ZyXEL Communications ADSL VoIP IAD with 802.11g Wireless 2602HW Series User`s guide

Prestige 2602HW Series
ADSL VoIP IAD with 802.11g Wireless
User’s Guide
Version 3.40
1/2005
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Copyright
3
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) Interference
Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver
is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Notice 1
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
Certifications
Go to www.zyxel.com
1 Select your product from the drop-down list box on the ZyXEL home page to go to that
product's page.
2 Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
4
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Safety Warnings
For your safety, be sure to read and follow all warning notices and instructions.
• To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger
telecommunication line cord.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel can
service the device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• Use ONLY the dedicated power supply for your device. Connect the power cord or
power adaptor to the right supply voltage (110V AC in North America or 230V AC in
Europe).
• Do NOT use the device if the power supply is damaged as it might cause electrocution.
• If the power supply is damaged, remove it from the power outlet.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power supply. Contact your local vendor to order a new
power supply.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power cord and do NOT locate the product where
anyone can walk on the power cord.
• If you wall mount your device, make sure that no electrical, gas or water pipes will be
damaged.
• Do NOT install nor use your device during a thunderstorm. There may be a remote risk of
electric shock from lightning.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Safety Warnings
5
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects
in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During
the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure
due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the
defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever
extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent
product of equal value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not
apply if the product is modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or
subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the
purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any
implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind of character to the
purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return
Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is
recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of
purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of
ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products
will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty
gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to
country.
6
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Customer Support
Please have the following information ready when you contact customer support.
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
METHOD
SUPPORT E-MAIL
TELEPHONEA
WEB SITE
LOCATION
SALES E-MAIL
FAX
FTP SITE
support@zyxel.com.tw +886-3-578-3942
WORLDWIDE
NORTH
AMERICA
GERMANY
DENMARK
NORWAY
SWEDEN
FINLAND
a.
www.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications Corp.
www.europe.zyxel.com 6 Innovation Road II
Science Park
ftp.zyxel.com
Hsinchu 300
ftp.europe.zyxel.com
Taiwan
sales@zyxel.com.tw
+886-3-578-2439
support@zyxel.com
+1-800-255-4101
+1-714-632-0882
www.us.zyxel.com
sales@zyxel.com
+1-714-632-0858
ftp.us.zyxel.com
support@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-0
www.zyxel.de
sales@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-99
ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH.
Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146
Wuerselen
Germany
info@zyxel.fr
+33 (0)4 72 52 97 97
www.zyxel.fr
ZyXEL France
1 rue des Vergers
Bat. 1 / C
69760 Limonest
France
www.zyxel.es
ZyXEL Communications
Alejandro Villegas 33
1º, 28043 Madrid
Spain
www.zyxel.dk
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Columbusvej 5
2860 Soeborg
Denmark
www.zyxel.no
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Nils Hansens vei 13
0667 Oslo
Norway
www.zyxel.se
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg
Sweden
www.zyxel.fi
ZyXEL Communications Oy
Malminkaari 10
00700 Helsinki
Finland
+33 (0)4 72 52 19 20
FRANCE
SPAIN
REGULAR MAIL
support@zyxel.es
+34 902 195 420
sales@zyxel.es
+34 913 005 345
support@zyxel.dk
+45 39 55 07 00
sales@zyxel.dk
+45 39 55 07 07
support@zyxel.no
+47 22 80 61 80
sales@zyxel.no
+47 22 80 61 81
support@zyxel.se
+46 31 744 7700
sales@zyxel.se
+46 31 744 7701
support@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780-8411
sales@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780 8448
ZyXEL Communications Inc.
1130 N. Miller St.
Anaheim
CA 92806-2001
U.S.A.
“+” is the (prefix) number you enter to make an international telephone call.
Customer Support
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
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Customer Support
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Copyright .................................................................................................................. 3
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement ............... 4
Safety Warnings ....................................................................................................... 5
ZyXEL Limited Warranty.......................................................................................... 6
Customer Support.................................................................................................... 7
Table of Contents ..................................................................................................... 9
List of Figures ........................................................................................................ 27
List of Tables .......................................................................................................... 35
Preface .................................................................................................................... 41
Introduction to DSL................................................................................................ 43
Chapter 1
Getting To Know Your Prestige............................................................................. 45
1.1 Introducing the Prestige .....................................................................................45
1.2 Prestige 2602HW-L with Lifeline ........................................................................46
1.3 Features of the Prestige .....................................................................................46
1.4 Applications for the Prestige ..............................................................................53
1.4.1 Internet Access .........................................................................................53
1.4.2 Making Calls via Internet Telephony Service Provider ..............................54
1.4.3 Firewall for Secure Broadband Internet Access .......................................55
1.4.4 LAN to LAN Application ............................................................................55
1.5 Prestige Hardware Installation and Connection .................................................56
Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator........................................................................ 57
2.1 Web Configurator Overview ...............................................................................57
2.1.1 Accessing the Prestige Web Configurator ................................................57
2.1.2 Resetting the Prestige ..............................................................................58
2.1.2.1 Using The Reset Button ..................................................................58
2.1.3 Navigating the Prestige Web Configurator ...............................................58
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Chapter 3
Wizard Setup .......................................................................................................... 63
3.1 Wizard Setup Introduction ..................................................................................63
3.1.1 Encapsulation ...........................................................................................63
3.1.1.1 ENET ENCAP .................................................................................63
3.1.1.2 PPP over Ethernet ..........................................................................63
3.1.1.3 PPPoA .............................................................................................63
3.1.1.4 RFC 1483 ........................................................................................64
3.1.2 Multiplexing ...............................................................................................64
3.1.2.1 VC-based Multiplexing ....................................................................64
3.1.2.2 LLC-based Multiplexing ...................................................................64
3.1.3 VPI and VCI ..............................................................................................64
3.1.4 Internet Access Wizard Setup: First Screen .............................................64
3.2 IP Address and Subnet Mask .............................................................................65
3.2.1 IP Address Assignment ............................................................................66
3.2.1.1 IP Assignment with PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation .....................66
3.2.1.2 IP Assignment with RFC 1483 Encapsulation .................................66
3.2.1.3 IP Assignment with ENET ENCAP Encapsulation ..........................66
3.2.1.4 Private IP Addresses .......................................................................67
3.2.2 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP) ....................................................................67
3.2.3 NAT ...........................................................................................................67
3.2.4 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Second Screen ........................................67
3.2.5 SIP Identities .............................................................................................71
3.2.5.1 SIP Number .....................................................................................71
3.2.5.2 SIP Service Domain ........................................................................71
3.2.6 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Third Screen ............................................71
3.2.7 DHCP Setup .............................................................................................73
3.2.7.1 IP Pool Setup ..................................................................................73
3.2.8 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Fourth Screen ..........................................73
3.2.9 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Connection Test .......................................75
3.2.9.1 Test Your Internet Connection .........................................................76
Chapter 4
Password Setup ..................................................................................................... 77
4.1 Password Overview ...........................................................................................77
4.1.1 Configuring Password ...............................................................................77
Chapter 5
LAN Setup............................................................................................................... 79
5.1 LAN Overview ....................................................................................................79
5.1.1 LANs, WANs and the Prestige ..................................................................79
5.2 DNS Server Address ..........................................................................................80
5.3 DNS Server Address Assignment ......................................................................80
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5.4 LAN TCP/IP ........................................................................................................81
5.4.1 Factory LAN Defaults ................................................................................81
5.4.2 IP Address and Subnet Mask ...................................................................81
5.4.3 RIP Setup .................................................................................................81
5.4.4 Multicast ....................................................................................................82
5.5 Any IP .................................................................................................................82
5.5.1 How Any IP Works ....................................................................................83
5.6 Configuring LAN .................................................................................................84
5.7 Configuring Static DHCP ....................................................................................85
Chapter 6
Wireless LAN Setup ............................................................................................... 87
6.1 Wireless LAN Introduction ..................................................................................87
6.1.1 Additional Installation Requirements for Using IEEE 802.1x ....................87
6.1.2 Channel ....................................................................................................87
6.1.3 ESS ID ......................................................................................................87
6.1.4 RTS/CTS ..................................................................................................88
6.1.5 Fragmentation Threshold ..........................................................................89
6.2 Levels of Security ...............................................................................................89
6.3 Data Encryption with WEP .................................................................................90
6.4 Configuring Wireless LAN ..................................................................................90
6.5 Configuring MAC Filter .......................................................................................92
6.6 Network Authentication ......................................................................................94
6.6.1 EAP ...........................................................................................................94
6.6.1.1 RADIUS ...........................................................................................94
6.6.1.2 Types of RADIUS Messages ...........................................................94
6.6.2 EAP Authentication Overview ...................................................................95
6.7 Introduction to WPA ...........................................................................................96
6.7.1 User Authentication .................................................................................96
6.7.2 Encryption ................................................................................................96
6.8 WPA-PSK Application Example .........................................................................97
6.9 WPA with RADIUS Application Example ............................................................97
6.10 Security Parameters Summary ........................................................................98
6.11 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants ....................................................................99
6.12 Configuring 802.1x and WPA ...........................................................................99
6.12.1 Authentication Required: 802.1x ...........................................................100
6.12.2 Authentication Required: WPA .............................................................102
6.12.3 Authentication Required: WPA-PSK .....................................................103
6.13 Configuring Local User Authentication ...........................................................105
6.14 Configuring RADIUS ......................................................................................106
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Chapter 7
WAN Setup............................................................................................................ 109
7.1 WAN Overview .................................................................................................109
7.2 Metric ..............................................................................................................109
7.3 PPPoE Encapsulation ......................................................................................110
7.4 Traffic Shaping .................................................................................................110
7.5 Zero Configuration Internet Access .................................................................. 111
7.6 Configuring WAN Setup ................................................................................... 111
7.7 Traffic Redirect .................................................................................................114
7.8 Configuring WAN Backup .................................................................................115
Chapter 8
Network Address Translation (NAT) Screens .................................................... 119
8.1 NAT Overview ..................................................................................................119
8.1.1 NAT Definitions .......................................................................................119
8.1.2 What NAT Does ......................................................................................120
8.1.3 How NAT Works .....................................................................................120
8.1.4 NAT Application ......................................................................................121
8.1.5 NAT Mapping Types ...............................................................................121
8.2 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT ..........................................................122
8.3 SUA Server ......................................................................................................123
8.3.1 Default Server IP Address ......................................................................123
8.3.2 Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers ........................................123
8.3.3 Configuring Servers Behind SUA (Example) ..........................................124
8.4 Selecting the NAT Mode ..................................................................................124
8.5 Configuring SUA Server ...................................................................................125
8.6 Configuring Address Mapping ..........................................................................127
8.7 Editing an Address Mapping Rule ....................................................................128
Chapter 9
Introduction to VoIP ............................................................................................. 131
9.1 Introduction to VoIP ..........................................................................................131
9.2 SIP ..................................................................................................................131
9.2.1 SIP Identities ...........................................................................................131
9.2.1.1 SIP Number ...................................................................................131
9.2.1.2 SIP Service Domain ......................................................................132
9.2.2 SIP Call Progression ...............................................................................132
9.2.3 SIP Servers .............................................................................................132
9.2.3.1 SIP User Agent Server ..................................................................133
9.2.3.2 SIP Proxy Server ...........................................................................133
9.2.3.3 SIP Redirect Server ......................................................................134
9.2.3.4 SIP Register Server ......................................................................135
9.2.4 RTP .........................................................................................................135
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9.3 SIP ALG ...........................................................................................................135
9.4 Pulse Code Modulation ....................................................................................135
9.5 Voice Coding ....................................................................................................136
9.5.1 G.711 .......................................................................................................136
9.5.2 G.729 ......................................................................................................136
9.6 PSTN Call Setup Signaling ..............................................................................136
Chapter 10
Voice Screens ....................................................................................................... 137
10.1 Voice Screens Introduction ............................................................................137
10.2 SIP Settings Configuration .............................................................................137
10.3 Advanced Voice Settings Configuration .........................................................138
10.4 Quality of Service (QoS) ................................................................................140
10.4.1 Type Of Service (ToS) ...........................................................................140
10.4.2 DiffServ .................................................................................................141
10.4.2.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ......................................................141
10.4.3 VLAN ....................................................................................................141
10.5 QoS Configuration ..........................................................................................141
10.6 Phone .............................................................................................................142
10.6.1 Voice Activity Detection/Silence Suppression .......................................143
10.6.2 Comfort Noise Generation ....................................................................143
10.6.3 Echo Cancellation .................................................................................143
10.7 Phone Configuration ......................................................................................143
10.8 Speed Dial ......................................................................................................144
10.8.1 Peer-to-Peer Calls ................................................................................144
10.9 Speed Dial Configuration ...............................................................................145
10.10 Lifeline (Prestige 2602HW-L) .......................................................................146
10.11 Lifeline Configuration (Prestige 2602HW-L) .................................................146
10.12 Common Phone Port Configuration .............................................................147
Chapter 11
Dynamic DNS Setup............................................................................................. 149
11.1 Dynamic DNS .................................................................................................149
11.1.1 DYNDNS Wildcard ................................................................................149
11.2 Configuring Dynamic DNS .............................................................................149
Chapter 12
Time and Date....................................................................................................... 151
12.1 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers List ................................................................151
12.2 Configuring Time and Date ............................................................................151
Table of Contents
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Chapter 13
Firewalls................................................................................................................ 155
13.1 Firewall Overview ...........................................................................................155
13.2 Types of Firewalls ..........................................................................................155
13.2.1 Packet Filtering Firewalls ......................................................................155
13.2.2 Application-level Firewalls ....................................................................155
13.2.3 Stateful Inspection Firewalls ................................................................156
13.3 Introduction to ZyXEL’s Firewall .....................................................................156
13.3.1 Denial of Service Attacks ......................................................................157
13.4 Denial of Service ............................................................................................157
13.4.1 Basics ...................................................................................................157
13.4.2 Types of DoS Attacks ...........................................................................158
13.4.2.1 ICMP Vulnerability ......................................................................160
13.4.2.2 Illegal Commands (NetBIOS and SMTP) ....................................160
13.4.2.3 Traceroute ...................................................................................161
13.5 Stateful Inspection ..........................................................................................161
13.5.1 Stateful Inspection Process ..................................................................162
13.5.2 Stateful Inspection and the Prestige .....................................................163
13.5.3 TCP Security .........................................................................................163
13.5.4 UDP/ICMP Security ..............................................................................164
13.5.5 Upper Layer Protocols ..........................................................................164
13.6 Guidelines for Enhancing Security with Your Firewall ....................................164
13.6.1 Security In General ...............................................................................165
13.7 Packet Filtering Vs Firewall ............................................................................166
13.7.1 Packet Filtering: ....................................................................................166
13.7.1.1 When To Use Filtering .................................................................166
13.7.2 Firewall .................................................................................................166
13.7.2.1 When To Use The Firewall ..........................................................166
Chapter 14
Firewall Configuration ......................................................................................... 169
14.1 Access Methods .............................................................................................169
14.2 Firewall Policies Overview .............................................................................169
14.3 Rule Logic Overview ......................................................................................170
14.3.1 Rule Checklist .......................................................................................170
14.3.2 Security Ramifications ..........................................................................170
14.3.3 Key Fields For Configuring Rules .........................................................171
14.3.3.1 Action ..........................................................................................171
14.3.3.2 Service ........................................................................................171
14.3.3.3 Source Address ...........................................................................171
14.3.3.4 Destination Address ....................................................................171
14.4 Connection Direction Example .......................................................................171
14.4.1 LAN to WAN Rules ...............................................................................172
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14.4.2 WAN to LAN Rules ...............................................................................172
14.4.3 Alerts .....................................................................................................173
14.5 Configuring Basic Firewall Settings ................................................................173
14.6 Rule Summary ...............................................................................................174
14.6.1 Configuring Firewall Rules ....................................................................176
14.7 Customized Services .....................................................................................179
14.8 Creating/Editing A Customized Service .........................................................179
14.9 Example Firewall Rule ...................................................................................180
14.10 Predefined Services .....................................................................................184
14.11 Anti-Probing ..................................................................................................186
14.12 DOS Thresholds ...........................................................................................187
14.12.1 Threshold Values ................................................................................188
14.12.2 Half-Open Sessions ............................................................................188
14.12.2.1 TCP Maximum Incomplete and Blocking Time .........................188
Chapter 15
Content Filtering .................................................................................................. 191
15.1 Content Filtering Overview .............................................................................191
15.2 Configuring Keyword Blocking .......................................................................191
15.3 Configuring the Schedule ..............................................................................192
15.4 Configuring Trusted Computers .....................................................................193
Chapter 16
Introduction to IPSec ........................................................................................... 195
16.1 VPN Overview ................................................................................................195
16.1.1 IPSec ....................................................................................................195
16.1.2 Security Association .............................................................................195
16.1.3 Other Terminology ................................................................................195
16.1.3.1 Encryption ...................................................................................195
16.1.3.2 Data Confidentiality .....................................................................196
16.1.3.3 Data Integrity ...............................................................................196
16.1.3.4 Data Origin Authentication ..........................................................196
16.1.4 VPN Applications ..................................................................................196
16.2 IPSec Architecture .........................................................................................197
16.2.1 IPSec Algorithms ..................................................................................197
16.2.2 Key Management ..................................................................................197
16.3 Encapsulation .................................................................................................197
16.3.1 Transport Mode ....................................................................................198
16.3.2 Tunnel Mode ........................................................................................198
16.4 IPSec and NAT ...............................................................................................198
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Chapter 17
VPN Screens......................................................................................................... 201
17.1 VPN/IPSec Overview .....................................................................................201
17.2 IPSec Algorithms ............................................................................................201
17.2.1 AH (Authentication Header) Protocol ...................................................201
17.2.2 ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol .................................202
17.3 My IP Address ................................................................................................202
17.4 Secure Gateway Address ..............................................................................203
17.4.1 Dynamic Secure Gateway Address ......................................................203
17.5 VPN Summary Screen ...................................................................................203
17.6 Keep Alive ......................................................................................................205
17.7 Remote DNS Server ......................................................................................205
17.8 NAT Traversal ................................................................................................206
17.8.1 NAT Traversal Configuration .................................................................207
17.9 ID Type and Content ......................................................................................207
17.9.1 ID Type and Content Examples ............................................................208
17.10 Pre-Shared Key ............................................................................................209
17.11 Editing VPN Policies .....................................................................................209
17.12 IKE Phases .................................................................................................214
17.12.1 Negotiation Mode ................................................................................216
17.12.2 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups .........................................................216
17.12.3 Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) .........................................................216
17.13 Configuring Advanced IKE Settings .............................................................216
17.14 Manual Key Setup ........................................................................................219
17.14.1 Security Parameter Index (SPI) .........................................................219
17.15 Configuring Manual Key ...............................................................................220
17.16 Viewing SA Monitor ......................................................................................223
17.17 Configuring Global Setting ...........................................................................225
17.18 Telecommuter VPN/IPSec Examples ...........................................................225
17.18.1 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example ..............................225
17.18.2 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example ...........................226
17.19 VPN and Remote Management ...................................................................228
Chapter 18
Remote Management Configuration .................................................................. 229
18.1 Remote Management Overview .....................................................................229
18.1.1 Remote Management Limitations .........................................................229
18.1.2 Remote Management and NAT ............................................................230
18.1.3 System Timeout ...................................................................................230
18.2 Telnet ..............................................................................................................230
18.3 FTP ................................................................................................................230
18.4 Web ................................................................................................................231
18.5 Configuring Remote Management .................................................................231
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Chapter 19
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP) ......................................................................... 233
19.1 Introducing Universal Plug and Play ..............................................................233
19.1.1 How do I know if I'm using UPnP? ........................................................233
19.1.2 NAT Traversal .......................................................................................233
19.1.3 Cautions with UPnP ..............................................................................233
19.2 UPnP and ZyXEL ...........................................................................................234
19.2.1 Configuring UPnP .................................................................................234
19.3 Installing UPnP in Windows Example ............................................................235
19.4 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example ...........................................................239
Chapter 20
Logs Screens........................................................................................................ 247
20.1 Logs Overview ...............................................................................................247
20.1.1 Alerts and Logs .....................................................................................247
20.2 Configuring Log Settings ................................................................................247
20.3 Displaying the Logs ........................................................................................250
20.4 SMTP Error Messages ...................................................................................250
20.4.1 Example E-mail Log ..............................................................................251
Chapter 21
Maintenance ......................................................................................................... 253
21.1 Maintenance Overview ...................................................................................253
21.2 System Status Screen ....................................................................................253
21.2.1 System Statistics ...................................................................................256
21.3 DHCP Table Screen .......................................................................................257
21.4 Any IP Table Screen .......................................................................................258
21.5 Wireless Screen .............................................................................................259
21.5.1 Association List .....................................................................................259
21.6 Diagnostic Screens ........................................................................................260
21.6.1 Diagnostic General Screen ...................................................................260
21.6.2 Diagnostic DSL Line Screen .................................................................260
21.7 Firmware Screen ............................................................................................262
Chapter 22
Introducing the SMT ............................................................................................ 265
22.1 Introduction to the SMT ..................................................................................265
22.2 Accessing the SMT via the Console Port .......................................................265
22.2.1 Initial Screen .........................................................................................265
22.2.2 Entering the Password ..........................................................................266
22.2.3 Procedure for SMT Configuration via Telnet .........................................266
22.2.4 Entering Password ................................................................................267
22.3 Navigating the SMT Interface .........................................................................267
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22.3.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary ..............................268
22.3.2 SMT Menus Overview ..........................................................................269
22.4 Changing the System Password ....................................................................270
Chapter 23
Menu 1 General Setup ......................................................................................... 273
23.1 General Setup ................................................................................................273
23.2 Procedure To Configure Menu 1 ....................................................................273
23.2.1 Procedure to Configure Dynamic DNS .................................................274
Chapter 24
Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup ................................................................................ 277
24.1 Introduction to WAN Backup Setup ................................................................277
24.2 Configuring WAN Backup in Menu 2 ..............................................................277
24.2.1 Traffic Redirect Setup ...........................................................................278
Chapter 25
Menu 3 LAN Setup ............................................................................................... 281
25.1 LAN Setup ......................................................................................................281
25.1.1 General Ethernet Setup ........................................................................281
25.2 Protocol Dependent Ethernet Setup ..............................................................281
25.3 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup and DHCP ................................................................282
Chapter 26
Wireless LAN Setup ............................................................................................. 285
26.1 Wireless LAN Overview .................................................................................285
26.2 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................................285
26.2.1 Wireless LAN MAC Address Filter ........................................................286
Chapter 27
Internet Access .................................................................................................... 289
27.1 Internet Access Overview ..............................................................................289
27.2 IP Policies ......................................................................................................289
27.3 IP Alias ...........................................................................................................289
27.4 IP Alias Setup .................................................................................................290
27.5 Route IP Setup ...............................................................................................291
27.6 Internet Access Configuration ........................................................................292
Chapter 28
Remote Node Configuration ............................................................................... 295
28.1 Remote Node Setup Overview .......................................................................295
28.2 Remote Node Setup .......................................................................................295
28.2.1 Remote Node Profile ............................................................................295
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28.2.2 Encapsulation and Multiplexing Scenarios ...........................................296
28.2.2.1 Scenario 1: One VC, Multiple Protocols ......................................296
28.2.2.2 Scenario 2: One VC, One Protocol (IP) ......................................296
28.2.2.3 Scenario 3: Multiple VCs .............................................................296
28.2.3 Outgoing Authentication Protocol .........................................................298
28.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ...........................................................299
28.3.1 My WAN Addr Sample IP Addresses ...................................................300
28.4 Remote Node Filter ........................................................................................301
28.5 Editing ATM Layer Options ............................................................................302
28.5.1 VC-based Multiplexing (non-PPP Encapsulation) ................................302
28.5.2 LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation ....................................303
28.5.3 Advance Setup Options ........................................................................303
Chapter 29
Static Route Setup ............................................................................................... 305
29.1 IP Static Route Overview ...............................................................................305
29.2 Configuration ..................................................................................................305
Chapter 30
Bridging Setup ..................................................................................................... 309
30.1 Bridging in General ........................................................................................309
30.2 Bridge Ethernet Setup ....................................................................................309
30.2.1 Remote Node Bridging Setup ...............................................................309
30.2.2 Bridge Static Route Setup .....................................................................311
Chapter 31
Network Address Translation (NAT) ................................................................... 313
31.1 Using NAT ......................................................................................................313
31.1.1 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT ..............................................313
31.2 Applying NAT .................................................................................................313
31.3 NAT Setup ......................................................................................................315
31.3.1 Address Mapping Sets ..........................................................................315
31.3.1.1 SUA Address Mapping Set .........................................................316
31.3.1.2 User-Defined Address Mapping Sets ..........................................317
31.3.1.3 Ordering Your Rules ....................................................................318
31.4 Configuring a Server behind NAT ..................................................................319
31.5 General NAT Examples ..................................................................................321
31.5.1 Example 1: Internet Access Only ..........................................................321
31.5.2 Example 2: Internet Access with an Inside Server ...............................322
31.5.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers .............323
31.5.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs ...............................326
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Chapter 32
Enabling the Firewall ........................................................................................... 329
32.1 Remote Management and the Firewall ..........................................................329
32.2 Access Methods .............................................................................................329
32.3 Enabling the Firewall ......................................................................................329
Chapter 33
Filter Configuration .............................................................................................. 331
33.1 About Filtering ................................................................................................331
33.1.1 The Filter Structure of the Prestige .......................................................332
33.2 Configuring a Filter Set for the Prestige .........................................................333
33.3 Filter Rules Summary Menus .........................................................................334
33.4 Configuring a Filter Rule ................................................................................335
33.4.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule .................................................................................336
33.4.2 Generic Filter Rule ................................................................................338
33.5 Filter Types and NAT .....................................................................................340
33.6 Example Filter ................................................................................................340
33.7 Applying Filters and Factory Defaults ............................................................342
33.7.1 Ethernet Traffic .....................................................................................343
33.7.2 Remote Node Filters .............................................................................343
Chapter 34
SNMP Configuration ............................................................................................ 345
34.1 About SNMP ..................................................................................................345
34.2 Supported MIBs ............................................................................................346
34.3 SNMP Configuration ......................................................................................346
34.4 SNMP Traps ...................................................................................................347
Chapter 35
System Security ................................................................................................... 349
35.1 System Security .............................................................................................349
35.1.1 System Password .................................................................................349
35.1.2 Configuring External RADIUS Server ...................................................349
35.1.3 IEEE802.1x ...........................................................................................351
35.2 Creating User Accounts on the Prestige ........................................................353
Chapter 36
System Information and Diagnosis .................................................................... 355
36.1 Overview ........................................................................................................355
36.2 System Status ................................................................................................355
36.3 System Information ........................................................................................357
36.3.1 System Information ...............................................................................357
36.3.2 Console Port Speed ..............................................................................358
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36.4 Log and Trace ................................................................................................359
36.4.1 Viewing Error Log .................................................................................359
36.4.2 Syslog and Accounting .........................................................................360
36.5 Diagnostic ......................................................................................................362
Chapter 37
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance ................................................. 365
37.1 Filename Conventions ...................................................................................365
37.2 Backup Configuration .....................................................................................366
37.2.1 Backup Configuration ...........................................................................366
37.2.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line ..............................367
37.2.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line .........................367
37.2.4 GUI-based FTP Clients .........................................................................368
37.2.5 TFTP and FTP over WAN Management Limitations .............................368
37.2.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP .......................................................369
37.2.7 TFTP Command Example ....................................................................369
37.2.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients ......................................................................369
37.2.9 Backup Via Console Port ......................................................................370
37.3 Restore Configuration ....................................................................................371
37.3.1 Restore Using FTP ...............................................................................371
37.3.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example ..................................................372
37.3.3 Restore Via Console Port .....................................................................373
37.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files .................................................374
37.4.1 Firmware File Upload ............................................................................374
37.4.2 Configuration File Upload .....................................................................374
37.4.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example ................375
37.4.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload ...................................376
37.4.5 TFTP File Upload ..................................................................................376
37.4.6 TFTP Upload Command Example ........................................................377
37.4.7 Uploading Via Console Port ..................................................................377
37.4.8 Uploading Firmware File Via Console Port ...........................................377
37.4.9 Example Xmodem Firmware Upload Using HyperTerminal ..................378
37.4.10 Uploading Configuration File Via Console Port ..................................378
37.4.11 Example Xmodem Configuration Upload Using HyperTerminal .........379
Chapter 38
System Maintenance............................................................................................ 381
38.1 Command Interpreter Mode ...........................................................................381
38.2 Call Control Support .......................................................................................382
38.2.1 Budget Management ............................................................................382
38.3 Time and Date Setting ....................................................................................383
38.3.1 Resetting the Time ................................................................................384
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Chapter 39
Remote Management ........................................................................................... 387
39.1 Remote Management Overview .....................................................................387
39.2 Remote Management .....................................................................................387
39.2.1 Remote Management Setup .................................................................387
39.2.2 Remote Management Limitations .........................................................388
39.3 Remote Management and NAT ......................................................................389
39.4 System Timeout .............................................................................................389
Chapter 40
IP Policy Routing.................................................................................................. 391
40.1 IP Policy Routing Overview ............................................................................391
40.2 Benefits of IP Policy Routing ..........................................................................391
40.3 Routing Policy ................................................................................................391
40.4 IP Routing Policy Setup .................................................................................392
40.5 Applying an IP Policy .....................................................................................395
40.5.1 Ethernet IP Policies ..............................................................................395
40.6 IP Policy Routing Example .............................................................................396
Chapter 41
Call Scheduling .................................................................................................... 399
41.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................399
Chapter 42
VPN/IPSec Setup .................................................................................................. 403
42.1 VPN/IPSec Overview .....................................................................................403
42.2 IPSec Summary Screen .................................................................................404
42.3 IPSec Setup ...................................................................................................406
42.4 IKE Setup .......................................................................................................410
42.5 Manual Setup .................................................................................................412
42.5.1 Active Protocol ......................................................................................412
42.5.2 Security Parameter Index (SPI) ............................................................412
Chapter 43
SA Monitor ............................................................................................................ 415
43.1 SA Monitor Overview .....................................................................................415
43.2 Using SA Monitor ...........................................................................................415
Chapter 44
Troubleshooting ................................................................................................... 419
44.1 Problems Starting Up the Prestige .................................................................419
44.2 Problems with the LAN LED ...........................................................................419
44.3 Problems with the DSL LED ...........................................................................420
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44.4 Problems with the LAN Interface ....................................................................420
44.5 Problems with the WAN Interface ..................................................................420
44.6 Problems with Internet Access .......................................................................421
44.7 Problems with the Password ..........................................................................421
44.8 Problems with the Web Configurator .............................................................422
44.9 Problems with Remote Management .............................................................422
44.10 Telephone Problems ....................................................................................423
Appendix A
Hardware Specifications ..................................................................................... 425
Prestige 2602HW Series Power Adaptor Specifications ........................................ 427
Appendix B
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address............................................................ 429
Windows 95/98/Me................................................................................................. 429
Configuring ...................................................................................................... 431
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 432
Windows 2000/NT/XP ............................................................................................ 432
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 436
Macintosh OS 8/9................................................................................................... 437
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 438
Macintosh OS X ..................................................................................................... 438
Verifying Settings ............................................................................................. 440
Appendix C
IP Subnetting ........................................................................................................ 441
IP Addressing......................................................................................................... 441
IP Classes .............................................................................................................. 441
Subnet Masks ........................................................................................................ 442
Subnetting .............................................................................................................. 442
Example: Two Subnets .......................................................................................... 443
Example: Four Subnets.......................................................................................... 445
Example Eight Subnets .......................................................................................... 446
Subnetting With Class A and Class B Networks. ................................................... 447
Appendix D
PPPoE ................................................................................................................... 449
PPPoE in Action..................................................................................................... 449
Benefits of PPPoE.................................................................................................. 449
Traditional Dial-up Scenario ................................................................................... 449
How PPPoE Works ................................................................................................ 450
Prestige as a PPPoE Client ................................................................................... 450
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Appendix E
Wireless LAN and IEEE 802.11 ........................................................................... 451
Benefits of a Wireless LAN .................................................................................... 451
IEEE 802.11 ........................................................................................................... 451
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration....................................................................... 452
Infrastructure Wireless LAN Configuration............................................................. 452
Appendix F
Wireless LAN With IEEE 802.1x .......................................................................... 455
Security Flaws with IEEE 802.11 ........................................................................... 455
Deployment Issues with IEEE 802.11 .................................................................... 455
IEEE 802.1x ........................................................................................................... 455
Advantages of the IEEE 802.1x ............................................................................. 455
RADIUS Server Authentication Sequence ...................................................... 456
Appendix G
Types of EAP Authentication .............................................................................. 457
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)............................................................... 457
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security) ..................................................................... 457
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service) ................................................... 457
LEAP ...................................................................................................................... 458
Appendix H
Triangle Route ...................................................................................................... 459
The Ideal Setup...................................................................................................... 459
The “Triangle Route” Problem................................................................................ 459
The “Triangle Route” Solutions .............................................................................. 460
IP Aliasing .............................................................................................................. 460
Gateways on the WAN Side................................................................................... 461
Appendix I
Internal SPTGEN .................................................................................................. 463
Internal SPTGEN Overview ................................................................................... 463
The Configuration Text File Format........................................................................ 463
Internal SPTGEN File Modification - Important Points to Remember .............. 463
Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example............................................................ 464
Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example ................................................................ 465
Command Examples.............................................................................................. 486
Appendix J
Command Interpreter........................................................................................... 489
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Command Syntax................................................................................................... 489
Command Usage ................................................................................................... 489
Appendix K
Firewall Commands ............................................................................................. 491
Sys Firewall Commands ........................................................................................ 491
Appendix L
Boot Commands .................................................................................................. 493
Appendix M
Log Descriptions.................................................................................................. 495
Log Commands...................................................................................................... 504
Configuring What You Want the Prestige to Log ............................................. 504
Displaying Logs ............................................................................................... 505
Log Command Example......................................................................................... 506
Index...................................................................................................................... 507
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26
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List of Figures
Figure 1 Prestige Internet Access Application ....................................................... 54
Figure 2 Internet Telephony Service Provider Application ..................................... 55
Figure 3 Firewall Application .................................................................................. 55
Figure 4 Prestige LAN-to-LAN Application ............................................................. 56
Figure 5 Password Screen ..................................................................................... 57
Figure 6 Change Password at Login ...................................................................... 58
Figure 7 Web Configurator SITE MAP Screen ..................................................... 59
Figure 8 Internet Access Wizard Setup: First Screen ............................................ 65
Figure 9 Internet Connection with PPPoE .............................................................. 68
Figure 10 Internet Connection with RFC 1483 ...................................................... 69
Figure 11 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP ................................................ 69
Figure 12 Internet Connection with PPPoA ............................................................ 70
Figure 13 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Third Screen ........................................ 72
Figure 14 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Fourth Screen ....................................... 74
Figure 15 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration ................................ 75
Figure 16 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Connection Tests .................................. 76
Figure 17 Password ............................................................................................... 77
Figure 18 LAN and WAN IP Addresses ................................................................. 79
Figure 19 Any IP Example ..................................................................................... 83
Figure 20 LAN Setup .............................................................................................. 84
Figure 21 LAN: Static DHCP .................................................................................. 86
Figure 22 RTS/CTS ................................................................................................ 88
Figure 23 Prestige Wireless Security Levels .......................................................... 89
Figure 24 Wireless LAN ......................................................................................... 91
Figure 25 MAC Address Filter ................................................................................ 93
Figure 26 EAP Authentication ............................................................................... 95
Figure 27 WPA - PSK Authentication ..................................................................... 97
Figure 28 WPA with RADIUS Application Example ................................................ 98
Figure 29 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA .................................................................. 99
Figure 30 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol .................................... 100
Figure 31 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol ....................................... 102
Figure 32 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol ............................... 104
Figure 33 Local User Database ............................................................................. 105
Figure 34 RADIUS ................................................................................................. 106
Figure 35 Example of Traffic Shaping .................................................................... 111
Figure 36 WAN Setup (PPPoE) ............................................................................. 112
Figure 37 Traffic Redirect Example ........................................................................ 115
Figure 38 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup .................................................................... 115
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 39 WAN Backup .......................................................................................... 116
Figure 40 How NAT Works ..................................................................................... 121
Figure 41 NAT Application With IP Alias ................................................................ 121
Figure 42 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example .................................................. 124
Figure 43 NAT Mode .............................................................................................. 125
Figure 44 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set ...................................................................... 126
Figure 45 Address Mapping Rules ......................................................................... 127
Figure 46 Address Mapping Rule Edit ................................................................... 128
Figure 47 SIP User Agent Server ........................................................................... 133
Figure 48 SIP Proxy Server ................................................................................... 134
Figure 49 SIP Redirect Server ............................................................................... 135
Figure 50 SIP Settings ........................................................................................... 137
Figure 51 Voice Advanced Setup ........................................................................... 139
Figure 52 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field ..................................................... 141
Figure 53 QoS ........................................................................................................ 142
Figure 54 Phone ..................................................................................................... 143
Figure 55 Speed Dial .............................................................................................. 145
Figure 56 Lifeline ................................................................................................... 147
Figure 57 Phone Port Common ............................................................................. 148
Figure 58 Dynamic DNS ........................................................................................ 150
Figure 59 Time and Date ........................................................................................ 152
Figure 60 Prestige Firewall Application .................................................................. 157
Figure 61 Three-Way Handshake .......................................................................... 159
Figure 62 SYN Flood .............................................................................................. 159
Figure 63 Smurf Attack .......................................................................................... 160
Figure 64 Stateful Inspection .................................................................................. 162
Figure 65 LAN to WAN Traffic ................................................................................ 172
Figure 66 WAN to LAN Traffic ................................................................................ 172
Figure 67 Firewall: Default Policy ........................................................................... 173
Figure 68 Firewall: Rule Summary ........................................................................ 175
Figure 69 Firewall: Edit Rule .................................................................................. 177
Figure 70 Firewall: Customized Services ............................................................... 179
Figure 71 Firewall: Configure Customized Services .............................................. 180
Figure 72 Firewall Example: Rule Summary .......................................................... 181
Figure 73 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Destination Address ................................ 182
Figure 74 Edit Custom Port Example ..................................................................... 182
Figure 75 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Select Customized Services .................... 183
Figure 76 Firewall Example: Rule Summary: My Service ..................................... 184
Figure 77 Firewall: Anti Probing ............................................................................. 187
Figure 78 Firewall: Threshold ................................................................................. 189
Figure 79 Content Filter: Keyword ......................................................................... 192
Figure 80 Content Filter: Schedule ........................................................................ 193
Figure 81 Content Filter: Trusted ........................................................................... 194
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Figure 82 Encryption and Decryption ..................................................................... 196
Figure 83 IPSec Architecture ................................................................................. 197
Figure 84 Transport and Tunnel Mode IPSec Encapsulation ................................. 198
Figure 85 IPSec Summary Fields .......................................................................... 203
Figure 86 VPN Summary ....................................................................................... 204
Figure 87 VPN Host using Intranet DNS Server Example ..................................... 206
Figure 88 NAT Router Between IPSec Routers ..................................................... 206
Figure 89 VPN IKE ................................................................................................. 210
Figure 90 Two Phases to Set Up the IPSec SA ..................................................... 215
Figure 91 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup .................................................................... 217
Figure 92 VPN: Manual Key ................................................................................... 220
Figure 93 VPN: SA Monitor .................................................................................... 224
Figure 94 VPN: Global Setting ............................................................................... 225
Figure 95 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example .................................. 226
Figure 96 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example .............................. 227
Figure 97 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ............................................ 230
Figure 98 Remote Management ............................................................................ 231
Figure 99 Configuring UPnP .................................................................................. 234
Figure 100 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication .................. 236
Figure 101 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication: Components
236
Figure 102 Network Connections ........................................................................... 237
Figure 103 Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard ........................... 238
Figure 104 Networking Services ............................................................................ 239
Figure 105 Network Connections ........................................................................... 240
Figure 106 Internet Connection Properties ........................................................... 241
Figure 107 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings ............................ 242
Figure 108 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add .................... 242
Figure 109 System Tray Icon ................................................................................. 243
Figure 110 Internet Connection Status ................................................................... 243
Figure 111 Network Connections ........................................................................... 244
Figure 112 Network Connections: My Network Places .......................................... 245
Figure 113 Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example ........ 245
Figure 114 Log Settings ......................................................................................... 248
Figure 115 View Logs ............................................................................................. 250
Figure 116 E-mail Log Example ............................................................................. 252
Figure 117 System Status ...................................................................................... 254
Figure 118 System Status: Show Statistics ............................................................ 256
Figure 119 DHCP Table ......................................................................................... 258
Figure 120 Any IP Table ......................................................................................... 258
Figure 121 Association List .................................................................................... 259
Figure 122 Diagnostic: General ............................................................................. 260
Figure 123 Diagnostic: DSL Line ........................................................................... 261
List of Figures
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 124 Firmware Upgrade ............................................................................... 262
Figure 125 Network Temporarily Disconnected ..................................................... 263
Figure 126 Error Message ..................................................................................... 263
Figure 127 Initial Screen ........................................................................................ 266
Figure 128 Password Screen ................................................................................ 266
Figure 129 Login Screen ........................................................................................ 267
Figure 130 Menu 23.1 Change Password .............................................................. 271
Figure 131 Menu 1 General Setup ......................................................................... 274
Figure 132 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS ..................................................... 275
Figure 133 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup ................................................................ 277
Figure 134 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup ............................................................ 278
Figure 135 Menu 3 LAN Setup ............................................................................... 281
Figure 136 Menu 3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup ........................................................... 281
Figure 137 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup ...................................... 282
Figure 138 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................... 285
Figure 139 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering ........................................... 287
Figure 140 IP Alias Network Example .................................................................... 290
Figure 141 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Setup .................................................... 290
Figure 142 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup ................................................................... 291
Figure 143 Menu 1 General Setup ......................................................................... 292
Figure 144 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup ............................................................. 292
Figure 145 Menu 11 Remote Node Setup .............................................................. 296
Figure 146 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile ......................................................... 297
Figure 147 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ............................... 299
Figure 148 Sample IP Addresses for a TCP/IP LAN-to-LAN Connection .............. 301
Figure 149 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (RFC 1483 or ENET Encapsulation) .. 302
Figure 150 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation) .... 302
Figure 151 Menu 11.6 for VC-based Multiplexing .................................................. 303
Figure 152 Menu 11.6 for LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation ............. 303
Figure 153 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile .......................................................... 304
Figure 154 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options ..................................................... 304
Figure 155 Sample Static Routing Topology .......................................................... 305
Figure 156 Menu 12 Static Route Setup ................................................................ 306
Figure 157 Menu 12.1 IP Static Route Setup ......................................................... 306
Figure 158 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route .......................................................... 306
Figure 159 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile .......................................................... 310
Figure 160 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ............................... 310
Figure 161 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route .................................................. 311
Figure 162 Menu 4 Applying NAT for Internet Access ........................................... 314
Figure 163 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3 .......................................................... 314
Figure 164 Menu 15 NAT Setup ........................................................................... 315
Figure 165 Menu 15.1 Address Mapping Sets ....................................................... 316
Figure 166 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules ..................................... 316
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Figure 167 Menu 15.1.1 First Set ........................................................................... 317
Figure 168 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set ........... 319
Figure 169 Menu 15.2 NAT Server Setup .............................................................. 320
Figure 170 Menu 15.2 NAT Server Setup .............................................................. 320
Figure 171 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example ................................................ 321
Figure 172 NAT Example 1 .................................................................................... 321
Figure 173 Menu 4 Internet Access & NAT Example ............................................. 322
Figure 174 NAT Example 2 .................................................................................... 322
Figure 175 Menu 15.2.1 Specifying an Inside Server ............................................ 323
Figure 176 NAT Example 3 .................................................................................... 324
Figure 177 Example 3: Menu 11.3 ......................................................................... 324
Figure 178 Example 3: Menu 15.1.1.1 ................................................................... 325
Figure 179 Example 3: Final Menu 15.1.1 ............................................................. 325
Figure 180 Example 3: Menu 15.2 ......................................................................... 326
Figure 181 NAT Example 4 .................................................................................... 326
Figure 182 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule .............................. 327
Figure 183 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules ............................... 327
Figure 184 Menu 21.2 Firewall Setup .................................................................... 330
Figure 185 Outgoing Packet Filtering Process ....................................................... 331
Figure 186 Filter Rule Process ............................................................................... 332
Figure 187 Menu 21 Filter Set Configuration ......................................................... 333
Figure 188 NetBIOS_WAN Filter Rules Summary ................................................ 333
Figure 189 NetBIOS_LAN Filter Rules Summary ................................................. 334
Figure 190 IGMP Filter Rules Summary ............................................................... 334
Figure 191 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule ........................................................ 336
Figure 192 Executing an IP Filter ........................................................................... 338
Figure 193 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule ...................................................... 339
Figure 194 Protocol and Device Filter Sets ............................................................ 340
Figure 195 Sample Telnet Filter ............................................................................. 341
Figure 196 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter ............................................................... 341
Figure 197 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter Rules Summary ..................................... 342
Figure 198 Filtering Ethernet Traffic ....................................................................... 343
Figure 199 Filtering Remote Node Traffic .............................................................. 343
Figure 200 SNMP Management Model .................................................................. 345
Figure 201 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration ............................................................. 347
Figure 202 Menu 23 – System Security ................................................................. 349
Figure 203 Menu 23 System Security .................................................................... 349
Figure 204 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server ...................................... 350
Figure 205 Menu 23 System Security .................................................................... 351
Figure 206 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE802.1x ............................................ 351
Figure 207 Menu 14 Dial-in User Setup ................................................................. 354
Figure 208 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User ................................................................. 354
Figure 209 Menu 24 System Maintenance ............................................................ 355
List of Figures
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Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 210 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status ............................................ 356
Figure 211 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed .................... 357
Figure 212 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information .................................. 358
Figure 213 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance : Change Console Port Speed ...... 359
Figure 214 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace ................................ 359
Figure 215 Sample Error and Information Messages ............................................ 360
Figure 216 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance: Syslog and Accounting ................ 360
Figure 217 Syslog Example ................................................................................... 361
Figure 218 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic ...................................... 362
Figure 219 Telnet in Menu 24.5 .............................................................................. 367
Figure 220 FTP Session Example ......................................................................... 368
Figure 221 System Maintenance: Backup Configuration ....................................... 370
Figure 222 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen ................ 370
Figure 223 Backup Configuration Example ............................................................ 371
Figure 224 Successful Backup Confirmation Screen ............................................. 371
Figure 225 Telnet into Menu 24.6 ........................................................................... 372
Figure 226 Restore Using FTP Session Example .................................................. 372
Figure 227 System Maintenance: Restore Configuration ...................................... 373
Figure 228 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen ................ 373
Figure 229 Restore Configuration Example ........................................................... 373
Figure 230 Successful Restoration Confirmation Screen ...................................... 374
Figure 231 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.1 Upload System Firmware ............................. 374
Figure 232 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance .................................... 375
Figure 233 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload .................................. 376
Figure 234 Menu 24.7.1 As Seen Using the Console Port .................................... 377
Figure 235 Example Xmodem Upload ................................................................... 378
Figure 236 Menu 24.7.2 As Seen Using the Console Port ................................... 378
Figure 237 Example Xmodem Upload ................................................................... 379
Figure 238 Command Mode in Menu 24 ................................................................ 381
Figure 239 Valid Commands .................................................................................. 381
Figure 240 Menu 24.9 System Maintenance: Call Control ..................................... 382
Figure 241 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management ................... 382
Figure 242 Menu 24 System Maintenance ............................................................ 383
Figure 243 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting .................. 384
Figure 244 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control .......................................... 388
Figure 245 Menu 25 IP Routing Policy Setup ........................................................ 392
Figure 246 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup ..................................................... 393
Figure 247 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy ............................................................. 394
Figure 248 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup ...................................... 396
Figure 249 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ............................... 396
Figure 250 Example of IP Policy Routing .............................................................. 397
Figure 251 IP Routing Policy Example ................................................................... 397
Figure 252 IP Routing Policy Example ................................................................... 398
32
List of Figures
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 253 Applying IP Policies Example .............................................................. 398
Figure 254 Menu 26 Schedule Setup ..................................................................... 399
Figure 255 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup .......................................................... 400
Figure 256 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPPoE) ....................... 401
Figure 257 VPN SMT Menu Tree ........................................................................... 403
Figure 258 Menu 27 VPN/IPSec Setup .................................................................. 404
Figure 259 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary ................................................................. 404
Figure 260 Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup .................................................................... 407
Figure 261 Menu 27.1.1.1KE Setup ....................................................................... 411
Figure 262 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup ............................................................... 413
Figure 263 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor ......................................................................... 416
Figure 264 Ethernet Cable Pin Assignments ......................................................... 425
Figure 265 Prestige 2602HW-L DSL Port Pin Assignments .................................. 426
Figure 266 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration ........................................ 430
Figure 267 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address ............................ 431
Figure 268 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration ............... 432
Figure 269 Windows XP: Start Menu ..................................................................... 433
Figure 270 Windows XP: Control Panel ................................................................. 433
Figure 271 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties .......... 434
Figure 272 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties ................................. 434
Figure 273 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Settings ............................................ 435
Figure 274 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties ............................ 436
Figure 275 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu ........................................................... 437
Figure 276 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP ................................................................... 438
Figure 277 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu .............................................................. 439
Figure 278 Macintosh OS X: Network .................................................................... 439
Figure 279 Single-Computer per Router Hardware Configuration ......................... 450
Figure 280 Prestige as a PPPoE Client ................................................................. 450
Figure 281 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network ........................... 452
Figure 282 ESS Provides Campus-Wide Coverage .............................................. 453
Figure 283 Sequences for EAP MD5–Challenge Authentication ........................... 456
Figure 284 Ideal Setup ........................................................................................... 459
Figure 285 “Triangle Route” Problem ..................................................................... 460
Figure 286 IP Alias ................................................................................................. 460
Figure 287 Gateways on the WAN Side ................................................................. 461
Figure 288 Configuration Text File Format: Column Descriptions .......................... 463
Figure 289 Invalid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example .......................... 464
Figure 290 Valid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example ............................. 464
Figure 291 Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example ........................................ 465
Figure 292 Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example .............................................. 465
Figure 293 Option to Enter Debug Mode ............................................................... 493
Figure 294 Boot Module Commands ..................................................................... 494
Figure 295 Displaying Log Categories Example .................................................... 504
List of Figures
33
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Figure 296 Displaying Log Parameters Example ................................................... 505
Figure 297 Log Command Example ...................................................................... 506
34
List of Figures
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 1 ADSL Standards ....................................................................................... 45
Table 2 IEEE 802.11g ............................................................................................ 49
Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary ....................................................... 59
Table 4 Internet Access Wizard Setup: First Screen ............................................. 65
Table 5 Internet Connection with PPPoE ............................................................. 68
Table 6 Internet Connection with RFC 1483 ......................................................... 69
Table 7 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP ................................................... 70
Table 8 Internet Connection with PPPoA .............................................................. 71
Table 9 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Voice Configuration ................................. 72
Table 10 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration ................................. 75
Table 11 Password ................................................................................................ 77
Table 12 LAN Setup .............................................................................................. 84
Table 13 LAN: Static DHCP ................................................................................... 86
Table 14 Wireless LAN .......................................................................................... 91
Table 15 MAC Address Filter ................................................................................ 93
Table 16 Wireless Security Relational Matrix ........................................................ 98
Table 17 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA .................................................................... 100
Table 18 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol ..................................... 101
Table 19 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol ........................................ 103
Table 20 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol ............................... 104
Table 21 Local User Database .............................................................................. 106
Table 22 RADIUS .................................................................................................. 107
Table 23 WAN Setup ............................................................................................. 112
Table 24 WAN Backup .......................................................................................... 116
Table 25 NAT Definitions ....................................................................................... 119
Table 26 NAT Mapping Types ............................................................................... 122
Table 27 Services and Port Numbers .................................................................... 123
Table 28 NAT Mode ............................................................................................... 125
Table 29 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set ....................................................................... 126
Table 30 Address Mapping Rules ......................................................................... 127
Table 31 Address Mapping Rule Edit .................................................................... 129
Table 32 SIP Call Progression .............................................................................. 132
Table 33 SIP Settings ............................................................................................ 138
Table 34 Voice Advanced Setup ........................................................................... 139
Table 35 QoS ........................................................................................................ 142
Table 36 Phone ..................................................................................................... 144
Table 37 Speed Dial .............................................................................................. 145
Table 38 Lifeline .................................................................................................... 147
List of Tables
35
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 39 Phone Port Common .............................................................................. 148
Table 40 Dynamic DNS ......................................................................................... 150
Table 41 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers ............................................................... 151
Table 42 Time and Date ........................................................................................ 152
Table 43 Common IP Ports ................................................................................... 158
Table 44 ICMP Commands That Trigger Alerts ..................................................... 160
Table 45 Legal NetBIOS Commands .................................................................... 160
Table 46 Legal SMTP Commands ....................................................................... 161
Table 47 Firewall: Default Policy ........................................................................... 173
Table 48 Rule Summary ........................................................................................ 175
Table 49 Firewall: Edit Rule ................................................................................... 178
Table 50 Customized Services .............................................................................. 179
Table 51 Firewall: Configure Customized Services ............................................... 180
Table 52 Predefined Services .............................................................................. 184
Table 53 Firewall: Anti Probing .............................................................................. 187
Table 54 Firewall: Threshold ................................................................................. 189
Table 55 Content Filter: Keyword .......................................................................... 192
Table 56 Content Filter: Schedule ......................................................................... 193
Table 57 Content Filter: Trusted ............................................................................ 194
Table 58 VPN and NAT ......................................................................................... 199
Table 59 AH and ESP ........................................................................................... 202
Table 60 VPN Summary ........................................................................................ 204
Table 61 Local ID Type and Content Fields .......................................................... 208
Table 62 Peer ID Type and Content Fields ........................................................... 208
Table 63 Matching ID Type and Content Configuration Example .......................... 208
Table 64 Mismatching ID Type and Content Configuration Example .................... 209
Table 65 VPN IKE ................................................................................................. 211
Table 66 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup ..................................................................... 217
Table 67 VPN: Manual Key ................................................................................... 221
Table 68 VPN: SA Monitor .................................................................................... 224
Table 69 VPN: Global Setting ................................................................................ 225
Table 70 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example .................................. 226
Table 71 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example ............................... 227
Table 72 Remote Management ............................................................................. 231
Table 73 Configuring UPnP ................................................................................... 235
Table 74 Log Settings ............................................................................................ 249
Table 75 View Logs ............................................................................................... 250
Table 76 SMTP Error Messages ........................................................................... 251
Table 77 System Status ......................................................................................... 255
Table 78 System Status: Show Statistics .............................................................. 256
Table 79 DHCP Table ............................................................................................ 258
Table 80 Any IP Table ........................................................................................... 258
Table 81 Association List ....................................................................................... 259
36
List of Tables
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 82 Diagnostic: General ................................................................................ 260
Table 83 Diagnostic: DSL Line .............................................................................. 261
Table 84 Firmware Upgrade .................................................................................. 262
Table 85 Navigating the SMT Interface ................................................................. 267
Table 86 SMT Main Menu ..................................................................................... 268
Table 87 Main Menu Summary ............................................................................. 268
Table 88 SMT Menus Overview ............................................................................ 269
Table 89 Menu 1 General Setup ........................................................................... 274
Table 90 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS ........................................................ 275
Table 91 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup ................................................................... 277
Table 92 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup .............................................................. 278
Table 93 DHCP Ethernet Setup ............................................................................ 282
Table 94 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup ........................................................................... 283
Table 95 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup ............................................................. 285
Table 96 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering ............................................. 287
Table 97 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup ...................................................................... 291
Table 98 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup ............................................................... 293
Table 99 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile ............................................................ 297
Table 100 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options ................................ 299
Table 101 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options ...................................................... 304
Table 102 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route ........................................................... 307
Table 103 Remote Node Network Layer Options: Bridge Fields ........................... 310
Table 104 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route ................................................... 311
Table 105 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3 .......................................................... 315
Table 106 SUA Address Mapping Rules ............................................................... 316
Table 107 Menu 15.1.1 First Set ........................................................................... 318
Table 108 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set ............ 319
Table 109 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu ....................... 334
Table 110 Rule Abbreviations Used ...................................................................... 335
Table 111 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule ......................................................... 336
Table 112 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule ........................................................ 339
Table 113 Filter Sets Table .................................................................................... 342
Table 114 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration .............................................................. 347
Table 115 SNMP Traps ......................................................................................... 347
Table 116 Ports and Permanent Virtual Circuits .................................................... 348
Table 117 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server ....................................... 350
Table 118 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE802.1x ............................................. 352
Table 119 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User .................................................................. 354
Table 120 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status .............................................. 356
Table 121 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information ................................... 358
Table 122 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : Syslog and Accounting ............... 360
Table 123 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic ............................. 363
Table 124 Filename Conventions .......................................................................... 366
List of Tables
37
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 125 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients .................................. 368
Table 126 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients ................................ 370
Table 127 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management .................... 383
Table 128 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting ................. 384
Table 129 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ........................................... 388
Table 130 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup ...................................................... 393
Table 131 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy ............................................................. 394
Table 132 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup ............................................................ 400
Table 133 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary .................................................................. 404
Table 134 Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup .................................................................... 407
Table 135 Menu 27.1.1.1 IKE Setup ..................................................................... 411
Table 136 Active Protocol: Encapsulation and Security Protocol .......................... 412
Table 137 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup ............................................................... 413
Table 138 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor .......................................................................... 416
Table 139 Troubleshooting the Start-Up of Your Prestige ..................................... 419
Table 140 Troubleshooting the LAN LED .............................................................. 419
Table 141 Troubleshooting the DSL LED .............................................................. 420
Table 142 Troubleshooting the LAN Interface ....................................................... 420
Table 143 Troubleshooting the WAN Interface ...................................................... 420
Table 144 Troubleshooting Internet Access .......................................................... 421
Table 145 Troubleshooting the Password ............................................................. 421
Table 146 Troubleshooting the Web Configurator ................................................. 422
Table 147 Troubleshooting Remote Management ................................................ 422
Table 148 Troubleshooting Telephone .................................................................. 423
Table 149 Prestige 2602HW Series Power Adaptor Specifications ...................... 427
Table 150 Classes of IP Addresses ...................................................................... 441
Table 151 Allowed IP Address Range By Class .................................................... 442
Table 152 “Natural” Masks ................................................................................... 442
Table 153 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation ........................................................ 443
Table 154 Two Subnets Example .......................................................................... 443
Table 155 Subnet 1 ............................................................................................... 444
Table 156 Subnet 2 ............................................................................................... 444
Table 157 Subnet 1 ............................................................................................... 445
Table 158 Subnet 2 ............................................................................................... 445
Table 159 Subnet 3 ............................................................................................... 445
Table 160 Subnet 4 ............................................................................................... 446
Table 161 Eight Subnets ....................................................................................... 446
Table 162 Class C Subnet Planning ...................................................................... 446
Table 163 Class B Subnet Planning ...................................................................... 447
Table 164 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types ............................................ 458
Table 165 Abbreviations Used in the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Table . 465
Table 166 Menu 1 General Setup (SMT Menu 1) ................................................. 466
Table 167 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 ) ......................................................................... 466
38
List of Tables
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 168 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4) ..................................... 469
Table 169 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) ...................................................................... 471
Table 170 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15) ....................................... 475
Table 171 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) ........................................... 477
Table 172 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) .......................................... 480
Table 173 Menu 23 System Menus (SMT Menu 23) ............................................. 485
Table 174 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control (SMT Menu 24.11) ............ 486
Table 175 Command Examples ............................................................................ 486
Table 176 Sys Firewall Commands ....................................................................... 491
Table 177 System Maintenance Logs ................................................................... 495
Table 178 System Error Logs ................................................................................ 496
Table 179 Access Control Logs ............................................................................. 496
Table 180 TCP Reset Logs ................................................................................... 497
Table 181 Packet Filter Logs ................................................................................. 497
Table 182 ICMP Logs ............................................................................................ 497
Table 183 CDR Logs ............................................................................................. 498
Table 184 PPP Logs .............................................................................................. 498
Table 185 UPnP Logs ........................................................................................... 499
Table 186 Content Filtering Logs .......................................................................... 499
Table 187 Attack Logs ........................................................................................... 499
Table 188 802.1X Logs ......................................................................................... 500
Table 189 ACL Setting Notes ................................................................................ 501
Table 190 ICMP Notes .......................................................................................... 501
Table 191 Syslog Logs .......................................................................................... 502
Table 192 SIP Logs ............................................................................................... 502
Table 193 RTP Logs .............................................................................................. 503
Table 194 FSM Logs: Caller Side .......................................................................... 503
Table 195 FSM Logs: Callee Side ......................................................................... 503
Table 196 Lifeline Logs ......................................................................................... 503
Table 197 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types ...................................................... 504
List of Tables
39
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
40
List of Tables
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Preface
Congratulations on your purchase of the Prestige 2602HW Series ADSL VoIP IAD with
802.11g Wireless.
Note: Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and
information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for
North American products.
Your Prestige is easy to install and configure.
About This User's Guide
This manual is designed to guide you through the configuration of your Prestige for its various
applications. The web configurator parts of this guide contain background information on
features configurable by web configurator. The SMT parts of this guide contain background
information solely on features not configurable by web configurator.
Note: Use the web configurator, System Management Terminal (SMT) or command
interpreter interface to configure your Prestige. Not all features can be
configured through all interfaces.
Related Documentation
• Supporting Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. They
contain connection information and instructions on getting started.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
• ZyXEL Glossary and Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for an online glossary of networking terms and additional
support documentation.
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you. E-mail all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to techwriters@zyxel.com.tw or send regular mail to The Technical Writing
Team, ZyXEL Communications Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science-Based Industrial Park,
Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan. Thank you.
Preface
41
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Syntax Conventions
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters. “Select” or “Choose” means for
you to use one predefined choices.
• The SMT menu titles and labels are in Bold Times New Roman font. Predefined field
choices are in Bold Arial font. Command and arrow keys are enclosed in square
brackets. [ENTER] means the Enter, or carriage return key; [ESC] means the Escape key
and [SPACE BAR] means the Space Bar.
• Mouse action sequences are denoted using a comma. For example, “click the Apple icon,
Control Panels and then Modem” means first click the Apple icon, then point your
mouse pointer to Control Panels and then click Modem.
• For brevity’s sake, we will use “e.g.,” as a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” for
“that is” or “in other words” throughout this manual.
• The Prestige 2602HW series may be referred to as the Prestige in this user’s guide. This
refers to both models (ADSL over POTS and ADSL over ISDN) unless specifically
identified.
42
Preface
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Graphics Icons Key
Prestige
Computer
Notebook Computer
Server
Switch
Router
Telephone
DSLAM
Trunking Gateway
Firewall
Wireless Signal
Introduction to DSL
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology enhances the data capacity of the existing twistedpair wire that runs between the local telephone company switching offices and most homes
and offices. While the wire itself can handle higher frequencies, the telephone switching
equipment is designed to cut off signals above 4,000 Hz to filter noise off the voice line, but
now everybody is searching for ways to get more bandwidth to improve access to the Web hence DSL technologies.
There are actually seven types of DSL service, ranging in speeds from 16 Kbits/sec to 52
Mbits/sec. The services are either symmetrical (traffic flows at the same speed in both
directions), or asymmetrical (the downstream capacity is higher than the upstream capacity).
Asymmetrical services (ADSL) are suitable for Internet users because more information is
usually downloaded than uploaded. For example, a simple button click in a web browser can
start an extended download that includes graphics and text.
Introduction to DSL
43
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
As data rates increase, the carrying distance decreases. That means that users who are beyond
a certain distance from the telephone company’s central office may not be able to obtain the
higher speeds.
A DSL connection is a point-to-point dedicated circuit, meaning that the link is always up and
there is no dialing required.
Introduction to ADSL
It is an asymmetrical technology, meaning that the downstream data rate is much higher than
the upstream data rate. As mentioned, this works well for a typical Internet session in which
more information is downloaded, for example, from Web servers, than is uploaded. ADSL
operates in a frequency range that is above the frequency range of voice services, so the two
systems can operate over the same cable.
44
Introduction to DSL
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
CHAPTER 1
Getting To Know Your Prestige
This chapter describes the key features and applications of your Prestige.
1.1 Introducing the Prestige
The Prestige P2602HW ADSL VoIP IAD (Integrated Access Device) combines high-speed
ADSL Internet access, a 4-port Ethernet switch, IEEE 802.11g wireless access, and Voice
over IP (VoIP) communication capabilities. It is ideal for small networks.
VoIP is the sending of voice signals over the Internet. The Prestige lets you use a traditional
analog telephone for VoIP calls. You can call any landline or mobile telephone as well as IP
telephones (depending on your VoIP service provider). Calls received from IP telephones
work exactly as you would expect from the traditional telephone service. The Prestige uses
SIP (Session Initiated Protocol), an internationally recognized standard for implementing
VoIP.
Note: The Prestige is ideal for high-speed Internet browsing and making LAN-to-LAN
connections to remote networks. The Prestige is an ADSL router compatible
with the ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ standards. Maximum data rates attainable by
the Prestige for each standard are shown in the next table.
Table 1 ADSL Standards
STANDARD
UPSTREAM DATA RATE
DOWNSTREAM DATA RATE
ADSL
832 kbps
8Mbps
ADSL2
3.5Mbps
12Mbps
ADSL2+
3.5Mbps
24Mbps
Note: The standard your ISP supports determines the maximum upstream and
downstream speeds attainable. Actual speeds attained also depend on the
distance from your ISP, line quality, etc.
By integrating DSL and NAT, the Prestige provides ease of installation and Internet access.
The Prestige is also a complete security solution with a robust firewall and content filtering.
Three Prestige models are included in this user’s guide at the time of writing. In the Prestige
product name, “H” denotes an integrated 4-port switch (hub) and “W” denotes an internal
wireless card. The Prestige 2602HW provides 802.11g wireless LAN connectivity allowing
users to enjoy the convenience and mobility of working anywhere within the coverage area.
Chapter 1 Getting To Know Your Prestige
45
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Note: Models ending in “1”, for example Prestige 2602HW-61, denote a device that
works over the analog telephone system, POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service).
Models ending in “3” denote a device that works over ISDN (Integrated
Synchronous Digital System). Models ending in “7” denote a device that works
over T-ISDN (UR-2).
Note: Only use firmware for your Prestige’s specific model. Refer to the label on the
bottom of your Prestige.
The web browser-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) provides easy management.
1.2 Prestige 2602HW-L with Lifeline
The Prestige 2602HW-L has all of the features of the Prestige 2602HW and adds the PSTN
(Public Switched Telephone Network) lifeline feature. PSTN lifeline lets you have VoIP
phone service and PSTN phone service at the same time.
1.3 Features of the Prestige
The following sections describe the features of the Prestige.
PSTN Lifeline
The Prestige 2602HW-L has a LINE port for connecting a PSTN line. You can receive
incoming PSTN phone calls even while someone else connected to the Prestige is making
VoIP phone calls. You can dial a (prefix) number to make an outgoing PSTN call. You can
still make PSTN phone calls if the Prestige 2602HW-L loses power.
REN
A Ringer Equivalence Number is used to determine the number of devices that may be
connected to the telephone line. The Prestige can support three devices per telephone port.
Dynamic Jitter Buffer
The Prestige has a built-in adaptive, buffer that helps to smooth out the variations in delay
(jitter) for voice traffic. This helps ensure good voice quality for your conversations.
VoIP Standards Compliance
The Prestige complies with the following VoIP standards.
• SIP version 2 (RFC 3261)
• SDP (RFC 2327)
• RTP (RFC 1889)
• RTCP (RFC 1890)
46
Chapter 1 Getting To Know Your Prestige
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Multiple SIP Accounts
The Prestige allows you to simultaneously use multiple voice (SIP) accounts and assign them
to one or both telephone ports.
Multiple Voice Channels
The Prestige can simultaneously handle multiple voice channels (telephone calls).
Additionally you can answer an incoming phone call on a VoIP account, even while someone
else is using the account for a phone call.
Voice Coding
The Prestige can use the following voice codecs (coder/decoders).
• G.711
• G.729
Voice Activity Detection/Silence Suppression
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) reduces the bandwidth that a call uses by not transmitting
“silent packets” when you are not speaking.
Comfort Noise Generation
When the Prestige uses VAD, it generates and sends comfort (background) noise when you are
not speaking.
Echo Cancellation
The Prestige supports G.168, an ITU-T standard for eliminating the echo caused by the sound
of your voice reverberating in the telephone receiver while you talk.
QoS (Quality of Service)
Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms help to provide better service on a per-flow basis. The
Prestige supports Type of Service (ToS) and Differentiated Services (DiffServ). This allows
the Prestige to tag voice frames so they can be prioritized over the network.
SIP ALG
The Prestige 2602HW is a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). It allows VoIP calls to pass
through NAT.
Auto-provisioning
Auto-provisioning automatically updates your Prestige’s configurable settings via a TFTP
server.
Chapter 1 Getting To Know Your Prestige
47
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
High Speed Internet Access
Your Prestige ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ router can support downstream transmission rates of
up to 24Mbps and upstream transmission rates of 3.5Mbps. Actual speeds attained depend on
ISP DSLAM environment.
Zero Configuration Internet Access
Once you connect and turn on the Prestige, it automatically detects the Internet connection
settings (such as the VCI/VPI numbers and the encapsulation method) from the ISP and makes
the necessary configuration changes. In cases where additional account information (such as
an Internet account user name and password) is required or the Prestige cannot connect to the
ISP, you will be redirected to web screen(s) for information input or troubleshooting.
Any IP
The Any IP feature allows a computer to access the Internet and the Prestige without changing
the network settings (such as IP address and subnet mask) of the computer, when the IP
addresses of the computer and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
Firewall
The Prestige is a stateful inspection firewall with DoS (Denial of Service) protection. By
default, when the firewall is activated, all incoming traffic from the WAN to the LAN is
blocked unless it is initiated from the LAN. The Prestige firewall supports TCP/UDP
inspection, DoS detection and prevention, real time alerts, reports and logs.
Note: You can configure most features of the Prestige via SMT but we recommend
you configure the firewall and content filters using the web configurator.
IPSec VPN Capability
Establish a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to connect with business partners and branch
offices using data encryption and the Internet to provide secure communications without the
expense of leased site-to-site lines. The Prestige VPN is based on the IPSec standard and is
fully interoperable with other IPSec-based VPN products.
The Prestige supports up to 20 simultaneous IPSec connections.
Content Filtering
Content filtering allows you to block access to Internet web sites that contain key words (that
you specify) in the URL. You can also schedule when the Prestige should perform the filtering
and give trusted LAN IP addresses unfiltered Internet access.
48
Chapter 1 Getting To Know Your Prestige
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN
IEEE 802.11g is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.11b standard. This means an IEEE
802.11b radio card can interface directly with an IEEE 802.11g access point (and vice versa)
at 11 Mbps or lower depending on range. IEEE 802.11g has several intermediate rate steps
between the maximum and minimum data rates. The IEEE 802.11g data rate and modulation
are as follows:
Table 2 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE (MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
6/9/12/18/24/36/48/54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Note: The Prestige may be prone to RF (Radio Frequency) interference from other
2.4 GHz devices such as microwave ovens, wireless phones, Bluetooth
enabled devices, and other wireless LANs.
External Antenna
The Prestige is equipped with an antenna connector and comes with a detachable 5dBi antenna
to provide clear radio signal between the wireless stations and the access points.
Note: Under the CE regulations, when using a 5dBi or higher gain antenna with the
Prestige, the maximum antenna power output must be less or equal to 20dBm.
Refer to the support note for more information.
Wireless LAN MAC Address Filtering
Your Prestige can check the MAC addresses of wireless stations against a list of allowed or
denied MAC addresses.
WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the wireless
network to help keep network communications private.
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i security specification draft.
Key differences between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data
encryption.
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Traffic Redirect
Traffic redirect forwards WAN traffic to a backup gateway when the Prestige cannot connect
to the Internet, thus acting as an auxiliary if your regular WAN connection fails.
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
Using the standard TCP/IP protocol, the Prestige and other UPnP enabled devices can
dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address and convey its capabilities to other devices
on the network.
PPPoE Support (RFC2516)
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) emulates a dial-up connection. It allows your
ISP to use their existing network configuration with newer broadband technologies such as
ADSL. The PPPoE driver on the Prestige is transparent to the computers on the LAN, which
see only Ethernet and are not aware of PPPoE thus saving you from having to manage PPPoE
clients on individual computers.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol address
used within one network (for example a private IP address used in a local network) to a
different IP address known within another network (for example a public IP address used on
the Internet).
10/100M Auto-negotiating Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface(s)
This auto-negotiation feature allows the Prestige to detect the speed of incoming transmissions
and adjust appropriately without manual intervention. It allows data transfer of either 10 Mbps
or 100 Mbps in either half-duplex or full-duplex mode depending on your Ethernet network.
Auto-Crossover (MDI/MDI-X) 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Interface(s)
These interfaces automatically adjust to either a crossover or straight-through Ethernet cable.
Dynamic DNS Support
With Dynamic DNS support, you can have a static hostname alias for a dynamic IP address,
allowing the host to be more easily accessible from various locations on the Internet. You must
register for this service with a Dynamic DNS service provider.
Multiple PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuits) Support
Your Prestige supports up to 8 PVC’s.
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ADSL Standards
• Full-Rate (ANSI T1.413, Issue 2; G.dmt (G.992.1) with line rate support of up to 8 Mbps
downstream and 832 Kbps upstream.
• G.lite (G.992.2) with line rate support of up to 1.5Mbps downstream and 512Kbps
upstream.
• Supports Multi-Mode standard (ANSI T1.413, Issue 2; G.dmt (G.992.1); G.lite
(G992.2)).
• TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) network layer protocol.
• ATM Forum UNI 3.1/4.0 PVC.
• Supports up to 8 PVCs (UBR, CBR, VBR).
• Multiple Protocol over AAL5 (RFC 1483).
• PPP over AAL5 (RFC 2364).
• PPP over Ethernet over AAL5 (RFC 2516).
• RFC 1661.
• PPP over PAP (RFC 1334).
• PPP over CHAP (RFC 1994).
Protocol Support
• DHCP Support
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) allows the individual clients (computers)
to obtain the TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a centralized DHCP server. The
Prestige has built-in DHCP server capability enabled by default. It can assign IP
addresses, an IP default gateway and DNS servers to DHCP clients. The Prestige can now
also act as a surrogate DHCP server (DHCP Relay) where it relays IP address assignment
from the actual real DHCP server to the clients.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) link layer protocol.
Transparent bridging for unsupported network layer protocols.
RIP I/RIP II
IGMP Proxy
ICMP support
ATM QoS support
MIB II support (RFC 1213)
IP Alias
IP Alias allows you to partition a physical network into logical networks over the same
Ethernet interface. The Prestige supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical
Ethernet interface with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
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IP Policy Routing (IPPR)
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the router takes the shortest
path to forward a packet. IP Policy Routing (IPPR) provides a mechanism to override the
default routing behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy defined by the
network administrator.
Networking Compatibility
Your Prestige is compatible with the major ADSL DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access
Multiplexer) providers, making configuration as simple as possible for you.
Multiplexing
The Prestige supports VC-based and LLC-based multiplexing.
Encapsulation
The Prestige supports PPPoA (RFC 2364 - PPP over ATM Adaptation Layer 5), RFC 1483
encapsulation over ATM, MAC encapsulated routing (ENET encapsulation) as well as PPP
over Ethernet (RFC 2516).
Network Management
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Menu driven SMT (System Management Terminal) management
Embedded web configurator
CLI (Command Line Interpreter)
Remote Management via Telnet or Web
SNMP manageable
DHCP Server/Client/Relay
Built-in Diagnostic Tools
Syslog
Telnet Support (Password-protected telnet access to internal configuration manager)
TFTP/FTP server, firmware upgrade and configuration backup/support supported
Supports OAM F4/F5 loop-back, AIS and RDI OAM cells
Other PPPoE Features
• PPPoE idle time out
• PPPoE dial on demand
Diagnostics Capabilities
The Prestige can perform self-diagnostic tests. These tests check the integrity of the following
circuitry:
• FLASH memory
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• ADSL circuitry
• RAM
• LAN port
Packet Filters
The Prestige's packet filtering functions allows added network security and management.
Ease of Installation
Your Prestige is designed for quick, intuitive and easy installation.
Housing
Your Prestige's compact and ventilated housing minimizes space requirements making it easy
to position anywhere in your busy office.
1.4 Applications for the Prestige
Here are some example uses for which the Prestige is well suited.
1.4.1 Internet Access
The Prestige is the ideal high-speed Internet access solution. Your Prestige supports the TCP/
IP protocol, which the Internet uses exclusively. It is compatible with all major ADSL
DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) providers. A DSLAM is a rack of
ADSL line cards with data multiplexed into a backbone network interface/connection (for
example, T1, OC3, DS3, ATM or Frame Relay). Think of it as the equivalent of a modem rack
for ADSL. In addition, the Prestige allows wireless clients access to your network resources. A
typical Internet access application is shown below.
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Figure 1 Prestige Internet Access Application
Internet Single User Account
For a SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) environment, your Prestige offers the Single User
Account (SUA) feature that allows multiple users on the LAN (Local Area Network) to access
the Internet concurrently for the cost of a single IP address
1.4.2 Making Calls via Internet Telephony Service Provider
In a home or small office environment, you can use the Prestige to make and receive VoIP
telephone calls through an Internet Telephony Service Provider (ITSP).
The following figure shows a basic example of how you would make a VoIP call through an
ITSP. You use your analog phone (A in the figure) and the Prestige (B) changes the call into
VoIP. The Prestige then sends your call through your modem or router (C) to the Internet and
the ITSP’s SIP server. The VoIP call server forwards calls to PSTN phones (F) through a
trunking gateway (E) to the PSTN network. The VoIP call server forwards calls to IP phones
(G) through the Internet.
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Figure 2 Internet Telephony Service Provider Application
1.4.3 Firewall for Secure Broadband Internet Access
The Prestige provides protection from attacks by Internet hackers. By default, the firewall
blocks all incoming traffic from the WAN. The firewall supports TCP/UDP inspection and
DoS (Denial of Services) detection and prevention, as well as real time alerts, reports and logs.
Figure 3 Firewall Application
1.4.4 LAN to LAN Application
You can use the Prestige to connect two geographically dispersed networks over the ADSL line.
A typical LAN-to-LAN application for your Prestige is shown as follows.
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Figure 4 Prestige LAN-to-LAN Application
1.5 Prestige Hardware Installation and Connection
Refer to the Quick Start Guide for information on hardware installation and connections and
LED descriptions.
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CHAPTER 2
Introducing the Web
Configurator
This chapter describes how to access and navigate the web configurator.
2.1 Web Configurator Overview
The embedded web configurator allows you to manage the Prestige from anywhere through a
browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Use Internet Explorer 6.0
and later or Netscape Navigator 7.0 and later versions with JavaScript enabled. It is
recommended that you set your screen resolution to 1024 by 768 pixels
2.1.1 Accessing the Prestige Web Configurator
1 Make sure your Prestige hardware is properly connected (refer to the Quick Start Guide).
2 Prepare your computer/computer network to connect to the Prestige (refer to the Quick
Start Guide).
3 Launch your web browser.
4 Type "192.168.1.1" as the URL.
5 An Enter Network Password window displays. Enter the user name (“admin” is the
default), password (“1234” is the default). Click Login to proceed to a screen asking you
to change your password. Click Reset to revert to the default password in the password
field
Figure 5 Password Screen
6 It is highly recommended you change the default password. Enter a new password, retype
it to confirm and click Apply; alternatively click Ignore to proceed to the main menu if
you do not want to change the password now.
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Figure 6 Change Password at Login
7 You should now see the SITE MAP screen.
Note: The Prestige automatically times out after five minutes of inactivity. Simply log
back into the Prestige if this happens to you.
2.1.2 Resetting the Prestige
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to use the
RESET button at the back of the Prestige to reload the factory-default configuration file. This
means that you will lose all configurations that you had previously and the password will be
reset to “1234”.
2.1.2.1 Using The Reset Button
1 Make sure the PWR/SYS LED is on (not blinking).
2 Press the RESET button for ten seconds or until the PWR/SYS LED begins to blink and
then release it. When the PWR/SYS LED begins to blink, the defaults have been restored
and the Prestige restarts.
2.1.3 Navigating the Prestige Web Configurator
The following summarizes how to navigate the web configurator from the SITE MAP screen.
We use the Prestige 2602HW-61 web screens in this guide as an example. Screens vary
slightly for different Prestige models.
• Click Wizard Setup to begin a series of screens to configure your Prestige for the first
time.
• Click a link under Advanced Setup to configure advanced Prestige features.
• Click a link under Maintenance to see Prestige performance statistics, upload firmware
and back up, restore or upload a configuration file.
• Click Site Map to go to the Site Map screen.
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• Click Logout in the navigation panel when you have finished a Prestige management
session.
Figure 7
Web Configurator SITE MAP Screen
Note: Click the
icon (located in the top right corner of most screens) to view
embedded help.
Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary
LINK
SUB-LINK
FUNCTION
Wizard Setup
Wizard Setup
Use these screens for initial configuration including general
setup, ISP parameters for Internet Access and WAN IP/DNS
Server/MAC address assignment.
Advanced Setup
Password
Use this screen to change your password.
LAN
Use this screen to configure LAN DHCP and TCP/IP settings.
Wireless LAN
WAN
NAT
Wireless
Use this screen to configure the wireless LAN settings.
MAC Filter
Use this screen to change MAC filter settings on the Prestige
802.1X
Use this screen to configure the Prestige’s WLAN authentication
settings
Local User
Database
Use this screen to set up built-in user profiles for wireless client
authentication.
RADIUS
Configure this screen to use an external server to authenticate
wireless clients.
WAN Setup
Use this screen to change the Prestige’s WAN remote node
settings.
WAN Backup
Use this screen to configure your traffic redirect properties and
WAN backup settings.
SUA Only
Use this screen to configure servers behind the Prestige.
Full Feature
Use this screen to configure network address translation
mapping rules.
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Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary (continued)
LINK
SUB-LINK
FUNCTION
Voice
SIP Settings
Use this screen to configure your Prestige’s Session Initiation
Protocol settings.
QoS
Use this screen to configure your Prestige’s Quality of Service
settings.
Phone
Use this screen to configure your Prestige’s phone settings.
Speed Dial
Use this screen to configure speed dial for SIP phone numbers
that you call often.
Lifeline
Use this screen to configure your Prestige’s settings for PSTN
calls (Prestige 2602HW-L only).
Common
Use this screen to configure general phone port settings.
Dynamic DNS
Use this screen to set up dynamic DNS.
Time and Date
Use this screen to change your Prestige’s time and date.
Firewall
Content Filter
VPN
Default Policy
Use this screen to activate/deactivate the firewall and the
direction of network traffic to which to apply the rule.
Rule Summary
This screen shows a summary of the firewall rules, and allows
you to edit/add a firewall rule.
Anti Probing
Use this screen to change your anti-probing settings.
Threshold
Use this screen to configure the threshold for DoS attacks.
Keyword
Use this screen to block sites containing certain keywords in the
URL.
Schedule
Use this screen to set the days and times for the Prestige to
perform content filtering.
Trusted
Use this screen to exclude a range of users on the LAN from
content filtering on your Prestige.
Setup
Use this screen to configure VPN connections and view the rule
summary.
Monitor
Use this screen to display and manage active VPN connections.
Global Setting
Use this screen to allow NetBIOS packets through the VPN
connections.
Remote
Management
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use Telnet/FTP/Web to manage
the Prestige.
UPnP
Use this screen to enable UPnP on the Prestige.
Logs
Log Settings
Use this screen to change your Prestige’s log settings.
View Log
Use this screen to view the logs for the categories that you
selected.
Maintenance
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System Status
This screen contains administrative and system-related
information.
DHCP Table
This screen displays DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol) related information and is READ-ONLY.
Any IP Table
This screen lists the devices that are using the Any IP feature to
communicate with the Prestige.
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Table 3 Web Configurator Screens Summary (continued)
LINK
SUB-LINK
FUNCTION
Diagnostic
General
These screens display information to help you identify problems
with the Prestige general connection.
DSL Line
These screens display information to help you identify problems
with the DSL line.
Firmware
Use this screen to upload firmware to your Prestige
LOGOUT
Click this label to exit the web configurator.
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CHAPTER 3
Wizard Setup
This chapter provides information on the Wizard Setup screens for Internet access and VoIP in
the web configurator.
3.1 Wizard Setup Introduction
Use the Wizard Setup screens to configure your system for Internet access and Voice with the
information provided by your ISP and voice service provider. Your ISP may have already
configured some of the fields in the wizard screens for you.
3.1.1 Encapsulation
Be sure to use the encapsulation method required by your ISP. The Prestige supports the
following methods.
3.1.1.1 ENET ENCAP
The MAC Encapsulated Routing Link Protocol (ENET ENCAP) is only implemented with the
IP network protocol. IP packets are routed between the Ethernet interface and the WAN
interface and then formatted so that they can be understood in a bridged environment. For
instance, it encapsulates routed Ethernet frames into bridged ATM cells. ENET ENCAP
requires that you specify a gateway IP address in the Ethernet Encapsulation Gateway field
in the second wizard screen. You can get this information from your ISP.
3.1.1.2 PPP over Ethernet
PPPoE provides access control and billing functionality in a manner similar to dial-up services
using PPP. The Prestige bridges a PPP session over Ethernet (PPP over Ethernet, RFC 2516)
from your computer to an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) which connects to ADSL
Access Concentrator where the PPP session terminates. One PVC can support any number of
PPP sessions from your LAN. For more information on PPPoE, see the appendices.
3.1.1.3 PPPoA
PPPoA stands for Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5). A PPPoA
connection functions like a dial-up Internet connection. The Prestige encapsulates the PPP
session based on RFC1483 and sends it through an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) to
the Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) DSLAM (digital access multiplexer). Please refer to RFC
2364 for more information on PPPoA. Refer to RFC 1661 for more information on PPP.
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3.1.1.4 RFC 1483
RFC 1483 describes two methods for Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation
Layer 5 (AAL5). The first method allows multiplexing of multiple protocols over a single
ATM virtual circuit (LLC-based multiplexing) and the second method assumes that each
protocol is carried over a separate ATM virtual circuit (VC-based multiplexing). Please refer
to the RFC for more detailed information.
3.1.2 Multiplexing
There are two conventions to identify what protocols the virtual circuit (VC) is carrying. Be
sure to use the multiplexing method required by your ISP.
3.1.2.1 VC-based Multiplexing
In this case, by prior mutual agreement, each protocol is assigned to a specific virtual circuit;
for example, VC1 carries IP, etc. VC-based multiplexing may be dominant in environments
where dynamic creation of large numbers of ATM VCs is fast and economical.
3.1.2.2 LLC-based Multiplexing
In this case one VC carries multiple protocols with protocol identifying information being
contained in each packet header. Despite the extra bandwidth and processing overhead, this
method may be advantageous if it is not practical to have a separate VC for each carried
protocol, for example, if charging heavily depends on the number of simultaneous VCs.
3.1.3 VPI and VCI
Be sure to use the correct Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI)
numbers assigned to you. The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255 and for the VCI is 32 to
65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management of ATM traffic). Please see the appendix for
more information.
3.1.4 Internet Access Wizard Setup: First Screen
In the SITE MAP screen click Wizard Setup to display the first wizard screen.
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Figure 8 Internet Access Wizard Setup: First Screen
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 4 Internet Access Wizard Setup: First Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
From the Mode drop-down list box, select Routing (default) if your ISP allows
multiple computers to share an Internet account. Otherwise select Bridge.
Encapsulation
Select the encapsulation type your ISP uses from the Encapsulation drop-down list
box. Choices vary depending on what you select in the Mode field.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, select either PPPoA or RFC 1483.
If you select Routing in the Mode field, select PPPoA, RFC 1483, ENET ENCAP or
PPPoE.
Multiplex
Select the multiplexing method used by your ISP from the Multiplex drop-down list
box either VC-based or LLC-based.
Virtual Circuit
ID
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) define a virtual circuit.
Refer to the appendix for more information.
VPI
Enter the VPI assigned to you. This field may already be configured.
VCI
Enter the VCI assigned to you. This field may already be configured.
Next
Click this button to go to the next wizard screen. The next wizard screen you see
depends on what protocol you chose above. Click on the protocol link to see the next
wizard screen for that protocol.
3.2 IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do computers on a
LAN share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
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If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 and you must enable the Network Address Translation (NAT)
feature of the Prestige. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block
of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you are
told otherwise. Let's say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254
individual addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In other
words, the first three numbers specify the network number while the last number identifies an
individual computer on that network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember,
for instance, 192.168.1.1, for your Prestige, but make sure that no other device on your
network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your Prestige will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't
need to change the subnet mask computed by the Prestige unless you are instructed to do
otherwise.
3.2.1 IP Address Assignment
A static IP is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP is not fixed; the ISP assigns you
a different one each time. The Single User Account feature can be enabled or disabled if you
have either a dynamic or static IP. However the encapsulation method assigned influences
your choices for IP address and ENET ENCAP gateway.
3.2.1.1 IP Assignment with PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation
If you have a dynamic IP, then the IP Address and ENET ENCAP Gateway fields are not
applicable (N/A). If you have a static IP, then you only need to fill in the IP Address field and
not the ENET ENCAP Gateway field.
3.2.1.2 IP Assignment with RFC 1483 Encapsulation
In this case the IP Address Assignment must be static with the same requirements for the IP
Address and ENET ENCAP Gateway fields as stated above.
3.2.1.3 IP Assignment with ENET ENCAP Encapsulation
In this case you can have either a static or dynamic IP. For a static IP you must fill in all the IP
Address and ENET ENCAP Gateway fields as supplied by your ISP. However for a
dynamic IP, the Prestige acts as a DHCP client on the WAN port and so the IP Address and
ENET ENCAP Gateway fields are not applicable (N/A) as the DHCP server assigns them to
the Prestige.
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3.2.1.4 Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from
the Internet, for example, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks:
• 10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or it can be assigned from a
private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an
ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other
hand, if you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network
administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address
assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets
and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
3.2.2 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP)
A nailed-up connection is a dial-up line where the connection is always up regardless of traffic
demand. The Prestige does two things when you specify a nailed-up connection. The first is
that idle timeout is disabled. The second is that the Prestige will try to bring up the connection
when turned on and whenever the connection is down. A nailed-up connection can be very
expensive for obvious reasons.
Do not specify a nailed-up connection unless your telephone company offers flat-rate service
or you need a constant connection and the cost is of no concern
3.2.3 NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a
host in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one
network to a different IP address known within another network.
3.2.4 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Second Screen
The second wizard screen varies depending on what mode and encapsulation type you use. All
screens shown are with routing mode. Configure the fields and click Next to continue.
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Figure 9 Internet Connection with PPPoE
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 5
68
Internet Connection with PPPoE
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
Type the name of your PPPoE service here.
User Name
Enter the user name exactly as your ISP assigned. If assigned a name in the form
user@domain where domain identifies a service name, then enter both components
exactly as given.
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
IP Address
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the text
box below.
Connection
Select Connect on Demand when you don't want the connection up all the time and
specify an idle time-out (in seconds) in the Max. Idle Timeout field. The default
setting selects Connection on Demand with 0 as the idle time-out, which means the
Internet session will not timeout.
Select Nailed-Up Connection when you want your connection up all the time. The
Prestige will try to bring up the connection automatically if it is disconnected.
The schedule rule(s) in SMT menu 26 has priority over your Connection settings.
Network
Address
Translation
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-sown list box. Refer to the NAT
chapter for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
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Figure 10
Internet Connection with RFC 1483
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 6 Internet Connection with RFC 1483
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
This field is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
Type your ISP assigned IP address in this field.
Network Address
Translation
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-sown list box. Refer to
Chapter 8 on page 119 for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
Figure 11 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 7 Internet Connection with ENET ENCAP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the IP
Address text box below.
Subnet Mask
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to the appendix on IP subnettig to calculate a subnet mask If you are
implementing subnetting.
ENET ENCAP You must specify a gateway IP address (supplied by your ISP) when you use ENET
Gateway
ENCAP in the Encapsulation field in the previous screen.
Network
Address
Translation
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-sown list box. Refer to the NAT
chapter for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
Figure 12 Internet Connection with PPPoA
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 8 Internet Connection with PPPoA
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Enter the login name that your ISP gives you.
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Click Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise click Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the IP
Address text box below.
Connection
Select Connect on Demand when you don't want the connection up all the time and
specify an idle time-out (in seconds) in the Max. Idle Timeout field. The default setting
selects Connection on Demand with 0 as the idle time-out, which means the Internet
session will not timeout.
Select Nailed-Up Connection when you want your connection up all the time. The
Prestige will try to bring up the connection automatically if it is disconnected.
The schedule rule(s) in SMT menu 26 has priority over your Connection settings.
Network
Address
Translation
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
Select None, SUA Only or Full Feature from the drop-sown list box. Refer to Chapter
8 on page 119 for more details.
Back
Click Back to go back to the first wizard screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
3.2.5 SIP Identities
A SIP account's Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) identifies the SIP account in a way similar
to the way an e-mail address identifies an e-mail account. It is also known as a SIP identity or
address. The format of a SIP identity is SIP-Number@SIP-Service-Domain.
3.2.5.1 SIP Number
A SIP number is the part of the SIP URI that comes before the "@" symbol. For example, if
1122334455@VoIP-provider.com was your SIP URI, “1122334455” would be your SIP
number.
3.2.5.2 SIP Service Domain
A SIP service domain is the domain name that comes after the @ symbol in a SIP URI. For
example, if 1122334455@VoIP-provider.com was your SIP URI, “VoIP-provider.com” is the
SIP service domain.
3.2.6 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Third Screen
Use this screen to configure the voice settings (for the Prestige’s SIP account one) with the
information in the Voice Account Information table.
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Figure 13 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Third Screen
Table 9 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Voice Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to have the Prestige use this SIP account. Clear the
check box to have the Prestige not use this SIP account.
SIP Number
Enter your SIP number in this field (use the number or text that comes before
the @ symbol in a full SIP URI). You can use up to 95 ASCII characters.
SIP Local Port
Use this field to configure the Prestige’s listening port for SIP. Leave this field
set to the default if you were not given a local port number for SIP.
SIP Server Address
Type the IP address of the SIP server in this field. It doesn’t matter whether
the SIP server is a proxy, redirect or register server.
SIP Server Port
Enter the SIP server’s listening port for SIP in this field. Leave this field set to
the default if your VoIP service provider did not give you a server port number
for SIP.
REGISTER Server
Address
Enter the SIP register server’s address in this field.
If you were not given a register server address, then enter the address
from the SIP Server Address field again here.
REGISTER Server Port Enter the SIP register server’s listening port for SIP in this field.
If you were not given a register server port, then enter the port from the
SIP Server Port field again here.
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SIP Service Domain
Enter the SIP service domain name in this field (the domain name that comes
after the @ symbol in a full SIP URI). You can use up to 127 ASCII Extended
set characters.
Authentication User ID
This is the user name for registering this SIP account with the SIP register
server. Type the user name exactly as it was given to you. You can use up to
95 ASCII characters.
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Table 9 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Voice Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above. You can use up to
95 ASCII Extended set characters.
Send Caller ID
Select this check box to show identification information when you make VoIP
phone calls. Clear the check box to not show identification information when
you make VoIP phone calls.
Back
Click Back to go back to the previous screen.
Next
Click Next to continue to the next wizard screen.
3.2.7 DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration from a server. You can configure the Prestige as a
DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a server, the Prestige provides the TCP/IP
configuration for the clients. If you turn DHCP service off, you must have another DHCP
server on your LAN, or else the computer must be manually configured.
3.2.7.1 IP Pool Setup
The Prestige is pre-configured with a pool of 32 IP addresses starting from 192.168.1.33 to
192.168.1.64 for the client machines. This leaves 31 IP addresses, 192.168.1.2 to
192.168.1.32 (excluding the Prestige itself which has a default IP of 192.168.1.1) for other
server machines, for example, server for mail, FTP, telnet, web, etc., that you may have.
3.2.8 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Fourth Screen
Verify the settings in the screen shown next. To change the LAN information on the Prestige,
click Change LAN Configurations. Otherwise click Save Settings to save the configuration
and skip to the section 3.13.
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Figure 14 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Fourth Screen
If you want to change your Prestige LAN settings, click Change LAN Configuration to
display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 15 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 10 Internet Access Wizard Setup: LAN Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation, for example,
192.168.1.1 (factory default).
If you changed the Prestige's LAN IP address, you must use the new IP
address if you want to access the web configurator again.
LAN Subnet Mask
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
DHCP
DHCP Server
From the DHCP Server drop-down list box, select On to allow your Prestige to
assign IP addresses, an IP default gateway and DNS servers to computer
systems that support the DHCP client. Select Off to disable DHCP server.
When DHCP server is used, set the following items:
Client IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address
pool.
Size of Client IP Pool
This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
Primary DNS Server
Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. The DNS servers are passed to
the DHCP clients along with the IP address and the subnet mask.
Secondary DNS Server As above.
Back
Click Back to go back to the previous screen.
Finish
Click Finish to save the settings and proceed to the next wizard screen.
3.2.9 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Connection Test
The Prestige automatically tests the connection to the computer(s) connected to the LAN
ports. To test the connection from the Prestige to the ISP and the VoIP service provider, click
Start Diagnose. Otherwise click Return to Main Menu to go back to the Site Map screen.
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Figure 16 Internet Access Wizard Setup: Connection Tests
3.2.9.1 Test Your Internet Connection
Launch your web browser and navigate to www.zyxel.com. Internet access is just the
beginning. Refer to the rest of this User’s Guide for more detailed information on the complete
range of Prestige features. If you cannot access the Internet, open the web configurator again
to confirm that the Internet settings you configured in the Wizard Setup are correct.
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CHAPTER 4
Password Setup
This chapter provides information on the Password screen.
4.1 Password Overview
It is highly recommended that you change the password for accessing the Prestige.
4.1.1 Configuring Password
To change your Prestige’s password (recommended), click Password in the Site Map screen.
Figure 17 Password
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 11 Password
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Old Password
Type the default password or the existing password you use to access the system
in this field.
New Password
Type the new password in this field.
Retype to Confirm
Type the new password again in this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 5
LAN Setup
This chapter describes how to configure LAN settings.
5.1 LAN Overview
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many computers
are attached. A LAN is a computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same
building or floor of a building. The LAN screens can help you configure a LAN DHCP server
and manage IP addresses.
5.1.1 LANs, WANs and the Prestige
The actual physical connection determines whether the Prestige ports are LAN or WAN ports.
There are two separate IP networks, one inside the LAN network and the other outside the
WAN network as shown next.
Figure 18 LAN and WAN IP Addresses
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5.2 DNS Server Address
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address
and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the
IP address of a machine before you can access it. The DNS server addresses that you enter in
the DHCP setup are passed to the client machines along with the assigned IP address and
subnet mask.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses. The first is for an ISP
to tell a customer the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet, when
s/he signs up. If your ISP gives you the DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS Server
fields in DHCP Setup, otherwise, leave them blank.
Some ISP’s choose to pass the DNS servers using the DNS server extensions of PPP IPCP (IP
Control Protocol) after the connection is up. If your ISP did not give you explicit DNS
servers, chances are the DNS servers are conveyed through IPCP negotiation. The Prestige
supports the IPCP DNS server extensions through the DNS proxy feature.
If the Primary and Secondary DNS Server fields in the LAN Setup screen are not specified,
for instance, left as 0.0.0.0, the Prestige tells the DHCP clients that it itself is the DNS server.
When a computer sends a DNS query to the Prestige, the Prestige forwards the query to the
real DNS server learned through IPCP and relays the response back to the computer.
Please note that DNS proxy works only when the ISP uses the IPCP DNS server extensions. It
does not mean you can leave the DNS servers out of the DHCP setup under all circumstances.
If your ISP gives you explicit DNS servers, make sure that you enter their IP addresses in the
LAN Setup screen. This way, the Prestige can pass the DNS servers to the computers and the
computers can query the DNS server directly without the Prestige’s intervention.
5.3 DNS Server Address Assignment
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP
address of a computer before you can access it.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses.
• The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet,
when you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS
Server fields in DHCP Setup.
• The Prestige acts as a DNS proxy when the Primary and Secondary DNS Server fields
are left blank in the LAN Setup screen.
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5.4 LAN TCP/IP
The Prestige has built-in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses and DNS servers to
systems that support DHCP client capability.
5.4.1 Factory LAN Defaults
The LAN parameters of the Prestige are preset in the factory with the following values:
• IP address of 192.168.1.1 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
• DHCP server enabled with 32 client IP addresses starting from 192.168.1.33.
These parameters should work for the majority of installations. If your ISP gives you explicit
DNS server address(es), read the embedded web configurator help regarding what fields need
to be configured.
5.4.2 IP Address and Subnet Mask
Refer to the IP Address and Subnet Mask section in the Wizard Setup chapter for this
information.
5.4.3 RIP Setup
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information with
other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and receiving of RIP packets.
When set to:
• Both - the Prestige will broadcast its routing table periodically and incorporate the RIP
information that it receives.
• In Only - the Prestige will not send any RIP packets but will accept all RIP packets
received.
• Out Only - the Prestige will send out RIP packets but will not accept any RIP packets
received.
• None - the Prestige will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets
received.
The Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that the
Prestige sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally supported;
but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most networks, unless
you have an unusual network topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that
RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
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5.4.4 Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1
recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to
a group of hosts on the network - not everybody and not just 1.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC
2236) is an improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP
version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236. The class D IP address is
used to identify host groups and can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The address
224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group and is used by IP multicast computers. The address
224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and is assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts
(including gateways). All hosts must join the 224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP.
The address 224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast routers group.
The Prestige supports both IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP version 2 (IGMP-v2). At
start up, the Prestige queries all directly connected networks to gather group membership.
After that, the Prestige periodically updates this information. IP multicasting can be enabled/
disabled on the Prestige LAN and/or WAN interfaces in the web configurator (LAN; WAN).
Select None to disable IP multicasting on these interfaces.
5.5 Any IP
Traditionally, you must set the IP addresses and the subnet masks of a computer and the
Prestige to be in the same subnet to allow the computer to access the Internet (through the
Prestige). In cases where your computer is required to use a static IP address in another
network, you may need to manually configure the network settings of the computer every time
you want to access the Internet via the Prestige.
With the Any IP feature and NAT enabled, the Prestige allows a computer to access the
Internet without changing the network settings (such as IP address and subnet mask) of the
computer, when the IP addresses of the computer and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
Whether a computer is set to use a dynamic or static (fixed) IP address, you can simply
connect the computer to the Prestige and access the Internet.
The following figure depicts a scenario where a computer is set to use a static private IP
address in the corporate environment. In a residential house where a Prestige is installed, you
can still use the computer to access the Internet without changing the network settings, even
when the IP addresses of the computer and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
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Figure 19 Any IP Example
The Any IP feature does not apply to a computer using either a dynamic IP address or a static
IP address that is in the same subnet as the Prestige’s IP address.
Note: You must enable NAT/SUA to use the Any IP feature on the Prestige.
5.5.1 How Any IP Works
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC
address, on the local area network. IP routing table is defined on IP Ethernet devices (the
Prestige) to decide which hop to use, to help forward data along to its specified destination.
The following lists out the steps taken, when a computer tries to access the Internet for the first
time through the Prestige.
1 When a computer (which is in a different subnet) first attempts to access the Internet, it
sends packets to its default gateway (which is not the Prestige) by looking at the MAC
address in its ARP table.
2 When the computer cannot locate the default gateway, an ARP request is broadcast on the
LAN.
3 The Prestige receives the ARP request and replies to the computer with its own MAC
address.
4 The computer updates the MAC address for the default gateway to the ARP table. Once
the ARP table is updated, the computer is able to access the Internet through the Prestige.
5 When the Prestige receives packets from the computer, it creates an entry in the IP
routing table so it can properly forward packets intended for the computer.
After all the routing information is updated, the computer can access the Prestige and the
Internet as if it is in the same subnet as the Prestige.
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5.6 Configuring LAN
Click LAN and LAN Setup to open the following screen.
Figure 20 LAN Setup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12 LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP
84
DHCP
If set to Server, your Prestige can assign IP addresses, an IP default gateway
and DNS servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and other systems that support
the DHCP client.
If set to None, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to Relay, the Prestige acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays DHCP
requests and responses between the remote server and the clients. Enter the IP
address of the actual, remote DHCP server in the Remote DHCP Server field in
this case.
When DHCP is used, the following items need to be set:
Client IP Pool
Starting Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
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Table 12 LAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Size of Client IP
Pool
This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
Primary DNS Server Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. The DNS servers are passed to the
DHCP clients along with the IP address and the subnet mask.
Secondary DNS
Server
As above.
Remote DHCP
Server
If Relay is selected in the DHCP field above then enter the IP address of the
actual remote DHCP server here.
TCP/IP
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation, for example,
192.168.1.1 (factory default).
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask assigned to you by your ISP (if given).
RIP Direction
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
RIP Version
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a multicast group. The Prestige supports both IGMP
version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP-v2. Select None to disable it.
Any IP Setup
Select the Active checkbox to enable the Any IP feature. This allows a computer
to access the Internet without changing the network settings (such as IP address
and subnet mask) of the computer, even when the IP addresses of the computer
and the Prestige are not in the same subnet.
When you disable the Any IP feature, only computers with dynamic IP addresses
or static IP addresses in the same subnet as the Prestige’s LAN IP address can
connect to the Prestige or access the Internet through the Prestige.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
5.7 Configuring Static DHCP
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual computers
based on their MAC Addresses.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
To change your Prestige’s static DHCP settings, click LAN, then the Static DHCP tab. The
screen appears as shown.
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Figure 21 LAN: Static DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 LAN: Static DHCP
86
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the Static IP table entry (row).
MAC Address
Type the MAC address (with colons) of a computer on your LAN.
IP Address
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 6
Wireless LAN Setup
This chapter discusses how to configure Wireless LAN on the Prestige.
6.1 Wireless LAN Introduction
This section introduces the wireless LAN and some basic configurations. Wireless LANs can
be as simple as two computers with wireless LAN cards communicating in a peer-to-peer
network or as complex as a number of computers with wireless LAN cards communicating
through access points which bridge network traffic to the wired LAN.
Note: The WLAN screens are only available when a WLAN card is installed.
6.1.1 Additional Installation Requirements for Using IEEE 802.1x
• A computer with an IEEE 802.11b/g wireless LAN card and equipped with a web
browser (with JavaScript enabled) and/or Telnet.
• A wireless station computer must be running IEEE 802.1x-compliant software.
Currently, this is offered in Windows XP.
• An optional network RADIUS server for remote user authentication and accounting.
6.1.2 Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by IEEE 802.11b/g wireless devices. Channels
available depend on your geographical area. You may have a choice of channels (for your
region) so you should use a different channel than an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce
interference. Interference occurs when radio signals from different access points overlap
causing interference and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP
should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using.
For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you
need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
6.1.3 ESS ID
An Extended Service Set (ESS) is a group of access points or wireless gateways connected to
a wired LAN on the same subnet. An ESS ID uniquely identifies each set. All access points or
wireless gateways and their associated wireless stations in the same set must have the same
ESSID.
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6.1.4 RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not
within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations (STA)
are within range of the access point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other,
so they cannot "hear" each other, that is they do not know if the channel is currently being
used. Therefore, they are considered hidden from each other.
Figure 22 RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the Prestige, it might not know that the station B is already using
the channel. If these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both
sets of data arrive at the AP at the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS defines the
biggest size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station
that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP
for permission to send it. The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all
other stations within its range to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and
confirms with the requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP without the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network
and the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in
the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will
be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Note: Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
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6.1.5 Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432
bytes) that can be sent in the wireless network before the Prestige will fragment the packet into
smaller data frames.
A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference
while you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to
interference.
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see previously)
you set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as
data frames will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
6.2 Levels of Security
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless
stations, access points and the wired network.
The figure below shows the possible wireless security levels on your Prestige. EAP
(Extensible Authentication Protocol) is used for authentication and utilizes dynamic WEP key
exchange. It requires interaction with a RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service) server either on the WAN or your LAN to provide authentication service for wireless
stations.
Figure 23 Prestige Wireless Security Levels
If you do not enable any wireless security on your Prestige, your network is accessible to any
wireless networking device that is within range.
Use the Prestige web configurator to configurator to set up your wireless LAN security
settings. Refer to the chapter on using the Prestige web configurator to see how to access the
web configurator.
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6.3 Data Encryption with WEP
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access
points to keep network communications private. It encrypts unicast and multicast
communications in a network. Both the wireless stations and the access points must use the
same WEP key for data encryption and decryption.
Your Prestige allows you to configure up to four 64-bit, 128-bit or 256-bit WEP keys but only
one key can be enabled at any one time.
In order to configure and enable WEP encryption; click Wireless LAN and Wireless to the
display the Wireless screen.
6.4 Configuring Wireless LAN
Note: If you are configuring the Prestige from a computer connected to the wireless
LAN and you change the Prestige’s ESSID or WEP settings, you will lose your
wireless connection when you press Apply to confirm. You must then change
the wireless settings of your computer to match the Prestige’s new settings.
Click Wireless LAN, Wireless to open the Wireless screen.
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Figure 24 Wireless LAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 14 Wireless LAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Wireless
LAN
The wireless LAN is turned off by default, before you enable the wireless LAN you
should configure some security by setting MAC filters and/or 802.1x security;
otherwise your wireless LAN will be vulnerable upon enabling it. Select the check
box to enable the wireless LAN.
ESSID
The ESSID (Extended Service Set Identification) is a unique name to identify the
Prestige in the wireless LAN. Wireless stations associating to the Prestige must
have the same ESSID.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 characters).
Hide ESSID
Select Yes to hide the ESSID in so a station cannot obtain the ESSID through
passive scanning.
Select No to make the ESSID visible so a station can obtain the ESSID through
passive scanning.
Channel ID
The radio frequency used by IEEE 802.11b wireless devices is called a channel.
Select a channel from the drop-down list box.
RTS/CTS
Threshold
The RTS (Request To Send) threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS
handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS
handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC
service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to
zero turns on the RTS/CTS handshake.
Enter a value between 0 and 2432.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent.
Enter a value between 256 and 2432.
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Table 14 Wireless LAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the
wireless network.
Select Disable to allow all wireless computers to communicate with the access
points without any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP or 256-bit WEP to use data encryption.
Key 1 to Key 4
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the Prestige and the wireless stations
must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 256-bit WEP, then enter 29 ASCII characters or 58 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
The values for the WEP keys must be set up exactly the same on all wireless
devices in the same wireless LAN.
You must configure all four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one time.
The default key is key 1.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.5 Configuring MAC Filter
The MAC filter screen allows you to configure the Prestige to give exclusive access to up to
32 devices (Allow Association) or exclude up to 32 devices from accessing the Prestige (Deny
Association). Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The
MAC address is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for
example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC address of the devices to configure
this screen.
To change your Prestige’s MAC filter settings, click Wireless LAN, MAC Filter to open the
MAC Filter screen. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 25 MAC Address Filter
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 15 MAC Address Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select Yes from the drop down list box to enable MAC address filtering.
Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC Address table.
Select Deny Association to block access to the router, MAC addresses not listed will
be allowed to access the Prestige. Select Allow Association to permit access to the
router, MAC addresses not listed will be denied access to the Prestige.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless station that
are allowed or denied access to the Prestige in these address fields.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
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Table 15 MAC Address Filter (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.6 Network Authentication
You can set the Prestige and your network to authenticate a wireless station before the wireless
station can communicate with the Prestige and the wired network to which the Prestige is
connected.
6.6.1 EAP
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol designed originally to
run over PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) frame in order to support multiple types of user
authentication. By using EAP to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, the access
point helps a wireless station and a RADIUS server to perform mutual authentication.
6.6.1.1 RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-sever model that supports authentication, authorization and
accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS
server handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected
to the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your Prestige acts as a message relay
between the wireless station and the network RADIUS server.
6.6.1.2 Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
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• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The
access point sends a proper response from the user and then sends another AccessRequest message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared
secret key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In
addition to the shared key, password information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the
network from unauthorized access.
6.6.2 EAP Authentication Overview
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on top of the
IEEE802.1x transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of user authentication. By
using EAP to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, the access point helps a
wireless station and a RADIUS server perform authentication.
Figure 26 EAP Authentication
The details below provide a general description of how IEEE 802.1x EAP authentication
works. For an example list of EAP-MD5 authentication steps, see the appendix about IEEE
802.1x.
1 The wireless station sends a "start" message to the Prestige.
2 The Prestige sends a "request identity" message to the wireless station for identity
information.
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3 The wireless station replies with identity information, including username and password.
4 The RADIUS server checks the user information against its user profile database and
determines whether or not to authenticate the wireless station.
6.7 Introduction to WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i security specification draft.
Key differences between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data
encryption.
6.7.1 User Authentication
WPA applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate
wireless clients using an external RADIUS database. You can’t use the Prestige’s Local User
Database for WPA authentication purposes since the Local User Database uses EAP-MD5
which cannot be used to generate keys. See later in this chapter and the appendices for more
information on IEEE 802.1x, RADIUS and EAP.
Therefore, if you don’t have an external RADIUS server you should use WPA-PSK (WPA Pre-Shared Key) that only requires a single (identical) password entered into each access
point, wireless gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a client will be
granted access to a WLAN.
6.7.2 Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Message
Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and
distributed by the authentication server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a
Message Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with
sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is
never used twice.
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up
a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically generate
unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated
between the AP and the wireless clients. This all happens in the background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data
packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function
in which the receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do
not match, it is assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
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By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decode data on a Wi-Fi
network than WEP, making it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference
between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific
credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force
password-guessing attacks but it’s still an improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-touse, consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
6.8 WPA-PSK Application Example
A WPA-PSK application looks as follows.
1 First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key
(PSK) must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters (including spaces and
symbols).
2 The AP checks each client’s password and (only) allows it to join the network if it
matches its password.
3 The AP derives and distributes keys to the wireless clients.
4 The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP encryption process to encrypt data exchanged
between them.
Figure 27 WPA - PSK Authentication
6.9 WPA with RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812), and the
RADIUS shared secret. A WPA application example with an external RADIUS server looks
as follows. "A" is the RADIUS server. "DS" is the distribution system.
1 The AP passes the wireless client’s authentication request to the RADIUS server.
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2 The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants
or denies network access accordingly.
3 The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then
sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically
generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly
communicated between the AP and the wireless clients
Figure 28 WPA with RADIUS Application Example
6.10 Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for each
Authentication Method/ key management protocol type. You enter manual keys by first
selecting 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP from the WEP Encryption field and then typing the
keys (in ASCII or hexadecimal format) in the key text boxes. MAC address filters are not
dependent on how you configure these security features.
Table 16 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
ENCRYPTION ENTER
METHOD/ KEY
METHOD
MANUAL KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
Open
None
No
No
Open
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
Shared
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Table 16 Wireless Security Relational Matrix (continued)
AUTHENTICATION
ENCRYPTION ENTER
METHOD/ KEY
METHOD
MANUAL KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
ENABLE IEEE 802.1X
WPA
WEP
No
Yes
WPA
TKIP
No
Yes
WPA-PSK
WEP
Yes
Yes
WPA-PSK
TKIP
Yes
Yes
6.11 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the
wireless client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most widely available supplicant is
the WPA patch for Windows XP, Funk Software's Odyssey client, and Meetinghouse Data
Communications' AEGIS client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows XP's builtin "Zero Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows XP to use it.
The Funk Software's Odyssey client is bundled free (at the time of writing) with the client
wireless adaptor(s).
6.12 Configuring 802.1x and WPA
To change your Prestige’s authentication settings, click the Wireless LAN link under
Advanced Setup and then the 802.1x/WPA tab. The screen varies by the key management protocol
you select.
You see the next screen when you select No Access Allowed or No Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field.
Figure 29 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA
The following table describes the label in this screen.
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Table 17 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Port
Control
To control wireless stations access to the wired network, select a control method from
the drop-down list box. Choose from No Access Allowed, No Authentication
Required and Authentication Required.
No Access Allowed blocks all wireless stations access to the wired network.
No Authentication Required allows all wireless stations access to the wired network
without entering usernames and passwords. This is the default setting.
Authentication Required means that all wireless stations have to enter usernames
and passwords before access to the wired network is allowed.
Select Authentication Required to configure Key Management Protocol and other
related fields.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.12.1 Authentication Required: 802.1x
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and 802.1x in the Key
Management Protocol field to display the next screen.
Figure 30 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 18 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Port
Control
To control wireless stations access to the wired network, select a control method
from the drop-down list box. Choose from No Authentication Required,
Authentication Required and No Access Allowed.
The following fields are only available when you select Authentication Required.
ReAuthentication
Timer
(in Seconds)
Specify how often wireless stations have to reenter usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected. This field is activated only when you select
Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
(in Seconds)
The Prestige automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the username and
password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Key Management
Protocol
Choose 802.1x from the drop-down list.
Dynamic WEP Key This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Exchange
Wireless Port Control field. Also set the Authentication Databases field to
RADIUS Only. Local user database may not be used.
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without using dynamic WEP key exchange.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Up to 32 stations can access the Prestige when you configure dynamic WEP key
exchange.
This field is not available when you set Key Management Protocol to WPA or
WPA-PSK.
Authentication
Databases
Chapter 6 Wireless LAN Setup
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local
user database is the built-in database on the Prestige. The RADIUS is an external
server. Use this drop-down list box to select which database the Prestige should
use (first) to authenticate a wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
Select Local User Database Only to have the Prestige just check the built-in user
database on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the Prestige just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the Prestige first check the user
database on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password. If the
user name is not found, the Prestige then checks the user database on the
specified RADIUS server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the Prestige first check the user
database on the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and
password. If the Prestige cannot reach the RADIUS server, the Prestige then
checks the local user database on the Prestige. When the user name is not found
or password does not match in the RADIUS server, the Prestige will not check the
local user database and the authentication fails.
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Table 18 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Note: Once you enable user authentication, you need to specify an external RADIUS
server or create local user accounts on the Prestige for authentication.
6.12.2 Authentication Required: WPA
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and WPA in the Key
Management Protocol field to display the next screen.
Figure 31 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
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Table 19 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Management
Protocol
Choose WPA in this field.
WPA Mixed Mode
The Prestige can operate in WPA Mixed Mode, which supports both clients
running WPA and clients running dynamic WEP key exchange with 802.1x in the
same Wi-Fi network.
Select the check box to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, clear the check
box and configure the Group Data Privacy field.
Group Data Privacy
Group Data Privacy allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for
broadcast and multicast ("group") traffic if the Key Management Protocol is
WPA and WPA Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have
enabled WPA Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK
Key Management Protocol is selected.
WPA Group Key
Update Timer
The WPA Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using WPAPSK key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key management)
sends a new group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA
equivalent of automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a
WLAN on a periodic basis. Setting of the WPA Group Key Update Timer is also
supported in WPA-PSK mode. The Prestige default is 1800 seconds (30
minutes).
Authentication
Databases
When you configure Key Management Protocol to WPA, the Authentication
Databases must be RADIUS Only. You can only use the Local User Database
Only with 802.1x Key Management Protocol.
6.12.3 Authentication Required: WPA-PSK
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and WPA-PSK in the
Key Management Protocol field to display the next screen.
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Figure 32 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed.
Table 20 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol
104
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Management
Protocol
Choose WPA-PSK in this field.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The
only difference between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common
password, instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
WPA Mixed Mode
The Prestige can operate in WPA Mixed Mode, which supports both clients
running WPA and clients running dynamic WEP key exchange with 802.1x in the
same Wi-Fi network.
Select the check box to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, clear the check
box and configure the Group Data Privacy field.
Group Data Privacy
Group Data Privacy allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for
broadcast and multicast ("group") traffic if the Key Management Protocol is
WPA and WPA Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have
enabled WPA Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK
Key Management Protocol is selected.
Authentication
Databases
This field is only visible when WPA Mixed Mode is enabled.
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6.13 Configuring Local User Authentication
By storing user profiles locally, your Prestige is able to authenticate wireless users without
interacting with a network RADIUS server. However, there is a limit on the number of users
you may authenticate in this way.
To change your Prestige’s local user database, click Wireless LAN, Local User Database.
The screen appears as shown.
Figure 33 Local User Database
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 21 Local User Database
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of a local user account.
Active
Select this check box to enable the user profile.
User Name
Enter the user name of the user profile.
Password
Enter a password up to 31 characters long for this user profile.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save these settings back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen again.
6.14 Configuring RADIUS
Once you enable the EAP authentication, you need to specify the external sever for remote
user authentication and accounting.
To set up your Prestige’s RADIUS server settings, click WIRELESS LAN, RADIUS. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 34 RADIUS
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 22 RADIUS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
Active
Select Yes from the drop-down list box to enable user authentication
through an external authentication server.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port Number
The default port of the RADIUS server for authentication is 1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external authentication server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external authentication server and Prestige.
Accounting Server
Active
Select Yes from the drop-down list box to enable user authentication
through an external accounting server.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port Number
The default port of the RADIUS server for accounting is 1813.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external accounting server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external accounting server and the Prestige.
Back
Click Back to go to the main wireless LAN setup screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save these settings back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen again.
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CHAPTER 7
WAN Setup
This chapter describes how to configure WAN settings.
7.1 WAN Overview
A WAN (Wide Area Network) connection is a connection to another network or the Internet.
See Chapter 3 on page 63 for more information on the fields in the WAN screens.
7.2 Metric
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route for
transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop count as the
measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly connected networks. The number
must be between "1" and "15"; a number greater than "15" means the link is down. The
smaller the number, the lower the "cost".
The metric sets the priority for the Prestige’s routes to the Internet. If any two of the default
routes have the same metric, the Prestige uses the following pre-defined priorities:
• Normal route: designated by the ISP (see Section 7.6 on page 111)
• Traffic-redirect route (see Section 7.7 on page 114)
For example, if the normal route has a metric of "1" and the traffic-redirect route has a metric
of "2" and dial-backup route has a metric of "3", then the normal route acts as the primary
default route. If the normal route fails to connect to the Internet, the Prestige tries the trafficredirect route next. In the same manner, the Prestige uses the dial-backup route if the trafficredirect route also fails.
If you want the dial-backup route to take first priority over the traffic-redirect route or even the
normal route, all you need to do is set the dial-backup route’s metric to "1" and the others to
"2" (or greater).
IP Policy Routing overrides the default routing behavior and takes priority over all of the
routes mentioned above (see Chapter 40 on page 391).
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7.3 PPPoE Encapsulation
The Prestige supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPPoE is an IETF Draft
standard (RFC 2516) specifying how a personal computer (PC) interacts with a broadband
modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The PPPoE option is for a dial-up connection
using PPPoE.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that works with
existing access control systems (for example Radius). PPPoE provides a login and
authentication method that the existing Microsoft Dial-Up Networking software can activate,
and therefore requires no new learning or procedures for Windows users.
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network services,
a function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service provider to easily
create and offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as it requires
no specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the Prestige (rather than individual computers), the
computers on the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed, since the Prestige does that part
of the task. Furthermore, with NAT, all of the LANs’ computers will have access.
7.4 Traffic Shaping
Traffic Shaping is an agreement between the carrier and the subscriber to regulate the average
rate and fluctuations of data transmission over an ATM network. This agreement helps
eliminate congestion, which is important for transmission of real time data such as audio and
video connections.
Peak Cell Rate (PCR) is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. This parameter
may be lower (but not higher) than the maximum line speed. 1 ATM cell is 53 bytes (424 bits),
so a maximum speed of 832Kbps gives a maximum PCR of 1962 cells/sec. This rate is not
guaranteed because it is dependent on the line speed.
Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) is the mean cell rate of each bursty traffic source. It specifies the
maximum average rate at which cells can be sent over the virtual connection. SCR may not be
greater than the PCR.
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) is the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the PCR.
After MBS is reached, cell rates fall below SCR until cell rate averages to the SCR again. At
this time, more cells (up to the MBS) can be sent at the PCR again.
If the PCR, SCR or MBS is set to the default of "0", the system will assign a maximum value
that correlates to your upstream line rate.
The following figure illustrates the relationship between PCR, SCR and MBS.
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Figure 35 Example of Traffic Shaping
7.5 Zero Configuration Internet Access
Once you turn on and connect the Prestige to a telephone jack, it automatically detects the
Internet connection settings (such as the VCI/VPI numbers and the encapsulation method)
from the ISP and makes the necessary configuration changes. In cases where additional
account information (such as an Internet account user name and password) is required or the
Prestige cannot connect to the ISP, you will be redirected to web screen(s) for information
input or troubleshooting.
Zero configuration for Internet access is disabled when
• the Prestige is in bridge mode
• you set the Prestige to use a static (fixed) WAN IP address.
7.6 Configuring WAN Setup
To change your Prestige’s WAN remote node settings, click WAN and WAN Setup. The screen
differs by the encapsulation.
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Figure 36 WAN Setup (PPPoE)
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 23 WAN Setup
112
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter the name of your Internet Service Provider, e.g., MyISP. This information is
for identification purposes only.
Mode
Select Routing (default) from the drop-down list box if your ISP allows multiple
computers to share an Internet account. Otherwise select Bridge.
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Table 23 WAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the drop-down list
box. Choices vary depending on the mode you select in the Mode field.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, select either PPPoA or RFC 1483.
If you select Routing in the Mode field, select PPPoA, RFC 1483, ENET
ENCAP or PPPoE.
Multiplex
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the drop-down list.
Choices are VC or LLC.
Virtual Circuit ID
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) define a virtual
circuit. Refer to the appendix for more information.
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local
management of ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
ATM QoS Type
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on) bandwidth for
voice or data traffic. Select UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) for applications that are
non-time sensitive, such as e-mail. Select VBR (Variable Bit Rate) for bursty
traffic and bandwidth sharing with other applications.
Cell Rate
Cell rate configuration often helps eliminate traffic congestion that slows
transmission of real time data such as audio and video connections.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find the Peak
Cell Rate (PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells.
Type the PCR here.
Sustain Cell Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that can be
transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR. Note that system
default is 0 cells/sec.
Maximum Burst Size Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that can be
sent at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
Login Information
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only)
Service Name
(PPPoE only) Type the name of your PPPoE service here.
User Name
Enter the user name exactly as your ISP assigned. If assigned a name in the
form user@domain where domain identifies a service name, then enter both
components exactly as given.
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is
not fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the
Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in
the IP Address field below.
Connection
The schedule rule(s) in SMT menu 26 have priority over your Connection
(PPPoA and PPPoE settings.
encapsulation only)
Nailed-Up
Connection
Chapter 7 WAN Setup
Select Nailed-Up Connection when you want your connection up all the time.
The Prestige will try to bring up the connection automatically if it is disconnected.
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Table 23 WAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Connect on Demand Select Connect on Demand when you don't want the connection up all the time
and specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field.
Max Idle Timeout
Specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field when you select Connect
on Demand. The default setting is 0, which means the Internet session will not
timeout.
PPPoE Passthrough This field is available when you select PPPoE encapsulation.
(PPPoE
In addition to the Prestige's built-in PPPoE client, you can enable PPPoE pass
encapsulation only) through to allow up to ten hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client software on their
computers to connect to the ISP via the Prestige. Each host can have a separate
account and a public WAN IP address.
PPPoE pass through is an alternative to NAT for application where NAT is not
appropriate.
Disable PPPoE pass through if you do not need to allow hosts on the LAN to use
PPPoE client software on their computers to connect to the ISP.
Subnet Mask
(ENET ENCAP
encapsulation only)
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to the appendix on IP subnetting to calculate a subnet mask If you are
implementing subnetting.
ENET ENCAP
Gateway
(ENET ENCAP
encapsulation only)
You must specify a gateway IP address (supplied by your ISP) when you select
ENET ENCAP in the Encapsulation field
Zero Configuration
This feature is not applicable/available when you configure the Prestige to use a
static WAN IP address or in bridge mode.
Select Yes to set the Prestige to automatically detect the Internet connection
settings (such as the VCI/VPI numbers and the encapsulation method) from the
ISP and make the necessary configuration changes.
Select No to disable this feature. You must manually configure the Prestige for
Internet access.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.7 Traffic Redirect
Traffic redirect forwards traffic to a backup gateway when the Prestige cannot connect to the
Internet. An example is shown in the figure below.
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Figure 37 Traffic Redirect Example
The following network topology allows you to avoid triangle route security issues when the
backup gateway is connected to the LAN. Use IP alias to configure the LAN into two or three
logical networks with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network. Put the
protected LAN in one subnet (Subnet 1 in the following figure) and the backup gateway in
another subnet (Subnet 2). Configure filters that allow packets from the protected LAN
(Subnet 1) to the backup gateway (Subnet 2).
Figure 38 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup
7.8 Configuring WAN Backup
To change your Prestige’s WAN backup settings, click WAN, then WAN Backup. The screen
appears as shown.
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Figure 39 WAN Backup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 24 WAN Backup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Backup Type
Select the method that the Prestige uses to check the DSL connection.
Select DSL Link to have the Prestige check if the connection to the DSLAM is up.
Select ICMP to have the Prestige periodically ping the IP addresses configured in
the Check WAN IP Address fields.
Check WAN IP
Address1-3
Configure this field to test your Prestige's WAN accessibility. Type the IP address of
a reliable nearby computer (for example, your ISP's DNS server address).
Note: If you activate traffic redirect, you must configure at least one
IP address here.
When using a WAN backup connection, the Prestige periodically pings the
addresses configured here and uses the other WAN backup connection (if
configured) if there is no response.
Fail Tolerance
Type the number of times (2 recommended) that your Prestige may ping the IP
addresses configured in the Check WAN IP Address field without getting a
response before switching to a WAN backup connection (or a different WAN
backup connection).
Recovery Interval When the Prestige is using a lower priority connection (usually a WAN backup
connection), it periodically checks to whether or not it can use a higher priority
connection.
Type the number of seconds (30 recommended) for the Prestige to wait between
checks. Allow more time if your destination IP address handles lots of traffic.
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Table 24 WAN Backup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Timeout
Type the number of seconds (3 recommended) for your Prestige to wait for a ping
response from one of the IP addresses in the Check WAN IP Address field before
timing out the request. The WAN connection is considered "down" after the Prestige
times out the number of times specified in the Fail Tolerance field. Use a higher
value in this field if your network is busy or congested.
Traffic Redirect
Active
Select this check box to have the Prestige use traffic redirect if the normal WAN
connection goes down.
Note: If you activate traffic redirect, you must configure at least one
Check WAN IP Address.
Metric
This field sets this route's priority among the routes the Prestige uses.
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route
for transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly connected
networks. The number must be between "1" and "15"; a number greater than "15"
means the link is down. The smaller the number, the lower the "cost".
Backup Gateway
Type the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal notation. The
Prestige automatically forwards traffic to this IP address if the Prestige's Internet
connection terminates.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 8
Network Address Translation
(NAT) Screens
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the Prestige.
8.1 NAT Overview
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a
host in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one
network to a different IP address known within another network.
8.1.1 NAT Definitions
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the Prestige, for example, the
computers of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are
the outside hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router, for
example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local
network, while the global address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is
traveling in the WAN side.
Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to the IP
address of a host used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the IP address of an
inside host in a packet when the packet is still in the local network, while an inside global
address (IGA) is the IP address of the same inside host when the packet is on the WAN side.
The following table summarizes this information.
Table 25 NAT Definitions
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the
WAN.
NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
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8.1.2 What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a
subscriber (the inside local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding
the packet to the WAN side. When the response comes back, NAT translates the destination
address (the inside global address) back to the inside local address before forwarding it to the
original inside host. Note that the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host is never
changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically assigned by the
ISP. In addition, you can designate servers, for example, a web server and a telnet server, on
your local network and make them accessible to the outside world. If you do not define any
servers (for Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload mapping – see Table 26 on page 122),
NAT offers the additional benefit of firewall protection. With no servers defined, your
Prestige filters out all incoming inquiries, thus preventing intruders from probing your
network. For more information on IP address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network
Address Translator (NAT).
8.1.3 How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For outgoing
packets, the ILA (Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN, and the IGA (Inside
Global Address) is the source address on the WAN. For incoming packets, the ILA is the
destination address on the LAN, and the IGA is the destination address on the WAN. NAT
maps private (local) IP addresses to globally unique ones required for communication with
hosts on other networks. It replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP source
port numbers for Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet
and then forwards it to the Internet. The Prestige keeps track of the original addresses and port
numbers so incoming reply packets can have their original values restored. The following
figure illustrates this.
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Figure 40 How NAT Works
8.1.4 NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs (logical
LANs using IP Alias) behind the Prestige can communicate with three distinct WAN
networks. More examples follow at the end of this chapter.
Figure 41 NAT Application With IP Alias
8.1.5 NAT Mapping Types
NAT supports five types of IP/port mapping. They are:
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• One to One: In One-to-One mode, the Prestige maps one local IP address to one global
IP address.
• Many to One: In Many-to-One mode, the Prestige maps multiple local IP addresses to
one global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (for instance, PAT, port address
translation), ZyXEL’s Single User Account feature that previous ZyXEL routers
supported (the SUA Only option in today’s routers).
• Many to Many Overload: In Many-to-Many Overload mode, the Prestige maps the
multiple local IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
• Many-to-Many No Overload: In Many-to-Many No Overload mode, the Prestige maps
each local IP address to a unique global IP address.
• Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the
NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Port numbers do not change for One-to-One and Many-to-Many No Overload NAT
mapping types.
The following table summarizes these types.
Table 26 NAT Mapping Types
TYPE
IP MAPPING
SMT ABBREVIATION
One-to-One
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
1:1
Many-to-One (SUA/PAT)
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA1
…
M:1
Many-to-Many Overload
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA2
ILA3ÅÆ IGA1
ILA4ÅÆ IGA2
…
M:M Ov
Many-to-Many No Overload
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA2
ILA3ÅÆ IGA3
…
M:M No OV
Server
Server 1 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server 2 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server 3 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server
8.2 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ZyNOS implementation of a subset of NAT that supports two
types of mapping, Many-to-One and Server. The Prestige also supports Full Feature NAT
to map multiple global IP addresses to multiple private LAN IP addresses of clients or servers
using mapping types as outlined in Table 26 on page 122.
• Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige.
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• Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
8.3 SUA Server
A SUA server set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or
FTP, that you can make visible to the outside world even though SUA makes your whole
inside network appear as a single computer to the outside world.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local
IP address of the desired server. The port number identifies a service; for example, web
service is on port 80 and FTP on port 21. In some cases, such as for unknown services or
where one server can support more than one service (for example both FTP and web service),
it might be better to specify a range of port numbers. You can allocate a server IP address that
corresponds to a port or a range of ports.
Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server processes (such
as a Web or FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may periodically check for servers and
may suspend your account if it discovers any active services at your location. If you are
unsure, refer to your ISP.
8.3.1 Default Server IP Address
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP address. A
default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this screen.
If you do not assign an IP address in Server Set 1 (default server) the Prestige discards all
packets received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
8.3.2 Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers
The most often used port numbers are shown in the following table. Please refer to RFC 1700
for further information about port numbers.
Table 27 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
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Table 27 Services and Port Numbers (continued)
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
8.3.3 Configuring Servers Behind SUA (Example)
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the
example), port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP address of
192.168.1.35 to a third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP
assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a single host on the Internet.
IP address assigned by ISP.
Figure 42 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
8.4 Selecting the NAT Mode
You must create a firewall rule in addition to setting up SUA/NAT, to allow traffic from the
WAN to be forwarded through the Prestige.
Click NAT to open the following screen.
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Figure 43 NAT Mode
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 NAT Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
None
Select this radio button to disable NAT.
SUA Only
Select this radio button if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige.
The Prestige uses Address Mapping Set 1 in the NAT - Edit SUA/NAT Server Set
screen.
Edit Details
Click this link to go to the NAT - Edit SUA/NAT Server Set screen.
Full Feature
Select this radio button if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
Edit Details
Click this link to go to the NAT - Address Mapping Rules screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your configuration.
8.5 Configuring SUA Server
If you do not assign an IP address in Server Set 1 (default server) the Prestige discards all
packets received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
Click NAT, select SUA Only and click Edit Details to open the following screen.
Refer to Table 27 on page 123 for port numbers commonly used for particular services.
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Figure 44 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 29 Edit SUA/NAT Server Set
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Port No.
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the End Port No. field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the start port number here and the end port
number in the End Port No. field.
End Port No.
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the Start Port No. field
above and then enter it again in this field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the last port number in a series that begins with
the port number in the Start Port No. field above.
Server IP Address Enter your server IP address in this field.
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Save
Click Save to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previous configuration.
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8.6 Configuring Address Mapping
Ordering your rules is important because the Prestige applies the rules in the order that you
specify. When a rule matches the current packet, the Prestige takes the corresponding action
and the remaining rules are ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured
rule, your configured rule will be pushed up by that number of empty rules. For example, if
you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set and now you configure rule
number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9. Now if you delete rule
4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so old rules 5, 6 and 7 become new rules 4, 5 and 6.
To change your Prestige’s address mapping settings, click NAT, Select Full Feature and click
Edit Details to open the following screen.
Figure 45 Address Mapping Rules
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 30 Address Mapping Rules
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local Start IP
This is the starting Inside Local IP Address (ILA). Local IP addresses are N/A for
Server port mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end Inside Local IP Address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IP addresses,
then this field displays 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255
as the Local End IP address. This field is N/A for One-to-one and Server mapping
types.
Global Start IP
This is the starting Inside Global IP Address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have a
dynamic IP address from your ISP. You can only do this for Many-to-One and
Server mapping types.
Global End IP
This is the ending Inside Global IP Address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-one,
Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
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Table 30 Address Mapping Rules (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
1-1: One-to-one mode maps one local IP address to one global IP address. Note that
port numbers do not change for the One-to-one NAT mapping type.
M-1: Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one global IP address.
This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation), ZyXEL's Single User
Account feature that previous ZyXEL routers supported only.
M-M Ov (Overload): Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple local IP addresses
to shared global IP addresses.
MM No (No Overload): Many-to-Many No Overload mode maps each local IP
address to unique global IP addresses.
Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the
NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Back
Click Back to return to the NAT Mode screen.
8.7 Editing an Address Mapping Rule
To edit an address mapping rule, click the rule’s link in the NAT Address Mapping Rules
screen to display the screen shown next.
Figure 46 Address Mapping Rule Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 31 Address Mapping Rule Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Choose the port mapping type from one of the following.
• One-to-One: One-to-One mode maps one local IP address to one global IP
address. Note that port numbers do not change for One-to-one NAT mapping
type.
• Many-to-One: Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one
global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation),
ZyXEL's Single User Account feature that previous ZyXEL routers supported
only.
• Many-to-Many Overload: Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple local IP
addresses to shared global IP addresses.
• Many-to-Many No Overload: Many-to-Many No Overload mode maps each
local IP address to unique global IP addresses.
• Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind
the NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Local Start IP
This is the starting local IP address (ILA). Local IP addresses are N/A for Server port
mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end local IP address (ILA). If your rule is for all local IP addresses, then
enter 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255 as the Local End
IP address.
This field is N/A for One-to-One and Server mapping types.
Global Start IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have a dynamic
IP address from your ISP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-One, Manyto-One and Server mapping types.
Server Mapping Only available when Type is set to Server.
Set
Select a number from the drop-down menu to choose a server set from the NAT Address Mapping Rules screen.
Edit Details
Click this link to go to the NAT - Edit SUA/NAT Server Set screen to edit a server
set that you have selected in the Server Mapping Set field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
Delete
Click Delete to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER 9
Introduction to VoIP
This chapter provides background information on VoIP and SIP.
9.1 Introduction to VoIP
VoIP is the sending of voice signals over the Internet Protocol. This allows you to make phone
calls and send faxes over the Internet at a fraction of the cost of using the traditional circuitswitched telephone network. You can also use servers to run telephone service applications
like PBX services and voice mail. Internet Telephony Service Provider (ITSP) companies
provide VoIP service.
Circuit-switched telephone networks require 64 kilobits per second (Kbps) in each direction to
handle a telephone call. VoIP can use advanced voice coding techniques with compression to
reduce the required bandwidth.
9.2 SIP
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol that
handles the setting up, altering and tearing down of voice and multimedia sessions over the
Internet.
SIP signaling is separate from the media for which it handles sessions. The media that is
exchanged during the session can use a different path from that of the signaling. SIP handles
telephone calls and can interface with traditional circuit-switched telephone networks.
9.2.1 SIP Identities
A SIP account uses an identity (sometimes referred to as a SIP address). A complete SIP
identity is called a SIP URI (Uniform Resource Identifier). A SIP account's URI identifies the
SIP account in a way similar to the way an e-mail address identifies an e-mail account. The
format of a SIP identity is SIP-Number@SIP-Service-Domain.
9.2.1.1 SIP Number
The SIP number is the part of the SIP URI that comes before the “@” symbol. A SIP number
can use letters like in an e-mail address (johndoe@your-ITSP.com for example) or numbers
like a telephone number (1122334455@VoIP-provider.com for example).
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9.2.1.2 SIP Service Domain
The SIP service domain of the VoIP service provider is the domain name in a SIP URI. For
example, if the SIP address is 1122334455@VoIP-provider.com, then “VoIP-provider.com” is
the SIP service domain.
9.2.2 SIP Call Progression
The following figure displays the basic steps in the setup and tear down of a SIP call. A calls
B.
Table 32 SIP Call Progression
A
B
1. INVITE
2. Ringing
3. OK
4. ACK
5.Dialogue (voice traffic)
6. BYE
7. OK
1 A sends a SIP INVITE request to B. This message is an invitation for B to participate in a
SIP telephone call.
2 B sends a response indicating that the telephone is ringing.
3 B sends an OK response after the call is answered.
4 A then sends an ACK message to acknowledge that B has answered the call.
5 Now A and B exchange voice media (talk).
6 After talking, A hangs up and sends a BYE request.
7 B replies with an OK response confirming receipt of the BYE request and the call is
terminated.
9.2.3 SIP Servers
SIP is a client-server protocol. A SIP client is an application program or device that sends SIP
requests. A SIP server responds to the SIP requests.
When you use SIP to make a VoIP call, it originates at a client and terminates at a server. A
SIP client could be a computer or a SIP phone. One device can act as both a SIP client and a
SIP server.
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9.2.3.1 SIP User Agent Server
A SIP user agent server can make and receive VoIP telephone calls. This means that SIP can
be used for peer-to-peer communications even though it is a client-server protocol. In the
following figure, either A or B can act as a SIP user agent client to initiate a call. A and B can
also both act as a SIP user agent server to receive the call.
Figure 47 SIP User Agent Server
9.2.3.2 SIP Proxy Server
A SIP proxy server receives requests from clients and forwards them to another server.
In the following example, you want to use client device A to call someone who is using client
device C.
1 The client device (A in the figure) sends a call invitation to the SIP proxy server (B).
2 The SIP proxy server forwards the call invitation to C.
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Figure 48 SIP Proxy Server
9.2.3.3 SIP Redirect Server
A SIP redirect server accepts SIP requests, translates the destination address to an IP address
and sends the translated IP address back to the device that sent the request. Then the client
device that originally sent the request can send requests to the IP address that it received back
from the redirect server. Redirect servers do not initiate SIP requests.
In the following example, you want to use client device A to call someone who is using client
device C.
1 Client device A sends a call invitation for C to the SIP redirect server (B).
2 The SIP redirect server sends the invitation back to A with C’s IP address (or domain
name).
3 Client device A then sends the call invitation to client device C.
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Figure 49 SIP Redirect Server
9.2.3.4 SIP Register Server
A SIP register server maintains a database of SIP identity-to-IP address (or domain name)
mapping. The register server checks your user name and password when you register.
9.2.4 RTP
When you make a VoIP call using SIP, the RTP (Real time Transport Protocol) is used to
handle voice data transfer. See RFC 1889 for details on RTP.
9.3 SIP ALG
The Prestige 2602HW is a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). A SIP ALG allows VoIP
calls to pass through NAT by examining and translating IP addresses embedded in the data
stream. When a VoIP device behind the Prestige registers with the SIP register server, the
Prestige translates the device’s private IP address inside the SIP data stream to a public IP
address. You do not need to use STUN with a VoIP device that is behind the Prestige
2602HW.
9.4 Pulse Code Modulation
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) measures analog signal amplitudes at regular time intervals
and converts them into bits.
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9.5 Voice Coding
A codec (coder/decoder) codes analog voice signals into digital signals and decodes the digital
signals back into voice signals. The Prestige supports the following codecs.
9.5.1 G.711
G.711 is a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) waveform codec. G.711 provides very good sound
quality but requires 64kbps of bandwidth.
9.5.2 G.729
G.729 is an Analysis-by-Synthesis (AbS) hybrid waveform codec that uses a filter based on
information about how the human vocal tract produces sounds. G.729 provides good sound
quality and reduces the required bandwidth to 8kbps.
9.6 PSTN Call Setup Signaling
Dual-Tone MultiFrequency (DTMF) signaling uses pairs of frequencies (one lower frequency
and one higher frequency) to set up calls. It is also known as Touch Tone®. Each of the keys
on a DTMF telephone corresponds to a different pair of frequencies.
Pulse dialing sends a series of clicks to the local phone office in order to dial numbers.1
1.
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CHAPTER 10
Voice Screens
This chapter describes how to configure advanced VoIP, QoS, phone and phone book settings.
10.1 Voice Screens Introduction
This chapter covers the configuration of the VoIP screens.
10.2 SIP Settings Configuration
Click Voice in the navigation panel and then SIP Settings to display the following screen. Use
this screen to configure the Prestige’s SIP settings. You should have a voice account already
set up and have VoIP information from your VoIP service provider.
Figure 50 SIP Settings
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Table 33 SIP Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SIP Account
You can configure the Prestige to use multiple SIP accounts. Select one to configure
its settings on the Prestige.
Active SIP
Select this check box to have the Prestige use this SIP account. Clear the check box
to have the Prestige not use this SIP account.
SIP Number
Enter your SIP number in this field (use the number or text that comes before the @
symbol in a full SIP URI). You can use up to 95 ASCII characters.
SIP Local Port
Use this field to configure the Prestige’s listening port for SIP. Leave this field set to
the default if you were not given a local port number for SIP.
SIP Server
Address
Type the IP address of the SIP server in this field. It doesn’t matter whether the SIP
server is a proxy, redirect or register server.
SIP Server Port
Enter the SIP server’s listening port for SIP in this field. Leave this field set to the
default if your VoIP service provider did not give you a server port number for SIP.
REGISTER
Server Address
Enter the SIP register server’s address in this field.
If you were not given a register server address, then enter the address from the
SIP Server Address field again here.
REGISTER
Server Port
Enter the SIP register server’s listening port for SIP in this field.
If you were not given a register server port, then enter the port from the SIP
Server Port field again here.
SIP Service
Domain
Enter the SIP service domain name in this field (the domain name that comes after
the @ symbol in a full SIP URI). You can use up to 127 ASCII Extended set
characters.
User ID
This is the user name for registering this SIP account with the SIP register server.
Type the user name exactly as it was given to you. You can use up to 95 ASCII
characters.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above. You can use up to 95
ASCII Extended set characters.
Send Caller ID
Select this check box to show identification information when you make VoIP phone
calls. Clear the check box to not show identification information when you make VoIP
phone calls.
Incoming Call
apply to
Phone 1 and Phone 2 correspond to the Prestige’s physical PHONE 1 and 2 ports,
respectively. Select whether you want to receive calls for this SIP account on Phone
1, Phone 2 or both. If you select both, you will not know which SIP account a call is
coming in on.
Advanced
Settings
Click Settings to open a screen where you can configure the Prestige’s advanced
VoIP settings like SIP server settings, the RTP port range and the coding type.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
10.3 Advanced Voice Settings Configuration
Click Voice in the navigation panel and then SIP Settings to open the SIP Settings screen.
Select a SIP account and then click Settings to display the following screen.
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Figure 51 Voice Advanced Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Voice Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Advanced VoIP
Settings
This read-only field displays the number of the SIP account that you are
configuring. The changes that you save in this page affect the Prestige’s settings
with the SIP account displayed here.
SIP Server
Settings
URL Type
Select SIP to have the Prestige include the domain name with the SIP number in
the SIP messages that it sends.Select TEL to have the Prestige use the SIP
number without a domain name in the SIP messages that it sends.
Expiration
Duration
This field sets how long an entry remains registered with the SIP register server.
After this time period expires, the SIP register server deletes the Prestige’s entry
from the database of registered SIP numbers. The register server can use a
different time period. The Prestige sends another registration request after half of
this configured time period has expired.
Register Resend
Timer
Use this field to set how long the Prestige waits before sending a repeat
registration request if a registration attempt fails or there is no response from the
registration server.
Session Expires
Use this field to set the longest time that the Prestige will allow a SIP session to
remain idle (without traffic) before dropping it.
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Table 34 Voice Advanced Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Min-SE
When two SIP devices negotiate a SIP session, they must negotiate a common
expiration time for idle SIP sessions. This field sets the shortest expiration time that
the Prestige will accept. The Prestige checks the session expiration values of
incoming SIP INVITE requests against the minimum session expiration value that
you configure here. If the session expiration of an incoming INVITE request is less
than the value you configure here, the Prestige negotiates with the other SIP
device to increase the session expiration value to match the Prestige’s minimum
session expiration value.
RTP Port Range
Real time Transport Protocol is used to handle voice data transfer. Use these fields
to configure the Prestige’s listening port range for RTP traffic. Leave these fields
set to the defaults if you were not given a range of RTP ports to use.
Preferred
Compression
Type
Use this field to select the type of voice coder/decoder (codec) that you want the
Prestige to use. G.711 provides higher voice quality than G.729 but requires
64kbps of bandwidth while G.729 only requires 8kbps.
Select G.711>G.729 if you want the Prestige to first attempt to use the G.711
codec and then the G.729 codec if the peer is not set up to use G.711.
Select G.711 only if you want the Prestige to only use the G.711 codec when
making VoIP calls. You will not be able to connect to a peer that is not set up to use
G.711.
Select G.729>G.711 if you want the Prestige to first attempt to use the G.729
codec and then the G.711 codec if the peer is not set up to use G.729.
Select G.729 only if you want the Prestige to only use the G.729 codec when
making VoIP calls. You will not be able to connect to a peer that is not set up to use
G.729.
DTMF Mode
The Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) mode sets how the Prestige handles the
tones that your telephone makes when you push its buttons. It is recommended
that you use the same mode that your VoIP service provider uses.
Select RFC 2833 to send the DTMF tones in RTP packets.
Select PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) to include the DTMF tones in the voice data
stream. This method works best when you are using a codec that does not use
compression (like G.711). Codecs that use compression (like G.729) could distort
the tones.
Select SIP INFO to send the DTMF tones in SIP messages.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
10.4 Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay,
and the networking methods used to provide bandwidth for real-time multimedia applications.
10.4.1 Type Of Service (ToS)
Network traffic can be classified by setting the ToS (Type Of Service) values at the data
source (for example, at the Prestige) so a server can decide the best method of delivery, that is
the least cost, fastest route and so on.
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10.4.2 DiffServ
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific perhop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application
types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the
level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to
handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate
paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to
request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.1
10.4.2.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service
(TOS) field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field
which can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
Figure 52 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP
(6-bit)
Unused
(2-bit)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each
packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated
according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
10.4.3 VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple
logical networks. Only stations within the same group can communicate with each other.
Your Prestige can add IEEE 802.1Q VLAN ID tags to voice frames that it sends to the
network. This allows the Prestige to communicate with a SIP server that is a member of the
same VLAN group. Some ISPs use the VLAN tag to identify voice traffic and give it priority
over other traffic.
10.5 QoS Configuration
Click Voice in the navigation panel and then Qos to display the following screen.
1.
The Prestige does not support DiffServ at the time of writing.
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Figure 53 QoS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 QoS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SIP TOS Priority
Type a priority for voice transmissions. The Prestige applies Type of Service
priority tags with this priority to voice traffic that it transmits. Priorities 6 and 7 are
reserved for network control traffic. It is recommended that you use priority 5 for
SIP.
RTP TOS Priority
Type a priority for voice transmissions. The Prestige applies Type of Service
priority tags with this priority to RTP traffic that it transmits. Priorities 6 and 7 are
reserved for network control traffic. It is recommended that you use priority 5 for
RTP.
Voice VLAN ID
Enable VLAN tagging if the Prestige needs to be a member of a VLAN group in
order to communicate with the SIP server. Your LAN and gateway must also be set
up to use VLAN tags. Some switches also give priority to voice traffic based on its
VLAN tag.
Type the VLAN ID (VID) from 0 to 4095 for the Prestige to add to voice Ethernet
frames that it sends out to the network.
Disable VLAN tagging if the Prestige does not need to be a member of a VLAN
group to communicate with the SIP server.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
10.6 Phone
You can configure the volume, echo cancellation and VAD settings for each individual phone
port on the Prestige. You can also select which SIP account to use for making outgoing calls.
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10.6.1 Voice Activity Detection/Silence Suppression
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) detects whether or not speech is present. This lets the
Prestige reduce the bandwidth that a call uses by not transmitting “silent packets” when you
are not speaking.
10.6.2 Comfort Noise Generation
When using VAD, the Prestige generates and sends comfort noise when you are not speaking.
Comfort noise uses the lowest possible transmission bandwidth to match the background
noise. The comfort noise lets the person at the other end of the connection know that the line is
still connected (total silence would easily be mistaken for a lost connection).
10.6.3 Echo Cancellation
G.168 is an ITU-T standard for eliminating the echo caused by the sound of your voice
reverberating in the telephone receiver while you talk.
10.7 Phone Configuration
Click Voice in the navigation panel and then Phone to display the following screen.
Figure 54 Phone
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 Phone
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Phone Port Settings
Use this field to select the phone port that you want to configure.
Speaking Volume
Use this field to set the loudness that the Prestige uses for the speech signal that
it sends to the peer device. -1 is the quietest and 1 is the loudest.
Listening Volume
Use this field to set the loudness that the Prestige uses for the speech signal that
it receives from the peer device and sends to your phone. -1 is the quietest and
1 is the loudest.
Outgoing Call use
SIP 1 and SIP 2 correspond to the Prestige’s SIP accounts. Select whether you
want the phone(s) attached to this phone port to use SIP account 1, 2 or both
when you make a call. If you select both SIP accounts, the Prestige will first try
to use SIP account 2 and then SIP account 1 when you make a call.
You cannot call the SIP number of the SIP account that you are using to make a
call. The Prestige generates a busy tone and does not attempt to establish a call
if the SIP number you dial matches the outgoing SIP number of the phone port
you are using.
For example, if you set Phone 1 to use SIP account 1 and set Phone 2 to use
SIP account 2, then you can use Phone 1 to call to SIP account 2's SIP number
or Phone 2 to call to SIP account 1's SIP number.
G.168 Active
Select this check box to cancel the echo caused by the sound of your voice
reverberating in the telephone receiver while you talk.
VAD Support
Select this check box to use Voice Activity Detection (VAD) to reduce the
bandwidth that a call uses. The Prestige will generate and send comfort noise
when you are not talking.
Dialing Interval
When you are dialing a telephone number the Prestige waits this long after you
stop pressing the buttons before initiating the call. Select how many seconds
you want the Prestige to wait after the last input on the telephone’s keypad
before dialing (making) a call.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
10.8 Speed Dial
Speed dial provides shortcuts for dialing frequently used (VoIP) phone numbers.
10.8.1 Peer-to-Peer Calls
You can call another VoIP device directly without going through a SIP server. You must set
up a speed dial entry in the phone book in order to do this. Select Non-Proxy (Use IP or
URL) in the Type column and enter the callee’s IP address or domain name. The Prestige
sends SIP INVITE requests to the peer VoIP device when you use the speed dial entry.
You do not need to configure a SIP account on the Prestige 2602HW in order to make a peerto-peer VoIP call. You must still configure a SIP account on the Prestige 2602HW-L in order
to make a peer-to-peer VoIP call.
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10.9 Speed Dial Configuration
Click Voice in the navigation panel and then Speed Dial to display the following screen.
Figure 55 Speed Dial
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Speed Dial
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New Entry
Use this section of the screen to edit and save new or existing speed dial phone
book entries.
Speed Dial
Select a speed dial key combination from the drop-down list box.
SIP Number
Enter the SIP number of the party that you will call (use the number or text that
comes before the @ symbol in a full SIP URI). You can use up to 95 ASCII
characters.
Name
Enter a descriptive name to identify the party that you will use this entry to call.You
can use up to 95 ASCII characters.
Type
Select Use Proxy if calls to this party use your SIP account configured in the VoIP
screen.
Select Non-Proxy (Use IP or URL) if calls to this party use a different SIP server
or go directly to the callee’s VoIP phone (peer-to-peer). Enter the SIP server’s or
the party’s IP address or domain name (up to 127 ASCII Extended set characters).
Add
Click this button to save the entry in the speed dial phone book. The speed dial
entry displays in the Speed Dial Phone Book section of the screen.
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Table 37 Speed Dial (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Speed Dial Phone This section of the screen displays the currently saved speed dial entries. You can
Book
configure up to 10 entries and use them to make calls.
Speed Dial
This is the entry’s speed dial key combination. Press this key combination on a
telephone attached to the Prestige in order to call the party named in this entry.
SIP Number
This is the SIP number of the party that you will call.
Name
This is the descriptive name of the party that you will use this speed dial entry to
call.
Destination
This field displays Use Proxy if calls to this party use one of your SIP accounts.
This field displays the SIP server’s or the party’s IP address or domain name if
calls to this party do not use one of your SIP accounts.
Delete
Click this button to remove an entry from the speed dial phone book.
Edit
Click this button to change the speed dial entry. The speed dial entry displays in
the Add New Entry section of the screen where you can edit it.
Clear
Click this button to remove all of the entries from the speed dial phone book.
10.10 Lifeline (Prestige 2602HW-L)
With lifeline you can make and receive regular phone calls. Use a prefix number to make a
regular call. When the Prestige 2602HW-L does not have power, you can make regular calls
without dialing a prefix number.
You can also specify phone numbers that should always use the regular phone service (without
having to dial a prefix number). Do this for emergency numbers (like those for contacting
police, fire or emergency medical services).
10.11 Lifeline Configuration (Prestige 2602HW-L)
Click Voice in the navigation panel and then Lifeline to display the following screen.
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Figure 56
Lifeline
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 Lifeline
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PSTN Pre-fix
Number
Specify the prefix number for dialing regular calls when VoIP service is available.
Relay to PSTN
Use these fields to specify phone numbers to which the Prestige will always send
calls through the regular phone service without the need of dialing a prefix number.
These numbers must be for phones on the PSTN (not VoIP phones).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
10.12 Common Phone Port Configuration
Click PHONE in the navigation panel and then Common to display the following screen. Use
this screen to configure general phone port settings.
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Figure 57 Phone Port Common
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 Phone Port Common
148
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Country Settings
Use the drop-down list box to select the country where your Prestige is located.
Immediate Dial
Use immediate dial to have the Prestige make calls right away instead of waiting
for the dialing interval (the time period it waits to make sure you are done
pressing the keys).
In order to use immediate dial, enable it here. Then press the pound (#) key on
your telephone’s keypad after dialing a phone number (this has the Prestige
make the call right away).
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 11
Dynamic DNS Setup
This chapter discusses how to configure your Prestige to use Dynamic DNS.
11.1 Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or many
dynamic DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CU-SeeMe, etc.). You
can also access your FTP server or Web site on your own computer using a domain name (for
instance myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a name of your choice) that will never change
instead of using an IP address that changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or relatives
will always be able to call you even if they don't know your IP address.
First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with www.dyndns.org. This is
for people with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP server that would still like to have a
domain name. The Dynamic DNS service provider will give you a password or key.
11.1.1 DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the
same IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use,
for example, www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
11.2 Configuring Dynamic DNS
To change your Prestige’s DDNS, click Dynamic DNS. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 58 Dynamic DNS
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 40 Dynamic DNS
150
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to use dynamic DNS.
Service Provider
This is the name of your Dynamic DNS service provider.
Host Names
Type the domain name assigned to your Prestige by your Dynamic DNS provider.
E-mail Address
Type your e-mail address.
User
Type your user name.
Password
Type the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard
Select the check box to enable DYNDNS Wildcard.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 12
Time and Date
Use this screen to configure the Prestige’s time and date settings.
12.1 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers List
The Prestige uses the following pre-defined list of NTP time servers if you do not specify a
time server or it cannot synchronize with the time server you specified.
Note: The Prestige can use this pre-defined list of time servers regardless of the Time
Protocol you select.
When the Prestige uses the pre-defined list of NTP time servers, it randomly selects one server
and tries to synchronize with it. If the synchronization fails, then the Prestige goes through the
rest of the list in order from the first one tried until either it is successful or all the pre-defined
NTP time servers have been tried.
Table 41 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers
ntp1.cs.wisc.edu
ntp1.gbg.netnod.se
ntp2.cs.wisc.edu
tock.usno.navy.mil
ntp3.cs.wisc.edu
ntp.cs.strath.ac.uk
ntp1.sp.se
time1.stupi.se
tick.stdtime.gov.tw
tock.stdtime.gov.tw
time.stdtime.gov.tw
12.2 Configuring Time and Date
To change your Prestige’s time and date, click Time And Date. The screen appears as shown.
Use this screen to configure the Prestige’s time based on your local time zone.
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Figure 59 Time and Date
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 42 Time and Date
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Server
Use Protocol when Select the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on the
Bootup
Prestige. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to check with
your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that works.
The main difference between them is the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC 868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC 1305) is similar to Time (RFC 868).
Select None to enter the time and date manually.
IP Address or URL Enter the IP address or URL of your time server. Check with your ISP/network
administrator if you are unsure of this information.
152
Time and Date
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference between
your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Savings
Select this option if you use daylight savings time. Daylight saving is a period from
late spring to early fall when many countries set their clocks ahead of normal local
time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
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Table 42 Time and Date (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Date
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time starts on if you selected
Daylight Savings.
End Date
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time ends on if you selected
Daylight Savings.
Synchronize
system clock with
Time Server now.
Select this option to have your Prestige use the time server (that you configured
above) to set its internal system clock.
Please wait for up to 60 seconds while the Prestige locates the time server. If the
Prestige cannot find the time server, please check the time server protocol and its
IP address. If the IP address was entered correctly, try pinging it for example to
test the connection.
Date
Current Date
This field displays the date of your Prestige.
Each time you reload this page, the Prestige synchronizes the time with the time
server.
New Date (yyyymm-dd)
This field displays the last updated date from the time server.
When you select None in the Use Protocol when Bootup field, enter the new
date in this field and then click Apply.
Time
Current Time
This field displays the time of your Prestige.
Each time you reload this page, the Prestige synchronizes the time with the time
server.
New Time
This field displays the last updated time from the time server.
When you select None in the Use Protocol when Bootup field, enter the new
time in this field and then click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 13
Firewalls
This chapter gives some background information on firewalls and introduces the Prestige
firewall.
13.1 Firewall Overview
Originally, the term firewall referred to a construction technique designed to prevent the
spread of fire from one room to another. The networking term “firewall” is a system or group
of systems that enforces an access-control policy between two networks. It may also be
defined as a mechanism used to protect a trusted network from an untrusted network. Of
course, firewalls cannot solve every security problem. A firewall is one of the mechanisms
used to establish a network security perimeter in support of a network security policy. It
should never be the only mechanism or method employed. For a firewall to guard effectively,
you must design and deploy it appropriately. This requires integrating the firewall into a broad
information-security policy. In addition, specific policies must be implemented within the
firewall itself.
13.2 Types of Firewalls
There are three main types of firewalls:
• Packet Filtering Firewalls
• Application-level Firewalls
• Stateful Inspection Firewalls
13.2.1 Packet Filtering Firewalls
Packet filtering firewalls restrict access based on the source/destination computer network
address of a packet and the type of application.
13.2.2 Application-level Firewalls
Application-level firewalls restrict access by serving as proxies for external servers. Since they
use programs written for specific Internet services, such as HTTP, FTP and telnet, they can
evaluate network packets for valid application-specific data. Application-level gateways have
a number of general advantages over the default mode of permitting application traffic directly
to internal hosts:
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Information hiding prevents the names of internal systems from being made known via DNS
to outside systems, since the application gateway is the only host whose name must be made
known to outside systems.
Robust authentication and logging pre-authenticates application traffic before it reaches
internal hosts and causes it to be logged more effectively than if it were logged with standard
host logging. Filtering rules at the packet filtering router can be less complex than they would
be if the router needed to filter application traffic and direct it to a number of specific systems.
The router need only allow application traffic destined for the application gateway and reject
the rest.
13.2.3 Stateful Inspection Firewalls
Stateful inspection firewalls restrict access by screening data packets against defined access
rules. They make access control decisions based on IP address and protocol. They also
"inspect" the session data to assure the integrity of the connection and to adapt to dynamic
protocols. These firewalls generally provide the best speed and transparency, however, they
may lack the granular application level access control or caching that some proxies support.
See Section 13.5 on page 161 for more information on Stateful Inspection.
Firewalls, of one type or another, have become an integral part of standard security solutions
for enterprises.
13.3 Introduction to ZyXEL’s Firewall
The Prestige firewall is a stateful inspection firewall and is designed to protect against Denial
of Service attacks when activated (in SMT menu 21.2 or in the web configurator). The
Prestige’s purpose is to allow a private Local Area Network (LAN) to be securely connected
to the Internet. The Prestige can be used to prevent theft, destruction and modification of data,
as well as log events, which may be important to the security of your network. The Prestige
also has packet filtering capabilities.
The Prestige is installed between the LAN and the Internet. This allows it to act as a secure
gateway for all data passing between the Internet and the LAN.
The Prestige has one DSL/ISDN port and one Ethernet LAN port, which physically separate
the network into two areas.
• The DSL/ISDN port connects to the Internet.
• The LAN (Local Area Network) port attaches to a network of computers, which needs
security from the outside world. These computers will have access to Internet services
such as e-mail, FTP, and the World Wide Web. However, “inbound access” will not be
allowed unless you configure remote management or create a firewall rule to allow a
remote host to use a specific service.
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13.3.1 Denial of Service Attacks
Figure 60 Prestige Firewall Application
13.4 Denial of Service
Denials of Service (DoS) attacks are aimed at devices and networks with a connection to the
Internet. Their goal is not to steal information, but to disable a device or network so users no
longer have access to network resources. The Prestige is pre-configured to automatically
detect and thwart all known DoS attacks.
13.4.1 Basics
Computers share information over the Internet using a common language called TCP/IP. TCP/
IP, in turn, is a set of application protocols that perform specific functions. An “extension
number”, called the "TCP port" or "UDP port" identifies these protocols, such as HTTP
(Web), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), POP3 (E-mail), etc. For example, Web traffic by default
uses TCP port 80.
When computers communicate on the Internet, they are using the client/server model, where
the server "listens" on a specific TCP/UDP port for information requests from remote client
computers on the network. For example, a Web server typically listens on port 80. Please note
that while a computer may be intended for use over a single port, such as Web on port 80,
other ports are also active. If the person configuring or managing the computer is not careful, a
hacker could attack it over an unprotected port.
Some of the most common IP ports are:
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Table 43 Common IP Ports
21
FTP
53
DNS
23
Telnet
80
HTTP
25
SMTP
110
POP3
13.4.2 Types of DoS Attacks
There are four types of DoS attacks:
1 Those that exploit bugs in a TCP/IP implementation.
2 Those that exploit weaknesses in the TCP/IP specification.
3 Brute-force attacks that flood a network with useless data.
4 IP Spoofing.
5 "Ping of Death" and "Teardrop" attacks exploit bugs in the TCP/IP implementations of
various computer and host systems.
• Ping of Death uses a "ping" utility to create an IP packet that exceeds the maximum
65,536 bytes of data allowed by the IP specification. The oversize packet is then sent to
an unsuspecting system. Systems may crash, hang or reboot.
• Teardrop attack exploits weaknesses in the re-assembly of IP packet fragments. As data is
transmitted through a network, IP packets are often broken up into smaller chunks. Each
fragment looks like the original IP packet except that it contains an offset field that says,
for instance, "This fragment is carrying bytes 200 through 400 of the original (non
fragmented) IP packet." The Teardrop program creates a series of IP fragments with
overlapping offset fields. When these fragments are reassembled at the destination, some
systems will crash, hang, or reboot.
6 Weaknesses in the TCP/IP specification leave it open to "SYN Flood" and "LAND"
attacks. These attacks are executed during the handshake that initiates a communication
session between two applications.
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Figure 61 Three-Way Handshake
Under normal circumstances, the application that initiates a session sends a SYN
(synchronize) packet to the receiving server. The receiver sends back an ACK
(acknowledgment) packet and its own SYN, and then the initiator responds with an ACK
(acknowledgment). After this handshake, a connection is established.
• SYN Attack floods a targeted system with a series of SYN packets. Each packet causes
the targeted system to issue a SYN-ACK response. While the targeted system waits for
the ACK that follows the SYN-ACK, it queues up all outstanding SYN-ACK responses
on what is known as a backlog queue. SYN-ACKs are moved off the queue only when an
ACK comes back or when an internal timer (which is set at relatively long intervals)
terminates the three-way handshake. Once the queue is full, the system will ignore all
incoming SYN requests, making the system unavailable for legitimate users.
Figure 62 SYN Flood
• In a LAND Attack, hackers flood SYN packets into the network with a spoofed source
IP address of the targeted system. This makes it appear as if the host computer sent the
packets to itself, making the system unavailable while the target system tries to respond
to itself.
7 A brute-force attack, such as a "Smurf" attack, targets a feature in the IP specification
known as directed or subnet broadcasting, to quickly flood the target network with
useless data. A Smurf hacker floods a router with Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) echo request packets (pings). Since the destination IP address of each packet is
the broadcast address of the network, the router will broadcast the ICMP echo request
packet to all hosts on the network. If there are numerous hosts, this will create a large
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amount of ICMP echo request and response traffic. If a hacker chooses to spoof the
source IP address of the ICMP echo request packet, the resulting ICMP traffic will not
only clog up the "intermediary" network, but will also congest the network of the spoofed
source IP address, known as the "victim" network. This flood of broadcast traffic
consumes all available bandwidth, making communications impossible.
Figure 63 Smurf Attack
13.4.2.1 ICMP Vulnerability
ICMP is an error-reporting protocol that works in concert with IP. The following ICMP types
trigger an alert:
Table 44 ICMP Commands That Trigger Alerts
5
REDIRECT
13
TIMESTAMP_REQUEST
14
TIMESTAMP_REPLY
17
ADDRESS_MASK_REQUEST
18
ADDRESS_MASK_REPLY
13.4.2.2 Illegal Commands (NetBIOS and SMTP)
The only legal NetBIOS commands are the following - all others are illegal.
Table 45 Legal NetBIOS Commands
MESSAGE:
REQUEST:
POSITIVE:
VE:
RETARGET:
KEEPALIVE:
All SMTP commands are illegal except for those displayed in the following tables.
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Table 46
Legal SMTP Commands
AUTH
DATA
EHLO
ETRN
EXPN
HELO
HELP
MAIL
QUIT
RCPT
RSET
SAML
SEND
SOML
TURN
VRFY
NOOP
13.4.2.3 Traceroute
Traceroute is a utility used to determine the path a packet takes between two endpoints.
Sometimes when a packet filter firewall is configured incorrectly an attacker can traceroute
the firewall gaining knowledge of the network topology inside the firewall.
Often, many DoS attacks also employ a technique known as "IP Spoofing" as part of their
attack. IP Spoofing may be used to break into systems, to hide the hacker's identity, or to
magnify the effect of the DoS attack. IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized
access to computers by tricking a router or firewall into thinking that the communications are
coming from within the trusted network. To engage in IP spoofing, a hacker must modify the
packet headers so that it appears that the packets originate from a trusted host and should be
allowed through the router or firewall. The Prestige blocks all IP Spoofing attempts.
13.5 Stateful Inspection
With stateful inspection, fields of the packets are compared to packets that are already known
to be trusted. For example, if you access some outside service, the proxy server remembers
things about your original request, like the port number and source and destination addresses.
This “remembering” is called saving the state. When the outside system responds to your
request, the firewall compares the received packets with the saved state to determine if they
are allowed in. The Prestige uses stateful packet inspection to protect the private LAN from
hackers and vandals on the Internet. By default, the Prestige’s stateful inspection allows all
communications to the Internet that originate from the LAN, and blocks all traffic to the LAN
that originates from the Internet. In summary, stateful inspection:
• Allows all sessions originating from the LAN (local network) to the WAN (Internet).
• Denies all sessions originating from the WAN to the LAN.
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Figure 64 Stateful Inspection
The previous figure shows the Prestige’s default firewall rules in action as well as
demonstrates how stateful inspection works. User A can initiate a Telnet session from within
the LAN and responses to this request are allowed. However other Telnet traffic initiated from
the WAN is blocked.
13.5.1 Stateful Inspection Process
In this example, the following sequence of events occurs when a TCP packet leaves the LAN
network through the firewall's WAN interface. The TCP packet is the first in a session, and the
packet's application layer protocol is configured for a firewall rule inspection:
1 The packet travels from the firewall's LAN to the WAN.
2 The packet is evaluated against the interface's existing outbound access list, and the
packet is permitted (a denied packet would simply be dropped at this point).
3 The packet is inspected by a firewall rule to determine and record information about the
state of the packet's connection. This information is recorded in a new state table entry
created for the new connection. If there is not a firewall rule for this packet and it is not an
attack, then the settings in the Default Policy screen determine the action for this packet.
4 Based on the obtained state information, a firewall rule creates a temporary access list
entry that is inserted at the beginning of the WAN interface's inbound extended access
list. This temporary access list entry is designed to permit inbound packets of the same
connection as the outbound packet just inspected.
5 The outbound packet is forwarded out through the interface.
6 Later, an inbound packet reaches the interface. This packet is part of the connection
previously established with the outbound packet. The inbound packet is evaluated against
the inbound access list, and is permitted because of the temporary access list entry
previously created.
7 The packet is inspected by a firewall rule, and the connection's state table entry is updated
as necessary. Based on the updated state information, the inbound extended access list
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temporary entries might be modified, in order to permit only packets that are valid for the
current state of the connection.
8 Any additional inbound or outbound packets that belong to the connection are inspected
to update the state table entry and to modify the temporary inbound access list entries as
required, and are forwarded through the interface.
9 When the connection terminates or times out, the connection's state table entry is deleted
and the connection's temporary inbound access list entries are deleted.
13.5.2 Stateful Inspection and the Prestige
Additional rules may be defined to extend or override the default rules. For example, a rule
may be created which will:
• Block all traffic of a certain type, such as IRC (Internet Relay Chat), from the LAN to the
Internet.
• Allow certain types of traffic from the Internet to specific hosts on the LAN.
• Allow access to a Web server to everyone but competitors.
• Restrict use of certain protocols, such as Telnet, to authorized users on the LAN.
These custom rules work by evaluating the network traffic’s Source IP address, Destination IP
address, IP protocol type, and comparing these to rules set by the administrator.
Note: The ability to define firewall rules is a very powerful tool. Using custom rules, it
is possible to disable all firewall protection or block all access to the Internet.
Use extreme caution when creating or deleting firewall rules. Test changes
after creating them to make sure they work correctly.
Below is a brief technical description of how these connections are tracked. Connections may
either be defined by the upper protocols (for instance, TCP), or by the Prestige itself (as with
the "virtual connections" created for UDP and ICMP).
13.5.3 TCP Security
The Prestige uses state information embedded in TCP packets. The first packet of any new
connection has its SYN flag set and its ACK flag cleared; these are "initiation" packets. All
packets that do not have this flag structure are called "subsequent" packets, since they
represent data that occurs later in the TCP stream.
If an initiation packet originates on the WAN, this means that someone is trying to make a
connection from the Internet into the LAN. Except in a few special cases (see "Upper Layer
Protocols" shown next), these packets are dropped and logged.
If an initiation packet originates on the LAN, this means that someone is trying to make a
connection from the LAN to the Internet. Assuming that this is an acceptable part of the
security policy (as is the case with the default policy), the connection will be allowed. A cache
entry is added which includes connection information such as IP addresses, TCP ports,
sequence numbers, etc.
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When the Prestige receives any subsequent packet (from the Internet or from the LAN), its
connection information is extracted and checked against the cache. A packet is only allowed to
pass through if it corresponds to a valid connection (that is, if it is a response to a connection
which originated on the LAN).
13.5.4 UDP/ICMP Security
UDP and ICMP do not themselves contain any connection information (such as sequence
numbers). However, at the very minimum, they contain an IP address pair (source and
destination). UDP also contains port pairs, and ICMP has type and code information. All of
this data can be analyzed in order to build "virtual connections" in the cache.
For instance, any UDP packet that originates on the LAN will create a cache entry. Its IP
address and port pairs will be stored. For a short period of time, UDP packets from the WAN
that have matching IP and UDP information will be allowed back in through the firewall.
A similar situation exists for ICMP, except that the Prestige is even more restrictive.
Specifically, only outgoing echoes will allow incoming echo replies, outgoing address mask
requests will allow incoming address mask replies, and outgoing timestamp requests will
allow incoming timestamp replies. No other ICMP packets are allowed in through the firewall,
simply because they are too dangerous and contain too little tracking information. For
instance, ICMP redirect packets are never allowed in, since they could be used to reroute
traffic through attacking machines.
13.5.5 Upper Layer Protocols
Some higher layer protocols (such as FTP and RealAudio) utilize multiple network
connections simultaneously. In general terms, they usually have a "control connection" which
is used for sending commands between endpoints, and then "data connections" which are used
for transmitting bulk information.
Consider the FTP protocol. A user on the LAN opens a control connection to a server on the
Internet and requests a file. At this point, the remote server will open a data connection from
the Internet. For FTP to work properly, this connection must be allowed to pass through even
though a connection from the Internet would normally be rejected.
In order to achieve this, the Prestige inspects the application-level FTP data. Specifically, it
searches for outgoing "PORT" commands, and when it sees these, it adds a cache entry for the
anticipated data connection. This can be done safely, since the PORT command contains
address and port information, which can be used to uniquely identify the connection.
Any protocol that operates in this way must be supported on a case-by-case basis. You can use
the web configurator’s Custom Ports feature to do this.
13.6 Guidelines for Enhancing Security with Your Firewall
• Change the default password via SMT or web configurator.
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• Limit who can telnet into your router.
• Don't enable any local service (such as SNMP or NTP) that you don't use. Any enabled
service could present a potential security risk. A determined hacker might be able to find
creative ways to misuse the enabled services to access the firewall or the network.
• For local services that are enabled, protect against misuse. Protect by configuring the
services to communicate only with specific peers, and protect by configuring rules to
block packets for the services at specific interfaces.
• Protect against IP spoofing by making sure the firewall is active.
• Keep the firewall in a secured (locked) room.
13.6.1 Security In General
You can never be too careful! Factors outside your firewall, filtering or NAT can cause
security breaches. Below are some generalizations about what you can do to minimize them.
• Encourage your company or organization to develop a comprehensive security plan.
Good network administration takes into account what hackers can do and prepares
against attacks. The best defense against hackers and crackers is information. Educate all
employees about the importance of security and how to minimize risk. Produce lists like
this one!
• DSL or cable modem connections are “always-on” connections and are particularly
vulnerable because they provide more opportunities for hackers to crack your system.
Turn your computer off when not in use.
• Never give out a password or any sensitive information to an unsolicited telephone call or
e-mail.
• Never e-mail sensitive information such as passwords, credit card information, etc.,
without encrypting the information first.
• Never submit sensitive information via a web page unless the web site uses secure
connections. You can identify a secure connection by looking for a small “key” icon on
the bottom of your browser (Internet Explorer 3.02 or better or Netscape 3.0 or better). If
a web site uses a secure connection, it is safe to submit information. Secure web
transactions are quite difficult to crack.
• Never reveal your IP address or other system networking information to people outside
your company. Be careful of files e-mailed to you from strangers. One common way of
getting BackOrifice on a system is to include it as a Trojan horse with other files.
• Change your passwords regularly. Also, use passwords that are not easy to figure out.
The most difficult passwords to crack are those with upper and lower case letters,
numbers and a symbol such as % or #.
• Upgrade your software regularly. Many older versions of software, especially web
browsers, have well known security deficiencies. When you upgrade to the latest
versions, you get the latest patches and fixes.
• If you use “chat rooms” or IRC sessions, be careful with any information you reveal to
strangers.
• If your system starts exhibiting odd behavior, contact your ISP. Some hackers will set off
hacks that cause your system to slowly become unstable or unusable.
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• Always shred confidential information, particularly about your computer, before
throwing it away. Some hackers dig through the trash of companies or individuals for
information that might help them in an attack.
13.7 Packet Filtering Vs Firewall
Below are some comparisons between the Prestige’s filtering and firewall functions.
13.7.1 Packet Filtering:
• The router filters packets as they pass through the router’s interface according to the filter
rules you designed.
• Packet filtering is a powerful tool, yet can be complex to configure and maintain,
especially if you need a chain of rules to filter a service.
• Packet filtering only checks the header portion of an IP packet.
13.7.1.1 When To Use Filtering
• To block/allow LAN packets by their MAC addresses.
• To block/allow special IP packets which are neither TCP nor UDP, nor ICMP packets.
• To block/allow both inbound (WAN to LAN) and outbound (LAN to WAN) traffic
between the specific inside host/network "A" and outside host/network "B". If the filter
blocks the traffic from A to B, it also blocks the traffic from B to A. Filters can not
distinguish traffic originating from an inside host or an outside host by IP address.
• To block/allow IP trace route.
13.7.2 Firewall
• The firewall inspects packet contents as well as their source and destination addresses.
Firewalls of this type employ an inspection module, applicable to all protocols, that
understands data in the packet is intended for other layers, from the network layer (IP
headers) up to the application layer.
• The firewall performs stateful inspection. It takes into account the state of connections it
handles so that, for example, a legitimate incoming packet can be matched with the
outbound request for that packet and allowed in. Conversely, an incoming packet
masquerading as a response to a nonexistent outbound request can be blocked.
• The firewall uses session filtering, i.e., smart rules, that enhance the filtering process and
control the network session rather than control individual packets in a session.
• The firewall provides e-mail service to notify you of routine reports and when alerts
occur.
13.7.2.1 When To Use The Firewall
• To prevent DoS attacks and prevent hackers cracking your network.
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• A range of source and destination IP addresses as well as port numbers can be specified
within one firewall rule making the firewall a better choice when complex rules are
required.
• To selectively block/allow inbound or outbound traffic between inside host/networks and
outside host/networks. Remember that filters can not distinguish traffic originating from
an inside host or an outside host by IP address.
• The firewall performs better than filtering if you need to check many rules.
• Use the firewall if you need routine e-mail reports about your system or need to be alerted
when attacks occur.
• The firewall can block specific URL traffic that might occur in the future. The URL can
be saved in an Access Control List (ACL) database.
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CHAPTER 14
Firewall Configuration
This chapter shows you how to enable and configure the Prestige firewall.
14.1 Access Methods
The web configurator is, by far, the most comprehensive firewall configuration tool your
Prestige has to offer. For this reason, it is recommended that you configure your firewall using
the web configurator. SMT screens allow you to activate the firewall. CLI commands provide
limited configuration options and are only recommended for advanced users.
14.2 Firewall Policies Overview
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they apply:
•
LAN to LAN/ Router
•
WAN to LAN
•
LAN to WAN
•
WAN to WAN/ Router
By default, the Prestige’s stateful packet inspection allows packets traveling in the following
directions:
• LAN to LAN/ Router
This allows computers on the LAN to manage the Prestige and communicate between
networks or subnets connected to the LAN interface.
• LAN to WAN
By default, the Prestige’s stateful packet inspection blocks packets traveling in the following
directions:
• WAN to LAN
• WAN to WAN/ Router
This prevents computers on the WAN from using the Prestige as a gateway to
communicate with other computers on the WAN and/or managing the Prestige.
You may define additional rules and sets or modify existing ones but please exercise
extreme caution in doing so.
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Note: If you configure firewall rules without a good understanding of how they work,
you might inadvertently introduce security risks to the firewall and to the
protected network. Make sure you test your rules after you configure them.
For example, you may create rules to:
• Block certain types of traffic, such as IRC (Internet Relay Chat), from the LAN to the
Internet.
• Allow certain types of traffic, such as Lotus Notes database synchronization, from
specific hosts on the Internet to specific hosts on the LAN.
• Allow everyone except your competitors to access a Web server.
• Restrict use of certain protocols, such as Telnet, to authorized users on the LAN.
These custom rules work by comparing the Source IP address, Destination IP address and IP
protocol type of network traffic to rules set by the administrator. Your customized rules take
precedence and override the Prestige’s default rules.
14.3 Rule Logic Overview
Note: Study these points carefully before configuring rules.
14.3.1 Rule Checklist
State the intent of the rule. For example, “This restricts all IRC access from the LAN to the
Internet.” Or, “This allows a remote Lotus Notes server to synchronize over the Internet to an
inside Notes server.”
1 Is the intent of the rule to forward or block traffic?
2 What direction of traffic does the rule apply to (refer to Section 14.2 on page 169)?
3 What IP services will be affected?
4 What computers on the LAN are to be affected (if any)?
5 What computers on the Internet will be affected? The more specific, the better. For
example, if traffic is being allowed from the Internet to the LAN, it is better to allow only
certain machines on the Internet to access the LAN.
14.3.2 Security Ramifications
1 Once the logic of the rule has been defined, it is critical to consider the security
ramifications created by the rule:
2 Does this rule stop LAN users from accessing critical resources on the Internet? For
example, if IRC is blocked, are there users that require this service?
3 Is it possible to modify the rule to be more specific? For example, if IRC is blocked for all
users, will a rule that blocks just certain users be more effective?
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4 Does a rule that allows Internet users access to resources on the LAN create a security
vulnerability? For example, if FTP ports (TCP 20, 21) are allowed from the Internet to the
LAN, Internet users may be able to connect to computers with running FTP servers.
5 Does this rule conflict with any existing rules?
6 Once these questions have been answered, adding rules is simply a matter of plugging the
information into the correct fields in the web configurator screens.
14.3.3 Key Fields For Configuring Rules
14.3.3.1 Action
Should the action be to Block or Forward?
Note: “Block” means the firewall silently discards the packet.
14.3.3.2 Service
Select the service from the Service scrolling list box. If the service is not listed, it is necessary
to first define it. See Section 14.10 on page 184 for more information on predefined services.
14.3.3.3 Source Address
What is the connection’s source address; is it on the LAN or WAN? Is it a single IP, a range of
IPs or a subnet?
14.3.3.4 Destination Address
What is the connection’s destination address; is it on the LAN or WAN? Is it a single IP, a
range of IPs or a subnet?
14.4 Connection Direction Example
This section describes examples for firewall rules for connections going from LAN to WAN
and from WAN to LAN.
LAN to LAN/ Router and WAN to WAN/ Router rules applies to packets coming in on the
associated interface (LAN or WAN respectively). LAN to LAN/ Router means policies for
LAN-to-Prestige (the policies for managing the Prestige through the LAN interface) and
policies for LAN-to-LAN (the policies that control routing between two subnets on the LAN).
Similarly, WAN to WAN/ Router polices apply in the same way to the WAN port.
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14.4.1 LAN to WAN Rules
The default rule for LAN to WAN traffic is that all users on the LAN are allowed nonrestricted access to the WAN. When you configure a LAN to WAN rule, you in essence want
to limit some or all users from accessing certain services on the WAN. See the following
figure.
Figure 65 LAN to WAN Traffic
14.4.2 WAN to LAN Rules
The default rule for WAN to LAN traffic blocks all incoming connections (WAN to LAN). If
you wish to allow certain WAN users to have access to your LAN, you will need to create
custom rules to allow it.
See the following figure.
Figure 66 WAN to LAN Traffic
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14.4.3 Alerts
Alerts are reports on events, such as attacks, that you may want to know about right away. You
can choose to generate an alert when an attack is detected in the Edit Rule screen (select the
Send Alert Message to Administrator When Matched check box) or when a rule is matched
in the Edit Rule screen (see Section 14.6.1 on page 176). When an event generates an alert, a
message can be immediately sent to an e-mail account that you specify in the Log Settings
screen (see the chapter on logs).
14.5 Configuring Basic Firewall Settings
Click Firewall and then Default Policy to display the following screen. Activate the firewall
by selecting the Firewall Enabled check box as seen in the following screen.
Figure 67 Firewall: Default Policy
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Firewall: Default Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Firewall Enabled
Select this check box to activate the firewall. The Prestige performs access control
and protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks when the firewall is activated.
Allow
Asymmetrical
Route
Select this check box to have the Prestige firewall permit the use of triangle route
topology on the network. See the appendix for more on triangle route topology.
Packet Direction
This is the direction of travel of packets (LAN to LAN/Router, LAN to WAN, WAN
to WAN/Router or WAN to LAN.
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they
apply. For example, LAN to LAN/Router means packets traveling from a
computer/subnet on the LAN to either another computer/subnet on the LAN
interface of the Prestige or the Prestige itself.
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Table 47 Firewall: Default Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default Action
Use the radio buttons to select whether to Block (silently discard) or Forward
(allow the passage of) packets that are traveling in the selected direction.
Log
Select the check box to create a log (when the above action is taken) for packets
that are traveling in the selected direction and do not match any of the rules below.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.6 Rule Summary
Note: The ordering of your rules is very important as rules are applied in turn.
Click on Firewall, then Rule Summary to bring up the following screen. This screen is a
summary of the existing rules. Note the order in which the rules are listed.
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Figure 68 Firewall: Rule Summary
Table 48 Rule Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Firewall Rules
Storage Space
in Use
This read-only bar shows how much of the Prestige's memory for recording firewall
rules it is currently using. When you are using 80% or less of the storage space, the
bar is green. When the amount of space used is over 80%, the bar is red.
Packet Direction Use the drop-down list box to select a direction of travel of packets for which you
want to configure firewall rules.
Default Policy
This field displays the default action and log policy you selected in the Default Rule
screen for the packet direction shown in the field above.
The following read-only fields summarize the rules you have created that apply to
traffic traveling in the selected packet direction. The firewall rules that you configure
(summarized below) take priority over the general firewall action settings above.
Rule
This is your firewall rule number. The ordering of your rules is important as rules are
applied in turn.
Click a rule’s number to go to the Firewall Edit Rule screen to configure or edit a
firewall rule.
Active
This field displays whether a firewall is turned on (Y) or not (N).
Source IP
This drop-down list box displays the source addresses or ranges of addresses to
which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination
address is equivalent to Any.
Destination IP
This drop-down list box displays the destination addresses or ranges of addresses
to which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination
address is equivalent to Any.
Service
This drop-down list box displays the services to which this firewall rule applies.
Please note that a blank service type is equivalent to Any. See for more
information.
Action
This is the specified action for that rule, either Block or Forward. Note that Block
means the firewall silently discards the packet.
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Table 48 Rule Summary (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Schedule
This field tells you whether a schedule is specified (Yes) or not (No).
Log
This field shows you whether a log is created when packets match this rule
(Enabled) or not (Disable).
Alert
This field tells you whether this rule generates an alert (Yes) or not (No) when the
rule is matched.
Insert/Append
Type the index number for where you want to put a rule. For example, if you type “6”,
your new rule becomes number 6 and the previous rule 6 (if there is one) becomes
rule 7.
Click Insert to add a new firewall rule before the specified index number.
Click Append to add a new firewall rule after the specified index number.
Move
Type a rule’s index number and the number for where you want to put that rule. Click
Move to move the rule to the number that you typed. The ordering of your rules is
important as they are applied in order of their numbering.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.6.1 Configuring Firewall Rules
Follow these directions to create a new rule.
1 In the Rule Summary screen, type the index number for where you want to put the rule.
For example, if you type “6”, your new rule becomes number 6 and the previous rule 6 (if
there is one) becomes rule 7.
2 Click Insert to display this screen and refer to the following table for information on the
labels.
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Figure 69 Firewall: Edit Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 49 Firewall: Edit Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this firewall rule.
Action for Matched
Packet
Use the radio button to select whether to discard (Block) or allow the passage of
(Forward) packets that match this rule.
Source/Destination
Address
Address Type
Do you want your rule to apply to packets with a particular (single) IP, a range of
IP addresses (e.g., 192.168.1.10 to 192.169.1.50), a subnet or any IP address?
Select an option from the drop-down list box that includes: Single Address,
Range Address, Subnet Address and Any Address.
Start IP Address
Enter the single IP address or the starting IP address in a range here.
End IP Address
Enter the ending IP address in a range here.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask here, if applicable.
Add
Click Add to add a new address to the Source or Destination Address box.
You can add multiple addresses, ranges of addresses, and/or subnets.
Edit
To edit an existing source or destination address, select it from the box and click
Edit.
Delete
Highlight an existing source or destination address from the Source or
Destination Address box above and click Delete to remove it.
Services
Available/ Selected
Services
Please see for more information on services available. Highlight a service from
the Available Services box on the left, then click Add>> to add it to the
Selected Services box on the right. To remove a service, highlight it in the
Selected Services box on the right, then click Remove.
Edit Customized
Services
Click the Edit Customized Services link to bring up the screen that you use to
configure a new custom service that is not in the predefined list of services.
Schedule
Day to Apply
Select everyday or the day(s) of the week to apply the rule.
Time of Day to
Apply (24-Hour
Format)
Select All Day or enter the start and end times in the hour-minute format to
apply the rule.
Log
Log Packet Detail
Information
This field determines if a log for packets that match the rule is created (Enable)
or not (Disable). Go to the Log Settings page and select the Access Control
logs category to have the Prestige record these logs.
Alert
Send Alert Message Select the check box to have the Prestige generate an alert when the rule is
to Administrator
matched.
When Matched
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Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
Delete
Click Delete to remove this firewall rule and return to the Firewall Rule
Summary screen.
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14.7 Customized Services
Configure customized services and port numbers not predefined by the Prestige. For a
comprehensive list of port numbers and services, visit the IANA (Internet Assigned Number
Authority) website. For further information on these services, please read Section 14.10 on
page 184. Click the Edit Customized Services link while editing a firewall rule to configure
a custom service port. This displays the following screen.
Figure 70 Firewall: Customized Services
Table 50 Customized Services
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No.
This is the number of your customized service. Click a rule’s number of a service to go to
the Firewall Customized Services Config screen to configure or edit a customized
service.
Name
This is the name of your customized service.
Protocol
This shows the IP protocol (TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP) that defines your customized
service.
Port
This is the port number or range that defines your customized service.
Back
Click Back to return the Firewall Edit Rule screen.
14.8 Creating/Editing A Customized Service
Click a rule number in the Firewall Customized Services screen to create a new custom port
or edit an existing one. This action displays the following screen.
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Figure 71 Firewall: Configure Customized Services
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 Firewall: Configure Customized Services
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
Type a unique name for your custom port.
Service Type
Choose the IP port (TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP) that defines your customized port from
the drop down list box.
Port
Configuration
Type
Click Single to specify one port only or Range to specify a span of ports that define
your customized service.
Port Number
Type a single port number or the range of port numbers that define your customized
service.
Back
Click Back to return to the Firewall Customized Services screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
Delete
Click Delete to delete the current rule.
14.9 Example Firewall Rule
The following Internet firewall rule example allows a hypothetical “My Service” connection
from the Internet.
1 Click Firewall in the navigation panel and click Rule Summary.
2 Select WAN to LAN in the Packet Direction field.
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Figure 72 Firewall Example: Rule Summary
3 In the Rule Summary screen, type the index number for where you want to put the rule.
For example, if you type “6”, your new rule becomes number 6 and the previous rule 6 (if
there is one) becomes rule 7.
4 Click Insert to display the firewall rule configuration screen.
5 Select Any in the Destination Address box and then click Delete.
6 Configure the destination address screen as follows and click Add.
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Figure 73 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Destination Address
7 In the Edit Rule screen, click the Edit Customized Services link to open the
Customized Services screen.
8 Click the number of a customized service to open the configuration screen. Configure it
as follows and click Apply.
Figure 74 Edit Custom Port Example
9 Click Back in the Customized Services screen to return to the Edit Rule screen.
10In the Edit Rule screen, use the Add>> and Remove buttons between Available
Services and Selected Services list boxes to configure it as follows. Click Apply when
you are done.
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Figure 75 Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Select Customized Services
Note: Custom ports show up with an “*” before their names in the Services list box
and the Rule Summary list box. Click Apply after you’ve created your custom
port.
On completing the configuration procedure for this Internet firewall rule, the Rule Summary
screen should look like the following.
Rule 2 allows a “My Service” connection from the WAN to IP addresses 10.0.0.10 through
10.0.0.15 on the LAN.
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Figure 76 Firewall Example: Rule Summary: My Service
14.10 Predefined Services
The Available Services list box in the Edit Rule screen (see Section 14.6.1 on page 176)
displays all predefined services that the Prestige already supports. Next to the name of the
service, two fields appear in brackets. The first field indicates the IP protocol type (TCP, UDP,
or ICMP). The second field indicates the IP port number that defines the service. (Note that
there may be more than one IP protocol type. For example, look at the default configuration
labeled “(DNS)”. (UDP/TCP:53) means UDP port 53 and TCP port 53. Up to 128 entries are
supported. Custom service ports may also be configured using the Customized Services
function discussed previously.
Table 52
184
Predefined Services
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
AIM/NEW_ICQ(TCP:5190)
AOL’s Internet Messenger service, used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH(TCP:113)
Authentication protocol used by some servers.
BGP(TCP:179)
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT(UDP:68)
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER(UDP:67)
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME(TCP/UDP:7648,
24032)
A popular videoconferencing solution from White Pines Software.
DNS(UDP/TCP:53)
Domain Name Server, a service that matches web names (e.g.
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
FINGER(TCP:79)
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related command that can be used to find
out if a user is logged on.
FTP(TCP:20.21)
File Transfer Program, a program to enable fast transfer of files,
including large files that may not be possible by e-mail.
H.323(TCP:1720)
Net Meeting uses this protocol.
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Table 52
Predefined Services (continued)
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
HTTP(TCP:80)
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/server protocol for the world
wide web.
HTTPS
HTTPS is a secured http session often used in e-commerce.
ICQ(UDP:4000)
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IPSEC_TRANSPORT/
TUNNEL(AH:0)
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header) tunneling protocol uses this
service.
IPSEC_TUNNEL(ESP:0)
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security Protocol) tunneling protocol
uses this service.
IRC(TCP/UDP:6667)
This is another popular Internet chat program.
MSN Messenger(TCP:1863)
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service uses this protocol.
MULTICAST(IGMP:0)
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used when sending packets to a
specific group of hosts.
NEWS(TCP:144)
A protocol for news groups.
NFS(UDP:2049)
Network File System - NFS is a client/server distributed file service that
provides transparent file-sharing for network environments.
NNTP(TCP:119)
Network News Transport Protocol is the delivery mechanism for the
USENET newsgroup service.
PING(ICMP:0)
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that sends out ICMP echo
requests to test whether or not a remote host is reachable.
POP3(TCP:110)
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client computer get e-mail from a
POP3 server through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or other).
PPTP(TCP:1723)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables secure transfer of data over
public networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL(GRE:0)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables secure transfer of data over
public networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD(TCP:512)
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO(TCP:7070)
A streaming audio service that enables real time sound over the web.
REXEC(TCP:514)
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN(TCP:513)
Remote Login.
RTELNET(TCP:107)
Remote Telnet.
RTSP(TCP/UDP:554)
The Real Time Streaming (media control) Protocol (RTSP) is a remote
control for multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP(TCP:115)
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
SMTP(TCP:25)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the message-exchange standard for
the Internet. SMTP enables you to move messages from one e-mail
server to another.
SNMP(TCP/UDP:161)
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS (TCP/
UDP:162)
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET(TCP:1521)
Structured Query Language is an interface to access data on many
different types of database systems, including mainframes, midrange
systems, UNIX systems and network servers.
SSDP(UDP:1900)
Simole Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) is a discovery service
searching for Universal Plug and Play devices on your home network
or upstream Internet gateways using DUDP port 1900.
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Table 52
Predefined Services (continued)
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
SSH(TCP/UDP:22)
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRMWORKS(UDP:1558)
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG(UDP:514)
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a UNIX server.
TACACS(UDP:49)
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal Access Controller Access
Control System).
TELNET(TCP:23)
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation protocol common on the
Internet and in UNIX environments. It operates over TCP/IP networks.
Its primary function is to allow users to log into remote host systems.
TFTP(UDP:69)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet file transfer protocol similar
to FTP, but uses the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) rather than TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE(TCP:7000)
Another videoconferencing solution.
14.11 Anti-Probing
If an outside user attempts to probe an unsupported port on your Prestige, an ICMP response
packet is automatically returned. This allows the outside user to know the Prestige exists. The
Prestige supports anti-probing, which prevents the ICMP response packet from being sent.
This keeps outsiders from discovering your Prestige when unsupported ports are probed.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a message control and error-reporting protocol
between a host server and a gateway to the Internet. ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP)
datagrams, but the messages are processed by the TCP/IP software and directly apparent to the
application user.
Click Firewall in the navigation panel and click Anti Probing to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 77 Firewall: Anti Probing
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 Firewall: Anti Probing
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Respond to PING
on
The Prestige does not respond to any incoming Ping requests when Disable is
selected.
Select LAN to reply to incoming LAN Ping requests.
Select WAN to reply to incoming WAN Ping requests.
Otherwise select LAN & WAN to reply to both incoming LAN and WAN Ping
requests.
Do not respond to
requests for
unauthorized
services.
Select this option to prevent hackers from finding the Prestige by probing for
unused ports. If you select this option, the Prestige will not respond to port
request(s) for unused ports, thus leaving the unused ports and the Prestige
unseen. By default this option is not selected and the Prestige will reply with an
ICMP Port Unreachable packet for a port probe on its unused UDP ports, and a
TCP Reset packet for a port probe on its unused TCP ports.
Note that the probing packets must first traverse the Prestige 's firewall
mechanism before reaching this anti-probing mechanism. Therefore if the firewall
mechanism blocks a probing packet, the Prestige reacts based on the firewall
policy, which by default, is to send a TCP reset packet for a blocked TCP packet.
You can use the command "sys firewall tcprst rst [on|off]" to change this policy.
When the firewall mechanism blocks a UDP packet, it drops the packet without
sending a response packet.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.12 DOS Thresholds
For DoS attacks, the Prestige uses thresholds to determine when to drop sessions that do not
become fully established. These thresholds apply globally to all sessions.
You can use the default threshold values, or you can change them to values more suitable to
your security requirements.
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14.12.1 Threshold Values
Tune these parameters when something is not working and after you have checked the firewall
counters. These default values should work fine for most small offices. Factors influencing
choices for threshold values are:
•
•
•
•
•
The maximum number of opened sessions.
The minimum capacity of server backlog in your LAN network.
The CPU power of servers in your LAN network.
Network bandwidth.
Type of traffic for certain servers.
If your network is slower than average for any of these factors (especially if you have servers
that are slow or handle many tasks and are often busy), then the default values should be
reduced.
You should make any changes to the threshold values before you continue configuring
firewall rules.
14.12.2 Half-Open Sessions
An unusually high number of half-open sessions (either an absolute number or measured as
the arrival rate) could indicate that a Denial of Service attack is occurring. For TCP, "halfopen" means that the session has not reached the established state-the TCP three-way
handshake has not yet been completed (see Figure 61 on page 159). For UDP, "half-open"
means that the firewall has detected no return traffic.
The Prestige measures both the total number of existing half-open sessions and the rate of
session establishment attempts. Both TCP and UDP half-open sessions are counted in the total
number and rate measurements. Measurements are made once a minute.
When the number of existing half-open sessions rises above a threshold (max-incomplete
high), the Prestige starts deleting half-open sessions as required to accommodate new
connection requests. The Prestige continues to delete half-open requests as necessary, until the
number of existing half-open sessions drops below another threshold (max-incomplete low).
When the rate of new connection attempts rises above a threshold (one-minute high), the
Prestige starts deleting half-open sessions as required to accommodate new connection
requests. The Prestige continues to delete half-open sessions as necessary, until the rate of new
connection attempts drops below another threshold (one-minute low). The rate is the number
of new attempts detected in the last one-minute sample period.
14.12.2.1 TCP Maximum Incomplete and Blocking Time
An unusually high number of half-open sessions with the same destination host address could
indicate that a Denial of Service attack is being launched against the host.
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Whenever the number of half-open sessions with the same destination host address rises above
a threshold (TCP Maximum Incomplete), the Prestige starts deleting half-open sessions
according to one of the following methods:
• If the Blocking Time timeout is 0 (the default), then the Prestige deletes the oldest
existing half-open session for the host for every new connection request to the host. This
ensures that the number of half-open sessions to a given host will never exceed the
threshold.
• If the Blocking Time timeout is greater than 0, then the Prestige blocks all new
connection requests to the host giving the server time to handle the present connections.
The Prestige continues to block all new connection requests until the Blocking Time
expires.
The Prestige also sends alerts whenever TCP Maximum Incomplete is exceeded. The global
values specified for the threshold and timeout apply to all TCP connections.
Click Firewall, and Threshold to bring up the next screen.
Figure 78 Firewall: Threshold
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 Firewall: Threshold
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DEFAULT VALUES
Denial of Service
Thresholds
One Minute Low
This is the rate of new half-open sessions that 80 existing half-open sessions.
causes the firewall to stop deleting half-open
sessions. The Prestige continues to delete
half-open sessions as necessary, until the
rate of new connection attempts drops below
this number.
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Table 54 Firewall: Threshold (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DEFAULT VALUES
One Minute High
This is the rate of new half-open sessions that
causes the firewall to start deleting half-open
sessions. When the rate of new connection
attempts rises above this number, the
Prestige deletes half-open sessions as
required to accommodate new connection
attempts.
100 half-open sessions per minute.
The above numbers cause the
Prestige to start deleting half-open
sessions when more than 100
session establishment attempts
have been detected in the last
minute, and to stop deleting halfopen sessions when fewer than 80
session establishment attempts
have been detected in the last
minute.
Maximum
Incomplete Low
This is the number of existing half-open
sessions that causes the firewall to stop
deleting half-open sessions. The Prestige
continues to delete half-open requests as
necessary, until the number of existing halfopen sessions drops below this number.
80 existing half-open sessions.
Maximum
Incomplete High
This is the number of existing half-open
sessions that causes the firewall to start
deleting half-open sessions. When the
number of existing half-open sessions rises
above this number, the Prestige deletes halfopen sessions as required to accommodate
new connection requests. Do not set
Maximum Incomplete High to lower than the
current Maximum Incomplete Low number.
100 existing half-open sessions.
The above values causes the
Prestige to start deleting half-open
sessions when the number of
existing half-open sessions rises
above 100, and to stop deleting
half-open sessions with the
number of existing half-open
sessions drops below 80.
TCP Maximum
Incomplete
This is the number of existing half-open TCP 30 existing half-open TCP
sessions with the same destination host IP
sessions.
address that causes the firewall to start
dropping half-open sessions to that same
destination host IP address. Enter a number
between 1 and 256. As a general rule, you
should choose a smaller number for a smaller
network, a slower system or limited
bandwidth.
Action taken when
the TCP Maximum
Incomplete
threshold is
reached.
190
Delete the oldest
half open session
when new
connection
request comes
Select this radio button to clear the oldest half
open session when a new connection request
comes.
Deny new
connection
request for
Select this radio button and specify for how
long the Prestige should block new
connection requests when TCP Maximum
Incomplete is reached.
Enter the length of blocking time in minutes
(between 1 and 256).
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 15
Content Filtering
This chapter covers how to configure content filtering.
15.1 Content Filtering Overview
Internet content filtering allows you to create and enforce Internet access policies tailored to
your needs. Content filtering gives you the ability to block web sites that contain key words
(that you specify) in the URL. You can set a schedule for when the Prestige performs content
filtering. You can also specify trusted IP addresses on the LAN for which the Prestige will not
perform content filtering.
15.2 Configuring Keyword Blocking
Use this screen to block sites containing certain keywords in the URL. For example, if you
enable the keyword "bad", the Prestige blocks all sites containing this keyword including the
URL http://www.website.com/bad.html, even if it is not included in the Filter List.
To have your Prestige block Web sites containing keywords in their URLs, click Content
Filter and Keyword. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 79 Content Filter: Keyword
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Content Filter: Keyword
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Keyword Blocking
Select this check box to enable this feature.
Block Websites that contain This box contains the list of all the keywords that you have configured the
these keywords in the URL: Prestige to block.
Delete
Highlight a keyword in the box and click Delete to remove it.
Clear All
Click Clear All to remove all of the keywords from the list.
Keyword
Type a keyword in this field. You may use any character (up to 127
characters). Wildcards are not allowed.
Add Keyword
Click Add Keyword after you have typed a keyword.
Repeat this procedure to add other keywords. Up to 64 keywords are
allowed.
When you try to access a web page containing a keyword, you will get a
message telling you that the content filter is blocking this request.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
15.3 Configuring the Schedule
To set the days and times for the Prestige to perform content filtering, click Content Filter
and Schedule. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 80 Content Filter: Schedule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 56 Content Filter: Schedule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Days to Block:
Select a check box to configure which days of the week (or everyday) you want the
content filtering to be active.
Time of Day to
Block:
Use the 24 hour format to configure which time of the day (or select the All day check
box) you want the content filtering to be active.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
15.4 Configuring Trusted Computers
To exclude a range of users on the LAN from content filtering on your Prestige, click Content
Filter and Trusted. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 81 Content Filter: Trusted
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 Content Filter: Trusted
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trusted User IP Range
194
From
Type the IP address of a computer (or the beginning IP address of a specific
range of computers) on the LAN that you want to exclude from content
filtering.
To
Type the ending IP address of a specific range of users on your LAN that
you want to exclude from content filtering. Leave this field blank if you want
to exclude an individual computer.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER 16
Introduction to IPSec
This chapter introduces the basics of IPSec VPNs.
16.1 VPN Overview
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) provides secure communications between sites without the
expense of leased site-to-site lines. A secure VPN is a combination of tunneling, encryption,
authentication, access control and auditing technologies/services used to transport traffic over
the Internet or any insecure network that uses the TCP/IP protocol suite for communication.
16.1.1 IPSec
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a standards-based VPN that offers flexible solutions for
secure data communications across a public network like the Internet. IPSec is built around a
number of standardized cryptographic techniques to provide confidentiality, data integrity and
authentication at the IP layer.
16.1.2 Security Association
A Security Association (SA) is a contract between two parties indicating what security
parameters, such as keys and algorithms they will use.
16.1.3 Other Terminology
16.1.3.1 Encryption
Encryption is a mathematical operation that transforms data from "plaintext" (readable) to
"ciphertext" (scrambled text) using a "key". The key and clear text are processed by the
encryption operation, which leads to the data scrambling that makes encryption secure.
Decryption is the opposite of encryption: it is a mathematical operation that transforms
“ciphertext” to plaintext. Decryption also requires a key.
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Figure 82 Encryption and Decryption
16.1.3.2 Data Confidentiality
The IPSec sender can encrypt packets before transmitting them across a network.
16.1.3.3 Data Integrity
The IPSec receiver can validate packets sent by the IPSec sender to ensure that the data has not
been altered during transmission.
16.1.3.4 Data Origin Authentication
The IPSec receiver can verify the source of IPSec packets. This service depends on the data
integrity service.
16.1.4 VPN Applications
The Prestige supports the following VPN applications.
• Linking Two or More Private Networks Together
Connect branch offices and business partners over the Internet with significant cost
savings and improved performance when compared to leased lines between sites.
• Accessing Network Resources When NAT Is Enabled
When NAT is enabled, remote users are not able to access hosts on the LAN unless the
host is designated a public LAN server for that specific protocol. Since the VPN tunnel
terminates inside the LAN, remote users will be able to access all computers that use
private IP addresses on the LAN.
• Unsupported IP Applications
A VPN tunnel may be created to add support for unsupported emerging IP applications.
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16.2 IPSec Architecture
The overall IPSec architecture is shown as follows.
Figure 83 IPSec Architecture
16.2.1 IPSec Algorithms
The ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol (RFC 2406) and AH (Authentication
Header) protocol (RFC 2402) describe the packet formats and the default standards for packet
structure (including implementation algorithms).
The Encryption Algorithm describes the use of encryption techniques such as DES (Data
Encryption Standard) and Triple DES algorithms.
The Authentication Algorithms, HMAC-MD5 (RFC 2403) and HMAC-SHA-1 (RFC 2404,
provide an authentication mechanism for the AH and ESP protocols. Please see Section 17.2
on page 201 for more information.
16.2.2 Key Management
Key management allows you to determine whether to use IKE (ISAKMP) or manual key
configuration in order to set up a VPN.
16.3 Encapsulation
The two modes of operation for IPSec VPNs are Transport mode and Tunnel mode.
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Figure 84 Transport and Tunnel Mode IPSec Encapsulation
16.3.1 Transport Mode
Transport mode is used to protect upper layer protocols and only affects the data in the IP
packet. In Transport mode, the IP packet contains the security protocol (AH or ESP) located
after the original IP header and options, but before any upper layer protocols contained in the
packet (such as TCP and UDP).
With ESP, protection is applied only to the upper layer protocols contained in the packet. The
IP header information and options are not used in the authentication process. Therefore, the
originating IP address cannot be verified for integrity against the data.
With the use of AH as the security protocol, protection is extended forward into the IP header
to verify the integrity of the entire packet by use of portions of the original IP header in the
hashing process.
16.3.2 Tunnel Mode
Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire IP packet to transmit it securely. A Tunnel mode is
required for gateway services to provide access to internal systems. Tunnel mode is
fundamentally an IP tunnel with authentication and encryption. This is the most common
mode of operation. Tunnel mode is required for gateway to gateway and host to gateway
communications. Tunnel mode communications have two sets of IP headers:
• Outside header: The outside IP header contains the destination IP address of the VPN
gateway.
• Inside header: The inside IP header contains the destination IP address of the final
system behind the VPN gateway. The security protocol appears after the outer IP header
and before the inside IP header.
16.4 IPSec and NAT
Read this section if you are running IPSec on a host computer behind the Prestige.
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NAT is incompatible with the AH protocol in both Transport and Tunnel mode. An IPSec
VPN using the AH protocol digitally signs the outbound packet, both data payload and
headers, with a hash value appended to the packet. When using AH protocol, packet contents
(the data payload) are not encrypted.
A NAT device in between the IPSec endpoints will rewrite either the source or destination
address with one of its own choosing. The VPN device at the receiving end will verify the
integrity of the incoming packet by computing its own hash value, and complain that the hash
value appended to the received packet doesn't match. The VPN device at the receiving end
doesn't know about the NAT in the middle, so it assumes that the data has been maliciously
altered.
IPSec using ESP in Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire original packet (including headers)
in a new IP packet. The new IP packet's source address is the outbound address of the sending
VPN gateway, and its destination address is the inbound address of the VPN device at the
receiving end. When using ESP protocol with authentication, the packet contents (in this case,
the entire original packet) are encrypted. The encrypted contents, but not the new headers, are
signed with a hash value appended to the packet.
Tunnel mode ESP with authentication is compatible with NAT because integrity checks are
performed over the combination of the "original header plus original payload," which is
unchanged by a NAT device.
Transport mode ESP with authentication is not compatible with NAT, although NAT
traversal provides a way to use Transport mode ESP when there is a NAT router between the
IPSec endpoints (see Section 17.8 on page 206 for details).
Table 58 VPN and NAT
SECURITY PROTOCOL
MODE
NAT
AH
Transport
N
AH
Tunnel
N
ESP
Transport
N
ESP
Tunnel
Y
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CHAPTER 17
VPN Screens
This chapter introduces the VPN screens. See the chapter on logs for information on viewing
logs and the appendix on logs for IPSec log descriptions.
17.1 VPN/IPSec Overview
Use the screens documented in this chapter to configure rules for VPN connections and
manage VPN connections.
17.2 IPSec Algorithms
The ESP and AH protocols are necessary to create a Security Association (SA), the
foundation of an IPSec VPN. An SA is built from the authentication provided by the AH and
ESP protocols. The primary function of key management is to establish and maintain the SA
between systems. Once the SA is established, the transport of data may commence.
17.2.1 AH (Authentication Header) Protocol
AH protocol (RFC 2402) was designed for integrity, authentication, sequence integrity (replay
resistance), and non-repudiation but not for confidentiality, for which the ESP was designed.
In applications where confidentiality is not required or not sanctioned by government
encryption restrictions, an AH can be employed to ensure integrity. This type of
implementation does not protect the information from dissemination but will allow for
verification of the integrity of the information and authentication of the originator.
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17.2.2 ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol
The ESP protocol (RFC 2406) provides encryption as well as the services offered by AH. ESP
authenticating properties are limited compared to the AH due to the non-inclusion of the IP
header information during the authentication process. However, ESP is sufficient if only the
upper layer protocols need to be authenticated.
An added feature of the ESP is payload padding, which further protects communications by
concealing the size of the packet being transmitted.
Table 59 AH and ESP
ESP
AH
DES (default)
MD5 (default)
Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a widely
MD5 (Message Digest 5) produces a 128-bit
used method of data encryption using a
digest to authenticate packet data.
private (secret) key. DES applies a 56-bit key
to each 64-bit block of data.
3DES
SHA1
Triple DES (3DES) is a variant of DES, which SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) produces a
iterates three times with three separate keys 160-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
(3 x 56 = 168 bits), effectively doubling the
strength of DES.
ENCRYPTION
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard is a newer
method of data encryption that also uses a
secret key. This implementation of AES
applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
AES is faster than 3DES.
Select NULL to set up a phase 2 tunnel
without encryption.
AUTHENTICATION
MD5 (default)
MD5 (Message Digest 5) produces a 128-bit
digest to authenticate packet data.
MD5 (default)
MD5 (Message Digest 5) produces a 128-bit
digest to authenticate packet data.
SHA1
SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) produces a
160-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
SHA1
SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) produces a
160-bit digest to authenticate packet data.
Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA1 for maximum security.
17.3 My IP Address
My IP Address is the WAN IP address of the Prestige. The Prestige has to rebuild the VPN
tunnel if the My IP Address changes after setup.
The following applies if this field is configured as 0.0.0.0:
• The Prestige uses the current Prestige WAN IP address (static or dynamic) to set up the
VPN tunnel.
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• If the WAN connection goes down, the Prestige uses the dial backup IP address for the
VPN tunnel when using dial backup or the LAN IP address when using traffic redirect.
See the chapter on WAN for details on dial backup and traffic redirect.
17.4 Secure Gateway Address
Secure Gateway Address is the WAN IP address or domain name of the remote IPSec router
(secure gateway).
If the remote secure gateway has a static WAN IP address, enter it in the Secure Gateway
Address field. You may alternatively enter the remote secure gateway’s domain name (if it
has one) in the Secure Gateway Address field.
You can also enter a remote secure gateway’s domain name in the Secure Gateway Address
field if the remote secure gateway has a dynamic WAN IP address and is using DDNS. The
Prestige has to rebuild the VPN tunnel each time the remote secure gateway’s WAN IP
address changes (there may be a delay until the DDNS servers are updated with the remote
gateway’s new WAN IP address).
17.4.1 Dynamic Secure Gateway Address
If the remote secure gateway has a dynamic WAN IP address and does not use DDNS, enter
0.0.0.0 as the secure gateway’s address. In this case only the remote secure gateway can
initiate SAs. This may be useful for telecommuters initiating a VPN tunnel to the company
network (see Section 17.18 on page 225 for configuration examples).
The Secure Gateway IP Address may be configured as 0.0.0.0 only when using IKE key
management and not Manual key management.
17.5 VPN Summary Screen
The following figure helps explain the main fields in the web configurator.
Figure 85 IPSec Summary Fields
Local and remote IP addresses must be static.
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Click VPN and Setup to open the VPN Summary screen. This is a read-only menu of your
IPSec rules (tunnels). The IPSec summary menu is read-only. Edit a VPN by selecting an
index number and then configuring its associated submenus.
Figure 86 VPN Summary
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 60 VPN Summary
204
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No.
This is the VPN policy index number. Click a number to edit VPN policies.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Active
This field displays whether the VPN policy is active or not. A Yes signifies that this
VPN policy is active. No signifies that this VPN policy is not active.
Local Address
This is the IP address(es) of computer(s) on your local network behind your Prestige.
The same (static) IP address is displayed twice when the Local Address Type field
in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Single.
The beginning and ending (static) IP addresses, in a range of computers are
displayed when the Local Address Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key)
screen is configured to Range.
A (static) IP address and a subnet mask are displayed when the Local Address
Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Subnet.
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Table 60 VPN Summary (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote
Address
This is the IP address(es) of computer(s) on the remote network behind the remote
IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when the Secure Gateway Address field displays 0.0.0.0. In
this case only the remote IPSec router can initiate the VPN.
The same (static) IP address is displayed twice when the Remote Address Type
field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Single.
The beginning and ending (static) IP addresses, in a range of computers are
displayed when the Remote Address Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual
Key) screen is configured to Range.
A (static) IP address and a subnet mask are displayed when the Remote Address
Type field in the VPN-IKE (or VPN-Manual Key) screen is configured to Subnet.
Encap.
This field displays Tunnel or Transport mode (Tunnel is the default selection).
IPSec Algorithm This field displays the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase Prestige processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
Secure Gateway This is the static WAN IP address or URL of the remote IPSec router. This field
IP
displays 0.0.0.0 when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in the VPNIKE screen to 0.0.0.0.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
17.6 Keep Alive
When you initiate an IPSec tunnel with keep alive enabled, the Prestige automatically
renegotiates the tunnel when the IPSec SA lifetime period expires (see Section 17.12 on page
214 for more on the IPSec SA lifetime). In effect, the IPSec tunnel becomes an “always on”
connection after you initiate it. Both IPSec routers must have a Prestige-compatible keep alive
feature enabled in order for this feature to work.
If the Prestige has its maximum number of simultaneous IPSec tunnels connected to it and
they all have keep alive enabled, then no other tunnels can take a turn connecting to the
Prestige because the Prestige never drops the tunnels that are already connected. Refer to
Section 1.3 on page 46 to see how many simultaneous IPSec SAs your Prestige model can
support.
When there is outbound traffic with no inbound traffic, the Prestige automatically drops the
tunnel after two minutes.
17.7 Remote DNS Server
In cases where you want to use domain names to access Intranet servers on a remote network
that has a DNS server, you must identify that DNS server. You cannot use DNS servers on the
LAN or from the ISP since these DNS servers cannot resolve domain names to private IP
addresses on the remote network
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The following figure depicts an example where three VPN tunnels are created from Prestige
A; one to branch office 2, one to branch office 3 and another to headquarters. In order to
access computers that use private domain names on the headquarters (HQ) network, the
Prestige at branch office 1 uses the Intranet DNS server in headquarters. The DNS server
feature for VPN does not work with Windows 2000 or Windows XP.
Figure 87 VPN Host using Intranet DNS Server Example
If you do not specify an Intranet DNS server on the remote network, then the VPN host must
use IP addresses to access the computers on the remote network.
17.8 NAT Traversal
NAT traversal allows you to set up a VPN connection when there are NAT routers between
the two IPSec routers.
Figure 88 NAT Router Between IPSec Routers
Normally you cannot set up a VPN connection with a NAT router between the two IPSec
routers because the NAT router changes the header of the IPSec packet. In the previous figure,
IPSec router A sends an IPSec packet in an attempt to initiate a VPN. The NAT router changes
the IPSec packet’s header so it does not match the header for which IPSec router B is
checking. Therefore, IPSec router B does not respond and the VPN connection cannot be built.
NAT traversal solves the problem by adding a UDP port 500 header to the IPSec packet. The
NAT router forwards the IPSec packet with the UDP port 500 header unchanged. IPSec router
B checks the UDP port 500 header and responds. IPSec routers A and B build a VPN
connection.
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17.8.1 NAT Traversal Configuration
For NAT traversal to work you must:
• Use ESP security protocol (in either transport or tunnel mode).
• Use IKE keying mode.
• Enable NAT traversal on both IPSec endpoints.
In order for IPSec router A (see Figure 88 on page 206) to receive an initiating IPSec packet
from IPSec router B, set the NAT router to forward UDP port 500 to IPSec router A.
17.9 ID Type and Content
With aggressive negotiation mode (see Section 17.12.1 on page 216), the Prestige identifies
incoming SAs by ID type and content since this identifying information is not encrypted. This
enables the Prestige to distinguish between multiple rules for SAs that connect from remote
IPSec routers that have dynamic WAN IP addresses. Telecommuters can use separate
passwords to simultaneously connect to the Prestige from IPSec routers with dynamic IP
addresses (see Section 17.18 on page 225 for a telecommuter configuration example).
Regardless of the ID type and content configuration, the Prestige does not allow you to save
multiple active rules with overlapping local and remote IP addresses.
With main mode (see Section 17.12.1 on page 216), the ID type and content are encrypted to
provide identity protection. In this case the Prestige can only distinguish between up to 12
different incoming SAs that connect from remote IPSec routers that have dynamic WAN IP
addresses. The Prestige can distinguish up to 12 incoming SAs because you can select between
three encryption algorithms (DES, 3DES and AES), two authentication algorithms (MD5 and
SHA1) and two key groups (DH1 and DH2) when you configure a VPN rule (see Section
17.13 on page 216). The ID type and content act as an extra level of identification for
incoming SAs.
The type of ID can be a domain name, an IP address or an e-mail address. The content is the IP
address, domain name, or e-mail address.
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Table 61 Local ID Type and Content Fields
LOCAL ID TYPE= CONTENT=
IP
Type the IP address of your computer or leave the field blank to have the Prestige
automatically use its own IP address.
DNS
Type a domain name (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
E-mail
Type an e-mail address (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address.
Table 62 Peer ID Type and Content Fields
PEER ID TYPE= CONTENT=
IP
Type the IP address of the computer with which you will make the VPN connection
or leave the field blank to have the Prestige automatically use the address in the
Secure Gateway field.
DNS
Type a domain name (up to 31 characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec
router.
E-mail
Type an e-mail address (up to 31 characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec
router.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address. The domain name also does not have to match the remote router’s IP
address or what you configure in the Secure Gateway Addr field below.
17.9.1 ID Type and Content Examples
Two IPSec routers must have matching ID type and content configuration in order to set up a
VPN tunnel.
The two Prestiges in this example can complete negotiation and establish a VPN tunnel.
Table 63 Matching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
208
PRESTIGE A
PRESTIGE B
Local ID type: E-mail
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Peer ID type: IP
Peer ID type: E-mail
Peer ID content: 1.1.1.2
Peer ID content: tom@yourcompany.com
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The two Prestiges in this example cannot complete their negotiation because Prestige B’s
Local ID type is IP, but Prestige A’s Peer ID type is set to E-mail. An “ID mismatched”
message displays in the IPSEC LOG.
Table 64 Mismatching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
PRESTIGE A
PRESTIGE B
Local ID type: IP
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: 1.1.1.10
Local ID content: 1.1.1.10
Peer ID type: E-mail
Peer ID type: IP
Peer ID content: aa@yahoo.com
Peer ID content: N/A
17.10 Pre-Shared Key
A pre-shared key identifies a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation (see
Section 17.12 on page 214 for more on IKE phases). It is called “pre-shared” because you
have to share it with another party before you can communicate with them over a secure
connection.
17.11 Editing VPN Policies
Click a number (No.) on the Summary screen to edit VPN policies.
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Figure 89 VPN IKE
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 65 VPN IKE
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPSec Setup
Active Select this check box to activate this VPN policy. This option determines whether
a VPN rule is applied before a packet leaves the firewall.
Keep Alive Select either Yes or No from the drop-down list box.
Select Yes to have the Prestige automatically reinitiate the SA after the SA
lifetime times out, even if there is no traffic. The remote IPSec router must also
have keep alive enabled in order for this feature to work.
NAT Traversal
Select this check box to enable NAT traversal. NAT traversal allows you to set up
a VPN connection when there are NAT routers between the two IPSec routers.
Note: The remote IPSec router must also have NAT traversal
enabled.
You can use NAT traversal with ESP protocol using Transport or Tunnel mode,
but not with AH protocol nor with manual key management. In order for an IPSec
router behind a NAT router to receive an initiating IPSec packet, set the NAT
router to forward UDP port 500 to the IPSec router behind the NAT router.
Name Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN policy. You may use any character,
including spaces, but the Prestige drops trailing spaces.
IPSec Key Mode Select IKE or Manual from the drop-down list box. IKE provides more protection
so it is generally recommended. Manual is a useful option for troubleshooting if
you have problems using IKE key management.
Negotiation Mode Select Main or Aggressive from the drop-down list box. Multiple SAs connecting
through a secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
Encapsulation Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode from the drop-down list box.
Mode
DNS Server (for If there is a private DNS server that services the VPN, type its IP address here.
IPSec VPN) The Prestige assigns this additional DNS server to the Prestige's DHCP clients
that have IP addresses in this IPSec rule's range of local addresses.
A DNS server allows clients on the VPN to find other computers and servers on
the VPN by their (private) domain names.
Local
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs can have the same configured local or remote IP address, but not
both. You can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP
addresses, as long as only one is active at any time.
In order to have more than one active rule with the Secure Gateway Address
field set to 0.0.0.0, the ranges of the local IP addresses cannot overlap between
rules.
If you configure an active rule with 0.0.0.0 in the Secure Gateway Address field
and the LAN’s full IP address range as the local IP address, then you cannot
configure any other active rules with the Secure Gateway Address field set to
0.0.0.0.
Local Address Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single for
Type a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses. Select
Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
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Table 65 VPN IKE (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address Start When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type field is
configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of
computers on your LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type
field is configured to Subnet, this is a (static) IP address on the LAN behind your
Prestige.
End / Subnet Mask When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static)
IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the
Local Address Type field is configured to Subnet, this is a subnet mask on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
Remote
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured local IP addresses. The remote fields do not apply when the Secure
Gateway IP Address field is configured to 0.0.0.0. In this case only the remote
IPSec router can initiate the VPN.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
Remote Address Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single
Type with a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses.
Select Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address Start When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Remote
Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
End / Subnet Mask When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router. When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet,
enter a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Address
Information
Local ID Type Select IP to identify this Prestige by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify this Prestige by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify this Prestige by an e-mail address.
Content When you select IP in the Local ID Type field, type the IP address of your
computer in the local Content field. The Prestige automatically uses the IP
address in the My IP Address field (refer to the My IP Address field description)
if you configure the local Content field to 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank.
It is recommended that you type an IP address other than 0.0.0.0 in the local
Content field or use the DNS or E-mail ID type in the following situations.
When there is a NAT router between the two IPSec routers.
When you want the remote IPSec router to be able to distinguish between VPN
connection requests that come in from IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP
addresses.
When you select DNS or E-mail in the Local ID Type field, type a domain name
or e-mail address by which to identify this Prestige in the local Content field. Use
up to 31 ASCII characters including spaces, although trailing spaces are
truncated. The domain name or e-mail address is for identification purposes only
and can be any string.
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Table 65 VPN IKE (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
My IP Address Enter the WAN IP address of your Prestige. The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if
this IP address changes.
The following applies if this field is configured as 0.0.0.0:
The Prestige uses the current Prestige WAN IP address (static or dynamic) to set
up the VPN tunnel.
If the WAN connection goes down, the Prestige uses the dial backup IP address
for the VPN tunnel when using dial backup or the LAN IP address when using
traffic redirect. See the chapter on WAN for details on dial backup and traffic
redirect.
Peer ID Type Select IP to identify the remote IPSec router by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify the remote IPSec router by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify the remote IPSec router by an e-mail address.
Content The configuration of the peer content depends on the peer ID type.
For IP, type the IP address of the computer with which you will make the VPN
connection. If you configure this field to 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank, the Prestige will
use the address in the Secure Gateway Address field (refer to the Secure
Gateway Address field description).
For DNS or E-mail, type a domain name or e-mail address by which to identify the
remote IPSec router. Use up to 31 ASCII characters including spaces, although
trailing spaces are truncated. The domain name or e-mail address is for
identification purposes only and can be any string.
It is recommended that you type an IP address other than 0.0.0.0 or use the DNS
or E-mail ID type in the following situations:
When there is a NAT router between the two IPSec routers.
When you want the Prestige to distinguish between VPN connection requests that
come in from remote IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP addresses.
Secure Gateway Type the WAN IP address or the URL (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec router
Address with which you're making the VPN connection. Set this field to 0.0.0.0 if the
remote IPSec router has a dynamic WAN IP address (the Key Management field
must be set to IKE).
In order to have more than one active rule with the Secure Gateway Address
field set to 0.0.0.0, the ranges of the local IP addresses cannot overlap between
rules.
If you configure an active rule with 0.0.0.0 in the Secure Gateway Address field
and the LAN’s full IP address range as the local IP address, then you cannot
configure any other active rules with the Secure Gateway Address field set to
0.0.0.0.
Security Protocol
VPN Protocol Select ESP if you want to use ESP (Encapsulation Security Payload). The ESP
protocol (RFC 2406) provides encryption as well as some of the services offered
by AH. If you select ESP here, you must select options from the Encryption
Algorithm and Authentication Algorithm fields (described below).
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Table 65 VPN IKE (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Pre-Shared Key Type your pre-shared key in this field. A pre-shared key identifies a
communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation. It is called "pre-shared"
because you have to share it with another party before you can communicate with
them over a secure connection.
Type from 8 to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters or from 16 to 62 hexadecimal
("0-9", "A-F") characters. You must precede a hexadecimal key with a "0x” (zero
x), which is not counted as part of the 16 to 62 character range for the key. For
example, in "0x0123456789ABCDEF", “0x” denotes that the key is hexadecimal
and “0123456789ABCDEF” is the key itself.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will receive
a “PYLD_MALFORMED” (payload malformed) packet if the same pre-shared key
is not used on both ends.
Encryption Select DES, 3DES, AES or NULL from the drop-down list box.
Algorithm When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data communications, both
the sending device and the receiving device must use the same secret key, which
can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to generate and verify a
message authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result,
3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting
in increased latency and decreased throughput. This implementation of AES uses
a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select NULL, you
do not enter an encryption key.
Authentication Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
Algorithm SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
Advanced
Click Advanced to configure more detailed settings of your IKE key management.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Delete
Click Delete to delete the current rule.
17.12 IKE Phases
There are two phases to every IKE (Internet Key Exchange) negotiation – phase 1
(Authentication) and phase 2 (Key Exchange). A phase 1 exchange establishes an IKE SA and
the second one uses that SA to negotiate SAs for IPSec.
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Figure 90 Two Phases to Set Up the IPSec SA
In phase 1 you must:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Choose a negotiation mode.
Authenticate the connection by entering a pre-shared key.
Choose an encryption algorithm.
Choose an authentication algorithm.
Choose a Diffie-Hellman public-key cryptography key group (DH1 or DH2).
Set the IKE SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long an IKE SA should
stay up before it times out. An IKE SA times out when the IKE SA lifetime period
expires. If an IKE SA times out when an IPSec SA is already established, the IPSec SA
stays connected.
In phase 2 you must:
•
•
•
•
Choose which protocol to use (ESP or AH) for the IKE key exchange.
Choose an encryption algorithm.
Choose an authentication algorithm
Choose whether to enable Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) using Diffie-Hellman publickey cryptography – see Section 17.12.3 on page 216. Select None (the default) to disable
PFS.
• Choose Tunnel mode or Transport mode.
• Set the IPSec SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long the IPSec SA
should stay up before it times out. The Prestige automatically renegotiates the IPSec SA
if there is traffic when the IPSec SA lifetime period expires. The Prestige also
automatically renegotiates the IPSec SA if both IPSec routers have keep alive enabled,
even if there is no traffic. If an IPSec SA times out, then the IPSec router must renegotiate
the SA the next time someone attempts to send traffic.
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17.12.1 Negotiation Mode
The phase 1 Negotiation Mode you select determines how the Security Association (SA) will
be established for each connection through IKE negotiations.
• Main Mode ensures the highest level of security when the communicating parties are
negotiating authentication (phase 1). It uses 6 messages in three round trips: SA
negotiation, Diffie-Hellman exchange and an exchange of nonces (a nonce is a random
number). This mode features identity protection (your identity is not revealed in the
negotiation).
• Aggressive Mode is quicker than Main Mode because it eliminates several steps when
the communicating parties are negotiating authentication (phase 1). However the tradeoff is that faster speed limits its negotiating power and it also does not provide identity
protection. It is useful in remote access situations where the address of the initiator is not
know by the responder and both parties want to use pre-shared key authentication.
17.12.2 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups
Diffie-Hellman (DH) is a public-key cryptography protocol that allows two parties to
establish a shared secret over an unsecured communications channel. Diffie-Hellman is used
within IKE SA setup to establish session keys. 768-bit (Group 1 - DH1) and 1024-bit (Group 2
– DH2) Diffie-Hellman groups are supported. Upon completion of the Diffie-Hellman
exchange, the two peers have a shared secret, but the IKE SA is not authenticated. For
authentication, use pre-shared keys.
17.12.3 Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)
Enabling PFS means that the key is transient. The key is thrown away and replaced by a brand
new key using a new Diffie-Hellman exchange for each new IPSec SA setup. With PFS
enabled, if one key is compromised, previous and subsequent keys are not compromised,
because subsequent keys are not derived from previous keys. The (time-consuming) DiffieHellman exchange is the trade-off for this extra security.
This may be unnecessary for data that does not require such security, so PFS is disabled
(None) by default in the Prestige. Disabling PFS means new authentication and encryption
keys are derived from the same root secret (which may have security implications in the long
run) but allows faster SA setup (by bypassing the Diffie-Hellman key exchange).
17.13 Configuring Advanced IKE Settings
Click Advanced in the VPN IKE screen. This is the VPN IKE- Advanced Setup screen as
shown next.
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Figure 91 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 66 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VPN - IKE
Protocol Enter 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP, 17 for UDP, etc. 0 is the default and signifies any
protocol.
Enable Replay As a VPN setup is processing intensive, the system is vulnerable to Denial of
Protection Service (DoS) attacks The IPSec receiver can detect and reject old or duplicate
packets to protect against replay attacks. Select YES from the drop-down menu to
enable replay detection, or select NO to disable it.
Local Start Port 0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. Some
of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3.
End Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. If Local Start Port is left at 0, End
will also remain at 0.
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Table 66 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote Start Port 0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. Some
of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3.
End Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. If Remote Start Port is left at 0,
End will also remain at 0.
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode Select Main or Aggressive from the drop-down list box. Multiple SAs connecting
through a secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
Pre-Shared Key Type your pre-shared key in this field. A pre-shared key identifies a
communicating party during a phase 1 IKE negotiation. It is called "pre-shared"
because you have to share it with another party before you can communicate with
them over a secure connection.
Type from 8 to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters or from 16 to 62 hexadecimal
("0-9", "A-F") characters. You must precede a hexadecimal key with a "0x” (zero
x), which is not counted as part of the 16 to 62-character range for the key. For
example, in "0x0123456789ABCDEF", “0x” denotes that the key is hexadecimal
and “0123456789ABCDEF” is the key itself.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will receive
a “PYLD_MALFORMED” (payload malformed) packet if the same pre-shared key
is not used on both ends.
Encryption Select DES, 3DES or AES from the drop-down list box.
Algorithm When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data communications, both
the sending device and the receiving device must use the same secret key, which
can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to generate and verify a
message authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result,
3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting
in increased latency and decreased throughput. This implementation of AES uses
a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Authentication Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
Algorithm SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
SA Life Time Define the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates in this field.
(Seconds) It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
Key Group You must choose a key group for phase 1 IKE setup. DH1 (default) refers to
Diffie-Hellman Group 1 a 768 bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman
Group 2 a 1024 bit (1Kb) random number.
Phase 2
Active Protocol Use the drop-down list box to choose from ESP or AH.
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Table 66 VPN IKE: Advanced Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption This field is available when you select ESP in the Active Protocol field.
Algorithm Select DES, 3DES, AES or NULL from the drop-down list box.
When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data communications, both
the sending device and the receiving device must use the same secret key, which
can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to generate and verify a
message authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result,
3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting
in increased latency and decreased throughput. This implementation of AES uses
a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select NULL, you
do not enter an encryption key.
Authentication Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
Algorithm SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
SA Life Time Define the length of time before an IKE SA automatically renegotiates in this field.
(Seconds) It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to
update the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN
tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily
disconnected.
Encapsulation Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode from the drop-down list box.
Perfect Forward Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is disabled (NONE) by default in phase 2 IPSec
Secrecy (PFS) SA setup. This allows faster IPSec setup, but is not so secure. Choose DH1 or
DH2 from the drop-down list box to enable PFS. DH1 refers to Diffie-Hellman
Group 1 a 768 bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a 1024
bit (1Kb) random number (more secure, yet slower).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige and return to the VPN-IKE
screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the VPN-IKE screen without saving your changes.
17.14 Manual Key Setup
Manual key management is useful if you have problems with IKE key management.
17.14.1 Security Parameter Index (SPI)
An SPI is used to distinguish different SAs terminating at the same destination and using the
same IPSec protocol. This data allows for the multiplexing of SAs to a single gateway. The
SPI (Security Parameter Index) along with a destination IP address uniquely identify a
particular Security Association (SA). The SPI is transmitted from the remote VPN gateway to
the local VPN gateway. The local VPN gateway then uses the network, encryption and key
values that the administrator associated with the SPI to establish the tunnel.
Current ZyXEL implementation assumes identical outgoing and incoming SPIs.
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17.15 Configuring Manual Key
You only configure VPN Manual Key when you select Manual in the IPSec Key Mode field
on the VPN IKE screen. This is the VPN Manual Key screen as shown next.
Figure 92 VPN: Manual Key
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 67 VPN: Manual Key
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPSec Setup
Active
Select this check box to activate this VPN policy.
Name
Type up to 32 characters to identify this VPN policy. You may use any character,
including spaces, but the Prestige drops trailing spaces.
IPSec Key Mode
Select IKE or Manual from the drop-down list box. Manual is a useful option for
troubleshooting if you have problems using IKE key management.
SPI
Type a number (base 10) from 1 to 999999 for the Security Parameter Index.
Encapsulation
Mode
Select Tunnel mode or Transport mode from the drop-down list box.
DNS Server (for
IPSec VPN)
If there is a private DNS server that services the VPN, type its IP address here.
The Prestige assigns this additional DNS server to the Prestige 's DHCP clients
that have IP addresses in this IPSec rule's range of local addresses.
A DNS server allows clients on the VPN to find other computers and servers on
the VPN by their (private) domain names.
Local
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
Local Address Type Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single for
a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses. Select
Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address Start
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type field is
configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of
computers on your LAN behind your Prestige. When the Local Address Type
field is configured to Subnet, this is a (static) IP address on the LAN behind your
Prestige.
End / Subnet Mask
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Local Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static)
IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige. When the
Local Address Type field is configured to Subnet, this is a subnet mask on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
Remote
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router's
configured local IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same.
Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You
can configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as
long as only one is active at any time.
Remote Address
Type
Use the drop-down menu to choose Single, Range, or Subnet. Select Single
with a single IP address. Select Range for a specific range of IP addresses.
Select Subnet to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address Start
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router. When the Remote
Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet, enter a (static) IP
address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
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Table 67 VPN: Manual Key (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End / Subnet Mask
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Range, enter the end
(static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router. When the Remote Address Type field is configured to Subnet,
enter a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Address
Information
My IP Address
Enter the WAN IP address of your Prestige. The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if
this IP address changes.
The following applies if this field is configured as 0.0.0.0:
The Prestige uses the current Prestige WAN IP address (static or dynamic) to set
up the VPN tunnel.
If the WAN connection goes down, the Prestige uses the dial backup IP address
for the VPN tunnel when using dial backup or the LAN IP address when using
traffic redirect. See the chapter on WAN for details on dial backup and traffic
redirect.
Secure Gateway
Address
Type the WAN IP address or the URL (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec router
with which you're making the VPN connection.
Security Protocol
222
IPSec Protocol
Select ESP if you want to use ESP (Encapsulation Security Payload). The ESP
protocol (RFC 2406) provides encryption as well as some of the services offered
by AH. If you select ESP here, you must select options from the Encryption
Algorithm and Authentication Algorithm fields (described next).
Encryption
Algorithm
Select DES, 3DES or NULL from the drop-down list box.
When DES is used for data communications, both sender and receiver must know
the same secret key, which can be used to encrypt and decrypt the message or to
generate and verify a message authentication code. The DES encryption
algorithm uses a 56-bit key. Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a
168-bit key. As a result, 3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more
processing power, resulting in increased latency and decreased throughput.
Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you select NULL, you
do not enter an encryption key.
Encapsulation Key
(only with ESP)
With DES, type a unique key 8 characters long. With 3DES, type a unique key 24
characters long. Any characters may be used, including spaces, but trailing
spaces are truncated.
Authentication
Algorithm
Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and
SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate packet
data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is
slower. Select MD5 for minimal security and SHA-1 for maximum security.
Authentication Key
Type a unique authentication key to be used by IPSec if applicable. Enter 16
characters for MD5 authentication or 20 characters for SHA-1 authentication. Any
characters may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces are truncated.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the current rule.
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17.16 Viewing SA Monitor
Click VPN and Monitor to open the SA Monitor screen as shown. Use this screen to display
and manage active VPN connections.
A Security Association (SA) is the group of security settings related to a specific VPN tunnel.
This screen displays active VPN connections. Use Refresh to display active VPN
connections. This screen is read-only. The following table describes the fields in this tab.
When there is outbound traffic but no inbound traffic, the SA times out automatically after two
minutes. A tunnel with no outbound or inbound traffic is "idle" and does not timeout until the
SA lifetime period expires. See Section 17.6 on page 205on keep alive to have the Prestige
renegotiate an IPSec SA when the SA lifetime expires, even if there is no traffic.
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Figure 93 VPN: SA Monitor
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 68 VPN: SA Monitor
224
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No
This is the security association index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Encapsulation
This field displays Tunnel or Transport mode.
IPSec Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA.
Both AH and ESP increase Prestige processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
Disconnect
Select Disconnect next to a security association and then click Apply to stop that
security association.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the current active VPN connection(s).
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17.17 Configuring Global Setting
To change your Prestige’s global settings, click VPN and then Global Setting. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 94 VPN: Global Setting
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 69 VPN: Global Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Windows Networking
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP packets that
(NetBIOS over TCP/IP) enable a computer to find other computers. It may sometimes be necessary to
allow NetBIOS packets to pass through VPN tunnels in order to allow local
computers to find computers on the remote network and vice versa.
Allow NetBIOS Traffic
Through All IP/Sec
Tunnels
Select this check box to send NetBIOS packets through the VPN connection.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
17.18 Telecommuter VPN/IPSec Examples
The following examples show how multiple telecommuters can make VPN connections to a
single Prestige at headquarters. The telecommuters use IPSec routers with dynamic WAN IP
addresses. The Prestige at headquarters has a static public IP address.
17.18.1 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example
See the following figure and table for an example configuration that allows multiple
telecommuters (A, B and C in the figure) to use one VPN rule to simultaneously access a
Prestige at headquarters (HQ in the figure). The telecommuters do not have domain names
mapped to the WAN IP addresses of their IPSec routers. The telecommuters must all use the
same IPSec parameters but the local IP addresses (or ranges of addresses) should not overlap.
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Figure 95 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example
Table 70 Telecommuters Sharing One VPN Rule Example
FIELDS
TELECOMMUTERS
My IP Address:
0.0.0.0 (dynamic IP address assigned Public static IP address
by the ISP)
Secure Gateway IP
Address:
Public static IP address
0.0.0.0
With this IP address only the
telecommuter can initiate the IPSec
tunnel.
Local IP Address:
Telecommuter A: 192.168.2.12
Telecommuter B: 192.168.3.2
Telecommuter C: 192.168.4.15
192.168.1.10
Remote IP Address: 192.168.1.10
HEADQUARTERS
0.0.0.0 (N/A)
17.18.2 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example
In this example the telecommuters (A, B and C in the figure) use IPSec routers with domain
names that are mapped to their dynamic WAN IP addresses (use Dynamic DNS to do this).
With aggressive negotiation mode (see Section 17.12.1 on page 216), the Prestige can use the
ID types and contents to distinguish between VPN rules. Telecommuters can each use a
separate VPN rule to simultaneously access a Prestige at headquarters. They can use different
IPSec parameters. The local IP addresses (or ranges of addresses) of the rules configured on
the Prestige at headquarters can overlap. The local IP addresses of the rules configured on the
telecommuters’ IPSec routers should not overlap.
See the following table and figure for an example where three telecommuters each use a
different VPN rule for a VPN connection with a Prestige located at headquarters. The Prestige
at headquarters (HQ in the figure) identifies each incoming SA by its ID type and content and
uses the appropriate VPN rule to establish the VPN connection.
The Prestige at headquarters can also initiate VPN connections to the telecommuters since it
can find the telecommuters by resolving their domain names.
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Figure 96 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example
Table 71 Telecommuters Using Unique VPN Rules Example
TELECOMMUTERS
HEADQUARTERS
All Telecommuter Rules:
All Headquarters Rules:
My IP Address 0.0.0.0
My IP Address: bigcompanyhq.com
Secure Gateway Address: bigcompanyhq.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.1.10
Remote IP Address: 192.168.1.10
Local ID Type: E-mail
Peer ID Type: E-mail
Local ID Content: bob@bigcompanyhq.com
Peer ID Content: bob@bigcompanyhq.com
Telecommuter A (telecommutera.dydns.org)
Headquarters Prestige Rule 1:
Local ID Type: IP
Peer ID Type: IP
Local ID Content: 192.168.2.12
Peer ID Content: 192.168.2.12
Local IP Address: 192.168.2.12
Secure Gateway Address: telecommuter1.com
Remote Address 192.168.2.12
Telecommuter B (telecommuterb.dydns.org)
Headquarters Prestige Rule 2:
Local ID Type: DNS
Peer ID Type: DNS
Local ID Content: telecommuterb.com
Peer ID Content: telecommuterb.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.3.2
Secure Gateway Address: telecommuterb.com
Remote Address 192.168.3.2
Telecommuter C (telecommuterc.dydns.org)
Headquarters Prestige Rule 3:
Local ID Type: E-mail
Peer ID Type: E-mail
Local ID Content: myVPN@myplace.com
Peer ID Content: myVPN@myplace.com
Local IP Address: 192.168.4.15
Secure Gateway Address: telecommuterc.com
Remote Address 192.168.4.15
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17.19 VPN and Remote Management
If a VPN tunnel uses Telnet, FTP, WWW, then you should configure remote management
(Remote Management) to allow access for that service.
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CHAPTER 18
Remote Management
Configuration
This chapter provides information on configuring remote management.
18.1 Remote Management Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
Prestige interface (if any) from which computers.
When you configure remote management to allow management from the WAN, you still need
to configure a firewall rule to allow access. See the firewall chapters for details on configuring
firewall rules.
You may manage your Prestige from a remote location via:
•
•
•
•
Internet (WAN only)
ALL (LAN and WAN)
LAN only,
Neither (Disable).
When you Choose WAN only or ALL (LAN & WAN), you still need to configure a firewall
rule to allow access.
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server
Access field.
You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The Prestige
automatically disconnects a remote management session of lower priority when another
remote management session of higher priority starts. The priorities for the different types of
remote management sessions are as follows.
1 Telnet
2 HTTP
18.1.1 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
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• A filter in SMT menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet,
FTP or Web service.
• You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP field does not match the client IP address. If it
does not match, the Prestige will disconnect the session immediately.
• There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
• There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
18.1.2 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the Prestige’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the Prestige’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
18.1.3 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The Prestige automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer
than this timeout period. The management session does not time out when a statistics screen is
polling.
18.2 Telnet
You can configure your Prestige for remote Telnet access as shown next.
Figure 97 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
18.3 FTP
You can upload and download Prestige firmware and configuration files using FTP. To use
this feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
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18.4 Web
You can use the Prestige’s embedded web configurator for configuration and file
management. See the online help for details.
18.5 Configuring Remote Management
Click Remote Management to open the following screen.
Figure 98 Remote Management
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 72 Remote Management
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Type
Each of these labels denotes a service that you may use to remotely manage the
Prestige.
Access Status
Select the access interface. Choices are All, LAN Only, WAN Only and Disable.
Port
This field shows the port number for the remote management service. You may
change the port number for a service in this field, but you must use the same port
number to use that service for remote management.
Secured Client
IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service to remotely manage the
Prestige. Type an IP address to restrict access to a client with a matching IP
address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your settings back to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 19
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP)
This chapter introduces the UPnP feature in the web configurator.
19.1 Introducing Universal Plug and Play
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that uses TCP/IP
for simple peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A UPnP device can
dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address, convey its capabilities and learn about other
devices on the network. In turn, a device can leave a network smoothly and automatically
when it is no longer in use.
19.1.1 How do I know if I'm using UPnP?
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder (Windows XP).
Each UPnP compatible device installed on your network will appear as a separate icon.
Selecting the icon of a UPnP device will allow you to access the information and properties of
that device.
19.1.2 NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate through
NAT. UPnP network devices can automatically configure network addressing, announce their
presence in the network to other UPnP devices and enable exchange of simple product and
service descriptions. NAT traversal allows the following:
• Dynamic port mapping
• Learning public IP addresses
• Assigning lease times to mappings
Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal and UPnP.
See Chapter 8 on page 119 for further information about NAT.
19.1.3 Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own services and
opening firewall ports may present network security issues. Network information and
configuration may also be obtained and modified by users in some network environments.
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All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without additional
configuration. Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
19.2 UPnP and ZyXEL
ZyXEL has achieved UPnP certification from the Universal Plug and Play Forum Creates
UPnP™ Implementers Corp. (UIC). ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports IGD 1.0
(Internet Gateway Device). At the time of writing ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports
Windows Messenger 4.6 and 4.7 while Windows Messenger 5.0 and Xbox are still being
tested.
The Prestige only sends UPnP multicasts to the LAN.
See later sections for examples of installing UPnP in Windows XP and Windows Me as well
as an example of using UPnP in Windows.
19.2.1 Configuring UPnP
From the Site Map in the main menu, click UPnP under Advanced Setup to display the
screen shown next.
Figure 99 Configuring UPnP
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
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Table 73 Configuring UPnP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable the Universal Plug
and Play (UPnP) Service
Select this checkbox to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone could use
a UPnP application to open the web configurator's login screen without
entering the Prestige's IP address (although you must still enter the
password to access the web configurator).
Allow users to make
configuration changes
through UPnP
Select this check box to allow UPnP-enabled applications to
automatically configure the Prestige so that they can communicate
through the Prestige, for example by using NAT traversal, UPnP
applications automatically reserve a NAT forwarding port in order to
communicate with another UPnP enabled device; this eliminates the
need to manually configure port forwarding for the UPnP enabled
application.
Allow UPnP to pass through
Firewall
Select this check box to allow traffic from UPnP-enabled applications to
bypass the firewall.
Clear this check box to have the firewall block all UPnP application
packets (for example, MSN packets).
Apply
Click Apply to save the setting to the Prestige.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
19.3 Installing UPnP in Windows Example
This section shows how to install UPnP in Windows Me and Windows XP.
Installing UPnP in Windows Me
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows Me.
1 Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Add/Remove Programs.
2 Click on the Windows Setup tab and select Communication in the Components
selection box. Click Details.
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Figure 100 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication
3 In the Communications window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box in the
Components selection box.
Figure 101 Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication: Components
4 Click OK to go back to the Add/Remove Programs Properties window and click Next.
5 Restart the computer when prompted.
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Installing UPnP in Windows XP
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows XP.
1 Click Start and Control Panel.
2 Double-click Network Connections.
3 In the Network Connections window, click Advanced in the main menu and select
Optional Networking Components ….
Figure 102 Network Connections
4 The Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard window displays. Select
Networking Service in the Components selection box and click Details.
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Figure 103 Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard
5 In the Networking Services window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box.
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Figure 104 Networking Services
6 Click OK to go back to the Windows Optional Networking Component Wizard
window and click Next.
19.4 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example
This section shows you how to use the UPnP feature in Windows XP. You must already have
UPnP installed in Windows XP and UPnP activated on the Prestige.
Make sure the computer is connected to a LAN port of the Prestige. Turn on your computer
and the Prestige.
Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device
1 Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Network Connections. An icon displays
under Internet Gateway.
2 Right-click the icon and select Properties.
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Figure 105 Network Connections
3 In the Internet Connection Properties window, click Settings to see the port mappings
there were automatically created.
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Figure 106 Internet Connection Properties
4 You may edit or delete the port mappings or click Add to manually add port mappings.
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Figure 107 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings
Figure 108 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add
5 When the UPnP-enabled device is disconnected from your computer, all port mappings
will be deleted automatically.
6 Select Show icon in notification area when connected option and click OK. An icon
displays in the system tray.
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Figure 109 System Tray Icon
7 Double-click on the icon to display your current Internet connection status.
Figure 110 Internet Connection Status
Web Configurator Easy Access
With UPnP, you can access the web-based configurator on the Prestige without finding out the
IP address of the Prestige first. This comes helpful if you do not know the IP address of the
Prestige.
Follow the steps below to access the web configurator.
1 Click Start and then Control Panel.
2 Double-click Network Connections.
3 Select My Network Places under Other Places.
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Figure 111 Network Connections
4 An icon with the description for each UPnP-enabled device displays under Local
Network.
5 Right-click on the icon for your Prestige and select Invoke. The web configurator login
screen displays.
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Figure 112 Network Connections: My Network Places
6 Right-click on the icon for your Prestige and select Properties. A properties window
displays with basic information about the Prestige.
Figure 113 Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example
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CHAPTER 20
Logs Screens
This chapter contains information about configuring general log settings and viewing the
Prestige’s logs. Refer to the appendix for example log message explanations.
20.1 Logs Overview
The web configurator allows you to choose which categories of events and/or alerts to have
the Prestige log and then display the logs or have the Prestige send them to an administrator
(as e-mail) or to a syslog server.
20.1.1 Alerts and Logs
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. They include system errors,
attacks (access control) and attempted access to blocked web sites. Some categories such as
System Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may differentiate them by their color in the
View Log screen. Alerts display in red and logs display in black.
20.2 Configuring Log Settings
Use the Log Settings screen to configure to where the Prestige is to send logs; the schedule for
when the Prestige is to send the logs and which logs and/or immediate alerts the Prestige is to
record.
To change your Prestige’s log settings, click Logs, then the Log Settings. The screen appears
as shown.
Alerts are e-mailed as soon as they happen. Logs may be e-mailed as soon as the log is full
(see Log Schedule). Selecting many alert and/or log categories (especially Access Control)
may result in many e-mails being sent.
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Figure 114 Log Settings
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 74 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Address Info
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail addresses
specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages will not be sent via
e-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the log e-mail message that the
Prestige sends.
Send log to
Logs are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left blank,
logs will not be sent via e-mail.
Send alerts to
Alerts are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left blank,
alerts will not be sent via e-mail.
UNIX Syslog
Syslog logging sends a log to an external syslog server used to store logs.
Active
Click Active to enable syslog logging.
Syslog IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the selected
categories of logs.
Log Facility
Select a location from the drop down list box. The log facility allows you to log the
messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your
syslog program for more details.
Send Log
Log Schedule
This drop-down menu is used to configure the frequency of log messages being
sent as E-mail:
Daily
Weekly
Hourly
When Log is Full
None.
If you select Weekly or Daily, specify a time of day when the E-mail should be sent.
If you select Weekly, then also specify which day of the week the E-mail should be
sent. If you select When Log is Full, an alert is sent when the log fills up. If you
select None, no log messages are sent
Day for Sending
Log
Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to send the logs.
Time for Sending Enter the time of the day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00 pm) to
Log
send the logs.
Log
Select the categories of logs that you want to record. Logs include alerts.
Send Immediate Select the categories of alerts for which you want the Prestige to instantly e-mail
Alert
alerts to the e-mail address specified in the Send Alerts To field.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previously saved settings.
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20.3 Displaying the Logs
Click Logs and then View Log to open the View Logs screen. Use the View Logs screen to
see the logs for the categories that you selected in the Log Settings screen (see Section 20.2 on
page 247).
Log entries in red indicate alerts. The log wraps around and deletes the old entries after it fills.
Click a column heading to sort the entries. A triangle indicates ascending or descending sort
order.
Figure 115 View Logs
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 75 View Logs
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
The categories that you select in the Log Settings screen (see section ) display in
the drop-down list box.
Select a category of logs to view; select All Logs to view logs from all of the log
categories that you selected in the Log Settings page.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded. See the chapter on system
maintenance and information to configure the Prestige’s time and date.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
Source
This field lists the source IP address and the port number of the incoming packet.
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
Notes
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen
Email Log Now
Click Email Log Now to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in the
Log Settings page (make sure that you have first filled in the Address Info fields in
Log Settings, see Section 20.2 on page 247).
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click Clear Log to delete all the logs.
20.4 SMTP Error Messages
If there are difficulties in sending e-mail the following error messages appear.
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E-mail error messages appear in SMT menu 24.3.1 as "SMTP action request failed. ret= ??".
The “??"are described in the following table.
Table 76 SMTP Error Messages
-1 means Prestige out of socket
-2 means tcp SYN fail
-3 means smtp server OK fail
-4 means HELO fail
-5 means MAIL FROM fail
-6 means RCPT TO fail
-7 means DATA fail
-8 means mail data send fail
20.4.1 Example E-mail Log
An "End of Log" message displays for each mail in which a complete log has been sent. The
following is an example of a log sent by e-mail.
•
•
•
•
You may edit the subject title.
The date format here is Day-Month-Year.
The date format here is Month-Day-Year. The time format is Hour-Minute-Second.
"End of Log" message shows that a complete log has been sent.
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Figure 116 E-mail Log Example
Subject:
Firewall Alert From Prestige
Date:
Fri, 07 Apr 2000 10:05:42
From:
user@zyxel.com
To:
user@zyxel.com
1|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy
|forward
| 09:54:03 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
2|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy
|forward
| 09:54:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
3|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.6
To:10.10.10.10 |match
|forward
| 09:54:19 |UDP
src port:03516 dest port:00053 |<1,01>
|
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
126|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:00 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
127|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
128|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:30 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
End of Firewall Log
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CHAPTER 21
Maintenance
This chapter displays system information such as ZyNOS firmware, port IP addresses and port
traffic statistics.
21.1 Maintenance Overview
The maintenance screens can help you view system information, upload new firmware,
manage configuration and restart your Prestige.
21.2 System Status Screen
Click System Status to open the following screen, where you can use to monitor your
Prestige. Note that these fields are READ-ONLY and only for diagnostic purposes.
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Figure 117 System Status
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 77 System Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Status
System Name
This is the name of your Prestige. It is for identification purposes.
ZyNOS Firmware
Version
This is the ZyNOS firmware version and the date created. ZyNOS is ZyXEL's
proprietary Network Operating System design.
DSL FW Version
This is the DSL firmware version associated with your Prestige.
Standard
This is the standard that your Prestige is using.
WAN Information
IP Address
This is the WAN port IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the WAN port IP subnet mask.
Default Gateway
This is the IP address of the default gateway, if applicable.
VPI/VCI
This is the Virtual Path Identifier and Virtual Channel Identifier that you entered in
the first Wizard screen.
LAN Information
MAC Address
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address unique to your
Prestige.
IP Address
This is the LAN port IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the LAN port IP subnet mask.
DHCP
This is the WAN port DHCP role - Server, Relay (not all Prestige models) or
None.
DHCP Start IP
This is the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
DHCP Pool Size
This is the number of IP addresses in the IP address pool.
WLAN Information
ESSID
This is the descriptive name used to identify the Prestige in the wireless LAN.
Channel
This is the channel number used by the Prestige now.
WEP
This displays the status of WEP data encryption.
Voice Information
SIP1/SIP 2
This is the SIP account configured on the Prestige
SIP Registration
Status
This is the SIP registration status of the SIP account.
This field displays Registered when the Prestige has successfully registered the
SIP account with the SIP register server.
This field displays Not Registered when the Prestige has not successfully
registered the SIP account with the SIP register server.
Register/Unregister
Click Register to have the Prestige attempt to register the SIP account with the
SIP register server.
Click Unregister to delete the SIP account's registration on the SIP register
server. This removes the SIP registration server's SIP identity-to-IP address (or
domain name) mapping for this SIP account, it does not cancel your SIP account.
Used Port
This field displays the Prestige’s listening port for SIP traffic on this SIP account.
Show Statistics
Click Show Statistics to see the performance statistics such as number of
packets sent and number of packets received for each port.
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21.2.1 System Statistics
Click Show Statistics in the System Status screen to open the following screen. Read-only
information here includes port status and packet specific statistics. Also provided are "system
up time" and "poll interval(s)". The Poll Interval(s) field is configurable.
Figure 118 System Status: Show Statistics
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 78 System Status: Show Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System up Time
This is the elapsed time the system has been up.
CPU Load
This field specifies the percentage of CPU utilization.
LAN or WAN Port
Statistics
This is the WAN or LAN port.
Link Status
This is the status of your WAN link.
Upstream Speed
This is the upstream speed of your Prestige.
Downstream Speed This is the downstream speed of your Prestige.
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Node-Link
This field displays the remote node index number and link type. Link types are
PPPoA, ENET, RFC 1483 and PPPoE.
Interface
This field displays the type of port.
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Table 78 System Status: Show Statistics (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
For the WAN port, this displays the port speed and duplex setting if you're using
Ethernet encapsulation and down (line is down), idle (line (ppp) idle), dial
(starting to trigger a call) and drop (dropping a call) if you're using PPPoE
encapsulation.
For a LAN port, this shows the port speed and duplex setting.
TxPkts
This field displays the number of packets transmitted on this port.
RxPkts
This field displays the number of packets received on this port.
Errors
This field displays the number of error packets on this port.
Tx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes transmitted in the last second.
Rx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes received in the last second.
Up Time
This field displays the elapsed time this port has been up.
Collisions
This is the number of collisions on this port.
Voice Statistics
The voice statistics fields apply to calls currently being made or received on a
telephone connected to one of the Prestige's phone ports.
Phone
This field displays the Prestige's phone port number.
Status
Status This field displays Onhook when the telephone handset is in it’s cradle
and Offhook when telephone handset is out of it’s cradle.
TxPkts
This field displays a call's number of RTP (Real time Transport Protocol) packets
that have been transmitted. RTP is used to handle voice data transfer. This field
displays 0 again after the call ends.
RxPkts
This field displays a call's number of RTP packets received. This field displays 0
again after the call ends.
Tx B/s
This field displays a call's number of bytes of RTP traffic transmitted in the last
second. This field displays 0 again after the call ends.
Rx B/s
This field displays a call's number of bytes of RTP traffic received in the last
second. This field displays 0 again after the call ends.
Talk Time
This field displays a call's duration. This field displays 0 again after the call ends.
Poll Interval(s)
Type the time interval for the browser to refresh system statistics.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Poll Interval
field above.
Stop
Click this button to halt the refreshing of the system statistics.
21.3 DHCP Table Screen
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the Prestige
as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a server, the Prestige provides the TCP/IP
configuration for the clients. If set to None, DHCP service will be disabled and you must have
another DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computer must be manually configured.
Click Maintenance, and then the DHCP Table tab. Read-only information here relates to
your DHCP status. The DHCP table shows current DHCP Client information (including IP
Address, Host Name and MAC Address) of all network clients using the DHCP server.
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Figure 119 DHCP Table
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 79 DHCP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Host Name
This is the name of the host computer.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the Host Name field.
MAC Address This field displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the computer with the
displayed host name.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at
the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
21.4 Any IP Table Screen
Click Maintenance, Any IP. The Any IP table shows current read-only information
(including the IP address and the MAC address) of all network devices that use the Any IP
feature to communicate with the Prestige. Refer to Section 5.5 on page 82 for more
information.
Figure 120 Any IP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 Any IP Table
258
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field displays the index number.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of the network device.
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Table 80 Any IP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the computer with the
displayed IP address.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at
the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
Refresh
Click Refresh to update this screen.
21.5 Wireless Screen
The read-only screen displays information about the Prestige’s wireless LAN.
21.5.1 Association List
This screen displays the MAC address(es) of the wireless stations that are currently logged in
to the network. Click Wireless LAN and then Association List to open the screen shown next.
Figure 121 Association List
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 81 Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of an associated wireless station.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of an associated wireless
station.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at
the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
Association
Time
This field displays the time a wireless station is associated to the Prestige.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the information in the table.
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21.6 Diagnostic Screens
These read-only screens display information to help you identify problems with the Prestige.
21.6.1 Diagnostic General Screen
Click Diagnostic and then General to open the screen shown next.
Figure 122 Diagnostic: General
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 82 Diagnostic: General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TCP/IP
Address
Type the IP address of a computer that you want to ping in order to test a connection.
Ping
Click this button to ping the IP address that you entered.
Reset System
Click this button to reboot the Prestige. A warning dialog box is then displayed asking
you if you're sure you want to reboot the system. Click OK to proceed.
Back
Click this button to go back to the main Diagnostic screen.
21.6.2 Diagnostic DSL Line Screen
Click Diagnostic and then DSL Line to open the screen shown next.
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Figure 123 Diagnostic: DSL Line
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 83 Diagnostic: DSL Line
LABEL
Reset ADSL
Line
DESCRIPTION
Click this button to reinitialize the ADSL line. The large text box above then displays
the progress and results of this operation, for example:
"Start to reset ADSL
Loading ADSL modem F/W...
Reset ADSL Line Successfully!"
ATM Status
Click this button to view ATM status.
ATM Loopback
Test
Click this button to start the ATM loopback test. Make sure you have configured at
least one PVC with proper VPIs/VCIs before you begin this test. The Prestige sends
an OAM F5 packet to the DSLAM/ATM switch and then returns it (loops it back) to the
Prestige. The ATM loopback test is useful for troubleshooting problems with the
DSLAM and ATM network.
Upstream Noise
Margin
Click this button to display the upstream noise margin.
Downstream
Noise Margin
Click this button to display the downstream noise margin.
Back
Click this button to go back to the main Diagnostic screen.
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21.7 Firmware Screen
Find firmware at www.zyxel.com in a file that (usually) uses the system model name with a
"*.bin" extension, e.g., "Prestige.bin". The upload process uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer
Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload, the system will reboot.
See Chapter 37 on page 365 for upgrading firmware using FTP/TFTP commands.
Only use firmware for your device’s specific model. Refer to the label on the bottom of your
device.
Click Firmware to open the following screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to upload
firmware to your Prestige.
Figure 124 Firmware Upgrade
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two minutes.
Reset
Click this button to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the
Prestige to its factory defaults. Refer to the Resetting the Prestige section.
Note: Do not turn off the Prestige while firmware upload is in progress!
After you see the Firmware Upload in Process screen, wait two minutes before logging into
the Prestige again.
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The Prestige automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In
some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 125 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the System Status
screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Back to go back to
the Firmware screen.
Figure 126 Error Message
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CHAPTER 22
Introducing the SMT
This chapter explains how to access and navigate the System Management Terminal and gives
an overview of its menus.
22.1 Introduction to the SMT
The Prestige’s SMT (System Management Terminal) is a menu-driven interface that you can
access from a terminal emulator through the console port or over a telnet connection. This
chapter shows you how to access the SMT menus via console port, how to navigate the SMT
and how to configure SMT menus.
22.2 Accessing the SMT via the Console Port
Make sure you have the physical connection properly set up as described in the Quick Start
Guide.
When configuring using the console port, you need a computer equipped with
communications software configured to the following parameters:
• VT100 terminal emulation.
• 9600 Baud.
• No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, flow control set to none.
22.2.1 Initial Screen
When you turn on your Prestige, it performs several internal tests as well as line initialization.
After the tests, the Prestige asks you to press [ENTER] to continue, as shown next.
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Figure 127 Initial Screen
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
initialize ch =0, ethernet address: 00:A0:C5:7A:86:D5
initialize ch =1, ethernet address: 00:A0:C5:7A:86:D6
initialize ch =2, ethernet address: 00:A0:C5:7A:86:D7
initialize ch =3, ethernet address: 00:00:00:00:00:00
AUX port init . done
Modem init . inactive
Press ENTER to continue...
22.2.2 Entering the Password
The login screen appears after you press [ENTER], prompting you to enter the password, as
shown below.
For your first login, enter the default password “1234”. As you type the password, the screen
displays an “X” for each character you type.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes after you log in, your
Prestige will automatically log you out and display a blank screen. If you see a blank screen,
press [ENTER] to bring up the login screen again.
Figure 128 Password Screen
Enter Password : XXXX
22.2.3 Procedure for SMT Configuration via Telnet
The following procedure details how to telnet into your Prestige.
1 In Windows, click Start (usually in the bottom left corner), Run and then type "telnet
192.168.1.1" (the default IP address) and click OK.
2 Enter “1234” in the Password field.
3 After entering the password you will see the main menu.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes (default timeout period)
after you log in, your Prestige will automatically log you out. You will then have to telnet into
the Prestige again.
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22.2.4 Entering Password
The login screen appears after you press [ENTER], prompting you to enter the password, as
shown next.
For your first login, enter the default password "1234". As you type the password, the screen
displays an asterisk "*" for each character you type.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes after you log in, your
Prestige will automatically log you out.
Figure 129 Login Screen
Enter Password : ****
22.3 Navigating the SMT Interface
The SMT (System Management Terminal) is the interface that you use to configure your
Prestige.
Several operations that you should be familiar with before you attempt to modify the
configuration are listed in the table below.
Table 85 Navigating the SMT Interface
OPERATION
KEY STROKE
DESCRIPTION
Move down to
another menu
[ENTER]
To move forward to a submenu, type in the number of the
desired submenu and press [ENTER].
Move up to a
previous menu
[ESC]
Press [ESC] to move back to the previous menu.
Move to a hidden Press [SPACE
menu
BAR] to change
No to Yes then
press [ENTER].
Fields beginning with "Edit" lead to hidden menus and have a
default setting of No. Press [SPACE BAR] once to change No
to Yes, then press [ENTER] to go to the "hidden" menu.
Move the cursor
[ENTER] or [UP]/
[DOWN] arrow
keys.
Within a menu, press [ENTER] to move to the next field. You
can also use the [UP]/[DOWN] arrow keys to move to the
previous and the next field, respectively.
Entering
information
Type in or press
[SPACE BAR],
then press
[ENTER].
You need to fill in two types of fields. The first requires you to
type in the appropriate information. The second allows you to
cycle through the available choices by pressing [SPACE BAR].
Required fields
<? > or
ChangeMe
All fields with the symbol <?> must be filled in order to be able
to save the new configuration.
All fields with ChangeMe must not be left blank in order to be
able to save the new configuration.
N/A fields
<N/A>
Some of the fields in the SMT will show a <N/A>. This symbol
refers to an option that is Not Applicable.
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Table 85 Navigating the SMT Interface
OPERATION
KEY STROKE
DESCRIPTION
Save your
configuration
[ENTER]
Save your configuration by pressing [ENTER] at the message
"Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel". Saving the data
on the screen will take you, in most cases to the previous
menu.
Exit the SMT
Type 99, then press [ENTER].Type 99 at the main menu
prompt and press [ENTER] to exit the SMT interface.
After you enter the password, the SMT displays the main menu, as shown next.
Table 86 SMT Main Menu
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
Prestige 2602HW-61 Main Menu
Getting Started
Advanced Management
1. General Setup
21. Filter and Firewall Setup
2. WAN Backup Setup
22. SNMP Configuration
3. LAN Setup
23. System Security
4. Internet Access Setup
24. System Maintenance
25. IP Routing Policy Setup
Advanced Applications
26. Schedule Setup
11. Remote Node Setup
27. VPN/IPSec Setup
12. Static Routing Setup
14. Dial-in User Setup
99. Exit
15. NAT Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
22.3.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary
Table 87 Main Menu Summary
268
#
MENU TITLE
DESCRIPTION
1
General Setup
Use this menu to set up your general information.
2
WAN Backup Setup
Use this menu to setup traffic redirect and dial-back up.
3
LAN Setup
Use this menu to set up your wireless LAN and LAN connection.
4
Internet Access Setup
A quick and easy way to set up an Internet connection.
11
Remote Node Setup
Use this menu to set up the Remote Node for LAN-to-LAN
connection, including Internet connection.
12
Static Routing Setup
Use this menu to set up static routes.
14
Dial-in User Setup
Use this menu to set up local user profiles on the Prestige.
15
NAT Setup
Use this menu to specify inside servers when NAT is enabled.
21
Filter and Firewall Setup
Use this menu to configure filters, activate/deactivate the firewall
and view the firewall log.
22
SNMP Configuration
Use this menu to set up SNMP related parameters.
23
System Security
Use this menu to set up wireless security and change your
password.
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Table 87 Main Menu Summary
#
MENU TITLE
DESCRIPTION
24
System Maintenance
This menu provides system status, diagnostics, software upload,
etc.
25
IP Routing Policy Setup
Use this menu to configure your IP routing policy.
26
Schedule Setup
Use this menu to schedule outgoing calls.
27
VPN/IPSec Setup
Use this menu to configure VPN connections.
99
Exit
Use this to exit from SMT and return to a blank screen.
22.3.2 SMT Menus Overview
The following table gives you an overview of your Prestige’s various SMT menus.
Table 88 SMT Menus Overview
MENUS
SUB MENUS
1 General Setup
1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
2 WAN Backup
Setup
2.1 Traffic Redirect Setup
3 LAN Setup
3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup
3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address
Filter
4 Internet Access
Setup
11 Remote Node
Setup
11.1 Remote Node Profile
11.3 Remote Node Network
Layer Options
11.5 Remote Node Filter
11.6 Remote Node ATM Layer
Options
11.8 Advance Setup Options
12 Static Routing
Setup
12.1 Edit Static Route Setup
12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route
12.3 Bridge Static Route
12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static
Route
14 Dial-in User Setup 14.1 Edit Dial-in User
15 NAT Setup
Chapter 22 Introducing the SMT
15.1 Address Mapping Sets
15.1.1 Address Mapping
Rules
15.2 NAT Server Sets
15.2.x NAT Server Setup
15.1.1.x
Address
Mapping Rule
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Table 88 SMT Menus Overview (continued)
MENUS
SUB MENUS
21 Filter and Firewall 21.1 Filter Setup
Rule Setup
21.1 Filter Rules Summary
21.1.x.1
Generic Filter
Rule
21.1.x.1 TCP/
IP Filter Rule
21.1 Firewall Setup
22 SNMP
Configuration
23 System Security
23.1 Change Password
23.2 RADIUS Server
23.4 IEEE802.1X
24 System
Maintenance
24.1 Status
24.2 System Information and
Console Port Speed
24.2.1 Information
24.3 Log and Trace
24.3.1 View Error Log
24.2.2 Change Console
Port Speed
24.3.2 UNIX Syslog
24.4 Diagnostic
24.5 Backup Configuration
24.6 Restore Configuration
24.7 Upload Firmware
24.7.1 Upload System
Firmware
24.7.2 Upload System
Configuration File
24.8 Command Interpreter Mode
24.9 Call Control
24.9.1 Budget Management
24.10 Time and Date Setting
24.11 Remote Management
Control
25 IP Routing Policy
Setup
25.1 IP Policy Routing Setup
26 Schedule Setup
26.1 Schedule Setup
27 VPN/IPSec Setup 27.1 IPSec Summary
25.1.1 IP Routing Policy
27.1.1 IPSec Setup
27.1.1.1 IKE
Setup
27.1.1.2
Manual Setup
27.1 SA Monitor
22.4 Changing the System Password
Change the Prestige default password by following the steps shown next.
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1 Enter 23 in the main menu to display Menu 23 - System Security.
2 Enter 1 to display Menu 23.1 - System Security - Change Password as shown next.
3 Type your existing system password in the Old Password field, for example “1234", and
press [ENTER].
Figure 130 Menu 23.1 Change Password
Menu 23.1 - System Security - Change Password
Old Password= ?
New Password= ?
Retype to confirm= ?
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
4 Type your new system password in the New Password field (up to 30 characters), and
press [ENTER].
5 Re-type your new system password in the Retype to confirm field for confirmation and
press [ENTER].
Note: Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an “*” for each character
you type.
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CHAPTER 23
Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup contains administrative and system-related information.
23.1 General Setup
Menu 1 — General Setup contains administrative and system-related information (shown
next). The System Name field is for identification purposes. However, because some ISPs
check this name you should enter your computer's "Computer Name".
• In Windows 95/98 click Start, Settings, Control Panel, Network. Click the
Identification tab, note the entry for the Computer name field and enter it as the
Prestige System Name.
• In Windows 2000 click Start, Settings, Control Panel and then double-click System.
Click the Network Identification tab and then the Properties button. Note the entry for
the Computer name field and enter it as the Prestige System Name.
• In Windows XP, click start, My Computer, View system information and then click
the Computer Name tab. Note the entry in the Full computer name field and enter it as
the Prestige System Name.
The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. If you leave
this blank, the domain name obtained by DHCP from the ISP is used. While you must enter
the host name (System Name) on each individual computer, the domain name can be assigned
from the Prestige via DHCP.
23.2 Procedure To Configure Menu 1
Enter 1 in the Main Menu to open Menu 1 — General Setup (shown next).
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Figure 131 Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 General Setup
System Name= ?
Location=
Contact Person's Name=
Domain Name=
Edit Dynamic DNS= No
Route IP= Yes
Bridge= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Fill in the required fields. Refer to the table shown next for more information about these
fields.
Table 89 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name can be up to
30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-” and
underscores "_" are accepted.
Location (optional)
Enter the geographic location (up to 31 characters) of your Prestige.
Contact Person's
Name (optional)
Enter the name (up to 30 characters) of the person in charge of this Prestige.
Domain Name
Enter the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank, the ISP
may assign a domain name via DHCP. You can go to menu 24.8 and type "sys
domainname" to see the current domain name used by your gateway.
If you want to clear this field just press the [SPACE BAR]. The domain name
entered by you is given priority over the ISP assigned domain name.
Edit Dynamic DNS
Press the [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No (default). Select Yes to configure
Menu 1.1 — Configure Dynamic DNS (discussed next).
Route IP
Set this field to Yes to enable or No to disable IP routing. You must enable IP
routing for Internet access.
Bridge
Turn on/off bridging for protocols not supported (for example, SNA) or not turned
on in the previous Route IP field.
Select Yes to turn bridging on; select No to turn bridging off.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
23.2.1 Procedure to Configure Dynamic DNS
Note: If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use dynamic DNS.
To configure dynamic DNS, go to Menu 1 — General Setup and select Yes in the Edit
Dynamic DNS field. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 1.1— Configure Dynamic DNS as
shown next.
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Figure 132 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
Menu 1.1 - Configure Dynamic DNS
Service Provider= WWW.DynDNS.ORG
Active= No
Host=
EMAIL=
USER=
Password= ********
Enable Wildcard= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Follow the instructions in the next table to configure dynamic DNS parameters.
Table 90 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Service Provider This is the name of your dynamic DNS service provider.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to make dynamic DNS
active.
Host
Enter the domain name assigned to your Prestige by your dynamic DNS provider.
EMAIL
Enter your e-mail address.
User
Enter your user name.
Password
Enter the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard
Your Prestige supports DYNDNS Wildcard. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER]
to select Yes or No This field is N/A when you choose DDNS client as your service
provider.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 24
Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup
This chapter describes how to configure traffic redirect and dial-backup using menu 2 and 2.1.
24.1 Introduction to WAN Backup Setup
This chapter explains how to configure the Prestige for traffic redirect connections.
24.2 Configuring WAN Backup in Menu 2
From the main menu, enter 2 to open menu 2.
Figure 133 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup
Menu 2 - Wan Backup Setup
Check Mechanism = DSL Link
Check WAN IP Address1 = 0.0.0.0
Check WAN IP Address2 = 0.0.0.0
Check WAN IP Address3 = 0.0.0.0
KeepAlive Fail Tolerance = 0
Recovery Interval(sec) = 0
ICMP Timeout(sec) = 0
Traffic Redirect = No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 91 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Check Mechanism
Press [SPACE BAR] and then press [ENTER] to select the method that the
Prestige uses to check the DSL connection.
Select DSL Link to have the Prestige check the DSL connection’s physical
layer. Select ICMP to have the Prestige periodically ping the IP addresses
configured in the Check WAN IP Address fields.
Check WAN IP
Address1-3
Configure this field to test your Prestige's WAN accessibility. Type the IP
address of a reliable nearby computer (for example, your ISP's DNS server
address). When using a WAN backup connection, the Prestige periodically
pings the addresses configured here and uses the other WAN backup
connection (if configured) if there is no response.
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Table 91 Menu 2 WAN Backup Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
KeepAlive Fail
Tolerance
Type the number of times (2 recommended) that your Prestige may ping the IP
addresses configured in the Check WAN IP Address field without getting a
response before switching to a WAN backup connection (or a different WAN
backup connection).
Recovery Interval(sec) When the Prestige is using a lower priority connection (usually a WAN backup
connection), it periodically checks to whether or not it can use a higher priority
connection.
Type the number of seconds (30 recommended) for the Prestige to wait
between checks. Allow more time if your destination IP address handles lots of
traffic.
ICMP Timeout
Type the number of seconds for an ICMP session to wait for the ICMP
response
Traffic Redirect
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No.
Select Yes and press [ENTER] to configure Menu 2.1 Traffic Redirect Setup.
Select No (default) if you do not want to configure this feature.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
24.2.1 Traffic Redirect Setup
Configure parameters that determine when the Prestige will forward WAN traffic to the
backup gateway using Menu 2.1 — Traffic Redirect Setup.
Figure 134 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup
Menu 2.1 - Traffic Redirect Setup
Active= No
Configuration:
Backup Gateway IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Metric= 15
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 92 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active.
Press [SPACE BAR] and select Yes (to enable) or No (to disable) traffic redirect
setup. The default is No
Configuration
Backup Gateway Enter the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal notation.
IP Address
The Prestige automatically forwards traffic to this IP address if the Prestige’s
Internet connection terminates.
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Table 92 Menu 2.1Traffic Redirect Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Metric
This field sets this route's priority among the routes the Prestige uses.
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route
for transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly connected
networks. The number must be between "1" and "15"; a number greater than "15"
means the link is down. The smaller the number, the lower the "cost"
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 25
Menu 3 LAN Setup
This chapter covers how to configure your wired Local Area Network (LAN) settings.
25.1 LAN Setup
This section describes how to configure the Ethernet using Menu 3 — LAN Setup. From the
main menu, enter 3 to display menu 3.
Figure 135 Menu 3 LAN Setup
Menu 3 - LAN Setup
1. LAN Port Filter Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
5. Wireless LAN Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
25.1.1 General Ethernet Setup
This menu allows you to specify filter set(s) that you wish to apply to the Ethernet traffic. You
seldom need to filter Ethernet traffic; however, the filter sets may be useful to block certain
packets, reduce traffic and prevent security breaches.
Figure 136 Menu 3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup
Menu 3.1 - LAN Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
If you need to define filters, please read Chapter 33 on page 331 first, then return to this menu
to define the filter sets.
25.2 Protocol Dependent Ethernet Setup
Depending on the protocols for your applications, you need to configure the respective
Ethernet Setup, as outlined below.
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• For TCP/IP Ethernet setup refer to Section 27.6 on page 292.
• For bridging Ethernet setup refer to Chapter 30 on page 309.
25.3 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup and DHCP
Use menu 3.2 to configure your Prestige for TCP/IP.
To edit menu 3.2, enter 3 from the main menu to display Menu 3 — LAN Setup. When menu
3 appears, press 2 and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2 — TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet
Setup, as shown next:
Figure 137 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Follow the instructions in the following table on how to configure the DHCP fields.
Table 93 DHCP Ethernet Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
DHCP Setup
282
DHCP
If set to Server, your Prestige can assign IP addresses, an IP default
gateway and DNS servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and other systems
that support the DHCP client.
If set to None, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to Relay, the Prestige acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays
DHCP requests and responses between the remote server and the clients.
Enter the IP address of the actual, remote DHCP server in the Remote
DHCP Server in this case.
When DHCP server is used, the following items need to be set:
Client IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address
pool.
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Table 93 DHCP Ethernet Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Size of Client IP Pool
This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
Primary DNS Server
Secondary DNS Server
Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. The DNS servers are passed to
the DHCP clients along with the IP address and the subnet mask.
Remote DHCP Serve
If Relay is selected in the DHCP field above then enter the IP address of the
actual remote DHCP server here.
Follow the instructions in the following table to configure TCP/IP parameters for the Ethernet port.
Table 94 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
TCP/IP Setup
IP Address
Enter the (LAN) IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask
Your Prestige will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address
that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the Prestige (refer to the appendix on IP subnetting for more
information).
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP direction. Choices are Both, In Only, Out
Only or None.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP version. Choices are RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a Multicast group. The Prestige supports both IGMP
version 1 (IGMP-v1) and version 2 (IGMP-v2). Press the [SPACE BAR] to enable
IP Multicasting or select None to disable it.
IP Policies
Create policies using SMT menu 25 (see Chapter 40 on page 391) and apply them
on the Prestige LAN interface here. You can apply up to four IP Policy sets (from
twelve) by entering their numbers separated by commas.
Edit IP Alias
The Prestige supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet
interface with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network. Press
[SPACE BAR] to change No to Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2.1.
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CHAPTER 26
Wireless LAN Setup
This chapter covers how to configure wireless LAN settings in SMT menu 3.5.
26.1 Wireless LAN Overview
Refer to the chapter on the wireless LAN screens for wireless LAN background information.
26.2 Wireless LAN Setup
Use menu 3.5 to set up your Prestige as the wireless access point. To edit menu 3.5, enter 3
from the main menu to display Menu 3 – LAN Setup. When menu 3 appears, press 5 and then
press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup as shown next.
Figure 138
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5- Wireless LAN Setup
ESSID= Wireless
Hide ESSID= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
WEP= Disable
Default Key= N/A
Key1= N/A
Key2= N/A
Key3= N/A
Key4= N/A
Edit MAC Address Filter= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 95 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
ESSID
The ESSID (Extended Service Set IDentifier) identifies the AP to which the wireless
stations associate. Wireless stations associating to the Access Point must have the
same ESSID. Enter a descriptive name of up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters.
Hide ESSID Press [SPACE BAR] and select Yes to hide the ESSID in the outgoing beacon frame so
a station cannot obtain the ESSID through passive scanning.
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Table 95 Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Channel ID
Press [SPACE BAR] to select a channel. This allows you to set the operating frequency/
channel depending on your particular region.
RTS
Threshold
RTS (Request To Send) threshold (number of bytes) enables RTS/CTS handshake.
Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS handshake.
Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC Service Data Unit) size
turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to zero turns on the RTS/CTS
handshake. Enter a value between 0 and 2432.
Frag.
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed messages.
It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value between 256 and
2432.
WEP
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) provides data encryption to prevent wireless stations
from accessing data transmitted over the wireless network.
Select Disable allows wireless stations to communicate with the access points without
any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP or 256-bit WEP to for the type of data encryption. WEP
causes performance degradation.
Default Key
Enter the number of the key as an active key.
Key 1 to Key If you chose 64-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 5 characters or 10
4
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key (1-4).
If you chose 128-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 13 characters or 26
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key (1-4).
If you chose 256-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 29 characters or 58
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key (1-4).
There are four data encryption keys to secure your data from eavesdropping by
unauthorized wireless users. The values for the keys must be set up exactly the same on
the access points as they are on the wireless stations.
Edit MAC
Address
Filter
To edit MAC address filtering table, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER] to open menu 3.5.1.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
26.2.1 Wireless LAN MAC Address Filter
The next layer of security is MAC address filter. To allow a wireless station to associate with
the Prestige, enter the MAC address of the wireless LAN adapter on that wireless station in the
MAC address table.
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Figure 139 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering
Menu 3.5.1 - WLAN MAC Address Filter
Active= No
Filter Action= Allowed Association
-------------------------------------------------------------------------1=
00:00:00:00:00:00
13=
00:00:00:00:00:00
25=
00:00:00:00:00:00
2=
00:00:00:00:00:00
14=
00:00:00:00:00:00
26=
00:00:00:00:00:00
3=
00:00:00:00:00:00
15=
00:00:00:00:00:00
27=
00:00:00:00:00:00
4=
00:00:00:00:00:00
16=
00:00:00:00:00:00
28=
00:00:00:00:00:00
5=
00:00:00:00:00:00
17=
00:00:00:00:00:00
29=
00:00:00:00:00:00
6=
00:00:00:00:00:00
18=
00:00:00:00:00:00
30=
00:00:00:00:00:00
7=
00:00:00:00:00:00
19=
00:00:00:00:00:00
31=
00:00:00:00:00:00
8=
00:00:00:00:00:00
20=
00:00:00:00:00:00
32=
00:00:00:00:00:00
9=
00:00:00:00:00:00
21=
00:00:00:00:00:00
10=
00:00:00:00:00:00
22=
00:00:00:00:00:00
11=
00:00:00:00:00:00
23=
00:00:00:00:00:00
12=
00:00:00:00:00:00
24=
00:00:00:00:00:00
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 96 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filtering
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
To enable MAC address filtering, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER].
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter table.
To deny access to the Prestige, press [SPACE BAR] to select Deny Association and
press [ENTER]. MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to access the router.
The default action, Allowed Association, permits association with the Prestige. MAC
addresses not listed will be denied access to the router.
MAC Address Filter
Address 1.
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless stations that
are allowed or denied access to the Prestige in these address fields.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 27
Internet Access
This chapter shows you how to configure the LAN and WAN of your Prestige for Internet
access.
27.1 Internet Access Overview
Refer to the chapters on the web configurator’s wizard, LAN and WAN screens for more
background information on fields in the SMT screens covered in this chapter.
27.2 IP Policies
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the router takes the shortest
path to forward a packet. IP Policy Routing (IPPR) provides a mechanism to override the
default routing behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy defined by the
network administrator. Policy-based routing is applied to incoming packets on a per interface
basis, prior to the normal routing. Create policies using SMT menu 25 (see Chapter 40 on page
391) and apply them on the Prestige LAN and/or WAN interfaces using menus 3.2 (LAN) and
11.3 (WAN).
27.3 IP Alias
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the
same Ethernet interface. The Prestige supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single
physical Ethernet interface with the Prestige itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
When you use IP alias, you can also configure firewall rules to control access between the
LAN's logical networks (subnets).
Note: Make sure that the subnets of the logical networks do not overlap.
The following figure shows a LAN divided into subnets A, B, and C.
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Figure 140 IP Alias Network Example
Use menu 3.2.1 to configure IP Alias on your Prestige.
27.4 IP Alias Setup
Use menu 3.2 to configure the first network. Move the cursor to Edit IP Alias field and press
[SPACEBAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to configure the second and third network.
Figure 141 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Pressing [ENTER] displays Menu 3.2.1 — IP Alias Setup, as shown next.
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Figure 142 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
Menu 3.2.1 - IP Alias Setup
IP Alias 1= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
IP Alias 2= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Follow the instructions in the following table to configure IP Alias parameters.
Table 97 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias
Choose Yes to configure the LAN network for the Prestige.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Prestige in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask Your Prestige will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address
that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the Prestige
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP direction. Choices are None, Both, In Only
or Out Only.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP version. Choices are RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP2M.
Incoming
Protocol Filters
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the incoming traffic between this node and
the Prestige.
Outgoing
Protocol Filters
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the outgoing traffic between this node and
the Prestige.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
27.5 Route IP Setup
The first step is to enable the IP routing in Menu 1 — General Setup.
To edit menu 1, type 1 in the main menu and press [ENTER]. Set the Route IP field to Yes
by pressing [SPACE BAR].
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Figure 143 Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name= ?
Location= location
Contact Person's Name=
Domain Name=
Edit Dynamic DNS= No
Route IP= Yes
Bridge= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
27.6 Internet Access Configuration
Menu 4 allows you to enter the Internet Access information in one screen. Menu 4 is actually
a simplified setup for one of the remote nodes that you can access in menu 11. Before you
configure your Prestige for Internet access, you need to collect your Internet account
information.
Use the Internet Account Information table in the Quick Start Guide to record your. Note that
if you are using PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation, then the only ISP information you need is a
login name and password. You only need to know the Ethernet Encapsulation Gateway IP
address if you are using ENET ENCAP encapsulation.
From the main menu, type 4 to display Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup, as shown next.
Figure 144 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Multiplexing= LLC-based
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= CBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
ENET ENCAP Gateway= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table contains instructions on how to configure your Prestige for Internet access
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.
Table 98 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
ISP’s Name
Enter the name of your Internet Service Provider (ISP). This information is for
identification purposes only.
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP.
Choices are PPPoE, PPPoA, RFC 1483 or ENET ENCAP.
Multiplexing
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP.
Choices are VC-based or LLC-based.
VPI #
Enter the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) assigned to you.
VCI #
Enter the Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) assigned to you.
ATM QoS Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed
(always-on) bandwidth. Select UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) for applications that
are non-time sensitive, such as e-mail. Select VBR (Variable Bit Rate) for bursty
traffic and bandwidth sharing with other applications.
Peak Cell Rate
(PCR)
This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. Type the PCR.
Sustain Cell Rate
(SCR)= 0
Sustained Cell Rate is the mean cell rate of a bursty, on-off traffic source that can
be sent at the peak rate, and a parameter for burst-traffic. Type the SCR; it must
be less than the PCR.
Maximum Burst
Size (MBS)= 0
Refers to the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the peak rate. Type the
MBS. The MBS must be less than 65535.
My Login
Configure the My Login and My Password fields for PPPoA and PPPoE
encapsulation only. Enter the login name that your ISP gives you. If you are using
PPPoE encapsulation, then this field must be of the form user@domain where
domain identifies your PPPoE service name.
My Password
Enter the password associated with the login name above.
ENET ENCAP
Gateway
Enter the gateway IP address supplied by your ISP when you are using ENET
ENCAP encapsulation.
Idle Timeout
This value specifies the number of idle seconds that elapse before the Prestige
automatically disconnects the PPPoE session.
IP Address
Assignment
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Static or Dynamic address assignment.
IP Address
Enter the IP address supplied by your ISP if applicable.
Network Address
Translation
Press [SPACE BAR] to select None, SUA Only or Full Feature. Please see
Chapter 31 on page 313 for more details on the SUA (Single User Account)
feature.
Address Mapping
Set
Type the numbers of mapping sets (1-8) to use with NAT. See Chapter 31 on
page 313 for details.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
If all your settings are correct your Prestige should connect automatically to the Internet. If the
connection fails, note the error message that you receive on the screen and take the appropriate
troubleshooting steps.
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CHAPTER 28
Remote Node Configuration
This chapter covers remote node configuration.
28.1 Remote Node Setup Overview
This section describes the protocol-independent parameters for a remote node. A remote node
is required for placing calls to a remote gateway. A remote node represents both the remote
gateway and the network behind it across a WAN connection. When you use menu 4 to set up
Internet access, you are configuring one of the remote nodes.
You first choose a remote node in Menu 11- Remote Node Setup. You can then edit that
node’s profile in menu 11.1, as well as configure specific settings in three submenus: edit IP
and bridge options in menu 11.3; edit ATM options in menu 11.6; and edit filter sets in menu
11.5.
28.2 Remote Node Setup
This section describes the protocol-independent parameters for a remote node.
28.2.1 Remote Node Profile
To configure a remote node, follow these steps:
1 From the main menu, enter 11 to display Menu 11 - Remote Node Setup.
2 When menu 11 appears, as shown in the following figure, type the number of the remote
node that you want to configure.
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Figure 145 Menu 11 Remote Node Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Menu 11 - Remote Node Setup
MyISP (ISP, SUA)
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
Enter Node # to Edit:
28.2.2 Encapsulation and Multiplexing Scenarios
For Internet access you should use the encapsulation and multiplexing methods used by your
ISP. Consult your telephone company for information on encapsulation and multiplexing
methods for LAN-to-LAN applications, for example between a branch office and corporate
headquarters. There must be prior agreement on encapsulation and multiplexing methods
because they cannot be automatically determined. What method(s) you use also depends on
how many VCs you have and how many different network protocols you need. The extra
overhead that ENET ENCAP encapsulation entails makes it a poor choice in a LAN-to-LAN
application. Here are some examples of more suitable combinations in such an application.
28.2.2.1 Scenario 1: One VC, Multiple Protocols
PPPoA (RFC-2364) encapsulation with VC-based multiplexing is the best combination
because no extra protocol identifying headers are needed. The PPP protocol already contains
this information.
28.2.2.2 Scenario 2: One VC, One Protocol (IP)
Selecting RFC-1483 encapsulation with VC-based multiplexing requires the least amount of
overhead (0 octets). However, if there is a potential need for multiple protocol support in the
future, it may be safer to select PPPoA encapsulation instead of RFC-1483, so you do not
need to reconfigure either computer later.
28.2.2.3 Scenario 3: Multiple VCs
If you have an equal number (or more) of VCs than the number of protocols, then select RFC1483 encapsulation and VC-based multiplexing.
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Figure 146 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= MyISP
Route= IP
Active= Yes
Bridge= No
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Multiplexing= LLC-based
Edit ATM Options= No
Service Name= N/A
Edit Advance Options= N/A
Incoming:
Telco Option:
Rem Login= N/A
Allocated Budget(min)= N/A
Rem Password= N/A
Period(hr)= N/A
Outgoing:
Schedule Sets= N/A
My Login= N/A
Nailed-Up Connection= N/A
My Password= N/A
Session Options:
Authen= N/A
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
In Menu 11.1 – Remote Node Profile, fill in the fields as described in the following table.
Table 99 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rem Node Name
Type a unique, descriptive name of up to eight characters for this node.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to activate or No to
deactivate this node. Inactive nodes are displayed with a minus sign –“ in SMT
menu 11.
Encapsulation
PPPoA refers to RFC-2364 (PPP Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5).
If RFC-1483 (Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5) of ENET
ENCAP are selected,
then the Rem Login, Rem Password, My Login, My Password and Authen
fields are not applicable (N/A).
Multiplexing
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the method of multiplexing that
your ISP uses, either VC-based or LLC-based.
Service Name
When using PPPoE encapsulation, type the name of your PPPoE service here.
Incoming:
Rem Login
Type the login name that this remote node will use to call your Prestige. The login
name and the Rem Password will be used to authenticate this node.
Rem Password
Type the password used when this remote node calls your Prestige.
Outgoing:
My Login
Type the login name assigned by your ISP when the Prestige calls this remote
node.
My Password
Type the password assigned by your ISP when the Prestige calls this remote
node.
Authen
This field sets the authentication protocol used for outgoing calls. Options for this
field are:
CHAP/PAP – Your Prestige will accept either CHAP or PAP when requested by
this remote node.
CHAP – accept CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) only.
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Table 99 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
PAP – accept PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) only.
Route
This field determines the protocol used in routing. Options are IP and None.
Bridge
When bridging is enabled, your Prestige will forward any packet that it does not
route to this remote node; otherwise, the packets are discarded. Select Yes to
enable and No to disable.
Edit IP/Bridge
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.3 –
Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Edit ATM Options
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.6 –
Remote Node ATM Layer Options.
Edit Advance
Options
This field is only available when you select PPPoE in the Encapsulation field.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.8 –
Advance Setup Options.
Telco Option
Allocated Budget
(min)
This sets a ceiling for outgoing call time for this remote node. The default for this
field is 0 meaning no budget control.
Period (hr)
This field is the time period that the budget should be reset. For example, if we
are allowed to call this remote node for a maximum of 10 minutes every hour,
then the Allocated Budget is (10 minutes) and the Period (hr) is 1 (hour).
Schedule Sets
This field is only applicable for PPPoE and PPPoA encapsulation. You can apply
up to four schedule sets here. For more details please refer to Chapter 41 on
page 399.
Nailed up
Connection
This field is only applicable for PPPoE and PPPoA encapsulation. This field
specifies if you want to make the connection to this remote node a nailed-up
connection. More details are given earlier in this section.
Session Options
Edit Filter Sets
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to open menu 11.5 to edit
the filter sets. See the Remote Node Filter section for more details.
Idle Timeout (sec)
Type the number of seconds (0-9999) that can elapse when the Prestige is idle
(there is no traffic going to the remote node), before the Prestige automatically
disconnects the remote node. 0 means that the session will not timeout.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
28.2.3 Outgoing Authentication Protocol
For obvious reasons, you should employ the strongest authentication protocol possible.
However, some vendors’ implementation includes specific authentication protocol in the user
profile. It will disconnect if the negotiated protocol is different from that in the user profile,
even when the negotiated protocol is stronger than specified. If the peer disconnects right after
a successful authentication, make sure that you specify the correct authentication protocol
when connecting to such an implementation.
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28.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
For the TCP/IP parameters, perform the following steps to edit Menu 11.3 – Remote Node
Network Layer Options as shown next.
1 In menu 11.1, make sure IP is among the protocols in the Route field.
2 Move the cursor to the Edit IP/Bridge field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes, then
press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 147 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment = Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout(min)= N/A
Rem IP Addr = 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= None
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The next table explains fields in Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Table 100 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Assignment
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Dynamic if the remote node is using
a dynamically assigned IP address or Static if it is using a static (fixed) IP address.
You will only be able to configure this in the ISP node (also the one you configure in
menu 4), all other nodes are set to Static.
Rem IP Addr
This is the IP address you entered in the previous menu.
Rem Subnet
Mask
Type the subnet mask assigned to the remote node.
My WAN Addr
Some implementations, especially UNIX derivatives, require separate IP network
numbers for the WAN and LAN links and each end to have a unique address within
the WAN network number. In that case, type the IP address assigned to the WAN port
of your Prestige.
NOTE: Refers to local Prestige address, not the remote router address.
NAT
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Full Feature if you have multiple
public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
Select SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige. The
SMT uses Address Mapping Set 255 (see Figure 165 on page 316).
Select None to disable NAT.
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Table 100 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Address
Mapping Set
When Full Feature is selected in the NAT field, configure address mapping sets in
menu 15.1. Select one of the NAT server sets (2-10) in menu 15.2 (see Chapter 31
on page 313 for details) and type that number here.
When SUA Only is selected in the NAT field, the SMT uses NAT server set 1 in menu
15.2 (see Chapter 31 on page 313 for details).
Metric
The metric represents the cost of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses
hop count as the cost measurement, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected
networks. Type a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need
not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good
number.
Private
This determines if the Prestige will include the route to this remote node in its RIP
broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and not included in RIP broadcast.
If No, the route to this remote node will be propagated to other hosts through RIP
broadcasts.
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP Direction. Options are
Both, In Only, Out Only or None.
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP version. Options are RIP-1,
RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP-v1 sets IGMP to version 1, IGMP-v2 sets IGMP to version 2 and None disables
IGMP.
IP Policies
You can apply up to four IP Policy sets (from 12) by typing in their numbers separated
by commas. Configure the filter sets in menu 25 first (see Chapter 40 on page 391)
and then apply them here.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
28.3.1 My WAN Addr Sample IP Addresses
The following figure uses sample IP addresses to help you understand the field of My WAN
Addr in menu 11.3. Refer to the previous Figure 18 on page 79 in the web configurator
chapter on LAN setup for a brief review of what a WAN IP is. My WAN Addr indicates the
local Prestige WAN IP (172.16.0.1 in the following figure) while Rem IP Addr indicates the
peer WAN IP (172.16.0.2 in the following figure).
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Figure 148 Sample IP Addresses for a TCP/IP LAN-to-LAN Connection
28.4 Remote Node Filter
Move the cursor to the Edit Filter Sets field in menu 11.1, then press [SPACE BAR] to select
Yes. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.5 – Remote Node Filter.
Use Menu 11.5 – Remote Node Filter to specify the filter set(s) to apply to the incoming and
outgoing traffic between this remote node and the Prestige and also to prevent certain packets
from triggering calls. You can specify up to 4 filter sets separated by comma, for example, 1,
5, 9, 12, in each filter field.
Note that spaces are accepted in this field. The Prestige has a prepackaged filter set,
NetBIOS_WAN, that blocks NetBIOS packets. Include this in the call filter sets if you want to
prevent NetBIOS packets from triggering calls to a remote node.
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Figure 149 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (RFC 1483 or ENET Encapsulation)
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 150 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation)
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
28.5 Editing ATM Layer Options
Follow the steps shown next to edit Menu 11.6 – Remote Node ATM Layer Options.
In menu 11.1, move the cursor to the Edit ATM Options field and then press [SPACE BAR]
to select Yes. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.6 – Remote Node ATM Layer Options.
There are two versions of menu 11.6 for the Prestige, depending on whether you chose VCbased/LLC-based multiplexing and PPP encapsulation in menu 11.1.
28.5.1 VC-based Multiplexing (non-PPP Encapsulation)
For VC-based multiplexing, by prior agreement, a protocol is assigned a specific virtual
circuit, for example, VC1 will carry IP. Separate VPI and VCI numbers must be specified for
each protocol.
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Figure 151 Menu 11.6 for VC-based Multiplexing
Menu 11.6 - Remote Node ATM Layer Options
VPI/VCI (VC-Multiplexing)
VC Options for IP:
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
VC Options for Bridge:
VPI #= 1
VCI #= 36
ATM QoS Type= N/A
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= N/A
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= N/A
Maximum Burst Size (MBR)= N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
28.5.2 LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation
For LLC-based multiplexing or PPP encapsulation, one VC carries multiple protocols with
protocol identifying information being contained in each packet header.
Figure 152 Menu 11.6 for LLC-based Multiplexing or PPP Encapsulation
Menu 11.6 - Remote Node ATM Layer Options
VPI/VCI (LLC-Multiplexing or PPP-Encapsulation)
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
ENTER here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
In this case, only one set of VPI and VCI numbers need be specified for all protocols. The
valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255 and for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (1 to 31 is reserved for local
management of ATM traffic).
28.5.3 Advance Setup Options
In menu 11.1, select PPPoE in the Encapsulation field.
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Figure 153 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= MyISP
Route= IP
Active= Yes
Bridge= No
Encapsulation= PPPoE
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Multiplexing= LLC-based
Edit ATM Options= No
Service Name=
Edit Advance Options= Yes
Incoming:
Telco Option:
Rem Login=
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Rem Password= ********
Period(hr)= 0
Outgoing:
Schedule Sets=
My Login= ?
Nailed-Up Connection= No
My Password= ?
Session Options:
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Move the cursor to the Edit Advance Options field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes, then
press [ENTER] to display Menu 11.8 – Advance Setup Options.
Figure 154 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options
Menu 11.8 - Advance Setup Options
PPPoE pass-through= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 101 Menu 11.8 Advance Setup Options
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
PPPoE pass-through
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable PPPoE pass
through. In addition to the Prestige's built-in PPPoE client, you can enable
PPPoE pass through to allow up to ten hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client
software on their computers to connect to the ISP via the Prestige. Each host
can have a separate account and a public WAN IP address.
PPPoE pass through is an alternative to NAT for applications where NAT is
not appropriate.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select No and press [ENTER] to disable PPPoE pass
through if you do not need to allow hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE client
software on their computers to connect to the ISP.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 29
Static Route Setup
This chapter shows how to setup IP static routes.
29.1 IP Static Route Overview
Static routes tell the Prestige routing information that it cannot learn automatically through
other means. This can arise in cases where RIP is disabled on the LAN or a remote network is
beyond the one that is directly connected to a remote node.
Each remote node specifies only the network to which the gateway is directly connected and
the Prestige has no knowledge of the networks beyond. For instance, the Prestige knows about
network N2 in the following figure through remote node Router 1. However, the Prestige is
unable to route a packet to network N3 because it does not know that there is a route through
remote node Router 1 (via Router 2). The static routes allow you to tell the Prestige about the
networks beyond the remote nodes.
Figure 155 Sample Static Routing Topology
29.2 Configuration
To configure an IP static route, use Menu 12 – Static Route Setup (shown next).
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Figure 156 Menu 12 Static Route Setup
Menu 12 - Static Route Setup
1. IP Static Route
3. Bridge Static Route
Please enter selection:
From menu 12, select 1 to open Menu 12.1 — IP Static Route Setup (shown next).
Figure 157 Menu 12.1 IP Static Route Setup
Menu 12.1 - IP Static Route Setup
1. ________
2. ________
3. ________
4. ________
5. ________
6. ________
7. ________
8. ________
9. ________
10. ________
11. ________
12. ________
13. ________
14. ________
15. ________
16. ________
Enter selection number:
Now, type the route number of a static route you want to configure.
Figure 158 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route
Menu 12.1.1 - Edit IP Static Route
Route #: 1
Route Name= ?
Active= No
Destination IP Address= ?
IP Subnet Mask= ?
Gateway IP Address= ?
Metric= 2
Private= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields for Menu 12.1.1 – Edit IP Static Route Setup.
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Table 102 Menu12.1.1 Edit IP Static Route
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Route #
This is the index number of the static route that you chose in menu 12.1.
Route Name
Type a descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purpose only.
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Destination IP Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Routing is always based on network number. If you need to specify a route to
a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask
field to force the network number to be identical to the host ID.
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask for this destination. See Section 5.4.2 on page 81 in
this manual.
Gateway IP Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor
of your Prestige that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN,
the gateway must be a router on the same segment as your Prestige; over
WAN, the gateway must be the IP address of one of the remote nodes.
Metric
Metric represents the cost of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing
uses hop count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly
connected networks. Type a number that approximates the cost for this link.
The number need not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In
practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Private
This parameter determines if the Prestige will include the route to this remote
node in its RIP broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and is not
included in RIP broadcasts. If No, the route to this remote node will be
propagated to other hosts through RIP broadcasts.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 30
Bridging Setup
This chapter shows you how to configure the bridging parameters of your Prestige.
30.1 Bridging in General
Bridging bases the forwarding decision on the MAC (Media Access Control), or hardware
address, while routing does it on the network layer (IP) address. Bridging allows the Prestige
to transport packets of network layer protocols that it does not route, for example, SNA, from
one network to another. The caveat is that, compared to routing, bridging generates more
traffic for the same network layer protocol, and it also demands more CPU cycles and
memory.
For efficiency reasons, do not turn on bridging unless you need to support protocols other than
IP on your network. For IP, enable the routing if you need it; do not bridge what the Prestige
can route.
30.2 Bridge Ethernet Setup
Basically, all non-local packets are bridged to the WAN. Your Prestige does not support IPX.
30.2.1 Remote Node Bridging Setup
Follow the procedure in another section to configure the protocol-independent parameters in
Menu 11.1 – Remote Node Profile. For bridging-related parameters, you need to configure
Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
1 To setup Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options shown in the next figure,
follow these steps:
2 In menu 11.1, make sure the Bridge field is set to Yes.
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Figure 159 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ?
Route= IP
Active= Yes
Bridge= Yes
Encapsulation= ENET ENCAP
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Multiplexing= VC-based
Edit ATM Options= No
Service Name= N/A
Edit Advance Options= N/A
Incoming:
Telco Option:
Rem Login= N/A
Allocated Budget(min)= N/A
Rem Password= N/A
Period(hr)= N/A
Outgoing:
Schedule Sets= N/A
My Login= N/A
Nailed-Up Connection= N/A
My Password= N/A
Session Options:
Authen= N/A
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
3 Move the cursor to the Edit IP/Bridge field, then press [SPACE BAR] to set the value to
Yes and press [ENTER] to edit Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 160 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment= Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout (min)= 0
Rem IP Addr: 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= Full Feature
Address Mapping Set=2
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= IGMP-v2
IP Policies=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Table 103 Remote Node Network Layer Options: Bridge Fields
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Bridge (menu 11.1)
Make sure this field is set to Yes.
Edit IP/Bridge (menu 11.1) Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display menu
11.3.
Ethernet Addr Timeout
(min.) (menu 11.3)
310
Type the time (in minutes) for the Prestige to retain the Ethernet Address
information in its internal tables while the line is down. If this information is
retained, your Prestige will not have to recompile the tables when the line
comes back up.
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30.2.2 Bridge Static Route Setup
Similar to network layer static routes, a bridging static route tells the Prestige the route to a
node before a connection is established. You configure bridge static routes in menu 12.3.1 (go
to menu 12, choose option 3, then choose a static route to edit) as shown next.
Figure 161 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route
Menu 12.3.1 - Edit Bridge Static Route
Route #: 1
Route Name=
Active= No
Ether Address= ?
IP Address=
Gateway Node= 1
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the Edit Bridge Static Route menu.
Table 104 Menu 12.3.1 Edit Bridge Static Route
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Route #
This is the route index number you typed in Menu 12.3 – Bridge Static Route Setup.
Route Name
Type a name for the bridge static route for identification purposes.
Active
Indicates whether the static route is active (Yes) or not (No).
Ether Address
Type the MAC address of the destination computer that you want to bridge the
packets to.
IP Address
If available, type the IP address of the destination computer that you want to bridge
the packets to.
Gateway Node
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the number of the remote node (one
to eight) that is the gateway of this static route.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 31
Network Address Translation
(NAT)
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the Prestige.
31.1 Using NAT
You must create a firewall rule in addition to setting up SUA/NAT, to allow traffic from the
WAN to be forwarded through the Prestige.
31.1.1 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ZyNOS implementation of a subset of NAT that supports two
types of mapping, Many-to-One and Server. See Section 31.3 on page 315or a detailed
description of the NAT set for SUA. The Prestige also supports Full Feature NAT to map
multiple global IP addresses to multiple private LAN IP addresses of clients or servers using
mapping types.
• Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your Prestige.
• Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your Prestige.
31.2 Applying NAT
You apply NAT via menus 4 or 11.3 as displayed next. The next figure shows you how to
apply NAT for Internet access in menu 4. Enter 4 from the main menu to go to Menu 4 Internet Access Setup.
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Figure 162 Menu 4 Applying NAT for Internet Access
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Multiplexing= LLC-based
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
ENET ENCAP Gateway= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following figure shows how you apply NAT to the remote node in menu 11.1.
1 Enter 11 from the main menu.
2 When menu 11 appears, as shown in the following figure, type the number of the remote
node that you want to configure.
3 Move the cursor to the Edit IP/Bridge field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then
press [ENTER] to bring up Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options.
Figure 163 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment = Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout(min)= N/A
Rem IP Addr = 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
The following table describes the options for Network Address Translation.
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Table 105 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
NAT
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Full Feature if you have multiple public
WAN IP addresses for your Prestige. The SMT uses the address mapping set that you
configure and enter in the Address Mapping Set field (see Figure 165 on page 316).
Select None to disable NAT.
When you select SUA Only, the SMT uses Address Mapping Set 255 (see Figure 166 on
page 316). Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your
Prestige.
31.3 NAT Setup
Use the address mapping sets menus and submenus to create the mapping table used to assign
global addresses to computers on the LAN. Set 255 is used for SUA. When you select Full
Feature in menu 4 or 11.3, the SMT will use Set 1. When you select SUA Only, the SMT
will use the pre-configured Set 255 (read only).
The server set is a list of LAN servers mapped to external ports. To use this set, a server rule
must be set up inside the NAT address mapping set. Please see the section on port forwarding
in the chapter on NAT web configurator screens for further information on these menus. To
configure NAT, enter 15 from the main menu to bring up the following screen.
Figure 164
Menu 15 NAT Setup
Menu 15 - NAT Setup
1. Address Mapping Sets
2. NAT Server Sets
Enter Menu Selection Number:
31.3.1 Address Mapping Sets
Enter 1 to bring up Menu 15.1 — Address Mapping Sets.
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Figure 165 Menu 15.1 Address Mapping Sets
Menu 15.1 - Address Mapping Sets
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
255. SUA (read only)
Enter Menu Selection Number:
31.3.1.1 SUA Address Mapping Set
Enter 255 to display the next screen (see also section 27.1.1). The fields in this menu cannot be
changed.
Figure 166 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules
Set
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Menu 15.1.255 - Address Mapping Rules
Name=
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP
--------------- --------------- --------------0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Global End IP
---------------
Type
-----M-1
Server
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table explains the fields in this menu.
Menu 15.1.255 is read-only.
Table 106 SUA Address Mapping Rules
316
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Set Name
This is the name of the set you selected in menu 15.1 or enter the name of a new set
you want to create.
Idx
This is the index or rule number.
Local Start IP
Local Start IP is the starting local IP address (ILA).
Local End IP
Local End IP is the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IPs, then
the Start IP is 0.0.0.0 and the End IP is 255.255.255.255.
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Table 106 SUA Address Mapping Rules (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Global Start IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic IP, enter 0.0.0.0 as
the Global Start IP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA).
Type
These are the mapping types. Server allows us to specify multiple servers of
different types behind NAT to this machine. See later for some examples.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
31.3.1.2 User-Defined Address Mapping Sets
Now let’s look at option 1 in menu 15.1. Enter 1 to bring up this menu. We’ll just look at the
differences from the previous menu. Note the extra Action and Select Rule fields mean you
can configure rules in this screen. Note also that the [?] in the Set Name field means that this
is a required field and you must enter a name for the set.
Figure 167 Menu 15.1.1 First Set
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= NAT_SET
Idx Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP
--- --------------- --------------- --------------1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Action= Edit
Global End IP
---------------
Type
----
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
If the Set Name field is left blank, the entire set will be deleted.
The Type, Local and Global Start/End IPs are configured in menu 15.1.1.1 (described later)
and the values are displayed here.
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31.3.1.3 Ordering Your Rules
Ordering your rules is important because the Prestige applies the rules in the order that you
specify. When a rule matches the current packet, the Prestige takes the corresponding action
and the remaining rules are ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured
rule, your configured rule will be pushed up by that number of empty rules. For example, if
you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set and now you configure rule
number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9.
Now if you delete rule 4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so as old rule 5 becomes rule
4, old rule 6 becomes rule 5 and old rule 7 becomes rule 6.
Table 107 Menu 15.1.1 First Set
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Set Name
Enter a name for this set of rules. This is a required field. If this field is left blank, the
entire set will be deleted.
Action
The default is Edit. Edit means you want to edit a selected rule (see following field).
Insert Before means to insert a rule before the rule selected. The rules after the
selected rule will then be moved down by one rule. Delete means to delete the
selected rule and then all the rules after the selected one will be advanced one rule.
None disables the Select Rule item.
Select Rule
When you choose Edit, Insert Before or Delete in the previous field the cursor
jumps to this field to allow you to select the rule to apply the action in question.
You must press [ENTER] at the bottom of the screen to save the whole set. You must do this
again if you make any changes to the set – including deleting a rule. No changes to the set take
place until this action is taken.
Selecting Edit in the Action field and then selecting a rule brings up the following menu,
Menu 15.1.1.1 - Address Mapping Rule in which you can edit an individual rule and
configure the Type, Local and Global Start/End IPs.
An End IP address must be numerically greater than its corresponding IP Start address.
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Figure 168 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table explains the fields in this menu.
Table 108 Menu 15.1.1.1 Editing/Configuring an Individual Rule in a Set
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select from a total of five types. These are
the mapping types discussed in the chapter on NAT web configurator screens. Server
allows you to specify multiple servers of different types behind NAT to this
computer. See section 27.5.3 for an example.
Local IP
Only local IP fields are N/A for server; Global IP fields MUST be set for Server.
Start
This is the starting local IP address (ILA).
End
This is the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IPs, then put the Start
IP as 0.0.0.0 and the End IP as 255.255.255.255. This field is N/A for One-to-One and
Server types.
Global IP
Start
This is the starting inside global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic IP, enter
0.0.0.0 as the Global IP Start. Note that Global IP Start can be set to 0.0.0.0 only if
the types are Many-to-One or Server.
End
This is the ending inside global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-One,
Many-to-One and Server types.
Server
Mapping Set
Only available when Type is set to Server. Type a number from 1 to 10 to choose a
server set from menu 15.2.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
31.4 Configuring a Server behind NAT
Follow these steps to configure a server behind NAT:
1 Enter 15 in the main menu to go to Menu 15 - NAT Setup.
2 Enter 2 to display Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Sets as shown next.
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Figure 169 Menu 15.2 NAT Server Setup
Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Sets
1. Server Set 1 (Used for SUA Only)
2. Server Set 2
3. Server Set 3
4. Server Set 4
5. Server Set 5
6. Server Set 6
7. Server Set 7
8. Server Set 8
9. Server Set 9
10. Server Set 10
Enter Set Number to Edit:
3 Enter 1 to go to Menu 15.2 NAT Server Setup as follows.
Figure 170 Menu 15.2 NAT Server Setup
Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Setup
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
0.0.0.0
2.
21
21
192.168.1.33
3.
0
0
0.0.0.0
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
4 Enter a port number in an unused Start Port No field. To forward only one port, enter it
again in the End Port No field. To specify a range of ports, enter the last port to be
forwarded in the End Port No field.
5 Enter the inside IP address of the server in the IP Address field. In the following figure,
you have a computer acting as an FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (ports 21, 23 and 25) at
192.168.1.33.
6 Press [ENTER] at the “Press ENTER to confirm ...” prompt to save your
configuration after you define all the servers or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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Figure 171 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
31.5 General NAT Examples
The following are some examples of NAT configuration.
31.5.1 Example 1: Internet Access Only
In the following Internet access example, you only need one rule where your ILAs (Inside
Local addresses) all map to one dynamic IGA (Inside Global Address) assigned by your ISP.
Figure 172 NAT Example 1
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Figure 173 Menu 4 Internet Access & NAT Example
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= RFC 1483
Multiplexing= LLC-based
VPI #= 8
VCI #= 35
ATM QoS Type= UBR
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)= 0
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)= 0
Maximum Burst Size (MBS)= 0
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
ENET ENCAP Gateway= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Address Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
From menu 4, choose the SUA Only option from the Network Address Translation field.
This is the Many-to-One mapping discussed in Section 31.5 on page 321. The SUA Only
read-only option from the Network Address Translation field in menus 4 and 11.3 is
specifically pre-configured to handle this case.
31.5.2 Example 2: Internet Access with an Inside Server
Figure 174 NAT Example 2
In this case, you do exactly as above (use the convenient pre-configured SUA Only set) and
also go to menu 15.2 to specify the Inside Server behind the NAT as shown in the next figure.
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Figure 175 Menu 15.2.1 Specifying an Inside Server
Menu 15.2.1 - NAT Server Setup (Used for SUA Only)
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
192.168.1.10
2.
0
0
0.0.0.0
3.
0
0
0.0.0.0
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
31.5.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers
In this example, there are 3 IGAs from our ISP. There are many departments but two have
their own FTP server. All departments share the same router. The example will reserve one
IGA for each department with an FTP server and all departments use the other IGA. Map the
FTP servers to the first two IGAs and the other LAN traffic to the remaining IGA. Map the
third IGA to an inside web server and mail server. Four rules need to be configured, two bidirectional and two unidirectional as follows.
Map the first IGA to the first inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1 : 1
mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
Map the second IGA to our second inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1 : 1
mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
Map the other outgoing LAN traffic to IGA3 (Many : 1 mapping).
You also map your third IGA to the web server and mail server on the LAN. Type Server
allows you to specify multiple servers, of different types, to other computers behind NAT on
the LAN.
The example situation looks somewhat like this:
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Figure 176 NAT Example 3
In this case you need to configure Address Mapping Set 1 from Menu 15.1 - Address
Mapping Sets. Therefore you must choose the Full Feature option from the Network
Address Translation field (in menu 4 or menu 11.3) in Figure 177 on page 324.
1 Enter 15 from the main menu.
2 Enter 1 to configure the Address Mapping Sets.
3 Enter 1 to begin configuring this new set. Enter a Set Name, choose the Edit Action and
then enter 1 for the Select Rule field. Press [ENTER] to confirm.
4 Select Type as One-to-One (direct mapping for packets going both ways), and enter the
local Start IP as 192.168.1.10 (the IP address of FTP Server 1), the global Start IP as
10.132.50.1 (our first IGA). (See Figure 178 on page 325).
5 Repeat the previous step for rules 2 to 4 as outlined above.
When finished, menu 15.1.1 should look like as shown in Figure 179 on page 325.
Figure 177 Example 3: Menu 11.3
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
Bridge Options:
IP Address Assignment= Static
Ethernet Addr Timeout (min)= 0
Rem IP Addr: 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= Full Feature
Address Mapping Set= 2
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= IGMP-v2
IP Policies=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following figures show how to configure the first rule
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Figure 178 Example 3: Menu 15.1.1.1
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = N/A
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 179 Example 3: Final Menu 15.1.1
Set
Idx
--1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Name= Example3
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP
--------------- --------------- --------------192.168.1.10
10.132.50.1
192.168.1.11
10.132.50.2
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 10.132.50.3
10.132.50.3
Action= Edit
Global End IP
---------------
Type
-----1-1
1-1
M-1
Server
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Now configure the IGA3 to map to our web server and mail server on the LAN.
1 Enter 15 from the main menu.
2 Enter 2 in Menu 15 - NAT Setup.
3 Enter 1 in Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Sets to see the following menu. Configure it as
shown.
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Figure 180 Example 3: Menu 15.2
Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Setup
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
0.0.0.0
2.
80
80
192.168.1.21
3.
25
25
192.168.1.20
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
31.5.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs
Some applications do not support NAT Mapping using TCP or UDP port address translation.
In this case it is better to use Many-to-Many No Overload mapping as port numbers do not
change for Many-to-Many No Overload (and One-to-One) NAT mapping types. The
following figure illustrates this.
Figure 181 NAT Example 4
Other applications such as some gaming programs are NAT unfriendly because they embed
addressing information in the data stream. These applications won’t work through NAT even
when using One-to-One and Many-to-Many No Overload mapping types.
Follow the steps outlined in example 3 to configure these two menus as follows.
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Figure 182 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= Many-to-Many No Overload
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = 192.168.1.12
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = 10.132.50.3
Server Mapping Set= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
After you’ve configured your rule, you should be able to check the settings in menu 15.1.1 as
shown next.
Figure 183 Example 4: Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules
Set
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Name= Example4
Local Start IP
Local End IP
Global Start IP
--------------- --------------- --------------192.168.1.10
192.168.1.12
10.132.50.1
Action= Edit
Global End IP
--------------10.132.50.3
Type
-----M:M NO OV
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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CHAPTER 32
Enabling the Firewall
This chapter shows you how to get started with the Prestige firewall.
32.1 Remote Management and the Firewall
When SMT menu 24.11 is configured to allow management (see the Remote Management
chapter) and the firewall is enabled:
• The firewall blocks remote management from the WAN unless you configure a firewall
rule to allow it.
• The firewall allows remote management from the LAN.
32.2 Access Methods
The web configurator is, by far, the most comprehensive firewall configuration tool your
Prestige has to offer. For this reason, it is recommended that you configure your firewall using
the web configurator, see the following chapters for instructions. SMT screens allow you to
activate the firewall and view firewall logs.
32.3 Enabling the Firewall
From the main menu enter 21 to go to Menu 21 - Filter Set and Firewall Configuration to
display the screen shown next.
Enter option 2 in this menu to bring up the following screen. Press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select Yes in the Active field to activate the firewall. The firewall must be active
to protect against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Additional rules may be configured using
the web configurator.
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Figure 184 Menu 21.2 Firewall Setup
Menu 21.2 - Firewall Setup
The firewall protects against Denial of Service (DOS) attacks when
it is active. The default Policy sets
1. allow all sessions originating from the LAN to the WAN and
2. deny all sessions originating from the WAN to the LAN
You may define additional Policy rules or modify existing ones but
please exercise extreme caution in doing so
Active: Yes
LAN-to-WAN Set Name: ACL Default Set
WAN-to-LAN Set Name: ACL Default Set
Please configure the Firewall function through Web Configurator.
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Use the web configurator or the command interpreter to configure the firewall rules
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CHAPTER 33
Filter Configuration
This chapter shows you how to create and apply filters.
33.1 About Filtering
Your Prestige uses filters to decide whether or not to allow passage of a data packet and/or to
make a call. There are two types of filter applications: data filtering and call filtering. Filters
are subdivided into device and protocol filters, which are discussed later.
Data filtering screens data to determine if the packet should be allowed to pass. Data filters are
divided into incoming and outgoing filters, depending on the direction of the packet relative to
a port. Data filtering can be applied on either the WAN side or the Ethernet side. Call filtering
is used to determine if a packet should be allowed to trigger a call.
Outgoing packets must undergo data filtering before they encounter call filtering. Call filters
are divided into two groups, the built-in call filters and user-defined call filters. Your Prestige
has built-in call filters that prevent administrative, for example, RIP packets from triggering
calls. These filters are always enabled and not accessible to you. Your Prestige applies the
built-in filters first and then the user-defined call filters, if applicable, as shown next.
Figure 185 Outgoing Packet Filtering Process
C
all Filtering
O
utgoing
Packet
Data
Filtering
M
atch
Drop
packet
N
o
m
atch
Built-in
default
C
all Filters
N
o
m
atch
U
ser-defined
C
all Filters
(if applicable)
M
atch
D
roppacket
if linenot up
N
o
m
atch
ActiveData
Initiatecall
if linenot up
Sendpacket
andreset
IdleTim
er
M
atch
D
roppacket
if linenot up
O
r
O
r
Sendpacket
but donot reset
IdleTim
er
Sendpacket
but donot reset
IdleTim
er
Two sets of factory filter rules have been configured in menu 21 to prevent NetBIOS traffic
from triggering calls. A summary of their filter rules is shown in the figures that follow.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow when executing a filter rule.
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Figure 186 Filter Rule Process
Start
Packet
intoFilter
Fetch First
Filter Set
Filter Set
Fetch Next
Filter Set
Fetch First
Filter Rule
Fetch Next
Filter Rule
Yes
Yes
Next Filter Set
Available?
No
Next filter
Rule
Available?
No
Active?
Yes
Execute
Filter Rule
No
Check
Next
Rule
Forward
Drop
Drop Packet
Accept Packet
You can apply up to four filter sets to a particular port to block various types of packets.
Because each filter set can have up to six rules, you can have a maximum of 24 rules active for
a single port.
For incoming packets, your Prestige applies data filters only. Packets are processed depending
on whether a match is found. The following sections describe how to configure filter sets.
33.1.1 The Filter Structure of the Prestige
A filter set consists of one or more filter rules. Usually, you would group related rules, for
example, all the rules for NetBIOS, into a single set and give it a descriptive name. You can
configure up to twelve filter sets with six rules in each set, for a total of 72 filter rules in the
system.
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33.2 Configuring a Filter Set for the Prestige
To configure a filter set, follow the steps shown next.
1 Enter 21 in the main menu to display Menu 21 – Filter and Firewall Setup.
2 Enter 1 to display Menu 21.1 – Filter Set Configuration as shown next.
Figure 187 Menu 21 Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Set #
-----1
2
3
4
5
6
Menu 21.1 - Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Comments
Set #
Comments
---------------------- ----------------_______________
7
_______________
NetBIOS_WAN
8
_______________
NetBIOS_LAN
9
_______________
IGMP
10
_______________
_______________
11
_______________
_______________
12
_______________
Enter Filter Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Comments= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
3 Type the filter set to configure (no. 1 to 12) and press [ENTER].
4 Type a descriptive name or comment in the Edit Comments field and press [ENTER].
5 Press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to confirm…” to display Menu 21.1.1 –
Filter Rules Summary (that is, if you selected filter set 1 in menu 21.1).
Figure 188 NetBIOS_WAN Filter Rules Summary
# A
- - 1 Y
2 Y
3 Y
4 Y
5 Y
6 Y
Menu 21.1.2 - Filter Rules Summary
Type
Filter Rules
M m n
---- --------------------------------------------------------------- IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
N
N
N
N
N
N
D
D
D
D
D
D
N
N
N
N
N
F
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
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Figure 189 NetBIOS_LAN Filter Rules Summary
Menu 21.1.3 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- --------------------------------------------------------------- - 1 Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, SP=137, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=53
N D F
2 N
3 N
4 N
5 N
6 N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
Figure 190 IGMP Filter Rules Summary
Menu 21.1.4 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- --------------------------------------------------------------- - 1 Y Gen Off=0, Len=3, Mask=ffffff, Value=01005e
N D F
2 N
3 N
4 N
5 N
6 N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
33.3 Filter Rules Summary Menus
The following tables briefly describe the abbreviations used in menus 21.1.1 and 21.1.2.
Table 109 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu
334
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
The filter rule number: 1 to 6.
A
Active: “Y” means the rule is active. “N” means the rule is inactive.
Type
The type of filter rule: “GEN” for Generic, “IP” for TCP/IP.
Filter Rules
These parameters are displayed here.
M
More.
“Y” means there are more rules to check which form a rule chain with the present rule.
An action cannot be taken until the rule chain is complete.
“N” means there are no more rules to check. You can specify an action to be taken for
instance, forward the packet, drop the packet or check the next rule. For the latter, the
next rule is independent of the rule just checked.
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Table 109 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
m
Action Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N“ means to check the next rule.
n
Action Not Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N” means to check the next rule.
The protocol dependent filter rules abbreviation are listed as follows:
Table 110 Rule Abbreviations Used
FILTER TYPE
DESCRIPTION
IP
Pr
Protocol
SA
Source Address
SP
Source Port Number
DA
Destination Address
DP
Destination Port Number
GEN
Off
Offset
Len
Length
33.4 Configuring a Filter Rule
To configure a filter rule, type its number in Menu 21.1.x – Filter Rules Summary and press
[ENTER] to open menu 21.1.x.1 for the rule.
There are two types of filter rules: TCP/IP and Generic. Depending on the type of rule, the
parameters for each type will be different. Use [SPACE BAR] to select the type of rule that
you want to create in the Filter Type field and press [ENTER] to open the respective menu.
To speed up filtering, all rules in a filter set must be of the same class, for instance, protocol
filters or generic filters. The class of a filter set is determined by the first rule that you create.
When applying the filter sets to a port, separate menu fields are provided for protocol and
device filter sets. If you include a protocol filter set in a device filters field or vice versa, the
Prestige will warn you and will not allow you to save.
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33.4.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a TCP/IP filter rule. TCP/IP rules allow you to base
the rule on the fields in the IP and the upper layer protocol, for example, UDP and TCP
headers.
To configure TCP/IP rules, select TCP/IP Filter Rule from the Filter Type field and press
[ENTER] to open Menu 21.1.x.1 – TCP/IP Filter Rule, as shown next.
Figure 191 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
Menu 21.1.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= No
IP Protocol= 0
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr=
IP Mask=
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
Source: IP Addr=
IP Mask=
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes how to configure your TCP/IP filter rule.
Table 111 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Filter #
This is the filter set, filter rule coordinates, for instance, 2, 3 refers to the second filter
set and the third filter rule of that set.
Filter Type
Use [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to choose a rule. Parameters displayed for
each type will be different. Choices are TCP/IP Filter Rule or Generic Filter Rule.
Active
Select Yes to activate or No to deactivate the filter rule.
IP Protocol
This is the upper layer protocol, for example, TCP is 6, UDP is 17 and ICMP is 1.
The value must be between 0 and 255. A value of 0 matches ANY protocol.
IP Source Route
IP Source Route is an optional header that dictates the route an IP packet takes
from its source to its destination. If Yes, the rule applies to any packet with an IP
source route. The majority of IP packets do not have source route.
Destination:
336
IP Addr
Type the destination IP address of the packet you want to filter. This field is ignored
if it is 0.0.0.0.
IP Mask
Type the IP mask to apply to the Destination: IP Addr field.
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Table 111 Menu 21.1.x.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port #
Type the destination port of the packets you want to filter. The field range is 0 to
65535. A 0 field is ignored.
Port # Comp
Select the comparison to apply to the destination port in the packet against the value
given in Destination: Port #. Choices are None, Less, Greater, Equal or Not
Equal.
Source:
IP Addr
Type the source IP Address of the packet you want to filter. A 0.0.0.0 field is ignored.
IP Mask
Type the IP mask to apply to the Source: IP Addr field.
Port #
Type the source port of the packets you want to filter. The range of this field is 0 to
65535. A 0 field is ignored.
Port # Comp
Select the comparison to apply to the source port in the packet against the value
given in Source: Port # field. Choices are None, Less, Greater, Equal or Not
Equal.
TCP Estab
This applies only when the IP Protocol field is 6, TCP. If Yes, the rule matches
packets that want to establish TCP connection(s) (SYN=1 and ACK=0); else it is
ignored.
More
If Yes, a matching packet is passed to the next filter rule before an action is taken or
else the packet is disposed of according to the action fields.
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not Matched will be N/A.
Log
Select the logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Action Matched – Only packets that match the rule parameters will be logged.
Action Not Matched – Only packets that do not match the rule parameters will be
logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action Matched
Select the action for a matching packet. Choices are Check Next Rule, Forward or
Drop.
Action Not
Matched
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule. Choices are Check Next Rule,
Forward or Drop.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow of an IP filter.
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Figure 192 Executing an IP Filter
Packet
into IP Filter
Filter Active?
No
Yes
Apply SrcAddrMask
to Src Addr
Check Src
IP Addr
Not Matched
Matched
Apply DestAddrMask
to Dest Addr
Check Dest
IP Addr
Not Matched
Matched
Check
IP Protocol
Not Matched
Matched
Check Src &
Dest Port
Not Matched
Matched
More?
Yes
No
Action Matched
Drop
Action Not Matched
Check Next Rule
Check Next Rule
Drop
Forward
Forward
Drop Packet
Check Next Rule
Accept Packet
33.4.2 Generic Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a generic filter rule. The purpose of generic rules is
to allow you to filter non-IP packets. For IP, it is generally easier to use the IP rules directly.
For generic rules, the Prestige treats a packet as a byte stream as opposed to an IP packet. You
specify the portion of the packet to check with the Offset (from 0) and the Length fields, both
in bytes. The Prestige applies the Mask (bit-wise ANDing) to the data portion before
comparing the result against the Value to determine a match. The Mask and Value fields are
specified in hexadecimal numbers. Note that it takes two hexadecimal digits to represent a
byte, so if the length is 4, the value in either field will take 8 digits, for example, FFFFFFFF.
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To configure a generic rule select an empty filter set in menu 21, for example 5. Select
Generic Filter Rule in the Filter Type field and press [ENTER] to open Menu 21.1.5.1 –
Generic Filter Rule, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 193 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule
Menu 21.1.5.1 - Generic Filter Rule
Filter #: 5,1
Filter Type= Generic Filter Rule
Active= No
Offset= 0
Length= 0
Mask= N/A
Value= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The next table describes the fields in the Generic Filter Rule menu.
Table 112 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Filter #
This is the filter set, filter rule coordinates, for instance, 2, 3 refers to the second filter
set and the third rule of that set.
Filter Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select a type of rule. Parameters displayed
below each type will be different. Choices are Generic Filter Rule or TCP/IP Filter
Rule.
Active
Select Yes to turn on or No to turn off the filter rule.
Offset
Type the starting byte of the data portion in the packet that you want to compare. The
range for this field is from 0 to 255.
Length
Type the byte count of the data portion in the packet that you want to compare. The
range for this field is 0 to 8.
Mask
Type the mask (in Hexadecimal) to apply to the data portion before comparison.
Value
Type the value (in Hexadecimal) to compare with the data portion.
More
If Yes, a matching packet is passed to the next filter rule before an action is taken or
else the packet is disposed of according to the action fields.
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not Matched will be N/A.
Log
Select the logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Action Matched – Only matching packets and rules will be logged.
Action Not Matched – Only packets that do not match the rule parameters will be
logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action
Matched
Select the action for a matching packet. Choices are Check Next Rule, Forward or
Drop.
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Table 112 Menu 21.1.5.1 Generic Filter Rule (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Action Not
Matched
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule. Choices are Check Next Rule,
Forward or Drop.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
33.5 Filter Types and NAT
There are two classes of filter rules, Generic Filter Device rules and Protocol Filter (TCP/IP)
rules. Generic Filter rules act on the raw data from/to LAN and WAN. Protocol Filter rules act
on IP packets.
When NAT (Network Address Translation) is enabled, the inside IP address and port number
are replaced on a connection-by-connection basis, which makes it impossible to know the
exact address and port on the wire. Therefore, the Prestige applies the protocol filters to the
“native” IP address and port number before NAT for outgoing packets and after NAT for
incoming packets. On the other hand, the generic (or device) filters are applied to the raw
packets that appear on the wire. They are applied at the point where the Prestige is receiving
and sending the packets; for instance, the interface. The interface can be an Ethernet, or any
other hardware port. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 194 Protocol and Device Filter Sets
33.6 Example Filter
Let’s look at an example to block outside users from telnetting into the Prestige.
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Figure 195 Sample Telnet Filter
1 Enter 1 in the menu 21 to display Menu 21.1 — Filter Set Configuration.
2 Enter the index number of the filter set you want to configure (in this case 6).
3 Type a descriptive name or comment in the Edit Comments field (for example,
TELNET_WAN) and press [ENTER].
4 Press [ENTER] at the message “Press [ENTER] to confirm or [ESC] to
cancel ...” to open Menu 21.1.6 — Filter Rules Summary.
5 Type 1 to configure the first filter rule. Make the entries in this menu as shown next.
When you press [ENTER] to confirm, the following screen appears. Note that there is only
one filter rule in this set.
Figure 196 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter
Menu 21.1.6.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 6,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 23
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= Equal
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
After you have created the filter set, you must apply it.
1 Enter 11 in the main menu to display menu 11 and type the remote node number to edit.
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2 Go to the Edit Filter Sets field, press [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER].
This brings you to menu 11.5. Apply the example filter set (for example, filter set 3) in this
menu as shown in the next section.
This shows you that you have configured and activated (A = Y) a TCP/IP filter rule (Type =
IP, Pr = 6) for destination telnet ports (DP = 23).
M = N means an action can be taken immediately. The action is to drop the packet (m = D) if
the action is matched and to forward the packet immediately (n = F) if the action is not
matched no matter whether there are more rules to be checked (there aren’t in this example).
Figure 197 Menu 21.1.6.1 Sample Filter Rules Summary
Menu 21.1.6 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- --------------------------------------------------------------- - 1 Y IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=23
N D F
2 N
3 N
4 N
5 N
6 N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure: 1
33.7 Applying Filters and Factory Defaults
This section shows you where to apply the filter(s) after you design it (them). Sets of factory
default filter rules have been configured in menu 21 (but have not been applied) to filter
traffic.
Table 113 Filter Sets Table
342
FILTER SETS
DESCRIPTION
Input Filter Sets:
Apply filters for incoming traffic. You may apply protocol or device filter rules. See
earlier in this chapter for information on filters.
Output Filter Sets:
Apply filters for traffic leaving the Prestige. You may apply filter rules for protocol
or device filters. See earlier in this section for information on types of filters.
Call Filter Sets:
Apply filters to decide if a packet should be allowed to trigger a call.
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33.7.1 Ethernet Traffic
You seldom need to filter Ethernet traffic; however, the filter sets may be useful to block
certain packets, reduce traffic and prevent security breaches. Go to menu 3.1 (shown next) and
type the number(s) of the filter set(s) that you want to apply as appropriate. You can choose up
to four filter sets (from twelve) by typing their numbers separated by commas, for example, 3,
4, 6, 11. The factory default filter set, NetBIOS_LAN, is inserted in the protocol filters field
under Input Filter Sets in menu 3.1 in order to prevent local NetBIOS messages from
triggering calls to the DNS server.
Figure 198 Filtering Ethernet Traffic
Menu 3.1 – LAN Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 3
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
33.7.2 Remote Node Filters
Go to menu 11.5 (shown next) and type the number(s) of the filter set(s) as appropriate. You
can cascade up to four filter sets by typing their numbers separated by commas. The factory
default filter set, NetBIOS_WAN, is inserted in the protocol filters field under Call Filter Sets
in menu 11.5 to block local NetBIOS traffic from triggering calls to the ISP.
Figure 199 Filtering Remote Node Traffic
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 6
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 2
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
Protocol filters=
Device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Note that call filter sets are visible when you select PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation.
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CHAPTER 34
SNMP Configuration
This chapter explains SNMP Configuration menu 22.
34.1 About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol used for exchanging
management information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP
protocol suite. Your Prestige supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manager
station to manage and monitor the Prestige through the network. The Prestige supports SNMP
version one (SNMPv1) and version two c (SNMPv2c). The next figure illustrates an SNMP
management operation. SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
Figure 200 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the Prestige).
An agent translates the local management information from the managed device into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators
perform network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor
managed devices.
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The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include the number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection
of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
• Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
• GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list
within an agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table
from an agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
• Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
• Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
34.2 Supported MIBs
The Prestige supports RFC-1215 and MIB II as defined in RFC-1213 as well as ZyXEL
private MIBs. The focus of the MIBs is to let administrators collect statistic data and monitor
status and performance.
34.3 SNMP Configuration
To configure SNMP, select option 22 from the main menu to open Menu 22 — SNMP
Configuration as shown next. The “community” for Get, Set and Trap fields is SNMP
terminology for password.
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Figure 201 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
Menu 22 - SNMP Configuration
SNMP:
Get Community= public
Set Community= public
Trusted Host= 0.0.0.0
Trap:
Community= public
Destination= 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the SNMP configuration parameters.
Table 114 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
SNMP:
Get Community
Type the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext requests from the management station.
Set Community
Type the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from
the management station.
Trusted Host
If you enter a trusted host, your Prestige will only respond to SNMP messages
from this address. A blank (default) field means your Prestige will respond to all
SNMP messages it receives, regardless of source.
Trap:
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager.
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
34.4 SNMP Traps
The Prestige will send traps to the SNMP manager when any one of the following events
occurs:
Table 115 SNMP Traps
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
1
coldStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (power on).
2
warmStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (software reboot).
3
linkDown (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent with the port number when any of the
links are down. See the following table.
4
linkUp (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent with the port number.
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Table 115 SNMP Traps (continued)
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
5
authenticationFailure (defined in
RFC-1215)
A trap is sent to the manager when receiving any
SNMP gets or sets requirements with wrong
community (password).
6
whyReboot (defined in ZYXEL-MIB) A trap is sent with the reason of restart before
rebooting when the system is going to restart (warm
start).
6a
For intentional reboot :
A trap is sent with the message "System reboot by
user!" if reboot is done intentionally, (for example,
download new files, CI command "sys reboot", etc.).
The port number is its interface index under the interface group.
Table 116 Ports and Permanent Virtual Circuits
348
PORT
PVC (PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUIT)
1
Ethernet LAN
2
1
3
2
…
…
13
12
14
xDSL
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CHAPTER 35
System Security
This chapter describes how to configure the system security on the Prestige.
35.1 System Security
You can configure the system password..
35.1.1 System Password
Enter 23 in the main menu to display Menu 23 – System Security.
You should change the default password. If you forget your password you have to restore the
default configuration file. Refer to Section 22.4 on page 270 and Section 2.1.2 on page 58 for
information.
Figure 202 Menu 23 – System Security
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
Enter Menu Selection Number:
35.1.2 Configuring External RADIUS Server
From Menu 23- System Security, enter 2 to display Menu 23.2 - System Security-RADIAS
Server.
Figure 203 Menu 23 System Security
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
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Figure 204 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server
Menu 23.2 - System Security - RADIUS Server
Authentication Server:
Active= No
Server Address= 10.11.12.13
Port #= 1812
Shared Secret= ********
Accounting Server:
Active= No
Server Address= 10.11.12.13
Port #= 1813
Shared Secret= ********
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 117 Menu 23.2 System Security: RADIUS Server
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable user
authentication through an external authentication server.
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port
The default port of the RADIUS server for authentication is 1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external authentication server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external authentication server and Prestige.
Accounting Server
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable user
authentication through an external accounting server.
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
Port
The default port of the RADIUS server for accounting is 1813.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs
you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external accounting server and the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same on the
external accounting server and Prestige.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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35.1.3 IEEE802.1x
The IEEE802.1x standards outline enhanced security methods for both the authentication of
wireless stations and encryption key management.
Follow the steps below to enable EAP authentication on your Prestige.
1 From the main menu, enter 23 to display Menu23 – System Security.
Figure 205 Menu 23 System Security
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
Enter Menu Selection Number:
2 Enter 4 to display Menu 23.4 – System Security – IEEE802.1x.
Figure 206 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE802.1x
Menu 23.4 - System Security - IEEE802.1x
Wireless Port Control= No Authentication Required
ReAuthentication Timer (in second)= N/A
Idle Timeout (in second)= N/A
Key Management Protocol= N/A
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange= N/A
PSK= N/A
WPA Mixed Mode= N/A
Data Privacy for Broadcast/Multicast packets= N/A
WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update Timer= N/A
Authentication Databases= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
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Table 118 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE802.1x
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Port
Control
Press [SPACE BAR] and select a security mode for the wireless LAN access.
Select No Authentication Required to allow any wireless stations access to your
wired network without entering usernames and passwords. This is the default
setting.
Selecting Authentication Required means wireless stations have to enter
usernames and passwords before access to the wired network is allowed.
Select No Access Allowed to block all wireless stations access to the wired
network.
The following fields are not available when you select No Authentication Required
or No Access Allowed.
ReAuthentication Timer
(in second)
Specify how often a client has to re-enter username and password to stay
connected to the wired network.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 (in
seconds). The default time interval is 1800 seconds (or 30 minutes).
Idle Timeout (in
second)
The Prestige automatically disconnects a client from the wired network after a
period of inactivity. The client needs to enter the username and password again
before access to the wired network is allowed.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Key Management Press [SPACE BAR] to select 802.1x, WPA or WPA-PSK and press [ENTER].
Protocol
Dynamic WEP
Key Exchange
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field. Also set the Authentication Databases field to
RADIUS Only. Local user database may not be used.
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without using Dynamic WEP Key Exchange.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Up to 32 stations can access the Prestige when you configure Dynamic WEP Key
Exchange. This field is not available when you set Key Management Protocol to
WPA or WPA-PSK.
PSK
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols) when you select WPA-PSK in the Key Management
Protocol field.
WPA Mixed
Mode
Select Enable to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, select Disable and
configure Group Data Privacy field.
Data Privacy for This field allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for broadcast and
Broadcast/
multicast (“group”) traffic if the Key Management Protocol is WPA and WPA
Multicast packets Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have enabled WPA
Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK Key
Management Protocol is selected.
WPA Broadcast/
Multicast Key
Update Timer
352
The WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if
using WPA-PSK key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key
management) sends a new group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the
WPA equivalent of automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in
a WLAN on a periodic basis. Setting of the WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update
Timer is also supported in WPA-PSK mode. The Prestige default is 1800 seconds
(30 minutes).
Chapter 35 System Security
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Table 118 Menu 23.4 System Security: IEEE802.1x (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Databases
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local
user database is the built-in database on the Prestige. The RADIUS is an external
server. Use this field to decide which database the Prestige should use (first) to
authenticate a wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
When you configure Key Management Protocol to WPA, the Authentication
Databases must be RADIUS Only. You can only use the Local User Database
with 802.1x Key Management Protocol.
Select Local User Database Only to have the Prestige just check the built-in user
database on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the Prestige just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the Prestige first check the user database
on the Prestige for a wireless station's username and password. If the user name is
not found, the Prestige then checks the user database on the specified RADIUS
server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the Prestige first check the user database
on the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password. If
the Prestige cannot reach the RADIUS server, the Prestige then checks the local
user database on the Prestige. When the user name is not found or password does
not match in the RADIUS server, the Prestige will not check the local user database
and the authentication fails.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Once you enable user authentication, you need to specify an external RADIUS server or create
local user accounts on the Prestige for authentication.
35.2 Creating User Accounts on the Prestige
By storing user profiles locally, your Prestige is able to authenticate wireless users without
interacting with a network RADIUS server.
Follow the steps below to set up user profiles on your Prestige.
1 From the main menu, enter 14 to display Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup.
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Figure 207 Menu 14 Dial-in User Setup
Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
Enter Menu Selection Number:
2 Type a number and press [ENTER] to edit the user profile.
Figure 208 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User
Menu 14.1 - Edit Dial-in User
User Name= test
Active= Yes
Password= ********
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 119 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Enter a username up to 31 alphanumeric characters long for this user profile.
This field is case sensitive.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable the user profile.
Password
Enter a password up to 31 characters long for this user profile.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 36
System Information and
Diagnosis
This chapter covers the information and diagnostic tools in SMT menus 24.1 to 24.4.
36.1 Overview
These tools include updates on system status, port status, log and trace capabilities and
upgrades for the system software. This chapter describes how to use these tools in detail.
Type 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance, as shown in the
following figure.
Figure 209 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
36.2 System Status
The first selection, System Status gives you information on the status and statistics of the
ports, as shown next. System Status is a tool that can be used to monitor your Prestige.
Specifically, it gives you information on your DSL telephone line status, number of packets
sent and received.
To get to System Status, type 24 to go to Menu 24 — System Maintenance. From this menu,
type 1. System Status. There are two commands in Menu 24.1 — System Maintenance —
Status. Entering 1 resets the counters; [ESC] takes you back to the previous screen.
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The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 — System Maintenance —
Status which are read-only and meant for diagnostic purposes.
Figure 210 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status
Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status
Node-Lnk Status
TxPkts
RxPkts
Time
1-PPPoA N/A
0
0
2
N/A
0
0
3
N/A
0
0
4
N/A
0
0
5
N/A
0
0
6
N/A
0
0
7
N/A
0
0
My WAN IP (from ISP): 0.0.0.0
Ethernet:
Status:
Tx Pkts: 528
Collisions: 0
Rx Pkts: 505
CPU Load =
2.12%
Press Command:
COMMANDS: 1-Reset Counters
Errors
00:36:37
Sat. Jan. 01, 2000
Tx B/s Rx B/s
Up
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:00
WAN:
Line Status: Down
Upstream Speed:
0 kbps
Downstream Speed:
0 kbps
ESC-Exit
The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 — System Maintenance —
Status.
Table 120 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Node-Lnk
This is the node index number and link type. Link types are: PPP, ENET, 1483.
Status
This shows the status of the remote node.
TxPkts
The number of transmitted packets to this remote node.
RxPkts
The number of received packets from this remote node.
Errors
The number of error packets on this connection.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission rate in bytes per second.
Rx B/s
This shows the receiving rate in bytes per second.
Up Time
This is the time this channel has been connected to the current remote node.
My WAN IP
(from ISP)
This is the IP address of the ISP remote node.
Ethernet
This shows statistics for the LAN.
Status
This shows the current status of the LAN.
Tx Pkts
This is the number of transmitted packets to the LAN.
Rx Pkts
This is the number of received packets from the LAN.
Collision
This is the number of collisions.
WAN
356
This shows statistics for the WAN.
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Table 120 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status (continued)
FIELD
Line Status
DESCRIPTION
This shows the current status of the xDSL line, which can be Up or Down.
Upstream
Speed
This shows the upstream transfer rate in kbps.
Downstream
Speed
This shows the downstream transfer rate in kbps.
CPU Load
This specifies the percentage of CPU utilization.
36.3 System Information
To get to the System Information:
1 Enter 24 to display Menu 24 — System Maintenance.
2 Enter 2 to display Menu 24.2 — System Information and Console Port Speed.
From this menu you have two choices as shown in the next figure:
Figure 211 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2 - System Information and Console Port Speed
1. System Information
2. Console Port Speed
Please enter selection:
36.3.1 System Information
Enter 1 in menu 24.2 to display the screen shown next.
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Figure 212 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
Menu 24.2.1 - System Maintenance - Information
Name:
Routing: IP
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.40(MF.2) | 07/16/2004
ADSL Chipset Vendor: TI AR7 01.01.00.00
Standard: Multi-Mode
LAN
Ethernet Address: 00:a0:c5:78:de:8d
IP Address: 192.168.1.1
IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
DHCP: Server
Press ESC or RETURN to Exit:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 121 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Name
Displays the system name of your Prestige. This information can be changed in
Menu 1 – General Setup.
Routing
Refers to the routing protocol used.
ZyNOS F/W Version
Refers to the ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) system firmware
version. ZyNOS is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications
Corporation.
ADSL Chipset
Vendor
Displays the vendor of the ADSL chipset and DSL version.
Standard
This refers to the operational protocol the Prestige and the DSLAM (Digital
Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) are using.
LAN
Ethernet Address
Refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) of your Prestige.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the Prestige in dotted decimal notation.
IP Mask
This shows the subnet mask of the Prestige.
DHCP
This field shows the DHCP setting (None, Relay or Server) of the Prestige.
36.3.2 Console Port Speed
You can set up different port speeds for the console port through Menu 24.2.2 – System
Maintenance – Console Port Speed. Your Prestige supports 9600 (default), 19200, 38400,
57600 and 115200 bps. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the desired speed in
menu 24.2.2, as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 213 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance : Change Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2.2 – System Maintenance – Change Console Port Speed
Console Port Speed: 9600
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Once you change the Prestige console port speed, you must also set the speed parameter for
the communication software you are using to connect to the Prestige.
36.4 Log and Trace
There are two logging facilities in the Prestige. The first is the error logs and trace records that
are stored locally. The second is the syslog facility for message logging.
36.4.1 Viewing Error Log
The first place you should look for clues when something goes wrong is the error log. Follow
the procedures to view the local error/trace log:
1 Type 24 in the main menu to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From menu 24, type 3 to display Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and Trace.
Figure 214 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace
Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and Trace
1. View Error Log
2. UNIX Syslog
Please enter selection
3 Enter 1 from Menu 24.3 — System Maintenance — Log and Trace to display the error
log in the system.
After the Prestige finishes displaying the error log, you will have the option to clear it.
Samples of typical error and information messages are presented in the next figure.
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Figure 215 Sample Error and Information Messages
53 Sat Jan 01
54 Sat Jan 01
55 Sat Jan 01
56 Sat Jan 01
57 Sat Jan 01
58 Sat Jan 01
59 Sat Jan 01
60 Sat Jan 01
62 Sat Jan 01
63 Sat Jan 01
Clear Error Log
00:00:03
00:00:03
00:00:03
00:00:03
00:00:03
00:03:06
00:03:06
00:23:21
00:23:38
00:23:38
(y/n):
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
PP01 -WARN
PP01 INFO
PP01 INFO
PP20 INFO
PP21 INFO
PP19 INFO
PP01 INFO
PP01 INFO
PP19 INFO
PP01 INFO
SNMP TRAP 0: cold start
main: init completed
Starting Connectivity Monitor
adjtime task pause 1 day
monitoring WAN connectivity
SMT Password pass
SMT Session Begin
SMT Session End
SMT Password pass
SMT Session Begin
36.4.2 Syslog and Accounting
The Prestige uses the syslog facility to log the CDR (Call Detail Record) and system messages
to a syslog server. Syslog and accounting can be configured in Menu 24.3.2 — System
Maintenance — UNIX Syslog, as shown next.
Figure 216 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance: Syslog and Accounting
Menu 24.3.2 - System Maintenance - UNIX Syslog
UNIX Syslog:
Active= No
Syslog IP Address= ?
Log Facility= Local 1
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
You need to configure the UNIX syslog parameters described in the following table to activate
syslog then choose what you want to log.
Table 122 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : Syslog and Accounting
PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
UNIX Syslog:
Active
Use [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to turn syslog on or off.
Syslog IP Address
Type the IP address of your syslog server.
Log Facility
Use [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select one of seven different local
options. The log facility lets you log the message in different server files. Refer to
your UNIX manual.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
The following are examples of the four types of syslog messages sent by the Prestige:
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Figure 217 Syslog Example
1 - CDR
SdcmdSyslogSend ( SYSLOG_CDR, SYSLOG_INFO, String);
String = board xx line xx channel xx, call xx, str
board = the hardware board ID
line = the WAN ID in a board
Channel = channel ID within the WAN
call = the call reference number which starts from 1 and increments by 1 for each new
call
str = C01 Outgoing Call dev xx ch xx (dev:device No. ch:channel No.)
C01 Incoming Call xxxxBps xxxxx (L2TP, xxxxx = Remote Call ID)
C01 Incoming Call xxxx (= connected speed) xxxxx (= Remote Call ID)
L02 Tunnel Connected (L2TP)
C02 OutCall Connected xxxx (= connected speed) xxxxx (= Remote Call ID)
C02 CLID call refused
L02 Call Terminated
C02 Call Terminated
Jul 19 11:19:27
Call dev=2 ch=0
Jul 19 11:19:32
Connected 64000
Jul 19 11:20:06
Terminated
192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C01 Outgoing
40002
192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C02 OutCall
40002
192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 1, C02 Call
2 - Packet Triggered
SdcmdSyslogSend (SYSLOG_PKTTRI, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String);
String = Packet trigger: Protocol=xx Data=xxxxxxxxxx…..x
Protocol: (1:IP 2:IPX 3:IPXHC 4:BPDU 5:ATALK 6:IPNG)
Data: We will send forty-eight Hex characters to the server
Jul 19 11:28:39 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500003c100100001f010004c0a86614ca849a7b08004a5c020001006162636465666768696a6b6c
6d6e6f7071727374
Jul 19 11:28:56 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500002c1b0140001f06b50ec0a86614ca849a7b0427001700195b3e00000000600220008cd40000
020405b4
Jul 19 11:29:06 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=45000028240140001f06ac12c0a86614ca849a7b0427001700195b451d1430135004000077600000
3 - Filter Log
SdcmdSyslogSend (SYSLOG_FILLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String);
String = IP[Src=xx.xx.xx.xx Dst=xx.xx.xx.xx prot spo=xxxx dpo=xxxx] S04>R01mD
IP[…] is the packet header and S04>R01mD means filter set 4 (S) and rule 1 (R), match
(m), drop (D).
Src: Source Address
Dst: Destination Address
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Figure 217 Syslog Example (continued)
prot: Protocol (“TCP”, ”UDP”, ”ICMP”)
spo: Source port
dpo: Destination port
Jul 19 14:43:55 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: IP [Src=202.132.154.123 Dst=255.255.255.255 UDP
spo=0208 dpo=0208]} S03>R01mF
Jul 19 14:44:00 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: IP [Src=192.168.102.20 Dst=202.132.154.1 UDP
spo=05d4 dpo=0035]} S03>R01mF
Jul 19 14:44:04 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: IP [Src=192.168.102.20 Dst=202.132.154.1 UDP
spo=05d4 dpo=0035]} S03>R01mF
4 - PPP Log
SdcmdSyslogSend (SYSLOG_PPPLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String);
String = ppp:Proto Starting / ppp:Proto Opening / ppp:Proto Closing / ppp:Proto
Shutdown
Proto = LCP / ATCP / BACP / BCP / CBCP / CCP / CHAP/ PAP / IPCP / IPXCP
Jul 19 11:42:44 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: ppp:LCP Closing
Jul 19 11:42:49 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: ppp:IPCP Closing
Jul 19 11:42:54 192.168.102.2 ZYXEL: ppp:CCP Closing
36.5 Diagnostic
The diagnostic facility allows you to test the different aspects of your Prestige to determine if
it is working properly. Menu 24.4 allows you to choose among various types of diagnostic
tests to evaluate your system, as shown in the following figure.
Follow the procedure next to get to Diagnostic:
1 From the main menu, type 24 to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From this menu, type 4. Diagnostic to open Menu 24.4 – System Maintenance –
Diagnostic.
Figure 218 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic
Menu 24.4 - System Maintenance - Diagnostic
xDSL
1.
Reset xDSL
System
21. Reboot System
22. Command Mode
TCP/IP
12. Ping Host
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Host IP Address= N/A
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The following table describes the diagnostic tests available in menu 24.4 for and the
connections.
Table 123 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Reset xDSL
Re-initialize the xDSL link to the telephone company.
Ping Host
Ping the host to see if the links and TCP/IP protocol on both systems are working.
Reboot System
Reboot the Prestige.
Command Mode
Type the mode to test and diagnose your Prestige using specified commands.
Host IP Address
If you typed 12 to Ping Host, now type the address of the computer you want to
ping.
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CHAPTER 37
Firmware and Configuration File
Maintenance
This chapter tells you how to backup and restore your configuration file as well as upload new
firmware and configuration files.
37.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (often called the romfile or rom-0) contains the factory default settings
in the menus such as password, DHCP Setup, TCP/IP Setup, etc. It arrives from ZyXEL with a
“rom” filename extension. Once you have customized the Prestige's settings, they can be
saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the
system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension. With many FTP and TFTP clients, the
filenames are similar to those seen next.
Only use firmware for your Prestige’s specific model. Refer to the label on the bottom of your
Prestige.
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file " firmware.bin" to the
Prestige.
ftp> get rom-0 config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to the computer file
“config.cfg”.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the
source, you will need to rename them as the Prestige only recognizes “rom-0” and “ras”. Be
sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for later use.
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The following table is a summary. Please note that the internal filename refers to the filename
on the Prestige and the external filename refers to the filename not on the Prestige, that is, on
your computer, local network or FTP site and so the name (but not the extension) may vary.
After uploading new firmware, see the ZyNOS F/W Version field in Menu 24.2.1 – System
Maintenance – Information to confirm that you have uploaded the correct firmware version.
The AT command is the command you enter after you press “y” when prompted in the SMT
menu to go into debug mode.
Table 124 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL NAME EXTERNAL NAME
DESCRIPTION
Configuration Rom-0
File
This is the configuration filename on the
Prestige. Uploading the rom-0 file replaces the
entire ROM file system, including your Prestige
configurations, system-related data (including
the default password), the error log and the
trace log.
*.rom
Firmware
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS
firmware on the Prestige.
*.bin
Ras
37.2 Backup Configuration
Option 5 from Menu 24 – System Maintenance allows you to backup the current Prestige
configuration to your computer. Backup is highly recommended once your Prestige is
functioning properly. FTP is the preferred methods for backing up your current configuration
to your computer since they are faster. Any serial communications program should work fine;
however, you must use Xmodem protocol to perform the download/upload and you don’t have
to rename the files.
Please note that terms “download” and “upload” are relative to the computer. Download
means to transfer from the Prestige to the computer, while upload means from your computer
to the Prestige.
37.2.1 Backup Configuration
Follow the instructions as shown in the next screen.
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Figure 219 Telnet in Menu 24.5
Menu 24.5 - System Maintenance - Backup Configuration
To transfer the configuration file to your workstation, follow the procedure
below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your Prestige. Then type "root" and SMT
password as requested.
3. Locate the 'rom-0' file.
4. Type 'get rom-0' to back up the current Prestige configuration to
your workstation.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must remain
in this menu to back up using TFTP), please see your Prestige manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
37.2.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your Prestige.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use “get” to transfer files from the Prestige to the computer, for example, “get rom-0
config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the Prestige to your computer and
renames it “config.rom”. See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename
conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
37.2.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line
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Figure 220 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-0 zyxel.rom
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
37.2.4 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP
clients.
Table 125 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the
server for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP
or service administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Initial Remote Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
37.2.5 TFTP and FTP over WAN Management Limitations
TFTP, FTP and Telnet over WAN will not work when:
• You have disabled Telnet service in menu 24.11.
• You have applied a filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) to block Telnet
service.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP field in menu 24.11 does not match the client IP.
If it does not match, the Prestige will disconnect the Telnet session immediately.
• You have an SMT console session running.
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37.2.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP
The Prestige supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration file using
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as
well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To backup the
configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the Prestige and log in. Because TFTP does
not have any security checks, the Prestige records the IP address of the telnet client and
accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will
not be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT
timeout (default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the Prestige. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the Prestige and the
computer. The file name for the configuration file is “rom-0” (rom-zero, not capital o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the
TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the
Prestige to the computer and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
37.2.7 TFTP Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host get rom-0 config.rom
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the Prestige IP address, “get” transfers the file source on the Prestige (rom-0,
name of the configuration file on the Prestige) to the file destination on the computer and
renames it config.rom.
37.2.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients
The following table describes some of the fields that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients.
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Table 126 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host
Enter the IP address of the Prestige. 192.168.1.1 is the Prestige’s default IP address
when shipped.
Send/Fetch
Use “Send” to upload the file to the Prestige and “Fetch” to back up the file on your
computer.
Local File
Enter the path and name of the firmware file (*.bin extension) or configuration file (*.rom
extension) on your computer.
Remote File This is the filename on the Prestige. The filename for the firmware is “ras” and for the
configuration file, is “rom-0”.
Binary
Transfer the file in binary mode.
Abort
Stop transfer of the file.
Refer to Section 37.2.5 on page 368 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
37.2.9 Backup Via Console Port
Back up configuration via console port by following the HyperTerminal procedure shown
next. Procedures using other serial communications programs should be similar.
1 Display menu 24.5 and enter “y” at the following screen.
Figure 221 System Maintenance: Backup Configuration
Ready to backup Configuration via Xmodem.
Do you want to continue (y/n):
2 The following screen indicates that the Xmodem download has started.
Figure 222 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen
You can enter ctrl-x to terminate operation any
time.
Starting XMODEM download...
3 Run the HyperTerminal program by clicking Transfer, then Receive File as shown in the
following screen.
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Figure 223 Backup Configuration Example
Type a location for storing the configuration file or click Browse to look for one.
Choose the Xmodem protocol.
Then click Receive.
4 After a successful backup you will see the following screen. Press any key to return to the
SMT menu.
Figure 224 Successful Backup Confirmation Screen
** Backup Configuration completed. OK.
### Hit any key to continue.###
37.3 Restore Configuration
This section shows you how to restore a previously saved configuration. Note that this
function erases the current configuration before restoring a previous back up configuration;
please do not attempt to restore unless you have a backup configuration file stored on disk.
FTP is the preferred method for restoring your current computer configuration to your Prestige
since FTP is faster. Please note that you must wait for the system to automatically restart after
the file transfer is complete.
Note: Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may PERMANENTLY
DAMAGE YOUR Prestige.
37.3.1 Restore Using FTP
For details about backup using (T)FTP please refer to earlier sections on FTP and TFTP file
upload in this chapter.
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Figure 225 Telnet into Menu 24.6
Menu 24.6 -- System Maintenance - Restore Configuration
To transfer the firmware and configuration file to your workstation, follow
the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your Prestige. Then type "root" and SMT
password as requested.
3. Type "put backupfilename rom-0" where backupfilename is the name of
your backup configuration file on your workstation and rom-0 is the
remote file name on the Prestige. This restores the configuration
to
your Prestige.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful file transfer
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must remain
in this menu to back up using TFTP), please see your Prestige manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your Prestige.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Find the “rom” file (on your computer) that you want to restore to your Prestige.
7 Use “put” to transfer files from the Prestige to the computer, for example, “put
config.rom rom-0” transfers the configuration file “config.rom” on your computer
to the Prestige. See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
8 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt. The Prestige will automatically restart after a
successful restore process.
37.3.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example
Figure 226 Restore Using FTP Session Example
ftp> put config.rom rom-0
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR rom-0
226 File received OK
221 Goodbye for writing flash
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 0.06Seconds 273.07Kbytes/sec.
ftp>quit
Refer to Section 37.2.5 on page 368 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
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37.3.3 Restore Via Console Port
Restore configuration via console port by following the HyperTerminal procedure shown next.
Procedures using other serial communications programs should be similar.
1 Display menu 24.6 and enter “y” at the following screen.
Figure 227 System Maintenance: Restore Configuration
Ready to restore Configuration via Xmodem.
Do you want to continue (y/n):
2 The following screen indicates that the Xmodem download has started.
Figure 228 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen
Starting XMODEM download (CRC mode) ...CCCCCCCCC
3 Run the HyperTerminal program by clicking Transfer, then Send File as shown in the
following screen.
Figure 229 Restore Configuration Example
Type the configuration file’s location, or click Browse to search for it.
Choose the Xmodem protocol.
Then click Send.
4 After a successful restoration you will see the following screen. Press any key to restart
the Prestige and return to the SMT menu.
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Figure 230 Successful Restoration Confirmation Screen
Save to ROM
Hit any key to start system reboot.
37.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files
This section shows you how to upload firmware and configuration files. You can upload
configuration files by following the procedure in Section 37.2 on page 366 or by following the
instructions in Menu 24.7.2 – System Maintenance – Upload System Configuration File.
Note: Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may PERMANENTLY
DAMAGE YOUR Prestige.
37.4.1 Firmware File Upload
FTP is the preferred method for uploading the firmware and configuration. To use this feature,
your computer must have an FTP client.
When you telnet into the Prestige, you will see the following screens for uploading firmware
and the configuration file using FTP.
Figure 231 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.1 Upload System Firmware
Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload the system firmware, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put firmware filename ras" where "firmwarefilename" is the name
of your firmware upgrade file on your workstation and "ras" is the
remote file name on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful firmware upload.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP (note
that you must remain on this menu to upload system firmware using TFTP),
please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
37.4.2 Configuration File Upload
You see the following screen when you telnet into menu 24.7.2.
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Figure 232 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
To upload the system configuration file, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put configuration filename rom-0" where "configurationfilename"
is the name of your system configuration file on your workstation, which
will be transferred to the "rom-0" file on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after the upload system configuration
file process is complete.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP (note
that you must remain on this menu to upload system firmware using TFTP),
please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
To upload the firmware and the configuration file, follow these examples
37.4.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your Prestige.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use “put” to transfer files from the computer to the Prestige, for example, “put
firmware.bin ras” transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the
Prestige and renames it “ras”. Similarly, “put config.rom rom-0” transfers the
configuration file on your computer (config.rom) to the Prestige and renames it “rom-0”.
Likewise “get rom-0 config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the Prestige to
your computer and renames it “config.rom.” See earlier in this chapter for more
information on filename conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
The Prestige automatically restarts after a successful file upload.
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37.4.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
Figure 233 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 1103936 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
More commands (found in GUI-based FTP clients) are listed earlier in this chapter.
Refer to Section 37.2.5 on page 368 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP
over WAN.
37.4.5 TFTP File Upload
The Prestige also supports the uploading of firmware files using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer
Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To transfer the firmware
and the configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the Prestige and log in. Because TFTP does
not have any security checks, the Prestige records the IP address of the telnet client and
accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter the command “sys stdio 0” to disable the console timeout, so the TFTP transfer
will not be interrupted. Enter “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute console timeout
(default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the Prestige. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the Prestige and the
computer. The file name for the firmware is “ras”.
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the Prestige in CI mode before and during
the TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the
Prestige to the computer, “put” the other way around, and “binary” to set binary transfer
mode.
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37.4.6 TFTP Upload Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host put firmware.bin ras
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the Prestige’s IP address and “put” transfers the file source on the computer
(firmware.bin – name of the firmware on the computer) to the file destination on the
remote host (ras - name of the firmware on the Prestige).
Commands that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
37.4.7 Uploading Via Console Port
FTP or TFTP are the preferred methods for uploading firmware to your Prestige. However, in
the event of your network being down, uploading files is only possible with a direct
connection to your Prestige via the console port. Uploading files via the console port under
normal conditions is not recommended since FTP or TFTP is faster. Any serial
communications program should work fine; however, you must use the Xmodem protocol to
perform the download/upload.
37.4.8 Uploading Firmware File Via Console Port
1 Select 1 from Menu 24.7 – System Maintenance – Upload Firmware to display Menu
24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware, and then follow the instructions
as shown in the following screen.
Figure 234 Menu 24.7.1 As Seen Using the Console Port
Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload system firmware:
1. Enter "y" at the prompt below to go into debug mode.
2. Enter "atur" after "Enter Debug Mode" message.
3. Wait for "Starting XMODEM upload" message before activating
Xmodem upload on your terminal.
4. After successful firmware upload, enter "atgo" to restart
the router.
Warning: Proceeding with the upload will erase the current
system
firmware.
Do You Wish To Proceed:(Y/N)
2 After the "Starting Xmodem upload" message appears, activate the Xmodem protocol on
your computer. Follow the procedure as shown previously for the HyperTerminal
program. The procedure for other serial communications programs should be similar.
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37.4.9 Example Xmodem Firmware Upload Using HyperTerminal
Click Transfer, then Send File to display the following screen.
Figure 235 Example Xmodem Upload
After the firmware upload process has completed, the Prestige will automatically restart.
37.4.10 Uploading Configuration File Via Console Port
1 Select 2 from Menu 24.7 – System Maintenance – Upload Firmware to display Menu
24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File. Follow the
instructions as shown in the next screen.
Figure 236 Menu 24.7.2 As Seen Using the Console Port
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration
File
To
1.
2.
3.
upload system configuration file:
Enter "y" at the prompt below to go into debug mode.
Enter "atlc" after "Enter Debug Mode" message.
Wait for "Starting XMODEM upload" message before activating
Xmodem upload on your terminal.
4. After successful firmware upload, enter "atgo" to restart
the system.
Warning:
1. Proceeding with the upload will erase the current
configuration file.
2. The system's console port speed (Menu 24.2.2) may change
when it is restarted; please adjust your terminal's speed
accordingly. The password may change (menu 23), also.
3. When uploading the DEFAULT configuration file, the console
port speed will be reset to 9600 bps and the password to
"1234".
Do You Wish To Proceed:(Y/N)
2 After the "Starting Xmodem upload" message appears, activate the Xmodem protocol on
your computer. Follow the procedure as shown previously for the HyperTerminal
program. The procedure for other serial communications programs should be similar.
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3 Enter “atgo” to restart the Prestige.
37.4.11 Example Xmodem Configuration Upload Using HyperTerminal
Click Transfer, then Send File to display the following screen.
Figure 237 Example Xmodem Upload
After the configuration upload process has completed, restart the Prestige by entering “atgo”.
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CHAPTER 38
System Maintenance
This chapter leads you through SMT menus 24.8 to 24.10.
38.1 Command Interpreter Mode
The Command Interpreter (CI) is a part of the main system firmware. The CI provides much of
the same functionality as the SMT, while adding some low-level setup and diagnostic
functions. Enter the CI from the SMT by selecting menu 24.8. See the included disk or the
zyxel.com web site for more detailed information on CI commands. Enter 8 from Menu 24 —
System Maintenance. A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the
command prompt. Type “exit” to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
Figure 238 Command Mode in Menu 24
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 239 Valid Commands
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2005 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ras> ?
Valid commands are:
sys
exit
wan
poe
ip
ipsec
hdap
lan
dsp
voice
Chapter 38 System Maintenance
device
config
ppp
radius
ether
wlan
bridge
8021x
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38.2 Call Control Support
Call Control Support is only applicable when Encapsulation is set to PPPoE in menu 4 or
menu 11.1.
The budget management function allows you to set a limit on the total outgoing call time of
the Prestige within certain times. When the total outgoing call time exceeds the limit, the
current call will be dropped and any future outgoing calls will be blocked.
To access the call control menu, select option 9 in menu 24 to go to Menu 24.9 — System
Maintenance — Call Control, as shown in the next table.
Figure 240 Menu 24.9 System Maintenance: Call Control
Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control
1. Budget Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
38.2.1 Budget Management
Menu 24.9.1 shows the budget management statistics for outgoing calls. Enter 1 from Menu
24.9 — System Maintenance — Call Control to bring up the following menu.
Figure 241 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management
Menu 24.9.1 - System Maintenance - Budget Management
Remote Node
1.MyIsp
2.-------3.-------4.-------5.-------6.-------7.-------8.--------
Connection Time/Total Budget
No Budget
---------------
Elapsed Time/Total Period
No Budget
---------------
Reset Node (0 to update screen):
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The total budget is the time limit on the accumulated time for outgoing calls to a remote node.
When this limit is reached, the call will be dropped and further outgoing calls to that remote
node will be blocked. After each period, the total budget is reset. The default for the total
budget is 0 minutes and the period is 0 hours, meaning no budget control. You can reset the
accumulated connection time in this menu by entering the index of a remote node. Enter 0 to
update the screen. The budget and the reset period can be configured in menu 11.1 for the
remote node when PPPoE encapsulation is selected.
Table 127 Menu 24.9.1 System Maintenance: Budget Management
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Remote Node
Enter the index number of the remote node you want to reset (just one in
this case)
Connection Time/Total
Budget
This is the total connection time that has gone by (within the allocated
budget that you set in menu 11.1.
Elapsed Time/Total Period
The period is the time cycle in hours that the allocation budget is reset
(see menu 11.1.) The elapsed time is the time used up within this period.
Enter “0” to update the screen or press [ESC] to return to the previous screen.
38.3 Time and Date Setting
The Prestige keeps track of the time and date. There is also a software mechanism to set the
time manually or get the current time and date from an external server when you turn on your
Prestige. Menu 24.10 allows you to update the time and date settings of your Prestige. The real
time is then displayed in the Prestige error logs and firewall logs.
Select menu 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 System Maintenance, as shown next.
Figure 242 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Then enter 10 to go to Menu 24.10 System Maintenance Time and Date Setting to update
the time and date settings of your Prestige as shown in the following screen.
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Figure 243 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
Menu 24.10 - System Maintenance - Time and Date Setting
Use Time Server when Bootup= None
Time Server Address= N/A
Current Time:
00 : 51 : 24
New Time (hh:mm:ss):
00 : 51 : 19
Current Date:
2000 - 01 - 01
New Date (yyyy-mm-dd):
2000 - 01 - 01
Time Zone= GMT
Daylight Saving= No
Start Date (mm-dd):
01 - 00
End Date (mm-dd):
01 - 00
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Table 128
Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Use Time Server
when Bootup
Enter the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on
the Prestige. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to
check with your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a
protocol that works. The main differences between them are the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None. The default, enter the time manually.
Time Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your time server. Check with your ISP/
network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Current Time
This field displays an updated time only when you reenter this menu.
New Time
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format.
Current Date
This field displays an updated date only when you re-enter this menu.
New Date
Enter the new date in year, month and day format.
Time Zone
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to set the time difference between your
time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
If you use daylight savings time, then choose Yes.
Start Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it starts on.
End Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it ends on
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
38.3.1 Resetting the Time
• The Prestige resets the time in three instances:
• On leaving menu 24.10 after making changes.
• When the Prestige starts up, if there is a timeserver configured in menu 24.10.
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• 24-hour intervals after starting.
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CHAPTER 39
Remote Management
This chapter covers remote management (SMT menu 24.11).
39.1 Remote Management Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
Prestige interface (if any) from which computers.
When you configure remote management to allow management from the WAN, you still need
to configure a firewall rule to allow access. See the firewall chapters for details on configuring
firewall rules.
39.2 Remote Management
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server
Access field.
Enter 11 from menu 24 to display Menu 24.11 — Remote Management Control.
39.2.1 Remote Management Setup
You may manage your Prestige from a remote location via:
the Internet (WAN only), the LAN only, All (LAN and WAN) or Disable (neither).
•
•
•
•
WAN only (Internet)
ALL (LAN and WAN)
LAN only
Disable (Neither)
If you enable remote management of a service, but have applied a filter to block the service,
then you will not be able to remotely manage the Prestige using the service.
Enter 11, from menu 24, to display Menu 24.11 — Remote Management Control (shown
next).
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Figure 244 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control
TELNET Server:
Server Port = 23
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
FTP Server:
Server Port = 21
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Web Server:
Server Port = 80
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Server Access = LAN only
Server Access = LAN only
Server Access = LAN only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 129 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Telnet Server
FTP Server
Web Server
Each of these read-only labels denotes a service or protocol.
Port
This field shows the port number for the service or protocol. You may change the
port number if needed, but you must use the same port number to access the
Prestige.
Access
Select the access interface (if any) by pressing the [SPACE BAR]. Choices are:
LAN only, WAN only, All or Disable. The default is LAN only.
Secured Client IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service or protocol to access the
Prestige. Enter an IP address to restrict access to a client with a matching IP
address.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
39.2.2 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
• A filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet, FTP or
Web service.
• You have disabled that service in menu 24.11.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP field (menu 24.11) does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the Prestige will disconnect the session immediately.
• There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
• There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
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39.3 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the Prestige’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the Prestige’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
39.4 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The Prestige automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer
than this timeout period. The management session does not time out when it is continuously
updating the status in menu 24.1 or when sys stdio has been changed on the command
line.
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CHAPTER 40
IP Policy Routing
This chapter covers setting and applying policies used for IP routing.
40.1 IP Policy Routing Overview
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the IAD takes the shortest
path to forward a packet. IP Routing Policy (IPPR) provides a mechanism to override the
default routing behavior and alter the packet forwarding based on the policy defined by the
network administrator. Policy-based routing is applied to incoming packets on a per interface
basis, prior to the normal routing.
40.2 Benefits of IP Policy Routing
Source-Based Routing – Network administrators can use policy-based routing to direct traffic
from different users through different connections.
Quality of Service (QoS) – Organizations can differentiate traffic by setting the precedence or
TOS (Type of Service) values in the IP header at the periphery of the network to enable the
backbone to prioritize traffic.
Cost Savings – IPPR allows organizations to distribute interactive traffic on high-bandwidth,
high-cost paths while using low-cost paths for batch traffic.
Load Sharing – Network administrators can use IPPR to distribute traffic among multiple
paths.
40.3 Routing Policy
Individual routing policies are used as part of the overall IPPR process. A policy defines the
matching criteria and the action to take when a packet meets the criteria. The action is taken
only when all the criteria are met. The criteria includes the source address and port, IP protocol
(ICMP, UDP, TCP, etc.), destination address and port, TOS and precedence (fields in the IP
header) and length. The inclusion of length criterion is to differentiate between interactive and
bulk traffic. Interactive applications, for example, telnet, tend to have short packets, while bulk
traffic, for example, file transfer, tends to have large packets.
The actions that can be taken include:
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• routing the packet to a different gateway (and hence the outgoing interface).
• setting the TOS and precedence fields in the IP header.
IPPR follows the existing packet filtering facility of RAS in style and in implementation. The
policies are divided into sets, where related policies are grouped together. A user defines the
policies before applying them to an interface or a remote node, in the same fashion as the
filters. There are 12 policy sets with six policies in each set.
40.4 IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25 shows all the policies defined.
Figure 245 Menu 25 IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25 - IP Routing Policy Setup
Policy
Set #
-----1
2
3
4
5
6
Name
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Policy
Set #
-----7
8
9
10
11
12
Name
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Enter Policy Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Name= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
To setup a routing policy, perform the following procedures:
1 Type 25 in the main menu to open Menu 25 – IP Routing Policy Setup.
2 Type the index of the policy set you want to configure to open Menu 25.1 – IP Routing
Policy Setup.
Menu 25.1 shows the summary of a policy set, including the criteria and the action of a single
policy, and whether a policy is active or not. Each policy contains two lines. The former part is
the criteria of the incoming packet and the latter is the action. Between these two parts,
separator “|” means the action is taken on criteria matched and separator “=” means the action
is taken on criteria not matched.
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Figure 246 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup
Menu 25.1 - IP Routing Policy Setup
# A
Criteria/Action
- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------1 Y SA=1.1.1.1-1.1.1.1,DA=2.2.2.2-2.2.2.5
SP=20-25,DP=20-25,P=6,T=NM,PR=0
|GW=192.168.1.1,T=MT,PR=0
2 N __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
3 N __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
4 N __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
5 N __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
6 N __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Enter Policy Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
Table 130 Menu 25.1 IP Routing Policy Setup
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
Criterion
Source IP Address
SA
SP
Source Port
DA
Destination IP Address
DP
Destination Port
P
IP layer 4 protocol number (TCP=6, UDP=17…)
T
Type of service of incoming packet
PR
Precedence of incoming packet
Action
GW
Gateway IP address
T
Outgoing Type of service
P
Outgoing Precedence
Service
NM
Normal
MD
Minimum Delay
MT
Maximum Throughput
MR
Maximum Reliability
MC
Minimum Cost
Type a number from 1 to 6 to display Menu 25.1.1 – IP Routing Policy (see the next figure).
This menu allows you to configure a policy rule.
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Figure 247 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy
Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy
Policy Set Name= test
Active= No
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 0
Type of Service= Don't Care
Precedence
= Don't Care
Source:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= N/A
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= N/A
Action= Matched
Gateway addr
= 0.0.0.0
Type of Service= No Change
Precedence
= No Change
Packet length= 0
Len Comp= N/A
end= N/A
end= N/A
end= N/A
end= N/A
Log= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 131 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Policy Set Name
This is the policy set name assigned in Menu 25 – IP Routing Policy Setup.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to activate or No to
deactivate the policy. Inactive policies are displayed with a minus sign “-“ in SMT
menu 25.
Criteria
IP Protocol
IP layer 4 protocol, for example, UDP, TCP, ICMP, etc.
Type of Service
Prioritize incoming network traffic by choosing from Don’t Care, Normal, Min
Delay, Max Thruput, Min Cost or Max Reliable.
Precedence
Precedence value of the incoming packet. Press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] to select a value from 0 to 7 or Don’t Care.
Packet Length
Type the length of incoming packets (in bytes). The operators in the Len Comp
(next field) apply to packets of this length.
Len Comp
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to choose from Equal, Not Equal,
Less, Greater, Less or Equal or Greater or Equal.
Source:
addr start / end
Source IP address range from start to end.
port start / end
Source port number range from start to end; applicable only for TCP/UDP.
Destination:
394
addr start / end
Destination IP address range from start to end.
port start / end
Destination port number range from start to end; applicable only for TCP/UDP.
Action
Specifies whether action should be taken on criteria Matched or Not Matched.
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Table 131 Menu 25.1.1 IP Routing Policy (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Gateway addr
Defines the outgoing gateway address. The gateway must be on the same
subnet as the Prestige if it is on the LAN, otherwise, the gateway must be the IP
address of a remote node. The default gateway is specified as 0.0.0.0.
Type of Service
Set the new TOS value of the outgoing packet. Prioritize incoming network traffic
by choosing No Change, Normal, Min Delay, Max Thruput, Max Reliable or
Min Cost.
Precedence
Set the new outgoing packet precedence value. Values are 0 to 7 or No
Change.
Log
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to make an entry in the
system log when a policy is executed.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
40.5 Applying an IP Policy
This section shows you where to apply the IP policies after you design them.
40.5.1 Ethernet IP Policies
From Menu 3 — Ethernet Setup, type 2 to go to Menu 3.2 — TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet
Setup.
You can choose up to four IP policy sets (from 12) by typing their numbers separated by
commas, for example, 2, 4, 7, 9.
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Figure 248 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Go to menu 11.3 (shown next) and type the number(s) of the IP Routing Policy set(s) as
appropriate. You can cascade up to four policy sets by typing their numbers separated by
commas.
Figure 249 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Options:
IP Address Assignment= Static
Rem IP Addr: 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
NAT= Full Feature
Address Mapping Set= 2
Metric= 2
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= IGMP-v2
IP Policies=
Bridge Options:
Ethernet Addr Timeout (min)= 0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
40.6 IP Policy Routing Example
If a network has both Internet and remote node connections, you can route Web packets to the
Internet using one policy and route FTP packets to a remote network using another policy. See
the next figure.
Route 1 represents the default IP route and route 2 represents the configured IP route.
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Figure 250 Example of IP Policy Routing
To force packets coming from clients with IP addresses of 192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.64 to be
routed to the Internet via the WAN port of the Prestige, follow the steps as shown next.
1 Create a routing policy set in menu 25.
2 Create a rule for this set in Menu 25.1.1 — IP Routing Policy as shown next.
Figure 251 IP Routing Policy Example
Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy
Policy Set Name= set1
Active= Yes
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 6
Type of Service= Don't Care
Precedence
= Don't Care
Source:
addr start= 192.168.1.2
port start= 0
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= 80
Action= Matched
Gateway addr = 192.168.1.1
Type of Service= No Change
Precedence
= No Change
Packet length= 10
Len Comp= N/A
end=
end=
end=
end=
Log=
192.168.1.64
N/A
N/A
80
No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
1 Check Menu 25.1 — IP Routing Policy Setup to see if the rule is added correctly.
2 Create another policy set in menu 25.
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3 Create a rule in menu 25.1 for this set to route packets from any host (IP=0.0.0.0
means any host) with protocol TCP and port FTP access through another gateway
(192.168.1.100).
Figure 252 IP Routing Policy Example
Menu 25.1.1 - IP Routing Policy
Policy Set Name= set2
Active= Yes
Criteria:
IP Protocol
= 6
Type of Service= Don't Care
Precedence
= Don't Care
Source:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= 0
Destination:
addr start= 0.0.0.0
port start= 20
Action= Matched
Gateway addr =192.168.1.100
Type of Service= No Change
Precedence
= No Change
Packet length= 10
Len Comp= N/A
end=
end=
end=
end=
Log=
N/A
N/A
N/A
21
No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
4 Check Menu 25.1 — IP Routing Policy Setup to see if the rule is added correctly.
5 Apply both policy sets in menu 3.2 as shown next.
Figure 253 Applying IP Policies Example
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 64
Primary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Secondary DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies= 1,2
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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CHAPTER 41
Call Scheduling
Call scheduling (applicable for PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation only) allows you to dictate
when a remote node should be called and for how long.
41.1 Introduction
The call scheduling feature allows the Prestige to manage a remote node and dictate when a
remote node should be called and for how long. This feature is similar to the scheduler in a
videocassette recorder (you can specify a time period for the VCR to record). You can apply
up to 4 schedule sets in Menu 11.1 — Remote Node Profile. From the main menu, enter 26
to access Menu 26 — Schedule Setup as shown next.
Figure 254 Menu 26 Schedule Setup
Menu 26 - Schedule Setup
Schedule
Set #
Name
------ ----------------1
_______________
2
_______________
3
_______________
4
_______________
5
_______________
6
_______________
Schedule
Set #
Name
------ ----------------7
_______________
8
_______________
9
_______________
10
_______________
11
_______________
12
_______________
Enter Schedule Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Name= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Lower numbered sets take precedence over higher numbered sets thereby avoiding scheduling
conflicts. For example, if sets 1, 2 ,3 and 4 in are applied in the remote node then set 1 will
take precedence over set 2, 3 and 4 as the Prestige, by default, applies the lowest numbered set
first. Set 2 will take precedence over set 3 and 4, and so on.
You can design up to 12 schedule sets but you can only apply up to four schedule sets for a
remote node.
To delete a schedule set, enter the set number and press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER]
(or delete) in the Edit Name field.
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To setup a schedule set, select the schedule set you want to setup from menu 26 (1-12) and
press [ENTER] to see Menu 26.1 — Schedule Set Setup as shown next.
Figure 255
Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
Active= Yes
Start Date(yyyy-mm-dd)= 2000 - 01 - 01
How Often= Once
Once:
Date(yyyy-mm-dd)= 2000 - 01 - 01
Weekdays:
Sunday= N/A
Monday= N/A
Tuesday= N/A
Wednesday= N/A
Thursday= N/A
Friday= N/A
Saturday= N/A
Start Time(hh:mm)= 00 : 00
Duration(hh:mm)= 00 : 00
Action= Forced On
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
If a connection has been already established, your Prestige will not drop it. Once the
connection is dropped manually or it times out, then that remote node can't be triggered up
until the end of the Duration.
Table 132 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
400
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to activate
the schedule set.
Start Date
Enter the start date when you wish the set to take effect in year -month-date format.
Valid dates are from the present to 2036-February-5.
How Often
Should this schedule set recur weekly or be used just once only? Press the [SPACE
BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Once or Weekly. Both these options are mutually
exclusive. If Once is selected, then all weekday settings are N/A. When Once is
selected, the schedule rule deletes automatically after the scheduled time elapses.
Once:
Date
If you selected Once in the How Often field above, then enter the date the set should
activate here in year-month-date format.
Weekday:
Day
If you selected Weekly in the How Often field above, then select the day(s) when the
set should activate (and recur) by going to that day(s) and pressing [SPACE BAR] to
select Yes, then press [ENTER].
Start Time
Enter the start time when you wish the schedule set to take effect in hour-minute format.
Duration
Enter the maximum length of time this connection is allowed in hour-minute format.
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Table 132 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Action
Forced On means that the connection is maintained whether or not there is a demand
call on the line and will persist for the time period specified in the Duration field.
Forced Down means that the connection is blocked whether or not there is a demand
call on the line.
Enable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule permits a demand call on the line.
Disable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule prevents a demand call on the line.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Once your schedule sets are configured, you must then apply them to the desired remote
node(s). Enter 11 from the Main Menu and then enter the target remote node index. Using
[SPACE BAR], select PPPoE or PPPoA in the Encapsulation field and then press
[ENTER] to make the schedule sets field available as shown next.
Figure 256 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPPoE)
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= MyISP
Route= IP
Active= Yes
Bridge= No
Encapsulation= PPPoA
Edit IP/Bridge= No
Multiplexing= LLC-based
Edit ATM Options= No
Service Name= N/A
Edit Advance Options= N/A
Incoming:
Telco Option:
Rem Login=
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Rem Password= ********
Period(hr)= 0
Outgoing:
Schedule Sets=
My Login= ChangeMe
Nailed-Up Connection= No
My Password= ********
Session Options:
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
You can apply up to four schedule sets, separated by commas, for one remote node. Change
the schedule set numbers to your preference(s).
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CHAPTER 42
VPN/IPSec Setup
This chapter introduces the VPN SMT menus.
42.1 VPN/IPSec Overview
The VPN/IPSec main SMT menu has these main submenus:
Define VPN policies in menu 27.1 submenus, including security policies, endpoint IP
addresses, peer IPSec router IP address and key management.
Menu 27.2 - SA Monitor allows you to manage (refresh or disconnect) your SA connections.
This is an overview of the VPN menu tree.
Figure 257 VPN SMT Menu Tree
From the main menu, enter 27 to display the first VPN menu (shown next).
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Figure 258 Menu 27 VPN/IPSec Setup
Menu 27 - VPN/IPSec Setup
1. IPSec Summary
2. SA Monitor
Enter Menu Selection Number:
42.2 IPSec Summary Screen
Type 1 in menu 27 and then press [ENTER] to display Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary. This is a
summary read-only menu of your IPSec rules (tunnels). Edit or create an IPSec rule by
selecting an index number and then configuring the associated submenus.
Figure 259 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary
Menu 27.1 – IPSec Summary
#
Name
A
Key Mgt
Local Addr Start
- Addr End / Mask
Remote Addr Start
- Addr End / Mask
Encap
IPSec Algorithm
Secure GW Addr
-
------
-
-----------------
---------------
------
------------------
001
Taiwan
Y
192.168.1.35
192.168.1.38
Tunnel
ESP AES MD5
172.16.2.40
172.16.2.46
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1
4.4.4.4
255.255.0.0
192.168.1.40
192.168.1.42
N/A
N/A
IKE
002
zw50
N
IKE
003
China
N
IKE
193.81.13.2
Tunnel
AH SHA1
zw50test.zyxel.
Tunnel
ESP DES MD5
0.0.0.0
004
005
Select Command= None
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Table 133 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary
404
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the VPN policy index number.
Name
This field displays the unique identification name for this VPN rule. The name may be up
to 32 characters long but only 10 characters will be displayed here.
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Table 133 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
A
Y signifies that this VPN rule is active.
Local Addr
Start
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is a
static IP address on the LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your
Prestige.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a static IP address on the LAN behind your Prestige.
Addr End /
Mask
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is
the same (static) IP address as in the Local Addr Start field.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the end (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a subnet mask on the LAN behind your Prestige.
Encap
This field displays Tunnel mode or Transport mode. See earlier for a discussion of
these. You need to finish configuring the VPN policy in menu 27.1.1.1 or 27.1.1.2 if ???
is displayed.
IPSec
Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA. ESP provides confidentiality
and integrity of data by encrypting the data and encapsulating it into IP packets.
Encryption methods include 56-bit DES and 168-bit 3DES. NULL denotes a tunnel
without encryption.168-bit 3DES and 128-bit AES. NULL denotes a tunnel without
encryption.
AH (Authentication Header) provides strong integrity and authentication by adding
authentication information to IP packets. This authentication information is calculated
using header and payload data in the IP packet. This provides an additional level of
security. AH choices are MD5 (default - 128 bits) and SHA -1(160 bits).
Both AH and ESP increase the Prestige’s processing requirements and
communications latency (delay).
You need to finish configuring the VPN policy in menu 27.1.1.1 or 27.1.1.2 if ??? is
displayed.
Key Mgt
This field displays the SA’s type of key management, (IKE or Manual).
Remote Addr When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is a
Start
static IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the beginning (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the
remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a static IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in SMT
27.1.1 to 0.0.0.0.
Addr End /
Mask
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Single, this is
the same (static) IP address as in the Remote Addr Start field.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to Range, this is
the end (static) IP address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote
IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field in Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup is configured to SUBNET, this
is a subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in SMT
27.1.1 to 0.0.0.0.
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Table 133 Menu 27.1 IPSec Summary (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Secure GW
Addr
This is the WAN IP address or the domain name (up to the first 15 characters are
displayed) of the IPSec router with which you are making the VPN connection. This field
displays 0.0.0.0 when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field in SMT 27.1.1
to 0.0.0.0.
Select
Command
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from None, Edit, Delete, Go To Rule, Next Page or
Previous Page and then press [ENTER]. You must select a rule in the next field when
you choose the Edit, Delete or Go To commands.
Select None and then press [ENTER] to go to the “Press ENTER to Confirm…” prompt.
Use Edit to create or edit a rule. Use Delete to remove a rule. To edit or delete a rule,
first make sure you are on the correct page. When a VPN rule is deleted, subsequent
rules do not move up in the page list.
Use Go To Rule to view the page where your desired rule is listed.
Select Next Page or Previous Page to view the next or previous page of rules
(respectively).
Select Rule
Type the VPN rule index number you wish to edit or delete and then press [ENTER].
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
42.3 IPSec Setup
Select Edit in the Select Command field; type the index number of a rule in the Select Rule
field and press [ENTER] to edit the VPN using the menu shown next.
Note: You must also configure menu 27.1.1.1 or menu 27.1.1.2 to fully configure and
use a VPN.
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Figure 260 Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup
Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec Setup
Index= 1
Name= Taiwan
Active= Yes
Keep Alive= No
Local ID type= IP
Nat Traversal= No
Content:
My IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
Peer ID type= IP
Content:
Secure Gateway Address= zw50test.zyxel.com.tw
Protocol= 0
DNS Server= 0.0.0.0
Local:
Addr Type= SINGLE
IP Addr Start= 1.1.1.1
Port Start= 0
Remote:
End/Subnet Mask= N/A
End= N/A
Addr Type= SUBNET
IP Addr Start= 4.4.4.4
Port Start= 0
End/Subnet Mask= 255.255.0.0
End= N/A
Enable Replay Detection = No
Key Management= IKE
Edit Key Management Setup= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 134
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the VPN rule index number you selected in the previous menu.
Name
Enter a unique identification name for this VPN rule. The name may be up to 32
characters long but only 10 characters will be displayed in Menu 27.1 - IPSec
Summary.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose either Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to
activate the VPN tunnel. This field determines whether a VPN rule is applied before a
packet leaves the firewall.
Keep Alive
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose either Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to
have the Prestige automatically re-initiate the SA after the SA lifetime times out, even
if there is no traffic. The remote IPSec router must also have keep alive enabled in
order for this feature to work.
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Table 134
408
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Nat Traversal
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose either Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to
enable NAT traversal. NAT traversal allows you to set up a VPN connection when
there are NAT routers between the two IPSec routers.
The remote IPSec router must also have NAT traversal enabled. You can use NAT
traversal with ESP protocol using Transport or Tunnel mode, but not with AH
protocol nor with Manual key management.
In order for an IPSec router behind a NAT router to receive an initiating IPSec packet,
set the NAT router to forward UDP port 500 to the IPSec router behind the NAT
router.
Local ID type
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose IP, DNS, or E-mail and press [ENTER].
Select IP to identify this Prestige by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify this Prestige by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify this Prestige by an e-mail address.
Content
When you select IP in the Local ID Type field, type the IP address of your computer
or leave the field blank to have the Prestige automatically use its own IP address.
When you select DNS in the Local ID Type field, type a domain name (up to 31
characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
When you select E-mail in the Local ID Type field, type an e-mail address (up to 31
characters) by which to identify this Prestige.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address.
My IP Addr
Enter the IP address of your Prestige. The Prestige uses its current WAN IP address
(static or dynamic) in setting up the VPN tunnel if you leave this field as 0.0.0.0.
The VPN tunnel has to be rebuilt if this IP address changes.
Peer ID type
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose IP, DNS, or E-mail and press [ENTER].
Select IP to identify the remote IPSec router by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify the remote IPSec router by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify the remote IPSec router by an e-mail address.
Content
When you select IP in the Peer ID Type field, type the IP address of the computer
with which you will make the VPN connection or leave the field blank to have the
Prestige automatically use the address in the Secure Gateway Address field.
When you select DNS in the Peer ID Type field, type a domain name (up to 31
characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec router.
When you select E-mail in the Peer ID Type field, type an e-mail address (up to 31
characters) by which to identify the remote IPSec router.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Content field is used for
identification purposes only and does not need to be a real domain name or e-mail
address. The domain name also does not have to match the remote router’s IP
address or what you configure in the Secure Gateway Address field below.
Secure
Gateway
Address
Type the IP address or the domain name (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec router
with which you’re making the VPN connection.
Set this field to 0.0.0.0 if the remote IPSec router has a dynamic WAN IP address (the
Key Management field must be set to IKE, see later).
Protocol
Enter 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP, 17 for UDP, etc. 0 is the default and signifies any
protocol.
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Table 134
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
DNS Server
If there is a private DNS server that services the VPN, type its IP address here. The
Prestige assigns this additional DNS server to the Prestige's DHCP clients that have
IP addresses in this IPSec rule's range of local addresses.
A DNS server allows clients on the VPN to find other computers and servers on the
VPN by their (private) domain names.
Local
Local IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router’s
configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same. Two
active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You can
configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as long as
only one is active at any time.
Addr Type
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose SINGLE, RANGE, or SUBNET and press [ENTER].
Select SINGLE with a single IP address. Select RANGE for a specific range of IP
addresses. Select SUBNET to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet
mask.
IP Addr Start
When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, enter a static IP address on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on your LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type is configured to SUBNET, this is a (static) IP address on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
End/Subnet
Mask
When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static) IP address,
in a range of computers on the LAN behind your Prestige.
When the Addr Type field is configured to SUBNET, this is a subnet mask on the
LAN behind your Prestige.
Port Start
0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. You
cannot create a VPN tunnel if you try to connect using a port number that does not
match this port number or range of port numbers.
Some of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3
End
Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. This field is N/A when 0 is configured
in the Port Start field.
Remote
Remote IP addresses must be static and correspond to the remote IPSec router’s
configured local IP addresses. The remote fields are N/A when the Secure Gateway
Address field is configured to 0.0.0.0.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both the same. Two
active SAs can have the same local or remote IP address, but not both. You can
configure multiple SAs between the same local and remote IP addresses, as long as
only one is active at any time.
Addr Type
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose SINGLE, RANGE, or SUBNET and press [ENTER].
Select SINGLE with a single IP address. Use RANGE for a specific range of IP
addresses. Use SUBNET to specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
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Table 134
Menu 27.1.1 IPSec Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Addr Start
When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, enter a static IP address on the
network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the beginning (static) IP
address, in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field is configured to SUBNET, enter a static IP address on the
network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field to
0.0.0.0.
End/Subnet
Mask
When the Addr Type field is configured to Single, this field is N/A.
When the Addr Type field is configured to Range, enter the end (static) IP address,
in a range of computers on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
When the Addr Type field is configured to SUBNET, enter a subnet mask on the
network behind the remote IPSec router.
This field displays N/A when you configure the Secure Gateway Address field to
0.0.0.0.
Port Start
0 is the default and signifies any port. Type a port number from 0 to 65535. Someone
behind the remote IPSec router cannot create a VPN tunnel when attempting to
connect using a port number that does not match this port number or range of port
numbers.
Some of the most common IP ports are: 21, FTP; 53, DNS; 23, Telnet; 80, HTTP; 25,
SMTP; 110, POP3.
End
Enter a port number in this field to define a port range. This port number must be
greater than that specified in the previous field. This field is N/A when 0 is configured
in the Port Start field.
Enable Replay
Detection
As a VPN setup is processing intensive, the system is vulnerable to Denial of Service
(DoS) attacks The IPSec receiver can detect and reject old or duplicate packets to
protect against replay attacks. Enable replay detection by setting this field to Yes.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No. Choose Yes and press [ENTER] to enable
replay detection.
Key
Management
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose either IKE or Manual and then press [ENTER].
Manual is useful for troubleshooting if you have problems using IKE key
management.
Edit Key
Management
Setup
Press [SPACE BAR] to change the default No to Yes and then press [ENTER] to go
to a key management menu for configuring your key management setup (described
later). If you set the Key Management field to IKE, this will take you to Menu 27.1.1.1
– IKE Setup. If you set the Key Management field to Manual, this will take you to
Menu 27.1.1.2 – Manual Setup.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
42.4 IKE Setup
To edit this menu, the Key Management field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec Setup must be set to
IKE. Move the cursor to the Edit Key Management Setup field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec
Setup; press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to display Menu 27.1.1.1
– IKE Setup.
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Figure 261 Menu 27.1.1.1KE Setup
Menu 27.1.1.1 - IKE Setup
Phase 1
Negotiation Mode= Main
PSK=
Encryption Algorithm = AES
Authentication Algorithm = SHA1
SA Life Time (Seconds)= 28800
Key Group= DH1
Phase 2
Active Protocol = ESP
Encryption Algorithm = AES
Authentication Algorithm = MD5
SA Life Time (Seconds)= 28800
Encapsulation = Tunnel
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)= None
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 135 Menu 27.1.1.1 IKE Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Phase 1
Negotiation
Mode
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from Main or Aggressive and then press [ENTER].
See earlier for a discussion of these modes. Multiple SAs connecting through a
secure gateway must have the same negotiation mode.
PSK
Prestige gateways authenticate an IKE VPN session by matching pre-shared keys.
Pre-shared keys are best for small networks with fewer than ten nodes. Enter your
pre-shared key here. Enter up to 31 characters. Any character may be used, including
spaces, but trailing spaces are truncated.
Both ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will receive a
“PYLD_MALFORMED” (payload malformed) packet if the same pre-shared key is not
used on both ends.
Encryption
Algorithm
The Prestige and the remote IPSec router generate an encryption key from the DiffieHellman key exchange. Prestige DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES), is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a result, 3DES is
more secure than DES. It also requires more processing power, resulting in slightly
increased latency and decreased throughput.
This implementation of AES uses a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from DES, 3DES or AES and then press [ENTER].
Authentication
Algorithm
MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms
used to authenticate packet data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally considered
stronger than MD5, but is slightly slower.
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from SHA1 or MD5 and then press [ENTER].
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IKE Security Association automatically
renegotiates in this field. It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN gateways to update
the encryption and authentication keys. However, every time the VPN tunnel
renegotiates, all users accessing remote resources are temporarily disconnected.
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Table 135 Menu 27.1.1.1 IKE Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Key Group
You must choose a key group for phase 1 IKE setup. DH1 (default) refers to DiffieHellman Group 1 a 768 bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a
1024 bit (1Kb) random number.
Phase 2
Active Protocol
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from ESP or AH and then press [ENTER]. See earlier
for a discussion of these protocols.
Encryption
Algorithm
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from NULL, DES, 3DES or AES and then press
[ENTER]. Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption.
Authentication
Algorithm
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from SHA1 or MD5 and then press [ENTER].
SA Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IPSec Security Association automatically
renegotiates in this field. It may range from 60 to 3,000,000 seconds (almost 35 days).
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from Tunnel mode or Transport mode and then
press [ENTER]. See earlier for a discussion of these.
Perfect Forward Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is disabled (None) by default in phase 2 IPSec SA
Secrecy (PFS) setup. This allows faster IPSec setup, but is not so secure. Press [SPACE BAR] and
choose from DH1 or DH2 to enable PFS. DH1 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 1 a 768
bit random number. DH2 refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a 1024 bit (1Kb) random
number (more secure, yet slower).
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
42.5 Manual Setup
You only configure Menu 27.1.1.2 – Manual Setup when you select Manual in the Key
Management field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec Setup. Manual key management is useful if you
have problems with IKE key management.
42.5.1 Active Protocol
This field is a combination of mode and security protocols used for the VPN. See the Web
Configurator part on VPN for more information on these parameters.
Table 136 Active Protocol: Encapsulation and Security Protocol
MODE
SECURITY PROTOCOL
Tunnel
ESP
Transport
AH
42.5.2 Security Parameter Index (SPI)
To edit this menu, move the cursor to the Edit Manual Setup field in Menu 27.1.1 – IPSec
Setup press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to go to Menu 27.1.1.2 –
Manual Setup.
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Figure 262 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup
Menu 27.1.1.2 – Manual Setup
Active Protocol= ESP Tunnel
ESP Setup
SPI (Decimal)= 0
Encryption Algorithm= DES
Key1= ?
Key2= N/A
Key3= N/A
Authentication Algorithm= MD5
Key= ?
AH Setup
SPI (Decimal)= N/A
Authentication Algorithm= N/A
Key= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 137 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Protocol
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from ESP Tunnel, ESP Transport, AH Tunnel or AH
Transport and then press [ENTER]. Choosing an ESP combination causes the AH
Setup fields to be non-applicable (N/A)
ESP Setup
The ESP Setup fields are N/A if you chose an AH Active Protocol.
SPI (Decimal)
The SPI must be unique and from one to four integers ("0" to "9").
Encryption
Algorithm
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from NULL, DES, 3DES or AES and then press
[ENTER]. Fill in the Key1 field below when you choose DES and fill in fields Key1 to
Key3 when you choose 3DES. Select NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption.
When you select NULL, you do not enter any encryption keys.
Key1
Enter a unique eight-character key. Any character may be used, including spaces, but
trailing spaces are truncated.
Fill in the Key1 field when you choose DES and fill in fields Key1 to Key3 when you
choose 3DES.
Key2
Enter a unique eight-character key. It can be comprised of any character including
spaces (but trailing spaces are truncated).
Key3
Enter a unique eight-character key. It can be comprised of any character including
spaces (but trailing spaces are truncated).
Authentication Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from MD5 or SHA1 and then press [ENTER].
Algorithm
Key
Enter the authentication key to be used by IPSec if applicable. The key must be
unique. Enter 16 characters for MD5 authentication and 20 characters for SHA-1
authentication. Any character may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces are
truncated.
AH Setup
The AH Setup fields are N/A if you chose an ESP Active Protocol.
SPI (Decimal)
The SPI must be from one to four unique decimal characters ("0" to "9") long.
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Table 137 Menu 27.1.1.2 Manual Setup (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from MD5 or SHA1 and then press [ENTER].
Algorithm
Key
Enter the authentication key to be used by IPSec if applicable. The key must be
unique. Enter 16 characters for MD5 authentication and 20 characters for SHA-1
authentication. Any character may be used, including spaces, but trailing spaces are
truncated.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 43
SA Monitor
This chapter teaches you how to manage your SAs by using the SA Monitor in SMT menu
27.2.
43.1 SA Monitor Overview
A Security Association (SA) is the group of security settings related to a specific VPN tunnel.
This menu (shown next) displays active VPN connections.
Note: When there is outbound traffic but no inbound traffic, the SA times out
automatically after two minutes. A tunnel with no outbound or inbound traffic is
"idle" and does not timeout until the SA lifetime period expires. See the Web
configurator part on keep alive to have the Prestige renegotiate an IPSec SA
when the SA lifetime expires, even if there is no traffic.
43.2 Using SA Monitor
Use the Refresh function to display active VPN connections.
Use the Disconnect function to cut off active connections.
Type 2 in Menu 27 - VPN/IPSec Setup, and then press [ENTER] to go to Menu 27.2 - SA
Monitor.
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Figure 263 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor
Menu 27.2 - SA Monitor
#
Name
Encap.
IPSec ALgorithm
---
--------------------------------
---------
----------------
001
Taiwan : 3.3.3.1 – 3.3.3.3.100
Tunnel
ESP DES MD5
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
Select Command= Refresh
Select Connection= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 138 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor
416
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the security association index number.
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy. This name is unique for
each connection where the secure gateway IP address is a public static IP address.
When the secure gateway IP address is 0.0.0.0 (as discussed in the last chapter), there
may be different connections using this same VPN rule. In this case, the name is
followed by the remote IP address as configured in Menu 27.1.1. – IPSec Setup.
Individual connections using the same VPN rule may be terminated without affecting
other connections using the same rule.
Encap.
This field displays Tunnel mode or Transport mode. See previous for discussion.
IPSec
Algorithm
This field displays the security protocols used for an SA. ESP provides confidentiality
and integrity of data by encrypting the data and encapsulating it into IP packets.
Encryption methods include 56-bit DES and 168-bit 3DES. NULL denotes a tunnel
without encryption.
An incoming SA may have an AH in addition to ESP. The Authentication Header
provides strong integrity and authentication by adding authentication information to IP
packets. This authentication information is calculated using header and payload data in
the IP packet. This provides an additional level of security. AH choices are MD5 (default
- 128 bits) and SHA -1(160 bits).
Both AH and ESP increase Prestige processing requirements and communications
latency (delay).
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Table 138 Menu 27.2 SA Monitor (continued)
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Select
Command
Press [SPACE BAR] to choose from Refresh, Disconnect, None, Next Page, or
Previous Page and then press [ENTER]. You must select a connection in the next field
when you choose the Disconnect command. Refresh displays current active VPN
connections. None allows you to jump to the “Press ENTER to Confirm…” prompt.
Select Next Page or Previous Page to view the next or previous page of rules
(respectively).
Select
Connection
Type the VPN connection index number that you want to disconnect and then press
[ENTER].
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm
or ESC to Cancel:” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 44
Troubleshooting
This chapter covers potential problems and the corresponding remedies.
44.1 Problems Starting Up the Prestige
Table 139 Troubleshooting the Start-Up of Your Prestige
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
None of the
LEDs turn on
when I turn on
the Prestige.
Make sure that the Prestige’s power adaptor is connected to the Prestige and plugged
in to an appropriate power source. Check that the Prestige and the power source are
both turned on.
Turn the Prestige off and on.
If the error persists, you may have a hardware problem. In this case, you should
contact your vendor.
44.2 Problems with the LAN LED
Table 140 Troubleshooting the LAN LED
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The LAN LEDs
do not turn on.
Check your Ethernet cable connections and type (refer to the Quick Start Guide for
details).
Check for faulty Ethernet cables.
Make sure your computer’s Ethernet Card is working properly.
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44.3 Problems with the DSL LED
Table 141 Troubleshooting the DSL LED
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The DSL LED is
off.
Check the telephone wire and connections between the Prestige DSL port and the
wall jack.
Make sure that the telephone company has checked your phone line and set it up
for DSL service.
Reset your ADSL line to reinitialize your link to the DSLAM. For details, refer to
Chapter 21 on page 253 (web configurator) or Chapter 36 on page 355 (SMT).
44.4 Problems with the LAN Interface
Table 142 Troubleshooting the LAN Interface
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot access the
Prestige from the
LAN.
If the 10M/100M LEDs on the front panel are both off, refer to .
Make sure that the IP address and the subnet mask of the Prestige and your
computer(s) are on the same subnet.
I cannot ping any
If the 10M/100M LEDs on the front panel are both off, refer to .
computer on the LAN. Make sure that the IP address and the subnet mask of the Prestige and the
computers are on the same subnet.
44.5 Problems with the WAN Interface
Table 143 Troubleshooting the WAN Interface
420
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot get a
WAN IP address
from the ISP.
The ISP provides the WAN IP address after authenticating you. Authentication
may be through the user name and password, the MAC address or the host name.
The username and password apply to PPPoE and PPPoA encapsulation only.
Make sure that you have entered the correct Service Type, User Name and
Password (be sure to use the correct casing). Refer to Chapter 7 on page 109
(web configurator) or Chapter 27 on page 289 (SMT).
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44.6 Problems with Internet Access
Table 144 Troubleshooting Internet Access
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot access
the Internet.
Make sure the Prestige is turned on and connected to the network.
If the DSL LED is off, refer to .
Verify your WAN settings. Refer to the chapter on WAN setup (web configurator) or
the section on Internet Access (SMT).
Make sure you entered the correct user name and password.
If you use PPPoE pass through, make sure that bridge is turned on. See Chapter 23
on page 273 for details.
For wireless stations, check that both the Prestige and wireless station(s) are using
the same ESSID, channel, WEP keys (if WEP encryption is activated) and
authentication method.
Internet
connection
disconnects.
Check the schedule rules. Refer to Chapter 41 on page 399 (SMT).
If you use PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation, check the idle time-out setting. Refer to
Chapter 7 on page 109 (web configurator) or Chapter 28 on page 295 (SMT).
Contact your ISP.
44.7 Problems with the Password
Table 145 Troubleshooting the Password
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot
access the
Prestige.
The username is “admin”. The default password is “1234”. The Password and
Username fields are case-sensitive. Make sure that you enter the correct password
and username using the proper casing.
If you have changed the password and have now forgotten it, you will need to upload
the default configuration file (Refer to Section 2.1.2 on page 58). This restores all of
the factory defaults including the password.
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44.8 Problems with the Web Configurator
Table 146 Troubleshooting the Web Configurator
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot access
the web
configurator.
Refer to .
Make sure that there is not an SMT console session running.
Check that you have enabled web service access. If you have configured a secured
client IP address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to the chapter on
remote management for details.
For WAN access, you must configure remote management to allow server access
from the Wan (or all). You must also configure a firewall rule to allow access from the
WAN. Refer to the chapters on remote management and firewall for details.
Your computer’s and the Prestige’s IP addresses must be on the same subnet for
LAN access.
If you changed the Prestige’s LAN IP address, then enter the new one as the URL.
Remove any filters in SMT menu 3.1 (LAN) or menu 11.5 (WAN) that block web
service.
See also Section 44.9 on page 422.
44.9 Problems with Remote Management
Table 147 Troubleshooting Remote Management
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot remotely
manage the
Prestige from the
LAN or WAN.
Refer to Section 18.1.1 on page 229 for scenarios when remote management may
not be possible.
Use the Prestige’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
Use the Prestige’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
Refer to for instructions on checking your LAN connection.
Refer to Section 44.4 on page 420 for instructions on checking your WAN
connection.
See also Section 44.8 on page 422.
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44.10 Telephone Problems
Table 148 Troubleshooting Telephone
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The telephone port
won’t work or the
telephone lacks a
dial tone.
Check the telephone connections and telephone wire.
Make sure you have the Voice SIP Settings screen properly configured.
I cannot call from
one of the
Prestige’s phone
ports to the other
phone port.
You cannot call the SIP number of the SIP account that you are using to make a
call. The Prestige generates a busy tone and does not attempt to establish a call
if the SIP number you dial matches the outgoing SIP number of the phone port
you are using.
For example, if you set Phone 1 to use SIP account 1 and set Phone 2 to use SIP
account 2, then you can use Phone 1 to call to SIP account 2's SIP number or
Phone 2 to call to SIP account 1's SIP number.
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APPENDIX A
Hardware Specifications
Ethernet Cable Pin Assignments
Figure 264 Ethernet Cable Pin Assignments
Prestige 2602HW-L DSL Port Pin Assignments
The following figure describes the pin assignments for the DSL port on the Prestige 2602HWL
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Figure 265 Prestige 2602HW-L DSL Port Pin Assignments
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Prestige 2602HW Series Power Adaptor Specifications
Table 149 Prestige 2602HW Series Power Adaptor Specifications
NORTH AMERICAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adapter Model
ADS6818-1818-W 1810
Input Power
AC 100~240Volts/50/60Hz/0.5A
Output Power
DC 18Volts/1A
Power Consumption
15W
Safety Standards
UL,CUL(UL 1950)
EUROPEAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adapter Model
ADS6818-1818-B 1810
Input Power
AC 100~240Volts/50/60Hz/0.5A
Output Power
DC 18Volts/1A
Power Consumption
15W
Safety Standards
TUV, CE(EN 60950)
UNITED KINGDOM PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adapter Model
ADS6818-1818-D 1810
Input Power
AC 100~240Volts/50/60Hz/0.5A
Output Power
DC 18Volts/1A
Power Consumption
15W
Safety Standards
TUV, CE(EN 60950)
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APPENDIX B
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all
versions of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/
IP on your computer. Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application
package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS
7 and later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order
to "communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that
your computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the Prestige's LAN
port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open the Network
window
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Figure 266 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a
network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Adapter and then click Add.
3 Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Protocol and then click Add.
3 Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4 Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1 Click Add.
2 Select Client and then click Add.
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3 Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4 Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click
OK.
5 Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
Configuring
1 In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP entry
and click Properties
2 Click the IP Address tab.
•
•
If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address
automatically.
If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type
your information into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 267 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
3 Click the DNS Configuration tab.
•
•
If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the
information in the fields below (you may not need to fill them all in).
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Figure 268 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4 Click the Gateway tab.
•
•
If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously
installed gateways.
If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field
and click Add.
5 Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6 Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7 Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start and then Run.
2 In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration
window.
3 Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask
and default gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
1 For Windows XP, click start, Control Panel. In Windows 2000/NT, click Start,
Settings, Control Panel.
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Figure 269 Windows XP: Start Menu
2 For Windows XP, click Network Connections. For Windows 2000/NT, click Network
and Dial-up Connections.
Figure 270 Windows XP: Control Panel
3 Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
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Figure 271 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4 Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and click
Properties.
Figure 272 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in Windows
XP).
•
434
If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address
automatically.
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
•
If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address
and fill in the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
Click Advanced.
Figure 273 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Settings
6 If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed gateways
in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet
mask in Subnet mask, and then click Add.
Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by
clicking Add in Default gateways.
In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default
gateway in Gateway. To manually configure a default metric (the
number of transmission hops), clear the Automatic metric check box
and type a metric in Metric.
Click Add.
Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to
add.
Click OK when finished.
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7 In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in Windows XP):
•
•
Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know
your DNS server IP address(es).
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following
DNS server addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server
and Alternate DNS server fields.
If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and
then the DNS tab to order them.
Figure 274 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9 Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
10Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2 In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can
also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and then
click the Support tab.
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Macintosh OS 8/9
1 Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP
Control Panel.
Figure 275 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
2 Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
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Figure 276 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure: list.
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
•
•
•
•
From the Configure box, select Manually.
Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
Type the IP address of your Prestige in the Router address box.
5 Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6 Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7 Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1 Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System Preferences
window.
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Figure 277 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2 Click Network in the icon bar.
•
•
•
Select Automatic from the Location list.
Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
Click the TCP/IP tab.
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
Figure 278 Macintosh OS X: Network
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
•
•
•
•
From the Configure box, select Manually.
Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
Type the IP address of your Prestige in the Router address box.
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5 Click Apply Now and close the window.
6 Turn on your Prestige and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
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APPENDIX C
IP Subnetting
IP Addressing
Routers “route” based on the network number. The router that delivers the data packet to the
correct destination host uses the host ID.
IP Classes
An IP address is made up of four octets (eight bits), written in dotted decimal notation, for
example, 192.168.1.1. IP addresses are categorized into different classes. The class of an
address depends on the value of its first octet.
• Class “A” addresses have a 0 in the left most bit. In a class “A” address the first octet is
the network number and the remaining three octets make up the host ID.
• Class “B” addresses have a 1 in the left most bit and a 0 in the next left most bit. In a class
“B” address the first two octets make up the network number and the two remaining
octets make up the host ID.
• Class “C” addresses begin (starting from the left) with 1 1 0. In a class “C” address the
first three octets make up the network number and the last octet is the host ID.
• Class “D” addresses begin with 1 1 1 0. Class “D” addresses are used for multicasting.
(There is also a class “E” address. It is reserved for future use.)
Table 150 Classes of IP Addresses
IP ADDRESS:
OCTET 1
OCTET 2
OCTET 3
OCTET 4
Class A
0
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Host ID
Class B
10
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Class C
110
Network number
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Note: Host IDs of all zeros or all ones are not allowed.
Therefore:
A class “C” network (8 host bits) can have 28 –2 or 254 hosts.
A class “B” address (16 host bits) can have 216 –2 or 65534 hosts.
A class “A” address (24 host bits) can have 224 –2 hosts (approximately 16 million hosts).
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Since the first octet of a class “A” IP address must contain a “0”, the first octet of a class “A”
address can have a value of 0 to 127.
Similarly the first octet of a class “B” must begin with “10”, therefore the first octet of a class
“B” address has a valid range of 128 to 191. The first octet of a class “C” address begins with
“110”, and therefore has a range of 192 to 223.
Table 151 Allowed IP Address Range By Class
CLASS
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(BINARY)
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
Class A
00000000 to 01111111
0 to 127
Class B
10000000 to 10111111
128 to 191
Class C
11000000 to 11011111
192 to 223
Class D
11100000 to 11101111
224 to 239
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). A subnet mask has 32 is a “1” then
the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet
mask is “0” then the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just as IP addresses are. The “natural”
masks for class A, B and C IP addresses are as follows.
Table 152
“Natural” Masks
CLASS
NATURAL MASK
A
255.0.0.0
B
255.255.0.0
C
255.255.255.0
Subnetting
With subnetting, the class arrangement of an IP address is ignored. For example, a class C
address no longer has to have 24 bits of network number and 8 bits of host ID. With
subnetting, some of the host ID bits are converted into network number bits. By convention,
subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from the left most bit
of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of 32 bits.
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Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128.
The following table shows all possible subnet masks for a class “C” address using both
notations.
Table 153 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK IP ADDRESS
SUBNET MASK “1” BITS
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
The first mask shown is the class “C” natural mask. Normally if no mask is specified it is
understood that the natural mask is being used.
Example: Two Subnets
As an example, you have a class “C” address 192.168.1.0 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
Table 154 Two Subnets Example
NETWORK NUMBER
HOST ID
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
0
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
00000000
The first three octets of the address make up the network number (class “C”). You want to
have two separate networks.
Divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate subnets by converting one of the host ID bits
of the IP address to a network number bit. The “borrowed” host ID bit can be either “0” or “1”
thus giving two subnets; 192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 and 192.168.1.128 with
mask 255.255.255.128.
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Note: In the following charts, shaded/bold last octet bit values indicate host ID bits
“borrowed” to form network ID bits. The number of “borrowed” host ID bits
determines the number of subnets you can have. The remaining number of
host ID bits (after “borrowing”) determines the number of hosts you can have
on each subnet.
Table 155 Subnet 1
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 156 Subnet 2
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
The remaining 7 bits determine the number of hosts each subnet can have. Host IDs of all
zeros represent the subnet itself and host IDs of all ones are the broadcast address for that
subnet, so the actual number of hosts available on each subnet in the example above is 27 – 2
or 126 hosts for each subnet.
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is the subnet itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is the directed broadcast address for the first subnet. Therefore, the lowest IP
address that can be assigned to an actual host for the first subnet is 192.168.1.1 and the highest
is 192.168.1.126. Similarly the host ID range for the second subnet is 192.168.1.129 to
192.168.1.254.
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Example: Four Subnets
The above example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a class “C” address space
into two subnets. Similarly to divide a class “C” address into four subnets, you need to
“borrow” two host ID bits to give four possible combinations of 00, 01, 10 and 11. The subnet
mask is 26 bits (11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192. Each subnet
contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26-2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (all 0’s is the subnet itself, all
1’s is the broadcast address on the subnet).
Table 157 Subnet 1
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
Table 158 Subnet 2
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 159 Subnet 3
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
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Table 160 Subnet 4
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example Eight Subnets
Similarly use a 27-bit mask to create 8 subnets (001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110).
The following table shows class C IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 161 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET ADDRESS FIRST ADDRESS
LAST ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
The following table is a summary for class “C” subnet planning.
Table 162 Class C Subnet Planning
446
NO. “BORROWED” HOST
BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
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Subnetting With Class A and Class B Networks.
For class “A” and class “B” addresses the subnet mask also determines which bits are part of
the network number and which are part of the host ID.
A class “B” address has two host ID octets available for subnetting and a class “A” address has
three host ID octets (Table 150 on page 441) available for subnetting.
The following table is a summary for class “B” subnet planning.
Table 163 Class B Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED” HOST
BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
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APPENDIX D
PPPoE
PPPoE in Action
An ADSL modem bridges a PPP session over Ethernet (PPP over Ethernet, RFC 2516) from
your computer to an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) which connects to a DSL Access
Concentrator where the PPP session terminates (Figure 279 on page 450). One PVC can
support any number of PPP sessions from your LAN. PPPoE provides access control and
billing functionality in a manner similar to dial-up services using PPP.
Benefits of PPPoE
PPPoE offers the following benefits:
It provides you with a familiar dial-up networking (DUN) user interface.
It lessens the burden on the carriers of provisioning virtual circuits all the way to the ISP on
multiple switches for thousands of users. For GSTN (PSTN and ISDN), the switching fabric
is already in place.
It allows the ISP to use the existing dial-up model to authenticate and (optionally) to provide
differentiated services.
Traditional Dial-up Scenario
The following diagram depicts a typical hardware configuration where the computers use
traditional dial-up networking.
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Figure 279 Single-Computer per Router Hardware Configuration
How PPPoE Works
The PPPoE driver makes the Ethernet appear as a serial link to the computer and the computer
runs PPP over it, while the modem bridges the Ethernet frames to the Access Concentrator
(AC). Between the AC and an ISP, the AC is acting as a L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol)
LAC (L2TP Access Concentrator) and tunnels the PPP frames to the ISP. The L2TP tunnel is
capable of carrying multiple PPP sessions.
With PPPoE, the VC (Virtual Circuit) is equivalent to the dial-up connection and is between
the modem and the AC, as opposed to all the way to the ISP. However, the PPP negotiation is
between the computer and the ISP.
Prestige as a PPPoE Client
When using the Prestige as a PPPoE client, the computers on the LAN see only Ethernet and
are not aware of PPPoE. This alleviates the administrator from having to manage the PPPoE
clients on the individual computers.
Figure 280 Prestige as a PPPoE Client
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APPENDIX E
Wireless LAN and IEEE 802.11
A wireless LAN (WLAN) provides a flexible data communications system that you can use to
access various services (navigating the Internet, E-mail, printer services, etc.) without the use
of a cabled connection. In effect a wireless LAN environment provides you the freedom to
stay connected to the network while roaming around in the coverage area.
Benefits of a Wireless LAN
Wireless LAN offers the following benefits:
It provides you with access to network services in areas otherwise hard or expensive to wire,
such as historical buildings, buildings with asbestos materials and classrooms.
It provides healthcare workers like doctors and nurses access to a complete patient’s profile on
a handheld or notebook computer upon entering a patient’s room.
It allows flexible workgroups a lower total cost of ownership for workspaces that are
frequently reconfigured.
It allows conference room users access to the network as they move from meeting to meeting,
getting up-to-date access to information and the ability to communicate decisions while “on
the go”.
It provides campus-wide networking mobility, allowing enterprises the roaming capability to
set up easy-to-use wireless networks that cover the entire campus transparently.
IEEE 802.11
The 1997 completion of the IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless LANs (WLANs) was a first
important step in the evolutionary development of wireless networking technologies. The
standard was developed to maximize interoperability between differing brands of wireless
LANs as well as to introduce a variety of performance improvements and benefits.
The IEEE 802.11 specifies three different transmission methods for the PHY, the layer
responsible for transferring data between nodes. Two of the methods use spread spectrum RF
signals, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
(FHSS), in the 2.4 to 2.4825 GHz unlicensed ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) band.
The third method is infrared technology, using very high frequencies, just below visible light
in the electromagnetic spectrum to carry data.
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Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects a set of
computers with wireless nodes or stations (STA), which is called a Basic Service Set (BSS). In
the most basic form, a wireless LAN connects a set of computers with wireless adapters. Any
time two or more wireless adapters are within range of each other, they can set up an
independent network, which is commonly referred to as an Ad-hoc network or Independent
Basic Service Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an example of notebook computers
using wireless adapters to form an Ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 281 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
Infrastructure Wireless LAN Configuration
For Infrastructure WLANs, multiple Access Points (APs) link the WLAN to the wired
network and allow users to efficiently share network resources. The Access Points not only
provide communication with the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic in
the immediate neighborhood. Multiple Access Points can provide wireless coverage for an
entire building or campus. All communications between stations or between a station and a
wired network client go through the Access Point.
The Extended Service Set (ESS) shown in the next figure consists of a series of overlapping
BSSs (each containing an Access Point) connected together by means of a Distribution System
(DS). Although the DS could be any type of network, it is almost invariably an Ethernet LAN.
Mobile nodes can roam between Access Points and seamless campus-wide coverage is
possible.
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Figure 282 ESS Provides Campus-Wide Coverage
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APPENDIX F
Wireless LAN With IEEE 802.1x
As wireless networks become popular for both portable computing and corporate networks,
security is now a priority.
Security Flaws with IEEE 802.11
Wireless networks based on the original IEEE 802.11 have a poor reputation for safety. The
IEEE 802.11b wireless access standard, first published in 1999, was based on the MAC
address. As the MAC address is sent across the wireless link in clear text, it is easy to spoof
and fake. Even the WEP (Wire Equivalent Privacy) data encryption is unreliable as it can be
easily decrypted with current computer speed
Deployment Issues with IEEE 802.11
User account management has become a network administrator’s nightmare in a corporate
environment, as the IEEE 802.11b standard does not provide any central user account
management. User access control is done through manual modification of the MAC address
table on the access point. Although WEP data encryption offers a form of data security, you
have to reset the WEP key on the clients each time you change your WEP key on the access
point.
IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of IEEE 802.11 to
support extended authentication as well as providing additional accounting and control
features. It is supported by Windows XP and a number of network devices.
Advantages of the IEEE 802.1x
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for
centralized user profile and accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows additional
authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access point or the wireless
clients.
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RADIUS Server Authentication Sequence
The following figure depicts a typical wireless network with a remote RADIUS server for user
authentication using EAPOL (EAP Over LAN).
Figure 283 Sequences for EAP MD5–Challenge Authentication
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APPENDIX G
Types of EAP Authentication
This appendix discusses three popular EAP authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS and
EAP-TTLS. The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP.
Consult your network administrator for more information.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The authentication server
sends a challenge to the wireless station. The wireless station ‘proves’ that it knows the
password by encrypting the password with the challenge and sends back the information.
Password is not sent in plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication server needs to
get the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus someone other than the
authentication server may access the password file. In addition, it is possible to impersonate an
authentication server as MD5 authentication method does not perform mutual authentication.
Finally, MD5 authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session
key. You must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless stations
for mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the
identity of the server, the client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of
certificates is done in the open before a secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity
vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the
sender’s identity. However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to
handle certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the
server-side authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done
by sending username and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is
protected. For client authentication, EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy
authentication methods such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
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LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of
IEEE802.1x.
Table 164 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
458
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX H
Triangle Route
The Ideal Setup
When the firewall is on, your Prestige acts as a secure gateway between your LAN and the
Internet. In an ideal network topology, all incoming and outgoing network traffic passes
through the Prestige to protect your LAN against attacks.
Figure 284 Ideal Setup
The “Triangle Route” Problem
A traffic route is a path for sending or receiving data packets between two Ethernet devices.
Some companies have more than one alternate route to one or more ISPs. If the LAN and
ISP(s) are in the same subnet, the “triangle route” problem may occur. The steps below
describe the “triangle route” problem.
1 A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending out a SYN packet to a
receiving server on the WAN.
2 The Prestige reroutes the SYN packet through Gateway B on the LAN to the WAN.
3 The reply from the WAN goes directly to the computer on the LAN without going
through the Prestige.
As a result, the Prestige resets the connection, as the connection has not been acknowledged.
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Figure 285 “Triangle Route” Problem
The “Triangle Route” Solutions
This section presents you two solutions to the “triangle route” problem.
IP Aliasing
IP alias allows you to partition your network into logical sections over the same Ethernet
interface. Your Prestige supports up to three logical LAN interfaces with the Prestige being the
gateway for each logical network. By putting your LAN and Gateway B in different subnets,
all returning network traffic must pass through the Prestige to your LAN. The following steps
describe such a scenario.
1 A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending a SYN packet to a receiving
server on the WAN.
2 The Prestige reroutes the packet to Gateway B, which is in Subnet 2.
3 The reply from WAN goes through the Prestige to the computer on the LAN in Subnet 1.
Figure 286 IP Alias
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Gateways on the WAN Side
A second solution to the “triangle route” problem is to put all of your network gateways on the
WAN side as the following figure shows. This ensures that all incoming network traffic passes
through your Prestige to your LAN. Therefore your LAN is protected.
Figure 287 Gateways on the WAN Side
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APPENDIX I
Internal SPTGEN
Internal SPTGEN Overview
Internal SPTGEN (System Parameter Table Generator) is a configuration text file useful for
efficient configuration of multiple Prestiges. Internal SPTGEN lets you configure, save and
upload multiple menus at the same time using just one configuration text file – eliminating the
need to navigate and configure individual SMT menus for each Prestige.
The Configuration Text File Format
All Internal SPTGEN text files conform to the following format:
<field identification number = field name = parameter values
allowed = input>,
where <input> is your input conforming to <parameter values allowed>.
The figure shown next is an example of an Internal SPTGEN text file.
Figure 288 Configuration Text File Format: Column Descriptions
/ Menu 1 General Setup
10000000 = Configured
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 1
10000001 = System Name
<Str>
= Prestige
10000002 = Location
<Str>
=
10000003 = Contact Person’s Name
<Str>
=
10000004 = Route IP
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 1
10000005 = Route IPX
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 0
10000006 = Bridge
<0(No)| 1(Yes)>
= 0
Note: DO NOT alter or delete any field except parameters in the Input column.
For more text file examples, refer to the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Appendix.
Internal SPTGEN File Modification - Important Points to Remember
Each parameter you enter must be preceded by one “=”sign and one space.
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Some parameters are dependent on others. For example, if you disable the Configured field in
menu 1 (see Figure 288 on page 463), then you disable every field in this menu.
If you enter a parameter that is invalid in the Input column, the Prestige will not save the
configuration and the command line will display the Field Identification Number. Figure
289 on page 464, shown next, is an example of what the Prestige displays if you enter a value
other than “0” or “1” in the Input column of Field Identification Number 1000000 (refer to
Figure 288 on page 463).
Figure 289 Invalid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example
field value is not legal error:-1
ROM-t is not saved, error Line ID:10000000
reboot to get the original configuration
Bootbase Version: V2.02 | 2/22/2001 13:33:11
RAM: Size = 8192 Kbytes
FLASH: Intel 8M *2
The Prestige will display the following if you enter parameter(s) that are valid.
Figure 290 Valid Parameter Entered: Command Line Example
Please wait for the system to write SPT text file(ROM-t)...
Bootbase Version: V2.02 | 2/22/2001 13:33:11
RAM: Size = 8192 Kbytes
FLASH: Intel 8M *2
Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example
1 Launch your FTP application.
2 Enter "bin". The command “bin” sets the transfer mode to binary.
3 Get "rom-t" file. The command “get” transfers files from the Prestige to your computer.
The name “rom-t” is the configuration filename on the Prestige.
4 Edit the "rom-t" file using a text editor (do not use a word processor). You must leave
this FTP screen to edit.
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Figure 291
Internal SPTGEN FTP Download Example
c:\ftp 192.168.1.1
220 PPP FTP version 1.0 ready at Sat Jan 1 03:22:12 2000
User (192.168.1.1:(none)):
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp>bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-t
ftp>bye
c:\edit rom-t
(edit the rom-t text file by a text editor and save it)
Note: You can rename your “rom-t” file when you save it to your computer but it must
be named “rom-t” when you upload it to your Prestige.
Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example
1 Launch your FTP application.
2 Enter "bin". The command “bin” sets the transfer mode to binary.
3 Upload your “rom-t” file from your computer to the Prestige using the “put” command.
computer to the Prestige.
4 Exit this FTP application.
Figure 292 Internal SPTGEN FTP Upload Example
c:\ftp 192.168.1.1
220 PPP FTP version 1.0 ready at Sat Jan 1 03:22:12 2000
User (192.168.1.1:(none)):
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp>bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put rom-t
ftp>bye
Example Internal SPTGEN Screens
This section covers Prestige Internal SPTGEN screens.
Table 165 Abbreviations Used in the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Table
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
FIN
Field Identification Number (not seen in SMT screens)
FN
Field Name
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Table 165 Abbreviations Used in the Example Internal SPTGEN Screens Table
ABBREVIATION
MEANING
PVA
Parameter Values Allowed
INPUT
An example of what you may enter
*
Applies to the Prestige.
The following are Internal SPTGEN screens associated with the SMT screens of your Prestige.
Table 166 Menu 1 General Setup (SMT Menu 1)
/ Menu 1 General Setup (SMT Menu 1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
10000000 =
Configured
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
10000001 =
System Name
<Str>
= Prestige
10000002 =
Location
<Str>
=
10000003 =
Contact Person's Name
<Str>
=
10000004 =
Route IP
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
10000006 =
Bridge
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
Table 167 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 )
/ Menu 3.1 General Ethernet Setup (SMT menu 3.1)
FIN
30100001 =
FN
Input Protocol filters Set 1
INPUT
= 2
30100002 =
Input Protocol filters Set 2
= 256
30100003 =
Input Protocol filters Set 3
= 256
30100004 =
Input Protocol filters Set 4
= 256
30100005 =
Input device filters Set 1
= 256
30100006 =
Input device filters Set 2
= 256
30100007 =
Input device filters Set 3
= 256
30100008 =
Input device filters Set 4
= 256
30100009 =
Output protocol filters Set 1
= 256
30100010 =
Output protocol filters Set 2
= 256
30100011 =
Output protocol filters Set 3
= 256
30100012 =
Output protocol filters Set 4
= 256
30100013 =
Output device filters Set 1
= 256
30100014 =
Output device filters Set 2
= 256
30100015 =
Output device filters Set 3
= 256
30100016 =
Output device filters Set 4
= 256
/ Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup (SMT Menu 3.2)
466
PVA
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 167 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 (continued))
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30200001 =
DHCP
<0(None) |
1(Server) |
2(Relay)>
= 0
30200002 =
Client IP Pool Starting Address
=
192.168.1.33
30200003 =
Size of Client IP Pool
= 32
30200004 =
Primary DNS Server
= 0.0.0.0
30200005 =
Secondary DNS Server
= 0.0.0.0
30200006 =
Remote DHCP Server
= 0.0.0.0
30200008 =
IP Address
=
172.21.2.200
30200009 =
IP Subnet Mask
= 16
30200010 =
RIP Direction
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
30200011 =
Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
30200012 =
Multicast
<0(IGMP-v2) |
1(IGMP-v1) |
2(None)>
= 2
30200013 =
IP Policies Set 1 (1~12)
= 256
30200014 =
IP Policies Set 2 (1~12)
= 256
30200015 =
IP Policies Set 3 (1~12)
= 256
30200016 =
IP Policies Set 4 (1~12)
= 256
/ Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup (SMT Menu 3.2.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30201001 =
IP Alias 1
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 0
30201002 =
IP Address
= 0.0.0.0
30201003 =
IP Subnet Mask
= 0
30201004 =
RIP Direction
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
30201005 =
Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
30201006 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201007 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
467
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 167 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 (continued))
30201008 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201009 =
IP Alias #1 Incoming protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
30201010 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201011 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
30201012 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201013 =
IP Alias #1 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
30201014 =
IP Alias 2 <0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
30201015 =
IP Address
= 0.0.0.0
30201016 =
IP Subnet Mask
= 0
30201017 =
RIP Direction
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
30201018 =
Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
30201019 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201020 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
30201021 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201022 =
IP Alias #2 Incoming protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
30201023 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 1
= 256
30201024 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 2
= 256
30201025 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 3
= 256
30201026 =
IP Alias #2 Outgoing protocol filters
Set 4
= 256
*/ Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup (SMT Menu 3.5)
468
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30500001 =
ESSID
30500002 =
Hide ESSID
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
30500003 =
Channel ID
<1|2|3|4|5|6|7 = 1
|8|9|10|11|12|
13>
Wireless
= 0
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 167 Menu 3 (SMT Menu 3 (continued))
30500004 =
RTS Threshold
<0 ~ 2432>
= 2432
30500005 =
FRAG. Threshold
<256 ~ 2432>
= 2432
30500006 =
WEP
<0(DISABLE) |
1(64-bit WEP)
| 2(128-bit
WEP)>
= 0
30500007 =
Default Key
30500008 =
WEP Key1
=
30500009 =
WEP Key2
=
30500010 =
WEP Key3
=
30500011 =
WEP Key4
30500012 =
Wlan Active
<1|2|3|4> = 0
=
<0(Disable) |
1(Enable)>
= 0
*/ MENU 3.5.1 WLAN MAC ADDRESS FILTER (SMT MENU 3.5.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
30501001 =
Mac Filter Active
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 0
30501002 =
Filter Action
<0(Allow) |
1(Deny)>
= 0
30501003 =
Address
1
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
30501004 =
Address
2
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
30501005 =
Address
3
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
Continued
…
30501034 =
Address
…
32
=
00:00:00:00:0
0:00
Table 168 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4)
/ Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
40000000 =
Configured
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000001 =
ISP
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
469
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 168 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4) (continued)
470
40000002 =
Active
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000003 =
ISP's Name
40000004 =
Encapsulation
<2(PPPOE) |
3(RFC 1483)|
4(PPPoA )|
5(ENET ENCAP)>
= 2
40000005 =
Multiplexing
<1(LLC-based)
| 2(VC-based)
= 1
40000006 =
VPI #
= 0
40000007 =
VCI #
= 35
40000008 =
Service Name
<Str>
= any
40000009 =
My Login
<Str>
= test@pqa
40000010 =
My Password
<Str>
= 1234
40000011 =
Single User Account
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000012 =
IP Address Assignment
<0(Static)|1(D = 1
ynamic)>
40000013 =
IP Address
= 0.0.0.0
40000014 =
Remote IP address
= 0.0.0.0
40000015 =
Remote IP subnet mask
= 0
40000016 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 1
= 6
40000017 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 2
= 256
40000018 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 3
= 256
40000019 =
ISP incoming protocol filter set 4
= 256
40000020 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 1
= 256
40000021 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 2
= 256
40000022 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 3
= 256
40000023 =
ISP outgoing protocol filter set 4
= 256
40000024 =
ISP PPPoE idle timeout
= 0
40000025 =
Route IP
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 1
40000026 =
Bridge
<0(No) |
1(Yes)>
= 0
40000027 =
ATM QoS Type
<0(CBR) | (1
(UBR)>
= 1
40000028 =
Peak Cell Rate (PCR)
= 0
40000029 =
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR)
= 0
40000030 =
Maximum Burst Size(MBS)
= 0
40000031=
RIP Direction
= ChangeMe
<0(None) |
1(Both) | 2(In
Only) | 3(Out
Only)>
= 0
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 168 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup (SMT Menu 4) (continued)
40000032=
RIP Version
<0(Rip-1) |
1(Rip-2B)
|2(Rip-2M)>
= 0
40000033=
Nailed-up Connection
<0(No)
|1(Yes)>
= 0
Table 169 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12)
/ Menu 12.1.1 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120101001 =
IP Static Route set #1, Name
<Str>
=
120101002 =
IP Static Route set #1, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120101003 =
IP Static Route set #1, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120101004 =
IP Static Route set #1, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120101005 =
IP Static Route set #1, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120101006 =
IP Static Route set #1, Metric
= 0
120101007 =
IP Static Route set #1, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
PVA
INPUT
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.2 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.2)
FIN
FN
120102001 =
IP Static Route set #2, Name
120102002 =
IP Static Route set #2, Active
120102003 =
IP Static Route set #2, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120102004 =
IP Static Route set #2, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120102005 =
IP Static Route set #2, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120102006 =
IP Static Route set #2, Metric
= 0
120102007 =
IP Static Route set #2, Private
=
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.3 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.3)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120103001 =
IP Static Route set #3, Name
<Str>
=
120103002 =
IP Static Route set #3, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120103003 =
IP Static Route set #3, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120103004 =
IP Static Route set #3, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120103005 =
IP Static Route set #3, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120103006 =
IP Static Route set #3, Metric
120103007 =
IP Static Route set #3, Private
= 0
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
471
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 169 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
/ Menu 12.1.4 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120104001 =
IP Static Route set #4, Name
<Str>
=
120104002 =
IP Static Route set #4, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120104003 =
IP Static Route set #4, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120104004 =
IP Static Route set #4, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120104005 =
IP Static Route set #4, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120104006 =
IP Static Route set #4, Metric
= 0
120104007 =
IP Static Route set #4, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.5 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.5)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120105001 =
IP Static Route set #5, Name
<Str>
=
120105002 =
IP Static Route set #5, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120105003 =
IP Static Route set #5, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120105004 =
IP Static Route set #5, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120105005 =
IP Static Route set #5, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120105006 =
IP Static Route set #5, Metric
= 0
120105007 =
IP Static Route set #5, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.6 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.6)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120106001 =
IP Static Route set #6, Name
<Str>
=
120106002 =
IP Static Route set #6, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120106003 =
IP Static Route set #6, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120106004 =
IP Static Route set #6, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120106005 =
IP Static Route set #6, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120106006 =
IP Static Route set #6, Metric
= 0
120106007 =
IP Static Route set #6, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.7 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.7)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120107001 =
IP Static Route set #7, Name
<Str>
=
120107002 =
IP Static Route set #7, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120107003 =
IP Static Route set #7, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120107004 =
IP Static Route set #7, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120107005 =
IP Static Route set #7, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
472
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 169 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
120107006 =
IP Static Route set #7, Metric
120107007 =
IP Static Route set #7, Private
= 0
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
/ Menu 12.1.8 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.8)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120108001 =
IP Static Route set #8, Name
<Str>
=
120108002 =
IP Static Route set #8, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120108003 =
IP Static Route set #8, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120108004 =
IP Static Route set #8, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120108005 =
IP Static Route set #8, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120108006 =
IP Static Route set #8, Metric
= 0
120108007 =
IP Static Route set #8, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.9 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.9)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120109001 =
IP Static Route set #9, Name
<Str>
=
120109002 =
IP Static Route set #9, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120109003 =
IP Static Route set #9, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120109004 =
IP Static Route set #9, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120109005 =
IP Static Route set #9, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120109006 =
IP Static Route set #9, Metric
= 0
120109007 =
IP Static Route set #9, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
PVA
INPUT
*/ Menu 12.1.10 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.10)
FIN
FN
120110001 =
IP Static Route set #10, Name
120110002 =
IP Static Route set #10, Active
120110003 =
IP Static Route set #10, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120110004 =
IP Static Route set #10, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120110005 =
IP Static Route set #10, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120110006 =
IP Static Route set #10, Metric
= 0
120110007 =
IP Static Route set #10, Private
=
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.11 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.11)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120111001 =
IP Static Route set #11, Name
<Str>
=
120111002 =
IP Static Route set #11, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120111003 =
IP Static Route set #11, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
473
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 169 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
120111004 =
IP Static Route set #11, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120111005 =
IP Static Route set #11, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120111006 =
IP Static Route set #11, Metric
= 0
120111007 =
IP Static Route set #11, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.12 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.12)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120112001 =
IP Static Route set #12, Name
<Str>
=
120112002 =
IP Static Route set #12, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120112003 =
IP Static Route set #12, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120112004 =
IP Static Route set #12, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120112005 =
IP Static Route set #12, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120112006 =
IP Static Route set #12, Metric
= 0
120112007 =
IP Static Route set #12, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.13 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1.13)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120113001 =
IP Static Route set #13, Name
<Str>
=
120113002 =
IP Static Route set #13, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120113003 =
IP Static Route set #13, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120113004 =
IP Static Route set #13, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120113005 =
IP Static Route set #13, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120113006 =
IP Static Route set #13, Metric
= 0
120113007 =
IP Static Route set #13, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.14 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1. 14)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120114001 =
IP Static Route set #14, Name
<Str>
=
120114002 =
IP Static Route set #14, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120114003 =
IP Static Route set #14, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120114004 =
IP Static Route set #14, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120114005 =
IP Static Route set #14, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120114006 =
IP Static Route set #14, Metric
= 0
120114007 =
IP Static Route set #14, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.15 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1. 15)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120115001 =
IP Static Route set #15, Name
<Str>
=
474
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 169 Menu 12 (SMT Menu 12) (continued)
120115002 =
IP Static Route set #15, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
120115003 =
IP Static Route set #15, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120115004 =
IP Static Route set #15, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120115005 =
IP Static Route set #15, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120115006 =
IP Static Route set #15, Metric
= 0
120115007 =
IP Static Route set #15, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
= 0
*/ Menu 12.1.16 IP Static Route Setup (SMT Menu 12.1. 16)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
120116001 =
IP Static Route set #16, Name
<Str>
=
120116002 =
IP Static Route set #16, Active
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
120116003 =
IP Static Route set #16, Destination
IP address
= 0.0.0.0
120116004 =
IP Static Route set #16, Destination
IP subnetmask
= 0
120116005 =
IP Static Route set #16, Gateway
= 0.0.0.0
120116006 =
IP Static Route set #16, Metric
= 0
120116007 =
IP Static Route set #16, Private
<0(No) |1(Yes)>
= 0
Table 170 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15)
/ Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
150000001 =
SUA Server IP address for default
port
150000002 =
SUA Server #2 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000003 =
SUA Server #2 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000004 =
SUA Server #2 Port Start
= 0
150000005 =
SUA Server #2 Port End
= 0
150000006 =
SUA Server #2 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000007 =
SUA Server #3 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000008 =
SUA Server #3 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000009 =
SUA Server #3 Port Start
= 0
150000010 =
SUA Server #3 Port End
= 0
150000011 =
SUA Server #3 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000012 =
SUA Server #4 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000013 =
SUA Server #4 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
= 0.0.0.0
475
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 170 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15) (continued)
150000014 =
SUA Server #4 Port Start
= 0
150000015 =
SUA Server #4 Port End
= 0
150000016 =
SUA Server #4 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000017 =
SUA Server #5 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000018 =
SUA Server #5 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000019 =
SUA Server #5 Port Start
= 0
150000020 =
SUA Server #5 Port End
= 0
150000021 =
SUA Server #5 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000022 =
SUA Server #6 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)> =
0
= 0
150000023 =
SUA Server #6 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000024 =
SUA Server #6 Port Start
= 0
150000025 =
SUA Server #6 Port End
= 0
150000026 =
SUA Server #6 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000027 =
SUA Server #7 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000028 =
SUA Server #7 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0.0.0.0
150000029 =
SUA Server #7 Port Start
= 0
150000030 =
SUA Server #7 Port End
= 0
150000031 =
SUA Server #7 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000032 =
SUA Server #8 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000033 =
SUA Server #8 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000034 =
SUA Server #8 Port Start
= 0
150000035 =
SUA Server #8 Port End
= 0
150000036 =
SUA Server #8 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000037 =
SUA Server #9 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000038 =
SUA Server #9 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000039 =
SUA Server #9 Port Start
= 0
150000040 =
SUA Server #9 Port End
= 0
150000041 =
SUA Server #9 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000042
= SUA Server #10 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000043 =
SUA Server #10 Protocol
150000044 =
SUA Server #10 Port Start
= 0
150000045 =
SUA Server #10 Port End
= 0
150000046 =
SUA Server #10 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000047 =
476
SUA Server #11 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 170 Menu 15 SUA Server Setup (SMT Menu 15) (continued)
150000048 =
SUA Server #11 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000049 =
SUA Server #11 Port Start
= 0
150000050 =
SUA Server #11 Port End
= 0
150000051 =
SUA Server #11 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
150000052 =
SUA Server #12 Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 0
150000053 =
SUA Server #12 Protocol
<0(All)|6(TCP)|17(U
DP)>
= 0
150000054 =
SUA Server #12 Port Start
= 0
150000055 =
SUA Server #12 Port End
= 0
150000056 =
SUA Server #12 Local IP address
= 0.0.0.0
Table 171 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1)
/ Menu 21 Filter set #1 (SMT Menu 21)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210100001 =
Filter Set 1, Name
<Str>
=
/ Menu 21.1.1.1 set #1, rule #1 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210101001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210101002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210101003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Protocol
= 6
210101004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210101005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210101006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest Port
= 137
210101007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Dest Port Comp
210101008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210101009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210101010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src Port
= 0
210101011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210101013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210101014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 1 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not equal)|
3(less)|
4(greater)>
= 1
477
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 171 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
/ Menu 21.1.1.2 set #1, rule #2 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.2)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210102001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210102002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210102003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Protocol
= 6
210102004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210102005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210102006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest Port
= 138
210102007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Dest Port Comp
210102008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210102009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210102010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src Port
= 0
210102011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210102013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210102014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 2 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.3 set #1, rule #3 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.3)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210103001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210103002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210103003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Protocol
= 6
210103004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210103005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210103006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest Port
= 139
210103007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Dest Port Comp
210103008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210103009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210103010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src Port
= 0
210103011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Src Port Comp
478
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
= 0
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 171 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210103013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)
= 3
210103014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 3 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.4 set #1, rule #4 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210104001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210104002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210104003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Protocol
= 17
210104004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210104005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210104006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest Port
= 137
210104007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Dest Port Comp
210104008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210104009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210104010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src Port
= 0
210104011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210104013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Act Match
<1(check next)
|2( forward) |
3(drop)
= 3
210104014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 4 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.5 set #1, rule #5 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.5)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210105001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210105002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210105003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Protocol
= 17
210105004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210105005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210105006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest Port
= 138
210105007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Dest Port Comp
210105008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src IP Address
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
= 0.0.0.0
479
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 171 Menu 21.1 Filter Set #1 (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210105009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210105010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src Port
= 0
210105011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210105013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210105014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 5 Act Not Match
<1(Check Next)
|2(Forward)|3(Dro
p)>
= 1
/ Menu 21.1.1.6 set #1, rule #6 (SMT Menu 21.1.1.6)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210106001 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Type
<2(TCP/IP)>
= 2
210106002 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
= 1
210106003 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Protocol
= 17
210106004 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210106005 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest Subnet Mask
= 0
210106006 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest Port
= 139
210106007 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Dest Port Comp
210106008 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src IP address
= 0.0.0.0
210106009 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src Subnet Mask
= 0
210106010 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src Port
= 0
210106011 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Src Port Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 0
210106013 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Act Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 3
210106014 =
IP Filter Set 1,Rule 6 Act Not Match
<1(check
next)|2(forward)|
3(drop)>
= 2
<0(none)|1(equal)
|2(not
equal)|3(less)|4(
greater)>
= 1
Table 172 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1)
/ Menu 21.1 filter set #2,
480
(SMT Menu 21.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210200001 =
Filter Set 2, Nam
<Str>
=
NetBIOS_WAN
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 172 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
/ Menu 21.1.2.1 Filter set #2, rule #1 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210201001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210201002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210201003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Protocol
= 6
210201004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210201005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210201006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest Port
= 137
210201007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Dest Port
Comp
210201008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210201009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210201010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src Port
= 0
210201011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210201013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210201014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 1 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.2 Filter set #2, rule #2 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.2)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210202001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210202002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210202003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Protocol
= 6
210202004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210202005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210202006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest Port
= 138
210202007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Dest Port
Comp
210202008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Src IP
address
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
= 0.0.0.0
481
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 172 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210202009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210202010 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 2 Src Port
= 0
210202011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210202013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210202014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 2 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.3 Filter set #2, rule #3 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.3)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210203001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210203002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210203003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Protocol
= 6
210203004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210203005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210203006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest Port
= 139
210203007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Dest Port
Comp
210203008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210203009 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 3 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210203010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Src Port
= 0
210203011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210203013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 3 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210203014 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 3 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.4 Filter set #2, rule #4 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.4)
482
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210204001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 172 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210204002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes
)> = 1
210204003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Protocol
= 17
210204004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210204005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210204006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest Port
210204007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Dest Port
Comp
210204008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210204009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210204010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src Port
= 0
210204011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210204013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210204014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 4 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
= 137
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.5 Filter set #2, rule #5 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.5)
FIN
FN
PVA
210205001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
INPUT
210205002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210205003 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 5 Protocol
= 17
210205004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210205005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210205006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest Port
= 138
210205007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Dest Port
Comp
210205008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210205009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210205010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src Port
= 0
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
483
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 172 Menu 21.1 Filer Set #2, (SMT Menu 21.1) (continued)
210205011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210205013 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210205014 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 5 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 1
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
/ Menu 21.1.2.6 Filter set #2, rule #6 (SMT Menu 21.1.2.5)
484
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
210206001 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Type
<0(none)|2(TCP/IP)> = 2
210206002 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Active
<0(No)|1(Yes)>
210206003 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Protocol
= 17
210206004 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210206005 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest
Subnet Mask
= 0
210206006 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest Port
= 139
210206007 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Dest Port
Comp
210206008 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src IP
address
= 0.0.0.0
210206009 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src Subnet
Mask
= 0
210206010 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src Port
= 0
210206011 =
IP Filter Set 2, Rule 6 Src Port
Comp
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 0
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
210206013 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 6 Act Match
<1(check
= 3
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
210206014 =
IP Filter Set 2,Rule 6 Act Not
Match
<1(check
= 2
next)|2(forward)|3(
drop)>
241100005 =
FTP Server Access
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an)|3(Wan)>
241100006 =
FTP Server Secured IP address
= 0.0.0.0
241100007 =
WEB Server Port
= 80
241100008 =
WEB Server Access
241100009 =
WEB Server Secured IP address
= 1
<0(none)|1(equal)|2 = 1
(not
equal)|3(less)|4(gr
eater)>
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an) |3(Wan)>
= 0.0.0.0
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 173 Menu 23 System Menus (SMT Menu 23)
*/ Menu 23.1 System Password Setup (SMT Menu 23.1)
FIN
FN
PVA
230000000 =
System Password
INPUT
= 1234
*/ Menu 23.2 System security: radius server (SMT Menu 23.2)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
230200001 =
Authentication Server Configured
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200002 =
Authentication Server Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200003 =
Authentication Server IP Address
=
192.168.1.32
230200004 =
Authentication Server Port
= 1822
230200005 =
Authentication Server Shared
Secret
=
111111111111
111
111111111111
1111
230200006 =
Accounting Server Configured
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200007 =
Accounting Server Active
<0(No) | 1(Yes)>
= 1
230200008 =
Accounting Server IP Address
=
192.168.1.44
230200009 =
Accounting Server Port
= 1823
230200010 =
Accounting Server Shared Secret
= 1234
*/ Menu 23.4 System security: IEEE802.1x (SMT Menu 23.4)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
230400001 =
Wireless Port Control
<0(Authentication
Required) |1(No
Access Allowed)
|2(No
Authentication
Required)>
= 2
230400002 =
ReAuthentication Timer (in second)
= 555
230400003 =
Idle Timeout (in second)
= 999
230400004 =
Authentication Databases
<0(Local User
Database Only)
|1(RADIUS Only)
|2(Local,RADIUS)
|3(RADIUS,Local)>
= 1
230400005 =
Key Management Protocol
<0(8021x) |1(WPA)
|2(WPAPSK)>
= 0
230400006 =
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
<0(Disable) |1(64bit WEP) |2(128-bit
WEP)>
= 0
230400007 =
PSK
=
=
485
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 173 Menu 23 System Menus (SMT Menu 23) (continued)
230400008 =
WPA Mixed Mode
230400009 =
Data Privacy for Broadcast/
Multicast packets
230400010 =
WPA Broadcast/Multicast Key Update
Timer
<0(Disable)
|1(Enable)>
<0(TKIP) |1(WEP)>
= 0
= 0
= 0
Table 174 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control (SMT Menu 24.11)
/ Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control (SMT Menu 24.11)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
241100001 =
TELNET Server Port
241100002 =
TELNET Server Access
241100003 =
TELNET Server Secured IP address
= 0.0.0.0
241100004 =
FTP Server Port
= 21
241100005 =
FTP Server Access
241100006 =
FTP Server Secured IP address
= 0.0.0.0
241100007 =
WEB Server Port
= 80
241100008 =
WEB Server Access
241100009 =
WEB Server Secured IP address
= 23
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an)|3(Wan)>
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an)|3(Wan)>
<0(all)|1(none)|2(L = 0
an) |3(Wan)>
= 0.0.0.0
Command Examples
The following are example Internal SPTGEN screens associated with the Prestige’s command
interpreter commands.
Table 175 Command Examples
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
/ci command (for annex a): wan adsl opencmd
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
990000001 =
ADSL OPMD
<0(glite)|1(t1.413
)|2(gdmt)|3(multim
ode)>
= 3
/ci command (for annex B): wan adsl opencmd
486
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 175 Command Examples (continued)
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
FIN
FN
PVA
INPUT
990000001 =
ADSL OPMD
<0(etsi)|1(normal)
|2(gdmt)|3(multimo
de)>
= 3
487
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
488
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX J
Command Interpreter
The following describes how to use the command interpreter. Enter 24 in the main menu to
bring up the system maintenance menu. Enter 8 to go to Menu 24.8 - Command Interpreter
Mode. See the included disk or zyxel.com for more detailed information on these commands.
Note: Use of undocumented commands or misconfiguration can damage the unit and
possibly render it unusable.
Command Syntax
•
•
•
•
•
The command keywords are in courier new font.
Enter the command keywords exactly as shown, do not abbreviate.
The required fields in a command are enclosed in angle brackets <>.
The optional fields in a command are enclosed in square brackets [].
The |symbol means or.
For example,
sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
means that you must specify the type of netbios filter and whether to turn it on or off.
Command Usage
A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the command prompt. Always
type the full command. Type exit to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
489
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
490
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX K
Firewall Commands
Sys Firewall Commands
The following describes the firewall commands. See the Command
Interpreter appendix for information on the command structure. Each of
these commands must be preceded by sys firewall when you use
them. For example, type sys firewall active yes to turn on the
firewall.
Table 176 Sys Firewall Commands
Command
Description
acl
active
disp
Displays ACLs or a specific ACL set # and rule #.
<yes|no>
Active firewall or deactivate firewall
Enables/disables the firewall.
disp
Displays the firewall log type and count.
clear
Clears the firewall log count.
cnt
Dumps the last 64 bytes of packets that the firewall has dropped.
pktdump
dynamicrule
display
Displays the firewall’s dynamic rules.
rst
Turns TCP reset sending on/off.
rst113
Turns TCP reset sending for port 113 on/off.
display
Displays the TCP reset sending settings.
tcprst
This rule is not in use.
icmp
dos
smtp
Enables/disables the SMTP DoS defender.
display
Displays the SMTP DoS defender setting.
ignore
Sets if the firewall will ignore DoS attacks on the lan/wan.
dos
Sets if the firewall will ignore DoS attacks on the lan/wan.
triangle
Sets if the firewall will ignore triangle route packets on the lan/wan.
ignore
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APPENDIX L
Boot Commands
The BootModule AT commands execute from within the router’s bootup software, when
debug mode is selected before the main router firmware is started. When you start up your
Prestige, you are given a choice to go into debug mode by pressing a key at the prompt shown
in the following screen. In debug mode you have access to a series of boot module commands,
for example ATUR (for uploading firmware) and ATLC (for uploading the configuration file).
These are already discussed in the Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance chapter.
Figure 293 Option to Enter Debug Mode
Bootbase Version: V1.02 | 08/08/2001 15:40:50
RAM: Size = 16384 Kbytes
DRAM Post: Testing: 16384K OK
FLASH: Intel 16M
RAS Version: V3.50(WB.0)b3 | 08/08/2001 16:21:27
Press any key to enter debug mode within 3
seconds.
.................................................
Enter ATHE to view all available Prestige boot module commands as shown in the next
screen. ATBAx allows you to change the console port speed. The x denotes the number
preceding the colon to give the console port speed following the colon in the list of numbers
that follows; for example ATBA3 will give a console port speed of 9.6 Kbps. ATSE displays
the seed that is used to generate a password to turn on the debug flag in the firmware. The
ATSH command shows product related information such as boot module version, vendor
name, product model, RAS code revision, etc. ATGO allows you to continue booting the
system. Most other commands aid in advanced troubleshooting and should only be used by
qualified engineers.
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Figure 294 Boot Module Commands
AT
just answer OK
ATHE
print help
ATBAx
change baudrate. 1:38.4k, 2:19.2k, 3:9.6k 4:57.6k
5:115.2k
ATENx,(y)
set BootExtension Debug Flag (y=password)
ATSE
show the seed of password generator
ATTI(h,m,s)
change system time to hour:min:sec or show
current time
ATDA(y,m,d)
change system date to year/month/day or show
current date
ATDS
dump RAS stack
ATDT
dump Boot Module Common Area
ATDUx,y
dump memory contents from address x for length y
ATRBx
display the 8-bit value of address x
ATRWx
display the 16-bit value of address x
ATRLx
display the 32-bit value of address x
ATGO(x)
run program at addr x or boot router
ATGR
boot router
ATGT
run Hardware Test Program
ATRTw,x,y(,z) RAM test level w, from address x to y (z
iterations)
ATSH
dump manufacturer related data in ROM
ATDOx,y
download from address x for length y to PC via
XMODEM
ATTD
download router configuration to PC via XMODEM
ATUR
upload router firmware to flash ROM
ATLC
upload router configuration file to flash ROM
ATXSx
xmodem select: x=0: CRC mode(default); x=1:
checksum mode
ATSR
system reboot
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APPENDIX M
Log Descriptions
This appendix provides descriptions of example log messages.
Table 177 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The router has adjusted its time based on information from the
time server.
Time calibration failed
The router failed to get information from the time server.
WAN interface gets IP: %s
A WAN interface got a new IP address from the DHCP,
PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up server.
DHCP client IP expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns %s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
Successful SMT login
Someone has logged on to the router's SMT interface.
SMT login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's SMT interface.
Successful WEB login
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator
interface.
WEB login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface.
Successful TELNET login
Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
Successful FTP login
Someone has logged on to the router via ftp.
FTP login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via ftp.
NAT Session Table is Full!
The maximum number of NAT session table entries has been
exceeded and the table is full.
Starting Connectivity Monitor Starting Connectivity Monitor.
Time initialized by Daytime
Server
The router got the time and date from the Daytime server.
Time initialized by Time
server
The router got the time and date from the time server.
Time initialized by NTP
server
The router got the time and date from the NTP server.
Connect to Daytime server
fail
The router was not able to connect to the Daytime server.
Connect to Time server fail
The router was not able to connect to the Time server.
Connect to NTP server fail
The router was not able to connect to the NTP server.
Too large ICMP packet has
been dropped
The router dropped an ICMP packet that was too large.
SMT Session Begin
An SMT management session has started.
SMT Session End
An SMT management session has ended.
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Table 177 System Maintenance Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Configuration Change: PC =
0x%x, Task ID = 0x%x
The router is saving configuration changes.
Successful SSH login
Someone has logged on to the router’s SSH server.
SSH login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router’s SSH server.
Successful HTTPS login
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator
interface using HTTPS protocol.
HTTPS login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface using HTTPS protocol.
Table 178 System Error Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s exceeds the max.
number of session per
host!
This attempt to create a NAT session exceeds the maximum
number of NAT session table entries allowed to be created per
host.
setNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS filter settings.
readNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS filter settings.
WAN connection is down.
A WAN connection is down. You cannot access the network
through this interface.
Table 179 Access Control Logs
496
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
<Packet Direction>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched the default policy and was blocked or forwarded
according to the default policy’s setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match:[ TCP
| UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
<Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched (or did not match) a configured firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
[ TCP | UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: [ TCP | UDP | IGMP | ESP
| GRE | OSPF ]
The router blocked a packet that didn't have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Router sent blocked web site
message: TCP
The router sent a message to notify a user that the router
blocked access to a web site that the user requested.
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 180 TCP Reset Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Under SYN flood attack,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a host was under a SYN
flood attack (the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.)
Exceed TCP MAX
incomplete, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of TCP
incomplete connections exceeded the user configured threshold.
(the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.) Note: Refer to
TCP Maximum Incomplete in the Firewall Attack Alerts screen.
Peer TCP state out of
order, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a TCP connection state
was out of order.Note: The firewall refers to RFC793 Figure 6 to
check the TCP state.
Firewall session time
out, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a dynamic firewall
session timed out.Default timeout values:ICMP idle timeout (s):
60UDP idle timeout (s): 60TCP connection (three way
handshaking) timeout (s): 30TCP FIN-wait timeout (s): 60TCP idle
(established) timeout (s): 3600
Exceed MAX incomplete,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of
incomplete connections (TCP and UDP) exceeded the userconfigured threshold. (Incomplete count is for all TCP and UDP
connections through the firewall.)Note: When the number of
incomplete connections (TCP + UDP) > “Maximum Incomplete
High”, the router sends TCP RST packets for TCP connections
and destroys TOS (firewall dynamic sessions) until incomplete
connections < “Maximum Incomplete Low”.
Access block, sent TCP
RST
The router sends a TCP RST packet and generates this log if you
turn on the firewall TCP reset mechanism (via CI command: "sys
firewall tcprst").
Table 181 Packet Filter Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
[ TCP | UDP | ICMP | IGMP |
Generic ] packet filter
matched (set: %d, rule: %d)
Attempted access matched a configured filter rule (denoted by
its set and rule number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
For type and code details, see Table 190 on page 501.
Table 182 ICMP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <type:%d>,
<code:%d>
ICMP access matched the default policy and was blocked
or forwarded according to the user's setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>,
<type:%d>, <code:%d>
ICMP access matched (or didn’t match) a firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
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Table 182 ICMP Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Triangle route packet forwarded:
ICMP
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: ICMP
The router blocked a packet that didn’t have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Unsupported/out-of-order ICMP:
ICMP
The firewall does not support this kind of ICMP packets or
the ICMP packets are out of order.
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP
The router sent an ICMP reply packet to the sender.
Table 183 CDR Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C01 Outgoing Call
dev=%x ch=%x %s
The router received the setup requirements for a call. “call” is
the reference (count) number of the call. “dev” is the device
type (3 is for dial-up, 6 is for PPPoE, 10 is for PPTP).
"channel" or “ch” is the call channel ID.For example,"board 0
line 0 channel 0, call 3, C01 Outgoing Call dev=6 ch=0
"Means the router has dialed to the PPPoE server 3 times.
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C02 OutCall
Connected %d %s
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call is connected.
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C02 Call
Terminated
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call was disconnected.
Table 184 PPP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Starting
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage has started.
ppp:LCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is opening.
ppp:CHAP Opening
The PPP connection’s Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol stage is
opening.
ppp:IPCP Starting The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is starting.
498
ppp:IPCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is opening.
ppp:LCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is closing.
ppp:IPCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is closing.
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 185 UPnP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
UPnP pass through Firewall
UPnP packets can pass through the firewall.
Table 186 Content Filtering Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s: block keyword
The content of a requested web page matched a user defined keyword.
%s
The system forwarded web content.
For type and code details, see Table 190 on page 501.
Table 187 Attack Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
attack [ TCP | UDP | IGMP
| ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF attack.
attack ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP attack.
land [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF land
attack.
land ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP land attack.
ip spoofing - WAN [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall detected an IP spoofing attack on the WAN port.
ip spoofing - WAN ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP IP spoofing attack on the WAN port.
icmp echo : ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP echo attack.
syn flood TCP
The firewall detected a TCP syn flood attack.
ports scan TCP
The firewall detected a TCP port scan attack.
teardrop TCP
The firewall detected a TCP teardrop attack.
teardrop UDP
The firewall detected an UDP teardrop attack.
teardrop ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP teardrop attack.
illegal command TCP
The firewall detected a TCP illegal command attack.
NetBIOS TCP
The firewall detected a TCP NetBIOS attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall classified a packet with no source routing entry as an
IP spoofing attack.
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Table 187 Attack Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ip spoofing - no routing
entry ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall classified an ICMP packet with no source routing entry
as an IP spoofing attack.
vulnerability ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP vulnerability attack.
traceroute ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP traceroute attack.
Table 188 802.1X Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Local User Database accepts
user.
A user was authenticated by the local user database.
Local User Database reports user
credential error.
A user was not authenticated by the local user database
because of an incorrect user password.
Local User Database does not
find user`s credential.
A user was not authenticated by the local user database
because the user is not listed in the local user database.
RADIUS accepts user.
A user was authenticated by the RADIUS Server.
RADIUS rejects user. Pls check
RADIUS Server.
A user was not authenticated by the RADIUS Server.
Please check the RADIUS Server.
Local User Database does not
support authentication method.
The local user database only supports the EAP-MD5
method. A user tried to use another authentication
method and was not authenticated.
User logout because of session
timeout expired.
The router logged out a user whose session expired.
User logout because of user
deassociation.
The router logged out a user who ended the session.
User logout because of no
authentication response from
user.
The router logged out a user from which there was no
authentication response.
User logout because of idle
timeout expired.
The router logged out a user whose idle timeout period
expired.
User logout because of user
request.
A user logged out.
Local User Database does not
support authentication mothed.
A user tried to use an authentication method that the local
user database does not support (it only supports EAPMD5).
No response from RADIUS. Pls
check RADIUS Server.
There is no response message from the RADIUS server,
please check the RADIUS server.
Use Local User Database to
authenticate user.
The local user database is operating as the
authentication server.
Use RADIUS to authenticate user. The RADIUS server is operating as the authentication
server.
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Table 188 802.1X Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
No Server to authenticate user.
There is no authentication server to authenticate a user.
Local User Database does not
find user`s credential.
A user was not authenticated by the local user database
because the user is not listed in the local user database.
Table 189 ACL Setting Notes
PACKET DIRECTION
DIRECTION
DESCRIPTION
(L to W)
LAN to WAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the WAN.
(W to L)
WAN to LAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the LAN.
(L to L/Prestige)
LAN to LAN/
Prestige
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the LAN or
the Prestige.
(W to W/Prestige)
WAN to WAN/
Prestige
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the WAN
or the Prestige.
Table 190 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Echo Reply
0
0
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
3
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set to Don't
Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
4
0
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the buffer space
needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next network on the route to
the destination network.
Redirect
5
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
Echo
8
0
Echo message
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Table 190 ICMP Notes (continued)
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Time Exceeded
11
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
Parameter Problem
12
0
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
13
0
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
14
0
Timestamp reply message
Information Request
15
0
Information request message
Information Reply
16
0
Information reply message
Table 191 Syslog Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
<Facility*8 + Severity>Mon dd
hr:mm:ss hostname
src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
devID="<mac address last three
numbers>" cat="<category>
"This message is sent by the system ("RAS" displays as the
system name if you haven’t configured one) when the router
generates a syslog. The facility is defined in the web MAIN
MENU->LOGS->Log Settings page. The severity is the
log’s syslog class. The definition of messages and notes
are defined in the various log charts throughout this
appendix. The “devID” is the last three characters of the
MAC address of the router’s LAN port. The “cat” is the same
as the category in the router’s logs.
Table 192 SIP Logs
502
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
SIP Registration Success
by SIP:SIP Phone Number
The listed SIP account was successfully registered with a SIP
register server.
SIP Registration Fail by
SIP:SIP Phone Number
An attempt to register the listed SIP account with a SIP register
server was not successful.
SIP UnRegistration
Success by SIP:SIP Phone
Number
The listed SIP account’s registration was deleted from the SIP
register server.
SIP UnRegistration Fail by
SIP:SIP Phone Number
An attempt to delete the listed SIP account’s registration from the
SIP register server failed.
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Table 193 RTP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Error, RTP init fail
The initialization of an RTP session failed.
Error, Call fail: RTP
connect fail
A VoIP phone call failed because the RTP session could not be
established.
Error, RTP connection
cannot close
The termination of an RTP session failed.
Table 194 FSM Logs: Caller Side
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
VoIP Call Start Ph[Phone
Port Number] <- Outgoing
Call Number
Someone used a phone connected to the listed phone port to
initiate a VoIP call to the listed destination.
VoIP Call Established
Ph[Phone Port] -> Outgoing
Call Number
Someone used a phone connected to the listed phone port to
make a VoIP call to the listed destination.
VoIP Call End Phone[Phone
Port]
A VoIP phone call made from a phone connected to the listed
phone port has terminated.
Table 195 FSM Logs: Callee Side
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
VoIP Call Start from
SIP[SIP Port Number]
A VoIP phone call came to the Prestige from the listed SIP
number.
VoIP Call Established
Ph[Phone Port] <- Outgoing
Call Number
A VoIP phone call was set up from the listed SIP number to the
Prestige.
VoIP Call End Phone[Phone
Port]
A VoIP phone call that came into the Prestige has terminated.
Table 196 Lifeline Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
PSTN Call Start
A PSTN call has been initiated.
PSTN Call End
A PSTN call has terminated.
PSTN Call Established
A PSTN call has been set up.
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The following table shows RFC-2408 ISAKMP payload types that the log displays. Please
refer to the RFC for detailed information on each type.
Table 197 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types
LOG DISPLAY
PAYLOAD TYPE
SA
Security Association
PROP
Proposal
TRANS
Transform
KE
Key Exchange
ID
Identification
CER
Certificate
CER_REQ
Certificate Request
HASH
Hash
SIG
Signature
NONCE
Nonce
NOTFY
Notification
DEL
Delete
VID
Vendor ID
Log Commands
Go to the command interpreter interface (Appendix J on page 489 explains how to access and
use the commands).
Configuring What You Want the Prestige to Log
1 Use the sys logs load command to load the log setting buffer that allows you to
configure which logs the Prestige is to record.
2 Use sys logs category to view a list of the log categories.
Figure 295 Displaying Log Categories Example
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ras> ?
Valid commands are:
sys
exit
ether
wan
wlan
ip
bridge
lan
radius
8021x
dsp
voiceradius
ras>
8021x
3 Use sys logs category followed by a log category to display the parameters that are
available for the category.
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Figure 296 Displaying Log Parameters Example
ras> sys logs category access
Usage: [0:none/1:log/2:alert/3:both]
ras>
4 Use sys logs category followed by a log category and a parameter to decide what to
record.
Use 0 to not record logs for that category, 1 to record only logs for that category, 2 to
record only alerts for that category, and 3 to record both logs and alerts for that category.
Not every parameter is available with every category.
5 Use the sys logs save command to store the settings in the Prestige (you must do this
in order to record logs).
Displaying Logs
• Use the sys logs display command to show all of the logs in the Prestige’s log.
• Use the sys logs category display command to show the log settings for all of the
log categories.
• Use the sys logs display [log category] command to show the logs in an
individual Prestige log category.
• Use the sys logs clear command to erase all of the Prestige’s logs.
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Log Command Example
This example shows how to set the Prestige to record the access logs and alerts and then view
the results.
Figure 297 Log Command Example
ras> sys
ras> sys
ras> sys
ras> sys
# .time
logs
logs
logs
logs
load
category access 3
save
display access
source
destination
message
7|01/01/2000 09:40:13 |192.168.1.1:3
|192.168.1.33:1
RWARD
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP(type:3, code:1)
8|01/01/2000 09:40:07 |192.168.1.1:3
|192.168.1.33:1
RWARD
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP(type:3, code:1)
9|01/01/2000 09:40:04 |192.168.1.1:3
|192.168.1.33:1
RWARD
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP(type:3, code:1)
10|01/01/2000 09:40:04 |192.168.1.33:1199
|207.69.188.186:110
RWARD
Firewall default policy: TCP (L to W)
11|01/01/2000 09:40:04 |192.168.1.1:53
|192.168.1.33:1200
RWARD
none: UDP
506
notes
|ACCESS FO
|ACCESS FO
|ACCESS FO
|ACCESS FO
|ACCESS FO
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Index
Numerics
110V AC 5
230V AC 5
64kbps 140
8kbps 140
A
Abnormal Working Conditions 6
AbS 136
AC 5
Access methods 329
Accessories 5
ACK Message 132
Acts of God 6
Address mapping 127
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 83
Ad-hoc Configuration 452
ADSL Standards 45, 51
ADSL, what is it? 44
AH 197
AH (Authentication Header) 405
AH Protocol 201
Airflow 5
ALG 47, 135
Allow Asymmetrical Route 173
Alternative Subnet Mask Notation 443
American Wire Gauge 5
Analysis-by-Synthesis 136
antenna 49
Any IP 48, 82
How it works 83
note 83
Any IP Setup 85
Any IP Table 258
AP (access point) 87
Application Layer Gateway 47, 135
Application-level Firewalls 155
Applications
Internet access 53
Association List 259
AT command 366
Index
ATM layer options 302
ATM Loopback Test 261
ATM QoS Type 293
ATM Status 261
Attack Alert 189
Attack Types 160
Authentication 297, 298
Authentication databases 101
authentication databases 353
Authentication Header 201
Authentication Password 73, 138
Authentication protocol 298
Authentication User ID 72, 138
Authority 4
auto-Crossover 50
auto-negotiation 50
Auto-provisioning 47
AWG 5
B
Backup 366
Backup Type 116
Basement 5
Basic Service Set 452
Blocking Time 188, 189
Bridging 298, 309
Ether Address 311
Ethernet 309
Ethernet Addr Timeout 310
Remote Node 309
Static Route Setup 311
Brute-force Attack, 159
BSS 452
Budget Management 382, 383
BYE Request 132
C
CA 457
Cables, Connecting 5
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Call filtering 331
Call filters
Built-in 331
User-defined 331
Call Scheduling 399
Maximum Number of Schedule Sets 399
PPPoE 401
Precedence 399
Precedence Example 399
Caller ID 73, 138
CBR 293
CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) 113
CCK 49
CDR 361
CDR (Call Detail Record) 360
CE regulations 49
Certificate Authority 457
Certifications 4
change password at login 58
Changes or Modifications 4
Channel 87
Interference 87
Channel ID 286
CHAP 297
Charge 6
Circuit 4
Class B 4
Class of Service 141
Class of Service (CoS) 141
Client-server Protocol 132
Codec 136, 140
Codecs 47
Coder/Decoder 136, 140
Collision 356
Collisions 257
Comfort Noise Generation 143
Command Interpreter Mode 381
Communications 4
Community 346
Complementary Code Keying Modulation 49
Compliance, FCC 4
Components 6
Computer 43
Computer Name 273
Condition 6
Conditions that prevent TFTP and FTP from working
over WAN 368
Configuration 73, 257
configuration file 365
Connecting Cables 5
Consequential Damages 6
508
Console Port 265
Configuration File Upload 378
File Backup 370
File Upload 377
Restoring Files 373
Contact Information 7
Contacting Customer Support 7
Content Filtering 191
Categories 191
Schedule 192
Trusted computers 193
URL keyword blocking 191
Content filtering 191
content filtering 48
Continuous Bit Rate 293
Copyright 3
Correcting Interference 4
Corrosive Liquids 5
CoS 141
Cost Of Transmission 300, 307
Country Code 358
Covers 5
CPU Load 357
CTS (Clear to Send) 88
Custom Ports
Creating/Editing 179
Customer Support 7
Customized Services 179
Customized services 179
D
Damage 5
Dampness 5
Danger 5
Data Confidentiality 196
Data encryption 90
Data Filtering 331
Data Integrity 196
Data Origin Authentication 196
data privacy 352
Daylight Savings 152
DBPSK 49
Dealer 4
default LAN IP address 57
default user name and password 57
Defective 6
Denial of Service 156, 157, 188, 329
Denmark, Contact Information 7
Index
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Destination Address 171
Device Filter rules 340
Device rule 340
DH 216
DHCP 51, 73, 80, 81, 149, 257, 358
DHCP client 51
DHCP relay 51
DHCP server 51
DHCP Table 257
Diagnostic Screens 260
Diagnostic Tools 355
Dialing Interval 144
Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed Modulation 49
Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Modulation
49
Differentiated Services 141
Diffie-Hellman Key Groups 216
DiffServ 141
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) 141
DiffServ Code Points 141
DiffServ marking rule 141
Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer 52
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 451
Disclaimer 3
Discretion 6
Distribution System 452
Distribution System (DS) 97
DNS 283
DNS Server
For VPN Host 205
DNS server 409
DNS Server Address 80
DNS Server Address Assignment 80
Domain Name 80, 123
Domain Name System 80
DoS 157
Basics 157
Types 158
DoS (Denial of Service) 48
DoS attacks, types of 158
Downstream Noise Margin 261
DQPSK 49
DS 452
DS Field 141
DS field 141
DSCPs 141
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) 43
DSL, What Is It? 43
DSLAM 52
DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) 53
Index
DSSS 451
DTMF 136
DTMF Mode 140
Dual-Tone MultiFrequency 136
Dust 5
Dynamic DNS 50, 149, 274
dynamic DNS 50
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 51
Dynamic Jitter Buffer 46
Dynamic Secure Gateway Address 203
Dynamic WEP key exchange 101
dynamic WEP key exchange 352
DYNDNS Wildcard 149
E
EAP 89, 94, 95
EAP Authentication 457
MD5 457
TLS 457
TTLS 457
EAP authentication 351
EAP Authentication Sequence 95
ECHO 123
Echo Cancellation 47, 143
Electric Shock 5
Electrical Pipes 5
Electrocution 5
E-mail
Log Example 251
embedded help 59
Emergency Numbers 146
Encapsulated Routing Link Protocol (ENET ENCAP) 63
Encapsulation 52, 63, 65, 197, 293, 296
ENET ENCAP 63
PPP over Ethernet 63
PPPoA 63
RFC 1483 64
encapsulation 52
Encapsulation Security Payload 202
Encryption 96, 195
Equal Value 6
Error Log 359
Errors 257
ESP 197
ESP Protocol 202
ESS 87, 452
ESS ID 87
ESSID (Extended Service Set Identification) 91
509
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Europe 5
Exiting the SMT 268
Expiration Duration 139
Exposure 5
Extended Service Set 452
Extended Service Set (ESS) 87
Extensible Authentication Protocol 89
External Antenna 49
F
Factory LAN Defaults 81
Failure 6
FCC 4
Compliance 4
Rules, Part 15 4
FCC Rules 4
Federal Communications Commission 4
FHSS 451
Filename Conventions 365
filename conventions 366
Filter 281, 331
Applying Filters 342
Ethernet Traffic 343
Ethernet traffic 343
Filter Rules 334
Filter structure 332
Generic Filter Rule 338
Remote Node 301
Remote Node Filter 301
Remote Node Filters 343
Sample 341
SUA 340
TCP/IP Filter Rule 336
Filter Log 361
Filter Rule Process 332
Filter Rule Setup 335
Filter Set
Class 335
Filtering 331, 335
Filtering Process
Outgoing Packets 331
Finger 123
Finland, Contact Information 7
Firewall 155
Access Methods 169, 329
Address Type 178
Alerts 173
Anti-Probing 186
Connection Direction 171
Creating/Editing Rules 176
510
Custom Ports 179
Enabling 173
Firewall Vs Filters 166
Guidelines For Enhancing Security 164
Introduction 156
LAN to WAN Rules 172
Policies 169
Remote Management 329
Rule Checklist 170
Rule Logic 170
Rule Security Ramifications 170
Services 184
SMT menus 329
Types 155
When To Use 166
firmware 365
Firmware Upgrade 262
Fitness 6
Flow Control 265
Fragment Threshold 286
Fragmentation Threshold 89
Fragmentation threshold 89
Frame Relay 53
France, Contact Information 7
Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum 451
FTP 123, 229, 388
Restrictions 388
FTP File Transfer 374
FTP Restrictions 229, 368
FTP Server 324
Functionally Equivalent 6
G
G.168 47, 143
G.168 Active 144
G.711 47, 136, 140
G.729 47, 136, 140
Gas Pipes 5
Gateway 307
Gateway Node 311
General Ethernet Setup 281
General Setup 273
Generic filter 340
Germany, Contact Information 7
God, act of 6
Graphical User Interface (GUI) 46
Index
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
H
Half-Open Sessions 188
Harmful Interference 4
Hidden Menus 267
Hidden node 88
High Voltage Points 5
Hop Count 300, 307
Host 77
Host IDs 441
HTTP 123, 155, 157, 158, 409, 410
HyperTerminal 378, 379
HyperTerminal program 370, 373
I
IANA 66, 67
IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) 179
IBSS 452
ICMP echo 160
ID Type and Content 207
Idle timeout 298
IEEE 802.11 451
Deployment Issues 455
Security Flaws 455
IEEE 802.11g 49
IEEE 802.11g Data Rates 49
IEEE 802.11g Modulation 49
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN 49
IEEE 802.11i 49
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN 141
IEEE 802.1x 455
Additional requirements 87
Advantages 455
IEEE802.1x 351
IGMP 82
IGMP support 300
IKE Phases 214
Immediate Dial 148
Independent Basic Service Set 452
Indirect Damages 6
Infrastructure Configuration 452
Initial Screen 265
initialization vector (IV) 96
Inside Header 198
Install UPnP 235
Windows Me 235
Windows XP 237
Index
Insurance 6
Interactive Applications 391
Interference 4
Interference Correction Measures 4
Interference Statement 4
Internal SPTGEN 463
FTP Upload Example 465
Points to Remember 463
Text File 463
Internet Access 48, 54, 289, 292, 293
Internet access 63, 289
Internet Access Setup 313, 420
Internet access wizard setup 64
Internet Assigned Number Authority 66
Internet Assigned Numbers AuthoritySee IANA 67
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 159, 186
Internet Key Exchange 214
Internet Protocol Security 195
Internet Telephony Service Provider 54
IP Address 65, 81, 123, 257, 283, 307, 311, 337, 358,
363, 393
IP Address Assignment 66
ENET ENCAP 66
PPPoA or PPPoE 66
RFC 1483 66
IP Addressing 441
IP alias 51, 289
IP Alias Setup 290
IP Classes 441
IP Filter 338
Logic Flow 337
IP mask 336
IP Packet 338
IP Policies 289, 395
IP policy 289
IP policy routing 391
IP Policy Routing (IPPR) 52, 289
Applying an IP Policy 395
Ethernet IP Policies 395
Gateway 395
IP Pool Setup 73
IP Ports 409, 410
IP Protocol 394
IP protocol 391
IP protocol type 184
IP Routing Policy (IPPR) 391
Benefits 391
Cost Savings 391
Criteria 391
Load Sharing 391
Setup 392
IP Spoofing 158, 161
511
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
IP Static Route 305
IP Static Route Setup 306
IPSec 195
IPSec Algorithm 405
IPSec algorithm 416
IPSec Algorithms 197, 201
IPSec and NAT 198
IPSec Architecture 197
IPSec rule 404
IPSec standard 48
IPSec VPN Capability 48
ISDN (Integrated Synchronous Digital System) 46
ITSP 54
ITU-T 143
LLC-based Multiplexing 303
Local Network
Rule Summary 174
Local User Authentication 105
Local User Database 105, 353
Local user database 105
Locations, Customer Support 7
Log and Trace 359
Log Facility 360
Logging Option 337, 339
Logical networks 289
Login 297
Login Screen 266
Logs 247
J
M
Jitter Buffer 46
MAC (Media Access Control) address. 92
MAC address 311
MAC Address Filter 286
MAC address filter 286
Filter action 287
MAC Address Filter Action 93, 287
MAC Address Filtering 92
MAC filter 92
Main Menu 268
Maintenance 253
management idle timeout period 58
Management Information Base (MIB) 346
Materials 6
Maximum Burst Size 293
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) 110, 113
Max-incomplete High 188
Max-incomplete Low 188
MBS 293
MBSSee Maximum Burst Size 293
MD5 457
MD5 (Message Digest 5) 411
MDI/MDI-X 50
Media Access Control 309
Merchantability 6
Message Digest Algorithm 5 457
Message Integrity Check 96
Message Integrity Check (MIC) 96
Message Logging 359
Metric 109, 279, 300, 307
MIC 96
Min-SE 140
K
Keep Alive 205
Key Fields For Configuring Rules 171
Key management protocol 352
L
Labor 6
LAN 356
LAN Information 255
LAN Setup 79, 109, 281
LAN TCP/IP 81
LAN to WAN Rules 172
LAND 158, 159
Legal Rights 6
Liability 3
License 3
Lifeline 46, 146
Lifeline Screen 147
Lightning 5
Link type 356
Liquids, Corrosive 5
Listening Port 72, 138
Listening Volume 144
512
Index
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Modem 43
Modifications 4
Moving the Cursor 267
MSDU (MAC Service Data Unit) 286
Multicast 82, 300
Multimedia 131
Multiple SIP Accounts 47
Multiple Voice Channels 47
Multiplexing 52, 64, 65, 293, 296
multiplexing 52, 64
LLC-based 64
VC-based 64
Multiprotocol Encapsulation 64
My IP Address 202
My WAN Address 299
N
N/A Fields 267
Nailed-Up Connection 67
NAT 66, 123, 124, 340
Address mapping rule 128
Application 121
Applying NAT in the SMT Menus 313
Configuring 315
Definitions 119
Examples 321
How it works 120
Mapping Types 121
Non NAT Friendly Application Programs 326
Ordering Rules 318
What it does 120
What NAT does 120
NAT (Network Address Translation) 119
NAT mode 125
NAT Traversal 233
NAT traversal 206, 408
navigating the web configurator 58
Negotiation Mode 216, 411
NetBIOS commands 160
Network Address Translation 293
Network Address Translation (NAT) 50, 313
Network Authentication 94
Network Management 52, 123
Network Topology With RADIUS Server Example 456
New 6
NNTP 123
Non-Proxy 145
North America 5
North America Contact Information 7
Index
Norway, Contact Information 7
Notebook Computer 43
NTP Time Servers 151
O
OFDM 49
OK Response 132
One-Minute High 188
Opening 5
Operating Condition 6
Operating frequency 286
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Modulation
49
Out-dated Warranty 6
Outgoing Call use 144
Outlet 4
Outside Header 198
P
Packet
Error 356
Received 356
Transmitted 356
Packet Filtering 166
Packet filtering
When to use 166
Packet Filtering Firewalls 155
Packet Triggered 361
Packets 356
Pairwise Master Key (PMK) 96
PAP 298
Parts 6
Password 77, 266, 267, 270, 297, 346
Patent 3
PCM 136
PCR 293
Peak Cell Rate 293
Peak Cell Rate (PCR) 110, 113
Perfect Forward Secrecy 216
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) 412
Per-Hop Behavior 141
Permission 3
PFS 216
PHB (Per-Hop Behavior) 141
Phone 142
513
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
PHONE 1 and 2 Ports 138
Phone Port Screen 143, 148
Phone Port Settings 144, 148
Photocopying 3
Ping 260, 363
Ping of Death 158
Pipes 5
Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
(AAL5) 63
Point-to-Point 44
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol 124
policy-based routing 391
Pool 5
POP3 123, 157, 158
Port Numbers 123
Postage Prepaid. 6
Power Adaptor 5
Power Cord 5
Power Outlet 5
Power Supply 5
Power Supply, repair 5
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) 94
PPP Encapsulation 303
PPP Log 362
PPP session over Ethernet (PPP over Ethernet, RFC
2516) 63
PPPoA 296
PPPoE 110, 449
Benefits 110
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) 50, 110
PPPoE pass-through 304
PPTP 124
Precedence 391, 394
Pre-defined NTP Time Servers List 151
Preferred Codec 140
Pre-Shared Key 209, 352, 411
Format 97
Prestige 43
Prestige 2602HW-L 46
Prestige model 365
Prestige models 45
Prestige Wireless Security Levels 89
Private 300, 307
Private IP Addresses 67
Product Model 7
Product Page 4
Product Serial Number 7
Products 6
Proof of Purchase 6
Proper Operating Condition 6
514
Protocol 336
Protocol filter 340
Protocol Filter Rules 340
Protocol Support 51
PSK 352
PSTN 46
PSTN Call Setup Signaling 136
PSTN Pre-fix Number 147
Public Switched Telephone Network 46
Pulse Code Modulation 136
Pulse Dialing 136
Purchase, Proof of 6
Purchaser 6
PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) 63
Q
QoS 47, 140, 142
Qualified Service Personnel 5
Quality of Service 47, 140, 391
Quality of Service (QOS) 47
Quick Start Guide 57
R
Radio Communications 4
Radio frequency 91
Radio Frequency Energy 4
Radio Interference 4
Radio Reception 4
Radio Technician 4
RADIUS 89, 94
Configuring 106
Shared Secret Key 95
RADIUS Message Types 94
RADIUS Messages 94
RADIUS server 349
RAS 358, 392
Rate
Receiving 356
Transmission 356
Read Me First 41
Real time Transport Protocol 135, 140
Receiving Antenna 4
Register 255
Register Resend Timer 139
REGISTER Server Address 72, 138
Index
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
REGISTER Server Port 72, 138
Registered 3
Registered Trademark 3
Regular Mail 7
Related Documentation 41
Relay to PSTN 147
Relocate 4
Re-manufactured 6
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service 89
Remote DHCP Server 283
Remote Management 229
Firewall 329
Remote Management and NAT 230
Remote Management Limitations 229, 388
Remote Management Setup 387
Remote Node 295, 356
Remote Node Profile 297
Remote Node Setup 295
Remote Node Index Number 356
Remote Node Network Layer Options 299
Removing 5
REN 46
Reorient 4
Repair 5, 6
Replace 6
Replacement 6
Reproduction 3
Required fields 267
Reset ADSL Line 261
Reset button, the 58
resetting the Prestige 58
Restore 6
Restore Configuration 371
Return Material Authorization (RMA) Number 6
Returned Products 6
Returns 6
RF (Radio Frequency) 49
RF signals 451
RFC 1483 64
RFC 1631 119
RFC 1889 46, 135
RFC 189 46
RFC 2327 46
RFC 3261 46
RFC-1483 296
RFC-2364 296, 297
RFC2516 50
Rights 3
Rights, Legal 6
Ringer Equivalence Number 46
Index
RIP 283, 300
RIPSee Routing Information Protocol 81
Risk 5
Risks 5
RMA 6
Romfile 365
Router 43
Routing 289
Routing Information Protocol 81
Direction 81
Version 81
Routing Policy 391
RTCP 46
RTP 46, 135
RTP Port Range 140
RTS (Request To Send) 88, 286
RTS (Request To Send) threshold 91
RTS Threshold 88, 286
Rule Summary 174
Rules 172
Checklist 170
Key Fields 171
LAN to WAN 172
Logic 170
Predefined Services 184
Summary 174
Rx B/s 257
RxPkts 257
S
SA 195, 409
SA life time 411
SA lifetime 415
SA Monitor 415
SA monitor 415
Safety Warnings 5
Sample IP Addresses 300
Saving SMT Configuration 268
Saving the State 161
Schedule Sets
Duration 400
SCR 293
SCRSee Sustain Cell Rate 293
SDP 46
Secure Gateway Address 203, 408
Security Association 195, 415
Security In General 165
Security Parameter Index 219
515
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
Security Parameter Index (SPI) 412
Security Parameters 98
security protocols 405
Security Ramifications 170
Separation Between Equipment and Receiver 4
Serial Number 7
Server 43, 122, 315, 317, 319, 320, 322, 323, 384
Server behind NAT 319
Service 5, 6, 171
Service Personnel 5
Service Type 180, 420
Services 123
Session Expires 139
Session Initiation Protocol 131
setup a schedule 400
Shared secret 107, 350
Shipping 6
Shock, Electric 5
Silence Suppression 47, 143
Single User Account (SUA) 54
SIP 131
SIP Account 131, 138
SIP ALG 47, 135
SIP Application Layer Gateway 47, 135
SIP Call Progression 132
SIP Client 132
SIP Identities 131
SIP INVITE Request 132
SIP Local Port 72, 138
SIP Number 72, 131, 138, 145
SIP Proxy Server 133
SIP Redirect Server 134
SIP Register Server 135
SIP Registration Status 255
SIP Server Address 72, 138
SIP Server Port 72, 138
SIP Servers 132
SIP Service Domain 72, 132, 138
SIP URI 131, 145
SIP User Agent Server 133
SIP Version 2 46
SMT 265
SMT Main Menu 268
SMT Menu Overview 269
SMTP 123
SMTP Error Messages 250
Smurf 159, 160
SNMP 123, 124
Community 347
Configuration 346
516
Get 346
GetNext 346
Manager 345
MIBs 346
Set 346
Trap 346
Trusted Host 347
SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) 54
Source Address 171, 178
Source-Based Routing 391
Spain, Contact Information 7
Speaking Volume 144
Speed Dial 144, 145
Speed Dial Phone Book 146
Speed Dial Screen 145
SPI 219, 412, 413
Stateful Inspection 48, 155, 156, 161, 162
Prestige 163
Process 162
Static DHCP 85
Static Route 305
Static route 305
Static Routing Topology 305
SUA 122, 124
SUA (Single User Account) 122, 313
SUA server 123, 125
Default server set 123
SUA vs NAT 122
SUA/NAT Server Set 126
Subnet Mask 65, 81, 178, 283, 299, 307, 358
Subnet Masks 442
Subnetting 442
Supply Voltage 5
Support E-mail 7
Supporting Disk 41
Sustain Cell Rate 293
Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) 113
Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) 110
Sweden, Contact Information 7
Swimming Pool 5
Switch 43
SYN Flood 158, 159
SYN-ACK 159
Syntax Conventions 42
Syslog 183, 360
Syslog IP Address 360
Syslog Server 360
System
Console Port Speed 358
Diagnostic 362
Log and Trace 359
Syslog and Accounting 360
Index
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
System Information 357
System Status 355
System Information 357
System Information & Diagnosis 355
System Maintenance 250, 355, 357, 366, 369, 376, 377,
381, 382, 384
System Management Terminal 265, 267
System Parameter Table Generator 463
System password 349
System Security 349
System Statistics 256
System Status 253, 255, 356
System Timeout 230, 389
T
Talk Time 257
Tampering 6
TCP Maximum Incomplete 188, 189
TCP Security 163
TCP/IP 157, 158, 230, 340, 363
Teardrop 158
Telecommunication Line Cord. 5
Telephone 7, 43
Television Interference 4
Television Reception 4
Telnet 230
Telnet Configuration 230
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) 96
Terminal Emulation 265
Test Your Internet Connection 76
Text File Format 463
TFTP
Restrictions 388
TFTP File Transfer 376
TFTP Restrictions 229, 368
Three-Way Handshake 159
Threshold Values 188
Thunderstorm 5
Time and Date Setting 383
Time Zone 384
Timeout 278
TKIP 96
TLS 457
ToS 140
TOS (Type of Service) 391
Trace Records 359
Traceroute 161
Index
Trademark 3
Trademark Owners 3
Trademarks 3
Traffic Redirect 114, 115
Setup 278
Traffic redirect 114
traffic redirect 50
Traffic shaping 110
Translation 3
Transmission Rates 48
Transport Layer Security 457
Transport Mode 198
Triangle 459
Triangle Route Solutions 460
Triple DES (3DES) 411
TTLS 457
Tunnel Mode 198
Tunneled Transport Layer Service 457
TV Technician 4
Tx B/s 257
TxPkts 257
Type Of Service 140
Type of Service 142, 391, 393, 394, 395
U
UBR 293
UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) 113
UDP/ICMP Security 164
Undesired Operations 4
Uniform Resource Identifier 131
Universal Plug and Play 233
Application 233
Security issues 233
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) 50
Universal Plug and Play Forum 234
UNIX Syslog 359, 360
UNIX syslog parameters 360
Unregister 255
Unspecified Bit Rate 293
Up Time 257
Upload Firmware 262, 374
UPnP 233
Upper Layer Protocols 163, 164
Upstream Noise Margin 261
URL Type 139
Use Proxy 145
Used Port 255
517
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
User Authentication 96
User Name 150
User Profiles 105
user profiles 353
V
VAD 47, 143
VAD Support 144
Value 6
Variable Bit Rate 293
VBR 293
VBR (Variable Bit Rate) 113
VC-based Multiplexing 296
VCI 65
Vendor 5
Ventilation Slots 5
VID 142
Viewing Certifications 4
Virtual Channel Identifier 65
Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) 64
Virtual Circuit ID 65
Virtual Local Area Network 141
Virtual Path Identifier 65
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) 64
Virtual Private Network 48, 195
VLAN 141
VLAN Group 141
VLAN ID 141
VLAN ID Tags 141
VLAN Tag 142
Voice Activity Detection 47, 143
Voice Coding 47, 136
Voice Information 255
Voice Priority 142
Voice Statistics 257
VoIP 131
VoIP Screen 137
VoIP Standards Compliance 46
Voltage Supply 5
Voltage, High 5
VPI 65
VPI & VCI 64
VPN 195
VPN Applications 196
VPN/IPSec 403
VT100 265
518
W
Wall Mount 5
WAN (Wide Area Network) 109
WAN backup 115
WAN Information 255
WAN Setup 277
WAN to LAN Rules 172
Warnings 5
Warranty 6
Warranty Information 7
Warranty Period 6
Water 5
Water Pipes 5
Web Configurator 57, 58, 59, 156, 164, 171, 330
web configurator screen summary 59
Web Site 7
WEP
Default Key 286
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) 49, 92, 286
WEP Encryption 286
WEP encryption 90
Wet Basement 5
Wi-Fi Protected Access 96
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) 49
Wireless Client WPA Supplicants 99
Wireless LAN 87, 285, 451
Benefits 451
Configuring 90
Wireless LAN Association List 259
Wireless LAN MAC Address Filtering 49
Wireless LAN Setup 285
Wireless port control 100, 352
Wireless security 89
WLAN 451
Interference 87
Security parameters 98
WLAN Information 255
Workmanship 6
Worldwide Contact Information 7
WPA 96, 352
Supplicants 99
with RADIUS Application Example 97
WPA Mixed Mode 352
WPA -Pre-Shared Key 96
WPA with RADIUS Application 97
WPA-PSK 96
WPA-PSK Application 97
Written Permission 3
Index
Prestige 2602HW Series User’s Guide
X
Xmodem
File Upload 378
XMODEM protocol 366
Z
Zero Configuration 114
Zero Configuration Internet Access 48
Zero configuration Internet access 111
ZyNOS 3, 366
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) 365
ZyNOS F/W Version 366
ZyXEL Communications Corporation 3
ZyXEL Home Page 4
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
Note 6
ZyXEL Network Operating System 3
ZyXEL_s Firewall
Introduction 156
Index
519