Maestro | A2200-A | User`s manual | Maestro A2200-A User`s manual

GPS/GLONASS Receiver A5100-A
A Description of Maestro’s
GPS/GLONASS Receiver Module A5100-A
User’s Manual
Version 1.0
Revision History
Rev.
0.1
0.2
1.0
Date
10-29-13
02-10-14
03-03-14
Description
First draft.
Updates according to DV samples.
Updates Current data and add some picture
mm-dd-yy
Name
Written by
Checked by
Approval by
V1.0-Mar-14
Happy wen
Sam Law, Matthieu
Frank Tang, Calvin Yau
User’s Manual
Date
03-03-14
03-03-14
03-03-14
Signature
HW
S L,M
F T,C Y
Page 2 of 43
Disclaimer
THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS PROPRIETARY INFORMATION OF MAESTRO
WIRELESS SOLUTIONS LIMITED. IT MAY NOT BE COPIED OR TRANSMITTED
BY ANY MEANS, PASSED TO OTHERS, OR STORED IN ANY RETRIEVAL
SYSTEM OR MEDIA, WITHOUT PRIOR CONSENT OF MAESTRO OR ITS
AUTHORIZED AGENTS.
THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS, TO THE BEST OF OUR
KNOWLEDGE, ENTIRELY CORRECT. HOWEVER, MAESTRO CAN NEITHER
ACCEPT LIABILITY FOR ANY INACCURACIES, OR THE CONSEQUENCES
THEREOF, NOR FOR ANY LIABILITY ARISING FROM THE USE OR
APPLICATION OF ANY CIRCUIT, PRODUCT, OR EXAMPLE SHOWN IN THE
DOCUMENT.
THE PRODUCT (HARD- AND SOFTWARE) DESCRIBED IN THIS
DOCUMENTATION IS NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF
MAESTRO.
THIS DOCUMENT MAY PROVIDE LINKS TO OTHER WORLD WIDE WEB SITES
OR RESOURCES. BECAUSE MAESTRO HAS NO CONTROL OVER SUCH SITES
AND RESOURCES, MAESTRO SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
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MAESTRO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE, MODIFY, OR IMPROVE THIS
DOCUMENT OR THE PRODUCT DESCRIBED HEREIN, AS SEEN FIT BY
MAESTRO WITHOUT FURTHER NOTICE.
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User’s Manual
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Table of Contents
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 6 1.1 Feature Overview .............................................................................................. 6 1.2 Characteristics Overview................................................................................... 7 1.3 RoHS and Lead-Free Information ..................................................................... 7 1.4 Label ................................................................................................................. 8 1.5 Characteristics .................................................................................................. 9 1.5.1 GPS & GLONASS Characteristics ............................................................................. 9 1.5.2 Mechanical Characteristics ........................................................................................ 9 1.6 Handling Precautions ........................................................................................ 9 2 Ordering Information ....................................................................................... 10 2.1 GPS/GLONASS Receiver A5100-A ................................................................ 10 2.2 Packing of the A5100-A .................................................................................. 10 2.3 Additional Equipment ...................................................................................... 12 3 Quick Start ........................................................................................................ 13 3.1 Minimum Configuration ................................................................................... 13 3.2 Antennas ......................................................................................................... 15 3.2.1 Passive Antennas ..................................................................................................... 15 3.2.2 Active Antennas ....................................................................................................... 15 3.3 Serial Port Settings ......................................................................................... 16 3.3.1 Change Serial Port setting ....................................................................................... 16 3.4 Improved TTFF ............................................................................................... 16 3.5 Self-start Configuration ................................................................................... 17 4 Mechanical Outline........................................................................................... 19 4.1 Details Component Side A5100-A .................................................................. 19 4.2 Details Solder Side A5100-A ........................................................................... 20 5 Pin-out Information .......................................................................................... 21 5.1 Layout A5100-A .............................................................................................. 21 5.2 Description A5100-A Signals........................................................................... 22 6 Electrical Characteristics ................................................................................ 24 6.1 Operating Conditions ...................................................................................... 24 6.2 Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................................. 25 6.3 DC Electrical Characteristics ........................................................................... 26 7 Mounting ........................................................................................................... 27 7.1 Proposed Footprint for Soldering .................................................................... 27 7.2 Recommended Profile for Reflow Soldering ................................................... 28 8 Use of GPS & GLONASS Antennas ................................................................ 29 8.1 Connecting a GPS & GLONASS antenna to the GPS & GLONASS receiver. 29 8.2 Antenna Connections ...................................................................................... 31 8.2.1 Passive Antennas ..................................................................................................... 31 8.2.2 Active Antennas ....................................................................................................... 31 V1.0-Mar-14
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9 Quality and Reliability ...................................................................................... 32 9.1 Environmental Conditions ............................................................................... 32 9.2 Product Qualification ....................................................................................... 32 9.3 Production Test ............................................................................................... 32 10 Applications and Hints .................................................................................. 33 10.1 Initial Module Start ........................................................................................ 33 10.2 Proper Shutdown .......................................................................................... 33 10.3 SiRFawareTM Support ................................................................................... 33 10.4 Push-to-Fix Mode .......................................................................................... 33 10.5 Hibernate Mode ............................................................................................. 33 10.6 Battery Back-up ............................................................................................. 35 10.7 Extended Ephemeris ..................................................................................... 36 10.8 Antenna Status Adaptation ........................................................................... 37 10.8.1 Antenna Sensor ...................................................................................................... 37 10.8.2 Antenna Sensor with Current Limiter ..................................................................... 38 10.9 VANT Pin ...................................................................................................... 39 10.10 TM_GPIO5 pin (1 pulse per second pin) ..................................................... 39 10.11 5 Hz Navigation Update Rate ...................................................................... 40 11 Evaluation Kit EVA5100-A ............................................................................. 41 12 Related Information........................................................................................ 42 12.1 Contact .......................................................................................................... 42 12.2 Related Documents ....................................................................................... 42 12.3 Related Tools ................................................................................................ 42 13 List of Figures ................................................................................................ 43 14 List of Tables .................................................................................................. 43 V1.0-Mar-14
User’s Manual
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1 Introduction
A5100-A is a compact high sensitivity concurrent GNSS module that integrates
CSR’s latest SiRFstarV technology into a single and easy to integrate SMT device.
By supporting simultaneous GLONASS, GPS, QZSS and SBAS measurements with
the industry’s best sensitivity engine, the highest accuracy, ground tracks and fastest time-to-first-fix (TTFF) are ensured even under tough operating conditions. The
jammers removal algorithm not only facilitates integration in today’s ever more
complex communication devices, but guarantees performance even in hostile situations. SiRFaware’s advanced low power management modes, high level of integration and multiple communication ports in a small form-factor makes the A5100-A
suitable for a broad spectrum of GPS applications where performance, cost and time
to market are prime considerations.
A5100-A is a drop-in replacement solution for all A2200-A customers. It is housed in
a 15.0 x 10.2 x 2.5 mm 22 pins SMD package with castellated edge that includes the
SiRFStarV (CSRG05e) chipset, referred to later as SS5e, built-in SPI Flash, all RF
matching elements, antenna DC control, RF SAW filtering, various thermal and peripheral components and the TCXO crystal reference. A very easy implementation
(power, serial, ON_OFF, and antenna) allows receiving position, velocity and time
information.
A5100-A is designed for 3.3V power supply.
1.1 Feature Overview
The A5100-A is based on the well-established A2200-A outline and offering new
outstanding features, especially GLONASS reception.
• Fast, responsive location experience
o High-sensitive navigation engine with tracking down to -165dBm
o 52 track verification channels
o SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS, MSAS, GAGAN)
o Concurrent tracking of multiple constellations of the GPS and
GLONASS systems
• Breakthrough micro power technology
o Requires only 60 – 600µA to maintain hot start capability
• Internal Power-On-Reset (POR) reset chipset to prevent memory corruption if
main power removal abruptly
• Active CW interference rejection
• SiRFInstantFix™ extended ephemeris aiding – CGEE and SGEE
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1.2 Characteristics Overview
The module’s most important characteristics are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A5100-A
o Operable at 3.3V / 28mA (typ.) @ 1 fix per second
o V_BAK at 3.0V / 60uA (typ.)
o UART interface at 3.3V CMOS level
o SPI Slave support at 3.3V CMOS level
o I²C Multi-master operation at 3.3V CMOS level
Internal 4 Mb SPI Flash
Direct passive antenna support
Switched antenna voltage for active antenna support
Small form factor of 10.2 mm x 15.0 mm (0.40” x 0.59”), 1mm longer than
A2200-A but they are drop-in replaceable
Supported temperature range: -40°C to +85°C
Single-sided SMT component, for reflow soldering
Tape & reel packaging
The A5100-A receiver modules is available as off-the-shelf components, 100%
tested and shipped in standard tape-and-reel package.
1.3 RoHS and Lead-Free Information
Maestro’s products marked with the lead-free symbol either on the module or the
packaging comply with the "Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament
and the Council on the Restriction of Use of certain Hazardous Substances in
Electrical and Electronic Equipment" (RoHS).
All Maestro GPS/GLONASS receiver modules, smart GPS or GPS&GLONASS antenna modules and telematics units are RoHS compliant.
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1.4 Label
The A5100-A labels hold the following information:
Figure 1: A5100-A label
The label is placed on the shield of the module. The data matrix code holds the
product type, part number, patch release, hardware release, factory code, year &
week of assembly and a 6-digit serial number.
Representing
Number
digits (27)
Example
Meaning
of
Factory
code
XX
2
TF
TF
Product
Number
XXXXXX
6
A5100A
Given
Part
Number
XXXXX
5
30B01
Given
Patch
Release
XX
2
01
Given
Hardware
Release
XX
2
01
Given
Assembly
Year/Week
XXXX
4
1332
Year=13
Week=32
Serial
Number
XXXXXX
6
000005
Increment
from
000001
up
to
999999
Example of MID#: TFA5100A30B0101011332000005
NOTE: Hardware revision (rr) of the series product starts with 01. A hardware revision above 50 shows the module was produced before the product was fully qualified (Engineering Samples).
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1.5 Characteristics
The modules are characterized by the following parameters.
1.5.1 GPS & GLONASS Characteristics
Channels
Correlators
Frequency
52, parallel tracking
~ 400,000
GPS
GLONASS
Tracking Sensitivity (1)
GPS & GLONASS
Horizontal Position Accuracy
Stand alone
Time To First Fix – TTFF
Obscuration recovery (2)
(theoretical minimum values;
Hot start (3)
values in real world may differ) Warm (4)
Cold (5)
L1 (= 1,575 MHz)
FDM L1 (=1,602 MHz)
-165 dBm
< 2.5 m CEP (SA off)
0.1 s
<1s
< 30 s
< 35 s
Table 1: A5100-A GPS&GLONASS characteristics
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Typical with good antenna – see also paragraph “3.2 Antennas”
The calibrated clock of the receiver has not stopped, thus it knows precise time (to the µs level).
The receiver has estimates of time/date/position and valid almanac and ephemeris data.
The receiver has estimates of time/date/position and recent almanac.
The receiver has no estimate of time/date/position, and no recent almanac.
Note: Performance (sensitivity and TTFF) might slightly decrease below -30°C.
1.5.2 Mechanical Characteristics
A5100-A Mechanical
dimensions
Length
Width
Height
A5100-A Weight
10.2±0.20 mm, 0.4±0.008”
15±0.20 mm, 0.59±0.008”
2.5 mm, 0.1” (Max)
0.6 g, 0.022 oz
Table 2: A5100-A dimensions and weight
1.6 Handling Precautions
The GPS/GLONASS receiver module A5100-A is sensitive to electrostatic discharge
(ESD). Please handle with appropriate care.
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2 Ordering Information
2.1 GPS/GLONASS Receiver A5100-A
The order number is built as follows:
•
A5100-Axxxxxxx
A5100-A is the model name. The “xxxxxxx” refers to the current chipset and patch (if
appropriate) versions on the module. The latest version will be provided if no version
number is specified.
2.2 Packing of the A5100-A
The A5100-A GPS/GLONASS module comes in a tape and reel package suitable for
pick and place machines.
Figure 2: A5100-A tape specifications (1)
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Figure 3: A5100-A tape specifications (2)
Figure 4: A5100-A tape specifications (3)
One complete reel holds 1300 PCS A5100-A modules.
There are 1 kinds of packaging for shipment:
One box holds 1 reel
Reel diameter: 33 cm
Inner box dimensions: 36(W) x 36(L) x 4.5 (H) cm
Box dimensions: 38.8 (W) x 38.8 (L) x 5.7 (H) cm
Gross weight: 2.58 Kg
Net weight: 0.78 Kg
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2.3 Additional Equipment
EVA5100-A
Evaluation Kit (including one module A5100-A)
Table 3: Additional equipment
A detailed description of the EVA5100-A Evaluation Kit can be found in the appropriate manual. The evaluation boards are always shipped with latest ROM version
and patch loaded.
The EVA5100-A includes the following components:
•
•
•
•
V1.0-Mar-14
Evaluation Board (labeled EVA5100-A) with one additional A5100-A
GPS/GLONASS receiver
Active GPS/GLONASS antenna
USB cable to connect to your PC
CD with complete documentation and SiRFLive 2.04P1 software
User’s Manual
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3 Quick Start
In order to allow an easy and quick start with the A5100-A module, this chapter provides a short overview on the important steps to be taken to receive NMEA messages with position information on a serial port (UART).
NOTE 1: The A5100-A needs an external pull-up resistor to be configured for
UART operation. Please consider the pull-up resistor in your design or pull
the GPIO up right after reset by other means.
NOTE 2: The ON_OFF input of the A5100-A needs to be connected to output
of a microprocessor. For a wake-up, including the initial one after power on, a
LOW-HIGH transmission is mandatory.
3.1 Minimum Configuration
Figure 5 shows the minimum configuration for NMEA outputs and commands sent
via an RS232 interface based on the GPS/GLONASS module A5100-A using a
passive antenna. It’s recommended to supply Vcc continuously for normal operation,
the module can enter power saving and hibernation modes by toggling the ON_OFF
pin or sending commands.
Figure 5: Minimum configuration A5100-A with continued Vcc supply
Remarks:
• External antenna input impedance is 50 Ω. Match as close as possible.
• Supply Vcc continuously, use toggling of ON_OFF to switch between normal
operation and hibernate mode
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Figure 6 shows the minimum configuration for NMEA outputs and commands sent
via an RS232 interface based on the GPS/GLONASS module A5100-A using a
passive antenna and with backup voltage on V_BAK. Before removing Vcc, it is
highly recommended to put A5100-A into hibernation mode either by ON_OFF pin or
software command
. Otherwise, high current drain will die out the backup battery in a short period of
time.
Figure 6: Minimum configuration A5100-A with Vbak
Remarks:
• External antenna input impedance is 50 Ω. Match as close as possible.
• A battery back-up circuit for the RTC (Real Time Clock) should be considered
(see chapter: “10.6 Battery Back-up”)
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C2
0.1µF
RS232 Out
1
2
7
4
9
C4
0.1µF
3
C3
0.1µF
DB9 female
6
8
3.3V
C1+
V+
C1C2+
C2VT2O
R2I
Vcc
GND
T1O
R1I
R1O
T1I
T2I
R2O
MAX3232
Tx
C5
0.1µF
C1
0.1µF
RS232 Level Shifter
Rx
5
GND
Figure 7: RS232 level shifter
Remarks:
• Place C1 to C5 (here: 0.1µF) close to MAX3232. For capacity values see
datasheet of actual component used.
• Use 3.3V level shifter (MAX3232 or equivalent).
• External antenna input impedance is 50 Ω. Match as close as possible.
3.2 Antennas
Generally, the quality of the GPS&GLONASS antenna chosen (passive or active) is
of paramount importance for the overall sensitivity of the GPS&GLONASS system.
Losses through a bad antenna, long cables or tracks or a bad antenna position can’t
be compensated afterwards!
3.2.1 Passive Antennas
The A5100-A supports passive antennas via an integrated LNA directly.
3.2.2 Active Antennas
The A5100-A also supports active antennas directly, i.e. by offering an antenna
voltage feed pin (VANT – pin 9). It is recommended to use an active antenna with a
supply voltage of 3 to 5 VDC and a maximum current draw of 50 mA. The antenna
should have a gain ≥ 15dB but the total gain (antenna gain minus cable loss at the
antenna input of the module) should not exceed 30 dB. The noise figure should be ≤
1.5dB.
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3.3 Serial Port Settings
In UART operation (defined by the external pull-up resistor as outlined in Minimum
Configuration) the default settings are:
•
NMEA, 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, no flow control
3.3.1 Change Serial Port setting
This command message is used to set the protocol (SiRF OSP or NMEA) and/or the
communication parameters (Baud rate, data bits, stop bits, and parity). The command is used to switch the module back to SiRF OSP protocol mode where a more
extensive command message set is available. When a valid message is received,
the
parameters are stored in battery-backed SRAM and, after a reset, the receiver resumes using the saved parameters.
Table 4 contains the input values for the following example:
Switch to Serial Port Band rate at 4800
Example: $PSRF100,1,4800,8,1,0*0E <CR><LF>
Name
MID
Example
$PSRF100
Protocol
1
Baud
4800
DataBits
StopBits
Parity
Checksum
<CR><LF>
8
1
0
*0E
-
Description
PSRF100 Protocol header
0 = SiRF OSP
1 = NMEA
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or
115200
8 only
1 only
0 = None only
End of message termination
Table 4: Set Serial Port Data Format
3.4 Improved TTFF
In order to improve the TTFF (Time To First Fix), it is recommended to keep Vcc
supplied or backup battery at V_BAK at all times so that Navigation data and initial
condition (timing and approximate location) are kept current. To reduce power
consumption, customers can take advantage of the many sophisticated low power
mode features available in the SiRFstarV chipset.
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3.5 Self-start Configuration
In order to minimize the GPIO required for operating A5100-A, WAKEUP (pin 19)
and ON_OFF (pin 6) can be tied together for entering the self-start mode such that
no ON_OFF pulse requires. The following picture shows the recommended connection
for self-start configuration with UART host port enabled.
Figure 8: Self-start configuration A5100-A
Remarks:
• For self-start mode, full power operation will be activated once Vcc applied.
No power save mode (PTF / MPM / TP) will be supported. If customer accidentally configuring A5100-A into hibernation mode, Vcc has to be disconnected and re-plugged so as to operate the module in full power mode.
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Figure 9: Self-start configuration A5100-A with Vbak
Remarks:
• External antenna input impedance is 50 Ω. Match as close as possible.
• A battery back-up circuit for the RTC (Real Time Clock) should be considered
(see chapter: “10.6 Battery Back-up”)
• For self-start mode, full power operation will be activated once Vcc applied.
No power save mode (PTF / MPM / TP) will be supported. Customer can
toggle the ON_OFF pin so as to put the module into hibernation and then
remove the Vcc. A5100-A will be self-started again in full power mode when
Vcc applied.
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4 Mechanical Outline
4.1 Details Component Side A5100-A
All dimensions in [mm, (inch)]
Figure 10: Mechanical outline component side A5100-A
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4.2 Details Solder Side A5100-A
Solder pad size (outer pads): 1.0 x 0.8
Solder pad size (inner pads): 1.2 x 1.2
All dimensions in [mm]
Figure 11: Mechanical outline solder side A5100-A
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5 Pin-out Information
5.1 Layout A5100-A
“Pin 1” marker
Figure 12: Pin-out information (bottom view) A5100-A
Center Ground pins are for shock / vibration resistance purpose.
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5.2 Description A5100-A Signals
Pin Symbol
Function
Description
1
GPIO2
Input/Output
Leave open
2
VOUT
Voltage output
3
Output
5
TX0/
SPI DO/
I2C CLK
RX0/
SPI DI/
I2C DIO
N.C.
Permanent VCC-0.1 V voltage output for up to 50mA current
max
Serial output 0, NMEA out if configured for UART
SPI data out pin when module works in SPI mode
I2C clock pin when module works in host port I2C mode
Serial input 0, NMEA in if configured for UART
SPI data in pin when module works in SPI mode
I2C data I/O pin when module works in host port I2C mode.
Leave open
6
ON_OFF
Input
7
GND
Power Supply
Connect to push-pull output! This is mandatory!
- Set to LOW by default
- Toggle to HIGH and back to LOW
> for first start-up after power on
TM
> to request a fix in SiRFaware or PTF mode
> to go into or wake up out of hibernate mode
- Connect it to WAKEUP pin for self-start mode
Ground (power supply)
8
GND
Power Supply
Ground (power supply)
9
VANT
10
11
ANT_GND
ANT_IN
Antenna Supply
Voltage Input
RF GND
Antenna Input
12
N.C.
None
Power supply input for external active antenna – provide according voltage (up to 5.0 VDC) – switched internally
Antenna Ground
Antenna signal / Z=50 Ohm (antenna input) – must not exceed
30dB gain including cable loss
Leave open
13
N.C.
None
Leave open
14
TM_GPIO5 Output
Time Mark – 1PPS signal
15
N.C.
None
Leave open
16
N.C.
None
Leave open
17
GPIO6/
CTS/
SPI CLK
Input
Configuration pin to run in UART mode (10k pull-up to
3.3V, e.g. to pin 3),
18
GPIO7/
RTS/
SPI CS
Input
19
WAKEUP
Output
20
VCC
Power Supply
4
V1.0-Mar-14
Input
None
Leave open for SPI & host port I2C modes.
SPI clock pin when module works in SPI mode
Configuration pin for communication mode. 10K to GND
for host port I2C mode; leave open for SPI & UART
modes.
SPI chip select pin when module works in SPI mode
- Status of digital section, Push-Pull output
Low = OFF, KA (Keep Alive)-only, Hibernate, or Standby
mode
High = ON, operational mode
- Connect it to ON_OFF pin for self-start mode
3.0 – 3.6 VDC (power supply)
User’s Manual
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21
22
V_BAK
nRST
Power Supply
Input
Back - up pin of module for “super cap” or battery
Reset input, active low
Table 5: Pin description A5100-A
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6 Electrical Characteristics
6.1 Operating Conditions
Pin
21
20
Description
Vbak
Standby Current (4)
Vcc
Full power Mode (Searching) Peak Current(1)
Full power mode (Searching) Average Current(2)
Full power mode (Tracking) Average Current(3)
TricklePower Mode
Push-to-Fix Mode
Micro Power Mode(SiRFaware TM)
Hibernate Status
Min
1.8V
3.0V
Typical
3.0V
60uA
3.3V
40mA
34mA
Max
3.6V
3.6V
28mA
10mA
600uA
300uA
60uA
Table 6: A5100-A electrical characteristics
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Peak searching current is characterized by millisecond bursts above average searching current
Average searching current is typically only the first two seconds of TTFF
Tracking current typically includes tracking and the post searching portion of TTFF
During standby state: RTC block and core powered on and clock off.
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6.2 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
Vcc
Vin
Iov
Itdv
Tst
Vant
Iant
Parameter
Min Max Unit
A5100-A Power supply
-0.3 +3.6
V
Voltage to I/O pins
-0.3 +3.6
V
Input current on I/O pins
-10
10
mA
Absolute sum of all input currents during overload condition
200 mA
Storage temperature
-40
85
°C
Antenna supply voltage
0
5.5
V
Antenna supply current
0
50
mA
Table 7: Absolute maximum ratings
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only. Functional operation of
the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational
sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
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6.3 DC Electrical Characteristics
Symbol
TX0, WAKEUP
RX0
nRST
ON_OFF
Parameter
Voh @ 4mA
Vol @ 4mA
Vih
Vil
for safe reset
Vih
Vil
Min
2.6
Max Unit
Vcc
V
0.45
V
2.0 Vcc
V
0.8
V
0.2
V
1.35 Vcc
V
-0.3 0.45
V
Table 8: DC electrical characteristic A5100-A
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7 Mounting
This chapter describes the suggested mounting process for the A5100-A receiver
modules. In a RoHS compliant product with a RoHS compliant process it is recommended to use chemical tin as the counter-part to the module’s pins. This will
guarantee highest resistance against shocks.
7.1 Proposed Footprint for Soldering
Following soldering footprint parameters are recommended:
•
•
•
•
Copper and solder paste footprint are identical
Pad-shape / -size, inner pads: 1.2 mm x 1.2 mm
Pad-shape / -size, outer pads: 1.5 mm x 0.8 mm
Stencil thickness of 120 – 150 µm
Figure 13: Recommended Solder PAD Layout
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7.2 Recommended Profile for Reflow Soldering
Typical values for reflow soldering of the module in convection or IR/convection
ovens are as follows (according to IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D):
Parameter
Peak temperature (RoHS compliant process)
Average ramp up rate to peak (217°C to Peak)
Preheat temperature
Ramp up time from min. to max. preheat temperature
Temperature maintained above 217°C
Time within 5°C of actual peak temperature
Ramp down rate
Time 25°C to peak temperature
Value
245°C
3°C / second max.
min=150°C; max=200°C
60 … 120 seconds
60 … 150 seconds
30 seconds
6°C / second max.
8 minutes max.
Table 9: Reflow soldering profile A5100-A
The solder pads hold solder of a thickness of about 150 µm for improved solder
process results.
As results of soldering may vary among different soldering systems and types of
solder and depend on additional factors like density and types of components on
board, the values above should be considered as a starting point for further optimization.
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8 Use of GPS & GLONASS Antennas
8.1 Connecting a GPS & GLONASS antenna to the GPS &
GLONASS receiver
The ANT pin is used to connect a GPS&GLONASS antenna to the receiver. The
design of the antenna connection has to be done strictly according to RF design
rules. A 50 Ω PCB strip line is required. The following drawings shall explain the
guidelines. A major rule is to keep the strip line as short as possible. Additionally,
antenna ground (ANT_GND) should be routed to the ground plane of the PCB (the
ground plane is on a lower PCB layer) by vias as demonstrated in the drawing.
Top view
Motherboard Bottom Layer
Motherboard Top Layer
50Ωstrip line
GPS Receiver
ANT_GND
GPS Receiver
ANT_INT
ANT_GND
Vias to Top Layer
ANT_INT
Vias to GND Layer
GPS receiver solder pads
Figure 14: Antenna connector strip line A5100-A
In order to achieve the impedance of 50 Ω, the width of the strip line needs to be
calculated. It depends on the thickness or height of the PCB layer (both parameters
are shown in following drawing). For the calculation, it is assumed that the PCB
material is FR4.
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Figure 15: Strip line parameters A5100-A
In this case, the width should be about 1.8 times the height of the PCB:
W = 1.8 x H
In the example, one would get a width of W = 1.8 x 0.8 mm = 1.44 mm.
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8.2 Antenna Connections
8.2.1 Passive Antennas
A passive antenna connected to ANT input (pin 11) should be placed as close as
possible to the GPS&GLONASS receiver. The signal power lost by the antenna
cable or lost by the strip line on the PCB cannot be recovered by the LNA (Low
Noise Amplifier) integrated in the GPS&GLONASS receiver.
A suitable Ground-Plane design should be considered depending on the antenna
type connected to ANT input (pin 11).
8.2.2 Active Antennas
General GPS&GLONASS active antenna specification:
Limitations:
•
•
Supply voltage (voltage fed into VANT pin) 5V (max.)
Supply current 50mA (max.)
Recommendations:
•
•
Gain ≥ 15dB (should not exceed 30 dB including cable loss)
Noise figure ≤ 1.5dB
The recommendations apply to the majority of active antennas that can be found in
the market. Anyhow, the quality of the GPS&GLONASS antenna chosen is of paramount importance for the overall sensitivity of the GPS&GLONASS system.
The system design needs to reflect the supply voltage of the antenna. If the supply
voltage is equal to Vcc, Vcc can be connected to VANT. If the antenna requires a
different supply voltage, the antenna bias can be provided through the VANT pin.
VANT is switched by the module, so current is only drawn when required.
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9 Quality and Reliability
9.1 Environmental Conditions
Operating temperature
Operating humidity
MSL JEDEC (Moisture Sensitivity Level)
Storage
-40 … +85°C
Max. 85% r. H., non-condensing, at 85°C
3
6 months in original package.
Table 10: Environmental conditions
9.2 Product Qualification
Prior to product qualification the GPS&GLONASS receiver is preconditioned according to EIA/JEDEC standard JESD22-A113-B / Level 3.
Basic qualification tests:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MSL Classification according to J-STD-020C (MSL3 @ 245°C)
MSL Rework Compatibility according to J-STD-020C
Temperature Cycling –40°C … +85°C
Temperature Humidity Bias 70°C / 85% RH
Low / High Temperature Operating –40°C / +85°C
High Temperature Operating Life +85°C
Vibration Variable Frequency
Mechanical Shock
Please contact Maestro for detailed information.
9.3 Production Test
Each module is electrically tested prior to packing and shipping to ensure state of
the art GPS&GLONASS receiver performance and accuracy.
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10 Applications and Hints
10.1 Initial Module Start
After initially applying power to the module, it is necessary to start the internal firmware by toggling the ON_OFF pin. Toggling is done by pulling the signal to HIGH for
about 200ms. This first toggling can be done after a LOW – HIGH transmission was
detected at the WAKEUP pin or by simply waiting for 1s after power-up. In case of
configuration for UART mode, messages should be transmitted afterwards. If no
messages should appear, a new toggling should be applied.
10.2 Proper Shutdown
A controlled and orderly shutdown while the A5100-A is running in full power mode
can be initiated by
•
•
A 200ms pulse on the ON_OFF pin,
Appropriate messages either in NMEA or OSP mode.
The shutdown is completed after maximum 1s. Therefore the module should be
supplied with voltage for that time after the shutdown sequence was initiated.
10.3 SiRFawareTM Support
SiRFawareTM is a low-power operating mode that seeks to maintain low uncertainty
in position, time, and frequency, and to maintain valid current Ephemeris using either data collected from satellites in view or Extended Ephemeris methods.
The SiRFawareTM mode is entered using the One Socket Protocol, an extension of
the SiRF OSP Protocol. Please refer to the appropriate manual. In order to request a
fix and to exit SiRFawareTM it is necessary to toggle the ON_OFF pin. Toggling is
done by pulling the signal to HIGH for about 200ms.
10.4 Push-to-Fix Mode
Push-to-Fix mode is designed for the application that requires infrequent position
reporting. The receiver generally stays in a low-power mode, up to 2 hours, but
wakes up periodically to refresh position, time, ephemeris data and RTC calibration.
The push-to-fix mode is initialized and entered using the SiRF OSP Protocol. Please
refer to the appropriate manual, paying particular attention to the paragraph titled
“Set TricklePower Parameters”. In order to request a fix outside the specified duty
cycles, it is necessary to toggle the ON_OFF pin. Toggling is done by pulling the
signal to HIGH for about 200ms.
10.5 Hibernate Mode
In order to enter Hibernate Mode it is necessary to send a shutdown command or to
toggle to ON_OFF pin by pulling the signal to HIGH for about 200ms. Starting with
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ROM2.1 the according command is supported in NMEA and SiRF OSP mode. After
a short delay the module will switch into hibernate mode. The RTC will keep on
running and SRAM is backed with the typical current of 60 µA drawn from Vcc. To
wake the module up again, toggling the ON_OFF pin is necessary (200ms pulse
width).
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10.6 Battery Back-up
This section describes how to back-up the RTC and the SRAM of the
GPS/GLONASS receiver module. The basics of the first example addresses
providing a back-up power supply by using a separate battery or a “Super cap”.
While the “Super cap” is charged through the module during normal operation, the
battery (primary cell) is decoupled thru a diode!
Figure 16: Application note: Module back-up
An alternative to this solution is to switch the supply voltage from the Vcc pin to the
Vbak pin. Care needs to be taken that there is no voltage outage during the
switch-over phase!
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10.7 Extended Ephemeris
The receiver is capable of supporting two versions of using Extended Ephemeris
(EE) data. The first one is the version, where the EE data are calculated on a server,
are transmitted to device incorporating the receiver, and are then loaded into the
receiver. These data can be valid for up to seven days.
The second version is the internal extrapolation of available “natural” Ephemeris
data. This is done automatically and no external support is required. The internally
calculated EE data are valid for up to 3 days.
The receiver firmware will define which set of EE data to use or will neglect those in
case “natural” data are available. Both versions of EE data will help to further lower
power consumption in SiRFawareTM mode.
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10.8 Antenna Status Adaptation
This chapter shall give assistance in designing a circuit for detecting if an active
antenna is connected to the module. The information about the antenna status can
be derived from the ANTSTAT signal generated by this circuit. The examples use
values for components that roughly result in the following ANTSTAT output:
•
•
•
Logic low when:
Logic high when:
Logic low when:
Iant < 9mA
9mA > Iant < 16mA
Iant > 16mA
10.8.1 Antenna Sensor
The following circuit is a proposal on how you can feed an antenna with 3.3V and
provide an output for the ANTSTAT pin. The value of the components may need an
adaptation in the final application. For example, the input current of the chosen
comparator goes into that equation. The thresholds defined in this circuit are quite
close to the ones described above. Their value is determined by resistors R4, R5,
and R3.
We strongly recommend simulating and testing the GPS&GLONASS receiver integrated in your product design before implementing the finalized product in the appropriate market application.
Figure 17: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation
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10.8.2 Antenna Sensor with Current Limiter
This proposal is similar to the first one, but includes a current limiter. Comments and
notes as above apply.
We strongly recommend simulating and testing the GPS&GLONASS receiver integrated in your product design before implementing the finalized product in the appropriate market application. In any case it is the responsibility of the designer to test
and verify the implementation.
Current Limiter
Figure 18: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation with current limiter
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10.9 VANT Pin
The VANT pin is an input pin.
The supply voltage for an active GPS&GLONASS antenna on the ANT input has to
be fed into the Vant pin. The easiest way to do that is to connect Vcc to VANT. The
maximum current is 50 mA.
Note: Shortcut between ANT and GND may damage the A5100-A GPS&GLONASS
receiver module. This should be avoided by using an antenna current limiter.
The circuit (chapter “10.8.2 Antenna Sensor with Current Limiter”) works for Vcc
from 3V to 5V. The antenna current will be limited to 50 mA approximately.
If other transistors are used, other resistor values may be necessary as well. We
strongly recommend simulating and testing your realized version before using it.
10.10 TM_GPIO5 pin (1 pulse per second pin)
The 1PPS pin is an output pin.
In addition to precise positioning, GPS&GLONASS also allows for accurate timing
due to the synchronized atomic clocks in the GPS&GLONASS satellites. While the
current date and time is transmitted in NMEA sentences (UTC), an exact and accurate timing signal is provided via the 1PPS pin of the A5100 GPS&GLONASS
receiver.
Under good signal conditions the 1PPS signal comes between 620ns and 710ns
after the full GPS&GLONASS system second which is accurately (around 10ns)
synchronized to UTC. Therefore the 1 second clock can be derived and maintained
within around 90ns under good signal conditions.
Note:
The 1PPS clock accuracy directly depends on the position accuracy!
The GPS&GLONASS signals travel at the speed of light, therefore a position inaccuracy directly translates into 1PPS inaccuracies.
10m position deviation ≈ 33ns 1PPS deviation (typically)
100m position deviation ≈ 333ns 1PPS deviation (typically)
The NMEA messages containing absolute timing information (UTC time) are provided around 300ms after the 1PPS signal typically. This may change with the
GPS&GLONASS receiver setup.
The 1PPS signal is provided on a “as is” basis with no accuracy specification. It’s
NOT recommended to use 1PPS signal for accurate timing application.
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The given values are based on a 10 satellite, static GPS&GLONASS simulator
scenario.
Figure 19: 1PPS waveform (reference)
10.11 5 Hz Navigation Update Rate
User can select 1Hz or 5Hz output rate of navigation computation and message, it
supports rapid change of direction and improves accuracy on sport-related applications.1Hz is the default Navigation Update Rate, If the user want to change to 5Hz
Navigation Update Rate, Please refer to command below:
Enable 5Hz Navigation Update Rate command
· NMEA command MID103 ($PSRF103,00,6,00,0*23)
· OSP command MID136 (A0 A2 00 0E 88 00 00 04 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
0F 02 00 A1 B0 B3 )
Disable 5Hz and return to 1Hz Navigation Update Rate, command:
·NMEA command MID103 ($PSRF103,00,7,00,0*22)
·OSP command MID136 (A0 A2 00 0E 88 00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0F
02 00 9D B0 B3)
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11 Evaluation Kit EVA5100-A
For demonstration and easy evaluation of GPS&GLONASS performance Maestro
offers an evaluation kit (including one GPS&GLONASS A5100-A module). It contains a USB interface with according drivers to connect easily to a PC. The USB
interface is an extension of the serial port 0, therefore sending NMEA sentences or
OSP information and accepting commands. At the same time it provides power to
the module. Accompanied by both an active and passive antenna it offers a
ready-to-go set.
For the development of new software and applications the Evaluation Kit also provides NMEA and OSP messages on CMOS level via a terminal plug.
Figure 20: Evaluation kit EVA5100-A
For further information please contact Maestro.
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12 Related Information
12.1 Contact
This manual was created with due diligence. We hope that it will be helpful to the
user to get the most out of the GPS&GLONASS module.
Inputs regarding errors or mistaken verbalizations and comments or proposals to
Maestro, HongKong, for further improvements are highly appreciated.
Maestro Wireless Solutions Limited
Add: Unit 3603-09,36/F.,118 Connaught Road West,HK
Main Line: (852) 28690688
Fax: (852)25254701
support-gps@maestro-wireless.com
www.maestro-wireless.com
12.2 Related Documents
•
•
•
GPS Evaluation Kit EVA5100-A (Maestro)
SSV NMEA Reference Guide (SiRF)
One Socket Protocol Interface Control Document (SiRF)
12.3 Related Tools
•
•
•
SiRFLive (SiRF)
GPS Evaluation Kit EVA5100-A (Maestro)
GPS AppNote Backup A2206 (Maestro)
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13 List of Figures
Figure 1: A5100-A label ............................................................................................ 8 Figure 2: A5100-A tape specifications (1) ............................................................... 10 Figure 3: A5100-A tape specifications (2) ............................................................... 11 Figure 4: A5100-A tape specifications (3) ............................................................... 11 Figure 5: Minimum configuration A5100-A with continued Vcc supply.................... 13 Figure 6: Minimum configuration A5100-A with Vbak ............................................. 14 Figure 7: RS232 level shifter ................................................................................... 15 Figure 8: Self-start configuration A5100-A .............................................................. 17 Figure 9: Self-start configuration A5100-A with Vbak.............................................. 18 Figure 10: Mechanical outline component side A5100-A ........................................ 19 Figure 11: Mechanical outline solder side A5100-A ................................................ 20 Figure 12: Pin-out information (bottom view) A5100-A ........................................... 21 Figure 13: Recommended Solder PAD Layout ....................................................... 27 Figure 14: Antenna connector strip line A5100-A.................................................... 29 Figure 15: Strip line parameters A5100-A ............................................................... 30 Figure 16: Application note: Module back-up .......................................................... 35 Figure 17: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation......................................... 37 Figure 18: Application note: Antenna sensor adaptation with current limiter .......... 38 Figure 19: 1PPS waveform (reference) ................................................................... 40 Figure 20: Evaluation kit EVA5100-A ...................................................................... 41 14 List of Tables
Table 1: A5100-A GPS&GLONASS characteristics .................................................. 9 Table 2: A5100-A dimensions and weight ................................................................. 9 Table 3: Additional equipment ................................................................................. 12 Table 4: Set Serial Port Data Format ...................................................................... 16 Table 5: Pin description A5100-A ............................................................................ 23 Table 6: A5100-A electrical characteristics ............................................................. 24 Table 7: Absolute maximum ratings ........................................................................ 25 Table 8: DC electrical characteristic A5100-A ......................................................... 26 Table 9: Reflow soldering profile A5100-A .............................................................. 28 Table 10: Environmental conditions ........................................................................ 32 V1.0-Mar-14
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