January 2016 - Control Global

January 2016 - Control Global
End users
weigh in on
which companies
provide best
hardware,
software
and systems.
JANUARY 2016
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Process and power automation
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It just makes sense. Every industrial process is dependent on power to operate. In order to provide visibility, it's
long been the status quo for information from various electrical components to be brought into the automation
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COVER STORY
30 / Sing out
End users weigh in on which companies
provide best hardware, software and systems.
by Control Staff
FEATURES
PROCESS AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
HIGHLIGHTS
40 / Controls revive beer and history
16 / Lessons Learned
Kulturbraurei Heidelberg uses process automation, PLCs and
HMI software to re-create traditional brewing methods and
quality. by Jim Montague
Is artificial intelligence dangerous?
Take responsibility for ensuring that automation remains
beneficial. by Béla Lipták, P.E.
OPERATOR INTERFACE
44 / SCADA provides wellhead
awareness
55 / Control Talk
How to quantify product quality
SPC must consider variations in analysis as well as equipment,
raw materials and operation.
by Greg McMillan and Stan Weiner, P.E.
Oil and gas well operator Pantera Energy integrates Ignition
HMI software and KepServer communications to save time,
labor and maintenance, achieve quick ROI, and improve well
productivity and profit. by Jim Montague
CONTROL (ISSN 1049-5541) is published monthly by PUTMAN Media COMPANY (also publishers of CONTROL DESIGN, CHEMICAL PROCESSING, FOOD PROCESSING, THE JOURNAL, PHARMACEUTICAL
MANUFACTURING, PLANT SERVICES and SMARTINDUSTRY), 1501 E. Woodfield Rd., Ste. 400N, Schaumburg, IL 60173. (Phone 630/467-1300; Fax 630/467-1124.) Address all correspondence to Editorial and Executive
Offices, same address. Periodicals Postage Paid at Schaumburg, IL, and at additional mailing offices. Printed in the United States. © Putman Media 2016. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or part without consent of the copyright owner. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CONTROL, P.O. Box 3428, Northbrook, IL 60065-3428. SUBSCRIPTIONS: Qualified-reader subscriptions are accepted
from Operating Management in the control industry at no charge. To apply for qualified-reader subscription, fill in subscription form. To non-qualified subscribers in the Unites States and its possessions, subscriptions are $96.00 per
year. Single copies are $15. International subscriptions are accepted at $200 (Airmail only.) CONTROL assumes no responsibility for validity of claims in items reported. Canada Post International Publications Mail Product Sales
Agreement No. 40028661. Canadian Mail Distributor Information: Frontier/BWI,PO Box 1051,Fort Erie,Ontario, Canada, L2A 5N8.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
7
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DEPARTMENTS
11 / Editor’s Page
29 / Resources
BB-8 and the IIoT
Star Wars’ droid and the Industrial Internet of Things have a lot in common.
Flow resources online.
15 / Feedback
Adopt NEC 505, embrace ethics, and
enhance cybersecurity in five steps.
23 / Control Online
The universities’ role in advancing the
profession, using ultrasonic to detect
leaking relief valves, and better ways to
modify enclosures.
21 / On the Bus
The internet of spam
It’s going to take a lot of human intervention for artificial intelligence to
make sense of big data.
23 / Without Wires
IoT: Lots of bits, but no bytes
Until end users define use cases, we
risk having lots of data bits but no bytes
of information.
47 / Ask the Experts
How to tune cascade control of a molten aluminum holding furnace, and
best ways to measure oil density.
49 / Roundup
Driving Forces
Motors, smart drives, mechatronics,
variable-speed drives and more.
52 / Exclusive
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OPC Foundation partners up to advance UA; PTC buying Kepware;
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CIRCULATION AUDITED JUNE 2015
Food & Kindred Products
12,977
Chemicals & Allied Products
10,654
Systems Integrators & Engineering Design Firms 8,120
Pharmaceuticals
4,499
Primary Metal Industries
4,065
Petroleum Refining & Related Industries
4,020
Miscellaneous Manufacturers
3,856
Electric, Gas & Sanitary Services
Rubber & Miscellaneous Plastic Products
Paper & Allied Products
Stone, Clay, Glass & Concrete Products
Textile Mill Products
Tobacco Products
Total Circulation
3,444
3,093
2,893
1,471
807
121
60,020
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
9
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EDITOR’S PAGE
BB-8 and the IIoT
PAUL STUDEBAKER
ost folks who see video of Star Wars VII’s
new droid, BB-8, rolling around with its
seemingly independent robot head atop
its ball-shaped body assume it’s a trick of computer-generated imagery (CGI). How else could
its head float above the surface of its body as the
sphere rolls across gritty sand dunes, through
verdant forests and up metal ramps into sundry
amazing spacecraft?
But I heard BB-8 really exists, that people had
seen it, it’s not just CGI, so I did a web search to
try to find out how it works. As of this writing,
it seems no one knows for sure, but the consensus is that the movie producers used several versions (and portions) of the droid with different
capabilities to produce the various scenes, and
there’s probably some CGI as well.
People suggest that the propmakers essentially put a remote-controlled Segway inside
a sphere, like a hamster in a hollow ball. The
head is on a set of rollers and stays on the ball
with a magnetic coupling to an articulated post
(replacing the handlebar on a conventional
Segway). The post can rotate and displace to
move the head while the Segway moves the
ball, with a low center of mass to steady the
sphere and keep the droid standing upright.
Proof of the concept can be found in the
BB-8 toy produced by Sphero (www.sphero.
com/starwars). A Youtube video (www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FHtcR78GA0) shows the
$149.99 plastic toy cut open to reveal essentially
a small radio-controlled car with a post and
magnet to retain the head while it rolls around
on the sphere. Demystified, BB-8 is a mashup of
a hamster ball, a radio-controlled car and some
magnets. The only technology not represented
in my kids’ 20-year-old childhood toyboxes is
the inductive coupling to charge the batteries.
It reminds me of the Industrial Internet
of Things (IIoT), the much-ballyhooed, paradigm-shifting, game-changing technology
coming to a plant near you, promising to massively increase your bottom line like the BB-8
M
toy is doing for Spheros and the Star Wars franchise is expected to do for Disney.
Like BB-8, the promoters make IIoT look
futuristic and fantastic, while it’s largely just
a mashup of existing technologies in an innovative wrapper. But while it breaks little new
ground, the areas IIoT does advance are important and potentially amazing: standards for communication across devices and platforms, and
use cases that demonstrate ROI.
The standards problems are complex but defined and solvable. The use cases are the most
intriguing frontier. Cases for the non-industrial
IoT range from Apple Pay, Nest thermostats and
smartphone-controlled light bulbs to transmitter-equipped trucks and cows that report when
they’re going to need the attention of a mechanic or a veterinarian. Finding the right use
cases, not just for the market in general but for
your specific plant and industry, will be keeping the best process control minds engaged for
many years to come.
And that’s the really cool thing about BB-8.
By catching our eye, raising our curiosity, making us (well, me) wonder how it works, imagine
new technology, and then find out it’s based on
accessible, even familiar, stuff makes me want
to find other ways to leverage what I know to
create an amazing opportunity.
What mashup of your existing tags, network
and system with Internet-enabled commercial
sensors, RFID tags, smartphones, GPS, etc.
and commonly available databases (weather, exchange rates, traffic, and product, energy and
materials costs, etc.) might save your plant a
percent, keep your people safer, minimize environmental risk, or raise your profile as a good
neighbor and great place to work? Start small,
keep it easy, have fun, and see where it leads.
And if you find out, maybe you can explain to
me how BB-8 climbs stairs.
EDITOR IN CHIEF
[email protected]
Like BB-8, the
promoters make
IIoT look futuristic
and fantastic, while
it’s largely just a
mashup of existing
technologies in an
innovative wrapper.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
11
Introducing
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VEGA, the world market leader in radar level measurement will
soon be presenting a new star in the galaxy of sensors. Get ready
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CONTROL ONLINE
The universities’ role
reg McMillan says, “Process control as a profession never gained the recognition it deserved, and the situation has deteriorated.”
Professionals are bogged down in executing projects and just keeping systems running. Time for
finding opportunities and developing innovative
solutions is a rarity. New engineers don’t know
what to look for and how to use the latest tools of
modeling and control.
“This needs to start in university courses because we can no longer depend upon this knowledge and even the recognition of
the possibilities happening on the job,” says Stan Weiner. “We need universities
to offer courses and ultimately a curriculum and degree in process control.” Some
universities are better than others. Greg and Stan describe what’s needed in detail at www.controlglobal.com/articles/2015/how-universities-help-revitalize-process-automation-professions
G
Six ways to handle the workforce crisis
Are you ready for up to half your
workforce to retire? This white paper
outlines six critical steps you can take
now to keep the loss of retiring workers from crippling your company.
www.controlglobal.com/whitepapers/2015/6-ways-to-avert-the-impending-workforce-crisis
Cloud-based SCADA as an IIoT gateway
How to use the Cloud to harvest IIoT
information from industrial automation
systems by interfacing to existing systems, crunching numbers, and analyzing data characteristics in the Cloud.
www.controlglobal.com/whitepapers/2015/what-iot-and-the-cloudhave-to-offer/
Small leaks by many valves over long periods of time
add up to significant losses. A typical refinery will have
hundreds of relief valves, and Singapore Refining Company’s 290,000 bbl/day facility on Jurong Island has
more than a thousand. Relief valves present significant
challenges for loss prevention, maintenance and emissions management. “Hundreds of valves are not monitored,” said Jian Ting Kwan, process engineer, energy
and loss control, Singapore Refining Company, to attendees of his session, “Refinery Cuts Losses with Continuous Relief Valve Monitoring” at the Emerson Global Users Exchange 2015, October 13 in Denver. “You
can’t tell which ones are passing. It’s hard to correlate releases with process and
equipment events.” Read how Singapore Refining is getting a grip on the problem
at www.controlglobal.com/articles/2015/emissions-refinery-targets-wireless-sensors
Better ways to customize enclosures
Whether installing a new system, upgrading or adding new capabilities, control
system engineers and integrators must select and design enclosures to house components and operator interfaces. Before enclosures can be populated and wired,
they must often be modified by drilling and cutting to mount components. Modifications have traditionally been done either
manually in-house or by automated systems
at the enclosure manufacturer. Now some
end users and system integrators are using
automated machining equipment. Weigh
your options at www.controlglobal.com/articles/2015/here-are-better-ways-to-customizeenclosures/
A damping filter setting that is too slow
can degrade performance and cause
trips. But a large filter setting can
also mislead you to think the filter has
helped rather than hurt the process.
www.controlglobal.com/blogs/controltalkblog/what-is-the-best-transmitterdamping-or-signal-filter-setting/
BLOGS
The best damping or signal filter setting
Listening for emissions
Basics of PID control modes
The proportional, integral and derivative modes that give PID control its
name are powerful but have distinct
advantages, disadvantages and consequences if one mode dominates.
Brush up on PID at www.controlglobal.
com/blogs/controltalkblog/basics-ofpid-control-modes-tips
ControlGlobal E-News
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follow instructions to register for our
free weekly e-newsletters.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
13
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FEEDBACK
IN MEMORY OF JULIE CAPPELLETTI-LANGE,
VICE PRESIDENT 1984-2012
1501 E. WOODFIELD ROAD, SUITE 400N
SCHAUMBURG, ILLINOIS 60173
editorial team
Adopt NEC 505
Editor in Chief: PAUL STUDEBAKER
On “The best way to automate a hazardous area” by Dan Hebert, P.E., senior technical editor (April 2105, p 36,
www.controlglobal.com/articles/2015/
the-best-way-to-automate-a-hazardousarea), perhaps the biggest hurdle for
widespread acceptance of newer protection methods, such as Ex ¨e¨ or increased safety, is the use of the NEC
500 Classes and Divisions classification
method. By adopting the NEC 505 approach, users will be able to apply all
the IEC approved protection methods,
and benefit from current trends as the
hybrid Ex ¨de¨ concepts that combine
the best of both worlds.
[email protected]
Executive Editor: JIM MONTAGUE
[email protected]
Senior Managing Editor, Digital Media: KATHERINE BONFANTE
[email protected]
Senior Technical Editor: DAN HEBERT
dheber [email protected]
Contributing Editor: JOHN REZABEK
Columnists: BÉLA LIPTÁK, GREG MCMILLAN,
IAN VERHAPPEN, STAN WEINER
Editorial Assistant: LORI GOLDBERG
design & production team
VP, Creative & Production: STEVE HERNER
[email protected]
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[email protected]
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publishing team
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Owner, Process Automation Freelance Consultants
Engineer ethics
I just wanted to drop
you a note related to
the recent article on
engineer ethics (October 2015, p 9, www.
controlglobal.com/articles/2015/the-importance-of-engineer-ethics). Great subject and
DON’T
great comments. Ethics
is a subject that I have a
strong passion for, and
your personal experience with the magnets
is the type of situation that all of us in
leadership positions in engineering and
technology companies should strive to
duplicate as often as possible. The impact on a young engineer, who is pulled
aside and given such a clear perspective
on concepts such as safety, ethics and respect in an interaction such as the one
you describe, is priceless. I try to personally provide this type of coaching at every
opportunity, and encourage my managers to do the same. Sometimes the situation can look different in the “heat of the
moment,” and no one in the industry can
afford not to take a step back, understand
the realities, and consider the implications. It is a critical part of our role in
developing future industry leaders to ensure this is a part of their skill set. Thanks
again for the article.
DANE MAISEL
U.S. Sales Manager, Instrumentation & Level, ABB
More on ethics
Good, thoughtful column. Some of us
had to bend in order to survive, but in
the end, if you have any character or ethics, you don’t and you can’t because in
the end, you have to live with yourself,
and it doesn’t matter how much your
pension is. You have to remember who
you are and what you stand for. (I did—in
the nick of time. Pissed off my last CO/
XO, but they were both bastards, so who
cares? Walked out of USN with a few
shreds of dignity intact, as well as a gag
reflex!) The best comment on this that
I ever heard was from
the actress Irene Worth
at my sister’s graduation
from Tufts: “Remember
that everyone who sells
themselves, wants to buy
themselves back!” (And
they can’t.)
BLINK
[NAME WITHHELD]
How to always be
aware on cybersecurity
We must connect the dots
[Regarding Joe Weiss’
“Unfettered” cybersecurity blog post on Dec.
20, 2015:]
There is a dire need to provide a clear
linkage between the following elements:
1. Manifestation of the incident or attack
e.g. excessive vibrations in a machine
caused by hijacking the PLC controlling
machine’s RPM.
2. Symptoms of the incident or attack.
3. Attack vectors.
4. Actors involved.
5. Motive or intent of the actor (malicious or unintentional does not matter).
In the absence of information about
these linkages, one is left with discrete
data points, which is not very useful in
containing future attacks.
WHY YOU HAVE TO BLEND
DCS AND IT
FLOW TECHNOLOGIES TEAM
UP ON TOUGH JOBS
HEAD TO HEAD WITH THE
MILLENNIAL GENERATION
AMIT KUMAR
Project Engineer, Honey well Automation India Ltd.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
15
LESSONS LEARNED
Is artificial intelligence dangerous?
BÉL A LIPTÁK
[email protected]
’m breaking the traditions of scientific articles
by writing about issues that go beyond science. The tradition of engineering aricles is
to present material that the author is fairly sure
of, but when I write about artificial and super intelligence here, I’m in uncharted territory.
I
The past
People like Stephen
Hawking and Bill
Gates consider
uncontrolled AI more
dangerous than
global warming,
unless it can share
human values.
16
If we see a painting, we know that there was
a painter who created it. Some might argue that
the existence of the universe proves that it, too,
had a Creator. We have to study the painting to
learn something about the painter, and over the
millennia, we have also studied and gained a bit
of understanding of the universe through science. Over this same period, some have also developed the view that the spiritual and the scientific roads lead to different conclusions—that
they do not merge, but contradict each other.
Well, it seems that they were wrong. Today it
is science that has proven that neither time, nor
space existed before what we call the Big Bang,
and just as Newton’s apple and Einstein’s relativity represented a quantum leap in our understanding of the universe, the Big Bang proves that
the spiritual and the scientific roads can merge.
Automation opened a new chapter in human
evolution, because while it started out as just
another tool to make our lives easier, through
the development of robots, instant communication and artificial intelligence (AI), it is
becoming much more. This can be a great
achievement, but can also become a slippery
slope for human civilization.
Throughout the ages, humanity was not
only struggling for survival, but was also struggling to understand the universe and its purpose. This search used two roads, the spiritual Automation, robots and AI
and the scientific. Those on the spiritual road So what has all this to do with automation?
assumed that understanding the universe is Well, we might not realize it, but automation
beyond the abilities of humans, while
WHAT HAVE WE WROUGHT?
the ones on the road of science decided to try it anyway. Scientists focused on learning the laws guiding
the universe and thereby learning
something about its Creator.
The ones traveling on this second
road included Aristotle, Copernicus,
Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and now
people like Stephen Hawking. It matters little if Galileo discovered gravity
because an apple fell on his head or because he climbed the leaning tower of
Pizza and noticed that bodies of different weights increased their velocity at
the same rate. It matters little how the
the existence of relativity, black holes
or the continuous expansion of the universe was proved. What matters is that
by proving them, we have shown an
ability to understand some of the laws Figure 1: Our creation, the robot, could become smarter than
that give order to the universe.
its creator.
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
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LESSONS LEARNED
THE LIMITS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
know that AI robots can not only spread valuable
information (or fertilizer), but they can also spread
falsehoods (or the Ebola virus). Yet, to today’s AI,
they are the same.
You might say that this is farfetched. You might
believe that AI will only serve to analyze our genetic code to unlock the secret of eternal youth
and make inheritable changes to the human genome. Well, this could turn out to be only wishful
thinking. There is a big difference between us and
them: we were created with a conscience, and machines have no “inner man.” AI and robots are not
necessarily beneficial.
The dilemma
We don’t know if it would be necessary or possible to bestow morals into AI before we let them
loose. What we do know is that people like Stephen Hawking and Bill Gates are worried. They
Figure 2: Can this brain do more than just regurgitate what we put into it?
consider uncontrolled AI more dangerous than
global
warming,
unless they can share human values.
opened a new age for mankind. First it was just a tool that
I don’t know the answers to these questions. Obviously, I
served our comfort as it substituted for our muscles, and later,
for the routine functions of our brain, but today we’re begin- know robots could replace us in today’s workforce, but that
ning to realize that we’ve “created” something much more. isn’t necessarily bad because technological unemployment
When we designed the first gadgets that made industry safer could just free us to have more time for improving the qualand more efficient, we didn’t realize where it would lead. ity of life on this planet. Unfortunately, I’m also beginning
Next, we designed smart instruments, so they’d self-diagnose to believe that AI could also cause humans to become intelif there was something wrong. This road eventually led to ro- lectually lazy and detached from culture itself. Obviously,
bots, and today we’re beginning to realize these human cre- AI in the wrong hands can also do immense harm, but that
doesn’t worry me because that danger is not new. Mankind
ations are more than mechanical slaves.
First, we believed robots are good because they can do faced and survived many evils in the past, incuding tyrants,
things that are boring or they can do things better and faster. fanatics and the dangers posed by nuclear weapons.
One would hope that we will figure out a way to live with
Later, we realized that they can also go to places that are inhospitable for us to visit, such as Mars or war zones. And now, AI, and we will figure out a way to stay in control and keep it
we’re beginning to realize that AI can also change our life benevolent or at least neutral. But is hope good enough? Can
styles. Today, when our AI-brained robots can not only build we just keep developing a machine that has a superior intellicars, but can also drive them, we begin to ask, will this cre- gence and no conscience? I don’t think so.
Now that I’m working on the 5th edition of the Instrument
ation of ours make its creator unnecessary? And by this I do
and Automation Engineers’ Handbook and see that it will probnot only mean that they can create unemployment.
When we in the automation profession created these ma- ably grow by a full volume because of AI (if I live to finish it), I
chines of practically unlimited memory and speed to analyze feel a bit responsible to sound a warning. I have no idea where
data and execute logic, we seem to have also created a ma- AI will lead, but in any case, we must realize that AI is much
chine that could eventually improve its own intelligence. It more than just a tool, and that it is up to us to overcome the
seems that AI can not only build and drive cars, but can also potential risks it can pose before we let it loose. It is up to us,
invent better ones. If thats so, why could they not also design the automation engineers, to give our “child” the upbringing
smarter robots? Why could they not improve their own soft- it deserves, so that when it reaches the state of true super intelligence, it will also be sage and sapient.
ware? Why could they not gain superhuman intelligence?
Naturally, we’ve just started on this slippery slope, but we
Béla Lipták, PE, control consultant, is also editor of the Instrument Engineers’
have started! We’re beginning to become keyboard clickers
Hand book and is seeking new co-authors for the for coming new edition of that
and intellectual garbage consumers, are we not? Do we know
multi-volume work. He can be reached at [email protected]
where this road leads us or the generations to come? Yet we do
18
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
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ON THE BUS
The internet of spam
JOHN REZ ABEK
was researching some new applications last
month, and on a couple occasions filled out
web forms requesting quotes from suppliers
I’ve never contacted before. I was interested in
possibly making a purchase, so I was dismayed
when days went by with no reply. I wonder if
their responses ended up in my spam bucket?
If your employer is like mine, your IT department has deployed some sort of spam filter that
automatically scans your email messages, seeking to prevent obvious junk mail and phishing
exploits from appearing in your inbox. Used to
be, I had the option of examining every message that was caught in the spam bucket. To this
day, spam still gets through and legitimate messages are filtered. So I’m motivated to look at the
list of filtered messages when the daily reports
appear. But the list has become ponderous—it
takes a lot of effort and discipline to get through
one’s normal inbox and respond to important
messages, let alone look at a list of presumed
spam that might be many times larger. Were
my missing messages among the damned that
someone in IT has deemed I never need to see?
My robot angel of spam filtering is in fact a
rather highly evolved form of artificial intelligence (AI). Spam filter robots have been “reading” billions of emails over the years, and have
been “learning” how to filter spam, to some degree, from us. That it remains such an imperfect
solution makes me concerned about the promises of “big data” to make sense out of all the
jabbering we’re likely to get from the coming
Internet of Things, both consumer, commercial and industrial. There are those imagining
that some pure, fabulous math-magic is going
to crunch through mounds and clouds of IoT
data, and send the plant manager a text when
the process is about to break. I don’t aim to discourage dreamers, but I wake up to a harsher
reality where the crafters of AI still haven’t perfected the everyday spam filter.
Not to say there isn’t value in the bits of data
we get from our existing networks of things. You
I
may already be using some obvious ones, like
vibrations on big compressors or other rotating
machinery. But an alarm from a failing or misadjusted probe is “spam” we’d rather filter. How
do one’s data analytics get smart enough to distinguish false alarms from real outliers worthy
of further investigation? Our process historian is
full of data points that represent anything from a
failed sensor to routine calibration. If it’s all just
numbers to the data engines, how will the robot
know what correlates and what’s an anomaly?
Our processes are extraordinarily diverse—
nearly every refinery has a cat cracker, but no
two are alike or uniform in their deployment of
sensors and instrumentation. But, for a given
process, it’s been proven that there are indeed
patterns of normalcy that can be channeled and
analyzed to detect excursions, and alert us to
impending failures that we can avoid. This is
the sort of insight we want big data to reveal—it
could save us millions. To a degree, these patterns can be derived from pure mathematical
analyses, but at some point a person with real
knowledge of the process is needed to judge
which patterns are valid and which ones are
meaningless. If AI becomes an agent of spam—
meaningless messages that require no action—
the time and resources expended on data analysis will have been wasted.
We don’t want to create an internet of spam,
and we have to gird ourselves, our experienced
operators and process specialists for a long
slog through the big data with our clever robot friends. Somehow, we need to educate and
alert our management, who might get the impression that they only need a purchase order
and IoT benefits will be delivered “automagically.” It’s going to take people. We have the
ability to bring more sensors, more data and
more computing power to gain insight into our
process. But like our email spam filter, human
intelligence and experience is still needed to
ensure valuable information gets to the right
individuals.
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR
[email protected]
If AI becomes an
agent of spam—
meaningless
messages that
require no action—
the time and
resources expended
on data analysis will
have been wasted.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
21
WITHOUT WIRES
IoT: Lots of bits, but no bytes
IAN VERHAPPEN
t seems that everywhere we look these days, all
we hear about is how the Internet of Things
(IoT) is going to connect everything to everything via Ethernet/IP networks, and simply by
doing so, enable a new utopia. Unfortunately, as
we’ve discussed in this column in the past, having an IP address is like giving someone a phone
number. Just because I can “dial you up” doesn’t
mean we can communicate.
Continuing with our phone analogy, the first
requirement once we make a connection is
agreeing on a language. In the case of networks,
protocols are the approximate equivalent to a
language. So, if you’re speaking English and I’m
speaking Spanish, we both realize we’re trying to
communicate, but we aren’t really doing so. Similarly, if one network node is sending Modbus/
TCP packets but another is configured to only
receive Ethernet/IP packets, again, the message
is not getting through.
Then, just as we want to filter our phone
calls with things like call blocking and “do not
call” lists, industrial networks must manage
who can connect with whom. as well as confirm the authenticity of information packets.
We consider these aspects part of the cybersecurity requirements, which are especially a
concern with IP-based networks because they
share much of their infrastructure with commercial networks, so they are prone to the
same vulnerabilities.
We’ve written in the past about the different
organizations such as ISA, IEEE, IEC, ISO,
ITU, IETF, etc. developing and issuing standards or rules on which to build the necessary
infrastructure for IoT. Just like with the different field-level protocols, trade organizations also
play an important role, allowing members to cooperate to convert these standards into products
that effectively work together. Two organizations
for IoT are the European Lighthouse Integrated
Project’s Internet-of-Things Architecture group
(IoT-A, www.iot-a.eu/public) and the Industrial
Internet Consortium (www.iiconsortium.org).
I
During its three-year mandate (2011-13), IoT-A
developed a proposed architectural reference
model together with the definition of an initial
set of key building blocks. It combines top-down
reasoning about architectural principles and design guidelines with simulation and prototyping
in exploring the technical consequences of architectural design choices.
Coincidentally, the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) was founded in March 2014 to
bring together the organizations and technologies necessary to accelerate the growth of the
Industrial Internet by identifying, assembling
and promoting best practices, thus effectively
building on the previous standards work and that
of IoT-A. The IIC is a virtual who’s who of network-related developers with the stated objectives
to: 1) define and develop the reference architecture and frameworks necessary for interoperability; 2) influence the global development standards process for internet and industrial systems;
3) facilitate open forums to share and exchange
real-world ideas, practices, lessons and insights;
and 4) build confidence around new and innovative approaches to security.
Though the IIC indicates that it’s developing
use cases for IoT, to do so, it requires input and
participation from end users dealing with the
types of problems that need to be solved. In my
experience, though they do good work by forming
the foundation on which to build something, standards groups that don’t have end-user (customer)
input can easily fall into the trap of defining an
elegant solution that then needs to find a problem
to solve.
We’re able to send more bits than ever to even
more nodes than before, but until we make sense
of all the 1’s and 0’s, that is what they will remain:
bits, not bytes of useful information. As many
practitioners know, once you can actually read
the bytes, the next step is deciding which ones
matter to your application and present operating conditions, which opens a whole new can of
worms and challenges.
DIRECTOR,
INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION NE T WORKS
[email protected]
Standards groups
that don’t have
end-user input
easily fall into the
trap of defining an
elegant solution that
then needs to find a
problem to solve.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
23
IN PROCESS
OPC Foundation gets help from friends
PI, EPSG, Sercos and m2m partner with foundation to advance OPC UA specification
he OPC Foundation (https://opcfoundation.org) reports it’s continuing to increase adoption of
OPC UA by collaborating with other
trade organizations.
“We’ve signed collaboration agreements with Profibus & Profinet International [PI, www.profibus.com],
Ethernet Powerlink Standardization
Group [EPSG, www.ethernet-powerlink.org], Sercos International [www.
sercos.org] and m2m-Alliance [www.
m2m-alliance.com],” said Stefan
Hoppe, vice president of the OPC
Foundation, during its press conference on Nov. 26 at the SPS IPC Drives
tradeshow in Germany. These organizations and others use OPC UA as a secure transport channel to interoperate
with other systems.
OPC UA is a platform-independent,
service-oriented architecture that integrates all the functionality of the individual Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) for Process Control (OPC)
Classic specifications into one extensible framework. This multi-layered approach accomplishes the original design specification goals of:
r Functional equivalence because all
T
COM OPC Classic specifications are
mapped to UA;
r Platform independence from an embedded microcontroller to cloudbased infrastructure;
r Security via encryption, authentication and auditing;
r Extensiblity by being able to add
new features without affecting existing applications; and
r Comprehensive information modeling for defining complex information.
“We see OPC UA as a complementary technology for Profinet in Automation,” said Karsten Schneider, chairman
of PI. “The ability to run both services
in one network will open entirely new
possibilities, and will be the foundation
for mega trends like the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0.”
Stefan Schönegger, managing director of EPSG, added, “The tight collaboration of our both organizations and
technologies will be a breakthrough for
seamless communication from ERP
systems down to the sensor level.” Peter Lutz, managing director of Sercos
International, added its collaboration
with the foundation is already producing results, and that his organization
GANG OF FIVE
Four of the organizations that use OPC UA as a secure transport channel are collaborating with the OPC Foundation to improve communications and enable IIoT efforts.
24
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
has worked independently on its own
OPC UA Companion Specification.
Finally, the OPC Foundation and
the M2M Alliance will be working together on seamless and secure communications from field devices to backend
systems. “It’s becoming more and more
important to adapt the well-established
solutions from other M2M-application
domains, such as health-cards or smart
metering, to the special requirements of
industrial automation,” said Prof. Dr.Ing. Axel Sikora, board member at the
M2M Alliance.
PTC buying Kepware
to extend IoT offerings
PTC (www.ptc.com) announced Dec.
23 that it will acquire Kepware Technologies (www.kepware.com) for approximately $100 million, plus up to
an additional $18 million based on
achievement of certain initiatives and
financial results. Over the past 12
months, privately held Kepware generated about $20 million in revenue. PTC
plans to draw on credit to finance its
transaction, and expects it to be neutral
to fiscal-year-2016, non-GAAP earnings
per share.
The transaction is expected to close
in early 2016, subject to closing conditions, including regulatory approval.
PTC intends to maintain the Kepware
partner ecosystem, and continue developing Kepware technology. The acquisition will enhance PTC’s portfolio
of Internet of Things (IoT) technology,
and accelerate its entry into the factory
setting and IIoT.
Founded in 1995, Kepware is a software development company that provides communications connectivity to
industrial automation environments. It
IN PROCESS
Implementing
a calibration
system?
serves customers in more than 120 countries in manufacturing,
oil and gas, building automation, and power and utilities. Its
KEPServerEX software connects devices and control systems,
giving users one source of industrial data.
KEPServerEX will become part of PTC’s ThingWorx IoT
technology platform. Once the firms’ products are integrated,
machine data will be aggregated into ThingWorx, integrated
with internal and external information, and automatically analyzed using ThingWorx’s machine-learning functions. Their
integration will provide enterprise-wide insight.
Earlier in the month, Kepware announced the launch of its
IoT Alliance program. The alliance is composed of a strategic
network of IoT providers committed to growing the global IoT
market. Alliance members will have access to proprietary technology from Kepware that enables their solutions to access industrial data from KEPServerEX. The 10 founding members
participating in Kepware’s IoT Alliance include Aizoon, Altizon,
DeviceLynk, Falkonry, Informatica, IOT Technology Solutions,
mnubo, Perseus, Splunk and PTC’s ThingWorx.
ISA delivers cybersecurity keynote
International Society of Automation (www.ISA.org) executive
director Patrick Gouhin delivered a keynote address, “Utilizing
an Operational Technologies Approach to Mitigating Cybersecurity Risk,” on Dec. 16 at the Cybersecurity Conference in Raleigh, N.C., which was co-hosted by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and North Carolina Chamber of Commerce.
Experts from government, law enforcement and the private
sector offered best practices to help small- and mid-size businesses navigate the cybersecurity framework developed by the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and
released by the Obama administration in 2014.
Gouhin described standards development work by ISA99,
a consensus-based standards committee of more than 500
international experts representing all sectors and critical infrastructures, including energy, water, chemical processing,
petroleum refining, food and beverage, pharmaceuticals and
manufacturing. The committee is developing technical standards and best practices (ISA/IEC 62443) focused on industrial automation and control systems security. The keynote
also featured information about ISASecure (www.isasecure.
org) conformance schemes for certifying products.
“The challenges we face are very real, and the solutions are
vital to the survival and success of manufacturing companies
and critical infrastructure around the world,” says Gouhin.
Our calibration and IT expertise helps you face
calibration process improvement projects that are
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new calibration system depends especially on the
implementation of the system and the ability to define
and adopt a new calibration process. Learn more at:
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Endress+Hauser cooperates
on smooth system integration
To help process plant operators more easily integrate their devices into their automation systems, Endress+Hauser (www.
endress.com) launched its Open Integration partner program
at the recent SPS IPC Drives event in Germany. The program promotes cooperation between providers of industrial
automation systems and fieldbus communications by using
open communication standards such as HART, Profibus,
Foundation fieldbus, EtherNet/IP and Profinet, as well as
open integration standards such as FDT, EDD and FDI.
This cooperation will start with reference topologies
worked out jointly by Open Integration partners, and then
each reference topology will be tailored to the applications
and field communication technologies used by each customer. Depending on industrial segment and market, a topology’s focus will be on typical requirements, such as availability, redundancy or explosion protection, and followed by
selection of system components and field instruments. This
combination will then be tested and documented before it’s
published as a joint recommendation, giving customers validated suggestions for automating their plant.
So far, eight companies have joined the program, including AUMA Riester, HIMA Paul Hildebrandt, Honeywell Process Solutions, Mitsubishi Electric, Pepperl+Fuchs,
Rockwell Automation, R. STAHL and Schneider Electric.
“By working closely with our partners, we want to make
sure that a relevant selection of products can be easily combined and integrated for common target markets,” explains
Michael Ziesemer, COO, Endress+Hauser. “We’re open for
more cooperation partners. Every market stakeholder who,
like us, consistently relies on open standards is invited to join
the Open Integration program.”
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“We have hundreds of cybersecurity experts from around
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mitigation approaches for industry, and we look forward to
continuing our leadership in this area.”
omega.com
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NovaTech International, LLC has completed a major automation upgrade at the DAK Americas (www.dakamericas.com) polyethylene terephthalate (PET) resin plant in
Cosoleacaque, Mexico. It produces 150,000-metric-tons-peryear of PET which is a completely recyclable plastic used for
packaging foods, beverages and other consumer products.
IN PROCESS
EXPANSIONS AND CONTRACTIONS
r ABB (www.abb.com) has won a large control infrastructure contract for the $11-billion, 1,850-km Trans-Anatolian
Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) to bring Azerbaijan’s natural gas directly to Europe. ABB will deliver the control system, telecommunications, pipeline monitoring, security
systems including fiber-optic cables to transmit data along
the pipelines, which will be controlled and automated by
ABB’s System 800xA process automation system.
r )POFZXFMM1SPDFTT4PMVUJPOT (HPS, www.honeywellprocess.com) reported Dec. 3 that its natural gas technology and process automation have been selected by
Houston-based 5FYBT -/( to remove contaminants
from natural gas before liquefaction and export. The twophase project on the north shore of the Port of Brownsville’s deep-water ship channel, will produce 4 million
tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) beginning in 2020.
Texas LNG will use Honeywell’s UOP Amine Guard FS
process to reduce acid gas to low levels, and its proprietary absorbents will remove water, mercury and sulfur.
r )14 also announced Dec. 10 that it’s upgraded the controls and safety system at TogliattiAzot’s production site
in Tolyatti, Russia, which is the world’s largest ammonia
producer. Honeywell replaced the existing pneumatic
control system at Ammonia Plant No. 6 with its Experion
Process Knowledge System (PKS) based on C300 and
Safety Manager controls. Honeywell also implemented
a new control and measurement system, supported by
SmartLine pressure and temperature transmitters. The
upgrade helped the plant increase reliability, improve
safety and boost productivity.
r Honeywell has also completed its acquisition of Elster, a
leader in gas heating, controls, metering and advanced
technology. Elster’s water and electricity metering business, along with part of its gas business, will become part
of Honeywell Environmental & Energy Solutions (E&ES),
which produces residential and commercial building controls. Elster’s other technologies will complement Honeywell Process Solutions in the natural gas sector.
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27
IN PROCESS
The existing process automation system, also supplied by
NovaTech, had operated reliably since 1996, but had grown
obsolete. The upgrade to the latest version of D/3 hardware
and software will ensure the facility continues meeting growing global demand for its resins for the next 20 years. The
migration will allow DAK to optimize control system structure and use. Immediate benefits include a 25% increase in
I/O capacity and HART communications with field instrumentation. Looking forward, DAK plans to leverage newer
technologies such as state-based control, advanced alarming
and control loop optimization.
DAK set a schedule of less than one week for the entire onsite installation, which included upgrading more than 2,700
I/O points in 33 cabinets. By designing custom panels for the
new I/O and shipping them to the job site, NovaTech’s engineers were able to use much of the existing field terminations
and cabinet wiring, which reduced installation time. “Considering the scope of the project and the timeline involved,
the NovaTech installation went very smoothly, and allowed us
to bring the plant back online within a relatively short timeframe,” says DAK project manager Emilio Paramo.
ZigBee, EnOcean alliances partner
The ZigBee Alliance (www.zigbee.org) and the EnOcean
Alliance (www.enocean-alliance.org) announced Dec. 16
that they’ll combine the benefits of EnOcean’s energy-harvesting, wireless solutions with ZigBee 3.0. The ZigBee organization also reported that it’s ratified ZigBee 3.0, which
builds on and unifies ZigBee standards for wireless communications and components.
The cooperation enables the two alliances to create an
open, global specification that will extend energy harvesting
wireless communication to more self-powered IoT sensors,
making battery-less, connected devices a reality.
A technical task force will be created built from the two
alliances’ representatives to define the technical specifications required to combine standardized EnOcean equipment profiles (EEPs) with ZigBee 3.0, which operates in the
worldwide IEEE 802.15.4 2.4 GHz standard. They plan to
complete definition of this technical specification and share
details of associated collaborative marketing and business
activities in the second quarter of 2016.
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process technologies
RESOURCES
Flow know-how
Control’s Monthly Resource Guide
ACCESSIBLE ONLINE TEXTBOOK
The Process Control Education website by McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, offers the “Instrumentation for Process Control” web-based
textbook for everyone from students
and professional engineers, and Chapter 2.2 provides a detailed and useful
introduction to flow sensors, measurement concepts and calculations. www.
pc-education.mcmaster.ca/Instrumentation/go_inst.htm
MCMASTER UNIVERSIT Y
w w w.pc-education.mcmaster.ca
spiraxsarco.com/resources/steam-engineering-tutorials/flowmetering.asp
SPIR A X SARCO
w w w2.spiraxsarco.com
FLOWMETER TUTORIAL
This multi-part tutorial covers mass
and volumetric flow, and the different
ways of measuring and calculating for
them, including velocity and inferential methods. The author also answers
questions from previous readers in an
appendix. It’s located at www.omega.
com/techref/flowmetertutorial.html
OMEGA ENGINEERING
w w w.omega.com
COOL CALCULATORS
“Resources, tools and basic information for engineering and design of technical applications” at The Engineering
Toolbox include formulas and online
calculators for determining the flow
coefficients (Cy) and flow factors (Kv) of
liquids, steam and gases. With the flow
coefficient, flow capacities of valves at
different sizes, types and manufacturers can be compared, and estimated Cv
values can be used to select the correct
valve. www.engineeringtoolbox.com/
flow-coefficients-d_277.html
THE ENGINEERING TOOLBOX
w w w.engineeringtoolbox.com
ENLIGHTENING LECTURES
The Indian Institute of Technology
(IIT) in Kharagpur presents a comprehensive series of lectures on Electrical-Industrial Automation and
Control, including Lecture 7 on flow
measurement covering flow concepts
such as Bernoulli’s Principle, orifice
meters, Venturi tube, differential pressure and rotameters. www.youtube.
com/watch?v=gByrUkZUnKo
Indian Institute of Technology
w w w.iitkgp.ac.in
The Flowmetering webpage introduces fluid characteristics and flow
theory (including Bernoulli’s theorem
and Reynolds’ numbers) to provide
basic metering theory and techniques.
Different meter types, instrumentation and installation practices are also
discussed. Topics include fluids and
flow, principles of flowmetering, types
if steam flowmeters, instrumentation
and installation. It’s located at www2
.
Endress+Hauser has a developed a gorgeous selection of short videos on the
major flow measurement methods including electromagnetic (www.youtube.
com/watch?v=f949gpKdCI4), ultrasonic
(www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bx2RnrfLkQg), vortex (www.youtube.com/
watch?v=GmTmDM7jHzA), Coriolis
(www.youtube.com/watch?v=XIIViaNITIw), and Pitot (www.youtube.com/
watch?v=D6sbzkYq3_c)
ENDRESS+HAUSER
w w w.us.endress.com
CORIOLIS AND DENSITY
Emerson Process Management’s MicroMotion division delivers a short
video explaining how Coriolis flowmeters function; demonstrates how they
can also measure mass flow, volume
flow, density and temperature; and
shows how they can improve process
control and product quality, increase
throughput rates and reduce maintenance costs. It’s at www.youtube.com/
watch?v=1lkx8MTCT4s
EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT
w w w.emersonprocess.com
MULTI-PART MASS FLOW
BACK TO BASICS ON DP MEASUREMENT
CHARACTERISTICS AND THEORY
ELECTROMAGNETIC, ULTRASONIC, ETC.
Former editor in chief of Control, Walt
Boyes, delivers a classic Back to Basics presentation on differential pressure (DP) flow measurement; the importance of making sure transmitter
ranges are correct for the flow rates to
be measured; right-sizing primary elements; and installation requirements
for liquids and gases. It’s at www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9MJEjgrUqo
CONTROL
w w w.controlglobal.com
ABB presents a three-part series of videos on mass flow. They’re delivered
by Mark Allinson, U.K. process flow
specialist at ABB, who compares mass
and volumetric flow measurements,
and demonstrates mass flow’s advantages and improved accuracy. Find
them at www.youtube.com/watch?v=kW3dK6b1ZLA,
www.youtube.com/
watch?v=bDh8bILw2gQ, and www.
youtube.com/watch?v=CjxsPTtEpdY
ABB
www.abb,com
If you know of any tools and resources we didn’t include, send them to [email protected] with
“Resource” in the subject line, and we’ll add them to the website.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
29
End users weigh in on which companies
provide best hardware, software and systems.
by Control Staff
30
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
201
ngineering, installing and maintaining automation systems for safe, efficient, quality production takes many
talents. Along with a real grip on the technologies and techniques of process control, you must have a good understanding
of manufacturing principles, finances,
people and more.
One of the most important tools in your belt
is your hard-won knowledge of what works.
Through real-world experience, you’ve found
products and brands you can rely on to give
the best combination of performance, ease of
use, reliability and reasonable cost.
But no single automation professional is
expert in every one of the myriad categories
of process control hardware, software and
systems necessary to properly support today’s
plant. Where do you turn when it’s time to
identify a new source for one of the less familiar needs of your facility? Who do you want to
consult—your purchasing department? Your
local reps? Magazine editors? The web?
How about your fellow professionals who
read Control? That’s who we poll to determine our annual Readers’ Choice Awards.
E
A veritable who’s who
The professionals who took the time and
made the effort to complete our lengthy, fillin-the-blank surveys worked hard at it. For
each of more than 80 categories, they decided
whether or not they had the experience to
name up to three suppliers who, in their opinion, deliver the best technology. If so, they decided who those suppliers would be, ranked
them one to three, and typed in their names.
Few respondents were able to fill in all the
blanks—many felt qualified to fill in less than
half the categories. Clearly, naming the best
supplier isn’t a casual decision. Only the strongest suppliers earn the loyalty that leads to a
place in our Readers’ Choice Awards.
In short, the Control Readers’ Choice
Awards offer a reference list of brands that
offer the best—a veritable who’s who of plant
equipment, software and service providers.
Cautions, thanks and congratulations
As you review this year’s winners, remember that the fill-in-the-blank format of the
survey means every supplier has an equal
chance—the choices are not limited to a
selection of entries determined by vendors,
editors or other people who are not practicing process automation professionals.
On the surveys, we ask end users to vote
only in those categories where they have personal experience. A vote for a specific company should mean the respondent has found
its products to be better than other companies
in that category.
Every vendor in the accompanying tables
has been designated as the best by a significant number of respondents. Since more respondents have experience with companies
that have a larger installed base, the results are
inevitably biased toward the larger companies.
Furthermore, there are certainly small companies that don’t make the list, no matter how
excellent their technologies, just because they
are relatively unknown. If you have a favorite
smaller supplier, consider yourself fortunate,
and don’t be concerned that they aren’t in our
Readers’ Choice Awards.
We express our heartfelt appreciation to
the hardy respondents who took the time
to share their wisdom by selecting our winners, and we congratulate each listed vendor on being recognized in our Readers’
Choice Awards.
First up: The best in control
Best in Control categories are broken down
into six automation disciplines and by 10 vertical industries (Tables I and II). These platform categories are dominated by the largest
companies in process automation, with little change in rankings from year to year. But
this year, Honeywell Process Solutions rose to
first in Continuous Sheet/Web Monitoring &
Control, fourth in Sequential Logic Control,
and fifth in Safety/Emergency Shutdown and
Batch Process Automation categories.
Rockwell Automation notched up to first
in Safety/Emergency Shutdown, and Siemens Industry moved up to third in Batch
Process Automation, fourth in Safety/Emergency Shutdown, and fifth in Continuous
Regulatory Control, Continuous Sheet/Web
Monitoring & Control, and Supervisory
Control & Data Acquisition (SCADA).
’
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Continuous Regulatory Control
Emerson Process Management
2. Rockwell Automation
3. Honeywell Process Solutions
4. ABB
5. Siemens Industry
6. Schneider Electric
7. Yokogawa
8. GE Automation & Controls
Safety/Emergency Shutdown
Rockwell Automation
2. Schneider Electric
3. Emerson Process Management
4. Siemens Industry
5. Honeywell Process Solutions
6. ABB
7. HIMA
8. Yokogawa
Batch Process Automation
Rockwell Automation
2. Emerson Process Management
3. Siemens Industry
4. ABB
5. Honeywell Process Solutions
6. Schneider Electric
7. Yokogawa
8. GE Automation & Controls
Sequential Logic Control
Rockwell Automation
2. Siemens Industry
3. Emerson Process Management
4. Honeywell Process Solutions
5. ABB
6. Schneider Electric
7. Yokogawa
8. GE Automation & Controls
Continuous Sheet/Web Monitoring & Control
Honeywell Process Solutions
2. Rockwell Automation
3. ABB
4. Emerson Process Management
5. Siemens Industry
6. Schneider Electric
7. Yokogawa
8. GE Automation & Controls
Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition (SCADA)
Rockwell Automation
2. Schneider Electric
3. Emerson Process Management
4. Honeywell Process Solutions
5. Siemens Industry
6. ABB
7. GE Automation & Controls
8. Yokogawa
Table I.
Best in Control Readers Choice Awards
by Process Automation Discipline
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
31
201
’
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Chemicals
Manufacturing
Electric Power
Generation
Food & Beverage
Manufacturing
Metals, Minerals
& Mining
Oil & Gas Extraction
Continuous
Regulatory Control
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Emerson Process
Management
Batch Process
Automation
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Emerson Process
Management
-
-
-
Rockwell Automation
-
Schneider Electric
Schneider Electric
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Supervisory Control
& Data Acquisition
Rockwell Automation
Schneider Electric
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Sequential Logic Control
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Petroleum Refining
Pharmaceuticals
& Life Sciences
Plastics & Rubber
Manufacturing
Pulp & Paper
Manufacturing
Water & Wastewater
Processing
Continuous
Regulatory Control
Emerson Process
Management
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Batch Process
Automation
Emerson Process
Management
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Honeywell Process
Solutions
-
Continuous Sheet/Web
Monitoring & Control
Safety/Emergency
Shutdown
-
-
Honeywell Process
Solutions
Safety/Emergency
Shutdown
Schneider Electric
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Supervisory Control
& Data Acquisition
Honeywell Process
Solutions
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Schneider Electric
Schneider Electric
Rockwell Automation
Emerson Process
Management
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
Continuous Sheet/Web
Monitoring & Control
Sequential Logic Control
Table II. Best in Control Readers Choice Awards by Discipline and Industry
INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORTS THE SYSTEM
Wired and wireless networks connect system controllers and
software to field devices through signal conditioners and input/output (I/O) systems. While many process automation
product categories have seen extensive consolidation through
mergers and acquisitions, infrastructure remains dotted with
independent, medium-sized companies that haven’t been
bought, including Pepperl+Fuchs in Intrinsic Safety, Moore
Industries for Signal Conditioner, and Phoenix Contact in
Power Supplies and Terminal Blocks.
Wire and Cable remains led by the familiar Belden and
Lapp, with jostling for the rest of the chart shared among Anixter, Southwire and new this year, AlphaWire. Wireless Infrastructure has the same companies in the same order as last
year, perhaps showing that they’ve recognized, secured and
assiduously guarded this relatively new and growing market.
Input/Output System
Terminal Block
Rockwell Automation
2. Siemens Industry
3. Emerson Process Management
4. ABB
Phoenix Contact
2. Weidmuller
3. Rockwell Automation
4. Wago
5. Pepperl + Fuchs
5. AutomationDirect
Intrinsic Safety
Wire & Cable
Pepperl+Fuchs
2. Rockwell Automation
3. MTL Instruments
4. Siemens Industry
Belden
2. Lapp
3. Anixter
4. Southwire
5. R. Stahl
5. AlphaWire
Power Supply
Wireless Infrastructure
Phoenix Contact
2. SolaHD
3. Rockwell Automation
4. Siemens Industry
2. Cisco
3. Honeywell Process Solutions
4. Phoenix Contact
5. Acopian
5. Moxa
Signal Conditioner
Moore Industries
2. Phoenix Contact
3. Acromag
4. Pepperl+Fuchs
5. Rockwell Automation
32
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
Emerson Process Management
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’
201
ADE
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FLOW KEEPS ROLLING
Coriolis Flowmeter
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
Turbine Flowmeter
Emerson Process Management
3. Siemens Industry
4. Krohne
2. FMC Technologies
3. Badger
4. Endress+Hauser
5. Yokogawa
4. Sponsler
Magnetic Flowmeter
Ultrasonic Flowmeter (Closed Pipe)
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
Emerson Process Management
3. Yokogawa
4. ABB
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Siemens Industry
4. GE
5. Siemens Industry
5. Krohne
Open Channel Flowmeter
Variable Area Flowmeter
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Siemens Industry
4. ABB
5. VEGA Americas
Positive Displacement Flowmeter
Brooks Instrument
2. Emerson Process Management
3. FMC Technologies
4. Badger Meter
5. Endress+Hauser
Thermal Mass Flowmeter
FCI
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Brooks Instrument
4. Emerson Process Management
5. ABB
Brooks Instrument
2. ABB
3. Yokogawa
4. Emerson Process Management
5. Endress+Hauser
5. Krohne
For years now, advances in flow detection and measurement have
centered more on accuracy, reliability and communications than
the measurement technologies themselves. Achieving those objectives takes solid engineering, quality control and an intimate
knowledge of the characteristics of each flow technology, where it
can best be applied, and how to interface it with systems, operators
and technicians. In a way, it helps that the large system companies
have bought up many niche manufacturers because it means they
can truly recommend the best technology for the job.
But once you know what you want, there are still some specialized companies that may win your loyalty. And if you’re surprised
that a favorite one of those smaller companies is not in our rankings, you may find that it’s owned by one of the majors—we roll
those votes up into a single total for the parent company.
Vortex Flowmeter
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Yokogawa
4. Schneider Electric
5. ABB
Flow Switch
FCI
2. Emerson Process Management
3. Endress+Hauser
4. Magnetrol
5. Dwyer
Level Gauge, Capacitance/
Admittance/Conductance
Endress+Hauser
It seems so simple to automate the elementary task of looking at
a sight glass or dipping in a stick, but level remains an area where
instrumentation based on the simplest principles (like the fact that
some things float) competes with nuclear radiation and microwave
radar to provide the least expensive, most reliable and exactly appropriate way to deal with fluids from flammable hydrocarbons to
sticky foams, clumping solids and elusive interfaces.
Again, the big suppliers have acquired a broad selection of
technologies and their system-sized influence has made certain brands and technologies sometimes seem like no-brainer
decisions. But smaller companies offer some less known alternatives that might work better in certain situations—the savvy
field instrument engineer seldom has a more challenging selection than a new level application.
Here we offer some of the best sources for a full range of
level technologies. The top few companies in each category
have been leading for several years, and there are no losers on
these charts.
3. Siemens Industry
5. Magnetrol
Level Switch, Electrical
Property-based
Level Gauge, Float/Displacer
Emerson Process Management
2. Magnetrol
3. Danaher
4. GE Energy
5. ABB
Endress+Hauser
2. Emerson Process Management
3. Magnetrol
4. VEGA Americas
5. ABB
Level Gauge, Guided Wave
Level Switch, Mechanical
2. Endress+Hauser
3. VEGA Americas
4. Magnetrol
Magnetrol
2. Emerson Process Management
3. Endress+Hauser
4. ABB
5. Siemens Industry
5. SOR
Level Gauge, Non-Contacting Radar
Level Switch, Ultrasonic
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
4. Siemens Industry
3. Magnetrol
4. Siemens Industry
5. Magnetrol
5. VEGA Americas
Level Gauge, Inventory Grade
Level Switch, Vibration
3. VEGA Americas
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Honeywell Enraf
4. Varec
Level Gauge, Laser
ABB
2. Emerson Process Management
Level Gauge, Magnetostrictive
Orion Instruments
2. Emerson Process Management
3. ABB
4. Ametek Drexelbrook
5. MTS
Level Gauge, Radiometric (Nuclear)
3. Thermo Scientific
4. Emerson Process Management
5. Berthold Technologies
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
4. Magnetrol
5. Endress + Hauser
VEGA Americas
2. Endress+Hauser
34
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
2. Ametek Drexelbrook
3. Emerson Process Management
4. VEGA Americas
Emerson Process Management
SEEK YOUR OWN LEVEL
Level Gauge, Ultrasonic
Endress+Hauser
2. Emerson Process Management
3. VEGA Americas
4. Magnetrol
5. Siemens Industry
Magnetic Level Indicator
Orion Instruments
2. Emerson Process Management
3. ABB
4. Clark Reliance
5. Ametek Drexelbrook
Instrumental in Sustainability
Every day you work to optimize your operations, protect quality, find innovative solutions, and
reduce costs. You know sustainability isn’t really about using less, but instead it’s about using only
the necessary amount of precious resources. Badger Meter manufactures one of the broadest flow
measurement portfolios to help you measure what matters, leading to a better bottom line and a
better world. We help you leave a mark to be proud of.
Minimize Waste
Maximize Efficiency
www.badgermeter.com
Leave a Better Footprint
201
’
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6 RE RS
SOFTWARE PROVIDES INTELLIGENCE
Advanced Process Control Software
Emerson Process Management
2. Rockwell Automation
Loop-Tuning Software
Emerson Process Management
3. Honeywell Process Solutions
4. AspenTech
2. ExperTune
3. Honeywell Process Solutions
4. Control Station
5. ABB
5. Rockwell Automation
Alarm Management Software
Neural Network Software
Emerson Process Management
2. Honeywell Process Solutions
3. Rockwell Automation
4. Schneider Electric
5. PAS
Asset Management Software
Emerson Process Management
2. Rockwell Automation
3. Oracle
4. ABB
5. SAP
Calibration Management Software
Fluke
Emerson Process Management
2. Rockwell Automation
OPC Connectivity
Kepware Technologies
2. Matrikon OPC
3. Emerson Process Management
4. Rockwell Automation
5. Schneider Electric
PLC Programming Software
Rockwell Automation
2. Siemens Industry
3. Schneider Electric
4. Emerson Process Management
2. Emerson Process Management
5. GE Automation & Controls
3. Beamex
SCADA Software
Design/Documentation Software
Autodesk
2. EPLAN
Human-Machine Interface Software
Rockwell Automation
Rockwell Automation
2. Schneider Electric
3. GE Automation & Controls
4. Emerson Process Management
5. Siemens Industry
2. Schneider Electric
3. Emerson Process Management
4. Siemens Industry
Simulation Software
5. GE Automation & Controls
3. Emerson Process Management
4. Honeywell Process Solutions
Software powers the control system’s brains and communications, so it’s no surprise that many software category winners
are the same companies we saw at the top of the equivalent
platform categories on page 31. This year, Emerson Process
Management took the lead back in Alarm Management Software. Emerson also took the lead, with Honeywell Process
Solutions rising, in Loop Tuning Software, perhaps reflecting increased use and effectiveness of these system leaders’
in-house offerings.
Among the niche players, Kepware Technologies rose to the
top of OPC Connectivity, Fluke regained first place in Calibration Management Software, and AspenTech broke into the
rankings in Simulation Software.
SAP is back and Oracle has risen into the Asset Management Software rankings, showing that this is increasingly seen
by many as an enterprise rather than control system or plant
maintenance function.
Remember, if you wonder where Wonderware went, it (and
all the Invensys brands) are now part of Schneider Electric.
Similiarly, accolades for Pavilion Technologies were advanced
to Rockwell Automation.
Mynah Technologies
2. Rockwell Automation
5. AspenTech
OUTFITTING THE INTERFACES
Software needs a place to run and a way for operators to run it.
That may be in a centralized control room or various locations
across the plant—either way, you often need pieces from this
eclectic collection of specialized hardware.
This year, AutomationDirect returned to the Operator Interface category after a one-year absence, Advantech made a fresh
foray into Panel Display, and Honeywell Process Solutions returned to the top spot in Process Loop Controller. Perhaps reflecting the shift away from paper and pens, Rockwell Automation rose into the listings for the Recorder category.
Interestingly, the Industrial Computer category collects many
votes for Dell and HP, reflecting either support for non-industrial PCs or the rising tendency for computational power to be
allocated to servers. If either of those are your style, they are the
winning brands.
Annunciator
Process Loop Controller
Ametek
2. Rockwell Automation
3. Ronan Engineering
4. ABB
2. Emerson Process Management
3. Rockwell Automation
4. Siemens Industry
5. Emerson Process Management
5. Yokogawa
Industrial Computer
Recorder
Rockwell Automation
2. Advantech
Yokogawa
2. Honeywell Process Solutions
3. Siemens Industry
3. Schneider Electric
4. Rockwell Automation
Operator Interface Terminal
Rockwell Automation
2. Siemens Industry
3. Pro-face America
4. Red Lion Controls
5. AutomationDirect
Panel Display
Rockwell Automation
2. Siemens Industry
3. Red Lion Controls
4. Advantech
5. Schneider Electric
36
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
Honeywell Process Solutions
5. ABB
201
Pressure Transmitter
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Yokogawa
’
ADE
6 RE RS
Temperature Transmitter
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
4. Honeywell Process Solutions
3. Yokogawa
4. Omega Engineering
5. Siemens Industry
5. Honeywell Process Solutions
Pressure Switch
Infrared Temperature Sensor
2. Ashcroft
Fluke
2. Omega Engineering
TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE COOK ALONG
3. Endress+Hauser
3. Palmer Wahl Instrumentation
Resistance Temperature Detector
4. Williamson
Pressure and temperature switches and transmitters
play major roles in field instrumentation. This year, Endress+Hauser joined Emerson Process Management and
Ashcroft in the Pressure Switch category added last year.
Thermometrics broke into the Resistance Temperature
Detector (RTD) category, and Watlow Industries made the
grade for Thermocouple.
Along with its usual strong showing in Thermocouple, Omega Engineering climbed in RTD, and broke into
the listings for Temperature Transmitter and Temperature
Switch, where Endress+Hauser also made a showing. The
Infrared Temperature Sensor rankings welcome Palmer
Wahl and Williamson.
Emerson Process Management
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Omega Engineering
4. Pyromation
5. Thermometrics
Thermocouple
Emerson Process Management
2. Pyromation
3. Omega Engineering
4. Endress+Hauser
Infrared Imaging/Thermography
Fluke
2. FLIR Systems
Temperature Switch
Emerson Process Management
2. Omega Engineering
3. Ashcroft
4. Endress+Hauser
4. United Electric Controls
5. Watlow
Ensuring process
availability.
Providing flexibility.
Challenging expectations.
VisuNet HMI Systems
High-Tech, Globally Certified HMI Systems and Components for Hazardous Areas
ATEX, IECEx Zone 1/21, Zone 2/22, and NEC Class I & II, Div. 1/2 HMIs
Workstations and panel components designed specifically for adverse conditions in the oil & gas industry
Operator workstations and thin clients manufactured to meet the stringent demands for clean room and hygienic
applications in the life science industry
www.pepperl-fuchs.com/hmi
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
37
201
’
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A LOOK INSIDE ANALYZERS
Ambient Gas Detector
Emerson Process Management
ABB
2. MSA
3. ABB
4. Dräeger
2. Thermo Fisher Scientific
3. Yokogawa
4. Emerson Process Management
5. Thermo Fisher Scientific
5. Siemens Industry
Density/Concentration Analyzer
Process Chromatograph
Emerson Process Management
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
3. Yokogawa
4. Thermo Fisher Scientific
2. ABB
3. Siemens Industry
5. Honeywell Process Solutions
Stack Gas/Emissions Analyzer
Humidity/Moisture Analyzer
Vaisala
2. Emerson Process Management
3. GE Measurement & Control
4. Michell Instruments
Process analysis has become a highly evolved art. As
the ability to make sensitive composition measurements has largely moved from the laboratory to the
plant floor, few and highly specialized manufacturers
are able to combine precision with the ruggedness and
stability required for industrial-strength reliability. The
companies with the right engineering and fabrication
chops change little from year to year.
Self-diagnostics and seamless communications are increasingly important, and affiliation with a major platform and system supplier can only help.
Of note for 2016, Emerson Process Management regained first place and Thermo Fisher Scientific broke into
the Ambient Gas Detector rankings. Michell Instruments
is new this year in the Humidity/Moisture Analyzer rankings, and Hach has shown up on the list for pH/ORP/Conductivity Analyzer.
Process Spectrometer
4. Yokogawa
Emerson Process Management
2. ABB
3. Ametek
4. Yokogawa
5. Siemens Industry
5. Honeywell Process Solutions
pH/ORP/Conductivity Analyzer
Emerson Process Management
2. Endress+Hauser
3. ABB
4. Yokogawa
5. Hach
ELSEWHERE IN THE FIELD
Here’s our collection of essential field equipment, instrumentation and devices that don’t fit into another
major group. Most of the categories are led by solid
performers that remain in their places this year. Rockwell Automation shouldered its way back to first in Data
Acquisition System, and Hammond Manufacturing is
back in the rankings for Enclosure.
Omega continues to impress more users with its offerings as evidenced by a place in the rankings for Portable Calibrator, while Fluke’s recent foray into Vibration
Instrumentation has already propelled the company to
third place in that category.
Heavy jostling in the Weighing System/Load Cell category has Hardy Process Solutions rising to second place,
with new showings by Sartorius and Fairbanks Scales.
Data Acquisition System
Rockwell Automation
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
Emerson Process Management
2. Schneider Electric
3. National Instruments
4. Emerson Process Management
2. Siemens Industry
3. Rockwell Automation
4. Honeywell Process Solutions
5. OSI Software
5. Schneider Electric
Enclosure
Instrument Fittings
Pentair Technical Products
2. Rittal
3. Hubbel Wiegmann
4. Saginaw Control & Engineering
5. Hammond Manufacturing
Purge System
Pepperl+Fuchs
Swagelok
2. Parker Hannifin
Vibration Instrumentation
GE Energy
2. Emerson Process Management
3. Fluke
4. ifm
2. Pentair Technical Products
5. SKF
Portable Calibrator
Weighing System/Load Cell
Fluke
38
Remote Terminal Unit
Mettler Toledo
2. Emerson Process Management
3. Beamex
4. Yokogawa
2. Hardy Process Solutions
3. Rice Lake Weighing Systems
4. Sartorius
5. Omega Engineering
5. Fairbanks Scales
201
Control Valve
FINAL ELEMENTS MAKE THEIR MOVES
On/Off Valve
Emerson Process Management
Emerson Electric*
2. Flowserve
3. Samson Controls
4. GE Energy
2. Metso
3. Flowserve
5. Metso
* Includes Emerson Industrial Automation (ASCO)
and Emerson Process Management brands
Electric Valve Actuator
Emerson Process Management
2. Rotork Controls
3. Flowserve
4. Auma Actuators
5. Metso
Pneumatic Valve Actuator
Emerson Process Management
2. Metso
3. Flowserve
4. Rotork
5. Keystone
’
ADE
6 RE RS
4. Apollo
Electric Motor Drive
Rockwell Automation
2. ABB
3. Siemens Industry
4. Schneider Electric
5. Yaskawa
Electric Motor
Baldor Electric
2. Siemens Industry
3. GE Power Conversion
4. WEG
5. ABB
Once the sensor signals have been transduced,
the networks have transmitted, and the processors
have run the software, the resulting outputs arrive
at a surprisingly small variety of final elements
charged with implementing the changes that keep
our processes under control.
This year we have only a few changes from
2015: Emerson Process Management adds Electric Valve Actuator to its wins with support from
its EIM and Rosemount brands. Apollo shows up
this year in the listings for On/Off Valve, and GE
Power Conversion and WEG are on the board for
Electric Motor.
Thanks again to all the process control professionals who completed the surveys and chose the winners
of the 2016 Control Readers’ Choice Awards.
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Kulturbraurei Heidelberg uses process automation,
PLCs and HMI software to recreate traditional
brewing methods and quality.
by Jim Montague
“We use the best ingredients
we can, but we also leave
the beer alone for much longer
than industrial producers.
We strictly follow these steps,
which means low fermentation,
no oxygen, and everything for
each batch made in one tank.”
40
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
here are a lot of breweries in Germany, but there used to be many
more. This is because good beer
is delicate and historically difficult to
transport—subject to taste-degrading
temperature changes, fermentation
problems and container explosions.
That’s why many small towns and
neighborhoods in Germany’s larger
cities used to have their own breweries, and why better handling and
logistics—as well as pasteurization
T
and filtering—eventually led many
to close.
Jurgen Marz, president of Heidelberg Kulturbraurei AG (www.
heidelberger-kulturbrauerei.de/en)
brewery, pub, living museum and
hotel, reports his mid-sized university town used to have 45 breweries.
The first official citation of the former “wirtschaftshof ” or farmyard on
the Kulturbraurei’s site dates back to
1235, when it supplied the city’s fa-
P R O C E S S A U TO M AT I O N S Y S T E M S
mous Heidelberg Castle. In the 18th
and 19th centuries, several generations of the Schaaf family brewed
beer for the location’s Zum Seppl
tavern and several other pubs in the
city (Figure 1). However, it eventually fell into disuse, and the municipality bought it.
Marz’s family purchased the facility
in 1996, rebuilt it and established
Kulturbrauerei Heidelberg as a cultural preservation organization, and
started present operations in 2000.
Though the brewery and its
owners, operators and community
achieved a happy ending, there
were some obstacles along the way.
One of the most challenging arose
because Heidelberg Kulturbraurei’s
mission is to preserve and carry on
the region’s brewing methods and
traditions. This means adhering to
Germany’s 500-year-old Reinheitsgebot tax law, requiring that beer be
made only from water, barley, hops
and yeast. It also means not filtering or pasteurizing its beer, heating
to 70 °C during production, avoiding oxygenation or uncontrollable
outside yeast that could harm the
beer’s taste, and following other traditional requirements.
Monitoring and properly adjusting all these conditions takes lots of
time and manpower. This wasn’t a
problem in past decades and centuries when manual labor was plentiful and cheap. But, in the 21st century, labor is costly and often scarce.
Though much closer to a microbrewery than an industrial-scale
operation, Marz reports that Heidelberg Kulturbraurei had to adopt
some form of process automation.
“Heidelberg Kulturbraurei tries
to duplicate the conditions of 1900
and before, but now we have to try
to do it with modern technology,”
explains Marz.
Photos by Jim Montague
Preserving tradition
CENTURIES OF SUDS
Figure 1: A knight stands guard above the entrance to Heidelberg Kulturbraurei brewery, pub and hotel, where beer was first made in the 18th and 19th centuries by several
generations of the Schaaf family for local taverns, and began to be brewed again in
2000 by the Marz family’s cultural organization.
TANKS FOR TRADITION
Figure 2: Only water, barley, hops and yeast go into the fermenting and storage tanks at
Heidelberg Kulturbraurei, which employ actuated and automatic valves, air separators,
heat exhangers, PLC, HMI software, Profibus networking and Rittal enclosures to make
three main varieties of kraüsen, mibock and bock beers from classic recipes.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
41
P R O C E S S A U TO M AT I O N S Y S T E M S
The brewery’s basic process begins by turning barley
into malt by mixing barleycorn with water, germinating
it, and then roasting it—lightly for light beers, and darker
for dark beers. Hops flowers from Munich, Australia and
“This latest upgrade was needed because,
over the past 15 years, we probably came
up with 50 different beers, and the recipes
and specifications for all of them have
to be stored and retrieved as needed.”
the United States are added later to give the beers their
bitter and refreshing flavors, while yeast promotes fermentation of the mash’s sugars into alcohol. Heidelberg
Kulturbraurei produces three main varieties of kraüsen,
mibock and bock beers from classic recipes.
Besides its half-dozen fermenting and storage tanks,
the brewery’s equipment includes Burkert activated
valves, Baelz modulating valves, a Klockner ASM 220 air
separator, and an Alfa Laval heat exchanger to remove
heat from the tanks and pre-cool the mash on its way to
the tanks (Figure 2).
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SMALLUPTOHP
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s7ORKSONPHASElXEDORVARIABLE
FREQUENCY$#ANDSINGLEPHASEPOWER
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INSIGHT VIA INTERFACE
Figure 3: Jurgen Marz, president of Heidelberg Kulturbraurei,
demonstrates the on-screen layouts and Siemens Win CC
HMI software that he and his colleagues use to monitor and
maintain the brewery’s process applications, which strive to
replicate and automate the region’s old-time brewing methods and results.
“We cold ferment at 5-6 °C, which means the yeast
makes less alcohol,” adds Marz. “In addition, after seven
to 10 days, we interrupt the fermentation process, store the
beer at -1 °C for six weeks, take the old yeast mixture out
of the tank’s bottom, and add new yeast from a yeast bank
“We can have different enzyme levels
requiring different behaviors at every step
of our process. As a result, it really helps that
our PLC and HMI software can let us know
when and where a fault has happened.”
near Munich. We use the best ingredients we can, but we
also leave the beer alone for much longer than industrial
producers. We strictly follow these steps, which means low
fermentation, no oxygen, and everything for each batch
made in one tank. The four primary areas we need to control are mash, fermentation, temperature and storage.”
Old problems, modern fixes
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Just two years ago, Marz added that Heidelberg Kulturbraurei brought in software integrator Albert Frey to help
further upgrade its recipe, monitoring and control systems.
“This latest upgrade was needed because, over the past 15
years, we probably came up with 50 different beers, and the
recipes and specifications for all of them have to be stored
and retrieved as needed. We eventually adopted WinCC
HMI software from Siemens, and Albert developed the display and interfaces for us.” (Figure 3)
P R O C E S S A U TO M AT I O N S Y S T E M S
To design and implement the
brewery’s new control system, Heidelberg Kulturbraurei also sought help
from a local system integrator, Wolf
GmbH, which helped it implement a
Siemens S7 300 PLC to manage 24
direct inputs and eight direct outputs
from the tanks’ temperature control
loops and pressure devices. All these
control devices, power modules and
other components are networked
via Profibus protocol, and housed
in a Rittal 1014 stainless-steel, wallmount cabinet (Figure 4).
Marz adds that Heidelberg Kulturbraurei’s new HMI software and its
PLC-based controls enable the brewery to quickly identify and respond to
operational issues as they arise, which
helps it maintain the authenticity and
quality of its many beers. “Just like in
any other process, sometimes temperature control problems come up. How-
ever, in our situation brewing beer,
even a 5 °C difference can make a difference in the condition of the mash.
We can have different enzyme levels
requiring different behaviors at every
step of our process. As a result, it really helps that our PLC and HMI soft-
ware can let us know when and where
a fault has happened because we can
quickly replace a sensor or do whatever
needs to be done to keep up and running smoothly.”
Jim Montague is Control’s executive editor
Dynamic Modeling
Fast, Easy, Flexible
Life Cycle Results
IN-CABINET CONTROLS
Figure 4: Heidelberg Kulturbraurei’s
@MYNAHTech -
/MYNAHTechnologies
brewing operations, including temperature loops, pressure and other
variables, are controlled by 24 direct
inputs and eight direct outputs, which
are managed by a Siemens S7 300 PLC
www.mynah.com
+1.636.728.2000
and support components in a Rittal 1014
stainless-steel, wall-mount cabinet.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
43
O P E R ATO R I N T E R FA C E A N D H M I
Pantera Energy uses Ignition HMI and KepServer communications to achieve quick
ROI by improving productivity and reducing time, labor and maintenance costs.
by Jim Montague
hy do parents, babysitters and teachers have to grow
eyes in back of their heads? Because they have to stay
aware of all the mischief and mishaps their kids get
into, so they can try to keep them out of trouble.
The same is true for operators and managers of oil and
gas production wells, which have been multiplying in North
America, even as they require more sophisticated monitoring and maintenance to improve production from longer-lifecycle and increasingly tricky deposits. Luckily, several new tools, such as data-delivery systems and interface
software, are giving these users the extra eyeballs they need.
W
Because it targets deposits that many oil producers can’t
execute efficiently, Pantera reports that most of its assets reside in areas that require significant knowledge of facility
management, water handling, wellhead compression, control and monitoring. Pantera staff and contractors presently
manage more than 1,300 wells (Figure 1). Each day, they
handle pumping operations, roustabout teams, well servicing and regulatory compliance, as well as maintaining a
consistent drilling program that handles everything from
well design to rig selection.
Aided by SCADA
Developing the underdeveloped
For instance, family-owned Pantera Energy Co. (http://
panteraenergy.com) in Amarillo, Texas, has been drilling
and producing oil and gas for 33 years with initial projects
concentrated in the Texas panhandle and western Oklahoma. Beyond basic production, it’s also grown, expanded
operations and maintained steady drilling operations
thanks to an aggressive acquisition program, which has
completed more than 200 major transactions since Pantera
was founded in 1982.
44
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
“We understand that delivering value doesn’t end with the
drill bit,” says Jerrod Kee, operations specialist at Pantera.
To fulfill this mission, Pantera has always concentrated on optimizing drilling and production. However,
to accomplish it more thoroughly, the company recently
sought to implement a more powerful supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system that could automate more manual tasks, provide mobile access to geographically remote sites, reduce downtime, and scale up
in the future.
O P E R ATO R I N T E R FA C E A N D H M I
Kepware and Pantera
Pantera historically relied on human pumpers for daily
monitoring and management at its wells and produced-water disposal sites. However, with such a widely dispersed and
expanding collection of assets spanning much of Texas and
Oklahoma, the company faced a growing challenge to get
contractors to its many sites quickly and consistently, and
saw a chance to improve operations with real-time, remote
data acquisition and control. It planned to analyze site-specific processes daily, adjust them regularly, and centrally
compile and access key data for a more holistic view of all
its operations.
Enlisting an integrator
To help carry out its plan, Pantera sought help from system integrator Champion Automation (www. www.champautomation.net) in Perryton, Texas, and its evaluation determined that Pantera would need a customized SCADA
system with a server providing real-time communications
across many sites and devices. Champion recommended
and Pantera selected Ignition HMI development and
SCADA software from Inductive Automation (https://inductiveautomation.com) and KepServerEX communication
platform from Kepware Technologies (www.kepware.com),
which was just acquired by PTC. They began building the
new SCADA system in November 2014, and finished in February and March 2015.
“These are typically aging wells with lifecycles that start
out free-flowing, but now need artificial lift from pump
jacks,” says Lee Reeves, co-founder and owner of Champion. “These wells traditionally get inexpensive control
units, such as Weatherford 8500s, which have basic pumpoff functions, but no previous centralized SCADA system—
just periodic testing and monitoring. Champion was initially brought in to integrate about 30 oil/gas/water wells,
and lift gas for compression from 30-40 gas-only wells. Each
compressor is already automated with 20 I/O, while each
pump has five I/O, which can add up to a lot of data points.”
Because of its large acquisitions and many small lease
purchases over the years, Reeves reports that Pantera’s managers and operators had many different kinds of controllers
to integrate, but they wanted just one interface windowpane
on which they could see the whole infrastructure of an entire field, perhaps 300-400 wells in a 50-mile radius in the
Texas panhandle.
Integrating HMI and enterprise
To design and install their new interface and SCADA system, Pantera and Champion began by using Ignition HMI
software to build a hosted, turnkey solution for Panera’s internal systems. However, because Pantera’s wells and equipment had no prior communications infrastructure, they first
implemented a secure Ethernet network and servers, which
WELL-DEVELOPED WELLS
Figure 1: Pantera Energy’s staff and contractors monitor and
manage more than 1,300 oil and gas wells in Texas and Oklahoma, and recently sought a SCADA system to help them reduce
manual tasks and improve efficiency.
included 15 Dell single-server platforms running Microsoft
Windows Server 2012 software and a series of Ubiquiti RF
3.6 GHz radios. This network is protected by SSID passwords and encryption, while its wireless portions use the
IEEE 802.11 standard’s native security.
This hardware and physical network would allow Ignition
to expand Pantera’s new SCADA system to encompass its
entire enterprise, and unify its primary HMI, SCADA and
manufacturing execution system (MES) software layers into
one, cross-platform solution. Ignition uses Java and Python
software to achieve device, browser and platform independence, which allows its interface screens to be viewed on
tablet PCs and smartphones. Next, KepServerEX would use
its 150-protocol library to communicate with all of Pantera’s
different applications and devices. KepServerEX uses OPC
and IT-based interfaces, such as SNMP, ODBC and web services, to give users one source for their industrial data.
“KepServerEX’s ability to communicate with field devices
such as Weatherford, Fisher ROC and ABB Totalflow, and
support communication protocols like Modbus, proved to
be invaluable for Pantera,” says Jeff Klumpp, project manager at Champion. “When we coupled Ignition with KepServerEX, it allowed us to achieve our goal of building a system that would allow Pantera to be self-sufficient.”
Steve Sponseller, business director for oil and gas at Kepware, adds that, “In this case, KepServerEX acts as a polling
engine that checks all of Pantera’s equipment on a schedule,
talks to them in their own proprietary protocol languages,
and reaches the appropriate devices at the appropriate time.
Because its 1,300 wells are remote and use wireless telemetry, bandwidth can quickly become limited as thousands of
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
45
O P E R ATO R I N T E R FA C E A N D H M I
Kepware and Pantera
components seek to run on it. In the past, users had to employ different servers for each type or brand of device, such
as PLCs and RTUs, and they couldn’t have them all use the
same network because they couldn’t have one be the traffic
cop. These days, Kepware can handle all these tasks in one,
all-knowing server that prioritizes items like alarm data over
regular data.”
Sponseller adds that KepServerEX saves time and money
because all of Pantera’s components can be installed, configured, licensed and managed on its unified server. “Pantera
is going to drill and buy more wells in the future, and so it
46
see if they were running or shut off,” explains Reeves. “This
could be especially crucial for its gas feeds, which sometimes
have to be quickly shut down to avoid possible equipment
damage when the transfer system to processing and midstream pipelines can’t handle more flow. In the past, they had
to drive out and manually shut off the flow. Now, they can
do it in a minute from their central office in Dumas, Texas;
achieve access from the road; and send back pump-off and
other control commands. This not only saves time, but also
reduces vehicle maintenance and other costs.”
Klumpp adds that Pantera’s staff also can configure the
tuning on their pump-off controllers to
further maximize production at each
well. “If a controller is out of tune, it’s
got to be turned off to avoid damaging
the rod downhole,” says Klumpp. “Now,
Pantera can do this tuning remotely. This
enables the wells to be more productive
and make more money. We estimate this
part of the project paid for itself in four or
five months—which was even before we
got finished with it. Another benefit is that
Pantera can upload EFM data from RTUs
at the wells to create historical records,
output them to an SQL database, and
then Ignition can do calculations to show
trends. In the past, a lot of this informaTHE BIG, COMPLETE PICTURE
tion might be lost at the wellsites. Even if
a connection to an RTU is lost for awhile,
Figure 2: One of the many HMI screens built by Champion Automation with Ignition
KepServerEX can automatically backfill it
software shows how well listings are collectively displayed by Pantera’s new SCAto the SCADA system later.”
DA system in a dynagraphic chart that compares loads and positions for multiple
In general, building a SCADA system,
assets.
including telemetry and controls with Ignihelps that KepServerEX can easily add more devices, and tion and HMI software and KepServerEX, costs $150,000 to
communicate with them using any protocol,” says Spon- $200,000, but Klumpp estimates that integrating it onto about
seller. “This also helps the pumper guys because they can 50 wells with artificial lifts can pay for itself in just six to eight
now get emails about alarms, look them up on Pantera’s new months thanks to reduced downtime and costs, and improved
production.
SCADA system, and make adjustments remotely.”
So far, about 150 of the field’s 300 wells have been integrated
into the new SCADA system, and Pantera plans to get
Real-time results
the
rest
and more on the network soon.
In the wake of deploying its new SCADA system, Pantera
“It was important for us to implement an intuitive, sinreports it also deployed Kepware’s Modbus and Weatherford drivers to communicate with compressors, rod-pump gle-pane SCADA solution to encourage adoption and use,
controllers and other production components at its well- and that’s exactly what we accomplished with Ignition and
sites, which provide data to local monitors and centralized KepServerEX,” adds Pantera’s Kee. “We couldn’t find anSCADA repositories (Figure 2). The new system also uses other SCADA system that was cable of supporting appliKepware’s ABB Totalflow and Fisher ROC drivers to com- cations for metering, compressors, salt water disposal, and
municate with Pantera’s new flow computers to secure more pump-off controllers. Not only are we seeing substantial
ROI in terms of revenue, but the quality of life at Pantera
accurate electronic flow measurement (EFM) data.
“Because Pantera’s people were managing a field with a 50- has significantly improved as a result of this new system.”
mile radius that didn’t have centralized monitoring and conJim Montague is Control’s executive editor
trol, they previously had to drive to every well, often daily, and
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
ASK THE EXPERTS
Cascade tuning; How to detect oil density
After a gas fire destroyed control panels
(obliterated them), I’m writing two programs, one for a melting furnace and
the other for a holding furnace. I am almost
done with the holding furnace program and
my question pertains to that. The furnace was
running before the fire and a cascade loop
controlled it, but the panels were destroyed
and there is no way to know the tuning values. The customer is hemorrhaging money because their plant is down. I have the cascade
loop programmed, and thought there might be
some published guidelines on starting tuning
values, but I have not found them yet.
In the process, molten aluminum from a
melting furnace is transferred to a holding
furnace to await use in casting. The holding
furnace control panel was destroyed, and I
am writing a new program for it. The old control used relays, standalone PID controllers
and two Honeywell Flame Safety relays. My
new PLC will modulate the combustion air
flowing to the burner, and the gas flow will be
matched to the air flow by a new flame safety
system. The “bath” is the trough holding the
molten metal and the “roof ” is the part of the
refractory of the furnace that gets hot and radiates heat to the bath.
In the pre-fire system, they used two controllers called the “bath temperature controller” and the “roof temperature controller.” I
created a cascade loop in the PLC. The configuration is that the bath temperature controller is the outer loop whose output is scaled
to the setpoint of the roof temperature controller (inner loop). The output of the roof
controller modulates the burner air valve. I
used two PIDE (enhanced PID) loops in a
ControlLogix PLC. I chose to use independent gains whose integral gain units are (1/
minute) and whose derivative gain units are
minutes. Proportional gain is just the usual
dimensionless gain. My question is: do you
have any recommendations for initial values
of the tuning values for the two loops?
Q
WILLIAM LOVE
[email protected]
Interesting question. My advice has several components.
Let me start with the process. I understand that at start-up, the aluminum from the
melting furnace will be hot, while your holding
furnace receiving the melt will not be. Therefore, the amount of heat required to be introduced into the holding furnace will be the sum
of what is required to heat up the body of the
furnace itself plus the heat needed to keep the
entering melt hot. Once the holding furnace
temperature reaches the required level (once
start-up is over), the heat demand will drop to
match the heat loss of the melt, and the dynamics of the system will be that of a fired heater:
a low-gain process with a long time constant. I
assume that your question relates to this “holding” phase of the operation.
Now, as to the temperature-temperature cascade loop, I would not use temperature-temperature cascade at all. This is because both of your
temperature loops are slow and good cascade requires that the inner loop be about an order of
magnitude faster than the outer loop. Therefore,
I would use the melt temperature controller as
the cascade master, and the fuel flow controller (not the air!) as the slave. I would let the air
flow be controlled by the required air-fuel ratio,
which is manipulated by the excess oxygen in the
flue gas. (For details, including the flame safety
requirements of NFPA, see Chapter 8.6 of the
2nd volume of my handbook.)
So what about the roof temperature controller? I would use the roof temperature in a selective override configuration, so that fuel flow
would normally be controlled by the melt temperature, and the roof temperature would take
over only if it reaches one of the limits of its
setpoint gap. When it did, it would temporarily take the control from the melt temperature
master of the cascade loop.
If you want to further improve the operation
of the system and if you have temperature and
flow detectors on the entering melt, you can
add feedforward to this temperature-fuel flow
cascade loop. In that case, you would detect the
change in the load entering from the melting
A
This column is moderated
by Béla Lipták
(http://belaliptakpe.com/),
automation and safety
consultant and editor
of the Instrument and
Automation Engineers’
Handbook (IAEH). If you
have an automationrelated question for
this column, write to
[email protected]
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
47
ASK THE EXPERTS
furnace and use this information to adjust the required firing rate before the load change had a chance to upset the
melt temperature. This way, the cascade loop would need
to do less work.
As to tuning constants, what I know is that you have a low
gain process (a large change in fuel flow will result in a small
and slow change in temperature), and I also assume that the
residence time of the melt is variable, so the initial gain setting should be high.
BÉL A LIPTÁK
[email protected]
A difficult question to answer. You are controlling fired
equipment and, therefore, all the protections recommended by the NFPA-85 must be provided. With no
information of the dynamic behavior of the process, it is not
really possible to suggest any “initial tuning values for a cascade loop.” Sorry, but there is more to it than meets the eye.
For example, the cascade will work if the dynamics of the
inner loop are much faster than that of the outer loop—otherwise, you will be up for a sluggish control response.
You should try asking for a bump test, if possible, so you
can get a process model, and then work out the tuning parameters. Otherwise, you will need to tune the controllers
by trial and error. Start with the innermost loop, and then
do the outermost loop.
Combustion processes are normally lagtime-dominated,
so the most important mode to use is the controller gain.
When a short Integral mode is used to compensate for the
lack of gain, the changes in the process’ internal, time-related parameters will reduce the robustness margin. Finally,
the derivative mode can add robustness to a control loop
up to a certain point, but because of the derivative cliff, the
loop can suddenly lose stability.
My experience has shown me that the so-called initial values for tuning parameters are pretty much of no use. I’m
currently involved in the start-up of a greenfield oil refinery,
and more often than not, the initial tuning parameters put
up by the DCS vendor are only troublesome. That’s why my
answer to this type of questions is always: it depends!
The only reasonable advice I can think of is that the most
effective control mode in this type of application should be
the controller gain, integral time, and derivative (if and only
if needed) will help improve the performance at a cost in the
robustness margin.
A
SIGIFREDO NINO
[email protected]
A
48
If I understand you correctly, then I’d suggest that
there are two ways to handle this, but with the data
provided there’s no way to give any values.
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
The first way is to develop a mathematical model of the
system, looking at the physical constraints like the bath and
roof sizes from both heat conduction and reflection point of
view, so you’re able to develop a correct numerical model of
the system. You have to analyze the dead times very carefully since temperature will act very slowly initially but will
use a lot of energy. So the cascade loop should be the bath
control with a setpoint adjustment from the roof control.
That way the roof controller will limit the heat applied once
this roof is at operating temperature.
The other way would be to set up the two independent loops
controlling the bath and roof with a high/low select adjustment
of the setpoint of the bath based on the roof temperature.
With the first approach, the model will be more precise,
but will constantly change as the internal components of the
furnace age and deteriorate, base material changes and fuel
varies. With the second approach, you’ll initially have more
fluctuations while the system stabilizes, but it should be better in the long run.
ALE X (ALE X ANDRO) VARGA
[email protected]
Q
Best method to detect oil density: Which technology
does the oil industry use for inline, oil density measurements?
FR ANCOISE LEE
[email protected]
There are a number of methods. The newest and probably one of the most frequently used nowadays is Coriolis, but you can also use the old-fashioned method
of having a slug catcher or other vessel fill to a certain level
measured via level switches, then use a DP cell to measure
the liquid pressure, which due to the fixed height is equivalent to the density. This is the old-fashioned knock system.
There also are ultrasonic and level sensor applications, so
the big issue is to decide where the measurement will be taken,
the complexity of the equipment and/or accuracy required.
A
ALE X (ALE X ANDRO) VARGA
[email protected]
I’m sure there are several analyzers that are specifically
designed to provide very detailed oil component analysis. However, if all you need to measure is density, then
I suggest a Coriolis meter, which gives you density, temperature and flow in one meter. It is reliable and can be very accurate if the proper manufacturer/model is selected. If the
line is large, you can save money by placing a much smaller-sized meter on a small recycle stream.
A
HUNTER VEGAS
[email protected]
ROUNDUP
Motors and drives don’t stand still
Recent innovations in motors and drives are enabling them to serve in increasingly
challenging applications and harsh environments.
INSULATION TESTER AND DMM
REDUCED HARMONICS, REGENERATION
1587 FC insulation multimeter
combines a wireless, digital insulation tester with a true-RMS digital
multimeter (DMM) into one handheld tool. As part of Fluke Connect, 1587 FC adds four new diagnostic capabilities in conjunction
with the Fluke Connect smartphone app, including polarity index/dielectric absorption ratio (PI/DAR) with TrendIt
graphs, memory storage, temperature compensation, and
historical tracking and trending of assets using Fluke Connect Assets software.
Fluke Corp.; (800) 44-FLUKE (800-443-5853)
www.fluke.com/insulation
U1000 Industrial Matrix Drive is reported to be Yaskawa’s greenest drive
ever due to low harmonic distortion
and regeneration. U1000’s Matrix
technology uses nine bidirectional
switches arranged in a matrix to convert three-phase AC input voltage directly into three-phase AC output voltage, eliminating the
need for rectifying and DC smoothing circuits. U1000 is
available in 240-V class with 10-100 hp normal duty and 7.575 hp heavy duty, and 480-V class with 7.5-350 hp normal
duty and 5-300 hp heavy duty.
Yaskawa America Inc.
www.yaskawa.com
DIRECT FLUX, TORQUE HANDLING
WORKS WITH A VFD
ACS880 industrial drive
family features built-in, direct-torque control (DTC)
to control motor flux and
torque directly. This superior torque response provides better accuracy in
matching the driven system’s load requirements, and eliminates the need for motor speed or position feedback in 95%
of applications. ACS880’s safety functions are built in, offering benefits such as predesigned and certified safety functions that ease design, build, validation and operation.
ABB
www.abb.us/ACS880-challenge
Large AC-GPM motors
are available in stock
ratings of 250-1,000 hp,
2300/4000 V, enclosed
fan-cooled (TEFC) and
foot-mounted designs.
Custom GMP motors
are available in 2501,500 hp, 460, 575, 2300/400 V, TEFC, foot-mounted designs. Stock motors include cast-iron construction, driveend slinger, insulated opposite drive end bearing, winding
RTDs and provisions for bearing RTDs.
Baldor Electric
479-646-4711; www.baldor.com
VSD WITH SMARTS
SERVO TERMINAL
Altivar Process is a range of VSDs
from 1 hp to 1,500 hp that come
with embedded process knowledge,
configurable on-board dashboards
and a graphical HMI display. An
advanced, secure, integrated web
server lets operators access technical
documentation, support and diagnostics on their mobile devices. The
drive provides QR codes for instant access to comprehensive
support information.
Schneider Electric
888-778-2733; www.schneider-electric.com/us
With the EL7211 servo terminal,
the EtherCAT I/O system provides
a complete servo drive with an output current of up to 4.5 ARMS integrated with a space-saving, 24-mm
wide terminal housing. The terminal is available with an integrated
resolver interface or with the company’s One-Cable Technology (OCT) solution. When used
in combination with the company’s servo motors, users have
a compact, efficient and inexpensive EtherCAT servo system.
Beckhoff Automation
877-894-6228; www.beckhoffautomation.com
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
49
ROUNDUP
50
LONGER LASTING, DEEPER DRILLING
ARC-RESISTANT, ADJUSTABLE-FREQUENCY
DII15-60-200A is a 1.5-inch diameter, high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) brushless DC
(BLDC) motor suitable for severe,
downhole applications. The motor
has been tested to operate under
continuous duty in temperatures
up to 205 ºC and pressures up to
30,000 psi. It’s designed to withstand shock to 1,000 Gs and vibration to 25 Gs, and endure
extreme environmental conditions.
BEI Kimco Magnetics
800-572-7560; www.beikimco.com
SC9000 encapsulated power-pole (EP), arc-resistant, adjustable-frequency drive is
reportedly the first fully integrated, arc-resistant, medium-voltage (MV) drive
certified to the Canadian
Standards Association’s (CSA)
C22.2 No.22-11 standard, and witness-tested to the Institute
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) C37.20.7
standard by assessment at a third-party laboratory.
Eaton
800-386-1911; www.eaton.com
MORE STEPPER FRAME SIZES
DIRECT-DRIVE, HOLLOW-SHAFT
PMX series stepper motors are
adding smaller 08, 11 and 14
frame sizes to their traditional
17, 23 and 34 frame sizes. They
also feature minimal drive adjustments with options for
1.8° and 0.9° step angles; flexible manufacturing, including
immediate evaluation of small modifications and co-engineered solutions for swift delivery and prototyping; and local
technical support.
Kollmorgen
540-633-3545; www.kollmorgen.com
Low inertia of direct-drive,
hollow-shaft motors increases
speed and acceleration, while
providing better accuracy and
faster response times compared to solid shafts and mechanical drives. In appropriate applications, direct drive,
hollow-shaft motors may reduce the time of a move by up
to 80% from approximately 50 milliseconds to less than 10
milliseconds.
Empire Magnetics Inc.
707-584-2801; www.empiremagnetics.com
LOW-COST, CORROSION PROTECTION
ARC-RESISTANT, REGENERATIVE
PAT 44X-10 compact, lightweight, low-cost, NEMA
4X-rated DC drives deliver
higher corrosion resistance,
and accept 115- or 230-VAC inputs for operating 90- and 180VDC permanent-magnet or
shunt-wound DC motors (50,
100 and 200 VDC field voltages) from 1/8 to 2 hp. They also
feature power and current-limit LEDs, line fuses, inhibit
pins, speed potentiometer and on/off switch.
American Control Electronics
844-262-6875; www.americancontrolelectronics.com
PowerFlex 7000 drive system with ArcShield is reported to be the first 50-kA,
arc-resistant, medium-voltage drive with full regeneration capabilities. Combined with an integrated,
arc-resistant Allen Bradley Centerline starter, PowerFlex
7000 with ArcShield provides a fully integrated, arc-resistant
starter-and-drive system. ArcShield redirects hazardous arcflash energy and gases away from personnel.
Rockwell Automation
www.rockwellautomation.com
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
ROUNDUP
2,400 RPM, PERMANENT MAGNET
AC DRIVE SAVES ENERGY
To fill a void in fan application speeds, 2,400-rpm, permanent-magnet versions of the
company’s 3-hp through 15-hp
models have been introduced
with rated efficiencies of 93.5%
to 95%. They retain the advantages of the company’s 900-,
1,200-, 1,800-, and 3,600-rpm motors, including 30-50% reduction in motor losses, and 5-20% reduction in energy use
compared to NEMA Premium induction motors.
NovaTorque Inc.
510-933-2700; www.novatorque.com
The multipurpose, energy-saving Vacon
100 AC drive is easily installed, suitable for constant power/torque applications, and achieves greater than 97%
efficiency. It also offers safe torque off,
Safe Stop 1 and ATEX-certified motor
overtemperature protection. Standard
features include built-in I/O with three
option slots, integrated RS-485 and Ethernet-based fieldbus support, and conformal coating.
Vacon
www.vacon.com
PULSE-WIDTH-MODULATED DRIVE
HYGIENIC, IP69K CONNECTIVITY
IronHorse GSD1 series DC
drives are pulse-width-modulated (PWM) controllers for
12-V to 48-V equipment, providing smooth control with efficient operation. GSD1 series
DC drives are available in 10 A
(1/8 to ½ hp motor rating) and
20 A (¼ to 1 hp motor rating) versions. Other features include adjustable maximum speed, minimum speed, current
limit, IR compensation and acceleration.
AutomationDirect
800-633-0405; www.automationdirect.com/dc-drives
B&R stainless-steel motors
meet strict hygienic design
standards, are easy to use, and
employ a special connector
that allows them to be connected and disconnected in
the field. This IP69K connector meets the same strict, hygienic design standards as the previous variant with a fixed
mounted cable. The connectors also meet EHEDG, 3A and
FDA hygiene standards.
B&R Industrial Automation Inc.
www.br-automation.com
SLIM INVERTERS SAVE ENERGY, OPTIMIZE CONTROL
DRIVE TAILORED FOR HVAC
Low-voltage Frenic-HVAC drives are
slim-type inverters designed for energy
savings and optimal control of fan and
pump applications. Key features include
a real-time clock, four PID controls,
torque vector control, removable keypad, fire mode and filter clogging prevention. They monitor capacitors and
other critical components, while maintenance alarms alert users before outages occur.
Fuji Electric Corp. of America
732-560-9410; www.americas.fujielectric.com
CFW701 HVAC-R variable frequency drive (VFD) was designed
with the features and functions required to control HVAC systems. It’s
available in single-phase, 230 VAC
for applications up to 3 hp, and in
three-phase 230, 460 and 575 VAC
versions for 1.5-hp through 175-hp
applications. Key features include
extended life due to conformal coating (3C2) that protects
its circuit boards.
Weg Electric Corp.
800-275-4934; www.weg.net/us
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
51
CONTROL EXCLUSIVE
Magnetostricitive level loses limitations
The removable transmitter head simplifies transmitagnetostrictive technology uses the magnetic field of
a float to reflect a low-energy signal on a magneto- ter maintenance and troubleshooting, all without disruptstrictive wire. Using a float can offer advantages over ing the process. The angled dual-compartment enclosure,
reflective technologies in applications involving foam or along with 310° of rotation, provides greater accessibility
where detecting interfaces between layers is critical. Signif- to operate the JM4’s on-board graphical interface. A reicant advancements in magnetostrictive instruments have mote-mount option allows the head to be attached to the
been relatively slow in coming, and many current versions probe via a 3-ft. or 12-ft. flexible cable for easier viewing.
The JM4 also features smart probe technology: When
lack the sophistication (communication, installation and
any JM4 transmitter is attached to a probe,
maintenance) found in other instruments.
a single push of a button imports factory
“Today’s user expects their level meaconfiguration and calibration settings into
surement instrumentation to be “smart”
the head, and in seconds, the transmitter
and feature-rich. We saw an opportunity
is ready for operation. Moore says, “The
to reinvigorate our magnetostrictive offactory configuration resides on a chip infering with meaningful, modern, unique
side the probe, so there’s no need to recalifeatures that enhance device accessibilbrate even if you change the head.”
ity, reliability and the overall user experiA graphical display on the JM4 provides
ence,” says Eric Moore, marketing mangreater insight into the performance of the
ager, Orion Instruments. “Most notably,
instrument, and the actual process can
we developed a removable head with
be derived through the use of locally dissmart probe technology—a first for magplayed echo curves. “It provides users the
netostrictive devices—so users can swap
ability to interact more effectively with the
heads in the field with the assurance that
transmitter, to gain deeper insight into its
calibration is automatic. Until now, Magbrain and see what the transmitter sees.
netostrictive transmitter heads have been
This allows the user to determine which
permanently fixed to their probes. This
adjustments may be needed to optimize
can make maintenance cumbersome and
performance,” Moore says.
a spare parts plan very costly.”
NO COMPROMISES
Troubleshooting can be performed loThe result is the new JUPITER JM4
cally via the display, or from afar through a
magnetostrictive level transmitter. The Orion Instruments’ JUPITER JM4
handheld communicator or EDDL-comJM4 is available as a direct insertion op- level transmitter offers fieldbus, adpatible interface “With its event-based
tion, as well as an external mount on any vanced analytics, improved graphOrion magnetic level indicator (MLI) or ics and a rotatable, removable head echo capture, JUPITER will store up to
10 time-stamped echo curves to facilitate
modular instrumentation bridle.
to ease installation, operation and
troubleshooting hours or even days after
The JM4 is engineered to be the smart- support.
an isolated or intermittent event,” Moore
est, most innovative magnetostrictive
transmitter available. Numerous enhancements have been says. Free DTM software can be loaded onto a laptop to acintroduced, including greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), cess the transmitter at the display or anywhere on the loop.
a full graphic local user interface, HART 7.0 (Foundation “Operators can see exactly what happened, at what time,
fieldbus available), local waveform capture, and a more intu- and correlate it to the process.”
Magnetostrictive technology has advantages, and one of
itive device type manager (DTM) allowing for remote conits challenges is that users have not been as familiar with
figuration, trending and diagnostics.
“It’s a significant redesign and upgrade,” says Juan Pereira, it as they are with other technologies, Moore says. “We are
Orion global strategic planning manager. “Users want ease overcoming this by marrying the benefits of buoyancy-based
of use and reliability, both of which are instrumental in magnetostrictive technology with modern, high-tech electheir safety programs, and we’re providing just that. There tronics and innovative features that elevate JUPITER to a
is intrinsic value for our customers with the ability to easily strong consideration for our client’s next level application.”
rotate or remove the transmitter head from the probe. No
other company delivers that feature.”
For more information visit www.orioninstruments.com.
M
52
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
PRODUCT INTRODUCTIONS
VORTEX FLOWMETERS INFORM ENERGY DECISIONS
MANAGE ALARMS FROM AFAR
InnovaMass iSeries 240i and 241i
vortex mass flowmeters’ Raptor II
operating system runs apps like
FloPro and Dial-A-Fluid. Their
Smart Interface Portal (SIP) software supports informed decisions
about energy use in the field with
calculations for AGA8 natural
gas, steam enthalpy and thermal
energy/BTU. They also have 10x
faster processors; improved point-velocity accuracy for insertion
versions; and range down to Reynolds numbers below 5,000.
Sierra Instruments
800-866-0200; www.sierrainstruments.com
DMS3K flexible, remote alarm management system captures
alarms from digital or
analog inputs, displays
alarms on the built-in
web server, and provides outputs to remote annunciator displays and other devices using serial and Ethernet communications. Alarms can be time-stamped to the millisecond
for sequential events recording, and email notification can
be provided for critical events. Time synchronization is provided via IRIG-B and NTP time formats.
Ametek
www.ametekpower.com
GOOD VIBRATIONS VIA HART
LIQUID LEVEL SOLUTIONS
PCH420V transmitter provides vibration data to
HART-enabled systems for
better informed decisions and
improved predictive diagnostic capabilities. Easily integrated on existing HART networks, it’s network-powered
for continuous coverage. Up to 16 sensors can be monitored through a single address port. Three user-configurable
bands allow targeted measurements to identify specific machine faults like unbalance, alignment or bearing wear.
Meggitt Sensing Systems
www.wilcoxon.com
Buoyancy level transmitters
offer continuous self-diagnostics, no moving parts,
and little or no maintenance. The LevelWave
Radar Series provides
one universal radar measurement solution for all liquids including corrosive, viscous, sticky and other difficult media,
such as foam, turbulent surfaces and solids. Unaffected by
changes in temperature, specific gravity, pressure and with
no need to recalibrate, the modular design guarantees easy
and fast field installation.
Foxboro by Schneider Electric
www.fielddevices.foxboro.com/en-gb/products/level/
ENGINEERING SOFTWARE IMPROVES COMPLIANCE, ACCURACY
INDUSTRIAL PCs INCLUDE SCADA SOFTWARE
aspenOne Engineering V8.8.2
includes updates to Aspen Economic Evaluation and Exchanger
Design and Rating (EDR) products. Workflow and costing improvements minimize capital
expenditures, improve project design efficiency and boost operational profitability. Aspen Capital Cost Estimator (ACCE)
estimates costs of equipment, labor and services in new markets
and locations, and independently evaluates E&C and vendor
quotes using current cost data. EDR software V8.8.2 conforms
to the latest codes, including ASME and European standards.
Aspen Technology
www.aspentech.com/products/aspenone-engineering
Fanless SCADA Edge IPC industrial PCs come preconfigured with iFix or Cimplicity
HMI/SCADA software, and
can be scaled to 500, 1,500 or
3,000 tags. As a standalone, it
can connect and collect data
locally, then transfer it to a
central historian for analysis and reporting. Local alarms
also can be used to notify and alert field or control room personnel if needed. On an existing iFix or Cimplicity network,
it can to exchange real-time, historical and alarm data.
GE Automation & Controls
www.geautomation.com/products/scada-edge-ipc
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
53
PRODUCT INTRODUCTIONS
54
PRECISION CONTROL MEETS ASTOUNDING SPEED
FULL SPECTRUM PHOTOEYE
Type 3360/3361 electromotive seat valves
offer performance comparable to pneumatics with closing time less than 4 seconds and control speed of 6 mm/s. They
have adjustable control speed, definition of
the stroke and closing limits, and soft approach of end positions. They travel rapidly and without overshooting, and are
stable regardless of the media pressure. In
case of a power outage, the safety position
can be met via the optional SafePos energy
storage pack.
Bürkert Fluid Control Systems
www.burkert.com
LR-W series full-spectrum
sensors detect any change in
appearance across the full visible light spectrum, from simple presence/absence to the
slightest differences in a shade
of color. Calibrated quickly
with a one-touch teach function, its digital display and indicator light were designed for
ease of use. It offers a 500 mm range for flexible mounting,
adjustable beam spot for stable detection, and an IP65/67 enclosure. The same model can be used throughout a facility.
Keyence Corp. of America
www.keyence.com/LRWPR
ANALYTICS SOFTWARE FACILITATES DIAGNOSTICS, MAINTENANCE
VSDs POWER HIGHER SPEEDS
TwinCAT Analytics software
includes online and offline
condition analysis, predictive
maintenance, pattern recognition, machine optimization
and long-term data archival. It
stores process-relevant data in
a cycle-synchronous manner,
in a standardized format with data compression, in the controller, in a server or in the cloud. Complete process and
production data assists in the event of an error, enables comprehensive condition analysis and other advanced functions.
Beckhoff Automation
www.beckhoff.com
Control Techniques Unidrive HS30
and HS70 variable-speed drives are capable of output frequencies of 3,000
Hz. HS70 offers class-leading induction, permanent magnet and servo
motor performance with on-board real-time Ethernet, advanced motion
controller and PLC. HS30 is designed
for safety system applications and incorporates dual STO and advanced rotor flux control of open-loop induction
motors.
Emerson Industrial Automation
www.emersonindustrial.com
PROGRAM HELPS DEFINE SWITCH UPGRADE STRATEGIES
SAFER, MORE VISIBLE PRODUCTION CONTROL
Replacing simple electromechanical
switches with pressure or temperature
transmitters that have switching capability can improve operational visibility,
ease setup, help meet SIL requirements,
improve uptime and provide protection
from hazardous conditions. However,
conventional switches can better limit
power availability at the source, react
faster and cost less. Application experts
meet with plants to plan a strategy that
meets their current and future needs.
United Electric Controls
617-926-1000; www.ueonline.com
Centum VP R6.02 integrated production control
system offers enhanced
operation and monitoring functions for greater
efficiency and safety, including more powerful real-time trending, improved alarm function to ease shift handover, and tight integration with ProSafe-RS R4.01.1. The number
of pens in a single trend graph has been doubled to 16, and the
maximum number of data points that can be displayed has also
been doubled to approximately 13,000.
Yokogawa Corp. of America
http://yokogawa.com/us
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
C O N T R O L TA L K
How to quantify product quality
Greg: When all is said and done with plant
performance metrics, it comes down to how
well the product meets customer quality specifications. As with all things in manufacturing,
you can only control what you can measure.
Measuring product quality poses challenges
because observed deviations can occur on different time scales due to batch and other sequential operations, operator actions, control
loop performance, equipment performance,
sample techniques, at-line analyzer errors, lab
data entry mistakes, and changes in raw materials and ambient conditions.
Stan: Knowing the time scale of variability
is a critical step in being able to understand
the source of the variability and to know the
process capability and performance. Fortunately, we have Richard Miller, a retired
Monsanto-Solutia Fellow like Greg and me,
dedicated to improving process performance,
except Ric’s expertise is statistical process
control. Ric continues to advance our understanding and ability to measure product
quality as a senior quality engineer at Ascend
Performance Materials. Ric, what are the two
primary statistical metrics that you use to
control Ascend’s many processes?
the mean of a normal distribution. Long-term
sigma is the conventional standard deviation
of a population of samples collected on some
regular frequency, while short-term sigma is
calculated from their absolute two-point moving range.
GREG MCMILL AN
STAN WEINER, PE
[email protected]
Greg: How do we get the measurement sigma?
Ric: I have found a relatively quick and easy
way is to divide a plant sample into thirds
and send each of them to the lab blindly. In
other words, the two backup samples are held
and sent to the lab at different times. This is
repeated five times over a two-week period,
hopefully using different lab technicians and
lab pieces of equipment. The square root of
the pooled variances of the triad results is the
standard deviation I refer to as the measurement sigma. Using routine plant rather than
special samples enables us to test the lab under
Greg McMillan and
Stan Weiner bring their
wits and more than
66 years of process
control experience to
bear on your questions,
comments and
problems.
Write to them at
[email protected]
Ric: We compute the Cpk metric to give us the
“capability of the process” and the Ppk metric
to tell us “product performance,” both essential to understanding the natural voice of the
process. The key distinction between the metrics Cpk and Ppk is their dependence upon the
short-term sigma (σST) and the long-term sigma
(σLT), respectively, both of which include the
additive effect of the measurement sigma (σm).
Note that the term sigma is typically used for
population variability whereas the equivalent
term, standard deviation, is most often used for
the sample or measurement variability where
about 68% of the measured values fall within
plus and minus one standard deviation about
Squeezing a process looks a lot easier on paper than in the plant. Use statistics to
see and explain what’s going on in terms even CEOs can understand.
J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6 www.controlglobal.com
55
C O N T R O L TA L K
commercial operation, rather than special lab conditions
(see reference 1 in the online version for more information on
our “5/3” testing for measurement system validation).
Stan: Could you do something similar for at-line analyzers?
Ric: Since an analyzer is probably set up for calibration by
the introduction of samples, you could use a plant sample
rather than a standard sample, and follow a similar procedure to get the measurement sigma for an at-line analyzer.
Ric: I’ve used a variable-interval sampling strategy where the
value taken from the most recent three samples determines
the frequency with which the next sample is taken. If the last
two of three measurements fall within in the middle 50% of
the SPC chart as defined by probabilities, the next sample
is taken at twice the sampling time period. If, however, two
of three samples fall in either outside quarter of the SPC
chart but within its three-sigma limits, I sample at the regular frequency.
Greg: The process deadtime has been used by Joseph
Greg: What is the importance of the measurement sigma?
Ric: The measurement sigma becomes increasingly important as it approaches the size of the short-term and long-term
sigma. Even if it’s initially negligible, as you improve the
process capability and process performance through reduction of the short-term and long-term sigma, respectively, the
measurement sigma becomes more of an issue. Thus, part
of process control improvement involves improving analyzer
Part of process control improvement
involves improving analyzer technology,
sample preparation and handling,
and automated data entry.
technology, sample preparation and handling, and automated data entry. The lab result is taken as correct, so improvement of lab procedures and data entry must be done
upfront. Significant measurement variability in the lab has
occasionally been traced to a mistake made in manual data
entry. Thus, lab analyzers that offer the capability of automatically storing results in the plant data historian offer advantages in terms of more accurate and accessible data. Of
course, online and at-line analyzers can generate data more
frequently and provide results immediately, rather than
waiting on lab results.
Ric: The process deadtime decreases the process capability by increasing the short-term sigma. For example, if I’m
using an analyzer to characterize a process and want to estimate its measurement-system sigma in a “5/3” test using
five groupings of three consecutive measures, the analyzer’s
deadtime would increase the time required for each sample
in each triad, which would add the potential for natural process variation to inflate the measurement’s contribution to
short-term sigma.
Stan: How do you deal with subjective measurements of
quality where humans are doing the analysis?
historian is also important for visual analysis and automated
analysis by data analytics software that’s looking at the whole
process and doing principle component analysis (PCA) and
predictions by partial least squares (PLS). Often, the most
valuable predictions are quality variables (QVs) that are directly or indirectly obtained by lab analysis results.
Ric: Human factor was very evident in grading carpets,
e.g., estimating carpet body. Generally, rankings by sales
professionals and management are noisier than those of
the professional grader, though both agree as to the general direction of the testing, e.g., carpet one has more
body than does carpet two. In one case, however, the
grading by the manager at a customer for a grouping of 10
carpets was the opposite of the professional grader reporting to him, who also agreed with our professional graders
and our sales management. The customer’s manager had
a very different perception of what was important with
regard to carpet body and what he was seeing. A significant tool for improving subjective grading by adding a
statistical metric to this type grading is “Quad Analysis”
(detailed in the online version of this article at www.controlglobal.com/knowing-product-quality). The qualitative
measurement of beverage and food taste testing has similar considerations and opportunities.
Greg: What smart sampling techniques have you developed
Greg: Also see the online version for more ideas on how to
to minimize the number of samples without inflating longterm sigma?
improve the Ppk analysis, some best practices, and the “Top
10 things you don’t want to hear from a statistician.”
Greg: The automatic inclusion of analysis results in the data
56
Shunta at DuPont and by Bill Bialkowski at EnTech to make
sure the process capability metric is more realistic. How do
you take into account the deadtime in determining the short
term sigma?
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
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ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE NO.
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AVG Automation ...........................................4,5
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from Allen Bradley to Xycom
Industrial Automation
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Emerson Process Mgt./Fisher ....................... 60
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Contact Seth Kostek at
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CUSTOM REPRINTS
REPRINTS ARE IDEAL FOR:
Q New Product Announcements
Q Sales Aid For Your Field Force
Q PR Materials & Media Kits
Q Direct Mail Enclosures
Q Customer & Prospect
Communications/Presentations
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CONTROL REPORT
Moving pictures
JIM MONTAGUE
E XECUTIVE EDITOR
[email protected]
If the IIoT is on the
upswing, you can
bet it won’t be long
before those devices
start taking selfies.
58
f a picture is worth 1,000 words, then a video
logically must be worth millions. As an editor, I hate to admit this, but it’s probably true,
and becoming truer all the time. Professionally,
I’ve always been focused on finding the right
words for any situation, and relied on them to
get across the essential and hopefully useful elements of each story. Well, in many ways, I think
my traditional strategy is running out of road.
The images are taking over.
This migration began a several years ago
when Control and Control Design began early
efforts to produce more online content, including audio podcasts and videos. This was a little
traumatic because the first time someone tossed
me a microphone, I had no idea what the heck
to do. However, I also learned that, while the
static photos in our print articles were useful,
they can’t compare to getting across more information and achieving greater understanding by
using graphics that can come alive and move.
Of course, this revelation might be obvious
now, but actually putting it into practice made a
big difference to readers, who became viewers,
and to writers, who became producers.
One of the first benefits I noticed was that we
could all free ourselves from the gray, unchanging screenshots that had poorly illustrated so
many stories over the years. Now, many viewers
were more likely to see ladder logic programs
actually being built, software function blocks
being connected and assembled, and applications using these solutions operating.
Likewise, some of us had also flirted years
earlier with the idea of creating short animations or videos demonstrating particular products, so viewers could see them on all sides
and in action. However, back then, securing
those materials would have been far too costly
and time-consuming. So, the idea was shelved,
along with other bright ideas like online tradeshows. However, it didn’t stay dead long.
More recently, most suppliers, contractors,
system integrators, project managers and end
I
www.controlglobal.com J A N U A R Y / 2 0 1 6
users are routinely producing videos, podcasts,
webinars and other online content demonstrating innovations, new solutions, successful projects, best practices and other informative experiences—all of which appear to be on YouTube.
I was reminded of this educational cornucopia
when I researched this issue’s Resources column on flow. In the past, it could be hard to
find enough tutorials, whitepapers, CDs and
other materials on process control topics, but
now it seems like everyone is putting their favorite expert and PowerPoint in front of a camera, and getting them to share what they know.
I not only found a bunch of videos and other
resources on flow, but I ran across instructional
materials for many of the other topics that we
cover. Naturally, I’ve long used the Internet as a
research tool, but I keep forgetting to remember
that YouTube and other video streaming platforms are equally powerful.
Beyond education, one of the common
threads in industrial networking lately appears
to be boasting that cables, connectors, Ethernet
switches and software can create pipelines and
deliver enough bandwidth to handle video signal, even high-speed and high-definition ones,
and distribute them via Internet protocol (IP)
networks and cloud-based services. In addition
to the usual product inspections and noting
changes in environments, video is helping monitor more process control equipment and operations, identify and confirm maintenance issues,
and optimize applications. If the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is on the upswing, you
can bet it won’t be long before those devices
start taking selfies.
Whether it’s people or components, it seems
that everyone can be a journalist or content producer. And, once I get past a little initial queasiness, I don’t mind at all. My whole job has
been finding interesting people to interview, so
I can’t justifiably object if they want to use their
own voices. And I can still quote them when
they do.
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