Crane | EE-8080 | Crane and winter flies (diptera: limoniidae, pediCiidae

Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 2010, Volumen 20, Numerus 3
DOI: 10.2478/v10043-010-0026-3
ISSN 1648-6919
Crane and winter flies (Diptera: Limoniidae, Pediciidae,
Trichoceridae) associated with fungi in Lithuania
Virginija PODĖNIENĖ, Jolanta Rimšaitė, Sigitas PODĖNAS
Department of Zoology, Vilnius University, Čiurlionio 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius, Lithuania. E-mail: sigitas.podenas@gf.vu.lt
Nature Research Centre, Akademijos st. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania. E-mail: jolanta@ekoi.lt
Nature Research Centre, Akademijos st. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania. E-mail: sigitas.podenas@ekoi.lt
Abstract. The list of Lithuanian crane flies and winter flies, whose larvae were found developing in fungi,
is given. The list of fungi, in which larvae of crane and winter flies develop, is compiled in Lithuania
for the first time. For the first time were larvae of Metalimnobia bifasciata (Schrank, 1781) reared from
seven species of fungi and Ula bolitophila Loew, 1869 was first reared from one fungus species. This
study revealed one new for Lithuania species of crane flies – Ula mixta Stary, 1983. In addition, for the
first time a trophic relationship between this species of crane flies and fungi was revealed.
Key words: Limoniinae, Pediciidae, Trichoceridae, larvae, Limonia, Metalimnobia, Ula, Trichocera
Introduction
Larvae of 25 species belonging to two families of
Tipuloidea crane flies (Limoniidae and Pediciidae) can
develop in various fungus species in the Palaearctic.
Larvae of Tipulidae crane flies can be found in such a
habitat as fungi only occasionally. Development of some
Limoniidae and Pediciidae species can take place only
in fungi, whereas larvae of other species can be found
both in mouldy wood and mushrooms. Species of crane
flies associated with fungi are studied in other countries
comparatively well. The first papers devoted to that issue
appeared in the 19th century (Stannius 1829). Lindner’s
(1958) publication appeared to be the first purposive
study of crane flies developing in fungi. Other authors
(Buxton 1960; Dely-Draskovits 1972; Trifourkis 1977;
Hackman & Meinander 1979; Savchenko & Krivolutskaya 1976; Stubbs & Chandler 1978; Krivosheina et
al. 1986; Yakovlev 1994; Ševčik 2001, 2006) compiled
the list of mushroom species associated with crane fly
larvae. Only larvae of the species belonging to the genera
Achyrolimonia, Atypophthalmus, Discobola, Limonia,
Me­talimnobia, Rhipidia (Limoniidae, Limoniinae) and
Ula (Pediciidae) develop in fungi. Scleroprocta sororcula (Zetterstedt, 1851), which was recorded in Piptoporus
betulinus (Buxton 1960), usually develops on the bottom of a streamlet and the above-mentioned record of
its larvae in fungi is not typical. Only two species of
Achyrolimonia – A. neonebulosa (Alexander, 1924)
and A. decemmaculata (Loew, 1873) are associated
with fungi (Lindner 1958; Buxton 1960). A. decemmaculata was found directly in fungi, A. neonebulosa
develops in mouldy wood. Atypophthalmus inustus
(Meigen, 1818) and Rhipidia uniseriata Schiner, 1864
only once were recorded developing in fungi (Stubbs &
Chandler 1978) as they usually occur in rotten wood.
Three species of Discobola are associated with fungi:
Discobola annulata (Linnaeus, 1758) – a European
species developing in mouldy wood and sometimes
in fungi (Krivosheina et al. 1986); the Palearctic species – Discobola parvispinula (Alexander, 1947) was
recorded in Clavicorona pyxidata once (Ševčik 2006);
Discobola margarita Alexander, 1924 is distributed in southeastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions
and develops only in mouldy wood (Krivosheina et
al. 1986). Larvae of Limonia usually develop under
wet leaf litter, but the species Limonia albifrons (Meigen, 1818), L. flavipes (Fabricius, 1787), L. nubeculosa
Meigen, 1804, L. phragmitidis (Schrank, 1781) and
L. trivittata (Schummel, 1829) were also found in mushrooms (Savchenko 1981; Lindner 1958; Krivosheina et
al. 1986; Buxton 1960; Hackman & Meinander 1979). It
is known that larvae of all Metalimnobia and Ula species
usually develop in fungi (Lindner 1958; Buxton 1960;
Hackman & Meinander 1979; Krivosheina et al. 1986).
larvae of Neolimonia dumetorum (Meigen, 1804) and
Rhipidia maculata Meigen, 1818 develop in mouldy
wood (Krivosheina et al. 1986), but there are a few
records of their development in mushrooms as well
(Dely-Draskovits 1972; Trifourkis 1977).
Larvae of crane flies developing in fungi were not purposively investigated in Lithuania earlier.
Five species of winter flies, Trichocera annulata Meigen, 1818, Tr. hiemalis (De Geer, 1760), Tr. regelationis
(Linnaeus, 1758), Tr. rufescens Edwards, 1921 and
Tr. saltator (Harris, 1776) were reported to develop in
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Crane flies
fungi (Yakovlev 1994). Larvae of these species usually develop in rotting organic matter. Tr. annulata
and Tr. saltator can develop in corpses (Krivosheina et
al. 1986). It was proved that Tr. annulata feeds on muscles. However, in Lithuania larvae of this family have
not been studied at all.
Material and methods
Mushrooms with larvae were collected by S. Pakalniškis
(SP), P. Ivinskis (PI), J. Rimšaitė (JR), R. Sprangauskaitė
(RS) and V. Stukonis (VS) in 21 administrative districts
and 41 localities in May–September 1997–2008. Alytus d., env. of Vidzgiris (N 54°22'44.8" E 24°00'06.6");
Akmenė d., env. of Peiliškės (N 56°15'30.7"
E 22°37'31.6"); Anykščiai d., env. of Troškūnai
(N 55°34'13.6" E 24°49'55.0"); Biržai d., env. of
Spalviškiai (N 56°17’19.4" E 24°56'07.5"); Joniškis d.,
env. of Juodeikiai (N 56°13'55.9" E 23°12'25.7"); Kaunas d., env. of Pavejuonis (N 54°59'46.5" E 23°43'46.6"),
env. of Ringovė (N 55°02'59.6" E 23°31'18.1");
Kaišiadorys d., env. of Strošiūnai (N 54°48'08.6"
E 24°31'23.4"); Kėdainiai d., env. of Labūnava
(N 55°09'02,9" E 23°59'00.7"); Kre­tinga d., env. of Kalno
Grikštai (N 55°51'26,9" E 21°23'59.2"); Lazdijai d., env. of
Gerdašiai (N 53°56'43.6" E 23°52'50.2"); Marijampolė d.,
env. of Opšrūtai (N 54°36'00.5" E 23°42'17.8"), Bukta
forest (N 54°26'26.0" E 23°28'19.2"); Molėtai d., env.
of Šilai (N 55°03'31.7" E 25°33'31.6"); Plungė d., env.
of Mikytai (N 56º07'26.6" E 21º24'32.7"); Plungė d.,
env. of Plateliai (N 56º07'45.5" E 21º59'45.2");
Prienai d., env. of Stanuliškės (N 54°33'09.2"
E 24°24'43.2"); Radviliškis d., env. of Burūnai
(N 55°31'39.3" E 23°34'07.2"); Šiauliai d., env. of
Vilkuriai (N 55°51'38.6"E 23°13'19.6"); Švenčionys d.,
env. of Obelų Ragas (N 55°17'16.5" E 26°02'48.3"),
env. of Pažeimenė (N 55°01'34.4" E 25°52'09.5"), env.
of Purvynas (N 55º01'47.04" E 25º37'56.3"), env. of
Žvyriai (N 55°18'51.6" E 26°30'01.3"); Tauragė d., env.
of Dabrupinė (N 55°17'53.5" E 22° 06'43.8"); Trakai d.,
env. of Čižiūnai (N 54°35'43.1" E 24°33"54.2"), env. of
Velnio Duobė (N 54°36'41.9" E 24°30'55.1"), env. of
Varliškės (N 54°46'39.8" E 24°52'02.6"); Ukmergė d.,
env. of Vaisgėliškis (N 55°17'22.9" E 24°51'28.8");
Varėna d., Čepkeliai forest (N 54°01'45.3" E 24°24'24.7"),
env. of Darželiai (N 54°01'30.1" E 24°19'27.6"), env. of
Dubininkas (N 54°06'03.1" E 24°16'36.8"), Puvočiai
(N 54°06'45.0" E 24°18'12.7"); Vilkaviškis d., env. of
Dabrovolė (N 54°28'46.0" E 22°46'48.7"), Vištytgiris
forest (N 54°26'31.4" E 22°48'12.9"); Vilnius, Antavilis forest (N 54°47'01.9" E 25°25'06.1"), env. of
Pilaitė (N 54°41'51.1" E 25°11'35.6"), env. of Smėlynė
(N 54°45'04.7" E 25°22'24.1"), env. of Visoriai
(N 54°45'07.3" E 25°15'26.6"); Vilnius d., env. of
Vaigeliškės (N 54°48'02.5" E 24°59'58.6"), env. of
Dūkštos (N 54°49'36.2"E 24°57'27.8").
Methods of collecting and rearing larvae were described
by Rimšaitė (1998, 2000). Adult crane flies were studied
under a Zeiss SV dissecting microscope. The termino­
logy of morphological features used in this paper generally follows that of Oosterbroek and Theowald (1991).
The distribution area of crane flies given in the current
article is in accordance with Oosterbroek (2010). The
distribution of crane flies and winter flies in Lithuania
is given according to Podėnas (unpubl.). Habitats of
crane flies larvae are presented by Podėnienė (unpubl.).
A total of 500 adults of crane flies and 25 adults of
winter flies were reared from mushrooms during these
investigations. Adults were identified by S. Podėnas.
Fungi were identified by J. Rimšaitė with the assistance
of habil. Dr V. Urbonas, Dr E. Kutorga in accordance
with ‘Fungi of Lithuania’ (Gricius & Matelis 1996;
Urbonas 1997a, b, 1999, 2001; Kutorga 2000) and other
atlases of fungi (Mazelaitis & Urbonas 1980; Bon 1988;
Sterry 1995).
Each record is given in the following order: the species
name of an insect – host fungus: the number of males,
number of females, locality, sampling date/emergence
date and collector’s name.
Results
Eight species of crane flies (Limonia nubeculosa, Metalimnobia bifasciata, M. quadrimaculata, M. quadrinotata, Ula bolitophila, U. mollissima Haliday, 1833,
U. mixta Stary, 1983 and U. sylvatica (Meigen, 1818))
and two species of winter flies (Trichocera hiemalis and
Tr. rufescens) were reared from fungi during the present
investigation. Specimens of U. mixta were found in
Lithuania for the first time. Trophic relationships of this
species with fungi were revealed for the first time.
Family Limoniidae
Limonia nubeculosa Meigen, 1804
The species is common throughout Lithuania and was
found in a variety of habitats. The flight period lasts
from late April until early October. L. nubeculosa is
widespread throughout the Holarctic region.
Adults were reared from Tricholoma sp.: 1♂, 1♀, environs of Mikytai, 27 July – September 2007, JR.
Habitats: coniferous forests.
The fungi in which larvae were recorded are as
follows: Phlebia merismoides, Paxillus involutus,
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Lepista nebularis, Flammulina velutipes (Buxton 1960;
Trifourkis 1977).
Metalimnobia bifasciata (Schrank, 1781)
This species is common throughout Lithuania and was
found in a variety of habitats. The flight period lasts
from May until September. M. bifasciata occurs in
Palaearctic and Oriental regions. According to our data,
it is the commonest species of crane flies developing in
fungi in Lithuania.
Adults were reared from Amanita rubescens: 1♀,
Šilai env., 18 July – 10 August 2002, JR; from
Cortinarius sp.: 19♂, 25♀ and two specimens,
Pavejuonis env., 27 July – 14 August 2000, JR; 3♂,
3♀ and 15 specimens, Vidzgiris env., 12 August –
September 2000, JR; 2♀, Plateliai, 27 August – September – October 2007, JR; from C. armillatus: 3♂,
1♀ Čepkeliai env., 17 August–September 2000, JR;
from Lactarius sp.: 3♂, 4♀, Kalno Grikštai env.,
20 July – August 1999, JR; from L. deterrimus: 9♂,
5♀ Juodeikiai env., 7 July – 3 August 1998, JR; 1♂,
Labūnava env., 4–30 August 2000, JR; 34 specimens,
Dabrupinė env., 2 August – 20 August – September 2000, JR; 9♂, 6♀, Peiliškės env., 4 September –
October 2008, JR; from L. necator: 3♀, Dubininkas env., 1–27 July 1998, RS; 3♂, 8♀, Opšrūtai env.,
9–20 August 2000, JR; 2 ♂, 7♀ and one specimen,
Varliškės env., 27 September – November 2000, JR;
from L. piperatus: 1♂, Spalviškiai env., 30 June –
24 July 1998, JR; from L. scrobiculatus: 4♂, 1♀,
Dabrupinė env., 2–23 August 2000, JR; from L. torminosus: 1♂, 3♀, Dūkštos env., 19 September – October
2003, JR; from Leccinum scabrum: three specimens,
Labūnava env., 4 August – September 2000, JR;
from Polyporus squamosus: 1♀, 2♂, env. of Verkiai,
20–27 May – 5 June 2008, JR; from Russula delica:
3♀, Dūkštos env., 29 July – 25–31 August 2003, JR;
from R. foetens: 1♂, Šilai env., 18 July – 22 August
2002, 1♂ 1♀, 18 July – 10 August 2002, JR; from
Russula sp.: 1♂, Čižiūnai env., 23 June – 24 July 1998,
SP; 4♂, 2♀, Žvyriai, 8 July – August–September 1999,
JR; 5♂, 4♀, Dabrovolė, 11 July – 1 August 2002, JR;
1♂, Žvyriai env., 8 July – August 1999, JR; 5♂, 2♀,
Bukta forest, 11 August – 25 August – September
2000, JR; 1♂, 1♀, Peiliškės env., 4 September – October 2008, JR; from Megacollybia platyphylla: 6♂,
1♀ and one specimen, Vaisgėliškis env., 19 July –
14–24 August 2000, JR; from Paxillus involutus: 1♀,
Juodeikiai env., 7–31 July 1998, JR; 1♂, 1♀ from
Piptoporus betulinus: Spalviškiai env., 28 May –
11–16 June 1998, VS; from Polyporus umbellatus:
5♀ and one specimen, Pavejuonis env., 27 July –
August – September 2000, JR; from Suillus sp.:
Podėnienė V., Rimšaitė J., Podėnas S.
2♀, Troškūnai env., 15 August – 22–26 September
2000, JR; from Agaricales s. l.: two specimens,
Vilkuriai env., 4 August – 3 September 1999, JR;
1♂ Dūkštos env., 8 June – 8 July 1998, JR; 3♂, 2♀,
Opšrūtai env., 9 August – September 2000, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in successive
forest habitats: broadleaved deciduous forests (24% of
samples with larvae), spruce forests (20%), oak-hornbeam forests (20%), swamp and bog woodland (16%),
pine forests (12%) and mixed forests (8%).
Mushrooms in which larvae were recorded include:
Morchella esculenta, Gyromitra infula, Scutiger ovinus, Phlebia merismoides, Inonotus radiatus, Trametes
versicolor, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, Aurantiaporus fissilis, Polyporus squamosus,
Scleroderma cepa, Cantarellus cibarius, Lentinus lepideus, Suillus luteus, Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus
pinicola, Leccinum versipelle, L. vulpinum, L. scabrum,
Tricholomopsis platyphylla, Russula delica, Lactarius
necator, L. resimus, L. terminosus, L. vellereus, Boletus edulis, Lyophyllum loricatum, Russula nigricans
(Buxton 1960; Dely-Dras­kovits 1972; Trifourkis 1977;
Hackman & Meinander 1979; Ševčik 2001, 2004; Yakovlev 1994).
Metalimnobia quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818)
This species is common in Lithuania and was found in
a variety of habitats. The flight period lasts from late
April until September. M. quadrinotata occurs in the
Palaearctic region.
Adults were reared from Helvella crispa: 1♂ Burūnai
3 July – 20–30 July 2000, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in spruce
forest.
Fungi in which larvae were recorded are as follows:
Gyromitra infula, Peziza badia, Clavulina cinerea,
Amanita sp., Russula sp. (Lindner 1958; Buxton 1960;
Hackman & Meinander 1979; Yakovlev 1994).
Metalimnobia quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1761)
This species is common in Lithuania and was found in
a variety of habitats. The flight period lasts from mid
May until early October. M. quadrimaculata is known
from the Holarctic region.
Adults were reared from Pleurotus sp.: 2♂, Purvynas env., 27 September – October 2007, JR; from
Polyporus squamosus: 1♂, Verkiai env., 20–27 May –
5 June 2008, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in deciduous
swamp forest and mixed forest.
Fungi in which larvae were recorded include: Gyromitra infula, Fomes fomentarius, Thelephora terrestris,
Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Phaeolus schweinitzi, Laetipo-
Crane flies
rus sulphureus, Bjerkandera adusta, Abortiporus biennis (Coe 1941; Lindner 1958; Krivosheina et al. 1986;
Yakovlev 1994; Ševčik 2001, 2006).
Family Pediciidae
Ula bolitophila Loew, 1869
This species is common in Lithuania. It was found in
very different forests. The flight period lasts from May
until August. U. bolitophila is known from the whole
of the Palaearctic region.
Adults were reared from Megacollybia platyphylla:
1♀, Vaisgėliškis env., 19 July – 14 August 2000, JR;
from Piptoporus betulinus: 4♂, 1♀, Spalviškiai env.,
28 May – 11 June 1998, VS; from Russula sp.: 1 ♀,
Juodeikiai env., 7 July – 3 August 1998, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in habitats
of successive forests: mixed, broad-leaved deciduous
and spruce forests.
Fungi in which larvae were recorded are as follows:
Ganoderma sp., Trametes sp., Fomes sp., Pleurotus sp.,
Trametes hirsuta, Piptoporus betulinus, Hericum coralloides, Collybia sp., Laetiporus sulphureus, Peziza
micropus, Bjerkandera adusta, Polyporus brumalis,
P. badius, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Climacocystis borealis, Postia caesia (Krivosheina et al. 1986; Yakovlev 1994; Ševčik 2001, 2006).
Ula mixta Stary, 1983
Until now this species was not known from Lithuania.
U. mixta is known just from the West Palaearctic (Czech
Republic, Finland (south), Germany, Great Britain,
Norway, Romania, Slovakia and Switzerland). The
existence of a trophic relationship between larvae of this
species and fungi was revealed for the first time.
Adults were reared from Lentinus lepideus: 7♂, 11♀,
two specimens, Smėlynė env., 14 September 1997, JR;
from Ramaria flava: 5♂, 6♀, four specimens, Ringovė,
27 July – August – September 2000, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in mixed
forest.
Ula mollissima Haliday, 1833
This species is very rare in Lithuania (known from just
three localities). It was found in deciduous forests, carst
caves and forest meadows only. The flight period lasts
from May until October. U. mollissima is widespread
in the West Palaearctic.
Adults were reared from Armillaria mellea: 2♂,
Vaigeliškės, 7 September – 19 October 1999, JR; from
Lactarius sp.: 1♂, Kalno Grikštai env., 20 July 1999,
JR; from L. detterimus: 1♀, Dabrupinė, 2 July – July –
September 2000, JR; from Paxillus involutus: 4♂, 3♀,
235
Varliškės, 27 September – October 2000, JR; from Polyporus squamosus: 10♂, 11♀, Verkiai env., 20–28 May
2008, JR; from Russula foetens: 1♂, 1♀, Vidzgiris env.,
18 July – 1–7 September 2002, JR; from Russula sp.:
6♂, 10♀, Vidzgiris, 12 August – September – October
2000, JR; 1♂, Peiliškės env., 4 September – October 2008, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in mixed
and deciduous forests.
Mushrooms in which larvae were found include: Bjerkandera adusta, Hydnum erinaceum, Russula nigricans,
Inonotus hispidus, Meripilus giganteus, Leucoporus sp.,
Polyporus squamosus, Pholliota alnicola, Ph. squarrosa, Collybia fuscipes, Lyophyllum decastes, Amanita
excelsa, A. aspera, A. rubescens, Armillaria mellea,
Oudemansiella mucida, Scleroderma sp., Pyptoporus
betulinus, Hydnum repandum, Boletus pulverulentus, Leccinium verfuscipes, Lyophyllum decastes,
Hypholoma fasciculare, Russula adusta, Tricholoma
inamomeum, Polyporus badius, P. squamosus, Albatrellus ovinus, Pleurocybella porrigens, Bondarzewia
montana, Megacollybia platyphylla, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus pulmonarius, P. squamosus, Hydnum
repandum, Lactarius scrobiculatus (Riel 1921; Lindner 1958; Trifourkis 1977; Stubbs & Chandler 1978;
Ševčik 2001, 2006).
Ula sylvatica (Meigen, 1818)
This species is common in Lithuania. It was found in
deciduous, mixed and spruce forests, shrubs, lakeshores
and river banks, farmsteads. This species has two
generations a year (from late spring to early summer
and from late summer to early autumn). U. sylvatica is
widespread all over the Holarctic region.
Adults were reared from Amanita muscaria: 20♂, 3♀,
Antavilis forest, 7 September – 2–8 October 1998, JR;
2♂, 3♀, Obelų Ragas, 26 September – October 1997,
PI, SP; from Cortinarius armillatus: 1♀, Čepkeliai,
17 August – 21 September 2000, JR; from Gyrodon lividus: 12♂, 9♀, Staniuliškės env., 4 September – October
1997, JR; from Hygrophorus sp.: 1♀, Obelų Ragas env.,
26 September – October – November 1997, PI, SP;
from Hypholoma fasciculare: 2♂, 1♀, Gerdašiai env.,
11 July – 8 August 2000, JR; from Lactarius torminosus: 2♂, 5♀, Čepkeliai, 17 August – 12 September
2000, JR; 11♂, 9♀ Darželiai env., 28 September – October – November 1997, SP; from L. necator: 3♂, 3♀
Pajuodžiai env., 12 September – October 1997, SP;
5♂, 8♀, Varliškės, 27 September – November 2000,
JR; from L. detterimus: 2♂, 3♀ and one specimen,
Strošiūnai env., 9 August – September – October 2000,
JR; from Megacollybia platyphylla: 4♂, Velnio Duobė,
8 June – 7–15 July 2002, JR; from Paxillus involutus:
236
9♂, Juodeikiai 7 July – 24–31 July 1998, JR; 2♂, 5♀,
Varliškės env., 27 September – 1 November 2000, JR;
from Russula sp.: 16♂, 8♀ Juodeikiai, 7–30 July –
3 August 1998, JR; one specimen, Čižiūnai env.,
23 June – 24 July 1998, RS; 5♂, 2♀, Gerdašiai env.,
11 August – 3 September 1999, JR; from R. emetica:
3♀ and two specimens, Darželiai env., October 1997 –
28 September 1998, RS; from Rozites caperatus:
2♂, 2♀, Troškūnai env., 15 August – October 2000,
JR; 2♀ from Suillus sp., Pažeimenė, 17 September –
October 1997, JR; from Stropharia aeruginosa: 4♂,
3♀, Strošiūnai env., 10 August – 6 September 2000,
JR; from Verpa bohemica: 20♂, 15♀ and one specimen, Visoriai env., 6 May – 1–2 June 1998, JR; from
Agaricales s. l.: 1♀, Vaigeliškės env., 3 September – October 2000, SP; 1♂, 2 ♀ Pilaitė env., 14 May –
8 June 1997, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in pine
(29.4%), mixed (52.9%), spruce (5.9%), deciduous
(5.9%) and swamp (5.9%) forests.
Mushrooms in which larvae were recorded are as follows: Morchella elata, Ptychoverpa bohemica, Gyromitra esculenta, Peziza sp., Scutiger ovinus, Ramaria
aurea, Cantharellus cibarius, Lentinus lepidens, Suillus
bovinus, S. luteus, S. variegatus, Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus edulis, B. pinicola, Leccinium versipelle,
L. vulpinum, L. holopus, L. scabrum, Paxillus involutus,
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, Hygrophorus erubescens,
Camarophillus pratensis, Laccaria bicolor, L. laccata,
Tricholoma albobrunneum, T. flavobrunneum, T. flavovirens, T. focale, T. saponaceum, Armillaria borealis,
A. gallica, Lyophillium connatum, L. decastes, Melanoleuca melarealis, M. melaleuca, Lyophillum connatum,
Panellus serotinus, Tricholomopsis platyphylla, Amanita
rubescens, Agaricus bitorquis, Coprinus atramentarius,
Psathyrella candolleana, P. vernalis, Stropharia cyanea,
Hypholoma capnoides, Pholiota heteroclita, Ph. lenta,
Kuehneromyces mutabilis, K. vernalis, Inocybe lacera,
Hebeloma mesopliaceum, Dermocybe cinnamomea,
D. semisanquinea, Cortinarius collinitus, C. mucosus,
C. trivialis, C. brunneus, Lactarius flexuosus, L. necator, L. resimus, L. torminosus, L. trivialis, L. rufus,
L. scrobicularius, L. spinosus, Polyporus squamosus,
Meripilus giganteus, Tyromyces fissilis, Heteroporus
biennis, Pseudotrametes gibosa, Bjerkandera adusta,
Auricularia mesenterica, Russula cyanoxantha, R. paludosa, Peziza micropus, Sarcodon imbricatus, Albatrellus ovinus, Hydnum repandum, Pa­xillus involutum, P.
filamentosum, Lactarius deterrimus, Hygrophorus sp.,
Pleurotus pulmonarius, Polyporus squamosus, Postia
caesia, Pseudohydnum gelatinosum, Trametes versicolor
(Buxton 1960; Yakovlev 1994; Bryce 1957; Ševčik
2001, 2006).
Podėnienė V., Rimšaitė J., Podėnas S.
Family Trichoceridae
Trichocera (Trichocera) hiemalis (De Geer, 1760)
This species is common in Lithuania. It was found in
shrubs, meadows, gardens, peat bogs and various types
of forests, parks and cities. This species has two flight
periods a year (from late February till mid-May and
from mid-September till late October). Tr. hiemalis is
widespread all over the Palaearctic region.
Adults were reared from Agaricales s. l.: 1♂, 1♀
Vištytgiris env., 16 October – November 2002, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in deciduous forest.
Fungi in which larvae were found include: Trametes
versicolor, Meripilus giganteus, Clavulinopsis vermicularis, Pleurotus ostreatus, Sarcodon imbricatum, Scleroderma citrinum, Entoloma nidorosum (Buxton 1960;
Trifourkis 1977; Hackman & Meinander 1979;
Ševčik 2001).
Trichocera (Trichocera) rufescens Edwards, 1921
This species is common in Lithuania. It was found in
shrubs, meadows, gardens, various types of forests and
cities. The flight period lasts from late September until
mid-November. Tr. hiemalis is widespread all over the
Palaearctic region and was introduced into the Holarctic
region.
Adults were reared from Tricholoma equestre: 6♂,
5♀, Puvočiai env., 2–25 October – 3 November 1999,
JR; 1♂, 3♀ and four specimens, Dubininkas env.,
1 October – 11 November 1999, RS; from Russula
nigricans: 3♂, 2♀ Puvočiai env., 2 October – 5 November 1999, JR.
Habitats: fungi with larvae were collected in pine
forest.
Fungi in which larvae were detected are: Hypholoma sublateritium, Lepiota aspera, Pluteus cervinus, Armillaria gallica, A. cepistipes (Buxton 1960;
Ševčik 2001, 2004).
Discussion
Separate species of crane flies use over 150 species
of mushrooms as a substrate for their larvae development (Yakovlev 1994). The investigation conducted in
Lithuania earlier revealed that larvae of Ula bolitophila,
Achyrolimonia decemmaculata develop in fungus fruit
bodies (Podėnas 1995). However, the data available in
that study on other species associated with fungi (Me­
talimnobia bifasciata, M. quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818)
were insufficient: the study merely indicated that these
species develop in various fungus species. M. quadri-
237
Crane flies
maculata was mentioned as a species developing under
the bark of Salix sp. trees (Table 1).
During our study larvae of Ula mixta were reared
from fungi for the first time. This species developed
in Lentinus lepideus and in Ramaria flava. Another
species – Metalimnobia bifasciata was reared for the
first time from seven fungus species such as Piptoporus betulinus, Lactarius deterrimus, L. scrobiculatus,
Paxillus involutus, Megacollybia platyphylla, Dendropolyporus umbellatus and Cortinarius armillatus.
Larvae of Ula bolitophila were for the first time reared
from Megacollybia platyphylla. Ula bolitophila prefers
lignicolous fungi (Jakovlev 1994), but we reared it from
Russula sp. also.
A new trophic substrate – fruit bodies of the fungus
Tricholoma equestre, Russula nigricans was established
for Trichocera (Trichocera) rufescens. All literature
records (Ševčík 2006) as well as our original records are
from soft agarics growing in autumn. The new trophic
substrate – fruit bodies of the fungus Pleurotus sp.,
Polyporus squamosus was established for Metalimnobia
quadrimaculata. According to literature, this limoniid
species is possibly associated with Bjerkandera adusta,
but it was also reared from other fungus species, as well
as from decaying wood (Jakovlev 1994), probably due
to the pupation of larvae therein after the fungus had
decomposed (Ševčík 2006).
Most larvae develop in decaying fungus fruit bodies.
A total of nine species of crane flies and two species of
winter flies are known to develop in fungi in Lithuania
(Table 1).
Key to crane fly larvae (Tipuloidea: Pediciidae, Limoniidae) developing in mushrooms
Larvae of crane flies which have a hemicephalic head
capsule and only two spiracles on the last abdominal
segment are unique among other nematoceran Diptera
developing in fungi, because the latter have more than
one pair of spiracles and a eucephalic head capsule.
Winter flies can be distinguished from the rest fly species
by four-spiracled larvae (one pair situated on the first
thoracical segment and the other one on the terminal
abdominal segment). Larvae of flies belonging to the
families Anisopodidae, Psychodidae and Ptychopteridae
are known to be similar, but they cannot be found in
fungi in Lithuania.
1 (18). Larva with two posteriorly situated spiracles.
Head capsule hemicephalic Limoniidae, Pediciidae
2 (5). Spiracular field with five well developed lobes
with dark sclerites (Fig. 1) Ula (2)
3 (4). Dorsal sclerite oval-shaped, with straight inner
Table 1. Crane flies and winter flies developing in mushrooms
in Lithuania.
Fly species
Achyrolimonia
decemmaculata
Limonia nubeculosa
Metalimnobia
bifasciata
Metalimnobia
quadrimaculata
Metalimnobia
quadrinotata
Ula bolitophila
Fungus species
Daedalea quercina*
Tricholoma sp.
Amanita rubescens, Cortinarius sp.,
Lactarius sp., L. deterrimus, L. necator, L. s. piperatus, L. scrobiculatus,
L. torminosus, Leccinum scabrum,
Russula sp., Megacollybia platyphylla,
Paxillus involutus, Piptoporus betulinus, Polyporus squamosus, Polyporus
umbellatus, Suillus sp., Agaricales s. l.
Under bark of Salix sp.*, Pleurotus sp.,
Polyporus squamosus
Various mushrooms*, Helvella crispa
Megacollybia platyphylla, Polyporus
adustus*, P. hirsutus*, P. pinicola*,
P. fomentarius*, Piptoporus betulinus,
Russula sp.
Ula mollissima
Russula sp., Lactarius sp., Armillaria
mellea, Paxillus involutus
Ula mixta
Lentinus lepideus, Ramaria flava
Ula sylvatica
Amanita muscaria, Cortinarius
armillatus, Gyrodon lividus, Hygrophorus sp., Hypholoma fasciculare,
Lactarius detterimus, L. necator,
L. torminosus, Megacollybia platyphylla, Paxillus involutus, Rozites caperatus, Russula sp., Suillus sp., Verpa
bohemica, Stropharia aeruginosa,
Agaricales s. l.
Agaricus*, Boletus*, Paxillus*, Cantarelus*
Trichocera hiemalis Agaricales s. l.
Trichocera rufeTricholoma equestre, Russula nigricans
scens
*– by Podėnas (1995)
margin (Fig. 1) U. bolitophila
4 (5). Dorsal sclerite wedge-shaped, with elongated inner margin (Fig. 11) U. sylvatica, U. mollissima
5 (2). Spiracular field with more or less reduced lobes,
which are without sclerites or with pale sclerites
6 (11). Hypostomal bridge with 11 teeth (Fig. 2).
Spiracular field without sclerites or with hairy area
between spiracles (Fig. 4) Metalimnobia (6)
7 (8). Spiracular field with large hairy area situated
between the spiracles (Fig. 3) M. bifasciata
8 (7). Spiracular field without any hairy area
(Fig. 12).
9 (10). Central frontal spike of the head capsule is
shorter than the lateral one (Fig. 13) M. quadrinotata
10 (9). Central frontal spike of the head capsule is
longer than the lateral one M. quadrimaculata
238
Figure 1. Spiracular field of Ula bolitophila (Savchenko 1986).
Not to scale.
Figure 2. Hypostomal bridge of Metalimnobia quadrimaculata (Krivosheina & Mamaev 1967). Not to scale.
Figure 3. Spiracular field of Metalimnobia bifasciata (Cramer 1968). Not to scale.
Podėnienė V., Rimšaitė J., Podėnas S.
Figure 4. Spiracular field of Metalimnobia quadrinotata
(Lindner 1958). Not to scale.
Figure 5. Spiracular field of Achyrolimonia decemmaculata
(Savchenko 1985). Not to scale.
Figure 6. Spiracular field of Limonia nubeculosa (Brindle 1967). Not to scale.
Crane flies
239
Figure 7. Hypostomal bridge of Discobola annulata
(Krivosheina & Mamaev 1967). Not to scale.
Figure 10. Spiracular field of Rhipidia (Rhipidia) maculata
(Reusch 1988). Not to scale.
Figure 8. Spiracular field of Discobola annulata (Krivosheina & Mamaev 1967). Not to scale.
Figure 11. Spiracular field of Ula mollissima (Lindner 1959).
Not to scale.
Figure 9. Hypostomal bridge of Rhipidia (Rhipidia) maculata
(Reusch 1988). Not to scale.
Figure 12. Spiracular field of Metalimnobia quadrimaculata
(Savchenko 1985). Not to scale.
240
Figure 13. General view of the head capsule of Metalimnobia
quadrinotata (dorsal view) (Lindner 1958).
Figure 14. General view of Trichocera sp. larva (lateral view)
(Alexander 1981).
11 (6). Hypostomal bridge with 11 or fewer teeth.
Spiracular field with two or four pale sclerites.
12 (15). Spiracular field with four pale sclerites.
13 (14). Dorsal sclerites are clearly separated from
spiracles (Fig. 5) Achyrolimonia decemmaculata
14 (13). Dorsal sclerites are in contact with spiracles.
Limonia nubeculosa
15 (12). Spiracular field with two pale sclerites.
16 (17). Hypostomal bridge with nine equal teeth, central tooth not protruded (Fig. 6). Spiracular field with
two widely separated, wedge shaped sclerites (Fig. 7)
Discobola
17 (16). Hypostomal bridge with 11 teeth (Fig. 8).
Sclerites long, hooked and close to each other (Fig. 9)
Rhipidia
18 (1). Larva with four spiracles (thoracical and posterior pairs). Head capsule eucephalic (Fig. 14) Trichoceridae.
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Lietuvoje grybuose besivystantys ilgakojai ir
žieminiai uodai (Diptera: Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Trichoceridae)
V. Podėnienė, J. Rimšaitė, S. Podėnas
Santrauka
Pateikiamas Lietuvos ilgakojų ir žieminių uodų (Limoniinae, Pediciidae, Trichoceridae), kurių lervos vystosi
grybų vaisiakūniuose, sąrašas. Pirmą kartą sudarytas
Lietuvos grybų, naudojamų kaip lervų vystymosi substratas, sąrašas, bei nustatyti Metalimnobia bifasciata
(Schrank, 1781) trofiniai ryšiai su septynių rūšių grybais,
o taip pat Ula bolitophila Loew – vienas naujas lervų
mitybinis grybas. Tyrimų metu rasta nauja Lietuvos
faunai rūšis – Ula mixta Stary, 1983 bei pirmą kartą
nustatyti šios rūšies trofiniai ryšiai su grybais.
Received: 26 April 2010
Accepted: 9 September 2010
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