Cobalt Digital Inc | CacheRaQ 4 | User manual | Cobalt Digital Inc CacheRaQ 4 User manual

COBALT RaQ™ 4
User Manual
©1998-2001 Cobalt Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.
Part Number:
Date:
070-00239-02
02-2001
The Cobalt logo, Cobalt Networks, Cube, Cobalt Qube, Qube, Cobalt RaQ, RaQ, Cobalt CacheRaQ,
Cobalt NASRaQ, Cobalt StaQware and BlueLinQ are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cobalt
Networks, Inc.
Chili!Soft and Chili!Soft ASP are trademarks or registered trademarks of Chili!Soft, Inc.
Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds.
The RSA software and the RSA logo are trademarks of RSA Data Security Inc.
All other company, brand and product names may be registered trademarks or trademarks of their
respective companies and are hereby recognized.
This publication and the information herein is furnished “AS IS”, subject to change without notice,
and should not be construed as a commitment by Cobalt Networks, Inc. Furthermore, Cobalt
Networks, Inc., assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies, makes no
warranty of any kind (express, implied or statutory) with respect to this publication, and expressly
disclaims any and all warranties of merchantability, fitness for particular purposes and
non-infringement of third-party rights.
The majority of the software used within the Cobalt RaQ 4 can be freely distributed under the terms
of the BSD copyright and the GNU Public License. However, some applications remain the property
of their owners and require their permission to redistribute.
The Cobalt RaQ 4 includes software developed by the Apache Group for use in the Apache HTTP
server project (http://www.apache.org/).
The Cobalt RaQ 4 also includes Majordomo, a package for managing Internet mailing lists. The latest
version of Majordomo can be obtained from ftp://ftp.greatcircle.com/pub/majordomo/.
Sendmail is a trademark of Sendmail, Inc.
Cobalt Networks, Inc.
555 Ellis Street
Mountain View, CA 94043
www.cobalt.com
In the U.S.A.:
Phone
Fax
(888) 70-COBALT
(650) 623-2500
(650) 623-2501
Outside the U.S.A.:
Phone
Fax
+1 (650) 623-2500
+1 (650) 623-2501
Important Safeguards
For your protection, please read and understand all of the safety and operating
instructions regarding your Cobalt RaQ 4 and retain for future reference.
1. Ventilation
The Cobalt RaQ 4’s bottom vents (on the front) and fan opening(s) (on the back
panel) protect the server from overheating. These openings must not be blocked
or covered. This product should not be placed in a built-in installation unless
proper ventilation is provided.
2. Lithium Battery
The lithium battery on the system board provides power for the real-time clock
and CMOS RAM. The battery has an estimated useful life expectancy of 5 to 10
years. If your system no longer keeps accurate time and date settings, it may be
time to change the battery. Contact Cobalt for service information.
Warning: There is a danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly
replaced or replaced with the wrong type of battery. Replace only
with the same or equivalent type recommended by the equipment
manufacturer. Dispose of used batteries according to
manufacturer’s instructions.
Avertissement : Il y a danger d’explosion s’il y a remplacement
incorrect de la pile. Remplacer uniquement avec une pile du même
type ou d’un type équivalent recommandé par le fabricant. Mettre
au rebut les piles usagées conformément aux instructions du
fabricant.
Achtung: Explosionsgefahr wenn die Batterie in umgekehrter
Polarität eingesetzt wird. Nur mit einem gleichen oder ähnlichen,
vom Hersteller empfohlenen Typ, ersetzen. Verbrauchte Batterien
müssen gemäß den Anweisungen des Herstellers verwertet werden.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
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Important Safeguards
3. Power Cord
!
Caution: The power-supply cord is used as the main disconnect
device. Ensure that the socket outlet is located or installed near the
equipment and is easily accessible.
!
Attention : Le cordon d’alimentation sert d’interrupteur général. La
prise de courant doit être située ou installée à proximité du matériel
et offrir un accès facile.
!
Achtung: Zur sicheren Trennung des Gerätes vom Netz ist der
Netzstecker zu ziehen. Vergewissern Sie sich, dass die Steckdose
leicht zugänglich ist.
4. Electrical Shock
To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not disassemble this product. Take the
RaQ 4 to a qualified service person when service or repair work is required.
Opening or removing covers may expose you to dangerous voltage or other risks.
Incorrect reassembly can cause electric shock when this product is subsequently
used.
5. Operating the unit in an equipment rack
If you plan to install the Cobalt RaQ 4 in an equipment rack, take the following
precautions:
iv
a.
Ensure the ambient temperature around the Cobalt RaQ 4 (which may
be higher than the room temperature) is within the limits specified in
Appendix B. See “Physical data” on page 159.
b.
Ensure there is sufficient air flow around the unit.
c.
Ensure electrical circuits are not overloaded; consider the nameplate
ratings of all the connected equipment and ensure you have overcurrent
protection.
d.
Ensure the equipment is properly grounded, particularly any equipment
connected to a power strip.
e.
Do not place any objects on top of the Cobalt RaQ 4.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
6. Browsers
Both Netscape Navigator® and Microsoft® Internet Explorer have bugs that can
cause intermittent, unexplained failures. When using a Web browser to interact
with your Cobalt RaQ 4, you may occasionally experience a browser failure.
Released product versions of the browsers are usually more reliable than beta
versions and later versions typically work the most reliably. A browser program
failure, although annoying, does not adversely affect your Cobalt RaQ 4’s data.
To use the RaQ 4, you need a personal computer (attached to the network) that
uses a Web browser (for example, Netscape Navigator, version 4.7 or later, or
Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or later). To manage the RaQ 4 from the
Server Desktop, you must enable cookies, cascading style sheets and Javascript
on your browser (these features are normally enabled by default).
Regulations and Information
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may
cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception,
which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
•
Re-orient or re-locate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which
the receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
In order to maintain compliance with FCC regulations, shielded cables must be
used with this equipment. Operation with non-approved equipment or unshielded
cables is likely to result in interference to radio and TV reception. The user is
cautioned that changes and modifications made to the equipment without the
approval of manufacturer can void the user’s authority to operate this equipment.
This equipment is in compliance with Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and is
UL-listed.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
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Important Safeguards
vi
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Contents
Contents
Important Safeguards
1 Introduction
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1
General
Front view of the RaQ 4
Rear view of the RaQ 4
RaQ 4 requirements
Target audience for the RaQ 4
Levels of user
Organization of the user manual
List of chapters and appendices
Icons used on the UI and in the manual
Customer Service and Technical Support
General Cobalt information
Cobalt Technical Support and Service
Email contact
Technical Support telephone numbers
Further resources and information
Solutions
Cobalt Developer Network
Discussion Groups
The Knowledge Base
Online technical papers
Education
Before contacting Cobalt Networks Technical Support
Support tools feature
Cobalt logo badge
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Contents
2 Setting up the RaQ 4
Phase 1: Making the connection
Installing the RaQ 4
Connecting to the network
Connecting the power cord
Powering on the RaQ 4
Configuring the RaQ 4 for the network
Using the LCD console to configure the network
Setting the configuration
Phase 2: Setting up with the Web browser
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Configuring the RaQ 4 with the Setup Wizard
Entering the network settings
Entering the administrator settings
Entering the service settings
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Entering the time settings
Completing configuration with the Setup Wizard
Registering the RaQ 4 online
Registering online at a later time
Registering the RaQ 4
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3 RaQ 4 Server Management
Approaches to RaQ 4 administration
Definition of a virtual site
Support for RAID-1 (RaQ 4r configuration only)
Site management
Search and sort functions
Searching a list of virtual sites
Sorting a list of virtual sites
Overview of virtual sites
FrontPage Server Extensions
Active Server Pages (ASP)
ASP Administrative Server
PHP embedded scripting
Setting defaults for a virtual site
Modifying the default site settings
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Contents
Adding a virtual site
Adding a name-based virtual site
Removing a virtual site
RaQ 4 Administrator
Changing the RaQ 4 Administrator password
Resetting the RaQ 4 Administrator password
Control panel
Services
Web server
Email server
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SMTP server
Email relaying
File transfer protocol (FTP) server
Telnet server
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent
Legato file backup
Arkeia file backup
ASP Administrative Server
Domain Name System (DNS) server
Network
Bandwidth
Bandwidth Limits table
Applying a bandwidth limit
Modifying a bandwidth limit
Deleting a bandwidth limit
Time
Maintenance
Backup
Manual backup
Scheduled backup
Backup file locations
Restore
Install software
Third-party software
InterBase
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Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
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Contents
Storage
Adding a storage device
Suspend a virtual site
Hard suspension
Reboot
Shutdown
Support tools
Site Usage
System Status
System components
Central processing unit (CPU)
Memory
Disk
Network
Services
Web server
Email
File transfer protocol (FTP)
Telnet
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Domain Name System
Active Monitor
4 Site Management
User management
Setting defaults for a site user
Modifying the default user settings
Adding a site user
Search and sort functions
Searching a list of site users
Sorting a list of site users
Removing a site user
Entering user email settings and aliases
Mail Forwarding and Vacation Reply
Email aliases
Adding an email alias
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Contents
Changing user settings
Modify settings for a site user
Modify email options for a site user
Catch-all email account
Remove a site user
Mailing list management
Adding a mailing list
Modifying a mailing list
Removing a mailing list
Site settings
Changing site settings
Suspend a virtual site
Soft suspension
Suspend a site user
FTP settings
SSL settings
Obtain an externally signed SSL certificate
Enable SSL on a virtual site
Generate a self-signed certificate
SSL certificate for the main site
Enable the administration server for SSL
Submit the information to an external certification authority
Receive the response from the external certification authority
Enter the information from the external certification authority
Delete an SSL certificate
Site Usage
Backup
Manual backup
Scheduled backup
Backup file locations
Restore
Server management
Publishing Web pages
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Contents
5 Using Services on a Site
Managing Your Personal Profile
Modify site user
Email
Forward email to
Vacation reply
Usage data
Backup
Restore
Using email on the RaQ 4
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Developing Web pages
CGI scripts
Server-side scripting languages
Publishing Web pages using FTP
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Publishing Web pages with FrontPage for User Webs only
Using telnet
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148
A Using the LCD Console
Access to the functions
Changing network configuration
Configuring an uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
Verifying the UPS configuration
Rebooting
Powering down
B Product Information
Technical data for the RaQ 4
Hardware
Software
Features
System management
Partner solutions
Physical data
Regulatory approvals
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Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
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Contents
Upgrading your RaQ 4
Opening the RaQ 4
Adding a memory module or PCI card
Printed circuit board
Adding or replacing a hard disk drive in a RaQ 4
Specifications for a hard disk drive
Requirements
Overview
Opening the RaQ 4
Removing a hard disk drive
Installing a hard disk drive
Connecting the hard disk drive
Replacing the top cover and rebooting the RaQ 4
C Advanced Information
Serial console port
Initializing the RaQ 4 through the serial console port
Development tools
Configuration files
Directory structure
RaQ 4 home page
Virtual site home page
Site user home page
Common gateway interface (CGI) usage for users
Scripting languages available per site
Active Server Pages (ASP)
PHP
D Domain Name System
Basic DNS
Enabling the DNS server feature
Configuring a primary DNS server
Specifying a reverse lookup (PTR) record
Specifying a mail server (MX) record
Specifying an alias (CNAME) record
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Contents
Configuring a secondary DNS server
Adding a secondary domain
Adding a secondary network
Advanced DNS
Network Mask Notation Conversion
Delegating a subdomain
Delegating a subnet
Configuring server settings
Start of Authority (SOA) configuration
Name server (NS)
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Domain administrator email address
Refresh interval
Retry interval
Expire interval
Time-to-live period (TTL)
Sample setup of DNS service
Create an Address (A) Record
Create a second Address (A) Record
Create a Mail Server (MX) Record
Brief history of the Domain Name System (DNS)
What is a DNS record?
Who manages your DNS records?
How does DNS work?
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E Licenses
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The BSD Copyright
GNU General Public License
SSL License
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F Glossary
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Index
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Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Chapter 1
Introduction
The Cobalt RaQTM 4 is a server appliance that provides a dedicated Web-hosting
platform and offers new capabilities for high-traffic, complex Web sites and
e-commerce applications.
The RaQ 4 server appliance offers a full suite of Internet services with remote
administration capabilities, pre-packaged in a single rack-unit (1RU)
industry-standard enclosure. The RaQ 4 is pre-configured with Apache Web
server, Sendmail, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server, Domain Name System
(DNS), the Linux operating system, FrontPage Server extensions, and support for
Active Server Pages (ASP), PHP and common gateway interface (CGI) scripts.
The RaQ 4 further enhances the suite of services by offering dual hard disk drives
(RaQ 4r configuration) or room for an extra hard disk drive (RaQ 4i
configuration); support for RAID-1 disk mirroring (RaQ 4r configuration only), a
faster central processing unit (CPU), an improved Bandwidth Management
interface, pre-packaged Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), enhanced backup support
and comprehensive site usage reporting. The RaQ 4 also provides tight
integration with partner products.
The RaQ 4 is pre-loaded with InterBase 6.0, an open-source, cross-platform SQL
database from Inprise Corporation. For more information on InterBase, visit the
URL http://www.interbase.com. Also, see “InterBase” on page 82.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
1
Chapter 1: Introduction
Table 1 lists the differences among the RaQ 4 configurations.
The only difference between the RaQ 4i and RaQ 4r configurations is that the
RaQ 4r has two hard disk drives and offers RAID-1 disk mirroring. There is room
in the RaQ 4i to add an extra hard disk drive but it does not support RAID-1. You
cannot add an extra hard disk drive to the base RaQ 4 configuration.
Table 1. RaQ 4 configurations
2
Specification
RaQ 4
RaQ 4i
RaQ 4r
Dual hard disk drives
No
No
(room to add
an additional
hard disk
drive)
Yes
RAID-1 support
No
No
Yes
10/100 BaseT network
connectors
One
Two
Two
PCI expansion slot
No
Yes
Yes
SCSI connector
No
Yes
Yes
Support for FrontPage
Server Extensions
Yes
Yes
Yes
Support for Active
Server Pages (ASP)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Support for PHP
Yes
Yes
Yes
Support for SSL
Yes
Yes
Yes
Bandwidth
management
Yes
Yes
Yes
InterBase 6.0 relational
database
Yes
Yes
Yes
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
General
The RaQ 4 provides a complete solution for virtual site hosting, Web publishing,
file transfer, email and third-party applications:
•
Access to a broad range of Web and file transfer protocol (FTP) publishing
capabilities. The RaQ 4 supports the common gateway interface (CGI) using
Perl scripting, Active Server Pages (ASP) and PHP embedded scripting for
creating interactive applications on the Web.
•
Support for multiple Internet or intranet sites. You can host one or several
distinct sites for separate clients or projects. The RaQ 4 provides
comprehensive support for the three most popular Internet services—Web,
FTP and email.
•
RAID-1 disk mirroring (RaQ 4r configuration only)
•
Internal and external communication through email to individuals and
groups. In addition to standard individual email, the RaQ 4 email services
include automatic response to messages when a user is on vacation and
automatic forwarding to another email address.
•
Flexible platform for the development of solutions, including the
development of third-party applications.
All of these services can be used within an extranet or an intranet environment, or
across the Internet.
General
Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the RaQ 4 controls, indicators and connectors.
✍
Note: The base RaQ 4 server configuration does not offer all of the
hardware components shown in Figure 2.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
3
Chapter 1: Introduction
Front view of the RaQ 4
Figure 1. RaQ 4 front view
S
E
1
1.
2
3
4
5
6
The Status Indicators signal Ethernet and hard-disk-drive activity:
Tx/Rx (Transmit/Receive) blinks when there is network traffic on the
primary interface.
Link indicates an active network connection on the primary interface.
Col blinks when a collision is detected on the primary interface.
100 M indicates that 100 BaseT ethernet is being used on the primary
interface.
Disk indicates activity on the hard disk drive.
2.
The Web indicator blinks to indicate Web activity.
3.
The Logo Badge glows when the RaQ 4 is powered on.
4.
The LCD screen displays messages and values entered. Use the arrow
buttons to toggle between choices or to enter values. (See “Using the LCD
console to configure the network” on page 22.)
5.
You can use the recessed Reset Password button if you forget the RaQ 4
Administrator password. (See “Resetting the RaQ 4 Administrator
password” on page 51.)
6.
The LCD arrow buttons allow you to enter network configuration
information, configure a UPS unit, reboot the RaQ 4 and power down the
RaQ 4.
4
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
General
Rear view of the RaQ 4
Figure 2. RaQ 4 rear view
8
Tx/Rx
Link
Cobalt Networks and Cobalt RaQ are
trademarks of Cobalt Networks, Inc.
www.cobalt.com
P/N 550-00135-01
Tx/Rx
Link
1
100 - 240 VAC 50/60 Hz
1.4 A 60W max
2
3
4
5
6
7
9 10
11
12
13
1.
The Security lock hole is used to lock the unit to a secure location.
2.
The Cooling fans maintain proper operating temperature. Ensure that the
ventilation holes are not blocked.
3.
The USB port provides a Universal Serial Bus connection.
4.
The SCSI connector enables a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
connection for connecting such devices as hard disk drives. (optional)
5.
The Network status indicators/OK to Power Off signal network activity
and information. The OK to Power Off light flashes when it is safe to turn
the power off.
6.
The Serial console port allows you to connect serial devices.
7.
The Serial connector allows you to connect a UPS to the serial port for
Smart UPS support.
8.
The PCI expansion slot provides space for adding a PCI card. (optional)
The Network connectors enable ethernet network connections and accept
the 10/100 BaseT network cables.
9.
Network connection 2. (optional)
10. Network connection 1.
11. Cooling fan.
12. The Power switch toggles the power on or off.
13. The Power socket receives the AC cord that is provided.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
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Chapter 1: Introduction
RaQ 4 requirements
To use the RaQ 4, you need:
•
A 10BaseT, 10/100BaseTX or 100BaseTX Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) -based local area network (LAN).
•
A personal computer (attached to the network) that uses a Web browser (for
example, Netscape Navigator, version 4.7 or later, or Microsoft Internet
Explorer, version 5.0 or later).
To manage the RaQ 4 from the user interface (UI), you must enable cookies,
cascading style sheets and Javascript on your browser (these features are
normally enabled by default).
•
Network parameters, which you can obtain from your network
administrator; these include the IP address assigned to the RaQ 4, the subnet
mask of your network and a gateway or router address (if communicating
with other networks).
Target audience for the RaQ 4
The user manual is for RaQ 4 Administrators who use the RaQ 4 to develop and
host Web sites. RaQ 4 Administrators should be familiar with Microsoft®
WindowsTM, Macintosh® or other operating systems, and Netscape Navigator®,
Microsoft® Internet Explorer or other Web browsers.
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Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Levels of user
Levels of user
A RaQ 4 can host multiple Internet or intranet sites, which can provide Web
content, email and FTP services. It can be used by three different kinds of users:
•
The RaQ 4 Administrator is the person who controls and runs the RaQ 4.
This person sets up and maintains the RaQ 4, sets up virtual sites, and sets
access privileges and provides services for the Site Administrators and site
users. The RaQ 4 Administrator can also act as the Site Administrator for
any virtual site.
✍
Note: Whereas industry uses the term “virtual host”, Cobalt
Networks uses the term “virtual site”. In Cobalt’s definition, a
virtual site consists of a Domain Name System (DNS) domain with
Web, FTP and email services. Each virtual site contains its own list
of site user accounts. Each site user account has its own Web, email
spool and any number of email aliases. The fully qualified domain
name of a virtual site is unique to that site, while its IP address can
be shared by many sites. For more information, see “Definition of a
virtual site” on page 35.
•
The Site Administrator manages a virtual site, located on the RaQ 4, that can
provide Web publishing, email and FTP services for the users of the site. The
Site Administrator sets up user accounts and access privileges, maintains
mailing lists, controls the settings for the virtual site and its FTP service, has
access to users’ email settings, can generate reports about the virtual site’s
disk and Web usage, and can back up and restore files residing on the site.
•
Site users can send and receive email through the site, upload and download
files using the FTP service provided by the site, publish their own personal
Web page on the site, and back up and restore their home directories.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
7
Chapter 1: Introduction
Organization of the user manual
The user manual is organized according to the user interface (UI). Chapter 3,
“RaQ 4 Server Management, is based on the Server Management screen with
the brown border on the left side. See Figure 3.
Chapter 4, “Site Management, is based on the Site Management screen with the
green border on the left side. See Figure 4.
Chapter 5, “Using Services on a Site, is based on the Personal Profile screen
with the blue border on the left side. See Figure 5.
Figure 3. Server Management screen
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Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Organization of the user manual
Figure 4. Site Management screen
Figure 5. Personal Profile screen
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
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Chapter 1: Introduction
List of chapters and appendices
The manual has the following chapters and appendices.
Chapter 1, “Introduction”, summarizes the RaQ 4 functions.
Chapter 2, “Setting up the RaQ 4”, explains RaQ 4 hardware setup and the
network integration information.
Chapter 3, “RaQ 4 Server Management”, discusses RaQ 4 Management
functions.
Chapter 4, “Site Management”, explains Site Management functions for virtual
sites.
Chapter 5, “Using Services on a Site”, shows how to use the RaQ 4 services
(email, Web publishing and FTP) and how to manage your personal directory.
Appendix A, “Using the LCD Console”, explains LCD console functions.
Appendix B, “Product Information”, provides information about the RaQ 4
hardware and software, regulatory approvals, physical data and upgrading the
server.
Appendix C, “Advanced Information”, provides information on development
tools, configuration files, and the directory structure of the RaQ 4 disk.
Appendix D, “Domain Name System”, gives an in-depth explanation of the DNS
service.
Appendix E, “Licenses”, lists licensing information.
Appendix F, “Glossary”, provides a glossary of terms used in the RaQ 4 manual.
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Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Organization of the user manual
Icons used on the UI and in the manual
Table 2 describes the icons used on the browser-based User Interface (UI) and in
this manual. If you pass the mouse pointer over an icon, a short help message
appears.
Table 2. Icons used in the manual and UI
Icon
Description
Web Server
Only in the Service Settings table of Control Panel on the
Management Screen. Web Server is always on.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Only in the Service Settings table of Control Panel on the
Management Screen.
Legato/Arkeia file backup
Only in the Service Settings table of Control Panel on the
Management Screen.
Domain Name System (DNS)
Only in the Service Settings table of Control Panel on the
Management Screen.
FrontPage Server extensions
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that FrontPage server extensions are enabled on
the virtual site.
Active Server Page (ASP)
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that Active Server Pages are enabled on the virtual
site.
PHP Embedded Scripting
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that PHP embedded scripting is enabled on the
virtual site.
Telnet
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that telnet is enabled on the virtual site.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
11
Chapter 1: Introduction
Table 2. Icons used in the manual and UI
Icon
Description
Bandwidth limit
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that a bandwidth limit is enabled on the virtual site.
Secure POP3 (APOP)
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that Secure POP3 is enabled on the virtual site.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that SSL is enabled on the virtual site.
Anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP)
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that Anonymous FTP is enabled on the virtual site.
Modify
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
used to modify the settings for a virtual site.
Modify
In the Bandwidth Limits table on the Server Management
screen; used to modify a bandwidth limit for an IP address.
In the Users List on the Site Management screen; used to
modify the settings for a site user.
Delete
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
used to delete a virtual site from a RaQ 4.
In the Bandwidth Limits table on the Server Management
screen; used to delete a bandwidth limit for an IP address.
In the Users List on the Site Management screen; used to
delete a site user from a virtual site.
Email
In the Users List on the Site Management screen; used to
modify the email settings for a site user.
12
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Customer Service and Technical Support
Table 2. Icons used in the manual and UI
Icon
Description
Site Administrator
In the Users List on the Site Management screen; indicates
that the user is the Site Administrator for the virtual site.
Suspension
In the Virtual Sites List on the Server Management screen;
indicates that a virtual site has been suspended by the RaQ 4
Administrator.
In the Users List on the Site Management screen; indicates
that a user has been suspended by the Site Administrator.
Customer Service and Technical
Support
For Cobalt product information, visit the support section of the Cobalt Web site at
http://www.cobalt.com/support/. The site includes a Knowledge Base that
customers can query; a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) that provide
additional information is also available through the Knowledge Base.
General Cobalt information
In the U.S.A., call (888) 70-COBALT or (888) 702-6225, or send email to
info@cobalt.com.
Outside the U.S.A., call +1 650 623-2500, or send email to info@cobalt.com.
In Europe, the Middle East and Africa, call +31 71 565 7000 (The Netherlands),
or send email to info-emea@cobalt.com.
In Japan, send email to info-japan@cobalt.com.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
13
Chapter 1: Introduction
Cobalt Technical Support and Service
Email contact
You can contact Cobalt Networks Technical Support by email using the Online
Email Support Form. This form provides us all the information we need to
service your request in a timely fashion.
Go to the URL http://www.cobalt.com/support/ and click on the
Contact Support link.
Technical Support telephone numbers
In the United States, call (800) 266-4378.
In Europe, Middle East and Africa, call +31 (71) 565-7070 (The Netherlands).
Customers in Japan can send email to support-japan@cobalt.com.
Further resources and information
Cobalt also offers the following additional resources and information.
Solutions
For business-case information concerning Cobalt products or for solutions that
extend the functionality of our products, visit the Online Solutions Directory on
Cobalt’s Web site at http://www.cobalt.com/solutions/.
Cobalt Developer Network
Cobalt provides a wide range of resources, such as technical notes and white
papers, for developers of Linux applications for Cobalt platforms. Premium
resources are also available.
To register with the Cobalt Developer Network at no cost, visit the Web site at
http://developer.cobalt.com/.
14
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Further resources and information
Discussion Groups
Cobalt has made available a number of discussion groups through which users
can share information.
You can view the current list of Cobalt discussion groups at
http://www.cobalt.com/support/resources/usergroups.html. The names of the
discussion groups show up as hypertext links.
To subscribe to or unsubscribe from a discussion group, or to view previous
postings to a group, click on the group name. A new browser window opens,
displaying information about the discussion group.
New discussion groups are added periodically. The current groups include:
•
an announcement list concerning Cobalt products
•
an information list for developers working on Cobalt products
•
a user list for sharing information between users of Cobalt products
•
a security list for users to address network security issues on Cobalt products
The Knowledge Base
Cobalt offers access to its online database of common installation and
configuration problems and solutions. You can access the site at
http://www.cobalt.com/support/kb/.
Online technical papers
For in-depth technical information, there are a number of technical papers
available on Cobalt Networks’ Web site at http://www.cobalt.com/support/.
Education
For those who desire a premium level of technical expertise with Cobalt
Networks products, we offer a number of training courses. The intended audience
includes end users, Cobalt resellers, system and network administrators, systems
engineers, product developers, support technicians, consultants and trainers. You
can access the site at http://www.cobalt.com/support/education/index.html/.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
15
Chapter 1: Introduction
Before contacting Cobalt Networks
Technical Support
✍
Note: To receive Technical Support, you must first register your
Cobalt product.
First, make an effort to resolve the problem on your own. Take note of all actions
you perform and any error messages so that, if necessary, you can describe them
to a member of the Technical Support team.
Refer to the user manual and to the Web-based resources such as Cobalt’s
Knowledge Base, the online technical papers and the Solutions page, as
described above.
To speed up your support call
When contacting Cobalt Networks Technical Support, the more information you
can provide, the better. Before you call or email, have the following information
ready.
•
the serial number, located on the back panel, or the MAC address of the
primary network interface, accessible through the user interface, of your
RaQ 4 server.
•
any additional software installed on your system
•
any peripherals connected to your system
•
any error messages you have received and the time when they occurred
•
the process you were running or the changes you had made when the error
occurred
•
the steps you have taken to resolve the problem
16
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Cobalt logo badge
Support tools feature
The Support Tools feature is a Web page that assists Technical Support in
diagnosing problems on a RaQ 4 unit.
On the Server Diagnostics screen, the RaQ 4 Administrator can create and
download a data dump of the configuration files on the RaQ 4. This data dump
can then be emailed to diagnostics@cobalt.com. A member of the Technical
Support team can evaluate the condition of your RaQ 4 before providing you
with corrective action, either by telephone or email.
If the RaQ 4 Administrator is familiar with Linux, he or she can look through this
file in an effort to determine the problem with the RaQ 4. The file is a standard
gzip file.
For more information on the Support Tools feature, see “Support tools” on
page 86.
Cobalt logo badge
For more information on the RaQ 4 server, click on the Cobalt
Networks logo badge in the top left corner.
•
the amount of RAM
•
the size of the hard disk
•
the version of the Cobalt OS
•
Cobalt Networks trademark information
The table also contains four hypertext links:
•
About The Product displays the services available on the RaQ 4 server,
links to Cobalt Networks Technical Support and a link to the Solutions
guide.
•
Cobalt Networks, Inc. Web site takes you to the
URL http://www.cobalt.com.
•
Credits and Acknowledgements acknowledges the software used on the
RaQ 4.
•
Diagnostic Information contains a form used generate and download a
diagnostics file which can assist Cobalt Technical Support in diagnosing
problems with a RaQ 3 server.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
17
Chapter 1: Introduction
18
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Chapter 2
Setting up the RaQ 4
This chapter guides you through the process of connecting and configuring the
RaQ 4 for your network. A typical setup process takes less than 15 minutes, after
which you can begin setting up Web sites and using other RaQ 4 services.
If the RaQ 4 has been previously configured for a different network, refer to
“Changing network configuration” on page 150.
The setup process consists of two phases.
•
“Phase 1: Making the connection” covers the physical setup and connection
of the RaQ 4 to a power source and the network.
•
“Phase 2: Setting up with the Web browser” covers the network integration
process and allows the administrator to select services and create users and
groups, using any browser-enabled computer.
Phase 1: Making the connection
Installing the RaQ 4
The RaQ 4 can either be placed on a flat surface—for example, a desk, shelf or
table top—or it can be connected to a standard 19-inch equipment rack.
✍
Caution: If you operate the RaQ 4 in an equipment rack, see the
precautions described in “5. Operating the unit in an equipment
rack” on page iv.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
19
Chapter 2: Setting up the RaQ 4
If you plan to use the RaQ 4 on a flat surface, attach the rubber feet to the five
indentations in the bottom of the case; see Figure 6.
Figure 6. Rubber feet for the RaQ 4
S
E
Rubber feet
If you plan to operate the RaQ 4 in an equipment rack, first connect the mounting
ears to the sides of the RaQ 4 (see Figure 7), near either the front or the rear of
the case. Attach the ears to the equipment rack.
Figure 7. Mounting ears for the RaQ 4
S
E
S
E
20
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Phase 1: Making the connection
Connecting to the network
Connect one end of a Category 5 Ethernet cable to the 10/100 Base-T Network 1
connector on the RaQ 4; see Figure 8. Connect the other end of the cable to an
existing network socket.
Figure 8. Network connectors
Tx/Rx
Link
Cobalt Networks and Cobalt RaQ are
trademarks of Cobalt Networks, Inc.
www.cobalt.com
P/N 550-00135-01
Tx/Rx
Link
Raq 4i / RaQ 4r configurations
100 - 240 VAC 50/60 Hz
1.4 A 60W max
Network connection 2
Network connection 1
Tx/Rx
Cobalt Networks and Cobalt RaQ are
trademarks of Cobalt Networks, Inc.
www.cobalt.com
P/N 550-00135-01
Link
Raq 4 configuration
100 - 240 VAC 50/60 Hz
1.4 A 60W max
Network connection 1
Connecting the power cord
Connect the power supply cord to the RaQ 4 and to an electrical outlet
(100-240 volts AC, 50/60 Hz, as listed in “Physical data” on page 159).
Powering on the RaQ 4
Turn on the power by pressing the On/Off switch on the back of the RaQ 4.
The hard disk drive spins up, the fan turns on, and the LCD screen lights up. The
Cobalt logo and the Cobalt Networks name scroll across the screen.
A number of status messages are displayed on the LCD screen as the RaQ 4
completes its boot process.
✍
Caution: It is important to follow the proper power-down
procedure before turning off the RaQ 4. Refer to “Powering down”
on page 155.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
21
Chapter 2: Setting up the RaQ 4
Configuring the RaQ 4 for the network
Now that you have made the network and power connections, you can configure
the network settings.
The RaQ 4 requires specific network information to function properly. You must
enter the necessary information using the LCD console on the front panel.
Before you proceed, make sure you have the following information:
•
the IP address assigned to the RaQ 4
•
the subnet mask of your network
•
the gateway/router address (necessary only if communicating with other
networks)
Using the LCD console to configure the network
You can initialize a RaQ 4 through the serial console port rather than through the
LCD console. For more information, see “Initializing the RaQ 4 through the
serial console port” on page 171.
Figure 9 shows the LCD console for the RaQ 4.
The LCD screen on the front of the RaQ 4 displays two lines of text. The top line
of the LCD presents instructions on data to enter; the bottom line displays the
data already entered. Use the arrow buttons to the right of the LCD screen to
enter the required network information manually.
Appendix A, “Using the LCD Console”, provides more information about the
LCD console.
Figure 9. LCD console
S
E
LCD screen
22
LCD arrow buttons
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Phase 1: Making the connection
The arrow buttons function as follows:
The Left arrow button moves the cursor to the left.
The Right arrow button moves the cursor to the right.
The Up arrow button increases the digit located at the cursor position.
The Down arrow button decreases the digit located at the cursor position.
S
E
The S button (“select”) displays the next option.
The E button (“enter”) accepts the information entered or the option
displayed.
Setting the configuration
During setup, the LCD console is used to enter network configuration
information on the RaQ 4.
Follow these steps to configure the network manually:
1.
When you see the prompt
ENTER IP ADDR:
000.000.000.000
enter the IP address assigned to the RaQ 4 using the arrow buttons on the
LCD console.
2.
Press E .
If the IP address is valid, the next prompt appears:
ENTER NETMASK:
255.000.000.000
3.
Enter the netmask of your network.
4.
Press E .
If the netmask is valid, the following prompt appears:
ENTER GATEWAY:
000.000.000.000
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
23
Chapter 2: Setting up the RaQ 4
5.
Enter the IP address of the gateway for your network.
If your network does not have a gateway, do not enter a number—leave the
default value, “000.000.000.000.”
6.
Press E .
The LCD displays:
[S]AVE [C]ANCEL
7.
To save the configuration information, use the left and right arrow buttons to
select [S]ave, and then press E . You will see:
VERIFYING AND SAVING
✍
Note: Selecting [C]ancel cancels the configuration and the LCD
screen displays ENTER IP ADDR: again. You must go through the
entry process again.
After verifying and saving, the RaQ 4 completes the boot process. The LCD
screen shows several messages before displaying the IP address assigned to the
RaQ 4.
Configuration is complete when the LCD screen displays the IP address assigned
to the RaQ 4, for example:
IP ADDRESS:
192.168.25.77
Phase 2: Setting up with the Web
browser
The remainder of the setup process is performed through a Web browser on any
computer on your network. Use one of the standard browsers available (for
example, Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer, versions 4.0 or
later) to do this. Once the setup process is complete, the RaQ 4 can be managed
from any computer on the network that has a browser.
To use a browser to set up the RaQ 4, follow these steps:
1.
Launch a standard Web browser on any computer connected to the network.
2.
Enter the IP address of the RaQ 4 (shown on the LCD screen on the front
panel) into the URL field of your browser—for example:
3.
Press Return (or Enter) on your keyboard.
24
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Phase 2: Setting up with the Web browser
If the RaQ 4’s network settings were configured successfully, then the Cobalt
welcome screen appears; see Figure 10.
Click the Start button to begin using the Setup Wizard.
Figure 10. RaQ 4 Welcome screen
Configuring the RaQ 4 with the Setup Wizard
To configure the RaQ 4, enter information into the fields on the Setup Wizard
screen (see Figure 11). These fields are described in the sections that follow.
✍
Note: For help with a particular field in the Setup Wizard, move the
pointer over the Active Assist
icon adjacent to the field and
help text is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
25
Chapter 2: Setting up the RaQ 4
Figure 11. Setup Wizard (part 1 of 2)
Entering the network settings
Host name (Cobalt server name). Assign a host name (for example, raq4) to the
RaQ 4.
Domain name. Enter your domain name. The domain name is either the official
domain name that is registered with an ICANN-accredited registrar (for example,
“mydomain.com”) or an intranet domain name specific to your network. This
allows you to access your RaQ 4 by host name and domain name, rather than by
IP address only.
Coordinate the host name and domain name with your Internet service provider
(ISP) or the person in charge of your DNS infrastructure to ensure the integrity of
your network. If your RaQ 4 is integrated into a larger network, consult with your
network administrator for this information.
As the RaQ 4 Administrator, you can change the domain name on the RaQ 4
server later on through the browser-based UI; see “Network” on page 64.
Primary DNS Server Address. Enter the IP address of your primary domain
name system (DNS) server. A primary DNS server maintains a list of computer
names and their IP addresses. The RaQ 4 needs access to this list on the primary
DNS server in order to convert between IP addresses and names. This conversion
is essential for sending and receiving email external to the RaQ 4.
Secondary DNS Server Address. This is the IP address of your secondary DNS
server. A secondary DNS server can provide redundant DNS service to your
computers. If the primary DNS server is turned off, then your RaQ 4 can use the
secondary DNS server.
26
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Phase 2: Setting up with the Web browser
For informational purposes, this table also displays the IP address of the RaQ 4,
the subnet mask of your network, your configured gateway and the Media Access
Control (MAC) address that uniquely identifies this RaQ 4. These settings, with
the exception of the MAC address, can be changed later from the Control Panel
section of the Server Management screen.
Entering the administrator settings
In the Administrator Settings table, enter the information about the RaQ 4
Administrator. The RaQ 4 Administrator has several responsibilities:
1.
Setting up and maintaining the RaQ 4, virtual sites, virtual Site
Administrators, site users and services
2.
Responding to RaQ 4 email alerts to prevent potential problems
To set up the RaQ 4 Administrator, you must enter a password in the
Administrator Password field and then enter the same value again in the second
Administrator Password field.
Password guidelines
The RaQ 4 supports long passwords through the user interface (UI). Passwords
were previously limited to 8 characters.
Use the following guidelines when choosing a password:
1.
The valid characters include: a-z A-Z 0-9 % ! @ $ ^ & * - _ = + \ |
. , / ? ; :
2.
Use both upper- and lower-case letters.
✍
Note: A password is case-sensitive.
3.
Do not use a proper name.
4.
Do not use a word found in a dictionary.
5.
Do not use a date.
6.
Do not use a command word.
7.
Do not use a string of consecutive keys on a keyboard (for example,
“qwerty”).
Be sure to remember this password to access the RaQ 4’s management
administration features in the future. If you forget or want to reset the password,
see “Resetting the RaQ 4 Administrator password” on page 51.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
27
Chapter 2: Setting up the RaQ 4
Entering the service settings
You turn the RaQ 4 services on or off through the Service Settings table. See
Figure 12. The default settings for these services are suitable for most users.
These services include:
•
Email server (default is On)
•
File transfer protocol (FTP) server (default is On)
•
Telnet server (default is On)
•
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent (default is Off)
•
Domain Name System (DNS) server (default is Off)
Figure 12. Setup Wizard (Part 2 of 2))
28
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Phase 2: Setting up with the Web browser
After setup has been completed, the Services page in the Control Panel has a
“Parameters” column which enables further configuration. Refer to “Control
panel” on page 52 for additional information.
Entering the time settings
In the Time Settings table, select the time and date with the pull-down menus.
See Figure 12.
Select the correct time zone by clicking in the Region, Country and Locale/Zone
fields.
Completing configuration with the Setup Wizard
When you have entered the information in the Setup Wizard, click Save
Changes.
The RaQ 4 performs automatic checks on the information entered and alerts you
if an illegal value or a problem is encountered. If the information is correct, the
RaQ 4 enters the information in its configuration files.
Registering the RaQ 4 online
The RaQ 4 displays an online product registration page; see Figure 13.
☞
✍
Important: If you leave blank either the DNS or the Gateway fields
in the Setup Wizard, you cannot register the RaQ 4 online because
you will not be able to send email. In this case, if you attempt to
register the RaQ 4 online, you receive an error message, stating that
you cannot register online because you did not fill in the DNS and
Gateway fields.
Note: If you are not connected to the Internet, you cannot register
online.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
29
Chapter 2: Setting up the RaQ 4
Figure 13. Online registration page
To register the RaQ 4 online:
1.
Enter your Full Name. This field must be filled in.
2.
As an option, you can enter your title, the company name, the company
address, the country and the phone number.
3.
Enter either a Fax number or Email address. One of these two fields must be
filled in. If you choose email, enter your complete email address in the form
myname@myhost.mydomain.
4.
Click Register through Email to submit the information.
If you do not want to register online, click Register Later to proceed to the
RaQ 4 default home page.
Once you have registered the RaQ 4 online, you cannot register again. You
receive an error window stating that the RaQ 4 has already been registered.
30
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Phase 2: Setting up with the Web browser
Registering online at a later time
If you want to register online at a later time:
1.
Click the Cobalt logo in the top left corner of the screen. The Server
Configuration Information table appears.
2.
Click the About The Product link. The default home page for the RaQ 4
appears.
3.
In the bottom right corner, click the link under Product Registration. The
Product Registration screen appears.
4.
Follow the steps in the previous procedure to register online.
The default home page for the RaQ 4 appears; see Figure 14.
Figure 14. Default RaQ 4 home page
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
31
Chapter 2: Setting up the RaQ 4
The default RaQ 4 home page is stored internally under index.html in the Linux
directory /home/sites/home/web. This page appears when a user goes to the
URL http://<IP address>/.
When the RaQ 4 Administrator changes the index.html file to create a new home
page, the default RaQ 4 home page is replaced.
Registering the RaQ 4
If you did not register the RaQ 4 online, fill out the registration card included in
the packaging materials and return it to Cobalt Networks, Inc. By doing so, you
will receive notifications of system and security upgrades and new product
information.
If you did not register online through the Setup Wizard and would like to do so,
see “Registering online at a later time” on page 31.
32
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Chapter 3
RaQ 4 Server Management
This chapter describes the functions that the RaQ 4 Administrator normally
performs. As the RaQ 4 Administrator, you access these functions on the Server
Management screen on the RaQ 4. The Server Management screen has a
brown strip on the left side.
You can also perform site-related tasks and user tasks described in Chapter 4,
“Site Management” and Chapter 5, “Using Services on a Site”.
Table 3 briefly summarizes the three types of RaQ 4 users:
Table 3. Levels of user
User
Description
RaQ 4
Administrator
The RaQ 4 owner with the username admin has full control
of the RaQ 4 and is a member of the main site (which uses
the IP address shown on the LCD screen of the RaQ 4). The
RaQ 4 can have several Site Administrators, but only one
RaQ 4 Administrator
Site
Administrator
The Site Administrator is designated by the RaQ 4
Administrator. The Site Administrator is a user who runs a
virtual site located on the RaQ 4; the virtual site can provide
Web publishing, email and FTP services for the users of the
site. The Site Administrator has control only over this virtual
site
Site User
Site Users are added to a virtual site by the RaQ 4
Administrator or a Site Administrator. Site Users can send
and receive email through the virtual site, upload and
download files using the FTP service provided by the site,
publish their own personal Web page on the site, and back up
and restore their home directories. The Site User has control
only over the files located in his or her home directory on the
RaQ 4.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
33
Chapter 3: RaQ 4 Server Management
Approaches to RaQ 4 administration
As the RaQ 4 Administrator, you can decide how many of the server functions
you want to manage directly and how much to delegate.
•
Full control. If you want to control all the functions on the RaQ 4, you can
create virtual sites without assigning any virtual Site Administrators. You are
responsible for managing the main site and all the virtual sites. (See
“Definition of a virtual site” on page 35.)
•
Hybrid control. If you want to control some of the RaQ 4 functions and
delegate others, you can assign some of the virtual sites to virtual Site
Administrators (for the sites that have a user capable of acting as a Site
Administrator), and retain control of other virtual sites. You are responsible
for managing only the sites that do not have a Site Administrator.
•
Distributed control. If you want to delegate responsibility for all the virtual
sites, you can create Site Administrators for all the virtual sites. In this case,
you are responsible for managing only server settings and virtual site
services. The Site Administrators are responsible for managing the virtual
sites.
You can manage the RaQ 4 through a Web browser. Access the Server
Management screen by typing either http://<IP address> /admin/ or
http://<hostname.domainname> /admin/ into your browser. These Web pages are
password-protected—you must enter the RaQ 4 Administrator password.
When you access the RaQ 4 Administrator site for the RaQ 4, the Server
Management screen appears (see Figure 15). This screen is used for the RaQ 4
management tasks that are performed only by the RaQ 4 Administrator:
1.
Setting up and maintaining the RaQ 4.
2.
Creating virtual sites.
3.
Creating access privileges and providing services for the Site Administrators
and site users.
The RaQ 4 Administrator functions available on the Server Management screen
are described in the sections that follow.
34
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Approaches to RaQ 4 administration
Definition of a virtual site
Whereas industry uses the term virtual host, Cobalt Networks uses the term
virtual site.
In Cobalt’s definition, a virtual site consists of a Domain Name System (DNS)
domain with Web, FTP and email services. Each virtual site contains its own list
of site-user accounts. Each site-user account has its own Web page,
FTP directory, email spool and any number of email aliases. The fully qualified
domain name of a virtual site is unique to that site, while its IP address can be
shared by many sites.
With the advent of name-based virtual hosting, it is no longer necessary to
dedicate an IP address to a virtual site. The Web server can now differentiate
among target virtual sites according to the name requested. Many virtual sites on
the RaQ 4 can share one IP address. Not all services are compatible with
name-based virtual hosting: SSL encryption for Web data, bandwidth
management and an anonymous FTP account can only be enabled on one
name-based virtual site per IP address hosted by the RaQ 4.
The IP address of the RaQ 4 can be shared by many virtual sites or it can be
unique to one virtual site.
The RaQ 4 has one main site (which cannot be deleted) and virtual sites. The
main site uses the IP address assigned to the RaQ 4 using the LCD console.
On the Server Management screen, the main site is listed in the Virtual Sites
List table; the trashcan icon in the fourth column for the main site is grayed-out
(disabled), as this site cannot be deleted from the list of virtual sites. The options
and features available on a virtual site can also be configured for the main site.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
35
Chapter 3: RaQ 4 Server Management
Support for RAID-1 (RaQ 4r configuration only)
A redundant array of independent disks (RAID) is a way of storing the same data
in different places (thus, redundantly) on multiple hard disk drives. A RAID
appears to the operating system to be a single virtual hard disk drive.
Redundancy means that there is protection against the failure of any single hard
disk drive. Redundant data is used by a RAID system in the event of a failure;
this redundant data can either be a mirror copy or parity data used to reconstruct
the actual data.
There are a variety of different types and implementations of RAID, each with its
own advantages and disadvantages. The RaQ 4r implements RAID Level 1
(RAID-1), also known as disk mirroring, which consists of a primary hard disk
drive and a secondary hard disk drive; the secondary hard disk drive is an exact
copy or “mirror image” of the primary hard disk drive.
Although RAID can protect your data in case of a hard-disk-drive failure, it does
not protect against operator and administrator (human) error, or against loss due
to programming bugs.
The RaQ 4 server implements RAID services through software. Each hard disk
drive has its own independent master channel to allow high performance without
extra RAID hardware.
You do not need to enable RAID-1 on the RaQ 4r; it is enabled by default. You
cannot disable RAID-1 on the RaQ 4r.
There are two possible causes for RAID failure on the RaQ 4r:
•
Hardware failure. If a hard disk drive fails, the RaQ 4r can function with
one hard disk drive, but the server can no longer provide disk mirroring. To
restore RAID service, you must shut down the RaQ 4 and replace the failed
hard disk drive.
•
Software failure. The RAID software should not fail. If it does, the likely
cause is a failure of the whole kernel, in which case the RaQ 4r just reboots.
In case of a failed hard disk drive, you will have to replace the hard disk drive.
For more information on replacing a hard disk drive, see “Upgrading your
RaQ 4” on page 161.
For a failed drive, Active Monitor indicates that the Left or Right hard disk drive
has failed (“Right” and “Left” are in relation to looking at server with the front
blue panel facing you.)
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If RAID fails on the RaQ 4r, the system indicates the non-RAID status in three
ways:
•
An email is sent to the RaQ 4 Administrator.
•
Active Monitor blinks red on the Server Management screen.
•
On the Server Management screen, under System Status, the Disk
Integrity (RAID) circle changes to red.
Once you replace a failed drive on a RaQ 4r and reboot the server, the system
detects the new hard disk drive. It then automatically begins to synchronize the
new hard disk drive to the existing hard disk drive so that the server will be able
to provide disk mirroring.
✍
Note: During the synchronization process, the RaQ 4r cannot
provide disk mirroring but it can still serve requests.
Site management
The RaQ 4 is designed to host multiple virtual sites. A virtual site is an individual
location on the Internet, such as www.abc.com or www.xyz.com. Each virtual
site can have a unique set of users who can send and receive email, publish Web
pages, or upload and download files through FTP. A virtual site can also provide
anonymous FTP access.
✍
Note: A virtual site can be name-based or IP-based. If there are
several name-based virtual sites on an IP address, only one namebased virtual site can use anonymous FTP.
The RaQ 4 server can host a large number of IP-based virtual sites. The number
of sites depends on the amount of hard-disk-drive space available on the server,
the amount of hard-disk-drive space allocated for each site, the amount of traffic
generated on each site and the amount and complexity of the dynamic Web
content on each site (for example, ASP, CGI, PHP and others). Dynamic Web
content on an individual site induces a much heavier load on the server than does
static content.
In the Site Management section of the Server Management screen, the RaQ 4
Administrator can create and manage virtual sites hosted by the RaQ 4. A table
displays the virtual sites (if there are any) on the RaQ 4. See Figure 15.
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Figure 15. List of virtual sites in the Site Management section
In the Site Management section, the Virtual Site List displays the virtual sites by
host name in ascending order.
The Virtual Site List has four columns which display information about the site,
and allow the RaQ 4 Administrator to manage or remove a site.
•
The first column displays the host name of the virtual site.
•
The second column displays the IP address of the virtual site.
•
The third column displays icons to indicate which services (FrontPage
Server extensions, Anonymous FTP, Secure POP3 [APOP], SSL or
Bandwidth Limit) are enabled on a site, or to indicate that a site is
suspended.
•
The fourth column displays icons to manage a site or to remove a site.
✍
Note: The trashcan icon for the main site on the RaQ 4 is grayedout (disabled), as this site cannot be deleted from the list of virtual
sites.
For an explanation of the icons, see “Icons used on the UI and in the manual” on
page 11.
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Search and sort functions
The Virtual Site List table offers a search function and a sort function; see
Figure 15. These functions are useful if you have a large number of virtual sites
on your RaQ 4 and you want to restrict the display to certain virtual sites.
You can search the list of virtual sites according to the following criteria:
•
by host name or IP address
•
whether the host name or IP address is equal to the search string, is
contained in the search string or is not contained in the search string
The screen regenerates and the results of the search are displayed in a table with
the same four columns. The heading of the table now states “Search Results (<x>
Virtual Sites found). To return to the full list of virtual sites, click Site
Management on the left.
✍
Note: Suspended sites are listed in the search results.
You can sort the list of virtual sites according to the following criteria:
•
by host name, in ascending or descending order
•
by IP address, in ascending or descending order
Ascending order means from lowest value to the highest value (a–z or 1–9).
Descending order means from highest value to the lowest value (z–a or 9–1). By
default, the Virtual Site List table is sorted by host name in ascending order.
The screen regenerates and the results are displayed in a table with the same four
columns. In the heading of the column which has been sorted, a blue arrow icon
points up (ascending order) or down (descending order). In the heading of the
column which has not been sorted, a double-ended arrow indicates that the order
for the column is random.
You can use the search and sort functions together to produce the display that you
need. For example, you can search the list for all virtual sites with “test” in the
host name, and sort the results of that search by IP address in ascending order.
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Searching a list of virtual sites
To search the list of virtual sites:
1.
In the first field of the Search Virtual Site List window, select “Host Name”
or “IP Address” from the pull-down menu.
2.
In the second field, select “is”, “contains” or “does not contain” from the
pull-down menu.
3.
In the third field, enter the string of characters for which you want to search.
4.
Click Search. The screen regenerates and displays the results in a table with
the same four columns.
Sorting a list of virtual sites
To sort the list of virtual sites:
1.
To sort according to Host Name, click on the blue arrow icon in the heading
of the Host Name column. To sort according to IP Address, click on the blue
arrow icon in the heading of the IP Address column.
2.
To sort in ascending (up arrow icon) or descending order (down arrow icon),
click on the blue arrow icon so that it points in the correct direction.
3.
The screen regenerates and displays the results in a table with the same four
columns.
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Overview of virtual sites
The RaQ 4 supports both name-based and IP-based virtual hosting.
The RaQ 4 Administrator sets up the virtual sites, as described in “Adding a
virtual site” on page 47. The following list of information is helpful when
creating a site.
•
IP Address To use the RaQ 4, you require an IP address or range of
IP addresses.
✍
Note: The RaQ 4 supports name-based virtual sites allowing many
sites to share a single IP address. The RaQ 4 Administrator can
create many virtual sites using the same IP address (for example,
192.168.25.77) with a different host name for each site (for
example, both www.abc.com and www.xyz.com can use
192.168.25.77 as their IP address).
•
Host name Each virtual site requires a host name (for example, www or ftp).
If the site is connected to the Internet, you must know which IP address the
host name uses.
•
Domain name Each virtual site also requires a domain name (for example,
abc.com or xyz.com).
You must also register the domain name. Visit the Internet Corporation for
Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) at http://www.icann.org. for a list
of accredited domain-name registrars.
✍
•
Note: The RaQ 4 can serve as the DNS server and provide the host
name.
Web server aliases You can add aliases for Web servers; you are not
restricted to receiving Web requests only on the domain entered in the site
settings.
For the virtual site, enter additional host names or domain names for which
to accept Web requests. For example, enter the aliases domain.com and
www.domain.com.
Separate multiple entries with a comma.
✍
Note: You must configure the Domain Name System (DNS) records
to resolve the alias addresses in addition to the virtual site name.
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•
Email server aliases You can add aliases for email servers; you are not
restricted to receiving email messages only on the domain entered in the site
settings.
For the virtual site, enter additional host names or domain names for which
to accept email connections (on SMTP port 25). For example, enter the
aliases domain.com and mail.domain.com.
Separate multiple entries with a comma.
•
Maximum allowed disk space (MB) You can set the amount of disk space a
site can use, and can change this value at any time. The value is in megabytes
and must be a whole number greater than zero.
You can choose where to store a new virtual site. In the Add New Virtual Site
table, in the Maximum allowed disk space (MB) parameter, a pull-down
menu lists in alphabetical order the available disk storage devices. The
storage device with the most available space is chosen by default. For more
information, see “Storage” on page 82.
Once you have created a virtual site, you cannot change its location.
•
Maximum Number of Users You can limit the number of users that a Site
Administrator can create; you can change this value at any time.
•
Enable FrontPage Server Extensions You can enable Microsoft
FrontPageTM Server Extensions for Web page development on each virtual
site. Site Administrators can create and delete user FrontPage webs
individually.
When FrontPage Server Extensions are enabled on a virtual site, you must
enter a password for the FrontPage client webmaster account. For more
information, see “FrontPage Server Extensions” on page 44.
•
Enable Anonymous FTP Users without passwords can download and
upload files through FTP up to the specified disk-space limit. You can enable
the anonymous FTP server for any virtual site. You can also limit the amount
of data that can be uploaded anonymously and the total number of
anonymous users who can access the virtual site simultaneously.
✍
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Note: A virtual site can be name-based or IP-based. If there are
several name-based virtual sites on an IP address, only one namebased virtual site can use anonymous FTP.
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•
Enable SSL The RaQ 4 provides an optional secure sockets layer (SSL) for
Web access. See “SSL settings” on page 118.
•
Enable Active Server Pages (ASP) The RaQ 4 supports ASP scripting
language. For more information, see “Active Server Pages (ASP)” on
page 45.
•
Enable PHP Embedded Scripting The RaQ 4 supports PHP embedded
scripting. For more information, see “PHP embedded scripting” on page 45.
•
Enable Shell Accounts The users of the virtual site being created can telnet
to the RaQ 4 and run commands from a Linux shell. If this feature is
enabled, Site Administrators can grant shell access on a user-by-user basis.
✍
•
Note: Granting shell access can greatly compromise the security of
your RaQ 4.
Enable Secure POP3 (APOP) You can enable the Authentication Post
Office Protocol (APOP) for a virtual site. APOP is a challenge-response
authentication scheme built on top of the standard POP protocol. APOP is
designed in a way that protects your password when being sent across the
network.
✍
Note: If you enable APOP for a user, that user can check his or her
email only through an APOP client; a regular POP3 client will not
work unless APOP is disabled for that user.
•
Enable common gateway interface (CGI) scripts You can enable this
virtual site and all the site users to have CGI-based dynamic Web content on
the RaQ 4. CGI allows a user to have a Web site run programs that
dynamically generate hypertext markup language (HTML) pages in response
to specific user inputs. CGI scripts can be created on a user’s desktop
computer and then transferred to the RaQ 4 with a file transfer protocol
(FTP) application. See “Publishing Web pages using FTP” on page 146.
•
Enable Server Side Includes The RaQ 4 can correctly display server-parsed
Web pages (.shtml).
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FrontPage Server Extensions
When you enable FrontPage Server Extensions on a virtual site, a FrontPage
client webmaster account is created and you must provide a password for the
webmaster account.
✍
Note: The FrontPage user webmaster is a part of the FrontPage
Server Extension software and is not a true Linux site-user account.
As such, it does NOT have Web, email or FTP service. It is simply
an account to use in the FrontPage client.
If FrontPage Server Extensions are enabled on a virtual site, the Site Settings
table on the Site Management screen shows a check box indicating that the
feature is enabled. If you disable FrontPage Server Extensions on a virtual site
and save the changes, the Site Settings table refreshes to show the feature as
disabled and a webmaster password field is now displayed in the table. If you
re-enable FrontPage Server Extensions on that virtual site, you must provide a
password again for the webmaster account.
If you do not enter a password after you enable FrontPage Server Extensions and
then try to save changes, the UI will not accept the changes. An error message
appears at the bottom of the screen informing you that you must enter a password
for the webmaster account.
Each virtual site has a separate webmaster account and a unique webmaster
password.
Once the webmaster has authenticated through the FrontPage client, he or she
can:
•
modify Web content
•
manage FrontPage site Root Web subwebs
•
add, modify or remove additional FrontPage user accounts
•
change the webmaster password
✍
Note: User webs cannot manage subwebs or FrontPage user
accounts.
For more information on the FrontPage features, refer to the user documentation
for the FrontPage client software.
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Active Server Pages (ASP)
The RaQ 4 uses Chili!Soft™ Active Server Pages (ASP) software.
ASP is an HTML-embedded scripting language that includes one or more small
embedded programs, or scripts, that are processed on a Web server before the
Web page is sent to the user. An ASP is somewhat similar to a server-side include
or a common gateway interface (CGI) application in that all three involve
programs that run on the server, usually tailoring a page for the user.
For example, an ASP script can use the input from the user’s request for the page
to access data from a database. The script then builds or customizes the page on
the fly and returns it to the requestor. The Web server does all of the processing,
and a standard HTML page is generated and sent to the browser.
It is not necessary to enable the ASP Administrative Server on the Server
Management screen in order to enable ASP on an individual virtual site.
ASP Administrative Server
The ASP Administrative Server allows you to configure your ASP service
through a separate browser-based UI. It does not need to be turned on to allow
site users to serve ASP pages; this interface runs on port 5100.
You can access the ASP Administrative Server screen from the Server
Management screen. The ASP Administrative Server user interface includes a
link to the ASP HTML documentation files.
For more information, see “ASP Administrative Server” on page 62.
PHP embedded scripting
The RaQ 4 supports PHP Version 4.0 embedded scripting.
As with ASP, PHP is an HTML-embedded scripting language that includes one
or more small embedded programs, or scripts, that are processed on a Web server
before the Web page is sent to the user.
Much of the PHP syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a few unique
PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to allow Web
developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly.
For more information on PHP, visit the URL http://www.php.net.
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Setting defaults for a virtual site
There are many advantages for setting defaults for the virtual sites. For example,
since multiple sites can now share an IP address, a default IP address can be set
for all new virtual sites added. Also, since it is common for many sites to share a
common domain name, it can be desirable to set a default domain name for your
virtual sites.
The same is true of all the options for a virtual site; it is best for you to decide the
needs of your typical virtual site before assigning these values.
Site defaults and site settings can only be configured by the RaQ 4 Administrator.
If you (as the RaQ 4 Administrator) enable either the FrontPage Server
Extensions service or the Shell Accounts service, the Site Administrators can
enable or disable FrontPage user webs, and enable or disable individual
(per-user) shell access.
Figure 16 shows the screen for configuring the default settings of a virtual site.
Figure 16. Default settings for a virtual site
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Modifying the default site settings
To modify the default settings for a virtual site:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Site Management. The Virtual
Site List table appears.
2.
Click Set Virtual Site Defaults. The Virtual Site Defaults table appears.
3.
Enter the information for the site.
4.
See the descriptions in “Overview of virtual sites” on page 41.
5.
Click Save Changes.
Once you have configured the default settings, you can modify the settings for
each virtual site that you add.
Adding a virtual site
To add a virtual site:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Site Management. The Virtual
Site List table appears.
2.
Click Add Virtual Site. The Add New Virtual Site table appears. See
Figure 17.
3.
Enter the information for the site (information from the virtual site default
settings is displayed here).
4.
Make changes to the information or complete the necessary information.
5.
Verify the settings and click Confirm New Site.
Figure 17 shows the screen for adding a virtual site.
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Figure 17. Adding a virtual site
Adding a name-based virtual site
If you are adding a name-based virtual site, you must have DNS records for that
site before you can access the site. For more information, see “Definition of a
virtual site” on page 35.
✍
Note: To preview a name-based virtual site, you must first configure
its DNS records and make those DNS records available to your
workstation and the RaQ 4 server.
Requests to the IP address are directed to the first name-based site
created on that IP address.
If you administer your DNS records on the RaQ 4, refer to Appendix D, “Domain
Name System”, for more information about creating DNS records. If your
Internet service provider (ISP) administers your DNS records, ask your ISP to
create the DNS records for the new name-based virtual site.
Once the virtual site has been created, you can manage it by clicking the green
pencil icon for the site. See “Changing site settings” on page 113.
To assign a Site Administrator to the new virtual site, see “Adding a site user” on
page 99.
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Removing a virtual site
To remove a virtual site:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Site Management. The Virtual
Site List table appears.
2.
In the Virtual Site List table, click the trashcan icon for the virtual site you
want to remove.
3.
In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click OK to delete all the virtual
site accounts, site users and contents.
4.
The screen refreshes and the virtual site is no longer listed.
Both the Site Administrator and the RaQ 4 Administrator can configure the site
user default settings. See “Setting defaults for a site user” on page 97.
After creating a virtual site, you can add or remove users for that site, and assign
a Site Administrator. See “Adding a site user” on page 99.
For information on changing the settings for a particular virtual site, see
“Changing site settings” on page 113.
For information on removing a site user from a particular virtual site, see
“Removing a site user” on page 102.
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RaQ 4 Administrator
☞
Important: Be sure to remember the password you enter here—
otherwise, you will need to reset it (See “Resetting the RaQ 4
Administrator password” on page 51).
In the Administrator section of the Server Management screen, you enter
information about the RaQ 4 Administrator—including user name, password
and, optionally, an email address where system alerts for failed services are sent.
To enter the information for the RaQ 4 Administrator:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Administrator on the left. The
Administrator Settings table appears. See Figure 18.
2.
Enter the first name and last name of the administrator.
3.
Enter the password twice to ensure that you have entered it as intended. For
guidelines on choosing a password, see “Password guidelines” on page 27.
4.
As an option, enter an email address that will receive system alerts for failed
services.
5.
Click Save Changes.
Figure 18. Administrator Settings table
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RaQ 4 Administrator
Changing the RaQ 4 Administrator password
To change the password for the RaQ 4 Administrator:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Administrator on the left. The
Administrator Settings table appears.
2.
Enter the password twice to ensure that you have entered it as intended. The
RaQ 4 supports long passwords through the UI.
For guidelines on choosing a password, see “Password guidelines” on
page 27.
3.
Click Save Changes.
Resetting the RaQ 4 Administrator password
When the RaQ 4 Administrator password is cleared, the root account is not
accessible until a new administrator password has been assigned.
!
Caution: After you clear the password, enter a new one as soon as
possible to protect the security of the RaQ 4. At this point, anyone
on the network can assign the RaQ 4 Administrator password until
you assign a new one.
If you forget the RaQ 4 Administrator password, you can clear it by following
these steps.
1.
Push and hold the end of a paper clip in the recessed Reset Password button
(located between the LCD screen and the LCD arrow buttons, on the front of
the RaQ 4). Hold the button in for approximately 2 seconds.
The LCD screen displays
Resetting admin
password...
2.
Release the button.
3.
In your Web browser, enter the URL http://<IP address>/admin/ or
http://<host name>/admin/ to access the Server Management screen.
4.
If a prompt appears asking for a username or password, enter admin as the
username. DO NOT enter a password. Click OK.
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5.
Click Administrator on the left. The Administrator Settings table appears.
6.
Enter the password twice to ensure that you have entered it as intended. The
RaQ 4 supports long passwords through the UI.
For guidelines on choosing a password, see “Password guidelines” on
page 27.
7.
Click Save Changes.
Control panel
You can configure the services, network and time settings through the Control
Panel section of the Server Management screen.
✍
Note: For help with a particular field, move the mouse pointer over
the Active Assist
icon adjacent to the field. Help text appears
in a window at the bottom of the screen.
Services
Figure 19 shows the Service Settings table of the Services section.
Figure 19. Service Settings table
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Control panel
To manage the settings for the RaQ 4 services:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel on the left. The
Service Settings table appears.
2.
To turn on any of the services listed in the Service Settings table (except Web
server, which is always on), click the check box next to that service. The
services are described in the sections that follow.
3.
Click Save Changes.
✍
Note: Chapter 5 provides instructions for site users on how to use
the RaQ 4 services.
Web server
This service is always on. It allows site users to access Web content, as described
in Chapter 5.
Email server
The RaQ 4 supports email for each virtual site on the host. It also supports email
for entire domains (for example, www.mydomain.com). By default, each
registered user has an email account created on the RaQ 4.
The RaQ 4 supports multiple client and server email protocols but does not
implement virtual email users. This means that for the entire RaQ 4, each user
must have a unique username, even if the users are on different virtual sites. For
more information, see “Email relaying” on page 56.
SMTP server
The RaQ 4 can act as a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server for sending
and receiving Internet email. As the RaQ 4 Administrator, you can configure
several parameters that can affect the performance of the SMTP server.
Users created on any virtual site can retrieve their email using the Post Office
Protocol 3 (POP3) or the Authentication Post Office Protocol (APOP), in
addition to the Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4). Users can send
mail using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
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For the RaQ 4 to receive email, you or your network administrator must enter a
mail server host name in your organization’s DNS server to designate the RaQ 4
as the mail server for a domain. Email service depends on DNS. so the IP address
of a DNS server must be entered in the network settings for the RaQ 4; if not, the
SMTP protocol will not work. If you did not enter this IP address in the Setup
Wizard, see “Network” on page 64.
For more information on DNS, see Appendix D, “Domain Name System”.
Figure 20 shows the Email Parameters table.
Figure 20. Email Parameters table
Configuring the email parameters
To configure the email parameters:
1.
In the Service Settings table, click the Parameters link next to Email Server.
The Email Parameters table appears.
2.
Fill in the fields in the Email Parameters table. The following paragraphs
explain these fields.
3.
Click Save Changes in the Email Parameters table.
4.
Click Save Changes in the Service Settings table
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Control panel
You can modify the following parameters:
•
Maximum message size (MB) It is important to enter a value here to limit
the size of incoming email messages. If this field is blank, the server will not
limit the size of incoming messages, which may allow a single message to
fill up your available space on the hard disk drive. A message that exceeds
the specified quota of space on the hard disk drive is returned to the sender as
“undeliverable”. The default value is 5 MB; the value must be a whole
number greater than zero.
•
Smart Relay Host Name You can enter an optional host name in this field.
With this feature, you can configure the RaQ 4 to send Internet email to a
specific email server. Enter the host name of the email server through which
you want to relay your email.
This feature is useful if the RaQ 4 does not have direct Internet access (for
example, the RaQ 4 is subject to a restrictive firewall), but can communicate
with an email server that has direct Internet access.
•
Relay for the following hosts/domains You can specify a list of hosts for
which the SMTP server will relay email messages. For more information,
see “Email relaying” on page 56.
•
Hosts/domains aliases In this field, enter all the IP addresses or domain
names of sites on which you receive email. You can only receive email that is
addressed to you on the domains specified here. For example, if you want to
receive email addressed to you at username@mydomain.com, type
domain.com in this field.
You can also add email server aliases when creating a virtual site. For more
information, see “Overview of virtual sites” on page 41.
•
Reject the following users/hosts/domains In this field, enter email
addresses or domains from which you want to block any email. Anyone
trying to send you messages from one of these addresses or domains will
receive an error message in return.
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Email relaying
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) service is different from Post Office
Protocol (POP), telnet and file transfer protocol (FTP) services in that SMTP
does not try to authenticate a user when an SMTP connection is made.
Every email server on the Internet has to be able to deliver email to you, so the
email servers must be able to connect freely to send the email. The RaQ 4 accepts
email for processing if the recipient has a user account or an alias email account,
or if the sending host (your client PC) is trusted to relay outgoing email messages
to another domain. These trusts are defined by host or domain names, as well as
by IP addresses and networks.
!
Caution: Some users advise you to open relay to all com, edu, net
and other top-level domain addresses. However, doing so allows
hosts belonging to com, edu, net and others to relay email through
your server; this relayed mail is known as spam mail.
Spam mail can appear as though it originated from your server and
as a result, others may blacklist your server as a known spam site. If
your server is blacklisted, many mail servers will not relay your
email and your customers will not receive a large amount of their
email messages.
If you have users who access your server through the Internet, ask your Internet
service provider (ISP) which networks are used by their remote access (dial-up)
equipment.
For example, if the ISP says the network 192.168.10.5 through 192.168.10.24,
then enter “192.168.10” in the “Relay email from these hosts/domains” field of
the Email Parameters table. If your ISP gives you a list of 30 networks used by 30
points-of-presence (POPs) (which are regional ISP offices) across the country
and your clients can dial in from any of them, then you must trust all 30 networks
or these users cannot send email through your RaQ 4.
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Control panel
Enabling email relaying
To enable email relaying, add the IP addresses (or domain names, or both) of the
machines which use your RaQ 4 as the SMTP server.
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the Parameters link next to Email Server. The Email Parameters table
appears.
One field is labeled “Relay for the following hosts/domains”. The following
paragraphs explain how to fill in this field.
3.
Click Save Changes in the Email Parameters table.
4.
Click Save Changes in the Service Settings table.
The entries you add to this field serve as part of a pattern match against the email
that the client is sending. As a result, some handy shortcuts are possible. If you
have a number of hosts in the same network block, you can, as a shortcut, simply
enter the number of the network block.
For example, specifying a network such as 192.168.1 in the “Relay email from
these hosts/domains” field trusts all IP addresses from 192.168.1.1 through
192.168.1.254.
✍
Note: There is no trailing period on the number of the network
block and there are only three octets entered in the field. It is
important that you do not include a trailing dot after the part of the
IP address that you want to match.
If you want to allow connections from a host that ends, for example, in
mydomain.com, add the string “mydomain.com” in the text area.
✍
Note: If you entering a domain name or part of a domain name in
the text box, you must have reverse DNS working on your clients.
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File transfer protocol (FTP) server
Using the file transfer protocol, site users can upload and download files on the
RaQ 4. Users can transfer files with FTP client software such as Fetch or
WS-FTP.
You can enable or disable the FTP server.
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box next to File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Server to on or off.
3.
Click Save Changes.
Telnet server
!
Caution: You can adversely affect the operation of your RaQ 4 if
you modify system configuration files. Check your warranty card
for details.
Granting shell access can greatly compromise the security of your
RaQ 4.
✍
Note: Disabling the telnet server in the Service Settings table
denies telnet access to all users, even if they have been granted shell
access.
Telnet access is available but only advanced users should use telnet. An advanced
user is someone who is proficient in the workings of a Unix operating system.
You can enable or disable the telnet server:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box next to Telnet Server to on or off.
3.
Click Save Changes.
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Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent
If the SNMP agent is enabled, you can use SNMP software to remotely monitor
server information such as CPU utilization and network traffic.
You can enable or disable the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
agent:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box next to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
agent to on or off.
3.
If you are disabling the SNMP agent, click Save Changes.
If you are enabling the SNMP agent, click on the Parameters link next to
the option in the Service Settings table. The SNMP Parameters table appears.
4.
Enter the SNMP communities that can have read-only and read-and-write
access to this SNMP agent. The default read-access community is “public”.
5.
Click Save Changes in the SNMP Parameters table.
6.
Click Save Changes in the Service Settings table.
Figure 21 shows the SNMP Parameters table.
Figure 21. SNMP Parameters table
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Legato file backup
You can use the Legato NetWorker® client software to support backup and
restore needs on the RaQ 4. To use this feature, you must install the Legato
Networker Server software. The software is available at www.legato.com.
To enable or disable the Legato file backup option:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box next to Legato File Backup to on or off.
3.
If you are disabling the Legato File Backup option, click Save Changes.
If you are enabling the Legato File Backup option, click on the Parameters
link next to the option in the Service Settings table. The Legato Networker
Parameters table appears.
4.
In the Legato Networker Parameters table, enter the host name and the
IP address of the Legato Server in the fields.
5.
Click Save Changes in the Legato Networker Parameters table.
6.
Click Save Changes in the Service Settings table.
Figure 22 shows the Legato Networker Parameters table.
Figure 22. Legato Networker Parameters table
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Arkeia file backup
You can use the Arkeia backup software from Knox Software to support backup
and restore needs on the RaQ 4.
There is a client component and a server component to the Arkeia backup
software. The client-side software is pre-installed on the RaQ 4. The server-side
software can be obtained from the Arkeia Web site at http://www.arkeia.com.
To enable or disable the Arkeia client-side backup software:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box next to Arkeia File Backup to on or off.
3.
If you are disabling the Arkeia File Backup option, click Save Changes.
If you are enabling the Arkeia File Backup option, click on the Parameters
link next to the option in the Service Settings table. The Arkeia Parameters
table appears.
4.
In the Arkeia Parameters table, enter the host name of the server that will
back up the RaQ 4.
5.
Click Save Changes in the Arkeia Parameters table.
6.
Click Save Changes in the Service Settings table.
Figure 23 shows the Arkeia Parameters table.
Figure 23. Arkeia Parameters table
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RaQ 4i or RaQ 4r server
If you have a RaQ 4i or RaQ 4r server, you can attach an external tape device to
the SCSI connector on the back panel and load the Arkeia server-side software on
to the tape device.
This allows you to back up your RaQ 4i or RaQ 4r server directly to the external
tape device and also to function as a backup server for other devices on the
network.
Base RaQ 4 server
If you have a base RaQ 4 server, you can back up the server over the local
network connection to another device that has the Arkeia server-side software
installed on a local tape drive.
Managing the server-side software
The server-side software is managed through a separate utility; this utility has a
Java interface on Windows 95/98 and NT, and an X11 interface on Unix. You can
download this utility from Arkeia’s Web site at http://www.arkeia.com.
ASP Administrative Server
To access the ASP Administrative Server UI:
1.
In the Server Management screen, click Control Panel on the left. The
Service Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box next to ASP Administrative Server.
3.
Click Save Changes. The screen refreshes and there is now a link to
Parameters in the right column next to ASP Administrative Server.
4.
Click Parameters in the row for ASP Administrative Server. A confirmation
dialog appears, asking for the user name and password for the ASP
Management server at <hostname.domainname:5100>.
5.
Enter the user name and password of the RaQ 4 Administrator.
6.
Click OK. A separate browser window opens with the UI for the ASP Server
Administration screen. The link for Documentation on the left guides you
through the functionality of Chili!Soft ASP.
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Figure 24 shows the UI for the ASP Administrative Server.
Figure 24. ASP Administrative Server UI
Domain Name System (DNS) server
Domain Name System (DNS) is a vital and integral part of the Internet. Setting
up DNS correctly on your RaQ 4 is very important. For this reason, we have
created an appendix solely for explaining DNS. See Appendix D, “Domain Name
System”.
The appendix covers the following items:
•
basic DNS issues
•
advanced DNS issues
•
a sample setup of DNS records for a RaQ 4 server
•
a brief history of the DNS service
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Network
The network settings make the RaQ 4 visible to other computers. If you change
the IP address, the RaQ 4 reboots.
☞
Important: Coordinate the network configuration information with
your network administrator to ensure the integrity of your network.
Incorrect network settings can result in a loss of connectivity.
To enter or change the network configuration for the RaQ 4:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel on the left. The
Service Settings table appears.
2.
Click Network at the top. The settings tables for the network configuration
appear.
3.
Enter configuration information for the General Settings, the Interface
Settings for Network 1 or the Interface Settings for Network 2.
✍
4.
Note: For help with a particular field, move the mouse pointer over
the Active Assist
icon adjacent to the field. Help text appears in
a window at the bottom of the screen.
Click Save Changes.
Figure 25 shows the Settings tables of the Network section.
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Figure 25. Settings tables in the Network section
Bandwidth
The RaQ 4 allows you to set an output bandwidth limit for each IP address that
you assign on a RaQ 4. The bandwidth limit applies to all of the name-based
virtual sites associated with an IP address.
The limit is specified in kilobits per second (Kb/s), and the RaQ 4 enforces a
minimum bandwidth limit of 10 Kb/s.
The bandwidth limit applies to all outgoing Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
traffic on a particular IP address. This includes Web, FTP, POP and telnet traffic,
as well any other TCP-based application.
If multiple users are accessing a bandwidth-limited IP address, the system
divides the bandwidth evenly among the users.
If multiple named-based virtual sites belong to one IP address, the bandwidth
assigned to the IP address is divided evenly among the total number of users on
those name-based virtual sites.
This feature does not regulate input traffic.
You can apply a bandwidth limit to an IP address that did not previously have
one, modify an existing bandwidth limit or delete a bandwidth limit.
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Bandwidth Limits table
When you select the bandwidth-limit option, the Bandwidth Limits table appears;
see Figure 26. If you have not applied a bandwidth limit to any IP addresses, the
table is blank. If you have applied a bandwidth limit to an IP address, the table
displays four columns:
•
the IP address to which the limit is applied
•
the bandwidth limit (in Kb/s)
•
the fully qualified domain names of the sites associated with the IP address
•
the icons to modify the bandwidth limit (green pencil) or delete the
bandwidth limit (brown trashcan)
Figure 26 shows the Bandwidth Limits table.
Figure 26. Bandwidth Limits table
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Applying a bandwidth limit
To apply a bandwidth limit to an IP address:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel on the left. The
Service Settings table appears.
2.
Click Bandwidth at the top. The Bandwidth Limits table appears.
3.
Click Add. The Add Bandwidth Limit table appears. See Figure 27.
✍
Note: If each of the IP addresses on the RaQ 4 already has a
bandwidth limit assigned to it, an error message at the bottom of the
screen alerts you to this fact.
To modify a bandwidth limit, see “Modifying a bandwidth limit” on
page 68. To delete a bandwidth limit, see “Deleting a bandwidth
limit” on page 69.
4.
In the first row of the table, select from the pull-down menu the IP address to
which you want to apply the bandwidth limit. The pull-down menu lists all
the IP addresses that do not currently have a bandwidth limit.
5.
In the second row, enter the value of the bandwidth limit in Kb/s. The
minimum value is 10 Kb/s.
6.
Click Save Changes. The screen refreshes and the Bandwidth Limits table is
displayed with the IP address and the bandwidth limit.
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Figure 27 shows the Add Bandwidth Limit table.
Figure 27. Add Bandwidth Limit table
Modifying a bandwidth limit
To modify a bandwidth limit to an IP address:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel on the left. The
Service Settings table appears.
2.
Click Bandwidth at the top. The Bandwidth Limits table appears.
3.
In the table, locate the IP address for which you want to modify the
bandwidth limit.
4.
Click the green pencil icon next to that IP address. The Modify Bandwidth
Limit table appears. The first row of the table displays the IP address.
5.
In the second row, enter the new value of the bandwidth limit in Kb/s. The
minimum value is 10 Kb/s.
6.
Click Save Changes. The screen refreshes and the Bandwidth Limits table is
displayed with the new bandwidth limit for that IP address.
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Deleting a bandwidth limit
To delete a bandwidth limit to an IP address:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel on the left. The
Service Settings table appears.
2.
Click Bandwidth at the top. The Bandwidth Limits table appears.
3.
In the table, locate the IP address for which you want to delete the bandwidth
limit.
4.
Click the brown trashcan icon next to that IP address. A confirmation dialog
appears.
5.
Click OK. The screen refreshes and the Bandwidth Limits table is displayed;
bandwidth limit for that IP address is removed.
Time
The RaQ 4 Administrator can configure the correct time and date and the time
zone for the RaQ 4.
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel on the left. The
Service Settings table appears.
2.
Click Time at the top. The Time Settings table appears. See Figure 28.
3.
Select the time and date with the pull-down menus.
4.
Select the correct time zone by clicking in the Region, Country and Locale/
Zone fields.
5.
As an option, you can also specify the name of a Network Time Protocol
(NTP) server with which the RaQ 4 will synchronize its internal clock every
night. Enter the host name or IP address of the NTP server.
You can find a list of publicly available NTP servers at:
http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.html.
6.
Click Save Changes.
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Figure 28 shows the Time Settings table.
Figure 28. Time Settings table
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Maintenance
The Maintenance section of the Server Management screen provides several
Web-based utilities that facilitate day-to-day operations on the RaQ 4.
To access these utilities:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Maintenance on the left. The File
Backup table appears.
2.
Choose a utility at the top. The utilities are described in the following
sections.
Backup
!
Caution: A backup captures data only (for example, email
messages stored on the server or Web files). It does NOT back up
the settings for virtual sites or users.
This feature should not be used for disaster recovery.
As the RaQ 4 Administrator, you can perform different types of backups
in the user interface. This is a separate function from the Legato and
Arkeia backup support features.
!
Caution: You can use Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 to back up a
Cobalt server but not to restore a backup file. Upgrade to a later
version of Internet Explorer or use a different browser software to
restore the backup file.
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Manual backup
This feature allows administrators to manually back up data stored on the RaQ 4.
Figure 29 shows the File Backup table.
Figure 29. File Backup table
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To manually back up data stored on the RaQ 4:
1.
On the Maintenance screen, click Backup at the top.
2.
In “Data to Backup,” select the type of backup:
3.
•
All server configuration, email and user files. This option backs up all
the server configuration files for the users and the system setup, all users’
files, all group files and all email in-boxes.
•
All server configuration. This option backs up all the server
configuration files for the users and the administrator, as well as all the
system setup information.
•
Files and email of user. This option backs up the files and email in-box
for a specific user.
To back up all files or to back up files changed within a certain time frame,
choose from the pull-down menu adjacent to “Backup files modified in the
last.”
You can choose “Backup all Files,” 31 days, 14 days, 7 days, 2 days or 1 day.
4.
Click Start Backup.
5.
Assign a path and a file name on your computer for storing the backup data.
Click Save.
The file transfer takes several seconds to several minutes. Do not interrupt or
cancel the file transfer. If the file transfer fails, delete the partial back up file from
your computer. If you try to restore a partial back up file, you can corrupt the data
on your RaQ 4.
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Scheduled backup
This feature allows administrators to schedule regular automatic backups.
Figure 30 shows the Scheduled File Backup table.
Figure 30. Scheduled File Backup table
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To schedule regular, automatic backups:
1.
On the Maintenance screen, click Backup at the top. The File Backup table
appears.
2.
Click Scheduled Backup. The Scheduled File Backup table appears. See
Figure 30.
3.
Choose the frequency of the automatic backup.
•
Daily means each day at 1 a.m.
•
Weekly means every Sunday morning at 1 a.m. (Saturday night going
into Sunday morning)
•
Monthly means on the first of every month at 1 a.m.
4.
In “Data to Backup,” select the type of Backup, as described in step 2 in
“Manual backup” on page 72.
5.
To back up all files or to back up files changed within a certain time frame,
choose from the pull-down menu adjacent to “Backup files modified in the
last.”
6.
Choose a backup method.
7.
•
FTP Server writes the backup file to an FTP server.
•
NFS places the backup file on a mountable NFS resource.
•
SMB Server (Windows File Sharing) places the backup file onto a
directory shared from a Windows machine.
Enter a location for storing the backup data.
The location you specify depends in part on the backup method you select in
step 6. See “Backup File Locations” below for an explanation of locations
you can enter here.
8.
If the backup destination associated with your method of backup requires a
password for access, enter the password in this field. This field is ignored for
the NFS and anonymous FTP methods. See “Backup file locations” on
page 76.
9.
Click Save Changes.
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Backup file locations
For a backup by FTP Server:
•
A location of <username>@ftp.server.com puts the backup file in the
initial login directory.
•
A location of <username>@ftp.server.com/path/to/backups/ puts the
backup file in the specified path on the server, using <username> to login.
For a backup by Anonymous FTP:
•
For an anonymous FTP connection, the file must be put in a directory where
anonymous FTP users have write access. This is generally the /incoming/
directory.
•
A location of ftp.server.com/incoming places the backup file on
ftp.server.com under the /incoming/ directory.
•
The “Password” field should contain the password for the specified user or
be left blank for anonymous logins.
For a backup by NFS Server:
•
The location should be <server>:/<share>, where <server> is the NFS
server and <share> is the NFS volume to mount and write to. You must have
write privileges to this directory.
•
The “Password” is ignored for NFS server backups.
For a backup by SMB Server (Windows File Sharing):
•
•
The location should be <user>@\\windowspc\<share>. This mounts the
volume share on the Windows server, using <user> as the login. The
“Password” field must contain the password for <user>.
For volumes that do not require a user, the location should be
\\windowspc\share.
For All Scheduled backups:
•
76
Ensure the target location is available and has enough disk space to hold the
backup archive. Failure to do this may result in zero-length or truncated
archives.
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Restore
You must restore data from the same machine on which the data was backed up.
Users can restore their own personal directory.
!
!
!
Caution: The system restores data only (for example, email
messages stored on the server or Web files). It does NOT restore
virtual sites or site users to a RaQ 4.
Caution: You can use Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 to back up a
Cobalt server but not to restore a backup file. Upgrade to a later
version of Internet Explorer or use a different browser software to
restore the backup file.
Caution: The system does not merge the current and backed-up
data. When data is restored, any changes made to files on the RaQ 4
since the last backup are lost.
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Figure 31 shows the File Restore table.
Figure 31. File Restore table
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Maintenance
To restore a backup file:
1.
On the Maintenance screen, click Restore at the top. The File Restore table
appears. See Figure 31.
2.
The RaQ 4 saves backed-up data in .raq files. Enter the path and filename of
the backup file, or click Browse to select the .raq file archived on your
computer which you wish to restore to the server.
Restore times can vary widely. Be careful not to interrupt an archive restore
as data could be corrupted.
✍
Note: If the file does not appear in the list and you are using
Netscape 4.x or Internet Explorer 4.x, you may need to change
“File Type” in the desktop to “All Files.”
3.
If you want to restore only some of the files, click Selective Restore and
select those files.
4.
Click Restore A Backup File below the File Restore table.
✍
Note: Restoring large backup archives can cause your Web browser
to time out. If you upload the .raq archive through an FTP-based
application to the home directory of RaQ 4 Administrator, you can
select the archive from a menu on the Restore screen.
Do not interrupt an archive restore because this can corrupt data. If the restore
process is interrupted, the user can try to restore again.
To restore a user home directory or a virtual site directory, make sure the user or
virtual site already exists before restoring the files.
When data is restored, the RaQ 4 and its corresponding parts (virtual site, user,
email) are returned to the exact state they were in prior to backup.
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Install software
You can add new software to the RaQ 4 from the browser. You can install new
software obtained either from the Cobalt Networks Web site or from a CD
supplied by Cobalt Networks.
Figure 32 shows the Install Software table.
Figure 32. Install Software table
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Maintenance
To install or upgrade software from Cobalt’s Web site:
1.
Through your Web browser, go to http://www.cobalt.com/support/.
2.
Download the new software to your desktop computer.
3.
On the Server Management screen, click Maintenance on the left. The File
Backup table appears.
4.
Click Install Software at the top. The Install Software table appears. See
Figure 32.
5.
Click Browse to locate the package that you downloaded to your computer.
Click Open to select the package.
6.
Click Install a .pkg package to automatically install or upgrade the new
software on the RaQ 4.
To install software remotely:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Maintenance on the left. The File
Backup table appears.
2.
Click Install Software at the top. The Install Software table appears. See
Figure 32.
3.
In the URL field, enter the URL for the package file. This URL directs the
browser to the package file on the Cobalt Networks Web site.
4.
Click Install a .pkg package to automatically install or upgrade the new
software on the RaQ 4.
To install software from a CD:
1.
Insert the CD into a computer on the same network as the RaQ 4.
2.
On the computer that has the CD, go to the Server Management screen.
Click Maintenance on the left. The File Backup table appears.
3.
Click Install Software at the top. The Install Software table appears. See
Figure 32.
4.
Click Browse to locate the package file on the CD. Click Open to select the
package file.
5.
Click Install a .pkg package to automatically install or upgrade the new
software on the RaQ 4.
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Third-party software
Figure 32 shows the various software packages that have been installed on the
RaQ 4, including the version of the Cobalt OS and any third-party software. To
see more information about the software, click the name (shown as a hypertext
link).
InterBase
The RaQ 4 is pre-loaded with InterBase 6.0, an open-source, cross-platform SQL
database from Inprise Corporation. InterBase is not enabled by default.
For more information on InterBase, go to http://www.interbase.com.
InterBase offers free development and distribution rights. Interbase offers
developers a sophisticated database with a small footprint, low maintenance cost
and high reliability.
InterBase offers a number of database features—triggers, stored procedures,
blobs, event alerters, user-defined functions, multi-dimensional arrays, two-phase
commit, referential integrity, constraints and a flexible set of transaction options.
Storage
The browser-based UI allows external disk storage devices on the SCSI bus to be
used as additional storage for virtual sites. The external disk storage device must
remain connected to the RaQ 4 for proper operation of the virtual sites stored on
the disk.
You can also add a second internal hard disk drive on a RaQ 4i server. See
“Adding or replacing a hard disk drive in a RaQ 4” on page 164 for installing an
internal hard disk drive. Once you have added a second drive, you have to add
(through the RaQ 4 UI) the drive to the list of available storage devices.
✍
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Note: You cannot add extra internal or external storage to the base
RaQ 4 server configuration.
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Maintenance
A virtual site cannot span multiple disks and the RaQ 4 does not automatically
recognize virtual sites on an external disk storage device transferred from another
RaQ 4.
✍
Note: If you have replaced a failed hard disk drive in a RaQ 4r
server, you do not need to add the new hard disk drive through the
Add Storage feature. When rebooting, the system automatically
detects the new hard disk drive.
The RaQ 4r automatically synchronizes the new hard disk drive to
the existing hard disk drive so that the server is in RAID mode.
During the synchronization process, the RaQ 4r cannot provide disk
mirroring but it can still serve requests.
In the Maintenance section of the Server Management screen, the administrator
can add and format an internal hard disk drive (RaQ 4i) or a non-removable disk
storage device to the RaQ 4.
✍
Note: You must power down the RaQ 4 before adding or removing
an external disk storage device.
Figure 33 shows the Storage in Use table.
Figure 33. Storage in Use table
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Adding a storage device
To add a second hard disk drive or external disk storage device through the UI:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Maintenance on the left. The File
Backup table appears.
2.
Click Storage at the top. The Storage in Use table appears. See Figure 33.
3.
Click Add Storage.
A list of available disk storage devices appears; see Figure 33. By default, if
more than one device is available, all of the devices are selected to be added.
To de-select a disk storage device, click the box beside that device.
4.
To add a disk, give the device a unique name. You can use only alphanumeric
characters for the name. You cannot use the name “home” as that is the name
of the primary hard disk of the RaQ 4.
✍
✍
5.
Note: If you try to assign the name home to the second hard disk
drive, you receive an error message stating “the name home is in
use”.
Note: You can choose to check the integrity of the disk when adding
the second hard disk drive. However, this option significantly
increases the time it takes to format a drive. To enable this option,
click the box in the Check column beside the hard disk drive.
Click Confirm New Storage to add the storage to the RaQ 4.
When adding a new virtual site to the RaQ 4, the RaQ 4 Administrator can
choose where to store the new site. In the Add New Virtual Site table, next to the
Maximum allowed disk space (MB) parameter, a pull-down menu lists in
alphabetical order the available storage devices. The storage device with the most
available space is chosen by default.
For more information, see “Adding a virtual site” on page 47.
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Suspend a virtual site
There are two ways to suspend a virtual site on the RaQ 4: a hard suspension and
a soft suspension.
For more information on soft suspensions, see “Suspend a virtual site” on
page 115.
Hard suspension
A hard suspension occurs when a storage device is disabled through the UI or is
disconnected from the RaQ 4. In this case, all virtual sites on that storage device
are inaccessible. You cannot administer these sites, and users cannot receive
email.
To disable an attached storage device:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Maintenance on the left. The File
Backup table appears.
2.
Click Storage at the top. The Storage in Use table appears.
3.
Click the green pencil icon next to the disk you want to disable.
4.
Click the Enable disk check box so that it is de-selected.
5.
Click Confirm Modify. The browser returns to the previous screen.
Reboot
Rebooting the RaQ 4 sometimes cures problems with certain services. The
Active Monitor software recommends when a reboot is necessary.
To reboot the RaQ 4 through your browser:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Maintenance on the left. The File
Backup table appears.
2.
Click Reboot at the top. The Reboot Cobalt Server table appears.
3.
A warning appears that rebooting the Cobalt server will make it unavailable
to the network for a while.
Click Reboot.
You can also reboot the RaQ 4 through its LCD console; refer to “Rebooting” on
page 154.
The reboot process can take a few minutes.
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Shutdown
!
Caution: Turning off the power switch before the RaQ 4 tells you
to do so can result in lost or corrupted data.
The RaQ 4 can only be shut down from the LCD console located on the front of
the unit. Refer to “Powering down” on page 155. Shutting down may take as long
as a few minutes.
Support tools
The Support Tools feature is a Web page that assists Technical Support in
diagnosing problems on a RaQ 4 unit.
On the Server Diagnostics screen, the RaQ 4 Administrator can create and
download a data dump of the configuration files on the RaQ 4. This data dump
can then be emailed to diagnostics@cobalt.com. A member of the Technical
Support team can then evaluate the condition of your RaQ 4 before providing you
with corrective action, either by telephone or email.
If the RaQ 4 Administrator is familiar with Linux, he or she can look through this
file in an effort to determine the problem with the RaQ 4. The file is a standard
gzip file.
To access the Server Diagnostics screen:
1.
From any screen, click the Cobalt logo in the top left corner.
A table listing Server Configuration Information appears. The table lists the
amount of random access memory (RAM) and the size of the hard disk
drive.
The table also lists trademark information for Cobalt Networks and for all
other products and companies referred to in the UI.
2.
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In the list of links, click Server Diagnostics. The Diagnostic Header Data
table appears.
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Maintenance
3.
The information entered in the following fields is incorporated into the
header information of the diagnostic dump.
•
your full name
•
the name of your company or organization (optional)
•
if you are emailing the diagnostics dump to Cobalt Networks, then
indicate whether you want to be contacted by email or telephone
•
your complete telephone number, if you want to be contacted by
telephone
•
your email address, if you want to be contacted by email
•
a description of the problem you are having
✍
4.
Note: If the problem is with a particular user or site, please be
specific.
Click Save Changes.
This creates the diagnostic dump of your configuration files. A file window
appears and prompts you to enter a location on you computer where you
want to store the file created.
5.
If you are familiar with Linux, you can open this file and look through it to
determine the problem. Or you can email the file as an attachment to
diagnostics@cobalt.com.
6.
When Cobalt Networks receives the diagnostic file by email, a problem
ticket is created for your case.
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Site Usage
The Site Usage feature allows the RaQ 4 Administrator to monitor the amount of
bandwidth consumed by Web, email and FTP traffic generated by the virtual sites
on a RaQ 4.
For the Site Usage feature on the Site Management screen, see “Site Usage” on
page 126.
The RaQ 4 can generate traffic-based bar graphs for a particular virtual site. The
bars for Total Usage traffic can be viewed separately side-by-side or stacked on
top of each other in a single bar to indicate the total amount of data (MB).
The reports are generated each night at 1:00 a.m. and statistics are updated once
daily for all services.
Figure 34 shows the a sample of a Total Usage summary report.
Figure 34. Sample of a Total Usage summary report
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System Status
To use the Site Usage function:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Site Usage on the left. The Total
Usage bar graph appears.
2.
Below the Total Usage bar graph is an option for changing the bar placement
on the graph.
Click the radio button for the selected type of placement and click Generate
Report. The browser regenerates the Total Usage graph and displays the
bars as you selected.
3.
In the Reports to Generate window, you can select the virtual sites for which
you want to generate the Total Usage bar graph.
Click Generate. The browser regenerates the Site Usage screen according to
the report criteria chosen.
4.
To view Web, FTP or Email usage statistics, click that option at the top.
•
Web displays the Web Usage table for the virtual site.
•
FTP displays the FTP Usage table for the virtual site.
•
Email displays the Email Usage table for the virtual site.
Each option also displays a second table for Other Usage Statistics. Click on
any of the links in the Other Usage Statistics table for more detailed
information.
System Status
The System Status section allows the RaQ 4 Administrator to monitor the CPU,
memory, disk and network status, as well as the services running on RaQ 4. In all
cases, the RaQ 4 monitors the status of each of the subsystems and displays a
green, amber, red or grey circle beside each item. See Figure 35.
The status of the system components and services is monitored by a Cobalt
Networks utility called Active Monitor. For more information, see “Active
Monitor” on page 93.
Figure 35 shows the System Status tables.
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Figure 35. System Status tables
To view the status of the various system components and services:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click System Status on the left or
Active Monitor at the bottom left. A table displays the status of the system
components and the services.
•
Green indicates correct functioning.
•
Amber indicates a potential problem.
•
Red indicates that a problem exists.
•
Grey indicates that a component or service is inactive or that no
information is available yet.
2.
Click on the name (shown as a hypertext link) of the system component or
service to display more detailed information.
3.
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
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System components
Central processing unit (CPU)
The CPU Usage table provide real-time statistics on the CPU load over the
previous 15 minutes. The table also displays:
•
the CPU load average over the previous 15 minutes
•
the temperature of the processor
•
the amount of time that the system has been running
Memory
The Memory table displays the load on the memory over the previous
15 minutes. The table also displays:
•
the total memory on the system
•
the amount of free available memory
•
the amount of memory in use and the percentage of the total memory that
this represents
If you see a red light in this chart, you may want to add more memory to the
RaQ 4.
Disk
A Disk Usage Summary describes the total disk space occupied by system files,
by virtual sites and site users, the amount of free disk space left and the total size
of the disk.
Network
The Network Usage table displays, for the Network 1 and Network 2 ethernet
connections, the statistics for the number of network packets successfully sent
and received, the number of bytes of data successfully sent and received, the total
number of errors when sending or receiving network packets, and the number of
attempts to send several network packets at the same time (the number of
collisions).
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Services
The Service Status section allows you to monitor Web, email, FTP, telnet, DNS
and SNMP services. It follows the same LED conventions as the System Status
section.
Web server
The Web server table displays the status of the Web server (green, amber, red or
grey) and a text message.
Email
The Email services table displays the status of the POP3 server, the IMAP4
server and the SMTP service. This chart indicates whether these servers are
operating normally.
File transfer protocol (FTP)
The file transfer protocol (FTP) status chart displays the status of the FTP
server’s operation (normal or otherwise) and a text message.
Telnet
The telnet table displays the status of the telnet server’s operation (normal or
otherwise) and a text message.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) table displays the status of
the SNMP server’s operation (normal or otherwise) and a text message.
Domain Name System
The DNS table denotes whether DNS is active and whether it is operating
properly. For more information on DNS, see Appendix D, “Domain Name
System”.
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Active Monitor
Active Monitor
The RaQ 4 uses Active Monitor software. Active Monitor is a Cobalt Networks
utility that runs on a RaQ 4 and updates key system information every
15 minutes.
Active Monitor status is displayed on the Server Management screen only.
Active Monitor checks:
•
the status of the RaQ 4 (functioning, warning of failure, failed or inactive)
•
the status of the services on the RaQ 4
Table 4 explains the colors of the circles in Active Monitor.
To access Active Monitor, click Active Monitor or System Status on the Server
Management screen. To view the details for a system component or service,
click the name (shown as a hypertext link).
Table 4. Colors and status indicators
Color
Description
Green
Correct functioning
Yellow
Advance warning of potential problems that should be
investigated by the RaQ 4 Administrator (for example, low
amount of space on the hard disk drive)
Red
Failure
Grey
Inactive or information is not yet available
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Chapter 4
Site Management
There are three types of users on the RaQ 4: the RaQ 4 Administrator, Site
Administrators and site users.
This chapter describes the functions that the Site Administrator normally
performs. As the Site Administrator, you access these functions from the Site
Management screen on the RaQ 4. The Site Management screen has a green
strip on the left side.
You can add or remove a site user, create a mailing list, manage disk space, back
up and restore files and perform other virtual-site-related administrative tasks.
(These functions can also be performed by the RaQ 4 Administrator.)
You can manage a virtual site using any standard Web browser. To access the Site
Management screen for your site, type the URL
http://<sitename>/siteadmin/ into your browser. The RaQ 4 user interface (UI)
prompts you for your site administrator user name and password.
✍
Note: The Site Management screen can only be accessed using the
fully qualified site name in the Web browser. The Site
Management screen is not accessible if an incomplete or aliased
site host name is specified.
To access the Site Management screen, click Site Management on the Server
Management screen. The Site Management screen appears. From this screen,
you can access the Site Administrator functions; see Figure 36.
The User Management section appears when you first access the Site
Management screen. The User List displays the site users by user name in
ascending order.
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The User List has five columns which display information about the each site
user, and allow the RaQ 4 Administrator or Site Administrator to manage or
remove a site.
•
The first column displays the full name of the site user.
•
The second column displays the user name of the site user.
•
The third column displays the email alias(es) of the site user.
•
The fourth column displays icons to indicate which services are enabled
(telnet/shell access, FrontPage Server Extensions or Secure POP3 [APOP]),
to indicate that a site user is the Site Administrator, or to indicate that a site
user is suspended.
•
The fifth column displays icons to manage a site user or the email settings
for the site user, or to remove a site user.
For an explanation of the icons, see “Icons used on the UI and in the manual” on
page 11.
To access a section of the Site Management screen, click the section button
along the left side of the screen. These functions are described in the following
sections.
Figure 36.
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User management
User management
The User Management section on the Site Management screen allows you to
perform administrative functions related to site users: setting the site user
defaults, adding or removing users; entering and modifying user names and
passwords; managing users’ disk space allocations, telnet access and email
aliases.
Setting defaults for a site user
Before assigning the default values for a site user, you must decide on the needs
of your users.
Both the Site Administrator and the RaQ 4 Administrator can configure the site
user default settings.
Figure 37 shows the screen for configuring the default settings of a site user.
Figure 37. Default settings for a site user
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Modifying the default user settings
To modify the default settings for a site user:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click Set User Defaults. The User
Defaults table appears.
2.
Enter the information for the site. You can set the default value for
•
the maximum allowed disk space (MB) available to a newly created user
for their file storage and Web pages
•
the number of sites users to display at one time in the user list on the
screen
✍
•
Note: If there are more site users on a virtual site than the value you
enter here, navigation buttons for scrolling through the User List
table become active at the top of the table.
the format for generating user login names
•
initial plus last name
•
last name
•
first name
You can also enable or disable services for telnet/shell access, FrontPage
User Web and Secure POP3 (APOP), if the RaQ 4 Administrator has enabled
them for the virtual site.
3.
Click Save Changes.
Once you have configured the default settings, you can adjust the settings for
each site user that you add.
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Adding a site user
You can add or remove users for a virtual site, and assign a Site Administrator for
the site.
!
Caution: On the Site Management screen for the main site (for the
main site, the trashcan icon is grayed-out, meaning that you cannot
delete it), the user settings for the RaQ 4 Administrator can be
modified, including name and password.
Make sure you remember the RaQ 4 Administrator password. If
you forget the password, see “Resetting the RaQ 4 Administrator
password” on page 51 for instructions on resetting the password.
Figure 38 shows the screen for adding a site user or Site Administrator.
Figure 38. Adding a site user
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To add a site user or Site Administrator:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click Add User. The Add New User table
appears.
2.
Enter the information for the site user.
Enter the site user’s name and password, set the allocation of total disk space
for the user, enable telnet/shell access (if appropriate), make them a Site
Administrator (if appropriate), enable FrontPage user Web (if appropriate)
and enable Secure POP3 (APOP) (if appropriate).
✍
Note: The RaQ 4 supports long passwords through the UI. For
guidelines on choosing a password, see “Password guidelines” on
page 27.
You can also enter email aliases for this user. (For more information, see
“Entering user email settings and aliases” on page 102.)
3.
Click Confirm New User.
Search and sort functions
The User List table offers a search function and a sort function; refer to Figure 36
on page 96. These functions are useful if you have a large number of site users on
your RaQ 4 and you want to restrict the display to certain site users.
You can search the list of site users according to the following criteria:
•
by user name, full name or email alias
•
whether the user name, full name or email alias is equal to the search string,
is contained in the search string or is not contained in the search string
The screen regenerates and the results of the search are displayed in a table with
the same five columns. The heading of the table now states “Search Results
(<x> Users found). To return to the full list of site users, click User
Management on the left.
✍
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Note: Suspended users are listed in the search results.
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You can sort the list of site users according to the following criteria:
•
by full name, in ascending or descending order
•
by user name, in ascending or descending order
Ascending order means from lowest value to the highest value (a–z or 1–9).
Descending order means from highest value to the lowest value (z–a or 9–1). By
default, the User List table is sorted by user name in ascending order.
The screen regenerates and the results are displayed in a table with the same five
columns. In the heading of the column which has been sorted, a blue arrow icon
points up (ascending order) or down (descending order). In the heading of the
column which has not been sorted, a double-ended arrow indicates that the order
for the column is random.
You can use the search and sort functions together to produce the display that you
need. For example, you can search the list for all site users with “joe” in the full
name, and sort the results of that search by email alias in ascending order.
Searching a list of site users
To search the list of site users:
1.
In the first field of the Search User List window, select “User Name”, “Full
Name” or “Email Alias” from the pull-down menu.
2.
In the second field, select “is”, “contains” or “does not contain” from the
pull-down menu.
3.
In the third field, enter the string of characters for which you want to search.
4.
Click Search. The screen regenerates and displays the results in a table with
the same five columns.
Sorting a list of site users
To sort the list of site users:
1.
To sort according to Full Name, click on the blue arrow icon in the heading
of the Full Name column. To sort according to User Name, click on the blue
arrow icon in the heading of the User Name column.
2.
To sort in ascending (up arrow icon) or descending order (down arrow icon),
click on the blue arrow icon so that it points in the correct direction.
3.
The screen regenerates and displays the results in a table with the same five
columns.
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Removing a site user
To remove a site user:
1.
In the User List table on the Site Management screen, locate the site user
that you want to remove.
2.
Click the brown trashcan icon next to the site user. A confirmation dialog
box appears.
3.
Click OK to delete the site user’s account and files.
Entering user email settings and aliases
Mail Forwarding and Vacation Reply
Individual site users can choose to have their RaQ 4 email forwarded to another
email account. Site users can also choose to enable a vacation-reply message that
is automatically sent to each person who sends the user an email. This feature is
useful when users know they will not be reading or responding to incoming email
messages for a period of time.
As the Site Administrator, you can enter these email settings for site users (at
their request) as described in “Changing user settings” on page 104.
✍
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Note: A vacation-reply email is sent only once per week to each
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User management
Email aliases
The Email Alias feature allows you to create an arbitrary e-mail addresses
without creating a user account on the RaQ 4. An email message addressed to the
alias is forwarded to an existing email address. For example, an email alias lets
you setup a temporary or permanent alias email address such as
sales@mycompany.com and automatically route messages to a specific email
user.
Each registered user on the RaQ 4 must have a user name that is unique across all
virtual sites on the RaQ 4. You cannot create two users with the same name on
different virtual sites because all users share the same password database file in
the underlying operating system. For example, if there is a user with the user
name <mary> on virtual site abc.com, no other registered user on the RaQ 4 can
have the user name <mary>. However, user names can be similar: mary, maryb,
mary1, mary2.
An email alias is a way to create an account so that more than one user can have
the same email name on different virtual sites (<mary> on abc.com and <mary>
on xyz.com). However, the underlying user name for each person must be
unique.
For example, the Site Administrator of abc.com can give Mary Brown the user
name <mary>; her email address is mary@abc.com. The Site Administrator of
xyz.com (on the same RaQ 4 server) can give Mary Smith the user name
<marys>; the Site Administrator for xyz.com can then set up an email alias
mary@xyz.com for Mary Smith. The alias points her incoming messages to the
unique user name of <marys> at xyz.com.
A site user can have several email aliases that point to a unique user name. For
example, John Smith (user name <john1>) can have john@abc.com,
JS@abc.com, john.smith@abc.com, johnny@abc.com and corvette@abc.com
which all point to his user name of <john1> at abc.com.
A Site Administrator can also set up useful aliases such as webmaster@abc.com,
info@abc.com, sales@abc.com, comments@abc.com or support@abc.com that
point to a specific user name.
Adding an email alias
To add an email alias for a site user, see “Modify email options for a site user” on
page 105.
To create a catch-all account on a virtual site, see “Catch-all email account” on
page 107.
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Changing user settings
Modify settings for a site user
To modify the settings for a site user (to change the name, password, disk
space allocation or telnet access for an existing user, to enable FrontPage
Web use or Secure POP3 [APOP], to make an existing user the Site
Administrator or to suspend a site user), click the green pencil icon.
1.
On the Site Management screen, click User Management on the left. The
User List table appears.
2.
Click the green pencil icon for the site user. The Modify User table appears.
See Figure 39.
3.
Enter the changes in the Modify User table.
✍
4.
Note: The RaQ 4 supports long passwords through the UI. For
guidelines on choosing a password, see “Password guidelines” on
page 27.
Click Confirm Modify.
Figure 39 shows the screen for modifying a site user.
Figure 39. Modifying a site user
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Modify email options for a site user
To set up or modify the email options for a site user (to enter a forwarding
email address, email aliases and an automatic vacation reply), click the
blue envelope icon. These options are described in “Entering user email
settings and aliases” on page 102.
1.
On the Site Management screen, click User Management on the left. The
User List table appears.
2.
Click the blue envelope icon for the site user. The Email Settings table
appears. See Figure 40.
3.
To add a forwarding email address, enter the email address in the Forward
Email To field.
4.
To add an email alias, enter the additional names that the user will receive
email as in the Email Aliases window. For example, for user <john1>, enter
“john.smith”, “johnny” and “corvette”.
To add several aliases, enter each alias on a separate line.
✍
Note: DO NOT add the domain name to the additional names.
Since the site user is part of the virtual site, he or she automatically
inherits the domain name of the virtual site. If you do add the
domain name in the Email Aliases field (for example,
johnny@abc.com), the software gets confused.
5.
To enable an automatic vacation reply, click the check box in the Vacation
Message field and enter your message in the window.
6.
Click Save Changes.
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Figure 40 shows the screen for modifying a site user’s email options.
Figure 40. Modifying a site user’s email options
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User management
Catch-all email account
A catch-all email account receives emails addressed to former users or
non-existent users on a virtual site. For example, if an email is addressed to
mary@xyz.com but the user name “mary” does not exist on that domain, the
email is routed to the catch-all account.
A RaQ 4 Administrator or a Site Administrator can create a catch-all email
account. This involves simply creating a certain alias for a designated user on the
virtual site; this user does not have to be the Site Administrator.
For the user on a virtual site who will receive the messages routed to the catch-all
account, the RaQ 4 Admin creates an email alias of
“@<hostname.domainname>”. The <hostname.domainname> is the fully
qualified domain name of the virtual site.
1.
On the Site Management screen, click User Management on the left. The
User List table appears.
2.
Click the blue envelope icon for the site user who will receive the email for
the catch-all account. The Email Settings table appears. See Figure 40.
3.
Enter “@<hostname.domainname>” in the Email Aliases window.
If there is already an alias in the window, add this new alias on a separate
line.
4.
Click Save Changes.
Remove a site user
To remove a site user, click the brown trashcan icon. See “Removing a
site user” on page 102.
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Mailing list management
In the List Management section of the Site Management screen, you can create
and manage mailing lists for the virtual site.
A mailing list allows a discussion by email between a group of people; the email
addresses of the people in the group make up the list. The mailing list is given a
name, for example AlphaProject. The mailing list can include users on the RaQ 4
as well as external users.
A message addressed to the name of the mailing list is delivered to each person
on the list.
When replying to a mailing-list message, you can reply either to the original
sender only or to the entire mailing list. This function depends on the email client
that you are using.
Figure 41 shows the Mailing Lists table in the List Management section.
Figure 41. Mailing Lists table
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Mailing list management
Adding a mailing list
To add a mailing list on the RaQ 4:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click List Management. The Mailing List
table appears.
2.
Click Add Mailing List. The Add Mailing List table appears. See Figure 42.
3.
Enter a name for the mailing list.
4.
Enter a password for the mailing list. You need the password for managing
the mailing list.
✍
5.
Note: The RaQ 4 supports long passwords through the UI. For
guidelines on choosing a password, see “Password guidelines” on
page 27.
The Allow user subscriptions to list option allows the individual users to
subscribe to or unsubscribe from the mailing list. The user sends an email to
majordomo@<hostname.domainname> with the words “subscribe
listname” or “unsubscribe listname” in the body of the message. Replace the
word listname with the name of the mailing list.
To enable this option, click the check box next to Allow user subscriptions to
list.
6.
To accept email addressed to the mailing list from an email address that is
not a member of the list, click the check box next to Allow unsubscribed
posting to list.
7.
Add recipients to the mailing list.
•
To add external recipients to the mailing list, enter the email addresses in
the External Recipients field.
•
To include existing registered site users on the RaQ 4 in the list, click the
user name in the scrolling window.
To select all the registered site users, click Select All.
To select individual recipients in the scrolling window, hold the down
the Control key (Windows) or the Apple key (Macintosh) and click on
the user names.
8.
Click Confirm New Mailing List.
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Figure 42 shows the Add Mailing List table in the List Management section.
Figure 42. Add Mailing List table
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Mailing list management
Modifying a mailing list
To modify a mailing list:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click List Management. The Mailing List
table appears.
2.
Click the green pencil icon next to the mailing list you want to modify. The
Modify Mailing List table appears. See Figure 43.
3.
Modify the information as necessary (see the procedure for adding a new
mailing list for the options).
4.
Click Confirm Modify.
Figure 43 shows the Modify Mailing List table in the List Management section.
Figure 43. Modify Mailing List table
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Removing a mailing list
To remove a mailing list:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click List Management. The Mailing List
table appears.
2.
Click the brown trashcan icon next to the mailing list you want to delete. A
confirmation dialog box appears.
3.
Click OK to delete the mailing list.
Site settings
Only the RaQ 4 Administrator can modify virtual site settings. For Site
Administrators who are not the RaQ 4 Administrator, the Site Settings section is
a read-only status page.
For an explanation of the fields on the Site Settings table, see“Overview of virtual
sites” on page 41.
For a view of the Site Settings table, see Figure 44.
In the Site Settings section of the Site Management screen, you can:
•
view the IP address, host name and domain name of the virtual site
•
enable or disable Web server aliases
•
enable or disable email server aliases
•
change the maximum allowed disk space for the virtual site
•
limit the number of site users on a virtual site
•
enable or disable access to telnet/shell accounts, CGI scripts, SSL, server
side includes, FrontPage server extensions, Active Server Pages (ASP), PHP
and Secure POP3 (APOP)
•
suspend the virtual site
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Changing site settings
To change the settings for a particular virtual site, click the green wrench
icon. For an explanation of the fields on the Site Settings table,
see“Overview of virtual sites” on page 41.
✍
Note: Only the RaQ 4 Administrator can modify the settings for a
virtual site. For Site Administrators who are not the RaQ 4
Administrator, the Site Settings section is a read-only status page.
Figure 44 shows the screen for changing the site settings of a virtual site.
Figure 44. Changing the site settings of a virtual site
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To change settings for a particular site:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click Site Settings on the left side. The
Site Settings table appears.
2.
In the Site Settings table, you can set the values of the fields or enable the
services:
a.
IP Address
b.
Host name
c.
Domain name
d.
Web server aliases
e.
Email server aliases
f.
Maximum allowed disk space (MB)
g.
Maximum number of users
h.
Enable FrontPage Server Extensions
i.
Enable Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
j.
Enable Active Server Pages (ASP)
k.
Enable PHP Embedded Scripting
l.
Enable shell accounts
m. Enable Secure POP3 (APOP)
n.
Enable CGI scripts
o.
Enable Server Side Includes
p.
Suspend Site
✍
3.
114
Note: A Site Administrator does not see the Suspend Site option.
Click Save Changes.
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Site settings
Common gateway interface (CGI) allows users to have Web sites run programs
that dynamically generate HTML pages in response to specific user inputs. CGI
scripts can be created on a user’s desktop computer and then transferred to the
RaQ 4 with a file transfer protocol (FTP) application (as explained in Chapter 5).
CGI scripts must have a .pl or .cgi filename extension.
If the “Accept email for domain” function is selected, site users can retrieve email
using the address <username>@domain.com. For example, if the host name of
the site is raq1 and the domain name is abc.com, users can receive mail addressed
to both <username>@raq1.abc.com and <username>@abc.com.
Suspend a virtual site
There are two ways to suspend a virtual site on the RaQ 4: a hard suspension and
a soft suspension.
For more information on hard suspensions, see “Suspend a virtual site” on
page 85.
Soft suspension
The RaQ 4 Administrator can suspend an individual virtual site. All of the site
users are denied access to telnet, FTP and POP3/IMAP/APOP services, as well
as Web access to their files. The site user accounts do not receive email; messages
bounce back to the original sender.
To suspend an individual virtual site:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click Site Settings on the left.
2.
At the bottom of the table, click the Suspend Site check box so that it is
checked off.
3.
Click Save Changes. The RaQ 4 saves the new configuration.
4.
If you want to see that the site is suspended, click Server Management on the
left.
In the Virtual Site List table, the entry for the suspended site shows a red X in
the third column; the name and the IP address of the site are grayed-out.
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Suspend a site user
The Site Administrator or RaQ 4 Administrator can suspend a site user on a
virtual site. The site user is denied access to telnet, FTP, POP3/IMAP/APOP
services, as well as Web access to their files. The site user account however still
receives email.
To suspend a site user:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click the green pencil icon next to the site
user you want to suspend. The Modify User table appears.
2.
At the bottom of the Modify User table, click the Suspend User check box.
3.
Click Confirm Modify.
The User List table appears. The entry for the suspended user shows a red X in
the fourth column; the full name, the user name and the email alias of the user are
grayed-out.
FTP settings
☞
✍
Important: The RaQ 4 Administrator can enable anonymous FTP
access on only one name-based virtual site per IP address. The UI
does not allow the administrator to enable anonymous FTP on a
second name-based virtual site that shares the same IP address.
Note: Only the RaQ 4 Administrator can modify the virtual site
settings. For Site Administrators who are not the RaQ 4
Administrator, the FTP Settings section is a read-only status page.
The RaQ 4 Administrator can enable the anonymous FTP server for the site, set
limits on the size of files that can be uploaded and set the number of simultaneous
anonymous users. This feature allows users without passwords to download and
upload files with an FTP-based application, up to the specified disk-space limit.
To change the FTP settings for your virtual site:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click FTP Settings on the left. The FTP
Settings table appears; see Figure 45.
2.
Enter the settings you want. You can specify the number of megabytes of
incoming files to accept and the number of simultaneous users.
3.
Click Save Changes.
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Site settings
Figure 45 shows the FTP Settings table.
Figure 45. FTP Settings table
To download files by anonymous FTP, log on to the site with the user name guest
or anonymous—you do not need to enter a password. When you log on with one
of these user names, you enter the directory /home/sites/<sitename>/ftp/.
The Site Administrator can post files here for downloading through FTP client
software or a Web browser.
Site Administrators can access the anonymous FTP directory as “/ftp” during an
FTP session.
To upload files, you must use FTP client software (for example, Fetch or
WS-FTP) and access the directory /home/sites/<sitename>/ftp/incoming/.
Once you have uploaded a file, you (as a guest) cannot see it or access it on the
FTP site. All registered site users with telnet/shell privileges can access the file,
but only the Site Administrator can access the file through FTP.
The size limit specified for FTP uploads is the total amount of disk space
allocated for FTP uploads. If this number is set to 0, a guest cannot upload to the
FTP site.
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SSL settings
The RaQ 4 Administrator can administer the RaQ 4 through
secure sockets layer (SSL). SSL is provided in 128-bit
encryption code and offers a secure Web connection to the
end user. The implementation of SSL on the RaQ 4 is based
on mod_ssl and BSAFE cryptographic software from RSA
Security.
A secure connection means two things: encryption and authentication.
Encryption ensures that no one can snoop the connection between the browser
and the RaQ 4; authentication ensures the client, through a certificate, that the
server is who they say they are. The security is assured on two levels.
At the network level, the first time the browser connects to a server, the browser
stores the server’s certificate. This is the encryption part of the secure connection.
Each time the browser “thinks” that it is communicating with this same server, it
verifies that this same certificate is used to assure the secure connection.
At a higher level, a server’s certificate is “signed” by a trusted external authority
that the browser knows about, such as VeriSign. This is the authentication part of
the secure connection. The server information (country, state, city, organization)
is encoded into the certificate and certificate request. The external authority signs
your request and guarantees that your server information is legitimate.
For example, if a Web site sends a signed certificate saying that it comes from
Cobalt Networks in Mountain View, California, United States, the end user can
trust (due to the signed certificate from the external authority) that this Web site is
indeed run by this company located in this city.
A self-signed certificate is a certificate that has not been signed by an external
authority. A self-signed certificate simply ensures that an encrypted Web
connection is in place; it does NOT provide authentication to a user that the
server is who they say they are.
For more information on authentication, encryption and SSL, refer to
Appendix F, “Glossary”.
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Obtain an externally signed SSL certificate
Most users want to create an externally signed SSL certificate. For e-commerce,
an externally signed SSL certificate is required.
To do this, the RaQ 4 Administrator must perform the following steps. These
steps are explained in the following pages.
1.
enable the SSL feature on a virtual site (see page 119)
2.
generate a self-signed certificate (see page 120)
3.
submit the information from the self-signed certificate to an external
certification authority (see page 123)
4.
receive the response and information from the external certification authority
(see page 124)
5.
in the SSL settings screen on the RaQ 4, replace the self-signed certificate
with the information received from the externally signed certificate (see
page 124)
6.
save the changes on the RaQ 4
Enable SSL on a virtual site
☞
✍
Important: The RaQ 4 Administrator can enable SSL on only one
name-based virtual site per IP address. The UI does not allow the
administrator to enable SSL on a second name-based virtual site
that shares the same IP address.
Note: Only the RaQ 4 Administrator can modify the virtual site
settings. For Site Administrators who are not the RaQ 4
Administrator, the SSL Settings section is a read-only status page.
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To enable SSL on a virtual site:
1.
Go to the Server Management screen.
2.
Click the green wrench icon next to the virtual site on which you want to
enable SSL. The Site Management screen appears.
3.
Click Site Settings on the left side.
4.
Click the check box next to Enable SSL.
✍
5.
Note: This feature only enables the public Web server; it does not
enable the SSL administrative server. See “SSL certificate for the
main site” on page 123.
Click Save Changes.
The RaQ 4 saves the configuration of the virtual site.
Generate a self-signed certificate
Once you (as the RaQ 4 Administrator) have enabled SSL, the user must now
create a self-signed certificate. The self-signed certificate can be signed later by
an external authority.
1.
On the Site Management screen, click SSL Settings on the left side. The
Certificate Subject Information table appears. See Figure 46.
2.
Enter the following information:
•
Country Enter the two-letter country code (for example, AU for
Australia or US for United States).
•
State Enter the name of the state (for example, New South Wales or
California).
•
Locality Enter the city or locality (for example, Sydney or Toronto).
•
Organization Enter the name of the organization (for example, The
Widgets Corporation).
•
Organizational Unit As an option, enter the name of a department (for
example, Hardware Engineering).
3.
Select Generate self-signed certificate from the pull-down menu at the
bottom.
4.
Click Save Changes. The RaQ 4 processes the information and regenerates
the screen with the new self-signed certificate in the Certificate Request and
Certificate windows. See Figure 47.
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Figure 46 shows the certificate subject information table for an SSL certificate.
Figure 46. Certificate subject information table for an SSL certificate
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Figure 47 shows the processed information of a self-signed SSL certificate.
Figure 47. Processed information of a self-signed SSL certificate
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SSL settings
SSL certificate for the main site
If the browser prompts you for your user name and password, you have enabled
SSL on the main site of the RaQ 4. The browser prompts you since this secure
connection is in fact a new connection to the RaQ 4.
Generating a certificate for the main site is a special case and causes three things
to happen:
1.
SSL is enabled for all RaQ 4 management screens (both server management
and site management).
2.
The SSL administration server is enabled for the RaQ 4.
3.
The main site certificate request is propagated to all virtual sites that have
SSL enabled but do not have their own certificate request.
Now that you have enabled SSL, you can access your virtual site over a secure
connection at https://<sitename>.
For more information on obtaining an externally signed certificate, see “Submit
the information to an external certification authority” on page 123.
Conversely, deleting the certificate from the main site removes the certificate
from the virtual sites to which the certificate has been propagated.
Enable the administration server for SSL
The RaQ 4 supports secure administration. The certificate generated for the main
site is also used for secure administration. Therefore, to enable secure
administration on a virtual site, generate a certificate for the main site on the
RaQ 4 (if this has not already been done.)
Submit the information to an external
certification authority
To submit the information from the self-signed certificate to an external
certification authority:
1.
On the SSL settings screen, highlight and copy the information from the
“Certificate Request” window of your self-signed certificate.
2.
Open a new browser window and go to the Web site for one of the
certification authorities (for example, VeriSign).
3.
Paste the information from Step 1 in the window on the Web site of the
certification authority. Follow the instructions on the Web site.
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Receive the response from the external
certification authority
The certification authority either sends you a certificate by email or returns the
information on the browser screen.
Enter the information from the external
certification authority
1.
On the Site Management screen, click SSL Settings on the left side. The
“Certificate Subject Information” table appears.
2.
Highlight and remove the information currently in the “Certificate” window.
!
Caution: DO NOT choose Delete certificate from the pull-down
menu at the bottom. This action deletes your SSL certificate and
your private key, and you will then have to purchase a new SSL
certificate from the external certification authority.
3.
On the Web site or in the email from the external certification authority,
highlight and copy the information received. (See “Receive the response
from the external certification authority” on page 124.)
4.
Return to the RaQ 4 browser window and paste the new certificate
information that you copied in Step 3 into the “Certificate” window.
5.
Select Use manually entered certificate from the pull-down menu at the
bottom.
6.
Click Save Changes.
The browser screen refreshes and the externally signed certificate appears.
Figure 48 shows a sample of an externally signed certificate.
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Figure 48. Sample of an externally signed certificate
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Delete an SSL certificate
!
✍
Caution: If you delete the SSL certificate, you delete the private
key as well. If you delete the private key, you will need to purchase
a new SSL certificate from the external certification authority.
Note: Deleting the certificate from the main site removes the
certificate from the virtual sites to which the certificate has been
propagated. In addition, it removes the secure connection to the
administration server (it reverts from https: to http:).
If for any reason you want to delete an SSL certificate for a virtual site, perform
the following steps.
1.
Go to the Server Management screen.
2.
Click the green wrench icon next to the virtual site on which you want to
delete the certificate. The Site Management screen appears.
3.
Click SSL Settings on the left side.
4.
Select Delete certificate from the pull-down menu at the bottom.
5.
Click Save Changes.
The RaQ 4 processes the information and regenerates the screen; the
Certificate Request and Certificate windows are now blank.
Site Usage
The Site Usage feature allows the Site Administrator to monitor the amount of
bandwidth consumed by Web, email and FTP traffic generated by a virtual site as
well as disk usage for the virtual site.
For the Site Usage feature on the Server Management screen, see “Site Usage”
on page 88.
The reports are generated each night at 1:00 a.m and the statistics are updated
once daily for all services; the results are presented in tables.
Figure 49 shows a sample summary of disk usage on a virtual site.
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Site Usage
To use the Site Usage function:
1.
2.
On the Site Management screen, click Site Usage on the left. The Web
Usage table appears.
•
Web displays the Web Usage table for the virtual site.
•
FTP displays the FTP Usage table for the virtual site.
•
Email displays the Email Usage table for the virtual site.
•
Disk displays information concerning the disk usage for the virtual site
as a whole, as well as the disk usage for each site user.
The Web, FTP and Email options also display a table for Other Usage
Statistics. Click on any of the links in the Other Usage Statistics table for
more detailed information.
Figure 49. Sample summary of disk usage
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Backup
As Site Administrator, you can perform different types of backups.
!
!
Caution: A backup captures data only (for example, email
messages stored on the server or Web files). It does NOT back up
the settings for virtual sites or users.
Caution: You can use Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 to back up a
Cobalt server but not to restore a backup file. Upgrade to a later
version of Internet Explorer or use a different browser software to
restore the backup file.
Manual backup
A Site Administrator can manually back up data stored on the RaQ 4.
1.
On the Site Management screen, click Backup. The File Backup table
appears. See Figure 50.
2.
In “Data to Backup,” select the type of backup:
3.
•
All email, Web and user files on this site This option backs up the files
for all the site users (including the administrator) and email, as well as
the site Web and FTP data.
•
Files and email of user This option backs up the files and email in-box
for a specific user on this site.
To back up all files or to back up files changed within a certain time frame,
choose from the pull-down menu adjacent to “Backup files modified in the
last.”
You can choose “Backup all Files,” 31 days, 14 days, 7 days, 2 days or 1 day.
4.
Click Start Backup.
5.
Assign a path and a file name on your computer for storing the backup data.
Click Save.
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Backup
The file transfer takes several seconds to several minutes.
!
Caution: Do not interrupt or cancel the backup process. If you do,
or if the file transfer fails for any other reason, delete the partial
backup file stored on your personal computer and try again. If you
attempt to use a partial file to restore data, you risk corrupting the
data already stored on the server.
Figure 50 shows the File Backup table for a virtual site.
Figure 50. File Backup table for a virtual site
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Scheduled backup
As Site Administrator, you can schedule regular automatic backups.
To schedule regular, automatic backups:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click Backup. The File Backup table
appears.
2.
Click Scheduled Backup. The Scheduled File Backup table appears. See
Figure 51.
3.
Choose the frequency of the automatic backup:
•
Daily means nightly at 1 a.m.
•
Weekly means every Sunday morning at 1 a.m. (Saturday night going
into Sunday morning)
•
Monthly means on the first of every month at 1 a.m.
4.
In “Data to Backup,” select the type of Backup, as described in step 2 in
“Manual backup” on page 128.
5.
To back up all files or to back up files changed within a certain time frame,
choose from the pull-down menu adjacent to “Backup files modified in the
last.”
6.
Choose a backup method.
7.
•
FTP Server writes the backup file to an FTP server.
•
NFS places the backup file on a mountable NFS resource.
•
SMB Server (Windows File Sharing) places the backup file onto a
directory shared from a Windows machine.
Enter a location for storing the backup data.
The location you specify depends in part on the backup method you select in
step 6. See “Backup File Locations” below for an explanation of locations
you can enter here.
8.
If the backup destination associated with your method of backup requires a
password for access, enter the password in this field. This field is ignored for
the NFS and anonymous FTP methods. See “Backup file locations” on
page 132.
9.
Click Save Changes.
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Backup
Figure 51 shows the Scheduled File Backup table for a virtual site.
Figure 51. Scheduled File Backup table for a virtual site
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Backup file locations
For a backup by an FTP Server:
•
A location of <username>@ftp.server.com puts the backup file in the
initial login directory.
•
A location of <username>@ftp.server.com/path/to/backups/ puts the
backup file in the specified path on the server, using <username> to login.
For a backup by Anonymous FTP:
•
For an anonymous FTP connection, the file must be put in a directory where
anonymous FTP users have write access. This is generally the /incoming/
directory.
•
A location of ftp.server.com/incoming places the backup file on
ftp.server.com under the /incoming/ directory.
•
The “Password” field should contain the password for the specified user or
be left blank for anonymous logins.
For a backup by NFS Server:
•
The location should be <server>:/<share>, where <server> is the NFS
server and <share> is the NFS volume to mount and write to. You must have
write privileges to this directory.
•
The “Password” is ignored for NFS server backups.
For a backup by SMB Server (Windows File Sharing):
•
•
The location should be <user>@\\windowspc\<share>. This mounts the
volume share on the Windows server, using <user> as the login. The
“Password” field must contain the password for <user>.
For volumes that do not require a user, the location should be
\\windowspc\share.
For All Scheduled backups:
•
132
Ensure the target location is available and has enough disk space to hold the
backup archive. Failure to do this may result in zero-length or truncated
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Restore
Restore
You must restore data from the same machine on which the data was backed up.
Site Administrators can restore files only to their own site.
!
!
!
Caution: The system restores data only (for example, email
messages stored on the server or Web files). It does NOT restore
virtual sites or site users to a RaQ 4.
Caution: You can use Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 to back up a
Cobalt server but not to restore a backup file. Upgrade to a later
version of Internet Explorer or use a different browser software to
restore the backup file.
Caution: The system does not merge the current and backed up
data. When data is restored, any changes made to files on the RaQ 4
since the last backup are lost.
Figure 52 shows the File Restore table for a virtual site.
Figure 52. File Restore table
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To restore a backup file:
1.
On the Site Management screen, click Restore on the left. The File
Restore table appears. See Figure 52.
2.
Enter the path and filename of the backup file, or click Browse and select the
file to restore.
✍
Note: If the file does not appear in the list and you are using
Netscape 4.x or Internet Explorer 4.x, you might need to change
“File Type” in the desktop to “All Files.”
3.
If you want to restore only some of the files, click Selective Restore and
select those files.
4.
Click Restore A Backup File below the File Restore table.
✍
Note: Restoring large backup archives can cause your Web browser
to time out. If you upload the .raq archive through an FTP-based
application to the home directory of the Site Administrator, you can
select the archive from a menu on the Restore screen.
Archive restores are not possible with Microsoft Internet Explorer version 3. If
you experience problems uploading an archive, use a later version of Internet
Explorer or use a different browser software to restore the archive.
Do not interrupt an archive restore because this can corrupt data. If the restore
process is interrupted, the user can try to restore again.
To restore a user home directory or a site, make sure the user or site already
exists.
When data is restored, the RaQ 4 and its corresponding parts (site, user and
email) are returned to the exact state they were in prior to backup.
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Server management
Server management
If you are the RaQ 4 Administrator, you can return to the RaQ 4 Server
Management screen. On the Site Management screen, click Server
Management on the left.
For more information on managing the RaQ 4 server, see Chapter 3, “RaQ 4
Server Management”.
Publishing Web pages
For information on publishing Web pages on the RaQ 4, see “Developing Web
pages” on page 145, “Publishing Web pages using FTP” on page 146 and
“Publishing Web pages with FrontPage for User Webs only” on page 147.
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Chapter 5
Using Services on a Site
This chapter describes the functions that site users can perform on the RaQ 4. As
a site user, you can change your user name and password, set email options,
monitor the use of disk space in your directory, back up and restore your files,
send and receive email, and create and upload Web pages and other files.
Managing Your Personal Profile
You manage your directory using any standard browser. Access your directory by
typing the URL http://<sitename> /personal/ into your browser. You must enter
your user name and password.
When you access your directory, the Personal Profile screen appears with the
Modify User table; see Figure 53. The management functions available on the
Personal Profile screen are described in the sections that follow.
Figure 53. Modify User table
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Modify site user
You can change your full name and password. To modify your settings:
1.
On the Personal Profile screen, click Modify User. The Modify User table
appears. See Figure 53.
2.
Change the settings.
✍
3.
Note: The RaQ 4 supports long passwords through the UI. For
guidelines on choosing a password, see “Password guidelines” on
page 27.
Click Confirm Modify.
Email
The email section allows you to select email options.
Figure 54 shows the Email Settings table for a site user.
Figure 54. Email Settings table
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Managing Your Personal Profile
To set your email options:
1.
On the Personal Profile screen, click Email on the left. The Email Settings
table appears. See Figure 54.
2.
In the Email Settings table, select the options that are described in the next
two sections.
3.
Click Save Changes.
Forward email to
You can forward your RaQ 4 email to another email account.
In the Email Settings table, enter the destination email address in the Forward
Email To field. Click Save Changes.
Vacation reply
You can create a vacation-reply message that is automatically sent to each person
who sends you email. This feature is useful when you know that you will not be
reading or responding to incoming email messages for a period of time.
A vacation-reply email is sent only once a week to each sender.
To set up a vacation reply:
1.
Click the Vacation Reply check box to enable the function.
2.
In the scrolling field, type the text of the message you want to send to users
while you are away.
3.
Click Save Changes.
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Usage data
The Usage Data section displays a Disk Usage table showing information on
your disk usage.
To view the Disk Usage table:
1.
On the Personal Profile screen, click Usage Data on the left. The Disk
Usage table appears. See Figure 55.
2.
The Disk Usage table displays the following information:
•
the amount of disk space used (MB)
•
the amount of disk space free (MB)
•
the amount of disk space allowed (MB)
•
a usage bar showing how much space has been used (percentage)
Figure 55 shows the Disk Usage table for a site user.
Figure 55. Disk Usage table
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Managing Your Personal Profile
Backup
As a site user, you can back up your files. When you click “Backup My Files”,
your Web browser provides a default filename and path. This file contains all of
your backup data, including your home directory files, your email inbox and your
vacation autoresponder message. It does NOT back up the settings for your
virtual site.
You can change the path or the filename, but the file MUST have the extension
.raq in order for the Restore function to work properly.
!
!
Caution: A backup captures data only (for example, email
messages stored on the server or Web files). It does NOT back up
the settings for virtual sites or users.
Caution: Do not interrupt or cancel the backup process. If you do,
or if the file transfer fails for any other reason, delete the partial
backup file stored on your personal computer and try again. If you
attempt to use a partial file to restore data, you risk corrupting the
data already stored on the server.
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To back up your files:
1.
On the Personal Profile screen, click Backup on the left. The File Backup
table appears. See Figure 56.
2.
Follow the on-screen instructions. You can change the path or the filename,
but the file MUST have the extension .raq in order for the Restore function to
work properly.
3.
When you are ready to perform the backup, click Backup My Files.
Figure 56 shows the File Backup table for a site user.
Figure 56. File Backup table
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Managing Your Personal Profile
Restore
Restore allows you to restore all files and subdirectories in your home directory
from a .raq backup file.
!
Caution: The system restores data only (for example, email
messages stored on the server or Web files). It does NOT restore
virtual sites or site users to a RaQ 4.
To restore the backed-up files (from your local disk to your RaQ 4 home
directory):
1.
On the Personal Profile screen, click Restore on the left. The File Restore
table appears. See Figure 57.
2.
Click Browse and select the .raq backup file to restore onto the RaQ 4.
3.
If you want to restore only some of the files, check Selective Restore and
select those files.
4.
Click Restore a Backup File.
Archive restores are not possible with Microsoft Internet Explorer version 3. If
you experience problems uploading an archive, use a newer version of browser.
Do not interrupt an archive restore because this can corrupt data. If the restore
process is interrupted, the user can try to restore again.
Figure 57 shows the File Restore table for a site user.
Figure 57. File Restore table
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
143
Chapter 5: Using Services on a Site
Using email on the RaQ 4
To use all of the email capabilities on the RaQ 4, the RaQ 4 Administrator must
correctly set the parameters for the email server; see “Email server” on page 53.
The user must also configure the email client to send email to and retrieve email
from the RaQ 4. Ensure the following information is entered into the email client:
1.
Email address The format is:
<username>@hostname.domainname
(for example, myname@raq4.cobalt.com) where:
•
<username> is the user ID assigned to you (for example, myname)
•
<hostname> is the name assigned to the RaQ 4 (for example, raq4)
•
<domainname> is either the official domain name (for example,
cobalt.com) that is registered with a name registrar accredited by the
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) or an
intranet domain name specific to your network. Obtain this information
from your network administrator.
For more information on ICANN, visit the ICANN Web site at
http://www.icann.org.
2.
SMTP server The format is hostname.domainname (for example,
raq4.cobalt.com).
3.
POP3 server The format is hostname.domainname (for example,
raq4.cobalt.com).
4.
IMAP server The format is hostname.domainname (for example,
raq4.cobalt.com).
5.
APOP server The format is hostname.domainname (for example,
raq4.cobalt.com).
✍
144
Note: Occasionally, an email application asks for an incoming mail
server. The incoming mail server is the POP3 server.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Developing Web pages
Developing Web pages
You can create complex Web pages using any of the standard HTML editors and
the HTML publishing capabilities of many popular desktop productivity
applications.
You can create and link the Web pages on your desktop computer, and then move
them to the appropriate subdirectory in the RaQ 4 through an FTP-based
application; see “Publishing Web pages using FTP” on page 146.
CGI scripts
The RaQ 4 supports common gateway interface (CGI) scripts, such as those
written in Perl, C or other languages. If CGI is enabled for your site (see the Site
Settings section of the Site Management screen), you can add CGI scripts to
work with your Web content.
You can develop CGI scripts on your desktop machine and then transfer them to
the RaQ 4 by means of any FTP-based application that allows permission bits to
be set to executable.
Use FTP to upload .cgi and .pl files; use ASCII mode to upload CGI files. Once
the file is on the RaQ 4, use your FTP program to make the script executable. You
can also use the telnet command:
chmod 775 <filename>.cgi.
In order for users (other than the RaQ 4 Administrator) to add CGI files, CGI
must be enabled for the user’s virtual site (see the Site Settings section of the Site
Management screen). CGI scripts must use .pl or .cgi filename extensions in
order to be executed by the Web server.
Server-side scripting languages
The RaQ 4 supports both the Active Server Pages (ASP) and PHP scripting
languages. These features are enabled on a per-site basis (see the Site Settings
section of the Site Management screen).
Like CGI scripts, you can develop ASP and PHP scripts on your desktop machine
and then transfer them to the RaQ 4 by means of an FTP-based application.
Unlike CGI scripts, ASP and PHP do not require execute permissions to work
correctly. However, ensure that the Web server process can read the scripts; you
can use the telnet command:
chmod 664 <filename>.asp or <filename>.php
For the Web server to run the scripts correctly, ASP scripts must use the .asp
filename extension and PHP scripts must use the .php filename extension.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
145
Chapter 5: Using Services on a Site
Publishing Web pages using FTP
✍
Note: For more information about the directory structure on the
RaQ 4, see “Directory structure” on page 175.
After creating your Web pages, you can publish them on the RaQ 4 using an
FTP-based application.
Make sure you have the following information:
•
the host name or the IP address of your RaQ 4
•
your user name and password
•
a filename of your choice to save as your main page (the default is
index.html)
Launch your FTP software and establish an FTP link to the RaQ 4. Upload your
HTML files. If you need help, consult the instructions for your FTP application.
By default, the files you upload using an FTP-based application are stored in your
personal directory; the directory path is:
/home/sites/<sitename>/users/<username>
where <sitename> is the fully qualified domain name of your site and
<username> is your user name.
✍
146
Note to Site Administrators: To post Web pages for your site, you
must upload to the directory /home/sites/<sitename>/web.
Only Site Administrators or the RaQ 4 Administrator can upload to
this directory. If you do not specify this directory, your Web pages
are stored in your personal directory which is not accessible from
the Web.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Publishing Web pages with FrontPage for User Webs only
The Site Administrator can access and edit the site root content in the directory
/web during an FTP session. The site web root is accessible on the Web at
http://<sitename>/.
Site Administrators can edit their personal Web pages in the directory
/users/<username>/web during an FTP session. Personal Web sites are
accessible on the Web at
•
http://<sitename>/users/<username>/
•
http://<sitename>/~<username>/
Users who are not Site Administrators can edit their personal Web sites in the
directory /web during an FTP session.
Publishing Web pages with FrontPage
for User Webs only
If FrontPage Server Extensions are enabled on a site, a Site Administrator can
enable FrontPage User Webs.
To publish a Web page using FrontPage:
1.
Using FrontPage Explorer on a personal computer, select Open Web.
2.
In the Folder Name field, enter the following:
http://<exactvirtualsitename>/~<username>/
For example, the user Jason Paez would enter
http://test130.cobalt.com/~jpaez/
3.
Click OK. An authentication dialog appears.
4.
Enter your user name and password assigned to you on the RaQ 4.
5.
Click OK.
For FrontPage and FrontPage Web information and technical support, see
http://www.microsoft.com/frontpage/ and http://www.rtr.com/.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
147
Chapter 5: Using Services on a Site
Using telnet
!
Caution to the RaQ Administrator: You can seriously affect your
RaQ 4 if you modify the system configuration files. Only advanced
users of Linux should perform this operation.
See your RaQ 4 warranty card for more details.
!
Caution: Direct root logins are not allowed on the RaQ 4. To obtain
a root shell, telnet to the server and log in as the user admin. From
the command prompt, type su - and press Enter. Enter the
administrator’s password at the password prompt. Only the RaQ 4
Administrator can su - to root.
Telnet access is available to run shell scripts or use shell commands but only
advanced users should use telnet. An advanced user is someone who is proficient
in the internal workings of the Unix operating system.
The RaQ 4 Administrator can enable the telnet feature for a virtual site. If the
telnet feature has been enabled, the Site Administrator can then enable telnet
access for individual site users; see “User management” on page 97.
148
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Appendix A
Using the LCD Console
During startup, the liquid-crystal-display (LCD) screen on the front panel of the
RaQ 4 displays status information about the boot process.
When setting up the RaQ 4, you use the LCD console to enter network
configuration information for the RaQ 4.
Once the RaQ 4 is running, the LCD console serves several purposes. Through
the LCD console, you can:
•
change the network configuration information, which is useful if the location
of the RaQ 4 is changed
•
configure the uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
•
reboot, which restarts the entire RaQ 4
•
power down in a way that allows the RaQ 4 to close all open files, and
minimizes startup time the next time the RaQ 4 is powered on
•
exit from the LCD commands without making any changes
☞
Important: Before turning off the RaQ 4, follow the proper powerdown procedure, as described in “Powering down” on page 155.
Access to the functions
You access each of these functions by holding down the S (select) button on
the LCD console for approximately two seconds. This action causes the LCD
screen to enter its function mode. Press the S button until the function you
want appears on the LCD screen. To cancel the LCD function mode, select the
EXIT function when it appears on the screen. Press the E (enter) button and
select YES.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
149
Appendix A: Using the LCD Console
Changing network configuration
To reset the IP address or change the network configuration of the Network 1
interface:
1.
On the LCD console, hold down the S button for approximately
2 seconds.
The LCD screen displays:
SELECT:
SETUP NETWORK
2.
Press the E button.
3.
Enter the IP address using the arrow buttons. The left and right arrow buttons
move the cursor position to the left or right. The up and down arrow buttons
increase or decrease the digit at the cursor position.
4.
Press the E button.
5.
Enter the Netmask using the arrow buttons.
6.
Press the E button.
7.
Enter the Gateway using the arrow buttons.
8.
Press the E button.
9.
Use the arrow buttons to toggle the cursor between [S]ave and [C]ancel.
10. Press the E button.
If you select the Save option, the RaQ 4 reboots using the new network
configuration. If you select Cancel, you return to step 1 of this procedure.
✍
150
Note: You can also change the network configuration of the RaQ 4
through the Web browser. See “Network” on page 64.
If you change the network IP address of the RaQ 4 through the Web
browser, the RaQ 4 reboots automatically when you click Save
Changes.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Configuring an uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
Configuring an uninterruptible power
supply (UPS)
The are two options for configuring the RaQ 4 for a UPS: as the master or as a
slave.
The master communicates directly to the UPS through the serial port. The slave
(or slaves) communicates with a master (not a RaQ 4 server) over the network to
verify the status of the power supply.
✍
Note: The RaQ 4 server cannot act as a master for other machines.
Allowing slave access by arbitrary machines would pose a security
risk.
The distinction between master and slave is whether the RaQ 4 is
connected directly to the UPS (a master) or pointed to another
machine that is connected to the UPS (a slave).
If you configure the RaQ 4 as a slave, you must have, on the
network, a machine acting as a UPS master that is configured to
allow slave access for the IP address of your RaQ 4.
If you configure a RaQ 4 as a master, the RaQ 4 configures itself automatically.
Before choosing this option, you must first connect the UPS to the RaQ 4 through
the serial port; see Figure 58 for the correct serial port.
If you configure a RaQ 4 as a slave, the LCD screen prompts you for the
IP address of the device that is configured as the master.
Tx/Rx
Link
Tx/Rx
Cobalt Networks and Cobalt RaQ are
trademarks of Cobalt Networks, Inc.
www.cobalt.com
P/N 550-00135-01
Link
Figure 58. Serial port for UPS connection
100 - 240 VAC 50/60 Hz
1.4 A 60W max
Serial port for UPS connection
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
151
Appendix A: Using the LCD Console
To configure the RaQ 4 for the UPS, first connect the UPS unit and the RaQ 4,
and then configure the RaQ 4 through the LCD panel. (Refer to the UPS manual
for more information on connecting the devices.)
1.
Plug the UPS into the wall socket.
2.
Turn on the UPS.
3.
Plug the RaQ 4 servers into the UPS power sockets.
4.
Connect the UPS serial cable to the UPS unit and the serial port on the
RaQ 4 that will serve as the master. See Figure 58.
☞
5.
Important: You must use the serial cable shipped with the UPS
unit.
On the LCD console, hold down the S button for approximately
2 seconds.
The LCD screen displays:
SELECT:
SETUP NETWORK
6.
Press the S button until Configure UPS appears in the LCD screen:
SELECT:
CONFIGURE UPS
7.
Press the E button.
8.
Use the arrow buttons to toggle the cursor between [ ] On and [ ] Off.
Select [ ] On.
9.
Press the E button.
10. Use the arrow buttons to toggle the cursor between [M]aster and [S]lave.
11. Press the E button. If you choose [M]aster, the RaQ 4 configures itself
automatically for the UPS.
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Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Configuring an uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
12. If you choose [S]lave, the LCD screen prompts you for the IP address of the
device configured as the master.
Enter the IP address using the arrow buttons. The left and right arrow buttons
move the cursor position to the left or right. The up and down arrow buttons
increase or decrease the digit at the cursor position.
13. Press the
E
button.
The LCD screen returns to the host name and IP address. The LCD screen
does NOT prompt you to save the changes.
Verifying the UPS configuration
To verify that you have configured the UPS correctly:
1.
Unplug the UPS unit from the wall socket to simulate a power outage to
the UPS.
2.
The UPS takes over the power supply to the RaQ 4 servers. Each of the
RaQ 4 servers monitoring the UPS displays on the LCD screen:
UPS:
ON BATTERY
3.
Plug the UPS into the wall socket again. Each of the RaQ 4 servers
monitoring the UPS displays on the LCD screen:
UPS:
POWER RESTORED
After a few seconds, the LCD screen returns to the normal LCD display of
host name and IP address.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
153
Appendix A: Using the LCD Console
Rebooting
To reboot the RaQ 4 through the LCD console:
1.
On the LCD console, hold down the S button for approximately
2 seconds.
The LCD screen displays:
SELECT:
SETUP NETWORK
2.
Press the S button until Reboot appears in the LCD screen:
SELECT:
REBOOT
3.
Press the E button.
4.
Use the arrow buttons to toggle the cursor between [Y] and [N]. Select [Y] to
reboot the system.
5.
Press the E button.
✍
154
Note: You can also reboot the RaQ 4 through the Web browser. See
“Reboot” on page 85.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Powering down
Powering down
!
Caution: To prevent the potential loss of data, it is important to
follow the proper power-down procedure before turning off the
RaQ 4.
To power down the RaQ 4:
1.
On the LCD console, hold down the S button for approximately
2 seconds.
The LCD screen displays:
SELECT:
SETUP NETWORK
2.
Press the S button until Power down appears in the LCD screen:
SELECT:
POWER DOWN
3.
Press the E button.
4.
Use the arrow buttons to toggle the cursor between [Y] and [N]. Select [Y] to
power down the system.
The OK to Power Off light on the back panel blinks. The LCD screen
displays:
PLEASE SWITCH
POWER OFF NOW
5.
Toggle the On/Off switch on the back panel to the Off position.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
155
Appendix A: Using the LCD Console
156
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Appendix B
Product Information
Technical data for the RaQ 4
Hardware
Depending on the configuration, your RaQ 4 server has the following hardware
components. See Table 1 on page 2 for more information.
•
x86-compatible superscalar processor
•
512 KB of L2 cache
•
64-MB to 512-MB PC-100 SDRAM DIMMs (2 slots)
(3.3 v, 168-pin, non-parity, unbuffered)
•
One or two internal Ultra ATA/33 hard disk drives
•
One or two 10/100 BaseT ethernet network interfaces
•
Two serial port interfaces
•
External ultra-wide SCSI interface (mini-micro 68-pin) 40 Mb/s
•
LCD console for easy set-up and administration
•
PCI slot for expansion
•
Support for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
157
Appendix B: Product Information
Software
The RaQ 4 has the following software features.
Features
•
Linux 2.2 multitasking operating system
•
Apache 1.3.12 Web server, HTTP/1.1 compliant
•
Virtual hosting services: name-based and IP-based
•
Common gateway interface (CGI) support
•
Active Server Pages (ASP) support by Chili!Soft
•
PHP 4.0 support
•
Server side includes (SSI) support
•
Perl scripting
•
Email protocol support: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Internet
Message Access Protocol (IMAP4), Post Office Protocol (POP3),
Authentication Post Office Protocol (APOP)
•
File transfer protocol (FTP), anonymous FTP access
•
Telnet access
•
Domain Name System (DNS) server
•
128-bit Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
•
FrontPage 2000 server extensions
•
NTP client support
•
Cobalt Bandwidth Management software
•
Java support for Java Run-time Environment version 1.2 from Sun
Microsystems (ported to the x86 architecture by the Java-Linux Porting
Team at www.blackdown.org)
•
Code development environment
•
Legato Networker client, Arkeia Backup support
•
Security: PAM/shadowed passwords
158
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Technical data for the RaQ 4
System management
•
SSL support for secure administration
•
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) management support
•
Browser-based Setup Wizard
•
Browser-based RaQ 4 server management and individual virtual site
management interfaces
•
Online ActiveAssist real-time help
•
ActiveMonitor maintenance agents
•
Advanced management using telnet
•
Web-based performance and usage reporting
•
Browser-based backup and restore utility
•
Browser-based software upgrade
Partner solutions
•
E-commerce
•
Database
•
Backup
•
Analysis and usage statistics
Physical data
The RaQ 4 has the following physical characteristics.
•
Dimensions: 17.00 in. x 12.50 in. x 1.75 in. (43.2 cm x 31.8 cm x 4.5 cm);
fits in a standard single-unit, 19-in. equipment rack
•
Weight with one hard disk drive: 9 lbs. 3 oz. (4.2 kg)
•
Weight with two hard disk drives: 11 lbs. 3 oz. (5.0 kg)
•
Power requirements: Input rating 100-240 V, 50/60 Hz
•
Power consumption: 45 watts
•
Power requirement for the PCI slot:
•
5V @ 1A
•
+12V @ 0.5A
•
-12V @ 0.1A
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
159
Appendix B: Product Information
•
Operating environment:
32oF to 95oF (0oC to 35oC)
10% to 90% humidity (non-condensing)
•
Non-operating environment:
14oF to 122oF (-10oC to 50oC)
5% to 93% humidity (non-condensing)
•
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs): Power, Transmit/Receive, Link, Collision,
100 Mb/s Operation, Disk Activity, Web Activity
Regulatory approvals
•
CISPR 22B
•
VCCI-B
•
UL
•
C-UL
•
TUV
•
CE
•
Austel
•
BSMI/BCIQ
•
RRL
160
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Upgrading your RaQ 4
Upgrading your RaQ 4
The RaQ 4 unit is a single rack-unit (1RU) enclosure. Before you purchase a
component to add to the RaQ 4, ensure that the component fits into the allocated
space:
•
The DIMM modules must be less than 1.5 inches (38.1 mm) tall and less
than 0.158 inches (4.0 mm) thick.
•
The PCI expansion slot has been designed to accommodate the PCI standard
short card form factor, with some additional space for longer cards. The PCI
card must be less than 10.5 inches (267 mm) long.
There are three ways to upgrade your RaQ 4:
•
add a memory module
•
add a PCI expansion card (not available on the base RaQ 4 configuration)
•
add or replace a hard disk drive (see “Adding or replacing a hard disk drive
in a RaQ 4” on page 164)
Opening the RaQ 4
Warning: You must power down the RaQ 4 before opening the unit.
1.
Power down the RaQ 4. See “Powering down” on page 155.
2.
Unplug the RaQ 4 from the power supply.
3.
Remove the power cord from the rear of the RaQ 4. The cable is located
beside the power switch. See Figure 2 on page 5.
✍
4.
Note: If the RaQ 4 is mounted on an equipment rack, remove the
RaQ 4 from the rack and take it to a service area. Do not attempt
this upgrade while the RaQ 4 is still in the equipment rack.
Unscrew the top cover of the RaQ 4. Ten screws hold the top cover in place.
The screws are labeled 1 through 10 in Figure 59.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
161
Appendix B: Product Information
Adding a memory module or PCI card
Be careful not to damage components during the upgrade.
1.
Adding a memory module:
•
2.
You can install a DIMM module in either Memory Slot 1 or Slot 2. See
Figure 60.
Adding a PCI expansion card:
•
Remove the PCI slot cover, and its retainer and screw. See Figure 59.
•
Remove the protective cover from the PCI connector.
•
Plug the PCI card into the PCI connector. See Figure 60.
•
Replace the PCI retainer and screw to hold the PCI card in place.
•
Save the PCI slot cover in case you want to remove the PCI card later.
3.
Replace the top cover of the RaQ 4.
4.
Secure the top cover properly and replace the ten screws that hold the top
cover in place. See Figure 59.
Figure 59 shows how to remove the top cover of the RaQ 4.
Figure 59. Top cover on the RaQ 4
PCI slot cover
7
8
9
6
PCI retainer
PCI screw
5
10
4
3
2
1
162
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Heat sink
USB port
Memory
slot 1
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
External SCSI
connector (optional)
Screw
hole
Status
Indicators
(LEDs)
IDE hard drive
connectors
Console
serial port
Power
connector
Serial
connector
Screw
hole
Screw
hole
Network 1
Network 2
(optional)
PCI
connector
(optional)
(Second connector optional)
Screw
hole
View from top
Memory
slot 2
✍
Screw
hole
Screw
hole
Upgrading your RaQ 4
Printed circuit board
Figure 60 shows the layout of the printed circuit board PCB) in the RaQ 4.
Note: The base RaQ 4 server configuration does not offer all of the
hardware components shown in Figure 60.
Figure 60. Layout of the printed circuit board
163
Appendix B: Product Information
Adding or replacing a hard disk drive in a RaQ 4
If you have the base RaQ 4 server configuration, you can replace a failed hard
disk drive but you cannot add a second hard disk drive.
If you have a RaQ 4i server, you can replace a failed hard disk drive or add a
second hard disk drive.
If you have a RaQ 4r server, you can replace a failed hard disk drive.
Specifications for a hard disk drive
Cobalt Networks recommends that the hard disk drive you select meet the
specifications listed in Table 5. A hard disk drive that does not meet these
specifications can cause reliability problems in your server.
Table 5. Specifications for the hard disk drive
Specification
Value
Peak current draw
Must not exceed:
1.8 amperes max (at 12 volts)
0.7 amperes max (at 5 volts)
Rotational speed
5400 rpm
Interface
Ultra ATA/33
Operating temperature
Must be able to operate in environments up to
55° C
Operating humidity
10% to 90% (non-condensing)
164
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Upgrading your RaQ 4
Requirements
Before adding the second hard disk drive, make sure that you have the following:
•
a hard disk drive that meets the specifications in Table 5.
•
a Phillips screwdriver
!
Caution: If you are replacing a failed hard disk drive in a RaQ 4r
server, ensure that you are installing a hard disk drive of the same
capacity as the one you are replacing.
If the RaQ 4 is mounted on an equipment rack, remove the RaQ 4 from the rack
and take it to a service area. Do not attempt this upgrade while the RaQ 4 is still
in the equipment rack.
Overview
✍
Note: If you have to replace an original hard disk drive (meaning a
hard disk drive that Cobalt Networks installed in the server), please
notify Cobalt Networks Technical Support and arrange to return the
hard disk drive.
See “Customer Service and Technical Support” on page 13.
To add a second hard disk drive or to replace a failed hard disk drive, there are a
number of steps involved. These steps are explained in the following sections.
1.
Power down the RaQ 4. See “Powering down” on page 155.
2.
Open the case of the RaQ 4.
3.
If applicable, remove the failed hard disk drive.
4.
Install a new hard disk drive.
5.
Close the case of the RaQ 4.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
165
Appendix B: Product Information
6.
Reboot the RaQ 4.
7.
If you have added a second hard disk drive to a RaQ 4i server, add the new
storage unit through the browser-based UI. See “Storage” on page 82.
If you have replaced a failed hard disk drive in a RaQ 4r server, you do not
need to add the new hard disk drive through the UI. When rebooting, the
system automatically detects the new hard disk drive.
The RaQ 4r automatically synchronizes the new hard disk drive to the
existing hard disk drive so that the server will be able to provide disk
mirroring (RAID-1).
✍
Note: During the synchronization process, the RaQ 4r cannot
provide disk mirroring but it can still serve requests.
Opening the RaQ 4
Warning: You must power down the RaQ 4 before opening the unit.
1.
Power down the RaQ 4. See “Powering down” on page 155.
2.
Unplug the RaQ 4 from the power supply.
3.
Remove the power cord from the rear of the RaQ 4. The cable is located
beside the power switch. See Figure 2 on page 5.
✍
4.
166
Note: If the RaQ 4 is mounted on an equipment rack, remove the
RaQ 4 from the rack and take it to a service area. Do not attempt
this upgrade while the RaQ 4 is still in the equipment rack.
Unscrew the top cover. Ten screws hold the top cover in place. The screws
are labeled 1 through 10 in Figure 59 on page 162.
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Upgrading your RaQ 4
Figure 61 shows the layout of the IDE cables in the RaQ 4.
Power supply
Secondary
hard drive
Power
connector
2
IDE
connectors
1
Printed circuit
board (simplified)
Primary
hard drive
Figure 61. Layout of the IDE cables
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
167
Appendix B: Product Information
Figure 62 shows the layout of the power cables in the RaQ 4.
2
Primary IDE
connector
Secondary
hard drive
Power supply
168
3
1
Power
cables
Secondary IDE
connector
Power
connector
Printed circuit
board (simplified)
Primary
hard drive
Figure 62. Layout of the power cables
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Upgrading your RaQ 4
Removing a hard disk drive
To remove a hard disk drive:
1.
Unplug the IDE cable from the hard disk drive (see Figure 61).
2.
Unplug the power cable from the hard disk drive (see Figure 62).
3.
Remove the screw that attaches the hard-disk-drive bracket to the chassis.
4.
Slide the bracket off the metal tabs on the chassis and lift the bracket and
hard disk drive off.
5.
On the underside of the bracket, remove the four screws that attach the hard
disk drive to the bracket.
6.
Remove the hard disk drive from the bracket.
Installing a hard disk drive
Be careful not to damage components during the upgrade.
In the RaQ 4i configuration, there is an extra IDE cable already attached to the
printed circuit board (PCB); see #2 on Figure 61.
The installed hard disk drive has a Y-connector on the power cable; the cable
connector for the second hard disk drive is capped. See #3 in Figure 62.
The empty bracket for the second hard disk drive is attached to the chassis. Take
note of how the bracket is positioned so that you can replace it in the same
orientation.
To install a hard disk drive:
1.
If you have not already done so, remove the hard-disk-drive bracket from the
chassis.
•
Remove the screw that attaches the hard-drive bracket to the chassis.
•
Slide the bracket off the metal tabs on the chassis and lift the bracket off.
2.
On the bracket, four screws are in place for attaching the hard disk drive.
Remove these four screws from the bracket.
3.
Place the hard disk drive in the bracket.
4.
On the underside, attach the hard disk drive to the bracket with the four
screws.
!
Caution: Be careful not to pinch the cables under the bracket when
you replace the bracket on the chassis.
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Appendix B: Product Information
5.
Set the bracket with the attached hard disk drive on the chassis and slide it
onto the metal tabs. The connectors on the hard disk drive must face in to the
center of the chassis, with the foam pad located next to the power supply.
6.
Re-attach the bracket to the chassis with the correct screw.
Connecting the hard disk drive
To connect the hard disk drive:
1.
Remove the cap from the Y-connector power cable.
2.
Plug the Y-connector power cable into the hard disk drive, see Figure 62. The
connector is keyed to fit into the hard disk drive one way only.
3.
Plug the IDE cable into the hard disk drive; see Figure 61. The connector is
keyed to fit into the hard disk drive one way only.
Replacing the top cover and rebooting the RaQ 4
To replace the top cover and reboot the RaQ 4:
1.
Secure the top cover properly and replace the ten screws that hold the top
cover in place. See Figure 59 on page 162.
2.
Reconnect the power cord to the rear of the RaQ 4.
3.
Power up the RaQ 4. The RaQ 4 boots up in the normal manner.
If you have added a second hard disk drive to a RaQ 4i server, you now have to
add (through the RaQ 4 UI) the second drive to the list of available storage
devices; see “Storage” on page 82.
✍
Note: If you have replaced a failed hard disk drive in a RaQ 4r
server, you do not need to add the new hard disk drive through the
Add Storage feature. When rebooting, the system automatically
detects the new hard disk drive.
The RaQ 4r automatically synchronizes the new hard disk drive to
the existing hard disk drive so that the server will be able to provide
disk mirroring. During the synchronization process, the RaQ 4r
cannot provide disk mirroring but it can still serve requests.
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Appendix C
Advanced Information
Serial console port
You can connect a console terminal to the DB-9 connector on the back panel of
the RaQ 4. The terminal can be either an ASCII terminal or a PC running
terminal software. The console terminal should have the following
communications parameters—115 200 baud, 8 data bits, no parity and one stop
bit.
Initializing the RaQ 4 through the
serial console port
Instead of assigning the initial network settings for the RaQ 4 server through the
LCD console, you can connect the server to a terminal and assign the network
settings through the serial console port.
This feature allows the assignment of network parameters only (IP address,
netmask, gateway).
✍
Note: You can use the initialize the RaQ 4 through the serial
console port only once, much like proceeding through the
browser-based Setup Wizard.
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Appendix C: Advanced Information
To initialize the RaQ 4 through the serial console port:
1.
Connect a null modem serial cable to the serial console port on the back
panel of the RaQ 4.
The following figure shows back panel of the RaQ 4i/RaQ 4r server
configuration; the serial console port on the base RaQ 4 server configuration
is in the same location.
PCI slot
Serial
console port
2.
Serial
port
Network
connectors
Configure your terminal software to the following parameters:
•
115 200 Baud
•
8 data bits
•
no parity
•
1 stop bit
3.
Power on the RaQ 4 with the power switch on the back panel. A number of
boot messages are displayed on your terminal screen.
4.
The first prompt asks for an IP address. Enter the Primary IP address for the
RaQ 4 (for example, 10.9.19.55).
5.
The second prompt asks for the netmask address. Enter the Primary Netmask
for the RaQ 4 (for example, 255.0.0.0).
6.
The third prompt asks for the gateway address. Enter the gateway for the
RaQ 4 (for example, 10.9.25.254).
7.
Confirm the settings that you have entered:
172
•
Primary IP Address: 10.9.19.55
•
Primary Netmask: 255.0.0.0
•
Gateway: 10.9.25.254
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Development tools
8.
Another prompt is displayed: [S]AVE / [C]ANCEL. Enter “S” to save the
configuration. The message Verifying and saving... appears.
9.
Once the configuration is saved, the terminal screen displays the normal boot
status messages. Continue administration of the RaQ 4 through your Web
browser.
Development tools
The RaQ 4 provides a collection of utilities to support applications development
and server administration. These tools include:
•
GNU C/C++ compiler (gcc) and libraries
•
Java Run-time Environment
•
GNU Bourne Again Shell (bash)
•
Text editors (emacs, vi, pico)
•
File system utilities (ls, mv, cp, ln, rm, chmod, chown, chgrp, du, df)
•
File parsing utilities (sed, awk, diff)
•
File display utilities (cat, more, less)
•
Search utilities (find, grep, which)
•
Archive utilities (gzip, tar, cpio, rpm)
•
Network utilities (FTP, telnet, netstat, ping, finger, mail, pine)
•
Programming languages (perl, python, tcl/tk)
These utilities can be found in one of the following directories:
/sbin
/bin
/usr/sbin
/usr/bin
For an expanded set of development tools, visit the Solutions directory on Cobalt
Networks’ Web site (http://www.cobalt.com/solutions/)
Additionally, the Linux distribution on the RaQ 4 is based on the Red Hat
Linux 6.0 distribution for x86-compatible processor systems.
You can run most pre-compiled x86-based commercial software packages on the
RaQ 4, as long as the software does not require a mouse, keyboard or monitor.
Ensure that the software is compatible with the Linux 2.2 kernel and the glibc
library.
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Appendix C: Advanced Information
Configuration files
If necessary, you can change some of the configuration files for the RaQ 4
services for development purposes, but this may void your warranty. Please read
your warranty card before making any changes.
!
Caution: Changing any of the following configuration files can
dramatically affect the operation of the services configured by
means of the RaQ 4’s Web-based administration service or the
administration service itself.
The services and some of their associated configuration files and directories are
the following:
•
Email
/etc/inetd.conf
/etc/sendmail.*
/etc/mail/
•
Domain Name Service (DNS)
/etc/named/
•
File transfer protocol (FTP)
/etc/proftpd.conf
•
Web
/etc/httpd/conf/*.conf
•
Mailing lists
/usr/local/majordomo/
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Directory structure
Directory structure
The hard disk drive on the RaQ 4 is partitioned into four segments. Most of the
available space on the hard disk drive is on the partition mounted from /home. It
is recommended to do most of your work under this partition. By default, quotas
are turned on in this partition and are used extensively by the system software.
RaQ 4 home page
The document root for the Web server is the RaQ 4’s main site:
/home/sites/home/web
Web content in this directory is associated with the URL http://<IP address>/.
For example, a file saved as:
/home/sites/home/web/testdir/test.html
is accessed through the URL http://<IP address>/testdir/test.html.
✍
Note: <IP address> refers to the IP address or the fully qualified
domain name of the RaQ 4.
Virtual site home page
The document root for the virtual sites’ Web page content is:
/home/sites/<sitename>/web
For example, www.cobalt.com would have a document root of
/home/sites/www.cobalt.com/web
Only the RaQ 4 Administrator or the Site Administrator can upload to this
directory.
Web content in this directory is associated with the URL http://<sitename>/.
For example, a file saved as:
/home/sites/<sitename>/web/testdir/test.html
is accessed through the URL http:/</sitename>/testdir/test.html.
✍
Note: <Sitename> refers to the <hostname.domainname> of the
corresponding virtual site.
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Appendix C: Advanced Information
Site user home page
When a user on the main site is created through the browser-based UI, the home
directory for that site user is created in:
/home/sites/home/users/username/web
The content of their Web pages can be viewed at
http://<IP address>/users/<username>/ or http://<IP address>/~ <username>/.
When users on a virtual site are created using the browser-based UI, the user's
home directory is:
/home/sites/<sitename>/users/<username>
The users default Web page is:
/home/sites/<sitename>/users/<username>/web
The content of their Web pages can be viewed at
http://<sitename>/~<username>/.
Common gateway interface (CGI) usage for
users
You can save CGI files in any directory on your site, provided that CGI is
enabled, the CGI file is executable and the file ends with a .pl or .cgi extension.
The Web server is configured to execute CGI scripts using a wrapper program
(cgiwrap), which preserves the permissions set for the executing script. For more
information regarding this security precaution, refer to
http://www.umr.edu/~cgiwrap/
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Directory structure
Scripting languages available per site
Active Server Pages (ASP)
You can save Active Server Pages (ASP) files in any directory on your site,
provided that support for ASP is enabled, the ASP file is executable and the file
ends with an .asp extension.
The RaQ 4 is pre-configured with Chili!Soft ASP software.
PHP
You can save PHP files in any directory on your site, provided that support for
PHP embedded scripting is enabled, the PHP file is executable and the file ends
with a .php extension.
The RaQ 4 is pre-configured with support for embedded PHP scripts.
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Appendix C: Advanced Information
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Appendix D
Domain Name System
Basic DNS
The Internet uses a distributed naming system called the Domain Naming System
(DNS). DNS allows us to refer to computers by host names as well as by Internet
Protocol (IP) addresses.
IP addresses are hard to remember and are inconvenient to use. DNS allows us to
use host names and domain names which can resolved to IP addresses. DNS
servers translate host names and domain names (for example, www.cobalt.com)
to an associated IP address (for example, 192.168.1.10.)
For example, Cobalt Networks has registered the domain name “cobalt.com” for
use by our servers “mail.cobalt.com”, “www.cobalt.com” and others. The host
names “mail” and “www” represent different servers registered in the same
domain.
A domain name is a computer name suffix shared by a group of computers in the
same organization. A domain name should be associated with an IP address
through a Forward Lookup record. Domain names are organized in a hierarchy;
this hierarchy includes your company or server name, and a country code (for
example, .uk or .ca) or a top-level domain (for example, .com or .edu).
A Web site on the server is created with one IP address, one host name and one
domain name that together establish the identity of that Web site on the Internet.
Each domain name requires a primary domain authority on one DNS server. A
secondary DNS server acts as a backup to the primary. DNS information is
configurable only on the primary server, and not on the backup server.
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
Enabling the DNS server feature
☞
Important: Always click Save Changes to DNS Server after
modifying DNS records. If you do not, the changes will not take
effect.
To enable the DNS server on the RaQ 4:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box to enable the Domain Name System (DNS) Server (if it
is not already turned on).
3.
Click Save Changes.
To set the optional DNS services, click Parameters next to the DNS service in
the Service Settings table.
Configuring a primary DNS server
A primary DNS server maintains a list of name records and their associated
IP addresses. This list is made available to other DNS servers if your domain is
registered with your country-specific domain-naming organization. Your Internet
service provider (ISP) can help you register your Internet server.
To configure a primary DNS server for your RaQ 4:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check boxto enable the Domain Name System (DNS) Server (if it
is not already turned on).
3.
Click Save Changes.
4.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
5.
Select Address (A) from the Add... pull-down menu.
6.
Enter the host name and domain name you want to serve (for example, www
and mydomain.com) and enter its IP address (for example, 192.168.1.1).
7.
You can enable Automatic Reverse Lookup Generation for this IP address
and host name pair so that IP address/host name pairs can be resolved in both
directions. Reverse lookup (PTR) records that are generated automatically
assume the network mask of 255.255.255.0 (24 bits.)
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Basic DNS
8.
Click Update List.
9.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
Specifying a reverse lookup (PTR) record
A DNS server can also resolve a computer host name to an IP address, which is
known as reverse lookup. The network mask, or subnet size, is specified by an
integer from 8 to 32.
See Table 6.
To specify a reverse lookup (PTR) record:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select Reverse Lookup (PTR) from the Add... pull-down menu.
4.
Enter the host name and domain name you want to serve (for example, www
and mydomain.com) and enter its IP address (for example, 192.168.1.1) and
network mask (for example, 24).
5.
Click Update List.
6.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
Specifying a mail server (MX) record
To specify a mail server (MX) record:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select Mail Server (MX) from the Add... pull-down menu.
4.
Enter the host name and domain name you want to serve (for example, www
and mydomain.com) and enter its IP address (for example, 192.168.1.1) and
network mask (for example, 24).
5.
In the Delivery Preference field, you can choose from the pull-down menu
Very Low, Low, High or Very High.
6.
Click Update List.
7.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
Specifying an alias (CNAME) record
This feature allows you to alias one host name to another. The target host name
does not need to be a member of the local domain. For example, you can create
an alias record from “news.domain.com” to “uucp.isp.net”.
!
Caution: Do not use an Alias (CNAME) Record to cause a domain
name to resolve to a host name.
For example, do not create an Alias (CNAME) Record for
mydomain.com that resolves to www.mydomain.com. Instead, add
a new Address (A) Record for mydomain.com to the IP address
used by www.mydomain.com. See “Configuring a primary DNS
server” on page 180.
To specify an alias (CNAME) record:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select Alias (CNAME) from the Add... pull-down menu.
4.
Enter the host name and domain name for which you want to create an alias
(for example, www and mydomain.com) and enter the host name and
domain name for the target. The target host name is optional.
5.
Click Update List.
6.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
Configuring a secondary DNS server
As the RaQ 4 Administrator, you can configure a secondary DNS server to
provide redundant DNS service to your computers. If the primary DNS server is
turned off, a computer can use the secondary DNS server with no loss of
performance.
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Basic DNS
Adding a secondary domain
To add a secondary name-server authority for a domain:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select Secondary Name Service for Domain from the Add... pull-down
menu.
4.
Enter the domain name to be serviced and the IP address of the primary DNS
server.
5.
Click Update List.
6.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
Adding a secondary network
To add a secondary name-server authority for a network:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select Secondary Name Service for Network from the Add... pull-down
menu.
4.
Enter the network to be serviced and the IP address of the primary DNS
server.
5.
Click Update List.
6.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
Advanced DNS
Network Mask Notation Conversion
Use Table 6 to convert between dot-quad and network mask bit-count notations.
Table 6. Network Mask Notation Conversion
Dot-Quad
Bit count
255.0.0.0
8
255.128.0.0
9
255.192.0.0
10
255.224.0.0
11
255.240.0.0
12
255.248.0.0
13
255.252.0.0
14
255.254.0.0
15
255.255.0.0
16
255.255.128.0
17
255.255.192.0
18
255.255.224.0
19
255.255.240.0
20
255.255.248.0
21
255.255.252.0
22
255.255.254.0
23
255.255.255.0
24
255.255.255.128
25
255.255.255.192
26
255.255.255.224
27
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Table 6. Network Mask Notation Conversion
Dot-Quad
Bit count
255.255.255.240
28
255.255.255.248
29
Delegating a subdomain
☞
Important: Always click Save Changes to DNS Server after
modifying DNS records. If you do not, the changes will not take
effect.
DNS servers are organized hierarchically. You can delegate the name server
authority for subdomains of any domain served by the RaQ 4 to other name
servers.
For example, domain.com can be served authoritatively by a RaQ 4 by defining
an Address (A) Record using that domain. A subdomain, such as
remote.domain.com, can use its own set of DNS servers so that domain authority
can be shared between multiple physical sites. This makes it easier to use
multiple DNS servers in remote locations sharing a common domain.
To delegate the subdomain naming authority to another name server:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select the parent domain from the Select Domain or Network... pull-down
menu.
4.
Select Delegate Subdomain from the Add... pull-down menu.
5.
Specify the subdomain name and the fully qualified domain name(s) of the
DNS server(s) that will be authoritative for that subdomain.
6.
Click Save Changes.
7.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
Delegating a subnet
You can delegate the name-server authority for a network to a remote DNS
server.
To delegate the subnet naming authority to a remote DNS server:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select the parent network from the Select Domain or Network... pull-down
menu.
4.
Select Delegate Subnetwork from the Add... pull-down menu.
5.
Specify an IP address and the size of the network to be delegated. The
IP address must be a member of the subnet to be delegated.
6.
Specify the fully qualified domain name of the DNS server that will be
authoritative for that subnet.
7.
Click Save Changes.
8.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
Configuring server settings
You can configure forwarding servers and zone transfer access control for the
RaQ 4 DNS server.
To configure the DNS server settings:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select Server Settings from the Add... pull-down menu.
4.
If the RaQ 4 is being used on a private network or in conjunction with a
restrictive firewall, you can specify forwarding servers.
Enter the IP address of the Forwarding Server and, if you want, the Backup
Forwarding Server.
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Advanced DNS
5.
A zone transfer allows another DNS server to download the complete list of
hosts maintained by your DNS server. By default, zone transfers are
unrestricted. However, you can restrict zone transfers if you want.
Enter IP addresses or network addresses in the Zone Transfer Access field;
this automatically causes zone transfers to become restricted. Now, only the
IP addresses or network addresses listed in this field are able to perform zone
transfers.
6.
Click Save Changes.
7.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
Start of Authority (SOA) configuration
For the best reliability, you can fine tune all primary domain and network
authority settings independently of each other.
To fine tune the primary domain and network authorities:
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table.
3.
Select an authoritative domain or network from the Select a Domain or
Network... pull-down menu.
The first record in the record list is called the Start of Authority (SOA)
record.
4.
Click the green pencil icon to modify the SOA record.
The SOA record defaults to acceptable values in the majority of RaQ 4
configurations. You can fine tune the values for the following parameters:
•
Primary name server host name
•
Secondary name server host name (optional)
•
Domain administrator email address
•
Refresh interval
•
Retry interval
•
Expire interval
•
Time-to-live (TTL) interval
5.
Click Save Changes.
6.
Click Save Changes to DNS Server.
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
Name server (NS)
The primary name server defaults to the host name of the RaQ 4. You can specify
the qualified host name of the secondary DNS server for that domain in the
Secondary Name Server (NS) host name field. Some top-level domain
registration organizations require that the secondary name server record be
defined.
Domain administrator email address
The email address defaults to the user name admin of the RaQ 4. This email
address is publicly available and is the administrative contact for the domain or
network served.
Refresh interval
You can configure the refresh interval between updates from a secondary DNS
server.
•
If DNS record changes occur infrequently, increase the default value.
•
If DNS record changes occur often, decrease the default value.
Tune the refresh interval to avoid wasting bandwidth and to ensure the content on
the secondary server is accurate at all times.
Retry interval
Due to a connection or service failure, a secondary DNS server may be unable to
refresh data from the primary server. The secondary DNS server attempts to
refresh data after the interval specified for trying again.
Expire interval
A secondary DNS server may be unable to refresh data from the primary server
for a prolonged period of time. After the interval specified for expiry, the
secondary server stops serving name requests.
Time-to-live period (TTL)
A caching DNS server other than the primary and secondary DNS servers for this
domain or network can cache record lookups for the TTL period. During the TTL
period, a caching DNS server does not poll the primary or secondary DNS
servers for repeated lookups of the same record.
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Sample setup of DNS service
Sample setup of DNS service
This sample setup assumes that you have already done two things:
1.
You have registered your domain name. For more information on registering
a domain name, visit the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers (ICANN) at http://www.icann.org.
2.
You have created the Web site on the RaQ 4. For instructions on how to do
this, see “Developing Web pages” on page 145 and “Directory structure” on
page 175.
In the following examples, we will configure a sample Web site called
“www.mydomain.com” for Web service and email service using a sample
IP address 192.168.10.10.
☞
Important: Substitute your domain name and IP address where the
sample domain name or sample IP address appears.
The recommended minimum configuration for Web and email service requires
these records:
•
An Address (A) Record for mydomain.com which resolves to 192.168.10.10
•
An Address (A) Record for www.mydomain.com which resolves to
192.168.10.10
•
A Mail Server (MX) Record for mydomain.com which resolves to
www.mydomain.com
•
A Reverse Address (PTR) record for 192.168.10.10 which points to
mydomain.com
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
These records allow anyone on the Internet to type either “mydomain.com” or
“www.mydomain.com” in order to access your Web site. To set up these records,
go to the Parameters section of the DNS server in the Cobalt user interface (UI).
1.
On the Server Management screen, click Control Panel. The Service
Settings table appears.
2.
Click the check box to enable Domain Name System (DNS) service (if it is
not already enabled).
3.
Click Save Changes. The browser screen refreshes.
4.
Click Parameters next to the DNS service in the Service Settings table. The
DNS Settings table appears, as in Figure 63.
Figure 63. DNS Settings table
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Sample setup of DNS service
Create an Address (A) Record
Create an Address (A) Record for “mydomain.com”:
1.
2.
Select Address (A) Record from the Add... pull-down menu
•
Leave the Host Name field blank.
•
In the Domain Name field, enter mydomain.com.
•
In the IP Address field, enter 192.168.10.10.
•
Ensure the check box for Automatic Reverse Address Record Generation
is checked. This automatically creates the Reverse Address (PTR)
Record.
Click Update List. The DNS Settings table is regenerated showing
mydomain.com, as in Figure 64.
Figure 64. DNS Settings table (mydomain.com)
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
Create a second Address (A) Record
Create a second Address (A) Record for “www.mydomain.com”.
✍
1.
2.
Note: Do not make this a CNAME record. Some email server
software cannot process CNAME records. If you would like to
create multiple names for one IP address, create multiple A records.
See “Specifying an alias (CNAME) record” on page 182 for the
appropriate use of CNAME records.
Select Address (A) Record again from the Add... pull-down menu.
•
In the Host Name field, enter www.
•
In the Domain Name field, enter mydomain.com.
•
In the IP Address field, enter 192.168.10.10.
•
Remove the check from the check box for Automatic Reverse Address
Record Generation.
Click Update List. The DNS Settings table is regenerated showing
mydomain.com and www.mydomain.com, as in Figure 65.
Figure 65. DNS Settings table (mydomain.com and www.mydomain.com)
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Sample setup of DNS service
Create a Mail Server (MX) Record
To receive mail for “mydomain.com”, create a Mail Server (MX) Record. An
MX record is similar to a A record but points to a name rather than an IP address.
It is critical that the MX record point to a name which has a corresponding
A record with the proper IP address.
1.
Select Mail Server (MX) Record from the Add... pull-down menu.
•
Leave the Host Name field blank.
•
In the Domain Name field, enter mydomain.com.
•
In the Mail Server field, enter www.mydomain.com.
•
In the Delivery Preference field, you can choose from the pull-down
menu Very Low, Low, High or Very High.
For our example, the Delivery Preference can be set to High.
2.
Click Update List. The DNS Settings table is regenerated. See Figure 66.
You are now finished with creating your DNS records.
☞
Important: Click Save Changes to DNS Server. This activates the
changes you have made. If you exit this screen without saving your
changes, they will not become active.
The completed DNS Settings table is regenerated as in Figure 66.
Figure 66. Completed DNS Settings table
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
To edit another domain, select another domain from the Select Domain or
Network... pull-down menu. You can select any domain that you have configured
for the DNS server.
To add a new domain, use the Add... pull-down menu again. In the Domain
Name field, replace the default domain name with the new domain name that you
want to create.
Further information
For further information, refer to the following:
•
In the Cobalt Knowledge Base, search on “DNS”.
•
http://www.dnswiz.com/dnsworks.htm
•
http://www-europe.cisco.com/warp/public/787/indexDNS.html
Brief history of the Domain Name
System (DNS)
In the 1960s, the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA, and later DARPA) began funding an experimental wide area
computer network called the ARPAnet. The ARPAnet used a centrally
administered file called HOSTS.TXT which held all name-to-address mapping
for each host computer connected to the ARPAnet. Since there were only a
handful of host computers at the start, HOSTS.TXT worked well.
When the ARPAnet moved to the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) suite of protocols and become known as the Internet, the
population of the network exploded. HOSTS.TXT became plagued with
problems, namely
•
traffic and load
•
name collisions
•
consistency
A replacement for the HOSTS.TXT file was needed. The goal was to create a
system that solved the problems inherent in a unified host table system. The new
system should allow local administration of data and also make that data globally
available.
In 1984, the architecture of a new system called Domain Name System (DNS)
was designed and is the basis of the DNS service used today on the Internet.
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Brief history of the Domain Name System (DNS)
DNS is a distributed database that allows local administration of the segments on
the overall database. Data in each segment of the database are available across the
entire network through a client-server scheme consisting of name servers and
resolvers.
What is a DNS record?
People are much more comfortable dealing with names rather than strings of
numbers. A domain name such as “cobalt.com” is much easier to remember than
the IP address which consists of four octets of numbers such as 207.91.131.30.
Domain names must be registered with Root Domain Registration Service; visit
the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) at
http://www.icann.org. for a list accredited domain-name registrars.
Computers, on the other hand, prefer numbers to names. Since computers have
the final say when a user is looking for a company Web site, a mechanism is
needed to convert the human-friendly domain name to the computer-friendly
IP address.
DNS records on a DNS server perform this function. The records translate a
domain name to an IP address; a record equates a domain name such as
“cobalt.com” to an IP address such as 207.91.131.30. Once the domain name has
been converted or “resolved” to an IP address, then (and only then) can the user
connect to your Web site.
Without DNS and domain names, the user would be required to remember the
IP address of every site they wanted to visit. With DNS servers and DNS records,
customers and their software can easily remember how to get to your site.
Who manages your DNS records?
Your DNS records can reside on any Cobalt server that has the DNS service
enabled. You or your network administrator can easily configure a Cobalt server
to act as a DNS server. To provide DNS service, ICANN requires a site to
maintain both a primary and a secondary server. Your Cobalt server can act as the
primary server and a DNS server from your Internet service provider (ISP) can
act as the secondary server.
How does DNS work?
The basic method that allows a domain name to direct customers to your Web site
is shown in Figure 67. This diagram describes a request made by a Web browser
as the customer attempts to log on to your Web site.
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Appendix D: Domain Name System
To determine which primary name server contains your domain name:
1.
The local name server (the DNS resolver/browser machine) contacts the
root-level name server maintained by several Internet root server authorities.
2.
The root-level name server returns the IP address of the primary name server
responsible for the requested domain name.
3.
The local name server contacts the primary name server.
4.
The primary name server holds the IP address information for the domain
name in a database and satisfies the request from the local name server.
5.
If the primary name server is unavailable, the local name server contacts the
secondary name server that satisfies the request from the local name server.
The local name server returns to the Web browser with the IP address for the
requested domain name.
6.
Using the IP address, the Web browser contacts the company Web server.
7.
The company Web server sends the Web page to the local name server.
Figure 67. Basic method of DNS
1
2
Local
name server
3
Root-level
InterNIC
name server
6
7
4
5
Target
machine
(www.xyz.com)
196
Primary
name server
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Secondary
name server
Appendix E
Licenses
The BSD Copyright
Copyright ©1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1.
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3.
All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
display the following acknowledgment: This product includes software
developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
4.
Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors may be
used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND
CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS;
OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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Appendix E: Licenses
GNU General Public License
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND
MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of
this General Public License. The “Program,” below, refers to any such program
or work, and a “work based on the Program” means either the Program or any
derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the
Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated
into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term “modification.”) Each licensee is addressed as “you.”
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by
this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not
restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents
constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by
running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as
you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately
publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty;
keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at
your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
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GNU General Public License
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus
forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such
modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also
meet all of these conditions:
a.
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that
you changed the files and the date of any change.
b.
You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or
in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be
licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of
this License.
c.
If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when
run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in
the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an
appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or
else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute
the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a
copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the
Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable
sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably
considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and
its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate
works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a
work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole,
and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to
work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control
the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the
Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this
License.
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199
Appendix E: Licenses
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under
Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2
above, provided that you also do one of the following:
a.
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1
and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b.
Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give
any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically
performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of
the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
c.
Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to
distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed only
for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in
object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with
Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making
modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all the
source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition
files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the
executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not
include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form)
with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system
on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the
executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy
from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code
from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third
parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program except as
expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate
your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or
rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated, so
long as such parties remain in full compliance.
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GNU General Public License
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it.
However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program
or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept
this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work
based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or
works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program),
the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy,
distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may
not impose any further restrictions on the recipients’ exercise of the rights
granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties
to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or
for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you
(whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of
this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you
cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not
distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit
royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly
or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this
License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular
circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a
whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other
property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the
sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system,
which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that
system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/
donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other
system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a
consequence of the rest of this License.
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Appendix E: Licenses
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries
either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who
places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical
distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted
only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License
incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the
General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in
spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or
concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a
version number of this License which applies to it and “any later version”, you
have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does
not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever
published by the Free Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs
whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for
permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation,
write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.
Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all
derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of
software generally.
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GNU General Public License
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE
IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED
BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN
WRITING, THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO
THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.
SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST
OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT, UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR
AGREED TO IN WRITING, WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY
OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE
PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR
DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR
INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES
SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE
PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF
SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
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203
Appendix E: Licenses
SSL License
Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Ralf S. Engelschall. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1.
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/
or other materials provided with the distribution.
3.
All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
display the following acknowledgment:
“This product includes software developed by Ralf S. Engelschall
<rse@engelschall.com> for use in the mod_ssl project
(http://www.engelschall.com/sw/mod_ssl/).”
4.
The name “mod_ssl” must not be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without prior written permission. For written
permission, please contact rse@engelschall.com.
5.
Products derived from this software may not be called “mod_ssl” nor may
“mod_ssl” appear in their names without prior written permission of Ralf S.
Engelschall.
6.
Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
acknowledgment:
“This product includes software developed by Ralf S. Engelschall
<rse@engelschall.com> for use in the mod_ssl project
(http://www.engelschall.com/sw/mod_ssl/).”
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY RALF S. ENGELSCHALL “AS IS” AND ANY
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL RALF S.
ENGELSCHALL OR HIS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF
THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.
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Appendix F
Glossary
The entries in this glossary are for your information. Not all of the concepts,
technologies and protocols apply to the RaQ 4 server.
10/100 BaseTX
An Ethernet connection over twisted-pair cables with a throughput of
10 Mb/s or 100 Mb/s.
10BaseT
A 10-Mb/s baseband Ethernet specification using two pairs of twisted-pair
cabling (Category 3, 4, or 5): one pair for transmitting data and the other for
receiving data. 10BaseT (part of the IEEE 802.3 specification) has a distance
limit of approximately 328 feet (100 meters) per segment.
100BaseTX
A 100-Mb/s baseband Fast Ethernet specification using two pairs of either
unshielded twisted pair (UTP) or shielded twisted pair (STP) wiring. The
first pair of wires is used to receive data; the second pair is used to transmit.
To guarantee proper signal timing, a 100BaseTX segment cannot exceed
328 feet (100 meters) in length. 100BaseTX is based on the IEEE 802.3
standard.
Active Server Pages (ASP)
ASP is an HTML-embedded scripting language that includes one or more
small embedded programs, or scripts, that are processed on a Web server
before the Web page is sent to the user. An ASP is somewhat similar to a
server-side include or a common gateway interface (CGI) application in that
all three involve programs that run on the server, usually tailoring a page for
the user.
For example, an ASP script can use the input from the user’s request for the
page to access data from a database. The script then builds or customizes the
page on the fly and returns it to the requestor. The Web server does all of the
processing, and a standard HTML page is generated and sent to the browser.
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Appendix F: Glossary
APOP
See Authentication Post Office Protocol (APOP).
AppleShare
A file-sharing protocol in Apple system software that allows sharing of files
and network services through a file server in the Apple Macintosh
environment.
ASP
See Active Server Page (ASP).
Authentication
The process whereby a user or information source proves they are who they
claim to be; in other words, the process of verifying the identity of a user,
device or other entity in a computer system, often as a prerequisite to
allowing access to resources in a system. Authentication is any technique
enabling the receiver to automatically identify and reject messages that have
been altered either deliberately or by channel errors.
See also Encryption and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Authentication Post Office Protocol (APOP)
Authentication POP is a challenge-response authentication scheme built on
top of the standard POP protocol. APOP is designed in a way that protects
your password from being sent across the network. To keep your password
safe, the server stores your password in a file on local disk drive. When your
mail client connects to the APOP server, a magic string is sent back. That
string contains a unique identifier for the current session based upon the
process id (PID) and current time.
Carrier sense
In a local area network (LAN), an ongoing activity of a data station to detect
whether another station is transmitting.
Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)
A protocol that requires carrier sense and in which a transmitting data station
that detects another signal while transmitting stops sending, sends a jam
signal and then waits for a variable period of time before sending again.
Used in ethernet LAN technology.
CGI
See Common gateway interface (CGI).
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Common gateway interface (CGI)
A set of rules that describe how a Web server communicates with another
application running on the same computer and how the application (called a
CGI program) communicates with the Web server. Any application can be a
CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard.
Collision
In an ethernet network, a collision is the result of two devices attempting to
transmit data at exactly the same time. The network detects the “collision” of
the two transmitted packets and discards them both. Collisions are a natural
occurrence on an ethernet network.
Ethernet technology uses carrier sense multiple access/collision detect
(CSMA/CD) to allow devices to take turns using the signal carrier line.
When a device wants to transmit, it checks the signal level of the line to
determine whether another device is already using it. If the line is already in
use, the device waits and tries again, perhaps in a few seconds. If the line is
not in use, the device transmits.
However, two devices can transmit at the same time in which case a collision
occurs and both devices detect it. Each device then waits a random amount
of time and retries until successful in getting the transmission sent.
CSMA/CD
See Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD).
DHCP
See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A technology for bringing high-bandwidth information to homes and small
businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines. The term xDSL refers to
different variations of DSL, such as asymmetric DSL (ADSL),
high-bit-rate DSL (HDSL) and rate-adaptive DSL (RADSL). If your home
or small business is close enough to a telephone company central office that
offers DSL service, you may be able to receive data at rates of up to
6.1 Mb/s. More typically, individual connections provide from 512 kb/s to
1.544 Mb/s downstream and about 128 kb/s upstream. A DSL line can carry
both data and voice signals and the data part of the line is continuously
connected.
DNS
See Domain Name System (DNS).
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Appendix F: Glossary
Domain name
The location of an organization or other entity on the Internet. For example,
the address www.cobalt.com locates an Internet address for the domain
name “cobalt.com” at a particular IP address and a particular host server
named “www.”
Domain Name System (DNS)
The Internet service responsible for translating a human-readable host name
such as cobalt.com into a numeric IP address (for example, 192.168.10.10)
for TCP/IP communications.
DSL
See Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
A protocol that provides a mechanism for allocating IP addresses
dynamically so that an address can be reused when a host no longer needs it.
Encryption
The transformation of data into a form unreadable by anyone without a
secret decryption key. Its purpose is to ensure privacy by keeping the
information hidden from anyone for whom it is not intended. In the area of
security, encryption is the ciphering of data by applying an algorithm to plain
text to convert it into cipher text.
See also Authentication and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
ESMTP
See Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (ESMTP).
Ethernet
The most widely used technology for local area networks (LANs). Standard
ethernet runs at 10 Mb/s, 100 Mb/s or 1000 Mb/s. It balances speed, price,
ease of installation and availability.
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ETRN
ETRN (Extended Turn) is an extension to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP) that allows an SMTP server to send a request to another SMTP
server to send any email messages it has. Typically, SMTP is used with two
other protocols, Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) or Internet Message Access
Protocol (IMAP), to request messages from a server; SMTP by itself cannot
request mail to be sent by another server.
ETRN is designed for use by anyone who is traveling and wants to access
their email. ETRN can only be used with Internet service providers (ISPs)
that support ETRN.
Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (ESMTP)
The Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol specifies extensions to the
original SMTP protocol for sending email that supports graphics, audio and
video files, and text in various national languages. ESMTP provides the
capability for a client email program to inquire of a server email program
about which capabilities it supports and then communicate accordingly.
File sharing
The public or private sharing of computer data or space in a network with
various levels of access privileges.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A standard Internet protocol and a way to exchange files between computers
connected to the Internet. FTP is an application protocol that uses TCP/IP
protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from the
computer that was used to create the files to the computer that acts as the
server for these files. It is also used to download programs and other files to
your computer from other servers.
Using FTP, you can update—delete, rename, move and copy—files at a
server. You need to log on to an FTP server. However, publicly available files
are easily accessed using anonymous FTP.
FTP
See File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
Gateway
A network device that acts as an entrance to another network. A gateway can
also be any device that passes packets from one network to another network
across the Internet.
HTML
See HyperText Markup Language (HTML).
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Appendix F: Glossary
HTTP
See HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
A set of “markup” symbols or tags inserted in a text file intended for display
on a World Wide Web browser. The markup tags tell the Web browser how to
display a Web page’s content, words, and images. HTML is a subset of
Standardized Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
A set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video and
other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
ICANN
See Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
IEEE 802.3
IEEE local area network (LAN) protocol that specifies an implementation of
the physical layer and the media access control (MAC) sublayer of the data
link layer. IEEE 802.3 uses CSMA/CD access at a variety of speeds over a
variety of physical media. Extensions to the IEEE 802.3 standard specify
implementations for Fast Ethernet. Physical variations of the original IEEE
802.3 specification include 10Base2, 10Base5, 10BaseF, 10BaseT and
10Broad36. Physical variations for Fast Ethernet include 100BaseT,
100BaseT4 and 100BaseX.
IMAP
See Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).
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Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
A system of digital telephone connections. This system allows data to be
transmitted simultaneously across the world using end-to-end digital
connectivity.
With ISDN, voice and data are carried by bearer channels (B channels)
occupying a bandwidth of 64 kb/s (some switches limit B channels to a
capacity of 56 kb/s). A data channel (D channel) handles signaling at
16 kb/s or 64 kb/s, depending on the type of service.
There are two basic types of ISDN service: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and
Primary Rate Interface (PRI). BRI consists of two 64-kb/s B channels and
one 16-kb/s D channel for a total of 144 kb/s. This basic service is intended
to meet the needs of most individual users.
PRI is intended for users with greater capacity requirements. Typically, the
channel structure is 23 B channels plus one 64-kb/s D channel for a total of
1536 kb/s. In Europe, PRI consists of 30 B channels plus one 64-kb/s
D channel for a total of 1984 kb/s.
InterBase
An open-source, cross-platform SQL database from Inprise Corporation.
InterBase offers a number of database features—triggers, stored procedures,
blobs, event alerters, user-defined functions, multi-dimensional arrays,
two-phase commit, referential integrity, constraints and a flexible set of
transaction options.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
The private (non-government) non-profit corporation that has been formed to
assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter
assignment, domain name system (DNS) management and root server
system management functions.
Internet domain
An Internet domain is a host-naming convention used to ensure that no two
individual hosts on the global Internet have the same host name. An Internet
domain should not be confused with an NT Domain.
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Appendix F: Glossary
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
Internet Message Access Protocol is a standard protocol for accessing email
from your local server. IMAP is a client/server protocol in which email is
received and held for you by your Internet server. You (or your email client)
can view just the heading and the sender of the letter and then decide
whether to download the mail from the server. You can also create and
manipulate folders or mailboxes on the server, delete messages or search for
certain parts or an entire note. IMAP requires continuous access to the server
during the time that you are working with your mail.
IMAP can be thought of as a remote file server. Another protocol, Post
Office Protocol (POP), can be thought of as a store-and-forward service. In
other words, your email messages are held at the server until you open your
email client and download the messages to your local machine.
POP and IMAP deal with receiving email from your local server; Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for transferring email between
points on the Internet. You send email with SMTP and a mail handler
receives it on your recipient’s behalf. Then the mail is read using POP or
IMAP.
See also Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) and Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP).
Internet Protocol (IP)
A network-layer protocol in the TCP/IP stack offering a connectionless
internetwork service. IP provides features for addressing,
type-of-service specification, fragmentation and reassembly, and security. IP
is defined in RFC 791.
IP address
A 32-bit address assigned to hosts using Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and written as four octets separated by periods
(for example, 192.168.10.10), also called the dotted decimal format. Each
address consists of a network number, an optional subnetwork number and a
host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together are used for
routing, while the host number is used to address an individual host within
the network or subnetwork. A subnet mask is used to extract network and
subnetwork information from the IP address. Also called an Internet address.
IP Masquerading
See Network Address Translation (NAT).
ISDN
See Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
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Kernel
The essential center of a computer operating system, the core that provides
basic services for all other parts of the operating system. A kernel can be
contrasted with a shell, the outermost part of an operating system that
interacts with user commands. Kernel and shell are terms used more
frequently in UNIX.
See also Shell.
LAN
See local area network (LAN).
Leased IP address
An IP address assigned by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) to an unrecognized computing device. This method involves setting
up a leased pool of IP addresses that are allocated dynamically when new
devices are booted and recognized on the network.
Local area network (LAN)
A high-speed, low-error data network covering a relatively small geographic
area (up to a few thousand meters). A LAN connects workstations,
peripherals, terminals and other devices in a single building or other
geographically limited area. LAN standards specify cabling and signaling at
the physical and data link layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
model. Widely used LAN technologies include Ethernet, fiber distributed
data interface (FDDI) and token ring.
See also wide area network (WAN).
Logical memory
See Virtual memory.
Media access control (MAC) sublayer
The lower of the two sublayers of the data link layer defined by the IEEE.
The MAC sublayer handles access to shared media, such as whether token
passing or contention is used.
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Appendix F: Glossary
Media access control (MAC) address
A standardized data-link-layer address that is required for every port or
device that connects to a LAN. Other devices in the network use these
addresses to locate specific ports in the network, and to create and update
routing tables and data structures. MAC addresses are six bytes long and are
controlled by the IEEE. Also known as a hardware address, a MAC-layer
address and a physical address.
When your computer is connected to the Internet, a correspondence table
relates your IP address to your computer's physical (MAC) address on the
network.
Name server
A program that constitutes the server half of the DNS client-server
mechanism. A name server contains information about a segment of the
DNS database and makes it available to a client called a resolver. A resolver
is often just a library routine that creates queries and sends them across a
network to a name server.
NAT
See Network Address Translation (NAT).
Netmask
See subnet mask.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
A mechanism for reducing the need for globally unique IP addresses. NAT
allows an organization with addresses that are not globally unique to connect
to the Internet by translating those addresses into globally routable address
space. Also known as Network Address Translator and IP Masquerading.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
A protocol that synchronizes the time of a local computer client or server to
radio clocks and atomic clocks located on the Internet. This protocol is
capable of synchronizing distributed clocks within milliseconds over long
time periods. Some configurations include cryptographic authentication to
prevent accidental or malicious protocol attacks.
NTP
See Network Time Protocol (NTP).
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Packet
The unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the
Internet or any other packet-switched network. The packet includes a header
containing control information and (usually) user data. Packets are most
often used to refer to network layer units of data.
PCI
See Peripheral Component Interface (PCI).
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is an interconnection system
between a microprocessor and attached devices in which expansion slots are
spaced closely for high-speed operation.
PCI transmits 32 bits at a time in a 124-pin connection (the extra pins are for
power supply and grounding) and 64 bits in a 188-pin connection in an
expanded implementation. PCI uses all active paths to transmit both address
and data signals, sending the address on one clock cycle and data on the
next. Burst data can be sent starting with an address on the first cycle and a
sequence of data transmissions on a certain number of successive cycles.
PHP embedded scripting
PHP is an HTML-embedded scripting language that includes one or more
small embedded programs, or scripts, that are processed on a Web server
before the Web page is sent to the user.
Much of the PHP syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a few
unique PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to allow
Web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
A protocol for communication between two computers using a serial
interface, typically a personal computer connected by telephone line to a
server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a
PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests,
pass them on to the Internet and forward your requested Internet responses
back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (and is designed to handle
others).
PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media,
including twisted pair, fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a
variation of High Speed Data Link Control for packet encapsulation. PPP
can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication.
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Appendix F: Glossary
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)
A specification for connecting multiple computer users on an ethernet to a
remote site through common customer-premises equipment such as a
modem and similar devices. PPPoE can be used to allow an office or
building full of users share a common digital subscriber line (DSL), cable
modem or wireless connection to the Internet. PPPoE combines the
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), commonly used in dial-up connections, with
the ethernet protocol, which supports multiple users in a local area network
(LAN). PPP information is encapsulated within an Ethernet frame.
POP3
See Post Office Protocol (POP3).
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
Post Office Protocol (POP) is a standard protocol for receiving email. POP is
a client/server protocol in which email is received and held for you by your
Internet server. When you read your mail, all of it is immediately downloaded
to your computer and no longer maintained on the server, unless specified
otherwise in the email client. POP3 is built into the Netscape Navigator and
Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers.
POP can be thought of as a store-and-forward service; in other words, your
email messages are held at the server until you open your email client and
download the messages to your local machine. Another protocol, Internet
Message Access Protocol (IMAP), can be thought of as a remote file server.
POP and IMAP deal with receiving email from your local server; Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for transferring email between
points on the Internet. You send email with SMTP and a mail handler
receives it on your recipient’s behalf. The mail is then read using POP or
IMAP.
See also Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) and Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP).
PPP
See Point-to-Point Protocol.
PPPoE
See Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet.
RAID
See Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID).
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Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
A redundant array of independent disks is a way of storing the same data in
different places (thus, redundantly) on multiple hard disk drives. A RAID
appears to the operating system to be a single virtual disk drive.
Redundancy means that there is protection against the failure of any single
hard disk drive. Redundant data is used by a RAID system in the event of a
failure; this redundant data can either be a mirror copy or parity data used to
reconstruct the actual data.
There are a variety of different types and implementations of RAID, each
with its own advantages and disadvantages.
•
RAID-0 combines the separate hard disk drives into one virtual disk
drive and offers the best performance of the three options. However, the
data on the disk drives is not redundant and the system is thus not
fault-tolerant. This option is available on server configurations with two
or more hard disk drives.
•
RAID-1, also known as disk mirroring, consists of a primary hard disk
drive and a secondary hard disk drive; the secondary disk drive is an
exact copy or “mirror image” of the primary disk drive. This option is
only available on a configuration with two hard disk drives.
•
RAID-5 includes a rotating parity-bit array. All read and write
operations can be overlapped. RAID-5 does not store redundant data but
it does store the parity information which can be used to reconstruct data
in the event of a single hard-disk-drive failure. RAID-5 requires at least
three hard disk drives for the array.
Although RAID-1 and RAID-5 (but not RAID-0) can protect your data in
case of a hard-disk-drive failure, they do not protect against operator and
administrator (human) error, or against loss due to programming bugs.
RAID can be implemented in hardware or in software. Hardware RAID is
always a “disk controller”, that is, a device to which one can cable up the
hard disk drives. Software RAID is a set of kernel modules, together with
management utilities that implement RAID purely in software, and require
no extra hardware.
Root name server
On the Internet, the root name server system is the manner in which an
authoritative master list of all top-level domain names (such as .com, .net,
.org and individual country codes) is maintained and made available.
SCSI
See Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).
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Appendix F: Glossary
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Secure Sockets Layer is a program layer created by Netscape
Communications for managing the security of message transmissions in a
network. Netscape’s idea was that the programming for keeping your
messages confidential ought to be contained in a program layer between
higher-level protocols (such as HTTP or IMAP) and the TCP/IP layers of the
Internet. The “sockets” part of the term refers to the sockets method of
passing data between a client and a server program in a network or between
program layers in the same computer.
SSL allows an SSL-enabled server to authenticate itself to an SSL-enabled
client, allows the client to authenticate itself to the server, and allows both
machines to establish an encrypted connection.
These capabilities address fundamental concerns about communication over
the Internet and other TCP/IP networks:
•
SSL server authentication allows a user to confirm the identity of a
server. SSL-enabled client software can use standard techniques of
public-key cryptography to check that a server’s certificate and public ID
are valid and have been issued by a certificate authority (CA) listed in the
client’s list of trusted CAs. This confirmation can be important if, for
example, the user is sending a credit card number over the network and
wants to check the receiving server’s identity.
•
SSL client authentication allows a server to confirm a user’s identity.
Using the same techniques as those used for server authentication,
SSL-enabled server software can check that a client’s certificate and
public ID are valid and have been issued by a certificate authority (CA)
listed in the server’s list of trusted CAs. This confirmation can be
important if, for example, the server is a bank sending confidential
financial information to a customer and wants to check the recipient’s
identity.
•
an encrypted SSL connection requires all information sent between a
client and a server to be encrypted by the sending software and decrypted
by the receiving software, thus providing a high degree of
confidentiality. Confidentiality is important for both parties to any
private transaction. In addition, all data sent over an encrypted SSL
connection is protected with a mechanism for detecting tampering—that
is, for automatically determining whether the data has been altered in
transit.
See also Authentication and Encryption.
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Server
A system program that awaits requests from client programs in the same
computer or across a network, and services those requests. A server can be
dedicated, in which case this is its sole function, or non-dedicated, where the
system can be used in other ways, such as a workstation.
Server Message Block (SMB)
A protocol that enables client applications in a computer to read and write
files on a computer network and to request services from server programs in
a computer network for systems running Microsoft Windows.
Shell
A UNIX term for the interactive user interface (UI) within an operating
system. The shell is the layer of programming that understands and executes
the commands entered by a user. In some systems, the shell is called a
command interpreter. A shell usually implies an interface with a command
syntax.
The root shell has “root” permissions and is the highest level of shell.
As the outer layer of an operating system, a shell can be contrasted with the
kernel, the operating system’s inmost layer or core of services.
See also Kernel.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
The TCP/IP standard protocol for transferring electronic mail messages
between points on the Internet. SMTP specifies how two mail systems
interact and the format of control messages they exchange to transfer mail.
SMTP is a protocol for transferring email between points on the Internet;
Post Office Protocol (POP) and Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
deal with receiving email from your local server. You send email with SMTP
and a mail handler receives it on your recipient’s behalf. The mail is then
read using POP or IMAP.
See also Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) and Post Office
Protocol 3 (POP3).
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
A network management protocol used almost exclusively in TCP/IP
networks. SNMP provides a means to monitor and control network devices,
and to manage configurations, statistics collection, performance and security
on a network.
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Appendix F: Glossary
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
A parallel interface standard used by PCs, some Apple Macintosh computers
and many Unix systems for attaching peripheral devices to computers. SCSI
interfaces provide for faster data transmission rates (up to 160 Mb/s) than
standard serial and parallel ports. In addition, you can attach many devices to
a single SCSI port, so that SCSI is really an input/output bus rather than
simply an interface.
SMB
See Server Message Block (SMB).
SMTP
See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
SNMP
See Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
SSL
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Subnet mask
A number that, in conjunction with an IP address, defines the set of
IP addresses that are considered “local.” For example, if your IP address is
192.168.25.77 and your subnet mask is 255.255.255.0, then addresses
between 192.168.25.1 and 192.168.25.255 are considered local. Also known
as netmask.
Swap file
A space on a hard disk drive used as the virtual memory extension of a
computer’s random access memory (RAM). Having a swap file allows the
computer’s operating system to pretend that it has more RAM than it
actually does. The least-recently-used files in RAM are “swapped out” to
your hard disk drive until they are needed later; in their place, new program
segments or data can be “swapped in” to RAM.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
A connection-oriented transport-layer protocol that provides reliable
full-duplex data transmission. TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
A common name for the suite of protocols developed in the 1970s to support
the construction of worldwide internetworks. TCP and IP are the two
best-known protocols in the suite. The TCP/IP protocols enable computers
and networks to connect to an intranet or Internet.
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Virtual host
See Virtual site.
Virtual memory
A concept that, when implemented by a computer and its operating system,
allows programmers to use a very large range of memory or storage
addresses for stored data.
Virtual site
Whereas industry uses the term virtual host, Cobalt Networks uses the term
virtual site.
In Cobalt’s definition, a virtual site consists of a Domain Name System
(DNS) domain with Web, FTP and email services. Each virtual site contains
its own list of site-user accounts. Each site-user account has its own Web
page, FTP directory, email spool and any number of email aliases. The fully
qualified domain name of a virtual site is unique to that site, while its
IP address can be shared by many sites.
With the advent of name-based virtual hosting, it is no longer necessary to
dedicate an IP address to a virtual site. The Web server can now differentiate
among target virtual sites according to the name requested. Many virtual
sites on the RaQ 4 can share one IP address. However, not all services are
compatible with name-based virtual hosting: SSL encryption for Web data,
bandwidth management and an anonymous FTP account can only be
enabled on one virtual site per IP address hosted by the RaQ 4.
The IP address of the RaQ 4 can be shared by many virtual sites or it can be
unique to one virtual site.
The RaQ 4 has one main site (which by default cannot be deleted) and
virtual sites. The main site uses the IP address assigned to the RaQ 4 using
the LCD console.
Wide area network (WAN)
A data communications network that serves users across a broad geographic
area and often uses transmission devices provided by common carriers.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), frame relay, Switched Multimegabit
Data Service (SMDS) and X.25 are examples of WANs.
See also local area network (LAN).
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Appendix F: Glossary
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Index
Numerics
10/100BaseTX 6
100BaseTX 6
10BaseT 6
A
Active Monitor 93
status colors 93
Active Server Pages 45
Administrative Server 45
enable 43
server-side scripting
language 145, 177
Adding
email alias 105
hard disk drive 164
mailing list 109
PCI card 161
site user 99
virtual site 47
Add-on storage 82
Address (A) record 189
Administration of RaQ 4
distributed control 34
full control 34
hybrid control 34
Administration server for SSL 123
Advanced DNS 184
configuring server settings 186
delegating a subdomain 185
delegating a subnet 186
domain administrator email
address 188
expire interval 188
name server 188
Network Mask Notation
Conversion 184
refresh interval 188
retry interval 188
Start of Authority (SOA)
configuration 187
time-to-live period 188
Alias
email 103
hosts/domains 55
Alias (CNAME) record 182
Anonymous FTP 42
APOP. See Authentication POP.
Arkeia file backup 61
Arrow buttons 4, 23
ASP Administrative Server 62
ASP. See Active Server Pages.
Authentication POP 43
B
Backup
RaQ 4 71
backup file locations 76
manual 72
scheduled 74
site user 141
virtual site 128
backup file location 132
manual 128
scheduled 130
Bandwidth management, virtual
site 65
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223
Index
Basic DNS 179
configuring
primary DNS server 180
secondary DNS server 182
description 179
enabling DNS server 180
record
address (A) 189
alias (CNAME) 182
mail server (MX) 181
reverse lookup (PTR) 181
Battery iii
Block email. See Reject email from
users/hosts/domains.
Browser
requirements v
setting up the RaQ 4 24
Setup Wizard 25
BSD Copyright 197
C
Catch-all email account for the
RaQ 4 107
Certificate, SSL
delete certificate 126
enter info from external
certification authority 124
externally signed certificate 119
main site certificate 123
self-signed certificate 120
submit to external certification
authority 123
CGI
scripts 43, 145
usage 115, 176
Changing network configuration 150
Chili!Soft ASP. See Active Server
Pages.
Configuring
DNS server settings 186
RaQ 4 for the network 22
RaQ 4 with LCD console 23
UPS 151
224
Connecting
power cord 21
RaQ 4 to the network 21
Connector
network 5, 21
SCSI 5
serial 5
serial console port 171
Console port, serial 171
initializing the RaQ 4 171
Control panel 52
network 64
services 52
Arkeia file backup 61
ASP Administrative
Server 62
DNS 63
email server 53
FTP server 58
Legato file backup 60
SNMP agent 59
telnet server 58
Web server 53
time 69
Cooling fan 5
CPU status 91
Customer service 13
general information 13
D
Default settings
site user 97
virtual site 46
Delegating a subdomain 185
Delegating a subnet 186
Developer Network 14
Developing Web pages 145
CGI scripts 145
server-side scripting
languages 145
Development tools 173
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Index
Directory structure 175
CGI usage 176
RaQ 4 home page 175
server-side scripting
languages 177
site user home page 176
virtual site home page 175
Discussion Groups 15
Disk status 91
DNS
configuring
primary DNS server 180
secondary DNS server 182
server settings 186
delegating
subdomain 185
subnet 186
description 179
domain administrator email
address 188
enabling DNS server 180
expire interval 188
history of DNS 194
how does DNS work 195
name server 188
Network Mask Notation
Conversion 184
record
address (A) 189
alias (CNAME) 182
mail server (MX) 181
reverse lookup (PTR) 181
refresh interval 188
retry interval 188
sample setup of DNS records 189
service status 92
Start of Authority (SOA)
configuration 187
time-to-live period 188
DNS server 63
configuring
primary server 180
secondary server 182
settings 186
delegating
subdomain 185
subnet 186
domain administrator email
address 188
enabling 180
expire interval 188
name server 188
Network Mask Notation
Conversion 184
refresh interval 188
retry interval 188
sample setup of DNS records 189
Start of Authority (SOA)
configuration 187
time-to-live period 188
Domain administrator email
address 188
Domain name 26, 41
Domain Name System. See DNS.
E
Education 15
Electric shock iv
Email
alias 103
adding 105
catch-all account 107
domain administrator email
address 188
email forwarding 102
email server
alias 42
control panel 53
SMTP 53
forwarding email 102, 139
options, site user 138
parameters
hosts/domains aliases 55
maximum message size 55
reject email from users/hosts/
domains 55
relay for hosts/domains 55
smart relay host name 55
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Index
relaying 56
enable 57
hosts/domains 55
service status 92
settings 102
using 144
vacation reply 102, 139
Email server alias 42
Embedded scripting, PHP 43, 45
Equipment rack iv
Expire interval 188
F
Forwarding email 102, 139
Front view 4
LCD arrow buttons 4
LCD screen 4
logo badge 4
reset password 4
status indicators 4
FrontPage
publishing Web pages 147
server extensions 42, 44
virtual site 42, 44
webmaster account 42, 44
FTP
anonymous FTP 42
control panel 58
publishing Web pages 146
service status 92
settings 116
I
Icons 11
Initializing the RaQ 4 through the
serial console port 171
Install software on RaQ 4 80
from CD-ROM 81
from Cobalt Web site 81
remotely 81
Installing the RaQ 4 19
configuring for network 22
connecting power cord 21
connecting to network 21
mounting ears 20
powering on 21
rubber feet 20
InterBase relational database 82
IP address 41
K
G
Knowledge Base 15
Glossary 205
GNU General Public License 198
H
Hard disk drive
adding 164
directory structure 175
226
Hardware, RaQ 4 157
adding a hard disk drive 164
adding PCI card 161
printed circuit board 163
upgrading memory 161
History of DNS 194
Home page location
RaQ 4 175
site user 176
virtual site 175
Host name 26, 41
How does DNS work 195
L
LCD arrow buttons 4, 23
LCD console 149
arrow buttons 23
changing network
configuration 150
configuring a UPS 151
configuring for network 23
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Index
LCD screen 4
powering down the RaQ 4 155
rebooting the RaQ 4 154
LCD screen 4
Legato file backup 60
Levels of user
RaQ 4 administrator 7
site administrator 7
site user 7
Licenses
BSD copyright 197
GNU General Public License 198
SSL License 204
Limit to virtual sites 37
List management. See Mailing lists.
Lithium battery iii
Logo badge 4
M
Mail forwarding 102
Mail server (MX) record 181
Mailing lists 108
adding 109
modifying 111
removing 112
Maintenance 71
add-on storage 82
backup 71
RaQ 4, file locations 76
RaQ 4, manual 72
RaQ 4, scheduled 74
virtual site, file location 132
virtual site, manual 128
virtual site, scheduled 130
install software 80
from CD-ROM 81
from Cobalt Web site 81
remotely 81
rebooting 85
restore
RaQ 4 server 77
site user 143
virtual site 133
shutdown 86
support tools 86
suspend site user 116
suspend virtual site, hard 85
suspend virtual site, soft 115
Maximum allowed disk space, virtual
site 42
Maximum message size, email 55
Maximum number of users, virtual
site 42
Memory
status 91
upgrading 161
Mounting ears 20
N
Name server 188
Network
configuration 64
connecting RaQ 4 21
connectors 5
status indicators 5
Network Mask Notation
Conversion 184
Network settings 26
control panel 64
domain name 26
host name 26
primary DNS server address 26
secondary DNS server address 26
Network status 91
Numerics
10/100BaseTX 6
100BaseTX 6
10BaseT 6
O
OK to power off 5
Online registration of the RaQ 4 29
Online Technical Papers 15
Organization of user manual 8
Output bandwidth management. See
Bandwidth management.
Overview of virtual sites 41
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
227
Index
P
R
Part number, user manual ii
Partner solutions 159
Password
RaQ 4 administrator
changing password 51
resetting password 51
resetting, RaQ 4 4
PCI
adding card 161
expansion slot 5
Personal profile 137
PHP
embedded scripting 45
enable 43
server-side scripting
language 145, 177
Physical data, RaQ 4 159
Power cord iv, 21
Power socket 5
Power switch 5
Powering down the RaQ 4 155
Powering on the RaQ 4 21
Primary DNS server
configuration 180
Primary DNS server address 26
Printed circuit board 163
Product specifications 157
hardware 157
physical data 159
printed circuit board 163
regulatory approvals 160
software
features 158
partner solutions 159
system management 159
Publishing Web pages
FrontPage 147
FTP 146
RAID-1 support 36
RaQ 4
Active Monitor 93
status colors 93
administration
distributed control 34
full control 34
hybrid control 34
administrator
changing password 51
resetting password 51
control panel 52
network 64
services 52
time 69
development tools 173
domain name 41
front view 4
host name 41
initializing through the serial
console port 171
IP address 41
maintenance 71
powering down 155
product specifications 157
hardware 157
physical data 159
printed circuit board 163
regulatory approvals 160
software features 158
software, partner
solutions 159
software, system
management 159
RAID-1 support 36
rear view 5
rebooting 85, 154
requirements 6
server management 33
228
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Index
setting up 19
configuring for network 22
connecting power cord 21
connecting to network 21
installation 19
making the connection 19
mounting ears 20
powering on 21
rubber feet 20
setting up with browser 24
network settings 26
registration, mail-in card 32
registration, online 29
service settings 28
Setup Wizard 25
time settings 29
site management 37, 95
site usage 88
site user 97
support tools 86
system status 89
services 92
system components 91
target audience 6
virtual site, definition 35
Rear view 5
cooling fan 5
network connector 5
network status indicators 5
OK to power off 5
PCI expansion slot 5
power socket 5
power switch 5
SCSI connector 5
security lock hole 5
serial connector 5
serial console port 5, 171
Rebooting the RaQ 4 85, 154
Record, DNS
address (A) 189
alias (CNAME) 182
mail server (MX) 181
reverse lookup (PTR) 181
Refresh interval 188
Registration of RaQ 4
mail-in card 32
online 29
Regulations, Class B v
Regulatory approvals 160
Reject email from users/hosts/
domains 55
Relay email 56
enable 57
hosts/domains 55
Removing
mailing list 112
site user 102
SSL certificate 126
virtual site 49
Reports, usage
RaQ 4 server 88
virtual site 126
Requirements
browsers v, 6
equipment rack iv
for the RaQ 4 6
Resources
Developer Network 14
Discussion Groups 15
Education 15
Knowledge Base 15
Online Technical Papers 15
Solutions 14
Restore
RaQ 4 server 77
site user 143
virtual site 133
Retry interval 188
Reverse lookup (PTR) record 181
Rubber feet 20
S
Safety
battery, lithium iii
electric shock iv
equipment rack iv
ventilation iii
Sample setup of DNS records 189
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
229
Index
SCSI connector 5
Search
site user 100
virtual site 39
Secondary DNS server
configuration 182
Secondary DNS server address 26
Secure POP3
virtual site 43
Secure sockets layer. See SSL.
Security lock hole 5
Serial connector 5
Serial console port 5, 171
initializing the RaQ 4 171
Server management 33
Server side includes 43
Server-side scripting language
Active Server Pages 177
PHP 177
Services
Arkeia file backup 61
ASP Administrative Server 62
DNS server 63
email server 53
FTP server 58
Legato file backup 60
SNMP agent 59
telnet server 58
Web server 53
Setting up the RaQ 4 19
Setup Wizard 25
network settings 26
registration, online 29
service settings 28
time settings 29
Shell accounts, virtual site 43
Shutdown. See Powering down the
RaQ 4.
Site management 37, 95
changing site settings 113
changing site user email
options 105
changing site user settings 104
FTP settings 116
230
mailing list 108
adding 109
modifying 111
removing 112
search feature 39
site settings 112
site usage 126
reports generated 126
sort feature 39
SSL
administration server 123
delete certificate 126
description 118
enable on virtual site 119
enter info from external
certification
authority 124
externally signed
certificate 119
generate self-signed
certificate 120
license 204
main site certificate 123
settings 118
submit to external
certification
authority 123
suspend site user 116
suspend virtual site, soft 115
user management 97
Site services 137
email options 138
modifying site user 138
telnet 148
Site usage 88, 126
reports generated 88, 126
Site user
adding 99
backup 141
changing email options 105
changing user settings 104
default settings 97
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Index
directory structure
home page 176
email options 138
modifying 138
personal profile 137
removing 102
restore 143
search feature 100
services on a site 137
sort feature 100
telnet service 148
usage data 140
Smart relay host name, email 55
SMTP server 53
SNMP
agent 59
service status 92
Software
features 158
install software 80
partner solutions 159
system management 159
Solutions 14, 159
Sort
site user 100
virtual site 39
SSL
administration server 123
delete certificate 126
description 118
enable on virtual site 119
enter info from external
certification authority 124
externally signed certificate 119
generate self-signed
certificate 120
license 204
main site certificate 123
settings 118
submit to external certification
authority 123
virtual site 43
SSL License 204
Start of Authority (SOA)
configuration 187
Status indicator
100 M 4
Col 4
Disk 4
Link 4
Transmit/Receive 4
Web 4
Storage, add-on 82
Support calls 16
to speed up your call 16
Support tools 17, 86
Suspend site user 116
Suspend virtual site
hard 85
soft 115
System status 89
services 92
DNS 92
email 92
FTP 92
SNMP 92
telnet 92
Web server 92
system components 91
CPU 91
disk 91
memory 91
network 91
T
Target audience, RaQ 4 6
Technical data. See Product
specifications.
Technical Support 13
contact information 13
Developer Network 14
Discussion Groups 15
Education 15
Knowledge Base 15
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
231
Index
Online Technical Papers 15
Solutions 14
support calls 16
support tools feature 17
Telnet
service status 92
site services 148
telnet server
control panel 58
Time settings 29
control panel 69
Time-to-live period 188
U
Upgrading memory module 161
Usage data for site user 140
User management 97
Users
RaQ 4 administrator 7
site administrator 7
site user 7
V
Vacation reply 102, 139
Ventilation iii
Virtual site
adding 47
adding site user 99
anonymous FTP 42
authentication POP (APOP) 43
backup 128
file location 132
manual 128
scheduled 130
bandwidth management 65
changing site settings 113
default settings 46
definition 35
directory structure
home page 175
domain name 41
email server alias 42
232
enable
Active Server Pages 43
CGI scripts 43
FrontPage server
extensions 42
PHP embedded scripting 43
Secure POP3 (APOP) 43
server side includes 43
shell accounts 43
SSL 43, 119
FTP settings 116
host name 41
IP address 41
IP-based site 35
limit on number 37
maximum allowed disk space 42
maximum number of users 42
name-based site 35
overview 41
removing 49
removing site user 102
restore 133
search feature 39
site settings 112
site usage 126
reports 126
site user
default settings 97
sort feature 39
SSL
administration server 123
delete certificate 126
description 118
enable on virtual site 119
enter info from external
certification
authority 124
externally signed
certificate 119
generate self-signed
certificate 120
license 204
main site certificate 123
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
Index
settings 118
submit to external
certification
authority 123
suspend site user 116
suspend site, hard 85
suspend site, soft 115
user management 97
Web server alias 41
W
Web
developing pages 145
CGI scripts 145
server-side scripting
languages 145
publishing pages
FrontPage 147
FTP 146
Web browser
requirements v, 6
setting up the RaQ 4 24
Setup Wizard 25
Web server
control panel 53
status 92
Web server alias 41
Webmaster account for
FrontPage 42, 44
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
233
Index
234
Cobalt RaQ 4 User Manual
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