Sigma | SQM-160 | User`s guide | Sigma SQM-160 User`s guide

SQM-160
Rate/Thickness Monitor
User’s Guide
Version 4.06
© Copyright Sigma Instruments, Inc. 2000-2008

Sigma
instruments
Safety Information
Read this manual before installing, operating, or servicing this equipment. Do not install
substitute parts, or perform any unauthorized modification of the product. Return the
product to Sigma Instruments for service and repair to ensure that safety features are
maintained.
Safety Symbols
W ARNING: Calls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that could
possibly cause bodily injury or death.
CAUTION: Calls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that could
possibly cause damage to equipment or permanent loss of data.
Refer to all manual Warning or Caution information before using this product
to avoid personal injury or equipment damage.
Hazardous voltages may be present.
Earth ground symbol.
Chassis ground symbol.
Equipotential ground symbol.
Warranty Information
This Sigma Instruments product is warranted against defects in material and
workmanship for a period of 2 years from the date of shipment, when used in
accordance with the instructions in this manual. During the warranty period, Sigma
Instruments will, at its option, either repair or replace products that prove to be
defective.
Limitation of Warranty
Defects from, or repairs necessitated by misuse or alteration of the product, or any
cause other than defective materials or workmanship are not covered by this warranty.
NO OTHER WARRANTIES ARE EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL SIGMA
INSTRUMENTS BE LIABLE FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR OTHER DAMAGES
RESULTING FROM A BREACH OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY, OR OTHERWISE.
Return Policy
The purchaser may return this product in like-new condition within 30 days after
shipment for any reason. In case of return, purchaser is liable and responsible for all
freight charges in both directions.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Quick Start
Introduction .....................................................................................................1-1
Installation........................................................................................................1-1
Front Panel.......................................................................................................1-2
Rear Panel .......................................................................................................1-3
System Connections ........................................................................................1-4
Film Setup........................................................................................................1-5
Depositing a Film..............................................................................................1-6
Chapter 2
Operation
2.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................2-1
2.1 Menu Selection ................................................................................................2-1
2.2 Film Parameters...............................................................................................2-2
2.3 System Parameters .........................................................................................2-4
2.4 Sensor Selection ..............................................................................................2-7
2.5 Sensor Frequency............................................................................................2-8
2.6 Sensor Tooling .................................................................................................2-9
2.7 Display Units ....................................................................................................2-10
2.8 Crystal Life .......................................................................................................2-10
2.9 Zero Thickness.................................................................................................2-11
2.10 Shutter Operation...........................................................................................2-11
2.11 Dual Sensors..................................................................................................2-12
2.12 Rate Sampling................................................................................................2-13
2.13 Time Setpoint .................................................................................................2-14
2.14 Thickness Setpoint.........................................................................................2-15
2.15 Simulate Mode ...............................................................................................2-16
2.16 Relay Operation .............................................................................................2-16
2.17 Analog Output Configuration ..........................................................................2-17
2.18 Troubleshooting…..........................................................................................2-18
Chapter 3
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
Options
Introduction ......................................................................................................3-1
Option Card Installation....................................................................................3-1
Four-Sensor Card Configuration ......................................................................3-1
Rack Installation...............................................................................................3-2
Chapter 4
Maintenance
4.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................4-1
4.1 Cleaning...........................................................................................................4-1
Appendix
A.
B.
C.
D.
Material Parameters
Specifications
I/O Connections
Declaration of Conformity
Chapter 1
Quick Start
1.0 Introduction
Congratulations on your purchase of the SQM-160 Deposition Rate/Thickness Monitor.
The SQM-160 is an easy-to-use instrument for measuring many types of thin-film
coatings. This chapter will help to get you up and running quickly. Please review the
entire manual for detailed operational, programming, and safety information.
1.1 Installation
This section assumes you are familiar with thin-film monitors. Refer to Sections 1.3 and
1.4 for detailed system hookup information.
WARNING: Maintain adequate insulation and physical separation of sensor, I/O, and
option card wiring from hazardous voltages.
Rack
Installation
The SQM-160 occupies a 3.5” high, half-rack space. Rack
installation requires either a half-rack adapter kit (900-014) or a
full rack extender kit (900-008). Install the unit in a 19” rack
with the appropriate hardware. See Chapter 3 for extender
assembly instructions.
Power
Connection
W ARNING: Verify that the power cable provided is connected to
a properly grounded mains receptacle.
Sensor
Connections
Connect the BNC cables and oscillator from your vacuum
chamber feedthrough to the SQM-160 Sensor Input(s).
Digital I/O
Connections
Refer to Appendix C for details on wiring digital I/O to the
SQM-160 Relay I/O connector.
Computer
Connection
If you would like to use the supplied Windows™ software to
collect data or program the SQM-160, attach a 9-pin straightthru cable from the SQM-160 RS-232 connector to your
computer’s serial port.
Option
Connections
If you have purchased the optional Four Sensor Card, connect
the BNC cables and oscillator from your vacuum chamber
feedthrough to these additional four inputs.
Move the rear panel power switch to the On (|) position. The SQM-160 will briefly
display its software version, then go to normal operating mode.
1-1
Chapter 1
Quick Start
1.2 Front Panel
Gary
Display1
Was
Display2
Crystal Status LEDs
Here
Control Knob
Rate A/s
Thickness kA
Zero
2
3
4
5
6
Crystal Status
Open
Time
Closed
Xtal Life
1
Time SP
Thk SP
Next
Shutter
Prev
Clear
Program
Final Thk
Control
Configuration
Control Section
Setpoint LEDs
Configuration Section
Front Panel Controls
Display 1
Displays rate/thickness or frequency in normal operation.
Displays setup parameter name in program mode.
Display 2
Displays deposition time, or sensor # displayed when scrolling
through sensor readings.
Displays setup parameter values in program mode.
Control
Section
Zero thickness reading.
Toggle display between Crystal Life and Rate/Thickness.
Open/close shutter relay.
Configuration
Section
Program enters setup mode.
Next/Prev moves thru menus.
Clear cancels change and returns value to its original setting.
Setpoint LEDs
Illuminate when the indicated setpoint is reached.
Crystal Status
LEDs
Illuminate when a crystal is active and operating.
Flashes when an active crystal fails.
Control Knob
Used to adjust values or scroll though menu selections.
Pushing the control knob stores the current setting.
1-2
Chapter 1
Quick Start
1.3 Rear Panel
RS-232
Option Card
Sensor
4
5
USB/Ethernet
3
Sensor 1
Sensor 2
Rate Out
Thick Out
Fuse T2.5A 250V
6
Relay I/O

Manufactured By
Sigma
instruments
100-120/200-240V~
50/60 Hz
20 W
Rear Panel Connections
Sensor 1 & 2
Connection to quartz crystal sensors. See Section 1.4 for
detailed hookup..
Rate and
Thickness Outputs
Provides 0-5V analog outputs for rate and thickness readings.
For connection to strip chart recorders or similar instruments.
Relay I/O
Connects 4 relays and 4 digital inputs to external equipment for
process control. See Appendix C for connections.
RS-232
Connection to computer serial port for programming and data
acquisition.
USB/Ethernet
Optional connection to computer USB or Ethernet port for
programming and data acquisition
Provides an additional four sensor measurement channels.
Option Card
Measurement ground terminal useful for common system and
cable grounding.
Power Connector
W ARNING: Use removable power cords only of the specified
type and rating, attached to a properly grounded receptacle.
1-3
Chapter 1
Quick Start
1.4 System Connections
The diagram shows typical vacuum system wiring. The table identifies each
component’s function.
WARNING: Maintain adequate insulation and physical separation of sensor wiring from
hazardous voltages.
S ensor
9 3 2 -0 0 0
G ro u n d W ire
O p tio n C a rd
Sensor
R S -2 3 2
In - V a c C a b le
9 0 2 -0 1 4
3
4
S e n s o r 1 S e n s o r 2 R a te O u T
t h ic k O u t
S o u rc e
S h u tte r
F e e d th ro u g h
9 3 0 -0 0 0
5
F u s e T 2 .5 A 2 5 0 V
6
R e la y I/O
S ig m a
M anufac tured B y
ins trum ents
1 0 0 -1 2 0 /2 0 0 -2 4 0 V ~
5 0 /6 0 H z
20 W
S Q M -1 6 0
M o n ito r
6 " B N C C a b le
9 0 2 -0 1 1
O s cilla to r
9 0 0 -0 1 0
1 0 ' B N C C a b le
9 0 2 -0 1 2
System Components
Sensor
Holds the quartz crystal used to measure rate and thickness.
Crystals must be replaced occasionally.
In-Vac Cable
A coaxial cable that connects the sensor to the feedthrough.
Feedthrough
Provides isolation between vacuum and atmosphere for
electrical and cooling lines.
6” BNC Cable
Provides a flexible connection from the feedthrough to the
oscillator. Keep this cable as short as possible.
Oscillator
Contains the electronics to operate the quartz crystal. Total
cable length to the crystal should be under 40” (1 meter).
10’ BNC Cable
Connects the oscillator to the SQM-160. Lengths up to 100’
(30 meters) are acceptable.
Ground Wire
A wire, typically braided, that connects the vacuum system to
the SQM-160 ground terminal.
1-4
Chapter 1
Quick Start
1.5 Film Setup
This section will help you set up the SQM-160 to measure a film. Refer to Chapter 2 for
detailed programming instructions.
Note: User actions with front panel controls are indicated by a Box. Results shown on
displays are indicated by a Dashed Box .
Enter Program
Mode
If the Crystal Life display is shown, press Xtal Life to return to
Rate/Thickness mode. Press Program to enter the film setup
menu.
Select a Film
Turn the Control Knob to select one of the nine possible films,
then press the Control Knob to enter the film parameters
menu.
Set Film
Parameters
Turn the Control Knob to set the first film parameter (Density).
The parameter value is shown in Display 2. Press the Control
Knob to save the value and move to the next film parameter. If
you press Clear, the film parameter returns to its original value.
Continue to set each parameter. When the last film parameter
is entered, the SQM-160 returns to normal mode.
To Enter the system menu, press Program, then Prev. Set
system parameters by turning, then pushing, the Control Knob
as described above. Press Program to return to Normal mode.
Set System
Parameters
If the sensor(s) you selected during film setup are connected to the SQM-160, the
Crystal Status LEDs should be lit. If not, return to the Film Parameters menu and set
the Sensor Average parameter to the desired sensor(s).
If the Crystal Status LED is flashing, it is most likely that sensor is not properly
connected. A small test crystal, supplied with each oscillator module, can be used to
test sensor connections external to the vacuum chamber. Referring to Section 1.4,
disconnect the oscillator from its 6” BNC cable. Attach the test crystal to the oscillator’s
feedthrough connector. The Crystal Status LED will remain lit if the external sensor
connections are correct.
Refer to the Troubleshooting section of Chapter 2 for assistance in troubleshooting
sensor problems.
1-5
Chapter 1
Quick Start
1.6 Depositing a Film
If you have followed this Quick Start chapter, you are ready to deposit a film. Follow the
procedure below to begin deposition.
Verify Sensor
Operation
Verify that the Crystal Status LED for the measuring sensor is
lit, and not blinking.
Display
Rate/Thickness
Display 1 should be displaying Rate on the left and Thickness
on the right. If the Crystal Life display mode is active, press
the Xtal Life switch to return to Rate/Thickness mode. If the
Program Mode is active, press Program to return to normal
mode.
Zero
Thickness
If needed, press the Zero switch to zero the thickness reading.
Start
Deposition
Apply power to your source evaporation supply. If the SQM160 shutter relay is connected, press the Shutter switch to
open the source shutter and begin deposition.
The Rate and Thickness displays should begin to move from zero.
If the displays remain at zero, check your system setup to assure that you are actually
evaporating. Also check that the deposited material is reaching the sensor.
If the display is erratic or noisy, first check your sensor connections. Refer to the
Troubleshooting section of Chapter 2 for information that can help in identifying the
cause of noisy readings.
If the rate and thickness readings do not match your expectations, refer to the Film
Parameter (Density, Z-Factor, Tooling) and Sensor Tooling sections of Chapter 2.
Please take time to review the remainder of this manual for detailed operational,
programming, and safety information.
1-6
Chapter 1
Quick Start
1-7
Chapter 2
Operation
2.0 Introduction
This section details the operation of the SQM-160 menus and front panel controls. It is
arranged by common user tasks.
Note: User actions with front panel controls are indicated by a Box. Results shown on
displays are indicated by a Dashed Box .
2.1 Menu Selection
Two menus provide control of the SQM-160 programming. The Film Parameters Menu
allows you to customize each of the nine stored films. The System Parameters Menu
sets values that remain constant for all films.
The Configuration Section of the SQM-160 front panel contains four switches used to
access the program menus. Within the program menus, the Control Knob is also used
to adjust values and select menu choices. In program mode, Display 1 shows the
parameter to be changed. Display 2 shows the selected parameter’s value.
Note: If Crystal Life is shown on the SQM-160 displays, press the Xtal Life switch to
return the displays to rate/thickness or frequency display.
To enter the Film Parameters Menu, press the Program switch. The SQM-160 displays
the currently active film. Turn the control knob to select a different film, then press Next
to display the first parameter for the selected film.
To enter the System Parameters Menu, press the Program switch. Then press Prev to
display the first system parameter.
R a te A /s
T h ickne ss kA
Z ero
2
3
4
5
6
C rystal S tatus
O pe n
T im e
C lose d
X tal L ife
1
Tim e S P
Th k S P
N ext
S hu tter
P rev
C le ar
P rog ra m
Final Thk
C o ntro l
S ig m a
instr um en ts
S Q M -1 60
R ate /T hickness M o nitor
P re ss N E X T to
m o ve th ru the
F ilm m e nu
C on fig u ra tion
P re ss P R E V th e n
N E X T to m o ve
thru the
S yste m m en u
P re ss
PROGRAM
to acce ss
m en u s
2-1
Chapter 2
Operation
2.2 Film Parameters
The Film Parameters Menu programs the SQM-160 for the materials that will be
deposited as thin films. Nine films can be stored, but only one film is active at any time.
1. Press Program to enter program mode.
2. Use the Control Knob to scroll to the desired Film # (1-9).
3. Depress the Control Knob or Next to enter the film parameters menu for the
selected film.
4. Use Next and Prev to move through the film parameters, shown in Display 1.
5. Use the Control Knob to adjust the parameter value, shown in Display2, to the
desired setting.
6. Depress the Control Knob or Next to save the displayed value and move to the next
material parameter. Press Clear to abandon the change and return to the original
setting.
7. Press Program to exit the Film Parameters Menu and return to normal mode.
The diagram and table that follow detail the parameters available in the Film
Parameters Menu. Refer to later sections of this chapter for instructions on setting
specific film parameters.
Film S electio n
P rog ram
F ilm 1
.
.
.
.
.
.
F ilm 9
F ilm P aram eters M en u
-
D E N S IT Y
T O O LIN G
Z -FA C TO R
F IN L TH K
THK SET *
S ub -M enu
- T IM E S E T *
- S A M P LE *
- H O LD *
- 1
- 2
- 3
.
.
- SENS AVG *
- 6
S ensors 3 to 6
show only if the
four-sensor
option card is
installed.
Note: Depending on System Menu setup, selections marked with a * may not be
available. Consult the table that follows for details.
2-2
Chapter 2
Operation
Film Parameters
Display
Description
Range
Default
Units
DENSITY
Density of the material being
deposited. Consult the Appendix for
common material densities.
0.5 – 99.99
1.00
gm/cc
TOOLING
Overall Tooling Factor for this film.
See the Sensor Tooling section of
this chapter.
10 – 399
100
%
Z-FACTOR
Z-Factor of the material being
deposited. Consult the Appendix for
common material Z-Factors.
0.10 – 10.00
1.0
FINL THK
Desired Final Thickness of
deposited material. Lights Final Thk
LED when reached.
0.000 – 99.99
0.500
kÅ
THK SET
Thickness value that closes the
Thickness Setpoint relay and lights
Thk SP LED. *Not available when
Sampling is ON in System Menu.
0.000 – 99.99
0
kÅ
TIME SET
Elapsed time that closes the Timer
0:00 – 99:59
Setpoint relay and lights Time SP
LED. *Not available when Relay 3 is
set to Dual or Sensor 2 in the
System Menu.
0
Min:
Sec
SAMPLE
The time for the sensor shutter to
remain open when Rate Sampling is
enabled in the System Menu. *Not
available when Sampling is OFF in
System Menu.
0 - 9999
0
Sec
HOLD
The time for the sensor shutter to
remain closed when Rate Sampling
is enabled in the System Menu.
*Not available when Sampling is
OFF in System Menu.
0 - 9999
0
Sec
2-3
Chapter 2
SENS AVG
Operation
Enable/disable crystals for this film.
See the Sensor Selection section of
this chapter. *Not available Relay 3
is set to Dual in the System Menu.
Enabled/
Disabled
Ch1
Enabled
2-4
Chapter 2
Operation
2.3 System Parameters
The System Parameters Menu sets values that pertain to the overall functions of the
SQM-160 and to your vacuum system’s setup. System parameters apply to all films.
1. Press Program to enter program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters Menu.
3. Use Next and Prev to move through the system parameters.
4. Use the Control Knob to adjust the parameter value shown in Display2 to the
desired setting.
5. Press Clear to abandon the change and return to the original setting.
6. Depress the Control Knob or Next to save the displayed value and move to the next
material parameter. Press Clear to abandon the change and return to the original
setting.
7. Press Program to exit the System Parameters Menu and return to normal mode.
S ys te m P a ra m e ters M en u
- T IM E B A S E
- S IM M O D E
- D IS P L A Y
P ro gra m
P re v
-
RATE RES
R A T E F ILT
RELAY 3
S A M P L IN G
BAUDRATE
ETCH
xT O O L IN G
RELAYS
F M IN /M A X
R /T B N D S
S u b -M en u
-
T H C K (A )
T H C K (n M )
MASS
FREQ
- T IM E S P
- DUAL
- SENS 2
- F R E Q M IN
- FREQ M AX
-
- xT LT O O L1
.
- xT L T O O L6
- R E LA Y 1
.
- R E LA Y 4
R A T E M IN
RATE MAX
T H IC K M IN
T H IC K M A X
2-5
Chapter 2
Operation
System Parameters
Display
Description
Range
Default
Units
TIMEBASE
Time required for a measurement.
0.15 – 2.00
0.25
Sec.
SIM MODE
Simulates sensor inputs.
On/Off
Off
DISPLAY
Toggles between Rate/Thickness in
Angstroms, Rate/Thickness in
Nanometers, Frequency, and Mass
(ugm/cc) displays.
THCK/nAnM/
FREQ/MASS
Rate
RATE RES
Sets rate resolution to .01 or .1 Å/s.
Hi/Low
Low
RATEFILT
Number of rate readings averaged.
1 – 20
8
RELAY 3
Timer causes relay to close when
time setpoint is reached. Dual
causes relay to close (to activate
dual sensor) when sensor 1 fails.
Sensor 2 causes relay to activate a
sensor shutter when Sensor 2 is
assigned to a film.
When Sampling is ON the sensor
shutter periodically “samples” the
rate. After a period, the shutter
closes and the SQM-160 “holds”
the same rate reading until the next
sample period. Sample and Hold
times are set in the Film Menu.
On/Off
Off
On/Off
Off
BAUDRATE
Serial baud rate to PC.
2.4 – 19.2
19.2
ETCH
Sets rate negative for etching.
On/Off
Off
xTOOLING
Tooling value assigned to each
sensor. See the Sensor Tooling
section of this chapter.
10 – 399
100
RELAYS
Assigns normally open or normally
closed operation for each relay.
Note: All relays are open with
power off.
NO/NC
NO
SAMPLING
kbps
%
2-6
Chapter 2
Operation
FMIN/MAX
Sub-menu sets minimum and
maximum crystal frequencies.
R/T BNDS
Rate and Thickness Bounds submenu.
RATE MIN
Deposition Rate for zero output
(zero Volts).
4.00 – 6.00
5.00
4.10-6.10
6.10
MHz
0 – 999
0
Å/s
RATE MAX Deposition Rate for full scale
output (+5 Volts).
9.9 – 999
100
Å/s
THICKMIN
0 – 99.99
0.00
kÅ
0 – 99.99
1.00
kÅ
Thickness for zero output
(zero Volts).
THICKMAX Thickness for full scale output
(+5 Volts).
2-7
Chapter 2
Operation
2.4 Sensor Selection
The SQM-160 comes standard with two sensor inputs. Four additional sensors are
available by adding a Sensor Option Card. A specific sensor can each be assigned to
each film, or multiple sensors can be averaged for a film. The averaging option
provides more uniform coverage of the deposition area, and provides a backup sensor
capability. If one of multiple sensors assigned to a film fails, the sensor is automatically
removed from rate/thickness calculations.
Note: If Relay 3 Dual is selected in the System Menu, Sensors 1 and 2 are set up as a
primary/secondary sensor pair. In that case, sensor averaging is disabled. See Section
2.11 for information on dual sensors.
To assign a sensor, or sensors, to a film:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Use the Control Knob to scroll to the desired Film # (1-9).
3. Depress the Control Knob or Next to enter the film parameters menu for the
selected film.
4. Press Next until SENS AVG is shown.
5. Use the Control Knob to scroll through the sensors in Display2.
6. Depress the Control Knob to toggle the sensor on/off.
Sensor status can be seen by observing the Crystal Status LEDs:
If the LED is not illuminated, the crystal is disabled.
If the LED is illuminated, the crystal is enabled and receiving valid readings.
If the LED is blinking, the crystal is enabled, but is not receiving valid readings.
7. Continue selecting sensors until the Crystal Status LEDs indicate the desired setup.
8. Press Program to exit the Film Parameters Menu and return to normal mode.
9. Turn the Control Knob to sequence though each sensor’s reading on Display1.
When a single number is shown in Display2 it is the sensor number whose
readings are shown in Display1. When time is shown in Display2 , Display1 shows
the average of all assigned sensors..
2-8
Chapter 2
Operation
2.5 Sensor Frequency
The Sensor Min/Max frequencies establish the operating range for the sensing quartz
crystals. Both values are used to determine the % life that is displayed in Xtal Life
mode.
When the sensor frequency drops below the minimum, the SQM-160 indicates a sensor
failure by blinking the Crystal Status display.
To set sensor minimum and maximum frequencies:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until FMIN/FMAX is shown.
4. Depress the Control Knob to display FREQ MIN.
5. Adjust the Control Knob to the desired minimum operating frequency on Display2.
6. Depress the Control Knob to accept the minimum value and display FREQ MAX.
7. Adjust the Control Knob to the desired maximum operating frequency on Display2.
8. Depress the Control Knob to accept the maximum value.
9. Press Program to exit the System Parameters Menu and return to normal mode.
Crystals sometimes fail unexpectedly, or exhibit erratic frequency shifts (mode hopping)
before total failure. Depending on the material, crystals may fail well before the typical 5
MHz value. If you find that crystals fail early consistently, set FREQ MIN to a value
higher than 5 MHz to provide a Crystal Life warning before actual failure.
A sensor whose initial value exceeds the maximum will also cause a blinking Crystal
status. You can set the maximum frequency slightly above the nominal values with no
effect on accuracy.
2-9
Chapter 2
Operation
2.6 Sensor Tooling
Sensor Tooling adjusts for the difference in deposition rate between the sensor and the
substrate being coated. It is an empirically determined value that matches the sensor
readings to your vacuum system.
Substrate
Substrate
Tooling
Over 100%
Tooling
Under 100%
xTooling is set in the System Parameters menu. It adjusts the tooling for each
individual sensor before it is averaged. xTooling for a sensor applies to all films. If the
individual sensor xToolings are set properly, a sensor failure will not cause a jump in the
average Rate and Thickness reading.
To adjust xTooling:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until xTOOLING is shown, then press the Control Knob.
4. Adjust the Control Knob to set the XTLTOOL 1 value. Depress the Control Knob to
save the value and move to XTLTOOL 2.
5. Repeat Step 4 for each of the installed sensors.
6. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
Film Tooling is set in the Film Parameters Menu, and is applied to the averaged Rate
and Thickness for all sensors assigned to that film. Film Tooling is a film-specific value,
and is seldom required.
2-10
Chapter 2
Operation
2.7 Display Units
The SQM-160 can display crystal measurements in several different units. To select
the display units:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until DSP….. is shown.
4. Turn the Control Knob left or right to select the desired display mode:
THCK - Rate in A/s, Thickness in kA
nAnM - Rate in nM/s, Thickness in uM
MASS - Rate in ng/cc/s, Thickness in ng (nanograms)
FREQ – Frequency in Hz
Note: When Nanometers is selected a small “n” appears between the rate
and thickness displays When Mass is selected a small “m” appears between
the rate and thickness displays.
5. Depress the Control Knob to accept your choice.
6. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
2.8 Crystal Life
The SQM-160 calculates the remaining crystal life based on the FMin/Max values set in
the System Parameters Menu (see Section 2.5).
To display the remaining crystal life for the sensors used by the currently active film:
1. Press the Xtal Life switch in the front panel Control section.
2. The sensor is shown in Display 1 and the % remaining life is shown in Display2.
3. Turn the Control Knob to display the % life of other sensors active for this film.
4. Press Xtal Life again to return to normal rate/thickness, or frequency display.
Note: You cannot enter program mode while the crystal life display is active.
2-11
Chapter 2
Operation
2.9 Zero Thickness
Before starting each film deposition, you will probably want to reset the SQM-160
Thickness value to zero. To zero Thickness:
1. Press the Zero switch in the front panel Control section.
In addition to zeroing Thickness, pressing the Zero switch has these effects:
1. The Time display is reset to its programmed value, and starts counting down.
2. The Thickness Setpoint and Timer relays open.
3. The Time SP, Thk SP, and Final Thk LEDs turn off.
2.10 Shutter Operation
The SQM-160 Shutter switch controls a relay that is normally connected to the source
shutter.
To open or close the Shutter relay:
1. Press the Shutter switch in the front panel Control section.
The Open and Closed LEDs illuminate to indicate the shutter status.
Note: If Relay 3 is set to Sensor 2 in System Menu, the operation of the Shutter
switch/relay changes slightly. In this case, the shutter relay will activate only if
Sensor 1 is assigned to the active film. If sensor 2 is assigned to the active film,
Relay 3 will close instead.
2-12
Chapter 2
Operation
2.11 Dual Sensors
Dual shuttered sensors provide a backup (secondary) sensor in case of primary sensor
failure. When Relay 3 is programmed for Dual sensors in the System menu, the SQM160 will automatically switch to Sensor 2 when Sensor 1 readings stop or become
erratic.
To program the SQM-160 for dual sensors:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until RELAY 3 is shown.
4. Turn the Control Knob right to select DUAL sensor function.
5. Depress the Control Knob to accept the value.
6. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
7. In the film menu, assign only Sensor 1 to the film. The backup sensor 2 is
automatically assigned internally.
Note: Relay 3 is a multi-function relay. It can be programmed as a dual sensor shutter,
or to close when a programmed time has elapsed, or as a sensor 2 shutter relay.
Section 2.10 and 2.13 discuss the other Relay 3 functions.
2-13
Chapter 2
Operation
2.12 Rate Sampling
In Rate Sampling mode, the SQM-160 opens a sensor shutter for a fixed time to
“sample” the process rate, then closes the shutter and “holds” the last rate reading for a
fixed time. While the shutter is closed (hold mode), the SQM-160 calculates thickness
based on the last sampled rate.
Note: Rate sampling can significantly extend crystal life in a high deposition rate
process. However, unless the process is very stable, the thickness calculation during
hold mode may be incorrect. Do not use rate sampling if your rate varies during
deposition.
To program the SQM-160 for Rate Sampling:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until SAMPLING is shown.
4. Turn the Control Knob right to turn ON rate sampling. Depress the Control Knob to
accept the value.
5. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
6. Press Program to re-enter Program mode.
7. Use the Control Knob to scroll to the desired Film # (1-9), then depress the Control
Knob or Next to enter the film parameter menu for the selected film.
8. Press Next until SAMPLE is shown.
9. Use the Control Knob to set the sample time period. Depress the Control Knob to
accept the sample value and display HOLD.
10. Use the Control Knob to set the hold time period. Depress the Control Knob to
accept the Hold value.
11. Press Program to exit the Film Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
Note: The rate sampling relay is a dual function relay. It can be programmed either to
sample rate or to close when a programmed thickness is reached. Section 2.14
discusses the Thickness Setpoint function. Consult Appendix C for relay wiring.
2-14
Chapter 2
Operation
2.13 Time Setpoint
The Time Setpoint provides a convenient way to signal a timed event. The Time
Setpoint closes a relay a programmed time period after the Zero switch is pushed.
To program the Time Setpoint:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until RELAY 3 is shown.
4. Turn the Control Knob right to select TIME. Depress the Control Knob to accept the
value.
5. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
6. Press Program to re-enter Program mode.
7. Use the Control Knob to scroll to the desired Film # (1-9), then depress the Control
Knob or Next to enter the Film Parameter menu for the selected film.
8. Press Next until TIME SET is shown.
9. Use the Control Knob to set the timer setpoint. Depress the Control Knob to accept
the value.
10. Press Program to exit the Film Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
Press Zero to open the relay and begin counting down the Time Setpoint. When the
time reaches zero, the Time SP LED illuminates and the relay closes.
Note: Relay 3 is a multi-function relay. It can be programmed as a dual sensor shutter,
or to close when a programmed time has elapsed, or as a sensor 2 shutter relay.
Section 2.10 and 2.11 discuss the other Relay 3 functions.
2-15
Chapter 2
Operation
2.14 Thickness Setpoint
The Thickness Setpoint closes a relay when a programmed thickness is reached. This
setpoint is independent from Final Thickness, which always closes the source shutter.
To program the Thickness Setpoint:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until SAMPLING is shown.
4. Turn the Control Knob right to turn OFF the Sampling function. Depress the Control
Knob to accept the value.
5. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
6. Press Program to re-enter Program mode.
7. Use the Control Knob to scroll to the desired Film # (1-9), then depress the Control
Knob or Next to enter the Film Parameter menu for the selected film.
8. Press Next until THK SET is shown, not FINL THK.
9. Use the Control Knob to set the thickness setpoint. Depress the Control Knob to
accept the value.
10. Press Program to exit the Film Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
When the Thickness Setpoint is reached, the Thk SP LED lights and the relay closes.
You can use the Zero switch to open the relay and zero thickness at any time.
Note: The Thickness Setpoint relay is a dual function relay. It can be programmed
either to indicate a thickness, or to control a sensor shutter for rate sampling. Section
2.12 discusses the Rate Sampling function. Consult Appendix C for relay wiring.
2-16
Chapter 2
Operation
2.15 Simulate Mode
In Simulate mode, the SQM-160 simulates attached sensors. It is an easy way to
become familiar with the SQM-160 front panel controls and programming. You can
open/close the shutter to simulate deposition, zero readings, and display crystal life.
You can also test the Time and Thickness setpoint relays and LEDs.
To enter Simulate mode:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until SIM MODE is shown.
4. Turn the Control Knob left or right to enable and disable Simulate mode.
5. Depress the Control Knob to accept the value.
6. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
2.16 Relay Operation
The four relays of the SQM-160 are physically single-pole, normally-open (1FormA)
relays. However, each can be programmed to act as either normally-open or normallyclosed during SQM-160 operation. It is important to keep in mind that all relays will
open if the SQM-160 is turned off or loses power. Consult Appendix C for relay wiring.
To set the relay operating mode:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Press Next until RELAYS is shown.
4. Turn the Control Knob left or right to select NO (normally open) or NC (normally
closed). Depress the Control Knob to accept the value.
5. Repeat Step 4 for each of the installed sensors.
6. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
2-17
Chapter 2
Operation
2.17 Analog Output Configuration
The SQM-160 System Parameters must be set to match the device that will be attached
to the Rate or Thickness output.
To set up the analog outputs in the System Parameters menu:
1. Press Program to enter Program mode.
2. Press Prev to enter the System Parameters menu.
3. Use Next to move through the system parameters until R/T BNDS is displayed.
4. Depress the Control Knob to display RATE MIN.
5. Adjust the Control Knob to the Rate desired for a 0V output.
6. Depress the Control Knob to save the value and display the RATE MAX setting.
7. Adjust the Control Knob to the Rate desired for a 5V output.
8. Depress the Control Knob to save the value and display the THICK MIN setting.
9. Repeat steps 5-8 to adjust the Thickness output values.
10. Press Program to exit the System Parameters menu and return to normal mode.
Refer to System Parameters Setup in Chapter 2 for more information on setting SQM160 System Parameters.
2-18
Chapter 2
Operation
2.18 Troubleshooting
Most SQM-160 problems are caused by defective crystals or improper film setup.
Follow the procedures below to identify and correct common problems.
No Reading, or Erratic Readings from Sensors:
First, replace the quartz crystal. Crystals sometimes fail unexpectedly, or exhibit erratic
frequency shifts (mode hopping) before total failure. Depending on the material,
crystals may fail well before the typical 5 MHz value. If you find that crystals
consistently fail early, you may want to set Freq Min to a value higher than 5 MHz.
Verify that the sensors, oscillator and cabling are connected as shown in Section 1.4.
Next, in the System Menu, assure that Sim Mode is OFF, Dsp Freq is ON, and F
Min/Max are set properly (typically Freq Min=5.0 MHz, Freq Max=6.0 MHz).
FMIN:
FMAX:
In the Film menu, assure that Sens Avg is set for the proper inputs. When an input is
selected, its LED will be on (crystal OK) or blinking (crystal defective). Record the LED
state (on/off/blinking) below:
INPUT 1:
INPUT 2:
While not depositing, observe the frequency display for each active sensor. The value
should be stable, between Freq Min and Freq Max.
FREQ 1:
FREQ 2:
If the sensor reading is outside the frequency limits: Replace the crystal, or
reprogram the Freq Min/Max values.
If the sensor reading is zero or unstable: Recheck the wiring from the sensor to the
SQM-160, and verify that the SQM-160 is properly grounded. Especially check that
the quartz crystal is properly seated in the sensor head. Try a different SQM-160
input. If both SQM-160 inputs show zero or unstable readings, the problem is almost
certainly a wiring or sensor problem.
If the problem is not corrected: Referring to Section 1.4, disconnect the 6” BNC cable
from the external oscillator module. A 5.5 MHz test crystal and BNC barrel adapter is
supplied with each SQM-160. Attach the test crystal to the oscillator Sensor
connector. The display should read about 5.5 MHz, very stable. If not, contact
Sigma Instruments technical support. Test all SQM-160 inputs.
FREQ 1:
FREQ 2:
2-19
Chapter 2
Operation
When the frequency reading is stable, start the deposition process. As material is
deposited on the crystal, the frequency reading should drop steadily. If not, check your
source supply for erratic output. Also assure that the sensor is not too close to the
source (particularly in sputtering).
Incorrect Rate or Thickness Measurement:
First complete the procedures in Section 2.14 to assure accurate frequency readings.
Set the System Menu xTooling as described in Section 2.6. Incorrect xTooling values
will cause consistently low or high rate/thickness values for every material.
Once the System menu xTooling is set, set Tooling in the Film menu to 100 unless you
are certain that another value is needed for a specific film.
Verify that the Density and Z-Factor values match those in the Materials Parameters
Appendix. If the material is not listed, check a materials handbook. Density has a
significant effect on rate/thickness calculations.
Z-Factor corrects for stresses as a crystal is coated. If accuracy deteriorates as crystals
are used, verify the Z-Factor. The relationship between Z-Factor and Acoustic
Impedance is discussed in the Materials Appendix.
2-20
Chapter 2
Operation
2-21
Chapter 3
Options
3.0 Introduction
There are three options available for the SQM-160: the Four-Sensor Card (P/N 502062), the Half-Rack Adapter (P/N 900-014), and the Full Rack Extender (P/N 900-008).
3.1 Option Card Installation
The SQM-160 motherboard has a 36-pin header to accommodate the optional FourSensor Card. The Four-Sensor Card expands the SQM-160 inputs to a total of six
quartz crystal sensors.
WARNING: Hazardous voltages are present inside the SQM-160 when it is connected to
a power source. Remove the power cable before opening the case to install the option
card.
Remove
Top Cover
Use a #1 Phillips screwdriver to remove the eight screws that
attach the top cover to the chassis. Remove the top cover.
Remove Option
Cover Plate
Use a #1 Phillips screwdriver to remove the two 4-40 back
panel screws that secure the option cover plate. Remove the
option cover plate.
Insert
Option Card
Insert the option card’s BNC connectors, from the inside,
through the rear panel openings. Align the 36-pin option card
connector with the mating pins on the main board, then press
the option card connector onto the main board pins.
Secure
Option Card
Secure the option card by installing the supplied four nuts on
the BNC connectors.
Replace Top
Cover
Replace the top cover and attach it to the chassis with the eight
screws from Step 1.
3.2 Four-Sensor Card Configuration
The SQM-160 automatically detects the presence of the Four-Sensor Card.
Refer to System Connections in Chapter 1 for sensor hookup information.
Refer to Sensor Selection in Chapter 2 to assign the sensors to a film.
3-1
Chapter 3
Options
3.3 Rack Installation
The Half Rack Adapter kit (PN 900-014) mounts one SQM-160 on one side of a
standard 19” equipment rack. It consists of one rack-mount ear and two 10-32 flat head
screws for attaching the ear to the unit. (The other half of the 3½” high rack space is
empty, allowing the mounting of another half-rack piece of equipment next to the SQM160, if desired.)
The Full Rack Extender option (PN 900-008) mounts a single SQM-160 into a full-width
19” rack space. Follow the steps below to assemble the extender and mount the SQM160:
Remove SQM-160
Mounting Ear
Determine on which side of the SQM-160 you want to attach
the rack extender. If a rack-mount ear is already attached to
the SQM-160 on that side, remove the two 10-32 flat head
screws that mount the ear and remove the rack-mount ear.
Assemble the
Extender
Assemble the extender “box” using the eight 6-32 flat head
screws, two end panels, and two main panels. Thread two
socket head captive panel screws from the inside of one side
of the extender. Continue to thread the captive screws until
their threads are completely exposed on one side.
Attach the
Extender
Place the extender next to the SQM-160, and thread the
captive screws into the SQM-160 threaded holes that were
previously used to mount the rack ear. Tighten the captive
screws to secure the extender to the SQM-160.
Attach the
Mounting Ears
Attach the mounting ear previously removed from the SQM160 to the extender using the same10-32 flat head screws. If a
rack-mount ear is not already attached to the SQM-160, attach
it also.
Mount the
SQM-160
Slide the entire assembly into an empty 3½” high 19” rackmount space. Secure the assembly with four rack screws (not
supplied).
3-2
Chapter 3
Options
3-3
Chapter 4
Maintenance
4.0 Introduction
WARNING: There are no adjustments or user-serviceable parts inside the SQM-160.
For maintenance or repair, contact
Sigma Instruments
120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins, CO 80524 USA
970-416-9660
4.1 Cleaning
Use a damp cloth, wetted with water or a mild detergent, to clean the outer surfaces.
4-1
Chapter 4
Maintenance
4-2
Appendix
A. Material Parameters
In the table below, an * is used to indicate that the material’s Z Factor is not known. A
method of determining Z Factor empirically follows the materials table.
Formula
Ag
AgBr
AgCl
Al
Al2 O3
Al4 C3
AlF3
AlN
AlSb
As
As2Se3
Au
B
B2O3
B4C
BN
Ba
BaF2
BaN2O 6
BaO
BaTiO3
BaTiO3
Be
BeF2
BeO
Bi
Bi2 O3
Bi2 S3
Bi2 Se3
Bi2 Te3
BiF3
C
C
C8 H8
Density
10.500
6.470
5.560
2.700
3.970
2.360
3.070
3.260
4.360
5.730
4.750
19.300
2.370
1.820
2.370
1.860
3.500
4.886
3.244
5.720
5.999
6.035
1.850
1.990
3.010
9.800
8.900
7.390
6.820
7.700
5.320
2.250
3.520
1.100
Z-Ratio
0.529
1.180
1.320
1.080
0.336
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.743
0.966
*1.000
0.381
0.389
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
2.100
0.793
1.261
*1.000
0.464
0.412
0.543
*1.000
*1.000
0.790
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
3.260
0.220
*1.000
Material Name
Silver
Silver Bromide
Silver Chloride
Aluminum
Aluminum Oxide
Aluminum Carbide
Aluminum Fluoride
Aluminum Nitride
Aluminum Antimonide
Arsenic
Arsenic Selenide
Gold
Boron
Boron Oxide
Boron Carbide
Boron Nitride
Barium
Barium Fluoride
Barium Nitrate
Barium Oxide
Barium Titanate (Tetr)
Barium Titanate (Cubic)
Beryllium
Beryllium Fluoride
Beryllium Oxide
Bismuth
Bismuth Oxide
Bismuth Trisuiphide
Bismuth Selenide
Bismuth Telluride
Bismuth Fluoride
Carbon (Graphite)
Carbon (Diamond)
Parlyene (Union Carbide)
Appendix
Formula
Ca
CaF2
CaO
CaO-SiO2
CaSO4
CaTiO3
CaWO4
Cd
CdF2
CdO
CdS
CdSe
CdTe
Ce
CeF3
CeO2
Co
CoO
Cr
Cr2 O3
Cr3 C2
CrB
Cs
Cs2 SO4
CsBr
CsCl
CsI
Cu
Cu2O
Cu2S
Cu2S
CuS
Dy
Dy2O 3
Er
Er2O3
Eu
EuF2
Density
1.550
3.180
3.350
2.900
2.962
4.100
6.060
8.640
6.640
8.150
4.830
5.810
6.200
6.780
6.160
7.130
8.900
6.440
7.200
5.210
6.680
6.170
1.870
4.243
4.456
3.988
4.516
8.930
6.000
5.600
5.800
4.600
8.550
7.810
9.050
8.640
5.260
6.500
Z-Ratio
2.620
0.775
*1.000
*1.000
0.955
*10~
*1.000
0.682
*1.000
*1.000
1.020
*1.000
0.980
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.343
0.412
0.305
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
1.212
1.410
1.399
1.542
0.437
*1.000
0.690
0.670
0.820
0.600
*1.000
0.740
*1.000
*1.000
*1 .000
Material Name
Calcium
Calcium Fluoride
Calcium Oxide
Calcium Silicate (3)
Calcium Sulfate
Calcium Titanate
Calcium Tungstate
Cadmium
Cadmium Fluoride
Cadmium Oxide
Cadmium Sulfide
Cadmium Selenide,
Cadmium Telluride
Cerium
Cerium (III) Fluoride
Cerium (IV) Dioxide
Cobalt
Cobalt Oxide
Chromium
Chromium (III) Oxide
Chromium Carbide
Chromium Boride
Cesium
Cesium Sulfate
Cesium Bromide
Cesium Chloride
Cesium Iodide
Copper
Copper Oxide
Copper (I) Sulfide (Alpha)
Copper (I) Sulfide (Beta)
Copper (II) Sulfide
Dysprosium
Dysprosium Oxide
Erbium
Erbium Oxide
Europium
Europium Fluoride
Appendix
Formula
Fe
Fe2O3
FeO
FeS
Ga
Ga2O3
GaAs
GaN
GaP
GaSb
Gd
Gd2O3
Ge
Ge3N2
GeO2
GeTe
Hf
HfB2
HfC
HfN
HfO2
HfSi2
Hg
Ho
Ho2O 3
In
In2O3
In2Se3
In2Te3
InAs
InP
InSb
Ir
K
KBr
KCl
KF
KI
Density
7.860
5.240
5.700
4.840
5.930
5.880
5.310
6.100
4.100
5.600
7.890
7.410
5.350
5.200
6.240
6.200
13.090
10.500
12.200
13.800
9.680
7.200
13.460
8.800
8.410
7.300
7.180
5.700
5.800
5.700
4.800
5.760
22.400
0.860
2.750
1.980
2.480
3.128
Z-Ratio
0.349
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.593
*1.000
1.590
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.670
*1.000
0.516
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.360
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.740
0.580
*1.000
0.841
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.769
0.129
10.189
1.893
2.050
*1.000
2.077
Material Name
Iron
Iron Oxide
Iron Oxide
Iron Sulphide
Gallium
Gallium Oxide (B)
Gallium Arsenide
Gallium Nitride
Gallium Phosphide
Gallium Antimonide
Gadolinium
Gadolinium Oxide
Germanium
Germanium Nitride
Germanium Oxide
Germanium Telluride
Hafnium
Hafnium Boride,
Hafnium Carbide
Hafnium Nitride
Hafnium Oxide
Hafnium Silicide
Mercury
Holminum
Holminum Oxide
Indium
Indium Sesquioxide
Indium Selenide
Indium Telluride
Indium Arsenide
Indium Phosphide
Indium Antimonide
Iridium
Potassium
Potassium Bromide
Potassium Chloride
Potassium Fluoride
Potassium Iodide
Appendix
Formula
La
La2O 3
LaB6
LaF3
Li
LiBr
LiF
LiNbO3
Lu
Mg
MgAl2O 4
MgAl2O 6
MgF2
MgO
Mn
MnO
MnS
Mo
Mo2 C
MoB2
MoO3
MoS2
Na
Na3AlF6
Na5AL3 F14
NaBr
NaCl
NaClO3
NaF
NaNO3
Nb
Nb2O 3
Nb2O 5
NbB2
NbC
NbN
Nd
Nd2O 3
NdF3
Density
6.170
6.510
2.610
5.940
0.530
3.470
2.638
4.700
9.840
1.740
3.600
8.000
3.180
3.580
7.200
5.390
3.990
10.200
9.180
7.120
4.700
4.800
0.970
2.900
2.900
3.200
2.170
2.164
2.558
2.270
8.578
7.500
4.470
6.970
7.820
8.400
7.000
7.240
6.506
Z-Ratio
0.920
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
5.900
1.230
0.778
0.463
*1.000
1.610
*1.000
*1.000
0.637
0.411
0.377
0.467
0.940
0.257
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
4.800
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
1.570
1.565
0.949
1.194
0.492
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
Material Name
Lanthanum
Lanthanum Oxide
Lanthanum Boride
Lanthanum Fluoride
Lithium
Lithium Bromide
Lithium Fluoride
Lithium Niobate
Lutetium
Magnesium
Magnesium Aluminate
Spinel
Magnesium Fluoride
Magnesium Oxide
Manganese
Manganese Oxide
Manganese (II) Sulfide
Molybdenum
Molybdenum Carbide
Molybdenum Boride
Molybdenum Trioxdide
Molybdenum Disulfide
Sodium
Cryolite
Chiolite
Sodium Bromide
Sodium Chloride
Sodium Chlorate
Sodium Fluoride
Sodium Nitrate
Niobium (Columbium)
Niobium Trioxide
Niobium (V) Oxide
Niobium Boride
Niobium Carbide
Niobium Nitride
Neodynium
Neodynium Oxide
Neodynium Fluoride
Appendix
Formula
Ni
NiCr
NiCrFe
NiFe
NiFeMo
NiO
P3N5
Pb
PbCl2
PbF2
PbO
PbS
PbSe
PbSnO3
PbTe
Pd
PdO
Po
Pr
Pr2O3
Pt
PtO2
Ra
Rb
Rbl
Re
Rh
Ru
S8
Sb
Sb2 O3
Sb2 S3
Sc
Sc2O3
Se
Si
Si3 N4
SiC
SiO
SiO2
Density
8910
8.500
8.500
8.700
8.900
7.450
2.510
11.300
5.850
8.240
9.530
7.500
8.100
8.100
8.160
12.038
8.310
9.400
6.780
6.880
21.400
10.200
5.000
1.530
3.550
21.040
12.410
12.362
2.070
6.620
5.200
4.640
3.000
3.860
4.810
2.320
3.440
3.220
2.130
2.648
Z-Ratio
0.331
*1.000
*10~
*1.000
*10~
*1.000
*1.000
1.130
*1.000
0.661
*1.000
0.566
*1.000
*1.000
0.651
0.357
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.245
*1.000
*1.000
2.540
*1.000
0.150
0.210
0.182
2.290
0.768
*1.000
*1.000
0.910
*1.000
0.864
0.712
*1000
*1.000
0.870
1.000
Material Name
Nickel
Nichrome
Inconel
Permalloy
Supermalloy
Nickel Oxide
Phosphorus Nitride
Lead
Lead Chloride
Lead Fluoride
Lead Oxide
Lead Sulfide
Lead Selenide
Lead Stannate
Lead Telluride
Palladium
Palladium Oxide
Polonium
Praseodymium
Praseodymium Oxide
Platinum
Platinum Oxide
Radium
Rubidium
Rubidium Iodide
Rhenium
Rhodium
Ruthenium
Sulphur
Antimony
Antimony Trioxide
Antimony Trisulfide
Scandium
Scandium Oxide
Selenium
Silicon
Silicon Nitride
Silicon Carbide
Silicon (II) Oxide
Silicon Dioxide
Appendix
Formula
Sm
Sm2O3
Sn
SnO2
SnS
SnSe
SnTe
Sr
SrF2
SrO
Ta
Ta2O5
TaB2
TaC
TaN
Tb
Tc
Te
TeO2
Th
ThF4
ThO2
ThOF2
Ti
Ti2O3
TiB2
TiC
TiN
TiO
TiO2
Tl
TlBr
TlCl
TlI
U
U3 O8
U4 O9
UO2
V
V2O5
VB2
VC
VN
Density
7.540
7.430
7.300
6.950
5.080
6.180
6.440
2.600
4.277
4.990
16.600
8.200
11.150
13.900
16.300
8.270
11.500
6.250
5.990
11.694
6.320
9.860
9.100
4.500
4.600
4.500
4.930
5.430
4.900
4.260
11.850
7.560
7.000
7.090
19.050
8.300
10.969
10.970
5.960
3.360
5.100
5.770
6.130
Z-Ratio
0.890
*1.000
0.724
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.727
0.517
0.262
0.300
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.660
*1.000
0.900
0.862
0.484
*1.000
0.284
*1.000
0.628
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.400
1.550
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.238
*1 .000
0.348
0.286
0.530
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
Material Name
Samarium
Samarium Oxide
Tin
Tin Oxide
Tin Sulfide
Tin Selenide
Tin Telluride
Strontium
Strontium Fluroide
Strontium Oxide
Tantalum
Tantalum (V) Oxide
Tantalum Boride
Tantalum Carbide
Tantalum Nitride
Terbium
Technetium
Tellurium
Tellurium Oxide
Thorium
Thorium.(IV) Fluoride
Thorium Dioxide
Thorium Oxyfluoride
Titanium
Titanium Sesquioxide
Titanium Boride
Titanium Carbide
Titanium Nitride
Titanium Oxide
Titanium (IV) Oxide
Thallium
Thallium Bromide
Thallium Chloride
Thallium Iodide (B)
Uranium
Tri Uranium Octoxide
Uranium Oxide
Uranium Dioxide
Vanadium
Vanadium Pentoxide
Vanadium Boride
Vanadium Carbide
Vanadium Nitride
Appendix
Formula
VO2
W
WB2
WC
WO3
WS2
WSi2
Y
Y2 O3
Yb
Yb2 O3
Zn
Zn3Sb2
ZnF2
ZnO
ZnS
ZnSe
ZnTe
Zr
ZrB2
ZrC
ZrN
ZrO2
Density
4.340
19.300
10.770
15.600
7.160
7.500
9.400
4.340
5.010
6.980
9.170
7.040
6.300
4.950
5.610
4.090
5.260
6.340
6.490
6.080
6.730
7.090
5.600
Z-Ratio
*1.000
0.163
*1.000
0.151
*1.000
*1.000
*1.000
0.835
*1.000
1.130
*1.000
0.514
*1.000
*1.000
0.556
0.775
0.722
0.770
0.600
*1.000
0.264
*1.000
*1.000
Material Name
Vanadium Dioxide
Tungsten
Tungsten Boride
Tungsten Carbide
Tungsten Trioxide
Tungsten Disulphide
Tungsten Suicide
Yttrium
Yttrium Oxide
Ytterbium
Ytterbium Oxide
Zinc
Zinc Antimonide
Zinc Fluoride
Zinc Oxide
Zinc Sulfide
Zinc Selenide
Zinc Telluride
Zirconium
Zirconium Boride
Zirconium Carbide
Zirconium Nitride
Zirconium Oxide
Z-Factor is used to match the acoustic properties of the material being deposited to the
acoustic properties of the base quartz material of the sensor crystal.
Z-Factor = Zq / Zm
For example, the acoustic impedance of gold is Z=23.18, so:
Gold Z-Factor = 8.83 / 23.18 = .381
Unfortunately, Z Factor is not readily available for many materials. Z Factor can be
calculated empirically using this method:
1. Deposit the material until Crystal Life is near 50%, or near the end of life,
whichever is sooner.
2. Place a new substrate adjacent to the used quartz sensor.
3. Set QCM Density to the calibrated value; Tooling to 100%. Zero thickness.
4. Deposit approximately 1000 to 5000 Å of material on the substrate.
5. Use a profilometer or iterferometer to measure the actual substrate film thickness.
6. Adjust the Z Factor of the instrument until the correct thickness reading is shown.
Another alternative is to change crystals frequently. For a crystal with 90% life, the error
is negligible for even large errors in the programmed versus actual Z Factor.
Appendix
B. Specifications
Measurement
Number of Sensors
Sensor Frequency Range
Reference Frequency Accuracy
Reference Frequency Stability
Frequency Resolution*
Rate Resolution*
Rate Display
Thickness Resolution*
Thickness Display
*@ 2 readings/sec, Density=2.70 gm/cc
2 standard, plus 4 optional
4.0 MHz to 6.0 MHz
.002%
+/- 2ppm (total, 0 to 50
C)
.06 Hz @ 6 MHz
.055 Å/s
.01 or .1 Å/s
.027 Å
1Å
Film Parameters
Stored Films
Density
Tooling
Z-Factor
Final Thickness
Thickness Setpoint
Time Setpoint
Sample/Hold
Sensor Average
9
0.5 – 99.99 gm./cc
10 – 399 %
0.10 – 10.00
0.000 – 99.99 kÅ
0.000 – 99.99 kÅ
0:00 – 99:59 mm:ss
0-9999 sec.
Any combination of installed sensors
System Parameters
Measurement Period
Simulate Mode
Frequency Mode
Rate Resolution
Measurement Filter
Dual Crystal 1/2
Rate Sampling
RS-232 Baud Rate
Etch Mode
Crystal Tooling 1-6
Crystal Fail Min/Max
.15 to 2 sec.
On/Off
On/Off
.01/.1 Å/s
1 to 20 readings
On/Off
On/Off
2.4/4.8/9.6/19.2 kb/s
On/Off
10-399 %
4.0 to 6.0 MHz / 4.1 to 6.1 MHz
Appendix
Digital I/O
Digital Inputs
Functions
Input Rating
Relay Outputs
Functions
Relay Rating
General Specifications
Mains Power Supply
Power Consumption
Operating Environment
Storage Environment
Rack Dimensions (HxWxD)
Weight
4
Open Shutter
Close Shutter
Zero Thickness
Zero Time
5VDC, non-isolated
4
Shutter
Sample/Hold or Thickness Setpoint
Dual Sensor Shutter or Time Setpoint
Crystal Fail
30Vrms or 30VDC, 2A maximum
100-120/200-240~, ±10% nominal
50/60 Hz
20W
0
C to 50
C
0 to 80% RH non-condensing
0 to 2,000 meters
Indoor Use Only
Class 1 Equipment (Grounded Type)
Suitable for Continuous Operation
Ordinary Protection (not protected


against harmful ingress of moisture)
Pollution Degree 2
Installation (Overvoltage) Category II


for transient overvoltages
-40
C to 70
C
88.5mm x 212.7mm x 196.9mm
2.7 kg (6 pounds)
Appendix
C. I/O Connections
A 15-pin female D-sub connector is included with the instrument to connect digital I/O to
the SQM-160 Relay I/O connector. The figure below shows the solder-side pin
assignments for the supplied connector.
1
8
9
15
Relay I/O Connector Rear View
Pins
1,2
Relay 4
Function
Crystal Fail Relay
Description
Contacts close when all enabled sensors have
failed.
3,4
Relay 3
Time Setpoint, Dual If Relay 3 is set to TIME in the System menu,
Sensor or Sensor 2 contacts close when timer counts down to zero
Relay
from its programmed Timer Setpoint value. If
DUAL is selected, contacts close when Sensor 1
fails. If SENS2 is selected, contacts close when
shutter is pushed if Sensor 2 is progrmmend for
the active film.
5,6
Relay 2
Shutter Relay
Controlled by front panel shutter switch. Contacts
close when Shutter Open is selected. If SENS2 is
selected for Relay 3 in the System menu, the
shutter relay contacts close only if Sensor 1 is
programmed for the active film.
7,8
Relay 1
Sampling or
Thickness Setpoint
If Sampling is ON in System Menu, contacts close
during Sample, open during Hold. If Sampling is
OFF contacts close when Thickness Setpoint is
reached.
9
Zero Timer Input
Grounding this pin zeroes the setpoint timer.
10
Zero Thick Input
11
Close Shutter Input
Grounding this pin zeroes the thickness display.
.
Grounding this pin opens the shutter relay.
12
Open Shutter Input
Grounding this pin closes the shutter relay.
13,14,15
Ground
Appendix
WARNING: The inputs are not isolated! The voltage level applied must be limited to
between 0 and +5 volts with respect to Ground.
WARNING: Output relays are rated for 30Vrms or 30VDC, at 2A maximum. Proper
fusing and adequate wiring insulation and separation should be provided to assure
these limits are not exceeded.
Appendix
D. EC Declaration of Conformity
Manufacturer’s Name:
Sigma Instruments
Manufacturer’s Address: 120 Commerce Drive, Unit 1
Fort Collins, CO 80524 USA
declares that the product:
Product Name:
Rate/Thickness Monitor
Product Model:
SQM-160
Product Options: All Options
conforms to the following Directives:
73/23/EEC (93/68/EEC)
89/336/EEC
Low Voltage Directive
Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive
uses the following standards:
EN 61010-1
EN 50081-2
EN 55011
EN 50082-2
EN 61000-4-2
EN 61000-4-3
EN 61000-4-4
EN 61000-4-6
ENV 50204
Safety of Electrical Equipment for
Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use
Generic Standard for Emissions
Radiated and Conducted Emissions (Class A)
Generic Standard for Immunity
Electrostatic Discharge
Radiated RF Electro-Magnetic Field
Electrical Fast Transient/Burst
Conducted RF
Radiated RF
And complies with the Essential Health and Safety Requirements.
Gary L. Halcomb
Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
January 2003
President
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