Red Hat Linux 7.3 The Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide

Red Hat Linux 7.3
The Official Red Hat Linux x86
Installation Guide
Red Hat Linux 7.3: The Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide
Copyright © 2002 by Red Hat, Inc.
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The Red Hat Linux Product Documentation Team consists of the following people:
Sandra A. Moore, Product Documentation Manager — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Official Red Hat Linux
x86 Installation Guide; Contributing Writer to the Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide
Tammy Fox, Product Documentation Technical Lead — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Official Red Hat Linux
Customization Guide; Contributing Writer to the Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide; Writer/Maintainer of
custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts
Edward C. Bailey, Technical Writer — Contributing Writer to the Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide
Johnray Fuller, Technical Writer — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide
John Ha, Technical Writer — Contributing Writer to the Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide
Table of Contents
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................ix
1. Document Conventions ...................................................................................................ix
2. How to Use This Manual ................................................................................................xii
2.1. We Need Feedback!...........................................................................................xii
1. Steps to Get You Started ............................................................................................................ 15
1.1. Do You Have the Right Components? ....................................................................... 15
1.1.1. Where to Find Other Manuals...................................................................... 15
1.1.2. Registering Your Product.............................................................................. 16
1.1.3. No Boxed Set? No Problem! ......................................................................... 16
1.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible? .................................................................................. 16
1.3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?............................................................................. 16
1.3.1. Installation Disk Space Requirements......................................................... 17
1.4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?......................................................................... 18
1.4.1. Alternative Boot Methods............................................................................. 18
1.4.2. Making Installation Diskettes ...................................................................... 19
1.5. Which Installation Class is Best For You?.................................................................. 20
1.5.1. Workstation Installations .............................................................................. 21
1.5.2. Server Installations ........................................................................................ 22
1.5.3. Laptop Installations ....................................................................................... 22
1.5.4. Custom Installations...................................................................................... 23
1.5.5. Upgrading Your System................................................................................ 24
2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables ................................................. 25
2.1. Learning About Your Hardware with Windows...................................................... 25
2.2. Recording Your System’s Hardware .......................................................................... 29
3. Installing Red Hat Linux ........................................................................................................... 31
3.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ................................................. 31
3.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles .................................................................... 31
3.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface................................................ 32
3.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ................................................................. 33
3.2.2. Displaying Online Help ................................................................................ 34
3.3. Starting the Installation Program................................................................................ 34
3.3.1. Booting the Installation Program................................................................. 34
3.4. Selecting an Installation Method ................................................................................ 37
3.5. Installing from CD-ROM ............................................................................................. 38
3.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found? .............................................. 39
3.6. Installing from a Hard Drive ....................................................................................... 39
3.7. Preparing for a Network Installation ......................................................................... 40
3.7.1. Setting Up the Server..................................................................................... 40
3.8. Installing via NFS.......................................................................................................... 42
3.9. Installing via FTP .......................................................................................................... 42
3.10. Installing via HTTP..................................................................................................... 43
3.11. Welcome to Red Hat Linux........................................................................................ 44
3.12. Language Selection ..................................................................................................... 44
3.13. Keyboard Configuration ............................................................................................ 45
3.14. Mouse Configuration.................................................................................................. 46
3.15. Install Options ............................................................................................................. 48
3.16. Disk Partitioning Setup .............................................................................................. 48
3.17. Automatic Partitioning............................................................................................... 49
3.18. Partitioning Your System ........................................................................................... 50
3.18.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s) .......................................................... 51
3.18.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons .................................................................................. 51
3.18.3. Partition Fields ............................................................................................. 52
3.18.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ......................................................... 52
3.18.5. Adding Partitions......................................................................................... 53
3.18.6. Editing Partitions ......................................................................................... 55
3.18.7. Deleting a Partition ...................................................................................... 55
3.19. Partitioning with fdisk............................................................................................... 55
3.20. Boot Loader Installation............................................................................................. 56
3.20.1. Rescue Mode................................................................................................. 58
3.20.2. Alternative Boot Loaders ............................................................................ 58
3.20.3. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO...................................................... 59
3.21. GRUB Password .......................................................................................................... 59
3.22. Network Configuration.............................................................................................. 60
3.23. Firewall Configuration ............................................................................................... 61
3.24. Language Support Selection...................................................................................... 64
3.25. Time Zone Configuration........................................................................................... 65
3.26. Account Configuration............................................................................................... 66
3.26.1. Setting the Root Password .......................................................................... 67
3.26.2. Setting Up User Accounts........................................................................... 68
3.27. Authentication Configuration ................................................................................... 68
3.28. Package Group Selection............................................................................................ 70
3.28.1. Selecting Individual Packages.................................................................... 71
3.28.2. A Brief Introduction to GNOME ............................................................... 72
3.28.3. A Brief Introduction to KDE....................................................................... 73
3.28.4. Unresolved Dependencies .......................................................................... 73
3.29. X Configuration — Video Card................................................................................. 74
3.29.1. Video Card Configuration .......................................................................... 74
3.30. Preparing to Install ..................................................................................................... 75
3.31. Installing Packages...................................................................................................... 75
3.32. Boot Disk Creation ...................................................................................................... 76
3.33. X Configuration — Monitor and Customization ................................................... 77
3.33.1. Configuring Your Monitor.......................................................................... 77
3.33.2. Custom Configuration................................................................................. 78
3.34. Installation Complete ................................................................................................. 79
A. Upgrading Your Current System ............................................................................................ 81
A.1. What it Means to Upgrade ......................................................................................... 81
A.2. Upgrading Your System.............................................................................................. 81
A.3. Upgrading Your File System ...................................................................................... 82
A.4. Customizing Your Upgrade ....................................................................................... 82
A.5. Boot Loader Configuration......................................................................................... 83
A.5.1. Creating a New Boot Loader Configuration............................................. 84
A.6. GRUB Password........................................................................................................... 87
A.7. Selecting Packages to Upgrade .................................................................................. 87
A.7.1. Unresolved Dependencies ........................................................................... 88
A.8. Upgrading Packages.................................................................................................... 89
A.9. Boot Disk Creation....................................................................................................... 90
A.10. Upgrade Complete .................................................................................................... 91
B. Removing Red Hat Linux ......................................................................................................... 93
C. Getting Technical Support ....................................................................................................... 95
C.1. Remember to Sign Up.................................................................................................. 95
C.2. An Overview of Red Hat Support ............................................................................. 95
C.3. Scope of Red Hat Support........................................................................................... 96
C.4. How to Get Technical Support ................................................................................... 97
C.4.1. Signing up for Technical Support ............................................................... 97
C.5. Questions for Technical Support................................................................................ 98
C.5.1. How to Send Support Questions ................................................................ 98
D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux....................................................... 101
D.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Linux................................................................... 101
D.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM? .......................................... 101
D.1.2. Are You Unable to Boot from the Local Boot Disk? ............................... 101
D.1.3. Are You Unable to Boot from PCMCIA Boot Disks? ............................. 101
D.1.4. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? .......................................... 102
D.1.5. Are You Unable to Boot from a Network Boot Disk? ............................ 102
D.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation .......................................................................... 102
D.2.1. Trouble Using PCMCIA Boot Disks? ....................................................... 102
D.2.2. Is Your Mouse Not Detected?.................................................................... 102
D.2.3. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation......................... 103
D.3. Trouble During the Installation................................................................................ 103
D.3.1. Partition Creation Problems ...................................................................... 103
D.3.2. Using Remaining Space ............................................................................. 104
D.3.3. Other Partitioning Problems ..................................................................... 104
D.3.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors?................................................................. 104
D.4. Problems After Installation....................................................................................... 105
D.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen?............................................. 105
D.4.2. Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen?............................................... 105
D.4.3. Problems with Server Installations and X ............................................... 106
D.4.4. Problems When You Try to Log In ........................................................... 106
D.4.5. Does Netscape Navigator Crash on JavaScript Pages? ......................... 106
D.4.6. Your Printer Will Not Work Under X....................................................... 106
D.4.7. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized? ...................................................... 107
D.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration ....................................................... 108
E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions ....................................................................................... 109
E.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts ......................................................................................... 109
E.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It .................................... 109
E.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many................................................ 111
E.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions.. 114
E.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Linux............................................................. 115
E.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme .......................................................................... 119
E.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems ........................................ 120
E.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points............................................................. 121
E.1.8. How Many Partitions? ................................................................................ 121
E.1.9. One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO ................................................. 122
F. Driver Disks............................................................................................................................... 125
F.1. Why Do I Need a Driver Disk? ................................................................................. 125
F.1.1. So What Is a Driver Disk Anyway? ........................................................... 125
F.1.2. How Do I Obtain a Driver Disk? ............................................................... 125
F.1.3. Using a Driver Disk During Installation................................................... 126
G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System.......................................................................................... 127
G.1. Allocating Disk Space for Linux .............................................................................. 128
G.1.1. Add a New Hard Drive.............................................................................. 128
G.1.2. Use an Existing Hard Drive or Partition.................................................. 128
G.1.3. Create a New Partition ............................................................................... 129
G.2. Installing Red Hat Linux in a Dual-Boot Environment........................................ 129
G.2.1. Disk Partitioning ......................................................................................... 129
G.2.2. Configuring the Boot Loader..................................................................... 130
G.2.3. Post-Installation........................................................................................... 130
G.3. Partitioning with FIPS .............................................................................................. 130
Index ................................................................................................................................................ 135
Introduction
Welcome to the Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide. This guide contains useful information to assist you during the installation of Red Hat Linux. From fundamental concepts
such as installation preparation to the step-by-step installation procedure, this book will be
a valuable resource as you install Red Hat Linux.
This manual will walk you through a typical Red Hat Linux CD-ROM installation. Once you
have completed the installation, you will have a fully functioning Red Hat Linux desktop
system.
1. Document Conventions
When you read this manual, you will see that certain words are represented in different
fonts, typefaces, sizes, and weights. This highlighting is systematic; different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. The types of words
that are represented this way include the following:
command
Linux commands (and other operating system commands, when used) are represented
this way. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the
command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command. Sometimes a command contains
words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as filenames). In
these cases, they are considered to be part of the command, so the entire phrase will be
displayed as a command. For example:
Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file, named testfile, in the
current working directory.
filename
Filenames, directory names, paths, and RPM package names are represented this way.
This style should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your
Red Hat Linux system. Examples:
The .bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for
your own use.
The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and filesystems.
Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program.
application
This style should indicate to you that the program named is an end-user application (as
opposed to system software). For example:
Use Netscape Navigator to browse the Web.
x
Introduction
[key]
A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. For example:
To use [Tab] completion, type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. Your terminal
will display the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.
[key]-[combination]
A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. For example:
The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination will exit your graphical session and return
you to the graphical login screen or the console.
text found on a GUI interface
A title, word, or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window will be shown in
this style. When you see text shown in this style, it is being used to identify a particular
GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or
field). Example:
Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a
password before stopping.
top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window
When you see a word in this style, it indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. If you click on the word on the GUI screen, the rest of the menu should
appear. For example:
Under Settings on a GNOME terminal, you will see the following menu items: Preferences, Reset Terminal, Reset and Clear, and Color selector.
If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu, they will be shown
like the following example:
Click on Programs=>Applications=>Emacs to start the Emacs text editor.
button on a GUI screen or window
This style indicates that the text will be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen.
For example:
Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed.
computer output
When you see text in this style, it indicates text displayed by the computer on the
command line. You will see responses to commands you typed in, error messages, and
interactive prompts for your input during scripts or programs shown this way. For example:
Use the ls command to display the contents of a directory:
$ ls
Desktop
Mail
axhome
backupfiles
logs
mail
paulwesterberg.gif
reports
Introduction
xi
The output returned in response to the command (in this case, the contents of the directory) is shown in this style.
prompt
A prompt, which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input
something, will be shown in this style. Examples:
$
#
[stephen@maturin stephen]$
leopard login:
user input
Text that the user has to type, either on the command line, or into a text box on a GUI
screen, is displayed in this style. In the following example, text is displayed in this
style:
To boot your system into the text based installation program, you will need to type in
the text command at the boot: prompt.
Additionally, we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of
information. In order of how critical the information is to your system, these items will be
marked as note, tip, important, caution, or a warning. For example:
Note
Remember that Linux is case sensitive. In other words, a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE.
Tip
The directory /usr/share/doc contains additional documentation for packages installed on your
system.
Important
If you modify the DHCP configuration file, the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP
daemon.
Caution
Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root
account for system administration tasks.
xii
Introduction
Warning
If you choose not to partition manually, a server installation will remove all existing partitions on all
installed hard drives. Do not choose this installation class unless you are sure you have no data you
need to save.
2. How to Use This Manual
This manual is ideal for users (both new and old) who want a quick and simple installation
solution. It will help you prepare your system, walk you through the installation, and assist
you in the configuration of Red Hat Linux.
Note
If you currently use Red Hat Linux 4.2 (or greater), you can perform an upgrade. Skim Chapter 1 to
review the basics, then read Chapter 3, following the directions as you go. Once you have chosen to
perform an upgrade in the installation program, refer to Appendix A.
If you are an experienced user who wants to perform a Red Hat Linux CD-ROM installation,
and you do not need a review of the basics, you can skip ahead to Chapter 3 to begin the
installation process.
Tip
Refer to the Red Hat Frequently Asked Questions for answers to questions and problems that may
occur before, during, or after the installation. You will find the FAQ online at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/docs/faqs/rhl_general_faq/
2.1. We Need Feedback!
If you spot a typo in the Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide, or if you have thought
of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report
against the component rhl-ig in Bugzilla at:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual’s identifier:
rhl-ig-x86(EN)-7.3-HTML-RHI (2002-04-05T13:43-0400)
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible
when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some
of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.
Introduction
xiii
If you have a support question (for example, if you need help configuring X, or if you are
not sure how to partition your hard drive[s]), use the online support system by registering
your product at:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
xiv
Introduction
Chapter 1.
Steps to Get You Started
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, you should read the Red Hat
Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation
being finalized. The Release Notes can be found on the Red Hat Linux CD #1 and online at:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux
Before you install Red Hat Linux, you should perform the following steps:
1.1. Do You Have the Right Components?
If you have purchased the Official Red Hat Linux boxed set, you are ready to go. However,
mistakes occasionally happen, so now is a good time to double-check the contents of your
product.
A black, red, and white Registration Information card is included with your product. A list
of the contents of your boxed set version is on the back of the card. Please read over the list
and check to make sure that you have all the CDs and manuals that are included with the
version of Red Hat Linux that you purchased.
If you have purchased the Official Red Hat Linux boxed set from Red Hat, Inc. (or one of
our distributors), and you are missing one or more of the items listed, please let us know.
Contact information is also available on the Registration Information card.
How to identify our official boxed set: The bottom of our box has an ISBN number next to one
of the bar codes. That ISBN number should be in this form:
1-58569-x-y
(The x and y will be unique numbers.)
Red Hat partners with companies (international and domestic) so that we can make Red
Hat Linux available to you in the most convenient form. Because of these partnerships, you
might find that your Red Hat Linux product may not have been actually produced by Red
Hat.
If your product has a different ISBN number (or none at all), you will need to contact the
company that produced it. Normally, third-party producers will include their logo and/or
contact information on the outside of their box; an official Red Hat Linux boxed set lists only
our name and contact information.
1.1.1. Where to Find Other Manuals
If your particular product did not include all of the printed Red Hat Linux manuals, you can
find them online or on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD included with your official
Red Hat Linux product.
16
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
To find the manuals in both HTML and PDF formats online, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/docs
1.1.2. Registering Your Product
If you have purchased the Official Red Hat Linux boxed set, you should register your product. Registration offers many useful services, such as installation support, access to Red Hat
Network, and more. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
You will find your Product ID on the Registration Information card in your Official Red Hat
Linux boxed set. Once registered, you will have access to all the extras that Red Hat provides
to its registered users.
For more information on registering and the scope of Red Hat’s technical support offerings,
see Appendix C.
1.1.3. No Boxed Set? No Problem!
Of course, not everyone purchases a Red Hat Linux boxed set. It is entirely possible to install
Red Hat Linux using a CD created by another company, or even via FTP. In these cases, you
may need to create one or more diskettes to get started.
For information on downloading and installing Red Hat Linux, refer to:
http://www.redhat.com/download/howto_download.html
For people installing Red Hat Linux from a CD-ROM not from Red Hat, you may need a
boot diskette (also referred to as a boot disk), or if you are using a PCMCIA device during
the installation (such as a laptop), PCMCIA boot disks. You may also be able to start the
installation directly from the CD. We will discuss this in more detail when we outline the
various installation methods. For information on making diskettes, see Section 1.4.2.
1.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system
that you built yourself. Red Hat Linux 7.3 should be compatible with most hardware in
systems that were factory built within the last two years. However, hardware specifications
change almost daily, so it is hard to guarantee that your hardware will be 100% compatible.
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
1.3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Linux is
no exception. When you install Red Hat Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions.
If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic
concepts) read Appendix E before proceeding.
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
17
If Red Hat Linux will share your system with another OS, you will need to make sure you
have enough available disk space on your hard drive(s) for this installation. Refer to Appendix G for instructions on creating a dual boot system.
The disk space used by Red Hat Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other
OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a different
version of Linux. At least two partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Linux.
Before you start the installation process, one of the following conditions must be met:
•
Your computer must have enough unpartitioned1 disk space for the installation of Red Hat
Linux.
•
You must have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough
disk space to install Red Hat Linux.
1.3.1. Installation Disk Space Requirements
Note
These recommendations are based on an installation that only installs one language (such as English). If you plan to install multiple languages to use on your system, you should increase the disk
space requirements.
Workstation
A workstation installation, installing either GNOME2 or KDE3, requires at least 1.5 GB of
free space. Choosing both GNOME and KDE requires at least 1.8 GB of free disk space.
Server
A server installation requires 1.3 GB for a minimal installation without X (the graphical
environment), at least 1.4 GB of free space if all components (package groups) other than
X are installed, and at least 2.1 GB to install all packages including GNOME and KDE.
Laptop
A laptop installation, when you choose to install GNOME or KDE, requires at least 1.5
GB of free space. If you choose both GNOME and KDE, you will need at least 1.8 GB of
free disk space.
1.
Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drive(s) you are installing to
has not been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition will behave like
a separate disk drive.
2. Acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment. GNOME is part of the GNU project and
part of the open source movement. GNOME is a Windows-like desktop system and is not dependent
on any one window manager. The main objective of GNOME is to provide a user-friendly suite of
applications and an easy-to-use desktop.
3. Acronym for K Desktop Environment. KDE is a network-transparent contemporary desktop environment for Linux and UNIX workstations, and it is part of the open source movement.
18
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
Custom
A Custom installation requires 350 MB for a minimal installation and at least 3.7 GB of
free space if every package is selected.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how to create free
disk space for your Red Hat Linux installation, please refer to Appendix E.
1.4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
There are several methods that can be used to install Red Hat Linux.
Installing from a CD-ROM requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Linux 7.3 boxed
set, or you have a Red Hat Linux CD-ROM, and you have a CD-ROM drive. Most new
computers will allow booting from the CD-ROM. If your system will support booting from
the CD-ROM, it is an easy way to begin a local CD-ROM installation.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your CD-ROM drive. For more
information about editing your BIOS, see Section 3.3.1.
1.4.1. Alternative Boot Methods
If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM drive, the following alternative boot methods are also
available:
Local Boot Disk
If you need a local boot disk4, you must create it. The local boot disk image file, boot.img,
is located in the images directory on your Red Hat Linux CD-ROM. Refer to Section
1.4.2, for more information on making a boot disk.
PCMCIA Boot Disks
You may need PCMCIA boot disks if you are using a PCMCIA device to install Red Hat
Linux. If you need PCMCIA boot disks, you must create them. Refer to Section 1.4.2 for
those instructions.
The following checklist can help you determine if you will need to create PCMCIA boot
disks:
•
You will install Red Hat Linux from a CD-ROM, and your CD-ROM drive is attached
to your computer through a PCMCIA card.
•
You will use a PCMCIA network adapter during the installation.
The PCMCIA boot disks image files, pcmcia.img and pcmciadd.img, are located in the
images directory on your Red Hat Linux/x86 CD-ROM. Refer to Section 1.4.2 for more
information on making a boot disk.
4.
A boot disk can be a diskette you created to boot (or start) the installation program, or it can be a
diskette you create during the installation process that can later be used to boot the operating system.
Normally, your computer boots from a hard disk, but if the hard disk is damaged, you can boot the
computer from a bootable diskette.
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
19
Note
USB Diskette Drive — You can also boot the Red Hat Linux installation program using a boot disk
in a USB diskette drive (if your system supports booting from a USB Diskette Drive).
Note
Although it is not required to boot your installation, you may occasionally find that a driver disk is
needed to continue with the installation. Appendix F explains why a driver disk may be necessary for
your installation, and how to obtain one if needed.
1.4.2. Making Installation Diskettes
You may need to create a diskette from an image file; for example, you may need to use
updated diskette images obtained from the Red Hat Linux errata page:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/support/errata/
An image file contains an exact copy (or image) of a diskette’s contents. Since a diskette
contains file system information in addition to the data contained in files, the contents of the
image file are not usable until they have been written to a diskette.
To start, you will need a blank, formatted, high-density (1.44MB), 3.5-inch diskette. You will
need access to a computer with a 3.5-inch diskette drive. The computer must be able to run
either an MS-DOS program or the dd utility found on most Linux-like operating systems.
The images directory on your Red Hat Linux CD-ROM contains the boot images for Red
Hat Linux/x86 . Once you have selected the proper image (such as boot.img for a CDROM-based installation or bootnet.img for a network installation), transfer the image file
onto a diskette using one of the following methods.
1.4.2.1. Using the rawrite Utility
To make a diskette using MS-DOS, use the rawrite utility included on the Red Hat Linux
CD-ROM in the dosutils directory. First, label a blank, formatted 3.5-inch diskette appropriately (such as "Boot Disk" or "Updates Disk"). Insert it into the diskette drive. Then, use
the following commands (assuming your CD-ROM is drive d:):
C:\ d:
D:\ cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils rawrite
Enter disk image source file name: ..\images\boot.img
Enter target diskette drive: a:
Please insert a formatted diskette into drive A: and
press --ENTER-- : [Enter]
D:\dosutils
First, rawrite asks you for the filename of a diskette image; enter the directory and name
of the image you wish to write (for example, ..\images\boot.img). Then rawrite asks
for a diskette drive to write the image to; enter a:. Finally, rawrite asks for confirmation
that a formatted diskette is in the drive you have selected. After pressing [Enter] to confirm,
20
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
rawrite copies the image file onto the diskette. If you need to make another diskette, label
that diskette, and run rawrite again, specifying the appropriate image file.
Note
The rawrite utility only accepts 8.3-type file names, such as filename.img. If you
download an update image from http://www.redhat.com named something similar to
update-anaconda-03292002.img, you must rename it as updates.img before you run rawrite.
1.4.2.2. Using the dd Command
To make a diskette under Linux (or any other Linux-like operating system), you must have
permission to write to the device representing a 3.5-inch diskette drive (known as /dev/fd0
under Linux).
First, label a blank, formatted diskette appropriately (such as "Boot Disk" or "Updates Disk").
Insert it into the diskette drive (but do not issue a mount5 command). After mounting the
Red Hat Linux CD-ROM, change to the directory containing the desired image file, and
use the following command (changing the name of the image file and diskette device as
appropriate):
# dd if=boot.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k
To make another diskette, label that diskette, and run dd again, specifying the appropriate
image file.
1.5. Which Installation Class is Best For You?
Usually, Red Hat Linux is installed on its own disk partition or set of partitions, or over
another installation of Linux.
Warning
Installing Red Hat Linux over another installation of Linux (including Red Hat Linux) does not preserve
any information (files or data) from a prior installation. Make sure you save any important files! To
preserve the current data on your existing system, you should back up your data and/or consider
performing an upgrade instead.
Red Hat Linux provides five different classes, or types, of installations:
Workstation
A workstation installation is most appropriate if you are new to the world of Linux, and
would like to give it a try. A workstation installation will create a system for your home
or desktop use. A graphical, Windows-like environment will be installed.
5.
When you mount a floppy or CD-ROM, you make that device’s contents available to you. See the
Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide for more information.
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
21
Server
A server installation is most appropriate if you would like your system to function as a
Linux-based server, and you do not want to heavily customize your system configuration.
Laptop
A laptop installation has been designed to make installing Red Hat Linux on laptops
even easier. Much like a workstation installation, it will make sure you have the appropriate packages needed, as well as offer you an automated installation environment.
Custom
A custom installation allows you the greatest flexibility during your installation. You
choose your boot loader, which packages you want, and more. Custom installations are
most appropriate for those users more familiar with Red Hat Linux installations and for
those afraid of losing complete flexibility.
Upgrade
If you already have a version of Red Hat Linux (4.2 or greater) running on your system and you want to quickly update to the latest packages and kernel version, then an
upgrade is most appropriate for you.
These classes give you the option of simplifying the installation process (with some potential
for loss of configuration flexibility), or retaining flexibility with a slightly more complex
installation process. Next, take a detailed look at each class, so you can see which one is
right for you.
1.5.1. Workstation Installations
Most suitable for new users, the workstation installation will install your choice of the
GNOME or KDE desktop environments, or both, and the X Window System (the graphical
software on which the desktop environments are based).
Below are the minimum recommended disk space requirements for a workstation installation where only one language (such as English) will be installed.
•
Workstation choosing GNOME or KDE : 1.5 GB
•
Workstation choosing both GNOME and KDE, and games: 1.8 GB
If you plan to choose all package groups (for example, GNOME is a group of packages),
as well as select additional individual packages, you may want to allow yourself 2.1 GB or
more of disk space.
Note
Unlike workstation installations previous to Red Hat Linux 7.0, performing a Red Hat Linux 7.3 workstation installation will not install the network daemon xinetd (inet services). When xinetd is not
installed, you will have a more secure installation. However, in-bound network-related services such
as finger, telnet, talk, and FTP will not work.6 If you require these types of services, please go back
and choose a server or a custom installation.
6. For example, you can telnet out to other systems, but other systems cannot telnet in to your
system.
22
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
1.5.1.1. What a Workstation Installation Will Do
If you choose automatic partitioning, a workstation installation will create the following
partitions:
•
The size of the swap partition is determined by the amount of RAM in your system and the
amount of space available on your hard drive. For example, if you have 128 MB of RAM
then the swap partition created can be 128 MB – 256 MB (twice your RAM), depending on
how much disk space is available.
•
A 50 MB partition mounted as /boot in which the Linux kernel and related files reside.
•
A root partition mounted as / in which all other files are stored (the exact size of this
partition is dependent on your available disk space).
1.5.2. Server Installations
A server installation is most appropriate for you if you would like your system to function as
a Linux-based server, and you do not want to heavily customize your system configuration.
Below are the minimum recommended disk space requirements for a server installation
where only one language (such as English) will be installed.
•
Server (minimum, no graphical interface): 1.3 GB
•
Server (choosing everything, no graphical interface): 1.4 GB
•
Server (choosing everything, GNOME and KDE): 2.1 GB
If you plan to choose all group packages, as well as select additional individual packages,
you may want to allow yourself 2.3 GB or more of disk space.
During the server installation, the X Window System is not configured and no GUI will be loaded
when the system boots, unless you choose to install the appropriate packages during package selection.
1.5.2.1. What a Server Installation Will Do
•
The size of the swap partition is determined by the amount of RAM in your system and the
amount of space available on your hard drive. For example, if you have 128 MB of RAM
then the swap partition created can be 128 MB - 256 MB (twice your RAM), depending on
how much disk space is available.
•
A 384 MB root partition mounted as /.
•
A partition mounted as /usr (the exact size of this partition is dependent on your available
disk space).
•
A partition mounted as /home (the exact size of this partition is dependent on your available disk space).
•
A 256 MB partition mounted as /var.
•
A 50 MB partition mounted as /boot in which the Linux kernel and related files are kept.
This disk partitioning scheme results in a reasonably flexible file system configuration for
most server tasks.
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
23
1.5.3. Laptop Installations
The laptop installation will install your choice of the GNOME or KDE desktop environments
(or both) and the X Window System.
Below are the minimum recommended disk space requirements for a laptop installation
where only one language (such as English) will be installed.
•
Laptop choosing GNOME or KDE: 1.5 GB
•
Laptop choosing both GNOME and KDE: 1.8 GB
If you plan to choose all package groups (for example, GNOME is a group of packages),
as well as select additional individual packages, you may want to allow yourself 1.7 GB or
more of disk space. If you provide this extra space, you will have room for additional data,
if needed.
1.5.3.1. What a Laptop Installation Will Do
If you choose automatic partitioning, a laptop installation will create the following partitions:
•
The size of the swap partition is determined by the amount of RAM in your system and the
amount of space available on your hard drive. For example, if you have 128 MB of RAM
then the swap partition created can be 128 MB - 256 MB (twice your RAM), depending on
how much disk space is available.
•
A 50 MB partition mounted as /boot in which the Linux kernel and related files reside.
•
A root partition mounted as / in which all other files are stored (the exact size of this
partition is dependent on your available disk space).
Note
Performing a Red Hat Linux 7.3 laptop installation will not install the network daemon xinetd (inet
services). Withholding xinetd results in a more secure installation 7 ; network-related services such as
finger, telnet, talk, and FTP will not work. If you require these types of services, choose a server or
a custom installation.
1.5.4. Custom Installations
The custom installation allows you the most flexibility during your installation. The workstation and server installations automatically go through the installation process for you and
omit certain steps. During a custom installation, you have complete control over the packages that will be installed on your system.
The recommended disk space requirements for a custom installation are as follows:
•
Custom (minimum): 350 MB
•
Custom (choosing everything): 3.7 GB
7. For example, you can telnet out to other systems, but other systems cannot telnet in to your
system.
24
Chapter 1. Steps to Get You Started
1.5.4.1. What a Custom Installation Will Do
As you might guess from the name, a custom installation puts the emphasis on flexibility.
You have complete control over which packages will be installed on your system.
If you choose automatic partitioning, a custom installation will create the following partitions:
•
The size of the swap partition is determined by the amount of RAM in your system and the
amount of space available on your hard drive. For example, if you have 128 MB of RAM
then the swap partition created can be 128 MB - 256 MB (twice your RAM), depending on
how much disk space is available.
•
A 50 MB partition mounted as /boot in which the Linux kernel and related files reside.
•
A root partition mounted as / in which all other files are stored (the exact size of this
partition is dependent on your available disk space).
1.5.5. Upgrading Your System
Upgrading Red Hat Linux 4.2 (or greater) will not delete any existing data. The installation program updates the modular kernel and all currently installed software packages. See
Chapter 3 and Appendix A for those instructions.
Chapter 2.
Hardware Information and System
Requirements Tables
This chapter provides instructions for learning about your hardware and a system requirements table which will help you keep a record of your current system settings and requirements.
2.1. Learning About Your Hardware with Windows
If your computer is already running Windows 9x, you can use the following steps to get
additional configuration information:
Figure 2-1. Windows 9x System Properties
•
In Windows, click on the My Computer icon using the secondary (normally the right)
mouse button. A pop-up menu should appear.
•
Select Properties. The System Properties window should appear. Note the information
listed under Computer — in particular the amount of RAM listed.
•
Click on the Device Manager tab. You will then see a graphical representation of your
computer’s hardware configuration. Make sure the View devices by type radio button is
selected.
At this point, you can either double-click on the icons or single-click on the plus sign + to
look at each entry in more detail. Look under the following icons for more information:
26
Chapter 2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
Figure 2-2. Windows 9x System Properties
•
Disk drives — the type (IDE or SCSI) of hard drive will be found here. (IDE drives will
normally include the word "IDE," while SCSI drives will not.)
•
Hard disk controllers — information about your hard drive controller.
•
CDROM — information about any CD-ROM drives connected to your computer.
Note
In some cases, there may be no CD-ROM icon, yet your computer has a functioning CD-ROM
drive. This is normal, depending on how Windows was originally installed. In this case, you may
be able to learn additional information by looking at the CD-ROM driver loaded in your computer’s
config.sys file.
•
Mouse — the type of mouse present on your computer.
•
Display adapters — if you are interested in running the X Window System, you should
write down the information you find here.
•
Sound, video and game controllers — if your computer has sound capabilities, you will
find more information about them here.
•
Network adapters — information on your computer’s network card (if you have one).
•
SCSI controllers — if your computer uses SCSI peripherals, you will find additional information on the SCSI controller here.
This method is not a complete substitute for opening your computer’s case and physically
examining each component. However, in many cases it can provide sufficient information to
continue with the installation.
Note
This information can also be printed by clicking on the Print button. A second window will appear,
allowing you to choose the printer, as well as the type of report. The All Devices and System
Summary report type is the most complete.
Chapter 2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
27
If your computer is already running Windows 2000, you can use the following steps to get
additional configuration information:
Figure 2-3. Windows 2000 System Properties
•
In Windows, click on the My Computer icon using the secondary (normally the right)
mouse button. A pop-up menu should appear.
•
Select Properties. The System Properties window should appear. Note the information
listed under Computer — in particular the amount of RAM listed.
•
Click on the Hardware tab. You will then see your computer’s hardware configuration
options.
28
Chapter 2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
Figure 2-4. Windows 2000 System Properties — Hardware
•
Click on the Device Manager tab. You will then see a graphical representation of your
computer’s hardware configuration. Make sure the View devices by type radio button is
selected.
At this point, you can either double-click on the icons or single-click on the plus sign + to
look at each entry in more detail. Look under the following icons for more information:
Figure 2-5. Windows 2000 System Properties
•
Disk drives — the type (IDE or SCSI) of hard drive will be found here. (IDE drives will
normally include the word "IDE," while SCSI drives will not.)
•
Hard disk controllers — information about your hard drive controller.
•
CDROM — information about any CD-ROM drives connected to your computer.
•
Mouse — the type of mouse present on your computer.
•
Display adapters — if you are interested in running the X Window System, you should
write down the information you find here.
Chapter 2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
29
•
Sound, video and game controllers — if your computer has sound capabilities, you will
find more information about them here.
•
Network adapters — information on your computer’s network card (if you have one).
•
SCSI controllers — if your computer uses SCSI peripherals, you will find additional information on the SCSI controller here.
This method is not a complete substitute for opening your computer’s case and physically
examining each component. However, in many cases it can provide sufficient information to
continue with the installation.
2.2. Recording Your System’s Hardware
Enter information about your system in the table provided as a handy reference to help make
your Red Hat Linux installation go more smoothly.
Table 2-1. System Requirements Table
hard drive(s): type, label,
size; ex: IDE hda=1.2 GB
partitions: map of
partitions and mount
points; ex:
/dev/hda1=/home,
/dev/hda2=/ (fill this in
once you know where
they will reside)
memory: amount of
RAM installed on your
system; ex: 64 MB, 128
MB
CD-ROM: interface
type; ex: SCSI, IDE
(ATAPI)
SCSI adapter: if present,
make and model
number; ex: BusLogic
SCSI Adapter, Adaptec
2940UW
network card: if present,
make and model
number; ex: Tulip,
3COM 3C590
mouse: type, protocol,
and number of buttons;
ex: generic 3 button
PS/2 mouse,
MouseMan 2 button
serial mouse
30
Chapter 2. Hardware Information and System Requirements Tables
monitor: make, model,
and manufacturer
specifications; ex:
Optiquest Q53,
ViewSonic G773
video card: make, model
number and size of
VRAM; ex: Creative
Labs Graphics Blaster
3D, 8MB
sound card: make,
chipset and model
number; ex: S3
SonicVibes, Sound
Blaster 32/64 AWE
IP, DHCP, and BOOTP
addresses: four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
10.0.2.15
netmask: four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
255.255.248.0
gateway IP address: four
numbers, separated by
dots; ex: 10.0.2.245
one or more name server
IP addresses (DNS): one
or more sets of
dot-separated numbers;
ex: 10.0.2.1
domain name: the name
given to your
organization; ex: Red
Hat’s would be
redhat.com
hostname: the name of
your computer; your
personal choice of
names; ex: cookie,
southpark
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network administrator for assistance.
Chapter 3.
Installing Red Hat Linux
This chapter explains how to install Red Hat Linux from the CD-ROM. The following topics
are discussed:
•
Getting familiar with the installation program’s user interface
•
Starting the installation program
•
Selecting an installation method
•
Configuration steps during the installation (language, keyboard, mouse, etc.)
•
Finishing the installation
Note
If you already have another operating system installed and want to create a dual boot system so that
you can use both Red Hat Linux and the other operating system, please read Appendix G for more
information.
3.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you will be familiar with this process;
simply use your mouse to navigate the screens, "click" buttons, or enter text fields. You can
also navigate through the installation using the [Tab] and [Enter] keys.
Note
If you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also
available. To start the text mode installation program, use the following boot command:
boot: text
Please refer to Section 3.2 for a brief overview of text mode installation instructions.
3.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Red Hat Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation
process. Several different kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, in addition to
providing a way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays
these messages on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke
combination.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat
Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Please see Table 3-1 for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to switch to
them, and their contents.
32
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Table 3-1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
Console
Keystrokes
Contents
1
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F1]
installation dialog
2
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F2]
shell prompt
3
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F3]
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F4]
system-related messages
5
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F5]
other messages
7
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F7]
X graphical display
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #7) unless you are
attempting to diagnose installation problems.
3.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
The Red Hat Linux text mode installation program uses a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen "widgets" commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure
3-1, and Figure 3-2, illustrate the screens you will see.
Figure 3-1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
33
Figure 3-2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 3-1, and Figure 3-2:
•
Window — windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) will appear on your
screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in
these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that
window, it will disappear, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
•
Text Input — text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the
installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or
edit information on that line.
•
Checkbox — checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either
an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press
[Space] to select an unselected feature or to deselect a selected feature.
•
Text widget — text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text
widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains
more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears;
if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the [Up] and [Down]
arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your current position is shown
on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
•
Button widget — button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the [Tab] and [Enter] keys. Buttons can be selected when they are
highlighted.
•
Cursor — although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact) with a particular
widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change
color, or you may only see the cursor itself positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure
3-1, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 3-2, shows the cursor on the Edit
button.
3.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes.
To move the cursor, use [Left], [Right], [Up], and [Down] arrow keys. Use [Tab], and [Alt][Tab] to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom,
most screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
34
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using [Tab], for example) and press
[Space] or [Enter]. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you
wish to select and press [Enter]. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the
checkbox and press [Space] to select an item. To deselect, press [Space] a second time.
Pressing [F12] accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to
pressing the OK button.
Caution
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process
(doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
3.2.2. Displaying Online Help
Once the installation program is loaded into memory, you can obtain information about the
installation process and options by pressing [F1] through [F6]. For example, press [F2] to see
general information about the online help screens.
3.3. Starting the Installation Program
To start the installation, you must first boot the installation program. Please make sure you
have all the resources you will need for the installation. If you have already read through
Chapter 1 , and followed the instructions, you should be ready to begin.
Note
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver disk during the installation. A driver disk
adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the installation program. Refer to Appendix F for more information.
3.3.1. Booting the Installation Program
You can boot the Red Hat Linux installation program using any one of the following media
(depending upon what your system can support):
•
Bootable CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to
perform a local CD-ROM installation.
•
Local boot disk — Your machine will not support a bootable CD-ROM and you want to
install from a local CD-ROM or a hard drive.
•
Network boot disk — Use a network boot disk to install via NFS, FTP, and HTTP.
•
PCMCIA boot disks — Use PCMCIA boot disks when you need PCMCIA support, but
your machine does not support booting from the CD-ROM drive or if you need PCMCIA
support in order to make use of the CD-ROM drive on your system. The PCMCIA boot
disks can be used for all installation methods (CD-ROM, hard drive, NFS, FTP, and HTTP).
To create a boot disk, refer to Section 1.4.2.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
35
Insert the boot disk into your computer’s first diskette drive and reboot (or boot using the
CD-ROM, if your computer supports booting from it). Your BIOS settings may need to be
changed to allow you to boot from the diskette or CD-ROM.
Tip
To change your BIOS settings, watch the instructions provided on your display when your computer
first boots. You will see a line of text telling you to press the [Del] or [F1] key to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot
sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C]
or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the CD-ROM is first in your boot order and that
C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look at
the CD-ROM drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the CD-ROM drive, it will
then check your hard drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that
came with your system.
After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains
information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help screens
associated with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as listed in the
line at the bottom of the screen.
As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:
•
Once you see the boot: prompt, the installation program will automatically begin if you
take no action within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen
function keys.
•
If you press a help screen function key, there will be a slight delay while the help screen is
read from the boot media.
Normally, you only need to press [Enter] to boot. Watch the boot messages to see if the
Linux kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly detected, please continue
to the next section. If it does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the
installation in expert mode.
3.3.1.1. Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest for a user to boot from CD-ROM and perform a graphical installation,
sometimes there are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be
needed. This section discusses addition boot options available for Red Hat Linux.
•
If you are having trouble booting into the graphical installation program, you can try to
boot using the no framebuffer (nofb) boot option.
At the boot command, enter the following:
boot: nofb
This option allows you to use the graphical installation program without using a framebuffer.
•
If you do not wish to perform a graphical installation, you can start a text mode installation
using the following boot command:
boot: text
36
•
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
ISO images now have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of
an ISO image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
boot: linux mediacheck
The installation program will prompt you to insert a CD or select an ISO image to test, and
select OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be performed
on any Red Hat Linux CD and does not have to be performed in a specific order (for
example, CD #1 does not have the be the first CD you verify). It is strongly recommended
to perform this operation on any Red Hat Linux CD that was created from downloaded
ISO images. This procedure works with CD-based installations and hard drive and NFS
installations using ISO images.
•
If the installation program does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to
restart the installation in expert mode. Enter expert mode using the following boot command:
boot: linux noprobe
For text mode installations, use:
boot: text noprobe
Expert mode disables most hardware probing, and gives you the option of entering options for the drivers loaded during the installation.
Note
The initial boot messages will not contain any references to SCSI or network cards. This is normal;
these devices are supported by modules that are loaded during the installation process.
•
If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
boot: linux console= device
For text mode installations, use:
boot: linux text console= device
In the above command, device should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or
ttyS1). For example, linux console=ttyS0,115200n8.
3.3.1.2. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to instruct the kernel to use all the
RAM in a system with 128 MB of RAM, enter:
boot: linux mem=128M
For text mode installations, use:
boot: linux text mem=128M
After entering any options, press [Enter] to boot using those options.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
37
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The
boot options will be needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation
(please see Section 3.20 for more information).
3.3.1.3. Booting Without Diskettes
The Red Hat Linux CD-ROM can be booted by computers that support bootable CD-ROMs.
Not all computers support this feature, so if your system cannot boot from the CD-ROM,
there is one other way to start the installation without using a boot disk. The following
method is specific to x86-based computers only.
If you have MS-DOS installed on your system, you can boot directly from the CD-ROM
drive without using a boot disk. To do this (assuming your CD-ROM is drive d:), use the
following commands:
d:
C:\
D:\
cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils autoboot.bat
This method will not work if run in a DOS window — the autoboot.bat file must be executed with DOS as the only operating system. In other words, Windows cannot be running.
If your computer cannot boot directly from CD-ROM (and you cannot use a DOS-based
autoboot), you will have to use a boot diskette to get things started.
3.4. Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods
are available:
CD-ROM
If you have a CD-ROM drive and the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM, you can use this method.
You will need a boot disk or a bootable CD-ROM. PCMCIA boot and driver disks may
also be used. Refer to Section 3.5, for CD-ROM installation instructions.
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you can use this
method. You will need a boot disk. PCMCIA boot and driver disks may also be used.
Refer to Section 3.6, for hard drive installation instructions.
NFS Image
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat
Linux, you can use this method. You will need a network boot disk. PCMCIA boot and
driver disks may also be used. Refer to Section 3.8, for network installation instructions.
Please note that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
FTP
If you are installing directly from an FTP server, use this method. You will need a network boot disk. PCMCIA boot and driver disks may also be used. Refer to Section 3.9,
for FTP installation instructions.
HTTP
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server, use this method. You will need
a network boot disk. PCMCIA boot and driver disks may also be used. Refer to Section
3.10, for HTTP installation instructions.
3.5. Installing from CD-ROM
Note
If you already have another operating system installed and want to create a dual boot system so that
you can use both Red Hat Linux and the other operating system, read Appendix G for details.
To install Red Hat Linux from a CD-ROM, choose the CD-ROM option from the boot loader
screen and select OK. When prompted, insert the Red Hat Linux CD into your CD-ROM
drive (if you did not boot from the CD-ROM). Once the CD is in the CD-ROM drive, select
OK, and press [Enter].
The installation program will then probe your system and attempt to identify your CD-ROM
drive. It will start by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) CD-ROM drive. If found,
you will continue to the next stage of the installation process (see Section 3.12).
Note
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot diskette or
CD-ROM. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the About to Install screen. See
Section 3.30 for more information.
If a CD-ROM drive is not detected, you will be asked what type of CD-ROM drive you have.
Choose from the following types:
SCSI
Select this if your CD-ROM drive is attached to a supported SCSI adapter; the installation program will then ask you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most
closely resembles your adapter. You may specify options for the driver if necessary;
however, most drivers will detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
39
Other
If your CD-ROM drive is neither an IDE nor a SCSI, it is an other. Sound cards with
proprietary CD-ROM interfaces are good examples of this type of CD-ROM. The installation program will display a list of drivers for supported CD-ROM drives — choose a
driver and, if necessary, specify any driver options. It is recommended that you use the
oldcdrom.img image file
Tip
A partial list of optional parameters for CD-ROM drives can be found in the Official Red Hat Linux
Reference Guide, in the General Parameters and Modules appendix.
3.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
If you have an IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM, but the installation program fails to find your IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM and asks you what type of CD-ROM drive you have, try the following boot
command. Restart the installation, and at the boot: prompt enter linux hdX=cdrom. Replace the X with one of the following letters, depending on the interface the unit is connected
to, and whether it is configured as master or slave (also known as primary and secondary):
• a
— first IDE controller, master
• b
— first IDE controller, slave
• c
— second IDE controller, master
• d
— second IDE controller, slave
If you have a third and/or fourth controller, continue assigning letters in alphabetical order,
going from controller to controller, and master to slave.
3.6. Installing from a Hard Drive
Note
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, or FAT file systems. If you have a file system other
than those listed here, such as reiserfs, you will not be able to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations require the use of the ISO (or CD-ROM) images rather than copying
an entire installation tree. After placing the required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Linux
CD-ROMs) in a directory, choose to install from the hard drive. You will then point the
installation program at that directory to perform the installation.
Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation will help to avoid
problems that are often encountered during a hard drive installation. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an md5sum program (many md5sum
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
programs are available for various operating systems). An md5sum program should be
available on the same server as the ISO images.
Note
ISO images now have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO
image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
boot: linux mediacheck
The Select Partition screen (Figure 3-3) applies only if you are installing from a disk partition
(that is, if you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows
you to name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Linux.
Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat ISO images. There is also
a field labeled Directory holding images. If the ISO images are not in the root directory
of that partition, enter the path to the ISO images (for example, if the ISO images are in
/test/new/RedHat, you would enter /test/new).
After you have identified the disk partition, you will next see the Welcome dialog.
Figure 3-3. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
3.7. Preparing for a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation and have booted from a boot disk with the
bootnet.img image, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears; for an explanation of this dialog,
go to Section 3.22, and then return here.
3.7.1. Setting Up the Server
Because the Red Hat Linux 7.3 installation program is capable of installing Red Hat Linux
from multiple CD-ROMs, if you intend to support NFS, FTP, or HTTP installations you must
copy the RedHat directory from each CD-ROM comprising Red Hat Linux 7.3 onto a disk
drive:
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
•
41
Insert CD-ROM 1 and execute the following commands:
•
mount /mnt/cdrom
•
cp -var /mnt/cdrom/RedHat /location/of/disk/space
Where /location/of/disk/space is a directory you create such as /export/7.3/.
•
•
umount /mnt/cdrom
Insert CD-ROM 2 and execute the following commands:
•
mount /mnt/cdrom
•
cp -var /mnt/cdrom/RedHat /location/of/disk/space
Where /location/of/disk/space is a directory you create such as /export/7.3/.
•
•
umount /mnt/cdrom
Next, make /location/of/disk/space accessible to the installation program (for example, exporting it for NFS installations).
Export /location/of/disk/space
If you are not sure how to do this, refer to the Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and
the Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide for more information.
3.7.1.1. Using ISO Images for NFS Installs
NFS installations can use ISO (or CD-ROM) images rather than copying an entire installation tree. After placing the required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Linux CD-ROMs) in
a directory, choose to install via NFS. You will then point the installation program at that
directory to perform the installation.
Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation will help to avoid
problems that are often encountered during an NFS installation. To verify the ISO images
are intact prior to performing an installation, use an md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An md5sum program should be available on the same server as the ISO images.
Note
ISO images now have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO
image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
boot: linux mediacheck
Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the directory from which you install, then
it will be used for Anaconda updates. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat Linux,
as well as how to apply Anaconda updates.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
3.8. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog (Figure 3-4) applies only if you are installing from an NFS server (if you
booted from a network or PCMCIA boot disks and selected NFS Image in the Installation
Method dialog).
Figure 3-4. NFS Setup Dialog
Enter the fully-qualified domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if
you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain redhat.com, enter eastcoast.redhat.com in the NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section
3.7, you would enter the directory /location/of/disk/space/ which contains the RedHat
directory.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Linux installation tree, enter the directory which contains the RedHat directory. (If you do not know this directory path, ask
your system administrator.) For example, if your NFS server contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/RedHat, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386.
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO images of the Red Hat Linux CD-ROMs, enter the
directory which contains the ISO images.
Next you will see the Welcome dialog.
3.9. Installing via FTP
The FTP dialog (Figure 3-5) applies only if you are installing from an FTP server (if you
selected FTP in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to identify the FTP
server from which you are installing Red Hat Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP site you are installing from, and the name of the directory containing the RedHat installation files for your architecture. For example, if the FTP
site contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/RedHat, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
43
Figure 3-5. FTP Setup Dialog
If everything has been specified properly, a message box appears indicating that
base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Next you will see the Welcome dialog.
Tip
You can also install Red Hat Linux using ISO images without copying them into a single tree by
loopback mounting them as:
disc1/,disc2/,disc3/
3.10. Installing via HTTP
The HTTP dialog (Figure 3-6) applies only if you are installing from an HTTP server (if you
selected HTTP in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information
about the HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the HTTP site you are installing from, and the name of
the directory there containing the RedHat installation files for your architecture. For example, if the HTTP site contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/RedHat, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-6. HTTP Setup Dialog
If everything has been specified properly, a message box appears indicating that
base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Next you will see the Welcome dialog.
3.11. Welcome to Red Hat Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. Please read over the help text in
the left panel for additional instructions and information on where to register your Official
Red Hat Linux product.
Please notice the Hide Help button at the bottom left corner of the screen. The help screen
is open by default. If you do not want to view the help information, click on Hide Help to
minimize the help portion of the screen.
Click on the Next button to continue.
3.12. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select the language you would prefer to use for the installation and as
the system default (see Figure 3-7).
Selecting the appropriate language will also help target your time zone configuration later in
the installation. The installation program will try to define the appropriate time zone based
on what you specify on this screen.
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
45
Figure 3-7. Language Selection
3.13. Keyboard Configuration
Choose the keyboard model that best fits your system (see Figure 3-8). If you cannot find an
exact match, choose the best Generic match for your keyboard type (for example, Generic
101-key PC).
Next, choose the correct layout type for your keyboard (for example, U.S. English).
Creating special characters with multiple keystrokes (such as Ñ, Ô, and Ç) is done using
"dead keys" (also known as compose key sequences). Dead keys are enabled by default. If
you do not wish to use them, select Disable dead keys.
Tip
The following example will help you determine if you need dead keys enabled. An example of a dead
key is the backspace (^H) key on a US English 101 Standard Keyboard. Dead keys are not exclusive
to non-English keyboards.
To test your keyboard configuration, use the blank text field at the bottom of the screen to
enter text.
Once you have made the appropriate selections, click Next to continue.
Tip
To change your keyboard type after you have installed Red Hat Linux, log in as root and use the
/usr/sbin/kbdconfig command. Alternatively, you can type setup at the root prompt.
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press [Enter]. Then,
enter the root password.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-8. Keyboard Configuration
Tip
To re-enable dead keys (assuming you chose to disable them during the installation), you must comment out the line disabling dead keys in the XF86Config-4 file (or, it you are using XFree86 version
3, the XF86Config file) in /etc/X11.
An InputDevice section, that would disable dead keys on a keyboard layout that used dead keys (for
example, German), would look similar to the following:
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Keyboard0"
Driver
"keyboard"
Option
"XkbRules" "xfree86"
Option
"XkbModel" "pc101"
Option
"XkbLayout" "de"
#
Option
"XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
EndSection
By default, the keyboard layout for various languages which use dead keys should have them enabled
unless the nodeadkeys option is present.
3.14. Mouse Configuration
Choose the correct mouse type for your system. If you cannot find an exact match, choose a
mouse type that you are sure is compatible with your system (see Figure 3-9).
To determine your mouse’s interface, follow the mouse cable back to where it plugs into
your system and use the following diagrams. If you are installing Red Hat Linux on a laptop
computer, in most cases the pointing device will be PS/2 compatible.
If your mouse is a serial mouse, the port will look similar to
.
If your mouse is a PS/2 mouse, the port will look similar to
.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
If your mouse is a USB mouse, the port will look similar to
47
.
If your mouse is a AT (Advanced Technology) mouse, the port will look similar to
.
If you cannot find a mouse that you are sure is compatible with your system, select one of
the Generic entries, based on your mouse’s number of buttons, and its interface.
Tip
If you have a scroll mouse, select the MS Intellimouse entry (with your proper mouse port) as the
compatible mouse type.
Figure 3-9. Mouse Configuration
If you have a PS/2 or a bus mouse, you do not need to pick a port and device. If you have a
serial mouse, you should choose the correct port and device that your serial mouse is on.
The Emulate 3 Buttons checkbox allows you to use a two-button mouse as if it had three
buttons. In general, the X Window System is easier to use with a three-button mouse. If
you select this checkbox, you can emulate a third, "middle" button by pressing both mouse
buttons simultaneously.
Tip
To change your mouse configuration after you have completed the installation of Red Hat Linux,
become root; then use the /usr/sbin/mouseconfig command from a shell prompt.
To configure your mouse to work as a left-handed mouse, reset the order of the mouse buttons. To do
this, after you have booted your Red Hat Linux system, type gpm -B 321 at the shell prompt. You can
also change this setting in GNOME by going to the main menu and selecting Programs => Settings
=> Peripherals => Mouse. In KDE, select Preferences => Peripherals => Mouse.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
3.15. Install Options
Choose the type of installation you would like to perform (see Figure 3-10). Red Hat Linux
allows you to choose the installation type that best fits your needs. Your options are Workstation, Server, Laptop, Custom, and Upgrade.
Figure 3-10. Choosing Install or Upgrade
To perform an upgrade, please refer to Appendix A.
For more information about the different installation classes, please refer to Section 1.5.
3.16. Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run more than one
operating system. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read
Appendix E for more information.
On this screen, you can choose to perform automatic partitioning, or manual partitioning
using Disk Druid or fdisk (see Figure 3-11).
Automatic partitioning allows you to perform an installation without having to partition
your drive(s) yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is
recommended that you do not choose to partition manually and instead let the installation
program partition for you.
To partition manually, choose either the Disk Druid or fdisk (recommended for experts
only) partitioning tool.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
49
Figure 3-11. Disk Partitioning Setup
If you chose to manually partition using Disk Druid, refer to Section 3.18.
If you chose to manually partition using fdisk, refer to Section 3.19.
3.17. Automatic Partitioning
Automatic partitioning allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed
(if any) from your system. Your options are:
•
Remove all Linux partitions on this system — select this option to remove only Linux
partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation). This will not remove
other partitions you may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
•
Remove all partitions on this system — select this option to remove all partitions on
your hard drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as
Windows 95/98/NT/2000).
Caution
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive(s) will be removed by the installation
program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard drive(s)
where you are installing Red Hat Linux.
•
Keep all partitions and use existing free space — select this option to retain your current
data and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your hard drive(s).
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-12. Automatic Partitioning
Using your mouse, choose the hard drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Linux to be installed. If you have two or more hard drives, you can choose which hard drive(s) should
contain this installation. Unselected hard drives, and any data on them, will not be touched.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward,
you will see the partitions created for you in Disk Druid. You will also be able to make
modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
3.18. Partitioning Your System
If you chose automatic partitioning and did not select Review, please skip ahead to Section
3.22.
If you chose automatic partitioning and selected Review, you can either accept the current
partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup using Disk Druid, the manual partitioning tool.
If you chose Manually partition with fdisk, please skip ahead to Section 3.19.
At this point, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat Linux. This is
done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat Linux will
be installed. You may also need to create and/or delete partitions at this time (refer to Figure
3-13).
Note
If you have not yet planned how you will set up your partitions, refer to Appendix E. At a bare minimum,
you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and a swap partition equal to twice the amount of RAM
you have on the system.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
51
Figure 3-13. Partitioning with Disk Druid
The partitioning tool used in Red Hat Linux 7.3 is Disk Druid. With the exception of certain
esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical Red
Hat Linux installation.
3.18.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your hard drive(s).
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Doubleclick to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
Above the display, you will see the drive name (such as /dev/hda), the geom (which shows
the hard disk’s geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders, heads, and sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the model of the hard drive as
detected by the installation program.
3.18.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons
These buttons control Disk Druid’s actions. They are used to change the attributes of a partition (for example the file system type and mount point) and also to create RAID devices.
Buttons on this screen are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to exit Disk
Druid. For further explanation, take a look at each button in order:
•
New: Used to request a new partition. When selected, a dialog box appears containing
fields (such as mount point and size) that must be filled in.
•
Edit: Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section.
Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending on
whether the partition information has already been written to disk.
You can also edit free space as represented in the graphical display to create a new partition within that space. Either highlight the free space and then select the Edit button, or
double-click on the free space to edit it.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
•
Delete: Used to remove the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions
section. You will be asked to confirm the deletion of any partition.
•
Reset: Used to restore Disk Druid to its original state. All changes made will be lost if you
Reset the partitions.
•
Make RAID: Make RAID can be used if you want to provide redundancy to any or all
disk partitions. It should only be used if you have experience using RAID. To read more about
RAID, please refer to RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Official Red Hat
Linux Customization Guide.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select Make RAID to join the software
RAID partitions into a RAID device.
3.18.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you
are creating. The labels are defined as follows:
•
Device: This field displays the partition’s device name.
•
Start: This field shows the sector on your hard drive where the partition begins.
•
End: This field shows the sector on your hard drive where the partition ends.
•
Size: This field shows the partition’s size (in MB).
•
Type: This field shows the partition’s type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat).
•
Mount Point: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at which a
volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field indicates where the
partition will be mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its
mount point. Double-click on the partition or click the Edit button.
•
Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted.
3.18.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
partitions:
•
A swap partition (at least 32 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory.
In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store
the data your system is processing. The size of your swap partition should be equal to
twice your computer’s RAM, or 32 MB, whichever amount is larger, but no more than
2048 MB (or 2 GB). In Disk Druid, the partition field for swap should look similar to the
following:
Swap
hda6
64M
64M
Linux swap
For example, if you have 1 GB of RAM or less, your swap partition should be at least
equal to the amount of RAM on your system, up to two times the RAM. For more than 1
GB of RAM, 2 GB of swap is recommended. Creating a large swap space partition will be
especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
•
53
A /boot partition (50 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Linux), along with files used during
the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC BIOSes, creating a small partition
to hold these files is a good idea. For most users, a 50 MB boot partition is sufficient. In
Disk Druid, the partition field for /boot should look similar to:
/boot
hda1
50M
50M
Linux native
Caution
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was manufactured more than two
years ago), you may need to create a /boot partition if you want the / (root) partition to use all of
the remaining space on your hard drive.
•
A root partition (1.5-3.7 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) will be located. In this
setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition. A 1.5 GB root partition will permit the equivalent of a workstation installation (with very little free space),
while a 3.7 GB root partition will let you install every package. In Disk Druid, the partition
field for / should look similar to:
/
hda5
3734M
3734M
Linux native
3.18.5. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the New button. A dialog box appears (see Figure 3-14).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition to Red Hat Linux, and optionally more. For more information,
see Appendix E.
Figure 3-14. Creating a New Partition
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
•
Mount Point: Enter the partition’s mount point. For example, if this partition should be
the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also
use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition.
•
File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for
this partition. For more information on file system types, see Section 3.18.5.1.
•
Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a
hard disk’s box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If
the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using
different checkbox settings, you can have Disk Druid place partitions as you see fit, or let
Disk Druid decide where partitions should go.
•
Size (Megs): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with a "1"
(one); unless changed, only a 1 MB partition will be created.
•
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it
to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow
to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the
right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard
drive for future use.
•
Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be
one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition created will be
a logical partition. See Section E.1.3, for more information.
•
Check for bad blocks: Checking for bad blocks can help prevent data loss by locating the
bad blocks on a drive and making a list of them to prevent using them in the future. If you
wish to check for bad blocks while formatting each file system, please make sure to select
this option.
Selecting Check for bad blocks may dramatically increase your total installation time.
Since most newer hard drives are quite large in size, checking for bad blocks may take
a long time; the length of time depends on the size of your hard drive. If you choose to
check for bad blocks, you can monitor your progress on virtual console #6.
•
Ok: Select Ok once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
•
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
3.18.5.1. File System Types
Red Hat Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file system they
will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems available, and how
they can be utilized.
•
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories,
symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
Versions prior to Red Hat Linux 7.2 used ext2 file systems by default.
•
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage
— journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
55
after a crash as there is no need to fsck1 the file system. The ext3 file system will selected
by default and is highly recommended.
•
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a
RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant
Array of Independent Disks) in the Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.
•
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is
processing.
•
vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Windows
95/NT long filenames on the FAT file system.
3.18.6. Editing Partitions
To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition.
Note
If the partition already exists on your hard disk, you will only be able to change the partition’s mount
point. If you want to make any other changes, you will need to delete the partition and recreate it.
3.18.7. Deleting a Partition
To delete a partition, highlight it in the Partitions section and click the Delete button. You
will be asked to confirm the deletion.
Skip to Section 3.20 for further installation instructions.
3.19. Partitioning with fdisk
This section applies only if you chose to use fdisk to partition your system.
To partition your system without using fdisk, please skip to Section 3.17 for automatic partitioning or Section 3.18 for partitioning with Disk Druid.
If you have already completed disk partitioning, skip to Section 3.20 for further installation
instructions.
Caution
Unless you have previously used fdisk and understand how it works, we do not recommend that you
use it. It is much easier for new users to accidentally corrupt or lose data using fdisk .
Disk Druid is easier to understand than fdisk. To exit fdisk, click Back to return to the previous
screen, deselect fdisk, and then click Next.
1.
The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally repair
one or more Linux file systems.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
If you have chosen to use fdisk, the next screen will prompt you to select a drive to partition
using fdisk. Once you have chosen which drive to partition, you will be presented with the
fdisk command screen. If you do not know what command to use, type [m] at the prompt
for help.
When you are finished making partitions, type [w] to save your changes and quit. You will
be taken back to the original fdisk screen where you can partition another drive or continue
the installation.
Note
None of the changes you make take effect until you save them and exit fdisk using the w command.
You can quit fdisk at any time without saving changes using the q command.
After you have partitioned your drive(s), click Next. You will need to use Disk Druid to
assign mount points to the partitions you just created with fdisk.
You will not be able to add new partitions using Disk Druid, but you can edit mount points
for the partitions you have already created. For each partition created with fdisk, click on
the Edit button, choose the appropriate mount point for that partition from the pull-down
menu, and click on OK.
3.20. Boot Loader Installation
In order to boot your Red Hat Linux system without a boot disk, you usually need to install
a boot loader. You can choose to install either GRUB (selected by default), LILO, or you can
choose not to install a boot loader at all.
First, select which boot loader you want to install. If you do not want to overwrite your
current boot loader, choose Do not install a boot loader.
Caution
If you choose not to install GRUB or LILO for any reason, you will not be able to boot your Red Hat
Linux system directly, and you will need to use another boot method (such as a boot diskette). Use
this option only if you are sure you have another way of booting your Red Hat Linux system!
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
57
Figure 3-15. Boot Loader Installation
Assuming you chose GRUB or LILO, you must now determine where you want the boot
loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
The master boot record (MBR)
This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless the MBR already starts
another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special
area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer’s BIOS, and is
the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you
install it in the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB (or LILO) will present a boot
prompt. You can then boot Red Hat Linux or any other operating system that you have
configured the boot loader to boot.
The first sector of your boot partition
This is recommended if you are already using another boot loader on your system. In
this case, your other boot loader will take control first. You can then configure that boot
loader to start GRUB (or LILO), which will then boot Red Hat Linux.
If your system will use only Red Hat Linux, you should choose the MBR. For systems with
Windows 95/98, you should also install the boot loader to the MBR so that it can boot both
operating systems.
If you wish to add default options to GRUB or LILO’s boot command, enter them into the
Kernel parameters field. Any options you enter will be passed to the Linux kernel every
time it boots.
The Force use of LBA32 (not normally required) option allows you to exceed the 1024 cylinder limit for the /boot partition. If you have a system which supports the LBA32 extension
for booting operating systems above the 1024 cylinder limit, and you want to place your
/boot partition above cylinder 1024, you should select this option.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems. The
partition holding your Red Hat Linux system’s root file system will have a Boot label of Red
Hat Linux (for GRUB) or linux (for LILO). Other partitions may also have boot labels. If
you would like to add boot labels for other partitions (or change an existing boot label), click
once on the partition to select it. Once selected, you can change the boot label by editing the
name in the Boot label text field.
Note
The Boot label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders,
in order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type e
for edit. You will be presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have
selected.
At the graphical LILO screen, press [Ctrl]-[x] to exit to the boot: prompt. If you forget the boot labels
defined on your system, you can always press [Tab] at the prompt to display a list of defined boot
labels.
3.20.1. Rescue Mode
If you need to use rescue mode, there are several options available to you.
•
Using the CD-ROM to boot, type linux rescue at the boot: prompt.
•
By booting your system from an installation boot diskette made from the boot.img image.
This method requires that the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM #1 be inserted as the rescue image
or that the rescue image be on the hard drive as an ISO image. Once you have booted
using this diskette, type linux rescue at the boot: prompt.
•
By booting from a network disk made from the bootnet.img or PCMCIA boot disk made
from pcmcia.img. Once you have booted using this diskette, type linux rescue at the
boot: prompt. You can only do this if your network connection is working. You will need
to identify the network host and transfer type. For an explanation of how to specify this
information, see Section 3.7.
For more information, refer to the Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.
3.20.2. Alternative Boot Loaders
If you do not wish to use a boot loader, you have several alternatives:
Boot disk
You can use the boot disk created by the installation program (if you create one).
LOADLIN
You can load Linux from MS-DOS. Unfortunately, this requires a copy of the Linux
kernel (and an initial RAM disk, if you have a SCSI adapter) to be available on an MSDOS partition. The only way to accomplish this is to boot your Red Hat Linux system
using some other method (for example, from a boot disk) and then copy the kernel to
an MS-DOS partition. LOADLIN is available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/dualboot/
and associated mirror sites.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
59
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX is an MS-DOS program very similar to LOADLIN. It is also available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/loaders/
and associated mirror sites.
Some commercial boot loaders
You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. For example, System Commander
and Partition Magic are able to boot Linux (but still require GRUB or LILO to be installed
in your Linux root partition).
3.20.3. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
This section is specific to SMP motherboards only. SMP, short for Symmetric Multiprocessing, is a computer architecture providing fast performance by making multiple CPUs available to complete individual processes simultaneously (multiprocessing).
If the installation program detects an SMP motherboard on your system, it will automatically create two /boot/grub/grub.conf or /etc/lilo.conf entries (depending on the boot
loader you installed), rather than the usual single entry.
Note
Intel® Pentium® 4 systems with hyperthreading will have an SMP kernel installed by default.
The two entries in grub.conf will be Red Hat Linux (kernel version) and Red Hat
Linux (kernel versions-smp). The Red Hat Linux (kernel version-smp) will boot
by default. However, if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to boot the Red
Hat Linux (kernel version) entry instead. You will retain all the functionality as before,
but you will only be operating with a single processor.
The two entries in lilo.conf will be linux and linux-up. The linux entry will boot by
default. However, if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to boot the linuxup entry instead. You will retain all the functionality as before, but you will only be operating
with a single processor.
3.21. GRUB Password
If you did not select GRUB as your boot loader, or did not install a boot loader, skip to Section
3.22.
GRUB passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access
to your server is available.
If you are installing GRUB as your boot loader, you should create a password to protect your
system. Without a GRUB password, users with access to your system can pass options to the
kernel which can compromise your system security. With a GRUB password in place, the
password must first be entered in order to select any non-standard boot options.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-16. GRUB Password
If you choose to use a GRUB password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the
checkbox labeled Use a GRUB Password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
3.22. Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device, you will not see this screen. Skip ahead to Section 3.23.
If you have a network device and you have not already configured your networking (such
as booting from a network boot disk you created and entering in your network information
as prompted), you now have the opportunity (as shown in Figure 3-17) to do so.
If you have multiple devices, you will see a tab for each device. You may switch between
devices (for example, between eth0 and eth1) and the information you provide on each tab
will be specific to each device.
Indicate if you would like to configure your IP address using DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). If you select Activate on boot, your network interface will be started
when you boot. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure what to provide
here, please contact your network administrator.
Next enter, where applicable, the IP Address, Netmask, Network, and Broadcast addresses.
If you are unsure about any of these, please contact your network administrator.
If you have a fully qualified domain name for the network device, enter it in the Hostname
field.
Finally, enter the Gateway and Primary DNS (and if applicable the Secondary DNS and
Ternary DNS) addresses.
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61
Figure 3-17. Network Configuration
Note
Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will not work for your own
network configuration. If you are not sure what values to enter, contact your network administrator for
assistance.
Tip
Even if your computer is not part of a network, you can enter a hostname for your system. If you do
not take this opportunity to enter a name, your system will be known as localhost.
3.23. Firewall Configuration
Red Hat Linux offers firewall protection for enhanced system security. A firewall exists between your computer and the network, and determines which resources on your computer
remote users on the network can access. A properly configured firewall can greatly increase
the security of your system.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-18. Firewall Configuration
Choose the appropriate security level for your system.
High
If you choose High, your system will not accept connections (other than the default settings) that are not explicitly defined by you. By default, only the following connections
are allowed:
•
DNS replies
•
DHCP — so any network interfaces that use DHCP can be properly configured
If you choose High, your firewall will not allow the following:
•
Active mode FTP (passive mode FTP, used by default in most clients, should still
work)
•
IRC DCC file transfers
•
RealAudio™
•
Remote X Window System clients
If you are connecting your system to the Internet, but do not plan to run a server, this is
the safest choice. If additional services are needed, you can choose Customize to allow
specific services through the firewall.
Note
If you select a medium or high firewall to be setup during this installation, network authentication
methods (NIS and LDAP) will not work.
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63
Medium
If you choose Medium, your firewall will not allow remote machines to have access to
certain resources on your system. By default, access to the following resources are not
allowed:
•
Ports lower than 1023 — the standard reserved ports, used by most system services,
such as FTP, SSH, telnet, HTTP, and NIS.
•
The NFS server port (2049) — NFS is disabled for both remote severs and local clients.
•
The local X Window System display for remote X clients.
•
The X Font server port (by default, xfs does not listen on the network; it is disabled in
the font server).
If you want to allow resources such as RealAudio™ while still blocking access to normal
system services, choose Medium. Select Customize to allow specific services through
the firewall.
Note
If you select a medium or high firewall to be setup during this installation, network authentication
methods (NIS and LDAP) will not work.
No Firewall
No firewall provides complete access to your system and does no security checking. Security checking is the disabling of access to certain services. This should only be selected
if you are running on a trusted network (not the Internet) or plan to do more firewall
configuration later.
Choose Customize to add trusted devices or to allow additional incoming services.
Trusted Devices
Selecting any of the Trusted Devices allows access to your system for all traffic from
that device; it is excluded from the firewall rules. For example, if you are running a local
network, but are connected to the Internet via a PPP dialup, you can check eth0 and any
traffic coming from your local network will be allowed. Selecting eth0 as trusted means
all traffic over the Ethernet is allowed, put the ppp0 interface is still firewalled. If you
want to restrict traffic on an interface, leave it unchecked.
It is not recommended that you make any device that is connected to public networks,
such as the Internet, a Trusted Device.
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Allow Incoming
Enabling these options allow the specified services to pass through the firewall. Note,
during a workstation installation, the majority of these services are not installed on the
system.
DHCP
If you allow incoming DHCP queries and replies, you allow any network interface
that uses DHCP to determine its IP address. DHCP is normally enabled. If DHCP
is not enabled, your computer can no longer get an IP address.
SSH
Secure SHell (SSH) is a suite of tools for logging into and executing commands on a
remote machine. If you plan to use SSH tools to access your machine through a firewall, enable this option. You need to have the openssh-server package installed
in order to access your machine remotely, using SSH tools.
Telnet
Telnet is a protocol for logging into remote machines. Telnet communications are
unencrypted and provide no security from network snooping. Allowing incoming
Telnet access is not recommended. If you do want to allow inbound Telnet access,
you will need to install the telnet-server package.
WWW (HTTP)
The HTTP protocol is used by Apache (and by other Web servers) to serve webpages. If you plan on making your Web server publicly available, enable this option.
This option is not required for viewing pages locally or for developing webpages.
You will need to install the apache package if you want to serve webpages.
Enabling WWW (HTTP) will not open a port for HTTPS. To enable HTTPS, specify
it in the Other ports field.
Mail (SMTP)
If you want to allow incoming mail delivery through your firewall, so that remote
hosts can connect directly to your machine to deliver mail, enable this option. You
do not need to enable this if you collect your mail from your ISP’s server using
POP3 or IMAP, or if you use a tool such as fetchmail. Note that an improperly
configured SMTP server can allow remote machines to use your server to send
spam.
FTP
The FTP protocol is used to transfer files between machines on a network. If you
plan on making your FTP server publicly available, enable this option. You need to
install the wu-ftpd (and possibly the anonftp) package for this option to be useful.
Other ports
You can allow access to ports which are not listed here, by listing them in the Other
ports field. Use the following format: port:protocol. For example, if you want to
allow IMAP access through your firewall, you can specify imap:tcp. You can also
explicitly specify numeric ports; to allow UDP packets on port 1234 through the
firewall, enter 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them with commas.
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65
3.24. Language Support Selection
Red Hat Linux can install and support multiple languages for use on your system.
You must select a language to use as the default language. The default language will be used
on your Red Hat Linux system once installation is complete. If you choose to install other
languages, you can change your default language after the installation.
If you are only going to use one language on your system, selecting only that language will
save significant disk space. The default language is the language you selected to use during
the installation. However, if you select only one language, you will only be able to use that
specified language after the Red Hat Linux installation is complete.
Figure 3-19. Language Support Selection
To use more than one language on your system, choose specific languages to be installed or
select all languages to have all available languages installed on your Red Hat Linux system.
Use the Reset button to cancel your selections. Resetting will revert to the default; only the
language you selected for use during the installation will be installed.
3.25. Time Zone Configuration
You can set your time zone by selecting your computer’s physical location or by specifying
your time zone’s offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Notice the two tabs at the top of the screen (see Figure 3-20). The first tab allows you to
configure your time zone by your location. You can specify different areas to view: World,
North America, South America, Pacific Rim, Europe, Africa, and Asia.
On the interactive map, you can also click on a specific city, which is marked by a yellow dot;
a red X will appear indicating your selection. You can also scroll through a list and choose a
time zone.
The second tab allows you to specify a UTC offset. The tab displays a list of offsets to choose
from, as well as an option to set daylight saving time.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-20. Configuring the Time Zone
On both tabs, you can select System Clock uses UTC. Please select this if you know that
your system is set to UTC.
Tip
If you wish to change your time zone configuration after you have booted your Red Hat Linux system,
become root and use the /usr/sbin/timeconfig command.
3.26. Account Configuration
The Account Configuration screen allows you to set your root password. Additionally, you
can set up user accounts for you to log in to once the installation is complete (see Figure
3-21).
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67
Figure 3-21. Account Creation
3.26.1. Setting the Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT
machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most
system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your
general use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules will
minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
Tip
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press [Enter]. Then,
enter the root password and press [Enter].
The installation program will prompt you to set a root password2 for your system. You must
enter a root password. The installation program will not let you proceed to the next section
without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed
to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the
installation program will ask you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that
is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with
upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your
2.
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Linux system. You should only
log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the
restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your
entire system.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down
this or any password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.
3.26.2. Setting Up User Accounts
If you choose to create a user account now, you will have an account to log in to once the
installation has completed. This allows you to safely and easily log into your computer without having to be root to create your user account.
Enter an account name. Then enter and confirm a password for that user account. Enter the
full name of the account user and press Add. Your account information will be added to the
account list, and the user account fields will be cleared so that you can add another user.
Figure 3-22. Creating a User Account
Choose New to add a new, non-root, user. Enter the user’s information and use the Add
button to add the user to the account list.
You can also Edit or Delete the user accounts you have created and no longer want.
3.27. Authentication Configuration
If you are performing a workstation, laptop, or server installation, please skip ahead to Section 3.28.
You may skip this section if you will not be setting up network passwords. If you do not
know whether you should do this, please ask your system administrator for assistance.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
69
Unless you are setting up NIS authentication, you will notice that only MD5 and shadow
passwords are selected (see Figure 3-23). We recommend you use both to make your machine
as secure as possible.
To configure the NIS option, you must be connected to an NIS network. If you are not sure
whether you are connected to an NIS network, please ask your system administrator.
Figure 3-23. Authentication Configuration
•
Enable MD5 passwords — allows a long password to be used (up to 256 characters),
instead of the standard eight letters or less.
•
Enable shadow passwords — provides a secure method for retaining passwords. The
passwords are stored in /etc/shadow, which can only be read by root.
•
Enable NIS — allows you to run a group of computers in the same Network Information Service domain with a common password and group file. You can choose from the
following options:
•
NIS Domain — allows you to specify the domain or group of computers your system
belongs to.
•
Use broadcast to find NIS server — allows you to broadcast a message to your local
area network to find an available NIS server.
•
NIS Server — causes your computer to use a specific NIS server, rather than broadcasting a message to the local area network asking for any available server to host your
system.
Note
If you have selected a medium or high firewall to be setup during this installation, network authentication methods (NIS and LDAP) will not work.
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•
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Enable LDAP — tells your computer to use LDAP for some or all authentication. LDAP
consolidates certain types of information within your organization. For example, all of
the different lists of users within your organization can be merged into one LDAP directory. For more information about LDAP, refer to the Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide,
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). You can choose from the following options:
•
LDAP Server — allows you to access a specified server (by providing an IP address)
running the LDAP protocol.
•
LDAP Base DN — allows you to look up user information by its Distinguished Name
(DN).
•
Use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups — this option allows LDAP to send encrypted user names and passwords to an LDAP server before authentication.
Enable Kerberos — Kerberos is a secure system for providing network authentication
services. For more information about Kerberos, see Using Kerberos 5 on Red Hat Linux in
the Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. There are three options to choose from here:
•
Realm — this option allows you to access a network that uses Kerberos, composed of
one or a few servers (also known as KDCs) and a potentially large number of clients.
•
KDC — this option allows you access to the Key Distribution Center (KDC), a machine
that issues Kerberos tickets (sometimes called a Ticket Granting Server or TGS).
•
Admin Server — this option allows you to access a server running kadmind.
Enable SMB Authentication — Sets up PAM to use an SMB server to authenticate users.
You must supply two pieces of information here:
•
SMB Server — Indicates which SMB server your workstation will connect to for authentication.
•
SMB Workgroup — Indicates which workgroup the configured SMB servers are in.
3.28. Package Group Selection
After your partitions have been selected and configured for formatting, you are ready to
select packages for installation.
Note
Unless you choose a custom installation, the installation program will automatically choose most
packages for you. However, you must select either GNOME or KDE (or both) to install a graphical
environment.
GNOME and KDE are both graphical desktop environments3 that handle the overall look
and feel of your system. You must choose one of these to have a default graphical setup, but
you can also install both to determine for yourself which you prefer.
3.
A desktop environment in Linux is similar to the environment you might see in other operating
systems. However, environments differ in their look and feel and are easily customized for your individual needs.
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71
If you do not have enough space (at least 1.8 GB) to install both GNOME and KDE, Section
3.28.2 and Section 3.28.3 should make the choice a little easier for you.
You can select components, which group packages together according to function (for example, C Development, Networked Workstation, or Web Server), individual packages, or
a combination of the two.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (see Figure 3-24).
Figure 3-24. Package Group Selection
Select each component you wish to install. Selecting Everything (at the end of the component
list) during a custom installation installs all packages included with Red Hat Linux. If you
select every package, you will need approximately 3.7 GB of free disk space.
To select packages individually, check the Select Individual Packages box at the bottom of
the screen.
3.28.1. Selecting Individual Packages
After selecting the components you wish to install, you can select or deselect individual
packages using your mouse (see Figure 3-25).
You can choose to view the individual packages in tree view or flat view.
Tree view allows you to see the packages grouped by application type.
Flat view allows you to see all of the packages in an alphabetical listing on the right of the
screen.
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Figure 3-25. Selecting Individual Packages
Using Tree view, you see a listing of package groups. When you expand this list (by doubleclicking on the folder arrow beside a package group name) and pick one group, the list of
packages in that group appears in the panel on the right. Flat view allows you to see all of
the packages in an alphabetical listing on the right of the screen.
To sort packages alphabetically, click on the Package tab. To sort packages by size, click on
the Size (MB) tab.
To select an individual package, double-click the checkbox beside the package name. A check
mark in the box means that a package has been selected.
For more information about a specific package, click on the individual package name. The
package information will appear at the bottom of the screen.
You can also select or deselect all packages listed within a particular group, by clicking on
the Select all in group or Unselect all in group buttons.
Note
Some packages (such as the kernel and certain libraries) are required for every Red Hat Linux system
and are not available to select or deselect. These base packages are selected by default.
3.28.2. A Brief Introduction to GNOME
GNOME is a powerful graphics-driven desktop environment. GNOME includes a panel (for
starting applications and displaying status), a desktop (where data and applications can be
placed), multiple window managers (which control the look and feel of your desktop), and
a standard set of desktop tools and applications.
GNOME allows you to setup your desktop the way you want it to look and "feel." GNOME’s
session manager remembers settings and currently running programs. So, once you have set
things the way you like, they will stay that way.
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Figure 3-26. Sample GNOME User Screen
Figure 3-26 shows a typical graphical environment using the GNOME desktop environment.
A typical graphical environment for KDE would be similar.
Refer to the Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide to learn more about GNOME.
3.28.3. A Brief Introduction to KDE
KDE provides a complete desktop environment, including a file manager, a window manager, an integrated help system, a configuration system, numerous tools and utilities, and an
ever-increasing number of applications.
KDE offers a contemporary desktop, a searchable help system with convenient access to
help on the use of the KDE desktop and its applications, standardized menu and toolbars,
keybindings, color schemes, and more.
Refer to the Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide to learn more about KDE.
3.28.4. Unresolved Dependencies
Many software packages, in order to work correctly, depend on other software packages
that must be installed on your system. For example, many of the graphical Red Hat system
administration tools require the python and pythonlib packages. To make sure your system
has all the packages it needs in order to be fully functional, Red Hat Linux checks these
package dependencies each time you install or remove software packages.
If any package requires another package which you have not selected to install, the program
presents a list of these unresolved dependencies and gives you the opportunity to resolve
them (see Figure 3-27).
The Unresolved Dependencies screen appears only if you are missing packages that are
needed by the packages you have selected. At the bottom of the screen, under the list of missing packages, an Install packages to satisfy dependencies checkbox is selected by default.
If you leave this checked, the installation program will resolve dependencies automatically
by adding all required packages to the list of selected packages.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-27. Unresolved Dependencies
If you do not wish to install packages that require other packages, select Do not install
packages that have dependencies.
To install only the packages you have selected and leave the dependencies unresolved, select
Ignore package dependencies.
3.29. X Configuration — Video Card
The first part of X configuration deals with video card configuration.
3.29.1. Video Card Configuration
Xconfigurator will now present a list of video cards for you to choose from.
If you decided to install the X Window System packages, you now have the opportunity to
configure an X server for your system. If you did not choose to install the X Window System
packages, skip ahead to Section 3.30.
If your video card does not appear on the list (see Figure 3-28), X may not support it. However, if you have technical knowledge about your card, you may choose Unlisted Card and
attempt to configure it by matching your card’s video chipset with one of the available X
servers.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
75
Figure 3-28. Video Card Setup
Next, enter the amount of video memory installed on your video card. If you are not sure,
please consult the documentation accompanying your video card. You will not damage your
video card by choosing more memory than is available, but the X server may not start correctly if you do.
If you decide that the values you have selected are incorrect, you can click the Restore original values button to return to the suggested settings.
You can also select Skip X Configuration if you would rather configure X after the installation or not at all.
3.30. Preparing to Install
You should now see a screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Linux.
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log
once you reboot your system.
Warning
If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process, this is your last
opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your machine. Once you press the Next button,
partitions will be written and packages will be installed. If you wish to abort the installation, you should
reboot now before any existing information on any hard drive is rewritten.
To cancel this installation process, press your computer’s Reset button or use the [Control][Alt]-[Delete] key combination to restart your machine.
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3.31. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed
(see Figure 3-29). How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have
selected and your computer’s speed.
Figure 3-29. Installing Packages
3.32. Boot Disk Creation
To create a boot disk, insert a blank, formatted diskette into your diskette drive (see Figure
A-9) and click Next.
It is highly recommended that you create a boot disk. If, for some reason, your system were
not able to boot properly using GRUB, LILO, or a third-party boot loader, a boot disk would
enable you to properly boot your Red Hat Linux system.
After a short delay, your boot disk will be created; remove it from your diskette drive and
label it clearly. Note that if you would like to create a boot disk after the installation, you will
be able to do so. For more information, please see the mkbootdisk man page, by typing man
mkbootdisk at the shell prompt.
If you do not want to create a boot disk, make sure to check the Skip boot disk creation
checkbox before you click Next.
If you boot your system with the boot disk (instead of GRUB or LILO) , make sure you create
a new boot disk whenever you make any changes to your kernel (including the installation
of a new kernel).
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
77
Figure 3-30. Creating Your Boot Disk
3.33. X Configuration — Monitor and Customization
In order to complete X configuration, you must configure your monitor and customize your
X settings.
3.33.1. Configuring Your Monitor
If you chose to skip X configuration, go to Section 3.34.
Xconfigurator, the X Window System configuration tool, presents a list of monitors for you
to choose from. In the list, you can either use the monitor that is automatically detected for
you, or choose another monitor.
If your monitor does not appear on the list, select the most appropriate Generic model available. By selecting a Generic monitor, Xconfigurator will suggest horizontal and vertical sync
ranges. These values are generally available in the documentation which accompanies your
monitor, or from your monitor’s vendor or manufacturer; please check your documentation
to make sure these values are set correctly.
Note
If you are installing Red Hat Linux on a laptop with an LCD screen, you should select the most
appropriate Generic model available.
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Figure 3-31. Monitor Selection
Caution
Do not select a monitor similar to your monitor unless you are certain that the monitor you are
selecting does not exceed the capabilities of your monitor. Doing so may overclock your monitor and
damage or destroy it.
The horizontal and vertical ranges that Xconfigurator suggests for your monitor are also
displayed on this screen.
If you decide that the values you have selected are incorrect, you can click the Restore original values button to return to the suggested settings.
Click Next when you have finished configuring your monitor.
3.33.2. Custom Configuration
Choose the correct color depth and resolution for your X configuration. Click Test Setting to
try out this configuration. If you do not like what you see during the test, click No to choose
another resolution.
Note
If you need to exit out of the X test, use the [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination. Also note that
this will not work in some test cases.
We recommend that you test your configuration, to make sure the resolution and color settings are usable.
If you installed both GNOME and KDE, you can choose which one to use as your default
desktop environment. If you installed one or the other, it will only show GNOME or KDE as
the desktop default.
Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
79
You can also choose whether you want to boot your system into a text or graphical environment once Red Hat Linux is installed. Unless you have special needs, booting into a
graphical environment (similar to a Windows environment) is recommended. If you choose
to boot into a text environment, you will be presented with a command prompt (similar to a
DOS environment).
Figure 3-32. X Customization
3.34. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Linux 7.3 installation is now complete!
The installation program will prompt you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to
remove any installation media (diskette in the diskette drive or CD in the CD-ROM drive) if
they are not ejected automatically upon reboot.
If you do not have a boot loader installed and configured, you will need to use the boot disk
you created during the installation now.
After your computer’s normal power-up sequence has completed, you should see the graphical boot loader prompt, at which you can do any of the following things:
•
Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted.
•
Select a boot label, followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating
system corresponding to the boot label. (Press [?] or [Tab] at LILO’s text mode boot loader
prompt for a list of valid boot labels.)
•
Do nothing — after the boot loader’s timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot
loader will automatically boot the default boot entry.
Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Linux. You should see one or more screens of
messages scroll by. Eventually, you should see a login: prompt or a graphical login screen
(if you installed the X Window System and chose to boot into graphical mode by default).
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Chapter 3. Installing Red Hat Linux
Tip
If you are not sure what to do next, we suggest you begin with the Official Red Hat Linux Getting
Started Guide which covers topics relating to the basics of your system and is an introduction to using
Red Hat Linux. The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide can be found on the Documentation
CD or online at:
http://www.redhat.com/docs
If you are a more experienced user looking for information on administration topics, you may find the
Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide to be more helpful.
If you are looking for information on system configuration, you may find the Official Red Hat Linux
Customization Guide to be helpful.
Appendix A.
Upgrading Your Current System
This appendix walks you through a typical Red Hat Linux 7.3 upgrade.
A.1. What it Means to Upgrade
The installation process for Red Hat Linux 7.3 includes the ability to upgrade from prior
versions of Red Hat Linux (version 4.2 and later) which are based on RPM technology.
Upgrading your system installs the modular 2.4.x kernel as well as updated versions of the
packages which are currently installed on your system.
The upgrade process preserves existing configuration files by renaming them with an .rpmsave extension (for example, sendmail.cf.rpmsave). The upgrade process also creates a
log of its actions in /root/upgrade.log. As software evolves, configuration file formats can
change, so you should carefully compare your original configuration files to the new files
before integrating your changes.
Note
Some upgraded packages may require the installation of other packages for proper operation. If
you choose to customize your packages to upgrade, you may be required to resolve dependency
problems. Otherwise, the upgrade procedure takes care of these dependencies, but it may need to
install additional packages which are not on your system.
Depending on how you have partitioned your system, the upgrade program may prompt
you to add an additional swap file. If the upgrade program does not detect a swap file that
equals twice your RAM, it will ask you if you would like to add a new swap file. If your
system does not have a lot of RAM (less than 32 MB), it is recommended that you add this
swap file.
A.2. Upgrading Your System
At this point, you should have chosen Upgrade as your preferred installation type (see Figure A-1).
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Figure A-1. Choosing Install or Upgrade
A.3. Upgrading Your File System
Note
This section only pertains to users performing an upgrade from Red Hat Linux version 7.1 or earlier,
or from a Red Hat Linux 7.2 installation where ext2 was chosen as the file system.
If the installation program detects the ext2 file system on your Red Hat Linux system, you
can choose to retain your current ext2 file system or migrate to the ext3 file system.
The following is a brief description of the ext2 and ext3 file systems, and how they can be
utilized.
•
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories,
symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
Versions prior to Red Hat Linux 7.3 used ext2 file systems by default.
•
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage
— journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system
after a crash as there is no need to fsck1the file system.
It is recommended, but not required, that you choose to migrate to the ext3 file system.
If you choose to migrate to the ext3 file system, existing system data will not be modified.
A.4. Customizing Your Upgrade
Do you want to choose the packages to be upgraded or let the installation program perform
an automated upgrade (see Figure A-2)?
1.
The fsck application is used to check and optionally repair one or more Linux file systems.
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
83
To perform an automated upgrade, click Next.
To customize your packages for this upgrade, select the Customize packages to be upgraded
option and click Next (see Section A.8).
Figure A-2. Upgrade Customization
A.5. Boot Loader Configuration
A software boot loader is used to start Red Hat Linux on your computer. It can also start
other operating systems, such as Windows. If you are using a Red Hat Linux software boot
loader (GRUB or LILO), it will be detected automatically.
Figure A-3. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
On the Boot Loader Configuration Screen, your options are:
Update boot loader configuration — Choose this option to keep your current boot loader
configuration (GRUB or LILO depending on what you have currently installed) and have
updates applied.
Skip boot loader updating — Choose this option if you do not want to make any changes
to your current boot loader configuration. If you are using a third party boot loader, you will
want to skip updating your boot loader.
Create new boot loader configuration — Choose this option if you want to create a new boot
loader for your system. If you currently have LILO and want to switch to GRUB, or if you
have been using boot disks to boot your Red Hat Linux system and want to use a software
boot loader such as GRUB or LILO, you will want to create a new boot loader configuration
(see Section A.5.1 for more information).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
A.5.1. Creating a New Boot Loader Configuration
In order to be able to boot your Red Hat Linux system, you usually need to install a boot
loader. In Red Hat Linux 7.3, you can choose to install GRUB or LILO, or you can choose not
to install a boot loader at all.
First, select which boot loader you want to install. If you do not want to overwrite your
current boot loader, choose Do not install a boot loader.
Assuming you chose GRUB or LILO, you must now determine where you want the boot
loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
The master boot record (MBR)
This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless the MBR already starts
another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special
area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer’s BIOS, and is
the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you
install it in the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB (or LILO) will present a boot
prompt. You can then boot Red Hat Linux or any other operating system that you have
configured the boot loader to boot.
The first sector of your boot partition
This is recommended if you are already using another boot loader on your system. In
this case, your other boot loader will take control first. You can then configure that boot
loader to start GRUB (or LILO), which will then boot Red Hat Linux.
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
85
Figure A-4. Boot Loader Configuration
If your system will use only Red Hat Linux, you should choose the MBR. For systems with
Windows 95/98, you should also install the boot loader to the MBR so that it can boot both
operating systems.
Caution
If you choose not to install GRUB or LILO for any reason, you will not be able to boot your Red Hat
Linux system directly, and you will need to use another boot method (such as a boot diskette). Use
this option only if you are sure you have another way of booting your Red Hat Linux system!
If you wish to add default options to GRUB or LILO’s boot command, enter them into the
Kernel parameters field. Any options you enter will be passed to the Linux kernel every
time it boots.
The Force use of LBA32 (not normally required) option allows you to exceed the 1024 cylinder limit for the /boot partition. If you have a system which supports the LBA32 extension
for booting operating systems above the 1024 cylinder limit, and you want to place your
/boot partition above cylinder 1024, you should select this option.
Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems. The
partition holding your Red Hat Linux system’s root file system will have a Boot label of Red
Hat Linux (for GRUB) or linux (for LILO). Other partitions may also have boot labels. If
you would like to add boot labels for other partitions (or change an existing boot label), click
once on the partition to select it. Once selected, you can change the boot label.
Note
The Boot label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders,
in order to boot the desired operating system. However, if you forget the boot labels defined on your
system, you can always press [Tab] at the prompt to display a list of defined boot labels.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
A.5.1.1. Rescue Mode
If you need to use rescue mode, there are several options available to you.
•
Using the CD-ROM to boot, type linux rescue at the boot: prompt.
•
By booting your system from an installation boot diskette made from the boot.img image.
This method requires that the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM #1 be inserted as the rescue image
or that the rescue image be on the hard drive as an ISO image. Once you have booted
using this diskette, type linux rescue at the boot: prompt.
•
By booting from a network disk made from the bootnet.img or PCMCIA boot disk made
from pcmcia.img. Once you have booted using this diskette, type linux rescue at the
boot: prompt. You can only do this if your network connection is working. You will need
to identify the network host and transfer type. For an explanation of how to specify this
information, see Section 3.7.
For more information regarding rescue mode, refer to the Official Red Hat Linux Customization
Guide.
A.5.1.2. Alternative Boot Loaders
If you do not wish to use GRUB or LILO to boot your Red Hat Linux system, you have
several alternatives:
Boot disk
As previously stated, you can use the boot disk created by the installation program (if
you elected to create one).
LOADLIN
You can load Linux from MS-DOS. Unfortunately, this requires a copy of the Linux
kernel (and an initial RAM disk, if you have a SCSI adapter) to be available on an MSDOS partition. The only way to accomplish this is to boot your Red Hat Linux system
using some other method (for example, from a boot disk) and then copy the kernel to
an MS-DOS partition. LOADLIN is available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/dualboot/
and associated mirror sites.
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX is an MS-DOS program very similar to LOADLIN. It is also available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/loaders/
and associated mirror sites.
Some commercial boot loaders
You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. For example, System Commander
and Partition Magic are able to boot Linux (but still require GRUB or LILO to be installed
in your Linux root partition).
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
87
A.5.1.3. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
This section is specific to SMP motherboards only. SMP, short for Symmetric Multiprocessing, is a computer architecture providing fast performance by making multiple CPUs available to complete individual processes simultaneously (multiprocessing).
If the installation program detects an SMP motherboard on your system, it will automatically create two /boot/grub/grub.conf or /etc/lilo.conf entries (depending on the boot
loader you installed), rather than the usual single entry.
The two entries in grub.conf will be Red Hat Linux (kernel version) and Red Hat
Linux (kernel version-smp). The Red Hat Linux (kernel version-smp) will boot by
default. However, if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to boot the Red
Hat Linux (kernel version) entry instead. You will retain all the functionality as before,
but you will only be operating with a single processor.
The two entries in lilo.conf will be linux and linux-up. The linux entry will boot by
default. However, if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to boot the linuxup entry instead. You will retain all the functionality as before, but you will only be operating
with a single processor.
A.6. GRUB Password
If you did not install GRUB as your boot loader, skip to Section A.7.
If you are installing GRUB as your boot loader, you should create a password to protect your
system. Without a GRUB password, users with access to your system can pass options to the
kernel which can compromise your system security. With a GRUB password in place, the
password must first be entered in order to select any non-standard boot options.
Figure A-5. GRUB Password
To enhance your system security, you should select Use a Grub Password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
A.7. Selecting Packages to Upgrade
On this screen, you can choose which packages you would like to upgrade (see Figure A-6).
You can choose to view the individual packages in tree view or flat view.
Tree view allows you to see the packages grouped by application type.
Flat view allows you to see all of the packages in an alphabetical listing on the right of the
screen.
Using Tree view, you see a listing of package groups. When you expand this list (by doubleclicking on the folder arrow beside a package group name) and pick one group, the list of
packages in that group appears in the panel on the right.
To sort packages alphabetically, click on the Package tab. To sort packages by size, click on
the Size (MB) tab.
To select an individual package, click the checkbox beside the package name. A check mark
in the box means that a package has been selected.
For more information about a specific package, click on the individual package name. The
package information will appear at the bottom of the screen.
You can also select or deselect all packages listed within a particular group, by clicking on
the Select all in group or Unselect all in group buttons.
Certain packages (for example, the kernel and certain libraries) are required for every Red
Hat Linux system and are not available to select or deselect. These base packages are selected
by default.
Figure A-6. Individual Package Selection
A.7.1. Unresolved Dependencies
If any package requires another package which you have not selected to install, the program
presents a list of these unresolved dependencies and gives you the opportunity to resolve them
(see Figure A-7).
The Unresolved Dependencies screen appears only if you are missing packages that are
needed by your customized package selection.
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
89
At the bottom of the screen, under the list of missing packages, an Install packages to satisfy
dependencies radio button is selected by default. If you leave this checked, the installation
program will resolve package dependencies automatically by adding all required packages
to the list of selected packages.
Figure A-7. Unresolved Dependencies
If you do not wish to install packages that require other packages, select Do not install
packages that have dependencies.
To install only the packages you have selected and leave the dependencies unresolved, select
Ignore package dependencies.
A.8. Upgrading Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been upgraded or
installed (see Figure A-8).
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Figure A-8. Installing Packages
A.9. Boot Disk Creation
To create a boot disk, insert a blank, formatted diskette into your diskette drive (see Figure
A-9) and click Next.
It is highly recommended that you create a boot disk. If, for some reason, your system were
not able to boot properly using GRUB, LILO, or a third-party boot loader, a boot disk would
enable you to properly boot your Red Hat Linux system.
After a short delay, your boot disk will be created; remove it from your diskette drive and
label it clearly. Note that if you would like to create a boot disk after the installation, you will
be able to do so. For more information, please see the mkbootdisk man page, by typing man
mkbootdisk at the shell prompt.
If you do not want to create a boot disk, make sure to check the Skip boot disk creation
checkbox before you click Next.
If you boot your system with the boot disk (instead of GRUB or LILO) , make sure you create
a new boot disk whenever you make any changes to your kernel (including the installation
of a new kernel).
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
91
Figure A-9. Boot Disk Creation
A.10. Upgrade Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Linux 7.3 upgrade is now complete!
You will now be prompted to prepare your system for reboot. Do not forget to remove any
diskette in the floppy drive or CD in the CD-ROM drive if they are not ejected automatically
upon reboot. If you do not have a boot loader installed and configured, you will need to use
your boot disk now.
Tip
If you need a quick review of some of the basic Linux concepts of Red Hat Linux refer to the Official
Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide.
For information dealing with system configuration and administration, refer to the Official Red Hat
Linux Customization Guide and the Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Appendix B.
Removing Red Hat Linux
To uninstall Red Hat Linux from your system, you will need to remove the GRUB or LILO
information from your master boot record (MBR).
In DOS, NT, and Windows 95 you can use fdisk to create a new MBR with the undocumented
flag /mbr. This will ONLY rewrite the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition. The command
should look like the following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive, and have attempted to do this with the
default DOS fdisk, you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not exist problem. The
best way to remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands partitions other than
DOS.
You can do this with the installation media by typing linux expert at the boot: prompt:
boot: linux expert
Select install (versus upgrade) and at the point when you should partition the drive, choose
fdisk. In fdisk, type [p] to print out the partition numbers, and remove the Linux partitions
with the [d] command. When you are satisfied with the changes you have made, you can
quit with a [w] and the changes will be saved to disk. If you deleted too much, type [q] and
no changes will be made.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions, you can reboot your computer using [Control][Alt]-[Delete] instead of continuing with the install.
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Appendix B. Removing Red Hat Linux
Appendix C.
Getting Technical Support
C.1. Remember to Sign Up
If you have an official edition of Red Hat Linux 7.3 and/or an official Red Hat OEM partner
kit, please remember to sign up for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer.
You will be entitled to any or all of the following benefits, depending upon the Official Red
Hat Linux product you purchased:
•
Official Red Hat support — Get help with your installation questions from Red Hat’s
support team.
•
Red Hat Network — Easily update your packages and receive security notices that are
customized for your system. For more details, go to:
http://rhn.redhat.com
•
Under the Brim: The Official Red Hat E-Newsletter — Every month, get the latest news
and product information directly from Red Hat.
To sign up, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
You will find your Product ID on the Registration Information Card in your Official Red Hat
Linux boxed set.
C.2. An Overview of Red Hat Support
Note
For more information on how Red Hat’s technical support staff can assist you, refer to the service
level agreement at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/sla/
Red Hat provides installation assistance for Official Red Hat Linux boxed set products and
covers installation on a single computer. This assistance is intended to help customers successfully install Red Hat Linux. Assistance with installation is offered via telephone and the
Web. Note, telephone support is only available with certain Red Hat Linux products. Please
check your boxed set to see what types of support are available to you.
Red Hat Support will attempt to answer any questions you may have before the installation
process is initiated. Depending on the product purchased, it can include the following:
•
Hardware compatibility questions
96
•
Appendix C. Getting Technical Support
Basic hard drive partitioning strategies
Red Hat Support can provide the following assistance during the installation process:
•
Getting supported hardware recognized by the Red Hat Linux operating system
•
Assistance with hard drive partitioning
•
Configuring Red Hat Linux and Windows 9x, ME, NT, or 2000 to dual-boot using the
Linux boot loaders GRUB or LILO (please note that third party boot loaders and partitioning software are not supported)
We can also help you with basic post-installation tasks, such as:
•
Successfully configuring the X Window System using Xconfigurator
•
Configuring a local parallel port printer to print text
•
Configuring a mouse
Our installation assistance service is designed to get Red Hat Linux running on your system
as quickly and as easily as possible. However, there are many other things that you may
want to do with your Red Hat Linux system, from compiling a custom kernel to setting up
a Web server, which are not covered.
For assistance with these tasks, there is a wealth of online information available in the form
of HOWTO documents, Linux-related websites, and commercial publications. The various
Linux HOWTO documents are included with Red Hat Linux on the Documentation CD in
the /HOWTOS directory. These HOWTOS are provided in text files that can easily be read from
within Red Hat Linux and other operating systems.
A large number of Linux-related websites are available. The best starting point for finding
information on Red Hat Linux is the Red Hat, Inc. website:
http://www.redhat.com/
Many Linux-related books are also available. If you are new to Linux, a book that covers
Linux basics will be invaluable. We can recommend several titles: The Official Red Hat Linux
Getting Started Guide; Using Linux, by Bill Ball; Linux Clearly Explained, by Bryan Pfaffenberger; Linux for Dummies, by Jon "maddog" Hall; and Learning Red Hat Linux, by Bill McCarty.
Red Hat also offers various incident-based support plans to assist with configuration issues
and tasks that are not covered by installation assistance. Please see the Red Hat Support
website for more information at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/
C.3. Scope of Red Hat Support
Red Hat, Inc. can only provide installation assistance to customers who have purchased an
Official Red Hat Linux boxed set and/or an official Red Hat OEM partner kit. If you have
obtained Linux from any other company, you must contact that company for support. Other
companies include:
•
Macmillan
•
Sams/Que
•
Linux Systems Labs (LSL)
Appendix C. Getting Technical Support
•
Mandrake
•
CheapBytes
97
Additionally, Red Hat Linux obtained via any of the following methods does not qualify for
support from Red Hat:
•
Red Hat Linux PowerTools Archive
•
Downloaded via FTP on the Internet
•
Included in a package such as Motif or Applixware
•
Copied or installed from another user’s CD
•
A CD-ROM (or CD-ROM set) included in a Linux book or other publication.
C.4. How to Get Technical Support
In order to receive technical support for your Official Red Hat product, you must register
your product on Red Hat’s website.
Every Official Red Hat product comes with a Product Identification code: a 16-character
alphanumeric string. The Product ID for Red Hat Linux 7.3 is located on the Registration
Information Card that can be found inside the box.
Note
Do not throw away the card with your Product ID. You must have the Product ID to get technical
support. If you lose the certificate, you may not be able to receive support.
The Product ID is the code that will enable technical support and any other benefits or services that you purchased from Red Hat, depending upon which product you purchased.
C.4.1. Signing up for Technical Support
To sign up for technical support, you must:
1. Create a customer profile at:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
You may have already completed this step; if you have, continue to the next step.
2. Using the login name and password you created during the customer profile, please
log in at the Red Hat Support website at:
http://www.redhat.com/support
If you created a new customer profile, once you activate your product you will see
a webpage that shows your registered products. There is also a button, Access Web
Support, on this page that will take you to the support website.
3. Update your contact information if necessary.
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Appendix C. Getting Technical Support
Note
If your email address is not correct, communications regarding your technical support requests
CANNOT be delivered to you, and you will not be able to retrieve your login and password by
email. Be sure that you give us your correct email address.
If you are worried about your privacy, please see Red Hat’s privacy statement at:
http://www.redhat.com/legal/privacy_statement.html
4. Add a product to your profile. Please enter the following information:
•
The Product ID for your boxed set product
•
The Support Certificate Number or Entitlement Number if the product is a contract
5. Set your customer preferences.
6. Answer the optional customer questionnaire.
7. Submit the form.
If the previous steps were completed successfully, you can now login at
http://www.redhat.com/support
and open a new technical service request. However, you must still use your Product ID in
order to obtain technical support via telephone (if the product you purchased came with
phone support). You will also be asked for your login name when contacting the technical
support team via telephone.
C.5. Questions for Technical Support
Technical support is both a science and a mystical art form. In most cases, support technicians must rely on customer observations and communications with the customer in order to
diagnose and solve the problem. Therefore, it is extremely important that you are as detailed
and clear as possible when you state your questions and report your problems. Examples of
what you should include are:
•
Symptoms of the problem (for example: "Linux is not able to access my CD-ROM drive.
When it tries, I get timeout errors.")
•
When the problem began (for example: "My system was working fine until yesterday,
when a lightning storm hit my area.")
•
Any changes you made to your system (for example: "I added a new hard drive and used
Partition Wizzo to add Linux partitions.")
•
Other information that may be relevant to your situation, such as the installation method
(CD-ROM, NFS, HTTP)
•
Specific hardware devices that may be relevant to your problem (for example: If you cannot setup networking, what kind of network card do you have?)
Appendix C. Getting Technical Support
99
C.5.1. How to Send Support Questions
Please login at
http://www.redhat.com/support
and open a new service request, or call the phone number for support. If your product came
with phone support, or you have purchased a phone support contract, the phone number
you will need to call will be provided to you during the sign up process.
For more information on using Red Hat’s online support system go to:
http://www.redhat.com/support/services/access.html
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Appendix C. Getting Technical Support
Appendix D.
Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat
Linux
This appendix discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
D.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Linux
D.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?
Note
There are a few cases where the system BIOS will not allow the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM to boot because of the size of the boot image on the CD-ROM itself. In cases such as these, a boot disk should
be made to boot Red Hat Linux. Once booted, the CD-ROMs will work properly for the installation.
If you cannot boot from your Red Hat Linux CD-ROM, you have two options:
1. You can change your BIOS so that booting from the CD-ROM is recognized first in the
boot order, or
2. Boot using a boot disk you have created.
To change your BIOS, refer to your system manual for the correct keyboard combination that
allows you to access your BIOS, or you can read the key sequence needed while the system
begins to boot.
To create a boot disk, follow the instructions in Section 1.4.2.
To boot Red Hat Linux using a boot disk, insert the diskette you have created into your
floppy drive and then boot/reboot your computer. Make sure that your BIOS is set to use
the floppy or removable disk (A:) to boot.
D.1.2. Are You Unable to Boot from the Local Boot Disk?
If you are experiencing difficulties in getting a local boot disk to boot your system correctly,
you may need an updated boot disk.
Check the online errata at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata
for updated diskette images (if available) and follow the instructions in Section 1.4.2, to make
an updated boot disk for your system.
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Appendix D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
D.1.3. Are You Unable to Boot from PCMCIA Boot Disks?
If you are experiencing difficulties in getting the PCMCIA boot disks you made to boot your
system correctly, you may need an updated boot disk.
Check the online errata for updated diskette images (if available) and follow the instructions
provided to make an updated boot disk for your system.
D.1.4. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in memory on your system’s bus. A hardware error in memory can be caused by
problems in executables or with the system’s hardware. Like other operating systems, Red
Hat Linux places its own demands on your system’s hardware. Some of this hardware may
not be able to meet those demands, even if they work properly under another OS.
Check to see if you have the latest installation and supplemental boot diskettes from Red
Hat. Review the online errata to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still
fail, it may be due to a problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your
memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the
BIOS. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to see if the
problem is either slot or memory related.
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
D.1.5. Are You Unable to Boot from a Network Boot Disk?
If you are experiencing difficulties in getting the network boot disk you made to boot your
system correctly, you may need an updated boot disk.
Check the online errata for updated diskette images (if available) and follow the instructions
provided to make an updated boot disk for your system.
D.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
D.2.1. Trouble Using PCMCIA Boot Disks?
If you booted using PCMCIA boot disks and want to install via FTP (or NFS or HTTP), but
do not see these installation options, you may have a problem with your network card.
If the network card is not initialized during the boot process, the Red Hat Linux installation
program will not enable you to configure your system for networking, either during or after
the installation itself.
Check the hardware compatibility list at
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
to see if your network card is compatible and/or supported. If your card is not listed, it may
not be compatible with Red Hat Linux.
Appendix D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
103
D.2.2. Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
If the Mouse Not Detected screen (see Figure D-1) appears, then the installation program
was not able to identify your mouse correctly.
You can choose to continue with the GUI installation or use the text mode installation, which
does not require using a mouse. If you choose to continue with the GUI installation, you will
need to provide the installation program with your mouse configuration information (see
Section 3.14).
Figure D-1. Mouse Not Detected
For an overview of text mode installation instructions, please refer to Section 3.3.
D.2.3. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
The Red Hat Linux installation program uses frame buffers by default. However, there are
some video cards that will not work with this setting. The end result will be a problem
booting into the graphical installation program.
The installation program will first try to run in frame buffer mode. If that fails, it will try
to run in a lower resolution mode. If that still fails, the installation program will run in text
mode.
Users who have video cards that will not run at 800 x 600 resolution should type lowres at
the boot: prompt to run the installation program in 640 x 480 resolution.
If this still does not work, you can run the installation program without frame buffers by
typing nofb at the boot: prompt.
D.3. Trouble During the Installation
D.3.1. Partition Creation Problems
If you are having trouble creating a partition (for example, a root (/) partition), make sure
you are setting its partition type to Linux Native.
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Appendix D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
Unless your BIOS supports otherwise, make sure /boot does not exceed the 1023 cylinder
head. If you do not, the installation program will not allow you to create a /boot or / partition. Some new systems allow you to exceed the 1023 limit (with GRUB and the newer LILO
versions that are available), but most machines with older BIOS will not.
D.3.2. Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to
use the remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want
the / (root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
D.3.3. Other Partitioning Problems
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you
probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid’s dependencies to be
satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
•
A /boot partition of type Linux native
•
A / (root) partition of type Linux native
•
A
swap
partition of type Linux swap
Tip
When defining a partition’s type as Linux swap, you do not have to assign it a mount point. Disk
Druid automatically assigns the mount point for you.
D.3.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Linux, the installation program (also
known as Anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in /tmp. The
error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py",
line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in
doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0
self:
sys:
module ’sys’ (built-in)
Appendix D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
105
ToDo object:
(itodo
ToDo
p1
(dp2
S’method’
p3
(iimage
CdromInstallMethod
p4
(dp5
S’progressWindow’
p6
failed
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp are symbolic to other locations or
have been changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the
installation process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for Anaconda.
Errata can be found at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat’s bug tracking
system, go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact
our support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate
D.4. Problems After Installation
D.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen?
If, for some reason, you need to disable the graphical boot screen, you can do so, as root, by
editing the /boot/grub/grub.conf file and then rebooting your system.
To do this, comment out the line which begins with splashimage in the grub.conf file. To
comment out a line, insert the ; character at the beginning of the line.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file will be reread and your changes will take place.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line
back into the grub.conf file and rebooting.
D.4.2. Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen?
If, for some reason, you need to disable the graphical boot screen, you can do so, as root, by
editing the /etc/lilo.conf file and then rerunning LILO.
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Appendix D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
First, as root, comment out (or delete) the line which reads message=/boot/message in the
/etc/lilo.conf file. To comment out a line, insert the ; character at the beginning of the
line. Next, rerun LILO by typing /sbin/lilo -v. The next time you boot, you will see the
text LILO: prompt, as used in previous Red Hat Linux releases.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by adding (or uncommenting) the above line
back into the lilo.conf file and rerunning LILO.
D.4.3. Problems with Server Installations and X
If you performed a server installation and you are having trouble getting X to start, you may
not have installed the X Window System during your installation.
If you want the X Window System, you can perform an upgrade to install X. During the
upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both.
D.4.4. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account during the installation you will need to log in as root
and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, you will need to boot your system as linux
single at the GRUB or LILO boot: prompt. Then at the # prompt, you will need to type
passwd root, which will allow you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can
type shutdown -r now and the system will reboot with your new password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become
root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd
username . This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If you selected either the custom or workstation installation and do not see the graphical
login screen, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The Hardware Compatibility List
can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
D.4.5. Does Netscape Navigator Crash on JavaScript Pages?
If Netscape Navigator continuously crashes on pages that contain JavaScripts, you may need
to edit your ~/.mailcap file.
Edit the file using pico by typing pico ~/.mailcap at the prompt in a terminal window.
(You may use any text editor.)
Remove the following lines from the file:
application/x-javascript;;\
x-mozilla-flags=save
You can also turn off JavaScript within Netscape Navigator itself. Click on
Edit=>Preferences=>Advanced and make sure the Enable JavaScript checkbox is not
selected.
If these do not help, you can also try to use a newer version of Netscape Navigator if available. Check the Red Hat Linux errata website under security advisories for more information.
Appendix D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
107
D.4.6. Your Printer Will Not Work Under X
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using the graphical printconf program. Log in as root, open a terminal window, and
type printconf-gui.
D.4.7. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this
with the following command:
cat /proc/meminfo
Find out if the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system.
If they are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Or, if you used LILO, add the following line to the /etc/lilo.conf file:
append="mem=xxM"
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes. Remember that per-image
append lines completely overwrite the global append line. It might be worth adding this to
the per-image descriptions, as shown in this example:
mem=128M
append="mem=128M"
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
#NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
#
all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Linux (2.4.6-2)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.2.6-2 ro root=/dev/hda3 mem=128M
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf will be reflected on your system.
In /etc/lilo.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
boot=/dev/sda
map=/boot/map
install=/boot/boot.b
prompt
timeout=50
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.2.12-20
label=linux
root=/dev/sda1
initrd=/boot/initrd-2.2.12-20.img
read-only
append="mem=128M"
Remember to run /sbin/lilo -v after changing /etc/lilo.conf.
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Appendix D. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Linux
Note that you can also produce the same effect by actually passing this option when you are
specifying the label/image to use in GRUB or LILO.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You will be presented with a
list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press [Enter] to exit edit mode.
Once the GRUB screen has returned, type b to boot with your new RAM specifications.
At the graphical LILO screen, press [Ctrl]-[x] to exit to the boot: prompt. Next, enter the
following at the boot: prompt:
linux mem=xxM
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press [Enter] to boot.
D.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration
If you do not have sound after your installation, you may need to run the sound configuration utility. As root, type sndconfig in a terminal window.
Note
sndconfig must be run in runlevel 3. More information about runlevels can be found in the Official
Red Hat Linux Reference Guide, in chapter Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown.
If the sndconfig application does not help, you may need to select the Enable sound
server startup option under the Multimedia=>Sound in the GNOME Control Center.
To do this, click on Panel=>Programs=>Settings=>GNOME Control Center to launch the
GNOME Control Center. In the GNOME Control Center, select the Sound submenu of the
Multimedia menu. On the right, a General sound menu will appear. Select Enable sound
server startup and then click OK.
Appendix E.
An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Disk partitions are a standard part of the personal computer landscape and have been for
quite some time. However, with many people purchasing computers featuring pre-installed
operating systems, relatively few people understand how partitions work. This chapter attempts to explain the reasons for and use of disk partitions so your Red Hat Linux installation will be as simple and painless as possible.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to Section E.1.4,
for more information on the process of freeing up disk space to prepare for a Red Hat Linux
installation. This section also discusses the partition naming scheme used by Linux systems,
sharing disk space with other operating systems, and related topics.
E.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on
command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the
underlying hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. Therefore,
we will use a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really happening
when a disk drive is partitioned. Figure E-1, shows a brand-new, unused disk drive.
Figure E-1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it will
do. Say that we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it will not
work. There is something we need to do first. . .
E.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the
drive. Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive,
creating order out of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
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Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure E-2. Disk Drive with a File System
As Figure E-2, implies, the order imposed by a file system involves some trade-offs:
•
A small percentage of the drive’s available space is used to store file system-related data
and can be considered as overhead.
•
A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For Linux,
these segments are known as blocks. 1
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these tradeoffs are
usually seen as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure E-3, shows, a
disk drive may have one of many different file systems written on it. As you might guess,
different file systems tend to be incompatible; that is, an operating system that supports one
file system (or a handful of related file system types) may not support another. This last
statement is not a hard-and-fast rule, however. For example, Red Hat Linux supports a wide
variety of file systems (including many commonly used by other operating systems), making
data interchange between different file systems easy.
1.
Blocks really are consistently sized, unlike our illustrations. Keep in mind, also, that an average
disk drive contains thousands of blocks. But for the purposes of this discussion, please ignore these
minor discrepancies.
Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
111
Figure E-3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. The goal of this process is to
actually store and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been
written to it.
Figure E-4. Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure E-4, shows, 14 of the previously-empty blocks are now holding data. However, by
simply looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how many files reside on this
drive. There may be as few as one or as many as 14 files, as all files use at least one block and
some files use multiple blocks. Another important point to note is that the used blocks do
not have to form a contiguous region; used and unused blocks may be interspersed. This is
known as fragmentation. Fragmentation can play a part when attempting to resize an existing
partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their introduction. In particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their capacity
to store information. And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in the way
disk drives were used.
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Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
E.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
As disk drive capacities soared, some people began to wonder if having all of that formatted
space in one big chunk was such a great idea. This line of thinking was driven by several
issues, some philosophical, some technical. On the philosophical side, above a certain size,
it seemed that the additional space provided by a larger drive created more clutter. On the
technical side, some file systems were never designed to support anything above a certain
capacity. Or the file systems could support larger drives with a greater capacity, but the overhead imposed by the file system to track files became excessive.
The solution to this problem was to divide disks into partitions. Each partition can be accessed as if it was a separate disk. This is done through the addition of a partition table.
Note
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate from the actual disk
drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition table is stored at the very start of the disk,
before any file system or user data. But for clarity, we will keep it separate in our diagrams.
Figure E-5. Disk Drive with Partition Table
As Figure E-5, shows, the partition table is divided into four sections. Each section can hold
the information necessary to define a single partition, meaning that the partition table can
define no more than four partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
•
The points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
•
Whether the partition is "active"
•
The partition’s type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points
actually define the partition’s size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by some
operating systems’ boot loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition that is
marked "active" will be booted.
Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
113
The partition’s type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the partition’s anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning
of the partition type is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote
a specific file system type, to flag the partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to indicate that the partition contains a bootable operating system, or some
combination of the three.
Table E-1, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along with their
numeric values.
Table E-1. Partition Types
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
65
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
04
Linux swap
82
05
Linux native
83
06
Linux extended
85
07
Amoeba
93
DOS 16-bit
=32M
Extended
DOS 16-bit
=32
OS/2 HPFS
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT32
0b
NEXTSTEP
a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
e1
Novell
51
DOS access
Microport
52
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used.
See Figure E-6, for an example.
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Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure E-6. >Disk Drive With Single Partition
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially duplicating the method used before partitions. The partition table has only one entry used, and it
points to the start of the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several
possible partition types listed in Table E-1, it is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.
This is a typical partition layout for most newly purchased computers with a consumer
version of Microsoft Windows™ preinstalled.
E.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk
drives continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure four
reasonably-sized partitions and still have disk space left over. There needed to be some way
of creating more partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in Table E-1, there is an "Extended"
partition type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is
created. In essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a
partition table that points to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as opposed
to the four primary partitions) contained entirely within the extended partition itself. Figure
E-7, shows a disk drive with one primary partition and one extended partition containing
two logical partitions (along with some unpartitioned free space).
Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
115
Figure E-7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there
can only be four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical partitions that can exist. (However, in reality, it is probably not a good idea to try to define and
use more than 12 logical partitions on a single disk drive.)
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us see how to use this knowledge to
install Red Hat Linux.
E.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Linux
There are three possible scenarios you may face when attempting to repartition your hard
disk:
•
Unpartitioned free space is available
•
An unused partition is available
•
Free space in an actively used partition is available
Let us look at each scenario in order.
Note
Please keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of clarity and do not
reflect the exact partition layout that you will encounter when actually installing Red Hat Linux.
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Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
E.1.4.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving
unallocated space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure E-8, shows what this might
look like.
Figure E-8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. The only difference is
that all the space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can simply create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately, this scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased
a new disk just for Red Hat Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured to
take up all available space on a disk drive (see Section E.1.4.3).
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
E.1.4.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps you have dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you
dedicated to it never seem to be used anymore. Figure E-9, illustrates such a situation.
Figure E-9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused partition.
You will first need to delete the partition, and then create the appropriate Linux partition(s)
in its place. You can either delete the partition using the DOS fdisk command, or you will
be given the opportunity to do so during a custom installation.
E.1.4.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
This is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. The main
problem is that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition
Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
117
that is already in use. If you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard disk
most likely has one massive partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you
might imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. This means that
making a complete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups, use verification (if available in your backup software), and try to read data from your backup
before you delete the partition.
Caution
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that partition, it will need to be
reinstalled as well. Be aware that some computers sold with pre-installed operating systems
may not include the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original operating system. The best time to
notice if this applies to your system is before you destroy your original partition and its operating
system installation.
After creating a smaller partition for your existing software, you can reinstall any software, restore your data, and continue your Red Hat Linux installation. Figure E-10
shows this being done.
Figure E-10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
Caution
As Figure E-10, shows, any data present in the original partition will be lost without proper
backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition
smaller without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found
this method to be reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform
this feat? There are several disk management software products on the market. You will
have to do some research to find the one that is best for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are
a number of steps involved:
118
•
Compress existing data
•
Resize the existing partition
•
Create new partition(s)
Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
E.1.4.3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure E-11, shows, the first step is to compress the data in your existing partition. The
reason for doing this is to rearrange the data such that it maximizes the available free space
at the "end" of the partition.
Figure E-11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
This step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from
being resized to the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data
cannot be moved. If this is the case (and it severely restricts the size of your new partition(s)),
you may be forced to destructively repartition your disk.
E.1.4.3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure E-12, shows the actual resizing process. While the actual result of the resizing operation varies depending on the software used, in most cases the newly freed space is used to
create an unformatted partition of the same type as the original partition.
Figure E-12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed
space, so that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would be
best to simply delete the new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
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119
E.1.4.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions. However, unless your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely you will need to delete the
partition that was created during the resizing process. Figure E-13, shows this being done.
Figure E-13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
Note
The following information is specific to Intel-based computers only.
As a convenience to Red Hat Linux users, the DOS fips utility is included on the Red Hat
Linux/x86 CD 1 in the dosutils directory. This is a freely available program that can resize
FAT (File Allocation Table) partitions.
Warning
Many people have successfully used fips to resize their hard drive partitions. However, because
of the nature of the operations carried out by fips and the wide variety of hardware and software
configurations under which it must run, Red Hat cannot guarantee that fips will work properly on
your system. Therefore, no installation support is available for fips. Use it at your own risk.
That said, if you decide to repartition your hard drive with fips, it is vital that you do two
things:
•
Perform a backup — Make two copies of all the important data on your computer. These
copies should be to removable media (such as tape or diskettes), and you should make
sure they are readable before proceeding.
•
Read the documentation — Completely read the fips documentation, located in the dosutils/fipsdocs subdirectory on Red Hat Linux/x86 CD 1.
Should you decide to use fips, be aware that after fips runs you will be left with two
partitions: the one you resized, and the one fips created out of the newly freed space. If
your goal is to use that space to install Red Hat Linux, you should delete the newly created
partition, either by using fdisk under your current operating system or while setting up
partitions during a custom installation.
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E.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be confusing, particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and their
partitions. In the DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following method:
•
Each partition’s type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
•
If the partition’s type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters start
with a "C" and move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions to
be labeled.
•
The drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system contained on that partition.
Red Hat Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more information
than the approach used by other operating systems. The naming scheme is file-based, with
filenames in the form:
/dev/xxyN
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
/dev/
This string is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions
reside on hard disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions reside in /dev/.
xx
The first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the partition resides. You will normally see either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
This letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the first
IDE hard disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
N
The final number denotes the partition. The first four (primary or extended) partitions
are numbered 1 through 4. Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3 is
the third primary or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6 is the
second logical partition on the second SCSI hard disk.
Note
There is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type; unlike DOS/Windows, all
partitions can be identified under Red Hat Linux. Of course, this does not mean that Red Hat Linux
can access data on every type of partition, but in many cases it is possible to access data on a
partition dedicated to another operating system.
Keep this information in mind; it will make things easier to understand when you are setting
up the partitions Red Hat Linux requires.
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121
E.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Linux partitions will be sharing a hard disk with partitions used by other
operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are certain combinations of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care. Information
on creating disk partitions compatible with other operating systems is available in several
HOWTOs and Mini-HOWTOs, available on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD in the
HOWTO and HOWTO/mini directories. In particular, the Mini-HOWTOs whose names start with
Linux+ are quite helpful.
Note
If Red Hat Linux/x86 will coexist on your machine with OS/2, you must create your disk partitions with
the OS/2 partitioning software —— otherwise, OS/2 may not recognize the disk partitions. During
the installation, do not create any new partitions, but do set the proper partition types for your Linux
partitions using the Linux fdisk.
E.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are
used and accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple:
Each partition gets a "drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and
directories on its corresponding partition.
This is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with
disk storage in general. The main difference is that each partition is used to form part of the
storage necessary to support a single set of files and directories. This is done by associating a
partition with a directory through a process known as mounting. Mounting a partition makes
its storage available starting at the specified directory (known as a mount point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 were mounted on /usr, that would mean that all
files and directories under /usr would physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file
/usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file
/etc/X11/gdm/Sessions/Gnome would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr would
be mount points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be
mounted on /usr/local, meaning that /usr/local/man/whatis would then reside on
/dev/hda7 rather than /dev/hda5.
E.1.8. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Linux, you will need to give
some consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new operating system. The question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within the
Linux community and, without any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there are
probably as many partition layouts as there are people debating the issue.
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise,
you should at least create the following partitions:
•
A swap partition — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words,
data is written to swap when there is not RAM to hold the data your system is processing.
You must create a swap partition to correctly use Red Hat Linux. The minimum size of
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your swap partition should be equal to twice the amount of your computer’s RAM or 32
MB, whichever is larger.
•
A /boot partition — The partition mounted on /boot contains the operating system kernel
(which allows your system to boot Red Hat Linux), along with a few other files used
during the bootstrap process.
Caution
Make sure you read Section E.1.9 — the information there applies to the /boot partition!
Due to the limitations of most PC BIOSes, creating a small partition to hold these files is a
good idea. For most users, a 32 MB boot partition is sufficient.
•
A root partition (/) — The root partition is where / (the root directory) resides. In this
partitioning layout, all files (except those stored in /boot) reside on the root partition.
Because of this, it is in your best interest to maximize the size of your root partition. For
example, a 1.2 GB root partition may permit the equivalent of a workstation installation
(with very little free space), while a 3.4 GB root partition may let you install every package.
Obviously, the more space you can give the root partition, the better.
Specific recommendations concerning the proper size for various Red Hat Linux partitions
can be found in Section 1.5.
E.1.9. One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO
GRUB and LILO are the most commonly used methods to boot Red Hat Linux on Intel-based
systems. As operating system loaders, they operate "outside" of any operating system, using
only the Basic I/O System (or BIOS) built into the computer hardware itself. This section
describes GRUB and LILO’s interactions with PC BIOSes and is specific to Intel-compatible
computers.
E.1.9.1. BIOS-Related Limitations Impacting GRUB and LILO
GRUB and LILO are subject to some limitations imposed by the BIOS in most Intel-based
computers. Specifically, most BIOSes cannot access more than two hard drives, and they
cannot access any data stored beyond cylinder 1023 of any drive. Note that some recent
BIOSes do not have these limitations, but this is by no means universal.
All the data GRUB and LILO need to access at boot time (including the Linux kernel) is
located in the /boot directory. If you follow the partition layout recommended above or are
performing a workstation or server install, the /boot directory will be in a small, separate
partition. Otherwise, it may reside in the root partition (/). In either case, the partition in
which /boot resides must conform to the following guidelines if you are going to use GRUB
or LILO to boot your Red Hat Linux system:
On First Two IDE Drives
If you have 2 IDE (or EIDE) drives, /boot must be located on one of them. Note that this
two-drive limit also includes any IDE CD-ROM drives on your primary IDE controller.
So, if you have one IDE hard drive, and one IDE CD-ROM on your primary controller,
/boot must be located on the first hard drive only, even if you have other hard drives
on your secondary IDE controller.
Appendix E. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
123
On First IDE or First SCSI Drive
If you have one IDE (or EIDE) drive and one or more SCSI drives, /boot must be located
either on the IDE drive or the SCSI drive at ID 0. No other SCSI IDs will work.
On First Two SCSI Drives
If you have only SCSI hard drives, /boot must be located on a drive at ID 0 or ID 1. No
other SCSI IDs will work.
Partition Completely Below Cylinder 1023
No matter which of the above configurations apply, the partition that holds /boot must
be located entirely below cylinder 1023. If the partition holding /boot straddles cylinder
1023, you may face a situation where GRUB and LILO will work initially (because all
the necessary information is below cylinder 1023) but will fail if a new kernel is to be
loaded and that kernel resides above cylinder 1023.
As mentioned earlier, it is possible that some of the newer BIOSes may permit GRUB and
LILO to work with configurations that do not meet these guidelines. Likewise, some of
GRUB and LILO’s more esoteric features may be used to get a Linux system started, even
if the configuration does not meet our guidelines. However, due to the number of variables
involved, Red Hat cannot support such efforts.
Note
Disk Druid, as well as the workstation and server installations, takes these BIOS-related limitations
into account.
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Appendix F.
Driver Disks
F.1. Why Do I Need a Driver Disk?
While the Red Hat Linux installation program is loading, you may see a screen that asks you
for a driver disk. The driver disk screen is most often seen in three scenarios:
•
If you run the installation program in expert mode
•
If you run the installation program by entering linux dd at the boot: prompt
•
If you run the installation program on a computer which does not have any PCI devices
F.1.1. So What Is a Driver Disk Anyway?
A driver disk adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the installation
program. The driver disk could be produced by Red Hat, it could be a disk you make yourself from drivers found on the Internet, or it could be a disk that a hardware vendor includes
with a piece of hardware.
There is no need to use a driver disk unless you need a particular device in order to install
Red Hat Linux. Driver disks are most often used for non-standard or very new CD-ROM
drives, SCSI adapters, or NICs. These are the only devices used during the installation that
might require drivers not included on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROMs (or boot disk, if you
created an installation boot disk to begin the install process).
Note
If an unsupported device is not needed to install Red Hat Linux on your system, continue with the
installation and add support for the new piece of hardware once the installation is complete.
F.1.2. How Do I Obtain a Driver Disk?
The Red Hat Linux CD-ROM 1 includes driver disk images (images/drvnet.img — network
card drivers and images/drvblock.img — drivers for SCSI controllers) containing many
rarely used drivers. If you suspect that your system may require one of these drivers, you
should create the driver disk before beginning your Red Hat Linux installation.
Another option for finding specialized driver disk information is on Red Hat’s website at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata
under the section called Bug Fixes. Occasionally, popular hardware may be made available
after a release of Red Hat Linux that will not work with drivers already in the installation
program or included on the driver disk images on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM 1. In such
cases, the Red Hat website may contain a link to a driver disk image.
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Appendix F. Driver Disks
F.1.2.1. Creating a Driver Disk from an Image File
If you have a driver disk image that you need to write to a floppy disk, this can be done from
within DOS or Red Hat Linux.
To create a driver disk from a driver disk image using Red Hat Linux:
1. Insert a blank, formatted floppy disk into the first floppy drive.
2. From the same directory containing the driver disk image, such as drvnet.img , type
dd if=drvnet.img of=/dev/fd0 as root.
To create a driver disk from a driver disk image using DOS:
1. Insert a blank, formatted floppy disk into the a: drive.
2. From the same directory containing the driver disk image, such as drvnet.img , type
rawrite drvnet.img a: at the command line.
F.1.3. Using a Driver Disk During Installation
Having a driver disk is not enough; you must specifically tell the Red Hat Linux installation
program to load that driver disk and use it during the installation process.
Note
A driver disk is different than a boot disk. If you require a boot disk to begin the Red Hat Linux
installation, you will still need to create that floppy and boot from it before using the driver disk.
If you do not already have an installation boot disk and your system does not support booting from
the CD-ROM, you should create an installation boot disk. For instructions on how make a boot disk,
see Section 1.4.2 .
Once you have created your driver disk, begin the installation process by booting from the
Red Hat Linux CD-ROM 1 (or the installation boot disk). At the boot: prompt, enter either
linux expert or linux dd. Refer to Section 3.3.1 for details on booting the installation
program.
The Red Hat Linux installation program will ask you to insert the driver disk. Once the
driver disk is read by the installer, it can apply those drivers to hardware discovered on
your system later in the installation process.
Appendix G.
Configuring a Dual-Boot System
Sharing a computer between two operating systems requires dual booting. You can use either operating system on the computer, but not both at once. Each operating system boots
from and uses its own hard drives or disk partitions.
This chapter explains how to configure your system to boot into both Red Hat Linux and
another operating system. For clarity, we will assume that the other operating system is
Microsoft Windows™. But the general procedures are similar for other operating systems.
Note
If Red Hat Linux will coexist on your system with OS/2, you must create your disk partitions with
the OS/2 partitioning software — otherwise, OS/2 may not recognize the disk partitions. During the
installation, do not create any new partitions, but do set the proper partition types for your Linux
partitions using fdisk.
If you do not have any operating systems installed on your computer, install Windows first
and then install Red Hat Linux.
•
If you are installing Windows 9x or Windows ME, you can not define partitions during
the Windows installation. Install Windows, and then refer to Section G.3 for instructions
on using fips to repartition your hard drive and create free space for Linux.
•
If you are installing Windows NT or Windows 2000, you can create partitions of a specific
size for Windows. Leave enough free space (space that is not partitioned or formatted) on
the hard drive to install Linux.
Tip
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some systems cannot access more
than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room for the /boot
Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions
can be after cylinder 1024.
Refer to Section 1.3 to determine how much disk space to leave. After installing Windows,
refer to Section G.2.
If the computer you want to install Red Hat Linux on is currently running Windows (or
some other operating system you have installed), you have an important decision to make.
Your choices are:
•
Do you want Red Hat Linux to be the only operating system on your computer, despite
the fact that you already have Windows on your computer? If yes, you do not have to
configure a dual-boot system. Backup any information that you want to save and start the
installation. During the installation, if you choose to have the installation program automatically partition your system on the Disk Partitioning Setup screen, choose Remove all
partitions on this system. If you choose manual partitioning with Disk Druid or fdisk,
delete all the existing DOS (Windows) partitions and then create your Linux partitions.
128
•
Appendix G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
Do you want to install Red Hat Linux and then have the option of booting either Red Hat
Linux or your other operating system? A Red Hat Linux installation can be performed
so that Red Hat Linux is installed on your system, but the other operating system is not
affected. Since you already have Windows installed, you need to allocate disk space for
Linux. Refer to Section G.1, and then refer to Section G.2.
G.1. Allocating Disk Space for Linux
Warning
Remember to back up all important information before reconfiguring your hard drive. Reconfiguring
your hard drive can result in the loss of data if you are not extremely careful. Additionally, be sure to
create a boot disk for both operating systems in case the boot loader fails to recognize either of them.
If you already have Windows installed on your system, you must have free hard drive space
available on which to install Red Hat Linux. Your choices are as follows:
•
Add a new hard drive.
•
Use an existing hard drive or partition.
•
Create a new partition.
For all three options, be aware that the BIOS in some older systems cannot access more than
the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, the /boot Linux partition must be
located on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux.
G.1.1. Add a New Hard Drive
The simplest way to make room for Red Hat Linux is to add a new hard drive to the computer and then install Red Hat Linux on that drive. For example, if you add a second IDE
hard drive to the computer, the Red Hat Linux installation program will recognize it as hdb
and the existing drive (the one used by Windows) as hda. (For SCSI hard drives, the newly
installed Red Hat Linux hard drive would be recognized as sdb and the other hard drive as
sda.)
If you choose to install a new hard drive for Linux, all you need to do is start the Red Hat
Linux installation program. After starting the Red Hat Linux installation program, just make
sure you choose to install Linux on the newly installed hard drive (such as hdb or sdb) rather
than the hard drive used by Windows.
G.1.2. Use an Existing Hard Drive or Partition
Another way to make room for Linux is to use a hard drive or disk partition that is currently
being used by Windows. For example, suppose that Windows Explorer shows two hard
drives, C: and D:. This could indicate either that the computer has two hard drives, or a
single hard drive with two partitions. In either case (assuming the hard drive has enough
disk space), you can install Red Hat Linux on the hard drive or disk partition that Windows
recognizes as D:.
This choice is available to you only if the computer has two or more hard drives or disk
partitions.
Appendix G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
129
Note
Windows uses letters to refer to removable drives (for example, a ZIP drive) and network storage
(virtual drives) as well as for local hard drive space; you cannot install Linux on a removable or
network drive.
If a local Windows partition is available in which you want to install Linux, complete the
following steps:
1. Copy all data you want to save from the selected hard drive or partition (D: in this
example) to another location.
2. Start the Red Hat Linux installation program and tell it to install Linux in the designated drive or partition — in this example, in the hard drive or partition that Windows
designates as D:. Note that Linux distinguishes between hard drives and disk partitions. Thus:
•
If C: and D: on this computer refer to two separate hard drives, the installation program will recognize them as hda and hdb (IDE) or sda and sdb (SCSI). Tell the installation program to install on hdb or sdb.
•
If C: and D: refer to partitions on a single drive, the installation program will recognize them as hda1 and hda2 (or sda1 and sda2). During the partitioning phase of the
Red Hat Linux installation, delete the second partition (hda2 or sda2), then partition
the unallocated free space for Linux. You do not have to delete the second partition
prior to starting the Red Hat Linux installation.
G.1.3. Create a New Partition
The third way to make room for Linux is to create a new partition for Red Hat Linux on the
hard drive being used by the other operating system. If Windows Explorer shows only one
hard drive (C:), and you do not want to add a new hard drive, you must partition the drive.
After partitioning, Windows Explorer will see a smaller C: drive; and, when you run the
Red Hat Linux installation program, you can partition the remainder of the drive for Linux.
You can use a destructive partitioning program, such as fdisk, to divide the hard drive, but
doing so will require you to re-install Windows. (This is probably not your best option.)
A number of non-destructive third-party partitioning programs are available for the Windows operating system. If you choose to use one of these, consult their documentation.
For instructions on how to partition with FIPS, a program that is on the Red Hat Linux
CD-ROM, refer to Section G.3.
G.2. Installing Red Hat Linux in a Dual-Boot Environment
After Windows is installed and you have free disk space ready for Linux, you can start
the Red Hat Linux installation program. Go to Chapter 1 to begin. At this point, the only
difference between a Red Hat Linux installation and configuring a dual-boot system during
the Red Hat Linux installation is partitioning the hard drive and configuring the boot loader.
When you are at the Disk Partitioning Setup screen as described in Section 3.16, return to
this section.
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Appendix G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
G.2.1. Disk Partitioning
At the Disk Partitioning Setup screen of the installation program, you have a few options.
Depending on which option you choose, the steps for configuring a dual-boot system vary.
If you do not know how many Linux partitions to create, refer to Section 3.18 for a recommended partitioning scheme. If you choose:
•
Automatic partitioning — Choose Keep all partitions and use existing free space. This
option will leave your Windows partitions on the hard drive and partition the free space
or additional hard drive for Red Hat Linux.
•
Manual partitioning with Disk Druid — Do not delete the existing Windows partitions
(they are the partitions of type vfat). Create your Linux partitions on the additional hard
drive or in the free space you have reserved for Red Hat Linux.
•
Manual partitioning with fdisk — Similar to using Disk Druid except you will not have
the graphical interface. The basic procedure is the same. Do not delete the existing partitions of type FAT16, FAT32, or NTFS. Create your Linux partitions on the additional hard
drive or in the free space you have reserved for Red Hat Linux.
G.2.2. Configuring the Boot Loader
When you arrive at the Boot Loader Installation screen during the Red Hat Linux installation, choose to install the boot loader. You can use a different boot loader to boot both Red
Hat Linux and Windows. Red Hat does not support alternate boot loaders. Thus, this section
will discuss how to configure GRUB or LILO to boot both operating systems.
The Red Hat Linux installation program will usually detect Windows and automatically
configure the boot loader (GRUB or LILO) to boot either Red Hat Linux or Windows. This
can be seen on the boot loader screen of the installation program. An entry named DOS
appears in the list of operating systems to boot.
G.2.3. Post-Installation
After the installation, whenever you start the computer, you can indicate whether you want
to start Red Hat Linux or the other operating system from the boot loader screen. Choose
Red Hat Linux to boot into Red Hat Linux, and choose DOS to boot into Windows.
If you did not partition all the free space on your hard drive for Red Hat Linux, you can
partition it for Windows after installing Red Hat Linux. You can use cfdisk or fdisk to create
these partitions. cfdisk is easier to use than fdisk because it is more interactive and has a
menu from which to choose.
Warning
It is highly recommended that you use cfdisk or fdisk to create partitions after installing Red Hat
Linux. Other partitioning software has been known to change the partitioning table of the hard drive
and move the Linux partitions. If this happens, the boot loader will not be able to find the Linux
partitions and will not boot into Red Hat Linux.
To access the files on the Windows partitions while using Red Hat Linux, refer to the Accessing a Windows Partition FAQ in the Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. If you
formatted the Windows partitions in NTFS format, this method will not work.
Appendix G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
131
G.3. Partitioning with FIPS
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the FIPS utility. This is a freely available
program that can resize FAT (File Allocation Table) partitions. It is included on the Red Hat
Linux CD-ROM in the dosutils directory. If you are using NTFS partitions, FIPS will not
work.
Note
Many people have successfully used FIPS to repartition their hard drives. However, because of the
nature of the operations carried out by FIPS, and the wide variety of hardware and software configurations under which it must run, Red Hat cannot guarantee that FIPS will work properly on your
system. Therefore, no installation support whatsoever is available for FIPS; use it at your own risk.
That said, if you decide to repartition your hard drive with FIPS, it is vital that you do two
things:
•
Perform a Backup — Make two copies of all the important data on your computer. These
copies should be to removable media (such as tape, CD-ROM, or diskettes), and you
should make sure they are readable before proceeding.
•
Read the Documentation — Completely read the FIPS documentation, located in the dosutils/fipsdocs directory on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM 1.
Should you decide to use FIPS, be aware that after FIPS runs you will be left with two
partitions: the one you resized, and the one FIPS created out of the newly freed space. If
your goal is to use that space to install Red Hat Linux, you should delete the newly created
partition, either by using fdisk under your current operating system, or while setting up
partitions during a custom-class installation.
The following instructions are a simplified version of the FIPS documentation file,
fips.doc, located in the FIPS directory (/dosutils/fips20/*). These instructions should
apply in most instances. If you encounter any problems, see the documentation file.
1. From Windows:
•
Do a full backup.
•
Run scandisk to verify that the hard drive contains no bad clusters.
•
Decide how to distribute the available space on the hard drive between the operating
systems. Use Windows Explorer to see the free space on the drive. Make a note of
the space (in megabytes) that each operating system will have.
•
If you do not have one, create a Windows boot disk.
Creating a boot disk varies between different versions of Windows. Consult the Windows documentation for instructions on creating a Windows boot disk.
The diskette will be formatted, and COMMAND.COM, along with the associated hidden
files (IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and DBLSPACE.BIN), will be copied to the diskette.
•
Copy the following files on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM to the DOS boot disk.
dosutils/fips20/fips.exe
dosutils/fips20/restorrb.exe
dosutils/fips20/errors.txt
132
Appendix G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
dosutils/fips20/fips.doc
dosutils/fips20/fips.faq
•
Defragment the hard drive so that all the data on the hard drive is located at the
beginning of the drive.
2. Insert the Windows boot disk into the floppy drive and reboot the system.
3. Start FIPS (type fips at the prompt).
When FIPS begins, you’ll find a welcome screen similar to the following:
FIPS version 2.0, Copyright (C) 1993/4 Arno Schaefer
FAT32 Support, Copyright (C) 1997 Gordon Chaffee
DO NOT use FIPS in a multitasking environment like Windows, OS/2, Desqview,
Novell Task manager or the Linux DOS emulator; boot from a DOS boot disk first.
If you use OS/2 or a disk compressor, read the relevant sections in FIPS.DOC.
FIPS comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, see file COPYING for details.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; again, see file COPYING for details.
Press any key.
When you press a key, a root partition screen will appear. (Note that, if the computer
has more than one hard drive, you’ll be asked to select which one you want to partition.)
When you press a key, details about the hard drive, such as the following, will appear.
Boot sector:
Bytes per sector: 512
Sectors per cluster: 8
Reserved sectors: 1
Number of FATs: 2
Number of rootdirectory entries: 512
Number of sectors (short): 0
Media descriptor byte: f8h
Sectors per FAT: 145
Sectors per track: 63
Drive heads: 16
Hidden sectors: 63
Number of sectors (long): 141057
Physical drive number: 80h
Signature: 29h
Checking boot sector ... OK
Checking FAT ... OK
Searching for free space ... OK
Do you want to make a backup copy of your root and boot sector before
proceeding? (y/n)
You should select [y], for yes, to make a backup copy of your root and boot sector
before proceeding with FIPS.
Next, you will be presented with the following message:
Do you have a bootable floppy disk in drive A: as described in the
documentation? (y/n)
Appendix G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
133
Verify that a DOS boot disk is in the floppy drive, and type [y], for yes. A screen similar
to the following will appear, allowing you to resize the partition.
Writing file a:\rootboot:000
Enter start cylinder for new partition (33-526)
Use the cursor keys to choose the cylinder,
Old partition
258.9 MB
Cylinder
33
enter
to continue
New partition
3835.8 MB
Figure G-1. Partition Resizing Screen
The initial values allocate all free space on the disk to the new partition. This is not what
you want, because this setting would leave no free space on your Windows partition.
Press the [right arrow] to increase the size of the Windows partition and decrease the
size of the new (Linux) partition; press the [left arrow] to decrease the size of the Windows partition and increase the size of the Linux partition. When the sizes are what
you want, press [Enter]. A verification screen will appear.
If you type r (to re-edit the partition tables), Figure G-1 reappears, allowing you to
change the partition sizes. If you answer c, a confirmation screen, Figure G-2, appears:
New boot sector:
Boot sector:
Bytes per sector: 512
Sectors per cluster: 8
Reserved sectors: 1
Number of FATs: 2
Number of rootdirectory entries: 512
Number of sectors (short): 0
Media descriptor byte: f8h
Sectors per FAT: 145
Sectors per track: 63
Drive heads: 16
Hidden sectors: 63
Number of sectors (long): 141057
Physical drive number: 80h
Signature: 29h
Checking boot sector ... OK
Ready to write new partition scheme to disk
Do you want to proceed (y/n)?
Figure G-2. FIPS Confirmation Screen
Answering y completes the resizing operation. A harmless error message may occur, stating
in effect that FIPS cannot reboot the system.
After a successful operation, the disk will have two partitions. The first partition (hda1 or
sda1) will be used by Windows. We recommend that you start Windows (remember to remove the boot disk from drive A:) and run scandisk on drive C:.
If you encounter any problems (for example, Windows will not boot), you can reverse the
FIPS resizing operation with the restorrb.exe command, which you copied to your DOS
boot disk. In case of any errors, read the FIPS documentation files (fips.doc and fips.faq),
134
Appendix G. Configuring a Dual-Boot System
which describe a number of factors that could cause the resizing operation to fail. If all else
fails, you can restore Windows with the backup you made.
The second partition (hda2 or sda2) contains the space that the Red Hat Linux installation
program will use. When the Disk Druid screen appears during installation, delete this partition (the installation manual explains how), then proceed with Linux partitioning.
Index
Symbols
/boot, 52
/boot partition
(See partition, /boot)
/root/install.log
install log file location, 75
A
adding partitions, 53
file system type, 54
ATAPI CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 39
authentication
configuration, 68
Kerberos, 68
LDAP, 68
MD5 passwords, 68
NIS, 68
shadow passwords, 68
autoboot, 37
automatic partitioning, 48, 49
B
BIOS, issues related to GRUB, 122
BIOS, issues related to LILO, 122
boot disk creation, 76, 90
boot loader, 56
alternatives to, 58, 86
boot disk, 58, 86
commercial products, 59, 86
LOADLIN, 58, 86
SYSLINUX, 59, 86
configuration, 56
GRUB, 56
installation, 56
installing on boot partition, 57, 84
LILO, 56
MBR, 57
boot methods
local boot disk, 18
PCMCIA boot disks, 18
USB diskette drive, 19
boot options, 35
expert mode, 36
mediacheck, 36
no framebuffer mode, 35
serial mode, 36
text mode, 35
bootable CD-ROM, 37
booting
installation program, 34
C
canceling the installation, 38
CD-ROM
ATAPI, 38
unrecognized, problems with, 39
bootable, 37
IDE, 38
unrecognized, problems with, 39
installation from, 38
other, 39
SCSI, 38
class
installation, 48
clock, 65
configuration
clock, 65
GRUB, 56
hardware, 29
finding with Windows, 25
LILO, 56
network, 60
time, 65
time zone, 65
consoles, virtual, 31
conventions
document, ix
Custom
disk space, 18
D
dd
creating installation diskette, 20
deleting partitions, 55
dependencies
installing packages, 73
upgrading packages, 88
disk
driver, 125
Disk Druid
adding partitions, 53
file system type, 54
buttons, 51
deleting partitions, 55
editing partitions, 55
partitions, 50
disk partitioning, 48
disk space, 16
disk space requirements, 17
custom, 23
laptop, 23
136
server, 22
workstation, 21
diskette
boot, creating, 19
making under Linux-like OS, 20
making with MS-DOS, 19
network boot, creating, 19
PCMCIA support, creating, 19
documentation
other manuals, 15
driver disk, 19, 34, 125
creating from image, 126
produced by others, 125
produced by Red Hat, 125
using, 126
dual-boot
allocating disk space, 128
FIPS partitioning tool, 131
installing Red Hat Linux, 129
making room for
adding a new hard drive, 128
creating new partitions, 129
using current partitions or hard drive, 128
using FIPS to partition, 131
no OS installed, 127
OS/2, 127
Red Hat Linux as the only OS, 127
Windows already installed, 127
E
editing partitions, 55
extended partitions, 114
G
GNOME
introduction to, 72
GRUB, 56, 59, 83, 87
alternatives to, 58, 86
boot disk, 58, 86
commercial products, 59, 86
LOADLIN, 58, 86
SYSLINUX, 59, 86
BIOS-related issues, 122
configuration, 56, 83
creating a new configuration, 84
installation, 56
MBR, 84
partitioning-related issues, 122
password, 59, 87
removing, 93
SMP motherboards, 59, 87
H
hard disk
basic concepts, 109
extended partitions, 114
F
file system formats, 109
fdisk, 55
feedback
contact information for this manual, xii
file system
formats, overview of, 109
file system migration
upgrading your file system, 82
file system types, 54, 82
fips partitioning utility, 119
firewall configuration, 61
customize incoming services, 63
customize trusted devices, 63
security levels
high, 62
medium, 63
no firewall, 63
FTP
installation, 42
partition introduction, 112
partition types, 113
partitioning of, 109
hard drive install, 39
hardware
compatibility, 16
configuration, 29
finding with Windows, 25
hostname configuration, 60
how to use this manual, xii
HTTP
installation, 43
137
I
IDE CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 39
install log file
/root/install.log, 75
installation
aborting, 38
can you install with a CD-ROM, 18
CD-ROM, 38
choosing, 20
class, 48
custom, 23
disk space, 16
expert mode, 36
FTP, 42
getting Red Hat Linux, 15
GRUB, 56
GUI
CD-ROM, 31
hard drive, 39
HTTP, 43
keyboard navigation, 33
laptop, 23
LILO, 56
mediacheck, 36
method
CD-ROM, 37
FTP, 38
hard drive, 37
HTTP, 38
NFS image, 37
selecting, 37
network, 40
NFS, 42
NFS server information, 42
no boxed set, 16
no framebuffer mode, 35
partitioning, 50
problems
IDE CD-ROM related, 39
program
booting, 34
booting without a diskette, 37
graphical user interface, 31
starting, 34
text mode user interface, 32
virtual consoles, 31
registering your product, 16
serial mode, 36
server, 22
starting, 38
text mode, 35
online help, 34
upgrading, 24
workstation, 21
installation class
choosing, 20
installing packages, 70
introduction, ix
K
KDE
introduction to, 73
kernel options, 36
keyboard
configuration, 45
navigating the installation program using, 33
keymap
selecting type of keyboard, 45
L
language
selecting, 44
support for multiple languages, 65
LILO, 56, 83
alternatives to, 58, 86
boot disk, 58, 86
commercial products, 59, 86
LOADLIN, 58, 86
SYSLINUX, 59, 86
BIOS-related issues, 122
configuration, 56, 83
creating a new configuration, 84
installation, 56
MBR, 84
partitioning-related issues, 122
removing, 93
SMP motherboards, 59, 87
Linux-like OS
creating installation diskette with, 20
LOADLIN, 58, 86
138
M
file system type, 54
destructive, 117
manuals, 15
master boot record
see MBR, 84
MBR
installing boot loader on, 57
installing GRUB on, 84
installing LILO on, 84
mount points
partitions and, 121
mouse
configuring, 46
not detected, 103
selecting, 46
MS-DOS
creating installation diskette with, 19
extended partitions, 114
GRUB issues related to, 122
how many partitions, 121
introduction to, 112
LILO issues related to, 122
making room for partitions, 115
mount points and, 121
naming partitions, 120
non-destructive, 117
numbering partitions, 120
other operating systems, 121
recommended, 52
types of partitions, 113
N
network
configuration, 60
installations
FTP, 42
HTTP, 43
network install, 40
NFS
installation, 42
using free space, 116
using in-use partition, 116
using unused partition, 116
with fdisk, 55
password
GRUB, 59, 87
setting root, 66
user accounts, 68
O
online help
hiding, 44
text mode installation, 34
OS/2, 121
OS/2 boot manager, 57, 84
R
rawrite
creating installation diskette, 19
recursion
P
packages
groups, 70
selecting, 70
individual, 71
installing, 70
selecting, 70
partition
/boot, 122
extended, 114
root, 122
swap, 121
Partition Magic, 59, 86
partitioning, 50
automatic, 48, 49
basic concepts, 109
creating new, 53
(See recursion)
Red Hat FAQ, xii
registering your product, 16
removing
GRUB, 93
LILO, 93
Red Hat Linux, 93
rescue mode, 58, 86
root / partition, 53
root partition
(See partition, root)
root password, 66
139
S
mouse not detected, 103
PCMCIA boot disk options, 102
booting, 101
boot disk, 101
CD-ROM, 101
network boot disk, 102
PCMCIA boot disks, 102
signal 11 error, 102
CD-ROM failure
CD-ROM verification, 36
during the installation, 103
completing partitions, 104
creating partitions, 103
Python errors, 104
using remaining hard drive space, 104
graphical installation
no framebuffer mode, 35
selecting
packages, 70
SMP motherboards
GRUB, 59, 87
LILO, 59, 87
starting
installation, 34, 38
steps
choosing an installation class, 20
disk space, 16
hardware compatibility, 16
installing with CD-ROM, 18
Red Hat Linux components, 15
support, technical
(See technical support)
swap, 52
custom auto-partition, 24
laptop auto-partition, 23
workstation auto-partition, 22
swap file
upgrade, 81
swap partition
(See partition, swap)
SYSLINUX, 59, 86
System Commander, 59, 86
system requirements table, 29
T
tables
reference, 25
system requirements, 29
technical support, 95
how to send questions for, 99
how to state problems for, 98
not provided for other companies’ products,
96
policy overview, 95
registering online, 97
signing up for, 97
time zone
configuration, 65
troubleshooting, 101
after the installation, 105
graphical GRUB screen, 105
graphical LILO screen, 105
logging in, 106
Netscape Navigator, 106
printers and X, 107
RAM not recognized, 107
server installations and X, 106
sound configuration, 108
beginning the installation, 102
GUI installation method unavailable, 103
U
uninstalling, 93
unresolved dependencies
full installation, 73
upgrade, 88
upgrade, 24, 81
adding a swap file, 81
boot loader configuration, 83
boot loader configuration, creating new, 84
customizing, 82, 88
description of, 81
ext2, 82
ext3, 82
file system, 82
package selection, 88
packages, 82
starting, 81
unresolved dependencies, 88
USB diskette drive
booting the installation program, 19
user accounts
creation, 68
setting up, 68
user interface, graphical
installation program, 31
user interface, text mode
installation program, 32
V
virtual consoles, 31
W
Windows
finding hardware configuration with, 25
X
X
configuration, 74
X Window System, 74
Xconfigurator
monitor setup, 77
video card setup, 74