null  null
VPN WAN
Technology Design Guide
December 2013
Table of Contents
Preface.........................................................................................................................................1
CVD Navigator..............................................................................................................................2
Use Cases................................................................................................................................... 2
Scope.......................................................................................................................................... 2
Proficiency................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction..................................................................................................................................3
Related Reading........................................................................................................................... 3
Technology Use Cases................................................................................................................ 3
Use Case: Secure Site-to-Site WAN Communications Using Internet Services....................... 3
Design Overview.......................................................................................................................... 4
WAN Design............................................................................................................................ 4
IP Multicast.............................................................................................................................17
Quality of Service...................................................................................................................17
Deploying the WAN....................................................................................................................19
Overall WAN Architecture Design Goals......................................................................................19
IP Routing...............................................................................................................................19
LAN Access...........................................................................................................................19
High Availability.......................................................................................................................19
Path Selection Preferences....................................................................................................19
Data Privacy (Encryption)....................................................................................................... 20
Quality of Service (QoS)........................................................................................................ 20
Design Parameters................................................................................................................ 20
Deploying a DMVPN WAN..........................................................................................................21
Design Overview........................................................................................................................ 21
DMVPN Hub Routers............................................................................................................. 21
Remote Sites—DMVPN Spoke Router Selection..................................................................... 22
VRFs and Front Door VRF...................................................................................................... 24
Design Details....................................................................................................................... 25
EIGRP.................................................................................................................................... 27
Encryption............................................................................................................................. 28
DMVPN................................................................................................................................. 28
Table of Contents
Deployment Details.................................................................................................................... 30
DMVPN Hub Router Configuration......................................................................................... 30
Firewall and DMZ Switch Configuration................................................................................. 43
Adding DMVPN Hub to Existing WAN-Aggregation Router.................................................... 52
Remote-Site DMVPN Spoke Router Configuration................................................................. 63
Enabling DMVPN Backup on a Remote Site Router............................................................... 78
Router 1 Modifications for Dual Router Design...................................................................... 88
Remote-Site DMVPN Spoke Router Configuration (Router 2)................................................ 95
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer..................................................................... 115
Remote-Site Router to Distribution Layer..............................................................................115
Additional Configuration for Dual Router Design (Router 1)................................................... 119
Remote-Site Router to Distribution Layer (Router 2).............................................................121
Deploying WAN Quality of Service............................................................................................ 127
QoS Configuration................................................................................................................127
Appendix A: Product List..........................................................................................................133
Appendix B: Technical Feature Supplement.............................................................................. 137
Front Door VRF (FVRF) for DMVPN...........................................................................................137
Appendix C: Device Configuration Files.................................................................................... 141
Appendix D: Changes............................................................................................................... 142
Table of Contents
Preface
Cisco Validated Designs (CVDs) provide the foundation for systems design based on common use cases or
current engineering system priorities. They incorporate a broad set of technologies, features, and applications to
address customer needs. Cisco engineers have comprehensively tested and documented each CVD in order to
ensure faster, more reliable, and fully predictable deployment.
CVDs include two guide types that provide tested and validated design and deployment details:
• Technology design guides provide deployment details, information about validated products and
software, and best practices for specific types of technology.
• Solution design guides integrate or reference existing CVDs, but also include product features and
functionality across Cisco products and may include information about third-party integration.
Both CVD types provide a tested starting point for Cisco partners or customers to begin designing and deploying
systems using their own setup and configuration.
How to Read Commands
Many CVD guides tell you how to use a command-line interface (CLI) to configure network devices. This section
describes the conventions used to specify commands that you must enter.
Commands to enter at a CLI appear as follows:
configure terminal
Commands that specify a value for a variable appear as follows:
ntp server 10.10.48.17
Commands with variables that you must define appear as follows:
class-map [highest class name]
Commands at a CLI or script prompt appear as follows:
Router# enable
Long commands that line wrap are underlined. Enter them as one command:
police rate 10000 pps burst 10000 packets conform-action set-discard-classtransmit 48 exceed-action transmit
Noteworthy parts of system output or device configuration files appear highlighted, as follows:
interface Vlan64
ip address 10.5.204.5 255.255.255.0
Comments and Questions
If you would like to comment on a guide or ask questions, please use the feedback form.
For the most recent CVD guides, see the following site:
http://www.cisco.com/go/cvd/wan
Preface
December 2013
1
CVD Navigator
The CVD Navigator helps you determine the applicability of this guide by summarizing its key elements: the use cases, the
scope or breadth of the technology covered, the proficiency or experience recommended, and CVDs related to this guide.
This section is a quick reference only. For more details, see the Introduction.
Use Cases
This guide addresses the following technology use cases:
Related CVD Guides
• Secure Site-to-Site WAN Communications Using Internet
Services—Organizations want to securely connect remote sites
over public cloud Internet services.
For more information, see the “Use Cases” section in this guide.
VALIDATED
DESIGN
Scope
This guide covers the following areas of technology and products:
VALIDATED
DESIGN
• Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network (DMVPN) design
and deployment over public WAN transport
• Central-site VPN aggregation and remote-site options for
primary and backup communications
VALIDATED
DESIGN
Firewall and IPS Technology
Design Guide
MPLS WAN Technology
Design Guide
Layer 2 WAN Technology
Design Guide
• WAN quality of service (QoS) design and configuration
For more information, see the “Design Overview” section in this
guide.
Proficiency
This guide is for people with the following technical proficiencies—or
equivalent experience:
• CCNP Routing and Switching—3 to 5 years planning,
implementing, verifying, and troubleshooting local and widearea networks
• CCNP Security—3 to 5 years testing, deploying, configuring,
maintaining security appliances and other devices that
establish the security posture of the network
To view the related CVD guides,
click the titles or visit the following site:
http://www.cisco.com/go/cvd/wan
CVD Navigator
December 2013
2
Introduction
This guide provides guidance and configuration for implementing secure encrypted communications between
remote site locations over the Internet using Cisco Dynamic Multipoint VPN technology.
Related Reading
The MPLS WAN Technology Design Guide provides flexible guidance and configuration for Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS) transport.
The Layer 2 WAN Technology Design Guide provides guidance and configuration for a VPLS or Metro Ethernet
transport.
Technology Use Cases
Organizations require the WAN to provide sufficient performance and reliability for the remote-site users to
be effective in supporting the business. Although most of the applications and services that the remote-site
worker uses are centrally located, the WAN design must provide the workforce with a common resource-access
experience, regardless of location.
Carrier-based MPLS service is not always available or cost-effective for an organization to use for WAN transport
to support remote-site connectivity. Internet-based IP VPNs adequately provide the primary network transport
for a remote site. Additionally, they can also provide an optional transport that you can use as a resilient backup
to another primary IP VPN. A flexible network architecture should include Internet VPN as a transport option
without significantly increasing the complexity of the overall design.
While Internet IP VPN networks present an attractive option for effective WAN connectivity, anytime an
organization sends data across a public network there is risk that the data will be compromised. Loss or
corruption of data can result in a regulatory violation and can present a negative public image, either of which
can have significant financial impact on an organization. Secure data transport over public networks like the
Internet requires adequate encryption to protect business information.
Use Case: Secure Site-to-Site WAN Communications Using Internet Services
This guide helps organizations connect remote sites over public cloud Internet services and secure
communications between sites.
This design guide enables the following network capabilities:
• Secure, encrypted communications for Internet-based WAN solutions for up to 500 locations by using a
hub-and-spoke tunnel overlay configuration
• Deployment as a secondary connectivity solution for resiliency, providing backup to private MPLS WAN
service by using single or dual routers in remote locations
• Support for IP Multicast, replication performed on core, hub-site routers
• Compatibility with public cloud solutions where Network Address Translation (NAT) is implemented
• Best-effort quality of service for WAN traffic such as voice over IP and business applications
Introduction
December 2013
3
Design Overview
The VPN WAN Technology Design Guide provides a design that enables highly available, secure, and optimized
connectivity for multiple remote-site LANs.
The WAN is the networking infrastructure that provides an IP-based interconnection between remote sites that
are separated by large geographic distances.
This document shows you how to deploy the network foundation and services to enable the following:
• VPN WAN connectivity for up to 500 remote sites
• Primary and secondary links to provide redundant topology options for resiliency
• Data privacy via encryption
• Wired LAN access at all remote sites
WAN Design
The primary focus of the design is to allow usage of the following commonly deployed WAN transport for both
primary and secondary links:
• Internet VPN (primary)
• Internet VPN (secondary)
At a high level, the WAN is an IP network, and this transport can be easily integrated to the design. The chosen
architecture designates a primary WAN-aggregation site that is analogous to the hub site in a traditional huband-spoke design. This site has direct connections to both WAN transports and high-speed connections to
the selected service providers. In addition, the site uses network equipment scaled for high performance and
redundancy. The primary WAN-aggregation site is coresident with the data center and usually the primary
Campus or LAN as well.
This guide also covers the usage of an Internet VPN transport to provide a redundant topology option for a MPLS
WAN as configured in the MPLS WAN Technology Design Guide or Layer 2 WAN resiliency as configured in the
Layer 2 WAN Technology Design Guide.
Internet as WAN Transport
The Internet is essentially a large-scale public WAN composed of multiple interconnected service providers.
The Internet can provide reliable high-performance connectivity between various locations, although it lacks any
explicit guarantees for these connections. Despite its “best effort” nature, the Internet is a sensible choice for a
primary transport when it is not feasible to connect with another transport option. Additional resiliency is provided
by using the Internet as an alternate transport option.
Internet connections are typically included in discussions relevant to the Internet edge, specifically for the primary
site. Remote-site routers also commonly have Internet connections, but do not provide the same breadth of
services using the Internet. For security and other reasons, Internet access at remote sites is often routed
through the primary site.
The WAN uses the Internet for VPN site-to-site connections as both a primary WAN transport and as a backup
WAN transport (to a primary VPN site-to-site connection).
Dynamic Multipoint VPN
Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) is a solution for building scalable site-to-site VPNs that support a variety of
applications. DMVPN is widely used for encrypted site-to-site connectivity over public or private IP networks and
can be implemented on all WAN routers used in this design guide.
Introduction
December 2013
4
DMVPN was selected for the encryption solution for the Internet transport because it supports on-demand full
mesh connectivity with a simple hub-and-spoke configuration and a zero-touch hub deployment model for
adding remote sites. DMVPN also supports spoke routers that have dynamically assigned IP addresses.
DMVPN makes use of multipoint generic routing encapsulation (mGRE) tunnels to interconnect the hub to all
of the spoke routers. These mGRE tunnels are also sometimes referred to as DMVPN clouds in this context.
This technology combination supports unicast, multicast, and broadcast IP, including the ability to run routing
protocols within the tunnels.
Ethernet WAN
The WAN transports mentioned previously use Ethernet as a standard media type. Ethernet is becoming a
dominant carrier handoff in many markets and it is relevant to include Ethernet as the primary media in the tested
architectures. Much of the discussion in this guide can also be applied to non-Ethernet media (such as T1/E1,
DS-3, OC-3, and so on), but they are not explicitly discussed.
WAN-Aggregation Designs
The WAN-aggregation (hub) designs include either one or two WAN edge routers. When WAN edge routers are
referred to in the context of the connection to a carrier or service provider, they are typically known as customer
edge (CE) routers. WAN edge routers that terminate VPN traffic are referred to as VPN hub routers. All of the
WAN edge routers connect into a distribution layer.
The WAN transport options include traditional Internet access used as either a primary transport, or as a
secondary transport when the primary transport is MPLS VPN, Layer 2 WAN or Internet. Only the usage of the
Internet transport is documented in this guide. Single or dual carrier Internet access links connect to a VPN hub
router or VPN hub router pair, respectively. A similar method of connection and configuration is used for both.
There are multiple WAN-aggregation design models that are documented in this design guide. The DMVPN Only
design model uses only Internet VPN as transport. The Dual DMVPN design model uses Internet VPN as both a
primary and secondary transport, using dual Internet service providers. Additionally, the DMVPN Backup design
models use Internet VPN as a backup to an existing primary MPLS WAN or Layer 2 WAN transport.
The primary difference between the DMVPN backup designs is whether the VPN hub is implemented on an
existing MPLS CE router, which is referred to as DMVPN Backup Shared, or the VPN hub is implemented on a
dedicated VPN hub router, which is referred to as DMVPN Backup Dedicated.
Each of the design models is shown with LAN connections into either a collapsed core/distribution layer or a
dedicated WAN distribution layer. From the WAN-aggregation perspective, there are no functional differences
between these two methods.
In all of the WAN-aggregation designs, tasks such as IP route summarization are performed at the distribution
layer. There are other various devices supporting WAN edge services, and these devices should also connect
into the distribution layer.
Introduction
December 2013
5
The various design models are contrasted in the following tables.
Table 1 - Design models using only VPN transport
DMVPN Only Design Model
Dual DMVPN Design Model
Remote sites
Up to 100
Up to 500
WAN links
Single
Dual
DMVPN hubs
Single
Dual
Transport 1
Internet VPN
Internet VPN
Transport 2
—
Internet VPN
Table 2 - Design models using VPN transport as backup
DMVPN Backup Shared Design Model
DMVPN Backup Dedicated Design Model
Remote sites
Up to 50
Up to 500
WAN links
Dual
Multiple
DMVPN hubs
Single (shared with MPLS CE)
Single/Dual
Transport 1 (existing)
MPLS VPN A
MPLS VPN A
Transport 2 (existing)
—
MPLS VPN B
Transport 3 (existing)
—
MetroE/VPLS
Backup transport
Internet VPN
Internet VPN
The characteristics of each design are discussed in the following sections.
DMVPN Only Design Model
• Supports up to 100 remote sites
• Uses a single Internet link
Introduction
December 2013
6
The DMVPN Only design is shown in the following figure.
Figure 1 - DMVPN Only design model
Core Layer
Collapsed Core/
Distribution Layer
Internet Edge
VPN Hub
Router
Internet Edge
Internet
Internet
2133
VPN Hub
Router
Distribution Layer
Dual DMVPN Design Model
• Supports up to 500 remote sites
• Uses dual Internet links
• Typically used with a dedicated WAN distribution layer
Introduction
December 2013
7
The Dual DMVPN design is shown in the following figure.
Figure 2 - Dual DMVPN design model
Core Layer
Distribution Layer
Internet Edge
VPN Hub Routers
Collapsed Core/
Distribution Layer
Internet A
Internet B
Internet Edge
Internet A
Internet B
2134
VPN Hub Routers
In both the DMVPN Only and Dual DMVPN design models, the DMVPN hub routers connect to the Internet
indirectly through a firewall demilitarized zone (DMZ) interface contained within the Internet edge. For details
about the connection to the Internet, see the Firewall and IPS Technology Design Guide. The VPN hub routers
are connected into the firewall DMZ interface, rather than connected directly with Internet service-provider
routers.
DMVPN Backup Shared Design Model
• Supports up to 50 remote sites
• Uses the same router for MPLS CE and VPN hub
• Has a single MPLS VPN carrier
• Uses static routing with MPLS VPN carrier
• Uses a single Internet link
Introduction
December 2013
8
The DMVPN Backup Shared design is shown in the following figure.
Figure 3 - DMVPN Backup Shared design model
Collapsed Core/
Distribution Layer
MPLS CE Router
VPN Hub Router
Internet
Edge
MPLS
Internet
2135
Static Routing
In the DMVPN Backup Shared design model, the DMVPN hub router is also the MPLS CE router, which is already
connected to the distribution or core layer. The connection to the Internet has already been established through
a firewall interface contained within the Internet edge. A DMZ is not required for this design model. For details
about the connection to the Internet, see the Firewall and IPS Technology Design Guide.
DMVPN Backup Dedicated Design Model
• Supports up to 500 remote sites
• Has a single or dual MPLS VPN carriers or a single Layer 2 WAN
• Uses BGP routing with MPLS VPN carrier, or EIGRP routing within the Layer 2 WAN
• Uses a single Internet link
Introduction
December 2013
9
The variants of the DMVPN Backup Dedicated design are shown in the following figures.
Figure 4 - DMVPN Backup Dedicated design model for MPLS WAN
Distribution Layer
MPLS Dynamic
Design Model
Internet Edge
MPLS CE
Router
BGP Dynamic
Routing
VPN Hub
Router
Internet
Distribution Layer
Dual MPLS
Design Model
Internet Edge
MPLS CE
Routers
BGP Dynamic
Routing
MPLS B
Internet
2136
MPLS A
VPN Hub
Router
Figure 5 - DMVPN Backup Dedicated design model for Layer 2 WAN primary
Distribution Layer
Internet Edge
Layer 2 WAN
CE Router
Layer 2
Introduction
VPN Hub
Router
Internet
2137
Simple or Trunked
Demarcation
December 2013
10
In the DMVPN Backup Dedicated design models, the DMVPN hub routers connect to the Internet indirectly
through a firewall demilitarized zone (DMZ) interface contained within the Internet edge. For details about
the connection to the Internet, see the Firewall and IPS Technology Design Guide. The VPN hub routers are
connected into the firewall DMZ interface, rather than connected directly with Internet service-provider routers.
WAN Remote-Site Designs
This guide documents multiple WAN remote-site designs, and they are based on various combinations of WAN
transports mapped to the site specific requirements for service levels and redundancy.
Figure 6 - WAN remote-site designs
Internet WAN
Internet
Nonredundant
Internet
Internet
Internet
Redundant Links
Internet
Redundant Links
& Routers
MPLS and Internet WAN
MPLS
Internet
MPLS
Redundant Links
Internet
Redundant Links
& Routers
Layer 2 WAN and Internet WAN
Internet
Redundant Links
Layer 2
Internet
Redundant Links
& Routers
2139
Layer 2
The remote-site designs include single or dual WAN edge routers. These can be either a CE router (for MPLS or
Layer 2 WAN) or a VPN spoke router. In some cases, a single WAN edge router can perform the role of both a
CE router and VPN spoke router.
Introduction
December 2013
11
Most remote sites are designed with a single router WAN edge; however, certain remote-site types require a
dual router WAN edge. Dual router candidate sites include regional office or remote campus locations with large
user populations, or sites with business critical needs that justify additional redundancy to remove single points
of failure.
The overall WAN design methodology is based on a primary WAN-aggregation site design that can
accommodate all of the remote-site types that map to the various link combinations listed in the following table.
Table 3 - WAN remote-site transport options
WAN remote- site routers
WAN transports
Primary transport
Secondary transport
Single
Single
Internet
—
Single
Dual
Internet
Internet
Dual
Dual
Internet
Internet
Single
Dual
MPLS VPN
Internet
Dual
Dual
MPLS VPN
Internet
Single
Dual
MetroE/VPLS
Internet
Dual
Dual
MetroE/VPLS
Internet
The modular nature of the network design enables you to create design elements that can be replicated
throughout the network.
The WAN-aggregation designs and all of the WAN remote-site designs are standard building blocks in the overall
design. Replication of the individual building blocks provides an easy way to scale the network and allows for a
consistent deployment method.
WAN/LAN Interconnection
The primary role of the WAN is to interconnect primary site and remote-site LANs. The LAN discussion within
this guide is limited to how the WAN-aggregation site LAN connects to the WAN-aggregation devices and how
the remote-site LANs connect to the remote-site WAN devices. Specific details regarding the LAN components
of the design are covered in the Campus Wired LAN Technology Design Guide.
At remote sites, the LAN topology depends on the number of connected users and physical geography of the
site. Large sites may require the use of a distribution layer to support multiple access layer switches. Other sites
may only require an access layer switch directly connected to the WAN remote-site routers. The variants that are
tested and documented in this guide are shown in the following table.
Table 4 - WAN remote-site LAN options
WAN remote-site routers
WAN transports
LAN topology
Single
Single
Access only
Distribution/Access
Single
Dual
Access only
Distribution/Access
Dual
Dual
Access only
Distribution/Access
Introduction
December 2013
12
WAN Remotes Sites—LAN Topology
For consistency and modularity, all WAN remote sites use the same VLAN assignment scheme, which is shown
in the following table. This design guide uses a convention that is relevant to any location that has a single access
switch and this model can also be easily scaled to additional access closets through the addition of a distribution
layer.
Table 5 - WAN remote-sites—VLAN assignment
VLAN
Usage
Layer 2 access
Layer 3 distribution/access
VLAN 64
Data 1
Yes
—
VLAN 69
Voice 1
Yes
—
VLAN 99
Transit
Yes
Yes
(dual router only)
(dual router only)
VLAN 50
Router Link (1)
—
Yes
VLAN 54
Router Link (2)
—
Yes
(dual router only)
Layer 2 Access
WAN remote sites that do not require additional distribution layer routing devices are considered to be flat or
from a LAN perspective they are considered unrouted Layer 2 sites. All Layer 3 services are provided by the
attached WAN routers. The access switches, through the use of multiple VLANs, can support services such as
data and voice. The design shown in the following figure illustrates the standardized VLAN assignment scheme.
The benefits of this design are clear: all of the access switches can be configured identically, regardless of the
number of sites in this configuration.
Access switches and their configuration are not included in this guide. The Campus Wired LAN Technology
Design Guide provides configuration details on the various access switching platforms.
IP subnets are assigned on a per-VLAN basis. This design only allocates subnets with a 255.255.255.0 netmask
for the access layer, even if less than 254 IP addresses are required. (This model can be adjusted as necessary
to other IP address schemes.) The connection between the router and the access switch must be configured
for 802.1Q VLAN trunking with subinterfaces on the router that map to the respective VLANs on the switch. The
various router subinterfaces act as the IP default gateways for each of the IP subnet and VLAN combinations.
Figure 7 - WAN remote site—Flat Layer 2 LAN (single router)
Internet
VLAN 64 - Data
VLAN 69 - Voice
802.1Q VLAN Trunk (64, 69)
Introduction
2140
No HSRP
Required
December 2013
13
A similar LAN design can be extended to a dual-router edge as shown in the following figure. This design change
introduces some additional complexity. The first requirement is to run a routing protocol. You need to configure
Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP) between the routers. For consistency with the primary site LAN, use
EIGRP process 100.
Because there are now two routers per subnet, a First Hop Redundancy Protocol (FHRP) must be implemented.
For this design, Cisco selected Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) as the FHRP. HSRP is designed to allow
for transparent failover of the first-hop IP router. HSRP provides high network availability by providing first-hop
routing redundancy for IP hosts configured with a default gateway IP address. HSRP is used in a group of routers
for selecting an active router and a standby router. When there are multiple routers on a LAN, the active router
is the router of choice for routing packets; the standby router is the router that takes over when the active router
fails or when preset conditions are met.
Figure 8 - WAN remote site—Flat Layer 2 LAN (dual router)
WAN
WAN
EIGRP
VLAN99 - Transit
HSRP VLANs
Active HSRP Router
VLAN 64 - Data
802.1Q VLAN Trunk (64, 69, 99)
2141
VLAN 69 - Voice
Enhanced Object Tracking (EOT) provides a consistent methodology for various router and switching features to
conditionally modify their operation based on information objects available within other processes. The objects
that can be tracked include interface line protocol, IP route reachability, and IP service-level agreement (SLA)
reachability as well as several others.
The IP SLA feature provides a capability for a router to generate synthetic network traffic that can be sent to a
remote responder. The responder can be a generic IP endpoint that can respond to an Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) echo (ping) request, or can be a Cisco router running an IP SLA responder process, that can
respond to more complex traffic such as jitter probes. The use of IP SLA allows the router to determine endto-end reachability to a destination and also the roundtrip delay. More complex probe types can also permit the
calculation of loss and jitter along the path. IP SLA is used in tandem with EOT within this design.
To improve convergence times after a primary WAN failure, HSRP has the capability to monitor the reachability
of a next-hop IP neighbor through the use of EOT and IP SLA. This combination allows for a router to give up its
HSRP Active role if its upstream neighbor becomes unresponsive and that provides additional network resiliency.
Introduction
December 2013
14
Figure 9 - WAN remote-site—IP SLA probe to verify upstream device reachability
Detailed View
IP SLA Probe
as Tracked Object
WAN
IP SLA
Probe
WAN
Interface
Upstream
Interface
WAN
WAN
R1
EIGRP
VLAN 99 - Transit
HSRP VLANs
VLAN 64 - Data
VLAN 69 - Voice
2142
802.1Q VLAN Trunk
(64, 69, 99)
Active
HSRP Router
HSRP is configured to be active on the router with the highest priority WAN transport. EOT of IP SLA probes is
implemented in conjunction with HSRP so that in the case of WAN transport failure, the standby HSRP router
associated with the lower priority (alternate) WAN transport becomes the active HSRP router. The IP SLA probes
are sent from the remote-site primary WAN router to the upstream neighbor (MPLS PE, Layer 2 WAN CE, or
DMVPN hub) to ensure reachability of the next hop router. This is more effective than simply monitoring the
status of the WAN interface.
The dual router designs also warrant an additional component that is required for proper routing in certain
scenarios. In these cases, a traffic flow from a remote-site host might be sent to a destination reachable via the
alternate WAN transport (for example, a dual DMVPN remote site communicating with a DMVPN2-only remote
site). The primary WAN transport router then forwards the traffic out the same data interface to send it to the
alternate WAN transport router, which then forwards the traffic to the proper destination. This is referred to as
hairpinning.
The appropriate method to avoid sending the traffic out the same interface is to introduce an additional link
between the routers and designate the link as a transit network (Vlan 99). There are no hosts connected to the
transit network, and it is only used for router-router communication. The routing protocol runs between router
subinterfaces assigned to the transit network. No additional router interfaces are required with this design
modification because the 802.1Q VLAN trunk configuration can easily accommodate an additional subinterface.
Distribution and Access Layer
Large remote sites may require a LAN environment similar to that of a small campus LAN that includes a
distribution layer and access layer. This topology works well with either a single or dual router WAN edge.
To implement this design, the routers should connect via EtherChannel links to the distribution switch. These
EtherChannel links are configured as 802.1Q VLAN trunks, to support both a routed point-to-point link to allow
EIGRP routing with the distribution switch, and in the dual router design, to provide a transit network for direct
communication between the WAN routers.
Introduction
December 2013
15
Figure 10 - WAN remote-site—Connection to distribution layer
WAN
WAN
802.1Q Trunk
(50)
802.1Q Trunk (yy, zz)
802.1Q Trunk (ww, xx)
VLAN 50 - Router 1 Link
802.1Q Trunk
(54, 99)
802.1Q Trunk (yy, zz)
VLAN 50 - Router 1 Link
VLAN 54 - Router 2 Link
VLAN 99 - Transit
2007
802.1Q Trunk (ww, xx)
802.1Q Trunk
(50, 99)
The distribution switch handles all access layer routing, with VLANs trunked to access switches. No HSRP is
required when the design includes a distribution layer. A full distribution and access layer design is shown in the
following figure.
Figure 11 - WAN remote-site—Distribution and access layer (dual router)
WAN
802.1Q Trunk
(50, 99)
802.1Q Trunk
(ww, xx)
802.1Q Trunk
(54, 99)
802.1Q Trunk
(yy, zz)
VLAN ww - Data
VLAN yy - Data
VLAN xx - Voice
VLAN zz - Voice
No HSRP Required
Introduction
2144
VLAN 50 - Router 1 Link
VLAN 54 - Router 2 Link
VLAN 99 - Transit
December 2013
16
IP Multicast
IP Multicast allows a single IP data stream to be replicated by the infrastructure (routers and switches) and sent
from a single source to multiple receivers. IP Multicast is much more efficient than multiple individual unicast
streams or a broadcast stream that would propagate everywhere. IP telephony Music On Hold (MOH) and IP
video broadcast streaming are two examples of IP Multicast applications.
To receive a particular IP Multicast data stream, end hosts must join a multicast group by sending an Internet
Group Management Protocol (IGMP) message to their local multicast router. In a traditional IP Multicast design,
the local router consults another router in the network that is acting as a rendezvous point (RP) to map the
receivers to active sources so that they can join their streams.
The RP is a control-plane operation that should be placed in the core of the network or close to the IP Multicast
sources on a pair of Layer 3 switches or routers. IP Multicast routing begins at the distribution layer if the access
layer is Layer 2 and provides connectivity to the IP Multicast RP. In designs without a core layer, the distribution
layer performs the RP function.
This design is fully enabled for a single global scope deployment of IP Multicast. The design uses an Anycast RP
implementation strategy. This strategy provides load sharing and redundancy in Protocol Independent Multicast
sparse mode (PIM SM) networks. Two RPs share the load for source registration and the ability to act as hot
backup routers for each other.
The benefit of this strategy from the WAN perspective is that all IP routing devices within the WAN use an
identical configuration referencing the Anycast RPs. IP PIM SM is enabled on all interfaces including loopbacks,
VLANs and subinterfaces.
Quality of Service
Most users perceive the network as just a transport utility mechanism to shift data from point A to point B as
fast as it can. Many sum this up as just “speeds and feeds.” While it is true that IP networks forward traffic on a
best-effort basis by default, this type of routing only works well for applications that adapt gracefully to variations
in latency, jitter, and loss. However networks are multiservice by design and support real-time voice and video as
well as data traffic. The difference is that real-time applications require packets to be delivered within specified
loss, delay, and jitter parameters.
In reality, the network affects all traffic flows and must be aware of end-user requirements and services being
offered. Even with unlimited bandwidth, time-sensitive applications are affected by jitter, delay, and packet loss.
Quality of Service (QoS) enables a multitude of user services and applications to coexist on the same network.
Within the architecture, there are wired and wireless connectivity options that provide advanced classification,
prioritizing, queuing, and congestion mechanisms as part of the integrated QoS to help ensure optimal use of
network resources. This functionality allows for the differentiation of applications, ensuring that each has the
appropriate share of the network resources to protect the user experience and ensure the consistent operations
of business critical applications.
QoS is an essential function of the network infrastructure devices used throughout this architecture. QoS
enables a multitude of user services and applications, including real-time voice, high-quality video, and delaysensitive data to coexist on the same network. In order for the network to provide predictable, measurable, and
sometimes guaranteed services, it must manage bandwidth, delay, jitter, and loss parameters. Even if you do not
require QoS for your current applications, you can use QoS for management and network protocols to protect
the network functionality and manageability under normal and congested traffic conditions.
The goal of this design is to provide sufficient classes of service to allow you to add voice, interactive video,
critical data applications, and management traffic to the network, either during the initial deployment or later with
minimum system impact and engineering effort.
Introduction
December 2013
17
The QoS classifications in the following table are applied throughout this design. This table is included as a
reference.
Table 6 - QoS service class mappings
Introduction
Service class
Per-hop-behavior
(PHB)
Differentiated
services code
point (DSCP)
IP Precedence(IPP)
Class of service
(CoS)
Network layer
Layer 3
Layer 3
Layer 3
Layer 2
Network control
CS6
48
6
6
Telephony
EF
46
5
5
Signaling
CS3
24
3
3
Multimedia conferencing
AF41, 42, 43
34, 36, 38
4
4
Real-Time interactive
CS4
32
4
4
Multimedia streaming
AF31, 32, 33
26, 28, 30
3
3
Broadcast video
CS5
40
4
4
Low-latency data
AF21, 22, 23
18, 20, 22
2
2
Operation, administration, and
maintenance (OAM)
CS2
16
2
2
Bulk data
AF11, 12, 13
10, 12, 14
1
1
Scavenger
CS1
8
1
1
Default
“best effort”
DF
0
0
0
December 2013
18
Deploying the WAN
Overall WAN Architecture Design Goals
IP Routing
The design has the following IP routing goals:
• Provide optimal routing connectivity from primary WAN-aggregation sites to all remote locations
• Isolate WAN routing topology changes from other portions of the network
• Ensure active/standby symmetric routing when multiple paths exist, for ease of troubleshooting and to
prevent oversubscription of IP telephony Call Admission Control (CAC) limits
• Provide site-site remote routing via the primary WAN-aggregation site (hub-and-spoke model)
• Permit optimal direct site-site remote routing when carrier services allow (spoke-to-spoke model)
• Support IP Multicast sourced from the primary WAN-aggregation site
At the WAN remote sites, there is no local Internet access for web browsing or cloud services. This model is
referred to as a centralized Internet model. It is worth noting that sites with Internet/DMVPN for either primary or
backup transport could potentially provide local Internet capability; however, for this design, only encrypted traffic
to other DMVPN sites is permitted to use the Internet link. In the centralized Internet model, a default route is
advertised to the WAN remote sites in addition to the internal routes from the data center and campus.
LAN Access
All remote sites are to support both wired LAN access.
High Availability
The network must tolerate single failure conditions including the failure of any single WAN transport link or any
single network device at the primary WAN-aggregation site.
• Remote sites classified as single-router, dual-link must be able tolerate the loss of either WAN transport.
• Remote sites classified as dual-router, dual-link must be able to tolerate the loss of either an edge router
or a WAN transport.
Path Selection Preferences
There are many potential traffic flows based on which WAN transports are in use and whether or not a remote
site is using a dual WAN transport.
The single WAN transport routing functions as follows.
DMVPN-connected site:
• Connects to a site on the same DMVPN; the optimal route is direct within the DMVPN (only initial traffic is
sent to the DMVPN hub, and then is cut-through via spoke-spoke tunnel.
• Connects to any other site; the route is through the primary site.
The use of the dual WAN transports is specifically tuned where possible to behave in an active/standby manner.
This type of configuration provides symmetric routing, with traffic flowing along the same path in both directions.
Symmetric routing simplifies troubleshooting because bidirectional traffic flows always traverse the same links.
Deploying the WAN
December 2013
19
Each design assumes that one of the WAN transports is designated as the primary transport, which is the
preferred path in most conditions.
DMVPN (primary) + DMVPN (secondary) dual-connected site:
• Connects to a site on the same DMVPN; the optimal route is direct within the DMVPN (only initial traffic is
sent to the DMVPN hub, and then is cut-through via spoke-spoke tunnel.
• Connects to any other site; the route is through the primary site.
MPLS VPN (primary) + DMVPN (secondary) dual-connected site:
• Connects to a site on the same MPLS VPN; the optimal route is direct within the MPLS VPN (traffic is not
sent to the primary site).
• Connects to any DMVPN single-connected site; the optimal route is direct within the DMVPN (only initial
traffic is sent to the DMVPN hub, and then is cut through via spoke-spoke tunnel).
• Connects to any other site; the route is through the primary site
Layer 2 WAN (primary) + DMVPN (secondary) dual-connected site:
• Connects to a site on the Layer 2 WAN (same VLAN); the optimal route is direct within the Layer 2 WAN
(traffic is not sent to the primary site).
• Connects to any DMVPN single-connected site; the optimal route is direct within the DMVPN (only initial
traffic is sent to the DMVPN hub, and then it is cut through via spoke-spoke tunnel).
• Connects to any other site; the route is through the primary site
Data Privacy (Encryption)
All remote-site traffic must be encrypted when transported over public IP networks such as the Internet.
The use of encryption should not limit the performance or availability of a remote-site application, and should be
transparent to end users.
Quality of Service (QoS)
The network must ensure that business applications perform across the WAN during times of network
congestion. Traffic must be classified and queued and the WAN connection must be shaped to operate within
the capabilities of the connection. When the WAN design uses a service provider offering with QoS, the WAN
edge QoS classification and treatment must align to the service provider offering to ensure consistent end-toend QoS treatment of traffic.
Design Parameters
This design guide uses certain standard design parameters and references various network infrastructure
services that are not located within the WAN. These parameters are listed in the following table.
Table 7 - Universal design parameters
Network service
IP address
Domain name
cisco.local
Active Directory, DNS server, DHCP server
10.4.48.10
Cisco Secure Access Control System (ACS)
10.4.48.15
Network Time Protocol (NTP) server
10.4.48.17
Deploying the WAN
December 2013
20
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
Design Overview
DMVPN Hub Routers
The DMVPN designs are intended to support up to 500 remote sites with a combined aggregate WAN bandwidth
of up to 1.0 Gbps. The most critical devices are the WAN routers that are responsible for reliable IP forwarding
and QoS. The amount of bandwidth required at the WAN-aggregation site determines which model of router to
use. The choice of whether to implement a single router or dual router is determined by the number of DMVPN
clouds that are required in order to provide connections to all of the remote sites.
Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers represent the next-generation, modular, servicesintegrated Cisco routing platform. They are specifically designed for WAN aggregation, with the flexibility to
support a wide range of 3- to 16-mpps (millions of packets per second) packet-forwarding capabilities, 2.5- to
40-Gbps system bandwidth performance, and scaling.
The Cisco ASR 1000 Series is fully modular from both hardware and software perspectives, and the routers
have all the elements of a true carrier-class routing product that serves both enterprise and service-provider
networks.
This design uses the following routers as DMVPN hub routers:
• Cisco ASR 1002-X router configured with an embedded services processor (ESP) default bandwidth of
5 Gbps upgradable with software licensing options to 10 Gbps, 20 Gbps and 36 Gbps.
• Cisco ASR 1002 router configured with an embedded services processor 5 (ESP5)
• Cisco ASR 1001 router fixed configuration with a 2.5 Gbps embedded services processor
• Cisco 3945 Integrated Services Router
• Cisco 3925 Integrated Services Router
All of the design models can be constructed using any of the DMVPN hub routers listed in Table 8. You should
consider the following: the forwarding performance of the router using an Ethernet WAN deployment with broad
services enabled, the router’s alignment with the suggested design model, and the number of remote sites.
Table 8 - DMVPN hub router options
Option
Cisco 3925
Cisco 3945
ASR 1001
ASR 1002
ASR 1002-X
Ethernet WAN with services
100 Mbps
150 Mbps
250 Mbps
500 Mbps
500 Mbps 1.5 Gbps
Software Redundancy Option
None
None
Yes
Yes
Yes
Redundant power supply
Option
Option
Default
Default
Default
Supported Design Models
All
All
All
All
All
Suggested Design Model (s)
DMVPN Backup
Shared
DMVPN Backup
Shared
DMVPN Only
Dual DMVPN
Dual DMVPN
DMVPN Backup
Dedicated
DMVPN
Backup
Dedicated
DMVPN
Backup
Dedicated
25
50
100
250
250+
Suggested Number of Remote
Sites
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
21
Remote Sites—DMVPN Spoke Router Selection
The actual WAN remote-site routing platforms remain unspecified because the specification is tied closely to the
bandwidth required for a location and the potential requirement for the use of service module slots. The ability
to implement this solution with a variety of potential router choices is one of the benefits of a modular design
approach.
There are many factors to consider in the selection of the WAN remote-site routers. Among those, and key to
the initial deployment, is the ability to process the expected amount and type of traffic. You also need to make
sure that you have enough interfaces, enough module slots, and a properly licensed Cisco IOS Software image
that supports the set of features that is required by the topology. Cisco tested multiple integrated service router
models as DMVPN spoke routers, and the expected performance is shown in the following table.
Table 9 - WAN remote-site Cisco Integrated Service Router options
Option
19411
2911
2921
2951
3925
3945
4451-X
Ethernet WAN
with Services2
25 Mbps
35 Mbps
50 Mbps
75 Mbps
100 Mbps
150 Mbps
1 Gbps
On-board GE
ports3
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
Service module
slots4
0
1
1
2
2
4
2
Redundant power
supply option
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Notes:
1. The Cisco 1941 Integrated Services Router is recommended for use at single-router, single-link remote
sites.
2. The performance numbers are conservative numbers obtained when the router is passing IMIX traffic
with heavy services configured and the CPU utilization is under 75 percent.
3. A single-router, dual-link remote-site requires 4 router interfaces when using a port-channel to connect
to an access or distribution layer. Add the EHWIC-1GE-SFP-CU to the Cisco 2900 and 3900 Series
Integrated Services Routers in order to provide the additional WAN-facing interface.
4. Not all service modules are supported in Cisco 4451-X ISR. Some service modules are double-wide.
The DMVPN spoke routers at the WAN remote sites connect to the Internet directly through a router interface.
More details about the security configuration of the remote-site routers connected to the Internet are discussed
later in this guide. The single link DMVPN remote site is the most basic of building blocks for any remote location.
This design can be used with the DMVPN spoke router connected directly to the access layer, or it can support a
more complex LAN topology by connecting the DMVPN spoke router directly to a distribution layer.
The IP routing is straightforward and can be handled entirely by static routes at the WAN-aggregation site and
static default routes at the remote site. However, there is significant value to configuring this type of site with
dynamic routing. It is easy to add or modify IP networks at the remote site when using dynamic routing because
any changes are immediately propagated to the rest of the network.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
22
Figure 12 - DMVPN remote site (single link—single router)
DMVPN
2151
Internet
DMVPN Only Design
The DMVPN connection can be the primary WAN transport, or it can also be the alternate to another DMVPN
WAN transport. A DMVPN backup link can be added to an existing DMVPN single-link design to provide
additional resiliency either connecting on the same router or on an additional router. By adding an additional link,
you provide the first level of high availability for the remote site. A failure in the primary link can be automatically
detected by the router and traffic can be rerouted to the secondary path. It is mandatory to run dynamic routing
when there are multiple paths. The routing protocols are tuned to ensure the proper path selection.
The dual-router, dual-link design continues to improve upon the level of high availability for the site. This design
can tolerate the loss of the primary router and traffic can be rerouted via the secondary router (through the
alternate path).
DMVPN-1
Internet
DMVPN-2
Internet
DMVPN-1
DMVPN-2
Internet
Internet
Dual DMVPN Design
2152
Figure 13 - DMVPN + DMVPN remote site (dual link options)
The DMVPN connection can also be the alternate to an existing MPLS WAN or Layer 2 WAN transport. You
can add a DMVPN backup link to either a MPLS WAN or Layer 2 WAN single-link design to provide additional
resiliency by either connecting on the same router or on an additional router. The same resiliency benefits of the
DMVPN dual-link options apply to the MPLS + DMVPN and Layer 2 + DMVPN options. The single-router and
dual-router options are shown respectively in Figure 14 and Figure 15.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
23
Figure 14 - MPLS + DMVPN and Layer 2 WAN + DMVPN remote site (single-router, dual link)
DMVPN
DMVPN
Dynamic Routing
Static
Routing
Dynamic Routing
Internet
MPLSVPN
Internet
MPLSVPN
Static
Routing
Dynamic
Routing
MPLS Static + DMVPN
Shared Backup
MPLS Dynamic + DMVPN
Dedicated Backup
DMVPN
Dynamic Routing
Layer 2
Internet
Dynamic
Routing
2153
Layer 2 WAN (Simple or Trunked)
+ DMVPN Dedicated Backup
Figure 15 - MPLS + DMVPN and Layer 2 WAN + DMVPN remote site (dual-router, dual link)
MPLS VPN
DMVPN
Internet
MPLS Dynamic + DMVPN
Dedicated Backup
Layer 2
Internet
Layer 2 WAN (Simple or Trunked)
+ DMVPN Dedicated Backup
2154
DMVPN
VRFs and Front Door VRF
Virtual Route Forwarding (VRF) is a technology used in computer networks that allows multiple instances
of a routing table to co-exist within the same router at the same time. Because the routing instances are
independent, you can use the same or overlapping IP Addresses without conflicting with each other. Often in a
MPLS context, VRF is also defined as VPN Route Forwarding.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
24
You can implement VRF in a network device by having distinct routing tables, also known as Forwarding
Information Bases (FIBs), one per VRF. Alternatively, a network device may have the ability to configure different
virtual routers, where each one has its own FIB that is not accessible to any other virtual router instance on the
same device.
The simplest form of VRF implementation is VRF Lite. In this implementation, each router within the network
participates in the virtual routing environment on a peer-by-peer basis. VRF Lite configurations are only locally
significant.
The IP routing policy used in this design for the WAN remote sites does not allow direct Internet access for web
browsing or other uses; any remote-site hosts that access the Internet must do so via the Internet edge at the
primary site. The end hosts require a default route for all Internet destinations; however, this route must force
traffic across the primary or secondary WAN transport DMVPN tunnels. This requirement conflicts with the more
general VPN spoke router requirement for an Internet-facing default route to bring up the VPN tunnel.
The multiple default route conundrum is solved through the use of VRFs on the router. A router can have multiple
routing tables that are kept logically separate on the device. This separation is similar to a virtual router from the
forwarding plane perspective. The global VRF corresponds to the traditional routing table, and additional VRFs
are given names and route descriptors (RDs). Certain features on the router are VRF aware, including static
routing and routing protocols, interface forwarding and IPSec tunneling. This set of features is used in conjunction
with DMVPN to permit the use of multiple default routes for both the DMVPN hub routers and DMVPN spoke
routers. This combination of features is referred to as front-door vREF (FVRF), because the VRF faces the
Internet and the router internal interfaces and the mGRE tunnel all remain in the global VRF. More technical details
regarding FVRF can be found in the Technical Feature Supplement appendix.
Figure 16 - Front door VRF (FVRF)
WAN Distribution
Default
vrf global
vrf INET-PUBLIC
Inside
DMVPN Hub Router
Internet
Edge
Default
Default
RP
EIG 00)
(2
Default
Outside
Internet
Default Route
Default Route (vrf INET-PUBLIC)
vrf global
Default
vrf INET-PUBLIC
2023
DMVPN Spoke Router
VPN-DMZ
Design Details
The DMVPN hub routers connect to a resilient switching device in the distribution layer and in the DMZ. The
DMVPN routers use EtherChannel connections consisting of two port bundles. This design provides both
resiliency and additional forwarding performance. Additional forwarding performance can be accomplished by
increasing the number of physical links within an EtherChannel.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
25
The DMVPN hub routers must have sufficient IP-routing information to provide end-to-end reachability.
Maintaining this routing information typically requires a routing protocol, EIGRP is used for this purpose.
Multiple separate EIGRP processes are used, one for internal routing on the LAN (EIGRP-100) and multiple
for the DMVPNs (EIGRP-200, EIGRP-201). The primary reason for the separate EIGRP processes is to ensure
compatibility with the route selection process at the WAN-aggregation site when deploying other CVD
WAN designs. This method ensures DMVPN learned routes appear as EIGRP external routes after they are
redistributed into the EIGRP-100 process used on the campus LAN.
At the WAN-aggregation site, you must connect the DMVPN routers to the distribution layer and to the DMZ-VPN
that provides Internet connectivity. The DMVPN hub routers use FVRF and have a static default route with the
INET-PUBLIC VRF pointing to the firewall DMZ interface.
Figure 17 - Dual DMVPN and DMVPN Only designs—Routing details
Dual DMVPN
DMVPN Only
WAN
Distribution
WAN
Distribution
EIG
EIG
P
RP
GR
DMVPN
Hub Routers
EIGRP
(200)
Internet Edge
DMVPN
Hub Router
Default
EIGRP
(201)
DMVPN 1 DMVPN 2
Internet Edge
Default
EIGRP
(200)
ISP A / ISP B
DMVPN 1
Internet
2155
EI
RP
vrf INET-PUBLIC Route
The DMVPN Backup Dedicated Design Model is essentially the DMVPN Only or Dual DMVPN design models
merged with any of the following already deployed design models from the MPLS WAN Technology Design
Guide or the Layer 2 WAN Technology Design Guide:
• MPLS Dynamic
• Dual MPLS
• Layer 2 WAN Simple Demarcation
• Layer 2 WAN Trunked Demarcation
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
26
An example of the routing details for the DMVPN Backup Dedicated design model is shown in the following
figure.
Figure 18 - DMVPN Backup Dedicated design—Routing details
WAN Distribution
vrf INET-PUBLIC Route
EIG
RP
RP
RP
G
DMVPN
Hub Router
EIG
EI
MPLS CE
Routers
EIGRP
(200)
iBGP
eBGP
Internet Edge
Default
eBGP
MPLS VPN A
Internet
2156
DMVPN 1
MPLS VPN B
The DMVPN Shared Backup design does not require any additional hardware. The existing MPLS Static design
from the MPLS WAN Technology Design Guide already includes a WAN-aggregation MPLS CE router and
Internet access. The primary difference is the VPN connection and the requirement to run a routing protocol for
the VPN backup link. The MPLS WAN connection continues to use static routing in these designs. The routing
details are shown for these designs are shown in the following figure.
Figure 19 - DMVPN Shared Backup design—Routing details
Distribution Layer
EIGRP
EIGRP
(200)
MPLS CE Router
VPN Hub Router
EIGRP
(200)
Internet
Edge
EIGRP
(200)
Static
Routing
MPLS
2157
Internet
EIGRP
Cisco uses Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) as the primary routing protocol because it is easy to configure, does not
require a large amount of planning, has flexible summarization and filtering, and can scale to large networks. As
networks grow, the number of IP prefixes or routes in the routing tables grows as well. You should program IP
summarization on links where logical boundaries exist, like distribution layer links to the wide area or to a core.
By performing IP summarization, you can reduce the amount of bandwidth, processor, and memory necessary to
carry large route tables, and reduce convergence time associated with a link failure.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
27
In this design, EIGRP process 100 is the primary EIGRP process and is referred to as EIGRP-100.
EIGRP-100 is used at the WAN-aggregation site to connect to the primary site LAN distribution layer and at WAN
remote sites with dual WAN routers or with distribution-layer LAN topologies. EIGRP-200 and EIGRP-201 are
used for the DMVPN tunnels.
Encryption
The primary goal of encryption is to provide data confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity by encrypting IP
packets as the data travels across a network.
The encrypted payloads are then encapsulated with a new header (or multiple headers) and transmitted across
the network. The additional headers introduce a certain amount of overhead to the overall packet length. The
following table highlights the packet overhead associated with encryption based on the additional headers
required for various combinations of IPsec and GRE.
Table 10 - Overhead associated with IPsec and GRE
Encapsulation
Overhead
GRE only
24 bytes
IPsec (Transport Mode)
36 bytes
IPsec (Tunnel Mode)
52 bytes
IPsec (Transport Mode) + GRE
60 bytes
IPsec (Tunnel Mode) + GRE
76 bytes
There is a maximum transmission unit (MTU) parameter for every link in an IP network and typically the MTU
is 1500 bytes. IP packets larger than 1500 bytes must be fragmented when transmitted across these links.
Fragmentation is not desirable and can impact network performance. To avoid fragmentation, the original packet
size plus overhead must be 1500 bytes or less, which means that the sender must reduce the original packet
size. To account for other potential overhead, Cisco recommends that you configure tunnel interfaces with a
1400 byte MTU.
There are dynamic methods for network clients to discover the path MTU, which allow the clients to reduce
the size of packets they transmit. However, in many cases, these dynamic methods are unsuccessful, typically
because security devices filter the necessary discovery traffic. This failure to discover the path MTU drives
the need for a method that can reliably inform network clients of the appropriate packet size. The solution is
to implement the ip tcp adjust mss [size] command on the WAN routers, which influences the TCP maximum
segment size (MSS) value reported by end hosts.
The MSS defines the maximum amount of data that a host is willing to accept in a single TCP/IP datagram. The
MSS value is sent as a TCP header option only in TCP SYN segments. Each side of a TCP connection reports its
MSS value to the other side. The sending host is required to limit the size of data in a single TCP segment to a
value less than or equal to the MSS reported by the receiving host.
The IP and TCP headers combine for 40 bytes of overhead, so the typical MSS value reported by network clients
will be 1460. This design includes encrypted tunnels with a 1400 byte MTU, so the MSS used by endpoints
should be configured to be 1360 to minimize any impact of fragmentation. In this solution, you implement the ip
tcp adjust mss 1360 command on all WAN facing router interfaces.
DMVPN
This solution uses the Internet for WAN transport. For data security and privacy concerns any site-to-site traffic
that traverses the Internet must be encrypted. Multiple technologies can provide encryption, but the method that
provides the best combination of performance, scale, application support, and ease of deployment is DMVPN.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
28
The single-link use cases in this design guide use Internet/DMVPN as a primary WAN transport that requires a
DMVPN single-cloud, single-hub design. The dual-link use cases require a DMVPN dual-cloud design, each with
a single hub router. The DMVPN routers use tunnel interfaces that support IP unicast as well as IP multicast and
broadcast traffic, including the use of dynamic routing protocols. After the initial spoke-to-hub tunnel is active, it
is possible to create dynamic spoke-to-spoke tunnels when site-to-site IP traffic flows require it.
The information required by a spoke to set up dynamic spoke-to-spoke tunnels and properly resolve other
spokes is provided through the Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP). Spoke-to-spoke tunnels allow for the
optimal routing of traffic between locations without indirect forwarding through the hub. Idle spoke-to-spoke
tunnels gracefully time out after a period of inactivity.
It is common for a firewall to be placed between the DMVPN hub routers and the Internet. In many cases,
the firewall may provide Network Address Translation (NAT) from an internal RFC-1918 IP address (such as
10.4.128.33) to an Internet-routable IP address. The DMVPN solution works well with NAT but requires the use of
IPsec transport mode to support a DMVPN hub behind static NAT.
DMVPN requires the use of Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) keepalive
intervals for Dead Peer Detection (DPD), which is essential to facilitate fast reconvergence and for spoke
registration to function properly in case a DMVPN hub is reloaded. This design enables a spoke to detect that
an encryption peer has failed and that the ISAKMP session with that peer is stale, which then allows a new one
to be created. Without DPD, the IPsec security association (SA) must time out (the default is 60 minutes) and
when the router cannot renegotiate a new SA, a new ISAKMP session is initiated. The maximum wait time is
approximately 60 minutes.
Figure 20 - DMVPN dual-cloud
DMVPN Cloud 1
Spoke-Spoke Tunnel
DMVPN Head End
Cloud 1
Hub
DMVPN Cloud 2
DMVPN Head End
Cloud 2
Hub
Internet
DMVPN Spoke
DMVPN Spoke
DMVPN Spoke
2158
DMVPN Spoke
DMVPN Spoke
One of the key benefits of the DMVPN solution is that the spoke routers can use dynamically assigned
addresses, often using DHCP from an Internet provider. The spoke routers can leverage an Internet default route
for reachability to the hub routers and also other spoke addresses.
The DMVPN hub routers have static IP addresses assigned to their public-facing interfaces. This configuration
is essential for proper operation as each of the spoke routers have these IP addresses embedded in their
configurations.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
29
Deployment Details
The procedures in this section provide examples for some settings. The actual settings and values that you use
are determined by your current network configuration. This process is used for the Dual DMVPN design (repeat
for each DMVPN hub router), and also for the DMVPN Dedicated and DMVPN Dedicated Backup designs.
Table 11 - Parameters Used in the Deployment Examples
Hostname
Loopback IP Address
Port Channel IP Address
VPN-ASR1002-1
10.4.32.243/32
10.4.32.18/30
VPN-ASR1001-2
10.4.32.244/32
10.4.32.22/30
DMVPN Hub Router Configuration
PROCESS
1. Configure the Distribution Switch
2. Configure Connectivity to the LAN
3. Configure VRF Lite
4. Connect to Internet DMZ
5. Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
6. Configure the mGRE Tunnel
7. Configure EIGRP
Procedure 1
Configure the Distribution Switch
Reader Tip
This process assumes that the distribution switch has already been configured
following the guidance in the Campus Wired LAN Technology Design Guide. Only the
procedures required to support the integration of the WAN aggregation router into the
deployment are included.
The LAN distribution switch is the path to the organization’s main campus and data center. A Layer 3 portchannel interface connects to the distribution switch to the WAN aggregation router and the internal routing
protocol peers across this interface.
Tech Tip
As a best practice, use the same channel numbering on both sides of the link where
possible.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
30
Step 1: Configure the Layer 3 port-channel interface and assign the IP address.
interface Port-channel3
description VPN-ASR1002-1
no switchport
ip address 10.4.32.17 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
logging event link-status
carrier-delay msec 0
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces.
Configure the physical interfaces to tie to the logical port-channel using the channel-group command.
The number for the port-channel and channel-group must match. Not all router platforms can support Link
Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured statically.
Also, apply the egress QoS macro that was defined in the platform configuration procedure to ensure traffic is
prioritized appropriately.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3
description VPN-ASR1002-1 Gig0/0/0
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/3
description VPN-ASR1002-1 Gig0/0/1
!
interface range GigabitEthernet1/0/3, GigabitEthernet2/0/3
no switchport
macro apply EgressQoS
carrier-delay msec 0
channel-group 3 mode on
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
logging event bundle-status
no shutdown
Step 3: Allow the routing protocol to form neighbor relationships across the port channel interface.
router eigrp 100
no passive-interface Port-channel3
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
31
Step 4: On the distribution layer switch, configure the Layer 3 interface connected to the LAN core to summarize
the WAN network range.
Tech Tip
It is a best practice to summarize IP routes from the WAN distribution layer towards the
core.
interface Port-channel38
description Link to C6500-VSS
ip summary-address eigrp 100 10.4.32.0 255.255.248.0
ip summary-address eigrp 100 10.4.128.0 255.255.240.0
ip summary-address eigrp 100 10.4.160.0 255.255.252.0
ip summary-address eigrp 100 10.5.0.0 255.255.0.0
Step 5: On the distribution layer switch, configure the layer 3 interfaces connected to the WAN aggregation
routers to summarize the WAN remote-site network range.
Tech Tip
It is a best practice to summarize IP routes from the WAN distribution layer towards the
VPN WAN.
interface Port-channel3
description VPN-ASR1002-1
ip summary-address eigrp 100 10.5.0.0 255.255.0.0
Repeat this step as needed for additional WAN aggregation routers.
Step 6: Configure the WAN Aggregation Platform
Within this design, there are features and services that are common across all WAN aggregation routers. These
are system settings that simplify and secure the management of the solution.
Step 7: Configure the device host name.
Configure the device host name to make it easy to identify the device.
hostname VPN-ASR1002-1
Step 8: Configure local login and password.
The local login account and password provides basic access authentication to a router which provides only
limited operational privileges. The enable password secures access to the device configuration mode. By
enabling password encryption, you prevent the disclosure of plain text passwords when viewing configuration
files.
username admin password c1sco123
enable secret c1sco123
service password-encryption
aaa new-model
By default, https access to the router will use the enable password for authentication.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
32
Step 9: (Optional) Configure centralized user authentication.
As networks scale in the number of devices to maintain it poses an operational burden to maintain local user
accounts on every device. A centralized Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) service reduces
operational tasks per device and provides an audit log of user access for security compliance and root cause
analysis. When AAA is enabled for access control, all management access to the network infrastructure devices
(SSH and HTTPS) is controlled by AAA.
TACACS+ is the primary protocol used to authenticate management logins on the infrastructure devices to
the AAA server. A local AAA user database is also defined in Step 8 on each network infrastructure device to
provide a fallback authentication source in case the centralized TACACS+ server is unavailable.
tacacs server TACACS-SERVER-1
address ipv4 10.4.48.15
key SecretKey
!
aaa group server tacacs+ TACACS-SERVERS
server name TACACS-SERVER-1
!
aaa authentication login default group TACACS-SERVERS local
aaa authorization exec default group TACACS-SERVERS local
aaa authorization console
ip http authentication aaa
Step 10: Configure device management protocols.
Secure HTTP (HTTPS) and Secure Shell (SSH) are secure replacements for the HTTP and Telnet protocols. They
use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) to provide device authentication and data
encryption.
Secure management of the network device is enabled through the use of the SSH and HTTPS protocols. Both
protocols are encrypted for privacy and the nonsecure protocols, Telnet and HTTP, are turned off.
Specify the transport preferred none on vty lines to prevent errant connection attempts from the CLI prompt.
Without this command, if the ip name-server is unreachable, long timeout delays may occur for mistyped
commands.
ip domain-name cisco.local
ip ssh version 2
no ip http server
ip http secure-server
line vty 0 15
transport input ssh
transport preferred none
When synchronous logging of unsolicited messages and debug output is turned on, console log messages
are displayed on the console after interactive CLI output is displayed or printed. With this command, you can
continue typing at the device console when debugging is enabled.
line con 0
logging synchronous
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
33
Enable Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to allow the network infrastructure devices to be managed
by a Network Management System (NMS). SNMPv2c is configured both for a read-only and a read-write
community string.
snmp-server community cisco RO
snmp-server community cisco123 RW
Step 11: (Optional) In networks where network operational support is centralized you can increase network
security by using an access list to limit the networks that can access your device. In this example, only devices
on the 10.4.48.0/24 network will be able to access the device via SSH or SNMP.
access-list 55 permit 10.4.48.0 0.0.0.255
line vty 0 15
access-class 55 in
!
snmp-server community cisco RO 55
snmp-server community cisco123 RW 55
Tech Tip
If you configure an access-list on the vty interface you may lose the ability to use ssh
to login from one router to the next for hop-by-hop troubleshooting.
Step 12: Configure a synchronized clock.
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is designed to synchronize a network of devices. An NTP network usually gets
its time from an authoritative time source, such as a radio clock or an atomic clock attached to a time server.
NTP then distributes this time across the organizations network.
You should program network devices to synchronize to a local NTP server in the network. The local NTP server
typically references a more accurate clock feed from an outside source. By configuring console messages, logs,
and debug output to provide time stamps on output, you can cross-reference events in a network.
ntp server 10.4.48.17
!
clock timezone PST -8
clock summer-time PDT recurring
!
service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime
service timestamps log datetime msec localtime
Step 13: Configure an in-band management interface.
The loopback interface is a logical interface that is always reachable as long as the device is powered on and
any IP interface is reachable to the network. Because of this capability, the loopback address is the best way to
manage the switch in-band. Layer 3 process and features are also bound to the loopback interface to ensure
process resiliency.
The loopback address is commonly a host address with a 32-bit address mask. Allocate the loopback address
from the IP address block that the distribution switch summarizes to the rest of the network.
interface Loopback 0
ip address 10.4.32.243 255.255.255.255
ip pim sparse-mode
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
34
The ip pim sparse-mode command will be explained further in the process.
Bind the device processes for SNMP, SSH, PIM, TACACS+ and NTP to the loopback interface address for
optimal resiliency:
snmp-server trap-source Loopback0
ip ssh source-interface Loopback0
ip pim register-source Loopback0
ip tacacs source-interface Loopback0
ntp source Loopback0
Step 14: Configure IP unicast routing.
EIGRP is configured facing the LAN distribution or core layer. In this design, the port-channel interface and the
loopback must be EIGRP interfaces. The loopback may remain a passive interface. The network range must
include both interface IP addresses, either in a single network statement or in multiple network statements. This
design uses a best practice of assigning the router ID to a loopback address.
router eigrp 100
network 10.4.0.0 0.1.255.255
no auto-summary
passive-interface default
eigrp router-id 10.4.32.243
Step 15: Configure IP Multicast routing.
IP Multicast allows a single IP data stream to be replicated by the infrastructure (routers and switches) and sent
from a single source to multiple receivers. Using IP Multicast is much more efficient than multiple individual
unicast streams or a Broadcast stream that would propagate everywhere. IP Telephony MOH and IP Video
Broadcast Streaming are two examples of IP Multicast applications.
To receive a particular IP Multicast data stream, end hosts must join a multicast group by sending an IGMP
message to their local multicast router. In a traditional IP Multicast design, the local router consults another router
in the network that is acting as an RP to map the receivers to active sources so they can join their streams.
In this design, which is based on sparse mode multicast operation, Auto RP is used to provide a simple yet
scalable way to provide a highly resilient RP environment.
Enable IP Multicast routing on the platforms in the global configuration mode.
ip multicast-routing
The Cisco ASR1000 Series router requires the distributed keyword.
ip multicast-routing distributed
Every Layer 3 switch and router must be configured to discover the IP Multicast RP with autorp. Use the ip pim
autorp listener command to allow for discovery across sparse mode links. This configuration provides for future
scaling and control of the IP Multicast environment and can change based on network needs and design.
ip pim autorp listener
All Layer 3 interfaces in the network must be enabled for sparse mode multicast operation.
ip pim sparse-mode
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
35
Procedure 2
Configure Connectivity to the LAN
Any links to adjacent distribution layers should be Layer 3 links or Layer 3 EtherChannels.
Step 1: Configure Layer 3 interface.
interface Port-channel3
ip address 10.4.32.18 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces.
Configure the physical interfaces to tie to the logical port-channel using the channel-group command. The
number for the port-channel and channel-group must match.
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
description WAN-D3750X Gig1/0/3
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
description WAN-D3750X Gig2/0/3
!
interface range GigabitEthernet0/0/0, GigabitEthernet0/0/1
no ip address
channel-group 3
cdp enable
no shutdown
Step 3: Configure the EIGRP interface.
Allow EIGRP to form neighbor relationships across the interface to establish peering adjacencies and exchange
route tables.
router eigrp 100
no passive-interface Port-channel3
Procedure 3
Configure VRF Lite
An Internet-facing VRF is created to support FVRF for DMVPN. The VRF name is arbitrary but it is useful to select
a name that describes the VRF. An associated route descriptor (RD) must also be configured to make the VRF
functional. The RD configuration also creates the routing and forwarding tables and associates the RD with the
VRF instance.
This design uses VRF Lite so that the RD value can be chosen arbitrarily. It is a best practice to use the same
VRF/RD combination across multiple devices when using VRFs in a similar manner. However, this convention is
not strictly required.
ip vrf INET-PUBLIC
rd 65512:1
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
36
Tech Tip
Command Reference:
An RD is either ASN-related (composed of an ASN and an arbitrary number) or
IP-address-related (composed of an IP address and an arbitrary number).
You can enter an RD in either of these formats:
16-bit autonomous-system-number:your 32-bit number
For example, 65512:1.
32-bit IP address: your 16-bit number
For example, 192.168.122.15:1.
Procedure 4
Connect to Internet DMZ
The DMVPN hub requires a connection to the Internet, and in this design the DMVPN hub is connected through a
Cisco ASA5500 Adaptive Security Appliance using a DMZ interface specifically created and configured for a VPN
termination router.
Step 1: Enable the interface, select the VRF, and assign the IP address.
The IP address that you use for the Internet-facing interface of the DMVPN hub router must be an Internet
routable address. There are two possible methods to accomplish this task:
• Assign a routable IP address directly to the router
• Assign a non-routable RFC-1918 address directly to the router and use a static NAT on the Cisco
ASA5500 to translate the router IP address to a routable IP address.
This design assumes that the Cisco ASA5500 is configured for static NAT for the DMVPN hub router.
The DMVPN design is using FVRF, so this interface must be placed into the VRF configured in the previous
procedure.
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/3
ip vrf forwarding INET-PUBLIC
ip address 192.168.18.10 255.255.255.0
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure the VRF specific default routing.
The VRF created for FVRF must have its own default route to the Internet. This default route points to the
ASA5500 DMZ interface IP address.
ip route vrf INET-PUBLIC 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.18.1
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
37
Figure 21 - Physical and logical views for DMZ connection
Physical
Logical
DMVPN Hub
Router
DMVPN Hub
Router
(.10)
gig0/0/3
vrf: INET-PUBLIC
Internet Edge
Internet Edge
DMZ-VPN
192.168.18.0/24
VLAN: 1118
(.1)
Internet
Procedure 5
Internet
1016
DMZ Switch
Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
Step 1: Configure the crypto keyring.
The crypto keyring defines a pre-shared key (or password) valid for IP sources that are reachable within a
particular VRF. This key is a wildcard pre-shared key if it applies to any IP source. A wildcard key is configured
using the 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 network/mask combination.
crypto keyring DMVPN-KEYRING vrf INET-PUBLIC
pre-shared-key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 key cisco123
Step 2: Configure the ISAKMP policy.
The ISAKMP policy for DMVPN uses the following:
• Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 256-bit key
• Secure Hash Standard (SHA)
• Authentication by Pre-Shared Key (PSK)
• Diffie-Hellman group: 2
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
hash sha
authentication pre-share
group 2
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
38
Step 3: Create the ISAKMP Profile.
The ISAKMP profile creates an association between an identity address, a VRF, and a crypto keyring. A wildcard
address within a VRF is referenced with 0.0.0.0.
crypto isakmp profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC
keyring DMVPN-KEYRING
match identity address 0.0.0.0 INET-PUBLIC
Step 4: Define the IPsec transform set.
A transform set is an acceptable combination of security protocols, algorithms, and other settings to apply to
IPsec-protected traffic. Peers agree to use a particular transform set when protecting a particular data flow.
The IPsec transform set for DMVPN uses the following:
• ESP with the 256-bit AES encryption algorithm
• ESP with the SHA (HMAC variant) authentication algorithm
Because the DMVPN hub router is behind a NAT device, the IPsec transform must be configured for transport
mode.
crypto ipsec transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode transport
Step 5: Create the IPSec profile.
The IPsec profile creates an association between an ISAKMP profile and an IPsec transform-set.
crypto ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE
set transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT
set isakmp-profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC
Procedure 6
Configure the mGRE Tunnel
Table 12 - DMVPN Tunnel Parameters
DMVPN cloud
Tunnel IP address
EIGRP AS
NHRP network ID
Primary
10.4.34.1/23
200
101
Secondary
10.4.36.1/23
201
102
Step 1: Configure basic interface settings.
Tunnel interfaces are created as they are configured. The tunnel number is arbitrary, but it is best to begin tunnel
numbering at 10 or above, because other features deployed in this design may also require tunnels and they may
select lower numbers by default.
The bandwidth setting should be set to match the Internet bandwidth of the respective primary or secondary
carrier.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
39
Configure the IP MTU to 1400 and the ip tcp adjust-mss to 1360. There is a 40 byte difference which
corresponds to the combined IP and TCP header length.
interface Tunnel10
bandwidth 10000
ip address 10.4.34.1 255.255.254.0
no ip redirects
ip mtu 1400
ip tcp adjust-mss 1360
Step 2: Configure the tunnel.
DMVPN uses multipoint GRE (mGRE) tunnels. This type of tunnel requires a source interface only. Use the
same source interface that you use to connect to the Internet. Set the tunnel vrf command to the VRF defined
previously for FVRF.
Enabling encryption on this interface requires the application of the IPsec profile configured in the previous
procedure.
interface Tunnel10
tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0/3
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel vrf INET-PUBLIC
tunnel protection ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE
Step 3: Configure NHRP.
The DMVPN hub router acts in the role of NHRP server for all of the spokes. NHRP is used by remote routers to
determine the tunnel destinations for peers attached to the mGRE tunnel.
NHRP requires all devices within a DMVPN cloud to use the same network ID and authentication key. The NHRP
cache holdtime should be configured to 600 seconds.
EIGRP (configured in the following procedure) relies on a multicast transport and requires NHRP to automatically
add routers to the multicast NHRP mappings.
The ip nhrp redirect command allows the DMVPN hub to notify spoke routers that a more optimal path may exist
to a destination network, which may be required for DMVPN spoke-spoke direct communications.
interface Tunnel10
ip nhrp authentication cisco123
ip nhrp map multicast dynamic
ip nhrp network-id 101
ip nhrp holdtime 600
ip nhrp redirect
Step 4: Enable PIM non-broadcast multiple access (NBMA) mode for the DMVPN tunnel.
Spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks present a unique challenge because the spokes cannot directly exchange
information with one another, even though they are on the same logical network. This inability to directly
exchange information can also cause problems when running IP Multicast.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
40
To resolve this issue requires a method where each remote PIM neighbor has its join messages tracked
separately. A router in PIM NBMA mode treats each remote PIM neighbor as if it were connected to the router
through a point-to-point link.
Tech Tip
Do not enable PIM on the Internet DMZ interface, as no multicast traffic should be
requested from this interface.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim sparse-mode
ip pim nbma-mode
Step 5: Configure EIGRP.
You configure EIGRP in the following Procedure 8, but there are some specific requirements for the mGRE tunnel
interface that you need to configure first.
Spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks present a unique challenge because the spokes cannot directly exchange
information with one another, even though they are on the same logical network. This limitation requires that the
DMVPN hub router advertise routes from other spokes on the same network. This advertisement of these routes
would normally be prevented by split horizon, and can be overridden by the no ip split-horizon eigrp command.
The EIGRP hello interval is increased to 20 seconds and the EIGRP hold time is increased to 60 seconds to
accommodate up to 500 remote sites on a single DMVPN cloud.
interface Tunnel10
ip hello-interval eigrp [EIGRP AS] 20
ip hold-time eigrp [EIGRP AS] 60
no ip split-horizon eigrp [EIGRP AS]
Procedure 7
Configure EIGRP
You use two EIGRP processes on the DMVPN hub routers. The primary reason for the additional process is to
ensure that routes learned from the WAN remotes appear as EIGRP external routes on the WAN distribution
switch. If you used only a single process, the remote-site routes would appear as EIGRP internal routes on the
WAN distribution switch, which would be preferred to any MPLS VPN learned routes.
Step 1: Enable an additional EIGRP process for DMVPN.
Configure EIGRP for the DMVPN mGRE interface. Routes from the other EIGRP process are redistributed.
Because the routing protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
The tunnel interface is the only EIGRP interface, and you need to explicitly list its network range.
router eigrp [EIGRP AS]
network 10.4.34.0 0.0.1.255
passive-interface default
no passive-interface Tunnel10
eigrp router-id 10.4.32.243
no auto-summary
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
41
Step 2: Tag and redistribute the routes.
This design uses mutual route redistribution. DMVPN Routes from the EIGRP-200/EIGRP201 process are
redistributed into EIGRP-100 and other learned routes from EIGRP-100 are redistributed into EIGRP-200/EIGRP201. Because the routing protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
It is important to tightly control how routing information is shared between different routing protocols when this
mutual route redistribution is used; otherwise, it is possible to experience route flapping, where certain routes are
repeatedly installed and with-drawn from the device routing tables. Proper route control ensures the stability of
the routing table.
An inbound distribute-list is used on the WAN-aggregation routers to limit which routes are accepted for
installation into the route table. These routers are configured to only accept routes which do not originate from
the MPLS and DMVPN WAN sources. To accomplish this task, the DMVPN learned WAN routes must be explicitly
tagged by their DMVPN hub router during the route redistribution process. The specific route tags in use are
shown in the following table.
Table 13 - Route tag information for DMVPN hub router
Tag
Route source
Tag method
Action
65401
MPLS A
implicit
accept
65402
MPLS B
implicit
accept
300
Layer 2 WAN
explicit
accept
65512
DMVPN hub routers
explicit
tag
This example includes all WAN route sources in the reference design. Depending on the actual design of your
network, you might need to use more tags.
router eigrp 100
redistribute eigrp [EIGRP AS] route-map SET-ROUTE-TAG-DMVPN
!
router eigrp [EIGRP AS]
redistribute eigrp 100
!
route-map SET-ROUTE-TAG-DMVPN permit 10
match interface Tunnel10
set tag 65512
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
42
PROCESS
Firewall and DMZ Switch Configuration
1. Configure the DMZ Switch
2. Configure Firewall DMZ Interface
3. Configure Network Address Translation
4. Configure Security Policy
Procedure 1
Configure the DMZ Switch
Reader Tip
This procedure assumes that the switch has already been configured following the
guidance in the Campus Wired LAN Technology Design Guide. Only the procedures
required to support the integration of the firewall into the deployment are included.
Step 1: Set the DMZ switch to be the spanning tree root for the VLAN that contains the DMVPN hub router.
vlan 1118
spanning-tree vlan 1118 root primary
Step 2: Configure the interfaces that are connected to the appliances as a trunk.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/24
description IE-ASA5540a Gig0/1
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/24
description IE-ASA5540b Gig0/1
!
interface range GigabitEthernet1/0/24, GigabitEthernet2/0/24
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1118
switchport mode trunk
macro apply EgressQoS
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
no shutdown
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
43
Step 3: Configure the interface that is connected to the DMVPN hub routers. Repeat if necessary.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/7
description VPN-ASR1002-1 Gig0/0/3
switchport access vlan 1118
switchport host
macro apply EgressQoS
logging event link-status
no shutdown
Procedure 2
Configure Firewall DMZ Interface
The firewall’s demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a portion of the network where, typically, traffic to and from other
parts of the network is tightly restricted. Organizations place network services in a DMZ for exposure to the
Internet. These servers are typically not allowed to initiate connections to the ‘inside’ network, except for specific
circumstances.
The DMZ network is connected to the appliances on the appliances’ GigabitEthernet interface via a VLAN trunk
to allow the greatest flexibility if new VLANs must be added to connect additional DMZs. The trunk connects the
appliances to a 3750X access-switch stack to provide resiliency. The DMZ VLAN interfaces on the Cisco ASA
are each assigned an IP address, which will be the default gateway for each of the VLAN subnets. The DMZ
switch only offers Layer 2 switching capability; the DMZ switch’s VLAN interfaces do not have an IP address
assigned, save for one VLAN interface with an IP address for management of the switch.
Figure 22 - DMZ VLAN topology and services
Internet
DMZ VLAN
Trunk
Cisco ASA
DMVPN
Hub Router
3009
Distribution
Switch
DMZ
Switch
Tech Tip
By setting the DMZ connectivity as a VLAN trunk, you get the greatest flexibility.
Step 1: In Configuration > Device Setup > Interfaces, click the interface that is connected to the DMZ switch.
(Example: GigabitEthernet0/1)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
44
Step 2: Click Edit.
Step 3: Select Enable Interface, and then click OK.
Step 4: On the Interface pane, click Add > Interface.
Step 5: In the Hardware Port list choose the interface configured in Step 1.(Example: GigabitEthernet0/1)
Step 6: In the VLAN ID box, enter the VLAN number for the DMZ VLAN. (Example: 1118)
Step 7: In the Subinterface ID box, enter the VLAN number for the DMZ VLAN. (Example: 1118)
Step 8: Enter an Interface Name. (Example: dmz-dmvpn)
Step 9: In the Security Level box, enter a value of 75.
Step 10: Enter the interface IP Address. (Example: 192.168.18.1)
Step 11: Enter the interface Subnet Mask, and then click OK. (Example: 255.255.255.0)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
45
Step 12: Click Apply.
Step 13: In Configuration > Device Management > High Availability > click Failover.
Step 14: On the Interfaces tab, for the interface created in Step 4, enter the IP address of the standby unit in the
Standby IP address column. (Example: 192.168.18.2)
Step 15: Select Monitored.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
46
Step 16: Click Apply.
Procedure 3
Configure Network Address Translation
The DMZ network uses private network (RFC 1918) addressing that is not Internet routable, so the firewall must
translate the DMZ address of the DMVPN hub router to an outside public address.
The example DMZ address to public IP address mapping is shown in the following table.
DMVPN hub router DMZ address
DMVPN hub router public address (externally routable after NAT)
192.168.18.10
172.16.130.1 (ISP-A)
192.168.18.11
172.17.130.1 (ISP-B)
Step 1: In Configuration > Firewall > Objects > click Network Objects/Groups.
First, add a network object for the public address of the DMVPN hub router on the primary internet connection.
Step 2: Click Add > Network Object.
Step 3: On the Add Network Object dialog box, in the Name box, enter a description for the DMVPN hub
router’s public IP address. (Example: outside-dmvpn-ISPa)
Step 4: In the Type list, choose Host.
Step 5: In the IP Address box, enter the DMVPN hub router’s public IP address, and then click OK. (Example:
172.16.130.1)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
47
Step 6: Click Apply.
Next, you add a network object for the private DMZ address of the DMVPN hub router.
Step 7: Click Add > Network Object.
Step 8: On the Add Network Object dialog box, in the Name box, enter a description for the DMVPN hub
router’s private DMZ IP address. (Example: dmz-dmvpn-1)
Step 9: In the Type list, choose Host.
Step 10: In the IP Address box, enter the router’s private DMZ IP address. (Example: 192.168.18.10)
Step 11: Click the two down arrows. The NAT pane expands.
Step 12: Select Add Automatic Address Translation Rules.
Step 13: In the Translated Addr list, choose the network object created in Step 2 (Example:
outside-dmvpn-ISPa).
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
48
Step 14: Select Use one-to-one address translation, and then click OK.
Step 15: Repeat this process for the resilient DMVPN hub router.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
49
Procedure 4
Configure Security Policy
The DMVPN DMZ provides an additional layer of protection to lower the likelihood of certain types of
misconfiguration of the DMVPN routers exposing the business network to the Internet. A filter allows only DMVPN
related traffic to reach the DMVPN hub routers.
Table 14 - Required DMVPN protocols (aggregation router)
Name
Protocol
Usage
non500-isakmp
UDP 4500
IPsec via NAT-T
isakmp
UDP 500
ISAKMP
esp
IP 50
IPsec
Table 15 - Optional protocols—DMVPN hub router
Name
Protocol
Usage
icmp echo
ICMP Type 0, Code 0
Allow remote pings
icmp echo-reply
ICMP Type 8, Code 0
Allow ping replies
(from our requests)
icmp ttl-exceeded
ICMP Type 11, Code 0
Allow traceroute replies
(from our requests)
icmp port-unreachable
ICMP Type 3, Code 3
Allow traceroute replies
(from our requests)
UDP high ports
UDP > 1023
Allow remote traceroute
Step 1: Navigate to Configuration > Firewall > Access Rules.
Step 2: Expand the Global rules, and within the Global rules click the rule that denies traffic from the DMZ
toward other networks.
Next, you must insert a new rule above the rule you selected.
Step 3: Click Add > Insert.
You must enable the DMVPN remote routers to communicate with the DMVPN hub routers in the DMZ.
Step 4: In the Destination list, choose the network object group created in Procedure 3. (Example:
dmz-dmvpn-network/24)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
50
Step 5: In the Service list box, enter esp, udp/4500, udp/isakmp, and then click OK.
Next, you must insert a new rule to allow diagnostic traffic to the DMVPN hub routers.
Step 6: Click Add > Insert.
You must enable the DMVPN remote routers to send diagnostics to the DMVPN hub routers in the DMZ.
Step 7: In the Destination list, choose the automatically created network object for the DMVPN DMZ. (Example:
dmz-dmvpn-network/24)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
51
Step 8: In the Service list box, enter icmp/echo, icmp/echo-reply, and then click OK.
Step 9: Click Apply.
PROCESS
Adding DMVPN Hub to Existing WAN-Aggregation Router
1. Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
2. Configure the mGRE Tunnel
3. Configure EIGRP
4. Configure NAT on the Firewall
5. Configure Security Policy on the Firewall
A smaller scale deployment of VPN backup may use the existing MPLS WAN router as the DMVPN hub router.
This process assumes that the MPLS WAN router is already configured, and is using static routing with the MPLS
carrier. This process is used for the DMVPN Shared Backup designs.
Tech Tip
This process does not require FVRF.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
52
Procedure 1
Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
Step 1: Configure the crypto keyring.
The crypto keyring defines a pre-shared key (or password) valid for IP sources. This key is a wildcard preshared key if it applies to any IP source. A wildcard key is configured using the 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 network/mask
combination.
crypto keyring DMVPN-KEYRING
pre-shared-key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 key cisco123
Step 2: Configure the ISAKMP policy.
The ISAKMP policy for DMVPN uses the following:
• Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 256-bit key
• Secure Hash Standard (SHA)
• Authentication by Pre-Shared Key (PSK)
• Diffie-Hellman group: 2
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
hash sha
authentication pre-share
group 2
Step 3: Create the ISAKMP Profile.
The ISAKMP profile creates an association between an identity address, a VRF, and a crypto keyring. A wildcard
address is referenced with 0.0.0.0.
crypto isakmp profile ISAKMP-PROFILE
keyring DMVPN-KEYRING
match identity address 0.0.0.0
Step 4: Define the IPsec transform set.
A transform set is an acceptable combination of security protocols, algorithms, and other settings to apply to
IPsec-protected traffic. Peers agree to use a particular transform set when protecting a particular data flow.
The IPsec transform set for DMVPN uses the following:
• ESP with the 256-bit AES encryption algorithm
• ESP with the SHA (HMAC variant) authentication algorithm
Because the DMVPN hub router is behind a NAT device, the IPsec transform must be configured for transport
mode.
crypto ipsec transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode transport
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
53
Step 5: Create the IPSec profile.
The IPsec profile creates an association between an ISAKMP profile and an IPsec transform-set.
crypto ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE
set transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT
set isakmp-profile ISAKMP-PROFILE
Procedure 2
Configure the mGRE Tunnel
Table 16 - DMVPN Tunnel Parameters
DMVPN cloud
Tunnel IP address
EIGRP AS
NHRP network ID
Primary
10.4.34.1/24
200
101
Step 1: Configure basic interface settings.
Tunnel interfaces are created as they are configured. The tunnel number is arbitrary, but it is best to begin tunnel
numbering at 10 or above, because other features deployed in this design may also require tunnels and they may
select lower numbers by default.
The bandwidth setting should be set to match the Internet bandwidth of the respective primary or secondary
carrier.
Configure the IP MTU to 1400 and the ip tcp adjust-mss to 1360. There is a 40 byte difference which
corresponds to the combined IP and TCP header length.
interface Tunnel10
bandwidth 10000
ip address 10.4.34.1 255.255.255.0
no ip redirects
ip mtu 1400
ip tcp adjust-mss 1360
Step 2: Configure the tunnel.
DMVPN uses multipoint GRE (mGRE) tunnels. This type of tunnel requires a source interface only. Use the same
source interface that you use to connect to the Internet.
Enabling encryption on this interface requires the application of the IPsec profile configured in the previous
procedure.
interface Tunnel10
tunnel source Port-Channel32
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel protection ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE
Step 3: Configure NHRP.
The DMVPN hub router acts in the role of NHRP server for all of the spokes. NHRP is used by remote routers to
determine the tunnel destinations for peers attached to the mGRE tunnel.
NHRP requires all devices within a DMVPN cloud to use the same network ID and authentication key. The NHRP
cache holdtime should be configured to 600 seconds.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
54
EIGRP (configured in the following procedure) relies on a multicast transport and requires NHRP to automatically
add routers to the multicast NHRP mappings.
The ip nhrp redirect command allows the DMVPN hub to notify spoke routers that a more optimal path may exist
to a destination network, which may be required for DMVPN spoke-spoke direct communications.
interface Tunnel10
ip nhrp authentication cisco123
ip nhrp map multicast dynamic
ip nhrp network-id 101
ip nhrp holdtime 600
ip nhrp redirect
Step 4: Enable PIM non-broadcast multiple access (NBMA) mode for the DMVPN tunnel.
Spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks present a unique challenge because the spokes cannot directly exchange
information with one another, even though they are on the same logical network. This inability to directly
exchange information can also cause problems when running IP Multicast.
To resolve this issue requires a method where each remote PIM neighbor has its join messages tracked
separately. A router in PIM NBMA mode treats each remote PIM neighbor as if it were connected to the router
through a point-to-point link.
Tech Tip
Do not enable PIM on the Internet DMZ interface, as no multicast traffic should be
requested from this interface.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim sparse-mode
ip pim nbma-mode
Step 5: Configure EIGRP.
You configure EIGRP in the following Procedure 3, but there are some specific requirements for the mGRE tunnel
interface that you need to configure first.
Spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks present a unique challenge because the spokes cannot directly exchange
information with one another, even though they are on the same logical network. This limitation requires that the
DMVPN hub router advertise routes from other spokes on the same network. This advertisement of these routes
would normally be prevented by split horizon, and can be overridden by the no ip split-horizon eigrp command.
The EIGRP hello interval is increased to 20 seconds and the EIGRP hold time is increased to 60 seconds to
accommodate up to 500 remote sites on a single DMVPN cloud.
interface Tunnel10
ip hello-interval eigrp 200 20
ip hold-time eigrp 200 60
no ip split-horizon eigrp 200
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
55
Procedure 3
Configure EIGRP
You use two EIGRP processes on the DMVPN hub routers. The primary reason for the additional process is to
ensure that routes learned from the WAN remotes appear as EIGRP external routes on the WAN distribution
switch. If you used only a single process, the remote-site routes would appear as EIGRP internal routes on the
WAN distribution switch, which would be preferred to any MPLS VPN learned routes.
Step 1: Enable an additional EIGRP process for DMVPN.
Configure EIGRP-200 for the DMVPN mGRE interface. Routes from the other EIGRP process are redistributed.
Because the routing protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
The tunnel interface is the only EIGRP interface, and you need to explicitly list its network range.
router eigrp 200
network 10.4.34.0 0.0.0.255
passive-interface default
no passive-interface Tunnel10
eigrp router-id 10.4.32.254
no auto-summary
Step 2: Tag and redistribute the routes.
This design uses mutual route redistribution. DMVPN Routes from the EIGRP-200 process are redistributed into
EIGRP-100 and other learned routes from EIGRP-100 are redistributed into EIGRP-200. Because the routing
protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
It is important to tightly control how routing information is shared between different routing protocols when this
mutual route redistribution is used; otherwise, it is possible to experience route flapping, where certain routes are
repeatedly installed and with-drawn from the device routing tables. Proper route control ensures the stability of
the routing table.
An inbound distribute-list may be used on the WAN-aggregation routers to limit which routes are accepted for
installation into the route table. These routers are configured to only accept routes which do not originate from
the MPLS and DMVPN WAN sources. To accomplish this task, the DMVPN learned WAN routes must be explicitly
tagged by their DMVPN hub router during the route redistribution process.
This example includes all WAN route sources in the reference design. Depending on the actual design of your
network, you might need to use more tags.
router eigrp 100
redistribute eigrp 200 route-map SET-ROUTE-TAG-DMVPN
!
router eigrp 200
redistribute eigrp 100
!
route-map SET-ROUTE-TAG-DMVPN permit 10
match interface Tunnel10
set tag 65512
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
56
Procedure 4
Configure NAT on the Firewall
Reader Tip
This procedure assumes that the firewall has already been configured following the
guidance in the Firewall and IPS Technology Design Guide. Only the procedures
required to allow VPN protocols through the firewall are included.
The DMVPN hub router is connected to the network core, behind the Internet edge firewall. The Internet Edge
ASA must forward all incoming VPN traffic to the router’s private IP address and accommodate the VPN traffic in
the ASA’s outside-to-inside access policy.
The internal network uses private network (RFC 1918) addressing that is not Internet routable, so the firewall
must translate the core/distribution facing address of the DMVPN hub router to an outside public address.
The example internal address to public IP address mapping is shown in the following table.
DMVPN hub router internal address
DMVPN hub router public address (externally routable after NAT)
10.4.32.2
172.16.130.1
Step 1: In Configuration > Firewall > Objects > click Network Objects/Groups.
First, add a network object for the public address of the DMVPN hub router on the internet connection.
Step 2: Click Add > Network Object.
Step 3: On the Add Network Object dialog box, in the Name box, enter a description for the DMVPN hub
router’s public IP address. (Example: outside-dmvpn)
Step 4: In the Type list, choose Host.
Step 5: In the IP Address box, enter the DMVPN hub router’s public IP address, and then click OK. (Example:
172.16.130.1)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
57
Step 6: Click Apply.
Next, you add a network object for the private internal address of the DMVPN hub router.
Step 7: Click Add > Network Object.
Step 8: On the Add Network Object dialog box, in the Name box, enter a description for the DMVPN hub
router’s private internal IP address. (Example: internal-dmvpn-1)
Step 9: In the Type list, choose Host.
Step 10: In the IP Address box, enter the router’s private internal IP address. (Example: 10.4.32.2)
Step 11: Click the two down arrows. The NAT pane expands.
Step 12: Select Add Automatic Address Translation Rules.
Step 13: In the Translated Addr list, choose the network object created in Step 2.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
58
Step 14: Select Use one-to-one address translation, and then click OK.
Step 15: Click Apply.
Procedure 5
Configure Security Policy on the Firewall
A filter allows only DMVPN related traffic to reach the DMVPN hub router.
Table 17 - Required DMVPN protocols (aggregation router)
Name
Protocol
Usage
non500-isakmp
UDP 4500
IPsec via NAT-T
isakmp
UDP 500
ISAKMP
esp
IP 50
IPsec
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
59
Table 18 - Optional protocols—DMVPN hub router
Name
Protocol
Usage
icmp echo
ICMP Type 0, Code 0
Allow remote pings
icmp echo-reply
ICMP Type 8, Code 0
Allow ping replies
(from our requests)
icmp ttl-exceeded
ICMP Type 11, Code 0
Allow traceroute replies
(from our requests)
icmp port-unreachable
ICMP Type 3, Code 3
Allow traceroute replies
(from our requests)
UDP high ports
UDP > 1023
Allow remote traceroute
Step 1: Navigate to Configuration > Firewall > Access Rules.
Step 2: Expand the Global rules, and within the Global rules click the final rule that implicitly denies traffic from
any to any.
Next, you must add a new rule above the rule you selected.
Step 3: Click Add > Add Access Rule.
You must enable the DMVPN remote routers to communicate with the DMVPN hub router on the internal
network.
Step 4: In the Destination list, choose the host network object created in Procedure 4. (Example: inside-dmvpn)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
60
Step 5: In the Service list box, enter esp, udp/4500, udp/isakmp, and then click OK.
Next, you must add a new rule to allow diagnostic traffic to the DMVPN hub routers.
Step 6: Click Add > Add Access Rule.
You must enable the DMVPN remote routers to send diagnostic traffic to the DMVPN hub router.
Step 7: In the Destination list, choose the host network object created in Procedure 4. (Example: inside-dmvpn)
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
61
Step 8: In the Service list box, enter icmp/echo, icmp/echo-reply, and then click OK.
Step 9: Click Apply.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
62
Remote-Site DMVPN Spoke Router Configuration
1. Configure the WAN Remote Router
PROCESS
2. Configure VRF Lite
3. Connect to the Internet
4. Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
5. Configure the mGRE Tunnel
6. Configure EIGRP
7. Configure IP Multicast Routing
8. Connect Router to Access Layer Switch
9. Configure Access Layer Routing
This set of procedures is for the configuration of a DMVPN spoke router for a DMVPN remote site (single-router,
single-link) and includes all required procedures.
You should also use this set of procedures when you configure a DMVPN + DMVPN remote site. Use these
procedures when you configure the first router of the dual-router, dual-link design.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
63
The following flowchart provides details about how to complete the configuration of a remote-site DMVPN spoke
router.
Figure 23 - Remote-site DMVPN spoke router configuration flowchart
Remote-Site DMVPN Router
Dual Router, Dual Link (1st Router)
Remote-Site DMVPN Router
Single Router, Single Link
Remote-Site
DMVPN
Spoke Router
Configuration
Procedures
1 Configure the WAN Rem
1.
Remote
mote Router
2. Configure VRF Lite
3. Connect to Internet
4. Configure ISAKMP and IPSec
5. Configure mGRE Tunnel
g
6. Configure
EIGRP
nfigure IP Multicast Routing
7. Configure
Distribution
Layer
Design?
NO
YES
YE
1. Con
Connect to Distribution Layer
2. Co
nfigure EIGRP (LAN Side)
Configure
8. Connect Router to Access
cess
Layer Switch
Dual Router
Design?
NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Remote-Site DMVPN
Spoke Router
Distribution Layer
Procedures
YES
Router 1
Modifications
for Dual
Router
Design
Configure Access Layer HS
HSRP
Configure Transit Network
Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
Configure Enhanced Object Tracking
Configure Loopback Resiliency
y
NO
Dual Router
Design?
YES
Additional Configuration for
Dual Router Design (Router 1)
1. Configure Transit Network
2. Configure Loopback
Resiliency
9. Configure Access Layer Routing
DMVPN Spoke Router
Configuration Complete
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
Configure Remote-Site
DMVPN Router
(2nd Router)
Configure Remote-Site
DMVPN Router
(2nd Router)
2160
DMVPN Spoke Router
Configuration Complete
December 2013
64
Procedure 1
Configure the WAN Remote Router
Within this design, there are features and services that are common across all WAN remote site routers. These
are system settings that simplify and secure the management of the solution.
Step 1: Configure the device host name to make it easy to identify the device.
hostname [hostname]
Step 2: Configure local login and password.
The local login account and password provides basic access authentication to a router which provides only
limited operational privileges. The enable password secures access to the device configuration mode. By
enabling password encryption, you prevent the disclosure of plain text passwords when viewing configuration
files.
username admin password c1sco123
enable secret c1sco123
service password-encryption
aaa new-model
By default, https access to the router will use the enable password for authentication.
Step 3: (Optional) Configure centralized user authentication.
As networks scale in the number of devices to maintain it poses an operational burden to maintain local user
accounts on every device. A centralized Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) service reduces
operational tasks per device and provides an audit log of user access for security compliance and root cause
analysis. When AAA is enabled for access control, all management access to the network infrastructure devices
(SSH and HTTPS) is controlled by AAA.
TACACS+ is the primary protocol used to authenticate management logins on the infrastructure devices to
the AAA server. A local AAA user database is also defined on each network infrastructure device to provide a
fallback authentication source in case the centralized TACACS+ server is unavailable.
tacacs server TACACS-SERVER-1
address ipv4 10.4.48.15
key SecretKey
!
aaa group server tacacs+ TACACS-SERVERS
server name TACACS-SERVER-1
!
aaa authentication login default group TACACS-SERVERS local
aaa authorization exec default group TACACS-SERVERS local
aaa authorization console
ip http authentication aaa
Step 4: Configure device management protocols.
Secure HTTP (HTTPS) and Secure Shell (SSH) are secure replacements for the HTTP and Telnet protocols. They
use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) to provide device authentication and data
encryption.
Secure management of the network device is enabled through the use of the SSH and HTTPS protocols. Both
protocols are encrypted for privacy and the nonsecure protocols, Telnet and HTTP, are turned off.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
65
Specify the transport preferred none on vty lines to prevent errant connection attempts from the CLI prompt.
Without this command, if the ip name-server is unreachable, long timeout delays may occur for mistyped
commands.
ip domain-name cisco.local
ip ssh version 2
no ip http server
ip http secure-server
line vty 0 15
transport input ssh
transport preferred none
When synchronous logging of unsolicited messages and debug output is turned on, console log messages
are displayed on the console after interactive CLI output is displayed or printed. With this command, you can
continue typing at the device console when debugging is enabled.
line con 0
logging synchronous
Enable Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to allow the network infrastructure devices to be managed
by a Network Management System (NMS). SNMPv2c is configured both for a read-only and a read-write
community string.
snmp-server community cisco RO
snmp-server community cisco123 RW
Step 5: (Optional) In networks where network operational support is centralized you can increase network
security by using an access list to limit the networks that can access your device. In this example, only devices
on the 10.4.48.0/24 network will be able to access the device via SSH or SNMP.
access-list 55 permit 10.4.48.0 0.0.0.255
line vty 0 15
access-class 55 in
!
snmp-server community cisco RO 55
snmp-server community cisco123 RW 55
Tech Tip
If you configure an access-list on the vty interface you may lose the ability to use ssh
to login from one router to the next for hop-by-hop troubleshooting.
Step 6: Configure a synchronized clock.
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is designed to synchronize a network of devices. An NTP network usually gets
its time from an authoritative time source, such as a radio clock or an atomic clock attached to a time server.
NTP then distributes this time across the organizations network.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
66
You should program network devices to synchronize to a local NTP server in the network. The local NTP server
typically references a more accurate clock feed from an outside source. By configuring console messages, logs,
and debug output to provide time stamps on output, you can cross-reference events in a network.
ntp server 10.4.48.17
ntp update-calendar
!
clock timezone PST -8
clock summer-time PDT recurring
!
service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime
service timestamps log datetime msec localtime
Step 7: Configure an in-band management interface.
The loopback interface is a logical interface that is always reachable as long as the device is powered on and
any IP interface is reachable to the network. Because of this capability, the loopback address is the best way to
manage the switch in-band. Layer 3 process and features are also bound to the loopback interface to ensure
process resiliency.
The loopback address is commonly a host address with a 32-bit address mask. Allocate the loopback address
from a unique network range that is not part of any other internal network summary range.
interface Loopback 0
ip address [ip address] 255.255.255.255
ip pim sparse-mode
The ip pim sparse-mode command will be explained in the next step.
Bind the device processes for SNMP, SSH, PIM, TACACS+ and NTP to the loopback interface address for
optimal resiliency:
snmp-server trap-source Loopback0
ip ssh source-interface Loopback0
ip pim register-source Loopback0
ip tacacs source-interface Loopback0
ntp source Loopback0
Step 8: Configure IP Multicast routing.
IP Multicast allows a single IP data stream to be replicated by the infrastructure (routers and switches) and sent
from a single source to multiple receivers. Using IP Multicast is much more efficient than multiple individual
unicast streams or a Broadcast stream that would propagate everywhere. IP Telephony MOH and IP Video
Broadcast Streaming are two examples of IP Multicast applications.
To receive a particular IP Multicast data stream, end hosts must join a multicast group by sending an IGMP
message to their local multicast router. In a traditional IP Multicast design, the local router consults another router
in the network that is acting as an RP to map the receivers to active sources so they can join their streams.
In this design, which is based on sparse mode multicast operation, Auto RP is used to provide a simple yet
scalable way to provide a highly resilient RP environment.
Enable IP Multicast routing on the platforms in the global configuration mode.
ip multicast-routing
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
67
Every Layer 3 switch and router must be configured to discover the IP Multicast RP with autorp. Use the ip pim
autorp listener command to allow for discovery across sparse mode links. This configuration provides for future
scaling and control of the IP Multicast environment and can change based on network needs and design.
ip pim autorp listener
All Layer 3 interfaces in the network must be enabled for sparse mode multicast operation.
ip pim sparse-mode
Procedure 2
Configure VRF Lite
An Internet-facing VRF is created to support FVRF for DMVPN. The VRF name is arbitrary but it is useful to select
a name that describes the VRF. An associated RD must also be configured to make the VRF functional. The RD
configuration also creates the routing and forwarding tables and associates the RD with the VRF instance.
This design uses VRF Lite so that the RD value can be chosen arbitrarily. It is a best practice to use the same
VRF/RD combination across multiple devices when using VRFs in a similar manner. However, this convention is
not strictly required.
ip vrf INET-PUBLIC1
rd 65512:1
Tech Tip
Command Reference:
An RD is either ASN-related (composed of an ASN and an arbitrary number) or
IP-address-related (composed of an IP address and an arbitrary number).
You can enter an RD in either of these formats:
16-bit autonomous-system-number:your 32-bit number
For example, 65512:1.
32-bit IP address: your 16-bit number
For example, 192.168.122.15:1.
Procedure 3
Connect to the Internet
The remote sites that are using DMVPN can use either static or dynamically assigned IP addresses. Cisco tested
the design with a DHCP assigned external address, which also provides a dynamically configured default route.
The DMVPN spoke router connects directly to the Internet without a separate firewall. This connection is secured
in two ways. Because the Internet interface is in a separate VRF, no traffic can access the global VRF except
traffic sourced through the DMVPN tunnel. This design provides implicit security. Additionally, an IP access
list permits only the traffic required for an encrypted tunnel, as well as DHCP and various ICMP protocols for
troubleshooting.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
68
Step 1: Enable the interface, select VRF and enable DHCP.
The DMVPN design uses FVRF, so this interface must be placed into the VRF configured in the previous
procedure.
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
ip vrf forwarding INET-PUBLIC1
ip address dhcp
no cdp enable
no shutdown
Do not enable PIM on this interface because no multicast traffic should be requested from this interface.
Step 2: Configure and apply the access list.
The IP access list must permit the protocols specified in the following table. The access list is applied inbound on
the WAN interface, so filtering is done on traffic destined to the router.
Table 19 - Required DMVPN protocols
Name
Protocol
Usage
non500-isakmp
UDP 4500
IPsec via NAT-T
isakmp
UDP 500
ISAKMP
esp
IP 50
IPsec
bootpc
UDP 68
DHCP
Example
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
ip access-group ACL-INET-PUBLIC in
ip access-list extended ACL-INET-PUBLIC
permit udp any any eq non500-isakmp
permit udp any any eq isakmp
permit esp any any
permit udp any any eq bootpc
The additional protocols listed in the following table may assist in troubleshooting, but are not explicitly required
to allow DMVPN to function properly.
Table 20 - Optional protocols-DMVPN spoke router
Name
Protocol
Usage
icmp echo
ICMP Type 0, Code 0
Allow remote pings
icmp echo-reply
ICMP Type 8, Code 0
Allow ping replies (from our requests)
icmp ttl-exceeded
ICMP Type 11, Code 0
Allow traceroute replies (from our requests)
icmp port-unreachable
ICMP Type 3, Code 3
Allow traceroute replies (from our requests)
UDP high ports
UDP > 1023, TTL=1
Allow remote traceroute
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
69
The additional optional entries for an access list to support ping are as follows:
permit icmp any any echo
permit icmp any any echo-reply
The additional optional entries for an access list to support traceroute are as follows:
permit icmp any any ttl-exceeded
permit icmp any any port-unreachable
permit udp any any gt 1023 ttl eq 1
Procedure 4
! for traceroute (sourced)
! for traceroute (sourced)
! for traceroute (destination)
Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
Step 1: Configure the crypto keyring.
The crypto keyring defines a PSK (or password) valid for IP sources reachable within a particular VRF. This key
is a wildcard pre-shared key if it applies to any IP source. A wildcard key is configured using the 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
network/mask combination.
crypto keyring DMVPN-KEYRING1 vrf INET-PUBLIC1
pre-shared-key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 key cisco123
Step 2: Configure the ISAKMP Policy and Dead Peer Detection.
The ISAKMP policy for DMVPN uses the following:
• Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 256-bit key
• Secure Hash Standard (SHA)
• Authentication by PSK
• Diffie-Hellman group: 2
DPD is enabled with keepalive intervals sent at 30-second intervals with a 5-second retry interval, which is
considered to be a reasonable setting to detect a failed hub.
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
hash sha
authentication pre-share
group 2
!
crypto isakmp keepalive 30 5
Step 3: Create the ISAKMP profile.
The ISAKMP profile creates an association between an identity address, a VRF and a crypto keyring. A wildcard
address within a VRF is referenced with 0.0.0.0.
crypto isakmp profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC1
keyring DMVPN-KEYRING1
match identity address 0.0.0.0 INET-PUBLIC1
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
70
Step 4: Define the IPsec transform set.
A transform set is an acceptable combination of security protocols, algorithms, and other settings to apply to
IPsec-protected traffic. Peers agree to use a particular transform set when protecting a particular data flow.
The IPsec transform set for DMVPN uses the following:
• ESP with the 256-bit AES encryption algorithm
• ESP with the SHA (HMAC variant) authentication algorithm
Since the DMVPN hub router is behind a NAT device, the IPsec transform must be configured for transport
mode.
crypto ipsec transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode transport
Step 5: Create the IPsec profile.
The IPsec profile creates an association between an ISAKMP profile and an IPsec transform-set.
crypto ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE1
set transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT
set isakmp-profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC1
Procedure 5
Configure the mGRE Tunnel
Step 1: Configure basic interface settings.
Tunnel interfaces are created as they are configured. The tunnel number is arbitrary, but it is best to begin tunnel
numbering at 10 or above, because other features deployed in this design may also require tunnels and they may
select lower numbers by default.
The bandwidth setting should be set to match the Internet bandwidth.
Configure the IP MTU to 1400 and the ip tcp adjust-mss to 1360. There is a 40 byte difference, which
corresponds to the combined IP and TCP header length.
interface Tunnel10
bandwidth [bandwidth (kbps)]
ip address [IP address] [netmask]
no ip redirects
ip mtu 1400
ip tcp adjust-mss 1360
Step 2: Configure the tunnel.
DMVPN uses multipoint GRE (mGRE) tunnels. This type of tunnel requires a source interface only. The source
interface should be the same interface used in to connect to the Internet. The tunnel vrf command should be set
to the VRF defined previously for FVRF.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
71
Enabling encryption on this interface requires the application of the IPsec profile configured in the previous
procedure.
interface Tunnel10
tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel vrf INET-PUBLIC1
tunnel protection ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE1
Step 3: Configure NHRP.
The DMVPN hub router is the NHRP server for all of the spokes. NHRP is used by remote routers to determine
the tunnel destinations for peers attached to the mGRE tunnel.
The spoke router requires several additional configuration statements to define the NHRP server (NHS) and
NHRP map statements for the DMVPN hub router mGRE tunnel IP address. EIGRP (configured in the following
Procedure 6) relies on a multicast transport. Spoke routers require the NHRP static multicast mapping.
The value used for the NHS is the mGRE tunnel address for the DMVPN hub router. The map entries must be set
to the outside NAT value of the DMVPN hub, as configured on the Cisco ASA5500. This design uses the values
shown in Table 21.
Table 21 - DMVPN tunnel parameters
Parameter value
DMVPN cloud
Primary
VRF
INET-PUBLIC1
DMVPN hub public address (actual)
192.168.18.10
DMVPN hub public address (externally routable after NAT)
172.16.130.1
Tunnel IP address (NHS)
10.4.34.1
Tunnel number
10
NHRP network ID
101
NHRP requires all devices within a DMVPN cloud to use the same network ID and authentication key. The NHRP
cache holdtime should be configured to 600 seconds.
This design supports DMVPN spoke routers that receive their external IP addresses through DHCP. It is possible
for these routers to acquire different IP addresses after a reload. When the router attempts to register with the
NHRP server, it may appear as a duplicate to an entry already in the cache and be rejected. The registration
no-unique option allows you to overwrite existing cache entries. This feature is only required on NHRP clients
(DMVPN spoke routers).
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
72
The ip nhrp redirect command allows the DMVPN hub to notify spoke routers that a more optimal path may exist
to a destination network, which may be required for DMVPN spoke-to-spoke direct communications. DMVPN
spoke routers also use shortcut switching when building spoke-to-spoke tunnels.
interface Tunnel10
ip nhrp authentication cisco123
ip nhrp map 10.4.34.1 172.16.130.1
ip nhrp map multicast 172.16.130.1
ip nhrp network-id 101
ip nhrp holdtime 600
ip nhrp nhs 10.4.34.1
ip nhrp registration no-unique
ip nhrp shortcut
ip nhrp redirect
Step 4: Configure EIGRP.
You configure EIGRP in the following procedure, but you need to configure some specific requirements for the
mGRE tunnel interface first.
The EIGRP hello interval is increased to 20 seconds and the EIGRP hold time is increased to 60 seconds to
accommodate up to 500 remote sites on a single DMVPN cloud.
interface Tunnel10
ip hello-interval eigrp 200 20
ip hold-time eigrp 200 60
The remote-site LAN networks must be advertised. The IP assignment for the remote sites was designed so
that all of the networks in use can be summarized within a single aggregate route. The summary address as
configured below suppresses the more specific routes. If any network within the summary is present in the route
table, the summary is advertised to the DMVPN hub, which offers a measure of resiliency. If the various LAN
networks cannot be summarized, then EIGRP continues to advertise the specific routes.
interface Tunnel10
ip summary-address eigrp 200 [summary network] [summary mask]
Procedure 6
Configure EIGRP
A single EIGRP process runs on the DMVPN spoke router. All interfaces on the router are EIGRP interfaces, but
only the DMVPN tunnel interface is non-passive. The network range must include all interface IP addresses
either in a single network statement or in multiple network statements. This design uses a best practice of
assigning the router ID to a loopback address. All DMVPN spoke routers should run EIGRP stub routing to
improve network stability and reduce resource utilization.
router eigrp 200
network 10.4.34.0 0.0.1.255
network 10.5.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
passive-interface default
no passive-interface Tunnel10
eigrp router-id [IP address of Loopback0]
eigrp stub connected summary
no auto-summary
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
73
Procedure 7
Configure IP Multicast Routing
This procedure includes additional steps for configuring IP Multicast for a DMVPN tunnel on a router with IP
Multicast already enabled.
Step 1: Configure PIM on the DMVPN tunnel interface.
Enable IP PIM sparse mode on the DMVPN tunnel interface.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 2: Enable PIM non-broadcast multiple access mode for the DMVPN tunnel.
Spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks present a unique challenge because the spokes cannot directly exchange
information with one another, even though they are on the same logical network. This inability to directly
exchange information can also cause problems when running IP Multicast.
To resolve the NBMA issue, you need to implement a method where each remote PIM neighbor has its join
messages tracked separately. A router in PIM NBMA mode treats each remote PIM neighbor as if it were
connected to the router through a point-to-point link.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim nbma-mode
Step 3: Configure the DR priority for the DMVPN spoke router.
Proper multicast operation across a DMVPN cloud requires that the hub router assumes the role of PIM
Designated Router (DR). Spoke routers should never become the DR. You can prevent that by setting the DR
priority to 0 for the spokes.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim dr-priority 0
Procedure 8
Connect Router to Access Layer Switch
Reader Tip
Please refer to the Campus Wired LAN Technology Design Guide for complete access
layer configuration details. This guide only includes the additional steps to complete the
access layer configuration.
If you are using a remote-site distribution layer then skip to the “Deploying a WAN
Remote-Site Distribution Layer” section of this guide.
Layer 2 EtherChannels are used to interconnect the CE router to the access layer in the most resilient method
possible. If your access layer device is a single fixed configuration switch a simple Layer 2 trunk between the
router and switch is used.
In the access layer design, the remote sites use collapsed routing, with 802.1Q trunk interfaces to the LAN
access layer. The VLAN numbering is locally significant only.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
74
Option 1: Layer 2 EtherChannel from router to access layer switch
Step 1: Configure port-channel interface on the router.
interface Port-channel1
description EtherChannel link to RS232-A2960S
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the router.
Configure the physical interfaces to tie to the logical port-channel using the channel-group command. The
number for the port-channel and channel-group must match. Not all router platforms can support LACP to
negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured statically.
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
description RS232-A2960S Gig1/0/24
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
description RS232-A2960S Gig2/0/24
!
interface range GigabitEthernet0/1, GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
channel-group 1
no shutdown
Step 3: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the access layer switch.
Connect the router EtherChannel uplinks to separate switches in the access layer switch stack, or in the case of
the Cisco Catalyst 4507R+E distribution layer, to separate redundant modules for additional resiliency.
The physical interfaces that are members of a Layer 2 EtherChannel are configured prior to configuring the
logical port-channel interface. Doing the configuration in this order allows for minimal configuration and reduces
errors because most of the commands entered to a port-channel interface are copied to its members interfaces
and do not require manual replication.
Configure two physical interfaces to be members of the EtherChannel. Also, apply the egress QoS macro that
was defined in the LAN switch platform configuration procedure to ensure traffic is prioritized appropriately.
Not all connected router platforms can support LACP to negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured
statically.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/24
description Link to RS232-2911-1 Gig0/1
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/24
description Link to RS232-2911-1 Gig0/2
!
interface range GigabitEthernet1/0/24, GigabitEthernet2/0/24
switchport
macro apply EgressQoS
channel-group 1 mode on
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
logging event bundle-status
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
75
Step 4: Configure EtherChannel trunk on the access layer switch.
An 802.1Q trunk is used which allows the router to provide the Layer 3 services to all the VLANs defined on the
access layer switch. The VLANs allowed on the trunk are pruned to only the VLANs that are active on the access
layer switch. When using EtherChannel the interface type will be port-channel and the number must match the
channel group configured in Step 3. DHCP Snooping and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) inspection are set
to trust.
interface Port-channel1
description EtherChannel link to RS232-2911-1
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk allowed vlan 64,69
switchport mode trunk
ip arp inspection trust
spanning-tree portfast trunk
ip dhcp snooping trust
no shutdown
The Catalyst 2960-S and 4500 do not require the switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q command.
Option 2: Layer 2 trunk from router to access layer switch
Step 1: Enable the physical interface on the router.
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
description RS231-A2960S Gig1/0/24
no ip address
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure the trunk on the access layer switch.
Use an 802.1Q trunk for the connection, which allows the router to provide the Layer 3 services to all the VLANs
defined on the access layer switch. The VLANs allowed on the trunk are pruned to only the VLANs that are
active on the access switch. DHCP Snooping and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) inspection are set to trust.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/24
description Link to RS231-2911 Gig0/2
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk allowed vlan 64,69
switchport mode trunk
ip arp inspection trust
spanning-tree portfast trunk
macro apply EgressQoS
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
ip dhcp snooping trust
no shutdown
The Catalyst 2960-S and 4500 do not require the switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q command.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
76
Procedure 9
Configure Access Layer Routing
Step 1: Create subinterfaces and assign VLAN tags.
After the physical interface or port-channel has been enabled, then the appropriate data or voice subinterfaces
can be mapped to the VLANs on the LAN switch. The subinterface number does not need to equate to the
802.1Q tag, but making them the same simplifies the overall configuration. The subinterface portion of the
configuration should be repeated for all data or voice VLANs.
interface [type][number].[sub-interface number]
encapsulation dot1Q [dot1q VLAN tag]
Step 2: Configure IP settings for each subinterface.
This design uses an IP addressing convention with the default gateway router assigned an IP address and IP
mask combination of N.N.N.1 255.255.255.0 where N.N.N is the IP network and 1 is the IP host.
When you are using a centralized DHCP server, your routers with LAN interfaces connected to a LAN using
DHCP for end-station IP addressing must use an IP helper.
If the remote-site router is the first router of a dual-router design, then HSRP is configured at the access layer.
This requires a modified IP configuration on each subinterface.
interface [type][number].[sub-interface number]
ip address [LAN network 1] [LAN network 1 netmask]
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
Example: Layer 2 EtherChannel
interface Port-channel1
no ip address
no shutdown
!
interface Port-channel1.64
description Data
encapsulation dot1Q 64
ip address 10.5.212.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
!
interface Port-channel1.69
description Voice
encapsulation dot1Q 69
ip address 10.5.213.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
77
Example: Layer 2 Link
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
no shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.64
description Data
encapsulation dot1Q 64
ip address 10.5.192.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.69
description Voice
encapsulation dot1Q 69
ip address 10.5.193.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
Enabling DMVPN Backup on a Remote Site Router
PROCESS
1. Configure VRF Lite
2. Connect to the Internet
3. Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
4. Configure the mGRE Tunnel
5. Configure EIGRP
6. Configure IP Multicast Routing
7. Control Usage of VPN with Static Routing
Use this set of procedures for any of the following topologies: DMVPN + DMVPN remote site, MPLS + DMVPN
remote site, or Layer 2 WAN + DMVPN remote site.
This set of procedures includes the additional steps necessary to add a DMVPN backup link to a remote-site
router that has already been configured with a primary WAN link using one of the following processes.
In this guide:
• Remote-Site DMVPN Spoke Router Configuration
Or in these other guides:
• MPLS WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site MPLS CE Router Configuration
• Layer 2 WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site Layer 2 WAN CE Router Configuration
Only the additional procedures to add the DMVPN backup to the running remote-site router are included here.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
78
The following flowchart provides details about how to add DMVPN backup on an existing remote-site router.
Figure 24 - Adding DMVPN Backup Configuration Flowchart
MPLS CE Router
Configuration Complete
NO
Layer 2 WAN CE Router
Configuration Complete
Add DMVPN
Backup?
DMVPN Spoke Router
Configuration Complete
YES
Enabling DMVPN
Backup on a
Remote-Site Router
Configuration
Procedures
1. Configure VRF Lite
2. Connect to Internet
3. Configure ISAKMP and IPSec
4. Configure mGRE Tunnel
5. Configure EIGRP
6. Configure IP Multicast Routing
Site Complete
Procedure 1
Site Complete
2161
7. Control Usage of VPN with
Static Routing
g ((Optional)
p
)
Configure VRF Lite
An Internet-facing VRF is created to support Front Door VRF for DMVPN. The VRF name is arbitrary but it is
useful to select a name that describes the VRF. An associated RD must also be configured to make the VRF
functional. The RD configuration also creates the routing and forwarding tables and associates the RD with the
VRF instance.
This design uses VRF Lite so that the RD value can be chosen arbitrarily. It is a best practice to use the same
VRF/RD combination across multiple devices when using VRFs in a similar manner. However, this convention is
not strictly required.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
79
When adding DMVPN backup to an already configured DMVPN spoke router, use a new VRF and other
associated parameters as shown in the following table.
Table 22 - VRF Parameters for dual DMVPN
Parameter
Primary DMVPN cloud
Secondary DMVPN cloud
vrf
INET-PUBLIC1
INET-PUBLIC2
rd
65512:1
65512:2
crypto keyring
DMVPN-KEYRING1
DMVPN-KEYRING2
crypto isakmp profile
FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC1
FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC2
crypto ipsec profile
DMVPN-PROFILE1
DMVPN-PROFILE2
ip vrf INET-PUBLIC1
rd 65512:1
Tech Tip
Command Reference:
An RD is either ASN-related (composed of an ASN and an arbitrary number) or
IP-address-related (composed of an IP address and an arbitrary number).
You can enter an RD in either of these formats:
16-bit autonomous-system-number:your 32-bit number
For example, 65512:1.
32-bit IP address: your 16-bit number
For example, 192.168.122.15:1.
Procedure 2
Connect to the Internet
The remote sites that are using DMVPN can use either static or dynamically assigned IP addresses. Cisco tested
the design with a DHCP assigned external address, which also provides a dynamically configured default route.
The DMVPN spoke router connects directly to the Internet without a separate firewall. This connection is secured
in two ways. Because the Internet interface is in a separate VRF, no traffic can access the global VRF except
traffic sourced through the DMVPN tunnel. This design provides implicit security. Additionally, an IP access
list permits only the traffic required for an encrypted tunnel, as well as DHCP and various ICMP protocols for
troubleshooting.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
80
Step 1: Enable the interface, select VRF and enable DHCP.
The DMVPN design uses FVRF, so this interface must be placed into the VRF configured in the previous
procedure.
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
ip vrf forwarding INET-PUBLIC1
ip address dhcp
no cdp enable
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure and apply the access list.
The IP access list must permit the protocols specified in the following table. The access list is applied inbound on
the WAN interface, so filtering is done on traffic destined to the router.
Table 23 - Required DMVPN protocols
Name
Protocol
Usage
non500-isakmp
UDP 4500
IPsec via NAT-T
isakmp
UDP 500
ISAKMP
esp
IP 50
IPsec
bootpc
UDP 68
DHCP
Example
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
ip access-group ACL-INET-PUBLIC in
ip access-list extended ACL-INET-PUBLIC
permit udp any any eq non500-isakmp
permit udp any any eq isakmp
permit esp any any
permit udp any any eq bootpc
The additional protocols listed in the following table may assist in troubleshooting, but are not explicitly required
to allow DMVPN to function properly.
Table 24 - Optional protocols-DMVPN spoke router
Name
Protocol
Usage
icmp echo
ICMP Type 0, Code 0
Allow remote pings
icmp echo-reply
ICMP Type 8, Code 0
Allow ping replies (from our requests)
icmp ttl-exceeded
ICMP Type 11, Code 0
Allow traceroute replies (from our requests)
icmp port-unreachable
ICMP Type 3, Code 3
Allow traceroute replies (from our requests)
UDP high ports
UDP > 1023, TTL=1
Allow remote traceroute
The additional optional entries for an access list to support ping are as follows:
permit icmp any any echo
permit icmp any any echo-reply
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
81
The additional optional entries for an access list to support traceroute are as follows:
permit icmp any any ttl-exceeded
permit icmp any any port-unreachable
permit udp any any gt 1023 ttl eq 1
Procedure 3
! for traceroute (sourced)
! for traceroute (sourced)
! for traceroute (destination)
Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
Step 1: Configure the crypto keyring.
The crypto keyring defines a PSK (or password) valid for IP sources reachable within a particular VRF. This key is
a wildcard PSK if it applies to any IP source. A wildcard key is configured using the 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 network/mask
combination.
crypto keyring DMVPN-KEYRING1 vrf INET-PUBLIC1
pre-shared-key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 key cisco123
Step 2: Configure the ISAKMP Policy and Dead Peer Detection.
The ISAKMP policy for DMVPN uses the following:
• Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 256-bit key
• Secure Hash Standard (SHA)
• Authentication by PSK
• Diffie-Hellman group: 2
DPD is enabled with keepalive intervals sent at 30-second intervals with a 5-second retry interval, which is
considered to be a reasonable setting to detect a failed hub.
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
hash sha
authentication pre-share
group 2
!
crypto isakmp keepalive 30 5
Step 3: Create the ISAKMP profile.
The ISAKMP profile creates an association between an identity address, a VRF and a crypto keyring. A wildcard
address within a VRF is referenced with 0.0.0.0.
crypto isakmp profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC1
keyring DMVPN-KEYRING1
match identity address 0.0.0.0 INET-PUBLIC1
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
82
Step 4: Define the IPsec transform set.
A transform set is an acceptable combination of security protocols, algorithms, and other settings to apply to
IPsec-protected traffic. Peers agree to use a particular transform set when protecting a particular data flow.
The IPsec transform set for DMVPN uses the following:
• ESP with the 256-bit AES encryption algorithm
• ESP with the SHA (HMAC variant) authentication algorithm
Since the DMVPN hub router is behind a NAT device, the IPsec transform must be configured for transport
mode.
crypto ipsec transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode transport
Step 5: Create the IPsec profile.
The IPsec profile creates an association between an ISAKMP profile and an IPsec transform-set.
crypto ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE1
set transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT
set isakmp-profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC1
Procedure 4
Configure the mGRE Tunnel
Step 1: Configure basic interface settings.
Tunnel interfaces are created as they are configured. The tunnel number is arbitrary, but it is best to begin tunnel
numbering at 10 or above, because other features deployed in this design may also require tunnels and they may
select lower numbers by default.
The bandwidth setting should be set to match the Internet bandwidth.
Configure the IP MTU to 1400 and the ip tcp adjust-mss to 1360. There is a 40 byte difference, which
corresponds to the combined IP and TCP header length.
interface Tunnel10
bandwidth [bandwidth (kbps)]
ip address [IP address] [netmask]
no ip redirects
ip mtu 1400
ip tcp adjust-mss 1360
Step 2: Configure the tunnel.
DMVPN uses multipoint GRE (mGRE) tunnels. This type of tunnel requires a source interface only. Use the same
source interface that you use to connect to the Internet. Set the tunnel vrf command should be set to the VRF
defined previously for FVRF.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
83
Enabling encryption on this interface requires the application of the IPsec profile configured in the previous
procedure.
interface Tunnel10
tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/1
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel vrf INET-PUBLIC1
tunnel protection ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE1
Step 3: Configure NHRP.
The DMVPN hub router is the NHRP server for all of the spokes. NHRP is used by remote routers to determine
the tunnel destinations for peers attached to the mGRE tunnel.
The spoke router requires several additional configuration statements to define the NHRP server (NHS) and
NHRP map statements for the DMVPN hub router mGRE tunnel IP address. EIGRP (configured in the following
Procedure 5) relies on a multicast transport. Spoke routers require the NHRP static multicast mapping.
The value used for the NHS is the mGRE tunnel address for the DMVPN hub router. The map entries must be set
to the outside NAT value of the DMVPN hub, as configured on the Cisco ASA5500. This design uses the values
shown in Table 25.
Table 25 - DMVPN tunnel parameters
Parameter values
DMVPN cloud
Primary
Secondary
VRF
INET-PUBLIC1
INET-PUBLIC2
DMVPN hub public address (actual)
192.168.18.10
192.168.18.11
DMVPN hub public address (externally routable after
NAT)
172.16.130.1
172.17.130.1
Tunnel IP address (NHS)
10.4.34.1
10.4.36.1
Tunnel number
10
11
NHRP network ID
101
102
NHRP requires all devices within a DMVPN cloud to use the same network ID and authentication key. The NHRP
cache holdtime should be configured to 600 seconds.
This design supports DMVPN spoke routers that receive their external IP addresses through DHCP. It is possible
for these routers to acquire different IP addresses after a reload. When the router attempts to register with the
NHRP server, it may appear as a duplicate to an entry already in the cache and be rejected. The registration
no-unique option allows you to overwrite existing cache entries. This feature is only required on NHRP clients
(DMVPN spoke routers).
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
84
The ip nhrp redirect command allows the DMVPN hub to notify spoke routers that a more optimal path may exist
to a destination network, which may be required for DMVPN spoke-to-spoke direct communications. DMVPN
spoke routers also use shortcut switching when building spoke-to-spoke tunnels.
interface Tunnel10
ip nhrp authentication cisco123
ip nhrp map 10.4.34.1 172.16.130.1
ip nhrp map multicast 172.16.130.1
ip nhrp network-id 101
ip nhrp holdtime 600
ip nhrp nhs 10.4.34.1
ip nhrp registration no-unique
ip nhrp shortcut
ip nhrp redirect
Step 4: Configure EIGRP.
You configure EIGRP is configured in the next procedure, but there are some specific requirements for the mGRE
tunnel interface that you need to configure first.
The EIGRP hello interval is increased to 20 seconds and the EIGRP hold time is increased to 60 seconds to
accommodate up to 500 remote sites on a single DMVPN cloud.
interface Tunnel10
ip hello-interval eigrp 200 20
ip hold-time eigrp 200 60
The remote-site LAN networks must be advertised. The IP assignment for the remote sites was designed so
that all of the networks in use can be summarized within a single aggregate route. The summary address as
configured below suppresses the more specific routes. If any network within the summary is present in the route
table, the summary is advertised to the DMVPN hub, which offers a measure of resiliency. If the various LAN
networks cannot be summarized, EIGRP continues to advertise the specific routes.
interface Tunnel10
ip summary-address eigrp 200 [summary network] [summary mask]
Procedure 5
Configure EIGRP
An additional EIGRP-200 process runs on the DMVPN spoke router for the second DMVPN cloud. All interfaces
on the router are EIGRP interfaces, but only the DMVPN tunnel interface is non-passive. The network range must
include all interface IP addresses either in a single network statement or in multiple network statements. This
design uses a best practice of assigning the router ID to a loopback address. All DMVPN spoke routers should
run EIGRP stub routing to improve network stability and reduce resource utilization.
router eigrp 200
network 10.4.34.0 0.0.1.255
network 10.5.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
passive-interface default
no passive-interface Tunnel10
eigrp router-id [IP address of Loopback0]
eigrp stub connected summary
no auto-summary
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
85
Procedure 6
Configure IP Multicast Routing
This procedure includes additional steps for configuring IP Multicast for a DMVPN tunnel on a router with IP
Multicast already enabled.
Step 1: Configure PIM on the DMVPN tunnel interface.
Enable IP PIM sparse mode on the DMVPN tunnel interface.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 2: Enable PIM NBMA mode for the DMVPN tunnel.
Spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks present a unique challenge because the spokes cannot directly exchange
information with one another, even though they are on the same logical network. This inability to directly
exchange information can also cause problems when running IP Multicast.
To resolve the NBMA issue, you need to implement a method where each remote PIM neighbor has its join
messages tracked separately. A router in PIM NBMA mode treats each remote PIM neighbor as if it were
connected to the router through a point-to-point link.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim nbma-mode
Step 3: Configure the DR priority for the DMVPN spoke router.
Proper multicast operation across a DMVPN cloud requires that the hub router assumes the role of PIM
Designated Router (DR). Spoke routers should never become the DR. You can prevent that by setting the DR
priority to 0 for the spokes.
interface Tunnel10
ip pim dr-priority 0
Procedure 7
Control Usage of VPN with Static Routing
This procedure is optional, and is only required when using an MPLS WAN with static routing.
This procedure should be used to control the VPN usage for the dual-link designs (single-router, dual-link) when
adding VPN backup and static routing with the service provider is used. The MPLS VPN is the primary WAN
transport, and as long as it is operational, the tunnel interface remains shut down.
The remote-site router can use the IP SLA feature to send echo probes to the site’s MPLS PE router, and if the
PE router becomes unreachable, then the router can use the Embedded Event Manager (EEM) to dynamically
enable the tunnel interface.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
86
Step 1: Enable the IP SLA probe.
Standard ICMP echo (ping) probes are used and are sent at 15-second intervals. Responses must be received
before the timeout of 1000 ms expires. If using the MPLS PE router as the probe destination, the destination
address is the same as the static route next hop address already configured. Use the MPLS WAN interface as
the probe source-interface.
ip sla [probe number]
icmp-echo [probe destination IP address] source-interface [interface]
timeout 1000
threshold 1000
frequency 15
ip sla schedule [probe number] life forever start-time now
Step 2: Configure Enhanced Object Tracking.
This step links the status of the IP SLA probe to an object which is monitored by EEM scripts.
track [object number] ip sla [probe number] reachability
Step 3: Configure EEM scripting to enable or disable the tunnel interface.
An event-tracking EEM script monitors the state of an object and runs router IOS commands for that particular
state. It is also a best practice to generate syslog messages that provide status information regarding EEM.
event manager applet [EEM script name]
event track [object number] state [tracked object state]
action [sequence 1] cli command “[command 1]”
action [sequence 2] cli command “[command 2]”
action [sequence 3] cli command “[command 3]”
action [sequence …] cli command “[command …]”
action [sequence N] syslog msg “[syslog message test]”
Example
track 60 ip sla 200 reachability
ip sla 200
icmp-echo 192.168.6.142 source-interface GigabitEthernet0/0
threshold 1000
frequency 15
ip sla schedule 200 life forever start-time now
EEM script to enable tunnel interface upon MPLS link failure:
event manager applet ACTIVATE-VPN
event track 60 state down
action 1 cli command “enable”
action 2 cli command “configure terminal”
action 3 cli command “interface tunnel10”
action 4 cli command “no shutdown”
action 5 cli command “end”
action 99 syslog msg “Primary Link Down - Activating VPN interface”
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
87
EEM script to disable tunnel interface upon MPLS link restoration:
event manager applet DEACTIVATE-VPN
event track 60 state up
action 1 cli command “enable”
action 2 cli command “configure terminal”
action 3 cli command “interface tunnel10”
action 4 cli command “shutdown”
action 5 cli command “end”
action 99 syslog msg “Primary Link Restored - Deactivating VPN interface”
PROCESS
Router 1 Modifications for Dual Router Design
1. Configure Access Layer HSRP
2. Configure Transit Network
3. Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
4. Enable Enhanced Object Tracking
5. Configure Loopback Resiliency
This process is required when the first router has already been configured using one of the following processes.
In this guide:
• Remote-Site DMVPN Spoke Router Configuration
Or in these other guides:
• MPLS WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site MPLS CE Router Configuration
• Layer 2 WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site Layer 2 WAN CE Router Configuration
Procedure 1
Configure Access Layer HSRP
You need to configure HSRP to enable the use of a Virtual IP (VIP) as a default gateway that is shared between
two routers. The HSRP active router is the router connected to the primary carrier and the HSRP standby router
is the router connected to the secondary carrier or backup link. Configure the HSRP active router with a standby
priority that is higher than the HSRP standby router.
The router with the higher standby priority value is elected as the HSRP active router. The preempt option allows
a router with a higher priority to become the HSRP active, without waiting for a scenario where there is no router
in the HSRP active state. The relevant HSRP parameters for the router configuration are shown in the following
table.
Table 26 - WAN remote-site HSRP parameters (dual router)
Router
HSRP role
Virtual IP address (VIP)
Real IP address
HSRP priority
PIM DR priority
Primary
Active
.1
.2
110
110
Secondary
Standby
.1
.3
105
105
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
88
The assigned IP addresses override those configured in the previous procedure, so the default gateway IP
address remains consistent across locations with single or dual routers.
The dual-router access-layer design requires a modification for resilient multicast. The PIM designated router
(DR) should be on the HSRP active router. The DR is normally elected based on the highest IP address, and has
no awareness of the HSRP configuration. In this design, the HSRP active router has a lower real IP address than
the HSRP standby router, which requires a modification to the PIM configuration. The PIM DR election can be
influenced by explicitly setting the DR priority on the LAN-facing subinterfaces for the routers.
Tech Tip
The HSRP priority and PIM DR priority are shown in the previous table to be the same
value; however you are not required to use identical values.
This procedure should be repeated for all data or voice subinterfaces.
interface [type][number].[sub-interface number]
encapsulation dot1Q [dot1q VLAN tag]
ip address [LAN network 1 address] [LAN network 1 netmask]
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
ip pim dr-priority 110
standby version 2
standby 1 ip [LAN network 1 gateway address]
standby 1 priority 110
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
Example: Layer 2 Link
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
no shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.64
description Data
encapsulation dot1Q 64
ip address 10.5.212.2 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim dr-priority 110
ip pim sparse-mode
standby version 2
standby 1 ip 10.5.212.1
standby 1 priority 110
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.69
description Voice
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
89
encapsulation dot1Q 69
ip address 10.5.213.2 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim dr-priority 110
ip pim sparse-mode
standby version 2
standby 1 ip 10.5.213.1
standby 1 priority 110
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
Procedure 2
Configure Transit Network
The transit network is configured between the two routers. This network is used for router-router communication
and to avoid hair-pinning. The transit network should use an additional subinterface on the router interface that is
already being used for data or voice.
There are no end stations connected to this network, so HSRP and DHCP are not required.
interface [type][number].[sub-interface number]
encapsulation dot1Q [dot1q VLAN tag]
ip address [transit net address] [transit net netmask]
ip pim sparse-mode
Example
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.99
description Transit Net
encapsulation dot1Q 99
ip address 10.5.208.1 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 1: Add transit network VLAN to the access layer switch.
If the VLAN does not already exist on the access layer switch, configure it now.
vlan 99
name Transit-net
Step 2: Add transit network VLAN to existing access layer switch trunk.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/24
switchport trunk allowed vlan add 99
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
90
Procedure 3
Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
You must configure a routing protocol between the two routers. This ensures that the HSRP active router has full
reachability information for all WAN remote sites.
Step 1: Enable EIGRP-100.
Configure EIGRP-100 facing the access layer. In this design, all LAN-facing interfaces and the loopback must
be EIGRP interfaces. All interfaces except the transit-network subinterface should remain passive. The network
range must include all interface IP addresses either in a single network statement or in multiple network
statements. This design uses a best practice of assigning the router ID to a loopback address. Do not include the
DMVPN mGRE interface as an EIGRP-100 interface.
router eigrp 100
network [network] [inverse mask]
passive-interface default
no passive-interface [Transit interface]
eigrp router-id [IP address of Loopback0]
no auto-summary
Step 2: Redistribute WAN routing protocol into EIGRP-100.
The remote-site router is using either BGP for an MPLS connection or EIGRP for a Layer 2 WAN or DMVPN
connection. The WAN-facing routing protocol in use needs to be distributed into the EIGRP-100.
EIGRP-200 or EIGRP-300 are already configured in a DMVPN or Layer 2 WAN deployment, and routes from
these EIGRP processes are redistributed. Since the routing protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
router eigrp 100
redistribute eigrp 200
BGP is already configured for a MPLS deployment. The BGP routes are redistributed into EIGRP with a default
metric. By default, only the WAN bandwidth and delay values are used for metric calculation.
router eigrp 100
default-metric [WAN bandwidth] [WAN delay] 255 1 1500
redistribute bgp 65511
Example: EIGRP into EIGRP
router eigrp 100
network 10.4.0.0 0.1.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
redistribute eigrp 200
passive-interface default
no passive-interface GigabitEthernet0/2.99
eigrp router-id 10.255.253.232
no auto-summary
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
91
Example: BGP into EIGRP
router eigrp 100
default-metric 100000 100 255 1 1500
network 10.4.0.0 0.1.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
redistribute bgp 65511
passive-interface default
no passive-interface GigabitEthernet0/2.99
eigrp router-id 10.255.252.206
no auto-summary
Procedure 4
Enable Enhanced Object Tracking
The HSRP active router remains the active router unless the router is reloaded or fails. Having the HSRP router
remain as the active router can lead to undesired behavior. If the primary WAN transport were to fail, the HSRP
active router would learn an alternate path through the transit network to the HSRP standby router and begin to
forward traffic across the alternate path. This is sub-optimal routing, and you can address it by using EOT.
The HSRP active router (MPLS CE, Layer 2 WAN CE, or primary DMVPN spoke) can use the IP SLA feature to
send echo probes to an upstream neighbor router and if that router becomes unreachable, then the router can
lower its HSRP priority, so that the HSRP standby router can preempt and become the HSRP active router.
This procedure is valid only on the router connected to the primary transport.
Step 1: Enable the IP SLA probe.
Use standard ICMP echo (ping) probes, and send them at 15 second intervals. Responses must be received
before the timeout of 1000 ms expires. If using the MPLS PE router as the probe destination, the destination
address is the same as the BGP neighbor address. If using the Layer WAN CE router as the probe destination,
then the destination address is either the CE router address when using the simple demarcation or the
subinterface CE router address when using a trunked demarcation. If using the DMVPN hub router as the probe
destination, then the destination address is the mGRE tunnel address.
ip sla 100
icmp-echo [probe destination IP address] source-interface [WAN interface]
timeout 1000
threshold 1000
frequency 15
ip sla schedule 100 life forever start-time now
Step 2: Configure EOT.
A tracked object is created based on the IP SLA probe. The object being tracked is the reachability success or
failure of the probe. If the probe is successful, the tracked object status is Up; if it fails, the tracked object status
is Down.
track 50 ip sla 100 reachability
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
92
Step 3: Link HSRP with the tracked object.
All data or voice subinterfaces should enable HSRP tracking.
HSRP can monitor the tracked object status. If the status is down, the HSRP priority is decremented by the
configured priority. If the decrease is large enough, the HSRP standby router preempts.
interface [interface type] [number].[sub-interface number]
standby 1 track 50 decrement 10
Example
ip sla 100
icmp-echo 192.168.3.10 source-interface GigabitEthernet0/0
timeout 1000
threshold 1000
frequency 15
ip sla schedule 100 life forever start-time now
!
track 50 ip sla 100 reachability
!
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.64
standby 1 track 50 decrement 10
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.69
standby 1 track 50 decrement 10
Procedure 5
Configure Loopback Resiliency
The remote-site routers have in-band management configured via the loopback interface. To ensure reachability
of the loopback interface in a dual-router design, redistribute the loopback of the adjacent router into the WAN
routing protocol. The procedure varies depending on which WAN routing protocol is in use.
Option 1: MPLS CE Router with BGP
Step 1: Configure BGP to advertise the adjacent router’s loopback IP address.
router bgp 65511
network 10.255.253.203 mask 255.255.255.255
Option 2: DMVPN Spoke Router or Layer 2 WAN CE Router with EIGRP
Step 1: Configure an access list to limit the redistribution to only the adjacent router’s loopback IP address.
ip access-list standard R[number]-LOOPBACK
permit [IP Address of Adjacent Router Loopback]
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R[number]-LOOPBACK
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
93
Example
ip access-list standard R2-LOOPBACK
permit 10.255.253.211
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R2-LOOPBACK
Step 2: Configure EIGRP to redistribute the adjacent router’s loopback IP address. The EIGRP stub routing must
be adjusted to permit redistributed routes.
Example: DMVPN Spoke Router
router eigrp 200
redistribute eigrp 100 route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY
eigrp stub connected summary redistributed
Example: Layer 2 WAN CE Router
router eigrp 300
redistribute eigrp 100 route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY
eigrp stub connected summary redistributed
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
94
Remote-Site DMVPN Spoke Router Configuration (Router 2)
1. Configure the WAN Remote Router
2. Configure VRF Lite
3. Connect to the Internet
PROCESS
4. Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
5. Configure the mGRE Tunnel
6. Configure EIGRP
7. Configure IP Multicast Routing
8. Connect Router to Access Layer Switch
9. Configure Access Layer Interfaces
10.Configure Access Layer HSRP
11.Configure Transit Network
12.Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
13.Configure Loopback Resiliency
These procedures are used when you configure the second router of a dual-router, dual-link design for any of
the following topologies: DMVPN + DMVPN remote site, MPLS + DMVPN remote site, or Layer 2 WAN + DMVPN
remote site.
This set of procedures includes the additional steps necessary to configure a second router as a DMVPN spoke
router when the first router has already been configured with the process Remote-Site DMVPN Spoke Router
Configuration.
Alternatively, if the first router was configured using one of the following processes from a different CVD guide:
• MPLS WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site MPLS CE Router Configuration
• Layer 2 WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site Layer 2 WAN CE Router Configuration
Then the previous process, Router 1 Modifications for Dual Router Design, must also be completed.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
95
The following flowchart provides details about how to complete the configuration of a remote-site DMVPN spoke
router.
Figure 25 - Remote-site DMVPN spoke router configuration flowchart
Remote-Site DMVPN Router
Dual Router, Dual Link (2nd Router)
1. Complete the WAN Remote Router
Remote-Site
DMVPN
Spoke Router
Configuration
Procedures
2. Configure VRF Lite
3. Connect to Internet
4. Configure ISAKMP and IPSec
5. Configure mGRE Tunnel
6. Configure EIGRP
7. Configure IP Multicast Routing
NO
O
Distribution
Layer
Design?
YES
YE
Remote-Site
DMVPN
Spoke Router
Distribution Layer
Procedures
8. Configure Router to
o Access Layer
Switch
1. Connect Rou
Router to Distribution
1
Layer
9. Configure Access Layer Interfaces
2. Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
10. Configure Access Layer HSRP
3. Configure Loopback Resiliency
11. Configure Transit Network
12. Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
Site Complete
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
Site Complete
2162
13. Configure Loopback Resiliency
December 2013
96
Procedure 1
Configure the WAN Remote Router
Within this design, there are features and services that are common across all WAN remote-site routers. These
are system settings that simplify and secure the management of the solution.
Step 1: Configure the device host name to make it easy to identify the device.
hostname [hostname]
Step 2: Configure local login and password.
The local login account and password provides basic access authentication to a router which provides only
limited operational privileges. The enable password secures access to the device configuration mode. By
enabling password encryption, you prevent the disclosure of plain text passwords when viewing configuration
files.
username admin password c1sco123
enable secret c1sco123
service password-encryption
aaa new-model
Step 3: By default, https access to the router will use the enable password for authentication.
Step 4: (Optional) Configure centralized user authentication.
As networks scale in the number of devices to maintain it poses an operational burden to maintain local user
accounts on every device. A centralized Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) service reduces
operational tasks per device and provides an audit log of user access for security compliance and root cause
analysis. When AAA is enabled for access control, all management access to the network infrastructure devices
(SSH and HTTPS) is controlled by AAA.
TACACS+ is the primary protocol used to authenticate management logins on the infrastructure devices to
the AAA server. A local AAA user database is also defined on each network infrastructure device to provide a
fallback authentication source in case the centralized TACACS+ server is unavailable.
tacacs server TACACS-SERVER-1
address ipv4 10.4.48.15
key SecretKey
!
aaa group server tacacs+ TACACS-SERVERS
server name TACACS-SERVER-1
!
aaa authentication login default group TACACS-SERVERS local
aaa authorization exec default group TACACS-SERVERS local
aaa authorization console
ip http authentication aaa
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
97
Step 5: Configure device management protocols.
Secure HTTP (HTTPS) and Secure Shell (SSH) are secure replacements for the HTTP and Telnet protocols. They
use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) to provide device authentication and data
encryption.
Secure management of the network device is enabled through the use of the SSH and HTTPS protocols. Both
protocols are encrypted for privacy and the nonsecure protocols, Telnet and HTTP, are turned off.
Specify the transport preferred none on vty lines to prevent errant connection attempts from the CLI prompt.
Without this command, if the ip name-server is unreachable, long timeout delays may occur for mistyped
commands.
ip domain-name cisco.local
ip ssh version 2
no ip http server
ip http secure-server
line vty 0 15
transport input ssh
transport preferred none
When synchronous logging of unsolicited messages and debug output is turned on, console log messages
are displayed on the console after interactive CLI output is displayed or printed. With this command, you can
continue typing at the device console when debugging is enabled.
line con 0
logging synchronous
Enable Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to allow the network infrastructure devices to be managed
by a Network Management System (NMS). SNMPv2c is configured both for a read-only and a read-write
community string.
snmp-server community cisco RO
snmp-server community cisco123 RW
Step 6: (Optional) In networks where network operational support is centralized you can increase network
security by using an access list to limit the networks that can access your device. In this example, only devices
on the 10.4.48.0/24 network will be able to access the device via SSH or SNMP.
access-list 55 permit 10.4.48.0 0.0.0.255
line vty 0 15
access-class 55 in
!
snmp-server community cisco RO 55
snmp-server community cisco123 RW 55
Tech Tip
If you configure an access-list on the vty interface you may lose the ability to use ssh
to login from one router to the next for hop-by-hop troubleshooting.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
98
Step 7: Configure a synchronized clock.
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is designed to synchronize a network of devices. An NTP network usually gets
its time from an authoritative time source, such as a radio clock or an atomic clock attached to a time server.
NTP then distributes this time across the organizations network.
You should program network devices to synchronize to a local NTP server in the network. The local NTP server
typically references a more accurate clock feed from an outside source. By configuring console messages, logs,
and debug output to provide time stamps on output, you can cross-reference events in a network.
ntp server 10.4.48.17
ntp update-calendar
!
clock timezone PST -8
clock summer-time PDT recurring
!
service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime
service timestamps log datetime msec localtime
Step 8: Configure an in-band management interface.
The loopback interface is a logical interface that is always reachable as long as the device is powered on and
any IP interface is reachable to the network. Because of this capability, the loopback address is the best way to
manage the switch in-band. Layer 3 process and features are also bound to the loopback interface to ensure
process resiliency.
The loopback address is commonly a host address with a 32-bit address mask. Allocate the loopback address
from a unique network range that is not part of any other internal network summary range.
interface Loopback 0
ip address [ip address] 255.255.255.255
ip pim sparse-mode
The ip pim sparse-mode command will be explained further in the process.
Bind the device processes for SNMP, SSH, PIM, TACACS+ and NTP to the loopback interface address for
optimal resiliency:
snmp-server trap-source Loopback0
ip ssh source-interface Loopback0
ip pim register-source Loopback0
ip tacacs source-interface Loopback0
ntp source Loopback0
Step 9: Configure IP Multicast routing.
IP Multicast allows a single IP data stream to be replicated by the infrastructure (routers and switches) and sent
from a single source to multiple receivers. Using IP Multicast is much more efficient than multiple individual
unicast streams or a Broadcast stream that would propagate everywhere. IP Telephony MOH and IP Video
Broadcast Streaming are two examples of IP Multicast applications.
To receive a particular IP Multicast data stream, end hosts must join a multicast group by sending an IGMP
message to their local multicast router. In a traditional IP Multicast design, the local router consults another router
in the network that is acting as an RP to map the receivers to active sources so they can join their streams.
In this design, which is based on sparse mode multicast operation, Auto RP is used to provide a simple yet
scalable way to provide a highly resilient RP environment.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
99
Enable IP Multicast routing on the platforms in the global configuration mode.
ip multicast-routing
Every Layer 3 switch and router must be configured to discover the IP Multicast RP with autorp. Use the ip pim
autorp listener command to allow for discovery across sparse mode links. This configuration provides for future
scaling and control of the IP Multicast environment and can change based on network needs and design.
ip pim autorp listener
All Layer 3 interfaces in the network must be enabled for sparse mode multicast operation.
ip pim sparse-mode
Procedure 2
Configure VRF Lite
An Internet-facing VRF is created to support FVRF for DMVPN. The VRF name is arbitrary but it is useful to select
a name that describes the VRF. You must also configure an associated RD to make the VRF functional. The RD
configuration creates the routing and forwarding tables and associates the RD with the VRF instance.
This design uses VRF Lite so that the RD value can be chosen arbitrarily. It is a best practice to use the same
VRF/RD combination across multiple devices when using VRFs in a similar manner. However, this convention is
not strictly required.
When you are configuring a DMVPN link on a secondary DMVPN cloud, use a new VRF and other associated
parameters as shown in the following table.
Table 27 - VRF Parameters for dual DMVPN
Parameter
Primary DMVPN cloud
Secondary DMVPN cloud
vrf
INET-PUBLIC1
INET-PUBLIC2
rd
65512:1
65512:2
tunnel number
10
11
crypto keyring
DMVPN-KEYRING1
DMVPN-KEYRING2
crypto isakmp profile
FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC1
FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC2
crypto ipsec profile
DMVPN-PROFILE1
DMVPN-PROFILE2
ip vrf INET-PUBLIC2
rd 65512:2
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
100
Tech Tip
Command Reference:
An RD is either ASN-related (composed of an ASN and an arbitrary number) or
IP-address-related (composed of an IP address and an arbitrary number).
You can enter an RD in either of these formats:
16-bit autonomous-system-number:your 32-bit number
For example, 65512:1.
32-bit IP address: your 16-bit number
For example, 192.168.122.15:1.
Procedure 3
Connect to the Internet
The remote sites using DMVPN can use either static or dynamically assigned IP addresses. We tested the design
with a DHCP assigned external address, which also provides a dynamically configured default route.
The DMVPN spoke router connects directly to the Internet without a separate firewall. This connection is secured
in two ways. Because the Internet interface is in a separate VRF, no traffic can access the global VRF except
traffic sourced through the DMVPN tunnel. This design provides implicit security. Additionally, an IP access
list permits only the traffic required for an encrypted tunnel, as well as DHCP and various ICMP protocols for
troubleshooting.
Step 1: Enable the interface, select VRF and enable DHCP.
The DMVPN design uses FVRF, so this interface must be placed into the VRF configured in the previous
procedure.
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
ip vrf forwarding INET-PUBLIC2
ip address dhcp
no cdp enable
no shutdown
Do not enable PIM on this interface because no multicast traffic should be requested from this interface.
Step 2: Configure and apply the access list.
The IP access list must permit the protocols specified in the following table. The access list is applied inbound on
the WAN interface, so filtering is done on traffic destined to the router.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
101
Table 28 - Required DMVPN protocols
Name
Protocol
Usage
non500-isakmp
UDP 4500
IPsec via NAT-T
isakmp
UDP 500
ISAKMP
esp
IP 50
IPsec
bootpc
UDP 68
DHCP
Example
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
ip access-group ACL-INET-PUBLIC in
ip access-list extended ACL-INET-PUBLIC
permit udp any any eq non500-isakmp
permit udp any any eq isakmp
permit esp any any
permit udp any any eq bootpc
The additional protocols listed in the following table may assist in troubleshooting, but are not explicitly required
to allow DMVPN to function properly.
Table 29 - Optional protocols-DMVPN spoke router
Name
Protocol
Usage
icmp echo
ICMP Type 0, Code 0
Allow remote pings
icmp echo-reply
ICMP Type 8, Code 0
Allow ping replies (from our requests)
icmp ttl-exceeded
ICMP Type 11, Code 0
Allow traceroute replies (from our requests)
icmp port-unreachable
ICMP Type 3, Code 3
Allow traceroute replies (from our requests)
UDP high ports
UDP > 1023, TTL=1
Allow remote traceroute
The additional optional entries for an access list to support ping are as follows:
permit icmp any any echo
permit icmp any any echo-reply
The additional optional entries for an access list to support traceroute are as follows:
permit icmp any any ttl-exceeded
permit icmp any any port-unreachable
permit udp any any gt 1023 ttl eq 1
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
! for traceroute (sourced)
! for traceroute (sourced)
! for traceroute (destination)
December 2013
102
Procedure 4
Configure ISAKMP and IPsec
Step 1: Configure the crypto keyring.
The crypto keyring defines a PSK (or password) valid for IP sources reachable within a particular VRF. This key
is a wildcard pre-shared key if it applies to any IP source. A wildcard key is configured using the 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
network/mask combination.
crypto keyring DMVPN-KEYRING2 vrf INET-PUBLIC2
pre-shared-key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 key cisco123
Step 2: Configure the ISAKMP Policy and Dead Peer Detection (DPD).
The ISAKMP policy for DMVPN uses the following:
• Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a 256-bit key
• Secure Hash Standard (SHA)
• Authentication by PSK
• Diffie-Hellman group: 2
DPD is enabled with keepalive intervals sent at 30-second intervals with a 5-second retry interval, which is
considered to be a reasonable setting to detect a failed hub.
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
hash sha
authentication pre-share
group 2
!
crypto isakmp keepalive 30 5
Step 3: Create the ISAKMP profile.
The ISAKMP profile creates an association between an identity address, a VRF and a crypto keyring. A wildcard
address within a VRF is referenced with 0.0.0.0.
crypto isakmp profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC2
keyring DMVPN-KEYRING2
match identity address 0.0.0.0 INET-PUBLIC2
Step 4: Define the IPsec transform set.
A transform set is an acceptable combination of security protocols, algorithms, and other settings to apply to
IPsec-protected traffic. Peers agree to use a particular transform set when protecting a particular data flow.
The IPsec transform set for DMVPN uses the following:
• ESP with the 256-bit AES encryption algorithm
• ESP with the SHA (HMAC variant) authentication algorithm
Since the DMVPN hub router is behind a NAT device, you must configure the IPsec transform for transport mode.
crypto ipsec transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode transport
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
103
Step 5: Create the IPsec profile.
The IPsec profile creates an association between an ISAKMP profile and an IPsec transform-set.
crypto ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE2
set transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT
set isakmp-profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC2
Procedure 5
Configure the mGRE Tunnel
Step 1: Configure basic interface settings.
You create tunnel interfaces as you configure them. The tunnel number is arbitrary, but it is best to begin tunnel
numbering at 10 or above, because other features deployed in this design may also require tunnels and they may
select lower numbers by default.
The bandwidth setting should be set to match the Internet bandwidth.
The IP MTU should be configured to 1400 and the ip tcp adjust-mss should be configured to 1360. There is a
40 byte difference, which corresponds to the combined IP and TCP header length.
interface Tunnel11
bandwidth [bandwidth (kbps)]
ip address [IP address] [netmask]
no ip redirects
ip mtu 1400
ip tcp adjust-mss 1360
Step 2: Configure the tunnel.
DMVPN uses multipoint GRE (mGRE) tunnels. This type of tunnel requires a source interface only. The source
interface should be the same interface you use to connect to the Internet. You should set the tunnel vrf
command to the VRF defined previously for FVRF.
To enable encryption on this interface, you must apply the IPsec profile that you configured in the previous
procedure.
interface Tunnel11
tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel vrf INET-PUBLIC2
tunnel protection ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE2
Step 3: Configure NHRP.
The DMVPN hub router is the NHRP server for all of the spokes. NHRP is used by remote routers to determine
the tunnel destinations for peers attached to the mGRE tunnel.
The spoke router requires several additional configuration statements to define the NHRP server (NHS) and
NHRP map statements for the DMVPN hub router mGRE tunnel IP address. EIGRP (configured in the following
Procedure 6) relies on a multicast transport. Spoke routers require the NHRP static multicast mapping.
For the NHS value, use the mGRE tunnel address for the DMVPN hub router. The map entries must be set to the
outside NAT value of the DMVPN hub, as configured on the Cisco ASA5500. This design uses the values shown
in Table 30.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
104
Table 30 - DMVPN tunnel parameters
Parameter values
DMVPN cloud
Primary
Secondary
VRF
INET-PUBLIC1
INET-PUBLIC2
DMVPN hub public address (externally routable after NAT)
172.16.130.1
172.17.130.1
Tunnel IP address
10.4.34.1/23
10.4.36.1/23
Tunnel number
10
11
NHRP network ID
101
102
EIGRP AS
200
201
NHRP requires all devices within a DMVPN cloud to use the same network ID and authentication key. You should
configure the NHRP cache holdtime to 600 seconds.
This design supports DMVPN spoke routers that receive their external IP addresses through DHCP. It is possible
for these routers to acquire different IP addresses after a reload. When the router attempts to register with the
NHRP server, it may appear as a duplicate to an entry already in the cache and be rejected. The registration
no-unique option allows you to overwrite existing cache entries. This feature is only required on NHRP clients
(DMVPN spoke routers).
The ip nhrp redirect command allows the DMVPN hub to notify spoke routers that a more optimal path may exist
to a destination network, which may be required for DMVPN spoke-to-spoke direct communications. DMVPN
spoke routers also use shortcut switching when building spoke-to-spoke tunnels.
interface Tunnel11
ip nhrp authentication cisco123
ip nhrp map 10.4.36.1 172.17.130.1
ip nhrp map multicast 172.17.130.1
ip nhrp network-id 102
ip nhrp holdtime 600
ip nhrp nhs 10.4.36.1
ip nhrp registration no-unique
ip nhrp shortcut
ip nhrp redirect
Step 4: Configure EIGRP.
You configure EIGRP in the next procedure, but you need to configure some specific requirements for the mGRE
tunnel interface first.
Increate the EIGRP hello interval to 20 seconds and the EIGRP hold time to 60 seconds to accommodate up to
500 remote sites on a single DMVPN cloud.
interface Tunnel11
ip hello-interval eigrp 201 20
ip hold-time eigrp 201 60
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
105
You must advertise the remote-site LAN networks. The IP assignment for the remote sites was designed so
that all of the networks in use can be summarized within a single aggregate route. The summary address as
configured below suppresses the more specific routes. If any network within the summary is present in the route
table, the summary is advertised to the DMVPN hub, which offers a measure of resiliency. If the various LAN
networks cannot be summarized, then EIGRP continues to advertise the specific routes.
interface Tunnel11
ip summary-address eigrp 201 [summary network] [summary mask]
Procedure 6
Configure EIGRP
An additional EIGRP process (200 or 201) runs on the DMVPN spoke router for the associated DMVPN cloud.
All interfaces on the router are EIGRP interfaces, but only the DMVPN tunnel interface is non-passive. The
network range must include all interface IP addresses either in a single network statement or in multiple network
statements. This design uses a best practice of assigning the router ID to a loopback address. All DMVPN spoke
routers should run EIGRP stub routing to improve network stability and reduce resource utilization.
router eigrp 201
network 10.4.36.0 0.0.1.255
network 10.5.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
passive-interface default
no passive-interface Tunnel11
eigrp router-id [IP address of Loopback0]
eigrp stub connected summary
no auto-summary
Procedure 7
Configure IP Multicast Routing
This procedure includes additional steps for configuring IP Multicast for a DMVPN tunnel on a router with IP
Multicast already enabled.
Step 1: Configure PIM on the DMVPN tunnel interface.
Enable IP PIM sparse mode on the DMVPN tunnel interface.
interface Tunnel11
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 2: Enable PIM NBMA mode for the DMVPN tunnel.
Spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks present a unique challenge because the spokes cannot directly exchange
information with one another, even though they are on the same logical network. This inability to directly
exchange information can also cause problems when running IP Multicast.
To resolve the NBMA issue, you need to implement a method where each remote PIM neighbor has its join
messages tracked separately. A router in PIM NBMA mode treats each remote PIM neighbor as if it were
connected to the router through a point-to-point link.
interface Tunnel11
ip pim nbma-mode
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
106
Step 3: Configure the DR priority for the DMVPN spoke router.
Proper multicast operation across a DMVPN cloud requires that the hub router assumes the role of PIM
Designated Router (DR). Spoke routers should never become the DR. You can prevent that by setting the DR
priority to 0 for the spokes.
interface Tunnel11
ip pim dr-priority 0
Procedure 8
Connect Router to Access Layer Switch
Reader Tip
Please refer to the Campus Wired LAN Technology Design Guide for complete access
layer configuration details. This guide only includes the additional steps to complete the
access layer configuration.
If you are using a remote-site distribution layer then skip to the “Deploying a WAN
Remote-Site Distribution Layer” section of this guide.
Layer 2 EtherChannels are used to interconnect the CE router to the access layer in the most resilient method
possible, unless the access layer device is a single fixed configuration switch, Otherwise a simple Layer 2 trunk
between the router and switch is used.
In the access layer design, the remote sites use collapsed routing, with 802.1Q trunk interfaces to the LAN
access layer. The VLAN numbering is locally significant only.
Option 1: Layer 2 EtherChannel from router to access layer switch
Step 1: Configure port-channel interface on the router.
interface Port-channel2
description EtherChannel link to RS232-A2960S
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the router.
Configure the physical interfaces to tie to the logical port-channel using the channel-group command. The
number for the port-channel and channel-group must match. Not all router platforms can support LACP to
negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured statically.
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
description RS232-A2960S Gig1/0/23
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
description RS232-A2960S Gig2/0/23
!
interface range GigabitEthernet0/1, GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
channel-group 2
no shutdown
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
107
Step 3: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the access layer switch.
Connect the router EtherChannel uplinks to separate switches in the access layer switch stack, or in the case of
the Cisco Catalyst 4507R+E distribution layer, to separate redundant modules for additional resiliency.
The physical interfaces that are members of a Layer 2 EtherChannel are configured prior to configuring the
logical port-channel interface. Doing the configuration in this order allows for minimal configuration and reduces
errors because most of the commands entered to a port-channel interface are copied to its members interfaces
and do not require manual replication.
Configure two or more physical interfaces to be members of the EtherChannel. It is recommended that they
are added in multiples of two. Also, apply the egress QoS macro that was defined in the platform configuration
procedure to ensure traffic is prioritized appropriately.
Not all connected router platforms can support LACP to negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured
statically.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/23
description Link to RS232-2911-2 Gig0/1
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/23
description Link to RS232-2911-2 Gig0/2
!
interface range GigabitEthernet1/0/23, GigabitEthernet2/0/23
switchport
macro apply EgressQoS
channel-group 2 mode on
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
logging event bundle-status
Step 4: Configure EtherChannel trunk on the access layer switch.
An 802.1Q trunk is used which allows the router to provide the Layer 3 services to all the VLANs defined on the
access layer switch. The VLANs allowed on the trunk are pruned to only the VLANs that are active on the access
layer switch. When using EtherChannel the interface type will be port-channel and the number must match the
channel group configured in Step 3. DHCP Snooping and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) inspection are set
to trust.
interface Port-channel2
description EtherChannel link to RS232-2911-2
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk allowed vlan 64,69,99
switchport mode trunk
ip arp inspection trust
spanning-tree portfast trunk
ip dhcp snooping trust
no shutdown
The Catalyst 2960-S and 4500 do not require the switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q command.
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
108
Option 2: Layer 2 trunk from router to access layer switch
Step 1: Enable the physical interface on the router.
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
description RS232-A2960S Gig1/0/23
no ip address
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure the trunk on the access layer switch.
Use an 802.1Q trunk for the connection, which allows the router to provide the Layer 3 services to all the VLANs
defined on the access layer switch. The VLANs allowed on the trunk are pruned to only the VLANs that are
active on the access switch. DHCP Snooping and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) inspection are set to trust.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/23
description Link to RS232-2911-2 Gig0/2
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk allowed vlan 64,69,99
switchport mode trunk
ip arp inspection trust
spanning-tree portfast trunk
macro apply EgressQoS
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
ip dhcp snooping trust
no shutdown
The Catalyst 2960-S and 4500 do not require the switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q command.
Procedure 9
Configure Access Layer Interfaces
Step 1: Create subinterfaces and assign VLAN tags.
After the physical interface or port-channel have been enabled, then the appropriate data or voice subinterfaces
can be mapped to the VLANs on the LAN switch. The subinterface number does not need to equate to the
802.1Q tag, but making them the same simplifies the overall configuration. The subinterface portion of the
configuration should be repeated for all data or voice VLANs.
interface [type][number].[sub-interface number]
encapsulation dot1Q [dot1q VLAN tag]
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
109
Step 2: Configure IP settings for each subinterface.
This design uses an IP addressing convention with the default gateway router assigned an IP address and IP
mask combination of N.N.N.1 255.255.255.0 where N.N.N is the IP network and 1 is the IP host.
When you are using a centralized DHCP server, your routers with LAN interfaces connected to a LAN using
DHCP for end-station IP addressing must use an IP helper.
This remote-site DMVPN spoke router is the second router of a dual-router design and HSRP is configured at the
access layer. The actual interface IP assignments will be configured in the following procedure.
interface [type][number].[sub-interface number]
description [usage]
encapsulation dot1Q [dot1q VLAN tag]
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
Example: Layer 2 EtherChannel
interface Port-channel2
no ip address
no shutdown
!
hold-queue 150 in
!
interface Port-channel2.64
description Data
encapsulation dot1Q 64
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
!
interface Port-channel2.69
description Voice
encapsulation dot1Q 69
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
Example: Layer 2 Link
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
no shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.64
description Data
encapsulation dot1Q 64
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.69
description Voice
encapsulation dot1Q 69
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim sparse-mode
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
110
Procedure 10
Configure Access Layer HSRP
You configure HSRP to enable a VIP that you use as a default gateway that is shared between two routers. The
HSRP active router is the router connected to the primary carrier and the HSRP standby router is the router
connected to the secondary carrier or backup link. Configure the HSRP standby router with a standby priority
that is lower than the HSRP active router.
The router with the higher standby priority value is elected as the HSRP active router. The preempt option allows
a router with a higher priority to become the HSRP active, without waiting for a scenario where there is no router
in the HSRP active state. The relevant HSRP parameters for the router configuration are shown in the following
table.
Table 31 - WAN remote-site HSRP parameters (Dual Router)
Router
HSRP role
Virtual IP address (VIP)
Real IP address
HSRP priority
PIM DR priority
Primary
Active
.1
.2
110
110
Secondary
Standby
.1
.3
105
105
The dual-router access-layer design requires a modification for resilient multicast. The PIM DR should be on the
HSRP active router. The DR is normally elected based on the highest IP address and has no awareness of the
HSRP configuration. In this design, the HSRP active router has a lower real IP address than the HSRP standby
router, which requires a modification to the PIM configuration. The PIM DR election can be influenced by explicitly
setting the DR priority on the LAN-facing subinterfaces for the routers.
Tech Tip
The HSRP priority and PIM DR priority are shown in the previous table to be the same
value; however there is no requirement that these values must be identical.
Repeat this procedure for all data or voice subinterfaces.
interface [interface type][number].[sub-interface number]
ip address [LAN network 1 address] [LAN network 1 netmask]
ip pim dr-priority 105
standby version 2
standby 1 ip [LAN network 1 gateway address]
standby 1 priority 105
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
Example: Layer 2 EtherChannel
interface PortChannel2
no ip address
no shutdown
!
interface PortChannel2.64
description Data
encapsulation dot1Q 64
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
111
ip address 10.5.212.3 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim dr-priority 105
ip pim sparse-mode
standby version 2
standby 1 ip 10.5.212.1
standby 1 priority 105
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
!
interface PortChannel2.69
description Voice
encapsulation dot1Q 69
ip address 10.5.213.3 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim dr-priority 105
ip pim sparse-mode
standby version 2
standby 1 ip 10.5.13.1
standby 1 priority 105
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
Example: Layer 2 Link
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
no shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.64
description Data
encapsulation dot1Q 64
ip address 10.5.212.3 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim dr-priority 105
ip pim sparse-mode
standby version 2
standby 1 ip 10.5.212.1
standby 1 priority 105
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.69
description Voice
encapsulation dot1Q 69
ip address 10.5.213.3 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.4.48.10
ip pim dr-priority 105
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
112
ip pim sparse-mode
standby version 2
standby 1 ip 10.5.13.1
standby 1 priority 105
standby 1 preempt
standby 1 authentication md5 key-string c1sco123
Procedure 11
Configure Transit Network
Configure the transit network between the two routers. You use this network for router-router communication
and to avoid hairpinning. The transit network should use an additional subinterface on the router interface that is
already being used for data or voice.
There are no end stations connected to this network, so HSRP and DHCP are not required.
interface [interface type][number].[sub-interface number]
encapsulation dot1Q [dot1q VLAN tag]
ip address [transit net address] [transit net netmask]
ip pim sparse-mode
Example
interface GigabitEthernet0/2.99
description Transit Net
encapsulation dot1Q 99
ip address 10.5.208.2 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
Procedure 12
Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
A routing protocol must be configured between the two routers. This ensures that the HSRP active router has full
reachability information for all WAN remote sites.
Step 1: Enable EIGRP-100.
You configure EIGRP-100 facing the access layer. In this design, all LAN-facing interfaces and the loopback
must be EIGRP interfaces. All interfaces except the transit-network subinterface should remain passive. The
network range must include all interface IP addresses either in a single network statement or in multiple network
statements. This design uses a best practice of assigning the router ID to a loopback address. Do not include the
DMVPN MGRE interface as an EIGRP interface.
router eigrp 100
network [network] [inverse mask]
passive-interface default
no passive-interface [Transit interface]
eigrp router-id [IP address of Loopback0]
no auto-summary
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
113
Step 2: Redistribute EIGRP-201 (DMVPN) into EIGRP-100.
EIGRP-201 is already configured for the DMVPN mGRE interface. Routes from this EIGRP process are
redistributed. Since the routing protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
router eigrp 100
redistribute eigrp 201
Example
router eigrp 100
network 10.4.0.0 0.1.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
redistribute eigrp 201
passive-interface default
no passive-interface GigabitEthernet0/2.99
eigrp router-id 10.255.254.232
no auto-summary
Procedure 13
Configure Loopback Resiliency
The remote-site routers have in-band management configured via the loopback interface. To ensure reachability
of the loopback interface in a dual-router design, redistribute the loopback of the adjacent router into the WAN
routing protocol EIGRP-201 (DMVPN).
Step 1: Configure an access list to limit the redistribution to only the adjacent router’s loopback IP address.
ip access-list standard R[number]-LOOPBACK
permit [IP Address of Adjacent Router Loopback]
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R[number]-LOOPBACK
Example
ip access-list standard R1-LOOPBACK
permit 10.255.253.232
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R1-LOOPBACK
Step 2: Configure EIGRP to redistribute the adjacent router’s loopback IP address. The EIGRP stub routing must
be adjusted to permit redistributed routes.
router eigrp 201
redistribute eigrp 100 route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY
eigrp stub connected summary redistributed
Deploying a DMVPN WAN
December 2013
114
PROCESS
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site
Distribution Layer
Remote-Site Router to Distribution Layer
1. Connect Router to Distribution Layer
2. Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
Use this set of procedures to configure a DMVPN spoke router for a DMVPN remote site (single-router, singlelink) and includes all required procedures to connect to a distribution layer.
Also, use this set of procedures for a DMVPN + DMVPN remote site. Use these procedures to connect a
distribution layer to a DMVPN spoke router in the single-router, dual-link design. Use these procedures when you
are connecting a distribution layer to the first router of the dual-router, dual-link design.
Both distribution layer remote-site options are shown in the following figure.
Figure 26 - WAN remote site - Connection to distribution layer
WAN
WAN
802.1Q Trunk (ww, xx)
802.1Q Trunk
(50, 99)
802.1Q Trunk (yy, zz)
VLAN 50 - Router 1 Link
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
802.1Q Trunk (ww, xx)
802.1Q Trunk
(54, 99)
802.1Q Trunk (yy, zz)
VLAN 50 - Router 1 Link
VLAN 54 - Router 2 Link
VLAN 99 - Transit
December 2013
2007
802.1Q Trunk
(50)
115
Procedure 1
Connect Router to Distribution Layer
Reader Tip
Please refer to the Campus Wired LAN Technology Design Guide for complete
distribution layer configuration details. This guide only includes the additional steps to
complete the distribution layer configuration.
Layer 2 EtherChannels are used to interconnect the CE router to the distribution layer in the most resilient
method possible. This connection allows for multiple VLANs to be included on the EtherChannel if necessary.
Step 1: Configure port-channel interface on the router.
interface Port-channel1
description EtherChannel link to RS232-D3750X
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure the port channel subinterfaces and assign IP addresses.
After you have enabled the interface, map the appropriate subinterfaces to the VLANs on the distribution
layer switch. The subinterface number does not need to equate to the 802.1Q tag, but making them the same
simplifies the overall configuration.
The subinterface configured on the router corresponds to a VLAN interface on the distribution-layer switch.
Traffic is routed between the devices with the VLAN acting as a point-to-point link.
interface Port-channel1.50
description R1 routed link to distribution layer
encapsulation dot1Q 50
ip address 10.5.208.1 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 3: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the router.
Configure the physical interfaces to tie to the logical port-channel using the channel-group command. The
number for the port-channel and channel-group must match. Not all router platforms can support LACP to
negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured statically.
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
description RS232-D3750X Gig1/0/1
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
description RS232-D3750X Gig2/0/1
!
interface range GigabitEthernet0/1, GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
channel-group 1
no shutdown
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
116
Step 4: Configure VLAN on the distribution layer switch.
vlan 50
name R1-link
Step 5: Configure Layer 3 on the distribution layer switch.
Configure a VLAN interface, also known as a switch virtual interface (SVI), for the new VLAN added. The SVI is
used for point to point IP routing between the distribution layer and the WAN router.
interface Vlan50
ip address 10.5.208.2 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
no shutdown
Step 6: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the distribution layer switch.
Connect the router EtherChannel uplinks to separate switches in the distribution layer switches or stack, and in
the case of the Cisco Catalyst 4507R+E distribution layer, to separate redundant modules for additional resiliency.
The physical interfaces that are members of a Layer 2 EtherChannel are configured prior to configuring the
logical port-channel interface. Doing the configuration in this order allows for minimal configuration and reduces
errors because most of the commands entered to a port-channel interface are copied to its members interfaces
and do not require manual replication.
Configure two or more physical interfaces to be members of the EtherChannel. It is recommended that they
are added in multiples of two. Also, apply the egress QoS macro that was defined in the platform configuration
procedure to ensure traffic is prioritized appropriately.
Not all connected router platforms can support LACP to negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured
statically.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
description Link to RS232-2911-1 Gig0/1
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/1
description Link to RS232-2911-1 Gig0/2
!
interface range GigabitEthernet1/0/1, GigabitEthernet2/0/1
switchport
macro apply EgressQoS
channel-group 1 mode on
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
logging event bundle-status
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
117
Step 7: Configure EtherChannel trunk on the distribution layer switch.
An 802.1Q trunk is used which allows the router to provide the Layer 3 services to all the VLANs defined on
the distribution layer switch. The VLANs allowed on the trunk are pruned to only the VLANs that are active on
the distribution layer switch. When using EtherChannel the interface type will be port-channel and the number
must match the channel group configured in Step 3. DHCP Snooping and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
inspection are set to trust.
interface Port-channel1
description EtherChannel link to RS232-2911-1
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk allowed vlan 50
switchport mode trunk
spanning-tree portfast trunk
no shutdown
The Catalyst 4500 does not require the switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q command.
Procedure 2
Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
You must configure a routing protocol between the router and distribution layer.
Step 1: Enable EIGRP-100.
Configure EIGRP-100 facing the distribution layer. In this design, all distribution-layer-facing subinterfaces and the
loopback must be EIGRP interfaces. All other interfaces should remain passive. The network range must include
all interface IP addresses either in a single network statement or in multiple network statements. This design
uses a best practice of assigning the router ID to a loopback address.
router eigrp 100
network 10.5.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
passive-interface default
no passive-interface [interface]
eigrp router-id [IP address of Loopback0]
no auto-summary
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
118
Step 2: Redistribute EIGRP-200 (DMVPN-1) into EIGRP-100.
EIGRP-200 is already configured for the DMVPN mGRE interface. Routes from this EIGRP process are
redistributed. Because the routing protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
router eigrp [as number]
redistribute eigrp [as number (DMVPN)]
Example
PROCESS
router eigrp 100
network 10.5.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
redistribute eigrp 200
passive-interface default
no passive-interface Port-channel1.50
eigrp router-id 10.255.253.232
no auto-summary
Additional Configuration for Dual Router Design (Router 1)
1. Configure the Transit Network
2. Configure Loopback Resiliency
This process is required when the first router has already been configured using one of the following processes.
In this guide:
• Remote-Site Router to Distribution Layer
In other guides:
• MPLS WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site Router to Distribution Layer
• Layer 2 WAN Technology Design Guide—Remote-Site Router to Distribution Layer
Procedure 1
Configure the Transit Network
Configure the transit network between the two routers. You use this network for router-router communication
and to avoid hairpinning. The transit network should use an additional subinterface on the EtherChannel interface
that is already used to connect to the distribution layer.
The transit network must be a non-passive EIGRP interface.
There are no end stations connected to this network so HSRP and DHCP are not required. The transit network
uses Layer 2 pass through on the distribution layer switch, so no SVI is required.
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
119
Step 1: Configure the transit net interface on the router.
interface Port-channel1.99
description Transit Net
encapsulation dot1Q 99
ip address 10.5.208.9 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 2: Enable EIGRP on the transit net interface on the router.
router eigrp 100
no passive-interface Port-channel1.99
Step 3: Configure transit network VLAN on the distribution layer switch.
vlan 99
name Transit-net
Step 4: Add transit network VLAN to existing distribution layer switch EtherChannel trunk.
interface Port-channel1
switchport trunk allowed vlan add 99
Procedure 2
Configure Loopback Resiliency
The remote-site routers have in-band management configured via the loopback interface. To ensure reachability
of the loopback interface in a dual-router design, redistribute the loopback of the adjacent router into the WAN
routing protocol EIGRP-200 (DMVPN).
Step 1: Configure an access list to limit the redistribution to only the adjacent router’s loopback IP address.
ip access-list standard R[number]-LOOPBACK
permit [IP Address of Adjacent Router Loopback]
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R[number]-LOOPBACK
Example
ip access-list standard R2-LOOPBACK
permit 10.255.254.232
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R2-LOOPBACK
Step 2: Configure EIGRP to redistribute the adjacent router’s loopback IP address. The EIGRP stub routing must
be adjusted to permit redistributed routes.
router eigrp 200
redistribute eigrp 100 route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY
eigrp stub connected summary redistributed
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
120
PROCESS
Remote-Site Router to Distribution Layer (Router 2)
1. Connect Router to Distribution Layer
2. Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
3. Configure Loopback Resiliency
Use this set of procedures for any of the following topologies: DMVPN + DMVPN remote site, MPLS + DMVPN
remote site, or Layer 2 WAN + DMVPN remote site. Use these procedures to connect a distribution layer when
configuring the second router of the dual-router, dual-link design. This design uses a separate routed link from
the second router of the dual-router scenario to the LAN distribution layer switch.
The dual-router distribution layer remote-site option is shown in the following figure.
Figure 27 - WAN remote site - Connection to distribution layer
WAN
R1
VLAN 50 - Router 1 Link
VLAN 54 - Router 2 Link
VLAN 99 - Transit
802.1Q Trunk
(50, 99)
802.1Q Trunk
(54, 99)
802.1Q Trunk
(yy, zz)
2132
802.1Q Trunk
(ww, xx)
R2
Procedure 1
Connect Router to Distribution Layer
Reader Tip
Please refer to the Campus Wired LAN Design Guide for complete distribution layer
configuration details. This guide only includes the additional steps to complete the
distribution layer configuration.
Layer 2 EtherChannels are used to interconnect the CE router to the distribution layer in the most resilient
method possible. This connection allows for multiple VLANs to be included on the EtherChannel if necessary.
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
121
Step 1: Configure port-channel interface on the router.
interface Port-channel2
description EtherChannel link to RS232-D3750X
no shutdown
Step 2: Configure the port channel subinterfaces and assign IP address.
After you have enabled the interface, map the appropriate subinterfaces to the VLANs on the distribution
layer switch. The subinterface number does not need to equate to the 802.1Q tag, but making them the same
simplifies the overall configuration.
The subinterface configured on the router corresponds to a VLAN interface on the distribution-layer switch.
Traffic is routed between the devices with the VLAN acting as a point-to-point link.
interface Port-channel2.54
description R2 routed link to distribution layer
encapsulation dot1Q 54
ip address 10.5.208.5 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 3: Configure the transit network interface on the router.
interface Port-channel2.99
description Transit Net
encapsulation dot1Q 99
ip address 10.5.208.10 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
Step 4: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the router.
Configure the physical interfaces to tie to the logical port-channel using the channel-group command. The
number for the port-channel and channel-group must match. Not all router platforms can support LACP to
negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured statically.
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
description RS232-D3750X Gig1/0/2
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
description RS232-D3750X Gig2/0/2
!
interface range GigabitEthernet0/1, GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip address
channel-group 2
no shutdown
Step 5: Configure VLAN on the distribution layer switch.
vlan 54
name R2-link
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
122
Step 6: Configure Layer 3 on the distribution layer switch.
Configure a VLAN interface, also known as a switch virtual interface (SVI), for the new VLAN added. The SVI is
used for point to point IP routing between the distribution layer and the WAN router.
interface Vlan54
ip address 10.5.208.6 255.255.255.252
ip pim sparse-mode
no shutdown
Step 7: Configure EtherChannel member interfaces on the distribution layer switch.
Connect the router EtherChannel uplinks to separate switches in the distribution layer switches or stack, and in
the case of the Cisco Catalyst 4507R+E distribution layer, to separate redundant modules for additional resiliency.
The physical interfaces that are members of a Layer 2 EtherChannel are configured prior to configuring the
logical port-channel interface. Doing the configuration in this order allows for minimal configuration and reduces
errors because most of the commands entered to a port-channel interface are copied to its members interfaces
and do not require manual replication.
Configure two or more physical interfaces to be members of the EtherChannel. It is recommended that they
are added in multiples of two. Also, apply the egress QoS macro that was defined in the platform configuration
procedure to ensure traffic is prioritized appropriately.
Not all connected router platforms can support LACP to negotiate with the switch, so EtherChannel is configured
statically.
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2
description Link to RS232-2911-2 Gig0/1
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/2
description Link to RS232-2911-2 Gig0/2
!
interface range GigabitEthernet1/0/2, GigabitEthernet2/0/2
switchport
macro apply EgressQoS
channel-group 2 mode on
logging event link-status
logging event trunk-status
logging event bundle-status
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
123
Step 8: Configure EtherChannel trunk on the distribution layer switch.
An 802.1Q trunk is used which allows the router to provide the Layer 3 services to all the VLANs defined on
the distribution layer switch. The VLANs allowed on the trunk are pruned to only the VLANs that are active on
the distribution layer switch. When using EtherChannel the interface type will be port-channel and the number
must match the channel group configured in Step 3. DHCP Snooping and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
inspection are set to trust.
interface Port-channel2
description EtherChannel link to RS232-2911-2
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk allowed vlan 54,99
switchport mode trunk
spanning-tree portfast trunk
no shutdown
The Catalyst 4500 does not require the switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q command.
Procedure 2
Configure EIGRP (LAN Side)
You must configure a routing protocol between the router and distribution layer.
Step 1: Enable EIGRP-100 on the remote site router.
EIGRP-100 is configured facing the distribution layer. In this design, all distribution-layer-facing subinterfaces
and the loopback must be EIGRP interfaces. All other interfaces should remain passive. The network range must
include all interface IP addresses either in a single network statement or in multiple network statements. This
design uses a best practice of assigning the router ID to a loopback address.
router eigrp 100
network 10.5.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
passive-interface default
no passive-interface [routed link interface]
no passive-interface [transit net interface]
eigrp router-id [IP address of Loopback0]
no auto-summary
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
124
Step 2: Redistribute EIGRP-201 (DMVPN-2) into EIGRP-100 on the remote site router.
EIGRP-201 is already configured for the DMVPN mGRE interface. Routes from this EIGRP process are
redistributed. Because the routing protocol is the same, no default metric is required.
router eigrp [as number]
redistribute eigrp [as number (DMVPN)]
Example
router eigrp 100
network 10.5.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 10.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
redistribute eigrp 201
passive-interface default
no passive-interface Port-channel2.54
no passive-interface Port-channel2.99
eigrp router-id 10.255.254.232
no auto-summary
Step 3: Enable EIGRP on distribution layer switch VLAN interface.
EIGRP is already configured on the distribution layer switch. The VLAN interface that connects to the router must
be configured as a non-passive EIGRP interface.
router eigrp 100
no passive-interface Vlan54
Procedure 3
Configure Loopback Resiliency
The remote-site routers have in-band management configured via the loopback interface. To ensure reachability
of the loopback interface in a dual-router design, redistribute the loopback of the adjacent router into the WAN
routing protocol EIGRP-201 (DMVPN).
Step 1: Configure an access list to limit the redistribution to only the adjacent router’s loopback IP address.
ip access-list standard R[number]-LOOPBACK
permit [IP Address of Adjacent Router Loopback]
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R[number]-LOOPBACK
Example
ip access-list standard R1-LOOPBACK
permit 10.255.253.232
!
route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY permit 10
match ip address R1-LOOPBACK
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
125
Step 2: Configure EIGRP to redistribute the adjacent router’s loopback IP address. The EIGRP stub routing must
be adjusted to permit redistributed routes.
router eigrp 201
redistribute eigrp 100 route-map LOOPBACK-ONLY
eigrp stub connected summary redistributed
Deploying a WAN Remote-Site Distribution Layer
December 2013
126
Deploying WAN Quality of Service
PROCESS
QoS Configuration
1. Create the QoS Maps to Classify Traffic
2. Add ISAKMP Traffic to Network-Critical
3. Define Policy Map to Use Queuing Policy
4. Configure Physical Interface S&Q Policy
5. Apply WAN QoS Policy to Physical Interface
6. Configure IPSEC anti-replay window size
When configuring the WAN-edge QoS, you are defining how traffic egresses your network. It is critical that the
classification, marking, and bandwidth allocations align to the service provider offering to ensure consistent QoS
treatment end to end.
Procedure 1
Create the QoS Maps to Classify Traffic
This procedure applies to all WAN routers.
Use the class-map command to define a traffic class and identify traffic to associate with the class name. These
class names are used when configuring policy maps that define actions you want to take against the traffic
type. The class-map command sets the match logic. In this case, the match-any keyword indicates that the
maps match any of the specified criteria. This keyword is followed by the name you want to assign to the class
of service. After you have configured the class-map command, you define specific values, such as DSCP and
protocols to match with the match command. You use the following two forms of the match command: match
dscp and match protocol.
Use the following steps to configure the required WAN class-maps and matching criteria.
Deploying WAN Quality of Service
December 2013
127
Step 1: Create the class maps for DSCP matching.
Repeat this step to create a class-map for each of the six WAN classes of service listed in the following table.
You do not need to explicitly configure the default class.
class-map match-any [class-map name]
match dscp [dcsp value] [optional additional dscp value(s)]
Table 32 - QoS classes of service
Class of service
Traffic type
DSCP values
Bandwidth %
Congestion avoidance
VOICE
Voice traffic
ef
10 (PQ)
—
INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
Interactive video (video conferencing)
cs4, af41
23 (PQ)
—
CRITICAL-DATA
Highly interactive
af31, cs3
15
DSCP based
(such as Telnet, Citrix, and Oracle thin
clients)
DATA
Data
af21
19
DSCP based
SCAVENGER
Scavenger
af11, cs1
5
—
NETWORK-CRITICAL
Routing protocols. Operations, administration and maintenance (OAM) traffic.
cs6, cs2
3
—
default
Best effort
Other
25
random
Example
class-map match-any VOICE
match dscp ef
!
class-map match-any INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
match dscp cs4 af41
!
class-map match-any CRITICAL-DATA
match dscp af31 cs3
!
class-map match-any DATA
match dscp af21
!
class-map match-any SCAVENGER
match dscp af11 cs1
!
class-map match-any NETWORK-CRITICAL
match dscp cs6 cs2
Tech Tip
You do not need to configure a Best-Effort Class. This is implicitly included within
class-default as shown in Procedure 4.
Deploying WAN Quality of Service
December 2013
128
Procedure 2
Add ISAKMP Traffic to Network-Critical
For a WAN connection using DMVPN, you need to ensure proper treatment of ISAKMP traffic in the WAN.
To classify this traffic requires the creation of an access-list and the addition of the access-list name to the
NETWORK-CRITICAL class-map created in Procedure 1.
This procedure is only required for a WAN-aggregation DMVPN hub router or a WAN remote-site DMVPN spoke
router.
Step 1: Create the access-list.
ip access-list extended ISAKMP
permit udp any eq isakmp any eq isakmp
Step 2: Add the match criteria to the existing NETWORK-CRITICAL class-map.
class-map match-any NETWORK-CRITICAL
match access-group name ISAKMP
Procedure 3
Define Policy Map to Use Queuing Policy
This procedure applies to all WAN routers.
The WAN policy map references the class names you created in the previous procedures and defines the
queuing behavior along with the maximum guaranteed bandwidth allocated to each class. This specification is
accomplished with the use of a policy-map. Then, each class within the policy map invokes an egress queue,
assigns a percentage of bandwidth, and associates a specific traffic class to that queue. One additional default
class defines the minimum allowed bandwidth available for best effort traffic.
Tech Tip
The local router policy maps define seven classes while most service providers offer
only six classes of service. The NETWORK-CRITICAL policy map is defined to ensure
the correct classification, marking, and queuing of network-critical traffic on egress to
the WAN. After the traffic has been transmitted to the service provider, the networkcritical traffic is typically remapped by the service provider into the critical data class.
Most providers perform this remapping by matching on DSCP values cs6 and cs2.
Step 1: Create the parent policy map.
policy-map [policy-map-name]
Steps 2–6 are repeated for each class in Table 26 including class-default.
Step 2: Apply the previously created class-map.
class [class-name]
Step 3: (Optional) Assign the maximum guaranteed bandwidth for the class.
bandwidth percent [percentage]
Deploying WAN Quality of Service
December 2013
129
Step 4: (Optional) Define the priority queue for the class.
priority percent [percentage]
Step 5: (Optional) Define the congestion mechanism.
random-detect [type]
Example
policy-map WAN
class VOICE
priority percent 10
class INTERACTIVE-VIDEO
priority percent 23
class CRITICAL-DATA
bandwidth percent 15
random-detect dscp-based
class DATA
bandwidth percent 19
random-detect dscp-based
class SCAVENGER
bandwidth percent 5
class NETWORK-CRITICAL
bandwidth percent 3
class class-default
bandwidth percent 25
random-detect
Tech Tip
Although these bandwidth assignments represent a good baseline, it is important to
consider your actual traffic requirements per class and adjust the bandwidth settings
accordingly.
Procedure 4
Configure Physical Interface S&Q Policy
With WAN interfaces using Ethernet as an access technology, the demarcation point between the enterprise
and service provider may no longer have a physical-interface bandwidth constraint. Instead, a specified amount
of access bandwidth is contracted with the service provider. To ensure the offered load to the service provider
does not exceed the contracted rate that results in the carrier discarding traffic, you need to configure shaping
on the physical interface. This shaping is accomplished with a QoS service policy. You configure a QoS service
policy on the outside Ethernet interface, and this parent policy includes a shaper that then references a second
or subordinate (child) policy that enables queuing within the shaped rate. This is called a hierarchical ClassBased Weighted Fair Queuing (HCBWFQ) configuration. When you configure the shape average command,
ensure that the value matches the contracted bandwidth rate from your service provider.
This procedure applies to all WAN routers. You can repeat this procedure multiple times to support devices that
have multiple WAN connections attached to different interfaces.
Deploying WAN Quality of Service
December 2013
130
Step 1: Create the parent policy map.
As a best practice, embed the interface name within the name of the parent policy map.
policy-map [policy-map-name]
Step 2: Configure the shaper.
class [class-name]
shape [average | peak] [bandwidth (kbps)]
Step 3: Apply the child service policy.
service-policy [policy-map-name]
Example
This example shows a router with a 20-Mbps link on interface GigabitEthernet0/0 and a 10-Mbps link on
interface GigabitEthernet0/1.
policy-map WAN-INTERFACE-G0/0
class class-default
shape average 20000000
service-policy WAN
!
policy-map WAN-INTERFACE-G0/1
class class-default
shape average 10000000
service-policy WAN
Procedure 5
Apply WAN QoS Policy to Physical Interface
To invoke shaping and queuing on a physical interface, you must apply the parent policy that you configured in
the previous procedure.
This procedure applies to all WAN routers. You can repeat this procedure multiple times to support devices that
have multiple WAN connections attached to different interfaces.
Step 1: Select the WAN interface.
interface [interface type] [number]
Step 2: Apply the WAN QoS policy.
The service policy needs to be applied in the outbound direction.
service-policy output [policy-map-name]
Example
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
service-policy output WAN-INTERFACE-G0/0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
service-policy output WAN-INTERFACE-G0/1
Deploying WAN Quality of Service
December 2013
131
Procedure 6
Configure IPSEC anti-replay window size
(Optional)
Cisco IOS provides anti-replay protection against an attacker duplicating encrypted packets.
IPsec security association (SA) anti-replay is a security service in which the decrypting router can reject
duplicate packets and protect itself against replay attacks.
Cisco QoS gives priority to high-priority packets. This prioritization may cause some low-priority packets to be
discarded. By expanding the IPsec anti-replay window you can allow the router to keep track of more than 64
packets.
Step 1: Increase the anti-replay window size.
crypto ipsec security-association replay window-size 1024
Tech Tip
Increasing the anti-replay window size has no impact on throughput and security. The
impact on memory is insignificant because only an extra 128 bytes per incoming IPsec
SA is needed.
It is recommended that you use the full 1024 window size to eliminate future anti-replay
problems.
If you do not increase the window size, the router may drop packets and you may see
the following error message on the router CLI:
%CRYPTO-4-PKT_REPLAY_ERR: decrypt: replay check failed
On the Cisco ASR 1000 router platform, the maximum replay window size is 512.
crypto ipsec security-association replay window-size 512
Deploying WAN Quality of Service
December 2013
132
Appendix A: Product List
WAN Remote Site
Functional Area
Product Description
Part Numbers
Software
Modular WAN Remote-site Router
Cisco ISR 4451-X Security Bundle w/SEC license PAK
ISR4451-X-SEC/K9
15.3(3)S
securityk9 license
Cisco 3945 Voice Sec. Bundle, PVDM3-64, UC and
SEC License PAK
C3945-VSEC/K9
Cisco 3925 Voice Sec. Bundle, PVDM3-64, UC and
SEC License PAK
C3925-VSEC/K9
15.2(4)M4
securityk9 license
datak9 license
Data Paper PAK for Cisco 3900 series
SL-39-DATA-K9
Cisco 2951 Voice Sec. Bundle, PVDM3-32, UC and
SEC License PAK
C2951-VSEC/K9
Cisco 2921 Voice Sec. Bundle, PVDM3-32, UC and
SEC License PAK
C2921-VSEC/K9
Cisco 2911 Voice Sec. Bundle, PVDM3-32, UC and
SEC License PAK
C2911-VSEC/K9
Data Paper PAK for Cisco 2900 series
SL-29-DATA-K9
Functional Area
Product Description
Part Numbers
Software
WAN-aggregation Router
Aggregation Services 1002X Router
ASR1002X-5G-VPNK9
Aggregation Services 1002 Router
ASR1002-5G-VPN/K9
Aggregation Services 1001 Router
ASR1001-2.5G-VPNK9
IOS-XE 15.3(3)S
Advanced Enterprise
license
Cisco 3945 Security Bundle w/SEC license PAK
CISCO3945-SEC/K9
Cisco 3925 Security Bundle w/SEC license PAK
CISCO3925-SEC/K9
Data Paper PAK for Cisco 3900 series
SL-39-DATA-K9
WAN Aggregation
WAN-aggregation Router
Appendix A: Product List
15.2(4)M4
securityk9 license
datak9 license
December 2013
133
Internet Edge
Functional Area
Product Description
Part Numbers
Software
Firewall
Cisco ASA 5545-X IPS Edition - security appliance
ASA5545-IPS-K9
Cisco ASA 5525-X IPS Edition - security appliance
ASA5525-IPS-K9
ASA 9.0(1)
IPS 7.1(7) E4
Cisco ASA 5515-X IPS Edition - security appliance
ASA5515-IPS-K9
Cisco ASA 5512-X IPS Edition - security appliance
ASA5512-IPS-K9
Cisco ASA 5512-X Security Plus license
ASA5512-SEC-PL
Firewall Management
ASDM
7.0(2)
Internet Edge LAN
Functional Area
Product Description
Part Numbers
Software
DMZ Switch
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Stackable 24 Ethernet
10/100/1000 ports
WS-C3750X-24T-S
15.0(2)SE2
IP Base license
Appendix A: Product List
December 2013
134
LAN Access Layer
Functional Area
Product Description
Part Numbers
Software
Modular Access Layer Switch
Cisco Catalyst 4507R+E 7-slot Chassis with 48Gbps
per slot
WS-C4507R+E
3.4.0.SG(15.1-2SG)
IP Base license
Cisco Catalyst 4500 E-Series Supervisor Engine 7L-E
WS-X45-SUP7L-E
Cisco Catalyst 4500 E-Series 48 Ethernet
10/100/1000 (RJ45) PoE+ ports
WS-X4648-RJ45V+E
Cisco Catalyst 4500 E-Series 48 Ethernet
10/100/1000 (RJ45) PoE+,UPoE ports
WS-X4748-UPOE+E
Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series Stackable 48 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports
WS-C3850-48F
Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series Stackable 24 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ Ports
WS-C3850-24P
Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series 2 x 10GE Network Module
C3850-NM-2-10G
Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series 4 x 1GE Network Module
C3850-NM-4-1G
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Stackable 48 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports
WS-C3750X-48PF-S
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Stackable 24 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports
WS-C3750X-24P-S
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Two 10GbE SFP+ and
Two GbE SFP ports network module
C3KX-NM-10G
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Four GbE SFP ports
network module
C3KX-NM-1G
Cisco Catalyst 3560-X Series Standalone 48 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports
WS-C3560X-48PF-S
Cisco Catalyst 3560-X Series Standalone 24 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports
WS-C3560X-24P-S
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Two 10GbE SFP+ and
Two GbE SFP ports network module
C3KX-NM-10G
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Four GbE SFP ports
network module
C3KX-NM-1G
Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series 48 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports and Two 10GbE SFP+ Uplink
ports
WS-C2960S-48FPD-L
Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series 48 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports and Four GbE SFP Uplink
ports
WS-C2960S-48FPS-L
Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series 24 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports and Two 10GbE SFP+ Uplink
ports
WS-C2960S-24PD-L
Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series 24 Ethernet
10/100/1000 PoE+ ports and Four GbE SFP Uplink
ports
WS-C2960S-24PS-L
Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series Flexstack Stack Module
C2960S-STACK
Stackable Access Layer Switch
Standalone Access Layer Switch
Stackable Access Layer Switch
Appendix A: Product List
3.2.1SE(15.0-1EX1)
IP Base license
15.0(2)SE2
IP Base license
15.0(2)SE2
IP Base license
15.0(2)SE2
LAN Base license
December 2013
135
LAN Distribution Layer
Functional Area
Product Description
Part Numbers
Software
Modular Distribution Layer Virtual
Switch Pair
Cisco Catalyst 6500 E-Series 6-Slot Chassis
WS-C6506-E
Cisco Catalyst 6500 VSS Supervisor 2T with 2 ports
10GbE and PFC4
VS-S2T-10G
15.1(1)SY
IP services license
Cisco Catalyst 6500 4-port 40GbE/16-port 10GbE
Fiber Module w/DFC4
WS-X6904-40G-2T
Cisco Catalyst 6500 4-port 10GbE SFP+ adapter for
WX-X6904-40G module
CVR-CFP-4SFP10G
Cisco Catalyst 6500 24-port GbE SFP Fiber Module
w/DFC4
WS-X6824-SFP-2T
Cisco Catalyst 4507R+E 7-slot Chassis with 48Gbps
per slot
WS-C4507R+E
Cisco Catalyst 4500 E-Series Supervisor Engine 7-E,
848Gbps
WS-X45-SUP7-E
Cisco Catalyst 4500 E-Series 24-port GbE SFP Fiber
Module
WS-X4624-SFP-E
Cisco Catalyst 4500 E-Series 12-port 10GbE SFP+
Fiber Module
WS-X4712-SFP+E
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Stackable 12 GbE SFP
ports
WS-C3750X-12S-E
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Two 10GbE SFP+ and
Two GbE SFP ports network module
C3KX-NM-10G
Cisco Catalyst 3750-X Series Four GbE SFP ports
network module
C3KX-NM-1G
Modular Distribution Layer Switch
Stackable Distribution Layer Switch
Appendix A: Product List
3.4.0.SG(15.1-2SG)
Enterprise Services
license
15.0(2)SE2
IP Services license
December 2013
136
Appendix B:
Technical Feature Supplement
Front Door VRF (FVRF) for DMVPN
Building an IPsec tunnel requires reachability between the crypto routers. When you use the Internet, routers use
a default route to contact their peers.
Figure 28 - IPsec tunnel
WAN Distribution
Default
Inside
Internet Edge
DMVPN Hub Router
Default
VPN-DMZ
Default
Outside
Internet
Default Route
Appendix B: Technical Feature Supplement
2034
DMVPN Spoke Router
t
ul
fa
e
D
December 2013
137
If you need to extend the internal network (and the same default routing options that are available to internal
users), you must advertise a default route to the VPN hub router. For details, see section A in the following figure.
Figure 29 - IPsec tunnel before/after default route injection
A
B
WAN
Distribution
WAN
Distribution
Default
Default
RP
RP
G
EI
G
EI
Internet Edge
Default
VPN-DMZ
Inside
t
t
DMVPN
Hub Router
ul
fa
De
ul
fa
De
Inside
DMVPN
Hub Router
Internet Edge
Default
VPN-DMZ
Default
Default
Outside
Outside
Internet
ult
fa
De
DMVPN
Spoke
Router
ult
fa
De
2035
DMVPN
Spoke
Router
Internet
The advertisement of a default route to the hub router (with an existing default route) is problematic. This route
requires a better administrative distance to become the active default, which then overrides the default route that
is supporting the peer-peer IPsec tunnel connection. This routing advertisement breaks the tunnel as shown in
section B in the previous figure.
Appendix B: Technical Feature Supplement
December 2013
138
Through the introduction of an external VRF INET-PUBLIC (shown in red), the hub router can support multiple
default routes. The internal network remains in the global VRF. This is shown in section A of the following figure.
Tech Tip
Most additional features on the hub router do not require VRF-awareness.
Figure 30 - IPsec tunnel with FVRF aggregation
A
WAN
Distribution
B
WAN
Distribution
Default
vrf global vrf INET-PUBLIC
Inside
Default
vrf global vrf INET-PUBLIC
Internet
Edge
Block
Default
VPN-DMZ
RP
EIG 0)
2
( 0
VPN-DMZ
Default
Outside
Default
DMVPN
Spoke
Router
Internet
Edge
Block
Default
Default
Default
Inside
Outside
Default
Internet
Internet
DMVPN
Spoke
Router
2036
Default Route
Default Route (vrf INET-PUBLIC)
This configuration is referred to as FVRF, because the Internet is contained in a VRF. The alternative to this design
is inside VRF (IVRF), where the internal network is in a VRF on the VPN hub and the Internet remains in the global
VRF. This method is not documented in this guide.
It is now possible to reestablish the IPSec tunnel to the remote peer router. As the remote-site policy requires
central Internet access for end users, a default route is advertised through the tunnel. This advertisement causes
a similar default routing issue on the remote router; the tunnel default overrides the Internet-pointing default and
the tunnel connection breaks as shown in section B of the previous figure.
This configuration requires using FVRF on the remote-site router as well. The primary benefits of using this
solution are as follows:
• Simplified default routing and static default routes in the INET-PUBLIC VRFs
• Ability to support default routing for end-users traffic through VPN tunnels
• Ability to use dynamic default routing for sites with multiple WAN transports
• Ability to build spoke-to-spoke tunnels with DMVPN with end-user traffic routed by default through VPN
tunnels
Appendix B: Technical Feature Supplement
December 2013
139
The final design that uses FVRF at both the WAN-aggregation site and a WAN remote-site is shown in the
following figure.
Figure 31 - FVRF—Final configuration
WAN Distribution
Default
vrf global
vrf INET-PUBLIC
Inside
DMVPN Hub Router
Internet
Edge
Default
Default
VPN-DMZ
Default
RP
EIG 00)
2
(
Outside
Internet
Default Route
Default Route (vrf INET-PUBLIC)
vrf global
vrf INET-PUBLIC
2037
DMVPN Spoke Router
Default
Appendix B: Technical Feature Supplement
December 2013
140
Appendix C:
Device Configuration Files
To view the configuration files from the CVD lab devices that we used to test this guide, please go to the
following URL:
http://cvddocs.com/fw/330-13
Appendix C: Device Configuration Files
December 2013
141
Appendix D: Changes
This appendix summarizes the changes to this guide since its last edition.
• Added support for Cisco 4451-X Integrated Services Router platform
• Added a WAN facing summary route for the remote-site network range. The summary route ensures
that default routing changes do not affect remote-site communication between WAN transports.
• Added configuration to adjust IPsec anti-replay window size.
Appendix D: Changes
December 2013
142
Feedback
Please use the feedback form to send comments and
suggestions about this guide.
Americas Headquarters
Cisco Systems, Inc.
San Jose, CA
Asia Pacific Headquarters
Cisco Systems (USA) Pte. Ltd.
Singapore
Europe Headquarters
Cisco Systems International BV Amsterdam,
The Netherlands
Cisco has more than 200 offices worldwide. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco Website at www.cisco.com/go/offices.
ALL DESIGNS, SPECIFICATIONS, STATEMENTS, INFORMATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS (COLLECTIVELY, “DESIGNS”) IN THIS MANUAL ARE PRESENTED “AS IS,”
WITH ALL FAULTS. CISCO AND ITS SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE, OR TRADE PRACTICE. IN NO EVENT SHALL CISCO OR ITS
SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOST PROFITS OR LOSS OR
DAMAGE TO DATA ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE DESIGNS, EVEN IF CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES. THE DESIGNS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. USERS ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR APPLICATION OF THE DESIGNS. THE DESIGNS
DO NOT CONSTITUTE THE TECHNICAL OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL ADVICE OF CISCO, ITS SUPPLIERS OR PARTNERS. USERS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TECHNICAL
ADVISORS BEFORE IMPLEMENTING THE DESIGNS. RESULTS MAY VARY DEPENDING ON FACTORS NOT TESTED BY CISCO.
Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses. Any examples, command display output, and figures included in the
document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental.
© 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco and the Cisco logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. To view a list of Cisco trademarks, go to this
URL: www.cisco.com/go/trademarks. Third-party trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership
relationship between Cisco and any other company. (1110R)
B-0000335-1 01/14
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement