AirLive AIR3G User`s manual

AIR3G
Wireless-N PoE 3G Router
User’s Manual
Copyright and Disclaimer
Copyright & Disclaimer
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, whether
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or recording without the written consent of OvisLink
Corp.
OvisLink Corp. has made the best effort to ensure the accuracy of the information in this
user’s guide. However, we are not liable for the inaccuracies or errors in this guide.
Please use with caution. All information is subject to change without notice
All Trademarks are properties of their respective holders.
AirLive AIR3G User’s Manual
Table of Contents
FCC Statement
Federal Communication Commission Interference Statement This equipment has been
tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of
the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in
a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one of the
following measures:
z
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
z
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
z
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
z
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Caution
Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user's authority to operate this equipment.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device
must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation. For product available in the USA/Canada market, only channel 1~11 can be
operated. Selection of other channels is not possible.
This device and its antenna(s) must not be co-located or operation in conjunction with any
other antenna or transmitter.
IMPORTANT NOTE
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement:
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled
environment. This equipment should be installed and operated with minimum distance
20cm between the radiator & your body.
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AirLive AIR3G
User’s Manual
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................1
1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................1
1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support ..................................................2
1.3 Features...............................................................................................2
1.4 Operation Modes .................................................................................3
1.4.1 3G Router Mode ........................................................................................................ 3
1.4.2 AP mode..................................................................................................................... 4
1.4.3 Client Mode ............................................................................................................... 4
1.4.4 WDS Bridge Mode .................................................................................................... 5
1.4.5 WDS Repeater Mode ................................................................................................. 5
1.5 Hotspot Authentication .........................................................................6
2. Installing the Air3G ....................................................................................8
2.1 Before You Start ...................................................................................8
2.2 Package Content .................................................................................8
2.3 Knowing your Air3G .............................................................................9
2.4 Hardware Installation .........................................................................10
2.4.1 Passive PoE Installation........................................................................................... 11
2.4.2 Wall Mount Installation ........................................................................................... 12
2.5 LED Table ..........................................................................................13
2.6 Restore Settings to Default ................................................................13
3. Configuring the Air3G .............................................................................14
3.1
Important Information ......................................................................14
3.2
Prepare your PC .............................................................................14
3.3
Introduction to Web Management ...................................................15
3.3.1 Getting into Web Management ................................................................................ 15
3.3.2 Web Menu Structure ................................................................................................ 16
3.4
Configuration Wizard.......................................................................17
3.5
Change Operation Mode.................................................................19
3.6
Change Regulatory Domain............................................................20
3.7
WPS (WiFi Protected Setup)...........................................................20
3.7.1
3.7.2
AP and 3G Router Modes .................................................................................. 21
Client Mode ....................................................................................................... 23
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode ...........................................................25
4.1 Application for 3G Router Mode.........................................................25
4.2 Internet Setting Menu.........................................................................26
4.2.1 Setup Wizard............................................................................................................ 26
4.2.2 WAN Setting ............................................................................................................ 28
4.2.3 Hotspot..................................................................................................................... 31
4.2.4 Virtual Server ........................................................................................................... 31
4.2.5 DMZ......................................................................................................................... 32
4.2.6 URL Filtering........................................................................................................... 33
4.2.7 MAC Filtering.......................................................................................................... 33
4.2.8 IP Filtering ............................................................................................................... 34
4.2.9 DDNS....................................................................................................................... 34
4.2.10 Static Route ............................................................................................................ 35
4.3 Hotspot Authentication .......................................................................35
4.4 Connection Auto Backup Function.....................................................37
4.5 Wireless Settings Menu .....................................................................38
4.5.1 Regulatory Domain.................................................................................................. 39
4.5.2 Multiple SSID .......................................................................................................... 39
4.5.3 Channel .................................................................................................................... 40
4.5.4 Wireless Security ..................................................................................................... 40
4.5.5 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 41
4.5.6 Bandwidth Control................................................................................................... 42
4.5.7 Associated Client ..................................................................................................... 43
4.5.8 Advanced Settings.................................................................................................... 43
4.5.9 WMM Settings......................................................................................................... 45
4.5.10 WDS Settings (Repeater) ....................................................................................... 48
4.5.11 WPS Settings.......................................................................................................... 49
5. System Configuration and Status Menu ................................................51
5.1 Menu Structure ..................................................................................51
5.2 LAN Interface Setup ..........................................................................52
5.2.1 DHCP Settings ......................................................................................................... 52
5.2.2 Add DHCP Static Lease Client ................................................................................ 53
5.3 Time Settings .....................................................................................53
5.4 Password Settings .............................................................................54
5.5 Power Saving (Green AP)..................................................................54
5.6 Firmware Upgrade .............................................................................55
5.7 Configuration Save and Restore........................................................56
5.8 Factory Default ..................................................................................56
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Table of Contents
5.9 Status Menu .......................................................................................56
5.9.1 Device Information .................................................................................................. 56
5.9.2 Statistic..................................................................................................................... 57
5.9.3 Client Table .............................................................................................................. 57
5.9.4 LOG ......................................................................................................................... 58
6. AP Mode....................................................................................................59
6.1 Application for AP Mode.....................................................................59
6.2 Wireless Settings ...............................................................................59
6.2.1 Regulatory Domain.................................................................................................. 60
6.2.2 Multiple SSID .......................................................................................................... 60
6.2.3 Channel .................................................................................................................... 61
6.2.4 Wireless Security ..................................................................................................... 61
6.2.5 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 62
6.2.6 Associated Client ..................................................................................................... 63
6.2.7 Advanced Settings.................................................................................................... 63
6.2.8 WMM Settings......................................................................................................... 65
6.2.9 WDS Settings (Repeater) ......................................................................................... 68
6.2.10 WPS Settings ......................................................................................................... 69
7. Client Mode...............................................................................................71
7.1 Application for Client Mode ................................................................71
7.2 Wireless Settings ...............................................................................71
7.2.1 Regulatory Domain.................................................................................................. 72
7.2.2 Profile Setting .......................................................................................................... 72
7.2.3 Site Survey ............................................................................................................... 73
7.2.4 Advance Settings...................................................................................................... 74
7.2.5 WPS Settings ........................................................................................................... 75
8. WDS Bridge Mode ....................................................................................78
8.1 Application for WDS Bridge Mode......................................................78
8.2 Wireless Settings ...............................................................................78
8.2.1 Regulatory Domain.................................................................................................. 79
8.2.2 Advance Setup ......................................................................................................... 79
8.2.3 WDS Settings........................................................................................................... 81
9. Emergency Firmware Recovery .............................................................83
10. Frequent Asked Questions ...................................................................85
11. Specifications.........................................................................................87
11.1 Hardware Features ..........................................................................87
11.1.1 General Hardware Feature ..................................................................................... 87
11.1.2 Power Supply ......................................................................................................... 87
11.1.3 Dimension and Weight ........................................................................................... 87
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11.2 Radio Specifications.........................................................................88
11.2.1 Frequency Band ..................................................................................................... 88
11.2.2 Rate and Modulation.............................................................................................. 88
11.2.3 TX Output Power ................................................................................................... 88
11.2.4 Receiver Sensitivity ............................................................................................... 89
11.2.5 Supported WLAN Mode ........................................................................................ 89
11.3 Software Features............................................................................89
12. Wireless Network Glossary...................................................................91
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1. Introduction
1
1. Introduction
1.1 Overview
The Air3G is a wireless multi-function router based on 150Mbps wireless-b/g/n 2.4GHz
radio technologies. Users can share a wireless 3G/3.5G USB modem or xDSL cable
modem internet connection at high speed. It also provides to 4 operation modes to satisfy
different application environments. In addition, it features passive PoE port for installations
in places that have no nearby access to electricity. Please take notice of the following
features:
„
This product does not come with 3G modem. It works with your 3G USB dongle. For latest
3G USB dongle support list, please visit our website at www.airlive.com and type “Air3G” on
the product search.
„
The Air3G is not just a 3G sharing router. It can also share other broadband connections from
xDSL modem, ADSL modem, or Cable modem.
The Air3G can support 12V on its passive PoE port. You will need to purchase a passive PoE
Injector (PoE-1P) separately. For more information, please read section 2.4.1.
The maximum output power for Air3G is about 1watt(30dBm). However, it is limited to 20dBm
in EU and 23dBm in the U.S. for compliance with regulations. Nevertheless, unlike normal
11n routers that typically provide less than 15dBm output power in 11n mode, the Air3G can
provides up to 19dBm(EU) and 22dBm(FCC) in 11n mode. It means greater coverage in 11n
mode. Despite of Air3G’s capability, we strongly recommend that you use as little power as
possible to reduce interference and conserve energy.
„
„
If you encounter any technical issues, we strongly recommend you read through Chapter
10: Frequent Asked Questions. The answers you need are very likely to be there.
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AirLive AIR3G User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support
If you encounter a technical issue that can not be resolved by information on this guide, we
recommend that you visit our comprehensive website support at www.airlive.com. The
tech support FAQ are frequently updated with latest information.
In addition, you might find new firmwares that either increase software functions or provide
bug fixes for Air3G. You can reach our on-line support center at the following link:
http://www.airlive.com/support/support_2.jsp
Since 2009, AirLive has added the “Newsletter Instant Support System” on our website.
AirLive Newsletter subscribers receives instant email notifications when there are new
download or tech support FAQ updates for their subscribed airlive models. To become an
AirLive newsletter member, please visit: http://www.airlive.com/member/member_3.jsp
1.3 Features
„ Wireless-N 3G Router
„ Up to 30dBm Output Power (20dBm in EU, 23 dBm in the U.S.)
„ Work with 3G/3.5G/UMTS/EVDO/HSDPA USB Dongle
„ 1 x USB 2.0 Port
„ 7 LED indicators
„ Hotspot authentication function
„ 150Mbps 1T1R Wireless-b/g/n standard
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1. Introduction
„ 12V Passive POE Port
„ WAN port for ADSL/Cable Modem support
„ WAN/3G Connection Auto-Backup
„ 3G Router, AP, Client, Bridge, Repeater modes
„ Bandwidth Control
„ 8MB Flash, 32MB SDRAM
„ Green AP energy saving function
„ Wall Mount Screw Holes
„ Emergency firmware recovery mode
1.4 Operation Modes
The Air3G can perform as a multi-function wireless device. Through the AirLogic web
interface, users can easily select which wireless mode they wish the Air3G to perform.
The Air3G can be configured to operate in the following wireless operation modes:
Wireless
Mode
Radio
Air3G Wireless Operation Mode
WAN
Application
3G only
WAN only
3G Router
AP
3G with WAN backup
WAN with 3G backup
AP
AP
none
Client
WDS Bridge
Client
WDS
none
none
WDS
Repeater
AP + WDS
N/A
3G Internet Sharing
xDSL/Cable Broadband Sharing
3G as primary connection,
Broadband as backup connection
Broadband as primary
connection, 3G as backup
connection.
Hotspot only or extend distance
of another WDS AP/Router
Connect to AP Router
Create a backbone connection
Extend the wireless signal. WDS
Repeater setting is inside the
“Wireless Settings” of 3G Router
mode and AP Mode.
1.4.1 3G Router Mode
In this mode, you can share your 3G Internet connection and/or broadband connection. If
you do not have a 3G USB dongle, you can still share your ADSL modem, xDSL mdoem, or
Cable Modem connections. If you have both 3G and Broadband, you can use both for
connection backup.
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AirLive AIR3G User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1.4.2 AP mode
When operating in the Access Point mode, the Air3G becomes the center hub of the
wireless network. All wireless cards and clients connect and communicate through Air3G.
This type of network is known as “Infrastructure network”. Other Air3G or 802.11 b/g/n
devices can connect to AP mode through Client Mode.
1.4.3 Client Mode
The Air3G acts as if it is a wireless adapter to connect with a remote Access Point.
can attach a computer or a router to the LAN port of Air3G to get network access.
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Users
1. Introduction
1.4.4 WDS Bridge Mode
This mode is best used when you want to connect LAN networks together wirelessly (for
example, between office and warehouse). WDS Bridge using WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK
encryptions might be limited to devices using the same wireless chipset.
WDS Bridge works by entering remote Bridge’s wireless MAC address on the WDS table.
You can find the MAC address on the bottom label of the Air3G.
1.4.5 WDS Repeater Mode
The purpose of repeater is to extend the wireless signal of the remote AP/Router. In Air3G,
the AP mode and the 3G Router mode also turn ito “WDS Repeater mode.” You can find the
WDS settings in the “Wireless Settings” page. Both sides must support WDS connection
to work.
WDS Repeater in 3G Router Mode
The WDS Repeater function in 3G Router mode is to allow the remote AP to extend the
wireless signal of Air3G. Please see the diagram below:
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AirLive AIR3G User’s Manual
1. Introduction
WDS Repeater in AP Mode
The WDS Repeater function in AP mode is to extend the wireless signal of remote AP.
Please see the diagram below for details:
For information on how to configuration WDS Repeater, please go to section 4.6 or section
6.3.
1.5 Hotspot Authentication
The Air3G features basic Hotspot Authentication function. Hotspot authentication enables
the administrator to manage Internet Access by username and password. The hotspot
authentication function for Air3G is only suitable for small scale hotspot service like in the
coffee shop. For larger installation, it is recommended to use a dedicated hotspot gateway
like the AirLive WIAS-1200G. For configuration procedures, please go to section 4.3.
AirLive AIR3G User’s Manual
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1. Introduction
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AirLive AIR3G User’s Manual
2. Install the AIR3G
2
2. Installing
the Air3G
This section describes the hardware features and the hardware installation procedure for
the Air3G. For software configuration, please go to chapter 3 for more details.
2.1 Before You Start
It is important to read through this section before you install the Air3G
„
This product does not come with 3G modem. It works with your 3G USB dongle.
For latest 3G USB dongle support list, please visit our website at www.airlive.com
„
The LAN1 port also work as the passive POE port
„
The passive PoE DC Injector is optional; it is not included with the package.
Please use a 12V passive POE system with Air3G’s passive POE port. Do not
use 802.3af 48V system or PoE switch with this device.
„
When you use Passive PoE with 3G USB installed, it is recommend to use a
power adapter of 12Vdc at 1.25A or greater.
„
To protect the Air3G USB port from damage, please turn off the power when
plugging in or pulling out USB device from the USB port.
2.2 Package Content
The Air3G package contains the following items:
„
One Air3G main unit
„
One 12V 1A DC power adapter
„
1 x Antenna
„
User’s Guide CD
„
Quick Start Guide
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8
2. Install the AIR3G
2.3 Knowing your Air3G
Below are descriptions and diagrams of the product:
1
7
6
3
5
2
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Antenna Connector
Power Adapter Connector
WAN Port
LAN Ports (LAN1 for Passive PoE Port)
Reset Button
WPS Button
USB Port (For 3G Dongle Use)
8
9
LED Indicators
AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
2. Install the AIR3G
2.4 Hardware Installation
.1. Please install the antennas by turning clock wise into the RF antenna connectors
2. Now connect the power adapter to the Air3G
3. Connect the Ethernet cable to one of the LAN port and the other end to your PC.
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2. Install the AIR3G
4. If you have broadband connection, please connect the Internet cable to “WAN port”.
2.4.1 Passive PoE Installation
If you want to supply the power by using Passive PoE, please follow the installation
diagram below. Please note that the passive DC Injector is not included with Air3G, it
needs to be purchased separately (AirLive Model: PoE-1P). Air3G uses 12V passive PoE
system. it is recommend to use a power adapter of 12Vdc at 1.25A or greater if you have
the USB dongle installed.
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AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
2. Install the AIR3G
2.4.2 Wall Mount Installation
1. The holes for the wall mount screw are on the underside of the case. Please measure the
distance between the holes. Then install 2 screws in the desire location with the measured
distance apart from each other. Please do not screw all the way in, leave some space for
mounting with the Air3G
2. Now please hang the Air3G on those 2 screws.
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2. Install the AIR3G
2.5 LED Table
This section describes the LED behavior of Air3G.
the Air3G.
You can find the LED on the top side of
WPS (Power)
Steady Blue – Normal Operation
Slow Flashing: WPS Surveying
OFF – No Power
WLAN
Slow Flashing :
Radio is active
Fast Flashing:
Transmitting Data
OFF: Radio Disabled
LAN1 ~4, WAN
Steady Blue :
Fast Flashing:
OFF: No Link
Link established
Transmitting Data
2.6 Restore Settings to Default
If you have forgotten your Air3G’s IP address or password, you can restore your Air3G to
the default settings by pressing on the “reset button” for more than 10 seconds. You might
need a pen or pencil for this operation. The reset button is inside the bottom case.
Please see diagram below for details.
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AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
3. Configuring the Air3G
3
3. Configuring
the Air3G
The Air3G offers web browser (http) as management interface.
explain Air3G’s management interface and how to get into them.
In this chapter, we will
3.1 Important Information
The following information will help you to get start quickly. However, we recommend you
to read through the entire manual before you start. Please note the password and SSID
are case sensitive.
‰
The default IP address is: 192.168.1.254
‰
The default Account is “admin”
‰
The default Password is “airlive”
‰
The default SSID is “airlive”
‰
The default wireless mode is : 3G Router mode
‰
Please remember to “Apply Change” for settings to be saved and take effect.
‰
Please remember to “Reboot” the device after all settings are changed.
‰
The Emergency Firmware Recovery only works when you connect to LAN1~4
‰
By Default, the DHCP server is turned on in 3G Router mode. The other modes’
DHCP servers are turned off. Therefore, if you switch from 3G Router mode to
other modes, please remember to configure your PC’s IP address manually.
‰
The default regulatory domain is “ETSI” for Europe. If you are not living in EU
countries, you might wish to change the regulatory domain. However, please do
not choose regulatory domain that does not apply to your country. Using wrong
regulatory domain might be illegal.
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
.
3.2 Prepare your PC
The Air3G can be managed remotely by a PC through either the wired or wireless network.
The default IP address of the Air3G is 192.168.1.254 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
This means the IP address of the PC should be in the range of 192.168.1.1` to
192.168.1.253.
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3. Configuring the Air3G
To prepare your PC for management with the Air3G, please do the following:
1.
Connect your PC directly to the LAN port on the DC Injector of Air3G
2.
Set your PC’s IP address to “Obtain an IP address Automatically”.
provide your PC an valid IP address.
3.
If you want to set your PC’s IP address manually, please set to 192.168.1.50 (or other
address in the same subnet)
The Air3G should
50
You are ready now to configure the Air3G using your PC.
3.3 Introduction to Web Management
The Air3G can be configured using the Web management interfaces by simply typing its IP
address in the web browser. Most functions of Air3G can be accessed by it.
If you are placing the Air3G behind router or firewall, you might need to open the port 80 at
virtual server on your firewall/router. This procedure is not necessary in most cases
unless there is a router/firewall between your PC and Air3G.
3.3.1 Getting into Web Management
To get into the Normal Web Management, simply type in the Air3G’s IP address (default IP
is 192.168.1.254) into the web browser’s address field.
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AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
3. Configuring the Air3G
3.3.2 Web Menu Structure
We recommend users to browse through Air3G’s web management interface to get an
overall picture of the functions and interface.
After you enter the Web configuration, the following screen will appear:
Internet Settings
Language Selection
„
Internet Settings: When you choose 3G Router mode, the “Internet Settings”
bottom will be shown and you will be able to configure internet related functions
here. This menu will disappear when you switch to other wireless mode.
„
Wireless Settings: The Air3G’s wireless settings are different between wireless
modes. Only functions that are applicable to the wireless mode will show to
simplify configuration. You can also change the operation mode from this menu.
For explanation of different wireless modes, please refer to Chapter 1.
„
System Configuration: All non-wireless and router mode settings are in this
category. The system configurations including changing password, upload
firmware, backup configuration..
„
Status: This section for monitoring the status of Air3G.
Device Information, Statistic, Client table, and Log.
„
Reboot: Most of settings will require to click the “Reboot” bottom to take effect the
settings you applied.
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It provides information on
3. Configuring the Air3G
„
Language Selection:
here.
You can change the language for the Web interface from
3.4 Configuration Wizard
The configuration Wizard is the first screen you will see after you login. It will ask you a
few questions to setup your wireless and 3G broadband connection quickly.
Step 1: Please enter your own SSID and Encryption Key. The default encryption type is
WPA2-PSK(AES). The encryption key should be at least 8 alphanumeric
characters.
Step 2:
Choose an internet connection type you need.
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AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
3. Configuring the Air3G
Step 3:
Configure the 3G function if you have select 3G related connection types.
Please make sure you have already plugin the 3G USB dongle. Now, select
your country and 3G operator. If it is not on the list, please choose “others”
and enter the information manually.
Step 4: If you have chosen WAN related connection type, the setup wizard will ask you to
enter the WAN information. If you are not sure about setup information, please
ask your ISP for parameters.
Step 5 : Please click “Finish” to reboot the system if you are sure about all settings.
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3. Configuring the Air3G
3.5 Change Operation Mode
The wireless settings of Air3G are dependant on the wireless operation mode you choose.
For explanation on when to use what operation mode, please refer to Chapter 1
Changing Mode Procedure:
1. Select “Wireless Setting”
2. Choose your required wireless mode.
3. The AP might ask you to confirm the mode change.
its new mode.
Once confirm, the AP will reboot to
Note: When you change from 3G Router mode to other modes, the DHCP server will be turned off.
In this case, you must manually configure your PC’s IP address to the same subnet as the
Air3G. Likewise, when you change from other modes to 3G Router mode, the DHCP server will be
turned on.
Mode Change
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AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
3. Configuring the Air3G
3.6 Change Regulatory Domain
The Regulatory Domain settings will decide what channels and output power are available
for your Air3G. You must choose the correct Regulatory Domain for your country. Using
the incorrect Regulatory Domain might be illegal. Please check the summary table below.
If you are unsure about what Regulatory Domain to use, please use “ETSI(Europe)” and
restrict yourself to use only Channel 1 to 11.
Regulatory Domain Table
Domain
Channels
Maximum Tx Output
Power
Countries
ETSI (Europe)
1~13
20dBm
EU countries
FCC(United States)
1~11
23dBm
The United States and other
countries that use U.S.A
regulation for WiFi
South America
(11ch)
1~11
30dBm
South American countries that
follow channels of FCC domain.
South America
(14ch)
1~14
30dBm
South American countries that
allow use of all channels in
2.4GHz.
The default Regulatory domain is ETSI(Europe). If you need to change the Regulatory
Domain, please go to “Wireless Settings”->”Regulatory Domain” menu. After changing
the Regulatory Domain, the device will reboot to the new settings.
3.7 WPS (WiFi Protected Setup)
WPS is a system that simplifies the process to established wireless security. There are two
ways to configure WPS connection:
1. PBC (Push Button Communication) using hardware or software:
Push WPS buttons on both AP and Client site, the WPS connection will connect
automatically. You can find Air3G’s WPS Push button on the back of the router.
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3. Configuring the Air3G
2. PIN (Personal Information Number) Enrollee and Registrar:
WPS Registrar site should be entered the PIN Code from Enrollee site, the WPS
connection will connect automatically.
It is recommended to use the first option as it is much simpler to configure.
3.7.1 AP and 3G Router Modes
Example1: Using Hardware Push button
Please push WPS button directly on the back of the Air3G. The “WPS” LED flash will light
and the Air3G will start to survey the client’s WPS signal in the current environment. Please
be noticed that, within two minutes, you have to turn on the utility of your wireless network
card and click PBC to connect automatically.
If you also have a hardware WPS button on your wireless card, you can push the button
immediately now. If not, you can usually find the WPS PBC function in the wireless utility.
Below is an example using AirLive WN-360USB wireless network card to connect with
Air3G.
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7
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AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
3. Configuring the Air3G
Example 2: WPS Using PIN
Please login Air3G’s Web UI. Select Wireless Setting Æ WPS Setting. In the WPS
Progress, select “PIN” then “Apply.” You will get a PIN Code.
PIN Code
1
2
Then, please turn on the utility of your wireless network card. Choose WPS mode to
“Registrar” and enter the PIN Code. Press “PIN” and the connection will automatically
configure.
3
5
4
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3. Configuring the Air3G
3.7.2 Client Mode
Example 1: Using WPS hardware button
Please push WPS button directly on the back of the device. The “WPS” LED flash will light
and the Air3G will start to survey the AP’s WPS signal in the current environment.
Within two minutes, please push WPS button on your AP device, the connection will
automatic successfully.
Example 2: WPS using PIN
Please login Air3G’s Web UI.
WPS Setting.
Select Wireless Setting Æ change to Client mode Æ Client
1
2
3
Select the SSID that you want to connect. Choose WPS mode to “Enrollee” and get a PIN
Code in the field. Then press “PIN Start” and the “WPS” LED flash will light two minutes
on the device’s housing.
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3. Configuring the Air3G
4
6
5
Copy PIN Code
7
Under AP site, Select Wireless Setting Æ WPS Setting. Choose WPS mode to “PIN” then
enter the PIN Code Æ click “Apply” and the connection will automatically configure.
8
10
9
Enter PIN Code
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4
4.
Configuration: 3G
Router Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for 3G Router Mode. Please be
sure to read through Chapter 1.5 and Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management”.
4.1 Application for 3G Router Mode
The 3G router mode is the main operation mode of the Air3G. This mode is more than just
sharing 3G Internet connection. If you do not have a 3G USB dongle, you can still share
your ADSL modem, xDSL modem, or Cable Modem connections. If you have both 3G
and Broadband, you can use both for connection backup.
Due to Air3G’s wider coverage and Hotspot Authentication function, it is also suitable to
resell the Internet bandwidth. In addition, with the optional CAR-100DC car adapter, the
Air3G can be used to provide Internet access on public transportations.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.2 Internet Setting Menu
The Internet Setting Menu is the first menu you will see after login to Air3G. All WAN
related configurations can be found here. This menu will not appear in any other modes.
4.2.1 Setup Wizard
The configuration Wizard is the first screen you will see after you login. It will ask you a
few questions to setup your wireless and 3G broadband connection quickly.
Step 1: Please enter your own SSID and Encryption Key. The default encryption type is
WPA2-PSK(AES). The encryption key should be at least 8 alphanumeric
characters.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
Step 2:
Step 3:
Choose an internet connection type you need.
Configure the 3G function if you have select 3G related connection types.
Please make sure you have already plugin the 3G USB dongle. Now, select
your country and 3G operator. If it is not on the list, please choose “others”
and enter the information manually.
Step 4: If you have chosen WAN related connection type, the setup wizard will ask you to
enter the WAN information. If you are not sure about setup information, please
ask your ISP for parameters.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
Step 5: Please click “Finish” to reboot the system if you are sure about all settings.
4.2.2 WAN Setting
Internet Settings -> WAN Settings
The Air3G provides four types of WAN connections, 3G Only, WAN Only, WAN with 3G
Back up and 3G with WAN Back up. Please see the table below for details:
Internet Source table
Internet Source
Application
3G only
Sharing 3G Internet Connection from the USB
WAN only
xDSL/Cable Broadband Sharing from WAN port
3G with WAN backup
3G as primary connection, Broadband as backup
connection
WAN with 3G backup
Broadband as primary connection, 3G as backup
connection.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
„
3G Configuration: Click here to configure the 3G function
„
WAN Configuration: Click here to Configure WAN port related function
„
Enable Auto Switch Backup: Check this box to enable the Air3G to switch from
secondary connection back to primary connection if the primary connection is back
online. For example, if you choose “WAN with 3G Backup” as Internet Source.
When this option is enabled, in the event of WAN failure and switched to 3G
connection, the Air3G will monitor whether WAN is back online. If yes, then it will
switch back to the WAN connection. Please note that during the connection switch,
the Air3G will reboot. It might cause temporarily service disruption. For more
information about this subject. Please read section 4.4 in this chapter.
„
Enable UPnP:
„
Enable Response to PING: Please enable this if you want Air3G to response to
remote PING command
„
Enable Remote Management:
management interface.
„
Enable VPN Pass Through: If you have VPN servers in your local area network, you
need to turn on the VPN pass through to allow remote access to the VPN networks.
Enable universal plug and play
Enable this option for remote access of the web
3G Configurations
The 3G configuration features a setup wizard that allows you to select your country and
service provider. If your country is not on the list or if the setup wizard information is
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
outdated; please select “others” as country and enter the information manually. Please
ask your service provider for the setup parameters if you are not sure what to enter.
„
Service Name:
„
Dial Number: The AT dial command to connect with your 3G service
„
PIN Code:
„
Authentication:
password
„
MTU Value: Maximum transmission unit.
has special setting.
„
Operation Mode
The service name of service provider
The identification code required to access your 3G USB dongle
Check this box if your service provider require username and
Please use default value unless your ISP
„
Keep Alive:
„
On demand: The 3G connection will reconnect only if there is a request from
PC.
The 3G connection will auto reconnect if disconnection detect.
WAN Configurations
If you have xDSL or Cable Modem service, you can attach the internet connection to the
WAN port. Then configure the settings accordingly.
The Air3G supports different authentication and IP assignment standards for the WAN port.
It includes fixed IP, DHCP, PPPoE, PPTP, L2TP, and Big Pond protocols. Please consult
with your ISP about what authentication type is used for the WAN port connection.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
„
Clone MAC Address: In this place, you can assign a MAC address for the WAN
port. In case of WISP mode, it is Radio1’s MAC address. For Gatway mode, it
is the WAN/LAN1 MAC address.
4.2.3 Hotspot
Internet Settings -> Hotspot
Please go to section 4.3 for details on Hotspot Authentication function.
4.2.4 Virtual Server
Internet Settings -> Virtual Server
Virtual server allows you to specify one or more applications running on server computers
on the LAN that may be accessed by any Internet user. Internet data destined for the
specified public port will be directed to the specified private port number on the LAN client
with the specified private IP address.
If you want to allow your web server, ftp server, or email server to be accessible from
Internet, you would need to open specific port on the virtual server to your local IP address.
The Air3G feature “Copy PC” and “Pre-defined” services to simply the process of creating
virtual server.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
Example1: Open FTP service to your PC
6. Step 1: Enable the Virtual Server function
7. Step 2: Click on “Copy PC” icon to copy the IP address of your PC.
8. Step 3: Click on “Pre-Define” for a list of popular service and select “FTP”.
9. Step 4: Click on “Apply” and the new virtual server should appear on table list.
For a list of most frequent used TCP and UDP ports. Please visit
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers
4.2.5 DMZ
Internet Settings -> DMZ
DMZ opens all TCP/UDP ports to particular IP address on the LAN side.
for setting gaming servers behind the Air3G.
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It is used mostly
4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.2.6 URL Filtering
Internet Settings -> URL Filtering
The Air3G provide URL filter function to stop access to certain website. It is useful for
parents to stop children from accessing some websites.
4.2.7 MAC Filtering
Internet Settings -> MAC Filtering
MAC filter can filter out traffic from certain MAC addresses. It can prevent access to
internet from certain stations in the local LAN. Please enter the MAC address in
XX-XX-XX-XX-XX format. For example: 00-4F-66-11-22-33
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.2.8 IP Filtering
Internet Settings -> IP Filtering
IP filtering allows you to block certain IP addresses from accessing the network.
4.2.9 DDNS
Internet Settings -> DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name System. An algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address
for hosting Internet Server. A DDNS service provides each user account with a domain
name. The AIR3G support “Dyndns.org”, “zoneedit.com” and “no-ip.com” service.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.2.10 Static Route
Internet Settings -> Static Route
Static Route allows you to setup the routing table manually.
4.3 Hotspot Authentication
Hotspot authentication enables the administrator to manage Internet Access by username
and password. When hotspot authentication is enabled, PCs that are connected to
G.DUO will get a Pop-Up window when they try to access the Internet. They must enter
correct username and password to access Internet. Please see diagram below.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
To configure Hotspot Authentication function, please go to Internet Settings-> Hotspot
menu. The following screen will appear:
„
Hotspot Authentication: Enable your hotspot Authentication here.
click on “Apply Change” to take effect.
„
Limit to one user per account: If you want to each user must have its own
account. Please check this box. You must click on “Apply Change” to take
effect.
„
Account Idle Timeout: After the period of inactivity, the Air3G will log out the
user. Please enter zero if you don’t want the account every expired. You must
click on “Apply Change” to take effect.
„
Create Accounts: Please enter the “Username” and “Password”, then click on
“Add” to create an account.
„
Account Table: This field will display the information about accounts. You can
modify the username/password directly on the table cell then click on the “Modify”
button. The “Last Login Traffic” shows the data transmitted during the last login
session.
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You must
4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.4 Connection Auto Backup Function
Internet Settings -> WAN Settings
When you select “WAN with 3G backup” or “3G with WAN Backup” as your Internet source,
you will enable Air3G’s connection backup function. It means the Air3G will do fail over
between your 2 Internet source. In the example of “WAN with 3G backup”; the WAN is the
“Primary Connection” and the “3G” is the “Secondary Connection”. When the primary
connection failed, the Air3G will switch to secondary connection.
Internet Source
Internet Source table
Application
3G with WAN backup
3G as primary connection, Broadband as backup
connection
WAN with 3G backup
Broadband as primary connection, 3G as backup
connection.
When you select either of the 2 settings, the following screen will appear:
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
Enable Auto Switch Backup
Check this box to enable the Air3G to switch from secondary connection back to primary
connection if the primary connection is back online.
For example, if you choose “WAN with 3G Backup” as Internet Source. When this option
is enabled, in the event of WAN failure and switched to 3G connection, the Air3G will
monitor whether WAN is back online. If yes, then it will switch back to the WAN
connection. Please note that during the connection switch, the Air3G will reboot. It might
cause temporarily service disruption.
„
Polling IP: This is the IP address for which the function will ping to monitor whether the
primary connection is back online.
The Air3G will ping this IP about once per minute.
„
Polling Tries: How many successful PINGs to the Polling IP are needed before Air3G
decides the primary connection is back online.
Once the primary connection is back on line, the Air3G will reboot back to the primary
connection after about 5 minutes.
4.5 Wireless Settings Menu
When you select “Wireless Settings” on the top menu; the following screen will appear:
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.5.1 Regulatory Domain
Wireless Settings -> Regulatory Domain
The Regulatory Domain decides what channels and Tx output power levels are available
for your country. In most cases, the Regulatory Domain is already selected correctly for
your country. Please note that using the wrong Regulatory Domain is strictly prohibited.
If you live inside EU, you must use the ETSI Regulatory Domain. If you live in United
States, you must use FCC domain.
The Air3G is available with the following Regulatory Domain:
Regulatory Domain
Available
Channels
Maximum Tx Output Power
ETSI (Europe)
1 ~13
20dBm
FCC (United States)
1~11
23dBm
South America(11 CH)
1~11
30dBm
South America(14 CH)
1~14
30dBm
4.5.2 Multiple SSID
Wireless Settings -> Multiple SSID
Multiple SSID allows Air3G to create up to 4 different wireless networks (SSID). It is also
known as “Virtual AP” function. Each SSID can have its Encryption policy. The SSID1 is
the main SSID under Wireless Setting page.
„
Hide SSID: The wireless network will become invisible, only accessible to people who
knows the SSID name.
„
Enable Isolation between SSIDs: Enable this option will disable traffic between
different SSIDs.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.5.3 Channel
Wireless Settings -> Channel
The channel is the frequency range used by radio. In 802.11g/b standard, there are
maximum of 14 Channels. However, the available channels in each country are
dependant on the local regulation. If you are living in Europe, you can use channel 1 to 13.
If you are living in the United States, you can use channel 1 to 11.
Each wireless channel takes between 22 to 25MHz of frequency width. But the channels
are only 5MHz apart. Therefore, only every 5 channels can be free of interference with
each other. It is recommended that you can do a site survey to find about what channels
are used by surrounding AP and choose a channel that is not used by other APs.
4.5.4 Wireless Security
Wireless Settings -> Wireless Security
You should set up the wireless security immediately to ensure the security of your data
transmission and to prevent the unauthorized access. The easiest way to setup encryption
is to use the “Setup Wizard”. It automatically chooses the most secured and easiest
scheme for your wireless security settings. However, if you wish to choose your own
encryption scheme, the Air3G offers various type of encryption including WEP, WPA-PSK,
WPA, WPA2, WPA2-PSK encryptions method. In general, the WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK
are the most popular and secured encryption scheme.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
Procedure to make encryption
„
Step1: Select your SSID: If you have enabled the “Multiple SSID” function, there will
be more than one SSID to choose from. Each SSID(Virtual AP) can have its own
security policy.
„
Step2: Select Security Policy: Air3G offers a full suite of security policy including
WEP(Pre-Shared Key), WPA(certificate), WPA-PSK(AES), WPA2-PSK(AES), and
802.1x Radius Authentication. Recently WiFi regulation prevent the use of TKIP
encryption in 11n mode. Therefore, the TKIP is only available in 11b/g mode. We
highly recommend using WPA2-PSK AES Encryption as the easiest and very
secured scheme for encryption.
4.5.5 Access Control
Wireless Settings -> Access Control
The Air3G allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point and AP
Router modes. This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway modes.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
‰
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
‰
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
‰
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
4.5.6 Bandwidth Control
Wireless Settings -> Bandwidth Control
The Air3G can limit the bandwidth by IP address or MAC address.
Bandwidth Control, then select IP Control or MAC Control.
‰
Enable Bandwidth Control:
enable bandwidth control
Please first enable the
Check this box and press “Apply Change” to
„
IP Control: To limit the bandwidth of one single IP address.
„
MAC Control:
„
Upload Bandwidth: please input upstream bandwidth limit in Kbps
„
Download Bandwidth: please input downstream bandwidth limit in Kbps
„
Comment:
AirLive Air3G User’s Manual
To limit the bandwidth of one single MAC address.
note for the bandwidth policy
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.5.7 Associated Client
Wireless Settings -> Associated Client
You can check the wireless clients’ status on this table
„
MAC Address: MAC address of the wireless clients. If you need to find the IP
address, please go to Status->Client Table menu.
„
Power Saving:
„
Modulation: Show the which MCS level is used in 11n mode
„
Channel Width:
wdith.
„
RSSI(dBm):
The signal strength of the client device.
„
Time(Sec):
The connected time of the wireless client.
0: The power saving mode is off. 1: The power saving mode is on.
This indicates whether client is using 20MHz or 40MHz channel
4.5.8 Advanced Settings
Wireless Settings -> Advance Settings
„
Channel Width: You can choose 20MHz or 20/40MHz channel width. Choose
20MHz for compliance with laws in some countries. 40MHz offers faster performance
than 20MHz
„
Guard Interval: Guard interval is placed at the beginning of each transmission. It is
used to reduce the interference effect of multi-path transmissions. The use of long
Guard Interval may perform better in interference or multipath environment. However,
it can reduce the performance.
„
MCS (Modulation and Code Scheme): MCS level for the 11n mode.
recommended to leave it at Auto.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
„
Decline BA Request: Enable this option to decline the Block ACK requests by other
devices.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure
mixed 802.11b and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists,
the two kinds of standards may mutually interfere and decrease network’s
performance..
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Short Preamble: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
Tx Burst and Packet Aggregate: These are the scheme used for improving the
performance of the data transmission in 11n and Turbo modes. It is recommended to
keep the settings on.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please do not change the Tx and Rx Acktimeout value. The Air3G’s
default value is correct in most case.s.
4.5.9 WMM Settings
Wireless Settings -> WMM Settings
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM Settings is to specify parameters on multiple data queue for better performance of
differentiated wireless traffic like Voice-over-IP (VoIP), other types of audio, video, and
streaming media as well as traditional IP data over the AP.
Configure the WMM QoS Parameters
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
„
AC Type
The queue and associated priorities and parameters for transmission are as follows:
‰
Data 0 (Best Effort, BE): Medium priority queue, medium throughput anddel ay.
Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue.
‰
Data 1 (Background, BK): Lowest priority queue, high throughput. Bulk data
that requires maximum throughput and is not time-sensitive is sent to this queue
(FTP data, for example):
‰
Data 2 (Video, VI): High priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive data
such as Video and other streaming media are automatically sent to this queue.
‰
Data 3 (Voice, VO): Highest priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive
data such as Voice over IP (VoIP) is automatically sent to this queue.
Packets in a higher priority queue will be transmitted before packets in a lower
priority queue.
„
ECWmin and ECWmax
If an access point detects that the medium is in use, it uses the DCF random backoff
timer to determine the amount of time to wait before attempting to access a given
channel again. Each access point waits some random period of time between retries.
The wait time (initially a random value within a range specified as the Minimum
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
Contention Window increases exponentially up to a specified limit Maximum
Contention Window.
The random delay avoids most of the collisions that would occur if multiple APs got
access to the medium at the same time and tried to transmit data simultaneously. The
more active users you have on a network, the more significant the performance gains
of the backoff timer will be in reducing the number of collisions and retransmissions.
The random backoff used by the access point is a configurable parameter. To describe
the random delay, a "Minimum Contention Window" (ECWMin) and a "Maximum
Contention Window" (ECWMax) is defined.
‰
‰
ECWmin: The value specified for the Minimum Contention Window is the
upper limit of a range for the initial random backoff wait time. The number used
in the random backoff is initially a random number between 0 and the number
defined for the Minimum Contention Window.
ECWmax: If the first random backoff time ends before successful
transmission of the data frame, the access point increments a retry counter, and
doubles the value of the random backoff window. The value specified in the
Maximum Contention Window is the upper limit for this doubling of the random
backoff. This doubling continues until either the data frame is sent or the
Maximum Contention Window size is reached.
„
AIFS
The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing (AIFs) specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for
data frames. 802.11e uses interframe spaces to regulate which frames get access to
available channels and to coordinate wait times for transmission of different types of
data. The AIFs ensures that multiple access points do not try sending data at the same
time but instead wait until a channel is free. Valid values for AIFs are 1 through 255.
„
Transmission Opportunity
The Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) is an interval of time when a WMM client station
has the right to initiate transmissions onto the wireless medium. This value specifies
(in milliseconds) the Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) for client stations; that is, the
interval of time when a WMM client station has the right to initiate transmissions on the
wireless network.
We recommend that you use the default settings on the WMM QoS
page. Changing these values can lead to unexpected blockages of
traffic on your wireless LAN, and the blockages might be difficult to
diagnose.
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
4.5.10 WDS Settings (Repeater)
This is known as WDS Repeater function. Enable this setting to allow remote WDS
equipped AP to extend the wireless signal of Air3G. Up to 4 WDS repeaters can be
connect with Air3G. WDS works by entering the wireless MAC addresses (also known as
BSSID) of remote Access Points.
„
EncrypType: You can use one of the following 4 encryption type.
„
None: no encryption is made.
security issue.
„
WEP: This is the most compatible type. However, it is also easier for
hackers to break. Use this only if AES or TKIP doesn’t work.
„
TKIP: Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, TKIP is more secured than WEP but
less secure than AES.
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This is not recommended as it posts serious
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
„
AES: The most secured encryption method. It is highly recommended to
use this method unless for compatibility issue.
„
Encryp Key: Please enter your encryption key here.
„
MAC Address: Please enter the Wireless MAC address or BSSID of the remote
Bridge. You can usually find it at remote Bridge’s device label.
4.5.11 WPS Settings
Example1: Using Hardware Push button
Please push WPS button directly on the back of the Air3G. The “WPS” LED flash will light
and the Air3G will start to survey the client’s WPS signal in the current environment. Please
be noticed that, within two minutes, you have to turn on the utility of your wireless network
card and click PBC to connect automatically.
If you also have a hardware WPS button on your wireless card, you can push the button
immediately now. If not, you can usually find the WPS PBC function in the wireless utility.
Below is an example using AirLive WN-360USB wireless network card to connect with
Air3G.
6
7
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4. Configuration: 3G Router Mode
Example 2: WPS Using PIN
Please login Air3G’s Web UI. Select Wireless Setting Æ WPS Setting. In the WPS
Progress, select “PIN” then “Apply.” You will get a PIN Code.
PIN Code
1
2
Then, please turn on the utility of your wireless network card. Choose WPS mode to
“Registrar” and enter the PIN Code. Press “PIN” and the connection will automatically
configure.
3
5
4
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
5
5. System
Configuration
and Status Menu
In this chapter, we will explain about System Configurations Menu and the Status Menu of
the web management interface. Please be sure to read through Chapter 3’s “Introduction
to Web Management” first.
5.1 Menu Structure
When you click on the “System Configuration” menu on the top menu bar, the following
screen will appear. The system configuration includes all non-wireless settings. We will
explain their functions here.
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
5.2 LAN Interface Setup
System Configuration>> LAN Interface Setup
This menu is where you can configure all the aspect about LAN interface including IP
address, DHCP server settings..etc.
Device IP
Settings
DHCP
Settings
5.2.1 DHCP Settings
„
DHCP Service:
You can enable or disable DHCP server here.
z
Disable: Disable DHCP server. By default, the DHCP server is OFF
in AP, Client, and WDS Bridge mode.
z
Server: The Air3G will act as DHCP server to provide IP addresses to
the clients on the LAN/Wireless interface. By default, the DHCP server
is on in 3G router mode.
„
DHCP Client Range: You can define the IP pool from which the DHCP clients can
get IP address.. Click on “Show Clients” to see the current DHCP client table.
„
Lease Time:
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You can define how long the Air3G will reserve IP address for a
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
particular PC or Devices here.
5.2.2 Add DHCP Static Lease Client
If you want to lock IP address to a MAC address, you should add DHCP clients to the
“Static DHCP Client”. Up to 40 entries can be entered. Below is the procedure for
adding an entry:
5. 1. Enter the MAC address of the device
6. 2. Enter the IP address of the device
7. 3. Click on the “Add” button
5.3 Time Settings
System Configuration ->Time Settings
You can set the Air3G’s internal system clock by 2 methods. First is to enter the time
manually. Second is to set the time by NTP server. We strongly recommend setting the
time by NTP server because it will sync the time with remote server even after power
recycling. In another word, you will not lose time settings after power off.
„
„
„
„
Sync with Host: Push this button to copy the time from your PC
Time Zone: Select your nearby city here
NTP Server: This is the time server where your Air3G will sync the time with.
NTP Synchronization: How often your Air3G will sync the time with remote NTP
server.
Please remember to apply change after completing all settings.
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
5.4 Password Settings
System Configuration -> Password Settings
You can change your username and password from the image below:
5.5 Power Saving (Green AP)
System Configuration -> Power Saving
The power saving scheduling function allows user to define the wireless service time and
output power level. It can be used to conserve the energy of your AP. Please remember
to set the time first
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
5.6 Firmware Upgrade
System Configuration -> Firmware Upgrade
You can upgrade the firmware of your Air3G (the software that controls your Air3G’s
operation). Normally, this is done when a new version of firmware offers new features that
you want, or solves problems that you have encountered with the current version.
„
Upgrade Firmware:
To update the Air3G firmware, first download the firmware from AirLive web site to your
local disk. Then from the above screen enter the path and filename of the firmware
file (or click Browse to locate the firmware file). Next, Click the Apply button to start.
The new firmware will be loaded to your Air3G. After a message appears telling you that the
operation is completed, you need to reset the system to have the new firmware take effect.
Do not power off the device while upgrading the firmware.
It is recommended that you do not upgrade your Air3G unless the new
firmware has new features you need or if it has a fix to a problem that you’ve
encountered.
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
5.7 Configuration Save and Restore
System Configuration -> Configuration Save and Restore
The Air3G can save and restore the settings to a file.
You can save system configuration settings to a file, and later download it back to the Air3G
„
Export Settings:
settings later.
„
Import Settings file location: Please browse for the configuration file location for
restoration of settings
Export the configuration file to your PC so you can restore the
5.8 Factory Default
System Configuration -> Factory Default
You can reset the configuration of your Air3G to the factory default settings.
5.9 Status Menu
5.9.1 Device Information
From this menu, you can know the Firmware version, System Up time, IP and MAC
addresses, and check whether the USB dongle is connected.
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
5.9.2 Statistic
The Statistic menu displays the memory status, WAN traffic, LAN traffic, and WLAN traffic
conditions.
5.9.3 Client Table
The Client Table is also known as ARP table.
the devices that pass Air3G.
It will show all the IP and MAC addresses of
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5. System Configuration and Status Menu
5.9.4 LOG
When you enable the log function, system will keep records of events and errors detected.
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6. AP Mode
6
6. AP
Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for AP Mode. Please be sure to
read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Wireless Operation Mode” first.
6.1 Application for AP Mode
When operating in the Access Point mode, the Air3G becomes the center hub of the
wireless network. All wireless cards and clients connect and communicate through Air3G.
This type of network is known as “Infrastructure network”. Other Air3G or 802.11 b/g/n
devices can connect to AP mode through “Client Mode.
6.2 Wireless Settings
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6. AP Mode
6.2.1 Regulatory Domain
Wireless Settings -> Regulatory Domain
The Regulatory Domain decides what channels and Tx output power levels are available
for your country. In most cases, the Regulatory Domain is already selected correctly for
your country. Please note that using the wrong Regulatory Domain is strictly prohibited.
If you live inside EU, you must use the ETSI Regulatory Domain. If you live in United
States, you must use FCC domain.
The Air3G is available with the following Regulatory Domain:
Regulatory Domain
Available
Channels
Maximum Tx Output Power
ETSI (Europe)
1 ~13
20dBm
FCC (United States)
1~11
23dBm
South America(11 CH)
1~11
30dBm
South America(14 CH)
1~14
30dBm
6.2.2 Multiple SSID
Wireless Settings -> Multiple SSID
Multiple SSID allows Air3G to create up to 4 different wireless networks (SSID). It is also
known as “Virtual AP” function. Each SSID can have its Encryption policy. The SSID1 is
the main SSID under Wireless Setting page.
„
Hide SSID: The wireless network will become invisible, only accessible to people who
knows the SSID name.
„
Enable Isolation between SSIDs: Enable this option will disable traffic between
different SSIDs.
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6. AP Mode
6.2.3 Channel
Wireless Settings -> Channel
The channel is the frequency range used by radio. In 802.11g/b standard, there are
maximum of 14 Channels. However, the available channels in each country are
dependant on the local regulation. If you are living in Europe, you can use channel 1 to 13.
If you are living in the United States, you can use channel 1 to 11.
Each wireless channel takes between 22 to 25MHz of frequency width. But the channels
are only 5MHz apart. Therefore, only every 5 channels can be free of interference with
each other. It is recommended that you can do a site survey to find about what channels
are used by surrounding AP and choose a channel that is not used by other APs.
6.2.4 Wireless Security
Wireless Settings -> Wireless Security
You should set up the wireless security immediately to ensure the security of your data
transmission and to prevent the unauthorized access. The easiest way to setup encryption
is to use the “Setup Wizard”. It automatically chooses the most secured and easiest
scheme for your wireless security settings. However, if you wish to choose your own
encryption scheme, the Air3G offers various type of encryption including WEP, WPA-PSK,
WPA, WPA2, WPA2-PSK encryptions method. In general, the WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK
are the most popular and secured encryption scheme.
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6. AP Mode
Procedure to make encryption
„
Step1: Select your SSID: If you have enabled the “Multiple SSID” function, there will
be more than one SSID to choose from. Each SSID(Virtual AP) can have its own
security policy.
„
Step2: Select Security Policy: Air3G offers a full suite of security policy including
WEP(Pre-Shared Key), WPA(certificate), WPA-PSK(AES), WPA2-PSK(AES), and
802.1x Radius Authentication. Recently WiFi regulation prevent the use of TKIP
encryption in 11n mode. Therefore, the TKIP is only available in 11b/g mode. We
highly recommend using WPA2-PSK AES Encryption as the easiest and very
secured scheme for encryption.
6.2.5 Access Control
Wireless Settings -> Access Control
The Air3G allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point and AP
Router modes. This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway modes.
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6. AP Mode
‰
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
‰
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
‰
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
6.2.6 Associated Client
Wireless Settings -> Associated Client
You can check the wireless clients’ status on this table
„
MAC Address: MAC address of the wireless clients. If you need to find the IP
address, please go to Status->Client Table menu.
„
Power Saving:
„
Modulation: Show the which MCS level is used in 11n mode
„
Channel Width:
wdith.
„
RSSI(dBm):
The signal strength of the client device.
„
Time(Sec):
The connected time of the wireless client.
0: The power saving mode is off. 1: The power saving mode is on.
This indicates whether client is using 20MHz or 40MHz channel
6.2.7 Advanced Settings
Wireless Settings -> Advance Settings
„
Channel Width: You can choose 20MHz or 20/40MHz channel width. Choose
20MHz for compliance with laws in some countries. 40MHz offers faster performance
than 20MHz
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6. AP Mode
„
Guard Interval: Guard interval is placed at the beginning of each transmission. It is
used to reduce the interference effect of multi-path transmissions. The use of long
Guard Interval may perform better in interference or multipath environment. However,
it can reduce the performance.
„
MCS (Modulation and Code Scheme): MCS level for the 11n mode.
recommended to leave it at Auto.
„
Decline BA Request: Enable this option to decline the Block ACK requests by other
devices.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure
mixed 802.11b and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists,
the two kinds of standards may mutually interfere and decrease network’s
performance..
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
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It is
6. AP Mode
1 and 65,535.
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Short Preamble: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
Tx Burst and Packet Aggregate: These are the scheme used for improving the
performance of the data transmission in 11n and Turbo modes. It is recommended to
keep the settings on.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please do not change the Tx and Rx Acktimeout value. The Air3G’s
default value is correct in most cases.
6.2.8 WMM Settings
Wireless Settings -> WMM Settings
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM Settings is to specify parameters on multiple data queue for better performance of
differentiated wireless traffic like Voice-over-IP (VoIP), other types of audio, video, and
streaming media as well as traditional IP data over the AP.
Configure the WMM QoS Parameters
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6. AP Mode
„
AC Type
The queue and associated priorities and parameters for transmission are as follows:
‰
Data 0 (Best Effort, BE): Medium priority queue, medium throughput anddel ay.
Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue.
‰
Data 1 (Background, BK): Lowest priority queue, high throughput. Bulk data
that requires maximum throughput and is not time-sensitive is sent to this queue
(FTP data, for example):
‰
Data 2 (Video, VI): High priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive data
such as Video and other streaming media are automatically sent to this queue.
‰
Data 3 (Voice, VO): Highest priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive
data such as Voice over IP (VoIP) is automatically sent to this queue.
Packets in a higher priority queue will be transmitted before packets in a lower
priority queue.
„
ECWmin and ECWmax
If an access point detects that the medium is in use, it uses the DCF random backoff
timer to determine the amount of time to wait before attempting to access a given
channel again. Each access point waits some random period of time between retries.
The wait time (initially a random value within a range specified as the Minimum
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6. AP Mode
Contention Window increases exponentially up to a specified limit Maximum
Contention Window.
The random delay avoids most of the collisions that would occur if multiple APs got
access to the medium at the same time and tried to transmit data simultaneously. The
more active users you have on a network, the more significant the performance gains
of the backoff timer will be in reducing the number of collisions and retransmissions.
The random backoff used by the access point is a configurable parameter. To describe
the random delay, a "Minimum Contention Window" (ECWMin) and a "Maximum
Contention Window" (ECWMax) is defined.
‰
‰
ECWmin: The value specified for the Minimum Contention Window is the
upper limit of a range for the initial random backoff wait time. The number used
in the random backoff is initially a random number between 0 and the number
defined for the Minimum Contention Window.
ECWmax: If the first random backoff time ends before successful
transmission of the data frame, the access point increments a retry counter, and
doubles the value of the random backoff window. The value specified in the
Maximum Contention Window is the upper limit for this doubling of the random
backoff. This doubling continues until either the data frame is sent or the
Maximum Contention Window size is reached.
„
AIFS
The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing (AIFs) specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for
data frames. 802.11e uses interframe spaces to regulate which frames get access to
available channels and to coordinate wait times for transmission of different types of
data. The AIFs ensures that multiple access points do not try sending data at the same
time but instead wait until a channel is free. Valid values for AIFs are 1 through 255.
„
Transmission Opportunity
The Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) is an interval of time when a WMM client station
has the right to initiate transmissions onto the wireless medium. This value specifies
(in milliseconds) the Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) for client stations; that is, the
interval of time when a WMM client station has the right to initiate transmissions on the
wireless network.
We recommend that you use the default settings on the WMM QoS
page. Changing these values can lead to unexpected blockages of
traffic on your wireless LAN, and the blockages might be difficult to
diagnose.
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6. AP Mode
6.2.9 WDS Settings (Repeater)
This is known as WDS Repeater function. In AP mode, the Air3G will repeat the wireless
signal of remote AP/Router. Up to 4 WDS repeaters can be connect with Air3G. WDS
works by entering the wireless MAC addresses (also known as BSSID) of remote Access
Points.
„
EncrypType: You can use one of the following 4 encryption type.
„
None: no encryption is made.
security issue.
„
WEP: This is the most compatible type. However, it is also easier for
hackers to break. Use this only if AES or TKIP doesn’t work.
„
TKIP: Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, TKIP is more secured than WEP but
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This is not recommended as it posts serious
68
6. AP Mode
less secure than AES.
„
AES: The most secured encryption method. It is highly recommended to
use this method unless for compatibility issue.
„
Encryp Key: Please enter your encryption key here.
„
MAC Address: Please enter the Wireless MAC address or BSSID of the remote
Bridge. You can usually find it at remote Bridge’s device label.
6.2.10 WPS Settings
Example1: Using Hardware Push button
Please push WPS button directly on the back of the Air3G. The “WPS” LED flash will light
and the Air3G will start to survey the client’s WPS signal in the current environment. Please
be noticed that, within two minutes, you have to turn on the utility of your wireless network
card and click PBC to connect automatically.
If you also have a hardware WPS button on your wireless card, you can push the button
immediately now. If not, you can usually find the WPS PBC function in the wireless utility.
Below is an example using AirLive WN-360USB wireless network card to connect with
Air3G.
6
7
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6. AP Mode
Example 2: WPS Using PIN
Please login Air3G’s Web UI. Select Wireless Setting Æ WPS Setting. In the WPS
Progress, select “PIN” then “Apply.” You will get a PIN Code.
PIN Code
1
2
Then, please turn on the utility of your wireless network card. Choose WPS mode to
“Registrar” and enter the PIN Code. Press “PIN” and the connection will automatically
configure.
3
5
4
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7.
7
7. Client
Client Mode
Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for Client Mode. Please be sure
to read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Wireless Operation Mode” first.
7.1 Application for Client Mode
This mode is also known as “Client” mode. The Air3G acts as if it is a wireless adapter to
connect with a remote Access Point. Users can attach a computer or a router to the LAN
port of Air3G to get network access.
7.2 Wireless Settings
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7.
Client Mode
7.2.1 Regulatory Domain
Wireless Settings -> Regulatory Domain
The Regulatory Domain decides what channels and Tx output power levels are available
for your country. In most cases, the Regulatory Domain is already selected correctly for
your country. Please note that using the wrong Regulatory Domain is strictly prohibited.
If you live inside EU, you must use the ETSI Regulatory Domain. If you live in United
States, you must use FCC domain.
The Air3G is available with the following Regulatory Domain:
Regulatory Domain
Available
Channels
Maximum Tx Output Power
ETSI (Europe)
1 ~13
20dBm
FCC (United States)
1~11
23dBm
South America(11 CH)
1~11
30dBm
South America(14 CH)
1~14
30dBm
7.2.2 Profile Setting
Wireless Settings -> Profile Setting
.
A profile contains information about a remote AP’s network.
choose to connect with the remote AP using 2 methods.
In Client mode, you can
„ 1. Using Site Survey to find the AP you want to connect with, then select the SSID to
connect.
„
This is the easiest way.
2. Create a profile about the remote AP you want to connect with.
Profile in this section.
We will talk about
Procedure to Add a Profile
1.
Click on Profile Settings on the Wireless Settings Menu. Then click on “Add” to add a
new profile
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7.
Client Mode
2.
On the Add profile page, please enter the information about the remote AP network
such as SSID, encryption. Click on “Apply” once finished
3.
Once apply the new profile should appear on the list. Select the profile and click on
“Activate” button to take effect Only one profile can be activated at a time.
7.2.3 Site Survey
Wireless Settings -> Site Survey
You can scan for wireless networks around your location using the Site Survey function.
From the site survey function, you can also perform antenna alignment and establish
wireless connection
When you click on Site Survey, the following screen will appear. It might take awhile
depending on number of available APs in the area
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7.
Client Mode
You can now select the SSID you want to connect with, then press the “Connect” button. If
encryption key is required, the AP will prompt you to enter the encryption information.
7.2.4 Advance Settings
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure
mixed 802.11b and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists,
the two kinds of standards may mutually interfere and decrease network’s
performance..
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please do not change the Tx and Rx Acktimeout value.
value is correct in most cases.
„
The Air3G’s default
Tx Burst: These are the scheme used for improving the performance of the data
transmission in 11n and Turbo modes. It is recommended to keep the settings on.
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7.
Client Mode
„
Channel Width: You can choose 20MHz or 20/40MHz channel width. Choose
20MHz for compliance with laws in some countries. 40MHz offers faster performance
than 20MHz
„
Guard Interval: Guard interval is placed at the beginning of each transmission. It is
used to reduce the interference effect of multi-path transmissions. The use of long
Guard Interval may perform better in interference or multipath environment. However,
it can reduce the performance.
„
MCS (Modulation and Code Scheme): MCS level for the 11n mode.
recommended to leave it at Auto.
It is
7.2.5 WPS Settings
Example 1: Using WPS hardware button
Please push WPS button directly on the back of the device. The “WPS” LED flash will light
and the Air3G will start to survey the AP’s WPS signal in the current environment.
Within two minutes, please push WPS button on your AP device, the connection will
automatic successfully.
Example 2: WPS using PIN
Please login Air3G’s Web UI.
WPS Setting.
Select Wireless Setting Æ change to Client mode Æ Client
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7.
Client Mode
1
2
3
Select the SSID that you want to connect. Choose WPS mode to “Enrollee” and get a PIN
Code in the field. Then press “PIN Start” and the “WPS” LED flash will light two minutes
on the device’s housing.
4
6
5
Copy PIN Code
7
Under AP site, Select Wireless Setting Æ WPS Setting. Choose WPS mode to “PIN” then
enter the PIN Code Æ click “Apply” and the connection will automatically configure.
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7.
Client Mode
8
10
9
Enter PIN Code
10
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8 WDS Bridge Mode
8
8. WDS
Bridge Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for WDS Bridge Mode. Please
be sure to read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Wireless Operation Mode” first.
8.1 Application for WDS Bridge Mode
This mode is also known as “WDS Pure MAC Bridge mode”. Each bridge can associate
with maximum of 4 other bridges in the WDS configuration. This mode is best used when
you want to connect LAN networks together wirelessly (for example, between office and
warehouse).
This mode usually delivers faster performance than infrastructure mode.
8.2 Wireless Settings
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8. WDS Bridge Mode
8.2.1 Regulatory Domain
Wireless Settings -> Regulatory Domain
The Regulatory Domain decides what channels and Tx output power levels are available
for your country. In most cases, the Regulatory Domain is already selected correctly for
your country. Please note that using the wrong Regulatory Domain is strictly prohibited.
If you live inside EU, you must use the ETSI Regulatory Domain. If you live in United
States, you must use FCC domain.
The Air3G is available with the following Regulatory Domain:
Regulatory Domain
Available
Channels
Maximum Tx Output Power
ETSI (Europe)
1 ~13
20dBm
FCC (United States)
1~11
23dBm
South America(11 CH)
1~11
30dBm
South America(14 CH)
1~14
30dBm
8.2.2 Advance Setup
Wireless Settings -> Advance Setup
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8 WDS Bridge Mode
„
Channel Width: You can choose 20MHz or 20/40MHz channel width. Choose
20MHz for compliance with laws in some countries. 40MHz offers faster performance
than 20MHz
„
Guard Interval: Guard interval is placed at the beginning of each transmission. It is
used to reduce the interference effect of multi-path transmissions. The use of long
Guard Interval may perform better in interference or multipath environment. However,
it can reduce the performance.
„
MCS (Modulation and Code Scheme): MCS level for the 11n mode.
recommended to leave it at Auto.
„
Decline BA Request: Enable this option to decline the Block ACK requests by other
devices.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure
mixed 802.11b and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists,
the two kinds of standards may mutually interfere and decrease network’s
performance..
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Short Preamble: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
Tx Burst and Packet Aggregate: These are the scheme used for improving the
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It is
8. WDS Bridge Mode
performance of the data transmission in 11n and Turbo modes. It is recommended to
keep the settings on.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please do not change the Tx and Rx Acktimeout value. The Air3G’s
default value is correct in most case.s.
8.2.3 WDS Settings
For Bridge network, it is required to enter the Wireless MAC address of all remote bridges
that is connected directly to your Air3G. The wireless MAC address is also known as
BSSID.
„
Encryp Type: You can use one of the following 4 encryption type.
„
None: no encryption is made.
security issue.
„
WEP: This is the most compatible type. However, it is also easier for
hackers to break. Use this only if AES or TKIP doesn’t work.
This is not recommended as it posts serious
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8 WDS Bridge Mode
„
TKIP: Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, TKIP is more secured than WEP but
less secure than AES.
„
AES: The most secured encryption method. It is highly recommended to
use this method unless for compatibility issue.
„
Encryp Key: Please enter your encryption key here.
„
MAC Address: Please enter the Wireless MAC address or BSSID of the remote
Bridge. You can usually find it at remote Bridge’s device label.
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9. Emergency Firmware Recovery
9
9. Emergency
Firmware
Recovery
The Air3G features emergency firmware upgrade function that can restore your AP from a
firmware crashed. If you can’t access your AP anymore, please first try to restore the
setting to default by holding the RESET button (in the back) for more than 10 seconds. You
should be able to find the AP at 192.168.1.254. If you can’t find it, then please perform the
emergency upgrade. Please visit www.airlive.com->support->download and type “Air3G” to
the download page.
How Emergency Upgrade Works?
Air3G’s flash memory is divided into “firmware” and “bootloader” area. The bootloader
area is protected from writing and has a built-in emergency web server. Therefore, the AP
can be recovered from emergency web server after a firmware crash. The emergency
web server is enabled when AP is forced into emergency upgrade mode, it’s IP will be
changed to 192.168.1.254.
Firmware Area
Flash Memory
Emergency
Web Server
Bootloader Area
Procedure to Restore the AP using Emergency Upgrade
1. Please connect one of your LAN Ports (LAN1~LAN4) to your PC directly.
2. Set your PC’s IP address to 192.168.1.50
3. Before connecting the power, please press and holding the “Reset” button (in the back
of the AP). Then plug in the power. Keep press and hold the Reset button until the
LED of the selected port goes on(about 3 seconds)
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9. Emergency Firmware Recovery
Fig 1-2 : Press and hold the reset button while plugging in the power.
6.
Open a browser; type “192.168.1.254” for the website address. The following screen
should show up
7.
Click the “Browse” button, select and open the correct firmware file.
8.
Click on “UPGRADE” button.
completed.
9.
After upgrading, the configuration will recover from the previous settings. Please
access your device at previous IP address. If you forget what the previous IP
address is or if you can’t access the device, please push the reset button for 10
seconds to restore your AP to factory default settings. The system will reboot. Then,
you should be able to login into the normal Web UI at the default IP: 192.168.1.254.
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Do not touch the AP or PC until the upgrade is
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10. Frequent Asked Questions
10
10. Frequent
Asked
Questions
In this chapter, we will address some frequent asked questions about Air3G
Question:
I plug my 3G USB dongle into Air3G, but it can not be recognized
Answer:
Please go to Air3G webpage at www.airlive.com and check the USB
compatibility list. If your USB is on the compatibility list, please make sure
you plug in the USB dongle while the Air3G is powered off.
===================================================================
Question:
After Emergency Upgrade, I can’t find my Air3G at 192.168.1.254
Answer:
The Air3G will restore to the previous settings after successful Emergency
upgrade. Therefore, the IP address will change to the previous IP address.
If you still can’t find Air3G in previous address, please do a restore to default
and the Air3G should appear at 192.168.1.254
====================================================================
Question:
When I wan to use “Site Survey” tool to connect with a AP that has no
encryption, why does the Air3G report “encryption type mismatch!” and ask
me to configure the wireless security settings?
Answer:
When you press “Connect” from site survey, the Air3G will first check if the
current wireless encryption setting is correct. If not, it will ask you to modify
the setting. Therefore, if your current wireless settings has encryption and
the new AP you want to associate does not use encryption, then the Air3G will
report the mismatch. In this case, simple select “Disable” in the encryption
field and press “Apply Change”.
====================================================================
Question:
When I change my wireless operation mode, why can’t I find my AP anymore?
Answer:
By Default, the DHCP server is turned on in 3G Router mode. In other
modes, the DHCP server is turned off. If you get your IP address
automatically, then when you change from 3G Router to AP/Client/WDS
Bridge mode. Your PC will not be able to get IP address from DHCP server
anymore; therefore, you should set the IP address manually.
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====================================================================
Question:
Where is the POE port for Air3G?
Answer:
The PoE system used for Air3G is 12V Passive PoE.
the passive PoE port.
LAN1 is also used as
====================================================================
Question:
When I use PoE power with 3G USB dongle, why do I get unstable
performance sometimes?
Answer:
Please use a 12VDC power adapter that supply more than 1.25A of current.
====================================================================
Question:
When I connect my PoE switch with Air3G, why doesn’t it work?
Answer:
The Air3G use a 12V Passive PoE system, it is not the same as the 48V
system used by PoE switch. As matter of fact, connect the 48V system to
the Air3G might damage the device!
====================================================================
Question:
I thought the Air3G has 30dBm output power, why do I only see 20dBm on the
Tx Output Power option?
Answer:
The maximum output power for Air3G is about 1watt(30dBm). However, it is
limited to 20dBm in EU and 23dBm in the U.S. for compliance with regulations.
Nevertheless, unlike normal 11n routers that typically provide less than
15dBm output power in 11n mode, the Air3G can provides up to 19dBm(EU)
and 22dBm(FCC) in 11n mode. It means greater coverage in 11n mode.
If you are living in countries that allow use of 30dBm output power, you can
change the Regulatory Domain to South America. Please be sure it is legal
in your country, do not use the wrong regulatory domain.
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11. Specifications
11
11. Specifications
The specification of Air3G is subject to change without notice. Please use the information
with caution.
11.1 Hardware Features
11.1.1 General Hardware Feature
„
Long Range Wireless-N 3G Router
„
Up to 30dBm Output Power (20dBm in EU, 23dBm in U.S.)
„
Up to 9 times more wireless coverage than normal powered AP/Routers
„
Work with 3G/3.5G/UMTS/EVDO/HSDPA USB Dongle
„
1 x USB 2.0 Port
„
Green AP power saving function
„
150Mbps 1T1R Wireless-b/g/n standard
„
12V Passive POE Port
„
WAN port for ADSL/Cable Modem support
„
WAN/3G Connection Auto-Backup
„
3G Router, AP, Client, Bridge, Repeater modes
„
Multiple SSID and Bandwidth Control
„
8MB Flash, 32MB SDRAM
11.1.2 Power Supply
„
Power Adapter Voltage : input 100~240Vac/50~60Hz , output 12V/1A
„
Passive PoE Port(Accept 12Vdc). Passive PoE DC Injector not included
11.1.3 Dimension and Weight
„
Dimension: 154 x 130 x 316 mm
„
AP Unit Weight(Approximate): 280g
„
Package Weight(Approximate): 686g
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11.2 Radio Specifications
11.2.1 Frequency Band
„
USA (FCC) 11 Channels: 2.412GHz~2.462GHz
„
Europe (ETSI) 13 Channels : 2.412GHz~2.472GHz
„
South America: 11 Channels: 2.412GHz~2.462GHz
„
South America: 14 Channels: 2.412GHz~2.477GHz
11.2.2 Rate and Modulation
„
Data Rate:
„
„
802.11n
‹
20 MHz BW(LGI): 65, 58.5, 52, 39, 26, 19.5, 13, 6.5
‹
40 MHz BW(LGI): 135, 121.5, 108, 81, 54, 40.5, 27, 13.5
‹
20 MHz BW(SGI): 72.2, 65, 57.8, 43.3, 28.9, 21.7, 14.4, 7.2
‹
40 MHz BW(SGI): 150, 135, 120, 90, 60, 45, 30, 15
„
802.11g: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9 and 6 Mbps
„
802.11b: 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps
Modulation
„
802.11n
‹
20 MHz BW(LGI): 65, 58.5, 52, 39, 26, 19.5, 13, 6.5
‹
40 MHz BW(LGI): 135, 121.5, 108, 81, 54, 40.5, 27, 13.5
‹
20 MHz BW(SGI): 72.2, 65, 57.8, 43.3, 28.9, 21.7, 14.4, 7.2
‹
40 MHz BW(SGI): 150, 135, 120, 90, 60, 45, 30, 15
„
802.11g: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9 and 6 Mbps
„
802.11b: 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps
11.2.3 TX Output Power
ETSI(Europe)
„
802.11b : About 20dBm max
„
802.11g : About 20dBm max
„
802.11n : About 19dBm max
FCC(The United States)
„
802.11b : About 23dBm max
„
802.11g : About 23dBm max
„
802.11n : About 22dBm max
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11. Specifications
South America
„
802.11b : About 30dBm max
„
802.11g : About 29dBm max
„
802.11n : About 27dBm max
11.2.4 Receiver Sensitivity
„
802.11b 11Mbps ≦ -90dBm
„
802.11g 54Mbps ≦ -73dBm
„
802.11n HT20 MCS7 ≦ -70dBm
„
802.11n HT40 MCS7 ≦ -67dBm
11.2.5 Supported WLAN Mode
„
3G Router Mode
„
AP Mode
„
Client Mode
„
WDS Bridge Mode
„
WDS Repeater Mode
11.3 Software Features
Management Interface
„
Web HTTP
Advance Functions
„
Setup Wizard
„
Site Survey
„
3G service provider list
„
Hotspot Authentication
„
WAN/3G Connection Backup
„
Bandwidth Control / Traffic Shaping
„
Associated Client Table
„
Wi-Fi, WPA compatible interoperability
„
WPA with PSK/TKIP/AES support ,WPA2 support
„
Virtual Server Function
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11. Specifications
„
Privacy Separator support
„
Hide SSID Support
„
Support adjustable output power
„
ACK Timeout Adjustment
„
Bootloader Protection and Emergency Firmware Upload Code
„
Radius Supported
„
Up to 40 Static DHCP entries
„
Firmware upgrade and configuration backup via Web
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
12
12. Wireless
Network
Glossary
The wireless network glossary contains explanation or information about common terms
used in wireless networking products. Some of information in this glossary might be
outdated, please use with caution.
802.3ad
802.3ad is an IEEE standard for bonding or aggregating multiple Ethernet ports into one
virtual port (also known as trunking) to increase the bandwidth.
802.3af
This is the PoE (Power over Ethernet) standard by IEEE committee. 803.af uses 48V
POE standard that can deliver up to 100 meter distance over Ethernet cable.
802.11b
International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band
(2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz) and provides a throughput up to 11 Mbps.
802.1d STP
Spanning Tree Protocol. It is an algorithm to prevent network from forming. The STP
protocol allows net work to provide a redundant link in the event of a link failure. It is
advise to turn on this option for multi-link bridge network.
802.11d
Also known as “Global Roaming”. 802.11d is a standard for use in countries where
systems using other standards in the 802.11 family are not allowed to operate.
802.11e
The IEEE QoS standard for prioritizing traffic of the VoIP and multimedia applications.
The WMM is based on a subset of the 802.11e.
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802.11g
A standard provides a throughput up to 54 Mbps using OFDM technology. It also
operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band as 802.11b. 802.11g devices are backward
compatible with 802.11b devices.
802.11i
The IEEE standard for wireless security. 802.11i standard includes TKIP, CCMP, and
AES encryption to improve wireless security. It is also know as WPA2.
802.1x
802.1x is a security standard for wired and wireless LANs. In the 802.1x parlance, there are
usually supplicants (client), authenticator (switch or AP), and authentication server (radius
server) in the network. When a supplicants request a service, the authenticator will pass
the request and wait for the authentication server to grant access and register accounting.
The 802.1x is the most widely used method of authentication by WISP.
Adhoc
A Peer-to-Peer wireless network. An Adhoc wireless network do not use wireless AP or
router as the central hub of the network. Instead, wireless client are connected directly to
each other. The disadvantage of Adhoc network is the lack of wired interface to Internet
connections. It is not recommended for network more than 2 nodes.
Access Point (AP)
The central hub of a wireless LAN network. Access Points have one or more Ethernet
ports that can connect devices (such as Internet connection) for sharing. Multi-function
Access Point can also function as an Ethernet client, wireless bridge, or repeat signals from
other AP. Access Points typically have more wireless functions comparing to wireless
routers.
ACK Timeout
Acknowledgement Timeout Windows. When a packet is sent out from one wireless station
to the other, it will waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The
station will only wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. If the
ACK is NOT received within that timeout period then the packet will be re-transmitted
resulting in reduced throughput. If the ACK setting is too high then throughput will be lost
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
due to waiting for the Ack Window to timeout on lost packets. If the ACK setting is too low
then the ACK window will have expired and the returning packet will be dropped, greatly
lowering throughput. By having the ability to adjust the ACK setting we can effectively
optimize the throughput over long distance links. This is especially true for 802.11a and
802.11g networks. Setting the correct ACK timeout value need to consider 3 factors:
distance, AP response time, and interference. The Air3G provide ACK adjustment
capability in form of either distance or direct input. When you enter the distance
parameter, the Air3G will automatically calculate the correct ACK timeout value.
Bandwidth Management (Traffic Control)
Bandwidth Management controls the transmission speed of a port, user, IP address, and
application. Router can use bandwidth control to limit the Internet connection speed of
individual IP or Application. It can also guarantee the speed of certain special application
or privileged IP address - a crucial feature of QoS (Quality of Service) function.
Bootloader
Bootloader is the under layering program that will start at the power-up before the device
loads firmware. It is similar to BIOS on a personal computer. When a firmware crashed,
you might be able to recover your device from bootloader.
Bridge
A product that connects 2 different networks that uses the same protocol. Wireless
bridges are commonly used to link network across remote buildings. For wireless
application, there are 2 types of Bridges. WDS Bridge can be used in Point-to-Point or
Point-to-Multipoint topology. Bridge Infrastructure works with AP mode to form a star
topology.
Cable and Connector Loss: During wireless design and deployment, it is important to
factor in the cable and connector loss. Cable and connector loss will reduce the output
power and receiver sensitivity of the radio at connector end. The longer the cable length is,
the more the cable loss. Cable loss should be subtracted from the total output power
during distance calculation. For example, if the cable and connector loss is 3dBm and the
output power is 20dBm; the output power at the cable end is only 17dBm.
Client
Client means a network device or utility that receives service from host or server. A client
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device means end user device such as wireless cards or wireless CPE.
CPE Devices
CPE stands for Customer Premises Equipment. A CPE is a device installed on the end
user's side to receive network services. For example, on an ADSL network, the ADSL
modem/router on the subscriber's home is the CPE device. Wireless CPE means a
complete Wireless (usually an AP with built-in Antenna) that receive wireless broadband
access from the WISP. The opposite of CPE is CO.
CTS
Clear To Send. A signal sent by a device to indicate that it is ready to receive data.
DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name System. An algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address
for hosting Internet Server. A DDNS service provides each user account with a domain
name. A router with DDNS capability has a built-in DDNS client that updates the IP
address information to DDNS service provider whenever there is a change. Therefore,
users can build website or other Internet servers even if they don't have fixed IP
connection.
DHCP
Dynamic Hosting Configuration Protocol. A protocol that enables a server to dynamically
assign IP addresses. When DHCP is used, whenever a computer logs onto the network, it
automatically gets an IP address assigned to it by DHCP server. A DHCP server can
either be a designated PC on the network or another network device, such as a router.
DMZ
Demilitarized Zone. When a router opens a DMZ port to an internal network device, it opens
all the TCP/UDP service ports to this particular device. The feature is used commonly for
setting up H.323 VoIP or Multi-Media servers.
DNS
A program that translates URLs to IP addresses by accessing a database maintained on a
collection of Internet servers.
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more
parts, separated by dots. In www.airlive.com, the "airlive.com" is the doman name.
DoS Attack
Denial of Service. A type of network attack that floods the network with useless traffic.
Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in
the TCP/IP protocols.
Encryption
Encoding data to prevent it from being read by unauthorized people. The common
wireless encryption schemes are WEP, WPA, and WPA2.
ESSID (SSID)
The identification name of an 802.11 wireless network. Since wireless network has no
physical boundary liked wired Ethernet network, wireless LAN needs an identifier to
distinguish one network from the other. Wireless clients must know the SSID in order to
associate with a WLAN network. Hide SSID feature disable SSID broadcast,
so users must know the correct SSID in order to join a wireless network.
Firewall
A system that secures a network and prevents access by unauthorized users. Firewalls can
be software, router, or gateway. Firewalls can prevent unrestricted access into a network,
as well as restricting data from flowing out of a network.
Firmware
The program that runs inside embedded device such as router or AP. Many network
devices are firmware upgradeable through web interface or utility program.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. A standard protocol for sending files between computers over a
TCP/IP network and the Internet.
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Fragment Threshold
Frame Size larger than this will be divided into smaller fragment. If there are interferences
in your area, lower this value can improve the performance. If there are not, keep this
parameter at higher value. The default size is 2346. You can try 1500, 1000, or 500
when there are interference around your network.
Gateway
In the global Internet network, the gateways are core routers that connect networks in
different IP subnet together. In a LAN environment with an IP sharing router, the gateway
is the router. In an office environment, gateway typically is a multi-function device that
integrates NAT, firewall, bandwidth management, and other security functions.
Hotspot
A place where you can access Wi-Fi service. The term hotspot has two meanings in
wireless deployment. One is the wireless infrastructure deployment, the other is the
Internet access billing system. In a hotspot system, a service provider typically need an
authentication and account system for billing purposes, and a wireless AP network to
provide access for customers.
IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a Layer 3 protocol to report IP multicast
memberships to neighboring multicast switches and routers. IGMP snooping is a feature
that allows an Ethernet switch to "listen in" on the IGMP conversation between hosts and
routers. A switch support IGMP snooping has the possibility to avoid multicast traffic being
treated as broadcast traffic; therefore, reducing the overall traffic on the network.
Infrastructure Mode
A wireless network that is built around one or more access points to provide wireless clients
access to wired LAN / Internet service. The opposite of Infrastructure mode is Adhoc
mode.
IP address
IP (Internet Protocol) is a layer-3 network protocol that is the basis of all Internet
communication. An IP address is 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of
information that is sent across the Internet. An IP address has two parts: an identifier of a
particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
server or a workstation) within that network. The new IPv6 specification supports 128-bit
IP address format.
IPsec
IP Security. A set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of
packets at the IP layer. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private
Networks (VPNs). IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel.
Transport mode encrypts only the data of each packet, but leaves the header untouched.
The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving
side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet.
LACP (802.3ad) Trunking
The 802.3ad Link Aggregation standard defines how to combine the several Ethernet ports
into one high-bandwidth port to increase the transmission speed. It is also known as port
trunking. Both device must set the trunking feature to work.
MAC
Media Access Control. MAC address provides layer-2 identification for Networking Devices.
Each Ethernet device has its own unique address. The first 6 digits are unique for each
manufacturer. When a network device have MAC access control feature, only the devices
with the approved MAC address can connect with the network.
Mbps
Megabits Per Second. One million bits per second; a unit of measurement for data
transmission
MESH
Mesh is an outdoor wireless technology that uses Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and
Wireless Distribution system to achieve self-forming, self-healing, and self-configuring
outdoor network. MESH network are able to take the shortest path to a destination that
does not have to be in the line of site.
MIMO
Multi In Multi Out. A Smart Antenna technology designed to increase the coverage and
performance of a WLAN network. In a MIMO device, 2 or more antennas are used to
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increase the receiver sensitivity and to focus available power at intended Rx.
NAT
Network Address Translation. A network algorithm used by Routers to enables several
PCs to share single IP address provided by the ISP.
The IP that a router gets from the
ISP side is called Real IP, the IP assigned to PC under the NAT environment is called
Private IP.
Node
A network connection end point, typically a computer.
Packet
A unit of data sent over a network.
Passphrase
Used much like a password, a passphrase simplifies the WEP encryption process by
automatically generating the WEP encryption keys for the company products.
POE
Power over Ethernet. A standard to deliver both power and data through one single
Ethernet cable (UTP/STP). It allows network device to be installed far away from power
ource. A POE system typically compose of 2 main component: DC Injector (Base Unit)
and Splitter(Terminal Unit). The DC injector combines the power and data, and the splitter
separates the data and power back. A PoE Access Point or CPE has the splitter built-in to
the device. The IEEE 802.3af is a POE spec that uses 48 volt to deliver power up to 100
meter distance.
Port
This word has 2 different meaning for networking.
z The hardware connection point on a computer or networking device used for plugging
in a cable or an adapter.
z The virtual connection point through which a computer uses a specific application on a
server.
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PPPoE
Point-to- Point Protocol over Ethernet. PPPoE relies on two widely accepted standards:
PPP and Ethernet. PPPoE is a specification for connecting the users on an Ethernet to the
Internet through a common broadband medium, such as a single DSL line, wireless device
or cable modem.
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol: A VPN protocol developed by PPTP Forum. With
PPTP, users can dial in to their corporate network via the Internet. If users require data
encryption when using the Windows PPTP client, the remote VPN server must support
MPPE (Microsoft Point-To-Point Encryption Protocol) encryption. PPTP is also used by
some ISP for user authentication, particularly when pairing with legacy Alcatel / Thomson
ADSL modem.
Preamble Type
Preamble are sent with each wireless packet transmit for transmission status. Use the
long preamble type for better compatibility. Use the short preamble type for better
performance
Rate Control
Ethernet switches' function to control the upstream and downstream speed of an individual
port. Rate Control management uses "Flow Control" to limit the speed of a port.
Therefore, the Ethernet adapter must also have the flow control enabled. One way to
force the adapter's flow control on is to set a port to half-duplex mode.
RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. An authentication and accounting system
used by many Internet Service Providers (ISPs). When you dial in to the ISP, you must
enter your username and password. This information is passed to a RADIUS server, which
checks that the information is correct, and then authorizes access to the ISP system.
Radius typically uses port 1812 and port 1813 for authentication and accounting port.
Though not an official standard, the RADIUS specification is maintained by a working group
of the IETF.
Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver sensitivity means how sensitive is the radio for receiving signal.
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
slower the transmission speed, the more sensitive the radio is. The unit for Receiver
Sensitivity is in dB; the lower the absolute value is, the higher the signal strength. For
example, -50dB is higher than -80dB.
RJ-45
Standard connectors for Twisted Pair copper cable used in Ethernet networks. Although
they look similar to standard RJ-11 telephone connectors, RJ-45 connectors can have up to
eight wires, whereas telephone connectors have only four.
Router
An IP sharing router is a device that allows multiple PCs to share one single broadband
connection using NAT technology. A wireless router is a device that combines the
functions of wireless Access Point and the IP sharing router.
SIGNAL STRENGTH
Receiver Sensitivity Index. SIGNAL STRENGTH is a value to show the Receiver
Sensitivity of the remote wireless device. In general, remote APs with stronger signal will
display higher SIGNAL STRENGTH values. For SIGNAL STRENGTH value, the smaller
the absolute value is, the stronger the signal. For example, “-50db” has stronger signal
than “-80dB”.
For outdoor connection, signal stronger than -60dB is considered as a
good connection.
RTS
Request To Send. A packet sent when a computer has data to transmit. The computer will
wait for a CTS (Clear To Send) message before sending data.
RTS Threshold
RTS (Request to Send).
The RTS/CTS(clear to send) packet will be send before a frame
if the packet frame is larger than this value. Lower this value can improve the
performance if there are many clients in your network. You can try 1500, 1000 or 500
when there are many clients in your AP’s network.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. A set of protocols for managing complex
networks.
The SNMP network contains 3 key elements: managed devices, agents, and
network-management systems (NMSs). Managed devices are network devices that
content SNMP agents. SNMP agents are programs that reside SNMP capable device's
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
firmware to provide SNMP configuration service. The NMS typically is a PC based
software such as HP Openview that can view and manage SNMP network device remotely.
SSH
Developed by SSH Communications Security Ltd., Secure Shell is a program to log into
another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move
files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure
communications over insecure channels. It is a replacement for rlogin, rsh, rcp, and rdist.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer. It is a popular encryption scheme used by many online retail and
banking sites to protect the financial integrity of transactions. When an SSL session
begins, the server sends its public key to the browser. The browser then sends a randomly
generated secret key back to the server in order to have a secret key exchange for that
session. SSL VPN is also known as Web VPN. The HTTPS and SSH management
interface use SSL for data encryption.
Subnet Mask
An address code mask that determines the size of the network. An IP subnet are
determined by performing a BIT-wise AND operation between the IP address and the
subnet mask. By changing the subnet mask, you can change the scope and size of a
network.
Subnetwork or Subnet
Found in larger networks, these smaller networks are used to simplify addressing between
numerous computers. Subnets connect to the central network through a router, hub or
gateway. Each individual wireless LAN will probably use the same subnet for all the local
computers it talks to.
TCP
A layer-4 protocol used along with the IP to send data between computers over the Internet.
While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping
track of the packets that a message is divided into for efficient routing through
the Internet.
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
TX Output Power
Transmit Output Power. The TX output power means the transmission output power of
the radio. Normally, the TX output power level limit for 2.4GHz 11g/b is 20dBm at the
antenna end. The output power limit for 5GHz 802.11a is 30dBm at the antenna end..
UDP
User Datagram Protocol. A layer-4 network protocol for transmitting data that does not
require acknowledgement from the recipient of the data.
Upgrade
To replace existing software or firmware with a newer version.
Upload
To send a file to the Internet or network device.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator.
The address of a file located on the Internet.
VPN
Virtual Private Network. A type of technology designed to increase the security of
information transferred over the Internet. VPN creates a private encrypted tunnel from the
end user's computer, through the local wireless network, through the Internet, all the way to
the corporate network.
WAN
Wide Area Network. A communication system of connecting PCs and other computing
devices across a large local, regional, national or international geographic area. A WAN
port on the network device means the port (or wireless connection) that is connected to the
Internet side of the network topology.
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy. A wireless encryption protocol. WEP is available in 40-bit (64-bit),
108-bit (128-bit) or 152-bit (Atheros proprietary) encryption modes.
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12. Wireless Network Glossary
Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity. An interoperability certification for wireless local area network (LAN)
products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. The governing body for Wi-Fi is called
Wi-Fi Alliance (also known as WECA).
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. A Wireless Metropolitan Network
technology that complies with IEEE 802.16 and ETSI Hiperman standards. The orginal
802.16 standard call for operating frequency of 10 to 66Ghz spectrum. The 802.16a
amendment extends the original standard into spectrum between 2 and 11 Ghz. 802.16d
increase data rates to between 40 and 70 Mbps/s and add support for MIMO antennas,
QoS, and multiple polling technologies. 802.16e adds mobility features, narrower
bandwidth (a max of 5 mhz), slower speed and smaller antennas. Mobility is allowed up to
40 mph.
WDS
Wireless Distribution System. WDS defines how multiple wireless Access Point or
Wireless Router can connect together to form one single wireless network without using
wired uplinks. WDS associate each other by MAC address, each device
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network. A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio
waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. The most popular standard for
WLAN is the 802.11 standards.
WMM
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM prioritize traffic\ on Voice-over-IP (VoIP), audio, video, and streaming media as well
as traditional IP data over the AP.
WMS
Wireless Management System. An utility program to manage multiple wireless
AP/Bridges.
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WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is an encryption standard proposed by WiFi for advance
protection by utilizing a password key (TKIP) or certificate. It is more secure than WEP
encryption. The WPA-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2. WPA2 is also known as 802.11i. It improves on the WPA
security with CCMP and AES encryption. The WPA2 is backward compatible with WPA.
WPA2-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
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