to change
without notice. Promise reserves the right to make changes in the
product design, layout, and driver revisions without notification to its
users.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................2
W HAT IS THE PROMISE 20276 RAID CONTROLLER?........................................2
KEYS FEATURES AND BENEFITS .....................................................................3
GETTING STARTED.....................................................................................5
INSTALLING THE HARD DRIVES ......................................................................5
CHECKING CMOS SETTINGS ........................................................................6
CREATING YOUR DISK ARRAY ........................................................................7
USING FASTBUILD™ CONFIGURATION UTILITY...................................11
VIEWING THE BIOS SCREEN .......................................................................11
NAVIGATING THE FASTBUILD™ SETUP MENU................................................12
CREATING ARRAYS AUTOMATICALLY.............................................................13
VIEWING DRIVE ASSIGNMENTS .....................................................................14
DELETING AN ARRAY ..................................................................................15
REBUILDING A MIRRORED ARRAY ................................................................16
VIEWING CONTROLLER SETTINGS ................................................................18
INSTALLING DRIVERS ..............................................................................19
W INDOWS 2000/XP...................................................................................19
W INDOWS 95/98/ME ..................................................................................21
DOS/W INDOWS 3.1X .................................................................................24
W INDOWS NT4..........................................................................................25
USING THE FASTCHECK™ MONITORING UTILITY................................27
INSTALLING FASTCHECK .............................................................................27
RUNNING FASTCHECK ................................................................................28
CLOSING FASTCHECK .................................................................................28
USING FASTCHECK ARRAY W INDOW ............................................................29
SYNCHRONIZING AN ARRAY .........................................................................32
REBUILDING AN ARRAY ...............................................................................34
USING CONTROLLER W INDOW .....................................................................36
USING OPTIONS W INDOW ...........................................................................39
UNDERSTANDING DISK ARRAY CONCEPTS .........................................44
ABOUT THE BIOS ......................................................................................44
FASTBUILD™ AUTO MENU SETUP ...............................................................44
RESERVED SECTOR ....................................................................................44
DISK ARRAY TERMS ....................................................................................45
ABOUT RAID LEVELS .................................................................................46
TROUBLESHOOTING & TIPS....................................................................48
DRIVE-RELATED ERRORS ............................................................................48
OPERATING SYSTEM-RELATED ERRORS .......................................................52
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS.........................................................54
PRE-INSTALLATION .....................................................................................54
DRIVE ISSUES ............................................................................................54
INSTALLATION ISSUES .................................................................................55
POST-INSTALLATION ...................................................................................56
1
Introduction
What is Promise 20276 RAID controller?
The Promise 20276 RAID controller provides a cost-effective, high performance RAID
solution that adds performance and/or reliability to PC desktops and/or servers using Ultra
ATA/133, Ultra ATA/100 or Ultra ATA/66. It supports striping (RAID 0) or mirroring (RAID 1)
for master only.
With striping, identical drives can read and write data in parallel to increase performance.
Mirroring increases read performance through load balancing and elevator sorting while
creating a complete backup of your files.
A striped array doubles the sustained data transfer rate of Ultra ATA/133 drives. It fully
supports Ultra ATA/133 specification of up to 133 MB/sec per drive, depending on individual
drive specifications.
The Promise 20276 RAID controller also offers fault tolerant, data redundancy for entry-level
network file servers or simply for desktop PC users wanting to continually protect valuable
data on their PC. It offers RAID 1 mirroring (for two drives) to protect data. Should a drive that
is part of a mirrored array fail, it uses the mirrored drive (which contains identical data) to
assume all data handling. When a new replacement drive is later installed, it rebuilds data to
the new drive from the mirrored drive to restore fault tolerance.
The Promise 20276 RAID controller’s bootable BIOS supports individual drives larger than
128GB. With FAT32 and NTFS partitioning, the array can be addressed as one large single
volume.
Only connect IDE hard drives to the RAID IDE connectors on the system board. Hard drives
must be Ultra ATA/100, Ultra ATA/66, Ultra ATA/33, EIDE and/or Fast ATA-2 compatible.
2
Keys Features and Benefits
The following information is an overview of the major features of the Promise 20276 RAID
controller.
Advanced Hardware Design
Features
Benefits
Supports data striping (RAID 0) or mirroring Provides dramatic increase in drive
(RAID 1).
performance and/or fault tolerant options.
Offers performance customization and data
rebuilds from the BIOS menu.
Supports Ultra DMA 6/5/4/3/2/1/0,
Burst data transfer rates up to 133MB/sec
DMA 2/1/0.
from Ultra ATA/133 drives to boost overall
system performance.
Supports concurrent dual IDE channel
Drive workload is distributed in parallel
operation.
between members of the array.
Supports IDE bus master operation.
Allows multitasking during disk transfer
thus increasing CPU efficiency. The CPU is
free to process tasks to and from the
system memory during IDE data transfers.
TM
Offers preset application specific settings
Utilizes FastBuild auto-menu BIOS.
that can be optimized for Desktop, Server,
or A/V Editing. Has "Auto Setup" option for
quick and easy array builds.
Notifies user of possible errors and allows
Displays status and error checking
for recovery of mirrored drive arrays
messages during boot-up.
TM
directly from FastBuild .
Employs the latest Promise PCI
Ultra ATA/133 ASIC technology.
Mirroring supports automatic background
rebuilds.
Fully supports Ultra ATA/133 specifications
with 133 MB/sec timing and CRC errorchecking at high speeds.
Fault tolerance can be restored
automatically without rebooting.
3
Compatibility
Features
Benefits
Provides 32-bit I/O, IDE Bus Master, and
Compliant with PCI IDE Bus Master
Ultra ATA performance for optimal system
standard. PCI IDE Bus Master supports
performance.
Windows XP/2000/98/95 and Windows NT
3.5x/4.0.
Compatible with Ultra ATA/133, Ultra
Works with the newest and current IDE
ATA/100, Ultra ATA/66 and Ultra ATA/33.
drive specifications.
Features 48-bit LBA and Extended
Interrupt13 drive translation in the
controller’s onboard BIOS.
Breaks capacity barriers for support of
drives greater than 128GB in capacity.
Offers flexible storage options for space
demanding applications.
4
Getting Started
This section will help you get started with the hard drive installation.
WARNING: Before installing the driver into an existing system, backup any
necessary data. Failure to follow this accepted PC practice could result in data
loss.
Installing The Hard Drives
WARNING: If you wish to use a Windows NT 4.x or Windows 2000 hard
drive that will be configured in the Mirrored array as a boot drive, do NOT
connect the hard drive to the RAID IDE connector yet. You must install the
Windows NT 4.x or Windows 2000 operating system and driver with the hard
drive connected to the standard IDE connector. After you’re done with the
installation, connect the drive to the RAID IDE connector. The “First Boot Device” field in
Advanced BIOS Features of the Award BIOS setup utility must be set to “SCSI”.
Hard drives must be Ultra ATA/133, Ultra ATA/100, Ultra ATA/66 or Ultra ATA/33 compatible.
For optimal performance, install identical drives of the same model and capacity. The drives’
matched performance allows the array to function better as a single drive.
1.
2.
Drives in an array must be identical. If striping for performance, use two new drives. If
mirroring for protection, you can use two new drives or use an existing drive and a new
drive (the new drive must be the same size or larger than the existing drive). Only two
drives can be configured as RAID. Since both of these drives must be in Master mode,
striping or mirroring must be done between 2 RAID IDE channels; not between 2 drives
that are chained on the same channel.
Configure the jumpers of the hard drive using the correct “Master / Slave” or “CableSelect” settings in the positions described in the table below.
NOTE: Sometimes the Master drive with no slave attached is called “Single.” The master
slave setting differentiates two drives chained on the same channel.
Jumper Settings
# of Drives
IDE Channel 1
IDE Channel 2
1
M
----
2
M
M
M = Master
3.
Install the hard drives into the hard drive bays of your system, including the power cables.
5
4.
Install the 40-pin connector of the IDE cable into the RAID IDE connector and the other
40-pin connector(s) into the hard drives with the colored edge of the ribbon cable aligned
with pin 1 of the drive edge connector(s).
NOTE: You must use an 80-wire, 40-pin cable when connecting an Ultra
ATA/100 hard drive.
Checking CMOS Settings
If you want the system to boot from a drive that is connected to the RAID IDE connector or
SCSI add-in card, you must first select “SCSI” in the “First Boot Device” field (Advanced BIOS
Features) of the Award BIOS setup utility.
If there are drives connected to both the RAID IDE connector and SCSI add-in card,
you must then select which drive you want to boot from in the “RAID Chip Boot
Device” field. Refer to the system board user’s manual for more information.
6
Creating A Disk Array
Use the FastBuild BIOS utility to create arrays using the attached drives. There are three
different scenarios in creating an array. You can (1) create an array for performance, (2)
create a Security array using new hard drives (recommended), or (3) create a Security array
using an existing hard drive and a new hard drive.
WARNING If you wish to create a Security array using an existing hard drive,
backup all necessary data. Failure to follow this accepted PC practice could
result in data loss.
1.
Boot your system. If this is the first time you have booted with the MBFastTrak133 Lite
and drives installed, the Promise onboard BIOS will display the following screen.
MBFastTrak133 Lite (tm) BIOS Version 2.00.0.XX
(c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
No array defined . . .
Press <Ctrl-F> to enter FastBuild (tm) Utility
Or press <ESC> key to continue booting the system.
2.
Press <Ctrl-F> keys to display the FastBuild (tm) Utility Main Menu
3.
Press “1” to display the Auto Setup Menu below. This is the fastest and easiest method
to creating your first array.
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[Auto Setup Options Menu]
Optimize Array for:
Performance
Typical Application usage: A/V Editing
[ Auto Setup Configuration ]
Mode ......................................... Stripe
Drives used in Array..........................2
Array Disk Capacity ..................16126
[ Keys Available ]
[↑] Up [↓] Down [←, →, Space] Change Option [ESC] Exit [Ctrl-Y] Save
7
Creating an Array for Performance
NOTE: You can create striped arrays with 1 or 2 drives.
To create an array for best performance, follow these steps:
1.
Using the Spacebar, choose “Performance” under the Optimize Array for section.
2.
Select how you will use your PC most under the Typical Application usage section The
choices are A/V Editing, Server, and Desktop (the default).
3.
Press the <Ctrl-Y> keys to Save and create the array.
4.
Reboot your system.
5.
Once the array has been created, you must FDISK and format the array as if it is a new
single hard drive.
6.
Install the appropriate driver. Refer to the “Installing Drivers” section of this manual.
Creating a Security Array With New Drives
NOTE: In Auto Setup, only two drives can be used for a single Mirrored array.
To create an array for data protection using new hard drives, follow these steps:
1.
Using the Spacebar, choose “Security” under the Optimize Array for section.
2.
Press the <Ctrl-Y> keys to Save.
3.
The window below will appear.
Do you want the disk image to be duplicated to another? (Yes/No)
Y - Create and Duplicate
N - Create Only
4.
Press “N” to select the Create Only option.
5.
A window will appear almost immediately confirming that your Security array has been
created.
Array has been created.
<Press Any Key to Reboot>
6.
Press any key to reboot the system.
7.
You must FDISK and format the array as if it is a new single hard drive.
8.
Once the arrayed drives have been formatted, install the appropriate driver. Refer to the
“Installing Drivers” section of this manual.
8
Creating a Security Array Using An Existing Hard Drive
NOTE: In Auto Setup, only two drives can be used for a single Mirrored array.
Use this method if you wish to use a drive that already contains data and/or is the bootable
drive in your system. You will need another drive of identical or larger storage capacity.
WARNING: Backup all necessary data before proceeding. Failure to follow
this accepted PC practice could result in data loss.
WARNING: If you wish to use a Windows NT 4.x or Windows 2000 hard
drive that will be configured in the Mirrored array as a boot drive, do NOT
connect the hard drive to the RAID IDE connector yet. You must install the
Windows NT 4.x or Windows 2000 operating system and driver with the hard
drive connected to the standard IDE connector. After you’re done with the
installation, connect the drive to the RAID IDE connector. For all other operating systems,
please proceed.
1.
Using the Spacebar, choose “Security” under the Optimize Array for section.
2.
Press the <Ctrl-Y> keys to Save. The window below will appear.
Do you want the disk image to be duplicated to another? (Yes/No)
Y - Create and Duplicate
N - Create Only
3.
Press <Y> to select the Create and Duplicate option. The window below will appear
asking you to select the Source drive.
Channel:ID
Source Disk
Drive Model
Channel:ID
Target Disk
Drive Model
Channel:ID
1 :Master
2 :Master
Capacity (MB)
Capacity (MB)
[Please Select A Source Disk]
Drive Model
QUANTUMCR8.4A
QUANTUMCR8.4A
Capacity (MB)
8063
8063
[↑] Up [↓] [ESC] Exit [Ctrl-Y] Save
4.
Use the arrow keys to choose the drive that contains the existing data to be copied.
FastBuild will copy all data from the Source drive to the Target drive.
5.
Press [Ctrl-Y] keys to Save selection and start duplication. The following progress screen
will appear.
Start to duplicate the image . . .
Do you want to continue? (Yes/No)
Y – Continue N – Abort
6.
Select <Y> to continue. If you choose <N>, you will be returned to step 1.
9
7.
Once complete, the following screen will appear confirming that your Security array has
been created. Press any key to reboot the system
Array has been created.
<Press Any Key to Reboot>
8.
Press any key to reboot the system.
9.
Install the appropriate driver. Refer to the “Installing Drivers” section of this manual.
10
Using the FastBuild™ Configuration Utility
The FastBuildTM Configuration Utility offers several menus to create and manage the drive
array. For purposes of this manual, it is assumed you have already created an array in the
previous chapter and now wish to make changes to the array or view other options.
Viewing the BIOS Screen
When you boot your system with drives connected to the RAID IDE connectors, the Promise
onboard BIOS will detect the drives attached and display the following screen.
MBFastTrak133 Lite (tm) BIOS Version 2.00.0.XX
(c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Scanning IDE drives . . . . .
If an array exists already, the BIOS will display the following screen showing the BIOS
version and status of the array.
MBFastTrak133 Lite (tm) BIOS Version 2.00.0.xx
(c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
ID
1*
MODE SIZE
2+0 Stripe
TRACK-MAPPING
16126M
611/128/32
STATUS
Functional
Press <Ctrl-F> to enter FastBuild (tm) Utility....
There are 3 array status: Functional, Critical, Offline.
Functional - The array is operational.
Critical - The mirrored array contains a drive that has failed or has been disconnected. The
remaining drive member in the array is functional. However, the array has temporarily lost its
ability to provide fault tolerance. The user should identify the failed drive through the
FastBuildTM utility, and then replace the problem drive.
Offline - The striped array contains a drive that has failed or has been disconnected. When
the array’s condition is “offline,” the user must replace the failed drive(s), then restore data
from a backup source.
11
Navigating the FastBuild™ Setup Menu
The basic navigation keys are: Arrow keys to highlight through choices, <Space> key to
cycle through options, <Enter> key to select an option, and <ESC> key to abort or exit the
current menu.
The Main Menu
This is the first screen that will appear when you enter the FastBuildTM utility.
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[ Main Menu ]
Auto Setup............................................... [ 1 ]
View Drive Assignments.......................... [ 2 ]
View Array ............................................... [ 3 ]
Delete Array ............................................ [ 4 ]
Rebuild Array........................................... [ 5 ]
Controller Configuration .......................... [ 6 ]
[ Keys Available ]
Press 1...6 to Select Option [ESC] Exit
To create a new array automatically, follow the steps in the “Creating Arrays Automatically”
section. This option is recommended for most users.
To view drives assigned to arrays, refer to the “Viewing Drive Assignments” section.
To delete an array (but not deleting the data contained in the array), refer to the “Deleting An
Array” section.
To rebuild a mirrored array, refer to the “Rebuilding a Mirrored Array” section.
To view controller settings, refer to the “Viewing Controller Settings” section.
NOTE: After configuring an array using FastBuild, you must FDISK and format
the arrayed drive(s) if you are using new, blank drives (depending on the type
of array you are using).
12
Creating Arrays Automatically
“Auto Setup <1>” in the Main Menu can automatically help create a disk array. It will assign
all available drives appropriate for the disk array you are creating. After making all selections,
use <Ctrl-Y> to Save. FastBuild will automatically build the array.
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[Auto Setup Options Menu]
Optimize Array for:
Performance
Typical Application usage: A/V Editing
[ Auto Setup Configuration ]
Mode ......................................... Stripe
Spare Drive Count............................ 1
Drives used in Array ......................... 2
Array Disk Capacity.................. 16126
[ Keys Available ]
[↑] Up [↓] Down [←, →, Space] Change Option [ESC] Exit [Ctrl-Y] Save
Optimize Array For
Select Performance (RAID 0) or Security (RAID 1) under the “Optimize Array for” setting.
Performance (RAID 0 Striping)
This option provides maximum performance. The storage capacity equals the number of
drives times the capacity of the smallest drive in the disk array.
NOTE: Striped arrays can use 1 or 2 drives that were created in Auto Setup.
Security (RAID 1 Mirroring)
This option creates a mirrored (or fault tolerant) array for data security.
NOTE: Under the Security setting, two drives can be used for a single Mirrored array.
13
Typical Application Usage
The user can choose the type of PC usage to be performed in order to optimize the way the
system handles data blocks that will help enhance performance. Your choice will determine
the block size used. You may choose: A/V Editing (for audio/video applications, or any
similar application that requires large file transfers), Server (for numerous small file
transfers), or Desktop (a combination of large and small file sizes).
NOTE: To customize the settings of individual disk arrays (such as block size), you must
manually create disk arrays in Define Array <3> of the Main Menu.
Viewing Drive Assignments
“View Drive Assignments <2>” in the Main Menu displays whether drives are assigned or
unassigned to disk arrays.
The menu also displays the data transfer mode that relates to speed used by each drive (U6
refers to 133MB/sec transfers, U5 refers to 100MB/sec transfers, U4 refers to 66MB/sec
transfers, etc.)
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[ View Drive Assignments ]
Channel:ID Drive Model
Capacity(MB) Assignment Mode
1 : Master QUANTUMCR8.4A 8063
Array 1
U5
2 : Master QUANTUMCR8.4A 8063
Array 1
U5
[ Keys Available ]
[↑] Up [↓] Down [ESC] Exit Mode (U=UDMA, P=PIO, D=DMA)
How the RAID Controller Orders Arrays
During startup, the disk arrays are recognized in this order: 1) The array that is set as
TM
bootable in the FastBuild Setup, and 2) The Array number (i.e. Array 0, Array 1). This will
involve determining the drive letters assigned to each disk array.
How the RAID Controller Saves Array Information
All disk array data is saved into the reserved sector of each array member. We recommend
that you record all disk array information for future reference.
Another feature of the disk array system is to recognize drive members even if drives are
moved between different connectors. Since each drive’s array data identifies itself to the
array, it is possible to move or swap drives without modifying the array setup. This is
valuable when adding drives, or during a rebuild.
14
Deleting An Array
“Delete Array <4>” menu allows you to delete disk array assignments. This is not the same
as deleting data from the drives themselves. If you deleted an array by accident (and before
it has been used again), the array can normally be recovered by defining the array identical
to the deleted array.
WARNING: Deleting an existing disk array could result in its data loss. Make
sure to record all array information including the array type, the disk members,
and stripe block size in case you wish to undo a deletion.
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[ Delete Array Menu ]
Array No
Array 1
Array 2
Array 3
Array 4
RAID Mode
Stripe
——
——
——
Total Drv
Capacity(MB) Status
2
16126
Functional
——
——
——
——
——
——
——
——
——
[ Keys Available ]
[↑] Up [↓] Down
[ESC] Exit
[Del] Delete
1.
To delete an array, highlight the array you wish to delete and press the <Del> key.
2.
View Array Menu will appear (see below) showing the drives that are assigned to this
array.
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[ Define Array Menu ]
Array No
Array 1
RAID Mode Total Drv
——
——
Capacity(MB)
——
Status
——
Stripe Block: 64 KB
[ Drive Assignments ]
Channel:ID
1 : Master
2 : Master
3.
Drive Model
QUANTUMCR8.4A
QUANTUMCR8.4A
Capacity (MB)
8063
8063
Assignment
Y
Y
Confirm yes to the following warning message with the <Ctrl-Y> key to continue array
deletion:
Are you sure you want to delete this array?
Press Ctrl-Y to Delete, others to Abort
4.
After deleting the array, you should create a new array in Auto Setup or Define Array
menu.
15
Rebuilding A Mirrored Array
“Rebuild Array <5>” menu is necessary to recover from an error in the mirrored disk array.
An error message will appear when booting your system from the boot array.
NOTE: Drives MUST be replaced if they contain any physical errors.
Follow these steps BEFORE using the Rebuild Array menu option:
1.
On boot up, the BIOS will display an error message identifying the drive that has failed.
2.
Press the <Ctrl-F> keys to enter the FastBuild Main Menu.
3.
Select “Define Array <3>”.
4.
Select the failed array and identify the channel and ID of the failed drive.
5.
Power off and physically remove the failed drive.
6.
Replace the drive with an identical model.
7.
Reboot the system and enter the FastBuild Main Menu.
8.
Select the “Rebuild Array <5>” menu. The following screen will appear.
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[ Rebuild Array Menu ]
Array No
Array 1
Array 2
Array 3
Array 4
RAID Mode Total Drv
Mirror
2
——
——
——
——
——
——
Capacity(MB)
16126
——
——
——
Status
Critical
——
——
——
[ Keys Available ]
[↑] Up [↓] Down
9.
[ESC] Exit
Highlight the array with the “Critical” status.
10. Press <Enter>. The following screen will appear.
16
[Enter] Select
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[ Rebuild Array Menu ]
Array No
Array 2
RAID Mode
Mirror
Total Drv
2
Status
Critical
Stripe Block: Not Available
[ Select Drive for Rebuild ]
Channel:ID
1 : Slave
Drive Model
QUANTUMCR8.4A
Capacity (MB)
8063
[ Keys Available ]
[↑] Up [↓] Down
[ESC] Exit
[Enter] Select
11. Under “Select Drive for Rebuild”, highlight the new drive.
12. Press <Enter> to confirm that the data will be copied to the selected new drive. All data
will be copied with mirrored information from the array drive to the new drive. A progress
bar will appear as below.
Please Wait While Duplicating The Image
10%
Complete
13. Once the rebuild process is complete, the user will be asked to reboot the system.
17
Viewing Controller Settings
“Controller Configuration <6>” menu allows you to enable or disable the BIOS from halting if
it detected an error on boot up. You may also view the system resources (Interrupt and I/O
port address) of the data channels.
FastBuild (tm) Utility 1.xx (c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc.
[ Adapter Configuration - Options ]
Halt On Error:
Enable
[ System Resources Configuration ]
Channel 1 (IDE1)
Channel 2 (IDE2)
Interrupt : A
Interrupt : A
I/O Port : FFF0
I/O Port : FFA8
[ Keys Available ]
[←, →, Space] Change Option [ESC] Exit
Halting FastTrak BIOS On Bootup Errors
“Adapter Configuration – Options” allows you to enable or disable the Promise BIOS so as to
halt operation at the BIOS startup screen should an error be detected. This is the only option
that can be changed on this screen.
18
Installing Drivers
This section details driver installation for various operating systems. It includes the driver
necessary to identify the Promise controller to the operating system.
Windows 2000/XP
Installing the Driver During the Windows 2000/XP Installation
1. Boot from the floppy drive or CD-ROM drive.
a. Floppy: Boot the computer using the Windows 2000 installation diskettes.
b. Floppyless: boot from floppy and type “WINNT /B”. After the files have been copied,
the system will reboot. Press the <F6> key when the message “Setup is inspecting
your computer’s hardware configuration…” appears.
c. CD-ROM: Boot from the CD-ROM drive. Press <F6> after the message “Press
F6 if you need to install third party SCSI or RAID driver” appears.
2. When the “Windows 2000 Setup” window appears, press <S> to Specify an Additional
Device(s).
3. Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
4. Press <O> to select “Other” and press the <Enter> key. The driver is in the FastTrak
Driver\Win2000 directory of the floppy disk.
5. The Windows 2000 Setup screen will appear showing “Setup will load support for the
following mass storage devices:” The list includes “Win2000 Promise FastTrak133-Lite
controller”.
NOTE: If you need to install additional devices, do so at this time. Once all devices are
installed, proceed to step 6.
6.
In the Windows 2000 Setup screen, press the <Enter> key. Setup will now load all
device files and then continue with the Windows 2000 installation.
19
Installing the Driver on an Existing Windows 2000 System
WARNING: If you wish to use the existing Windows 2000 hard drive that will be
configured in the Mirrored array as a boot drive, do NOT connect the hard drive
to the RAID IDE connector yet. You must complete the installation first with the
hard drive connected to a standard IDE connector. After you’re done with the
installation, connect the drive to the RAID IDE connector.
After rebooting the system, the “New Hardware Found” dialog box will appear and “PCI
RAID Controller” will be displayed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
In the dialog box, select “Driver from disk provided by hardware manufacturer”.
Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
Type “A:\WIN2000” in the text box then press <Enter>.
Choose “Win2000 Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite Controller” from the list that appears on
screen, then press the <Enter> key.
The Windows 2000 Setup screen will appear showing “Setup will load support for the
following mass storage devices – Win2000 Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite controller”.
The driver will now be copied onto the system and entered into the Windows 2000
driver database.
When the "System Settings Change" dialog box appears, remove the floppy diskette
and click <Yes> to restart the system. Windows 2000 will then restart for the driver to
take effect.
Power off your system, then attach the hard drives to the RAID IDE connector.
Confirming Windows 2000 Installation
1. In Windows 2000, open the Control Panel from “My Computer” then double-click the
System icon.
2. Click the “Hardware” tab, then click the “Device Manager” tab.
3. Click “+” that is next to “SCSI & RAID Controllers hardware type.” “Win2000 Promise
FastTrak/FastTrak133-Lite Controller” will appear.
20
Windows 95/98/ME
Installing the Driver During Windows 95/98/ME Installation
The following sections detail the installation of the Windows 95/98/ME driver while installing
its operating system. If you’re installing the driver on an existing Windows 95/98/ME system,
refer to the “Installing the Driver on an Existing Windows 95/98/ME System” section.
Windows 98/ME
1. After installing and configuring the hard drive(s), partition and format them, if necessary.
2. Follow the standard procedure of installing Windows 98/ME.
3. After installation, go to the “Start” menu and click “Settings.”
4. From the “Settings” menu, click “Control Panel”.
5. In the “Control Panel” window, double-click the “System” icon.
6. In the “System” window, click the “Device Manager” tab.
7. In the hierarchical display under “Other Devices”, click “PCI RAID Controller” and then
click the “Properties” button.
8. Click the “Driver” tab, click “Update Driver,” and then click “Next”.
9. Click “Search for a better driver than the one your device is using now (recommended),”
then click “Next.”
10. Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
11. Click “Specify Location,” and then type “A:\WIN95-98” in the text box.
12. Click “Next”. The message “Win95-98 Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite (tm) Controller” will
appear.
13. Click “Next” then click “Finish”.
14. Click “Yes” to restart your computer. Make sure to remove the diskette from the floppy
drive.
Windows 95
1. After installing and configuring the hard drive(s), partition and format them, if necessary.
2. Follow the standard procedure of installing Windows 95.
3. After installation, go to the “Start” menu and click “Settings.”
4. From the “Settings” menu, click “Control Panel”.
5. In the “Control Panel” window, double-click the “System” icon.
6. In the “System” window, click the “Device Manager” tab.
7. In the hierarchical display under “Other Devices”, click “PCI Mass Storage Controller”
then click the “Properties” button.
8. Click the “Driver” tab then click “Update Driver”.
9. When asked if you want Windows to search for the driver, click “Yes (recommended).”
10. Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
21
11. When Windows informs you that it was not able to find the driver, select “Other
Locations…”
12. In the “Select Other Location” dialog box, type “A:\WIN95-98”.
13. Click “Next”. The message nd “Win95-98 Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite (tm) Controller”
will appear.
14. Click “Finish.” (If Windows cannot find the “MBFastTrak133 Lite.MPD” file, type
“A:\WIN95-98” in the “Copy files from:” text box).
15. Click “Yes” to restart your computer. Make sure to remove the diskette from the floppy
drive.
22
Installing the Driver on an Existing Windows 95/98/ME
The following sections detail the installation of the Windows 98/ME driver on an existing
Windows 95/98/ME system. If you are installing the driver during a Windows 95/98/ME
installation, refer to the “Installing the Driver During Windows 95/98/ME Installation” section.
Windows 98/ME
1. After installing and configuring the hard drives, power up the system.
2. The “Add New Hardware Wizard” will appear informing you that it has found a “PCI
RAID Controller.” Click “Next”.
3. Click the “Search for the best driver for your device” box then click the “Next” button.
4. Click the “Specify a Location” box and then click the “Next” button.
5. Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
6. Type “A:\WIN95-98” in the text box that appears.
7. Click “Next.” The Add New Hardware wizard will appear showing the message “Win9598 Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite controller”.
8. Click “Next” then click “Finish.”
9. Click “Yes” to restart your computer. Make sure to remove the diskette from the floppy
drive.
Windows 95
1. After installing and configuring the hard drives, power up the system.
2. The “Update Device Drive Wizard” will appear with the message “PCI Mass Storage
Controller.”
3. Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
4. Type “A:\WIN95-98” in the text box, then click “Next”. The message “Win95-98 Promise
MBFastTrak133 Lite controller” will appear.
5. Click “Finish,” and when prompted to insert the diskette, click “OK”.
6. If Windows cannot find the “MBFastTrak133 Lite.MPD” file, go to the “Copy files from:”
text box and type: “A:\WIN95-98”.
7. Click “Yes” to restart your computer. Make sure to remove the diskette from the floppy
drive.
Confirming Driver Installation in Windows 98/95
To confirm that the driver has been properly loaded in Win 95/98, perform the following
steps:
1. Click “Settings” from the “Start” menu.
2. Click “Control Panel” and then double-click the “System” icon.
3. Click the “Device Manager” tab, and then click “+” that is next to “SCSI & RAID
controllers.” “Win98/ME Promise FastTrak100-Lite controller” will appear.
23
DOS/Windows 3.1x
Follow the standard procedure of installing DOS onto your hard disk (partition all hard drives
with FDISK and format before performing the following procedure).
1. Insert “Disk 1” of the DOS installation diskettes into a floppy drive.
2. Type “A: SETUP” at the “A:\” prompt.
3. Continue with the standard procedure of installing DOS. Refer to your DOS manual for
more information.
NOTE: The RAID controller supports DOS and Windows 3.1x. It is not necessary to install
any software drivers.
24
Windows NT 4.0
Installing the Driver During Windows NT 4.0 Installation
1. Start the system installation by booting from the Windows NT disk.
a. Floppy: Boot the system using the Windows NT installation diskettes.
b. Floppyless: Boot from floppy and type “WINNT /B”. After the files have been copied,
the system will reboot. Press the <F6> key when the message “Setup is inspecting
your computer’s hardware configuration…” appears.
c. CD-ROM: Boot from the CD-ROM disk and press <F6> when the message “Setup
is inspecting your computer’s hardware configuration…” appears.
2. When the “Windows NT Setup” window appears, press <S> to Specify an Additional
Device(s).
3. Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
4. Press <O> to select “Other” and press the <Enter> key. The driver is in the FastTrak
5.
6.
Driver\NT4 directory of the floppy disk.
Select “Win NT Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite (tm) Controller” from the list that appears
on the screen then press <Enter>.
The Windows NT Setup screen will appear showing “Setup will load support for the
following mass storage devices:” The list includes “Win NT Promise FastTrak133-Lite
(tm) controller”.
NOTE: If you need to install additional devices, do so at this time. Once all devices are
7.
8.
installed, proceed to step 7.
In the Windows NT Setup screen, press the <Enter> key. Setup will now load all device
files and then continue the Windows NT installation.
After installing the driver successfully, the “SCSI Adapter Setup” box will show that the
“Win NT Promise FastTrak133-Lite (tm) Controller” driver has been installed.
25
Installing the Driver on an Existing Windows NT 4.0
WARNING If you wish to use the existing Windows NT 4.0 hard drive that
will be configured in the Mirrored array as a boot drive, do NOT connect the
hard drive to the RAID IDE connector yet. You must complete the installation
first with the hard drive connected to a standard IDE connector. After you’re
done with the installation, connect the drive to the RAID IDE connector.
1. Select “Settings” from the “Start” menu.
2. Select “Control Panel” from the “Settings” menu.
3. Double-click the “SCSI Adapters” icon. The “SCSI Adapters” dialog box will appear.
4. Click “Drivers” then click “Add”.
5. In the “Install Drivers” dialog box, select “Have Disk..”.
6. When “Install From Disk” appears, insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk
(included in the system board package) into a floppy drive.
7. Type “A:\NT4” in the text box window, then click “OK.”
8. In the “Install Driver” dialog box, select “Win NT Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite
Controller”, and then click “OK.”
9. In the “Select SCSI Adapter Option” dialog box, click “Install.”
10. When you have successfully installed the driver, the “SCSI Adapter Setup” dialog box
will appear showing “Win NT Promise MBFastTrak133 Lite Controller”.
8. Restart your computer. Make sure to remove the diskette from the floppy drive.
Removing the Driver from Windows NT 4.x
1. Select “Settings” from the “Start” menu.
2. Select “Control Panel” from the “Settings” menu.
3. In “Control Panel”, select “SCSI Adapter,” and then select “Drivers”.
4. Click “Remove”.
5. When you have successfully removed the driver, the “SCSI Adapter Setup” dialog box
will appear showing “Win NT MBFastTrak133 Lite RAID Controller”.
26
Using The FastCheck™ Monitoring Utility
You can monitor the operating status of all configured arrays and drives using the provided
FastCheck monitoring utility designed for Windows-based operating systems. FastCheck
generates visual and audible messages alerting you of possible problems with the disk array
or controller.
FastCheck visually identifies the physical location of the drives attached to the RAID IDE
channel (1 or 2) and setting (Master/Slave/Cable-Select). It also displays the drives that are
included in an individual array. Administrators can customize FastCheck to maintain
operating logs and event notification, set Password access to the utility, and schedule
maintenance on Mirrored (RAID 1) or Striped/Mirrored (RAID 0/1) arrays.
Installing FastCheck
1. Select “Run” from the “Start” menu.
2.
Insert the “Promise 20276 RAID Driver” floppy disk (included in the system board
package) into a floppy drive.
3.
In the “Run” dialog box, type “A:\” and click OK.
4.
Follow the directions of the setup program.
5.
During the installation process, click “Yes” if you wish to run the utility every time you
startup. If you select “No”, FastCheck will not initialize during startup. You may manually
execute the utility via the Start button.
NOTE: We recommend that FastCheck be loaded during Startup. This insures you that
it will be ready to post alerts on errors.
27
Running FastCheck
As described in the Installation section, the default is to load the utility during the Windows
95/98/ME/NT/2000 startup. It appears minimized on the taskbar under Windows
95/98/ME/NT/2000 (see below).
To start FastCheck, double-click the FastCheck icon on the taskbar (above) or use the
Taskbar’s Start/Programs/Promise/FastTrak/FastCheck Monitoring Utility menus (below).
Closing FastCheck
Once you start FastCheck (either automatically on startup or manually), the monitoring utility
remains running at the background even if the user “closes” the FastCheck window.
To completely shut down FastCheck, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
Right-click the FastCheck icon on the Taskbar.
Select Exit on the pop-up window.
FastCheck will stop monitoring the array.
28
Using the FastCheck Array Window
Once you start FastCheck, the FastCheck Monitoring Utility window will appear. The main
pane has three window tabs: Array, Controller, and Options. The user can switch between
windows by clicking on the tab. The Array window is the active window by default (below).
The Array window (see above) displays information about the arrays configured through the
FastBuild utility. From this window, you can also perform data Synchronization of mirrored
arrays, or Rebuild data from one drive to a new replaced drive within a mirrored array.
While the Array window does not allow you to change the array configurations directly, it
clearly identifies the drives that are associated in each array as shown in the left pane.
Viewing Array Information
By left-clicking on the Array #, the right pane shows the following information of that array:
RAID mode: Striping, Mirroring or Spanning
Mapping:
(similar to physical drive specifications) Shows the # of cylinders, heads,
and sectors of the array’s “virtual” drive as seen by the system.
Size:
Storage capacity of the array.
29
Status: (Functional, Critical, Offline)
Functional: Means the array is providing full functionality.
Critical:
Used only in reference to a Mirroring array (RAID 1 or RAID 0+1). A
problem has been detected in one of the drives in the array and the
drive has been taken “offline”. However, a “critical” array will continue to
save and retrieve data from the remaining working drive(s). We
recommend replacing the failed drive as soon as possible since a
“Critical” array offers no data redundancy.
Offline:
This would appear most commonly within a RAID 0 or Spanning array.
“Offline” results from a drive having failed and has taken the entire array
“offline.” In this case, you have likely lost data. Fix/replace the drive that
has failed, then restore data from a backup source.
Viewing Arrayed Drive Information
By left-clicking on a drive member in an array in the left pane, the right pane will show the
information of that drive.
Status (also shown under the Array Window) can be Functional, Critical, or Offline.
Functional: Means the drive is working normally.
Critical:
A problem has been detected on the drive and the drive has been taken
offline. Mirrored arrays will continue to function without the drive.
Fix/replace the drive that has failed, then restore data from a backup
source.
Offline:
Drives that are NOT identified as “bad” may be taken offline if part of a
Striping or Spanning array contains a “bad” drive. These drives do NOT
need to be replaced, however.
S.M.A.R.T. Status: Indicates whether the attached hard drive implements SelfMonitoring Analysis & Reporting Technology to predict drive failure.
Size: Indicates capacity of individual drive.
30
Location: Shows the physical location of the drive. Indicates the IDE channel (1 or 2),
and whether the drive on the cable is Master or Slave. This allows the user
to identify drives for removal/replacement.
Mapping: Indicates the physical parameters of the drive (cylinders, heads, sectors).
Timing:
Shows selection of the drive timing (directly related to burst speed) based
on the type of drive and cable used.
Using Array Pull-down Menu
The bottom of the window indicates that you must right mouse-click the array to run
synchronization or rebuild operations. Right-clicking displays the pull-down menu.
From this menu, you may choose to let the window appear Always on Top of the
application, Minimize the window, Synchronize mirrored drives, Rebuild a mirrored array,
use About to check FastCheck version #, or Exit the onscreen window.
31
Synchronizing An Array
Synchronization is a periodic maintenance procedure for Mirrored (RAID 1, RAID 0+1)
arrays to maintain data consistency on all mirrored drives. During operation, array
synchronization compares data differences on mirrored drives. If there are differences
detected, data from the primary drive(s) is automatically copied to the secondary drive(s).
This assures that all mirrored drives contain the exact information.
NOTE: You may schedule array synchronization automatically under the Options tab rather
than manually initiating synchronization.
1.
2.
3.
To synchronize, choose the Array tab (see figure on previous page).
Right-click on the array you wish to synchronize and choose “Synchronize” from the
context menu.
Click “Yes” to initiate Synchronization (see below). To cancel this option, click the “No”
button.
WARNING: Once initiated, synchronization CANNOT be halted. This is to prevent data
errors.
32
4.
Once Synchronization is confirmed, the following screen appears. Click “OK” or close
the window to proceed.
NOTE: During Array Synchronization, users may continue to access the working array and
perform normal PC operations. However, system performance will be slightly degraded and
the process will take longer.
5.
A progress bar will appear at the bottom of the FastCheck Monitoring window showing
that synchronization is in progress and the percentage has been completed.
33
Rebuilding An Array
This command effectively copies or overwrites data from an existing data drive in the array
on to a blank drive. The operation will be typically used when a failed drive has been
replaced with a new drive in the mirrored array.
1.
2.
3.
To perform a Rebuild, click the “Array” tab.
Right-click the array number and choose “Rebuild” from the context menu.
You will be asked to “Initialize Rebuild process on Array #”. Click “OK”.
Using the Rebuild Wizard
1. Initiating the rebuild array will open the Rebuild Wizard Step 1 screen as shown below.
2. Select the Target drive that will receive data. Make sure you select the new blank or
replacement drive. The unselected drive contains “good” data. It will be the remaining
working drive in an array, or a system drive containing existing data that you would wish
to mirror.
WARNING: You must be absolutely sure of the drive. If data exists on the target
drive, it will be overwritten.
3.
Click “Next” to proceed to Rebuild Wizard Step 2 (see next page) or “Cancel” to stop.
34
4.
5.
Rebuild Wizard Step 2 confirms the target or “Rebuild” disk by Array # and drive ID.
Click “Finish” to initiate physical Rebuild, “Back” to review Step 2, or “Cancel” to Stop. A
final confirmation window appears as below:
6.
Click “Yes” to initiate Rebuild. To cancel this option, click “No”.
WARNING: Once initiated, Array Rebuild CANNOT be halted. This is to prevent
data errors.
NOTE: During Array Rebuild, users may continue to access the array and perform normal
PC operations, however the array will NOT provide data redundancy until Rebuild is
completed. If you choose to continue using the PC during rebuild, system performance will
be slightly degraded and the process will take longer.
6.
Once Array Rebuild starts, you will return to the FastCheck Monitoring window. A
progress bar showing the rebuild progress in percentage will appear at the bottom of the
FastCheck Monitoring window.
35
Using Controller Window
Clicking the “Controller” tab will reveal the Controller window. This displays physical
information about the data channels and the attached drives.
Viewing Controller Information
Left-click the FastTrak controller icon. The right pane will show the information for that array:
IRQ: Identifies the interrupt request assigned to the PCI slot.
Bus Master Base: Shows the base address in hex numbering for the board’s bus
master Input/Output function.
ROM Base Address: Shows the base address in hex numbering for FastTrak’s Flash
ROM chip.
Driver Version: Identifies the version of the Promise driver installed.
Hardware Type: Identifies the FastTrak installed.
36
Viewing IDE Channel Information
Left-clicking on a given Channel icon or # in the left pane will show the Base IO addresses
of the channel in the right pane (used for troubleshooting).
37
Viewing Drive Information
Left-clicking on a given drive icon or ID in the left pane will show similar information as the
Array Window Drive Information in the right pane.
Status
(also shown under the Array Window) It could be Functional, Critical, or
Offline.
Functional: The drive is working normally.
Critical:
A problem has been detected in the drive and the drive has been taken
offline as part of a mirroring array. Mirrored arrays will continue to function
without the drive. Fix/replace the drive that has failed then restore data
from a backup source.
Offline:
Drives that are NOT identified as “bad” may be taken offline if part of a
Striping or Spanning array contains a “bad” drive. These drives do NOT
need to be replaced, however.
S.M.A.R.T. Status: Indicates whether the attached hard drive implements SelfMonitoring Analysis & Reporting Technology to predict drive failure.
Size:
Indicates the capacity of the individual drive.
Location:
Shows physical location of the drive. Indicates the IDE channel (1 or 2) and
the drive that is Master or Slave. This allows you to identify the drives for
removal/replacement.
Mapping:
Indicates the physical parameters of the drive (cylinders, heads, sectors).
Timing:
Shows the drive timing (directly related to burst speed) based on the type
of drive and cable used.
38
Using Options Window
Clicking on the Options tab reveals the Options window. Array administrators can customize
the FastCheck Monitoring Utility in four major areas: Notification, Array Synchronization
Scheduling, setting Password and Desktop Appearance. Most options relate to Mirroring
arrays (RAID 1).
39
Selecting Notification Options
This section of the Options window allows users to select how they are notified of a system
event. A System Event includes driver-initiated Rebuilds (automatic rebuild using a “hot”
spare standby drive), user-initiated manual Rebuilds or manual Synchronization, and ErrorHandling for these processes.
Enable audible prompt turns on/off the audible alarm of an event (typically a drive
failure, or completion of rebuild or synchronization).
Popup message box turns on/off the appearance of an event message box that would
typically indicate a drive failure, or completion of rebuild or synchronization.
Use log file allows writing operating event logs of the array activity (alerts and status
reports) to a given file name and directory. If a file name is used but the path left
blank, the default directory is the same as that of the FastCheck Utility (typically
C:\Program Files\Promise\FastTrak133-Lite).
Use NT system event log is automatically grayed out under Windows 98/ME/2000.
Under Windows NT4, it permits you to write array logging to NT’s own event log.
1. To view FastCheck events under Windows NT, go to
Start/Programs/Administrative Tools/Event Viewer.
2. In Event Viewer, choose “Log” from the menu bar, and then click “Application”.
Any events generated by FastCheck will appear under the Source column as
“FastCheck”.
On Errors offers four radio buttons for the user to select the procedure they would like
to perform if an Error is detected during automatic/manual Rebuilds or manual
Synchronization. There are three types of errors that can be detected - a data
mismatch between the primary and secondary drives, a physical media error on the
source or target drive, or a total disk failure. The options for handling Errors are as
follows:
Abort: Stops any Synchronization or Rebuild process if an error is encountered.
Fix: In most cases, the system will automatically correct errors. The method of
correction varies depending on the type of error.
Ignore: The system will log the event error and continue the rebuild or
synchronization process. Use this setting if you want to detect the presence of
errors, but do not want to fix these errors yet. The user may then decide what to
do about the error(s) detected.
WARNING: This may result in mismatched drives under RAID 1.
40
Interactive: By checking this option, a window will appear each time an error is
detected asking whether you want to Abort, Fix, or Ignore the error (see
Troubleshooting section).
Dismiss Error Dialogs designates the length of time (in seconds) that a Message box
or Error Dialog box appears on the screen.
Scheduling Array Synchronization
This section of the Options window allows a user to schedule when and how often the
system will perform synchronization maintenance of a mirrored array.
Disable (the default). Click to turn off automated scheduling of synchronization. When
unchecked, the Scheduling section will be highlighted (see above).
On Errors offers four radio buttons for the user to select the procedure they would like
to perform if an error is detected during a scheduled Synchronization. There are
three types of errors that can be detected -- a data mismatch between the primary
and secondary drives, a physical media error on the source or target drive, or a
total disk failure. The options for handling Errors are as follows:
Abort: Stops the Synchronization process if an error is encountered.
Fix: In most cases, the system will automatically correct errors. The method of
correction varies depending on the type of error (see Appendix under Error
Correction Methodology).
Ignore: The system will log the event error and continue the synchronization
process. (Warning: this may result in mismatched drives under RAID 1 or 0+1).
Use this setting if you want to detect the presence of errors, but do not want to
fix these errors yet. The user may then decide what to do about the error(s)
detected.
Interactive: By selecting this option, a window will appear each time an error is
detected asking whether you want to Abort, Fix, or Ignore the error (see
Troubleshooting for more details).
Schedule event drop down box allows scheduling synchronization by minute, by
hour, by day, by week, or by month. If enabled, the default is By Month. This
allows synchronization to take place during an off-hour when the system is either
not in use or not at peak demand.
Start time designates hr/min/ am/pm.
On the designates day of week or by ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd....) selection.
41
Setting Rebuild Options
Disable Hot Spare/Auto Rebuild turns off the use of a “hot” spare drive and automatic
rebuilding of a mirrored array. The default is unchecked (or enable Auto Rebuild).
Rebuild Rate assigns the amount of importance that is given to mirroring data from one
drive to another in the background. A “high” setting assigns most of the resources
to the rebuild process at the expense of responding to ongoing read/write data
requests by the operating system. A “low” setting gives priority to ongoing
read/write data requests by the operating system at the expense of the rebuild
process and will typically result in longer rebuild time. The setting shown above is
the default.
Setting Disk Param(eters) Option
Enable Write Cache allows you to enable/disable write cache for hard drives that
include this performance feature. FastCheck automatically recognizes such drives
and enables the feature as the default setting. For drives that do not use write
caching, this option is automatically grayed out.
Enable S.M.A.R.T. Check tells FastCheck to regularly monitor each drive to assure that
drive failure prediction is functioning. The default is unchecked, meaning
FastCheck will not monitor this function.
Setting Screen Preferences
This section controls how the FastCheck utility screen is displayed and sets the security
password to protect the administrative settings.
Start Minimized FastCheck will appear on the toolbar only on startup. Click on the icon
to see the FastCheck utility screen.
Always on Top FastCheck will appear above all programs until closed or minimized
manually.
Enable Password turns on/off the use of a Password every time the FastCheck
Monitoring Utility icon is selected or when the program is running from the Start
menu. Disabling the use of a current password requires password entry (see
Creating Password on next page).
42
Creating Password
1.
To create a password, click Enable Password in the Preferences section. The “Set
Password” window will appear.
2.
Type the password you want to use. Press the <Tab> key or click to retype the same
password in the “Confirm New Password” section. Click the <OK> button.
NOTE: Remember to record the password in a secure place in case you forget it.
3.
A confirmation screen will appear showing that “Password Checking is Enabled”. Click
the <OK> button.
4.
Once the password feature is enabled, the following window will appear every time you
try to open the FastCheck window.
Changing Password
1. Input the original password you first created to gain access to FastCheck.
2.
Click the “Options” tab, then click the “Change” button in the Password section. The Set
Password screen will appear.
3.
Type the password you want to use. Press the <Tab> key or click to retype the same
password in the “Confirm New Password” section.
4.
Click <OK>.
Disabling Password
1. Input the original password you first created to gain access to FastCheck.
2.
Click the Options tab.
3.
Uncheck the “Enable Password” checkbox. Click the “Apply” button.
43
Understanding Disk Array Concepts
About the BIOS
The Promise BIOS code extends the standard disk service routine provided through Int13.
The BIOS is bootable for DOS and other operating systems that rely on the system BIOS for
drive operation. It can support drives and disk arrays with capacities exceeding 8.4 GB and
using Extended Interrupt13. When the BIOS appear during boot up, press <Ctrl-F> to enter
the FastBuildTM utility and select the menu settings.
FastBuild™ Auto Menu Setup
The setup utility is used to build and manage disk arrays. It is menu driven and features
“Auto Setup <1>” which uses a simple, interactive setup process. Once the array is built, all
the array members store the configuration information in the drive’s reserved area.
Reserved Sector
Array configuration data about the drive member and other members in the disk array are
saved in a special location on the disk drives called the reserved sector. If any member of
the array becomes corrupt or lost, the redundant configuration data on the other members
can be used for rebuilds.
Disk array members do not have a “memory” of their drive positions. This allows drives to be
placed on different RAID connectors within the system without reconfiguring or rebuilding.
44
Disk Array Terms
Disk Array Description
A “disk array” is formed from a group of 2 or more disk drives which appear to the system as
a single drive. The advantage of an array is to provide better throughput performance and/or
data fault tolerance. Better performance is accomplished by sharing the workload in parallel
among multiple physical drives. Fault tolerance is achieved through data redundant
operation where if one (or more) drive fails or has a sector failure, a mirrored copy of the
data can be found on another drive(s).
For optimal results, select identical Ultra ATA/133 drives in the same disk array. The drives’
matched performance allows the array to function better as a single drive.
Disk Array Member
The individual disk drives in an array are called “members.” Each member of a specific disk
array is coded in their “reserved sector” with configuration information that identifies the
drive as a member. All disk members in a formed disk array are recognized as a single
physical drive to the system.
Disk Array Types
For most installations, “Auto Setup “<1>” in the FastBuildTM utility will configure your system.
There are four disk array types in three categories that can be installed on the system board.
Striping is in the Performance category while Mirroring and Striping/Mirroring are in the Fault
Tolerance category.
Disk arrays within the Performance and Fault Tolerance categories conform with the
Redundant Array of Independent Disks technology, or RAID. The RAID levels supported are
0 and 1.
RAID Level
RAID 0 (Striping)
RAID 1 (Mirroring)
Performance
Capacity
# of
Drives
Highest
Normal
# Drives x Smallest Size
50% min
2 to 4
2
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About RAID Levels
Striping (RAID 0)
Reads and writes sectors of data interleaved between multiple drives. When any disk
member fails, it affects the entire array. Performance is better than a single drive since the
workload is balanced between the array members. This array type is for high performance
systems. Identical drives are recommended for performance as well as data storage
efficiency. The disk array data capacity is equal to the number of drive members times the
smallest member capacity. For example, one 1GB and three 1.2GB drives will form a 4GB (4
x 1GB) disk array.
Stripe Size - a value can be set from 1KB to 1024KB sector size. The size can directly affect
performance. In the FastBuild BIOS, the “Desktop” default is 8KB while “Server” and “A/V
Editing” are 64KB.
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Mirroring (RAID 1)
Writes duplicate data on to a pair of drives while reads are performed in parallel. ATA RAID
1 is fault tolerant because each drive of a mirrored pair is installed on separate IDE channels.
If one of the mirrored drives suffers a mechanical failure (e.g. spindle failure) or does not
respond, the remaining drive will continue to function. This is called Fault Tolerance. If one
drive has a physical sector error, the mirrored drive will continue to function.
RAID 1 (Mirroring)
On the next reboot, the FastBuildTM utility will display an error in the array and recommend
replacement of the failed drive. You may choose to continue using your PC, however we
recommend replacing the failed drive as soon as possible.
Due to redundancy, the drive capacity of the array is half the total drive capacity. For
example, two 1GB drives that have a combined capacity of 2GB would have 1GB of usable
storage. With drives of different capacities, there may be unused capacity on the larger drive.
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Troubleshooting & Tips
This section is used to assist troubleshooting conflicts and installation problems. Also refer
to the “README.TXT” file in the CD for more recent information as well as the
PromiseOnlineTM services.
Drive-Related Errors
Critical Array Status Error Reported during Boot
If the critical status error message of a mirrored array appears on the BIOS startup screen
(see below), there is a drive in the array that has failed or is not responding. The system will
identify the failed drive by channel number and Master/Slave designation (if 2 drives exist on
the same cable). The mirrored array has lost its fault tolerance, but will still perform normal
drive reads and writes.
Operation aborted because FastBuild encountered an error as
follows:
Location: Channel 2 - Master Drive
Array Status: Critical
Please retry using FastCheck utility to recover all data. Reboot the
system by pressing the ENTER key.
Try powering the system off and on to reset the drive. Also confirm that cables are properly
attached and the drive is receiving power. If the drive still appears to have failed, proceed to
FastCheck’s “Rebuild Array” option.
Drive cannot be formed into an array
Drives must support Ultra DMA or Multi-word DMA and be free of media defects before
adding it into an array. We recommend using new identical drives for each array. Re-secure
data and power cabling while checking for proper alignment. Typically, pin 1 of the drive is
closest to the power connector.
Possible Master/Slave problems
Master/slave problems may exist between two ATA or IDE drives of different brands
attached to a single cable. For both compatibility and better performance, choose drives of
the same model/brand and install them on separate cables.
System CMOS displays C: or D: drive failure during Startup
Do not reference C: or D: for drives attached to the RAID IDE connectors. Only enter these
drive information in the Standard CMOS Features for drives attached to the standard IDE
hard drive add-in card or the onboard standard IDE connectors.
FDISK reports a much lower drive capacity if a single physical drive or a striped array
exceeds 64GB
Due to a limitation with FDISK, the utility reports only the storage capacity that exceeds
64GB. This is a cosmetic, not actual, limitation. Simply create a single DOS drive partition,
reboot, then format the partition. The Format command will recognize the total capacity of
the partition accurately. Windows NT/2000/98/ME will now recognize the total capacity of
your array.
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Unable to partition or format array
The Reserve Sector of one of the drives has become corrupted or bad. Removing the
Reserve Sector will remedy any issue related directly to a Bad Reserve Sector.
WARNING: Before removing the Reserve Sector of any drive(s), backup all
existing data. Removing the reserve sector of a drive permanently delete all
existing data from the hard drive. For Mirrored arrays (RAID 1), you should
remove the Reserve Sector from the "mirrored" drive first (this will appear during
Step 3 below) then rebuild the mirrored array. Remove the sector from the Master Drive only
as a last resort. For Striped arrays (RAID 0), removing the Reserve Sector from any of the
drives that are striped will destroy the arrayed data.
To remove the Reserve Sector, follow these steps:
1. When the system boots, press <Crtl-F> to enter FastBuild.
2. Press <2> to "View Drive Assignments".
3. Using the arrow keys, highlight the drive you wish the reserve sector removed.
4. Press <Alt-F1>. The highlighted drive will start blinking on the screen.
5. Press <Ctrl-Tab>. A message will appear informing you that the reserved sector (which
is where array information is kept) on the disk will be wiped.
6. Press <Y> to confirm.
7. For mirrored arrays, hit the <Esc> key twice to reboot and skip to step 10.
8. For striped arrays, repeat this process for each member of the particular array that is
having a problem.
9. Once you’re done, hit the <Esc> key twice to reboot.
10. After rebooting, use FastBuild to re-create the array. For mirrored arrays, rebuild the
mirrored array. For striped arrays, use FDISK and FORMAT after setting up the array.
Array Constantly Goes Into Critical or Offline Mode During Reboot
Refer to “Unable to Partition or Format array” above.
Cannot Rebuild Mirrored (RAID 1) Array
Refer to “Unable to Partition or Format array” above.
Fatal Errors or Data Corruption Are Constantly Reported When Reading or Writing to
Drive Array
Refer to “Unable to Partition or Format array” above.
ECC Error Reported on Rebuild
The following screen will appear if a data error is detected on either the source or target
drive during Rebuild, that is, if you have set the On Errors setting to “Interactive” in
FastCheck’s Options window.
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Your choices are as follows:
Abort:
Halts the rebuild process. You may select to retry
at a later date.
Break ECC on Target Drive:
If the error is detected on the source drive,
FastTrak will copy the bad data sector on to the
target drive to assure that both drives are identical.
If the error is detected on the target drive,
FastCheck will again copy the data contained in
the good sector of the source drive to the target
drive.
Skip the Error Block:
The system will log the event error and continue
the rebuild process. Use this setting if you want to
detect the presence of errors, but do not want to fix
these errors yet. You may then decide what to do
about the error(s) detected.
ECC Error Reported on Synchronize
The following screen will appear if a data error is detected on either source or target drive
during Synchronization, that is, if you have set the On Errors setting to “Interactive” in
FastCheck’s Options window for Scheduled Synchronization or for Manual Synchronization
under Notification options.
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Your choices are as follows:
Abort:
Halts the synchronization process. You may select to retry at
a later date.
Fix the Error Block:
The system will take a good data block from either drive and
copy it to the drive where the error was detected.
Skip the Error Block: The system will log the event error and continue the
synchronization process. Use this setting if you want to
detect the presence of errors, but do not want to fix these
errors yet. You may then decide what to do about the error(s)
detected.
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Operating System-Related Errors
The operating system no longer boots after creating a Mirrored Array with an existing
boot drive that uses Windows 98/ME/NT4/2000.
This is due to Drive Geometry issues. You can verify this by attaching the original drive to
the standard IDE connector and check whether it boots. Each controller can view a drive
differently. This can be an issue for a new controller that loads the original Master Boot
Record (MBR) and then has a problem translating it or an issue of Operating System boot
record.
For Windows NT or Windows 2000, we recommend a “clean” install of the operating system.
This restores the MBR and OS boot record. You will then need to repartition and format the
drive.
For Windows 98/ME, you can perform the DOS Command “SYS C:” from a bootable floppy
or CD-ROM to restore the operating system boot record and transfer the system files to the
boot drive. If this does not work, the Windows 98/ME registry may have become corrupted
during the boot process and must be restored. See the Windows documentation to perform
this procedure.
Promise Windows driver did not appear in Device Manager
Windows may have listed the controller under “Other Devices” instead of “Hard Disk
Controllers”. In Device Manager’s “Other Devices”, check for “RAID Controller”. Highlight it
and click the “Properties” button, and then click the “Driver” tab. Depending on the Windows
version, choose either “Change Driver” or “Update Driver”. Then follow the on-screen
prompts to complete installing the driver. If you want to test whether the device can be
removed safely, click “Cancel”. Reboot the system to complete installing the driver.
The “Inaccessible Boot Device” Message Appears During Floppyless Install of
Windows NT or 2000
The <F6> key was not pressed at the appropriate time. When in Windows NT4, reboot the
system and press the <F6> key when the message "Setup is inspecting your computer's
hardware configuration…" appears. When in Windows 2000, reboot the system and press
the <F6> key when the message "Press F6 if you need to install third party SCSI or RAID
driver" appears.
The “No Hard Drives Found” Message Appears During CD-ROM Install of Windows NT
or 2000
The <F6> key was not pressed at the appropriate time. When in Windows NT4, reboot the
system and press the <F6> key when the message "Setup is inspecting your computer's
hardware configuration…" appears. When in Windows 2000, reboot the system and press
the <F6> key when the message "Press F6 if you need to install third party SCSI or RAID
driver" appears.
Performance Tips
Here are some tips that may optimize performance in a RAID 0 striped array. If you are
using an audio/video editing card, we also recommend that you review your card’s
documentation for additional information.
Use Drives Attached to RAID IDE as D: or other non-bootable drive in a Striped Array
For A/V editing, keep the original system boot drive that is attached to the standard IDE
controller as C: drive. Partitioning software such as FDISK will see the array as one physical
drive, D: drive (or later). This will prevent file fragmentation and provide better accessibility to
the array.
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Optimize Array for “Performance”
The FastBuild BIOS Utility auto setup menu allows optimizing the array for A/V Editing. The
default Performance setting (Striping) selects a Stripe Block size of 64. Larger block size is
recommended for data streaming requirements of A/V editing. You may select an even
larger block size in manual mode.
FastTrak (tm) / MBFastTrak133 Lite (tm) BIOS Version 2.00.0.xx
(c) 1995-2000 Promise Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
[ Auto Setup Options Menu ]
Optimize Array for:
Typical Application usage:
Performance
A/V Editing
[ Auto Setup Configuration ]
Mode ......................................... Stripe
Stripe Block Size ............................ 64
Drive used in Array........................... 2
Array Disk Capacity.................. 13044
[ Keys Available ]
[↑] Up [↓] Down [←, →, Space] Change Option [ESC] Exit [Ctrl-Y] Save
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Frequently Asked Questions
This section lists frequently asked questions involving pre-installation, drive issues,
installation, and post-installation.
Pre-Installation
(Speed, Device Types, Capacity, Cabling)
Q: What kind of hard drives can I use for creating an array?
A: You can use any IDE/EIDE hard drive(s) to create arrays. You should use matching
drives for multiple-drive arrays to maximize capacity usage as well as performance.
Ultra ATA/133 drives are recommended for highest performance.
Q: Can I use ATAPI devices on the array?
A: No. There is no driver layer that will support ATAPI packet messages.
Q: How does the Promise controller provide storage and/or data protection with their
arrays?
A: The controller implements three different types of RAID levels as follows:
RAID 0 (stripe)
For capacity - The array will be as big as the smallest HDD in the array times the
number of HDDs that are in the array. Any larger HDDs will simply be truncated. The
truncated space on the bigger HDDs will then be unusable.
For sustained data transfers - A RAID 0 array consisting of two HDDs will transfer at
about twice the speed of the slowest HDD in the array. A RAID 0 array consisting of four
HDDs will transfer at about three times the speed of the slowest HDD in the array.
RAID 1 (mirror)
For capacity - The array will be as big as the smallest HDD in the array. The larger
HDD will simply be truncated. The truncated space on the bigger HDD will then be
unusable.
For sustained data transfers - The array will write data at the rate of the slowest HDD
in the array and will read data at twice the rate of the slowest HDD in the array.
Drive Issues
Q: Can I add a drive to a RAID array via hot-swap and dynamically adjust the array
size/configuration?
A: No. The system does not support dynamically adjustable RAID size/configurations.
Q: Do the HDDs have to be the same size?
A: The HDDs that you use do not have to be the same size. If the sizes differ, the system
will “adjust” the HDDs so that they are compatible. Basically, it will truncate the bigger
HDD so the sizes match. Any unused space that results from this is unusable, so don’t
use HDDs that differ too much. It’ll work, but it’s a waste.
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Q: Can I take a set of drives belonging to an array in one server and move it to
another server?
A: Yes. All controllers read arrays the same way. Once the drives are all connected, you
must restart the system for it to recognize the newly-inserted array configuration.
Q: If I have a problem with one of the drives, how can I low level format it to correct
the problem?
A: Do NOT do this. Low-level formatting IDE drives is unnecessary and generally does not
correct problems. Errors such as bad sectors or ECC/CRC failure are best remedied by
completely replacing the drive. For this reason, drives attached should NOT be low level
formatted.
Q: Do I have to install disk management software on my array in order to access the
full storage capacity of drives?
A: No! Disk management software would only complicate things. The array should be fully
addressable by your O/S as it is. Remember that some operating systems have varying
limits on the sizes of partitions and logical drives that can be defined. Consult your O/S
documentation about partitioning larger drives.
Q: What system BIOS CMOS settings do I use for the drives on the RAID IDE
connectors?
A: None. The drives are supported by the FastBuild BIOS and/or an O/S driver, not by your
system BIOS.
Q: How do I partition/format a RAID array?
A: The system sees an array as a single HDD. Therefore, anything that you can do to a
single HDD can also be done to an array. You can, and should, use the FDISK and
FORMAT utilities to partition/format the array. You can partition the array however you
see fit. You can also format the array with whatever file system you wish.
Installation Issues
(Capacity, Booting)
Q: Why are some drives recognized by the Setup utilities as only partial capacity?
A: Some hard drive models are shipped with a jumper that reduces the addressable
capacity of the drive to prevent problems with older systems which won’t support larger
drives. Consult the documentation accompanying the hard drive to set the jumper
appropriately in order to utilize the full capacity of the drive.
Q: How can I change the system boot sequence in order to boot from the
array?
A:
The boot sequence is controlled by the system BIOS. As far as the system BIOS is
concerned, the Promise controller and defined arrays are categorized as a “SCSI”
device (even though the BIOS will not attempt to access the array as any type of SCSI
device). This allows you to set the boot sequence of the system BIOS CMOS setup
utility to boot from “SCSI” first, rather than “IDE” (the standard onboard IDE or one
which effectively replaces it).
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Post-Installation
(Memory Managers, FDISK)
Q: Why does my system reboot after the QEMM driver loads from CONFIG.SYS?
A: The problem lies in the QEMM “Stealth” feature. This feature places the drive
information from the DOS System area into the upper reaches of RAM where Windows
resides. This causes the RAID controller to lose track of its drives when asked to
execute the next line in the CONFIG.SYS file. This forces the reboot that you see.
Disable QEMM’s stealth feature to correct this problem.
Q: Why can’t I see the drives on the RAID IDE connectors under FDISK?
A: The RAID controller is dedicated to RAID array management and does not provide any
means of addressing individual hard drives through the Int 13h interface used by FDISK.
In order to access drives on the RAID IDE connectors from MSDOS, you must first
create a RAID array.
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