Adaptec | 6320SS - DuraStor Hard Drive Array | User`s guide | Adaptec 6320SS - DuraStor Hard Drive Array User`s guide

Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator
User’s Guide
Copyright
© 2001 Adaptec, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the
prior written consent of Adaptec, Inc., 691 South Milpitas Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035.
Trademarks
Adaptec and the Adaptec logo are trademarks of Adaptec, Inc., which may be
registered in some jurisdictions. Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, and
Windows 2000 are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the US and other
countries, used under license.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Changes
The material in this document is for information only and is subject to change
without notice. While reasonable efforts have been made in the preparation of this
document to assure its accuracy, Adaptec, Inc. assumes no liability resulting from
errors or omissions in this document, or from the use of the information contained
herein.
Adaptec reserves the right to make changes in the product design without
reservation and without notification to its users.
Disclaimer
IF THIS PRODUCT DIRECTS YOU TO COPY MATERIALS, YOU MUST HAVE
PERMISSION FROM THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OF THE MATERIALS TO
AVOID VIOLATING THE LAW WHICH COULD RESULT IN DAMAGES OR
OTHER REMEDIES.
ii
Contents
1
Getting Started
About This Guide 1-1
Getting Online Help 1-2
Accessing Adaptec Disk Array Administrator 1-2
The Adaptec Disk Array Administrator Screen 1-4
Navigating Adaptec Disk Array Administrator 1-4
Changing the Screen Display 1-5
2
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Creating Arrays 2-1
Creating a Single-Partition Array 2-2
Creating a Multiple-Partition Array 2-6
Managing Arrays 2-9
Adding a Partition 2-9
Viewing Array and Disk Drive Status Information
Stopping the Array Initialization Process 2-13
Verifying an Array 2-13
Reconstructing an Array 2-15
Expanding Array Capacity 2-16
Changing an Array Name 2-18
Changing Array Ownership 2-18
Trusting an Array 2-19
Deleting an Array 2-21
Managing Partitions 2-22
Understanding Partitions 2-22
Viewing Partition Status Information 2-24
Expanding a Partition 2-27
Changing a Partition Name 2-27
Changing a Partition LUN 2-28
Deleting a Partition 2-29
2-11
iii
Contents
3
Monitoring System Status
Displaying the Event Log 3-1
Viewing the Most Recent Event 3-3
Viewing One Event at a Time 3-3
Viewing a Whole Screen of Events 3-3
Capturing the Event Log File 3-4
Displaying Hardware and Configuration Information
Displaying Overall Statistics 3-7
Resetting Overall Statistics 3-9
4
3-4
Managing Spares
Managing Dedicated Spares 4-2
Adding a Dedicated Spare 4-2
Deleting a Dedicated Spare 4-3
Enabling Dynamic Spares 4-3
Managing the Spare Pool 4-5
Adding a Spare to the Spare Pool 4-5
Deleting a Spare from the Spare Pool 4-5
Displaying the Spare Pool 4-6
5
Configuring the Controller
Rebooting the Controller 5-2
Changing the Date and Time 5-2
Configuring the Host Channels 5-3
Understanding LUNs and Viewing LUN Information 5-5
Viewing LUN Information 5-6
Configuring the SCSI Channels 5-6
Understanding Operating Modes 5-8
Understanding the Active-Active Configuration 5-8
Active-Active Operation Scenarios 5-10
Changing the Operating Mode 5-10
Managing the Other Controller 5-11
Displaying Information about the Other Controller 5-11
Shutting Down the Other Controller 5-12
Shutting Down Both Controllers 5-12
Killing the Other Controller 5-13
Unkilling the Other Controller 5-13
iv
Contents
Disabling SCSI Channel 3 5-14
Changing the Sample Rate 5-15
Understanding the Audible Alarm 5-16
Changing the Alarm Mute Setting 5-16
Locking the Cache 5-17
Configuring the Battery 5-18
Enabling and Disabling the Battery 5-18
Changing the Battery Age/Disabling the Battery Life
Monitor 5-19
Changing the Utility Priority 5-20
Rescanning All Channels 5-21
Pausing I/O 5-22
Restoring Default Settings 5-23
6
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Managing Disk Drives 6-1
Displaying Disk Drive Information 6-1
Clearing Metadata from a Disk Drive 6-3
Enabling and Disabling Write-back Cache 6-3
Displaying Disk Cache Status 6-4
Enabling and Disabling SMART Changes 6-5
Blinking a Disk Drive LED 6-5
Taking Down a Disk Drive 6-6
Testing a Disk Drive 6-7
Managing SAF-TE Enclosures 6-8
Changing the SEP LUN 6-8
Changing the Additional SEP Settings 6-9
7
Troubleshooting
Adaptec Technical Support 7-1
Input Problems 7-2
Terminal Emulator and COM Port Problems 7-2
Array Problems 7-3
Host SCSI Channel Problems 7-4
Device SCSI Channel Problems 7-5
Problems During Bootup 7-6
v
Contents
Warning and Error Events 7-8
Warnings 7-8
Errors 7-9
Using the Loader Diagnostics Menu 7-10
Using the Loader Utility Menu 7-11
Understanding SCSI Errors 7-11
Disk Errors 7-11
Disk Channel Errors 7-13
Voltage and Temperature Errors and Warnings 7-15
A
Storage Concepts
Devices A-1
Controllers A-2
Storage Systems A-2
Channels A-2
Disk Drives A-2
Arrays A-3
Free Space A-4
Partitions A-4
Redundancy A-6
Array Types A-6
Volume Set A-8
Stripe Set (RAID 0) A-8
Mirror Set (RAID 1) A-10
RAID 5 A-11
Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1) A-13
Stripe Set of RAID 5 Sets (RAID 50) A-14
B
SAF-TE Implementation
What Is SAF-TE and What Are SEPs? B-1
Enclosure Considerations B-2
Administrator Utility SEP Configuration Options
Host Communication Methods B-3
B-3
Glossary
Index
vi
1
Getting Started
In This Chapter
About This Guide
1-1
Accessing Adaptec Disk Array Administrator
1-2
The Adaptec Disk Array Administrator Screen
1-4
Navigating Adaptec Disk Array Administrator
1-4
Adaptec Disk Array AdministratorTM is a utility that manages the
storage devices connected to your DuraStor RAID controllers. It is
embedded in the firmware of the controller, and can be used with
any Operating System (OS).
You can use Adaptec Disk Array Administrator to create and
reconfigure arrays, initialize disk drives, manage spares, monitor
the status of your storage devices and more. You can also use it to
access newly-created arrays immediately after creating them.
About This Guide
This User’s Guide describes the features available in Adaptec Disk
Array Administrator and how to use them. It assumes that you are
familiar with the basic functions of your OS.
It also assumes that you are familiar with basic computer hardware
and network administration terminology and tasks, and that you
have a working knowledge of Redundant Array of Independent
Disks (RAID) technology.
1-1
Getting Started
Getting Online Help
Online Help is available at any time from the Help menu. You can
also press F1 or select Help in a dialog box to display Online Help
specific to where you are on-screen.
Accessing Adaptec Disk Array Administrator
You can access Adaptec Disk Array Administrator using the
RS-232 serial port on the DuraStor 6200S RAID appliance. Use the
port associated with the controller you wish to access. Refer to the
DuraStor Installation and User’s Guide for more information.
You must connect a computer with terminal emulator software,
such as HyperTerminal, to the serial port. You must use a straightthrough serial cable. You cannot use a null modem cable.
Note: If you are using HyperTerminal as your terminal
emulator software, you must be using HyperTerminal
Private Edition (HTPE) 6.3 for the up and down arrow
(↑ or ↓) keys to work.
If you are not using HTPE 6.3, you can download it for free
at www.hilgraeve.com/htpe/index.html.
Configure the RS-232 port in your terminal emulator software
using the settings in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1 RS-232 Port Configuration Settings
Setting
Value
Terminal Emulation
VT-100 or ANSI (for color support)
Font
Terminal
Translations
None
Columns
80
Set the communications parameters for the terminal emulator
software as shown in Table 1-2.
1-2
Getting Started
Table 1-2 Terminal Emulator Software Communications Parameters
Setting
Value
Baud Rate
115,200
Data Bits
8
Stop Bits
1
Parity
None
Flow Control Software
(XON/XOFF)
Connector
COM1 (typically)
To access Adaptec Disk Array Administrator
1 On the I/O connectivity panel of the DuraStor 6200SR, turn the
switch to EXT.
2 On the DuraStor 6200SR Operator Control Panel, use the arrow
buttons to
a Choose Hardware Menu, then press Enter.
b Choose Mode, then press Enter.
c Choose Serial Port:Ext Mode, then press Enter.
3 From the computer connected to the controller, start your
terminal emulator software.
Be sure that your terminal emulator software is set to use the
correct COM port on your computer. See Terminal Emulator and
COM Port Problems on page 7-2 for more details on how the
DuraStor 6200S RAID controller can auto-detect the baud rate.
4 Press CTRL-R.
The initial Adaptec Disk Array Administrator screen appears.
5 Press Enter.
The System Menu screen appears.
You can now perform all of the functions described in the
following chapters. All steps start from the System Menu screen.
If an alarm condition has occurred, you will see a message about
the problem. This message will also be stored in the event log. See
Displaying the Event Log on page 3-1.
1-3
Getting Started
The Adaptec Disk Array Administrator Screen
Figure 1-1 shows the System Menu screen. All other menus are
accessed from this screen and have a similar appearance.
(Place-holder screenshot - awaiting updated file)
Figure 1-1 The System Menu Screen
Navigating Adaptec Disk Array Administrator
Use your computer keyboard to navigate Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator. Table 1-3 describes the primary navigation and
selection methods.
Table 1-3 Adaptec Disk Array Administrator Navigation
To
Do this
Select a menu item
Press the ↑ or ↓ key and press Enter, or
press the hot key (the letter that is a
different color or is highlighted in a
menu item).
Return to the previous
menu or window without
saving your changes
Press Esc, CTRL-Z, or ←.
Scroll through the available
choices for a setting
Press the ↑ or ↓ key.
1-4
Getting Started
Note: After 4 minutes of inactivity, Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator times out and returns to the System Menu
screen.
Changing the Screen Display
After you have accessed Adaptec Disk Array Administrator, you
can change the screen display using a combination of keystrokes,
as shown on the System Menu. Table 1-4 lists the keystrokes
required to change various screen displays.
Table 1-4 Changing Screen Displays
Selection
Function
Ctrl-A
Toggles between ANSI and VT100 character
sets (use VT100 for legacy systems).
Ctrl-B
Toggles between black and white and color
screen.
Ctrl-E
Toggles between the event log, hardware
information, and configuration information
screens.
Ctrl-H
Toggles between the Help screen and list of
shortcut keys.
Ctrl-R
Refreshes system monitor.
Ctrl-Z, Esc, or ←
Escapes or quits menu.
1-5
2
Creating and Managing
Arrays and Partitions
In This Chapter
Creating Arrays
2-1
Managing Arrays
2-9
Managing Partitions
2-22
Creating Arrays
You can create an array at any time. Table 2-1 describes the disk
drive requirements for each RAID level.
Table 2-1 Disk Drive Requirements by RAID Level
RAID Level
Minimum Number of
Disk Drives
Maximum Number of
Disk Drives
Volume Set
1
1
0
2
16
3
3
16
4
3
16
5
3
16
50
6
32
Mirrored
2
16
2-1
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Note: Before you create more than one array, you must be
sure that your host OS supports multiple Logical Unit
Numbers (LUNs). Most OSs do, or can be enabled to. If
yours does not, the host sees only one array at LUN 0.
Refer to Setting the Host System HBA to Multiple-LUN in the
DuraStor Installation and User’s Guide.
Before you create an array, you must decide whether you want to
partition the array. You can create two types of arrays:
■
Single-partition array—an array that stores all data in a single
partition and is accessed by a single LUN. See Creating a SinglePartition Array on page 2-2.
■
Multiple-partition array—an array that can have one or more
partitions, with each partition assigned its own LUN. See
Creating a Multiple-Partition Array on page 2-6.
For more information about partitions, see Understanding Partitions
on page 2-22.
Creating a Single-Partition Array
You can create an array that has just one partition. Once you create
a single-partition array, you can add more partitions later. Singlepartition arrays work well in environments that need one large,
fault-tolerant storage space for data on one server. An example
would be a large database on a single server that is used only for
that application.
To create a single-partition array:
1 From the System Menu, select Add an Array and press Enter.
The Enter Array Name window appears.
2 Enter a name for the array and press Enter.
You can use up to 35 characters. You can include any characters
in the name, including spaces. If you do not want to name the
array, press Enter. You can add or change the name later.
The system asks if you want to create one partition now for the
entire array.
2-2
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
If you want to create a multiple-partition array, see Creating a
Multiple-Partition Array on page 2-6.
3 Select Yes to create a single-partition array and press Enter.
The LUN prompt appears.
4 Type the LUN for the array and press Enter.
The LUN that appears is the suggested default LUN assignment.
If the letters OV appear before a LUN, it indicates that the
selection overlaps with a soft LUN, probably the controller or
SAF-TE Environmental Processor (SEP) LUN. You can create an
array at an overlapped LUN, but it is not visible to the host
system until you reboot the controller.
Note: Most Unix, Linux, and Macintosh OSs require that the
controller LUN be a higher value than all partition LUNs.
Before creating your first partition, change the controller
LUN to a higher value or select None (best choice) if you
are not using CAPI (Configuration Application
Programming Interface) to manage the controller. This
allows your first partition to be seen at LUN 0.
The system warns you about the LUN for Unix and Macintosh,
as above, the first time you create an array. Press Enter and the
system asks if you want to be warned again. Select No to avoid
receiving this warning again; otherwise, select Yes to be warned
the next time you create an array.
The RAID Type menu appears.
5 Select a RAID type and press Enter.
Note: A RAID 10 array is automatically created when there
are more than two disk drives in a mirrored array. See
Appendix A, Storage Concepts, for more information.
If you selected RAID 50 as the array type, the Select RAID 50
Array Size menu appears with all possible configurations for
array and disk drive combinations. Select the configuration you
want, press Enter, and skip to Step 7.
2-3
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
If you selected any array type other than RAID 50, the Number
of Drives prompt appears.
6 Type the number of disk drives (excluding spares) you want in
the array and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
If you are using active-active mode, the Select Drive(s) menu
includes all available disk drives (those that are not members of
an array and are not assigned as dedicated or pool spares) on
both controllers. It displays the following information for each
disk drive, in this order, left to right:
– Channel number
– SCSI ID number
– Disk drive capacity, in MB
– Disk drive manufacturer
– Disk drive model number
– Disk drive firmware revision
– Disk drive status
7 Select a disk drive to use in the array and press Enter. Repeat
until all the disk drives you want are selected. When you are
done, the system automatically goes to the next window.
If the array is a mirrored, RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, or RAID 50
array and you have one or more disk drives left, the Number of
Spares prompt appears.
If you are creating a different type of array, skip to Step 11.
8 Type the number of spares you want to add and press Enter.
This creates dedicated spares that can only be used by this array.
A dedicated spare drive is not available for any other use. For
more information, see Chapter 4, Managing Spares.
If you do not want a spare, type 0.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
2-4
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
9 Select a disk drive to use as a dedicated spare and press Enter.
Only available disk drives (those that are not members of an
array and are not assigned as dedicated or pool spares) display.
You can delete a dedicated spare from the array at any time. For
more information, see Deleting a Dedicated Spare on page 4-3.
If the array you are creating is a RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, or
RAID 50, the Chunk Size menu appears. If you are creating a
different type of array, skip to Step 11.
10 Select the chunk size and press Enter.
Chunk size is the amount of contiguous data that is written to an
array member. To determine the appropriate chunk size, refer to
your OS documentation. For example, the default chunk size for
Windows NT® and many other OSs is 64 KB. If you are using
the array for a database with very small records, you may want
to use a smaller chunk size.
The system confirms that you want to create the array.
11 Select Yes and press Enter.
A message notifies you that the array is being created and shows
the progress of the initialization process. The array initialization
process takes from several minutes to more than an hour
depending on the array type (volume, RAID 0, and RAID 1 are
the fastest), array size, disk drive speed, and other processes
running on the controller.
Press Esc to return to the System Menu and perform other
functions while the initialization continues.
Checking the Progress of Array Initialization
You can check the progress of array initialization at any time.
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu.
The status of the initialization appears in the list of arrays.
If you need to change the disk drives or some other array
configuration, you can stop the array initialization process. See
Stopping the Array Initialization Process on page 2-13.
2-5
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Note: Most OSs, such as Windows NT 4.0, require you to
reboot the host system to see the new array. NetWare v3.12
and later can recognize new devices if you type the
command SCAN FOR NEW DEVICES at the console
prompt. Other OSs might have similar features.
Creating a Multiple-Partition Array
You can create an array that has more than one partition.
Note: Once you create a multiple-partition array, you must
create at least one partition before you can use the array.
See Adding a Partition on page 2-9.
Multiple-partition arrays work well when you have very large disk
drives and you want to make the most efficient use of disk space
for fault tolerance (parity and spares). For more information, see
Understanding Partitions on page 2-22.
To create a multiple-partition array:
1 From the System Menu, select Add an Array and press Enter.
The Enter Array Name window appears.
2 Type a name for the array and press Enter.
You can use up to 35 characters. You can include any characters
in the name, including spaces. If you do not want to name the
array, press Enter. You can add or change the name later.
The system asks if you want to create one partition now for the
entire array.
If you want to create a single-partition array, see Creating a
Single-Partition Array on page 2-2
3 Select No to create a multiple-partition array and press Enter.
The RAID Type menu appears.
4 Select the array type and press Enter.
2-6
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Note: A RAID 10 array is automatically created when there
are more than two disk drives in a mirrored array. See
Appendix A, Storage Concepts, for more information.
– If you selected RAID 50 as the array type, the Select RAID50
Array Size menu appears with all possible configurations for
array and disk drive combinations.
Select the configuration you want, press Enter, and skip to
Step 7.
– If you selected any array type other than RAID 50, the
Number of Drives prompt appears.
5 Type the number of disk drives you want in the array (excluding
spares) and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
If you are using active-active mode, the menu includes all
available disk drives (drives that are not members of an array
and are not assigned as a dedicated or pool spare) on both
controllers. It displays the following information for each disk
drive, in this order, left to right:
– Channel number
– SCSI ID number
– Drive capacity, in MB
– Drive manufacturer
– Drive model number
– Drive firmware revision
– Drive status
6 Select a disk drive to use in the array and press Enter. Repeat
until all the disk drives you want are selected.
If the array is mirrored, RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, or RAID 50
array and you have one or more disk drives left, the Number of
Spares prompt appears.
If you are creating a different type of array, skip to Step 10.
2-7
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
7 Type the number of spares you want to add and press Enter.
This creates dedicated spares that can only be used by this array.
A dedicated spare disk drive will not be available for any other
use. For more information about spares, see Chapter 4,
Managing Spares.
If you do not want a spare, type 0.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
8 Select a disk drive to use as a dedicated spare and press Enter.
Repeat if you are using more than one disk drive as a spare.
Only available disk drives (drives that are not members of an
array and are not assigned as a dedicated or pool spares)
display. You can delete a dedicated spare from the array at any
time. For more information, see Deleting a Dedicated Spare on
page 4-3.
If the array you are creating is a RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, or
RAID 50, the Chunk Size menu appears.
If you are creating a different type of array, skip to Step 10.
9 Select the chunk size and press Enter. (See page 2-5 for
information on chunk size.)
The system confirms that you want to create the array.
10 Select Yes and press Enter.
A message notifies you that the array is being created and shows
the progress of the initialization process. The array initialization
process takes from several minutes to more than an hour
depending on the array type (volume, RAID 0, and RAID 1 are
the fastest), array size, disk drive speed, and other processes
running on the controller.
11 Press Esc to return to the System Menu and perform other
functions while the initialization continues.
See Checking the Progress of Array Initialization on page 2-5 for
information on how to do a status check.
2-8
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
If you need to change the disk drives or some other array
configuration, you can stop the array initialization process. See
Stopping the Array Initialization Process on page 2-13
Note: Most OSs, such as Windows NT 4.0, require you to
reboot the host system to see the new array. NetWare v3.12
and later can recognize new devices if you type the
command SCAN FOR NEW DEVICES at the console
prompt. Other OSs might have similar features.
Managing Arrays
Adaptec Disk Array Administrator lets you manage your arrays in
several ways. For more information, see
■
Adding a Partition on page 2-9.
■
Viewing Array and Disk Drive Status Information on page 2-11.
■
Stopping the Array Initialization Process on page 2-13.
■
Verifying an Array on page 2-13.
■
Reconstructing an Array on page 2-15.
■
Expanding Array Capacity on page 2-16.
■
Changing an Array Name on page 2-18.
■
Changing Array Ownership on page 2-18.
■
Trusting an Array on page 2-19.
■
If the array does not come back online, too many members may be
offline or the array may have additional failures on the bus or enclosure
that Trust Array Function cannot fix. on page 2-21.
Adding a Partition
If you created a multiple-partition array, you must create at least
one partition on the array before you can use the array. You can
create partitions on a multiple-partition array until you use all of
the free space. For more information about partitions, see
Understanding Partitions on page 2-22.
2-9
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
To add a partition:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the multiple-partition array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Add a Partition and press Enter.
The Select Free Partition menu appears with a list of free
partitions. A free partition is free space that has not yet been
partitioned or space that had a partition that was deleted.
4 Select the free partition you want to use.
The Remaining Size prompt appears.
5 Type the size you want the partition to be and press Enter.
The Partition Name window appears.
6 Type a name for the partition and press Enter.
You can use up to 35 characters. You can include any characters
in the name, including spaces. If you do not want to name the
partition, press Enter. You can add or change the name later.
The LUN prompt appears.
7 Type the LUN for the partition and press Enter.
The LUN that appears is the suggested default LUN assignment.
See Step 4 on page 2-3 for more information on LUNs.
The system warns you about the LUN for Unix and Macintosh
OSs. (See the Note on page 2-2 for detailed information.) Press
Enter and the system asks if you want to be warned again. Select
No to avoid receiving this warning again, otherwise select Yes
to be warned the next time you create a partition.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
8 Select Yes and press Enter.
2-10
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Viewing Array and Disk Drive Status Information
You can view array status and disk drive status at any time.
Viewing Array Status
You can view the following information for any array:
■
State—Online, Offline, Critical, or Fault-tolerant.
■
Serial number—Unique number the controller assigns to each
array.
■
Name—Name you gave to the array.
■
RAID level—Array type (0, 3, 4, 5, 50, volume, or mirrored). The
term mirrored is used for both RAID 1 and RAID 10 arrays.
■
Number of drives—Number of disk drives in the array when
fault-tolerant. For example, if you create a three-drive RAID 5
array and lose one disk drive, the number will still display 3.
■
Number of drives per subarray—(RAID 50 only) Number of
disk drives in each underlying RAID 5 array.
■
Number of spare drives—Number of spare disk drives
dedicated to this array.
■
Size—Size of the entire array (expressed in MB or GB for arrays
larger than 10 GB).
■
Chunk size—Array’s chunk size.
■
Date created—Date the array was created.
■
Utility—Utility running (None, Verify, Reconstruct, Expand, or
Initialize).
■
Number of partitions—Number of partitions created on the
array.
■
Free partition total—Amount of free space (no partition) on the
array.
2-11
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
To view the status of an array:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Array Status and press Enter.
A window appears showing the status of the array you selected.
4 Press Esc to return to the Array menu.
Viewing Disk Drive Status
You can view the following information for the disk drives in an
array:
■
Drive number—The disk drive’s sequential position in the
controller’s disk drive list.
■
Drive status—Whether the disk drive is up or down.
■
Channel number—Back-end disk bus number.
■
Target ID—The number assigned to each disk drive attached to
a SCSI channel (also known as SCSI ID).
■
Size—Size of the disk drive in MB.
■
Status—If part of an array, this displays the array name and
member number. If a spare, this displays the type of spare. If
unused, this displays Available. If the disk drive was part of an
array that no longer exists, this displays Leftover.
Note: If a disk drive has failed or malfunctioned, it may not
be listed.
To view the status of a disk drive:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
2-12
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
3 Select Drive Status and press Enter.
The Display Drives menu appears showing the disk drives that
are members of the array and that are assigned as dedicated
spares.
Use the ↑ or ↓ key to scroll through the disk drives. These are
the drives that are currently members of the array.
4 Press Esc to return to the Array menu.
Stopping the Array Initialization Process
If you need to change the disk drives or some other array
configuration, you can stop the array initialization process.
After you stop the process, the array is marked as offline and
cannot be used. You must delete the array before you can use the
disk drives in another array.
To stop the array initialization process:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Abort Initialization and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to stop the initialization
process.
4 Select Yes and press Enter.
Verifying an Array
The Verify Function allows you to verify the data on specified
arrays:
■
RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, and RAID 50—Verifies all parity
blocks in the selected array and corrects any bad parity.
■
Mirrored—Compares the primary and secondary disk drives. If
a mismatch occurs, the primary is copied to the secondary.
You should verify an array when you suspect there is a problem.
2-13
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
To verify an array:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Verify Function and press Enter.
That array’s Verify menu appears.
4 Select Start Verify and press Enter.
Verification begins and the Verify prompt appears displaying
the percentage of verification completed. You can continue to
use the array during verification.
5 To return to the Verify menu, press Esc.
Checking the Progress of Array Verification
You can check the progress of the array verification at any time by:
■
Following the steps in Viewing Verification Status on page 2-14,
or
■
Selecting Array Menu from the System Menu. (The status of the
verification appears in the list of arrays.)
Viewing Verification Status
You can view the status of the verification while it is running.
To view verification status:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Verify Function and press Enter.
That array’s Verify menu appears.
4 Select View Verify Status and press Enter.
The Verify Status window appears.
2-14
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
5 Press Esc to return to the Verify Function menu.
Stopping the Verification
You can stop the verification process. Normally, you should let the
verification finish, although stopping it does not cause any damage
to your data. You may wish to stop the verification if you want to
improve performance of the controller for another application.
To stop the verification process:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Verify Function and press Enter.
That array’s Verify menu appears.
4 Select Abort Verify and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to stop the verification
process.
5 Select Yes and press Enter.
Reconstructing an Array
The controller automatically reconstructs redundant arrays (RAID
3, RAID 4, RAID 5, RAID 50, and mirrored) if an array becomes
critical and a proper-size spare disk drive is available. An array
becomes critical when one or more member disk drives fail.
If a reconstruct does not start automatically, it means that no valid
spares are available. To start a reconstruct, replace the failed disk
drive, and add it as a spare (see Adding a Dedicated Spare on
page 4-2 and Enabling Dynamic Spares on page 4-3) or as a pool
spare (see Adding a Spare to the Spare Pool on page 4-5). Remember
that added pool spares might be used by any critical array, not
necessarily the array you want.
2-15
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Expanding Array Capacity
You can expand array capacity without stopping I/O activity. You
can only expand one array at a time.
Note: Expanding an array does not change the size of host
OS partitions that reside on the array because the
controller is working at the block level, not the file system
level, of the OS. To use the new space, create a new
partition using the newly added space or use a third-party
application specific to the OS to change the partition size.
How you create a new partition or resize an existing one
depends upon the OS. Most OSs cannot resize an existing
partition. Refer to your OS’s documentation.
The number of disk drives you can add to an array depends upon
the RAID level as shown in Table 2-2. You also cannot exceed the
maximum number of disk drives for each RAID level. See Creating
Arrays on page 2-1.
Table 2-2 Disk Drive Additions by RAID Level
RAID Level
RAID 0
Number of Disk Drives You Can Add
1 to 4
RAID 1 (mirrored)
Cannot expand
Volume Set
Cannot expand
RAID 10
2 or 4
RAID 3, 4, or 5
1 to 4
RAID 50
3 to 5
If you are expanding a multiple-partition array, you add free space
at the end of the array. For more information about partitions, see
Understanding Partitions on page 2-22.
Note: Once you start expanding array capacity, you cannot
stop it. The Expand Function may take an hour or more to
complete, depending on the array type, array size, disk
drive speed, and other processes running on the controller.
2-16
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
To expand an array:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Expand Function and press Enter.
That array’s Expand menu appears.
4 Select Start Expand and press Enter.
The Number of Drives prompt appears.
5 Type the number of disk drives you want to add and press
Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
6 Select a drive to add from the list of available disk drives and
press Enter. Repeat until all the disk drives you want to add are
selected.
Expansion begins and the percentage completed appears.
7 To return to the Array menu, press Esc.
Checking the Progress of the Array Expansion
You can check the progress of the array expansion at any time.
There are two ways to do this:
■
See Viewing Expansion Status on page 2-17, or
■
Select Array Menu from the System Menu.
The status of the expansion appears in the list of arrays.
Viewing Expansion Status
You can view the status of the expansion process while it is
running.
To view expand status:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2-17
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Expand Function and press Enter.
That array’s Expand menu appears.
4 Select View Expand Status and press Enter.
The Expand Status window appears.
5 Press Esc to return to the Expand Function menu.
Changing an Array Name
You can change the name of an array. This does not affect the target
ID or LUN values of the array. The controller does not allow you to
change an array name when a utility is running.
To change an array name:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Change Array Name and press Enter.
The Enter New Name prompt appears.
4 Type the name you want to use and press Enter.
You can use up to 35 characters. You can include any characters
in the name, including spaces.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5 Select Yes and press Enter.
Changing Array Ownership
If you are using active-active mode, you can change the ownership
of any array between the controllers.
You might want to change ownership if you plan to replace or
repair one controller. Changing ownership lets you continue using
an array without interruption and makes the array visible on the
2-18
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
controller you change it to. You can no longer see the array on the
original controller.
Note: When you change the ownership of an array, the
LUNs assigned to the array’s partitions become invalid.
After changing ownership, you must assign a new LUN to
each array partition.
To change array ownership:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Switch Array Owner and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
4 Select Yes and press Enter.
5 Assign a new LUN to each array partition.
See Changing a Partition LUN on page 2-28.
Trusting an Array
The Trust Array Function brings an array back online by
resynchronizing the time and date stamp and any other metadata
on a bad disk drive. This makes the disk drive an active member of
the array again. You might need to do this when
■
One or more disk drives of an array start up more slowly or
were powered on after the rest of the disk drives in the array.
This causes the date and time stamps to differ, which the
controller interprets as a problem with the late disk drives. In
this case, the array will function normally after using Trust
Array.
2-19
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
■
An array is offline because a disk drive is failing, you have no
data backup, and you want to try to recover the data from the
array. (Only a non-fault tolerant array will go offline when a
single disk drive fails. Multiple disk drive failures will cause a
fault-tolerant array to go offline.) In this case, the Trust Array
Function may work, but only as long as the failing disk drive
continues to operate.
Before you can use the Trust Array Function, you must enable it in
the Option Configuration Menu.
!
Caution: The Trust Array Function can cause unstable
operation and data loss if used improperly. This function is
intended for disaster recovery.
To trust an array:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration Menu appears.
2 Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration menu appears.
3 Select Enable Trust Array and press Enter.
The Enable Trust Array menu appears.
4 Select Enable and press Enter.
Note: The option is only enabled until you use it. After you
trust an array, the option reverts back to being disabled.
5 Press Esc twice to return to the System Menu.
6 Select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
7 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
8 Select Trust Array and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to trust the array.
2-20
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
9 Select Yes and press Enter.
The array will be back online
Note: If the array does not come back online, too many
members may be offline or the array may have additional
failures on the bus or enclosure that Trust Array Function
cannot fix.
Deleting an Array
You can delete an array when you no longer need the array or you
need the disk drives for another use.
!
Caution: When you delete an array, you delete all partitions
and data contained in the array; however, before reusing
the disk drives you should perform a low-level format on
them.
Note: You cannot delete an array while any utility is
running on the array. You must stop the utility, if possible,
or let it finish, before you can delete the array.
To delete an array:
1 From the System Menu, select Delete an Array and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want to delete and press Enter.
The system asks you to confirm the deletion.
3 Select Yes and press Enter.
2-21
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Managing Partitions
Using Adaptec Disk Array Administrator you can manage
partitions by
■
Viewing partition status information. See page 2-24.
■
Adding a partition. See page 2-9.
■
Expanding a partition. See page 2-27.
■
Changing a partition name. See page 2-27.
■
Changing a partition LUN. See page 2-28.
■
Deleting a partition. See page 2-29.
Understanding Partitions
When you create an array, you can choose to make the array all one
partition or set up the array for multiple partitions. With multiple
partitions, you create one very large array that makes efficient use
of your disk drives. For example, one very large RAID 5 array with
one dedicated spare uses less disk space for parity and spares than
five or six smaller RAID 5 arrays.
Once you set up an array for multiple partitions, you create each
partition by setting the partition size and assigning the partition a
LUN. You can also name each partition. We recommend assigning
names that indicate how the partition will be used. For example, if
the first partition will be used to store your customer database,
give it a name like cust data base.
When you first create an array set up for multiple partitions, all of
the space on the array is designated as free space as shown in
Figure 2-1.
Free
space
Figure 2-1 Array Before Creating Partitions
2-22
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
When you create a partition, you set the size of the partition.
Figure 2-2 shows a single partition.
Partition 1
Free
space
Figure 2-2 Array After Creating One Partition
Disk Array Administrator assigns each partition a unique serial
number and sequence number. It assigns sequence numbers in the
order the partitions are created, so the first partition on an array is
number 1, the second is 2, and so on. Once you create one or more
partitions on an array, you can create additional partitions in the
remaining free space, or you can expand a partition with some
limitations.
You can only expand a partition into contiguous, adjacent free
space. In Figure 2-2, you can expand partition 1 or you can create
additional partitions in the free space.
After you partition all of the free space, you can expand the size of
a partition only by deleting a partition that has a higher sequence
number than the one you want to expand. For example, in
Figure 2-3, you can delete Partition 3 and then expand Partition 2
to use some or all of Partition 3’s space.
Partition 1
Partition 2
Partition 3
Partition 4
Partition 5
Figure 2-3 Array After Creating Five Partitions
!
Caution: If you delete a partition, you also delete all data
stored in the partition. Be sure that you back up all data
before deleting a partition.
When you expand an array, you add free space at the end of the
array as shown in Figure 2-4. For more information about
expanding an array, see Expanding Array Capacity on page 2-16.
Partition
1
Partition
2
Partition
3
Partition
4
Partition
5
Free
space
Figure 2-4 Five-Partition Array After Expansion
2-23
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
After expanding an array, you can either add a partition or expand
the last partition to use the new free space. You can also delete one
or more partitions and expand a partition into the space.
Viewing Partition Status Information
You can perform three functions related to partition status. You
can
■
View partition status. See page 2-24.
■
View partition statistics. See page 2-25.
■
Reset partition statistics. See page 2-26.
Viewing Partition Status
You can view the following information for any partition:
■
Array state—Online, Offline, Critical, or Fault-tolerant.
■
Array type—RAID level (0, 3, 4, 5, 50, volume, or mirrored). The
term mirrored is used for both RAID 1 and RAID 10 arrays.
■
Array drives—Number of disk drives in the array when faulttolerant. For example, if you create a 3-drive RAID 5 array and
lose one disk drive, the number will still display 3.
■
Name—Name you give to the partition.
■
Serial number—Unique number the controller assigns to each
partition.
■
Target ID:LUN—Target ID and LUN presented to the host.
■
Partition size—Size of the partition (expressed in MB).
■
Percentage of total array—The percentage of the total array that
this partition represents.
■
Write-back caching—Status of the cache for the array.
2-24
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
To view the status of a partition:
1 Display the Partition Menu. (See Table 2-3):
Table 2-3 How To Display the Partition Menu
From the Array Menu
From the All Partitions Menu
1 From the System Menu, select
Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and
press Enter.
That array’s Array menu
appears.
3 Select Partition Menu and
press Enter.
The Select Partition menu
appears.
4 Select the partition you want
and press Enter.
1 From the System Menu, select
All Partitions Menu and press
Enter.
The Select Partition or Free
Area menu appears with a list
of existing partitions and free
space.
2 Select the partition you want
and press Enter.
The Partition Menu screen appears.
2 Select Partition Status and press Enter.
That partition’s Partition Status window appears.
3 Press Esc to return to the Partition Menu.
Viewing Partition Statistics
You can view these statistics for current partitions:
■
Read—Total number of host read requests directed to the
partition.
■
Write—Total number of host write requests directed to the
partition.
■
SecRd—Total number of sectors read from the partition.
■
SecWt—Total number of sectors written to the partition.
■
Queue depth—Current number of commands from the host
that are queued up.
■
IO size—Last host I/O block size request in 512-byte sectors.
2-25
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Similar statistics are also available on an aggregate basis for all
partition LUNs. See Displaying Overall Statistics on page 3-7.
To view the partition statistics:
1 Display the Partition Menu. See Step 1 on page 2-25 for
instructions.
2 Select Partition Statistics and press Enter.
The Statistics menu appears.
3 Select View Statistics and press Enter.
A window appears showing the statistics of the partition you
selected.
4 Press Esc to return to the Statistics menu.
Resetting Partition Statistics
You can reset the following partition statistics to zero:
■
Read
■
Write
■
SecRd
■
SecWt
■
I/O size
Note: When you reset a partition’s statistics, the aggregate
statistics for that partition are also reset. See Displaying
Overall Statistics on page 3-7.
You may want to reset partition statistics if you are monitoring
performance or doing benchmark testing, or when you are
changing how you are use the partition
Note: You cannot reset the queue depth value. It always
reflects the current I/O queue depth.
2-26
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
To reset partition statistics:
1 Display the Partition Menu. See Step 1 on page 2-25 for
instructions.
2 Select Partition Statistics and press Enter.
The Statistics menu appears.
3 Select Reset Statistics and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
4 Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that the statistics have been cleared and
returns to the Statistics menu.
Expanding a Partition
You can expand an existing partition, with some limitations. You
can only expand a partition into contiguous, adjacent free space.
For more information, see Understanding Partitions on page 2-22.
To expand a partition:
1 Display the Partition Menu. See Step 1 on page 2-25 for
instructions.
2 Select Expand Partition and press Enter.
The Expand Partition prompt appears.
3 Type the size you want the partition to be and press Enter.
You can only expand a partition into adjacent free space that
follows the partition. For more information, see Understanding
Partitions on page 2-22.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
4 Select Yes and press Enter.
Changing a Partition Name
You can change the name of a partition without affecting its target
ID or LUN values. You can only change a partition name when no
utilities are running.
2-27
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
To change a partition name:
1 Display the Partition Menu. See Step 1 on page 2-25 for
instructions.
2 Select Change Partition Name and press Enter.
The Enter New Name prompt appears.
3 Type the name you want to use and press Enter.
You can use up to 35 characters. You can include any characters
in the name, including spaces.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
4 Select Yes and press Enter.
Changing a Partition LUN
You can change the LUN assigned to a partition as it appears under
the controller’s target ID from the host system’s point of view. The
change takes place immediately; however, you may need to reboot
the host system to see the partition at the new LUN.
Note: You cannot change the partition’s LUN to one that is
already in use. If you want to use a LUN that is already in
use, you must first reassign that LUN.
For more information about LUNs and your controller, see
Understanding LUNs and Viewing LUN Information on page 5-5.
To change a partition LUN:
1 Display the Partition Menu. See Step 1 on page 2-25 for
instructions.
2 Select Change LUN and press Enter.
The New LUN prompt appears.
3 Type the LUN you want to use and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
4 Select Yes and press Enter.
2-28
Creating and Managing Arrays and Partitions
Deleting a Partition
You can delete a partition when you no longer need it and you
want to use the space for another purpose.
!
Caution: Deleting a partition deletes all data contained in
the partition.
Note: You cannot delete a partition while any utility is
running on the array. You must stop the utility, if possible,
or let it finish, before you can delete the partition.
To delete a partition:
1 Display the Partition Menu. See Step 1 on page 2-25 for
instructions.
2 Select Delete This Partition and press Enter.
The system asks you to confirm the deletion.
3 Select Yes and press Enter.
The Delete Partition Function is also available from the Array
menu.
2-29
3
Monitoring System Status
In This Chapter
Displaying the Event Log
3-1
Displaying Hardware and Configuration Information
3-4
Displaying Overall Statistics
3-7
You can monitor your system regularly to ensure that the
controller, disk drives, and arrays are working properly by:
■
Displaying the event log. See page 3-1.
■
Viewing hardware and configuration information. See page 3-4.
■
Displaying Overall Statistics. See page 3-7.
You can also view array and disk drive status information (see
page 2-11) and view disk drive status (see page 2-12).
Displaying the Event Log
The controller’s event log contains important information about
the status of the controller, disk drives, and arrays. You should
check it regularly to monitor the status of your system. For more
information about specific warning and error events, see Warning
and Error Events on page 7-8. For information about specific SCSI
disk drive and channel errors, see Understanding SCSI Errors on
page 7-11.
3-1
Monitoring System Status
Below is a list of some of the key warning and failure events
included in the event log during operation:
■
Disk detected error
■
Disk channel error
■
Battery failure
■
Drive down
■
Power up
■
Array critical
■
Array offline
■
Temperature warning
■
Temperature failure (this leads to a shutdown which is also
logged)
■
Voltage warning
■
Voltage failure (this leads to a shutdown which is also logged)
The event log stores the most recent 400 events. Events are
numbered sequentially from 001 to 999. The numbering wraps
back to 001 after reaching 999.
Note: If you are having a problem with the controller or an
array, check the event log before calling technical support.
Event messages may let you resolve the problem on your
own. You should also check Chapter 7, Troubleshooting.
You can view the event information three ways:
■
Most recent event
■
One event at a time, most recent event first
■
Full screen of events
You can also capture the event log to a file. See Capturing the Event
Log File on page 3-4.
3-2
Monitoring System Status
Viewing the Most Recent Event
The most recent voltage or temperature event displays in rotation
with the date and time whenever the Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator times out and returns to the System Menu.
Viewing One Event at a Time
You can view controller-related events one at a time. The events
display in reverse chronological order (the most recent event first).
To view one event at a time:
1 From the System Menu, select Event Log Menu and press Enter.
The Event Log menu appears.
2 Select View Event Log and press Enter.
A window appears displaying the last event that occurred.
3 Press ↑ to see the previous event.
You can view earlier events by continuing to press ↑.
4 Press Esc to return to the Event Log menu.
Viewing a Whole Screen of Events
Viewing events from the log file lets you quickly review all recent
events in chronological order (the most recent event last).
To view a whole screen of events:
1 From anywhere in Adaptec Disk Array Administrator, press
CTRL-E.
The first screen of events from the Event Log screen appears.
2 Press u to page up or d to page down in the log.
3 Keep pressing CTRL-E to page through the other information
screens and return to the menu.
3-3
Monitoring System Status
Capturing the Event Log File
The entire event log can be saved to a file, which is useful if you
want to print the log or attach it to an email message.
These instructions assume that you are using HyperTerminal as
the terminal emulator software. If you are using a different
terminal emulator, your procedure may be different.
To capture the event log file:
1 With HyperTerminal up and running as your RS-232 interface
terminal, press CTRL-E until the Event Log appears.
2 From the Transfer menu in HyperTerminal, select Capture Text.
The Capture Text window appears.
3 Type the path and file name you want to use to store the log file
contents.
4 Click Start.
5 Press P on the keyboard to begin the transfer.
6 From the Transfer menu in HyperTerminal, select Capture Text.
The Capture Text window appears.
7 Click Stop.
Displaying Hardware and Configuration
Information
You can display the controller’s hardware and configuration
information two ways:
■
Hardware information only
■
Hardware and configuration information
Table 3-1 lists the configuration information that is available.
3-4
Monitoring System Status
Table 3-1 Configuration Information
Group
Field
What Displays
HOST
Enabled
Field is just a placeholder.
SE/LVD
Negotiation rate.
Target ID
SCSI ID of controller as set in
Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator.
Controller
LUN
SOFT, NONE, or specific
number as set in Adaptec Disk
Array Administrator.
Initiator ID
SCSI ID of controller on
channel 0 as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Ultra/U2
Hardware runs as Ultra2.
Initiator ID
SCSI ID of controller on
channel 1 as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Ultra/U2
Hardware runs as Ultra2.
Initiator ID
SCSI ID of controller on
channel 2 as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Ultra/U2
Hardware runs as Ultra2.
Backoff
Percentage set in Adaptec Disk
Array Administrator. 1 percent
is the default and
recommended value.
Utility Pri
HIGH, MED, or LOW utility
priority as set in Adaptec Disk
Array Administrator.
Alarm Mute
ON or OFF as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Battery
ENABLED or DISABLED as
set in Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator.
Cache Lock
ON or OFF as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Dyn. Spare
ON or OFF as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Version
Version of the Configuration
Application Programming
Interface.
CHAN 0
CHAN 1
CHAN 2
CONTROLLER
CAPI
3-5
Monitoring System Status
Table 3-1 Configuration Information (Continued)
Group
Field
What Displays
SEP
Poll Rate
Number of seconds as set in
Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator.
Temperature
ON or OFF as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Slot Flags
ON or OFF as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
Global Flags
ON or OFF as set in Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator.
To display hardware information only:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Hardware Information and press Enter.
The Hardware Information window appears.
3 Press Esc to return to the Utilities menu.
To display hardware and configuration information:
1 From anywhere in Adaptec Disk Array Administrator, press
CTRL-E.
The Event Log screen appears.
2 Press CTRL-E again.
The HW Info window appears.
3 Press CTRL-E again.
The CFG Info window appears.
You can press Esc to return to the previous window.
4 Press CTRL-E or Esc to return to where you started from.
3-6
Monitoring System Status
Displaying Overall Statistics
Aggregate statistics for all partition LUNs can be displayed in two
formats:
■
List of general statistics. (Similar statistics are also available for
individual partition LUNs. For more information, see Viewing
Partition Statistics on page 2-25.)
– I/O operations per second (IOPS)
– Bandwidth (in millions of bytes per second)
– Number of read operations
– Number of write operations
– Total sectors (512 bytes) read
– Total sectors written
– Total current command queue depth across all LUNs
■
Histogram of host reads/writes. This shows how many host
reads and writes fell into a particular size range. The I/O ranges
are based on powers of two:
– 1 Sector
– 2–3 Sectors
– 4–7 Sectors
– 8–15 Sectors
– 16–31 Sectors
– 32–63 Sectors
– 64–127 Sectors
– 128–255 Sectors
– 256–511 Sectors
– 512–1023 Sectors
– 1024–2047 Sectors
– 2048 (and larger) Sectors
3-7
Monitoring System Status
These statistics can help you interpret performance based on
individual system configurations and OSs. They can be used to
profile applications and their partition usage, and analyze what
type of RAID level is applicable to your needs.
Note: The statistics are provided as general information for
your use. They are not intended for benchmarking
purposes.
To access the general array statistics:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Overall Statistics and press Enter.
The Overall Statistics menu appears.
3 Select View Statistics and press Enter.
The View Statistics window appears.
4 Press Esc to return to the Overall Statistics menu.
To access the read/write histogram:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Overall Statistics and press Enter.
The Overall Statistics menu appears.
3 Select View R/W Histogram and press Enter.
The View R/W Histogram window appears.
4 Press Esc to return to the Overall Statistics menu.
3-8
Monitoring System Status
Resetting Overall Statistics
You can reset all of the overall statistics back to zero, which you
may want to do if you are monitoring performance.
Note: Resetting overall statistics also resets the statistics for
each individual partition. See Resetting Partition Statistics
on page 2-26
To reset overall statistics:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Overall Statistics and press Enter.
The Overall Statistics menu appears.
3 Select Reset All Statistics and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
4 Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that the statistics have been cleared and
returns to the Overall Statistics menu.
3-9
4
Managing Spares
In This Chapter
Managing Dedicated Spares
4-2
Enabling Dynamic Spares
4-3
Managing the Spare Pool
4-5
DuraStor RAID controllers automatically reconstruct redundant
(fault-tolerant) arrays (RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, RAID 50, and
mirrored) if an array becomes critical and a proper-size spare disk
drive is available. An array becomes critical when one member
disk drive fails.
You can set up two types of spare disk drives:
■
Dedicated—Available disk drive that is assigned to a specific
array (see page 4-2).
■
Pool—Available disk drive that is assigned to the spare pool,
which can provide a spare for any failed disk drive in any
redundant array. In active-active mode, pool spares are available
to both controllers. If a disk drive in an array on either controller
fails, the controller can use a pool spare to reconstruct the array
(see page 4-5).
You can also enable the Dynamic Spares function. (See page 4-3.)
4-1
Managing Spares
Managing Dedicated Spares
Dedicated spares are unused disk drives that you assign as a spare
to a specific array. Each disk drive must be as large as the smallest
member of the array. You cannot use a dedicated spare in an array
or as a pool spare.
Using a dedicated spare is the most secure way to provide spares
for your arrays but it is also expensive to keep an idle disk drive
assigned to each array. An alternative, more efficient method is to
assign one or more idle disk drives to the spare pool. See Managing
the Spare Pool on page 4-5.
Adding a Dedicated Spare
You assign dedicated spares to a specific array. If a member disk
drive in the array fails, the controller uses a dedicated spare to
automatically reconstruct the array. You can add dedicated spares
to mirrored and parity arrays as you create the array or afterward.
You can assign up to four dedicated spares to an array. For more
information about assigning spares when you create an array, see
Creating Arrays on page 2-1.
Note: A spare cannot be assigned to an array if it does not
have enough capacity to replace the smallest member in
the array.
To add a dedicated spare:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Add Spare and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
4-2
Managing Spares
Note: If a disk drive was a member of an array and was
removed from that array, you cannot use it as a spare until
you clear the its metadata. For more information, see
Clearing Metadata from a Disk Drive on page 6-3.
4 Select the disk drive you want to add as a spare and press Enter.
The system confirms the change.
5 Select Yes and press Enter.
Deleting a Dedicated Spare
You can delete a dedicated spare from an array at any time.
To delete a dedicated spare:
1 From the System Menu, select Array Menu and press Enter.
The Select Array menu appears.
2 Select the array you want and press Enter.
That array’s Array menu appears.
3 Select Delete Spare and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
4 Select the spare drive you want to delete and press Enter.
The system confirms the deletion.
5 Select Yes and press Enter to delete the spare.
The disk drive is now available for use in an array or as a spare.
Enabling Dynamic Spares
Using the Dynamic Spares option, you can use all of your disk
drives in redundant arrays without assigning one as a spare. For
example, with Dynamic Spares enabled, if a drive fails and you
replace it, the controller automatically finds the new drive and
reconstructs the array.
4-3
Managing Spares
With Dynamic Spares enabled, if you have spares or available
drives, the controller first looks for a dedicated or spare pool drive
for the reconstruction. If none is found, it uses an available drive,
which it automatically assigns as a spare and starts reconstruction.
You must ensure that the new or available drive is large enough to
replace the smallest member in the array and does not contain
metadata. See Clearing Metadata from a Disk Drive on page 6-3.
Note: Performance in systems without a SAF-TE Enclosure
Processor (SEP) will decrease if an array becomes critical
with this option enabled and there are no available drives
for a reconstruction. Minimize the performance impact by
increasing the rescan rate.
To enable dynamic spares:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration menu appears.
3 Select Dynamic Spare Configuration and press Enter.
The Dynamic Spare Config menu appears. The current setting is
marked by an *.
4 Select Enabled and press Enter.
The Rescan Rate prompt appears.
5 Enter the rescan rate in minutes.
The rescan rate tells the controller how often to look for an
available drive by rescanning the bus. Remember that
rescanning the bus frequently can affect performance. If you
have an SEP, the dynamic spare configuration will not rescan
the bus—the SEP will detect the new drive and tell the controller
to rescan; the rescan rate you set here will not affect the system.
The system confirms the change.
6 Select Yes and press Enter.
4-4
Managing Spares
Managing the Spare Pool
Disk drives in the spare pool are available for the reconstruction of
redundant arrays. Once you assign a disk drive to the spare pool, it
is not available for use as an array member or as a dedicated spare.
In active-active mode, pool spares are available to both controllers.
If a disk drive in an array on either controller fails, the controller
can use a pool spare to reconstruct the array.
If a pool spare is too small (smaller than an individual member in
an array), the controller cannot use it to reconstruct the array.
Adding a Spare to the Spare Pool
You can add up to eight disk drives to the spare pool to reconstruct
any critical array on the controller. After an array has started using
a pool spare, other critical arrays are prevented from using it.
To add a pool spare:
1 From the System Menu, select Pool Spare Menu and press
Enter.
The Pool Spare menu appears.
2 Select Add Pool Spare and press Enter.
The Add Pool Spare menu appears.
3 Select each spare disk drive you want to add and press Enter.
Deleting a Spare from the Spare Pool
You can delete a spare from the spare pool at any time.
To delete a spare from the spare pool:
1 From the System Menu, select Pool Spare Menu and press
Enter.
The Pool Spare menu appears.
2 Select Delete Pool Spare and press Enter.
The Delete Pool Spare menu appears.
3 Select the pool spare you want to delete and press Enter.
4-5
Managing Spares
Displaying the Spare Pool
You can display a list of all of the pool spares.
To display the spare pool:
1 From the System Menu, select Pool Spare Menu and press
Enter.
The Pool Spare menu appears.
2 Select Display Pool Spare and press Enter.
The Display Pool Spare window appears.
3 Press Esc to return to the Pool Spare menu.
4-6
5
Configuring the Controller
In This Chapter
Rebooting the Controller
5-2
Changing the Date and Time
5-2
Configuring the Host Channels
5-3
Understanding LUNs and Viewing LUN Information
5-5
Configuring the SCSI Channels
5-6
Understanding Operating Modes
5-8
Managing the Other Controller
5-11
Disabling SCSI Channel 3
5-14
Changing the Sample Rate
5-15
Understanding the Audible Alarm
5-16
Locking the Cache
5-17
Configuring the Battery
5-18
Changing the Utility Priority
5-20
Rescanning All Channels
5-21
Pausing I/O
5-22
Restoring Default Settings
5-23
5-1
Configuring the Controller
Rebooting the Controller
You may need to shut down and restart the controller after you
make certain configuration changes or when you move the
controller or make hardware changes.
We strongly recommend that you shut down the controller
gracefully (by following these steps) and do not just turn off the
power. A normal shutdown ensures that the write-back cache has
been flushed to the disk.
!
Caution: Anyone accessing an array when you shut down
the controller will lose access and may lose data.
To shut down and restart the controller:
1 From the System Menu, select Shutdown/Restart and press
Enter.
The system confirms that you want to shut down.
2 Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that it has shut down.
3 Press Enter to reboot.
The system performs its self-test. When you see the Adaptec
Disk Array Administrator System Menu, the controller is ready.
See Chapter 1, Getting Started.
Changing the Date and Time
You can change the controller’s date and time.
To set the controller’s date:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Set Date/Time and press Enter.
The Set Date/Time menu appears.
5-2
Configuring the Controller
3 Select Set Date and press Enter.
The Set Date prompt appears.
4 Type the date using this format: mm/dd/yyyy. Press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The system confirms that the change is made.
6 Press Esc to return to the Configuration menu.
To set the controller’s time:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Set Date/Time and press Enter.
The Set Date/Time menu appears.
3 Select Set Time and press Enter.
The Set Time prompt appears.
4 Type the time using the 24-hour clock format: hh:mm:ss. Press
Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The system confirms that the change is made.
6 Press Esc to return to the Configuration menu.
Configuring the Host Channels
You can configure the settings for each host channel individually.
The settings available for configuration vary based on which mode
you are using. Table 5-1 lists the host channel settings, when they
are available, and what they do.
5-3
Configuring the Controller
Table 5-1 Host Channel Settings
Host
Channel
Setting
Modes
Available
Description
Enable/
Disable
Stand-alone
single-port
You should not disable the host channel
when in single-port mode.
Stand-alone
dual-port
In dual-port mode, you can disable a
channel when you plan to shut down the
host on that channel.
Target ID
All modes
You may need to change the host
channel’s SCSI target ID when you have
existing devices at ID 1 (the default), or
when you are adding more than one
controller to a system.You can set the
target ID to any number between 0 and
15.
Controller
LUN
All
The controller has just one LUN that you
can change when you configure the host
channels. You only need to assign a
controller LUN if you are using the
Configuration Application Program
Interface (CAPI) to configure the
controller over a host channel via SCSI
protocol extensions.
You have two options for setting the
LUN:
■ None—Use this setting if you are not
using CAPI to configure the controller
(This change takes effect immediately
unless the controller LUN is currently
in use.)
■ Any number between 0 and 63—Select
a specific number if you want the
controller’s LUN to stay the same when
you reboot.
Note: For more information about LUNs,
see Understanding LUNs and Viewing LUN
Information on page 5-5
Reset on
Failover
Activeactive
Turn this option on (select Yes) if you find
that failover takes a long time. This option
tells the controller to reset the SCSI bus
after a failover and speeds failover in
some situations.
5-4
Configuring the Controller
To configure the host channels:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Host Configuration and press Enter.
If the controller is in stand-alone dual-port mode, the Channel
menu appears. Select the channel you want to configure and
press Enter.
The next menu displayed depends upon the mode you are
using. An * appears next to the current setting in each menu. See
Table 5-1 on page 5-4 for information about each setting.
3 Select the setting you want from each menu and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the changes.
4 Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
Understanding LUNs and Viewing LUN
Information
The RAID controller supports up to 64 SCSI LUNs, numbered
0 through 63. There are three different types of LUNs:
■
Controller LUNs—Assigned when you are using CAPI to
configure the controller over a host channel via SCSI protocol
extensions. If you are using CAPI, set the controller LUN to a
value between 0 and 63. If you are not using CAPI, set the
controller LUN to None.
Note: Most Unix, Linux, and Macintosh OSs require that the
controller LUN be a higher value than all array LUNs.
Before creating your first array, change the controller LUN
to a high value or select None (best choice) if you are not
using CAPI to manage the arrays. This allows your first
array to be seen at LUN 0.
5-5
Configuring the Controller
■
SEP LUNs—Allow access to SEPs. A SEP LUN may be set to a
value between 0 and 63 or None. None means that the SEP
cannot be accessed via a LUN. For information about changing
the SEP LUN, see Changing the SEP LUN on page 6-8.
■
Partition LUNs—Allow access to partitions on the controller.
Partition LUNs may be set to any numeric value between 0 and
63. For information about changing the partition LUN, see
Changing a Partition LUN on page 2-28.
Viewing LUN Information
You can view information for each existing LUN.
To view LUN information:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select LUN Information and press Enter.
The LUN Information window appears.
3 Press Esc to return to the Utilities menu.
Configuring the SCSI Channels
You can change three channel configuration options for each SCSI
channel:
■
Bus Speed—This is the maximum speed the controller will
attempt to negotiate.
– 160 MB/sec—Default setting (DT clocking)
– 80 MB/sec (ST clocking)
– 40 MB/sec (ST clocking)
Note: If you have disk drives that are not Ultra160 capable
and you experience disk channel problems, you should set
the bus speed to 80 MB/sec. Not all disk drives can handle
the Ultra160 bus speed.
5-6
Configuring the Controller
■
Initiator ID—SCSI ID assigned to each channel of the controller.
The default ID is 6 for Channel 1 and 7 for Channel 2. You may
need to change the initiator ID if the default conflicts with a SEP
ID. You can set the ID to any number between 0 and 15. (In
active-active mode, the initiator ID cannot be changed.)
■
Domain Validation—Checks for disk channel hardware and
cable problems to ensure that your system can run at Ultra160
speed. Some disk drives do not support this function and return
false problems. You should disable the function in those
situations.
To configure the SCSI channels:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Channel Configuration and press Enter.
The Channel Configuration prompt appears.
3 Select the channel you want and press Enter.
The Bus Speed menu appears. The current setting has an * next
to it.
4 Select the setting you want and press Enter.
The Disable Domain Validation menu appears. The current
setting is marked with an * next to it.
5 Select the option you want and press Enter.
If you are not in active-active mode, the Initiator ID prompt
appears showing the current Initiator ID. (If you are in activeactive mode, you cannot change the Initiator ID.)
6 Select the Initiator ID you want and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the changes.
7 Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
The system confirms that the change is made.
8 Press Esc to return to the Configuration menu.
5-7
Configuring the Controller
Understanding Operating Modes
Your controller can operate in three different modes:
■
Active-active—Two controllers cooperate in system operation
in a fault-tolerant manner. If one controller fails, the other takes
over the failed controller’s work, providing another level of
redundancy and allowing host access to continue.
■
Stand-alone dual-port—A single controller operating with two
host ports. This mode allows the host to achieve greater
throughput by balancing I/O operations across the two host
ports. Host port fault tolerance is also achieved, because the host
can continue to access the controller if one host channel fails.
The same LUNs display on the two separate host ports.
!
■
Caution: The host OS and disk drivers must support dualport accesses for this mode to be used effectively. If the
host system does not support dual-port access, do not
configure the controller in dual-port mode—the OS may
believe that a single LUN is really two independent arrays,
which may result in data corruption.
Stand-alone single-port—A single controller operating with
one host port and three disk channels. Use this mode if you do
not want to run in dual-port mode, or if your host OS does not
support it.
Note: If you select stand-alone single-port mode, SCSI
channel 3 will not be available if it has been disabled in the
Flash Utility. See Disabling SCSI Channel 3 on page 5-14.
Disabling SCSI channel 3 forces the controller into standalone single-port mode.
Understanding the Active-Active Configuration
Below are terms associated with active-active configurations, as
they apply to the DuraStor Storage Subsystem:
■
Controller 1 and 2—One controller is designated as the
Controller 1 and the other controller is designated as Controller
2. The controller’s identity appears continuously at the bottom
5-8
Configuring the Controller
of the Adaptec Disk Array Administrator screens. Controller 1
and 2 may also be referred to as Controller A and B,
respectively.
■
Failback—The act of returning ownership of controller
resources from a surviving controller to a previously failed (but
now active) controller. The resources include disk arrays, cache
data, and host ID information.
■
Failover—The act of temporarily transferring ownership of
controller resources from a failed controller to a surviving
controller. The resources include disk arrays, cache data, and
host ID information.
■
Kill—One controller can kill the other controller by resetting it
and taking it offline.
■
Other—The opposite controller from the one currently being
used (that is, not the local controller).
■
Ownership—In active-active mode, each controller has
ownership of its own resources. The resources include arrays
and dedicated spares. If one controller fails, the other controller
assumes temporary ownership of its resources.
■
Unkill—When a surviving controller removes the reset from the
other controller, it unkills it. The other controller will reboot and
attempt to come online.
To run two controllers in active-active mode, the following must be
true:
■
You must have two controllers installed in a proper
configuration.
■
Both controllers must be loaded with compatible firmware
levels. The system automatically detects firmware
incompatibilities and halts the boot of the second controller.
■
The operating mode of each controller must be set to activeactive. See Changing the Operating Mode on page 5-10.
■
Host channel 0 of each controller must be set to a different ID
only if you are using a single host interface. If you are using two
host connections, then each controller’s host channel 0 can have
the same ID.
5-9
Configuring the Controller
Active-Active Operation Scenarios
You should understand how the controllers act in different activeactive scenarios.
■
Dual Boot—When both controllers boot at the same time, they
exchange information related to their current configuration and
the ownership of resources. The time and date of the B controller
is synchronized with that of the A controller.
■
Add Array—When a controller adds an array, that controller is
owner of the array, as well as any dedicated spare disk drives.
Arrays and dedicated spares are not visible to the other
controller when both controllers are online.
■
Delete Array—A controller may only delete arrays that it owns.
■
Pool Spare Configuration—Pool spares are visible to both
controllers when both controllers are online.
■
Failover—When a failover occurs, the surviving controller will
display FAILED OVER on Adaptec Disk Array Administrator,
in the area between the board temperature and date. At this
point, the arrays, dedicated spares, and pool spares of the failed
controller belong to the surviving controller. Resources from the
failed controller are tagged with (FO).
■
Failback—When a failback occurs, the controller coming online
regains control of its arrays, dedicated spares, and pool spares
from the other controller.
Changing the Operating Mode
To change the operating mode:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration menu appears.
3 Select Operating Mode and press Enter.
The Operating Mode menu appears.
5-10
Configuring the Controller
4 Select the option you want and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The system confirms that the change is made.
6 Press Esc to return to the Option Configuration menu.
Note: You must reboot the controller for the change to take
effect. See Rebooting the Controller on page 5-2.
Managing the Other Controller
If you are using active-active mode, you can
■
Display information about the other controller. See page 5-11.
■
Shut down the other controller. See page 5-12.
■
Shut down both controllers. See page 5-12.
■
Kill the other controller. See page 5-13.
■
Unkill the other controller. See page 5-13.
You can also change the ownership of an array between
controllers. See Changing Array Ownership on page 2-18.
Displaying Information about the Other Controller
You can view information about the other controller. If the other
controller is up, its current status is shown; if the other controller is
down, its last known state is shown. If the other controller never
communicated with the local controller since boot up, most fields
will display Unknown or something similar.
To display information about the other controller:
1 From the System Menu, select Other Controller Menu and
press Enter.
The Other Controller menu is only available if the system is
configured to run in active-active mode.
The Other Controller menu appears.
5-11
Configuring the Controller
2 Select Other Information and press Enter.
The Other Information window appears.
3 Press Esc to return to the Other Controller menu.
Shutting Down the Other Controller
You can gracefully shut down the other controller if you are
preparing to replace it or power off the RAID appliance. Always
use the Shutdown Other Function in preference to the Kill Other
Function. (See Killing the Other Controller on page 5-13 for details on
when to use the Kill Other Function.)
To shut down the other controller:
1 From the System Menu, select Other Controller Menu and
press Enter.
The Other Controller menu is only available if the system is
configured to run in active-active mode.
The Other Controller menu appears.
2 Select Shutdown Other and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
3 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The other controller shuts down gracefully.
4 Press Esc to return to the Other Controller menu.
Shutting Down Both Controllers
You can gracefully shut down both controllers simultaneously if
you are preparing to replace them both or power off the RAID
appliance.
To shut down both controllers:
1 From the System Menu, select Other Controller Menu and
press Enter.
The Other Controller menu is only available if the system is
configured to run in active-active mode.
The Other Controller menu appears.
5-12
Configuring the Controller
2 Select Shutdown Both and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
3 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
Both controllers shut down.
4 Press Esc to return to the Other Controller menu.
Killing the Other Controller
You can kill the other controller (nongracefully shut it down),
which causes the local controller to assume control of its resources.
!
Caution: You should only use the Kill Other Function as a
last resort to regain control of the other controller. Using
Kill Other may disrupt host I/O activity. If the other
controller needs to be taken offline, you should first try a
local shutdown or use the Shutdown Other Function.
To kill the other controller:
1 From the System Menu, select Other Controller Menu and
press Enter.
The Other Controller menu is only available if the system is
configured to run in active-active mode.
The Other Controller menu appears.
2 Select Kill Other and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
3 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The system confirms that the change is made.
4 Press Esc to return to the Other Controller menu.
Unkilling the Other Controller
You can unkill the other controller (bring it back online) by
allowing it to complete booting. This option is primarily used to
allow a controller that was previously killed (either due to errors or
manual action) to come back online.
5-13
Configuring the Controller
Note: If the other controller was unplugged then plugged
back in or replaced by a different controller, the surviving
controller will automatically unkill the other controller.
To unkill the other controller:
1 From the System Menu, select Other Controller Menu and
press Enter.
The Other Controller menu is only available if the system is
configured to run in active-active mode.
The Other Controller menu appears.
2 Select Unkill Other and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
3 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The other controller boots.
4 Press Esc to return to the Other Controller menu.
Disabling SCSI Channel 3
You can disable SCSI channel 3 from the Flash Utility.
Note: Because disabling SCSI channel 3 may affect the
configuration of nonvolatile memory, SCSI channel 3
cannot be disabled if host data is present. Shut down the
controller gracefully to flush out host data (see Rebooting
the Controller on page 5-2), or select Clear Battery Back Up
from the Flash Utility menu, which will clear the host data.
Disabling SCSI channel 3 results in only one available host channel,
meaning that the controller can only be run in stand-alone singleport mode.
5-14
Configuring the Controller
Note: The controller will not boot if you disable SCSI
channel 3 while in active-active mode. You must change
your operating mode before disabling SCSI channel 3.
To disable SCSI channel 3:
1 From the System Menu, select Shutdown/Restart and press
Enter.
The system confirms that you want to shut down.
2 Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that it has shut down.
3 Press Enter to reboot.
While the controller reboots, hold down the Spacebar on your
keyboard.
The Flash Utility screen appears.
4 Press 6 for the Utility menu.
The Utility menu appears.
5 Press 8 for Disable SCSI Channel 3.
The system confirms that SCSI channel 3 is disabled.
6 Press q to return to the Utility menu.
7 Press 5 to reboot the controller.
To enable SCSI channel 3 after disabling it, repeat the steps above.
The Utility menu item 8 will read Enable SCSI Channel 3.
Changing the Sample Rate
You can set how often the controller samples data when updating
status screens (disk drive and array). The default is one second.
To change the sample rate:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
5-15
Configuring the Controller
2 Select New Sample Rate and press Enter.
The New Sample Rate prompt appears.
3 Type the sample rate and press Enter.
Understanding the Audible Alarm
When the controller becomes too hot, or detects low or high
voltage, an audible alarm sounds and an event message appears in
the Adaptec Disk Array Administrator window and in the event
log.
Warning events are generated when the temperature or voltage
enters the warning range. Shutdown events are generated when
the temperature or voltage enters the shutdown range.
Table 5-2 shows the temperature and voltage thresholds for each
alarm and what to do to resolve the problem. Refer to the DuraStor
6200S External RAID Controller Installation Guide for more details.
Changing the Alarm Mute Setting
You can enable the Mute setting on the audible alarm so that you
can turn it off when it is sounding.
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Alarm Mute and press Enter.
The Alarm Mute menu appears. The current setting is marked
with an * next to it.
3 Select Unmute and press Enter.
You can disable the Mute setting by repeating the steps above
and selecting Mute.
5-16
Configuring the Controller
Table 5-2 Alarm Thresholds
Alarm Threshold
What To Do When the Alarm Sounds
CPU temperature
Warning—0°C–5°C
and
65°C–70°C
Shutdown—0°C, 70°C,
<0°C, and >70°C
■
Onboard temperature
Warning—0°C–5°C
and
45°C–50°C
Shutdown—0°C, 50°C,
<0°C, and >50°C
■
Same as above for the CPU temperature.
VCC voltage
Warning—5V -3.5%
and +6.5%
Shutdown—5V -6.5%
and +10%
■
Check Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator to confirm what the alarm
means. See Chapter 3, Monitoring System
Status.
If it is a warning alarm, let the controller
continue to operate.
If it is a shutdown alarm, turn off the
power to the controller and send it for
service.
■
■
■
12V voltage
Warning—12V -8%
and +8%
Shutdown—12V -10%
and +10%
■
Check Adaptec Disk Array
Administrator to confirm what the alarm
means. See Chapter 3, Monitoring System
Status.
Check the ambient temperature and
lower it, if needed. Ambient temperature
should be less than 45°C.
Same as above for the VCC voltage.
Locking the Cache
Some host OSs disable the write-back cache of the controller,
resulting in degraded performance. You can stop this from
happening by enabling the Cache Lock. (The default setting is
Disabled.)
To enable the cache lock:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
5-17
Configuring the Controller
2 Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration menu appears.
3 Select Cache Lock and press Enter.
The Cache Lock menu appears. The current setting is marked
with an * next to it.
4 Select the option you want and press Enter.
Configuring the Battery
You can configure two settings related to the battery:
■
You can enable or disable the battery. The default setting is
Battery Enabled. See page 5-18.
■
You can set the battery age, or disable the battery life monitor.
See page 5-19.
Enabling and Disabling the Battery
If you do not use a battery in your controller, an alarm sounds. To
eliminate the alarm, you can set the Battery option to Disabled.
(The default setting is Battery Enabled.)
Note: You should only disable the battery if you are
running the controller with an uninterruptable power
supply (UPS), which ensures that you will not lose power
to the controller.
If you set the Battery option to Disabled, the controller does not
issue warning events or disable the write-back cache.
To enable or disable the battery:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Option Configuration and press Enter.
The Option Configuration menu appears.
5-18
Configuring the Controller
3 Select Battery and press Enter.
The Battery menu appears. The current setting is marked with
an * next to it.
4 Select the option you want and press Enter.
You must reboot the controller for the change to take effect.
Changing the Battery Age/Disabling the Battery Life
Monitor
Your controller monitors the life of your battery and creates an
event when the battery nears the end of its life. Controller batteries
typically last about three years. The event reminding you to replace
the battery occurs after approximately 35 months of use. The event
appears each time you reboot the controller until you replace the
battery and reset the battery age.
When you replace the battery, you must reset the battery age for
the battery life monitor to work properly.
You can also set the battery age. You might want to use this option
if you install a battery from another controller and want to reset the
battery reminder to display at the right time.
An option to disable the battery life monitor is also available.
!
Caution: We do not recommend disabling the battery life
monitor. Battery failure during normal operation disables
write-back cache, and leaves the system exposed to data
corruption in the event of power loss.
To reset or change the battery age, or disable the battery life
monitor:
1 From the System Menu, select Shutdown/Restart and press
Enter.
The system confirms that you want to shut down.
2 Select Yes and press Enter.
The system confirms that it has shut down.
3 Press Enter to reboot.
5-19
Configuring the Controller
4 While the controller reboots, hold down the Spacebar on your
keyboard.
The Flash Utility screen appears.
5 Press 6 for the Utility menu.
The Utility menu appears.
6 Press 4 for Battery Life Monitor Options.
The Battery Life Monitor menu appears.
7 Press the letter of the option you want:
– A. New Battery Installed—Use this option to reset the
battery age to zero when you install a new battery. The
system confirms that you want to install a new battery and
resets the battery age. Press Y and Enter to make the change.
– B. Set Battery Age—Use this option to set a specific age when
you install a battery from another controller. The system
prompts you to type the age of the current battery (in
months). Type the number of months and press Enter. The
system confirms the new age. Press Y and Enter to make the
change.
– C. Disable Battery Life Monitor—Use this option to
completely disable the Battery Life Monitor function. We do
not recommend using this option.
8 Press q to return to the Utility menu.
9 Press x to reboot the controller.
Changing the Utility Priority
You can change the priority at which utilities run when there are
active I/O operations competing for the controller’s CPU. The
priority settings are:
■
High (default)—Use if your highest priority is to get the array
back to a fully fault-tolerant state. At this setting, heavy I/O
with the host is slower than normal.
■
Medium
5-20
Configuring the Controller
■
Low—Use if streaming data without interruption, such as for a
Web server, is more important than data redundancy. At this
setting, the utilities run at a slower rate with minimal effects on
host I/O.
To change the utility priority:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Utility Priority and press Enter.
The Utility Priority menu appears. The current setting is marked
with an * next to it.
3 Select the option you want and press Enter.
Rescanning All Channels
When you install or remove disk drives, you can have the
controller rescan all disk channels. Rescan temporarily pauses all
I/O processes and then resumes normal operation.
If you are using a RAID appliance with an SEP, the controller
performs a rescan automatically and detects removed disk drives
almost immediately. Installed disk drives are detected after a threeminute delay that gives new disk drives time to spin up.
Note: If you are installing a new disk drive, wait for it to
spin up before rescanning the channels. This avoids
unnecessary delays during the rescan that can cause the
OS to time out.
To rescan all channels:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Rescan and press Enter.
5-21
Configuring the Controller
Pausing I/O
The DuraStor 312R storage enclosure allows hot-swapping
(removing and replacing disk drives while SCSI bus activity
continues). The Hot Swap Pause Function suspends activity on all
device channels used in the controller and protects data integrity
on the connected disk drives and arrays.
Note: Pausing I/O halts active I/O to the host.
!
Caution: If you are not using the DuraStor Storage
Subsystem, refer to your enclosure’s documentation before
you attempt to hot-swap disk drives.
To pause I/O:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Hot Swap Pause and press Enter.
The Bus Paused window appears.
You can now remove and replace disk drives as required. (See
the DuraStor Installation and User’s Guide or your enclosure
documentation for instructions.)
3 Resume SCSI bus activity by pressing Esc.
!
Caution: Do not stay in Hot Swap Pause mode for too long
or an operating system time-out may occur. The pause
limitation before time-out varies according to the
operating system. For example, in Windows NT, the
default limitation during I/O activity is 10 seconds.
5-22
Configuring the Controller
Restoring Default Settings
You can restore all of the controller’s default settings and change
those that are critical to your configuration. You may want to do
this if the controller is not working properly and you cannot
determine why.
To restore the default settings:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Restore Defaults and press Enter.
The Restore Defaults menu appears. The selected option is
marked with an * next to it.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
3 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
The system confirms that the change is made.
4 Press Enter to return to the Configuration menu.
5-23
6
Managing Disk Drives and
Enclosures
In This Chapter
Managing Disk Drives
6-1
Managing SAF-TE Enclosures
6-8
Managing Disk Drives
Using Adaptec Disk Array Administrator, you can control a variety
of functions related to disk drives. You should also refer to your
disk drive documentation and the DuraStor Installation and User’s
Guide for information about related functions.
Displaying Disk Drive Information
You can display two types of information about disk drives:
■
A list of all disk drives connected to the controller. See page 6-2.
■
The status of all disk drives in an array. See page 2-12.
6-1
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Displaying All Disk Drives
You can display this information for all disk drives connected to
the controller:
■
Channel number
■
SCSI target ID number
■
Size
■
Manufacturer
■
Model number
■
Drive firmware revision
If any of the disk drives are members of an array, the following
information may also display:
■
Utility running—Expand, Verify, and so on.
■
Array number—The array’s sequential position in the
controller’s array list.
■
Member number—The disk drive’s sequential position in the
array.
Disk drives that are not members of any array are listed as
Available.
Disk drives that contain leftover metadata from a previous array
are listed as Leftover, which happens if disk drives are pulled and
reinserted. To clear leftover metadata, use the Clear Metadata
Function. See Clearing Metadata from a Disk Drive on page 6-3
To display all disk drives:
1 From the System Menu, select Display Drives and press Enter.
The Display Drives window appears.
2 Press Esc to return to the System Menu.
6-2
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Clearing Metadata from a Disk Drive
All member disk drives in an array contain metadata, which is
used to identify array members after a controller is changed or
restarted.
If you have a disk drive that was previously a member of an array,
you can clear its metadata. Disk drives with leftover metadata
display Leftover in the Display Drives window.
Once the metadata has been cleared, you can use the disk drive
again in an array or as a spare.
To clear metadata from a disk drive:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities menu appears.
3 Select Clear Metadata and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears showing disk drives that are
not array members.
4 Select the disk drive you want and press Enter.
You can now use this disk drive in an array or as a spare.
Enabling and Disabling Write-back Cache
You can control the write-back cache setting for all of your disk
drives at once. The setting options are:
■
Don’t Modify—Use if you do not want the controller to change
any disk drive’s write-back cache settings.
■
Enable—Use only if your disk drives are connected to a UPS in
case of power failure. If the disk drives are not on a UPS and
power is lost, the array will lose any data in the disk’s writeback cache.
■
Disable (default)—Use if your disk drives are part of an array,
since the controller is already using write-back cache to improve
performance. Enabling write-back cache on the disk drive may
or may not improve performance in some cases, depending on
the type of array and how you are using it.
6-3
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
To change the write-back cache setting:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Disk Configuration and press Enter.
The Disk Configuration menu appears.
3 Select Write-back Cache and press Enter.
The Write-back Cache menu appears. The current setting is
marked with an * next to it.
4 Select the option you want and press Enter.
5 Reboot or rescan to have your changes take effect.
See Rebooting the Controller on page 5-2 or Rescanning All
Channels on page 5-21.
Displaying Disk Cache Status
You can display the cache status of each disk drive.
To display disk cache status:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities menu appears.
3 Select Display Drive Cache and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
4 Select a disk drive and press Enter.
A window appears showing the status of the read and write
cache for that disk drive.
5 Press Esc to return to the Drive Utilities menu.
6-4
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Enabling and Disabling SMART Changes
You can enable or disable the ability to change the Self-Monitoring
Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART) settings for all disk
drives connected to the controller. The setting options are:
■
Enable (default)
■
Disable
■
Don’t Modify—Use if you do not want the controller to change
any disk drive’s SMART settings.
On most disk drives, SMART is disabled by default by the
manufacturer. You may want to enable it if you want disk drives to
be able to recover from errors on their own.
To enable or disable SMART changes:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select Disk Configuration and press Enter.
The Disk Configuration menu appears.
3 Select SMART and press Enter.
The SMART menu appears. The current setting is marked with
an * next to it.
4 Select the option you want and press Enter.
5 Reboot or rescan to have your changes take effect.
See Rebooting the Controller on page 5-2 or Rescanning All
Channels on page 5-21.
Blinking a Disk Drive LED
You can blink the LED of a specific disk drive. The drive continues
blinking its LED until you do one of the following:
■
Press Esc before Adaptec Disk Array Administrator times out.
■
Repeat the blink LED command, which toggles the Blink LED
command off.
6-5
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
To blink a disk drive LED:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities menu appears.
3 Select Blink Drive LED and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears.
4 Select the disk drive you want and press Enter.
That disk drive’s LED begins to blink.
5 Press Esc to stop blinking the LED.
Taking Down a Disk Drive
!
Caution: This function is only for testing arrays and should
not be used in normal operation.
The Down Drive Function sets the status of a disk drive in a faulttolerant array to Down. This forces the controller to remove it from
the array and marks the array as critical. When a disk drive is
down and the array is critical, you can’t take down any additional
disk drives in that array.
To bring the disk drive up again, you must use Rescan. See
Rescanning All Channels on page 5-21. After you rescan, you must
clear the metadata from the disk drive before you can use it in an
array or as a spare. See Clearing Metadata from a Disk Drive on
page 6-3.
6-6
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
To take down a disk drive:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities Menu appears.
2 Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities Menu appears.
3 Select Down Drive and press Enter.
The Select Drive(s) menu appears showing disk drives that are
array members.
4 Select the disk drive you want and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
5 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
Testing a Disk Drive
This Function issues a Test Unit Ready (TUR) command to the
selected disk drive. A TUR tells you that the disk drive can
respond, even if it is not otherwise functioning properly.
To test a disk drive:
1 From the System Menu, select Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Utilities menu appears.
2 Select Drive Utilities Menu and press Enter.
The Drive Utilities menu appears.
3 Select Test Unit Ready and press Enter.
The Select Drive menu appears.
4 Select the disk drive you want and press Enter.
If the TUR was successful, TUR STATUS OK appears.
If the TUR was not successful, a failure message appears.
5 Press Esc to return to the Drive Utilities menu.
6-7
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
Managing SAF-TE Enclosures
An SEP is a SCSI device from which the RAID controller can
inquire about environmental conditions such as temperature,
power supply and fan status, and the presence or absence of disk
drives. The RAID controller can also tell the SEP about RAID
activities such as disk drive rebuilds and failed disk drives.
SAF-TE configuration settings are automatically enabled when the
controller is installed in a RAID appliance that contains a SEP. No
changes are required to the default configuration settings to
support SAF-TE.
For SEP RAID appliances, you can:
■
Change the SEP LUN. See page 6-8.
■
Change additional SEP settings. See page 6-9.
Changing the SEP LUN
SEP LUNs allow access to SEPs. An SEP LUN may be set to a value
between 0 and 63 or None. A setting of None means that the SEP
cannot be accessed via a LUN.
You may want to change the SEP LUN if it conflicts with the LUN
of another device.
To change the SEP LUN:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select SEP Configuration and press Enter.
The SEP Configuration menu appears.
3 Select SEP LUNs and press Enter.
The SEP LUNs prompt appears.
4 Select the LUN of the SEP you want and press Enter.
The SEP LUN prompt appears.
6-8
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
5 Select the option or number you want to use. See Table 6-1 for
options.
Table 6-1 SEP LUN Options
To:
Do This:
Not assign the SEP an LUN
■
Type NONE and press Enter
Keep the same LUN for the
SEP at all times
■
Type the LUN you want to use
and press Enter.
This can be any number from 0
to 63 that is not already in use.
The system confirms that you want to make the change.
6 Select Yes and press Enter to make the change.
Changing the Additional SEP Settings
You can change four additional SEP settings:
■
Polling Interval—Controls the interval (in seconds) at which
that the controller polls the SEPs for status changes. The default
setting is five seconds.
■
Temperature Sensor Status—Controls whether the controller’s
onboard temperature sensor provides temperature information
to the host along with the RAID appliance’s temperature as
detected by the SEP. The default setting is OFF, which means
that neither the controller nor the appliance is providing
temperature information to the host.
■
Slot Flags (Slot update status)—Controls whether the controller
sends commands to the SEP to update the status of each storage
enclosure slot. The default setting is ON, which means that the
controller requests status updates from the storage enclosure.
■
Global Flags (Enclosure update status)—Controls whether the
controller sends commands to the SEP to update the overall
status of the storage enclosure. The default setting is OFF, which
means that the controller does not request status updates from
the storage enclosure.
6-9
Managing Disk Drives and Enclosures
To change the SEP settings:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration menu appears.
2 Select SEP Configuration and press Enter.
The SEP Configuration menu appears.
3 Select SEP Settings and press Enter.
The Poll Rate prompt appears.
4 Type the poll rate you want, in seconds, and press Enter.
The Temperature menu appears. The current setting is marked
with an * next to it.
5 Select the option you want and press Enter.
The Slot Flags menu appears. The current setting is marked with
an * next to it.
6 Select whether you want the SEP to send slot status updates to
the controller and press Enter.
The Global Flags menu appears. The current setting is marked
with an * next to it.
7 Select whether you want the SEP to send RAID appliance status
updates to the controller and press Enter.
The system confirms that you want to make the changes.
8 Select Yes and press Enter to make the changes.
6-10
7
Troubleshooting
In This Chapter
Adaptec Technical Support
7-1
Input Problems
7-2
Terminal Emulator and COM Port Problems
7-2
Array Problems
7-3
Host SCSI Channel Problems
7-4
Device SCSI Channel Problems
7-5
Problems During Bootup
7-6
Warning and Error Events
7-8
Using the Loader Diagnostics Menu
7-10
Using the Loader Utility Menu
7-11
Understanding SCSI Errors
7-11
Adaptec Technical Support
For assistance configuring and using your Adaptec product,
contact your authorized distributor or Adaptec technical support
at: 1 321-207-2000 or http://www.adaptec.com.
Resolutions to common problems you may encounter are
described in the following sections.
7-1
Troubleshooting
Input Problems
Problem: The system won’t accept input from the keyboard.
Ensure that you have set the input mode to external:
1 On the I/O connectivity panel of the DuraStor 6200SR, turn the
switch to EXT.
2 On the DuraStor 6200SR Operator Control Panel, use the arrow
buttons to:
a Choose Hardware Menu, then press Enter.
b Choose Mode, then press Enter.
c Choose Serial Port:Ext Mode, then press Enter.
Terminal Emulator and COM Port Problems
Problem: Screen continuously puts out garbage characters.
The likely cause of this problem is a baud rate mismatch between
the terminal emulator and the controller. The default baud rate is
115,200. Follow these steps if you set your terminal emulator to this
rate and still get garbage characters:
1 If you are able, shut down the controller.
See Rebooting the Controller on page 5-2. If you are unable to shut
down the controller, continue with step 2.
2 Turn OFF the power to the RAID appliance containing the
controller.
3 Press the Spacebar of your terminal emulator.
4 Turn ON the power while continuing to press the Spacebar. This
will allow the controller to auto-detect the baud rate setting.
Note: When the Flash Utility appears, select option 5 to
continue to boot the controller.Some terminal emulators do
not immediately change to the new baud rate settings. You
may have to exit and restart the emulator to use the new
settings.
7-2
Troubleshooting
Problem: Nothing is displayed on the terminal emulator screen.
The probable cause of this problem is a bad RS-232 cable
connection or swapped transmit/receive lines. If the cable is
properly connected on both ends, try a null modem adapter, which
will reverse the RS-232 transmit and receive signals. The need for a
null modem adapter depends on both your RAID appliance and
the RS-232 cable you are using.
Problem: Screen is updated, but will not respond to keystrokes.
Disable hardware flow control on the terminal or terminal
emulator. The controller supports XON/XOFF flow control and
works properly in most cases with no flow control.
Problem: Screen looks correct, but clock is not being updated.
Check to be sure that the RAID appliance containing the controller
is still powered on. If you are using XON/XOFF, press the Ctrl+Q.
Problem: Screen is updated and menus appear correct, but boxes
around menus look incorrect.
Try a different font in your terminal emulator program, such as
Terminal. If you cannot find a font that looks correct, set ASCII
Display to Yes in the Display options item of the Configuration
Menu.
Array Problems
Problem: Array is much smaller than it should be.
The backoff percent may be set higher than 1%, which is causing
the array to be much smaller than the full size of its member disk
drives
Note: We strongly recommend that you leave the backoff
percent at 1%.
The backoff percent setting backs off or reduces the capacity of the
array by the given percentage. The backoff percentage helps when
you assign spares by compensating for the minor capacity
differences that occur between vendors. For example, two 18-GB
7-3
Troubleshooting
disk drives from two different vendors may differ in capacity by
100 MB. With a backoff of 0%, you would not be able to replace an
array member’s slightly larger 18-GB disk drive with a smaller 18GB disk drive. If you intend to only use identical disk drives from
the same vendor, then you can use a backoff of 0%.
The default setting is 1% backoff. This default allows you to easily
work with disk drives that have the same nominal capacity, but
different actual capacities. The backoff percentage affects all arrays
created on the controller after you set the percentage.
If the disk drives in an array are not equal in size, the array
capacity in a RAID 5 array is based on the smallest member’s
capacity. The backoff percentage is then backed off the capacity
from that amount.
To change the backoff percentage:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu and press
Enter.
The Configuration Menu appears.
2 Select Backoff Percent and press Enter.
The Backoff Percent prompt appears.
3 Type the backoff percent you want to use and press Enter.
Type the percentage as three digits using the following format:
00.0%. The default is 01.0%.
Host SCSI Channel Problems
Problem: The host SCSI BIOS scan displays “Device name not
available”.
The controller is properly connected, but no arrays have been
created. Use Adaptec Disk Array Administrator to create an array
and reboot the host system.
Problem: The host SCSI BIOS scan hangs.
Check that termination is set correctly in the Configuration Menu
and the disk drive storage enclosure. Check that the device ID set
in Adaptec Disk Array Administrator does not conflict with any
7-4
Troubleshooting
other devices on the host SCSI channel. If you have a long SCSI
cable, try a different or shorter cable.
Problem: Only one array is displayed during host SCSI BIOS scan.
Check to ensure that LUN support is enabled. Use Display Array
Status to check the LUN assignment for each array. If LUN 0 is not
assigned to an array, or some other LUN numbers are skipped, use
the Change LUN Assignment option for each array until you have
LUN numbers starting at 0 with no LUNs skipped. You must
reboot the host system to recognize the new LUN assignment.
Problem: All arrays are displayed during host SCSI BIOS scan, but
only one array is seen by the OS.
SCSI drivers for some OSs require a parameter switch to enable
LUN support. For example, the NetWare driver, aic7870.dsk,
requires the driver parameter LUN_ENABLE=FF (in startup.ncf) to
scan for all LUNs. Check the driver documentation for your host
SCSI channel. You may also need to compact the LUN mapping.
Device SCSI Channel Problems
Problem: Not all disk drives connected to the controller device
channels are displayed during boot, or the controller hangs during
display of connected disk drives and never reaches the Adaptec Disk
Array Administrator screen.
Check your storage enclosure documentation to be sure that the
enclosure is properly configured for use with a RAID controller.
(The DuraStor 312R is configured properly.) If your storage
enclosure supports removable disk drives, check the disk drive
shuttles to be sure that the power, SCSI, and ID connectors are
properly seated. Check termination and ID assignment. If you have
enabled Ultra/Ultra2 SCSI on any device channels, try disabling it.
Note: Check the controller termination settings for all
channels.
7-5
Troubleshooting
Problems During Bootup
The following sections describe problems you might encounter
during POST or during bootup, and explain how to resolve those
problems. POST shows problems related to the processor, logic,
and memory.
Problem: The controller hangs during bootup.
Ensure that all cables are connected properly for your operating
mode. (Refer to the DuraStor Installation and User’s Guide for
details.)
Ensure that your system is properly terminated. External
terminators are required for any dual controller configuration
where Host 2 In (CH 0), Host 1 In (CH 3), Disk CH 1, or Disk CH 2
are not cabled. (External terminators are not required for any
stand-alone configuration.)
Problem: The controller failed the onboard memory test.
When this failure occurs, it means the internal CPU memory failed.
Replace the controller to correct the problem.
Problem: One of the POST diagnostic tests failed.
Contact Adaptec technical support.
Problem: The system hangs at CT_srv starting.
Follow these steps to resolve the problem:
1 Check the disk and host channels to make sure they are properly
terminated.
2 Verify that there are no SCSI address conflicts.
3 Check the storage enclosure to make sure everything is properly
connected.
4 If the storage enclosure and the disk drive work properly,
replace the controller.
7-6
Troubleshooting
Problem: The system hangs during a disk drive scan.
Follow these steps to resolve the problem:
1 Check the storage enclosure to make sure everything is properly
connected.
2 Remove and replace the disk drive that failed the scan.
3 If the storage enclosure and the disk drive work properly,
replace the controller.
Problem: An active-active controller pair hangs during bootup disk
drive scan (typically after displaying CT_Init on the RS-232 display).
Verify that all SCSI channels are connected, cabled, and terminated
properly. Verify that the controllers are set to their default
configuration (active-active dual-port mode).
Problem: An active-active controller pair hangs the host system
during normal operation or after failing over.
Verify that all SCSI channels are connected, cabled, and terminated
properly.
Problem: An active-active controller pair always fails over after
booting up.
Verify that the controller that is failed/killed is set to its default
configuration (active-active dual-port mode). Verify the same
SDRAM DIMM sizes are in both controllers. Active-active
controllers require the same SDRAM DIMM size.
Problem: One controller of an active-active controller pair displays
the following message when booting: “Other Controller is attempting
to reset this controller”.
This message appears on failback if the failed controller has not
been replaced. The message continues to display whenever you
boot the working controller and change its configuration. To
eliminate the message, replace the failed controller.
7-7
Troubleshooting
Warning and Error Events
There are a number of conditions that trigger warning or error
events, activate the audible alarm, and may affect the state of the
Status and Fault LEDs. The audible alarm sounds mainly when
Adaptec Disk Array Administrator displays a warning or error
event.
Table 7-1 and Table 7-2 provide a list of warning and error events
and recommended actions to take to fix the problems.
Warnings
Warning events let you know that something related to the
controller or an array has a problem. You should correct the
problem as soon as possible. Table 7-1 defines each warning event
and recommends the action you should take.
Table 7-1 Warning Events
Event
Definition
Recommended Action
ARRAY
CRITICAL
One or more disk
drives were downed
and the array is online,
but is no longer fault
tolerant.
Add a spare to the array or
the spare pool. Then
replace the bad disk
drives. See Adding a
Dedicated Spare on
page 4-2 or Adding a Spare
to the Spare Pool on
page 4-5.
ARRAY
OFFLINE
One disk drive in a
RAID 0 or volume set
went down, bringing
the array to an offline
state. This array is no
longer accessible by
the host.
Replace the bad disk drive
and restore the data from
backup.
BATT FAIL
INFO
A warning condition in
the battery pack and/
or charging interface
has been detected.
Replace the battery. Refer
to the DuraStor 6200SR and
312R Installation and User’s
Guide.
7-8
Troubleshooting
Table 7-1 Warning Events (Continued)
Event
Definition
Recommended Action
DRIVE DOWN
An error occurred with
the disk drive and it
was downed,
removing it from the
active array.
Add a spare to the array or
the spare pool. Then
replace the bad disk drive.
See Adding a Dedicated
Spare on page 4-2 or
Adding a Spare to the Spare
Pool on page 4-5.
REPLACE
BATTERY
The battery is
approaching its 3-year
life span.
Replace the battery.
SDRAM CORR
ECC
A correctable single-bit
SDRAM ECC error
occurred.
If this error occurs
frequently, replace the
memory. Refer to DuraStor
6200SR and 312R
Installation and User’s
Guide.
SMART
EVENT
A disk drive
informational
exceptions page
control (IEPC)
predictive failure
message was received.
No actions by the
controller are taken on
the disk drive for these
events.
Run diagnostics available
from your OS on the
affected disk drive.
Replace the drive, if
necessary.
SPARE
UNUSABLE
The disk drive still
contains metadata that
must be cleared.
Clear the metadata from
the spare drive. See
Clearing Metadata from a
Disk Drive on page 6-3.
UNWRITABLE
CACHE
The SDRAM cache has
battery backed-up
data, and the arrays
assigned to this data
are not present.
Either determine which
disk drives are missing
and reinstall them, or
select Yes when asked if
you want to discard this
data.
VOLT/TEMP
WARN
The analog-to-digital
convertor monitored a
temperature and/or
voltage in the warning
range.
Check that the controller’s
fan is running. Check that
the ambient temperature
is not too warm. Refer to
the DuraStor 6200SR and
312R Installation and User’s
Guide.
7-9
Troubleshooting
Errors
Error events let you know that something related to the storage
enclosure, controller, or disk drives has failed and requires
immediate attention. Table 7-2 defines each error event and
recommends the action you should take.
Table 7-2 Error Events
Event
Definition
Recommended Action
BATTERY
FAILED
A failure in the battery
pack and/or charging
interface has been
detected.
Replace the controller’s
battery. Refer to DuraStor
6200SR and 312R
Installation and User’s
Guide.
DISK CHAN
FAILED
An error has occurred
in communicating on
the disk channel.
Check the cables on the
channel. Check the
termination on the disk
channel. Refer to DuraStor
6200SR and 312R
Installation and User’s
Guide.
ENCLOSURE
FAIL
Enclosure-specific
general purpose I/O
triggered a failure
condition.
Check the status of the
storage enclosure. Refer to
DuraStor 6200SR and 312R
Installation and User’s
Guide.
SDRAM
UNCORR
ECC
A noncorrectable
multiple-bit SDRAM
ECC error occurred.
Reseat the memory. If the
problem continues, replace
the memory. Refer to
DuraStor 6200SR and 312R
Installation and User’s
Guide.
VOLT/TEMP
FAIL
The analog-to-digital
convertor monitored a
temperature and/or
voltage in the failure
range.
Check that the controller’s
fan is running. Check that
the ambient temperature is
not too warm. Refer to the
DuraStor 6200SR and 312R
Installation and User’s
Guide.
Using the Loader Diagnostics Menu
If you have any diagnostic errors, contact Adaptec technical
support. (See page 7-1 for contact information.)
7-10
Troubleshooting
Using the Loader Utility Menu
If you have any diagnostic errors, contact Adaptec technical
support. (See page 7-1 for contact information.)
Understanding SCSI Errors
The event log includes SCSI errors reported by SEPs and disk
drives on your system. If you see these errors in the event log, the
information below may assist you. For more information about
viewing the event log, see Displaying the Event Log on page 3-1.
Disk Errors
If a disk drive detects an error, it reports the error, which is
recorded in the event log. Figure 7-1 shows an example of a disk
drive-detected error.
Disk Channel
SCSI ID
Sense Key
Sense Code
Sense Code Qualifier
Figure 7-1 Disk-Detected Error Example
Using the information in Table 7-3 and Table 7-4, you can see that
the example in Figure 7-1 is a medium error, unrecovered read
error—recommend reassignment.
Table 7-3 lists some of the most common SCSI sense key
descriptions (in hexadecimal). Table 7-4 lists the descriptions for
the most common sense codes (ASC) and sense code qualifiers
(ASCQ), all in hexadecimal. Refer to the SCSI Primary Commands - 2
(SPC-2) Specification for a complete list of ASC and ASCQ
descriptions.
7-11
Troubleshooting
Table 7-3 Sense Key Descriptions
Sense Key
Description
0h
No sense
1h
Recovered error
2h
Not ready
3h
Medium error
4h
Hardware error
5h
Illegal request
6h
Unit attention
7h
Data protect
8h
Blank check
9h
Vendor-specific
Ah
Copy aborted
Bh
Aborted command
Ch
Obsolete
Dh
Volume overflow
Eh
Miscompare
Fh
Reserved
7-12
Troubleshooting
Disk Channel Errors
Table 7-4 ASC and ASCQ Descriptions
ASC
ASCQ
Descriptions
0C
02
Write error—auto-reallocation failed
0C
03
Write error—recommend reassignment
11
00
Unrecovered read error
11
01
Read retries exhausted
11
02
Error too long to correct
11
03
Multiple read errors
11
04
Unrecovered read error—autoreallocation failed
11
0B
Unrecovered read error—recommend
reassignment
11
0C
Unrecovered read error—recommend
rewrite the data
47
00
SCSI parity error
48
00
Initiator-detected error message
received
Disk channel errors are similar to disk-detected errors, except they
are detected by the controller, instead of the disk drive. Some disk
channel errors are displayed as text strings, others are displayed as
hexadecimal codes.
Figure 7-2 shows a disk channel error displaying the hexadecimal
code. Table 7-5 lists the error code descriptions. Most disk channel
errors are informational because the controller issues retries to
correct any problem. Errors that cannot be corrected with retries
will result in another critical event describing the affected disk
array (if any).
Disk Channel
SCSI ID
Error Code
Figure 7-2 Disk Channel Error Example
7-13
Troubleshooting
Table 7-5 Disk Channel Error Codes
Error Code
04
Description
Data overrun or underrun occurred while getting
sense data.
05
Request for sense data failed.
20
Selection timeout occurred (displayed as Sel Timeout).
21
Controller detected an unrecoverable protocol error
on the part of the target.
22
Unexpected bus-free condition occurred (displayed as
Unex Bsfree).
23
Parity error on data was received from a target
(displayed as Parity Err).
24
Data overrun or underrun has been detected
(displayed as Data OvUnRn).
30
Target reported Busy status (displayed as Device
Busy).
31
Target reported Queue Full status (displayed as
Queue Full).
32
Target has been reserved by another initiator.
40
Controller aborted an I/O request to this target
because it timed out (displayed as I/O Timeout).
41
I/O request was aborted because of a channel reset.
42
I/O request was aborted because of controller’s
decision to reset the channel.
43
I/O request was aborted because of third-party
channel reset (displayed as Abort 3PRST).
44
Controller decided to abort I/O request for reasons
other than bus or target reset.
45
I/O request was aborted because of target reset
requested by controller.
46
Target did not respond properly to abort sequence.
4B
I/O aborted due to operating mode change (such as
LVD to SE or SE to LVD) (displayed as Abort MdChg).
50
Disk channel hardware failure (displayed as DskChn
Fail). This may be the result of bad termination or
cabling.
7-14
Troubleshooting
Voltage and Temperature Errors and Warnings
Most voltage and temperature errors and warnings occur due to
the storage enclosure. Check the storage enclosure configuration
first.
7-15
A
Storage Concepts
In This Appendix
Devices
A-1
Controllers
A-2
Storage Systems
A-2
Channels
A-2
Disk Drives
A-2
Arrays
A-3
Free Space
A-4
Partitions
A-4
Redundancy
A-6
Array Types
A-6
Disk Array Administrator uses specific terms to describe storage
concepts and configurations. If you are new to storage technology
and array configurations, this section will help you understand
basic Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) technology
and terminology.
Devices
A device is any type of physical computer storage unit such as a
disk drive, controller, or enclosure.
A-1
Storage Concepts
Controllers
A controller is a hardware device that performs input/output (I/O)
functions. Controllers also perform other functions such as read
and write caching and RAID management. They can be internal
(inside the host computer) or external (in an enclosure). Controllers
are also known as an adapters, embedded storage controllers, or
Host Bus Adapters (HBA).
Storage Systems
A storage system exists when the RAID controller resides outside of
the server enclosure. The storage system is controlled from the host
system using storage manager software such as Disk Array
Administrator. Since the controller is located in an external
enclosure and accessed using standard SCSI protocols, the need for
specific operating system drivers is eliminated. Some external
RAID controllers can be configured with single or dual host
channels and can support either standalone mode, or an activeactive failover pair.
Channels
A channel is any path used for the transfer of data and control
information between storage devices and the controller or storage
system. Each controller’s channel is identified by a number. A
channel is also known as a bus.
Disk Drives
The term disk drive refers to the physical disk devices that store
your data. Depending on your controller, you may use either SCSI
or ATA drives.
A SCSI drive is identified by a disk ID, which is displayed in the
following format:
2:04:0
Channel Number SCSI ID
Logical Unit Number (LUN)
A-2
Storage Concepts
■
Channel Number—Indicates to which channel (bus) on the
controller the SCSI drive is attached.
■
SCSI ID (also known as target ID)—Identifies the drive on the
SCSI channel.
■
Logical Unit Number (LUN)—The number assigned to a
subdevice (logical unit) of a SCSI device, which is usually zero
for a disk drive.
Note: If you are using an external controller, the host
computer addresses arrays via the controllers’ ID and a
different LUN for each array.
Arrays
An array, also known as a container, is two or more physical disk
drives grouped together to appear as a single device (virtual drive)
to the user. A volume set created on a single disk drive is also
referred to as an array. You create arrays from the free space of one
or more partitions on one or more physical disk drives.
An array that spans multiple physical disk drives can be larger
than any one of the physical drives. An array’s underlying
partitions can be smaller than a physical disk drive. Consequently,
if the controller allows, several arrays’ partitions can reside on a
single physical disk drive.
The partitions that make up an array represent used (or allocated)
space on each disk drive. The used space is available to store data,
but cannot be allocated to another array.
A-3
Storage Concepts
Figure A-1 represents an array made up of two disk drives. The
free space of the larger drive is not used.
Array A
Partition A1 (Used)
Partition A2 (Used)
Free Space
Drive 1
Drive 2
Figure A-1 One array made up of two disk drives
Free Space
Free space refers to the space on a an initialized disk drive that is not
in use by an array. Arrays are created from free space, therefore
creating an array reduces the amount of free space on a disk drive.
When you delete an array, its space is returned to free space.
Partitions
A partition is a subdivision of a disk or storage area. There are three
main types of partitions:
1 A portion of a physical or virtual disk drive that functions as a
separate unit which the operating system sees as a separate
device. These partitions are usually created by the operating
system.
A-4
Storage Concepts
2 Contiguous storage space produced during the RAID creation
process. See Figure A-2.
Array on Virtual
Free Space
Before Array Creation
Partition
After Array Creation
Free Space
Partition
After Array Creation
Free Space
Before Array Creation
Figure A-2 Array Made of Single Partitions
These partitions are not seen by the operating system. Rather,
they are the building blocks of a virtual disk. This virtual disk is
seen by the operating system as a single disk drive.
Depending on the type of RAID array created, the virtual disk
may be larger than any of its component partitions. For example,
a stripe set (RAID 0) created from two partitions presents a
virtual disk drive almost twice the size of the individual
partitions.
Each of these partitions can be used by only one array at a time.
3 A subdivision of a virtual disk. Some RAID controllers allow
you to divide the virtual disk into multiple parts, or partitions.
Each partition is seen by the operating system as a separate disk
drive.
A-5
Storage Concepts
Redundancy
Redundancy refers to the capability of preventing data loss if a disk
drive fails. Some array types give you this capability in one of two
methods:
■
Two identical copies—Data is written to partitions on two disk
drives, resulting in the same data being stored in two places.
Mirror sets, for example, use this method.
■
Parity—Error correction information is distributed across
partitions on three or more disk drives. The error correction
information permits the system to rebuild the data if one drive
fails. RAID 5 sets, for example, use this method.
Array Types
Table A-1 describes the most common types of arrays. Each is
described in more detail in the sections that follow.
Table A-1. Common Array Types
Array Type
Strengths
Volume Set
■
Low cost
Weaknesses
■
■
Stripe set
(RAID 0)
■
Mirror set
(RAID 1)
■
■
■
No data protection
Lower performance
than RAID sets
Highest performance
Supports multiple
simultaneous read and
write operations
■
No data protection; if
one disk drive fails, all
data is lost
Very high data protection
Very high performance for
read-intensive
applications
■
High cost for
redundancy overhead,
because twice the
storage capacity is
required
A-6
Storage Concepts
Table A-1. Common Array Types
Array Type
Strengths
RAID 5 set
■
■
■
■
■
Stripe set of
mirror sets
(RAID 0/1)
■
Stripe set of
RAID 5 sets
(RAID 50)
■
■
■
■
■
■
Weaknesses
Lower cost than RAID 1
Very high read
performance (similar to
RAID 0)
Very high data protection
(similar to RAID 1)
Supports multiple
simultaneous read and
write operations
Can be optimized for
large, sequential requests
■
Write performance is
slower than a stripe set
(RAID 0) or mirror set
(RAID 1)
Very high performance
Highest data protection;
can tolerate some cases of
multiple disk drive
failures
■
High inherent cost,
because twice the
storage capacity is
required. Requires a
minimum of four disk
drives
Lower cost than RAID 0/1
Higher performance than
RAID 5
Very high read
performance
Very high data protection
Optimized for multiple
simultaneous read and
write operations
■
High inherent cost,
because twice the
storage capacity is
required. Requires a
minimum of four disk
drives
The types of arrays you can create depends on the maximum
number of disk drives you can use on the controller.
A-7
Storage Concepts
Volume Set
A volume set, also known as a virtual disk or a JBOD, is a single disk
drive that is not used in an array. Depending on the controller, a
volume set can also be a partition that equals the full capacity of a
given disk drive. In some controllers, it can be a daisy chain of
multiple drives.
Volume sets are useful if you have a single disk drive and you do
not want to use it as a spare.
Figure A-3 represents a volume set made up of one disk drive.
.
Volume Set A
4 GB
Partition A
4 GB
Drive 1
Figure A-3 Volume set
Stripe Set (RAID 0)
A stripe set is an array made up of two or more equal-sized
partitions that reside on different disk drives. The stripe set
distributes, or stripes, data evenly across its respective disk drives
in equal-sized sections called chunks.
Since a stripe set does not protect data against disk drive, channel,
or media failure by maintaining redundant data, it is not really a
RAID array, but is a good technique for improving I/O
performance (compared to that of an equal number of independent
disk drives). Because this type of cyclic mapping of stripes of data
across an array’s member disk drives is commonly used in other
RAID arrays, the name RAID 0 is widely used to describe disk
striping, even though the method provides no data protection.
A-8
Storage Concepts
A stripe set distributes the data among the partitions in a way that
optimizes access speed (performance). By making a single request
for the amount of data in a stripe, an application can get all of the
array’s member disk drives to work for it simultaneously, thus
optimizing large sequential access speed or concurrent access for
multiple small I/O requests. When used with small stripe sizes
(compared to average I/O request size), it can improve singlestream data transfer rate. When used with large stripe size
(compared to average I/O request size), it can improve I/O request
rate.
Figure A-4 depicts a stripe set made up of three partitions on three
separate disk drives. The free space of the larger drive is not used.
Stripe Set A
12 GB
Chunks 1,2,3,
4,5,6,7,8,9...
Drive 1
Partition A1
4 GB
Chunks 1,4,7...
Drive 2
Partition A2
4 GB
Chunks 2,5,8...
Drive 3
Free Space (2 GB)
Partition A3
4 GB
Chunks 3,6,9...
Figure A-4 A stripe set made up of the partitions, each on three different
disk drives
A-9
Storage Concepts
Applications Suitable for Striped Sets
Compared to RAID arrays, striped sets are not well-suited for
online storage of important data. They can, however, be useful for
storing the following:
■
Program image libraries or run-time libraries
■
Large tables or read-only data structures
The above applications can be backed up on tape or on other
RAID arrays for security, while a copy on a striped array can
provide rapid application access.
■
Data collected from external sources at a very high transfer rate
This is best suited for situations where the data can be restored
or is reproducible by repeating the process which produced it.
■
Page files or swap files
Mirror Set (RAID 1)
A mirror set is an array made up of two equal-sized partitions that
reside on two different disk drives. A mirror set stores and
maintains the same (redundant) data on each of the two drives.
Since a mirror set is an independent access array, it supports
multiple simultaneous read and write operations.
Figure A-5 represents a mirror set. The free space of the larger disk
drive is not used.
Mirror Set A
4 GB
Drive A
4 GB
Drive A (Redundant)
4 GB
Blocks 1, 2, 3, ...
Free Space (2 GB)
Figure A-5 Mirror set
A-10
Storage Concepts
Applications Suitable for Mirror Sets
Mirror sets are particularly suitable for the following types of
applications:
■
Data for which reliability and availability requirements are the
first priority
■
Backing up of online data with minimum application downtime
RAID 5
The RAID 5 set uses parity to provide redundancy. RAID 5 disk
drives may operate independently of each other allowing multiple
simultaneous read and write operations. Parity is distributed
across all the disk drives in the array rather than residing on a
single drive.
A RAID 5 set is made up of at least three equal-sized partitions on
different disk drives. The data is striped evenly across its
respective disk drives in equal-sized chunks, with one chunk of each
stripe used for parity data. This permits the storage system to rebuild
the data if one drive fails.
Figure A-6 represents a RAID 5 set made up of four partitions, each
on different disk drives. The free space of the larger drive is not
used.
A-11
Storage Concepts
RAID 5 Set A
12 GB
Chunks 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,
9,10,11,12,13,14,15...
Drive 1
Drive 2
Drive 3
Drive 4
Free Space
Partition A1
4 GB
Chunks
1,P*,7,10,13...
Partition A2
4 GB
Chunks
2,4,P*,11,14...
Partition A3
4 GB
Chunks
3,5,8,P*,15...
Partition A4
4 GB
Chunks
P*,6,9,12,P*...
*P = Parity
Figure A-6 RAID 5 set
Applications Suitable for RAID 5 Sets
These types of applications are suitable for RAID 5 sets:
■
Transaction read requests are high.
■
Data availability is worth protecting, but the cost of mirroring
would excessive.
■
Writes are a small percentage of the I/O load, such as inquiry
type transaction processing, group office automation, and online
customer service departments.
A-12
Storage Concepts
Stripe Set of Mirror Sets (RAID 0/1)
Multilevel arrays or hybrid arrays are arrays that contain other
arrays. A stripe set of mirror sets, also known as RAID 0/1, is an
multilevel array made up of two or more equal-sized mirror sets.
The data in a stripe set of mirror sets is redundant. The mirrored
layers of this array enhance data availability by protecting against
loss due to member disk drive failure. The striped layers improve
performance.
Figure A-7 represents a stripe set of mirror sets created from three
equal-sized mirror sets (A, B, and C) and striped across six drives
the three mirror sets. Each mirror set is made up of two partitions
on two separate disk drives. The free space of the larger drive is not
used.
Stripe Set of Mirror Sets
12 GB
Chunks
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9...
Mirror Set B
4 GB
Chunks 2,5,8...
Mirror Set A
4 GB
Chunks 1,4,7...
Drive 1
Partition A
4 GB
Drive 2
Drive 3
Mirror Set C
4 GB
Chunks 3,6,9...
Drive 4
Drive 5
Drive 6
Free Space
Partition A(R)* Partition B Partition B(R)* Partition C Partition C(R)*
4 GB
4 GB
4 GB
4 GB
4 GB
*(R) = Redundant
Figure A-7 Stripe set of mirror sets
A-13
Storage Concepts
The stripe set of mirror sets is the top-level array, and mirror sets
A, B, and C are the underlying arrays.
Applications Suitable for RAID 0/1 Sets
The following types of applications benefit from the increased data
availability and performance provided by RAID 0/1 sets:
■
Any data whose value and volume justifies placing it on
mirrored disk storage.
■
Applications with I/O loads consisting predominantly of
concurrent read requests, such as transaction processing and
database serving applications.
Other types of multilevel arrays exist, though the stripe set of
mirror sets offers the best balance of performance and redundancy
of all the multilevel array types.
Stripe Set of RAID 5 Sets (RAID 50)
Multilevel arrays or hybrid arrays are arrays that contain other
arrays. A stripe set of RAID 5 sets, also known in Disk Array
Administrator as RAID 50, is a multilevel array made up of two or
more equal-sized RAID 5 sets. The data in a stripe set of RAID 5
sets is redundant. The parity RAID layer (RAID 5) of this array
enhances data availability by protecting against loss due to
member disk drive failure. The striping layer improves I/O
performance (compared to that of parity alone). The parity RAID
arrays’ member disk drives provide high data transfer
performance.
Figure A-8 represents a stripe set of RAID 5 sets created from two
equal-sized RAID 5 sets (A and B) and striped across six disk
drives. Each RAID 5 set is made up of three equal-sized partitions
on three separate disk drives. The free space of the larger drive is
not used.
A-14
Storage Concepts
Stripe Set of RAID 5 Sets
16 GB
Chunks
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9...
RAID 5 Set B
8 GB
Chunks 2,4,6,8...
RAID 5 Set A
8 GB
Chunks 1,3,5,7...
Drive 1
Drive 2
Partition A
Partition B
4 GB
4 GB
Chunks
Chunks
1,7,P*,13... 3,P*,9,15...
Drive 4
Drive 3
Partition C
4 GB
Chunks
P*,5,11,P*...
Partition A
4 GB
Chunks
2,8,P*,14...
*P = Parity
Drive 5
Drive 6
Partition B Partition C
4 GB
4 GB
Chunks
Chunks
4,P*,10,16... P*,6,12,P*...
Free Space
Figure A-8 Stripe set of RAID 5 sets
The stripe set of RAID 5 sets is the top-level array, and RAID 5 sets
A and B are the underlying arrays.
Applications Suitable for RAID 0/5 Sets
The following types of applications benefit from the improved I/O
request handling and high data transfer performance of RAID 0/5
sets:
■
Any application whose data which must be highly available and
whose volume, cost constraints, and I/O performance
requirements (high data transfer rate) indicate multiple parity
arrays as the basic storage technology.
A-15
B
SAF-TE Implementation
In This Appendix
What Is SAF-TE and What Are SEPs?
B-1
Enclosure Considerations
B-2
Administrator Utility SEP Configuration Options
B-3
Host Communication Methods
B-3
This section describes how to implement the SCSI Accessed FaultTolerant Enclosures (SAF-TE) Interface Specification and how to
adjust specific parameters. The DuraStor 6200S external RAID
controller is fully compliant with the SAF-TE Interface
Specification 1.04 (R041497).
What Is SAF-TE and What Are SEPs?
SAF-TE is a standardized, nonproprietary method for integrating
controllers and storage subsystems.
A SAF-TE Environmental Processor (SEP) is a SCSI device that
links the RAID controller to the storage subsystem, giving the
controller access to environmental conditions such as component
temperature, power supply and fan status, and the presence or
absence of disk drives. The RAID controller can also tell the SEP
about RAID activities such as disk drive rebuilds and failed disk
drives.
Through the SEP, the host system has access to all of this
information.
B-1
SAF-TE Implementation
Enclosure Considerations
The DuraStor Storage Subsystem includes SEPs. The controller
provides information to the user via the enclosure LEDs and the
host interface.
The controller uses a standard set of SCSI commands to
communicate with the SEPs via back-end disk channels. This
communications path is managed by the controller and is
transparent to the user. However, when the user sets up the
storage system, SCSI ID conflicts must be avoided and the
controller’s SCSI ID must be set within the range that the SEP can
respond to. (Some SEPs are narrow devices and can only see
certain ranges of SCSI IDs, such as 0-7 or 8-15.)
To set the controller’s SCSI ID on each disk channel:
1 From the System Menu, select Configuration Menu.
2 Select Channel Configuration, and select the channel you wish
to set up.
The system prompts you through several items, including the
Initiator SCSI ID.
3 Select the appropriate SCSI ID.
Note: You may want to do all the channels at one time
before rebooting the controller.
4 Reboot the controller.
If you are using an enclosure that does not contain an SEP, the
DuraStor 6200S RAID controller’s internal SAF-TE firmware is not
activated. In this situation, the internal RAID code operates as
usual, but the controller cannot signal individual disk slot status
and array health status to the user via the enclosure LEDs.
B-2
SAF-TE Implementation
Administrator Utility SEP Configuration
Options
SAF-TE configuration settings are automatically enabled when the
DuraStor 6200S RAID controller controller is installed in an
enclosure that contains a SEP. No changes are required to the
default configuration settings to support SAF-TE. However, the
user can configure configure the SEP LUNs and the SEP settings to
fit the user’s specific environment. See Changing the SEP LUN on
page 6-8 and Changing the Additional SEP Settings on page 6-9 for
further details.
Host Communication Methods
The host system can communicate to the SEPs along three different
paths. The first two paths are through the controller’s host SCSI
connection and the third path is over a serial port.
The first path to the SEPs is a direct connection over the SCSI path,
with the SEP LUNs under the controller’s SCSI target ID using the
standard SAF-TE commands. The LUNs should be set up as
described in Changing the SEP LUN on page 6-8. The SEP LUNs are
logical connections that pass the commands and data through the
internal CAPI code and out to the physical SEPs on the disk
channels.
The second path to the SEPs is over the SCSI path to the controller’s
target ID and the controller’s bridge LUN using CAPI. The host
system talk to all of the SEPs all of the time because the internal
CAPI code always maintains a connection to the SEPs on any
system.
By creating a custom host application using the CAPI SDK, the
application can determine when an individual enclosure
component is out of operating specification and alert the user via
emails or pager messages. The added advantage is gaining access
to all of the CAPI data and control features (not just the SAF-TE
functions). CAPI is described in detail in the CAPI Functional
Specification. Version 3.0 is available from www.chaparralnet.com at
no cost. Ask for the CAPI 3.0 spec., part number 07-0003-305.
The third path to the SEPs is using CAPI (on the host’s serial port)
to connect to the configuration port on the controller. This is the
same port used by the Administrator Utility and is always
available.
B-3
Glossary
A
active-active
Active-active mode is when two controllers in a storage system
cooperate to provide redundancy. If one controller fails, the
remaining controller takes over. To accomplish this, each controller
has two host ports, one of which is normally active, the other
normally passive. In a failed-over configuration, the passive port
becomes active and assumes the identity of the failed controller. In
active-active mode, arrays can be accessed only by the controller
that currently owns them. One controller will have no visibility to
the other controller’s arrays. If a controller fails, the surviving
controller will take ownership of all arrays. Disk drives in the spare
pool and unassigned disk drives are visible to both controllers. See
also storage system.
array
Two or more physical disk drives grouped together to appear as a
single device (logical drive) to the user. Also known as a container.
See also mirror set (RAID 1); multilevel array; RAID 3; RAID 4;
RAID 5; stripe set (RAID 0); stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1);
stripe set of RAID 5 sets (RAID 50); volume set.
B
bus
See channel.
C
channel
Any path used for the transfer of data and the control of
information between storage devices and a storage controller. Each
controller’s channels are identified by a number. Also known as a
bus.
Glossary-1
Glossary
chunk
A contiguous set of data written onto a single disk drive when a
stripe set, RAID 5 set, or stripe set of mirror sets distributes, or
stripes, data across its respective disk drives. See also RAID 5; stripe
set (RAID 0); stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1); stripe set of
RAID 5 sets (RAID 50).
chunk size
See stripe size.
controller
A hardware device that performs I/O functions. Controllers also
perform other functions such as read and write caching and RAID
management. Also known as an adapter or embedded storage
controller.
controller 1 and controller 2
When an external RAID system is in active-active mode, one
controller is designated as controller 1 and the other controller is
designated as controller 2. Controller identity is determined by the
RAID appliance. Sometimes referred to as A controller and B
controller. See also storage system.
D
device
Any type of physical computer storage unit such as a disk drive,
controller, or enclosure.
device ID
See SCSI ID.
device slot
See slot.
disk array
See array.
disk drive
A physical disk drive on a SCSI bus. See also channel; disk ID; LUN;
SCSI ID.
disk ID
Unique disk identifier that consists of the channel (bus) number,
SCSI ID (also known as target ID), and LUN. For example, 1:04:0.
See also channel; LUN; SCSI ID.
Glossary-2
Glossary
E
enclosure
A physical housing for disk drives, which can be connected
externally to a computer. An enclosure usually contains one or
more power supplies, fans, and temperature sensors. See also
SAF-TE (SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosure).
enclosure ID
Enclosures that are controlled by a SAF-TE or SES (SCSI Enclosure
Services) processor are identified by an enclosure ID. The
enclosure ID consists of the channel (bus) number, SCSI ID (also
known as target ID), and LUN (Bus:ID:LUN). For example, 1:04:0.
See also channel; LUN; SCSI ID.
enclosure management device
See enclosure.
F
failback
When a storage system is in active-active mode, failback is the act
of returning ownership of controller resources from a surviving
controller to a previously failed (but now active) controller. The
resources include disk arrays, cache data, and host ID information.
See also storage system.
failover
The process by which the controller rebuilds data onto a spare disk
drive when a disk drive that is part of a redundant array fails.
When a storage system is in active-active mode, failover is the act
of temporarily transferring ownership of controller resources from
a failed controller to a surviving controller. The resources include
disk arrays, cache data, and host ID information.
forced reset (kill)
See kill.
free space
The space on an initialized disk drive that is not being used by an
array. Arrays are created from free space. When an array is
deleted, its space is returned to free space. See also array.
Glossary-3
Glossary
H
HBA (host bus adapter)
An HBA is the critical link between a host server or workstation
and a storage subsystem, integrating computing platforms, OSs,
and I/O protocols to ensure proper interoperability and
functionality. The HBA provides direct storage connectivity from
the system to data within the storage subsystem and enables
stable, high-speed transmission of information and files. HBAs
manage the controller-specific aspects of handling a storage driver
interface device implemented as a target driver, which supports
mass storage peripheral devices such as disks drives and tapes. A
storage driver interface is used to implement SCSI and other
storage device drivers. An HBA connects to the storage subsystem
to the host computer and uses either fiber or copper media.
hot-swapping
Removing a component from a system and installing a new
component while the power is on, the system is running, and
without pausing I/O.
I
initiator
An initiator (host system) sends operation requests to be
performed by a target device (peripheral). See also target.
J
JBOD
Just a Bunch of Disks. See volume set.
K
kill
When a storage system is in active-active mode, one controller can
kill the other controller by resetting it and taking it offline. See also
storage system
Glossary-4
Glossary
L
logical unit number
See LUN.
loop address
A loop address is an fibre channel (FC) term that indicates the
unique ID of a node in FC loop topology. A loop address is
sometimes referred to as a Loop ID.
LUN
Stands for logical unit number. The number assigned to a
subdevice (logical unit) of a SCSI device. Each SCSI device can
contain up to 63 subdevices numbered 0 through 63; however,
most SCSI devices contain only one subdevice (LUN 0). On storage
systems, each array is assigned and accessed by its own LUN.
M
metadata
Data written on each disk drive that describes the arrays,
partitions, and free space on the disk drive. This data is only
accessible to the controller.
mirror set (RAID 1)
An array type made up of two equal-sized partitions that reside on
two different disk drives. A mirror set stores and maintains the
same (redundant) data in each of the two partitions. See also
partition; redundancy.
multilevel array
An array that contains other arrays. See also array; stripe set of
mirror sets (RAID 0/1); stripe set of RAID 5 sets (RAID 50).
P
parity
A form of error correcting redundancy used to re-create the data of
a failed disk drive in a RAID 3, 4, or 5 set. See also RAID 3; RAID 4;
RAID 5; redundancy.
Glossary-5
Glossary
partition
A subdivision of a disk or storage area. There are three main types
of partitions:
1 A portion of a physical or virtual disk drive that functions as a
separate unit. A single disk drive can be divided into several
partitions, each of which the OS sees as a separate device with
its own volume name (such as D:, E:, F:, and so on). These
partitions are usually created by the OS.
2 Contiguous storage space produced during the RAID creation
process. When a controller creates an array, it automatically
converts some or all of the free space on a disk drive into one or
more partitions.
These partitions are not seen by the OS. Rather, they are the
building blocks of a virtual disk. This virtual disk is seen by the
OS as a single disk drive.
Depending on the type of RAID array created, the virtual disk
may be larger than any of its component partitions. For
example, a stripe set (RAID 0) created from two partitions
presents a virtual disk drive almost two times larger than the
individual partitions.
Each of these partitions can be used by only one array at a time.
3 A subdivision of a virtual disk. Some RAID controllers allow
you to divide the virtual disk into multiple parts, or partitions.
Each partition is seen by the OS as a separate disk drive. See also
array; free space.
preferred owner
When a storage system is in an active-active mode, a single
controller has ownership of arrays and dedicated spares and is the
preferred owner. If the controller fails, the other controller assumes
temporary ownership of its resources. See also storage system.
Glossary-6
Glossary
R
RAID 0
See stripe set (RAID 0).
RAID 0/1
See stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1).
RAID 0/5
See stripe set of RAID 5 sets (RAID 50).
RAID 1
See mirror set (RAID 1).
RAID 3
A RAID 3 set is an array made up of three or more disk drives. It
uses parallel access, meaning all member disk drives participate
concurrently in every I/O operation directed at the array. Each
virtual disk drive I/O operation is subdivided and distributed
(striped) across all data disk drives; therefore, it uses small stripe
depth. Parity check data is stored on a separate parity disk drive.
See also chunk; partition; parity.
RAID 4
A RAID 4 set is an array made up of three or more disk drives.
Data blocks are distributed as with RAID 0 (disk striping). It differs
from RAID 3 in two ways: 1) it normally uses independent access
(rather than parallel access), meaning the array’s disk drives may
operate independently of each other allowing multiple
simultaneous read and write operations, and 2) stripe depth is
larger than the virtual disk drive average I/O size. Parity check
data is stored on a separate parity disk drive. See also chunk;
partition; parity.
RAID 5
A RAID 5 set is an array made up of at least three or more disk
drives. It is similar to a RAID 4 set except that the parity check data
is distributed among all of the disk drives rather than being stored
on a separate disk drive. See also chunk; partition; parity.
RAID 50
See stripe set of RAID 5 sets (RAID 50).
Glossary-7
Glossary
redundancy
The capability of preventing data loss if a disk drive fails. Some
array types give you this capability using one of two methods: two
identical copies or parity.
S
SAF-TE (SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosure)
The SAF-TE specification is an open specification designed to
provide a comprehensive standardized method to monitor and
report status information on the condition of disk drives, power
supplies, cooling systems, and other components used in highavailability LAN servers and storage subsystems. See also
enclosure.
SAN
Stands for Storage Area Network. SAN is a dedicated network for
storage data traffic that links one or more servers to one or more
storage systems. Each storage system could be RAID, tape backup,
tape library, CD-ROM library, or JBOD.
SES (SCSI Enclosure Services)
SES enclosures support management similar to SAF-TE enclosures.
SES is a SCSI-3 specification. See also enclosure; SAF-TE (SCSI
Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosure).
SCSI
Stands for Small Computer System Interface. SCSI is an industry
standard for connecting peripheral devices and their controllers to
an initiator. Storage devices are daisy-chained together and
connected to a host adapter. The host adapter provides a shared
bus that attached peripherals use to pass data to and from the host
system. Examples of devices attached to the adapter include disk
drives, CD-ROM drives, optical disks drives, and tape drives. In
theory, any SCSI device can be plugged into any SCSI controller.
SCSI bus
A SCSI bus provides a means of transferring data between SCSI
devices. A SCSI bus is either an 8- or 16-bit bus that supports up to
8 or 16 devices, including itself. The bus can consist of any mix of
initiators and targets, with the requirement that at least one
initiator and one target must be present.
Glossary-8
Glossary
SCSI channel termination
See termination.
SCSI device
A single unit on a SCSI bus that originates or services SCSI
commands. A SCSI device is identified by a unique SCSI address.
SCSI devices can act as initiators or targets.
SCSI ID
The number assigned to each SCSI device attached to a SCSI
channel. Each device has its own unique SCSI ID. Also known as
the target ID or SCSI address. See also channel; disk ID; enclosure
ID.
slot
A receptacle in an enclosure for inserting and removing a SCSI
device. See also enclosure.
small computer system interface
See SCSI.
SMART (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology)
This technology is designed to determine the reliability status of a
disk drive. If the SMART system determines that a disk drive
failure is imminent, the user is notified and advised of the
appropriate action to take.
spare
A disk drive that you designate as a replacement disk drive for a
specific array or as part of the spare pool. If a disk drive in a
redundant array fails, the controller looks for a spare disk drive on
which to rebuild the data of the failed disk drive.
spare pool
One or more disk drives that you designate as replacements for
any arrays on a controller.
split
A function that divides a mirror set into two identical volume sets
or a stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1) into two identical stripe
sets (RAID 0) while preserving the data in each resulting array. See
also mirror set (RAID 1); volume set.
storage area network
See SAN.
Glossary-9
Glossary
storage system
A storage system is when the RAID controller resides outside of
the host system enclosure. The subsystem is controlled from the
host system using storage management software or firmware
(such as Adaptec Disk Array Administrator). Since the controller is
accessed using standard SCSI protocols, the need for specific OS
drivers is eliminated. Some external RAID controllers can be
configured with single or dual host channels and can support
either standalone mode, or as an active-active failover pair. See also
active-active.
stripe set (RAID 0)
An array type that is made up of two or more equal-sized
partitions that reside on different disk drives. The stripe set
distributes, or stripes, data evenly across its respective disk drives
in equal-sized sections called chunks. See also chunk; partition.
stripe set of mirror sets (RAID 0/1)
An array type that is made up of two or more equal-sized mirror
sets. The data in a stripe set of mirror sets is redundant. See also
mirror set (RAID 1); multilevel array.
stripe set of RAID 5 sets (RAID 50)
An array type that is made up of two or more equal-sized RAID 5
sets. The data in a stripe set of RAID 5 sets is redundant. See also
RAID 5; multilevel array.
stripe size
Amount of data written to one partition before the controller
moves to the next partition in a stripe set.
T
target
A target is a device (peripheral) that responds to an operation
requested by an initiator (host system). See also initiator.
target ID
See SCSI ID.
Glossary-10
Glossary
termination
Termination (also known as a terminator block) refers to the
electrical connection at each end of a SCSI bus. The function of a
terminator block is to provide for a proper electrical transmission
of the data across the cable. SCSI buses require that a terminator be
placed on the output SCSI connector on the last SCSI peripheral.
Data errors may occur in a SCSI bus that is not terminated.
topology
A network topology refers to the physical layout of nodes on a
network.
U
unkill
When a storage system is in active-active mode and a surviving
controller removes the reset from the other controller, it releases it
from a forced reset (also known as unkill). The other controller will
reboot and attempt to come online. See also storage system.
V
verify
1 A function of the RAID controller that verifies all blocks of a
disk drive can be read, and may perform bad-block
replacement.
2 A function of the RAID controller that ensures the redundant
data is consistent with the original data. For a mirror set, the
system ensures that the data on the two disk drives is consistent.
for an array type that uses parity for the redundancy, it checks
the parity and fixes any parity errors.
volume set
An array type that is a concatenation (combination) of one or more
partitions on one or more disk drives. The partitions in a volme set
do not have to be the same size. See also partition.
Glossary-11
Index
A
A and B controllers. See
controllers, 1 and 2
active-active mode
adding arrays 5-10
array ownership 2-18, 5-9
definition 5-8
deleting arrays 5-10
disk drives 2-4
dual boot 5-10
failback 5-9 to 5-10
failover 5-9 to 5-10
host channel 0 5-9
killing 5-9, 5-13
operations 5-10
other controller 5-11 to 5-12
pool spares 4-1, 4-5, 5-10
SCSI channel 3 5-15
shutting down both
controllers 5-12
terminology 5-8
unkilling 5-9, 5-13
Adaptec 7-1
alarm. See audible alarm
array number 6-2
arrays 2-1, A-3
adding 5-10
backoff percentage 7-3
creating 2-1 to 2-9
critical arrays 2-15
deleting 2-21, 5-10
drive requirements 2-1
expanding 2-16 to 2-18
initializing 2-13
managing 2-9
mirror set A-6, A-10
multiple-partition 2-9
naming 2-2, 2-6
ownership 2-18, 5-9
partitions
and arrays 2-22
expanding 2-16
multiple 2-2, 2-9
overview 2-22
single 2-2
RAID 0 A-6, A-8
RAID 0/1 A-7, A-13
RAID 1 A-6, A-10
RAID 10 2-3
RAID 5 A-7, A-11
RAID 50 A-7, A-14
reconstructing 2-15, 4-1
reusing drives 4-3
serial numbers 2-11
single-partition 2-2
spare pools 4-5
statistics 3-8
status 2-11
stripe set A-6, A-8
troubleshooting 7-3
trusting 2-19
types A-6 to A-15
verifying 2-13 to 2-15
viewing 2-11
volume set A-6, A-8
audible alarm
description 5-16
messages 1-3
mute setting 5-16
Index-1
Index
pausing I/O 5-22
rebooting 5-2
rescanning disk drives 5-21
restoring defaults 5-23
SAF-TE enclosures 6-8
sample rates 5-15
SEP 6-8
shutting down 5-12
time 5-3
utility priority 5-20
B
backoff percentage 7-3
battery 5-18 to 5-19
battery life monitor 5-19 to 5-20
baud rate 1-3, 7-2
blinking LEDs 6-5
bootup troubleshooting 7-6
bus speed 5-6
buses A-2
C
cache lock 5-17
channel 3, enabling/disabling
5-8, 5-14 to 5-15
channel number 2-12, A-3
channels
configuring 5-6
definition A-2
errors 7-13
rescanning 5-21
chunk size 2-5
chunks A-8
clock problems 7-3
COM port 7-2
communications parameters 1-2
configuration
information available 3-4 to
3-6
connector parameters 1-3
controller LUNs 5-5
controllers 5-1, A-2
1 and 2 5-8
alarm mute setting 5-16
cache lock 5-17
dates 5-3
defaults 5-23
operating mode 5-10
other controller 5-11
D
data bits 1-3
dates 5-3
dedicated spares
adding 4-2
definition 4-1
deleting 4-3
default settings 5-23
deleting
arrays 2-21, 5-10
dedicated spares 4-3
partitions 2-21, 2-23, 2-29
spares 4-5
device SCSI channel 7-5
devices A-1
Disk Array Administrator
accessing 1-2
timing out 1-5
disk channel errors 7-13
disk drives 6-1 to 6-7, A-2
active-active mode 2-4
array number 6-2
cache status 6-4
channel rescanning 5-21
displaying 6-2
Drive Down Function 6-6
errors 7-11
expanding arrays 2-16 to 2-18
Index-2
Index
hot-swapping 5-22
LEDs 6-5
member number 6-2
metadata 6-3
rescanning 6-6
rescanning channels 5-21
SMART 6-5
spare pools 4-5
spare types 4-1
status 2-12
testing 6-7
TUR command 6-7
disk IDs A-2
disks. See disk drives
domain validation 5-7
Down Drive Function 6-6
drive numbers 2-12
drive requirements 2-1
drives. See disk drives
dual boot 5-10
dynamic spares 4-3
E
enclosures
SEPs 6-9
error events 7-9
event log 3-1 to 3-4
viewing 3-3
expanding arrays 2-16 to 2-18
expanding partitions 2-27
F
failback 5-9 to 5-10
failover 5-9 to 5-10
failure events 3-2
firmware 5-9
flow control software 1-3
FO. See failover
free space A-4
G
global flags 6-9
H
hardware information 3-4 to 3-6
HBAs A-2
help 1-2, 7-1
histogram 3-8
host bus adapters. See HBAs
host channel 0 5-9
host channel settings 5-4
host SCSI channel 7-4
Hot Swap Pause Function 5-22
hot-swapping 5-22
I
I/O
pausing 5-22
size ranges 3-7
size statistics 2-25
initializing arrays 2-13
Input/Output. See I/O
J
JBOD A-8
K
killing controllers 5-9, 5-13
L
LEDs 6-5
Logical Unit Numbers. See
LUNs
LUNs
array ownership 2-19
changing 2-28
controller LUNs 5-5
definitions 5-5 to 5-6, A-3
multiple 2-2
Index-3
Index
numbering 5-5
operating systems 2-3
overlapping 2-3
parititon LUNs 5-6
SEP 6-8
SEP LUNs 5-6
statistics 3-7
viewing 5-6
M
member number 6-2
metadata 6-3
mirror set A-6, A-10
multiple-partition arrays
definition 2-2
expanding 2-16
partitions 2-22
mute setting 5-16
N
naming arrays 2-2, 2-6
naming partitions 2-27
O
online help 1-2
operating modes 5-8 to 5-15
See also active-active mode,
stand-alone mode
other controller 5-11 to 5-12
P
parity A-6
partition LUNs 5-6
partitions 2-16 to 2-29
adding 2-9
creating 2-16
definitions A-4 to A-5
deleting 2-21, 2-23, 2-29
expanding 2-27
LUNs, changing 2-28
naming 2-22, 2-27
overview 2-22 to 2-24
resizing 2-16
statistics 2-25 to 2-26
status 2-24
pausing I/O 5-22
polling interval 6-9
pool spares. See spares
POST 7-6
Power On Self-Test. See POST
Q
queue depth 2-25 to 2-26
R
RAID 0 A-6, A-8
RAID 0/1 A-7, A-13
RAID 1 A-6, A-10
RAID 10 2-3
RAID 5 A-7, A-11
RAID 50 A-7, A-14
RAID concepts A-1 to A-15
Read statistic 2-25
reads/writes 3-7
rebooting the controller 5-2
reconstructing arrays 2-15, 4-1
redundancy A-6
redundant arrays
reconstructing 2-15, 4-1
spare pools 4-5
Rescan Function 6-6
rescan rate 4-4
rescanning channels 5-21
resetting
overall statistics 3-9
partition statistics 2-26
resizing partitions 2-16
Index-4
Index
S
SAF-TE B-1 to B-3
SEPs
and SAF-TE enclosures 6-8 to
6-10
and SAF-TE implementation
B-1 to B-3
SAF-TE enclosures 6-8 to 6-10
SAF-TE Environmental
Processor. See SEP
sample rate 5-15
screen display 1-5
SCSI
BIOS 7-4
channels
configuring 5-6
troubleshooting 7-4 to 7-5
domain validation 5-7
SCSI channel 3 5-8, 5-15
enabling/disabling 5-14 to
5-15
SCSI ID 5-7, A-3
SecRd statistic 2-25
SecWt statistic 2-25
Self-Monitoring, Analysis and
Reporting Technology. See
SMART
self-test. See POST
sense keys 7-12
SEPs
channels, rescanning 5-21
LUNs 5-6
LUNs, changing 6-8
settings 6-9
serial numbers 2-11
shutdown events 5-16
shutting down controllers 5-12
single-partition arrays 2-2
slot flags 6-9
small computer system
interface. See SCSI
SMART 6-5
spare drives. See spares
spare pools 4-5 to 4-6
spares 4-1 to 4-6
active-active mode 4-1, 4-5,
5-10
capacity limitations of 4-2
dedicated 4-1 to 4-3
deleting from spare pool 4-5
dynamic 4-3
pool spares 4-1, 4-5 to 4-6, 5-10
reusing drives 4-3
types 4-1
stand-alone mode
dual-port mode 5-8
SCSI channel 3 5-8
single-port mode 5-8
statistics 3-7
histogram 3-8
overall 3-7 to 3-8
partitions 2-25
resetting 2-26, 3-9
status
arrays 2-11
status information
drives 2-12
partitions 2-24
stop bits 1-3
storage systems A-2
stripe set A-6, A-8
T
target ID A-3
technical support 7-1
temperature sensor 6-9
temperature warnings 7-15
Index-5
Index
terminal emulator 1-2
troubleshooting 7-2
terminal program parameters
1-2
Test Unit Ready command. See
TUR command 6-7
timing out 1-5
troubleshooting
bootup 7-6
COM port 7-2
device SCSI channel 7-5
host SCSI channel 7-4
terminal emulator 7-2
trusting arrays 2-19
U
unkilling 5-9, 5-13
utility priorities 5-20
V
verifying arrays 2-13 to 2-15
virtual drives A-3
voltage warnings 7-15
volume set A-6, A-8
W
warning events 3-2, 5-16, 7-8
Write statistic 2-25
write-back cache
enabling/disabling 6-3
locking 5-17
status 6-4
UPS 6-3
write-back caching status 2-24
Index-6
R
Adaptec, Inc.
691 South Milpitas Boulevard
Milpitas, CA 95035 USA
© 2001 Adaptec, Inc.
All rights reserved. Adaptec and the Adaptec logo are
trademarks of Adaptec, Inc. which may be
registered in some jurisdictions.
PART NUMBER: 512933-06, Ver. AA LW 08/01
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