V2X standardization and deployment:
viewpoint of a system provider
Les Journées Nationales des Communications dans les Transports, JNCT 2013
29th May 2013
Lan LIN
lan.lin@hitachi-eu.com
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL), FRANCE
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 2000~2013 Hitachi Europe Ltd.
Outlines
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Background
V2X deployment
Standardization and main technical features
ICTL activities on V2X and beyond.
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Background
• Intelligent Transport System (ITS) targets at:
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Road safety
Traffic efficiency
Environmental effects
Comfort and mobility
• Modern society and industries are living some transformations:
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Connected lifestyle, even in the car
Social networks
Multimodal mobility
Smart cities
 Cars will interact with their environment in many different ways
 New stakeholders in the value chain
 Approaching of consumer industries and automobile industries
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Fact sheet: Road safety
The Commission’s Road Safety Programme aiming at cutting road deaths in Europe between 2011
and 2020.
• Road Safety is a major societal issue. In 2011, more than 30,000 people died on the roads of the
European Union.
• For every death on Europe's roads there are an estimated 4 permanently disabling injuries.
Source: European Commission
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Fact sheet: Vehicle connectivity
Telematics:
• Telematics shipment is foreseen to reach 30 millions at 2017 in western Europe
• Aftermarket devices and OEM embedded/hybrid devices are having equivalent share.
• The penetration rate is estimated to reach more than 90% at the same time scale.
Vehicle safety system:
• ADAS Overall Value World Market is increasing rapidly and the trend seems
continue
• Connectivity based safety systems will be deployed in EU and in world wide:
• eCall directive in EU.
• ITS G5 technologies in EU/DSRC in USA/ITS spot services in Japan
Vehicle and infrastructure integration:
• Infrastructure service provision based on I2V (Infrastructure to Vehicle) to further
stimulate the penetration rate.
• ITS in smart cities, smart energy management.
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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What is C2X ?
Cooperative System by Car-to-Car and Car-to-Infrastructure Communications for Traffic Safety and
Efficiency, and for Automotive Infotainment:
•Various communication media and protocols
•Multiple applications/services
•Open platform
INFRAs
Public Sectors
Service Stations
Road
Signs
Traffic
Lights
• Traffic info
• Probe data
VEHICLEs
Private Sectors
Private Sectors
Traffic Centers
LTE
4G
C2I
C2I
C2I
• Service info
• Vehicle Status
C2C
Motorcycles
• Position
• Speed
Cars
Stereo
cameras
C2C: Car to Car C2I: Car to Infra
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Cooperative ITS (V2X) systems
5,875 – 5,905 (ITSG5A/ITSG5B) spectrum has been allocated in EU for road safety and
traffic efficiency application. However, C-ITS may use other technologies such as
cellular, WLAN.
ITS G5 technologies:
• Quick media access  low latency
communication
• Ad hoc communication  no
infrastructure requirements
• Allocated spectrum for ITS 
communication reliability
• 200-800m communication range 
extended view for vehicle compared
to RADAR, LIDAR
ITS G5 is considered as main
candidate for road safety applications
by European C2C-CC
V2V V2I deployment will stimulate
the deployment and penetration rate.
Source: ETSI
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
C2C-CC: car to car communication consortium
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ITS station communication architecture
ITS Station Reference Architecture
SM-SAP
SM-SAP
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Other
Applications
SA-SAP
Traffic
Efficiency
SA-SAP
MA-SAP
Road
Safety
Security
NF-SAP
NF-SAP
Networking & Transport
SN-SAP
... +
IPv6
Mobility
Extensions
SI-SAP
GeoOther
Routing protocols
SN-SAP
ITS
Network
TCP/UDP
SI-SAP
MN-SAP
MN-SAP
ITS Transport
IN-SAP
Firewall and Intrusion Management
Session
Support
SF-SAP
Information
Support
SF-SAP
MF-SAP
MF-SAP
Application Support
Security Information Base
(Identity, CryptoKey and Certificate Managment)
FA-SAP
Facilities
Authentication, Authorization, Profile Management
FA-SAP
IN-SAP
MI-SAP
Access Technologies (PHY&DLL)
MI-SAP
Management
Networking Management
Cross-Interface Management
Management Information Base (MIB)
Station management
MA-SAP
Applications
ETSI TC ITS modular architecture,
supporting
• Multiple applications
• Multiple communication protocol
• Multiple access technologies
Station-External
Interfaces
e.g.
5.9GHz
e.g.
WiFi
Station-Internal
Interfaces
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
GPS BlueTooth 2G/3G/... Ethernet
ITS vehicle station
ITS road side station
ITS central station
ITS personal station
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
Hardware Security
Module (HSM)
Source: ETSI
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Pave the road for deployment
Car makers in C2C-CC have signed a MoU for volunteer deployment
from 2015 on.
Deployment
• Security, certification (compliance assessment),legal
framework.
• Application effectiveness evaluation, impact to real
traffic , user acceptance…
• Standard compliance, performance
validation, system integration.
Pre engineering &
Certification
Large scale FoTs and evaluation
Prototype, test & validation
Standard and international standards
harmonization
• Interoperability and harmonization
• Minimum requirements.
• Strategic support.
…
Day 1 applications
ITS action plan& directive, spectrum, industrial consortiums,
European standard mandate
FOT: Field Operational Test
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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V2X applications
 V2X extends the view of radar
based proactive or active safety.
 Technology agnostic
 But application requirements
may result in specific choice of
technologies:
 Reliability
 Communication coverage
 Latency
 Interoperability
LBS
Capability
Traffic info
Road hazard
signaling
Traffic efficiency
Collision avoidance
Emergency braking
Lane merging
ITS G5
Cellular
Source: ETSI
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Application
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Deployment and penetration rate
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V2V based applications required a minimum penetration rate.
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C2C-CC estimates that 10% is required for V2V safety
Critical for reaching critical mass in installed base
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Only 14 million vehicles sold / 250 million installed base
Retrofit solution and/or smartphone based system may stimulate further
the penetration rate
Other factors:
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Infrastructure based applications
Infotainment applications
Penetration rate
Factory installed V2X (15 years life cycle)
Retrofit and smartphones V2X
(5 year life cycle)
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Time
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Standardization: essential part of ITS
Standardizations (or amendment of current standards) is
essential, with the regulation on spectrum usage.
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Communication interoperability
Communication protocol stack.
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Access (PHY MAC)
Networking & transport
Standardized message exchanges
Message format, high layer protocol
Modularity:
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To enable multiple implementation strategy.
Layer base architecture and protocol design.
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Basic performance requirements:
Source: DRIVE C2X
Performance:
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Data quality, information availability, congestion control etc.
Compliance and testing
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Standardized test specifications are required.
Certification and testing :
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Standard compliance testing
Interoperability testing
System performance compliance assessment
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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ETSI TC ITS - CEN TC278/ISO TC204
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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ETSI TC ITS: M/453
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Location based
Service, PoI
In vehicle signage
Collision
avoidance
Traffic information
Commercial
services
Facilities
CAM/DENM
SPAT/MAP/IVI
SAM
HMIS
LDM
Vehicle data
provider
Position&
Time
Web Service
/SOAP
Congestion control
BTP
•Certificates update with PKI
•Communication security mechanism
•IP security
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Certificate updates
Transport & Networks
•Dynamic selection of communication profile
•Network and media congestion control
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
Road Hazard
signaling
TCP/UDP
GeoNetworking
IPv6 over GeoNet
Signature/
Verification/encryption
Communication
management
•Geo position based addressing and routing
•Legacy IP stack
•Transmission of IP over GeoNet
Applications
Security
•Periodical broadcasting vehicle position and
basic sensor information up to 10Hz.
•Traffic event message
•Traffic light phase and timing information
•Road topology information
•Road signage information
•Service announcement
•Local dynamic maps database
•Position and time information
•HMI supports
•Vehicle CAN bus gateway
•Other high layer protocol (web service, SOAP, HTTP)
Management
Main technical features and standards
IPv6
Access
ITS G5/11p
GNSS
3G
11 b/g/n
…
Source: ETSI
All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 2000~2013 Hitachi Europe Ltd.
ICTL Introduction
www.hitachi.eu/erd/research/ict/
ICTL – Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory
8 people,
7 researchers
Sophia Antipolis – FRANCE
ICTL located side of ETSI, the
EU Telecomm. Standard. Institute.
ICTL
Phase
Period
Exploration – Maturation
1997- 2004
Topics
Wireless Communications,
Ad Hoc Networks
Samsung and Intel recently opened
R&D sites on Sophia as well
Research/Development – Business Support
2004 - 2011
2011Vehicular Comms
(C2X*)
ITS** & Smart Mobility
(e.g. eCo-FEV Pj)
*C2X: Car to Any **ITS: Intelligent Transport Systems
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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C2X activities in EU
2005-2009
2011
2010
2012
2013
Standard mandate 453
Profiling standards
Technical Validation
Technical Validation
C2X Market
Standardization
Standardization
MoU* Press Release
EU/National FOTs* Phase
R&D Phase
2014-
Piloting Phase
ICTL plays important roles in the C2X community
ICTL in Standardization
ETSI ITS Tech Committee
WG1 (Application): Co-chair
WG2 (Architecture)
WG3 (Networking): Editor
WG4 (Media)
WG5 (Security)
ICTL in EU/National FOT* Projects
Steering Committee Member
SP1 (Pj Mngmt)
SP2 (Specs): Leader
SP3 (FOT)
SP4 (Evaluation)
SP5 (Promotion)
*FOT: Field Operational Test *ITS: Intelligent Transport Systems
*MoU: Memorandum of Understanding
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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FOT prototype
ICTL roles
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C2X Comm. Platform developed by ICTL in FOTs
C2X platform technologies to analyze
surrounding info. in real-time
General scenario
RSU
C2I Comm.
(Signal phase, etc.)
OBU (On-Board Unit)
Collision Risk
Traffic Signal
Approaching Car
on left!
C2C Comm. (Vehicle
info.)
Applications
Speed Advisory
Go w/ 40km/h
T to Green: 8s
C2X platform
ECUs
Local Dynamic Map (LDM)
C2X Protocol
Sensing
CAN
C2X Info.
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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C2X Technologies by ICTL
ICTL Develops advanced functions of C2X geoNetworking protocol
C2X Protocol
Stack
Advanced Forwarding Protocols
Area-based Multihop Broadcast
Applications
Facility
Network
Transmission Interval Control (TIC)
Spatially-stabilize NW usage
Vehicle
Packet
Density
Density
GBC
NO Control
(Hitachi) TIC
*
TPC
TIC
PHY/MAC*
Stable NW Usage
Transmitting Distance(m)
PHY: Physical Layer MAC: Media Access Control TPC: Transmission Power Control GBC: Geobroadcast
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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DRIVE C2X project overview: test sites
Seven test sites:
System test site:
 Helmond/Eindhoven,
The Netherlands
Functional test sites:
 Tampere, Finland,
 Yvelines, France,
 Frankfurt, Germany,
 Brennero, Italy,
 Gothenburg, Sweden
 Vigo, Spain
Collaboration partner
Supported by
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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DRIVE C2X project overview: Use cases
Safety
Traffic jam ahead warning
Traffic Efficiency
Roadworks warning
Green light optimized speed advise
(BSA: Traffic condition warning)
Car breakdown warning
Approaching emergency
vehicle (BSA: Emerg. vehicle warning)
Weather warning
Emergency electronic brake
lights
Slow vehicle warning
In vehicle signage/ Speed limit
(BSA: Traffic light optimal speed advisory)
Infotainment and Business
Insurance and financial
services *
Dealer management*
Point of interest notification
Fleet management*
Transparent leasing*
(BSA: slow vehicle indication)
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Post-crash warning
(BSA: Stationary vehicle-accident)
Obstacle warning
Wrong way driving in gas
stations
Motorcycle warning
Use cases in green are listed in ETSI
BSA.
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Safety applications are under
standardization
(BSA: Motorcycle approaching indication)
* currently pending
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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DRIVE C2X Architecture
Reference systems developed in DRIVE C2X :
VIS ( Vehicle ITS station) integrated with in vehicle network.
RIS (Road ITS station) interfaced with road side sensors and equipment's.
CIS (Center ITS station): including management center, test center, and DRIVE C2X PKI.
Central ITS Station
UMTS
IPv4/v6
(Backend System)
CAM/DENM/SPAT/TOPO
Roadside ITS
Station (Traffic
UMTS
IPv4/v6
Light, Sensors)
CAM/DENM
IEEE 802.11p
IEEE 802.11p
Vehicle ITS Station
Vehicle ITS
Station
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
Hitachi is the provider of V2X platform reference
system for DRIVE C2X and for SCORE@F. The V2X
platform is validated in ETSI plug test.
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Usage of C2X technologies in eCo-FEV*
EU Smart Mobility Project for EV-infrastructure cooperation
Period
Partners
Goals
September 2012 – May 2015
Hitachi (ICTL is Coordinator), Renault, Fiat + 10 organizations
・To develop a standardized platform
・To exploit infrastructures’ info for advanced EV cloud services
EV Charging
Stations
Automotive
Cloud
Road IT
Infra.
Availability
Traffic
Status
C2X & other
Service example
Original
Route
Destination
Traffic
Jam
EVs
New Optimal Route
EV status
* eCo-FEV:
Efficient Cooperative Infrastructure for Fully Electric Vehicles
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Aim of eCo-FEV project
Current Issues
• Smart Mobility City is realized through the coordination of different infras.
• But each infrastructure is working separately.
Project Aim
To define a platform to enable information exchanges
between multiple infrastructures for more organic ITS services for EV
EV: Electric Vehicle
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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Lan.lin@hitachi-eu.com
Information and Communication Technologies Laboratory (ICTL)
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