Cyclades | PM IPDU | Service manual | Cyclades PM IPDU Service manual

Cyclades® ACS
Command Reference Guide
For Technical Support:
www.avocent.com/support
Avocent Corporation
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Huntsville, Alabama 35805-6201 USA
Tel: +1 256 430 4000
Fax: +1 256 430 4031
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Avocent House, Shannon Free Zone
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Richmond Hill, Ontario
L4B 1K3 Canada
Tel: +1 877 992 9239
Fax: +1 877 524 2985
590-664-501A
FCC Warning Statement
The Cyclades ACS advanced console server has been tested and found to comply with the limits for Class A
digital devices, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment.
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the Installation and Service Manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user is
required to correct the problem at his or her own expense.
Notice about FCC Compliance for All Cyclades ACS Advanced Console Server Models
To comply with FCC standards, the Cyclades ACS advanced console server requires the use of a shielded
CAT5 cable for the Ethernet interface. Notice that this cable is not supplied with either of the products and must
be provided by the customer.
Canadian DOC Notice
The Cyclades ACS advanced console server does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
L’Cyclades ACS advanced console server n’émete pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites
applicables aux appareils numériques de la classe A prescrites dans le règlement sur le brouillage
radioélectrique edicté par le Ministère des Communications du Canada.
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Cyclades® ACS
Advanced Console Server
Command Reference Guide
Avocent, the Avocent logo, The Power of Being There, DSView and
Cyclades are registered trademarks of Avocent Corporation or its
affiliates. All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
© 2006 Avocent Corporation. All rights reserved. 590-664-501A
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Instructions
This symbol is intended to alert the user to the presence of important operating and maintenance
(servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the appliance.
Dangerous Voltage
This symbol is intended to alert the user to the presence of uninsulated dangerous voltage within the
product’s enclosure that may be of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons.
Power On
This symbol indicates the principal on/off switch is in the on position.
Power Off
This symbol indicates the principal on/off switch is in the off position.
Protective Grounding Terminal
This symbol indicates a terminal which must be connected to earth ground prior to making any other
connections to the equipment.
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iii
TABL E OF CONTEN TS
Table of Contents
List of Figures ................................................................................................................ vii
List of Tables ................................................................................................................... ix
Chapter 1: Using Command Line Interface ................................................................... 1
Overview ............................................................................................................................................ 1
Understanding the CLI Utility .................................................................................................... 1
Accessing the CLI ....................................................................................................................... 1
Important features of the CLI utility........................................................................................... 2
Modes of operation ..................................................................................................................... 3
CLI Navigation .................................................................................................................................. 4
Saving CLI changes .................................................................................................................... 4
Using CLI hot keys...................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 2: Network Configuration.................................................................................. 9
Network Settings ................................................................................................................................ 9
Security Profiles............................................................................................................................... 10
Enable serial ports.................................................................................................................... 11
Host settings ............................................................................................................................. 12
PCMCIA Management..................................................................................................................... 13
PCMCIA Network Devices .............................................................................................................. 14
Ethernet cards........................................................................................................................... 14
Wireless LAN cards .................................................................................................................. 14
Modem PC cards ...................................................................................................................... 15
GSM PCMCIA cards ................................................................................................................ 16
CDMA card configuration........................................................................................................ 17
ISDN PC cards ......................................................................................................................... 18
PCMCIA CF and IDE Media Cards................................................................................................ 18
Supported file systems............................................................................................................... 18
Dial-out application using CDMA or GSM/GPRS................................................................... 20
VPN Configuration .......................................................................................................................... 25
SNMP ............................................................................................................................................... 27
Bonding..................................................................................................................................... 28
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Hosts ......................................................................................................................................... 29
TCP keepalive........................................................................................................................... 30
Firewall Configuration (IP Filtering) ............................................................................................. 30
Structure of the iptables............................................................................................................ 30
Match extensions ...................................................................................................................... 34
Multiport extension................................................................................................................... 36
Target extensions ...................................................................................................................... 36
Static Routes .................................................................................................................................... 39
Chapter 3: Security ........................................................................................................ 41
Security Profiles............................................................................................................................... 41
Authentication .................................................................................................................................. 41
User access to serial ports........................................................................................................ 44
NIS Client......................................................................................................................................... 46
NIS Client Configuration.......................................................................................................... 46
nsswitch.conf............................................................................................................................. 47
Kerberos Authentication .................................................................................................................. 48
Kerberos server authentication with tickets support ................................................................ 48
Configuring the ACS console server to use Kerberos tickets authentication........................... 49
Kerberos server authentication ................................................................................................ 51
LDAP Authentication ....................................................................................................................... 52
Group Authorization ........................................................................................................................ 52
TACACS+ authorization on serial ports .................................................................................. 52
One Time Password (OTP) Authentication ..................................................................................... 56
OTP authentication configuration tasks................................................................................... 56
Shadow Passwords .......................................................................................................................... 59
Digital Certificates .......................................................................................................................... 59
Certificate for HTTP security ................................................................................................... 59
User configured digital certificate............................................................................................ 61
X.509 certificate on SSH........................................................................................................... 62
Chapter 4: Accessing Connected Devices .................................................................. 63
Connection Profiles and Protocols.................................................................................................. 63
Serial ports general parameters ............................................................................................... 64
Accessing serial ports using ts_menu ....................................................................................... 66
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Table of Contents
v
TS Menu Script................................................................................................................................. 69
Configuration examples............................................................................................................ 70
Chapter 5: Administration ............................................................................................. 75
Process Monitoring.......................................................................................................................... 75
The Process Table............................................................................................................................ 76
Start and Stop Services .................................................................................................................... 76
Syslog-ng.......................................................................................................................................... 77
Syslog Messages .............................................................................................................................. 86
DCD ON/OFF Syslog Messages...................................................................................................... 88
Notifications and Alarms ................................................................................................................. 89
Dual Power Management ................................................................................................................ 91
Date and Time, Timezone and Daylight Savings ............................................................................. 91
Daylight Savings Time (DST) ................................................................................................... 91
Network Time Protocol (NTP).................................................................................................. 93
Session Sniffing ................................................................................................................................ 94
Data Buffering ................................................................................................................................. 95
Ramdisks ................................................................................................................................... 96
Linear vs. Circular buffering.................................................................................................... 96
Menu Shell ....................................................................................................................................... 97
Terminal Appearance ...................................................................................................................... 99
SUDO Configuration Group.......................................................................................................... 100
Saveconf and Restoreconf .............................................................................................................. 100
Crond ............................................................................................................................................. 102
Clustering Using Ethernet Interface.............................................................................................. 104
Chapter 6: Power Management................................................................................... 107
Cyclades PM Intelligent Power Distribution Unit (IPDU) ........................................................... 107
Power management protocol.................................................................................................. 108
Power Management Utility ............................................................................................................ 109
PM IPDU Firmware Upgrade ....................................................................................................... 117
SNMP Proxy .................................................................................................................................. 118
Appendices................................................................................................................... 121
Appendix A: Additional Features and Applications ...................................................................... 121
Appendix B: Upgrades and Troubleshooting ................................................................................ 140
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Appendix C: Linux File Structure .................................................................................................. 148
Appendix D: The vi Editor ............................................................................................................. 150
Appendix E: Technical Support ..................................................................................................... 152
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vii
L IS T O F F IG URE S
List of Figures
Figure 4.1: Example of CAS Configuration with Local Authentication.......................................... 70
Figure 4.2: Example of CAS Configuration with Local and Remote Authentication..................... 71
Figure 4.3: Example of TS Configuration Profile ........................................................................... 72
Figure 4.4: Example of Dial-in Access Profile................................................................................ 73
Figure 5.1: An Example on Using the Clustering Feature............................................................ 104
Figure 6.1: PM IPDU and ACS Console Server Integration ........................................................ 107
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ix
L I S T OF T A B L ES
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Modes of Operation.......................................................................................................... 3
Table 1.2: CLI Commands for Saving Configuration Changes......................................................... 4
Table 1.3: Cursor Movement Keys .................................................................................................... 5
Table 1.4: Command History Keys.................................................................................................... 5
Table 1.5: Text Modification Keys..................................................................................................... 5
Table 1.6: CLI Global Commands..................................................................................................... 6
Table 1.7: CLI Command Arguments ................................................................................................ 6
Table 2.1: Security Profiles ............................................................................................................. 10
Table 2.2: Custom Security Profile Parameters .............................................................................. 11
Table 2.3: Host Settings Parameters and Values ............................................................................ 12
Table 2.4: PCMCIA Configuration and Monitoring Commands .................................................... 13
Table 2.5: Ethernet PCMCIA Configuration Parameters ............................................................... 14
Table 2.6: Wireless LAN PCMCIA Configuration Parameters....................................................... 14
Table 2.7: Modem PCMCIA Configuration Parameters................................................................. 15
Table 2.8: GSM PCMCIA Configuration Parameters..................................................................... 16
Table 2.9: CDMA PCMCIA Configuration Parameters ................................................................. 17
Table 2.10: ISDN PCMCIA Configuration Parameters .................................................................. 18
Table 2.11: Media PCMCIA Card Parameters ............................................................................... 19
Table 2.12: Configuration Parameters for /etc/generic-dial.conf................................................... 20
Table 2.13: VPN Parameters........................................................................................................... 26
Table 2.14: SNMP v1/v2 Configuration Parameters....................................................................... 27
Table 2.15: SNMP v3 Parameters ................................................................................................... 28
Table 2.16: iptables Commands Options......................................................................................... 32
Table 2.17: iptables Rules Specifications ........................................................................................ 33
Table 2.18: TCP Extensions ............................................................................................................ 35
Table 2.19: UDP Extensions ........................................................................................................... 35
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Table 2.20: ICMP Extensions .......................................................................................................... 36
Table 2.21: Multiport Extensions .................................................................................................... 36
Table 2.22: LOG Extensions............................................................................................................ 36
Table 2.23: LOG Extension ............................................................................................................. 37
Table 2.24: SNAT Target ................................................................................................................. 37
Table 2.25: DNAT Target ................................................................................................................ 38
Table 2.26: Masquerade Target ...................................................................................................... 38
Table 2.27: Redirect Target............................................................................................................. 38
Table 2.28: Routing Table Parameters............................................................................................ 39
Table 2.29: Static Routes Parameters and Values .......................................................................... 40
Table 3.1: Authentication Methods and Fallback Mechanisms ...................................................... 42
Table 3.2: ACS Console Server Authentication Parameters ........................................................... 43
Table 3.3: Authentication Servers Parameters................................................................................ 44
Table 3.4: User Access Parameters................................................................................................. 45
Table 3.5: NIS Client Requirements ................................................................................................ 46
Table 3.6: nsswitch.conf Parameters............................................................................................... 47
Table 3.7: LDAP Authentication Parameters.................................................................................. 52
Table 3.8: Parameters for Specifying User Authorization on a TACACS+ Server......................... 53
Table 3.9: TACACS+ Configuration Parameters............................................................................ 54
Table 3.10: Radius Configuration Parameters................................................................................ 55
Table 3.11: OTP Database Location Options ................................................................................. 57
Table 3.12: Required Information for the OpenSSL Package ......................................................... 60
Table 3.13: X.509 Certificate Parameters....................................................................................... 62
Table 4.1: Connection Profiles and Protocols ................................................................................ 63
Table 4.2: Serial Port General Configuration Parameters ............................................................. 64
Table 4.3: Other Serial Port Configuration Parameters................................................................. 65
Table 4.4: Telnet Session Configuration Parameters...................................................................... 66
Table 4.5: SSH Session Configuration Parameters......................................................................... 66
Table 4.6: ts_menu Parameters ....................................................................................................... 67
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List of Tables
xi
Table 4.7: Console Escape Commands ........................................................................................... 68
Table 4.8: ts_menu Configuration Parameters ............................................................................... 69
Table 4.9: ts_menu Options ............................................................................................................. 69
Table 5.1: Process Table ................................................................................................................. 76
Table 5.2: Global Options Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration) ................................................ 77
Table 5.3: Source Drivers Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration) ................................................. 78
Table 5.4: Filters Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration)............................................................... 79
Table 5.5: Destination Drivers Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration) ......................................... 81
Table 5.6: Send Email Parameters .................................................................................................. 82
Table 5.7: Message Mount Parameters ........................................................................................... 82
Table 5.8: ACS Console Server Syslog Messages Format .............................................................. 86
Table 5.9: System Notifications Parameters.................................................................................... 89
Table 5.10: Date and Time Configuration Parameters ................................................................... 92
Table 5.11: Timezone Configuration Parameters ........................................................................... 92
Table 5.12: Session Sniffing parameters ......................................................................................... 95
Table 5.13: Data Buffering Configuration Parameters................................................................... 96
Table 5.14: Terminal Profile Menu Configuration Parameters...................................................... 99
Table 5.15: Saveconf Utility and Storage Device Parameters ...................................................... 101
Table 5.16: Restoreconf Utility and Storage Device Parameters ................................................. 101
Table 5.17: Clustering Configuration Parameters........................................................................ 105
Table 6.1: PM IPDU Configuration Parameters .......................................................................... 108
Table 6.2: Menu Options for pm Utility ........................................................................................ 109
Table 6.3: Power Management Individual PM IPDU Commands ................................................ 110
Table 6.4: Power Management Multi-Outlet PM IPDU Commands ............................................ 111
Table 6.5: PM IPDU Regular User Command Menu ................................................................... 113
Table 6.6: pmCommands ............................................................................................................... 114
Table 6.7: pwfwupgrade Application Parameters ......................................................................... 118
Table 7.1: EMS Configuration Parameters and Switches ............................................................. 121
Table 7.2: Machine Info Tags........................................................................................................ 122
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Table 7.3: Elements in the <channel-switch> Tag........................................................................ 124
Table 7.4: <BP> Tags Description ............................................................................................... 126
Table 7.5: f_windows_boot Macros............................................................................................... 127
Table 7.6: f_windows_boot Available Macros .............................................................................. 128
Table 7.7: Server Commands......................................................................................................... 129
Table 7.8: ipmitool Options ........................................................................................................... 131
Table 7.9: IPMI Commands........................................................................................................... 132
Table 7.10: IPMI CLI Configuration Parameters ......................................................................... 133
Table 7.11: CPU LED Code Interpretation................................................................................... 143
Table 7.12: CLI Boot Configuration Parameters .......................................................................... 145
Table 7.13: CLI Session Management Parameters ....................................................................... 145
Table 7.14: Backup Configuration Parameters............................................................................. 146
Table 7.15: Linux Directory Structure .......................................................................................... 148
Table 7.16: File Manipulation Commands.................................................................................... 148
Table 7.17: vi Modes ..................................................................................................................... 150
Table 7.18: vi Navigation Commands ........................................................................................... 150
Table 7.19: vi File Modification Commands ................................................................................. 150
Table 7.20: vi Line Mode Commands ............................................................................................ 151
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1
CHA PTER
Using Command Line Interface
1
Overview
The Cyclades ACS advanced console server command line interface (CLI) may be used for
administration and maintenance of the ACS console server. CLI is comprised of a set of keywords
nested in a hierarchy format. CLI allows the ACS console server administrator to perform the same
configuration tasks available through the Web Manager Interface (WMI). In addition, it allows
executing the frequently performed configuration tasks saved in text files in batch mode or through
shell scripts.
Understanding the CLI Utility
The CLI utility is built on a set of commands that are nested in a hierarchical format. Some
commands require parameters that are user-defined.
For example, network configuration tasks include network, hostsetting and hostname commands
nested in the following format.
cli> config network hostsettings hostname [parameter]
Commands used to configure or change a set of parameters.
cli > config security adduser username john password john12 admin yes
biouser no shell /bin/sh
Commands may also specify a function or an action to be performed, for example.
cli> config runconfig
cli> config savetoflash
Accessing the CLI
The CLI may be accessed in any of the following three methods:
•
By local logins through the console port
Local ACS console server “root” users may access the command line by logging in through the
console port using a terminal or a server running a terminal emulation program.
•
By remote logins using SSH, PPP or a terminal emulation program
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ACS Advanced Console Server Command Reference Guide
Remote users may access the ACS console server CLI through SSH, by using a terminal
emulation program to dial into an external modem or by creating a PPP connection with an
external modem or a PCMCIA modem.
•
By clicking Connect to ACS in WMI.
After logging into the WMI, you may access the CLI by clicking the Connect menu option.
Important features of the CLI utility
•
Only one user logged in as “root” or “admin” may have an active CLI or WMI session. A
second user who connects through the CLI or the WMI as “root” or “admin” have a choice to
abort the session or close the other user’s session.
NOTE: If there are cron jobs running through automated scripts, a root or admin user login may cause the
automated cron jobs to fail.
•
CLI has three possible user levels:
•
Root user - A Linux root user has access to the full functionality of the CLI interface. Root
users have access to the shell command in the CLI that provides access to the ACS
console server shell prompt.
NOTE: An administrator may enforce the Linux shell to execute the CLI utility when the user logs into the ACS
console server (/bin/CLI). A user with “root” access may invoke the Linux shell from the CLI interface. An admin
or a regular user who is configured with CLI as the default shell may not access the Linux shell.
•
•
Admin - A Linux admin user has access to the full functionality of the CLI except the shell
command, which provides access to the ACS console server Linux shell prompt.
•
Regular user - A Linux regular user has access only to limited functionality of the CLI.
Access is granted only to the applications commands of the CLI utility.
CLI interface generates syslog messages for executed commands, and when sessions are
terminated. For example,
Apr 19 17:51:44 src_dev_log@swes-129 CLI[413]: User root starts an
interactive CLI session.cli>config
Apr 19 16:28:02 src_dev_log@swes-129 CLI[412]: Session closed due
idletimeout
Apr 19 17:54:23 src_dev_log@swes-129 CLI[413]: User root executed
[quit]
•
CLI writes every command executed in interactive mode in the file ~/.history. This file stores
the last 1000 commands executed in any CLI session.
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Chapter 1: Using Command Line Interface
Modes of operation
The following table describes the three modes of executing commands using the CLI utility.
Table 1.1: Modes of Operation
Mode
Description
Command Line
CLI is invoked in the Linux shell with commands and parameters. For example:
[root@CAS root]# bin/CLI config network hostsettings hostname <parameter>
Batch
•
•
CLI commands may be saved in a text file and executed in batch mode by invoking
the CLI utility with the -f <filename> option.
CLI commands may be used in a shell script. For example, #/bin/CLI may be
invoked at the top of a shell script if the script contains only CLI commands. Any
type of shell may be used to run CLI commands along with other commands.
For example:
• Create a script that calls /bin/CLI to configure a hostname in batch mode.
#!/bin/CLI
config network hostsettings hostname FremontACS
config savetoflash
:wq
• Run a CLI command from the same script that is running other Linux commands.
#!/bin/bash
...
/bin/CLI -s config network hostsettings hostname FremontACS
...
• Run multiple CLI commands from a script that is running other Linux commands.
#!/bin/bash
...
/bin/CLI << EOF
config network hostsettings hostname FremontACS
config security adduser username johndoe
config savetoflash
EOF
Interactive
CLI is invoked and commands and parameters are entered in the Linux shell. CLI is
active until the quit command is issued. For example,
CLI> config network hostsettings dhcp <yes>
CLI> config runconfig
CLI> config savetoflash
CLI> config quit
[root@CAS root]#
3
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ACS Advanced Console Server Command Reference Guide
CLI Navigation
Autocompletion
Autocompletion may be used to find out what commands and parameters are available.
•
Pressing the Tab key twice displays all the commands at the top level, for example:
cli> <Tab> <Tab>
•
administration
info
return
applications
portStatus
shell
config
quit
show
version
Pressing the Tab key once after partially-typing a command automatically completes the
parameter name. If there is more than one parameter name beginning with the typed characters,
then pressing the Tab key again displays them all. For example:
cli> i<Tab>
info
cli> a<Tab> <Tab>
administration applications
•
Pressing the Tab key after the first level command displays the commands one level down in
the hierarchy. For example:
cli> config <Tab>
administration ipmi
restorefromflash
applications
network
runconfig
discardchanges
physicalports
savetoflash
security
Saving CLI changes
Configuration changes made in any of the CLI modes are temporarily. Changes are not activated
and saved into the configuration files unless you run the commands described in the following
table.
Table 1.2: CLI Commands for Saving Configuration Changes
Command
Action
config runconfig
Saves and activates configuration changes in the appropriate configuration files.
config savetoflash
Saves any unsaved configuration changes in the configuration files and creates a
zipped backup copy of the files in a backup directory for possible later retrieval.
config discardchanges
Restores the backed up configuration files, overwriting any configuration changes
made since the last time the savetoflash option was executed.
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Chapter 1: Using Command Line Interface
Using CLI hot keys
The CLI hot keys may be used to perform the following types of actions:
•
Move the cursor on the command line.
•
Move through the list of commands in the command history.
•
Edit characters on the command line.
Table 1.3: Cursor Movement Keys
Keyboard Keys
Description
Ctrl+a
Move to the start of the current line.
Ctrl+e
Move to the end of the line.
Ctrl+b
Move back a character (same as the left arrow key).
Ctrl+f
Move forward a character (same as the right arrow key).
Esc+b
Move back to the start of the current or previous word. Words are composed of letters
and digits.
Esc+f
Move forward to the end of the next word. Words are composed of letters and digits.
Ctrl+l
Clear the screen and redraw the current line, leaving the current line at the top of
the screen.
Table 1.4: Command History Keys
Keyboard Keys
Description
Ctrl+n
Move forward through the history list, fetching the next command (same as <down
arrow key>).
Ctrl+p
Move back through the history list, fetching the previous command (same as <up
arrow key>).
NOTE: The command history buffer is only available for the last 500 commands in the current session. The
history is cumulative, so terminating the session does not clear the buffer. This means a user may log in to the
CLI and go back over the commands entered by a previous user.
Table 1.5: Text Modification Keys
Keyboard Keys
Description
Ctrl+d
Delete the character under the cursor (same as Delete key).
Ctrl+h
Same as Backspace key.
Ctrl+k
Clear the text from the cursor to the end of the line.
5
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Table 1.5: Text Modification Keys (Continued)
Ctrl+u
Clear backward from the cursor to the beginning of the current line.
Ctrl+w
Delete the word behind point.
Esc+d
Clear from the cursor to the end of the current word, or if between words, to the end of the
next word.
Esc+Tab
Displays the current parameter of the command entered. You may edit the value.
For example: To display the current value for domain and edit it.
cli> config network hostsettings
hostsettings> domain [press <Esc> <Tab>]
hostsettings> domain avocent.com
CLI Global commands
The CLI global commands may be entered at any level of the CLI hierarchy.
Table 1.6: CLI Global Commands
Command
Description
quit
Ends the CLI session.
return
Goes up one level in the CLI hierarchy.
info
Displays the help information available for the current level in the hierarchy. When
combined with a command name supported at the current level, the applicable
information or parameter is displayed.
show
Displays the configuration parameter(s). When combined with a command name
supported at the current level, the applicable information or parameter
is displayed.
CLI command arguments
Command arguments are used when CLI is invoked in the command line mode in the Linux shell
or in a batch mode.
Table 1.7: CLI Command Arguments
Argument
Description
-q
Suppress the output of error messages from CLI.
-t <time>
Timeout in minutes, default is 10 minutes.
-T
Disable the idle timeout. Same as -t 0.
-s
batch mode only
Save changes to flash. This is the same as savetoflash command.
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Chapter 1: Using Command Line Interface
Table 1.7: CLI Command Arguments (Continued)
-r
batch mode only
Activate changes. This is the same as runconfig command.
-f <filename>
Executes the commands in the file <filename>.
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CHA PTER
2
Network Configuration
Network Settings
The following instructions assume you are installing a new ACS console server or you have reset
an existing unit to factory default parameters.
To configure initial network parameters using the wiz command:
1.
From your terminal emulation application, log into the console port as root. The default
password is tslinux.
NOTE: It is strongly recommended to change the default password tslinux to a new password before configuring
the ACS console server for secure access.
2.
To change a password, run the command.
[root@CAS root]# passwd
New password:
3.
Launch the configuration wizard by entering the wiz command.
[root@CAS root]# wiz
4.
The system displays a configuration wizard banner, instructions for using the utility and the
current configuration.
5.
At the prompt Set to defaults?, enter n to change the defaults. Activate and save
your configuration. See Saving CLI changes on page 4.
6.
To confirm the configuration, enter the ifconfig command.
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Security Profiles
A security advisory appears the first time the ACS console server is powered on, or when the unit is
reset to factory default parameters. Once you have configured the basic network settings, a security
profile must be selected in order to proceed to further configuration procedures. Table 2.1 describes
the protocols and services available for each security profile.
Table 2.1: Security Profiles
Security profile
Description
Secured
Predefined security profile. All protocols and services are disabled except SSHv2, HTTPs
and SSH to Serial Ports.
Moderate
(Default)
Predefined security profile. Enables SSHv1, SSHv2, HTTP, HTTPs, Telnet, SSH and Raw
connections to serial ports, ICMP and HTTP redirection to HTTPs.
Open
Predefined security profile. Enables all services, Telnet, SSHv1, SSHv2, HTTP, HTTPS,
SNMP, RPC, ICMP and Telnet, SSH and Raw connections to Serial Ports.
Custom
Administrator may configure individual protocols and services and configure access to
serial ports.
To select a predefined security profile:
Configure a predefined security profile by entering the following string at the CLI prompt.
cli> config security profile [secured|moderate|open]
To configure a custom security profile:
1.
Navigate to the custom menu.
cli> config security profile custom
2.
Enable or disable desired protocols or services. Refer to Table 2.2 for the list of parameters
and values.
custom> [parameter] <value>
3.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Table 2.2: Custom Security Profile Parameters
Parameter Level1
Parameter Level2
Parameter Level3
Value
ftp
yes|no
icmp
yes|no
ipsec
yes|no
ports>
auth2
bidirect
raw2sport
ssh2sport
telnet2sport
yes|no
yes|no
yes|no
yes|no
yes|no
rpc
yes|no
snmp
yes|no
ssh>
root_access
ssh_x509>
sshd_port
sshv1
sshv2
telnet
web>
yes|no
CA_file
hostkey
authorizedkeys
<path and filename of CA certificate>
<path and filename of authorized keys>
<number>
yes|no
yes|no
yes|no
http
http2https
http_port
https
https_port
yes|no
yes|no
<number>
yes|no
<number>
Enable serial ports
By default, the ACS console server is configured with all serial ports disabled.
To enable serial ports:
1.
Enable single or multiple serial ports.
cli> config physicalports <range/list[1-32]> enable yes
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Host settings
To configure host settings:
1.
Enter the following string at the CLI prompt. Refer to Table 2.3 for host settings parameters
and values.
cli> config network hostsettings <parameter> <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Table 2.3: Host Settings Parameters and Values
Parameter Level1 Parameter Level2 Value
Description
banner
Banner for the user shell
<console banner>
Redundancy for the ethernet interface
bonding
miimon
<number>
The interval in which the active
interface is checked to see if it is still
communicating (in milliseconds)
updelay
<number>
The time the system wait to make the
primary interface active after it has been
detected as up (in milliseconds)
dhcp
yes|no
Enable or disable DHCP
domain
<domain name>
Domain name
gateway
<n.n.n.n>
Gateway IP address
hostname
<string>
ACS console server name
mtu
<number[200-1500]>
Maximum Transmission Unit used by the
TCP protocol
primdnsserver
<n.n.n.n>
Primary DNS Server
secdnsserver
<n.n.n.n>
Secondary DNS Server
primipaddress
<n.n.n.n>
Primary IP address
secipaddress
<n.n.n.n>
Secondary IP address
primsubnetmask
<n.n.n.n>
Primary subnet mask
secsubnetmask
<n.n.n.n>
Secondary subnet mask
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PCMCIA Management
The ACS console server’s PCMCIA slots support a number of interface cards such as Ethernet,
modem (V.90, GSM, CDMA and ISDN), wireless LAN and storage cards. Go to http://
www.cyclades.com/products/3/alterpath_acs for a list of supported cards.
PCMCIA configuration and monitoring commands
During the ACS console server’s boot process, the cardmgr daemon monitors PCMCIA sockets,
loads client drivers and runs user-level scripts in response to card insertion and removal. The
cardctl command may be used at the Linux shell prompt to check the status of a socket or to view
its configuration parameters.
Table 2.4: PCMCIA Configuration and Monitoring Commands
Utility
Description
lsmod
Displays the modules loaded for the PCMCIA devices.
cardctl status
Displays the socket’s current configuration parameters.
cardctl config
Displays the socket configuration, including power settings, interrupt, I/O
settings and configuration registers.
cardctl ident
Displays card identification information, including product identification
strings, manufacturer ID codes and function ID codes.
cardctl suspend
Shuts down and disables power to a socket.
cardctl resume
Restores power to a socket and reconfigures it for use.
cardctl reset
Sends a reset signal to a socket, subject to approval by any drivers already
bounded to the socket.
cardctl eject
Stops the application and unloads the client driver.
cardctl insert
Reloads the driver and restarts the application.
You may insert the card anytime and the drivers should load automatically, however, you must run
“cardctl eject” before ejecting the card to stop the application using the card. Failure to do so may
force the ACS console server to hang during the card removal. Make sure to specify the slot
number when using the cardctl command.
cardctl eject [0-1]
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PCMCIA Network Devices
Ethernet cards
To configure an Ethernet PCMCIA card:
1.
Execute the following command.
cli> config network pcmcia <slot number[1-2]> ethernet ip <n.n.n.n>
mask <n.n.n.n>
Table 2.5: Ethernet PCMCIA Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
ip
<n.n.n.n>
IP address of the ethernet card
mask
<n.n.n.n>
Subnet mask for the ethernet card
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Wireless LAN cards
To configure a wireless PCMCIA card:
1.
Execute the following command.
cli> config network pcmcia <slot number[1-2]> wireless ip <n.n.n.n>
mask <n.n.n.n> channel <number> essid <string> encrypt [yes|no] key
<string>
Table 2.6: Wireless LAN PCMCIA Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
channel
<number>
Communication channel number
encrypt
yes|no
WEP data encryption
key
<string>
Encryption key
essid
<string>
Service set identifier
ip
<n.n.n.n>
IP address of the wireless PC card
mask
<n.n.n.n>
Subnet mask of the wireless PC card
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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The following example shows the usage of wireless LAN configuration parameters.
cli>config network pcmcia 1 wireless ip 192.168.11.11 mask
255.255.255.0 channel 6 essid mylocation encrypt yes key 421536615
cli>config savetoflash
cli>config runconfig
Modem PC cards
In order to configure a modem PCMCIA card, enter the following command. Refer to Table 2.7 for
parameter descriptions.
cli> config network pcmcia <slot number[1-2]> modem ppp [yes|no]
localip <n.n.n.n> remoteip <n.n.n.n> enablecallback [yes|no]
callbacknum <string> otpauthreq [yes|no]
Table 2.7: Modem PCMCIA Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
enablecallback
yes|no
Enable or disable modem call back feature.
callbacknum
<string>
Add a call back number when callback is enabled.
localip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a local IP address for PPP communication.
remoteip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a remote IP address for PPP communication.
ppp
yes|no
Enable or disable PPP service.
otpauthreq
yes|no
Enable or disable One Time Password (OTP) authentication.
To configure a modem PCMCIA card (example):
1.
Enable and configure the modem PCMCIA card.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 modem ppp yes localip 10.0.0.1 remoteip
10.0.0.2
2.
Enable callback and add the call back number, if desired.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 modem
modem>ppp yes
modem>enablecallback yes
modem>callbacknum 4155552515 localip 10.0.0.1 remoteip 10.0.0.2
3.
Enable One Time Password authentication, if required.
4.
Activate and save your configuration.
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GSM PCMCIA cards
In order to configure a GSM PCMCIA card, enter the following command. Refer to Table 2.8 for
parameter descriptions.
cli> config network pcmcia <slot number[1-2]> gsm localip <n.n.n.n>
remoteip <n.n.n.n> enablecallback [yes|no] callbacknum <string> pin
<string> otpauthreq [yes|no]
Table 2.8: GSM PCMCIA Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
enablecallback
yes|no
Enable or disable GSM call back feature.
callbacknum
<string>
Add a call back number when callback is enabled.
localip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a local IP address for PPP communication.
remoteip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a remote IP address for PPP communication.
pin
<string>
Enter the assigned PIN.
otpauthreq
yes|no
Enable or disable One Time Password (OTP) authentication.
To configure a GSM PCMCIA card (example):
1.
Enable and configure the GSM PCMCIA card.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 gsm localip 10.0.0.1 remoteip 10.0.0.2
pin 1234
2.
Enable callback and add the call back number, if desired.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 modem
gsm> enablecallback yes
gsm> callbacknum 4155552515 localip 10.0.0.1 remoteip 10.0.0.2
3.
Enable One Time Password authentication, if required.
4.
Activate and save your configuration.
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17
CDMA card configuration
In order to configure a CDMA PCMCIA card, enter the following command. Refer to Table 2.9 for
parameter descriptions.
cli> config network pcmcia <slot> cdma addinit <additional
initialization> speed <modem speed> localip <n.n.n.n> remoteip
<n.n.n.n> enablecallback [yes|no] callbacknum <string> otpauthreq
[yes|no]
Table 2.9: CDMA PCMCIA Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
addinit
<additional initialization>
Set an additional initialization parameter to be sent to the
card. There is a default command sequence to initialize the
card, but if an additional initialization command is required by
the card, it may be added using this command.
speed
<modem speed>
This parameter defines the speed that the ACS console
server uses to access the card.
enablecallback
yes|no
Enable or disable CDMA call back feature.
callbacknum
<string>
Add a call back number when callback is enabled.
localip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a local IP address for PPP communication.
remoteip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a remote IP address for PPP communication.
otpauthreq
yes|no
Enable or disable One Time Password (OTP) authentication.
To configure a CDMA PCMCIA card (example):
1.
Enable and configure the GSM PCMCIA card.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 cdma speed 28800 addinit command
2.
Enable callback and add the call back number, if desired.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 cdma
cdma> enablecallback yes callbacknum 4155552515 localip 10.0.0.1
remoteip 10.0.0.2
3.
Enable One Time Password authentication, if required.
4.
Activate and save your configuration.
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ISDN PC cards
In order to configure an ISDN PCMCIA card, enter the following command. Refer to Table 2.10
for parameter descriptions.
cli> config network pcmcia <slot> isdn localip <n.n.n.n> remoteip
<n.n.n.n> enablecallback [yes|no] callbacknum <string>
Table 2.10: ISDN PCMCIA Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
enablecallback
yes|no
Enable or disable ISDN call back feature.
callbacknum
<string>
Add a call back number when callback is enabled.
localip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a local IP address for PPP communication.
remoteip
<n.n.n.n>
Assign a remote IP address for PPP communication.
To configure an ISDN PCMCIA card (example):
1.
Enable and configure the ISDN PCMCIA card.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 isdn localip 10.0.0.1 remoteip 10.0.0.2
2.
Enable callback and add the call back number, if desired.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 isdn enablecallback yes callbacknum
4155552515
3.
Activate and save your configuration.
PCMCIA CF and IDE Media Cards
The ACS console server’s PCMCIA slots support media cards such as Compact Flash™ (CF) or
IDE hard disk drives. Use a CF card with a PCMCIA adaptor to back up configuration files. Use a
PCMCIA hard drive for data buffering.
Supported file systems
The PCMCIA cards are detected when they are inserted in the slot and the system mounts the file
system ext2 in the /mnt/ide directory. If you need to mount the file system vfat, edit the FSTYPE
ext2 parameter in the /pcmcia/ide.opts file and change the file system to vfat.
Partition a PCMCIA hard drive for VFAT
Usage: mkdosfs [-A] [-c] [-C] [-v] [-I] [-l bad-block-file] [-b backupboot-sector][-m boot-msg-file] [-n volume-name] [-i volume-id] [-s
sectors-per-cluster] [-S logical-sector-size] [-f number-of-FATs] [-h
hidden-sectors] [-F fat-size] [-r root-dir-entries] [-R reservedsectors]/dev/name [blocks]
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19
Initialize a PCMCIA hard drive for VFAT
# echo ",,0x0e" | sfdisk /dev/hda
# mkdosfs /dev/hda1
Partition a PCMCIA hard drive for ext2
Usage: mke2fs [-c|-t|-l filename] [-b block-size] [-f fragment-size][i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-N number-of-inodes][-m
reserved-blocks-percentage] [-o creator-os] [-g blocks-per-group][-L
volume-label] [-M last-mounted-directory] [-O feature[,...]][-r fsrevision] [-R raid_opts] [-qvSV] device [blocks-count]
Initialize a PCMCIA hard drive with ext2
# echo ",,L" | sfdisk /dev/hda
Partition a CF card
Usage: sfdisk [options] device ...
Check an ext2 or VFAT filesystem
# fsck -t <ftype> /dev/<hdxx>
Configure media PCMCIA cards
cli> config network pcmcia <slot> cflash [paramter] [yes|no]
Table 2.11: Media PCMCIA Card Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
enable
yes|no
Activate the media card in the PCMCIA slot.
databuf
yes|no
Enable or disable data buffering.
cancel
Disable the media card in the PCMCIA slot.
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The following example shows the usage of the PCMCIA card parameters.
1.
Enable the Compact Flash or PCMCIA hard drive.
cli> config network pcmcia 1 cflash enable yes
2.
Enable data buffering on this device.
cli> config network pcmcia 2 cflash databuf yes
3.
Activate and save your configuration.
NOTE: Before removing the media PCMCIA card you must run cardctl eject from the shell prompt to ensure the
data is properly written to the media.
It is also possible to save and restore the configuration files to or from PCMCIA media by
executing the saveconf and restoreconf utilities. See Saveconf and Restoreconf on page 102.
Dial-out application using CDMA or GSM/GPRS
The ACS console server supports dial-out through GSM (GPRS) and CDMA (1xRTT) wireless
PCMCIA cards. The dial-out application connects the port to a remote TCP socket at the specified
IP address through a wireless phone network service and an Internet access service.
Use the /etc/generic-dial.conf file to configure dial-out ppp connections through a GPRS and
1xRTT profiles. The /etc/generic-dial.conf file defines dial-out instances in the following format.
# begin <application-type> [instanceID]
#....
#....
# end <application-type>
Above, [instanceID] is an optional string to identify a particular instance and <application type> is
dial-out. Insert the required parameters for your specific instance.
Table 2.12: Configuration Parameters for /etc/generic-dial.conf
Parameter
Description
begin <dial-out> [<instance-id>]
Begins the dial-out application. Optionally specify a name for the particular
instance.
inPort.name <name>
A label for the incoming port to be used in log messages.
inPort.device </dev/ttyXX>
The modem type used for this interface.
inPort.speed <9600>
Connection speed. Default is 9600.
inPort.datasize <8>
The number of data bits. Default is 8.
inPort.parity [ none | even | odd ] None, even or odd.
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21
Table 2.12: Configuration Parameters for /etc/generic-dial.conf (Continued)
Parameter
Description
inPort.stopbits <1>
The number of stop bits.
inPort.flowctrl [ none | hw | sw ]
Gateway or interface address used for the route.
outPort.name <name>
A label for the outgoing port to be used in log messages.
outPort.pppcall <filename>
Name of file from which the pppd reads options. The file is located at /etc/
ppp/peers/filename.
outPort.remote_ip <IP address>
IP address of the remote workstation to which you want to connect.
outPort.remote_port <port>
Remote TCP port for connections from this interface.
outPort.connection [ permanent | Specifies how to maintain the outgoing path.
on_demand ]
• permanent – always connected.
• on_demand – connects only when data enters through the serial port.
outPort.timeout <timeout>
(seconds)
Specify the inactivity time in seconds after which the connection is dropped.
Any value other than zero enables the timeout.
appl.retry <interval> (minutes)
Specify the time to wait before reconnecting after a connection failure.
end <dial-out>
Ends the dial-out application.
The following example displays the tail of an /etc/generic-dial.conf file with a dial-out instance
defined. The outPort.pppcall is defined as wireless to tell the application to read options from the /
etc/ppp/peers/wireless file. The outPort.remote_ip defines the IP address of the servers where the
remote socket connection is to be made is 200.246.93.87. The port number is defined as 7001. An
appl.retry definition is added that changes the number of retries from the default of 5 to 7.
/etc/generic-dial.conf
#begin dial-out testApp
#
#inPort.name
#inPort.device
#
#outPort.name
#outPort.pppcall
#outPort.remote_ip
#outPort.remote_port
#appl.retry
#
#end dial-out
InPort
/dev/ttyS1
OutPort
wireless
200.246.93.87
7001
7
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To configure the /etc/generic-dial-out.conf file:
1.
Configure the desired port with generic_dial protocol in /etc/portslave/pslave.conf.
s<N>.protocol generic_dial
2.
To enable dial-out for the selected port configure the file /etc/generic-dial.conf with the
parameters described in Table 2.12.
3.
Configure the PPP options (pppd) in /etc/ppp/peers/<name> where, <name> is the same as the
<filename> variable specified in the outPort.pppcall <filename> parameter in /etc/genericdial.conf.
To configure the /etc/ppp/peers file:
The default file in /etc/ppp/peers is called wireless. The wireless file reads a script from the /etc/
chatscripts/ wireless file.
1.
Open the /etc/ppp/peers/wireless file for editing.
2.
Enter the device name for the port. The following example displays /dev/ttyM1 entered as the
device name for PCMCIA card slot 1.
3.
4.
Enter the user name after the user keyword.
Save the changes and close the file.
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23
The following example displays the /etc/ppp/peers/wireless file. In this example, note that the
connect script initiates the connection. The file wireless executes using the chat automated modem
communication script with the parameters -v (verbose mode) -t (timeout) and -f (read the chat
script from the /etc/chatscripts/wireless file).
[root@CAS root]# more /etc/ppp/peers/wireless
nodetach
#debug
/dev/ttyM1
57600
crtscts
lock
noauth
#nomagic
user claro
show-password
noipdefault
defaultroute
ipcp-accept-local
ipcp-accept-remote
noproxyarp
novj
novjccomp
lcp-echo-interval 0
connect '/usr/local/sbin/chat -v -t3 -f /etc/
chatscripts/wireless'
By default, the /etc/ppp/peers/wireless file initiates a dial-in connection by reading the chat script
configured in the /etc/chatscripts/ wireless file.
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The following example illustrates the AT commands.
•
An ATD command to dial the *99# number
•
An AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","claro.com.br" to contact a local GPRS broadband service (GSM
wireless network) in Brazil
ABORT
ABORT
ABORT
ABORT
BUSY
VOICE
"NO CARRIER"
"NO DIALTONE"
""
""
AT
ATZ
####
OK
OK
####
#OK
#OK
Telco X
AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","claro.com.br"
ATD*99#
Telco Y
AT&C0
ATDT#777
CONNECT ""
To specify the telephone carrier in the /etc/chatscripts/wireless file:
1.
Open the /etc/chatscripts/wireless file for editing.
2.
Remove the pound signs (#) next to one of the Telco definitions.
3.
Modify the commands to initiate the contact with your GSM/CDMA wireless service provider
and to dial the correct number.
4.
Save the changes and close the file.
To configure the /etc/pcmcia/serial.opts file:
1.
Open the /etc/pcmcia/serial.opts file for editing.
2.
If the GSM card needs a PIN, uncomment the following line and replace 1111 with the PIN.
INITCHAT="- \d\d\d+++\d\d\datz OK at+cpin=1111 OK"
3.
Comment out the following line to inactivate mgetty on the specified port. The port is directly
controlled by the pppd application.
#INITTAB="/sbin/mgetty"
4.
Save the changes and close the file.
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To configure dial-out automatic restart:
1.
Enable the default feature in the /etc/daemon.d/gendial.sh file to automatically restart the dialout function after a reboot.
2.
Execute the saveconf command to save the gendial.sh file.
3.
Activate dial-out by restarting the GDF daemon.
# daemon.sh restart GDF
A message similar to the following displays, confirming the GDF daemon restart.
# Sep 23 18:06:10 src_dev_log@CAS showlogmsg: /bin/daemon.sh: CONFIG:
Network daemon [generic-dial] started
To configure a static route for dial-out:
1.
Open the /etc/network/st_routes file and add the desired static routes to the file.
2.
Save the changes and close the file.
3.
Activate new routes by executing the following commands.
# runconf
# saveconf
4.
Check the routes by issuing the following command.
# route -n
VPN Configuration
You can set up VPN connections to establish an encrypted communication between the ACS
console server and a host on a remote network. The encryption creates a security tunnel for
dedicated communications.
To set up a security gateway, you should install IPSec. The ESP and AH authentication protocols,
and RSA Public Keys and Shared Secret are supported.
To configure VPN:
1.
Execute the following command to enable IPSec.
cli> config security profile custom ipsec <yes>
2.
Configure VPN paramters, see Table 2.13.
cli> config network vpn [parameter] <value>
3.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Table 2.13: VPN Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
add
<connection name>
A name to identify the connection.
authmethod
<rsapubkey|sharesecret>
Authentication method used. Either RSA Public Key or
Shared Secret.
authprotocol
<ah|esp>
Authentication protocol used. Either Encapsulating Security
Payload (ESP) or Authentication Header (AH).
bootaction
<add|ignore|start>
The boot action configured for the host.
leftid
rightid
hostname@xyz.com
This is the hostname that a local system and a remote
system use for IPSec negotiation and authentication. It may
be a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) preceded by @.
For example, hostname@xyz.com.
leftip
rightip
<n.n.n.n>
The IP address of the host.
leftnexthop
rightnexthop
<n.n.n.n>
The router through which the ACS console server (on the
left side) or the remote host (on the right side) sends
packets to a host on a network.
leftrsakey
rightrsakey
<string>
You need to generate a public key for the ACS console
server and find out the key used on the remote gateway.
You may use copy and paste to enter the key in the “RSA
Key” field.
leftsubnet
rightsubnet
<n.n.n.n/n>
The netmask of the subnetwork where the host resides.
NOTE: Use CIDR notation. The IP number followed by a
slash and the number of ‘one’ bits in the binary notation of
the netmask. For example, 192.168.0.0/24 indicates an IP
address where the first 24 bits are used as the network
address. This is the same as 255.255.255.0.
secret
<string>
Pre-shared password between left and right users.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) works by sending messages called protocol data
units (PDUs) to different parts of a network. SNMP compliant devices, called agents, store data
about themselves in Management Information Bases (MIBs) and return this data to the SNMP
requesters. The ACS console server uses the net-snmp package, see http://www.net-snmp.org for
more information.
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27
NOTE: Check the SNMP configuration before gathering information about the ACS console server by SNMP.
There are different types of attacks an unauthorized user may implement to retrieve sensitive information
contained in the MIB. By default, the SNMP configuration in the ACS console server does not permit the public
community to read SNMP information.
In order to configure SNMP v1/v2, enter the following command. Refer to Table 2.14 for a list
of parameters.
cli> config network snmp v1/v2 [parameter] <value>
Table 2.14: SNMP v1/v2 Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
syscontact
<string>
The email address of the ACS console server administrator.
syslocation
<string>
The physical location of the ACS console server.
community
<string>
The group to which devices and management stations running
SNMP belong.
oid
<string>
Object Identifier. Each managed object has a unique identifier.
permission
<string>
“Read Only” access to the entire Management
Information Base (MIB) except for SNMP configuration objects.
“Read/Write” access to the entire MIB except for SNMP
configuration objects.
source
<string>
The host IP address.
To configure SNMP v1/v2 (example):
1.
The following command configures SNMP v1/v2 with the following parameters.
•
community: avocent
•
OID: .1
•
permission: ro (read only)
•
source (allowed host): 192.168.0.200
cli> config network snmp v1v2 add community avocent oid .1 permission
ro source 192.168.0.200
2.
Run the following commands to activate and save the configuration.
In order to configure SNMP v3, enter the following command. Refer to Table 2.15 for a list
of parameters.
cli > config network snmp v3 [parameter] <value>
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Table 2.15: SNMP v3 Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
syscontact
<string>
The email address of the ACS console server administrator.
syslocation
<string>
The physical location of the ACS console server.
oid
<string>
Object Identifier. Each managed object has a unique identifier.
password
<string>
User password.
permission
<string>
“Read Only” access to the entire Management
Information Base (MIB) except for SNMP configuration objects.
“Read/Write” access to the entire MIB except for SNMP
configuration objects.
username
<string>
User name.
To configure SNMP v3 (example):
1.
The following command configures SNMP v3 with the following parameters.
•
username: john
•
password: john1234
•
OID: .1
•
permission: ro (read only)
NOTE: The SNMP v3 password may be a maximum of 30 characters.
cli> config network snmp v3 add username john password john1234 oid .1
permission ro
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Bonding
The ACS console server provides failover Ethernet bonding using a PCMCIA card as a second
Ethernet port. Bonding enables redundancy for the Ethernet devices, using the standard Ethernet
interface as the primary mode of access and one PCMCIA card as a secondary mode of access.
When bonding is enabled, both the Ethernet port and the PCMCIA cards are configured with the
same IP address and the same MAC address. So the PCMCIA interface automatically takes the
place of the standard Ethernet interface if any conditions prevent access to the ACS console server
through the primary Ethernet port. When the standard interface regains functionality, it
automatically assumes its role as the primary interface and all connection sessions are resumed
with no interruption.
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To configure bonding:
1.
Enable / disable bonding.
cli> config network hostsettings bonding enabled [no|yes]
NOTE: This parameter is disregarded when DHCP is enabled.
2.
Configure the interval, in milliseconds, to verify if the primary interface is still active.
bonding> miimon <positive_integer_value>
3.
Configure the time, in milliseconds, that the system waits to reactivate the primary interface
after it has been detected as up.
bonding> updelay <positive integer value>
4.
Optionally, confirm values.
bonding> show
5.
Activate and save your configuration.
6.
Check the bonding configuration from the Linux shell.
# ifconfig
After the failover is enabled, the bonded Ethernet interfaces are referred to as bond0. The eth0 and
eth1 represent the two physical interfaces. To check which physical interface is the primary and
which is the failover, look for the status NOARP. The interface which has the NOARP status
(eth1by default) is the failover. While eth1 is in active and standby mode, eth0 is sending and
receiving packets.
If you have IP filtering rules set before bonding is activated, the interface reference in the firewall
IP filtering is set to eth0. Change the interface to bond0 in order to reference the bonded interface.
For example, there is a rule to drop the SSH packets to access the ACS console server box with
no bonding.
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 22 -i eth0 -j REJECT
If you activate bonding, change the rule to reference the bonded interface.
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 22 -i bond0 -j REJECT
Hosts
To configure hosts:
1.
Add a host name with IP address.
cli>config network hosttable add hostip <n.n.n.n> name [hostname]
You may repeat this step as many times as necessary.
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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TCP keepalive
The objective of this feature is to allow the ACS console server to recognize when the socket client,
SSH or Telnet goes down without closing the connection properly. The TCP engine of the ACS
console server sends a TCP keepalive message (ACK) to the client. If the maximum retry number is
reached without an answer from the client, the connection is closed.
To configure TCP keepalive:
1.
Configure the pool interval in milliseconds.
cli> config physicalports all other tcpkeepalive <number>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Firewall Configuration (IP Filtering)
IP filtering consist of blocking the passage of IP packets based on rules defined in the
characteristics of the packets, such as the contents of the IP header, the input/output interface or the
protocol. This feature is used mainly in firewall applications, which filter the packets that could
crack the network system or generate unnecessary traffic.
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the IP packets to be translated from local network to
global network and vice-versa. This feature is particularly useful when there is demand for more IP
addresses in the local network than available as global IP addresses. In the ACS console server, this
feature is used mainly for clustering (one master console server works as the interface between the
global network and the slave console servers).
The ACS console server uses the Linux utility iptables to set up, maintain and inspect both the filter
and the NAT tables of IP packet rules in the Linux kernel. Besides filtering or translating packets,
the iptables utility is able to count the packets which match a rule and to create logs for
specific rules.
Structure of the iptables
The iptables are structured in three levels: table, chain and rule. A table may contain several chains
and each chain may contain several rules.
Table
The table indicates how the iptables works. There are currently three independent tables supported
by the iptables but only two are used.
•
filter: This is the default table.
•
nat: This table is consulted when a packet that creates a new connection is encountered.
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Chain
Each table contains a number of built-in chains and may also contain user-defined chains. The
built-in chains are called according to the type of packet. User-defined chains are called when a
rule, matched by the packet, points to the chain. Each table has a specific set of built-in chains.
For the filter table:
•
INPUT - For packets coming into the box itself.
•
FORWARD - For packets being routed through the box.
•
OUTPUT - For locally-generated packets.
For the nat table:
•
PREROUTING - For altering packets as soon as they come in.
•
OUTPUT - For altering locally-generated packets as soon as they come in.
•
POSTROUTING - For altering packets as they are about to go out.
Rule
Each chain has a sequence of rules. These rules contain:
•
How the packet should appear in order to match the rule: Some information about the packet is
checked according to the rule, such as, the IP header, the input and output interfaces, the TCP
flags and the protocol.
•
What to do when the packet matches the rule: The packet may be accepted, blocked, logged or
jumped to a user-defined chain. For the nat table, the packet may also have its source IP
address and source port altered (for the POSTROUTING chain) or have the destination IP
address and destination port altered (for the PREROUTING and OUTPUT chain).
When a chain is analyzed, the rules of this chain are reviewed one-by-one until the packet matches
one rule. If no rule is found, the default action for that chain is taken.
Configuring IP tables
Syntax
# iptables -command chain rule-specification [-t table] [options]
# iptables -E old-chain-name new-chain-name
where,
•
table - May be filter or nat. If the option -t is not specified, the filter table is assumed.
•
chain
•
For filter table: INPUT,OUTPUT,FORWARD or a user-created chain.
•
for nat table: PREROUTING, OUTPUT, POSTROUTING or a user-created chain.
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Command
Only one command may be specified on the command line unless otherwise specified
in Table 2.16.
Table 2.16: iptables Commands Options
Command
Description
-A - - append
Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain. When the source and/or
destination names resolve to more than one address, a rule is added for each
possible address combination.
-D --delete
Delete one or more rules from the selected chain. There are two versions of this
command. The rule may be specified as a number in the chain (starting at 1 for the
first rule) or as a rule to match.
-R --replace
Replace a rule in the selected chain. If the source and/or destination names resolve
to multiple addresses, the command fails. Rules are numbered starting at 1.
-I - - insert
Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule number. Thus if the
rule number is 1, the rule or rules are inserted at the head of the chain. This is also
the default if no rule number is specified.
-L --list
List all rules in the selected chain. If no chain is selected, all chains are listed. It is
legal to specify the -Z (zero) option as well, in which case the chain(s) are
automtically listed and zeroed. The exact output is affected by the other
arguments given.
-F - - flush
Flush the selected chain. This is equivalent to deleting all the rules one-by-one.
-Z - - zero
Zero the packet and byte counters in all chains. It is legal to specify the -L, --list (list)
option as well, to see the counters immediately before they are cleared.
-N --new-chain
New chain. Create a new user-defined chain by the given name. There must be no
target of that name already.
-X - - delete-chain
Delete the specified user-defined chain. There must be no references to the chain. If
there are, you must delete or replace the referring rules before the chain may be
deleted. If no argument is given, it attempts to delete every non-built-in chain in the
table.
-P - - policy
Set the policy for the chain to the given target. Only non-user-defined chains may
have policies and neither built-in nor user-defined chains may be policy targets.
-E - - rename-chain
Rename the user-specified chain to the user-supplied name. This is cosmetic and
has no effect on the structure of the table.
-h --help
Help. Gives a very brief description of the command syntax.
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Rule specification
The following parameters define a rule specification as used in the add, delete, insert, replace and
append commands.
Table 2.17: iptables Rules Specifications
Parameter
Description
-p
- -protocol[!]protocol
The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check. The specified protocol may be one of tcp,
udp, icmp, or all, or it may be a numeric value, representing one of these protocols or a
different one. A protocol name from /etc/protocols is also allowed. A ! argument before the
protocol inverts the test. The number zero is equivalent to all. Protocol all matches with all
protocols and is taken as default when this option is omitted.
-s
- -source[!]address[/mask]
Source specification. Address may be either a hostname, a network name or a plain IP
address. The mask may be either a network mask or a plain number, specifying the number
of 1's at the left side of the network mask. Thus, a mask of 24 is equivalent to 255.255.255.0.
A ! argument before the address specification inverts the sense of the address. The flag - -src
is a convenient alias for this option.
-d
- -destination[!]address[/mask]
Destination specification. See the description of the -s (source) flag for a detailed description
of the syntax. The flag - -dst is an alias for this option.
-j
- - jump target
This specifies the target of the rule, for example, what to do if the packet matches it. The
target may be a user-defined chain (other than the one this rule is in), one of the special builtin targets which decide the fate of the packet immediately, or an extension, see Match
extensions. If this option is omitted in a rule, then matching the rule has no effect on the
packet's fate, but the counters on the rule is incremental. The special built-in targets are:
• ACCEPT means to let the packet through.
• DROP means to drop the packet on the floor.
• QUEUE means to pass the packet to userspace (if supported by the kernel).
• RETURN means stop traversing this chain and resume at the next rule in the previous
(calling) chain. If the end of a built-in chain is reached or a rule in a built-in chain with
target RETURN is matched, the target specified by the chain policy determines the fate of
the packet.
-i
- -in-interface[!][name]
Optional name of an interface via which a packet is received (for packets entering the INPUT
and FORWARD chains). When the ! argument is used before the interface name, the sense
is inverted. If the interface name ends in a plus (+) then any interface which begins with this
name matches. If this option is omitted, the string plus (+) is assumed, which matches with
any interface name.
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Table 2.17: iptables Rules Specifications (Continued)
Parameter
Description
-o
- -out-interface[!][name]
Optional name of an interface via which a packet is going to be sent (for packets entering the
FORWARD and OUTPUT chains). When the ! argument is used before the interface name,
the sense is inverted. If the interface name ends in a plus (+) then any interface which begins
with this name matches. If this option is omitted, the string plus (+) is assumed, which
matches with any interface name.
[!]
-f - -fragment
This means that the rule only refers to second and further fragments of fragmented packets.
Since there is no way to tell the source or destination ports of such a packet (or ICMP type),
such a packet does not match any rules which specify them. When the ! argument precedes
the -f flag, the rule only matches head fragments, or unfragmented packets.
-c
- -set-counters PKTS BYTES
This enables the administrater to initialize the packet and byte counters of a rule (during
INSERT, APPEND, REPLACE operations).
-v
- -verbose
Verbose output. This option makes the list command show the interface address, the rule
options, if any and the TOS masks. The packet and byte counters are also listed with the
suffix K, M or G for 1000, 1,000,000 and 1,000,000,000 multipliers respectively ( see the -x
flag to change this). For appending, insertion, deletion and replacement, this causes detailed
information on the rule or rules to be printed.
-n
- -numeric
Numeric output. IP addresses and port numbers are printed in numeric format. By default the
program tries to display them as host names, network names or service, when applicable.
-x
- -exact
Expand numbers. Display the exact value of the packet and byte counters, instead of only the
rounded number in K's (multiples of 1000) M's (multiples of 1000K) or G's (multiples of
1000M). This option is specific to the -L command.
- -line-numbers
When listing rules, add line numbers to the beginning of each rule, corresponding to that
rule's position in the chain.
Match extensions
Iptables may use extended packet matching modules. These are loaded in two ways: implicitly,
when -p or - -protocol is specified, or with the -m or - -match option, followed by the matching
module name; after these, various extra command line options become available, depending on the
specific module.
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TCP extensions
These extensions are loaded if the protocol specified is tcp or -m tcp is specified. It provides the
following options.
Table 2.18: TCP Extensions
TCP extension
Description
- - source-port [!] [port[:port]]
Source port or port range specification. This may either be a service
name or a port number. Inclusive range may also be specified, using the
format port:port. If the first port is omitted, 0 is assumed; if the last is
omitted, “65535” is assumed. If the second port is greater then the first
they is swapped. The flag - -sport is an alias for this option.
- - destination-port [!] [port[:port]]
Destination port or port range specification. The flag
- -dport is an alias for this option.
- - tcp-flags [!] mask comp
Match when the TCP flags are as specified. The first argument is the
flags which we should examine, written as a comma-separated list and
the second argument is a comma-separated list of flags which must be
set. Flags are: SYN ACK FIN RST URG PSH ALL NONE. Hence the
command iptables
-A FORWARD -p tcp - -tcp-flags SYN,ACK,FIN,RST SYN only matches
packets with the SYN flag set and the ACK, FIN and RST flags unset.
[!] - - syn
Only match TCP packets with the SYN bit set and the ACK and FIN bits
cleared. Such packets are used to request TCP connection initiation; for
example, blocking such packets coming in an interface prevents
incoming TCP connections, but outgoing TCP connections are
unaffected. It is equivalent to - -tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK SYN.
If the ! flag precedes the - -syn, the sense of the option is inverted.
- - tcp-option [!] number
Match if TCP option is set.
UDP extensions
These extensions are loaded if the protocol udp is specified or -m udp is specified. It provides the
following options.
Table 2.19: UDP Extensions
UDP extension
Description
- - source-port [!] [port[:port]]
Source port or port range specification. See the description of the - source-port option of the TCP extension for details.
- - destination-port [!] [port[:port]]
Destination port or port range specification. See the description of the - destination-port option of the TCP extension for details.
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ICMP extension
This extension is loaded if the protocol icmp is specified or -m icmp is specified. It provides the
following option.
Table 2.20: ICMP Extensions
ICMP extension
Description
- - icmp-type [!] typename
This allows specification of the ICMP type, which may be a numeric ICMP
type, or one of the ICMP type names shown by the command
iptables p icmp -h
Multiport extension
This module matches a set of source or destination ports. Up to 15 ports may be specified. It may
only be used in conjunction with -m tcp or -m udp.
Table 2.21: Multiport Extensions
Multiport extension
Description
- - source-port [port[,port]]
Match if the source port is one of the given ports.
- - destination-port [port[,port]]
Match if the destination port is one of the given ports.
- - port [port[,port]]
Match if the both the source and destination port are equal to each other
and to one of the given ports.
Target extensions
Iptables may use extended target modules. The following are included in the standard distribution.
LOG extensions
Turn on kernel logging of matching packets. When this option is set for a rule, the Linux kernel
prints some information on all matching packets (like most IP header fields) via the kernel log.
Table 2.22: LOG Extensions
LOG extension
Description
- - log-level level
Level of logging (numeric or see syslog.conf(5)).
- - log-prefix prefix
Prefix log messages with the specified prefix; up to 29 letters long and useful
for distinguishing messages in the logs.
- - log-tcp-sequence
Log TCP sequence numbers. This is a security risk if the log is readable
by users.
- - log-tcp-options
Log options from the TCP packet header.
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Table 2.22: LOG Extensions (Continued)
LOG extension
Description
- - log-ip-options
Log options from the IP packet header.
REJECT (filter table only)
This is used to send back an error packet in response to the matched packet, otherwise it is
equivalent to DROP. This target is only valid in the INPUT, FORWARD and OUTPUT chains and
user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. Several options control the nature of
the error packet returned.
Table 2.23: LOG Extension
LOG extension
Description
- - reject-with type
The type given may be icmp-net-unreachable, icmp-host-unreachable, icmp-portunreachable, icmp-proto-unreachable, icmp-net-prohibited or icmp-hostprohibited, which return the appropriate ICMP error message (port-unreachable is
the default). The option echo-reply is also allowed; it may only be used for rules
which specify an ICMP ping packet and generates a ping reply. Finally, the option
tcp-reset may be used on rules which only match the TCP protocol. This causes a
TCP RST packet to be sent back. This is mainly useful for blocking ident probes
which frequently occur when sending mail to broken mail hosts (which won't
accept your mail otherwise).
SNAT (NAT table only)
This target is only valid in the nat table, in the POSTROUTING chain. It specifies that the source
address of the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection are also
mangled) and rules should cease being examined. It takes one option.
Table 2.24: SNAT Target
SNAT target
Description
- - to-source <ipaddr>[<ipaddr>][:port-port]
This may specify a single new source IP address, an inclusive range of IP
addresses and optionally, a port range (which is only valid if the rule also
specifies -p tcp or -p udp). If no port range is specified, then source ports
below 1024 are mapped to other ports below 1024. Those between 1024
and 1023 inclusive are mapped to ports below 1024 and other ports are
mapped to 1024 or above. Where possible, no port alteration occurs.
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DNAT (NAT table only)
This target is only valid in the nat table, in the PREROUTING and OUTPUT chains and userdefined chains which are only called from those chains. It specifies that the destination address of
the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection are also mangled) and rules
should cease being examined. It takes one option.
Table 2.25: DNAT Target
DNAT target
Description
- - to-destination <ipaddr>[<ipaddr>][:port-port]
This may specify a single new destination IP address, an inclusive range
of IP addresses and optionally, a port range (which is only valid if the
rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). If no port range is specified, then the
destination port is never modified.
MASQUERADE (NAT table only)
This target is only valid in the nat table, in the POSTROUTING chain. It should only be used with
dynamically assigned IP (dialup) connections. If you have a static IP address, you should use the
SNAT target. Masquerading is equivalent to specifying a mapping to the IP address of the interface
the packet is going out on, but also has the effect that connections are forgotten when the interface
goes down. This is the correct behavior when the next dialup is unlikely to have the same interface
address (and hence any established connections are lost anyway). It supports one option.
Table 2.26: Masquerade Target
Target
Description
- - to-ports <port>[-<port>]
Specifies a range of source ports to use. This parameter overrides the default
SNAT source port-selection heuristics, see SNAT (NAT table only). This
parameter is valid when the rule specifies -p tcp or -p udp.
REDIRECT (NAT table only)
This target is only valid in the nat table, in the PREROUTING and OUTPUT chains and userdefined chains which are only called from those chains. It alters the destination IP address to send
the packet to the machine itself (locally-generated packets are mapped to the 127.0.0.1 address). It
supports one option.
Table 2.27: Redirect Target
Target
Description
- - to-ports <port>[-<port>]
Specifies a range of source ports to use. This parameter overrides the default
SNAT source port-selection heuristics, see SNAT (NAT table only). This parameter
is valid when the rule specifies -p tcp or -p udp.
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To configure firewall:
fwset script
Iptables rules are stored in /etc/network/firewall. The fwset script saves the iptables rules in /etc/
network/firewall and saves it to Flash memory.
fwset restore
Restores the iptables’ rules previously saved in /etc/network/firewall to their original configuration.
This command is executed at boot to invoke the last saved configuration.
1.
Execute fwset restore.
2.
Add the required chains and rules. See Configuring IP tables on page 31.
3.
Execute iptables-save > /etc/network/firewall.
4.
Execute fwset /etc/network/firewall to save the configuration in Flash memory.
Static Routes
The Static Routes form allows you to manually add routes. The routing table defines which
interface should transmit an IP packet based on destination IP information. Static routes are a quick
and effective way to route data from one subnet to another. The static routing table may be viewed
using either of the following commands.
[root@CAS root]# route
[root@CAS root]# netstat -rn
Routes may be added at the Linux shell prompt using the following command.
route [add|del] [-net|-host] target netmask nt_msk [gw gt_way] interf
Table 2.28: Routing Table Parameters
Parameter
Description
add|del
Routes may be either added or deleted. One of these options must be specified.
-net|-host
Net is for routes to a network and -host is for routes to a single host.
target
Target is the IP address of the destination host or network.
netmask and
nt_msk
Netmask and nt_mask are necessary only when subnetting is used. Otherwise, a
mask appropriate to the target is assumed. Make sure to specify the nt_msk
parameter in dot notation format.
gw and gt_way
Specifies a gateway when applicable. The IP address or hostname of the gateway
is specified by the gt_way parameter.
interf
The interface to use for the route. Must be specified if a gateway is not. When a
gateway is specified, the operating system determines which interface is to
be used.
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Use the following command to configure static routes. Refer to Table 2.29 for the list of parameters
and the descriptions.
cli> config network stroutes add [parameter] <value>
Table 2.29: Static Routes Parameters and Values
Parameter
Value
Description
default
none
Used when there is no matching routing table.
gateway
<n.n.n.n>
Gateway IP address.
host
<n.n.n.n>
Route to a single host.
interface
<string>
Specify the network card that the packets come through.
metric
<number>
The number of routers that packets must pass through to reach the
intended network.
netip
<n.n.n.n>
Route to a network.
netmask
<n.n.n.n>
Subnet mask to
Use the following command to delete a route.
cli> config network stroutes delete routenum <route number>
To configure static routes (example):
1.
Add the default gateway 192.168.0.1.
cli> config network stroutes add default gateway 192.168.0.1
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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CHA PTER
3
Security
This chapter describes the procedures for configuring authentication service(s) that the ACS
console server and its connected devices use. Authentication is the process by which the system, or
more specifically, an authentication service such as Kerberos, LDAP or TACACS+, verifies the
identity of users as well as confirm receipt of communication to authorized recipients.
Security Profiles
The ACS console server includes a set of security profiles that consist of predefined parameters to
control access to the ACS console server and its serial ports. To select a predefined or define a
custom security profile refer to Security Profiles on page 10.
NOTE: As an additional security measure, all serial ports are disabled by default, which allows the administrator
to enable and assign individual ports to users.
Authentication
The ACS console server supports a number of authentication methods that may help the
administrator with the user management. Authentication may be performed locally or with a remote
server, such as RADIUS, TACACS+, LDAP or Kerberos. Should the negotiation process with the
authentication server fail, an authentication security fallback mechanism is also employed. In such
situations, the ACS console server follows an alternate defined rule when the authentication server
is down or does not authenticate the user.
To configure authentication to serial ports:
1.
Execute the following command for one or multiple serial ports. Refer to Table 3.1 for
authentication parameters.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> access authtype
[parameter]
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Table 3.1: Authentication Methods and Fallback Mechanisms
Authentication
type
Parameter
Description
None
none
Not a valid option when the serial port is configured for
Power Management protocol. The system defaults to Local
if no authentication type is selected.
Local
local
local/Nis
local/TacacsPlus
local/radius
Authentication performed locally. An NIS, TACACS+ or
Radius method is used if the local authentication fails.
Kerberos
kerberos
kerberos/local
kerberosDownLocal
Authentication is performed using a Kerberos server. A
local authentication is performed if Kerberos fails or if the
Kerberos server is down.
LDAP
ldap
ldap/local
ldapDownLocal
ldapDownLocal-radius
Authentication is performed using an LDAP server. A local
or a local-radius authentication is performed if LDAP fails or
if the LDAP server is down.
NIS
Nis
Nis/local
NisDownLocal
NIS authentication is performed. A local authentication is
performed if NIS fails or if the NIS authentication server
is down.
OTP
otp
otp/local
Uses the one time password (OTP) authentication method,
or use local if OTP fails.
Radius
radius
radius/local
Authentication is performed using a Radius server. Use
local if the Radius authentication fails.
TACACS+
TacacsPlus
TacacsPlus/local
TacacsPlusDownlocal
Authentication is performed using a TACACS+
authentication server. A local authentication is performed if
TACACS+ fails or if the TACACS+ authentication server
is down.
To configure authentication to the ACS console server:
1.
Execute the following command to configure authentication. Refer to Table 3.2 for
authentication parameters and fallback mechanisms.
cli> config security authentication authtype [parameter]
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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43
Table 3.2: ACS Console Server Authentication Parameters
Authentication
Type
Parameter
Description
Local
local
localnis
localradius
localtacacs
Authentication performed locally. An NIS, TACACS+ or
Radius is used if the local authentication fails.
DSView
dsview
dsviewdownlocal
dsviewlocal
Authentication is performed using DSView management
software. A local authentication is performed if the
DSView software fails or if the server is down.
Kerberos
kerberos
kerberosdownlocal
kerberoslocal
Authentication is performed using a Kerberos server. A
local authentication is performed if Kerberos fails or if
the Kerberos server is down.
LDAP
ldap
ldapdownlocal
ldapdownlocal-radius
ldaplocal
Authentication is performed using an LDAP server. A
local or a local-radius authentication is performed if
LDAP fails or if the LDAP server is down.
NIS
nis
nisdownlocal
nislocal
NIS authentication is performed. A local authentication
is performed if NIS fails or if the NIS authentication
server is down.
Radius
radius
radiusdownlocal
radiuslocal
Authentication is performed using a Radius server. Use
local if the Radius authentication fails.
SMB
smb
smbdownlocal
Authentication is performed using SMB. Use local if
SMB is not accessible.
TACACS
tacacs
tacacsdownlocal
tacacslocal
Authentication is performed using a TACACS+
authentication server. A local authentication is
performed if TACACS+ fails or if the TACACS+
authentication server is down.
To configure authentication servers:
1.
Execute the following command to configure authentication server parameters. Refer to Table
3.3 for authentication servers parameters.
cli> config security authentication [parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Table 3.3: Authentication Servers Parameters
Authentication
Server
Parameter
Value
Kerberos
krbdomain
krbserver
<domain name>
<n.n.n.n>
LDAP
ldapbasedomain
ldapserver
<ldapbasedomain>
<n.n.n.n>
NIS
nisdomain
nisserver
<domain name>
<n.n.n.n>
Radius
radiusacctsvr1
radiusacctsvr2
radiusauthsvr1
radiusauthsvr2
radiusretries
radiussecret
radiustimeout
<n.n.n.n>
<n.n.n.n>
<n.n.n.n>
<n.n.n.n>
<number>
<radiussecret>
<number>
LDAP
secureldap
yes|no
TACACS+
tacplusacctsvr1
tacplusacctsvr2
tacplusauthsvr1
tacplusauthsvr2
tacplusraccess
tacplusretries
tacplussecret
tacplustimeout
<n.n.n.n>
<n.n.n.n>
<n.n.n.n>
<n.n.n.n>
yes|no
<number>
<tacplussecret>
<number>
User access to serial ports
To add groups and users:
1.
Enter the following command to create user groups and add members, if required.
cli> config security addgroup groupname <group name> usernames
<[name_1, name_2, . . . name_n]>
2.
Enter the following command to create users with administrative rights or limited access.
adduser <user name> admin [yes|no] password <password> shell <shell>
comments <comments>
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Table 3.4: User Access Parameters
Parameter Level1
Parameter Level2
Value
Description
addgroup
groupname
usernames
<group name>
<list of user names
separated by commas>
Add group and user members to
manage access to connected servers.
delgroup
groupname
<groupname>
Delete group.
adduser
admin
yes|no
Enable or disable
administrative privileges.
comments
password
shell
<comments>
<password>
<shell>
username
<user name>
Add user.
deluser
username
<user name>
Delete user.
loadkey
url
<url>
Using scp get the user’s public key
username
<username>
from the local database of the ACS
console server.
<url> syntax: user@host:pathname
newpassword
username
<password>
<user name>
Change the user password.
passwd
Specify user access to the Linux shell,
CLI or none.
To add groups and users (example):
•
Add a group called FremontACS that includes the users john and mary.
security> addgroup groupname FremontACS usernames john,mary
•
Add a regular user (no admin privileges) named john with the password john1234
security> adduser username john admin no password john1234
•
Load a key for the local “root” user accessed by root@192.168.0.1/home/key
security> loadkey username <username> url <url>
security> loadkey username root url root@192.168.0.1/home/key
•
Activate and save your configuration.
45
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NIS Client
NIS (Network Information System) provides generic client-server database access facilities that
can be used to distribute information. This makes the network appear as a single system, with the
same accounts on all hosts. The objective of this feature is to allow the administrator to manage
ACS accounts on an NIS server.
The NIS client feature requires the files and commands listed in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5: NIS Client Requirements
File/Command
Description
/etc/yp.conf
This file contains the configuration used by ypbind.
/etc/domainname.conf
This file contains the NIS domain name (set by the command
domainname).
/usr/sbin/ypbind
Finds the server for NIS domains and maintains the NIS
binding information.
/usr/bin/ypwhich
Returns the name of the NIS server that supplies the NIS services.
/usr/bin/ypcat
Prints the values of all keys from the NIS database specified by
map name.
/usr/bin/ypmatch
Prints the values of one or more keys from the NIS database
specified by map name.
/usr/sbin/domainname
Shell script to read/write the NIS domain name.
NIS Client Configuration
1.
Run the command domainname. Make sure that you have the NIS domain name set.
# domainname [NIS domain name]
Show or set the system's NIS/YP domain name, for example:
# domainname avocent mycompany-nis
2.
Edit the /etc/yp.conf file. Configure the NIS server. For example, if the NIS server has the IP
address 192.168.160.110 add the following line to the file.
ypserver 192.168.160.110
3.
Edit the /etc/nsswitch.conf file to include the NIS in the lookup order of the databases.
4.
Configure the parameter <all/sxx>.authype as local.
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To test the configuration:
1.
Start with the following command.
# /usr/sbin/ypbind
2.
Display the NIS server name by running the following comman.
# /usr/bin/ypwhich
3.
Display the all users entry by running the following command.
# /usr/bin/ypcat -t passwd.byname
4.
Display the user's entry in the NIS passwd file.
# /usr/bin/ypmatch -t <userid/username> passwd.byname
If the preceding steps performed successfully, change the /etc/inittab file by uncommenting the line
that performs a ypbind upon startup.
nsswitch.conf
To use NIS to authenticate users, change the lines in /etc/nsswitch.conf that reference passwd,
shadow and group.
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file has the following format.
<database> : <service> [ <actions> <service> ]
Table 3.6: nsswitch.conf Parameters
Parameter
Description
<database>
available: aliases, ethers, group, hosts, netgroup, network, passwd, protocols,
publickey, rpc, services and shadow.
<service>
available: nis (use NIS version 2), dns (use Domain Name Service) and files (use the
local files).
<actions>
Has this format: [ <status> = <action> ].
<status>
= SUCCESS, NOTFOUND, UNAVAIL or TRYAGAIN.
<action>
= return or continue.
SUCCESS
No error occurred and the desired entry is returned. The default action for this status
is return.
NOTFOUND
The lookup process works fine, but the needed value was not found. The default
action for this status is continue.
UNAVAIL
The service is permanently unavailable.
TRYAGAIN
The service is temporarily unavailable.
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The following examples illustrate the use of NIS to authenticate users.
•
Authenticate the user in the local database; if the user is not found, then use NIS.
passwd: files nis
shadow: files nis
group: files nis
•
Authenticate the user using NIS; if the user is not found, then use the local database.
passwd: nis files
shadow: nis files
group: nis files
•
Authenticate the user using NIS; if the user is not found or the NIS server is down, use the
local database.
passwd: nis [UNAVAIL=continue TRYAGAIN=continue] files
shadow: nis [UNAVAIL=continue TRYAGAIN=continue] files
group: nis [UNAVAIL=continue TRYAGAIN=continue] files
Kerberos Authentication
Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed for use on unsecured networks, based on
the key distribution model. It allows individuals communicating over a network to prove their
identity to each other while preventing eavesdropping or replay attacks. It provides detection of
modification and prevention of unauthorized reading.
Kerberos server authentication with tickets support
The ACS console server has support to interact on a kerberized network. On a kerberized network,
the Kerberos database contains principals and keys (for users, keys are derived from passwords).
The Kerberos database also contains keys for all of the network services.
When a user on a kerberized network logs in to the workstation, the principal is sent to the Key
Distribution Center (KDC) as a request for a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT). This request may be
sent by the login program so that it is transparent to the user, or may be sent by the kinit program
after the user logs in.
The KDC checks for the principal in its database. If the principal is found, the KDC creates a TGT,
encrypts it using the user's key and sends it back to the user.
The login program or kinit decrypts the TGT using the user's key, which is computed from the
user's password. The TGT, which is set to expire after a certain period of time, is stored in the
credentials cache. An expiration time is set so that a compromised TGT may only be used for a
certain period of time, usually eight hours, unlike a compromised password, which could be used
until changed. The user does not have to re-enter the password until the TGT expires or a new
session is started.
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49
When the user needs access to a network service, the client uses the TGT to request a ticket for the
service from the Ticket Granting Service (TGS), which runs on the KDC. The TGS issues a ticket
for the desired service, which is used to authenticate the user.
Configuring the ACS console server to use Kerberos tickets authentication
The following procedure describes the ACS console server’s configuration, assuming that the
kerberos server with ticket support is properly configured with the following parameters.
•
Principal: john
•
Host: acs48.cyclades.com
To configure the ACS console server for SSH:
1.
Configure and start an NTP server. Configuration must be synchronized with an NTP server.
To configure an NTP server see To configure an NTP server: on page 95.
2.
Configure authentication type and protocol in the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file with the
following parameters.
all.authtype local
all.protocol socket_ssh.
3.
Activate and save the configuration.
# runconf
# saveconf
4.
Add a user with the same name as the principal in the Kerberos server.
# adduser john
5.
Configure the krb5.conf file. The /etc/krb5.conf file must be exactly the same as the one that is
in the Kerberos server. It is highly recommended to copy it directly from the server, instead of
editing it. To copy using scp, execute the following command.
# scp root@kerberos-server.cyclades.com:/etc/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
6.
Extract the host that is in the Kerberos server database to the ACS console server.
# kadmin -p admin/admin
Where the first admin is the service and the second admin is the user.
This prompts a Kerberos server menu. To extract the configured hosts run the following
commands in the kadmin menu.
kadmin: ktadd host/acs48-2.cyclades.com
kadmin: q
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To list all configured hosts in the Kerberos server, run the following command, which displays
all hosts added through the ktadd command in the Kerberos server.
# klist -k
7.
Configure hostname and domain name.
# hostname acs48-2
# domainname cyclades.com
To access the ACS console server through rlogin and Telnet:
In addition to performing the steps described in To configure the ACS console server for SSH: on
page 49, make the following configuration changes.
1.
Configure the /etc/inetd.conf file by uncommenting the folloing line lines.
#KERBEROS SERVICES
klogin stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/local/sbin/klogind
-ki
telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/local/sbin/telnetd
2.
Restart the inetd service.
# daemon.sh restart NET
3.
Save the configuration.
# saveconf
To test the configuration:
1.
The client must have a kerberized SSH. In addition, configure the following parameters in the
etc/ssh/ssh_config file.
GSSAPIAuthentication yes
GSSAPICleanupCreds yes
2.
The client must have the same krb5.conf file in the Kerberos server.
# scp root@kerberos-server.cyclades.com:/etc/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
3.
Request the ticket from the Kerberos server.
# kinit -f -p john
Password for john@CYCLADES.COM: ******
You are prompted to insert the principal password, which is in the Kerberos server database.
4.
Check to see if the ticket received successfully.
# klist
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5.
Connect from the client to the ACS console server through SSH.
# ssh john@acs48-2.cyclades.com
6.
Open an SSH session to one of the ACS console server’s ports.
# ssh john:7001@acs48-2.cyclades.com
7.
RLOGIN to the ACS console server with forwardable tickets.
# rlogin -l john acs48-2.cyclades.com -F
8.
Telnet to the ACS console serverwith forwardable tickets.
# telnet -l john acs48-2.cyclades.com -F
Kerberos server authentication
1.
Open the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file.
# vi /etc/portslave/pslave.conf
2.
Change the values of the following parameters.
all.authtype
kerberos
all.protocol
socket_ssh ##or socket_server or socket_server_ssh
To use the Telnet protocol to access the serial ports, set the all.protocol parameter to
socket_server.
To use both Telnet and SSH to access the unit, set the all.protocol parameter to
socket_server_ssh.
3.
Edit the /etc/krb5.conf file.
# vi /etc/krb5.conf
All changes required in this file are related to the network domain. Substitute all listed
parameters that are configured with cyclades.com with the corresponding domain of
your network.
4.
Activate your changes.
# runconf
5.
Test the configuration.
a.
Access a serial port using the Telnet protocol, for example:
# telnet 192.168.0.1 7001
b.
Log in with the user and password previously configured in the Kerberos server.
c.
In the ACS console server, run the following command.
# w
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6.
Save your changes.
# saveconf
LDAP Authentication
To configue LDAP authentication on the ACS console server:
1.
Execute the following command. Refer to Table 3.7 for authentication parameters.
cli> config security authentication [parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Table 3.7: LDAP Authentication Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
ldapbasedomain
<ldapbasedomain>
Distinguished name of the search base. dc=cyclades,dc=com
ldapserver
<n.n.n.n>
LDAP server IP address or name.
secureldap
yes|no
To use secure LDAP.
Group Authorization
This feature enables the group information retrieval from the authentication servers TACACS+,
RADIUS and LDAP. It adds another layer of security by adding a network-based authorization. It
retrieves the group information from the authentication server and performs an authorization
through the ACS console server.
TACACS+ authorization on serial ports
By enabling the raccess parameter, administrators implement an additional level of security
checking. After each user is successfully authenticated through the standard login procedure, the
ACS console server uses TACACS+ to authorize user access to specific serial ports.
By default, the raccess parameter is disabled. When enabled, users are denied access unless they
have the proper authorization, which must be set on the TACACS+ server itself.
To configure TACACS+ authorization on serial ports:
1.
Enable raccess authorization parameter.
cli> config security authentication tacplusraccess [yes|no]
2.
Configure serial ports for user or group access.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> access users/
groups <list of users or group names separated by commas>
3.
Activate and save your configuration.
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53
To configure a TACACS+ authentication server:
1.
On the server, add raccess service to the user configuration.
2.
Define to which group or groups the user belong.
user = <username>{
service = raccess{
group_name = <Group1>[,<Group2,...,GroupN>];
}
}
To configure user permission on the TACACS+ server:
1.
On the TACACS+ server, open the file /etc/tacacs/tac_plus.cfg.
NOTE: The location of this configuration file may be different on your Linux distribution.
2.
Edit the parameters as per the following example. Refer to Table 3.8 for descriptions.
user = tomj{
name = "Tom Jones"
service = raccess {
port1 = LAB2/ttyS2
port2 = 192.168.0.1/ttyS1
port3 = CAS/ttyS1
port4 = 172.32.20.10/ttyS6
port5 = LAB1/ttyS7
port6 = Knuth/ttyS16
}
}
Table 3.8: Parameters for Specifying User Authorization on a TACACS+ Server
Parameter
Description
user = <username>
Defines the username as specified on the ACS console server.
name = <"optional
description">
To specify additional information about the user (optional).
This parameter must include quotes. The maximum number of characters
allowed is 256. Adding more than 256 characters stops the server from
restarting and produces a FAILED message at the time of authorization.
service = <authorization
method>
Specifies the authorization method used and whether the user is allowed or
denied access when the raccess parameter is set on the ACS console server.
Only users who have this parameter set to raccess have authorization to
access the specified ports.
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Table 3.8: Parameters for Specifying User Authorization on a TACACS+ Server (Continued)
Parameter
Description
port<#> = <ACS>/<Port>
Specify which serial ports on the ACS console server the user has
authorization to access.
port# is a sequential label used by the ACS console server.
<ACS> is the name or IP address of the ACS console server box.
<Port> is the serial port the user may access on the specified
ACS console server.
3.
On the ACS console server, use the CLI utility to edit the parameters described in the
following table.
cli> config security authentication [parameter] <value>
Table 3.9: TACACS+ Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
tacplusauthsvr1
<n.n.n.n>
This address indicates the location of the TACACS+
authentication server. A second TACACS+ authentication
server may be configured with the parameter tacplusauthsvr2.
tacplusacctsvr1
<n.n.n.n>
This address indicates the location of the TACACS+
accounting server, which may be used to track how long users
are connected after being authorized by the authentication
server. Its use is optional. If this parameter is not used,
accounting is not performed. If the same server is used for
authentication and accounting, both parameters must be filled
with the same address. A second TACACS+ accounting
server may be configured with the parameter accthost2.
tacplussecret
<tacplussecret>
This is the shared secret (password) necessary for communication
between the ACS console server and the TACACS+ servers.
tacplusraccess
yes|no
This is raccess authorization on the TACACS+ server. Should
be enabled for authorization on serial ports.
tacplustimeout
<number>
This is the timeout (in seconds) for a TACACS+ authentication
query to be answered.
tacplusretries
<number>
Defines the number of times each TACACS+ server is tried
before another is contacted. The first server authhost1 is tried
for the specified number of times, before the second
authhost2, if configured, is contacted and tried for the
specified number of times. If the second server fails to
respond, TACACS+ authentication fails.
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To configure a RADIUS authentication server:
1.
On the Radius server, edit /etc/raddb/users and add a new string attribute (ATTRIBUTE
Framed-Filter-Id) similar to the following example.
groupuser1 Auth-Type= Local, Password =”xxxx”
Service-Type=Callback-Framed-User,
Callback-Number=”305”,
Framed-Protocol=PPP,
Framed-FilterId=”:group_name=<Group1>[,<Group2>,...,<GroupN>]”,
Fall-Through=No
If the Frame-Filter-Id already exists, add the group_name to the string starting with a colon (:).
2.
On the ACS console server, use the CLI utility to edit the parameters described in the
following table.
cli> config security authentication [parameter] <value>
Table 3.10: Radius Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
radiusauthsvr1
<n.n.n.n>
This address indicates the location of the Radius
authentication server. A second Radius authentication server
may be configured with the parameter radiusauthsvr2.
radiusacctsvr1
<n.n.n.n>
This address indicates the location of the Radius accounting
server, which may be used to track how long users are
connected after being authorized by the authentication server.
Its use is optional. If this parameter is not used, accounting is
not be performed. If the same server is used for authentication
and accounting, both parameters must be filled with the same
address. A second Radius accounting server may be
configured with the parameter accthost2.
radiussecret
<radiussecret>
This is the shared secret (password) necessary for communication
between the ACS console server and the Radius servers.
radiustimeout
<number>
This is the timeout (in seconds) for a Radius authentication
query to be answered.
radiusretries
<number>
Defines the number of times each Radius server is tried before
another is contacted. The first server radiusauthhost1 is tried
for the specified number of times, before the second
radiusauthhost2, if configured, is contacted and tried for the
specified number of times. If the second server fails to
respond Radius authentication fails.
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To configure RADIUS authorization on the ACS console server to access the
serial ports:
1.
In CLI mode, enter the following string.
cli>config physicalports <serial port number> access users/groups
<list of users or group names separated by commas>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
To configure an LDAP authentication server:
On the LDAP server, edit the info attribute for the user and add the following syntax.
info: group_name=<Group1>[,<Group2>,...,<GroupN>];
To configure LDAP authorization on the ACS console server to access the
serial ports:
1.
In CLI mode, enter the following string.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> access users/
groups <list of users or group names separated by commas>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
One Time Password (OTP) Authentication
This section describes the procedures required to set up and configure OTP (one-time password)
for dial-in to the ACS console server. OPIE (one-time passwords in everything) software on the
ACS console server supports OTP authentication on PCMCIA modem cards.
OPIE software on the ACS console server supports the OTP authentication method and the OTP/
Local fallback option for serial ports. The OTP authentication method is supported for dial-ins
through modem, GSM and CDMA PCMCIA cards.
See http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/books/handbook/one-time-passwords.html, for more details
about OTP.
OTP authentication configuration tasks
ACS console server administrators must perform the following tasks to set up and configure OTP.
•
•
Mount the OTP database on any of the following storage units.
•
The main Flash memory on ACS console server
•
PCMICA Compact Flash card
•
NFS-mounted directory
Configure OTP for each user. The ACS console server administrator must make sure each user
who needs to use OTP has a local account on the ACS console server and is registered with the
OTP system.
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•
57
Configure a PCMCIA modem card for OTP authentication. You may use WMI or the CLI
utility to configure a modem for OTP.
To set up and configure an OTP database:
1.
Open a console window and log in to the ACS console server as root.
2.
Execute the following command to configure the OTP database.
# do_create_otpdb
3.
Enter the desired location where you want the OTP database stored. The following table shows
the available options.
Table 3.11: OTP Database Location Options
Location
Notes
Local
Locally on the ACS console server Flash memory.
PCMCIA
A Compact Flash PCMCIA card must be installed
and configured.
NFS
host:path
host - DNS name or IP address of the NFS server.
path - Directory shared by the NFS server.
4.
Enable OTP. By default OTP is disabled.
5.
The OTP database is mounted once you enable OTP.
Proceed to the following section to register users and generate OTP passwords.
To register users for OTP:
The following procedures should be performed for each user who requires OTP authentication. The
following example demonstrates how to add and register a new user to KVM/netPlus.
1.
Log in locally through the ACS console server port as root or use ssh to log in remotely.
2.
Execute the adduser command. If a user account exists in the ACS console server, skip this
step and proceed to step 3 to register the user for OTP.
adduser [username]
New password: users_passwd
Re-enter new password: users_passwd
3.
Execute the opiepasswd command to register a user and generate a default OPIE key. This
command initializes the system information to allow using OPIE login.
NOTE: You may use the -c option (console mode) if you have secure access to the ACS console server. Running
OPIE commands through an unsecured connection may reveal your password and compromise security.
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Using opiepasswd from the console
The following information displays when you execute the opiepasswd command from the console
with a -c option. The system prompts you to enter a new secret pass phrase and proceeds to
generate default OPIE sequence number 499 and a key from the first two letters of the hostname
(kv), a pseudo random number (6178) and a password comprised of six words. In the following
example, 499 KV6178 is the OPIE key and the password is COMB YANK BARD SLOT
AS USER.
opiepasswd -c livio
Adding livio:
Only use this method from the console; NEVER from remote. If you are
using telnet, xterm, or a dial-in, type ^C now or exit with no
password.
Then run opiepasswd without the -c parameter.
Using MD5 to compute responses.
Enter new secret pass phrase: livios passphrase
Again new secret pass phrase: livios passphrase
ID livio OTP key is 499 KV6178
COMB YANK BARD SLOT AS USER
Using opiepasswd from remote
When you execute the opiepasswd command securely from a remote system, you need an OTP
generator (calculator) to obtain the OTP password. This initial sequence and its password is used to
generate the hash number stored in the OTP database. Contact your system administrator to obtain
an OTP calculator.
# opiepasswd john
Adding john:
You need the response from an OTP generator.
New secret pass phrase:
otp-md5 499 KV3881
Response:JOE FEE JUTE HARK BANE FAR
ID livio OTP key is 499 KV3881
JOE FEE JUTE HARK BANE FAR
To generate OTP passwords:
1.
Execute the command opiekey to generate passwords for the users.
NOTE: Do not execute the opiekey command through dial-in or an unsecured remote connection such as Telnet.
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Chapter 3: Security
59
The following example uses MD5 (-5 option) to verify data integrity. The -n <count> option
followed by the sequence number 498 generates 5 passwords ending with number 498.
# opiekey -5 -n 5 498 KV6178
Using the MD5 algorithm to compute response.
Reminder: Don’t use opiekey from telnet or dial-in sessions.
Enter secret pass phrase: livio’s secret pass phrase
494: HOST DRUG CLAN NARY HILT BULB
495: DUG JET CAIN SKIN SIGN BRAE
496: ALOE DUEL HUB SIT AMMO MIN
497: REEK KEN RECK CUT NEWS AMY
498: ALGA DEAD PUN FLUB LYRA LEN
2.
Give the OTP username, secret pass phrase and the OTP passwords generated in this procedure
to the user.
Configuring a PCMCIA modem, GSM or CDMA card using OTP authentication
You may configure the PCMCIA cards for OTP authentication using WMI or CLI.
•
In WMI, go to Configuration - Network - PCMCIA Management and click on the
Configure button and enable One Time Password Authentication for a modem, GSM or
CDMA card.
•
See the following sections for configuration procedures using the CLI utility.
To configure a modem PCMCIA card (example): on page 15
To configure a GSM PCMCIA card (example): on page 16
To configure a CDMA PCMCIA card (example): on page 17
Shadow Passwords
The ACS console server has support for shadow passwords, which enhances the security of the
system authentication files.
Shadow Passwords are enabled by default. If you are upgrading from release 2.3.0-2 or earlier, a
previous configuration is detected and the translation from /etc/passwd to /etc/shadow
happens automatically.
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Digital Certificates
Certificate for HTTP security
The following procedure enables you to obtain a Signed Digital Certificate. A certificate for the
HTTP security is created by a Certification Authority (CA). Certificates are most commonly
obtained through generating public and private keys using a public key algorithm like RSA or
X.509. The keys may be generated by using a key generator software.
To obtain a signed digital certificate:
1.
Enter the OpenSSL command. Key generation may be done using the OpenSSL package using
the following command:
# openssl req -new -nodes -keyout private.key -out public.csr
The Certificate Signing Request (CSR) generated by the command contains some personal or
corporate information and its public key.
Table 3.12: Required Information for the OpenSSL Package
Parameter
Description
Country Name (2 letter code)
The country code consisting of two letters.
State or Province Name (full name)
Provide the full name (not the code) of
the state.
Locality Name
Enter the name of your city.
Organization Name
Organization for which you are obtaining the
certificate.
Organizational Unit Name
Department or section where you work.
Common Name
Name of the server where the certificate should
be installed.
Email Address
Your email address or the administrator’s
email address.
2.
Submit the CSR to CA for approval. This service may be requested by accessing the CA’s web
site. Visit pki-page.org for a list of CAs.
3.
Once approved, CA sends the certificate file to the originator. The certificate is stored on a
directory server. The following procedures describe the certificate installation process.
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Chapter 3: Security
To install the certificate on the web server:
1.
Log in to the ACS console server.
2.
Join the certificate with the private key into the file /web/server.pem.
#cat Cert.cer private.key > /web/server.pem
3.
Copy the certificate to the file /web/cert.pem.
#cp Cert.cer /web/cert.pem
4.
Include the files /web/server.pem and /web/cert.pem in /etc/config_files.
5.
Save the configuration in Flash.
# saveconf
6.
Reboot the ACS console server for the certificate to take effect.
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User configured digital certificate
The ACS console server generates its own self-signed SSL certificate for HTTPs using OpenSSL.
It is highly recommended that you use the “openssl” tool to generate a self-signed certificate and
replace the ACS console server’s generated certificate.
To generate a self-signed certificate:
1.
Open the /etc/req_key file and update the user data with your organization specific data.
# vi /etc/req_key
[ req ]
default_bits
distinguished_name
prompt
x509_extensions
[ cyclades ]
C
ST
L
O
OU
CN
emailAddress
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1024
cyclades
no
x509v3
US
CA
Fremont
Cyclades Corporation
R&D
www.cyclades.com
support@cyclades.com
[ x509v3 ]
subjectKeyIdentifier
authorityKeyIdentifier
basicConstraints
nsComment
nsCertType
2.
Remove the files /etc/ca/*.pem
3.
Execute the following script.
=
=
=
=
=
hash
keyid:always,issuer:always
CA:true
"This is just a TEST certificate.
server, sslCA
# /bin/firstkssl.sh
4.
Reboot the ACS console server or restart WMI.
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Chapter 3: Security
63
X.509 certificate on SSH
The OpenSSH software included with the ACS console server has support for X.509 certificates.
The administrator must activate and configure SSH to use X.509.
To configure X.509 certificate for SSH:
1.
Enter the following command to configure X.509 certificate. See Table 3.13 for the list
of parameters.
cli> config security profile custom ssh ssh_x509 [parameter] <value>
Table 3.13: X.509 Certificate Parameters
Parameter
Value
CA_file
<path and filename of CA certificate>
hostkey
<path and filename of hostkeys>
authorizedkeys
path and filename of authorized keys>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
The following is an example on how to configure X.509 certificate.
ssh_x509> CA_file /etc/ssh/ca-bundle.crt
ssh_x509> hostkey /etc/ssh/hostkey
ssh_x509> authorizedkeys /etc/ssh/authorized_keys
cli> config runconfig
cli> config savetoflash
NOTE: X.509 certificate for SSH may also be configured by executing the following script at the command
prompt, # ssh_act_x509.
To connect to the ACS console server and serial ports using SSH X.509 certificate:
1.
Configure X.509 certificate for SSH.
2.
Configure the client you need to access with X.509 certificate.
3.
Copy the certificate files to the ACS console server. See Certificate for HTTP security,
if needed.
To verify that the file was copied, run the following command at the prompt.
[root@acs48 root]# ls -l /etc/ssh/ca/ca-bundle.crt
[root@acs48 root]# ls -l /etc/ssh/hostkey
4.
Configure the serial ports for “socket_ssh” protocol and assign the IP address of the
connected device.
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4
Accessing Connected Devices
This chapter describes set up and configuration parameters for accessing serial ports and connected
devices.
Connection Profiles and Protocols
The following table describes each connection profile and supported protocols.
Table 4.1: Connection Profiles and Protocols
Connection
Profile
Supported
Protocol
Console Access
Server (CAS)
Telnet
SSH
TelnetSSH
Raw
Configure when a serial port is connected to the console port of
a server.
Terminal Server
(TS)
Telnet
SSHv1
SSHv2
Local Terminal
Raw Socket
Configure when a terminal is connected to the console port of
a server.
Bidirectional
Telnet
Telnet (CAS)
Telnet (TS)
Supports both CAS profile Telnet connection and TS profile menu
shell. Both connection protocols are supported on one port,
however, connections can not be opened simultaneously.
Modem (RAS)
PPP
PPP-No Auth
SLIP
CSLIP
Configure when a modem is connected to a serial port.
Power
Management
Power
Management
Configure when a power management device is connected to a
serial port.
Description
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Serial ports general parameters
To configure general parameters:
1.
Execute the following command for one or multiple serial ports. Refer to Table 4.2 for port
configuration parameters.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-4] general
[parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Table 4.2: Serial Port General Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
alias
<server alias>
To name a server connected to the serial port.
datasize
<number[5-8]>
To configure number of bits per character.
dcdstate
disregard|regard
To enable or disable Data Carrier Detect (DCD).
flow
hard|none|soft
To set the flow control.
parity
even|none|odd
To configure parity.
pmsessions
none
ssh
ssh_telent
telnet
To select a connection method to PM IPDU through the serial
port, in order to execute pm commands.
protocol
bidirectionaltelnet
consoleraw
consolessh
consoletelnet
consoletelnetssh
cslip
local
pm
ppp
pppnoauth
rawsocket
slip
sshv1
sshv2
telnet
To configure the serial ports connection protocol. See
Connection Profiles and Protocols for a description of each
connection profile.
speed
<baud rate>
To configure the serial port speed.
stopbits
<number[1-2]>
To configure the number of stop bits.
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67
To configure other configuration parameters:
1.
Execute the following command for one or multiple serial ports. Refer to Table 4.3 for
configuration parameters.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-4] other [parameter]
<value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Table 4.3: Other Serial Port Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
banner
<login banner>
To set the banner that is displayed when you connect to a
serial port. Text should be entered in double quotes (“ ”).
breakinterval
<number>
To set break interval in milliseconds (ms). Usually 250 to
500 milliseconds.
breaksequence
<break
sequence>
To set the break sequence. Usually a character sequence,
~break (Ctrl+b).
host
<hostname>
IP address or the name of the server to which you
are connecting.
idletimeout
<number>
To configure idle timeout, which is the maximum time (in
seconds) that a session may be idle before the user is
logged off.
portip
<n.n.n.n>
To configure an ip alias to the serial port.
sttyoptions
<stty options>
To set terminal options.
tcpkeepalive
<number>
To configure poll interval in milliseconds (ms). Specifies the
time interval between the periodic polling to check client
processes and connectivity.
tcpport
<number>
To configure socket port number. Four digit values are valid
for this parameter, for example 7001.
terminaltype
<terminal type>
To configure the terminal type when connecting to a
host system.
winems
yes|no
Enables or disable Windows Emergency Management
Services (EMS).
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To open and close a telnet session to a serial port:
# telnet [hostname] [TCP port number]
Table 4.4: Telnet Session Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Description
hostname
Workstation name or its IP address.
TCP port number
TCP port number assigned to the serial port.
To close a Telnet session, press the hotkey defined for the Telnet client, the default is Ctrl+].
To open and close an SSH session to a serial port:
# ssh -l [username]:[server] [hostname]
Table 4.5: SSH Session Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Description
username
User configured to access the serial port. It is present either in the local database or
in an authentication server such as Radius or LDAP.
server
TCP port number assigned to a serial port (for example 7001), pool of ports (for
example 3000), the alias for the server connected to that serial port or the alias of a
pool of ports.
hostname
Workstation name or its IP address.
To close an SSH session, press the hotkey defined for the SSH client followed by a dot (.), the
default is tilde (~).
NOTE: Enter the escape character followed by a dot (.) at the beginning of a line to close the SSH session.
Accessing serial ports using ts_menu
The ts_menu is an application to facilitate connection to the serial ports. The following are the
methods of executing the ts_menu command.
•
Calling ts_menu without specifying arguments.
•
Calling ts_menu with command line arguments.
•
Using CLI to call ts_menu.
Calling ts_menu without specific parameters
To access the serial port configured for Telnet or SSH, enter ts_menu at the shell prompt. The
server’s aliases or serial ports are displayed as options to start a connection.
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Chapter 4: Accessing Connected Devices
Calling ts_menu with specific parameters
ts_menu -u <user> [-l[c]] [-ro] [-s] [-auth] <console port>
Table 4.6: ts_menu Parameters
Parameter
Description
-u <user>
Invokes ts_menu as the user named by <user>. This requires a password to be
entered. The user have access only to the authorized serial ports.
-l[c]
Generates a list of ports to which a user has access. Port aliases are shown if defined.
For remote ports (clusters) if port alias is not defined they are shown as ip_addr:port
(ip_addr referring to the slave ACS console server). The default displays ports in
alphabetical order, but if c flag is specified, the listing is sorted by console server
(master unit showing first).
-ro
Invokes ts_menu in read-only mode. You may connect to any port to which you have
access in read-only mode.
-s
Invokes ts_menu in a way that all ports (including slave) are presented in a single list
sorted in alphabetical order.
-auth
For backward compatibility. This option makes the new ts_menu implementation
behave as the old one so that authentication is performed again to access each port.
<console
port>
If issued, produces a direct connection to that port. If you have no access rights to the
port or if the port does not exist, the application returns a console not found message
and terminates. The console port may be the port alias or the port number. If you are
trying to access a clustered port, the port number must include a reference to the
slave ACS console server as host:port. Host is the slave hostname or IP address.
-p
Display TCP port.
-P
Use TCP port instead of IP address.
-i
Display Local IP assigned to the serial port.
-s
Show the ports in a sorted order.
-u <name>
Username to be used in SSH/Telnet command.
-U
Always ask for a username.
-e <[^]char>
Escape character used by Telnet or SSH.
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To close the session from ts_menu (local):
1.
Enter the escape character shown when you connect to the port. In character/text mode, the
Escape character is Ctrl+].
2.
Console escape commands are displayed.
Table 4.7: Console Escape Commands
Command
Description
l
go to line mode
c
go to character mode
z
suspend telnet
b
send break
t
toggle binary
e
exit telnet
3.
Press -e to exit from the session and return to the original menu.
4.
Select the exit option to return to the shell prompt.
To close the session from ts_menu (Telnet/SSH):
Unless a different escape character is used for closing your Telnet/SSH session, you may close your
entire Telnet session. To specify a different character, connect to your unit and use the -e option.
For example, to set Ctrl+? as the escape character, type:
# telnet -e ^? 192.168.160.10
# ssh -e ^? user1@192.168.160.10
To exit from an entire Telnet session, type the escape character. For a SSH session, type the escape
character plus dot (.).
NOTE: To close an SSH session the escape character followed by a dot (.) must be entered at the beginning of
a line.
To call ts_menu from CLI:
1.
Execute the following command from the CLI prompt. Refer to Table 4.8 for
configuration parameters.
cli> applications connect [parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Chapter 4: Accessing Connected Devices
71
Table 4.8: ts_menu Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
consolename
<consolename>
Name of the serial port to which you need to connect.
list
To display a list of the available serial ports.
readonly
To connect to the console of a server in read-only mode.
Add the serial port name parameter:
cli> applications connect readonly consolename <consolename>
TS Menu Script
The ts_menu script may be used to avoid typing long Telnet or SSH commands. It presents a menu
with the server names connected to the serial ports of the ACS console server. You must execute
ts_menu from a local system using a console, Telnet, SSH or a terminal connected to a serial port.
Syntax
# ts_menu options {<console port>}
Table 4.9: ts_menu Options
Option
Description
-p
Display TCP port
-P
Use the TCP port instead just IP
-i
Display local IP assigned to the serial port
-u <name>
Username to be used in SSH/Telnet command
-U
Always ask for an username
-e <[^]char>
Escape character used by Telnet or SSH
-l[c]
Sorted list ports (c option sort by console server) and exit
-auth
Interactive authentication
-ro
Read Only mode
-s
Show sorted ports
<console port>
Connect direct to console port
-u <name>
Username to be used in SSH/Telnet command
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Configuration examples
Console Access Server (CAS) profile
With the ACS console server set up as a CAS profile, you may access a connected server’s serial
console port from a workstation on the network. There is no authentication by default, but the
system may be configured for an authentication server such as Radius, LDAP or a local database.
Figure 4.1 displays an example of a CAS environment. This configuration example has local
authentication and serially connected workstations.
Socket Port
7002
192.168.1.102
Socket Port
7008
192.168.1.108
Socket Port
7001
192.168.1.101
Serial
Serial
ALTERPATH
Serial
AlterPath
Advanced Console Server
A C S
TM
LINUX
INSIDE
IP Address
200.200.200.1
Cyclades ACS
Advanced Console Server
with Local Authentication
10/100BT
Internet
10/100BT
Ethernet Switch
Router
Figure 4.1: Example of CAS Configuration with Local Authentication
Workstation
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Chapter 4: Accessing Connected Devices
73
Figure 4.2 displays another configuration example for remote and local authentication, data
buffering and remote access.
Server
Remote Data Buffering
Server
Serial
Server
Serial
ALTERPATH
AlterPath
Advanced Console Server
A C S
TM
LINUX
INSIDE
Cyclades ACS
Advanced Console Server
with Local Authorization
10/100BT
Ethernet Switch
Internet
10/100BT
10/100BT
10/100BT
Router
Access Methods
Telnet
SSH
Custom Applications
Local User
User
TACACS Server
Figure 4.2: Example of CAS Configuration with Local and Remote Authentication
To test a CAS configuration:
1.
Create a new user in the local database.
# adduser <username>
# passwd <username>
2.
Make sure the physical connection between the ACS console server and the servers is correct.
3.
Confirm the communication parameters (9600 bps, 8N1) are set on both the server and the
ACS console server.
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ACS Advanced Console Server Command Reference Guide
4.
Make sure the server is configured to route console data to its serial console port
(Console Redirection).
5.
Telnet to the server connected to Port 1.
6.
From a server on the local network (not from the console), try to Telnet to the server connected
to the port 1 of the ACS console server using the following command.
# telnet <ip address> <TCP port>
7.
A Telnet session should open on the server connected to Port 1.
8.
To activate and save the changes run the following commands.
# runconf
# saveconf
Terminal Server (TS) profile
The ACS console server provides features for out-of-band management through the configuration
of terminal ports. A TS profile allows a terminal user to access a server on the network. The
terminal may be either a dumb terminal or a terminal emulation program running on a workstation.
Figure 4.3 displays an example of a TS profile.
> asd f jkl;
> xyz mmddyy /md
> login:
PC Running Terminal
Application (VT-100)
VT-100 Terminal
Serial
Serial
ALTERPATH
AlterPath
Advanced Console Server
A C S
TM
LINUX
INSIDE
10/100BT
Cyclades ACS
Advanced Console Server
Internet
10/100BT
Ethernet Switch
Router
Figure 4.3: Example of TS Configuration Profile
Server
IP Address:
200.200.200.3
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Chapter 4: Accessing Connected Devices
75
To test a TS configuration:
1.
Create a new user in the local database.
# adduser <username>
# passwd <username>
2.
Create a new test user and password on the server.
3.
From the console, ping the server to make sure it is reachable.
4.
Confirm that terminal communication parameters are set to the same as the ACS console
server. The ACS console server default communication parameters are at 9600 bps, 8N1.
5.
Log in to the server with the newly created username and password.
6.
From a terminal connected to the ACS console server, log in to the server using the username
and password configured in Step 1.
7.
Run the following commands to activate and save your configuration.
# runconf
# saveconf
Dial-in access profile
The ACS console server serial ports may be configured to allow remote users to access the local
network through a modem.
To configure a dial-in access profile:
1.
Configure the serial port for PPP protocol.
2.
Create a new user on the authentication server.
3.
From the console, ping the authentication server to make sure it is reachable.
4.
Confirm modem settings. The ACS console server is set for communication at 57600 bps,
8N1. The modems should be programmed to operate at the same speed on the DTE interface.
5.
Make sure the server is configured to route console data to the serial console port.
6.
Dial-in to the ACS console server from a remote server using the username and password
created. The server dialing in must be configured to receive its IP address from the remote
access server (the ACS console server in this case) and to use PAP authentication.
7.
Run the following command to activate and save your configuration.
# runconf
# saveconf
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Figure 4.4 displays an example of a dial-in access profile with Radius authentication and ppp
protocol on the serial lines.
Dialup
Management Station
IP Addr: 200.200.200.11
Dialup
Management Station
IP Addr: 200.200.200.42
Syslog Servers
IP Address
200.200.200.3
Modem
Modem
Serial
Serial
ALTERPATH
AlterPath
Advanced Console Server
A C S
TM
LINUX
INSIDE
10/100BT
Cyclades ACS
Advanced Console Server
Internet
10/100BT
Ethernet Switch
Router
Figure 4.4: Example of Dial-in Access Profile
IP Address
200.200.200.2
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Administration
5
Process Monitoring
The command “w” displays information about the currently logged-in users and their processes. It
calls two commands, w_ori and w_cas. The w_ori is the new name of the original command -w and
the w_cas displays the CAS session’s information.
The header of w_ori displays the current time, how long the system has been running, how many
users are currently logged on (excluding the CAS users) and the system load averages for the past
one, five and fifteen minutes.
The following entries are displayed for each user (excluding the CAS users).
•
Login name
•
The tty name
•
The remote host
•
Login time
•
Idle time
•
JCPU time - It is the time used by all processes attached to the tty
•
PCPU time - It is the time used by the current process named in the “what” field
•
The command line of the user’s current process
The header of w_cas displays how many CAS users are currently logged on. The following entries
are displayed for each CAS user.
•
Login name
•
The tty name
•
The remote host and remote port
•
Login time
•
The process ID
•
The command line of the current process
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ACS Advanced Console Server Command Reference Guide
The Process Table
The process table displays which processes are running. Type ps -a to see a table similar to
the following.
Table 5.1: Process Table
PID
UID
VmSize
State
Command
1
root
592
S
/sbin/inetd
31
root
928
S
/sbin/inetd
32
root
584
S
/sbin/cy_ras
36
root
1148
S
/sbin/cy_wdt_led wdt led
154
root
808
R
/ps -a
To restart the cy_ras process, use its process ID or execute the following command.
# runconf
This executes the ps command, searches for the cy_ras process id, then sends the signal hup to the
process, all in one step. Never kill cy_ras with the signals -9 or SIGKILL.
Start and Stop Services
This feature enables or disables services without rebooting the ACS console server.
Syntax
daemon.sh [-h|help] | [{[stop|restart] service_id}...]
where service_id may be any choice of:
EVTGEN NIS RPC DB NET LOG SSH NTP SNMP IPSEC PMD LP WEB GDF LOGPIPE
ADSAP2
The daemon.sh may be executed in two ways.
1.
Without parameters in the command line. It checks the configuration files of the service and
restart or stop it if needed.
2.
It performs the requested action (stop/restart) in the list of services given in the command line
regardless of any configuration changes.
The following example restarts power management and data buffering services and it stops SSH
and network timer client services.
# daemon.sh PMD stop SSH NTP restart DB
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Syslog-ng
Syslog-ng daemon reads log system console messages and log files on remote syslog servers as
specified by its configuration file. In addition, syslog-ng may filter messages based on its content
and perform an action, for example send an email or pager message. The /etc/syslog-ng/syslogng.conf file is used to perform specific configurations.
To configure syslog-ng:
1.
Define Global Options
options { opt1(params); opt2(params); ... };
Table 5.2: Global Options Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration)
Option
Description
time_reopen(n)
The time to wait before a dead connection is re-established.
time_reap(n)
The time to wait before an idle destination file is closed.
sync_freq(n)
The number of lines buffered before written to file. (The file is synced when
this number of messages has been written to it.)
mark_freq(n)
The number of seconds between two MARKS lines.
log_fifo_size(n)
The number of lines fitting to the output queue.
chain_hostname
(yes/no) or long_hostname
(yes/no)
Enable/disable the chained hostname format.
use_time_recvd
(yes/no)
Use the time a message is received instead of the one specified in
the message.
use_dns (yes/no)
Enable or disable DNS usage. syslog-ng blocks on DNS queries, so enabling
DNS may lead to a Denial of Service attack.
gc_idle_threshold(n)
Sets the threshold value for the garbage collector, when syslog-ng is idle. GC
phase starts when the number of allocated objects reach this number.
Default: 100.
gc_busy_threshold(n)
Sets the threshold value for the garbage collector. When syslog-ng is busy,
GC phase starts.
create_dirs(yes/no)
Enable the creation of new directories.
owner(name)
Set the owner of the created file to the one specified. Default: root.
group(name)
Set the group of the created file to the one specified. Default: root.
perm(mask)
Set the permission mask of the created file to the one specified.
Default: 0600.
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2.
Define Sources
source <identifier> { source-driver([params]); source
driver([params]); ...};
where,
•
identifier - Uniquely identifies a given source.
•
source-driver - A method of retrieving a given message.
•
params - Each source-driver takes a required or an optional parameter.
Table 5.3: Source Drivers Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration)
Option
Description
internal()
Messages are generated internally in syslog-ng.
unix-stream
(filename [options])
and
unix-dgram
(filename [options])
They open the given AF_UNIX socket and start listening for messages.
Options: owner(name), group(name), perm(mask) are equal
global options.
tcp([options])
These drivers let you receive messages from the network, and as the
name of the drivers show, you may use both TCP and UDP.
None of tcp() and udp() drivers require positional parameters. By default
they bind to 0.0.0.0:514, which means that syslog-ng listens on all
available interfaces.
Options:
ip(<ip address>) - The binding IP address. Default: 0.0.0.0.
port(<number>) - UDP/TCP port used to listen messages. Default: 514.
max-connections(n) - Limits the number of simultaneously opened
connections. Default: 10.
and
udp([options])
keep-alive(yes/no) - Selects whether to keep connections opened when
syslog-ng is restarted. May be used only with unix_stream. Default: yes
max-connections(n) - Limits the number of simultaneously opened
connections. May be used only with unix_stream. Default: 10.
file(filename)
Opens the specified file and reads messages.
pipe(filename)
Opens a named pipe with the specified name and listens for messages.
(You need to create the pipe using the mkfifo command).
The following are examples of how to define sources.
•
Read from a file.
source <identifier> {file(filename);};
•
Read messages from /temp/file1 file.
source file1 {file(‘/temp/file1’);};
•
Receive messages from the kernel.
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source s_kernel { file(‘/proc/kmsg’); };
•
Receive messages from local syslogd clients.
source sysl {unix-stream(‘/dev/log’);};
•
Receive messages from remote syslogd clients.
source s_udp { udp(ip(<cliente ip>) port(<udp port>)); };
•
Listen to messages from all machines on UDP port 514.
source s_udp { udp(ip(0.0.0.0) port(514));};
•
Listen to messages from a client at IP address=10.0.0.1 on UDP port 999.
source s_udp_10 { udp(ip(10.0.0.1) port(999)); };
3.
Define Filters
filter <identifier> { expression; };
where,
•
identifier - Uniquely identifies a given filter.
•
expression - Builds a boolean expression using internal functions.
Table 5.4: Filters Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration)
Option
Description
facility
(<facility code>)
Selects messages based on their facility code.
level(<level code>) or priority
(<level code>)
Selects messages based on their priority.
program(<string>)
Tries to match the <string> to the program name field of the log message.
host(<string>)
Tries to match the <string> to the hostname field of the log message.
match(<string>)
Tries to match the <string> to the message itself.
The following are examples of how to define filters.
•
To filter by facility.
filter f_facilty { facility(<facility name>); };
Examples:
filter f_daemon { facility(daemon); };
filter f_kern { facility(kern); };
filter f_debug { not facility(auth, authpriv, news, mail); };
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•
To filter by level.
filter f_level { level(<level name>);};
Examples:
filter f_messages { level(info .. warn)};
filter f_emergency { level(emerg); };
filter f_alert { level(alert); };
•
To filter by matching a string in the received message.
filter f_match { match(‘string’); };
Example to filter by matching the string named:
filter f_named { match(‘named’); };
•
To filter alarm messages.
filter f_alarm { facility(local[0+<conf.DB_facility>]) and level(info)
and match('ALARM') and match('<your string>'); } ;
Example to filter alarm message with the string kernel panic:
filter f_kpanic { facility(local[0+<conf.DB_facility>]) and
level(info) and match('ALARM') and match('kernel panic'); };
•
To eliminate SSHD debug messages.
filter f_sshd_debug { not program('sshd') or not level(debug); };
•
To filter the syslog_buffering.
filter f_syslog_buf { facility(local[0+<conf.DB_facility>]) and
level(notice); };
•
To define actions (destinations).
destination <identifier> {destination-driver([params]); destinationdriver([param]);..};
where,
•
identifier - Uniquely identifies a given destination.
•
destination driver - Configures a method of output for a given message.
•
params - Configures a required or an optional parameter for each destination-driver.
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Table 5.5: Destination Drivers Parameters (Syslog-ng Configuration)
Option
Description
file
(filename[options])
This is one of the most important destination drivers in syslog-ng. It allows
you to output log messages to the named file. The destination filename may
include macros (by prefixing the macro name with a '$' sign) which gets
expanded when the message is written. Since the state of each created file
must be tracked by syslog-ng, it consumes some memory for each file. If no
new messages are written to a file within 60 seconds (controlled by the
time_reap global option), it's closed, and its state is freed.
Available macros in filename expansion:
HOST - The name of the source host from where the message originated.
FACILITY - The name of the facility from which the message is tagged.
PRIORITY or LEVEL - The priority of the message.
PROGRAM - The name of the program the message was sent by.
YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MIN, SEC - The year, month, day, hour, min,
sec of the message was sent.
TAG - Equals FACILITY/LEVEL.
FULLHOST - The name of the source host and the source-driver:
<source-driver>@<hostname>
MSG or MESSAGE - The message received.
FULLDATE - The date of the message was sent.
Available options:
log_fifo_size(number) - The number of entries in the output file.
sync_freq(number) - The file is synced when this number of messages has
been written to it.
owner(name), group(name), perm(mask) - Equals global options.
template(“string”) - Syslog-ng writes the “string” in the file. You may use the
MACROS in the string.
encrypt(yes/no) - Encrypts the resulting file.
compress(yes/no) - Compresses the resulting file using zlib.
pipe
(filename[options])
This driver sends messages to a named pipe. Available options:
owner(name), group(name), perm(mask) - Equals global options.
template(“string”) - Syslog-ng writes the “string” in the file. You may use the
MACROS in the string.
unix-stream(filename) and
unix-dgram(filename)
This driver sends messages to a UNIX socket in either SOCKET_STREAM
or SOCK_DGRAM mode.
udp(“<ip address>”
port(number);) and
tcp("<ip address>"
port(number);)
This driver sends messages to another host (ip address/port) using either
UDP or TCP protocol.
program(<program name
and arguments>)
This driver fork executes the given program with arguments and sends
messages down to the stdin of the child.
usertty(<username>)
This driver writes messages to the terminal of a logged-in username.
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The following is an example of how to send an email.
destination <ident> { pipe(‘/dev/cyc_alarm’ template(‘sendmail
<pars>’));};
where <ident> uniquely identifies the destination.
Table 5.6: Send Email Parameters
Email field
Parameter
To address
-t <name>[,<name>]
CC address
[-c <name>[,<name>]]
Bcc address
[-b <name>[,<name>]]
Reply-to address
[-r <name>[,<name>]]
From address
-f <name>
Subject
-s \"<text>\"
Message
-m \”<text message>\”
SMTP server
-h <IP address or name>
Port used. default:25
[-p <port>]
Table 5.7 shows the message mount parameters.
Table 5.7: Message Mount Parameters
Parameter
Description
$FULLDATE
The complete date when the message was sent.
$FACILITY
The facility of the message.
$PRIORITY or $LEVEL
The priority of the message.
$PROGRAM
The message was sent by this program (BUFFERING or SOCK).
$HOST
The name of the source host.
$FULLHOST
The name of the source host and the source driver
Format: <source>@<hostname>
$MSG or $MESSAGE
The message received.
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85
The following example displays an email sent to z@none.com (SMTP's IP address 10.0.0.2) from
the email address a@none.com with subject “ALARM”. The message carries the current date,
hostname of the ACS console server and the message received from the source.
destination d_mail1 {
pipe('/dev/cyc_alarm'
template('sendmail -t z@none.com -f a@none.com -s \”ALARM\” \\
-m \'$FULLDATE $HOST $MSG\' -h 10.0.0.2'));
};
The following example shows how to send a message to the sms server.
destination <ident> {pipe(‘/dev/cyc_alarm’ template(‘sendsms
<pars>’));};
where <ident> uniquely identify the destination. The parameters are:
pars: -d <mobile phone number>
-m \’<message - max.size 160 characters>\’
-u <username to login on sms server>
-p <port sms - default : 6701>
<server IP address or name>
The following example sends a page to phone number 123 (Pager server at 10.0.0.1) with the
message carrying the current date, the hostname of the ACS console server and the message
received from the source.
destination d_pager {
pipe(‘/dev/cyc_alarm’
template(‘sendsms -d 123 -m \’$FULLDATE $HOST $MSG\’
10.0.0.1’));
};
Sending an snmptrap
destination <ident> {pipe(‘/dev/cyc_alarm’ template(‘snmptrap
<pars>’)); };
where <ident> uniquely identify the destination. The parameters are:
•
pars : -v 1
•
<snmptrapd IP address>
•
-c public : community
•
\"\" : enterprise-oid
•
\"\" : agent/hostname
•
<trap number> : 2-Link Down, 3-Link Up, 4-Authentication Failure
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•
0 : specific trap
•
\"\" : host-uptime
•
.1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.1 :interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifdescr.1
•
s : the type of the next field (it is a string)
•
\"<message - max. size 250 characters>\"
The following example sends a Link Down trap to a server at 10.0.0.1 with message carrying the
current date, the hostname ACS console server and the message received from the source.
destination d_trap {
pipe("/dev/cyc_alarm"
template("snmptrap -v 1 -c public 10.0.0.1 public \"\" \"\" 2 0 \"\"
\\ .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.1 s \"$FULLDATE $HOST $MSG\" "));
};
Sending a message to a remote syslogd server
destination d_udp { udp("<remote IP address>" port(514)); };
The following example sends syslogs to syslogd located at 10.0.0.1 :
destination d_udp1 { udp("10.0.0.1" port(514)); };
Connecting sources, filters and actions
To connect the sources, filters and actions use the following statement. An action is an incoming
message from one of the listed sources. A match for each of the filters is sent to the
listed destination.
log { source(S1); source(S2); ...
filter(F1);filter(F2);...
destination(D1); destination(D2);...
};
where,
•
Sx - Identifies the defined sources.
•
Fx - Identifies the defined filters.
•
Dx - Identifies the defined actions or destinations.
Examples of connecting sources, filters and actions:
•
To send all messages received from local syslog clients to console.
log { source(sysl); destination(d_console);};
•
To write all messages with levels info, notice or warning and received from syslog clients
(local and remote) to /var/log/messages file.
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87
log { source(sysl); source(s_udp); filter(f_messages);
destination(d_messages); };
•
To send an email if message received from local syslog client has the string kernel panic.
log { source(sysl); filter(f_kpanic); destination(d_mail1); };
•
To send an email and pager if message received from local syslog client has the string
“root” login.
log { source(sysl); filter(f_root); destination(d_mail1);
destination(d_pager); };
•
To send messages with facility kernel and received messages from syslog clients (local
and remote) to remote syslogd.
log { source(sysl); source(s_udp); filter(f_kern); destination(dudp1); };
To use syslog-ng configuration with syslog buffering feature:
This configuration example uses the syslog buffering feature and sends messages to the remote
syslogd (10.0.0.1).
1.
In /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file configure the syslog buffering parameters.
conf.DB_facility 1
all.syslog_buffering 100
2.
Add the following lines to /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf file.
#local syslog clients
source src { unix-stream("/dev/log"); };
destination d_buffering { udp("10.0.0.1"); };
filter f_buffering { facility(local1) and level(notice); };
#send only syslog_buffering messages to remote server
log { source(src); filter(f_buffering);
destination(d_buffering); };
To configure Syslog-ng with multiple remote syslog servers:
1.
Configure syslog facility number to receive messages. The remote syslog server filters receive
messages according to this parameter.
cli> config network syslog facility <local0-local7>
2.
Configure the server’s IP address where syslog messages are sent. Repeat this step to add
additional remote servers.
cli> config network syslog add server <ip address>
3.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Syslog Messages
The ACS console server may generate syslog messages to enable system administrators to monitor
system changes. Syslog messages are generated when specific actions are performed or certain
conditions are met through user entered commands. The system generates and sends messages to a
syslog server using the following format.
•
Level - the syslog level used
•
Tag - a fixed string used by the user to create filters
•
Text - the text that contains the condition or action
You may use the information provided in Table 5.8 to create filters and generate alarms about the
ACS console server events.
Table 5.8: ACS Console Server Syslog Messages Format
Level
Tag
Text
info
[PMD]-Serial Port p
One or more PM IPDU added to the chain. This chain has X
PM IPDU and Y outlets.
info
AUTH
User [xyz] for session [abc] successfully authenticated.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
info
AUTH
User [xyz] for session [abc] logged out.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
info
AUTH
Cancel new admin [abc] login.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
info
AUTH
Session [%d] timed out", sid.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
info
CONFIG
Configuration saved to Flash.
info
CONFIG
New configuration activated.
info
CONFIG
Password changed for user [xyz] by user [abc].
info
CONFIG
User [xyz] added by user [abc].
info
CONFIG
User [xyz] deleted by user [abc].
info
CONFIG
Network daemon [daemon name] stopped.
info
APPLICATION
User [abc] connected to port [x] (ttySx) via socket server.
info
APPLICATION
User [abc] connected to port [x] (ttySx) via socket ssh.
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Table 5.8: ACS Console Server Syslog Messages Format (Continued)
Level
Tag
Text
alert
[PMD]-Serial Port p
Outlet X has been turned OFF by user <username>.
alert
[PMD]-Serial Port p
Outlet X has been turned ON by user <username>.
alert
[PMD]-Serial Port p
OVER CURRENT on PM IPDU #X (current: <current
detected> threshold:<threshold configured>).
alert
[PMD]-Serial Port p
One or more PM IPDU is removed from the chain. This chain
has now X PM IPDU and Y outlets.
alert
AUTH
User [xyz] login failed.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
alert
AUTH
User [%s] login failed. There exists another admin session.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
alert
AUTH
Previous admin session terminated by new admin [abc] login.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
alert
CONFIG
Network daemon [daemon name] started.
alert
SYSTEM
System rebooted by admin [xyz] [hostname] [ip address].
alert
PORT DCD
Port <serial port number> DCD went high.
alert
PORT DCD
Port <serial port number> DCD went low.
debug
AUTH
User [%s] login failed. Group 'admin' does not exist.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
debug
AUTH
User [%s] login failed. Maximum number of connected
users reached.
NOTE: This syslog message applies only to Web sessions and
not to regular console (telnet or SSH) sessions.
notice
[PMD]-Serial Port p
PMD has started on this port. The chain has X PM IPDU and
W outlets.
notice
DAEMON
Web server started on port xx.
notice
DAEMON
Web server stopped.
notice
DAEMON
Caught SIGINT: Web server stopped.
warning
[PMD]-Serial Port p
Current is now back to normal on PM IPDU #X (current:
<current detected> threshold:<threshold configured>).
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NOTE: To disable PMD syslog messages, the file /etc/pmd.sh has to be edited. The parameter DPARM must be
changed from "" to "-s." After this, the command saveconf and daemon restart PMD must be run.
DCD ON/OFF Syslog Messages
The ACS console server may generate an alert when a serial console cable is removed from the
ACS console server or when the serially attached server is powered down. Also, when a modem is
connected, this feature may detect if the modem is still powered on and active.
The DCD signal is monitored and a syslog message is generated when the state of the signal
changes. The syslog message may be handled by syslog-ng to generate an event notification.
To configure DCD syslog messages:
1.
Open the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file.
# vi /etc/portslave/pslave.conf
2.
Set the all.dcd or sXX.dcd parameter to 1 in the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file.
all.dcd 1
-orsXX.dcd 1
Where XX is the desired port number.
3.
Configure the syslog-ng.conf file to monitor DCD status.
The following example displays generating messages and sending them to console if the DCD
signal changes its state.
filter f_dcdchg { level(alert) and match("PORT DCD") };
destination console { usertty("root"); };
log { source(s_kernel); filter(f_dcdchg); destination(console); };
4.
Save the configuration.
# saveconf
Notifications and Alarms
System notifications allow an administrator to manage servers by filtering the messages generated
from a server’s console port. It helps with sending email or pager notifications based on the server’s
message content.
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Configuring alarm notification
cli> config administration notifications [parameter] <value>
Table 5.9: System Notifications Parameters
Parameter Level1
Parameter Level2
addemail
Value
Description
<trigger string>
Sends a message to the configured
email address if the defined string
appears.
<trigger string>
Sends a message to the configured
pager if the defined string appears.
add Email>
from
to
subject
body
smtpserver
smtpport
cancel
addpager
add Pager>
number
smsport
smsserver
smsusername
text
cancel
addsnmptrap
<string>
<number>
<string>
<string>
<string>
<trigger string>
add Snmptrap>
body
community
oid
server
cancel
trapnum
<string>
<string>
<string>
<string>
0-6
authfailure
coldstar
egpneighborloss
enterprisespecific
linkdown
linkup
warmstart
Sends a SNMP trap to the configured
server if the defined string appears.
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Table 5.9: System Notifications Parameters (Continued)
Parameter Level1
Parameter Level2
alarm
Value
Description
yes|no
Activate or deactivate the alarm
feature. If you don't enable it, syslog
messages won’t be generated when
there is incoming data from the ports.
delete
Delete any previously configured string.
edit
Edit any previously configured string.
To configure notifications:
The following example demonstrates configuring the ACS console server to send an email every
time the root user logs into a server connected to a serial port. The trigger string is configured as
root login. The server connected to the ACS console server must be properly configured to send
Syslog messages.
1.
Enable alarm notification, otherwise messages received through the serial ports are ignored.
cli> config administration notifications alarm yes
2.
Add a trigger string.
cli> config administration notifications addemail "root login"
3.
Configure the email notification parameters and SMTP server and port id.
add
add
add
add
add
add
4.
Email>body "Testing configuration"
Email>from ACSConsoleServer
Email>to someone@yourdomain.com
Email>smtpserver 200.200.200.2
Email>smtpport 25
Email>subject "Testing Config"
Activate and save your configuration.
Dual Power Management
The ACS console server comes with two power supplies which it may self-monitor. If either of
them fails, two actions are performed, sounding a buzzer and generating a syslog message. This
automanagement may be disabled (no actions are taken) or enabled (default), any time by issuing
the commands.
# signal_ras buzzer off
# signal_ras buzzer on
To disable the buzzer in boot time, edit the shell script /bin/ex_wdt_led.sh and remove the keyword
buzzer. The buzzer won’t sound if there is a power failure in any power supply. This parameter
does not affect the behavior of the command signal_ras buzzer on/off. To make this change
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93
effective even after future reboots, create a line with /bin/ex_wdt_led.sh in /etc/config_files, save
and quit the file and run saveconf.
NOTE: This section applies only to the dual power supply model of the ACS console server.
Date and Time, Timezone and Daylight Savings
To adjust the date and time, use the date command. Timezone is configured using the CLI utility or
WMI (see ACS Installation, Administration and User Guide for using the WMI to set time, date
and timezone information.)
NOTE: Setting the system timezone creates a new file called /etc/localtime, which erases /etc/TIMEZONE.
Daylight Savings Time (DST)
When the DST parameter is set to on, the ACS console server automatically adjusts its time
information to comply with the time shift appropriate to the target timezone. For states, countries or
regions that do not observe daylight savings time, the dst parameter must be set to off even if other
regions in the target timezone do observe the daylight savings time change.
In rare occurrences or under special circumstances, a region or country might require that a
customized daylight savings time be used. Such circumstances might require a temporary or
permanent change of date for the beginning and ending of daylight time, or a time offset greater or
less than the usual one hour. Following are the instructions for customizing the daylight savings
time parameters.
Enter the following command to set the date and time. For configuration parameters see Table 5.10.
cli> config administration date/time [parameter] <value>
Table 5.10: Date and Time Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
date
<mm/dd/yy>
time
<hh:mm:ss>
Enter the following command to set the timezone. For configuration parameters see Table 5.11.
cli> config administration timezone [parameter] <value>
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Table 5.11: Timezone Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Level1
Parameter
Level2
Value
Description
Custom
zonelabel
Timezone name
May be any custom name you choose (such as, “London,”
“ChicagoOffice,” or “Sydney”), or may be a numerical value.
acronym
Timezone acronym The abbreviated name for the zonelabel. For example “PST”
for “Pacific Standard Time.”
gmtoff
<hh:mm>
GMT Offset: This is the number of hours either ahead (+) or
behind (-) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in hours. For
example, PST, the offset is -8:00 hours.
dst
off|on
Daylight Savings Time (DST): Set to “on” for custom daylight
savings time settings to be active.
Standard
dstacronym DST acronym
The abbreviated name used to describe the timezone when
daylight savings time is in effect. For example, “PDT” for
Pacific Daylight Time.
dstsave
<hh:mm>
This is the amount of time that the clock moves forward or
back at the beginning and end of daylight savings time for the
target timezone.
dststartday
<mm/dd>
The day (mm/dd) that DST starts for the target timezone.
dststarttime <hh:mm>
The precise time of day (hh:mm) that DST starts for the
target timezone.
dstendday
<mm/dd>
The date (mm/dd) that DST ends for the target timezone.
dstendtime
<hh:mm>
The precise time of day (hh:mm) that DST ends for the
target timezone.
01h_east_GMT
.
.
.
14h_east_GMT
GMT
01h_west_GMT
.
.
.
12h_west_GMT
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The following are examples of configuring timezones.
cli> config administration timezone custom acronym PDT
cli> config runconfig
cli> config savetoflash
cli> config administration timezone standard 08h_west_GMT
cli> config runconfig
cli> config savetoflash
cli> config administration timezone custom dst on dstacronym PDT
dststartday 04/30 dstendday 09/30
cli> config runconfig
cli> config savetoflash
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
The ntpclient is a Network Time Protocol client for UNIX and Linux based systems. In order for
the ACS console server to work as an NTP client, the IP address of the NTP server must
be configured.
To configure an NTP server:
1.
Execute the followign command to configure the NTP server IP address.
cli> config administration ntp <NTP server IP address>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
NOTE: To deactivate the NTP service you need to configure date by issuing the following command.
cli> config administration date/time date <mm/dd/yyyy>
Session Sniffing
When multiple sessions are allowed for one serial port, the behavior of the ACS console server is
as follows.
•
The first user to connect to the port opens a common session.
•
From the second connection onwards, only admin users are allowed to connect to that port.
The ACS console server opens the following menu to these administrators, which is defined by
the parameter all.admin_users or sN.admin_users in the file pslave.conf.
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——————————————————————————————————————————————————————
* * * ttySN is being used by (<first_user_name>) !!!
*
1 - Initiate a regular session
2 - Initiate a sniff session
3 - Send messages to another user
4 - Kill session(s)
5 - Quit
Enter your option:
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————
If you select 1 - Initiate a regular session, the serial port is shared with the users that were
previously connected. You are able to read and write to the serial port.
If you select 2 - Initiate a sniff session, you may read everything that is sent or received through the
serial port, according to the parameter all.sniff_mode or sN.sniff_mode.
If you select 3 - Send messages to another user, the ACS console server sends your messages to all
the sessions, but not to the tty port. Everyone connected to that port sees all exchanges of
information as if they were physically in front of the console. These messages are formatted as,
[Message from user/PID] <<message text goes here>> by the ACS.
If you select 4 - Kill session(s), the ACS console server displays a list of PID/username pairs. You
are able to select a session by typing its PID, or all to kill all sessions. If you kill all the regular
sessions, a regular user session initiates automatically.
Select Option 5 - Quit to close the current session and the TCP connection.
NOTE: Typing all.escape_char or sN.escape_char from the sniff session or send message mode makes the
ACS console server to show the previous menu. The first regular sessions are not allowed to return to the menu.
If you kill all regular sessions using option 4, your session initiates as a regular session automatically.
To configure session sniffing:
1.
Execute the following command for one or multiple serial ports. Refer to Table 5.12 for
session sniffing parameters.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> multiuser
[parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Table 5.12: Session Sniffing parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
hotkey
<^(character)>
To configure the escape character. The selected
character must be preceded by the ‘^’ character. For
example, ^k.
notifyusers
yes|no
To configure multiuser notification.
multisessions
no | ro | rw | yes
To configure multiple sessions.
privilegeusers
<list of user names
separated by commas>
To determine which users may receive the sniff menu.
sniffmode
in | inout | no | urt
Determines what other users connected to the very
same port may see of the session of the first connected
user (main session). Valid values are: in - shows data
written to the port; out - shows data received from the
port; in/out - shows both streams; off - disables sniffing.
Data Buffering
Data buffering may be done in local files or in remote files through NFS. When using remote files,
the limitation is imposed by the remote server (disk/partition space) and the data is kept in linear
(sequential) files in the remote server. When using local files, the limitation is imposed by the size
of the available ramdisk. You may wish to have data buffering done in file, syslog or both. For
syslog, all.syslog_buffering and conf.DB_facility are the parameters to be dealt with, and syslogng.conf file should be set accordingly. Please see Syslog-ng on page 79 for the syslog-ng
configuration file. The data buffering parameters are configured in file all.data_buffering.
Conf.nfs_data_buffering is a remote network file system where data buffering is written to, instead
of the default directory /var/run/DB. When commented, it indicates local data buffering. The
directory tree to which the file is written must be NFS-mounted and the local path should point to/
mnt/DB_nfs. The remote host must have NFS installed and the administrator must create, export
and allow read/write privileges to the directory. The size of this file is not limited by the value of
the parameter s1.data_buffering, though the value cannot be zero since a zero value turns off
data buffering.
The conf.nfs_data_buffering parameter format is,
<server name or IP address>:<remote pathname>
For example, if data buffering is enabled for port 1, the data is stored in the file ttyS1.data in local
directory /var/run/DB or in remote server indicated by conf.nfs_data_buffering.
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Ramdisks
Data buffering files are created in the directory /var/run/DB. If the parameter s<nn>.alias is
configured for the port <nn>, this name is used. For example, if the alias is called fremont_server,
the data buffering file is named fremont_server.data.
Linear vs. Circular buffering
For local data buffering, this parameter allows users to buffer data in either a circular or linear
fashion. Circular format (cir) is a revolving buffer file that is overwritten whenever the limit of the
buffer size (set by all.data_buffering) is reached. In linear format (lin), data transmission between
the remote device and the serial port ceases once the 4k bytes Rx buffer in the kernel is reached.
Then if a session is established to the serial port, the data in the buffer is shown
(all.dont_show_DBmenu or sxx.dont_show_DBmenu must be 2), cleared and data transmission is
resumed. Linear buffering is impossible if flow control is set to none. Default is cir.
To configure data buffering:
1.
Execute the following command to configure data buffering. Refer to Table 5.13 for the
configuration parameters.
cli> config physicalports all databuffering [parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Table 5.13: Data Buffering Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
bufferonlynosession
no|yes
Buffer only when connected to the serial port.
buffersyslogonlynose
ssion
no|yes
Only syslog is buffered.
desttype
local | remote
Define the data buffering location.
filesize
<file size in bytes>
Defines the maximum size of the data buffer file. This
parameter must be greater than zero otherwise all
parameters relating to data buffering are disregarded.
mode
cir | lin
Choose between circular or linear data buffering.
nfspath
<pathname>
Define the NFS path.
showmenu
file | fileanderase | no |
noerase | yes
Control the DB menu options.
syslogserver
<n.n.n.n>
Defines the IP address of the Syslog server.
syslogsize
<record length in
bytes[40-255]>
Maximum size of syslog data buffer message.
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Table 5.13: Data Buffering Configuration Parameters (Continued)
Parameter
Value
Description
syslogfacility
local0 - local7
Defines the facility number for messages generated by the
ACS console server to be sent to the Syslog server.
timestamp
no|yes
Choose YES to enable timestamp and NO to disable it.
Menu Shell
This application allows you to customize a menu presented to users when they connect to the ACS
console server from a terminal. The menu may be configured to allow users to connect to different
servers on the local network.
When the menu shell is configured you may connect to the ACS console server using a serial
terminal. You may select a server to connect to from the list or exit the system.
Welcome!
1) Sun server
2) Dell server
3) Linux server
4) Quit
Option ==>
To configure and set up a Menu Shell:
1.
Assign the menu shell to users who require access using the options provided by the
menush_cfg utility.
Type menush_cfg and use the available options to define a menu title and menu commands.
------------------------------------------------MenuShell Configuration Utility
------------------------------------------------Please choose from one of the following options:
1. Define Menu Title
2. Add Menu Option
3. Delete Menu Option
4. List Current Menu Settings
5. Save Configuration to Flash
6. Quit
Option ==>
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2.
Choose Add Menu Option and complete the requested fields. The following question defines
the action that must be taken.
Enter the command for the new menu option:
3.
Select option 5 to save the configuration changes to Flash.
NOTE: Action may be telnet host_ip or ssh -l username host_ip where host_ip is the IP address of the
target server.
To assign ports to the menu shell:
1.
If no authentication is required to gain access to the menu, configure the following parameters
in /etc/portslave/pslave.conf for the ports that use this menu shell.
s<x>.protocol telnet
conf.telnet /bin/menush
s<x>.authtype none
Where <x> is the port number being configured.
2.
If authentication is required to gain access to the menu, the user’s default shell must be
modified to run the /bin/menush. In /etc/passwd the shell should be changed as per the
following example.
user:FrE6QU:505:505:Embedix User,,,:/home/user:/bin/menush
3.
In pslave.conf, the port where the serial terminal is attached must be configured for login with
local authentication.
s<x>.protocol login
s<x>.authtype local
Where <x> is the port number being configured.
4.
Activate and save the configuration changes.
# runconf
# saveconf
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To set up which servers the users may access:
1.
Enter the following command to set up a menu, which is prompted when you connect from a
dumb terminal. Refer to Table 5.14 for configuration parameters.
cli> config applications terminalmenu add [parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
Table 5.14: Terminal Profile Menu Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
menutitle
<string>
Type a description for the menu title bar.
actionname
<action name>
Enter n identification for the command. For example,
server name.
command
<string>
Enter a command such as telnet host_ip.
NOTE: You may open an SSH connection to the desired server. To do so, substitute telnet host_ip with ssh -l
username host_ip.
Terminal Appearance
You may change the banner appearance when a connection is made to a server. The banner
appearance may be port-specific or a unified banner for all ports.
To configure the terminal appearance:
1.
Enter the following command to configure a banner for one or multiple serial ports.
cli> config physicalports [all|range] other banner ““<login banner>””
NOTE: A banner string with spaces must be quoted with both single and double quotes ”’<string1 string2>’”.
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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SUDO Configuration Group
SUDO configuration group allows users belonging to the administrator (admin) group, by way of
commands from the shell command line, to configure the ACS console server’s features provided
by the WMI and CLI.
NOTE: As supplied, the ACS console server (version 2.6.1 and up) provides a user admin from the admin group
with the password cyclades. The username admin cannot be added or deleted from the WMI, or the CLI, so if a
user with the username admin belonging to the admin group is required, a shell script must be executed by user
root from the shell command line.
The sudoers configuration file has already been configured to allow execution and modification of
commands, utilities and configuration files by a user from the admin group.
The sudoers file, etc/sudoers may be edited by user root either to exclude or to include commands,
utilities and configuration files that are to be used with the sudo command by users from the
admin group.
NOTE: The sudoers file is not saved to Flash automatically. If you make changes to this file and wish to save the
changes, follow the standard procedure to save the config_files file.
For an admin group user to be allowed to execute commands from the shell prompt, the sudo
command must be used. Commands requiring root access privileges are executed by an admin user
with the following command.
$ sudo shell_command_|shell_utility|ACS_utility [other required
parameters]
If a user with username admin belonging to the admin group is required, the following shell script
must be executed by user root to configure it.
#addadmin
Saveconf and Restoreconf
The ACS console server has two utilities for saving and restoring the configuration.
Saveconf utility
The saveconf utility creates a file in the storage device to save the default and replace flags. The
filename is /mnt/ide/proc/flash/storageOptions and it may contain the words DEFAULT
or REPLACE.
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Syntax
# saveconf [media <media parameters>]
Table 5.15: Saveconf Utility and Storage Device Parameters
Media
Description
<none>
Save the configuration to internal Flash.
local <remote Path and filename>
Save the configuration to the local file.
ftp <remote Path and filename> <IP address of
the FTP server> <username> <password>
Save the configuration to a remote FTP server.
sd [default] [replace]
Save the configuration to a PCMCIA storage device
(Compact Flash or IDE).
Restoreconf utility
Syntax
# restoreconf [media <media parameters>]
Table 5.16: Restoreconf Utility and Storage Device Parameters
Media
Description
<none>
Read the configuration file from the PCMCIA storage
device and if the DEFAULT flag is set, use this file as the
configuration default and if the REPLACE flag is set, copy
this file to the internal Flash of the ACS console server. If
the DEFAULT flag is not set or there is no configuration file
in the PCMCIA storage device, read the configuration from
the internal Flash.
local <remote Path and filename>
Read the configuration from the local file.
ftp <remote Path and filename> <IP address of
the FTP server> <username> <password>
Read the configuration from a remote FTP server.
sd
Read the configuration from the PCMCIA storage device
(Compact Flash or IDE) and if the REPLACE flag is set,
copy the file to the internal Flash of the
ACS console server.
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Saving or restoring configuration files using CLI
Use the following commands to save or restore configuration files.
•
Save to Flash
cli> config savetoflash
•
Save to PCMCIA
cli> administration backupconfig saveto sd [default] [replace]
•
Load from PCMCIA
cli> administration backupconfig loadfrom sd [default] [replace]
•
Save to FTP server
cli> administration backupconfig saveto ftpserverip <n.n.n.n> pathname
<string> username <string> password <string>
•
Load from FTP server
cli> administration backupconfig loadfrom ftpserverip <n.n.n.n>
pathname <string> username <string> password <string>
Crond
Crond is a service provided by the ACS console server that allows automatic, periodically-run
custom-made scripts. It replaces the need to run commands manually.
The crond daemon configuration is divided in three parts.
•
/etc/crontab_files - The name of this file cannot be changed and it must point only to one file.
•
Source file - Holds information about frequency of cron jobs and the files that should be
executed. It may have any name, since it is pointed out by the /etc/crontab_files.
•
Script files - These are the script files that are scheduled and are pointed by the source file
explained previously.
The following parameters are created in the /etc/crontab_files file.
•
Status - Active or inactive. The script does not execute if inactive.
•
User - The process runs with the privileges of a valid local user.
•
Source - Pathname of the crontab file that specifies frequency of execution and the name of
shell script. It should be set using the traditional crontab file format.
Example: active root /etc/tst_cron.src
NOTE: In /etc/crontab_files, you may only have one active entry per user. For instance, from the earlier example,
you cannot add another active entry for “root” because it already has an entry. If you want to add more scripts,
you may just add them to the source file, for example: (/etc/tst_cron.src).
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The /etc/crontab_files file may point to any desired file that calls the scripts to be run. The ACS
console server has example file for it (/etc/tst_cron.src). The file that is pointed out in the /etc/
crontab_files file must follow the following structure.
PATH=/usr/bin:/bin
SHELL=/bin/sh
HOME=/
0-59 * * * * /etc/tst_cron.sh
This file is called /etc/tst_cron.src. It can have any name, but it follows structure showed
previously. The fourth line of the example file follows this structure: minutes, hours, month day,
month, week day and command. It is possible to specify different tasks to run on different dates and
times. Each command must be on separated lines. See Crontab syntax.
Crontab syntax
A crontab task consists of four date/time fields and a command field. Every minute cron checks all
crontabs for a match between the current date/time and their tasks. If there's a match, the command
is executed. The system crontab has an additional field User that tells cron with which user id the
command should be executed.
The fields are:
•
Min - minute of execution, 0-59
•
Hour - hour of execution, 0-23
•
Mday - day of month of execution, 1-31
•
Month - month of execution, 1-12 (or names)
•
Wday - day of week of execution, 0-7 (0 or 7 is sunday, or names)
•
Command - Anything that may be launched from the command line
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Clustering Using Ethernet Interface
Clustering allows cascading multiple ACS console servers so that one master may be used to access
all console servers on the network. The master ACS console server can manage up to 1024 serial
ports. There are no special connections required between the master and slave ACS console
servers, except they all need to be connected in the same physical network. Figure 5.1 displays an
example of clustering with one master and two slaves.
7303
RS-232
7302
7301
7035
RS-232
RS-232
RS-232
ALTERPATH
7034
7033
7003
RS-232
RS-232
RS-232
ALTERPATH
AlterPath
Advanced Console
Server
A C S
TM
7002
7001
RS-232
RS-232
ALTERPATH
AlterPath
Advanced Console
Server
A C S
TM
AlterPath
Advanced Console
Server
A C S
TM
LINUX
LINUX
LINUX
INSIDE
INSIDE
INSIDE
Cyclades ACS
Ethernet LAN
Cyclades ACS
Cyclades ACS
Advanced Console Server
Advanced Console Server
Advanced Console Server
Slave 2
Ethernet IP Address:
20.20.20.3
Slave 1
Ethernet IP Address:
20.20.20.2
Master
Ethernet IP Address:
20.20.20.3
Secondary IP:
209.81.55.110
Remote
Management
Workstation
Management
Workstation
IP Address:
20.20.20.10
Internet
Figure 5.1: An Example on Using the Clustering Feature
To configure clustering:
1.
Execute the following commands to configure slave ACS console servers. Refer to Table 5.17
for configuration parameters.
cli> config virtualports addslave <slave ip address>
cli> Slave [slave ip address]> [parameter] <value>
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
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Table 5.17: Clustering Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
numports
<list>
Set the total number of ports of the slave unit.
firstlocalportnum
<number[17-1024]> This parameter act as the numbering continuation in the slave. If
the master unit has 16-ports, the first port of the slave unit is the
first local port number, which in this case is port 17.
localip
<n.n.n.n>
To set the IP address of the slave.
firstlocaltcpport
<number>
This parameter act as the numbering continuation in the slave. If
the master unit has 16-ports, the TCP ports numbers are 70017016. In this case the first TCP port number for the slave unit
is 7017.
firstremotetcpport
<number>
The first TCP port number in the master unit. In this case is 7001.
protocol
ssh | telnet
Protocol used to access the ports.
Use the following command to test the configuration.
# telnet <ip address> <tcp port number>
Use the following commands to edit or delete a previously configured virtual port.
cli> config virtualports editslave <n.n.n.n>
cli> config virtualports deleteslave <n.n.n.n>
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109
CHA PTER
6
Power Management
Cyclades PM Intelligent Power Distribution Unit (IPDU)
The PM IPDU enables the administrators to remotely control and manage power to devices
attached to the ACS console server. Through a serial port, the administrator may use the PM IPDU
to control the power outlets of the attached devices.
When used in conjunction with ACS console server, the PM IPDU delivers management
capabilities that integrate the ACS console server and power management into a single interface.
The ACS console server may have multiple PM IPDU power management appliances connected to
appropriately configured serial ports. Devices may be plugged into outlets on the PM IPDU and
also connected to other serial ports on the ACS console server. In addition one or more outlets may
be configured for each port and controlled individually or simultaneously with other outlets in a
configured group. The ACS console server administrator may control all outlets or may assign
outlets to individual users or groups of users.
Figure 6.1 displays a typical setup for the PM IPDU and the ACS console server. The PM IPDU
serial console is connected to port YY of the ACS console server, the server's serial console is
connected to port XX of the ACS console server and the server's power plug is connected to power
outlet ZZ on the PM IPDU.
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TM
AlterPath
PM8
Cyclades PM8 IPDU
Outlet ZZ
SERIAL
SERIAL
POWER
Serial Port YY
Serial Port XX
ALTERPATH
AlterP
ath
Advanced Console Server
A C S
TM
LINUX
INSIDE
Cyclades ACS
Advanced Console Server
Managed Server
Figure 6.1: PM IPDU and ACS Console Server Integration
Power management protocol
The serial port(s) configured with the pm protocol allows you to connect and configure PM IPDU
using an enabled serial port.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> general protocol
pm
To configure power management:
1.
Configure a serial port with the pm protocol.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> general protocol
pm
2.
Configure the connection type SSH, Telnet or both for the users to connect to the PM IPDU.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> general
pmsessions <ssh | ssh_telnet | telnet>
3.
Configure the ACS console server serial port from which commands to the configured PM
IPDU port is issued.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx]> powermanagement
enable
enable> [parameter] <value>
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111
For example, a user connected to serial port 2 is allowed to control outlets 1 and 2 of a PM
IPDU connected to the serial port 1 of the ACS console server. This means that the server's
power cords are plugged into outlet 1 and 2 of the power strip connected to serial port 1. The
following example shows this configuration command procedures.
cli> config physicalports 2 powermanagement enable
enable> addoutlet pm 1 outlets 1,2
Table 6.1: PM IPDU Configuration Parameters
Parameter Level1 Parameter Level2
Value or Description
addoutlet
List of serial ports configured with the pm protocol.
List of outlet numbers separated by commas.
pm
outlets
deleteoutlet
Remove an outlet from the management list.
pmkey
<^(character)>
Define a hot key for using the PM IPDU menu. The format
is Ctrl (^) plus a character. The default is ^i.
pmusers
<'all' or list of users separated by commas>
4.
Configure user permission to access the PM IPDU. The following example allows users John
and Jack to run power management command on the PM IPDU connected to serial port 1.
enable> pmusers john,jack
5.
Define the hotkey used to open the PM IPDU menu.
enable> pmkey ^i
6.
Activate and save your configuration.
Power Management Utility
The power management utility may be used to manage power on servers plugged into one or more
outlets on the PM IPDU. The PM utility may be invoked using pm command as follows or
pmCommand on page 117.
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pm command
Enter the pm command at the shell prompt to open the power management menu. Table 6.2
describes the commands.
Table 6.2: Menu Options for pm Utility
Command
Description
1. Exit
Exits pm utility and return to the ACS console server’s shell.
2. Individual PM IPDU
Invokes a menu for monitoring and managing PM IPDU power
management appliances and controlling power to their
individual outlets.
See To manage devices plugged into a single outlet: on page 112
for more details.
3. Multi-outlet device
Invokes a menu for controlling power on groups of outlets
connected to servers or devices. These outlets may be on the
same or on different PM IPDU power management appliances.
See To manage devices plugged into multiple outlets: on
page 114 for more details.
4. Info
Displays an explanation for each option.
To manage devices plugged into a single outlet:
1.
Enter pm on the command prompt.
2.
Select option 2 for individual PM IPDU.
3.
Enter the serial port number that is configured for power management.
The power management menu is displayed. Table 6.3 provides an explanation for each
menu item.
Table 6.3: Power Management Individual PM IPDU Commands
Command
Description
Return
Exits and returns to the main power management menu.
Help
Provides a brief description of the commands.
Who Am I
Displays the current username.
On
Turns an outlet On. Prompts you to enter the outlet number.
Off
Turns an outlet Off. Prompts you to enter the outlet number.
Cycle
Turns an outlet Off and On again, recycles the power. The
system prompts you to enter an outlet number.
Lock
Locks an outlet in On or Off state to avoid accidental changes.
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Table 6.3: Power Management Individual PM IPDU Commands (Continued)
Command
Description
Unlock
Unlocks the selected outlets.
Status
Provides an overall status of the selected outlet.
Power Up Interval
Set the time interval (in seconds) that the system waits between
turning on the currently-selected outlet and the next outlet.
Name
Adds a name or an alias for an outlet.
Current
Displays the amount of current that is running through the
PM IPDU.
Temperature
Displays the temperature on the PM IPDU, if the PM IPDU unit is
equipped with a temperature sensor.
Version
Displays the software and hardware version of the PM IPDU.
Buzzer
Configures a buzzer to sound when a specified alarm threshold
has reached. Options are On to activate and Off to deactivate.
Current Protection
Activate or deactivate the current protection. This option is to
prevent the outlets from being turned on, if the current on the PM
IPDU exceeds the specified threshold.
Factory Default
Restores the factory defaults.
Reboot
Restarts the PM IPDU power management applicances in chain.
Restore
Restores the configuration saved in Flash.
Save
Saves the current configuration in Flash.
Syslog
Activates or deactivates the syslogging and alarm notifications.
Alarm
Selects a current value to set an alarm notification when the
current exceeds the selected threshold.
ID
Displays the PM IPDU identification name.
Current (Segment)
Displays the maximum recorded current for each segment or
rests all to zero.
Display
Adjusts the LED display mode of the PM IPDU.
4.
Depending on the command selected one of the following situations occur.
•
If the selected command applies to the PM IPDU, then the command is executed.
•
If the selected command applies to the outlets, then the following prompt appears.
Outlet name or outlet number(? for help, m for main menu):
5.
Enter one or more outlet numbers separated by commas or dashes, or enter “all.”
113
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To manage devices plugged into multiple outlets:
You may use the pm utility to simultaneously control multiple outlets that are configured on the
same serial port, regardless of whether the outlets are on the same PM IPDU. This option is
applicable to devices with multiple power supplies.
1.
Enter pm on the command prompt.
2.
Select option 3 for multi-outlet devices.
If you have configured multi-outlet devices, a menu with the a set of commands appears. Table
6.4 describes each command.
Table 6.4: Power Management Multi-Outlet PM IPDU Commands
Command
Description
Return
Go back to the main power management menu.
On
Powers on all the outlets belonging to a multi-outlet device.
Off
Powers off all the outlets belonging to a multi-outlet device.
Cycle
Turns the power outlets off and back on.
Lock
Locks all the outlets of the multi-outlet device so that no commands may be executed
except the unlock command.
Unlock
Unlocks all the outlets belonging to a multi-outlet device.
Status
Executes individual status commands on each of the outlets of a multi-outlet device
as shown in the following example.
These are the status for these outlets in the IPDU attached to ttyS3
Outlet Name Status
Users Interval (s)
1
Unlocked ON
0.50
4
Unlocked ON
0.50
5
Unlocked ON
0.50
Show
Shows which outlets in which PM IPDU chain belongs to the multi-outlet device as in
the following example.
alias: (null) port: ttyS4 outlets: 3.1 3.5 3.4
where, ttyS4 is the serial port that the device is connected to and 3.1, 3.5 and 3.4
indicate ports 1, 5 and 4 on an PM IPDU that is connected to port 3.
Info
Shows help information on each option.
NOTE: The multi-outlet device menu is inaccessible if there are nso devices configured with pmoutlet parameter
in /etc/portslave/pslave.conf. You need to configure the sxx.pmoutlet line in pslave.conf file.
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115
In the following example, the Sun Server is a multi-outlet device connected to outlet-7 of PM
IPDU-1 and outlet-2 of PM IPDU-2. The sequence of power up interval is 1.7 then 2.2.
s3.pmoutlet 1.7, 2.2
s3. alias
Sun Server
To manage multiple PM IPDU devices from the command line:
1.
Connect to the console port of ACS console server, or use Telnet or SSH to access the unit.
2.
Log in and enter the pm command. The power management menu is displayed.
3.
To control power on multi-outlet devices, select option 3. The power management utility is
displayed.
4.
Select an option and enter the corresponding number. The following prompt appears.
Please supply the serial port number or the alias for the multi-outlet
devices.
If in doubt, type ? followed by enter and a list of available devices
will be shown
5.
Enter the number or alias of the serial port to which the multi-outlet device is connected. The
command is executed.
To manage power through the ACS console server:
1.
From the ACS console server open a Telnet or SSH session to the serial port.
2.
Access the PM IPDU regular menu and enter the preconfigured hotkey.
a.
If you do not have permission to access an outlet, the following message appears.
It was impossible to start a Power Management Session
You can't access any Power Management functionality.
Please contact your Console Server Administrator.
b.
If you can access outlet(s) but have no access to outlet(s) of a specific server, the
following message appears.
You cannot manage the outlet(s) of this server.
Please enter the outlet(s) (or 'h' for help):
Enter the outlet(s) you want to manage. The main menu appears only if you have permission
for those outlet(s). Type h to display the help information, l causes the pm session to terminate
and return to the console.
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If you have permission to access the server outlet(s), the PM IPDU regular user menu appears
Table 6.5 describes the commands available through the regular user menu.
Table 6.5: PM IPDU Regular User Command Menu
Command
Description
Return
Exit and returns to the main power management menu.
Help
Provides a brief description of the commands.
Who Am I
Displays the current username.
On
Power On an outlet. Prompts you to enter the outlet number.
Off
Power Off an outlet. Prompts you to enter the outlet number.
Cycle
Recycles the power to an outlet. Prompts you to enter an
outlet number.
Lock
Locks an outlet in On or Off state to avoid accidental changes.
Unlock
Unlocks the selected outlets.
Status
Provides an overall status of the selected outlet.
Power Up Interval
Sets the time interval (in seconds) that the system waits between
turning on the currently-selected outlet and the next outlet.
Name
Adds a name or an alias for an outlet.
Current
Displays the amount of current that is running through the PM IPDU.
Temperature
Displays the temperature on the PM IPDU, if the PM IPDU unit is
equipped with a temperature sensor.
Version
Displays the software and hardware version of the PM IPDU.
3.
Check the status of the server's outlet(s) by entering option 9-Status.
4.
If the outlet(s) are locked you must unlock them first. Enter option 8-Unlock.
5.
The Cycle command powers off the outlet for a few seconds and powers it back on. Enter
option 6-Cycle.
To manage other outlets:
Perform the following procedures if you need to access other outlets.
1.
Enter option 9-Status to view the outlets you are authorized to manage.
2.
Select a command from the menu and then the outlet you are authorized to manage.
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117
Returning to the console session
You may terminate the pm session and return to the console using any of the following methods.
•
Enter the assigned hotkey at any time.
•
If the session is waiting for a command, select option 1-Exit.
•
If the session is waiting for the outlet, type 'l'.
pmCommand
Using pmCommand, the administrator has access to pm commands as well as the PM
IPDU commands.
Usage: pmCommand <serial port number> <command> <arguments>
<serial port number> is the port number configured as IPDU
<command> <arguments> are the PM commands and its arguments.
Table 6.6: pmCommands
Command
Description
exit
Terminates the pmCommand utility.
help
Type help <command> to get a brief description of a command.
menu
Starts the menu driven text interface(pm).
whoami
Displays the username currently logged in.
getname
Displays the server name.
on
Turns an outlet On. Prompts you to enter the outlet number.
off
Turns an outlet Off. Prompts you to enter the outlet number.
cycle
Turns an outlet Off and On again, recycles the power. The system prompts you to
enter an outlet number.
lock
Locks an outlet in On or Off state to avoid accidental changes.
unlock
Unlocks the selected outlets.
status
Provides an overall status of the selected outlet.
interval
Set the time interval (in seconds) that the system waits between turning on the
currently-selected outlet and the next outlet.
name
Add a name or an alias for an outlet.
current
Displays the amount of current that is running through the PM IPDU.
temperature
Displays the temperature on the PM IPDU, if the PM IPDU unit is equipped with a
temperature sensor.
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Table 6.6: pmCommands (Continued)
Command
Description
ver
Displays the software and hardware version of the PM IPDU.
buzzer
Configures a buzzer to sound when a specified alarm threshold has reached. Options
are On to activate and Off to deactivate.
currentprotection
Activate or deactivate the current protection. This option is to prevent the outlets from
being turned on, if the current on the PM IPDU exceeds the specified threshold.
factory_defaults
Restores the factory defaults.
reboot
Restarts the PM IPDUs in chain.
restore
Restores the configuration saved in Flash memory.
save
Saves the current configuration in Flash memory.
syslog
Activates or deactivates the syslogging and alarm notifications.
alarm
Selects a current value to set an alarm notification when the current exceeds the
selected threshold.
id
Displays the PM IPDU identification name.
currseg
Displays the maximum recorded current for each segment or rests all to zero.
display
Adjusts the LED display mode of the PM IPDU.
Following are some examples of pmCommand.
•
Cycling outlets
[PM IPDU]# cycle 4,5
•
Unlock outlets 1, 5 and 8
[PM IPDU]# unlock 1,5,8
•
Retrieving status of all outlets
[PM IPDU]# status all
To change the PM IPDU password:
1.
Edit the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file and change the connection protocol of the serial port
that the PM IPDU is connected to from ipdu to socket_ssh or socket_server.
s1.protocol socket_ssh
-ors1.protocol socket_server
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Chapter 6: Power Management
2.
119
Save the pslave.conf file and activate the new configuration by entering the
following command.
# runconf
3.
Access the PM IPDU console using the protocol you selected, indicating the port to which the
PM IPDU is connected.
# telnet <ACS console server ip address> [tcp port number]
4.
Log in to the PM IPDU console using the factory-default username/password admin/pm8.
5.
At the pm> prompt change the PM IPDU password using the passwd command.
6.
Save the new password by issuing the following command.
pm> save
7.
Close the connection to the PM IPDU console by entering the escape character “^].”
8.
Edit the /etc/pm.* config file and change the passwd parameter as follows.
admPasswd="<password you saved in PM IPDU>"
9.
Save the new pm.* file and activate the new configuration by entering the following command.
# saveconf
10. Change the connection protocol for the serial port back to ipdu protocol by editing the /etc/
portslave/pslave.conf file.
s1.protocol ipdu
11. Save the pslave.conf file and activate the new configuration.
# runconf
12. Restart the pmd process for the new configuration file to take effect. The pmd process is a
Linux daemon process to control the communication between ACS console server and
PM IPDU.
13. Execute the ps command to note the current pmd process.
[root@CAS root]# ps -fe|grep pmd
878 root
644 S
/bin/pmd
1108 root
552 S
grep pmd
14. Restart the pmd process by issuing the following command.
# daemon.sh restart PMD
15. Check to see if the process restarted. Note the process ID, which should be different from the
earlier executed ps command.
[root@CAS root]# ps -fe|grep pmd
1126 root
680 S
/bin/pmd
1130 root
552 S
grep pmd
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PM IPDU Firmware Upgrade
You may upgrade the firmware of a single or multiple daisy-chained PM IPDU power management
appliances connected to a serial port of the ACS console server.
To upgrade PM IPDU firmware:
1.
Download the new firmware from http://www.cyclades.com/support/, Avocent support web
site. It is recommended to download the new firmware to a /tmp directory since files in this
directory are deleted during the boot process.
CAUTION:It is possible that all outlets power down during the upgrade process. Make sure to shutdown all
connected devices before starting the firmware upgrade process.
2.
Execute pmfwupgrade application from the shell prompt. Table 6.7 describe the parameters.
# pmfwupgrade [-h] [-f] [-F] [-v] <serial port number>[:<unit number>]
<filename>
Table 6.7: pwfwupgrade Application Parameters
Parameter
Description
-h
Show the help message and exit.
-f
Upgrade the firmware without asking any questions.
-F
Upgrade the firmware without a logical connection with the PM IPDU. This
command should be used if there is a power failure during the
upgrade process.
-v
Show messages about the status of the upgrade.
<serial port number>
The serial port to which the PM IPDU is connected.
[:<unit number>]
The number of the PM IPDU when multiple units are daisy-chained. If the PM
IPDU number is not indicated, the firmware for all units in the daisy-chain
is upgraded.
<filename>
Complete path to the PM IPDU firmware file. The default is /tmp/pmfirmware.
NOTE: If the default password for PM IPDU has changed, it is necessary to edit the /etc/pm.cyclades file and
change the admPasswd parameter with the correct password.
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121
SNMP Proxy
The SNMP proxy for power management feature allows the ACS console server to proxy SNMP
requests to the PM IPDU. This allows SNMP clients to query and control the remote PM IPDU
using standard set and get commands.
The following parameters and features are controlled in the remote PM IPDU.
•
The number of PM IPDU units connected to the ACS console server.
•
The number of outlets connected to a serial port.
•
The number of PM IPDU units connected to a serial port in a daisy-chain configuration.
•
The instantaneous RMS current being drawn from each of the PM IPDU connected to a
serial port.
•
The software version of the PM IPDU connected to a serial port.
•
The temperature of the PM IPDU connected to a serial port.
•
The name of the outlet as configured in the PM IPDU.
•
The alias of the server that is configured for using the PM IPDU outlet.
•
The name of the ACS console server to which the PM IPDU is connected.
•
The status of the outlet:
. Power status : 0 (off), 1 (on), 3 (unknown)
. Lock state : 0 (unlock), 1 (lock), 2 (unknown)
SNMP proxy allows an administrator to control the PM IPDU outlets using SNMP set commands.
The following commands may be executed on each outlet.
•
ON
•
OFF
•
CYCLE
•
LOCK
NOTE: The ACS console server proxies all SNMP requests to the PM IPDU. Therefore, there is a small delay if
an outlet-cycling is requested by the snmpset command. To successfully cycle an outlet, a four second or higher
timeout must be specified. To run this command for more than one outlet or for units configured as daisy-chain,
this time should be recalculated.
To configure SNMP proxy:
The following example shows how to configure this feature.
1.
Get the ACS console server serial port number to which the PM IPDU is connected.
# snmpget -m all -v 2c -t 4 -c cyclades 10.10.0.1 .cyNumberOfPM
Enter
enterprises.cyclades.cyACSMgmt.cyPM.cyNumberOfPM.0 = 2
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2.
Get the number PM IPDU outlets connected to the serial port 16.
# snmpget -m all -v 2c -t 4 -c cyclades 10.10.0.1 .cyPMNumberOutlets.16
Enter
enterprises.cyclades.cyACSMgmt.cyPM.cyPMtable.cyPMEntry.cyPMNumberOutlets.16 = 8
3.
Get the number of PM IPDU units connected to serial port 14.
# snmpget -m all -v 2c -t 4 -c cyclades 10.10.0.1 .cyPMNumberUnits.14
Enter
enterprises.cyclades.cyACSMgmt.cyPM.cyPMtable.cyPMEntry.cyPMNumberUnits.14 = 2
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A P P EN D IC ES
Appendices
Appendix A: Additional Features and Applications
Windows 2003 server management
Emergency Management Services (EMS) is a new feature in the Windows 2003 Server that allows
out-of-band remote management and system recovery tasks. All Emergency Management Services
output is accessible using a terminal emulator connected to the server serial port. Besides the
normal character mode output sent to the serial console, Windows also sends xml tags. Those tags
may be captured and processed by the ACS console server so that the administrator may automate
the actions to be taken.
You may manage the server through the Special Administration Console (SAC), which is the
console when connected directly to the Windows Server through Telnet or SSH session.
Configuring Windows 2003 server management
To manage a Windows 2003 server it is necessary to enable the EMS service.
Syntax
bootcfg /ems [EDIT|OFF|ON] [/s [server] [/u [[domain\]user] /p
password [/baud baud_rate] [/port communications_port] /id line_number
Table 7.1: EMS Configuration Parameters and Switches
Parameter and Switches
Description
EDIT
Allows changes to port and baud rate settings by changing the redirect=COMx
setting in the [bootloader] section. The value of COMx is set to the value of
the /port.
OFF
Disables output to a remote server. Removes the /redirect switch from the
specified line_number and the redirect=comX setting from the
[boot loader] section.
ON
Enables remote output for the specified line_number. Adds a /redirect switch to
the specified line_number and a redirect=comX setting to the [boot loader]
section. The value of comX is set by the /port.
/ems
Enables the user to add or change the settings for redirection of the EMS
console to a remote server. By enabling EMS, you add a redirect=Port# line to
the [boot loader] section of the BOOT.INI file and a /redirect switch to the
specified operating system entry line. The EMS feature is enabled only
on servers.
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Table 7.1: EMS Configuration Parameters and Switches (Continued)
Parameter and Switches
Description
/baud_rate
Specifies the baud rate to be used for redirection. Do not use if remotely
administered output is being disabled. Valid values are: 9600, 19200, 38400,
57600, 115200.
/id line_number
Specifies the operating system entry line number in the [operating systems]
section of the Boot.ini file to which the operating system load options are
added. The first line after the [operating systems] section header is 1.
/p password
Specifies the password of the user account that is specified in /u.
/port communications_port
Specifies the COM port to be used for redirection. Do not use if remotely
administered output is being disabled.
BIOSSET get BIOS settings to determine port
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
/s server
Specifies the name or IP address of a remote server (do not use backslashes).
The default is the local server.
/u [[domain\]user]
Runs the command with the account permissions of the user specified by User
or Domain\User. The default is the permissions of the current logged on user
on the server issuing the command.
With the EMS service enabled in Windows, configure the ACS console server as console profile to
manage the Windows 2003 server. Windows sends xml tags in the following situations.
•
During Windows installation, it sends <channel-switch> with the setup logs.
•
During boot, it sends the <machine-info> information.
•
When switching channels, it sends the <channel-switch> information.
•
During system crash, it sends the <BP> to indicate BreakPoint.
The <machine-info> tag is emitted once by Windows Server during its system boot sequence. This
tag is also emitted as part of the <BP> tag. The following elements are included in <machineinfo> tag.
Table 7.2: Machine Info Tags
Element
Description
<guid>
It is the GUID that uniquely identifies the server platform. Normally,
this is an SMBIOS provided identification. If no such value is
available, all 0’s GUID string is used. See Example of sample
encoding on page 125.
<name>
Is the system name.
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125
Table 7.2: Machine Info Tags (Continued)
Element
Description
<os-build-number>
Is a numeric string that identifies a successive Windows Build.
<os-product>
Is the name of the Windows Server 2003 product currently running
on this server. It is one of the following.
• Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition
• Windows Server 2003 Embedded
• Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
• Windows Server 2003
<os-service-pack>
Is an alphanumeric string that identifies the most up-to-date service
pack installed. If none installed, the string is None.
<os-version>
Is the numeric identification of the Windows version
currently running.
<processor-architecture>
Is either x86 or IA64, designating the two processor architectures
currently supported by Windows Server 2003.
Example of sample encoding
<?xml>
<machine-info>
<name>NTHEAD-800I-1</name>
<guid>00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000</guid>
<processor-architecture>x86</processor-architecture>
<os-version>5.2</os-version>
<os-build-number>3735</os-build-number>
<os-product>Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition</osproduct>
<os-service-pack>None</os-service-pack>
</machine-info>
In the SAC command line, each time you enter the cmd command you create a channel. A channel
is the Command Prompt environment where you may enter the command prompt commands such
as dir, cd, edit, del or copy. You may switch back and forth between channel(s) and SAC by
pressing Esc or Tab keys. You may create up to nine channels (nine command prompt sessions.)
Whenever we switch channels, the <channel-switch> tag is sent.
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The following elements are included in the <channel-switch> tag.
Table 7.3: Elements in the <channel-switch> Tag
Element
Description
<application-type>
Is a hexadecimal GUID signifying the application or tool that is running on the
Windows Server platform and communicating via this active channel. It is to be
used to discern the different interaction modes. During the Windows GUI-mode
Setup phase, the following GUIDs identify the specific types of data
being emitted.
• Debug Log (5ED3BAC7-A2F9-4E45-9875-B259EA3F291F)
• Error Log (773D2759-19B8-4D6E-8045-26BF38402252)
• Action Log (D37C67BA-89E7-44BA-AE5A-112C6806B0DD)
During nominal Windows Server operations, the following GUIDs may
be expected.
• SAC (63D02270-8AA4-11D5-BCCF-806D6172696F)
• CMD (63D02271-8AA4-11D5-BCCF-00B0D014A2D0)
NOTE: These GUIDs are constant and should not be confused with those
provided through the <guid> tag.
<description>
Is the user-friendly name of the active channel. For the GUI-Mode Setup tool
they are,
• Debug Log (Setup tracing log)
• Error Log (Setup errors log)
• Action Log (Setup actions log)
For the Windows Server, they are,
• SAC (Special Administration Console)
• CMD (Command Prompt)
<guid>
Is a hexadecimal GUID that identifies a specific instance of a channel. During a
life-span of a Windows Server (between any two system boots), there is a total
of 10 channels being allocated, one of those may be a GUID for each of the
following channel types.
•
•
•
•
GUI-Mode Setup Debug Log
GUI-Mode Setup Error Log
GUI-Mode Setup Action Log
SAC
The remaining GUIDs are of the CMD channel type. For example, during
Windows setup, there are 3 GUIDs assigned to Setup, 1 to SAC and the
remaining 6 to CMD. However, during normal Windows operations, there is 1
GUID assigned to SAC and the remaining 9 to CMD.
These GUIDs are created a new for each instance of channels, and should not
be confused with the constant GUIDs provided via the <application-type> tag
listed previously.
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127
Table 7.3: Elements in the <channel-switch> Tag (Continued)
Element
Description
<name>
Is the system name of the active channel. For the GUI-mode Setup tool, they
are the filenames where the data is written.
• Debug Log (setuplog.txt)
• Error Log (setuperr.log)
• Action Log (setupact.log)
For Windows Server, they are,
• SAC (SAC)
• CMD (Cmdnnnn), where nnnn indicates the corresponding channel number
<type>
Is the type of data being emitted on the active channel. Currently, there are two
types of data supported.
•
•
Raw for the 3 GUI-Mode Setup channels
VT-UTF8 for the SAC and CMD channels
A sample encoding of the SAC channel tag follows.
<channel-switch>
<name>SAC</name>
<description>Special Administration Console</description>
<type>VT-UTF8</type>
<guid>1aee4cc0-cff3-11d6-9a3d-806e6f6e6963</guid>
<application-type>63d02270-8aa4-11d5-bccf-806d6172696f</application-type>
</channel-switch>
A sample encoding of the CMD channel tag follows.
<channel-switch>
<name>Cmd0001</name>
<description>Command Prompt</description>
<type>VT-UTF8</type>
<guid>970438d1-12bb-11d7-8a92-505054503030</guid>
<application-type>63d02271-8aa4-11d5-bccf-00b0d014a2d0</application-type>
</channel-switch>
A sample encoding of the GUI mode Setup Debug Log channel tag follows.
<channel-switch>
<name>setuplog.txt</name>
<description>Setup tracing log</description>
<type>Raw</type>
<guid>6f28e904-1298-11d7-b54e-806e6f6e6963</guid>
<application-type>5ed3bac7-a2f9-4e45-9875-b259ea3f291f</application-type>
</channel-switch>
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The <BP> tag is emitted when the Windows server system halts such that only elements of the
kernel are the most recently operating logic.
Table 7.4: <BP> Tags Description
Element
Description
<INSTANCE CLASSNAME=>
Is the type of break point. Currently, there is only one type emitted such as
Blue Screen which indicates the system was halted prematurely. It is
represented by the CLASSNAME=”BLUESCREEN” value.
<machine-info>
Described previously.
<PROPERTY NAME=>
Provides additional details, such as error code of the abnormal condition
that caused the break point.
A sample encoding of the Break Point tag follows.
<?xml>
<BP>
<INSTANCE CLASSNAME="BLUESCREEN">
<PROPERTY NAME="STOPCODE" TYPE="string"><VALUE>"0xE2"</
VALUE>
</PROPERTY>
<machine-info>
<name>NTHEAD-800I-1</name>
<guid>00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000</guid>
<processor-architecture>x86</processor-architecture>
<os-version>5.2</os-version>
<os-build-number>3735</os-build-number>
<os-product>Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition</osproduct>
<os-service-pack>None</os-service-pack>
</machine-info>
</INSTANCE>
</BP>
XML monitoring parameters in pslave.conf
Some parameters need to be configured in the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf to monitor XML data. For
instance, for ttyS1 configure the following parameter.
s1.xml_monitor
1
When the xml_monitor is set, cy_buffering searches for xml packets from the serial port. When a
complete xml packet is received, cy_buffering sends it to syslog-ng. In syslog-ng.conf, the
following filters are available to filter the xml messages.
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filter f_windows_bluescreen { facility(local<conf.DB_facility>) and
level(info)nd match("XML_MONITOR") and match("BLUESCREEN"); } ;
- and filter f_windows_boot { facility(local<conf.DB_facility>) and
level(info) and match("XML_MONITOR") and
not match("BLUESCREEN") and match("machine-info"); } ;
Once the desired message is filtered, define which actions we would like to take. Syslog-ng creates
macros that may give easy access for the administrators to access the xml information. If the
administrator uses these macros, syslog-ng replaces the macros by the data received in the xml
packet.
Table 7.5 shows the macros that are available when filter f_windows_bluescreen is successful, and
the examples of values that may replace the macros.
Table 7.5: f_windows_boot Macros
Macro
Description
Value to replace macro
$<INSTANCE
CLASSNAME=>
Reason for the break point. Currently there is BLUESCREEN
only one type, BLUESCREEN.
$<PROPERTY NAME=>
Additional details about break point.
STOPCODE
$<VALUE>
Additional details about break point.
0xE2
$<name>
Machine name.
MY_WIN_SERVER
$<guid>
GUID that uniquely identifies this server. If
no such value is available, all 0’s GUID
string is used.
4c4c4544-8e00-4410-804580c04f4c4c20
$<processor-architecture>
Processor architecture. It may be either x86
or IA64.
x86
$<os-version>
Windows version.
5.2
$<os-product>
Which Windows Server product. It may be
Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition,
Windows Server 2003 Embedded, Windows
Server 2003 Enterprise Edition or Windows
Server 2003.
Windows Server 2003
$<os-service-pack>
Alphanumeric string that identifies the most
up-to-date service pack installed. If none
installed, the string is None.
None
$<tty>
ACS console server serial port tty or
alias name.
S1.ttyS1
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For the f_windows_boot, the following macros are available.
Table 7.6: f_windows_boot Available Macros
Macro
Description
Value to replace macro
$<name>
Machine name
MY_WIN_SERVER
$<guid>
GUID that uniquely identifies this server. If
no such value is available, all 0’s GUID
string is used.
4c4c4544-8e00-4410-804580c04f4c4c20
$<processor-architecture>
Processor architecture. It may be either x86 x86
or IA64.
$<os-version>
Windows version.
5.2
$<os-build-number>
Numeric string that identifies a successive
Windows Build.
3763
$<os-product>
Which Windows Server product. It may be
Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition,
Windows Server 2003 Embedded,
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition or
Windows Server 2003.
Windows Server 2003
$<os-service-pack>
Alphanumeric string that identifies the most
up-to-date service pack installed. If none
installed, the string is None.
None
$<tty>
ACS console server serial port tty or
alias name.
S2.server_connected_to_serial2
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An example on how to use the macros
In the following example, the ACS console server sends an email to the administrator whenever a
crash happens. The email should have the information about the reason of the crash, machine name
and windows version information. The following entry should be created in syslog-ng.conf.
destination win2003mail { pipe("/dev/cyc_alarm"
template("sendmail -t administrator@cyclades.com -f acs -s
\"\
Server $<name> crashed\" -m \'\
Break Point: $<INSTANCE CLASSNAME=> $<PROPERTY NAME=>
$<VALUE>\
Server: $<name>\
OS: $<os-product>\
Build: $<os-build-number> Version: $<os-version>\
Service Pack: $<os-service-pack>\
Processor: $<processor-architecture>\
Server GUID: $<guid>\
ACS port: $<tty>\
\' -h mail.cyclades.com "));};
The following entry activates the win2003mail action when the f_windows_bluescreen filter
is successful.
source src { unix-stream("/dev/log"); };
log { source(src); filter(f_windows_bluescreen);
destination(win2003mail); };
Server commands
The following are the commands that may be sent to the server.
Table 7.7: Server Commands
Command Set
Description
ch
Channel management commands.
ch -ci <#>
Close a channel by its number.
cmd
Create a Command Prompt channel.
ch -si <#>
Switch to another channel (from Channel 0).
d
Dump the current kernel log.
f
Toggles the information output by the t-list command, which shows
processes only, or shows processes and threads.
i
List all IP network numbers and their IP addresses.
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Table 7.7: Server Commands (Continued)
Command Set
Description
i <#> <ip> <subnet>
<gateway>
Set network interface number, IP address, subnet and gateway.
id
Display the server identification information.
k <pid>
Kill the given process.
l <pid>
Lower the priority of a process to the lowest possible.
lock
Lock access to Command Prompt channels. You must provide valid logon
credentials to unlock a channel.
m <pid> <MB-allow>
Limit the memory usage of a process to <MB-allow>.
p
Causes t-list command output to pause after displaying one full screen
of information.
r <pid>
Raise the priority of a process by one.
s
Display the current time and date (24 hour clock used).
mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm
Set the current time and date (24 hour clock used).
t
Tlist.
crashdump
Crash the system. Crash dump must be enabled.
restart
Restart the system immediately.
shutdown
Shut down the system immediately.
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
IPMI is a service-level protocol and implementation that provides intelligent management to
servers. IPMI allows server control and monitoring by means of an always-on chip located on the
server's motherboard called the Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) that may respond to
IPMI commands out-of-band.
The Cyclades ACS advanced console server has an implementation of IPMI over LAN, which
allows the console server to control power on servers, and also to obtain sensor readings such as
CPU temperature or fan speed.
The IPMI support in the ACS console server, extends its functionality so the console server may be
used to control power to the serially connected servers through the IPMI protocol.
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IPMI configuration
This program lets you manage IPMI enabled devices locally remotely. These functions include
printing FRU information, LAN configuration, sensor readings and remote chassis power control.
IPMI [ipmitool]
Syntax
ipmitool [-hvV] -I interface -H hostname [-L privlvl] [-A authType] [P password] <expression>
Table 7.8: ipmitool Options
Option
Description
Valid Values
-h
Get basic usage help from the command line.
N/A
-v
Increase verbose output level. This option
may be specified multiple times to increase
the level of debug output.
N/A
-V
Display version information.
N/A
-I <interface>
Selects IPMI interface to use.
open | imb | lan | lanplus
-H <address>
Remote server address, may be IP address or
hostname. This option is required for the LAN
interface connection.
N/A
-U <username>
Remote username.
Default is NULL.
-L <privlvl>
Force session privilege level.
USER | OPERATOR | ADMIN.
Default is USER
-A <authtype>
Force session authentication type.
PASSWORD | MD5 | MD2
-P <password>
Remote server password.
Valid password for specified
username account.
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Expressions
Table 7.9: IPMI Commands
Expression
Description
raw
Send a RAW IPMI request and print response
i2c
Send an I2C Master Write-Read command and print response
lan
Configure LAN Channels
chassis
Get chassis status and set power state
event
Send pre-defined events to MC
mc
Management Controller status and global enables
sdr
Print Sensor Data Repository entries and readings
sensor
Print detailed sensor information
fru
Print built-in FRU and scan SDR for FRU locators
sel
Print System Event Log (SEL)
pef
Configure Platform Event Filtering (PEF)
sol
Configure IPMIv2.0 Serial-over-LAN
isol
Configure IPMIv1.5 Serial-over-LAN
user
Configure Management Controller users
channel
Configure Management Controller channels
session
Print session information
sunoem
OEM Commands for Sun servers
exec
Run list of commands from file
set
Set runtime variable for shell and exec
To configue IPMI:
1.
Enter the following command to enable IPMI or edit an existing configuration.
cli> config ipmi [add |edit|delete]
2.
Configure serial ports for power management and IPMI protocol. Refer to Table 7.10 for
configuration parameters.
cli> config physicalports <'all' or range/list[1-xx] powermanagement
[disableIPMI | enableIPMI] <key <^(character)>> <server <name>>
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Table 7.10: IPMI CLI Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
add
<alias>
Add and configure an IPMI device.
edit
<alias>
Edit the parameters of an IPMI enabled device.
delete
<alias>
Remove an IPMI device.
authtype
md2
md5
none
password
Add an authentication method.
password
<password>
Assign a password to access the device.
privilege
admin
operator
user
Assign a user access level.
serverip
<n.n.n.n>
IP address of the device.
username
<name>
Username to access the device.
key
<^(character)>
The hotkey used to access the IPMI.
NOTE: The default IPMI hotkey is ^I, where ^
stands for the Ctrl key on the keyboard. The
hexadecimal code for the Ctrl+I default IPMI
hotkey is the same as the keyboard’s Tab key.
You may choose to change the default using
this parameter.
server
<alias>
The name of the IPMI device.
3.
Activate and save your configuration.
135
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Line printer daemon
This feature implements the UNIX Line Printer Daemon (LPD) in the ACS console server and may
be used with local serial printers. It enables the ACS console server to receive network print
requests and service them using locally attached serial printers.
To configure the lpd:
1.
Setup the serial port where the serial printer is connected.
2.
Edit the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file and set the protocol of the serial port to lpd.
s2.protocol
3.
lpd
Create the printer definition. Edit the /etc/printcap file and configure the printer. The spool
directory is created automatically by cy_ras process.
Example
#comment
# primary printer name and alias
# lp |lp2| serial printer on port ttyS2
#suppress header and/or banner page
#:sh:
#spool directory - the name is fixed as lp_ttySnn when nn is
the
#serial port number
#:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp_ttyS2:
#printer device
#:lp=/dev/ttyS2:
#log filename
#:lf=/var/log/lpd.log:
#set serial port speed as 115.200 bps
#:br115200:
lp|lp2| serial printer on port ttyS2:\
:sh: \
:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp_ttyS2: \
:lp=/dev/ttyS2: \
:lf=/var/log/lpd.log:
4.
Enable the printer daemon file /etc/lpd.sh and change the option ENABLE to YES.
5.
Allow clients to use the service.
Edit the file /etc/hosts.lpd and include the host names that have permission to use the ACS
console server printers.
NOTE: The lpd needs to translate the IP address of the request message to the host name, check your
resolv.conf file.
6.
Restart the processes by executing the commands runconf and daemon.sh.
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7.
Execute saveconf command to save the configuration in Flash.
8.
Check the ACS console server configuration by entering the following command at
your workstation.
137
# lpr -P lp@<ACS IP address> <file that you want printer>
CAS port pool
CAS port pooling allows you to access a free serial port from a pool in addition to the original
feature where you could access a specific serial port. When you access a serial port through the
pool sniff session and multiple sessions, features are not available. This feature is available for
serial ports configured as CAS profile only.
You may define more than one pool of serial ports. Each serial port may only belong to one pool.
The pool is uniquely identified by a four parameter scheme.
•
protocol
•
pool_ipno
•
pool_alias
•
pool_socket_port
The three parameters pool_ipno, pool_alias and pool_socket_port have the same meaning as ipno,
alias and socket_port respectively. Ports that belong to the same pool must be configured with the
same value.
It is strongly recommended that you configure the same values in all parameters related to
authentication for all serial ports belonging to a pool. You may access the serial ports from a pool
with the same commands you use to access a specific serial port. You need to use pool_ipno,
pool_alias or pool_socket_port instead of ipno, alias or socket_port with an SSH or
Telnet command.
When a connection request arrives using one of pool_ipno, pool_alias, or pool_socket_port, the
ACS console server looks for the first free serial port from the pool and assigns it to the connection.
If there is no free serial port in the pool, the connection is dropped.
To configure port pooling:
Configuration is made in the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file. Don’t forget to activate and save the
configuration by issuing the commands runconf and saveconf respectively.
The following is an example of serial port pool configuration. In this example there are two pools.
•
pool-1 (identified by Protocol socket_server, TCP port #3000, IP 10.1.0.1 and alias pool-1)
•
pool-2 (identified by Protocol socket_ssh, TCP port #4000, IP 10.2.0.1 and alias pool-2)
The serial ports ttyS1 and ttyS2 belong to pool-1. The serial ports ttyS3 and ttyS4 belong to pool-2.
You may access serial port ttyS1 by using TCP port 7001, IP address 10.0.0.1 or alias serial-1. If
the ttyS1 is in use and if the user is not an admin user, then the connection is dropped.
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Alternately, you may access ttyS1 through the pool using TCP port 3000, IP 10.1.0.1 or alias pool1. If it is not free ttyS2 is automatically allocated. If ttyS2 is not free, then the connection
is dropped.
# Serial port pool: pool-1
#
s1.tty ttyS1
s1.protocol socket_server
s1.socket_port 7001 // TCP port # for specific allocation
s1.pool_socket_port 3000 // TCP port # for the pool
s1.ipno 10.0.0.1 // IP address for specific allocation
s1.pool_ipno 10.1.0.1 // IP address for the pool
s1.alias serial-1 // alias for specific allocation
s1.pool_alias pool-1 // alias for the pool
s2.tty ttyS2
s2.protocol socket_server
s2.socket_port 7002 // TCP port # for specific allocation
s2.pool_socket_port 3000 // TCP port # for the pool
s2.ipno 10.0.0.2 // IP address for specific allocation
s2.pool_ipno 10.1.0.1 // IP address for the pool
s2.alias serial-2 // alias for specific allocation
s2.pool_alias pool-1 // alias for the pool
#
# Serial port pool: pool-2
#
s3.tty ttyS3
s3.protocol socket_ssh
s3.socket_port 7003 // TCP port # for specific allocation
s3.pool_socket_port 4000 // TCP port # for the pool
s3.ipno 10.0.0.3 // IP address for specific allocation
s3.pool_ipno 10.2.0.1 // IP address for the pool
s3.alias serial-3 // alias for specific allocation
s3.pool_alias pool-2 // alias for the pool
s4.tty ttyS4
s4.protocol socket_ssh
s4.socket_port 7004 // TCP port # for specific allocation
s4.pool_socket_port 4000 // TCP port # for the pool
s4.ipno 10.0.0.4 // IP address for specific allocation
s4.pool_ipno 10.2.0.1 // IP address for the pool
s4.alias serial-4 // alias for specific allocation
s4.pool_alias pool-2 // alias for the pool
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Billing
The ACS console server family of products may be used as an intermediate buffer to collect serial
data (like billing tickets from a PBX), making them available for a posterior file transfer. Different
ports may have simultaneous billing sessions.
General feature description
The ACS console server reads the serial port and saves the information to Ramdisk files, which is
limited to the maximum number of records per file. After the files are closed, they are available for
transfer at /var/run/DB or an alternate path defined by the user in the pslave.conf file.
Once the cy_ras program detects the protocol as billing, it starts the billing application. The billing
application then opens the port (as configured in pslave.conf) and starts reading it. Records
terminated by billing_eor string are expected to be received. The ACS console server doesn’t
change the termination method, transferring the same sequence to the file. The name of the
temporary file used to write these records is,
cycXXXXX-YYMMDD.hhmmss.tmp
- where XXXXX is the “hostname” or “alias”
YYMMDD is the year/month/day
hhmmss is the hour:min:sec
This name helps the user archive and browse their directory as the file may be chronologically
listed, not based on its creation or modification times, but based on when its contents were
recorded. Also, whenever hostname is not significant, the user may use the alias name (s1.alias in
pslave.conf) to match their actual plant (like PABX-trunk9). The temporary file described
previously is closed and renamed to cycXXXXX-YYMMDD.hhmmss.txt and a new temporary file
is opened when,
•
the maximum number of records specified by billing_records is reached
•
the lifetime specified by billing_timeout finishes
If no record is received within a file lifetime period, no file is saved.
NOTE: A zero-value for billing_record stops the application and a zero-value for billing_timeout means no
timeout is desired. The file is closed after billing_records are received.
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To configure billing:
1.
Open the /etc/portslave/pslave.conf file and configure the following parameter according to
your application.
all.protocol - billing
2.
In the data buffering section of pslave.conf file configure the following parameters.
all.billing_records - 50
all.billing_timeout - 60 min
all.billing_eor - "\n"
NOTE: The values presented implement the billing feature for all ports of the product. If the configuration for a
specific port is required, all related parameters beginning with all must be changed to S.x, where x is the number
of the port to be configured.
Disk space issue
It is important to note that there is protection against disk space problems. If you configure flow
control to hardware for the serial port (all.flow = hard in the pslave.conf file), the application
monitors the available disk space and if it is less than 100 Kb, the serial interface deactivates RTS
signal on the RS-232. RTS is reactivated once the disk free space is greater than 120 Kb.
Billing wizard
This feature improves the billing application by using a script and automating the upload of the
billing records files from the ACS console server to a remote server using FTP or SSH.
config_billing.sh script
The config_billing.sh script is used to configure a serial port for billing protocol, and configure
upload scripts using FTP or SSH. The config_billing.sh script configures the files /etc/
billing_up.conf /etc/billing_crontab, and /etc/crontab_files.
Usage: config_billing.sh [X] [options]
X is the port number to be configured
[options]
-s speed
-d data size
-b stopbit
-p parity
-r billing records
-e billing EOR (this parameter must be on " ", like "\n")
-D billing dir
-S serverFarm
-tdate
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-Ttimeout
-i ip
-n netmask
-R route
-u upload
Any parameter that is not specified remains unchanged. The following parameters are configured
by default for billing.
sxx.authtype none
sxx.protocol billing
sxx.flow none
sxx.dcd 0
sxx.sniff_mode no
Select the -u option to execute the billing_upload_files.sh script. The script presents the following
sequential menu where the upload options may be configured.
# billing_upload_files.sh
Transfer Mode (ftp or scp)[ftp]:
Local Directory[/var/run/DB]:
Remote server IP [192.168.1.101]:
Remote directory [/var/billing]:
User [billing]:
Password [billing]:
Upload Interval in minutes []:
NOTE: Instead of running the -u option, the /etc/billing_up.conf may be configured manually to change the
parameters. If the parameters remain unchanged, the default parameters are uploaded.
NOTE: If the scp transfer mode is selected and there is no defined authentication, the script generates a key and
uploads to the server. The key must be stored on the server with the appropriate configuration.
Execute saveconf and restart the ACS console server to activate the options related to
billing upload.
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Appendix B: Upgrades and Troubleshooting
Upgrades
Below are the six files added to the standard Linux files in the /mnt/flash directory when an
upgrade is needed.
•
boot_alt - alternate boot code
•
boot_conf - active boot code
•
boot_ori - original boot code
•
config.tgz - ACS console server configuration information
•
zImage - Linux kernel image
To upgrade the ACS console server:
1.
Log in to the ACS console server as root.
2.
Go to /mnt/flash.
3.
FTP to the host where the new firmware is located.
4.
Log in to the FTP server and go to the directory where the firmware is located.
# ftp
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
ftp>
open server
user admin
Password: adminpw
cd /tftpboot
bin
get zImage.134 zImage
quit
NOTE: The destination filename in the /mnt/flash directory must be zImage. Example (hostname = server;
directory = /tftpboot; username= admin; password = adminpw; firmware filename on that server = zImage.134).
NOTE: Due to space limitations, the new zImage file may not be downloaded with a different name, then
renamed. The ACS console server searches for a file named zImage when booting and there is no room in Flash
for two zImage files.
5.
To make sure the downloaded file is not corrupted and to verify the zImage saved in Flash run
the following command.
md5sum /mnt/flash/zImage
The system responds with a message similar to the following.
5bcc7d9b3c61502b5c9269cbecd20317
6.
/mnt/flash/zImage
Check the system’s response against the .md5 zImage text file on the tftp server.
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143
For example, the zImage zvmppccs.1005_qa.acs-k26.md5 text file contains the
following information.
5bcc7d9b3c61502b5c9269cbecd20317 /tftpboot/zvmppccs.1005_qa.acs-k26
7.
If the alphanuemeric string matches the downloaded file, execute the reboot command.
8.
After reboot, the ACS console server is updated with the new firmware. Confirm by issuing the
following command.
# cat /proc/version
Troubleshooting
To restore system due to Flash memory loss:
If the contents of Flash memory are lost after an upgrade, follow the instructions below to restore
your system.
1.
Recycle the power on your ACS console server.
2.
Using the console, wait for the self test messages.
3.
If you get no boot messages, verify that you have the correct setting, otherwise press s
immediately after powering ON to skip an alternate boot code.
ACS console server boots using its original boot code.
4.
During the self test, press Esc after the Ethernet test.
Testing Ethernet .........................
5.
When the Watch Dog Timer prompt appears, press Enter.
Watchdog timer ((A)ctive or (I)nactive) [I] :
6.
Choose the option Network Boot when asked.
Firmware boot from ((F)lash or (N)etwork) [N] :
7.
Select the TFTP option instead of BootP. The host must be running TFTPD and the new
zImage file must be located in the proper directory. For example, /tftpboot for Linux.
Boot type ((B)ootp,(T)ftp or Bot(H)) [H] :
8.
Enter the filename of the zImage file on the host.
Boot File Name [zvmppccs.1004_qa.acs-k26] :
9.
Enter the IP address of the Ethernet interface.
IP address assigned to Ethernet interface [192.168.48.11] :
10. Enter the IP address of the host where the new zImage file is located.
Server's IP address [192.168.49.127] :
11. Accept the default MAC address by pressing Enter.
MAC address assigned to Ethernet [00:60:2E:01:6B:61] :
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12. When the “Fast Ethernet” prompt appears, press Enter.
Fast Ethernet ((A)uto Neg, 100 (B)tH, 100 Bt(F), 10 B(t)F, 10 Bt(H))
[A] :
The ACS console server should begin to boot off the network and the new image is downloaded. At
this point, follow the upgrade process to save the new zImage file into Flash again.
NOTE: Possible causes for the loss of Flash memory may include downloaded wrong zImage file, downloaded
as ASCII instead of binary or problems with Flash memory.
If the ACS console server booted properly, the interfaces may be verified using ifconfig and ping.
If ping does not work, check the routing table using the command route.
The file /etc/config_files contains a list of files that are affected by saveconf and restoreconf
commands. At the command prompt issue the command cat /etc/config_files to see the list of files
that are available in the Flash and are loaded into the Ramdisk at the boot time.
NOTE: If any of the files listed in /etc/config_files are modified, the ACS console server administrator must
execute the command saveconf before rebooting the ACS console server or the changes are lost. If a file is
created (or a filename altered), its name must be added to this file before executing saveconf and rebooting. This
speeds up the resolution of most problems.
Setting the maximum number of bytes received by the interface
You can avoid CPU overload by setting a limit to the rate of bytes received. The bootconf utility
offers a way of setting this limit. The default is set to 0, which disables the function. For optimum
performance set the value to 50000.
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145
To set a limit of bytes received by the interface per second:
1.
Run bootconf.
Current configuration
MAC address assigned to Ethernet [00:60:2e:00:16:b9]
IP address assigned to Ethernet interface
[192.168.160.10]
Watchdog timer ((A)ctive or (I)nactive) [A]
Firmware boot from ((F)lash or (N)etwork) [F]
Boot type ((B)ootp,(T)ftp or Bot(H)) [T]
Boot File Name [zvmppcts.bin]
Server's IP address [192.168.160.1]
Console speed [9600]
(P)erform or (S)kip Flash test [P]
(S)kip, (Q)uick or (F)ull RAM test [F]
Fast Ethernet ((A)uto Neg, (1)00 BtH, 100 Bt(F), 10
B(t)F, 10 Bt(H)) [A]
Fast Ethernet Maximum Interrupt Events [0]
Maximum rate of incoming bytes per second [0]
2.
Press Enter for all fields but the Maximum rate of incoming bytes per second field.
3.
Type the maximum amount of bytes that may be received by the interface per second. A value
of zero disables the feature. Enter a value of 50000 for optimum performance.
NOTE: Using larger values does not harm your system but makes it more sensible to storms. Using smaller
values may enforce this feature to be triggered by the normal traffic.
4.
Save your changes to Flash.
Do you confirm these changes in flash ( (Y)es, (N)o (Q)uit ) [N] :
LEDs
CPU LEDs
Normally the CPU status LED should blink consistently one second on, one second off. If this is
not the case, an error has been detected during the boot. The blink pattern may be interpreted via
the following table.
Table 7.11: CPU LED Code Interpretation
Event
CPU LED Morse code
Normal Operation
S (short, short, short . . . )
Flash Memory Error - Code
L (long, long, long . . . )
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Table 7.11: CPU LED Code Interpretation (Continued)
Event
CPU LED Morse code
Flash Memory Error - Configuration
S, L
Ethernet Error
S, S, L
No Interface Card Detected
S, S, S, L
Network Boot Error
S, S, S, S, L
Real-Time Clock Error
S, S, S, S, S, L
NOTE: The Ethernet error mentioned in the previous table occurs automatically if the Fast Ethernet link is not
connected to an external hub during the boot. If the Fast Ethernet is not being used or is connected later, this
error may be ignored.
Rear panel LEDs
The ACS console server rear panel has serial, console and ethernet connectors with LEDs that have
the following functionality.
Ethernet connector
•
Col (collision) - Shows collision on the LAN every time the unit tries to transmit an
Ethernet packet.
•
DT/LK (data transaction/link state) - DT flashes when there is data transmitted to or received
from the LAN. It is hardware-controlled. LK keeps steady if the LAN is active. The green LED
is Data Transaction activity and the yellow LED is LinK state.
•
100 - If 100BT is detected the LED lights on. If 10BT is detected it turns off.
Console connector
•
CP - CPU activity. It flashes at roughly 1 second intervals.
•
P1 - Power supply #1 ON.
•
P2 - Power supply #2 ON.
Serial connector
•
LK - DTR. It's software-controlled.
•
DT - Data transmitted to or received from the serial line. It's hardware-controlled.
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147
Boot configuration
To configure boot parameters:
1.
Use the following command to configure the boot parameters of the ACS console server. Refer
to Table 7.12 for the description of parameters.
cli> config administration bootconfig [parameter] <value>
Table 7.12: CLI Boot Configuration Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
boottype
bootp | both | tftp
To set the network boot type.
bootunit
network
To set from where the unit boots.
consolespeed 115200 | 19200 | 38400 | 4800 | 57600 | 9600 To configure the console speed.
ethernetip
ethernetip | ethernetmode
Assign a temporary IP address to the
Ethernet interface.
ethernetmode 100F | 100H | 10F | 10H | auto
To set an Ethernet mode.
filename
<filename>
Add a filename of the image on the tftp server.
flashtest
full | skip
Enable or disable the Flash test.
maxevents
<number>
Set maximum number of Ethernet events
handled at once.
ramtest
full | quick | skip
Select a type of ram test.
tftpserver
<n.n.n.n>
Set the IP address of the tftpserver.
wdt
off | on
Enable or disable watch dog timer.
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
CLI administration parameters
The administration section of the CLI interface is divided into three parts.
•
Session management
•
Backup configuration
•
Firmware upgrade
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Session Management
cli> administration sessions [parameter] <value>
Table 7.13: CLI Session Management Parameters
Parameter
Value
Description
Kill
<Serial Port
Number[1-1024]>
To cancel a connection to the serial port <n>
LIst
Lists the current sessions
Backup configuration
Save or restore configuration to an FTP server
cli> administration backupconfig [parameter] <value>
Table 7.14: Backup Configuration Parameters
Parameter Level1
Parameter Level2
Parameter Level3
Value
loadfrom
ftp
username
password
serverip
pathname
<username>
<password>
<serverip>
<pathname>
sd
default
replace
<config filename>
<config filename>
ftp
username
password
serverip
pathname
<username>
<password>
<serverip>
<pathname>
sd
default
replace
<config filename>
<config filename>
saveto
In the following example, the command loads a configuration from a server with IP address
192.168.0.1, username john, password john1234 and the configuration file located at /home/
configuration.
backupconfig> loadfrom serverip 192.168.0.1 pathname /home/
configuration username john password john1234
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Firmware upgrade
To upgrade the firmware on the ACS console server:
1.
Enter the following command at the CLI prompt.
cli> administration upgradefw ftpsite <n.n.n.n> username <name>
password <password> filepathname <path> checksum <yes|no>
As an example, the following parameters are used to show the command usage.
FTP Server: 192.168.100.111
Path: /images/zImage
User: john
Password: john1234
cli> administration upgradefw ftpsite 192.168.100.111 username john
password john1234 filepathname /images/zImage checksum no
2.
Activate and save your configuration.
3.
Close the CLI session and reboot the ACS console server.
cli> quit
#reboot
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Appendix C: Linux File Structure
The Linux file system is organized hierarchically, with the root directory represented by the
forward slash (/) symbol. All folders and files are nested within each other below this base
directory. Table 7.15 displays the Linux directory structure.
Table 7.15: Linux Directory Structure
Path
Description
/home
Contains the working directories of the users.
/bin
Contains applications and utilities used during system initialization.
/dev
Contains files for devices and ports.
/etc
Contains configuration files specific to the operating system.
/lib
Contains shared libraries.
/proc
Contains process information.
/mnt
Contains information about mounted disks.
/opt
Location where packages that are not supplied with the operating system are stored.
/tmp
Location where temporary files are stored.
/usr
Contains most of the operating system files.
Basic Linux commands
Table 7.16 describe the basic Linux commands for file manipulation or changing directory
and contents.
Table 7.16: File Manipulation Commands
Command
Description
cp file_name destination
Copies the file indicated by file_name to the path
indicated by destination.
•
cp text.txt /tmp
•
•
cp /chap/robo.php ./excess.php
•
Copies the file text.txt in the current directory to the
tmp directory.
Copies the file robo.php in the chap directory to the
current directory and renames the copy excess.php.
rm file_name
Removes the file indicated by file_name.
mv file_name destination
Moves the file indicated by file_name to the path
indicated by destination.
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Appendices
Table 7.16: File Manipulation Commands (Continued)
mkdir directory_name
Creates a directory named directory_name.
•
mkdir spot
•
Creates the directory spot in the current directory.
•
mkdir /tmp/snuggles
•
Creates the directory snuggles in the directory tmp.
rmdir directory_name
Removes the directory indicated by directory_name.
pwd
Supplies the name of the current directory. While logged
in, the user is always “in” a directory. The default initial
directory is the user's home directory
/home/<username>
ls [options] directory_name
Lists the files and directories within directory_name.
Some useful options are -l for more detailed output and a which shows hidden system files.
cd directory_name
Changes the directory to the one specified.
cat file_name
Prints the contents of file_name to the screen.
one dot(.)
Represents the current directory.
two dots (..)
Represents one directory above the current directory.
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Appendix D: The vi Editor
To edit a file using the vi editor:
#vi file_name
The vi editor is a three-state line editor with command, line and editing modes. If in doubt as to
which mode you are in, press the Esc key, which brings you to the command mode.
Table 7.17: vi Modes
Mode
Purpose
How to execute
Command mode
To navigate within an open file.
Press the Esc key.
Editing mode
To edit text.
See Table 7.18 and Table 7.19 for a list
of editing commands.
Line mode
To open, save and do other file
manipulations.
From the command mode, type colon (:)
Use the following keys to navigate to a part of the file you need to edit.
Table 7.18: vi Navigation Commands
Command
Description
h
Moves the cursor to the left (left arrow).
j
Moves the cursor to the next line (down arrow).
k
Moves the cursor to the previous line (up arrow).
l
Moves the cursor to the right (right arrow).
Use the following commands to modify the text. Commands -i and -o enforce an edit mode. Press
Esc to return to the command mode.
Table 7.19: vi File Modification Commands
Command
Description
i
Inserts text before the cursor position (everything to the right of the cursor is shifted right).
o
Creates a new line below the current line and insert text (all lines are shifted down).
dd
Removes the entire current line.
x
Deletes the letter at the cursor position.
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153
Once you have completed your file modification, enter the line mode by typing colon (:) and one of
the following commands.
Table 7.20: vi Line Mode Commands
Command
Description
w
Saves the file (w is for write).
wq
Saves and closes the file (q is for quit).
q!
Closes the file without saving.
w file
Saves the file with the name <file>.
e file
Opens the file named <file>.
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Appendix E: Technical Support
Our Technical Support staff is ready to assist you with any installation or operating problems you
encounter with your Avocent product. If an issue should develop, follow the steps below for the
fastest possible service:
1.
Check the pertinent section of the manual to see if the issue can be resolved by following the
procedures outlined.
2.
Check our web site at www.avocent.com/support to search the knowledge base or use the
online service request.
3.
3. Call Avocent Technical Support for assistance at (888) 793-8763. Visit the Avocent web site
at http://www.avocent.com/support and click on Support Phone Numbers for current phone
support hours.
FCC Warning Statement
The Cyclades ACS advanced console server has been tested and found to comply with the limits for Class A
digital devices, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment.
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the Installation and Service Manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user is
required to correct the problem at his or her own expense.
Notice about FCC Compliance for All Cyclades ACS Advanced Console Server Models
To comply with FCC standards, the Cyclades ACS advanced console server requires the use of a shielded
CAT5 cable for the Ethernet interface. Notice that this cable is not supplied with either of the products and must
be provided by the customer.
Canadian DOC Notice
The Cyclades ACS advanced console server does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
L’Cyclades ACS advanced console server n’émete pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites
applicables aux appareils numériques de la classe A prescrites dans le règlement sur le brouillage
radioélectrique edicté par le Ministère des Communications du Canada.
Cyclades® ACS
Command Reference Guide
For Technical Support:
www.avocent.com/support
Avocent Corporation
4991 Corporate Drive
Huntsville, Alabama 35805-6201 USA
Tel: +1 256 430 4000
Fax: +1 256 430 4031
Avocent International Ltd.
Avocent House, Shannon Free Zone
Shannon, County Clare, Ireland
Tel: +353 61 715 292
Fax: +353 61 471 871
Avocent Asia Pacific
Singapore Branch Office
100 Tras Street, #15-01
Amara Corporate Tower
Singapore 079027
Tel: +656 227 3773
Fax: +656 223 9155
Avocent Germany
Gottlieb-Daimler-Straße 2-4
D-33803 Steinhagen
Germany
Tel: +49 5204 9134 0
Fax: +49 5204 9134 99
Avocent Canada
20 Mural Street, Unit 5
Richmond Hill, Ontario
L4B 1K3 Canada
Tel: +1 877 992 9239
Fax: +1 877 524 2985
590-664-501A
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