MACROMEDIA COLDFUSION 4.5-ADMINISTRING COLDFUSION SERVER System information

Configuring and Administering
ADOBE COLDFUSION 9
®
®
© 2009 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Copyright
Configuring and Administering Adobe® ColdFusion® 9
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Adobe Systems Incorporated, 345 Park Avenue, San Jose, California 95110, USA.
Last updated 2/21/2012
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Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
About ColdFusion documentation
..................................................................................... 1
Chapter 2: Administering ColdFusion
About the ColdFusion Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
About web server administration
About Verity administration
...................................................................................... 2
........................................................................................... 3
Chapter 3: Using the ColdFusion Administrator
Initial administration tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Accessing user assistance
.............................................................................................. 5
Server Settings section
................................................................................................ 5
Data & Services section
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Debugging & Logging section
Server Monitoring section
Extensions section
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Event Gateways section
Security section
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Packaging and Deployment section
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Enterprise Manager section
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Custom Extensions section
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Administrator API
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 4: Data Source Management
About JDBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Adding data sources
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Connecting to Apache Derby Client
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Connecting to Apache Derby Embedded
Connecting to DB2 Universal Database
Connecting to Informix
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Connecting to Microsoft Access
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Connecting to Microsoft Access with Unicode
Connecting to Microsoft SQL Server
Connecting to MySQL
Connecting to ODBC Socket
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Connecting to other data sources
Connecting to PostgreSQL
Connecting to Sybase
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
DataDirect Connect JDBC Support
Connecting to Oracle
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Connecting to JNDI data sources
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Connecting to an external JDBC Type 4 data source
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
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CONFIGURING AND ADMINISTERING COLDFUSION 9
Contents
Chapter 5: Web Server Management
About web servers in ColdFusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Using the built-in web server
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Using an external web server
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Web server configuration
Multihoming
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Chapter 6: Deploying ColdFusion Applications
Archive and deployment options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Packaging applications in CAR files
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Packaging applications in J2EE archive files
Using the cfcompile utility
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Chapter 7: Administering Security
About ColdFusion security
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Using password protection
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Exposing services to users
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Configure IP address to access exposed services
Using sandbox security
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Chapter 8: Using Multiple Server Instances
About multiple server instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Defining additional server instances
Enabling application isolation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Enabling clustering for load balancing and failover
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Define remote server instances to the ColdFusion Administrator
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Chapter 9: Using the ColdFusion Server Monitor
Gathering information about ColdFusion servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Starting the ColdFusion Server Monitor
Viewing Server Monitor Reports
Specifying Server Monitor Settings
ColdFusion Server Monitor API
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Using the Server Monitor to improve server performance
Setting up Server Manager client
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Server monitoring enhancements in ColdFusion 9.0 Update 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 10: Working with Server Manager
Launch Server Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Register servers
Create Groups
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Manage multiple servers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Monitor multiple servers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Chapter 11: Introducing Verity and Verity Tools
Collections and the ColdFusion Verity architecture
About Verity Spider
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
About the Verity utilities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
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Chapter 12: Indexing Collections with Verity Spider
About Verity Spider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
About Verity Spider syntax
Core options
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Processing options
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Networking options
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Path and URL options
Content options
Locale options
Logging options
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Maintenance options
Setting MIME types
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Chapter 13: Using Verity Utilities
Overview of Verity utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Using the mkvdk utility
Using the rck2 utility
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Using the rcvdk utility
Using the didump utility
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Using the browse utility
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Using the merge utility
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Chapter 14: Solr Server and Collections
Solr collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Solr server
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Migrating from Verity to Solr
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Configuring and Administering ColdFusion is intended for anyone who has to configure and manage their Adobe®
ColdFusion® 9 development environment.
About ColdFusion documentation
The ColdFusion 9 documentation is designed to provide support for the complete spectrum of participants.
Documentation set
The ColdFusion documentation set includes the following titles:
Book
Description
Installing Adobe® ColdFusion® 9
Describes system installation and basic configuration for Windows, Macintosh, Solaris, Linux, and AIX.
Configuring and Administering
Adobe® ColdFusion® 9
Describes how to perform ColdFusion administration tasks such as managing server settings, configuring
datasources, managing security, deploying ColdFusion applications, caching, setting up CFX tags,
monitoring server activity using the ColdFusion Server Monitor, and configuring web servers.
Developing Adobe® ColdFusion® 9
Applications
Describes how to develop your dynamic web applications. This book provides detailed information about
using the CFML programming language and ColdFusion features, such as ColdFusion Web Services,
ColdFusion Portlets, ColdFusion ORM, AJAX support, Flex and AIR integration, and integration with other
products and technologies such as Microsoft Office, OpenOffice, and SharePoint.
Adobe® ColdFusion® 9 CFML
Reference
Provides descriptions, syntax, usage, and code examples for all ColdFusion tags, functions, and variables.
Viewing online documentation
All ColdFusion documentation is available online in HTML and Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF)
files. Go to the ColdFusion Help and Support page at www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_support_en to view the online
documentation. In addition to viewing the online documentation, you can also add and view comments to the
documentation.
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Chapter 2: Administering ColdFusion
Although you use the ColdFusion Administrator to perform most ColdFusion administration tasks, you can also
manage databases, web server configurations, and Verity Search Server.
About the ColdFusion Administrator
The ColdFusion Administrator provides a browser-based interface for managing your ColdFusion environment. You
can configure many settings to provide optimal levels of security and functionality. The available options are based on
your edition of ColdFusion 9—Standard or Enterprise—as well as your configuration: server, multiserver, or J2EE. For
more information on ColdFusion configurations, see Preparing to Install ColdFusion in Installing ColdFusion.
The default location for the ColdFusion Administrator login page is:
http://servername[:portnumber]/CFIDE/administrator/index.cfm
Where servername is the fully qualified domain name of your web server. Common values for servername are localhost
or 127.0.0.1 (each refers to the web server on the local computer).
If you are using the ColdFusion built-in web server, include the port number as part of the servername. The default
port number for the server configuration is 8500; for example,
http://servername:8500/CFIDE/administrator/index.cfm. The default port number for the multiserver configuration
is 8300. If you are using the J2EE configuration, include the port number that the web server of the J2EE application
server uses.
If you were using the built-in web server in a version earlier than ColdFusion MX 7 and upgraded to ColdFusion 8,
the installer automatically finds an unused port for the built-in web server (typically 8501).
If your ColdFusion Administrator is on a remote computer, use the Domain Name Services (DNS) name or Internet
Protocol (IP) address of the remote host.
To access the ColdFusion Administrator, enter the password specified when you installed ColdFusion.
Note: If you are running ColdFusion in a multihomed environment and have problems displaying the ColdFusion
Administrator, see “Web Server Management” on page 59 for configuration information.
For more information, see “Using the ColdFusion Administrator” on page 4.
About web server administration
ColdFusion applications require a web server to process ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) pages. The server and
multiserver configurations provide a built-in web server along with support for external web servers, such as Apache,
IIS, and Sun ONE Web Server (formerly known as iPlanet).
For more information, see “Web Server Management” on page 59.
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Administering ColdFusion
About Verity administration
ColdFusion includes Verity K2 Server search technology. Verity K2 Server is a high-performance search engine
designed to process searches quickly in a high-performance, distributed system.
For more information, see “Introducing Verity and Verity Tools” on page 116.
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Chapter 3: Using the ColdFusion
Administrator
Use the Adobe ColdFusion Administrator to perform basic administration tasks. You can also use the Administrator
application programming interface (API) to perform Administrator functionality programmatically.
Initial administration tasks
Immediately after you install ColdFusion, you might have to perform some or all the administrative tasks described in
the following table:
Task
Description
Establish database connections
ColdFusion applications require data source connections to query and write to databases. To create,
verify, edit, and delete database connections, use the Data Sources page.
For more information, see “Data Source Management” on page 34.
Specify directory mappings
Directory mappings redirect relative file paths to physical directories on your server. To specify serverwide directory aliases, use the Mappings page.
For more information, see “Mappings page” on page 11.
Configure debugging settings
Debugging information provides important data about CFML page processing. To choose the debugging
information to display, and to designate an IP address to receive debugging information, use the
Debugging & Logging section.
For more information, see “Debugging Output Settings page” on page 18.
Set up e-mail
E-mail lets ColdFusion applications send automated e-mail messages. To configure an e-mail server and
mail options, use the Mail Server page.
For more information, see “Mail page” on page 11.
Change passwords
You might have to change the passwords that you set for the ColdFusion Administrator and Remote
Development Service (RDS) during ColdFusion installation. To change passwords, use the Security
section.
For more information, see “Administrator page” on page 26 and “RDS page” on page 27.
Define user-specific access to the
ColdFusion Administrator
To grant user-specific access to the ColdFusion Administrator, you create users and specify a user name,
password, applicable sandboxes, and the sections of the ColdFusion Administrator that each user can
access. For more information, see “Security section” on page 26.
Configure Java settings
(Server configuration only) You might have to customize Java settings, such as classpath information, to
meet the needs of your applications. To change Java settings, use the Java and JVM page.
For more information, see “Extensions section” on page 24.
Restrict tag access
Some CFML tags might present a potential security risk for your server. To disable certain tags, use the
Sandbox Security page.
For more information, see “Administering Security” on page 75.
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Accessing user assistance
You can use the buttons on the upper left of the ColdFusion Administrator to access online Help, information about
additional resources, and system information.
Online Help Click the question-mark icon on any ColdFusion Administrator page to access the context-sensitive
online Help. The online Help has procedural and brief overview content for the ColdFusion Administrator page that
you are viewing. This information appears in a new browser window and contains standard Contents, Index, and
Search tabs.
System Information Click System Information to see information about the ColdFusion server, including version
number, serial number, and JVM details.
Resources Click Resources to display the Resources page, which provides links to the following:
• Getting Started experience
• Example applications,
• Product Information
• Technical Support and Training,
• Additional Installers
• Product Updates
• Community Resources
• Security-related Information
Server Settings section
The Server Settings section lets you manage client and memory variables, mappings, charting, and archiving. It also
allows you to configure e-mail and Java settings.
Settings page
The Settings page of the ColdFusion Administrator contains configuration options that you can set or enable to
manage ColdFusion. These options can significantly affect server performance. The following table describes the
options:
Option
Description
Timeout Requests After (Seconds)
Prevents unusually lengthy requests from using up server resources. Enter a limit to the time that
ColdFusion waits before terminating a request. Requests that take longer than the time-out period
are terminated.
Enable Per App Settings
Lets developers programmatically define ColdFusion settings such as mappings and debugging per
application.
Use UUID For cftoken
Specify whether to use a universally unique identifier (UUID), rather than a random number, for a
cftoken.
Enable HTTP Status Codes
Configures ColdFusion to set a status code of 500 Internal Server Error for an unhandled error.
Disable this option to configure ColdFusion to set a status code of 200 OK for everything, including
unhandled errors.
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Option
Description
Enable Whitespace Management
Compresses repeating sequences of spaces, tabs, and carriage returns and linefeeds. Compressing
whitespace can significantly compact the output of a ColdFusion page.
This option is enabled, by default.
Disable CFC Type Check
Turns off verifying the CFC type when calling methods with CFCs as arguments. This option also
disables verifying an object that implements the right interface.
Enabling this option can improve the performance of your application. However enable it only on a
production server.
Disable Access To Internal ColdFusion
Java Components
Prevents CFML code from accessing and creating Java objects that are part of the internal
ColdFusion implementation. This prevents a non-authenticated CFML template from reading or
modifying administration and configuration information for this server.
Prefix serialized JSON with
Protects web services, which return JSON data from cross-site scripting attacks by prefixing serialized
JSON strings with a custom prefix.
Enable In-Memory File System
Enables the in-memory virtual file system support. By default, this is enabled.
Memory Limit for In-Memory Virtual
File System
Lets you specify the memory limit in Megabytes (MB) for in-memory virtual file system.
Watch Configuration Files For Changes Sets ColdFusion to monitor its configuration files and automatically reload them if they change. This
(Check Every n Seconds)
action is required if you deploy ColdFusion in a Websphere ND vertical cluster, because multiple
instances of ColdFusion share the same configuration files. It is recommended that you do not
enable this feature for most installations.
Enable Global Script Protection
Protects Form, URL, CGI, and Cookie scope variables from cross-site scripting attacks. Select this
option if your application does not contain this type of protection logic.
Allow Extra Attributes in
AttributeCollection
Specify whether ColdFusion tags can pass non-standard attributes in the attributecollection
structure.
Clear temporary files created during
CFaaS after
Specify the time in minutes after which the temporary files created during CF as a Service(CFaaS)
operation must be deleted. The default value is 30 minutes.
Default ScriptSrc Directory
Specify the default path (relative to the web root) to the directory that contains the cfform.js file.
Developers reference this file in the ScriptSrc attribute of the cfform tag.
In a hosted environment, you might need to move the cfform.js file to a directory other than CFIDE.
Google Map API Key
Specify the Google Map API license key that you require to access Google Maps.
Component with onServerStart()
method
Specify the absolute path to a CFC having onServerStart() method or specify a dot delimited CFC
path under web root, like "a.b.server". By default, ColdFusion looks for server.cfc under web root.
Application.cfc/Application.cfm
lookup order
Select the order in which ColdFusion searches for Application.cfm or Application.cfc if it is not found
in the current project folder. You can set ColdFusion to search as follows:
Missing Template Handler
•
default search order: ColdFusion looks for an Application.cfc/Application.cfm file from the current
folder until the system root directory. On Windows, this could be C:\ and on UNIX, /opt.
•
till web root: ColdFusion looks for an Application.cfc/Application.cfm file from the current folder
till web root.
•
in web root: ColdFusion looks for an Application.cfc/Application.cfm file in the current folder or
web root.
Specify a page to execute when ColdFusion cannot find a requested page. This specification is
relative to the web root.
Note: If the user is running Microsoft Internet Explorer with "Show Friendly HTTP error messages"
enabled, Internet Explorer displays this page only if it contains more than 512 bytes.
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Option
Description
Site-Wide Error Handler
Specify a page to execute when ColdFusion encounters an error while processing a request. This
specification is relative to the web root. When you define a site-wide error handler or missing
template handler, ColdFusion does not log page-not-found errors and exceptions.
Note: If the user is running Internet Explorer with Show Friendly HTTP Error Messages enabled,
Internet Explorer only displays this page if it contains more than 512 bytes.
Maximum Size Of Post Data
Limits the amount of data that can be posted to the server in a single request. ColdFusion rejects
single requests larger than the specified limit.
RequeSt Throttle Threshold
Requests smaller than the specified limit are not queued or counted as part of the total memory.
Requests larger than the specified limit are counted as part of total memory and are queued if the
request throttle-memory size is exceeded.
Request Throttle Memory
Limits total memory size for the throttle. If sufficient total memory is not available, ColdFusion
queues requests until enough memory is free.
Request Tuning page
The Request Tuning page of the Administrator contains configuration options that you use to specify the number of
different types of requests and threads that ColdFusion can handle simultaneously.
Option
Description
Maximum Number Of Simultaneous
Template Requests
The number of CFML page requests that can be processed concurrently. Use this setting to increase
overall system performance for heavy-load applications. Requests beyond the specified limit are
queued.
Maximum Number Of Simultaneous
Flash Remoting Requests
The number of Adobe Flash® Remoting requests that can be processed concurrently.
Maximum Number Of Simultaneous
Web Service Requests
The number of Web Service requests that can be processed concurrently.
Maximum Number Of Simultaneous
CFC Function Requests
The number of ColdFusion Component methods that can be processed concurrently through HTTP.
This does not affect starting CFC methods from CFML, only methods requested through an HTTP
request.
Maximum Number Of Simultaneous
Report Threads
The maximum number of ColdFusion reports that can be processed concurrently.
Maximum Number Of Threads
Available For CFTHREAD
CFTHREAD that runs concurrently. Threads that CFTHREAD creates in excess of the specified limit are
queued.
Timeout Requests Waiting In Queue
After n Seconds
If a request has waited in queue beyond the specified limit, time out the request. This value must be
at least as long as the Request Timeout setting (currently 60 seconds).
Request Queue Timeout Page
Specify a relative path to an HTML page to send to clients when a template requests time out before
getting a chance to run. For example "/CFIDE/timeout.html.” This page cannot contain CFML. If a
page is not specified, clients receive a 500 Request Timeout error when their request does not get a
chance to run.
Maximum Number Of Running JRun
Threads
Maximum number of JRun handler threads that run concurrently. This option is used to set the
number of request threads that the underlying JRun J2EE application server runs at the same time.
This includes any non-ColdFusion requests such as JSP or HTML pages served through JRun.
Maximum Number Of Queued JRun
Threads
Maximum number of requests that JRun can accept at any one time. This is the number of requests
that the underlying JRun J2EE application server can accept at the same time.
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Caching page
The Caching page of the Administrator contains configuration options that you can set or enable to cache templates,
queries, and data sources. These options can significantly affect server performance. The following table describes the
settings:
Option
Description
Maximum Number Of Cached
Templates
Enter a value that specifies the number of templates that ColdFusion caches. For best application
performance, set this option to a value that is large enough to contain the commonly accessed
ColdFusion pages, yet small enough to avoid excessive reloading. You can experiment with a range
of values on your development server; a suitable starting point is one page per MB of Java Virtual
Machine (JVM) size.
Trusted Cache
Use cached templates without checking whether they changed. For sites that are not updated
frequently, using this option minimizes file system overhead.
Cache Template in Request
When checked, any requested files are inspected only once for potential updates within a request. If
unchecked, requested file are inspected for changes each and every time when it is accessed within
the same request. For application where templates/components are not expected to reflect updates
within the same request, this minimizes file system overhead. This setting does not require restarting
the server.
Component cache
When checked, component path resolution is cached and not resolved again. This setting does not
require restarting the server.
Save Class Files
Saves to disk the class files that the ColdFusion bytecode compiler generates. During the
development phase, it is typically faster if you disable this option.
Cache Web Server Paths
Caches ColdFusion page paths for a single server. Clear this option if ColdFusion connects to a web
server with multiple websites or multiple virtual websites.
Maximum Number Of Cached Queries
Enter a value to limit the maximum number of cached queries that the server maintains. Cached
queries allow retrieval of result sets from memory rather than through a database transaction.
Because queries reside in memory, and query result set sizes differ, provide a limit for the number of
cached queries. You enable cached queries with the cachedwithin or cachedafter attributes of
the cfquery tag. When the maximum number of cached queries is reached, the oldest query is
dropped from the cache and replaced with the specified query. If you set the maximum number of
cached queries to 0, query caching is unlimited.
Clear Template Cache Now
Empties the template cache. ColdFusion reloads templates into memory the next time they are
requested and recompiles them if they have been modified.
Clear Component Cache Now
Empties the component cache. ColdFusion ignores the resolved path for components and try
resolution again.
Client Variables page
Client variables let you store user information and preferences between sessions. Using information from client
variables, you can customize page content for individual users.
You enable client variable default settings in ColdFusion on the Client Variables page of the Administrator.
ColdFusion lets you store client variables in the following ways:
• In database tables
Note: If your data source uses one of the JDBC drivers bundled with ColdFusion 9, ColdFusion can automatically
create the necessary tables. If your data source uses the ODBC Socket or a third-party JDBC driver, you manually
create the necessary CDATA and CGLOBAL database tables.
• As cookies in the web browsers
• In the operating system registry
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Important: Adobe recommends that you do not store client variables in the registry because it can critically degrade
performance of the server. If you use the registry to store client variables, you allocate sufficient memory and disk
space.
To override settings specified in the Client Variables page, use the Application.cfc file or the cfapplication tag. For
more information, see the Developing ColdFusion Applications.
The following table compares the client variable storage options:
Storage type
Advantages
Disadvantages
Data source
•
Can use existing data source
•
Requires database transaction to read/write variables
•
Portable: not tied to the host system or
operating system
•
More complex to implement
•
Simple implementation
•
Users can configure browsers to disallow cookies
•
Good performance
•
Cookie data is limited to 4-KB
•
Can be set to expire automatically
•
•
Client-side control
Netscape Navigator allows only 20 cookies from one host;
ColdFusion uses three cookies to store read-only data,
leaving only 17 cookies available
•
Simple implementation
•
•
Possible restriction of the registry’s maximum size limit in
Windows in the Control Panel
Good performance
•
•
Registry can be exported easily to other systems
Integrated with the host system: not practical for
clustered servers
•
Server-side control
•
Not available for UNIX
•
Applicable only for Windows
Browser cookies
System registry
Migrating client variable data
To migrate your client variable data to another data source, determine th----e structure of the database tables that store
this information. Client variables stored externally use two simple database tables, as shown in the following tables:
CDATA Table
Column
Data type
cfid
CHAR(64), TEXT, VARCHAR, or equivalent
app
CHAR(64), TEXT, VARCHAR, or equivalent
data
MEMO, LONGTEXT, LONG VARCHAR, or equivalent
CGLOBAL Table
Column
Data type
cfid
CHAR(64), TEXT, VARCHAR, or equivalent
data
MEMO, LONGTEXT, LONG VARCHAR, or equivalent
lvisit
TIMESTAMP, DATETIME, DATE, or equivalent
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Using the ColdFusion Administrator
Creating client variable tables
Use the following sample ColdFusion page as a model for creating client variable database tables in your own database.
However, keep in mind that not all databases support the same column data type names. For the proper data type, see
your database documentation.
Note: The ColdFusion Administrator can create client variable tables for data sources that use one of the bundled JDBC
drivers. For more information, see the Online Help.
Sample table creation page
<!---- Create the Client variable storage tables in a datasource.
This example applies to Microsoft Access databases. --->
<cfquery name="data1" datasource="#DSN#">
CREATE TABLE CDATA
(
cfid char(20),
app char(64),
data memo
)
</cfquery>
<cfquery name="data2" datasource="#DSN#">
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX id1
ON CDATA (cfid,app)
</cfquery>
<cfquery name="global1" datasource="#DSN#">
CREATE TABLE CGLOBAL
(
cfid char(20),
data memo,
lvisit date
)
</cfquery>
<cfquery name="global2" datasource="#DSN#">
CREATE INDEX id2
ON CGLOBAL (cfid)
</cfquery>
<cfquery name="global2" datasource="#DSN#">
CREATE INDEX id3
ON CGLOBAL (lvisit)
</cfquery>
Memory Variables page
Use the Memory Variables page of the ColdFusion Administrator to enable application and session variables serverwide. By default, application and session variables are enabled when you install ColdFusion. If you disable either type
of variable in the Memory Variables page, you cannot use them in a ColdFusion application.
You can specify maximum and default time-out values for session and application variables. Unless you define a timeout value in an Application.cfc or Application.cfm file, application variables expire in two days. Session variables
expire when user sessions end. To change these behaviors, enter new default and maximum time-out values on the
Memory Variables page of the Administrator.
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Note: Time-out values that you specify for application variables override the time-out values set in the Application.cfc or
Application.cfm file.
You can also specify whether to use J2EE session variables. When you enable the J2EE session variables, ColdFusion
creates an identifier for each session and does not use the CFToken or CFID cookie value. For more information, see
the Developing ColdFusion Applications.
Note: When using J2EE sessions, ensure that the session time out, specified in the WEB-INF/web.xml session-timeout
element, is longer than the session time out specified in the ColdFusion Administrator, and longer than any
sessiontimeout attribute specified in a cfapplication tag.
Mappings page
Use the Mappings page of the ColdFusion Administrator to add, update, and delete logical aliases for paths to
directories on your server. ColdFusion mappings apply only to pages that ColdFusion processes with the cfinclude
and cfmodule tags. If you save CFML pages outside the web_root directory (or whatever directory is mapped to "/"),
you add a mapping to the location of those files on your server.
Assume that the "/" mapping on your server points to C:\coldfusion9\wwwroot, but that all of your ColdFusion header
pages reside in C:\2002\newpages\headers. Add a mapping in the ColdFusion Administrator that points to
C:\2002\newpages\headers, for ColdFusion to find the header pages. For example, add a mapping for /headers that
points to C:\2002\newpages\headers. In the ColdFusion pages located in C:\coldfusion9\wwwroot, you reference these
header pages using /headers in your cfinclude and cfmodule tags.
Note: ColdFusion mappings are different from web server virtual directories. For information on creating a virtual
directory to access a given directory using a URL in your web browser, consult your web server documentation.
Mail page
Use the Mail page of the ColdFusion Administrator to specify a mail server to send automated e-mail messages.
ColdFusion supports the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for sending e-mail messages and the Post Office
Protocol (POP) for retrieving e-mail messages from your mail server. To use e-mail messaging in your ColdFusion
applications, you must have access to an SMTP server and a POP account.
The ColdFusion Enterprise Edition supports mail-server failover, as well as additional mail delivery options.
The ColdFusion implementation of SMTP mail uses a spooled architecture. This means that when a cfmail tag is
processed in an application page, the messages generated might not be sent immediately. If ColdFusion has a large
queue, delivery could occur after some delay.
Note: For more information about the cfmail tag, see Sending SMTP e-mail with the cfmail tag in Sending and Receiving
E-Mail in the Developing ColdFusion Applications.
Mail Server Settings area
The following table describes basic mail server settings:
Option
Description
Mail Server
Enter a valid mail server for sending dynamic SMTP mail messages in the text box. You can enter an
Internet address, such as mail.company.com, or the IP address of the mail server, such as 127.0.0.1.
Username
Enter the user name for the mail server, if necessary.
Password
Enter the password for the mail server, if necessary.
Sign
Select this check box to configure ColdFusion to digitally sign your mails.
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Option
Description
Keystore
Location of the Keystore containing the private key and certificate. The supported type is JKS (java key
store) and pkcs12.
Keystore Password
Keystore password.
KeyAlias
Alias of the key with which the certificate and private key is stored in Keystore. If it is not specified then
the first entry in the Keystore is be picked up.
KeyPassword
Password with which the private key is stored. If it is not specified, KeystorePassword is used as
KeyPassword.
Verify Mail Server Connection
Verifies that ColdFusion can connect to your specified mail server after you submit this form.
Even if you do not use this option, send a test message to verify that your mail server connection works.
Server Port
Enter the number of the port on which the mail server is running. Contact your server administrator if
you are unsure of the appropriate port number.
Backup Mail Servers (Enterprise
Edition only)
Enter zero or more backup servers for sending SMTP mail messages. You can enter an Internet address,
such as mail.company.com, or the IP address of the mail server, such as 127.0.0.1. Separate multiple
servers with a comma.
If the mail server requires authentication, prepend the mail server with the user name and password, as
follows: username:password@mailserveraddress
To use a port number other than the default (25), specify mailserveraddress:portnumber
Maintain Connection To Mail Server Keeps mail server connections open after sending a mail message. Enabling this option can enhance
performance when delivering multiple messages.
(Enterprise Edition only)
Connection Timeout (seconds)
Enter the number of seconds that ColdFusion should wait for a response from the mail server before
timing out.
Enable SSL Socket Connections To
Mail Server
Enables SSL encryption on the connections to the mail server.
Enable TLS Connection To Mail
Server
Enables Transport Level Security (TLS) on the connection to the mail server.
Mail Spool Settings area
The following table describes mail server spool settings:
Option
Description
Spool Interval (Seconds)
Enter the interval, in seconds, at which you want the mail server to process spooled mail.
Mail Delivery Threads
Enter the maximum number of simultaneous threads used to deliver spooled mail.
(Enterprise Edition only)
Spool Mail Messages For Delivery
To
(Memory spooling available for
Enterprise Edition only)
Maximum Number Of Messages
Spooled To Memory
Routes outgoing mail messages to the mail spooler. If you disable this option, ColdFusion delivers
outgoing mail messages immediately. In ColdFusion Enterprise Edition, you can spool messages to disk
(slower, but messages persist across shutdowns) or to memory (faster, but messages do not persist).
You can override this setting in the cfmail tag.
Enter the maximum number of messages that spool to memory before switching to disk spooling.
(Enterprise Edition only)
View Undelivered Mail
Click to view undelivered mails.
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Mail Logging Settings area
Select preferences for handling mail logs, as described in the following table:
Option
Description
Error Log Severity
From the drop-down list object, select the type of SMTP-related error message to write to a log file. The
options are the following:
Log All Mail Messages Sent By
ColdFusion
•
Debug (contains Information, Warning, and Error)
•
Information (contains Warning and Error)
•
Warning (contains Error)
•
Error
Saves to a log file the To, From, and Subject fields of all e-mail messages.
ColdFusion writes sent-mail and mail-error logs to the following directories:
• \coldfusion9\logs (Windows server configuration)
• /opt/coldfusion9/log (Solaris and Linux server configuration)
• cf_webapp_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/logs (multiserver and J2EE configurations, all platforms)
The following table describes the e-mail log files:
Log
Description
mailsent.log
Records sent e-mail messages.
mail.log
Records general e-mail errors.
Mail Character Set Settings area
Select preferences for the default mail character set, as described in the following table:
Option
Description
Default CFMail CharSet
From the drop-down list object, select the default character set that the cfmail tag uses. The default
value is UTF-8. If most of your e-mail clients use a specific character set, you can use this setting to switch
to that locale-specific character set. For example, Japanese mail is typically sent using the ISO-2022-JP
character set.
Charting page
The ColdFusion charting and graphing server lets you produce highly customizable business graphics, in various
formats, using the cfquery tag. Use the Charting page in the Administrator to control characteristics of the server.
The following table describes the caching and thread settings for the ColdFusion charting and graphing server:
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Option
Description
Cache Type
Set the cache type. Charts can be cached either in memory or to disk. Memory caching is faster, but more
memory intensive.
Maximum Number Of Cached
Images
Specify the maximum number of charts to store in the cache. After the cache is full, if you generate a new
chart, ColdFusion discards the oldest chart in the cache.
Max Number Of Charting Threads
Specify the maximum number of chart requests that can be processed concurrently. The minimum
number is 1 and the maximum is 5. (Higher numbers are more memory-intensive.)
Disk Cache Location
When caching to disk, specify the directory in which to store the generated charts.
Font Management page
The Font Management page lets you review and define fonts for use with Adobe® FlashPaper™ and Acrobat® PDF
output formats. ColdFusion generates FlashPaper and PDF output through the cfdocument tag and through the
cfreport tag, when used to call a report created with the ColdFusion Report Builder.
ColdFusion automatically registers Acrobat built-in fonts and fonts located in typical font locations (such as the
Windows\fonts directory). However, if your server has additional fonts installed in nonstandard locations, you register
them with the ColdFusion Administrator so that the cfdocument and cfreport tags can locate and render PDF and
FlashPaper reports.
This page contains the following topics:
Register New Font with ColdFusion Lets you browse to a directory that contains fonts, or select a specific font.
User Defined Fonts Displays the fonts that have been registered explicitly.
Current System Fonts Displays fonts stored in platform-specific system font directories.
For more information on font management, see the ColdFusion Administrator online Help. For more information on
reporting in ColdFusion, see Creating Reports and Documents for Printing in the Developing ColdFusion Applications.
Document page
The Document page allows you to configure OpenOffice application. If you did not configure during installation,
provide the directory path to configure OpenOffice.
Depending on whether your ColdFusion server is installed on a local or remote server, you can configure OpenOffice
with your ColdFusion server instance.
For more information about configuring OpenOffice with ColdFusion, see Configuring OpenOffice in Installing
ColdFusion.
Java and JVM page
The Java and JVM page lets you specify the following settings, which enable ColdFusion to work with Java:
Option
Description
Java Virtual Machine Path
The absolute file path to the location of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) root directory. The default is
cf_root/runtime/jre.
Minimum JVM Heap Size
The JVM initial heap size.
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Option
Description
Maximum JVM Heap Size
The JVM maximum heap size. The default value is 512 MB.
ColdFusion Class Path
The file paths to the directories that contain the JAR files that ColdFusion uses. Specify either the fully
qualified name of a directory that contains your JAR files or a fully qualified JAR filename. Use a comma
to separate multiple entries.
JVM Arguments
The arguments to the JVM. Use a space to separate multiple entries (for example, -Xint -Xincgc).
Note: This page is available in the server configuration only.
Before ColdFusion saves your changes, it saves a copy of the current cf_root/runtime/bin/jvm.config file as jvm.bak. If
your changes prevent ColdFusion from restarting, use the jvm.bak file to restore your system. For more information,
see the Online Help.
Settings Summary page
The Settings Summary page shows all ColdFusion configuration settings. Click a group name to open the
Administrator section of that group, where you can edit settings. This page is not enabled in the Standard Edition.
In ColdFusion, you can export the server settings to PDF by clicking the Save As PDF button on this page.
Data & Services section
The Data & Services section of the Administrator is the interface for ColdFusion, data sources, and Verity search and
indexing features. The following table describes some common tasks that you can perform in the Data & Services
section of the Administrator:
Task
Description
Create and manage JDBC data
sources
The Data Sources page lets you establish, edit, and delete JDBC data source connections for ColdFusion.
For more information, see “Data Source Management” on page 34.
Create and maintain ColdFusion
collections
The ColdFusion Collections page lets you create and delete Verity/Solr collections and perform
maintenance operations on collections that you create. For more information, see “ColdFusion
Collections page” on page 15.
Define mappings for web services
The Web Services page lets you produce and consume remote application functionality over the
Internet. For more information, see “Web Services page” on page 16.
Specify settings to integrate with
Adobe® Flex™ applications
The Flex Integration page lets you specify which Flex integration features to enable and which IP
addresses can perform data service operations. For more information, see “Flex Integration page” on
page 16.
Data Sources page
The Data Sources page lets you create, edit, and delete JDBC data sources. Before you can use a database in a
ColdFusion application, you register the data source in the ColdFusion Administrator. For more information, see
“Data Source Management” on page 34.
ColdFusion Collections page
Use this page to create and manage your Verity or Solr collections.
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ColdFusion lets you manage your collections from the Administrator. You can index, optimize, purge, or delete
Verity/Solr collections that are connected to ColdFusion. You use the icons in the Actions column to perform the
following actions:
Action
Description
Index
Analyzes the files in a collection and assembles metadata and pointers to the files.
Optimize
Reclaims space left by deleted and changed files by consolidating collection indexes for faster searching. You
should optimize collections regularly.
Purge
Deletes all documents in a collection, but not the collection itself. Leaves the collection directory structure intact.
Delete
Deletes a collection.
ColdFusion includes Verity and Solr, which provides indexing and searching technology. This enables creating,
populating, and managing collections of indexed data that are optimized for fast and efficient site searches.
A collection is a logical group of documents and metadata about the documents. The metadata includes word indexes,
an internal documents table of document field information, and logical pointers to the document files.
For more information about building search interfaces, see Building a Search Interface and Solr search support in the
Developing ColdFusion Applications.
If the ColdFusion Collections page is unable to retrieve collections, ensure that Verity/Solr Search Server is running.
For more information, see “Collections and the ColdFusion Verity architecture” on page 116 and “Solr Server and
Collections” on page 169.
Verity K2 Server page
You can install Verity on a different host computer from the computer on which ColdFusion is running. If so,
configure the host to be used by ColdFusion for performing search operations. In addition, you may need to use
advanced settings to configure the aliases and ports of the services that ColdFusion uses. You need not change these
values if you are running with the ColdFusion installed version of Verity.
Web Services page
You can use web services to produce and consume remote application functionality over the Internet. The ColdFusion
Administrator lets you register web services so that you do not have to specify the entire Web Services Description
Language (WSDL) URL when you reference the web service. The first time you reference a web service, ColdFusion
automatically registers it in the Administrator.
When you register a web service, you can shorten your code and change a web service URL without editing your code.
For more information, see Using Web Services in the Developing ColdFusion Applications.
Flex Integration page
Use this page to specify which Flex integration features to enable and which IP addresses can perform data-service
operations. If you enable Adobe LiveCycle Data Services ES support, but do not specify any IP addresses, only
processes on the local computer can connect to the LiveCycle Data Services ES server in ColdFusion.
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Option
Description
Enable Flash Remoting
Support
Specifies whether to enable Flash clients to connect to this ColdFusion server and invoke methods in ColdFusion
components (CFCs).
Enable Remote LiveCycle Specifies whether to enable a LiveCycle Data Services ES server to connect to this ColdFusion server and invoke
Data Management Access methods in CFCs to fill, sync, get, or count records in a result set used in a Flex application. Enable this option only
if you are running LiveCycle Data Services ES remotely.
Server Identity
Specifies the ColdFusion server on which you want to enable Flex Data Management Support.
Enable RMI Over SSL For
Data Management
To encrypt communication between ColdFusion and Flex, enable Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Select IP Addresses Where Specifies which LiveCycle Data Services ES servers can connect to the LiveCycle Data Services ES support in
LiveCycle Data Services
ColdFusion. If you do not specify a list of allowed IP addresses, only processes on the local computer can connect
Are Running
to the LiveCycle Data Services ES support in ColdFusion
To use SSL, create a keystore file. The keystore is a self-signed certificate. (You do not need a certificate signed by a
Certificate Authority, although if you do use one, you do not need to configure Flex as indicated in the following steps.)
The information in the keystore is encrypted and can be accessed only with the password that you specify. To create
the keystore, use the Java keytool utility, which is included in the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).
Enable SSL
1 Create the keystore.
2 Configure Flex.
3 Enable SSL in the ColdFusion Administrator.
Create the keystore
❖ To generate the SSL server (ColdFusion) keystore file, use the keytool utility, with a command similar to the
following:
keytool -genkey -v -alias FlexAssembler -dname "cn=FlexAssembler" -keystore cf.keystore keypass mypassword -storepass mypassword
The following table describes the parameters of the keytool utility:
Parameter
Description
-alias
The name of the keystore entry. You can use any name for this, as long as you are consistent when referring
to it.
-dname
The Distinguished Name, which contains the Common Name (cn) of the server.
-keystore
The location of the keystore file.
-keypass
The password for your private key.
-storepass
The password for the keystore. The encrypted storepass is stored in ColdFusion configuration files.
-rfc
Generates the certificate in the printable encoding format.
-file
The name of the keystore file.
-v
Generates detailed certificate information
Place the certificate you created in the file that the JVM uses to determine what certificates to trust. The file in which
you place the certificate (usually named cacerts), is located in the JRE, in the lib/security folder.
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Configure Flex
1 To export the keystore to a certificate, use the keytool utility, with a command similar to the following:
keytool -export -v -alias FlexAssembler -keystore cf.keystore -rfc -file cf.cer
2 To import the certificate into the JRE cacerts file for your server, use the keytool utility, with a command similar to
the following:
keytool -import -v -alias FlexAssembler -file cf.cer -keystore
C:\fds2\UninstallerData\jre\lib\security\cacerts
The preceding example specifies the location of the keystore for LiveCycle Data Services ES with integrated JRun,
installed by using the default settings. If you are using a different server, specify the location of the cacerts file for the
JRE that you are using. For example, if you are using JBoss, specify the keystore location as
$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts.
Enable SSL in the ColdFusion Administrator
1 Select Data & Services > Flex Integration, and specify the keystore file in the Full Path To Keystore box.
2 Specify the keystore password in the Keystore Password box.
3 Select Enable RMI Over SSL For Data Management, and then click Submit Changes.
If you specify an invalid keystore file or password, ColdFusion does not enable SSL, and disables LiveCycle Data
Management Support.
Debugging & Logging section
Debugging Output Settings page
Use the Debugging Settings and Debugging IPs pages to configure ColdFusion to provide debugging information for
every application page that a browser request. Specify debugging preferences by using the pages as follows:
• On the Debugging Settings page, select debugging output options. If debugging is enabled, the output appears in
block format after normal page output.
• On the Debugging IPs page, restrict access to debugging output. If a debugging option is enabled, debugging output
is visible to all users by default.
Note: Enabling debugging affects performance. It is advised that you do not enable debugging on a production server.
The Debug Output Settings page provides the following debugging options:
Option
Description
Enable Robust Exception Information
Displays detailed information in the exceptions page, including the physical path and URI of
the template, the line number and snippet, the SQL statement used (if any), the data source
name (if any), and the Java stack trace.
Enable Request Debugging Output
Enables the ColdFusion debugging service.
Select Debugging Output Format
Controls debugging format. Select either of the following formats:
•
classic.cfm The format available in ColdFusion 5 and earlier. It provides a basic view and
few browser restrictions.
•
dockable.cfm A dockable tree-based debugging panel. For details about the panel and
browser restrictions, see the online Help.
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Option
Description
Report Execution Times
Reports execution times that exceed a specified time limit.
General Debug Information
Show general information about the ColdFusion MX version, template, timestamp, user
locale, user agent, user IP, and host name.
Database Activity
Shows the database activity for the SQL Query events and Stored Procedure events in the
debugging output.
Exception Information
Shows all ColdFusion exceptions raised for the request in the debugging output.
Tracing Information
Shows trace event information in the debugging output. Tracing lets you track program flow
and efficiency using the cftrace tag.
Timer Information
Shows output from the cftimer tag.
Flash Form Compile Errors And Messages
(Development use only) Displays ActionScript errors in the browser when Flash forms are
compiling, and affects the display time of the page.
Variables
Displays information about parameters, URL parameters, cookies, sessions, and CGI variables
in the debugging output.
Enable Performance Monitoring
Enables the standard NT Performance Monitor application to display information about a
running server.
(Server configuration only)
TIP: Restart ColdFusion after you change this setting.
Enable CFSTAT
Shows performance information on platforms that do not support the NT Performance
Monitor. For more information, see “Using the cfstat utility” on page 19.
(Server configuration only)
TIP: Restart ColdFusion after you change this setting.
Using the cfstat utility
The cfstat command-line utility provides real-time performance metrics for ColdFusion. The cfstat utility uses a
socket connection to obtain metric data. You can use the cfstat utility to display information that ColdFusion writes
to the System Monitor without using the System Monitor application. The following table lists the metrics that the
cfstat utility returns:
Metric abbreviation
Metric name
Description
Pg/Sec
Page hits per second
The number of ColdFusion pages processed per second. You can
reduce this limit by moving static content to HTML pages.
DB/Sec
Database accesses per second
The number of database accesses per second that ColdFusion makes.
Any difference in complexity and resource load between calls is
ignored.
Req Q'ed
Number of queued requests
The number of requests that are currently waiting for ColdFusion to
process them. Lower values, which you can achieve with efficient
CFML, are better.
Req Run'g
Number of running requests
The number of requests that ColdFusion is currently actively
processing.
Req TO'ed
Number of timed out requests
The total number of ColdFusion requests that have timed out. Lower
values, which you can achieve by aggressive caching, removing
unnecessary dynamic operations and third-party events, are better.
AvgQ Time
Average queue time
A running average of the time, in milliseconds, that requests wait for
ColdFusion to process them. Lower values, which you can achieve
with efficient CFML and enhanced caching, are better. Averages are
displayed for the last two completed requests.
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Metric abbreviation
Metric name
Description
AvgReq Time
Average request time
A running average of the time, in milliseconds, that it takes ColdFusion
to process a request (including queued time). Lower values, which you
can achieve with efficient CFML, are better. Averages are displayed for
the last two completed requests.
AvgDB Time
Average database transaction time
A running average of the time that ColdFusion spends on databaserelated processing of ColdFusion requests. Averages are displayed for
the last two completed requests.
Bytes In/Sec
Bytes incoming per second
The number of bytes that ColdFusion read in the last second (not an
average).
Bytes Out/Sec
Bytes outgoing per second
The number of bytes that ColdFusion wrote in the last second (not an
average).
Before you use the cfstat utility, ensure that you selected the Enable Performance Monitoring option in the
ColdFusion Administrator (on the Debugging & Logging > Debugging Settings page). If you select this option, restart
ColdFusion for this change to take effect.
cfstat options
The cf_root/bin directory contains the cfstat utility. From that directory, type cfstat and use the following switches:
Switch
Description
Comment
-n
Suppress column headers.
Useful for saving output to a file.
-s
Display output in a single line.
Display a single line and delay display of the first line so the cfstat
utility can display meaningful values in the per-second counters.
#
Where # is an integer, display output
every # seconds.
If you do not specify an integer, the cfstat utility returns one line.
Specify this switch with or without the -s switch.
-x
Display extended output breaking of
different request threads.
Available in ColdFusion Enterprise. It is ignored in ColdFusion
Standard.
-port
Allows you to specify the port to which
ColdFusion listens for cfstat
communications.
This example runs the cfstat utility and displays a new line every 20 seconds:
cfstat 20
Debugging IP Addresses page
Use the Debugging IP Addresses page to restrict debugging output to one or more IP addresses. You can add and
remove IP addresses.
Note: If you do not specify IP addresses, and debugging options are active, ColdFusion displays debugging output for all
users.
Debugger Settings page
To use the ColdFusion Debugger that runs in Eclipse, select the Allow Line Debugging option.
Specify the port and the maximum number of simultaneous debugging sessions. Specify the debugger port in the JVM
settings of your application server, for example:
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-Xrunjdwp:transport=dt_socket,server=y,suspend=n,address=#portNum#
To stop a currently running debugging session, click Stop Debugging.
For the changes that you specify on this page to take effect, restart the ColdFusion server.
Logging Settings page
Use the Logging Settings page of the Administrator to change ColdFusion logging options. The following table
describes the settings:
Option
Description
Log Directory
Specifies the directory to which error log files are written.
TIP: Restart ColdFusion after you change this setting.
Maximum File Size (kb)
Sets the maximum file size for log files. When a file reaches this limit, it automatically is archived.
Maximum Number Of Archives
Sets the maximum number of log archives to create. When they reach this limit, files are deleted in
the order of oldest to newest.
Log Slow Pages Taking Longer Than [n]
Seconds
Logs the names of pages that take longer than the specified interval to process. Logging slow
pages can help you diagnose potential problems or bottlenecks in your ColdFusion applications.
Entries are written to the server.log file.
Log All CORBA Calls
Logs all CORBA calls.
Enable Logging For Scheduled Tasks
Logs ColdFusion Executive task scheduling.
Log Files page
The Log Files page lets you perform operations on log files, such as searching, viewing, downloading, archiving, and
deleting.
Click a Log File icon located in the Actions column of the Available Log Files table, to search, view, download, archive,
or delete a log file.
For more information, see the ColdFusion Administrator online Help.
The following table describes the ColdFusion log files:
Log file
Description
rdservice.log
Records errors that occur in the ColdFusion Remote Development Service (RDS). RDS provides
remote HTTP-based access to files and databases.
application.log
Records every ColdFusion error reported to a user. Application page errors, including ColdFusion
syntax, ODBC, and SQL errors, are written to this log file.
exception.log
Records stack traces for exceptions that occur in ColdFusion.
scheduler.log
Records scheduled events that have been submitted for execution. Indicates whether task
submission was initiated and whether it succeeded. Provides the scheduled page URL, the date and
time executed, and a task ID.
eventgateway.log
Records events and errors related to event gateways.
migration.log
Records errors related to upgrading from a previous version of ColdFusion.
migrationException.log
Records errors related to running ColdFusion applications after upgrading from a previous version
of ColdFusion.
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Log file
Description
server.log
Records errors for ColdFusion.
customtag.log
Records errors generated in custom tag processing.
car.log
Records errors associated with site archive and restore operations.
mail.log
Records errors generated by an SMTP mail server.
mailsent.log
Records messages that ColdFusion sends.
flash.log
Records entries for Flash® Remoting.
Enable/Disable logging
In ColdFusion 9.0.1, a new icon has been added in the Actions column of the Log Files page. This icon lets you
stop/start logging for a particular log type.
Log files introduced in ColdFusion 9.0.1
You can generate log files for the following services in ColdFusion 9.0.1:
• http
• ftp
• web service
• Portlet
• Derby
• Feed
Scheduled Tasks page
Use the Scheduled Tasks page to schedule the execution of local and remote web pages, to generate static HTML pages,
send mail with the cfmail tag, update database tables, index Verity collections, delete temporary files, and any other
batch-style processing. The scheduling facility is useful for applications that do not require user interactions or
customized output. ColdFusion developers use this facility to schedule daily sales reports, corporate directories,
statistical reports, and so on.
Information that is read more often than written is a good candidate for scheduled tasks. Instead of executing a query
to a database every time the page is requested, ColdFusion renders the static page with information that the scheduled
event generates. Response time is faster because no database transaction takes place.
You can run scheduled tasks once; on a specified date; or at a specified time, daily, weekly, or monthly; daily; at a
specified interval; or between specified dates.
The Scheduled Task page lets you create, edit, pause, resume, and delete scheduled tasks. For more information, see
the Online Help.
Scheduling enhancement in ColdFusion 9.0.1
This release supports automatic logging of scheduled tasks.
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System Probes page
System probes help you evaluate the status of your ColdFusion applications. Like scheduled tasks, they access a URL
at a specified interval, but they can also check for the presence or absence of a string in the URL. If the URL contents
are unexpected, or if an error occurred while accessing the URL, the probe can send an e-mail alert to the address
specified on the System Probes page. The probe can also execute a script to perform a recovery action, such as
restarting the server. All probe actions are logged in the logs/probes.log file. The System Probes page also displays the
status of each probe.
Use the buttons in the Actions column in the System Probes table to perform the following actions:
Action
Description
Edit
Lets you edit the probe.
Run
Runs the probe immediately, even if it was previously disabled.
Enable/Disable
Starts and stops the probe from automatically executing at its specified interval.
Delete
Deletes the probe.
Because probes run as scheduled ColdFusion tasks, they do not run if the server on which they are hosted crashes, or
if the host web server crashes or otherwise does not respond.
System probes are available in ColdFusion Enterprise Edition only.
Code Analyzer page
The Code Analyzer page evaluates your ColdFusion pages for potential incompatibilities between ColdFusion 9 and
previous versions of ColdFusion. It reviews the CFML pages that you specify and informs you of any potential
compatibility issues. Additionally, the Code Compatibility Analyzer detects unsupported and deprecated CFML
features, and outlines the required implementation changes that ensure a smooth migration
License Scanner page
The License Scanner page searches the local subnet to find other running instances of ColdFusion. You can use this
information to determine whether the ColdFusion instances within the subnet are licensed appropriately.
The ColdFusion Administrator uses universal datagram protocol (UDP) multicast to collect license and version
information from all ColdFusion instances running within the subnet.
Server Monitoring section
The Server Monitoring section lets you run the following:
• Server Monitor
• Multiserver Monitor
The Server Monitor is an Adobe SWF application that lets you track activities on a ColdFusion Server. You can identify
information about the server, including requests, queries, memory usage, and errors. You can start and stop collecting
server information and take snapshots of the server.
The Multiserver Monitor is another SWF application. It lets you track the status of several servers.
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Extensions section
Use the Extensions section of the Administrator to configure ColdFusion to work with other technologies, such as Java
and CORBA.
Java Applets page
The Java Applets page of the Administrator lets you register applets and edit and delete applet registrations. Before you
can use Java applets in your ColdFusion applications, register them in the Java Applets page.
When your applet is registered with ColdFusion, using the cfapplet tag in your CFML code is simple, because all
parameters are predefined: Enter the applet source and the form variable name to use.
Note: Parameters set with the cfapplet tag override parameters defined on the Java Applets page.
For more information, see the Online Help.
CFX Tags page
Before you can use a CFX tag in ColdFusion applications, register it. Use the CFX Tags page to register and manage
ColdFusion custom tags built with C++ and Java.
You can build CFX tags in the following two ways:
• Using C++ as a dynamic link library (DLL) on Windows or as shared objects (.so or .sl extension) on Solaris and Linux
• Using Java interfaces defined in the cfx.jar file
For more information, see the Online Help.
Custom Tag Paths page
Use the Custom Tag Paths page of the Administrator to add, edit, and delete custom tag directory paths. The default
custom tag path is under the installation directory. To use custom tags in another path, register the path on this
Administrator page.
For more information, see the online Help.
CORBA Connectors page
Use the CORBA Connectors page to register, edit, and delete CORBA connectors. Register CORBA connectors before
you use them in ColdFusion applications and restart the server when you finish configuring the CORBA connector.
ColdFusion loads object request broker (ORB) libraries dynamically by using a connector, which does not restrict
ColdFusion developers to a specific ORB vendor. The connectors depend on the ORB runtime libraries provided by
the vendor. A connector for Borland Visibroker is embedded within ColdFusion. Make sure that the ORB runtime
libraries are in cf_root/runtime/lib (server configuration) or cf_webapp_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/lib (multiserver and
J2EE configurations).
The following table contains information about the libraries and connectors:
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Operating System Vendor
ORB
ColdFusion connector
ORB library
Windows NT and
later
Borland
VisiBroker 4.5
coldfusion.runtime.corba.VisibrokerConnector (embedded)
vbjorb.jar
Solaris
Borland
VisiBroker 4.5
coldfusion.runtime.corba.VisibrokerConnector (embedded)
vbjorb.jar
Example of a CORBA connector configuration for VisiBroker:
ORB Name
ORB Class Name
ORB Property File
Classpath
visibroker
coldfusion.runtime.corba.VisibrokerConnector
c:\ColdFusion9\runtime\cfusion\lib\vbjorb.properties
[blank]
ColdFusion includes the vbjorb.properties file, which contains the following properties that configure the ORB:
org.omg.CORBA.ORBClass=com.inprise.vbroker.orb.ORB
org.omg.CORBA.ORBSingletonClass=com.inprise.vbroker.orb.ORB
SVCnameroot=namingroot
Event Gateways section
The Event Gateways section of the Administrator lets you configure event gateway settings, gateway types, and
gateway instances.
Event Gateways Settings page
The Event Gateways Settings page lets you configure settings for all event gateways, and start or stop the Short Message
Service (SMS) test server. The following table describes the settings:
Option
Description
Enable ColdFusion Event
Gateway Services
Specifies whether the service is enabled. Changing this setting restarts the service.
Event Gateway Processing
Threads
Specifies the maximum number of threads used to execute ColdFusion functions when an event arrives.
A higher number uses more resources, but increases event throughput.
Maximum Number Of Events To
Queue
Specifies the maximum number of events allowed on the event queue. If the queue length exceeds this
value, gateway events are not be added to the processing queue.
Start/Stop SMS Test Server
Starts and stops the short message service (SMS) test server.
Gateway Types page
The Gateways Types pages let you configure the types of gateways available on your system. After you configure a type,
you can create any number of gateway instances of that type. The following table describes the event gateway types that
ColdFusion includes:
Gateway type
Description
CFML
Triggers asynchronous events from ColdFusion.
DataManagement
Lets a ColdFusion application notify a Flex destination about changes in the data that the destination
manages.
DataServicesMessaging
Sends messages to and receive messages from Flex applications.
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Gateway type
Description
FMS Gateway
Modifies data through the ColdFusion application or the Flash client, and reflects the change in the
Flash Media Server shared object.
SMS
Used to send and receive SMS messages.
SAMETIME
Used to send and receive instant messages through Lotus SameTime.
XMPP
Used to send and receive instant messages through the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
(XMPP).
Samples
Sample gateway types, including the following:
•
DirectoryWatcher
•
JMS
•
Socket
Watches a directory for file changes.
Acts as a Java Messaging Service consumer or producer.
Listens on a TCP/IP port.
Gateway Instances page
The Gateway Instances page lets you configure ColdFusion event gateway instances to direct events from various
sources to ColdFusion components (CFCs) that you have written. The following table describes the settings:
Option
Description
Gateway ID
A name for the event gateway instance. You use this value in the ColdFusion GetGatewayHelper and
SendGatewayMessage functions.
Gateway Type
The event gateway type.
CFC Path
The absolute path to the listener CFC that handles incoming messages.
Configuration File
(Optional) Configuration file, if necessary for the event gateway instance.
Startup Mode
The event gateway startup status, as follows:
•
Automatic Start the event gateway when ColdFusion starts.
•
Manual Do not start the event gateway with ColdFusion, but allow starting it from the Gateway
Instances page.
•
Disabled
Do not allow the event gateway to start.
Security section
The Security section of the Administrator lets you configure the security frameworks of ColdFusion.
For more information on security, see “Administering Security” on page 75.
Administrator page
Use the Administrator page of the Administrator to enable and disable password-restricted access to the
Administrator, and to change the Administrator password. Restrict ColdFusion Administrator access to trusted users.
You can also configure all users to use a single ColdFusion Administrator password or allow only users defined in the
User Manager and the root administrative user to have access to the ColdFusion Administrator.
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RDS page
Use the RDS page to enable and disable password-restricted RDS access to server resources from Adobe Macromedia
Dreamweaver MX , Adobe Macromedia HomeSite+ , ColdFusion Extensions for Eclipse, or the ColdFusion Report
Builder, and to change the RDS password. You can also configure all users to use a single RDS password, or allow only
users defined in the User Manager to have access through RDS.
Sandbox security page
You use the Sandbox Security page (called Resource Security in the Standard Edition) to specify security permissions
for data sources, tags, functions, files, directories, IP addresses, ports, and runtime permissions.
Sandbox security uses the location of your ColdFusion pages to determine functionality. A sandbox is a designated area
(CFM files or directories that contain CFM files) of your site to which you apply security restrictions. By default, a
subdirectory (or child directory) inherits the sandbox settings of the directory one level above it (the parent directory).
If you define sandbox settings for a subdirectory, you override the sandbox settings inherited from the parent
directory.
Use sandbox security to control access to the following:
• Data sources
• Tags
• Functions
• Files and directories
• IP addresses and ports
You can also edit runtime permissions for ColdFusion pages.
Note: If you have enabled sandbox security and want to use the Administrator API, enable access to the CFIDE/adminapi
directory.
User Manager page
Use the User Manager page to specify the user name, password, description, access rights, exposed services, sandboxes,
and allowed roles for individual users. This page is especially useful for web hosting when multiple ColdFusion
applications are on one server, each maintained by a different user or organization.
You can grant access to the ColdFusion Administrator, which also grants access to the Administrator API.
If the administrator revokes the role of a user while the user is logged in, the revocation takes effect only when the user
logs in again.
The default user ID of an administrator is admin. To change the administrator user ID, add the following in the neosecurity.xml file, replacing admin with the user ID to use:
<var name='admin.userid.root'>
<string>admin</string>
</var>
Allowed IP Addresses
Specify client IP addresses that have the permission to access exposed services.
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Packaging and Deployment section
The Packaging and Deployment section of the Administrator lets you create and deploy CAR files. You can also create
J2EE EAR or WAR files that include an existing ColdFusion application and the ColdFusion runtime system.
ColdFusion Archives page
The ColdFusion Archives page includes tools that let you archive and deploy ColdFusion applications, configuration
settings, data source information, and other types of information to back up your files faster. The complete list of
archivable information includes the following:
• Name and file location
• Server settings
• ColdFusion mappings
• Data sources
• Verity collections
• Scheduled tasks
• Event gateway instances
• Java applets
• CFX tags
• Archive to do lists
After you archive the information, you can use the Administrator to deploy your web applications to the same
ColdFusion server or to a ColdFusion server running on a different computer. Additionally, you can use these features
to deploy and receive any ColdFusion archive file electronically.
The Archive Settings page lets you configure various archive system settings that apply to all archive and deployment
operations. For more information, see the Online Help.
J2EE Archives page
The J2EE Archives page lets you create an enterprise application archive (EAR) file or web application archive (WAR)
file that contains the following items:
• The ColdFusion web application.
• Server settings, such as data sources and custom tag paths.
• The CFML pages of your application, stored in the root directory of the ColdFusion web application.
With this EAR or WAR file, a J2EE administrator can deploy your ColdFusion MX application to a J2EE application
server.
If you are creating a cluster of server instances when running the multiserver configuration, use this page to create the
WAR or EAR files required to create each of the servers in the cluster.
You can create a J2EE archive regardless of whether you are running ColdFusion MX in the server configuration or
the J2EE configuration. However, you must be running the J2EE configuration to deploy an EAR or WAR file.
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Enterprise Manager section
The Enterprise Manager section of the Administrator lets you create JRun server instances with ColdFusion already
deployed, register remote JRun server instances, and create clusters of JRun server instances.
Note: The Enterprise Manager section appears only if you install the multiserver configuration. It does not display in the
server configuration. Nor does it display when running in a J2EE configuration (other than that deployed in the cfusion
server of the multiserver configuration).
Instance Manager page
The Instance Manager page lets you view the local and remote JRun servers that can be accessed by a cfusion server
running in the multiserver configuration.
From this page you can access pages that define new, local, JRun servers and register existing JRun servers running on
remote computers, as follows:
Add New Instance Create a JRun server and automatically deploy a copy of the current ColdFusion MX application
into that server. Alternatively, you can deploy ColdFusion MX applications packaged using the J2EE Archives page.
Register Remote Instance Define an existing remote JRun server to the Instance Manager for adding these servers to
a cluster. It is not mandatory to run the remote JRun server instance when you define it to the Instance Manager.
However, it must be running before you can add it to a cluster.
Cluster Manager page
The Cluster Manager page in ColdFusion MX Administrator lets you create and manage clusters of JRun servers, each
containing the same ColdFusion MX application.
Custom Extensions section
You can extend the functionality of the ColdFusion Administrator by adding links to other web applications and sites.
These links appear under the Custom Extensions section in the left navigation pane of the Administrator.
Extend the Administrator
1 Create a file that contains the HTML link code, followed by a <BR>, with a separate line for each link. Do not include
other HTML code, such as <head> or <body> tags.
The target attribute is required for each link; if you specify target="content", the page appears in the main pane
of the Administrator. If you specify any other value for the target attribute, the page appears in a new window.
2 Save this file as extensionscustom.cfm in the Administrator root directory (/CFIDE/administrator/).
For example, the following file adds links for Bowdoin College, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and La Sapienza:
<a href="http://www.bowdoin.edu/" target="content">Bowdoin College</a><br>
<a href="http://www.http://www.ucm.es/" target="_blank">Universidad Complutense de
Madrid</a><br>
<a href="http://www.uniroma1.it/" target="_blank">La Sapienza</a><br>
When you click a link, the page appears.
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Alternatively, you can extend the ColdFusion Administrator by editing the
wwwroot/CFIDE/administrator/custommenu.xml file.
Administrator API
You can use the Administrator API to perform most ColdFusion Administrator tasks programmatically. The
Administrator API consists of a set of ColdFusion components (CFCs) that contain methods you call to perform
Administrator tasks. For example, you use the setMSQL method of datasource.cfc to add a SQL Server data source.
The CFCs for the Administrator API are located in the cf_web_root/CFIDE/adminapi directory. Each CFC
corresponds to an area of the ColdFusion Administrator, as the following table shows:
CFC
Description
accessmanager.cfc
Specify the user name, password, description, access rights, sandboxes, and allowed roles for individual
users.
administrator.cfc
Contains basic Administrator functionality, including login, logout, the Migration wizard, and the Setup
wizard. You must call the login method before calling any other methods in the Administrator API.
base.cfc
Base object for all other Administrator API CFCs.
datasource.cfc
Add, modify, and delete ColdFusion data sources.
debugging.cfc
Manage debug settings
eventgateway.cfc
Manage event gateways
extensions.cfc
Manage custom tags, mappings, CFXs, applets, CORBA, and web services.
office.cfc
Manage OpenOffice settings.
mail.cfc
Manage ColdFusion mail settings.
runtime.cfc
Manage runtime settings for fonts, cache, charts, configuration, and other settings.
security.cfc
Manage passwords, RDS, and sandbox security.
serverinstance.cfc
Start, stop, and restart JRun servers. This CFC only works when running the multiserver configuration.
servermonitoring.cfc
Perform many of the Server Monitor tasks programmatically.
The adminapi directory also contains an Application.cfm file and two subdirectories.
Note: If you are using sandbox security, enable access to the cf_web_root/CFIDE/adminapi directory to use the
Administrator API.
Following are the styles of methods in the Administrator API:
Method arguments When setting complex or varied values, the Administrator API uses method arguments.
Getting and setting simple values When setting simple values, such as true or false debug settings, the Administrator
API uses get and set property methods.
To view the methods, method arguments, and documentation for the Administrator API CFCs, use the CFC Explorer.
For example, to view datasource.cfc when running in the server configuration, open a browser to
http://localhost:8500/CFIDE/adminapi/datasource.cfc.
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Use the Administrator API
1 Instantiate administrator.cfc:
<cfscript>
// Login is always required.
adminObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator");
Note: You can instantiate administrator.cfc and call the login method in a single line of code, as the following
example shows:
createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator").login("admin");
Note: You can log in as a user other than administrator, but with proper permissions, as follows. Provide the user
name after the password.
createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator").login("#password#","#username#")
2 Call the administrator.cfc login method, passing the ColdFusion Administrator password or the RDS password:
adminObj.login("admin");
3 Instantiate the desired CFC:
myObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.debugging");
4 Call the desired CFC method (this example enables debugging):
myObj.setDebugProperty(propertyName="enableDebug", propertyValue="true");
Examples
The following example adds a SQL Server data source:
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<cfscript>
// Login is always required. This example uses two lines of code.
adminObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator");
adminObj.login("admin");
// Instantiate the data source object.
myObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.datasource");
// Create a DSN.
myObj.setMSSQL(driver="MSSQLServer",
name="northwind_MSSQL",
host = "xx.x.xxx.xx",
port = "1433",
database = "northwind",
username = "sa",
login_timeout = "29",
timeout = "23",
interval = 6,
buffer = "64000",
blob_buffer = "64000",
setStringParameterAsUnicode = "false",
description = "Northwind SQL Server",
pooling = true,
maxpooledstatements = 999,
enableMaxConnections = "true",
maxConnections = "299",
disable_clob = true,
disable_blob = true,
disable = false,
storedProc = true,
alter = false,
grant = true,
select = true,
update = true,
create = true,
delete = true,
drop = false,
revoke = false );
</cfscript>
The following example adds the same SQL Server data source, but uses the argumentCollection attribute to pass all
method arguments in a structure:
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<cfscript>
// Login is always required. This example uses a single line of code.
createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator").login("admin");
// Instantiate the data source object.
myObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.datasource");
// Required arguments for a data source.
stDSN = structNew();
stDSN.driver = "MSSQLServer";
stDSN.name="northwind_MSSQL";
stDSN.host = "xx.x.xxx.xx";
stDSN.port = "1433";
stDSN.database = "northwind";
stDSN.username = "sa";
// Optional and advanced arguments.
stDSN.login_timeout = "29";
stDSN.timeout = "23";
stDSN.interval = 6;
stDSN.buffer = "64000";
stDSN.blob_buffer = "64000";
stDSN.setStringParameterAsUnicode = "false";
stDSN.description = "Northwind SQL Server";
stDSN.pooling = true;
stDSN.maxpooledstatements = 999;
stDSN.enableMaxConnections = "true";
stDSN.maxConnections = "299";
stDSN.enable_clob = true;
stDSN.enable_blob = true;
stDSN.disable = false;
stDSN.storedProc = true;
stDSN.alter = false;
stDSN.grant = true;
stDSN.select = true;
stDSN.update = true;
stDSN.create = true;
stDSN.delete = true;
stDSN.drop = false;
stDSN.revoke = false;
//Create a DSN.
myObj.setMSSQL(argumentCollection=stDSN);
</cfscript>
<!--- Optionally dump the stDSN structure. --->
<!--<cfoutput>
<cfdump var="#stDSN#">
</cfoutput>
--->
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Chapter 4: Data Source Management
A data source is a complete database configuration that uses a JDBC driver to communicate with a specific database.
In Adobe ColdFusion, you configure a data source for each database that you want to use. After you configure a data
source, ColdFusion can then communicate with that data source through JDBC.
For basic information on data sources and connecting to databases, click Resources in the ColdFusion Administrator,
and then select Getting Started Experience.
About JDBC
JDBC is a Java Application Programming Interface (API) that you use to execute SQL statements. JDBC enables an
application, such as ColdFusion, to interact with various database management systems (DBMSs), without using
interfaces that are database- and platform-specific.
The following table describes the four types of JDBC drivers:
Type
Name
Description
1
JDBC-ODBC bridge
Translates JDBC calls to ODBC calls, and sends them to the ODBC driver.
Advantages: Allows access to many different databases.
Disadvantages: The ODBC driver, and possibly the client database libraries, must reside on the
ColdFusion server computer. Performance is slower than other JDBC driver types.
Adobe does not recommend this driver type unless your application requires DBMS-specific
features.
2
Native-API/partly Java
driver
Converts JDBC calls to database-specific calls.
Advantages: Better performance than Type 1 driver.
Disadvantages: The client database libraries of the vendor must reside on the same computer as
ColdFusion.
ColdFusion includes a Type 2 driver for use with Microsoft Access Unicode databases.
3
JDBC-Net pure Java driver
Translates JDBC calls to the middle-tier server, which then translates the request to the databasespecific native-connectivity interface.
Advantages: The database libraries of vendors are not required client computer. Can be tailored for
small size (faster loading).
Disadvantages: Database-specific code must be executed in the middle tier.
ColdFusion includes an ODBC socket Type 3 driver for use with Microsoft Access databases and
ODBC data sources.
4
Native-protocol/all-Java
driver
Converts JDBC calls to the network protocol used directly by the database.
Advantages: Fast performance. No special software needed on the computer on which you run
ColdFusion.
Disadvantages: Many of these protocols are proprietary, requiring a different driver for each
database.
ColdFusion includes Type 4 drivers for many DBMSs; however, not all DBMSs are supported in
ColdFusion Standard Edition.
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JDBC drivers are stored in JAR files. For example, the JDBC drivers that are supplied with ColdFusion are in the
_drivers.jar file. If you are using another JDBC driver, you must store it in the ColdFusion classpath. For example,
cf_root/cfusion/lib (server configuration) or cf_webapp_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/lib (multiserver or J2EE
configuration).
Supplied drivers
The following table lists the database drivers supplied with ColdFusion and where you can find more information
about them:
Driver
Type
For more information
Apache Derby Client
“Connecting to Apache Derby Client” on page 37
Apache Derby Embedded
“Connecting to Apache Derby Embedded” on page 38
DB2 Universal Database
4
“Connecting to DB2 Universal Database” on page 39
DB2 OS/390
4
“Connecting to other data sources” on page 53
Informix
4
“Connecting to Informix” on page 40
Microsoft Access
3
“Connecting to Microsoft Access” on page 41
Microsoft Access with Unicode support
2
“Connecting to Microsoft Access with Unicode” on page 42
Microsoft SQL Server
4
“Connecting to Microsoft SQL Server” on page 43
MySQL
4
“Connecting to MySQL” on page 46
ODBC Socket
3
“Connecting to ODBC Socket” on page 51
Oracle
4
“Connecting to Oracle” on page 52
Other
Sybase
“Connecting to other data sources” on page 53
4
“Connecting to Sybase” on page 56
To see a list of database versions that ColdFusion supports, go to www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_cfsysreqs_en.
When running in the J2EE configuration, the ColdFusion Administrator also lets you configure a data source that
connects to a JNDI data source. A Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) data source is equivalent to a
ColdFusion data source, except you define it by using your J2EE application server. After it’s defined, ColdFusion
applications use it as they would any data source. For information on defining a JNDI data source, see “Connecting to
JNDI data sources” on page 57.
Adding data sources
In the ColdFusion Administrator, you configure your data sources to communicate with ColdFusion. After you add a
data source to the Administrator, you access it by name in any CFML tag that establishes database connections; for
example, in the cfquery tag. During a query, the data source tells ColdFusion which database to connect to and what
parameters to use for the connection.
The ColdFusion Administrator organizes information about all ColdFusion server database connections in a single
location. In addition to adding data sources, you can use the Administrator to specify changes to your database
configuration, such as relocation, renaming, or changes in security permissions.
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Adding data sources in the Administrator
You use the ColdFusion Administrator to quickly add a data source for use in your ColdFusion applications. When
you add a data source, you assign it a data source name (DSN) and set all information required to establish a
connection.
Note: ColdFusion includes data sources that are configured by default. You do not need the following procedure to work
with these data sources.
1 In the ColdFusion Administrator, select Data & Services > Data Sources.
2 Under Add New Data Source, enter a data source name; for example, MyTestDSN. The following names are
reserved; you cannot use them for data source names:
• service
• jms_provider
• comp
• jms
3 Select a driver from the drop-down list; for example, Microsoft SQL Server.
4 Click Add.
A form for additional DSN information appears. The available fields in this form depend on the driver that you
selected.
5 In the Database field, enter the name of the database; for example, Northwind.
6 In the Server field, enter the network name or IP address of the server that hosts the database, and enter any
required Port value. For example, the bullwinkle server on the default port.
7 If your database requires login information, enter your user name and password.
Note: The omission of required user name and password information is a common reason why a data source fails to
verify.
8 (Optional) Enter a Description.
9 (Optional) Click Show Advanced Settings to specify any ColdFusion specific settings; for example, to configure
which SQL commands can interact with this data source.
10 Click Submit to create the data source.
ColdFusion automatically verifies that it can connect to the data source.
11 (Optional) To verify this data source later, click the verify icon in the Actions column.
Note: To check the status of all data sources available to ColdFusion, click Verify All Connections.
Specifying connection string arguments
The ColdFusion Administrator lets you specify connection-string arguments for data sources. In the Advanced
Settings page, use the Connection String field to enter name-value pairs separated by a semicolon. For more
information, see the documentation for your database driver.
Note: The cfqueryconnectstring attribute is no longer supported.
Guidelines for data sources
When you add data sources to ColdFusion, keep in mind the following guidelines:
• Data source names must be all one word.
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• Data source names can contain only letters, numbers, hyphens, and the underscore character (_).
• Data source names must not contain special characters or spaces.
• Although data source names are not case sensitive, use a consistent capitalization scheme.
• Depending on the JDBC driver, connection strings and JDBC URLs might be case sensitive.
• Use the Administrator to verify that ColdFusion can connect to the data source.
• A data source must exist in the ColdFusion Administrator before you use it on an application page to retrieve data.
Connection Issues
Executing a query when you restart a database can result in error during the first request. The error does not occur in
subsequent requests or if connection pooling is disabled. This is because, during the first request, the cached
connection is used to execute the query, leading to an exception. To overcome this issue, validate the connection before
executing the query.
Provide validationQuery (to validate the connection) before executing the query in the Advanced Settings page.
Note: validationQuery has to be used with caution as it can result in performance issues.
Connecting to Apache Derby Client
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to Apache Derby Client:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database
The name of the database.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database that you want to use. If the database is local, enclose the word local
in parentheses.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
The user name must have CREATE PACKAGE privileges for the database, or the database administrator must create
a package. Consult the database administrator when configuring this type of data source.
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you enable this
option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction, enable the
Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this option to
improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source connection.
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Setting
Description
CLOB
Returns the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If deselected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting. For UDB 7.1 and 7.2, a 32K
limit on CLOBs exists.
BLOB
Returns the entire contents of any BLOB/Image columns in the database for this data source. If deselected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting. BLOBs are not supported on
UDB 7.1 and 7.2.
LongText Buffer (chr)
The default buffer size, used if the CLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer (bytes)
The default buffer size, used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation Query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an additional query
is generated. Specify the validation query just before restarting the database to verify all connections, but remove
the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance loss.
Connecting to Apache Derby Embedded
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to Apache Derby Embedded:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database folder
The folder where the database is located.
Create Database
Select this option to create a database. The new database exists in the path specified in the Database Folder. If the
database exists, an SQL warning is generated, and a connection to the existing database is established.
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
ColdFusion user name
The user name you use to log in to the ColdFusion Administrator.
ColdFusion Password
The password you use to log in to the ColdFusion Administrator.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you enable this
option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this option to
improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Max Pooled Statements
Select this option to reuse prepared statements (that is, stored procedures and queries that use the cfqueryparam
tag). Although you tune this setting based on your application, start by setting it to the sum of the following:
•
Unique cfquery tags that use the cfqueryparam tag
•
Unique cfstoredproc tags
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source connection.
CLOB
Returns the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If deselected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting. For UDB 7.1 and 7.2, a 32K
limit on CLOBs exits.
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Setting
Description
BLOB
Returns the entire contents of any BLOB/Image columns in the database for this data source. If deselected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting. BLOBs are not supported on
UDB 7.1 and 7.2.
LongText Buffer (chr)
The default buffer size, used if the CLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer (bytes)
The default buffer size, used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an additional query
is generated.Specify the validation query just before restarting the database to verify all connections, but remove
the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance loss.
Note: When you add an Apache Derby Embedded data source, ensure that the specified directory does not exist.
Connecting to DB2 Universal Database
For information on defining data sources that work with DB2 for OS/390 or iSeries, see “Connecting to other data
sources” on page 53. To see a list of DB2 versions that ColdFusion supports, go to
www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_cfsysreqs_en.
Note: DB2 Universal Database (UDB) refers to all versions of DB2 running on Windows, UNIX, and Linux/s390
platforms.
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to DB2:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database
The name of the database.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database that you want to use. If the database is local, enclose the word local
in parentheses.
Port
The number of the TCP/IP port that the server monitors for connections.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
The user name must have CREATE PACKAGE privileges for the database, or the database administrator must create
a package. Consult the database administrator when configuring this type of data source.
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you enable this
option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction, enable the
Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this option to
improve performance by caching the data source connection.
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Setting
Description
Max Pooled Statements
Enables reuse of prepared statements (that is, stored procedures and queries that use the cfqueryparam tag).
Although you tune this setting based on your application, start by setting it to the sum of the following:
•
Unique cfquery tags that use the cfqueryparam tag
•
Unique cfstoredproc tags
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source connection.
CLOB
Returns the entire contents of any CLOB/Text columns in the database for this data source. If deselected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting. For UDB 7.1 and 7.2, a 32K
limit on CLOBs exits.
BLOB
Returns the entire contents of any BLOB/Image columns in the database for this data source. If deselected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting. BLOBs are not supported on
UDB 7.1 and 7.2.
LongText Buffer (chr)
The default buffer size, used if the CLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer (bytes)
The default buffer size, used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an additional query
is generated. Specify the validation query just before restarting the database to verify all connections, but remove
the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance loss.
Connecting to Informix
To see a list of Informix versions that ColdFusion supports, go to www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_cfsysreqs_en. Use the
settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to Informix data sources:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database
The database to which this data source connects.
Informix Server
The name of the Informix database server to which you want to connect.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database. If the database is local, enclose the word local in parentheses.
Port
The number of the TCP/IP port that the server monitors for connections.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
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Setting
Description
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you enable this
option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction, enable the
Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this option to
improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Max Pooled Statements
Enables reuse of prepared statements (that is, stored procedures and queries that use the cfqueryparam tag).
Although you tune this setting based on your application, start by setting it to the sum of the following:
•
Unique cfquery tags that use the cfqueryparam tag
•
Unique cfstoredproc tags
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the data source connection login attempt.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If not selected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size, used if the CLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an additional query
is generated. Configure the validation query just before restarting the database to verify all connections, but
remove the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance loss.
Connecting to Microsoft Access
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to Microsoft Access data sources:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) used by ColdFusion to connect to the data source.
Database File
The file that contains the database.
System Database File
To secure access to the specified database file, click Browse Server to locate and enter a database that contains
database security information. By default, the system database is located in the same directory as the MDB file or
in the windows\system32\system.mdw directory.
Use Default User name
If selected, ColdFusion does not pass a user name or password when requesting a connection. The Microsoft
Access driver uses the default user name and password.
ColdFusion User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
ColdFusion Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
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Setting
Description
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Page Timeout
The number of milliseconds before a request for a ColdFusion page times out. The default is 600. If you observe
excessive network activity when using this driver, increase the page time-out value.
Max Buffer Size
The size of the internal buffer, in kilobytes, that Access uses to transfer data to and from the disk. The default
buffer size is 2048 KB. Specify an integer value divisible by 256.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Default User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Default Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Return Timestamp as
String
Enable this setting if your application retrieves Date/Time data and then reuses it in SQL statements without
applying formatting (using functions such as DateFormat, TimeFormat, and CreateODBCDateTime).
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you enable this
option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction, enable the
Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this option to
improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the data source connection login attempt.
CLOB
Returns the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If not selected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Returns the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If deselected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size, used if the CLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size, used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an additional query
is generated. Specify the validation query before restarting the database to verify all connections, but remove the
validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance loss.
Connecting to Microsoft Access with Unicode
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to Microsoft Access with Unicode data sources (this is a
Type 2 driver):
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Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database File
The file that contains the database.
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
ColdFusion User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
ColdFusion Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Page Timeout
The time (in tenths of a second) before a request for a ColdFusion page times out.
Max Buffer Size
The size of the internal buffer, in kilobytes, used by Microsoft Access to transfer data to and from the disk. Can be
any integer value divisible by 256.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you enable this
option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction, enable the
Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this option to
improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the data source connection login attempt.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/Text columns in the database for this data source. If not selected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/Image columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size, used if the CLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size, used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an additional query
is generated. Specify the validation query just before restarting the database to verify all connections, but remove
the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance loss.
Note: This driver uses the Microsoft Jet list of reserved words, including the word Last. For a complete list, see
http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=248738.
Connecting to Microsoft SQL Server
To see a list of SQL Server versions that ColdFusion supports, go to www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_cfsysreqs_en. Use
the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to SQL Server:
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Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database
The database to which this data source connects.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database that you want to use. If the database is local, enclose the word
local in parentheses. If you are running SQL Server locally (or using MSDE), specify 127.0.0.1 for the
server name instead of the actual instance name.
Port
The number of the TCP/IP port that the server monitors for connections.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Select Method
Determines whether server cursors are used for SQL queries.
•
The Direct method provides more efficient retrieval of data when you retrieve recordsets in a forward-only
direction and you limit your SQL Server connection to a single open SQL statement at a time. This is typical for
ColdFusion applications.
•
The Cursor method lets you have multiple open SQL statements on a connection. This is not typical for
ColdFusion applications, unless you use pooled statements.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you enable this
option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction, enable the
Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this option to
improve performance by caching the data source connection.
String Format
Enable this option if your application uses Unicode data in DBMS-specific Unicode data types, such as National
Character or nchar.
Max Pooled Statements
Enables reuse of prepared statements (that is, stored procedures and queries that use the cfqueryparam tag).
Although you tune this setting based on your application, start by setting it to the sum of the following:
•
Unique cfquery tags that use the cfqueryparam tag
•
Unique cfstoredproc tags
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the data source connection login attempt.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/Text columns in the database for this data source. If not selected,
ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size, used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
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Setting
Description
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size, used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an additional query
is generated. Configure the validation query just before restarting the database to verify all connections, but
remove the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance loss.
Settings for the Northwind sample database
Previous versions of SQL Server included a sample database named Northwind. Establishing a connection to the
Northwind database can help you learn ColdFusion while using a familiar database.
To establish a connection to the SQL Server Northwind database, set up the database in the SQL Server Enterprise
manager and in the ColdFusion Administrator.
Set up the database in the SQL Server Enterprise manager
1 Expand the server group.
2 Expand the server.
3 Under the Security folder, right-click on Logins.
4 Select New Login.
5 Select Windows Authentication or SQL Server Authentication settings.
6 Select the Northwind database, and specify the language.
7 Ensure that the database server is using mixed authentication. While in Enterprise Manager, right-click the server,
select Properties > Security and then select the Security tab. Ensure that the SQL Server and Windows options are
clicked.
8 Click OK.
Set up the database in the ColdFusion Administrator
1 Open the ColdFusion Administrator.
2 Click Data & Services > Data Sources.
3 Type northwind in the Data Source Name field, and select Microsoft SQL Server in the Driver drop-down list.
4 Click Add.
5 Type Northwind in the Database Name field, 127.0.0.1 (or the database server IP address) in the Server field, and
1433 in the Port field.
Note: Do not specify a user name or password when defining the data source.
6 Save the data source.
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Troubleshooting SQL Server connections
If you are having trouble establishing a connection to SQL Server, review the following considerations:
• If you installed SQL Server using a server name other than the default, use your chosen domain\servername
wherever there’s a reference to (local).
The following situations can cause a Connection Refused error:
• If you specified authentication information in SQL Server, ensure that you have not defined a user name and
password in the ColdFusion data source.
• You are running a connection-limited version of SQL Server and the request exceeds the limit for TCP/IP
connections.
You can prevent this exception by setting the Limit Connections and Restrict Connections To options in
ColdFusion Administrator on the Advanced Settings page for the data sources, and specifying a number less than
the SQL Server maximum.
• SQL Server does not enable the TCP/IP protocol. This problem can happen when SQL Server is on the same
computer as ColdFusion. To fix this problem, perform the following steps:
1 In SQL Server Enterprise Manager, right-click on the name of your SQL Server and click Properties.
2 Click Network Configuration and the General Tab.
3 Move TCP/IP from the Disabled Protocols section to the Enabled Protocols section.
4 Click OK.
5 Restart the SQL Server services.
6 Verify your data source.
• If you have are having trouble connecting, consider using mixed-mode authentication for SQL Server (Windows
and SQL) and removing the user name and password from the ColdFusion data source.
Connecting to MySQL
To see a list of MySQL versions that ColdFusion supports, go to www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_cfsysreqs_en.
Note: By default, queries to MySQL data sources return isCaseSensitive = NO for each column in the return structure
from the GetMetaData function. Set the system property -Dcoldfusion.mysql.enableiscasesensitive=true to
turn on the calls to isCaseSensitive.
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to MySQL data sources:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database
The database to which this data source connects.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database that you want to use. If the database is local, enclose
the word local in parentheses.
Port
The number of the TCP/IP port that the server monitors for connections.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source, if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
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Setting
Description
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source, if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you
enable this option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction,
you must enable the Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this
option to improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Query Timeout (seconds)
The default query timeout values for a DSN. This settings is only applicable for MySQL DataDirect driver.
A new argument qtimeout has been added to the following methods in the Administrator API:
•
setDB2()
•
setMySQL_DD()
•
setOracle()
•
setSybase()
•
setInformix()
•
setMSSQL
For details on MySQL DataDirect driver upgrade, see “New querytimeout connection option” on
page 48 in Developing ColdFusion Applications.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections
to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the data source connection login attempt.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size; used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is
64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an
additional query is generated. You should specify this just before restarting the database to verify all
connections, but remove the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance
loss.
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DataDirect Connect JDBC Support
ColdFusion 9 supports the latest version of DataDirect drivers for database operations. These drivers improve
performance and provide support for additional databases.
DataDirect driver features
ColdFusion transacts with the database server using the DataDirect drivers that are available as packaged JAR files.
Upgrade the JAR files to the latest version to be able to use the new features and performance enhancements.
ColdFusion 9 supports DataDirect driver version 4.0 SP 1, which provides the following features to enhance database
operations:
• Support for MySQL (Enterprise and Commercial), Oracle11g, DB2v9.5, Informix 11, SQL Server 2008
Note: For Oracle databases, if you want to filter the retrieval of column names or indexes for a particular schema, then
the schema name must be provided along with the table name in the table attribute. In this case, the format of the
table attribute value is: schemaname.tablename.
• Improved performance
• IPv6 Address Support
• Querytimeout connection option to set default query timeout value. For details, see New querytimeout connection
option.
Creating a data source in MySQL
To create a MySQL Enterprise ColdFusion data source, select the driver type as MySQL(Datadirect) from the drivers
pop up menu in ColdFusion Administrator.
Note: The MySQL5 Enterprise database sometimes requires access permission for all users who try to connect to it, if the
access permission is not specified during configuration.
To grant the required permission, you can use the command: grant all on *.* to 'root'@'%' identified by
'admin';.
Replace root and admin by MYSQL username and MYSQL password, respectively.
A new admin API method, setMySQL_DD has been added, which lets you create a MySQL DataDirect data source.
New querytimeout connection option
As part of the DataDirect upgrade, the querytimeout option has been added in the Advanced Settings panel of the
Edit DSN page. The querytimeout connection option sets the default query timeout values for a DSN.
Following is the description of querytimeout and pagetimeout from the DataDirect documentation:
"When the page time-out is much higher and the query times out, an exception is thrown to indicate that the query
has timed out. Similarly, if the query timeout is much higher and page times out, an exception is thrown to indicate
the page has timed out. However, when a page times out while a query is executing, the page times out only after the
query's execution is complete."
A new argument qtimeout has been added to the following methods in the Administrator API:
•
setDB2()
•
setMySQL_DD()
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•
setOracle()
•
setSybase()
•
setInformix()
•
setMSSQL()
Note: The qtimeout option is not supported by all databases.
For more information about DataDirect JDBC Connect, see:
• http://www.datadirect.com/techres/jdbcproddoc/index.ssp (for PDF)
• http://media.datadirect.com/download/docs/jdbc/alljdbc/wwhelp/wwhimpl/js/html/wwhelp.htm (for HTML)
Enabling SSL Connection
Do the following to enable SSL connection:
1 In the ColdFusion Administrator, go to Data & Services > Data Sources.
2 Select the data source to enable SSL Connection.
3 In the data source page, click Show Advanced Settings.
4 In the Connection String text box, specify the connection properties as per the SSL requirements.
Connection properties
The following table provides details of the connection properties and specifies which database the properties apply to:
Property
Relevance
Description
KeyStore
Applies only if client authentication is enabled The directory of the keystore file to be used
on database server
DB2, Oracle
KeyStorePassword
Applies only if client authentication is enabled
on database server
The password to access the keystore file
DB2, Oracle
KeyPassword
Optional
The password to access the individual keys in DB2, Oracle
the keystore file
Used if keys in keystore file have a different
password than the keystore file
TrustStore
Ignored if
The directory of the truststore file
DB2, Microsoft SQL
Server, Oracle, Sybase
The password to access the truststore file
DB2, Microsoft SQL
Server, Oracle, Sybase
true|false
DB2, Microsoft SQL
Server, Oracle, Sybase
ValidateServerCertificate=false
TrustStorePassword
Ignored if
ValidateServerCertificate=false
ValidateServerCertifi
cate
Optional
Determines whether the driver validates the
certificate sent by the database server
HostNameInCertificat Optional
e
Applies if EncryptionMethod=SSL and
Applies to
host_name | #SERVERNAME#
Host name for certificate validation
DB2, Microsoft SQL
Server, Oracle, Sybase
ValidateServerCertificate=true
useSSL
Required for enabling SSL
true|false
Use SSL when communicating with the
server
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Property
Relevance
Description
Applies to
requireSSL
Optional
true|false
MySQL
Require SSL connection if useSSL=true
verifyServerCertificat
e
Optional
true|false
MySQL
Determines whether to validates the
certificate sent by the database server
clientCertificateKeySt Applies only if client authentication is enabled URL to the client certificate KeyStore. If not
oreUrl
on the database server
specified, use defaults.
MySQL
clientCertificateKeySt Optional
oreType
Depends on the keystore type supported by
your JVM
MySQL
KeyStore type for client certificates. NULL or
empty means use default. Standard keystore
types supported by the JVM are "JKS" and
"PKCS12". Your environment might have
more types available depending on the
security products available to the JVM.
clientCertificateKeySt Applies only if client authentication is enabled Password for the client certificate KeyStore
orePassword
on database server
trustCertificateKeySt
oreUrl
Applies only if
trustCertificateKeySt
oreType
Optional
trustCertificateKeySt
orePassword
Required if
verifyServerCertificate=true
Depends on the keystore type supported by
your JVM
verifyServerCertificate=true
MySQL (4/5)
URL to the trusted root certificate KeyStore. If MySQL (4/5)
not specified, use defaults.
KeyStore type for trusted root certificates.
MySQL (4/5)
NULL or empty means use default. Standard
keystore types supported by the JVM are
"JKS" and "PKCS12". Your environment might
have more types available depending on the
security products available to the JVM.
Password for the trusted root certificate
KeyStore
MySQL (4/5)
Specifying connection properties
The following table details the connection properties that you must specify for each database driver to enable SSL
connection. The table provides all possible values for each driver. Specify the optional values (see the table in the
section “Enabling SSL Connection” on page 49) as per your requirements.
Database
Database Driver Connection Property
DB2
DB2 Universal
Database
EncryptionMethod=SSL; KeyStore=path to keystore; KeyStorePassword=keystore
Password; KeyPassword=key Password; TrustStore=path to keystore;
TrustStorePassword=trustStorePassword;
ValidateServerCertificate=true|false;
HostNameInCertificate=host_name|#SERVERNAME#};
Microsoft SQL
Server
Microsoft SQL
Server
EncryptionMethod=SSL; TrustStore=path to keystore;
TrustStorePassword=trustStorePassword;
ValidateServerCertificate=true|false;
HostNameInCertificate=host_name|#SERVERNAME#;
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Database
Database Driver Connection Property
Oracle
Oracle
EncryptionMethod=SSL; KeyStore=path to keystore; KeyStorePassword=keystore
Password; KeyPassword=key Password; TrustStore=path to keystore;
TrustStorePassword=trustStorePassword;
ValidateServerCertificate=true|false;
HostNameInCertificate=host_name|#SERVERNAME#};
Sybase
Sybase
EncryptionMethod=SSL;TrustStore=path to keystore;
TrustStorePassword=trustStorePassword;
ValidateServerCertificate=true|false;
HostNameInCertificate=host_name|#SERVERNAME#;
MySQL
MySQL (4/5)
useSSL=true&requireSSL=true|false&
verifyServerCertificate=true|false&clientCertificateKeyStoreUrl=URLToClie
ntCertificate&clientCertificateKeyStoreType=KeyStoreType&clientCertificat
eKeyStorePassword=keystorePassword&trustCertificateKeyStoreUrl=URLToRootC
ertificate&trustCertificateKeyStoreType=
KeyStoreType&trustCertificateKeyStorePassword=trustedRootCertificatePassw
ord
Note: Not all MySQL (4/5) properties listed are supported by all MySQL versions.
See MySQL documentation for details of the supported properties for your version.
Note: If the database driver attempts to connect to a database server that does not support SSL, connection might hang.
You can avoid issues when connecting to a server that does not support SSL by setting a login timeout.
For more information on enabling SSL for DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, and Sybase, see the DataDirect
documentation available at the following URL:
http://media.datadirect.com/download/docs/jdbc/alljdbc/wwhelp/wwhimpl/js/html/wwhelp.htm
For more information on enabling SSL for MySQL, see MySQL documentation available at the following URL:
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/connector-j-reference-configuration-properties.html
Connecting to ODBC Socket
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to ODBC Socket data sources (this is a Type 3 driver):
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
ODBC DSN
Select the ODBC DSN to connect to ColdFusion.
Trusted Connection
Specifies whether to use domain user account access to the database. Only valid for SQL Server.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Return Timestamp as String
Enable this option if your application retrieves Date/Time data and then reuses it in SQL statements
without applying formatting (using functions such as DateFormat, TimeFormat, and
CreateODBCDateTime).
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Setting
Description
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you
enable this option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction,
enable the Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this
option to improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections
to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source
connection.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/Text columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB /Image columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size; used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is
64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an
additional query is generated. Configure this just before restarting the database to verify all
connections, but remove the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance
loss.
Connecting to Oracle
To see a list of Oracle versions that ColdFusion supports, go to www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_cfsysreqs_en. Use the
settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to Oracle data sources:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
SID Name
The Oracle System Identifier (SID) that refers to the instance of the Oracle database software running on
the server. The default value is ORCL.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database that you want to use. If the database is local, enclose the
word local in parentheses.
Port
The number of the TCP/IP port that the server monitors for connections.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
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Setting
Description
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you
enable this option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction,
enable the Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this
option to improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Max Pooled Statements
Enables reuse of prepared statements (that is, stored procedures and queries that use the
cfqueryparam tag). Although you tune this setting based on your application, start by setting it to the
sum of the following:
•
Unique cfquery tags that use the cfqueryparam tag
•
Unique cfstoredproc tags
The default value is 300.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections
to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source
connection.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/Text columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size; used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is
64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an
additional query is generated. Specify the validation query before restarting the database to verify all
connections, but remove the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance
loss.
Connecting to other data sources
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to data sources through JDBC drivers that do not appear
in the drop-down list of drivers:
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Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
JDBC URL
The JDBC connection URL for this data source.
Driver Class
The fully qualified class name of the driver. For example, com.inet.tds.TdsDriver. The JAR file that
contains this class must be in a directory defined in the ColdFusion classpath.
Driver Name
(Optional) The name of the driver.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you
enable this option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction,
enable the Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this
option to improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections
to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source
connection.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/Text columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size; used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is
64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
For example, you can use the Other Data Sources option to define a data source for DB2 OS/390 or iSeries, using the
following settings:
JDBC URL jdbc:datadirect:db2://dbserver:portnumber
Driver class .jdbc.Driver
Driver name DB2
User name A user defined to the database
Password The password for the user name
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Connection string Specify one connection string for the first connection, and then modify it for use in subsequent
connections, as follows:
1 On the initial connection, specify LocationName, CollectionId, CreateDefaultPackage, and
sendStringParametersAsUnicode (with no spaces) as the following example shows:
LocationName=SAMPLE;CollectionId=DEFAULT;CreateDefaultPackage=TRUE;sendStringParametersAs
Unicode=false
Note: If the database uses Unicode, specify true for the sendStringParametersAsUnicode parameter.
2 On subsequent connections, specify LocationName, CollectionId, and sendStringParametersAsUnicode, as the
following example shows:
LocationName=SAMPLE;CollectionId=DEFAULT;sendStringParametersAsUnicode=false
Note: DB2 OS/390 refers to all supported versions of DB2 on OS/390 and z/OS platforms. DB2 iSeries refers to all
supported versions of DB2 on iSeries and AS/400.
For more information on DB2, see “Connecting to DB2 Universal Database” on page 39.
Connecting to PostgreSQL
To see a list of PostgreSQL versions that ColdFusion supports, go to www.adobe.com. Use the settings in the following
table to connect ColdFusion to PostgreSQL data sources:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database
The database to which this data source connects.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database that you want to use. If the database is local, enclose the
word local in parentheses. This name must be either a fully qualified domain name (resolvable through
DNS) or an IP address. It cannot be a netbios name (even if you are running NBT), or an alias you set up
using the client connectivity wizard (both of these approaches worked in earlier ColdFusion versions).
Port
The number of the TCP/IP port that the server monitors for connections.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you
enable this option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction,
enable the Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this
option to improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections
to close.
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Setting
Description
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source
connection.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size; used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is
64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an
additional query is generated. Specify the validation query before restarting the database to verify all
connections, but remove the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance
loss.
Connecting to Sybase
To see a list of Sybase versions that ColdFusion supports, go to www.adobe.com/go/learn_cfu_cfsysreqs_en. Use the
settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to Sybase data sources:
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
Database
The database to which this data source connects.
Server
The name of the server that hosts the database that you want to use. If the database is local, enclose the
word local in parentheses. This name must be either a fully qualified domain name (resolvable through
DNS) or an IP address. It cannot be a netbios name (even if you are running NBT), or an alias you set up
using the client connectivity wizard (both of these approaches worked in earlier ColdFusion versions).
Port
The number of the TCP/IP port that the server monitors for connections.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to the JDBC driver to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion
application does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
Connection String
A field that passes database-specific parameters, such as login credentials, to the data source.
Select Method
Determines whether server cursors are used for SQL queries.
•
The Direct method provides more efficient retrieval of data when you retrieve recordsets in a forwardonly direction and you limit your Sybase connection to a single open SQL statement at a time. This is
typical for ColdFusion applications.
•
The Cursor method lets you have multiple open SQL statements on a connection. This is not typical
for ColdFusion applications, unless you use pooled statements.
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Setting
Description
Limit Connections
Specifies whether ColdFusion limits the number of database connections for the data source. If you
enable this option, use the Restrict Connections To field to specify the maximum.
Restrict Connections To
Specifies the maximum number of database connections for the data source. To use this restriction,
enable the Limit Connections option.
Maintain Connections
ColdFusion establishes a connection to a data source for every operation that requires one. Enable this
option to improve performance by caching the data source connection.
Max Pooled Statements
Enables reuse of prepared statements (that is, stored procedures and queries that use the
cfqueryparam tag). Although you tune this setting based on your application, start by setting it to the
sum of the following:
•
Unique cfquery tags that use the cfqueryparam tag
•
Unique cfstoredproc tags
Timeout (min)
The number of minutes that ColdFusion MX maintains an unused connection before destroying it.
Interval (min)
The time (in minutes) that the server waits between cycles to check for expired data source connections
to close.
Disable Connections
If selected, suspends all client connections.
Login Timeout (sec)
The number of seconds before ColdFusion times out the attempt to log in to the data source
connection.
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size; used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is
64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Validation query
Called when a connection from the pool is resued. This can slow query response time because an
additional query is generated. Specify the validation query before restarting the database to verify all
connections, but remove the validation query after restarting the database to avoid any performance
loss.
Connecting to JNDI data sources
Use the settings in the following table to connect ColdFusion to JNDI data sources that are defined for a J2EE
application server (multiserver and J2EE configurations only):
Setting
Description
CF Data Source Name
The data source name (DSN) that ColdFusion uses to connect to the data source.
JNDI Name
The JNDI location in which the J2EE application server stores the data source.
User name
The user name that ColdFusion passes to JNDI to connect to JNDI if a ColdFusion application does not
supply a user name (for example, in a cfquery tag).
Password
The password that ColdFusion passes to JNDI to connect to the data source if a ColdFusion application
does not supply a password (for example, in a cfquery tag).
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Setting
Description
Description
(Optional) A description for this connection.
JNDI Environment Settings
Specifies additional JNDI environment settings, if necessary by the JNDI data source. Use commaseparated list of name-value pair. For example if you must specify a user name and password to connect
to JNDI, specify the following:
SECURITY_PRINCIPAL="myusername",SECURITY_CREDENTIALS="mypassword"
CLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any CLOB/ Text columns in the database for this data source. If not
selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the Long Text Buffer setting.
BLOB
Select to return the entire contents of any BLOB/ Image columns in the database for this data source. If
not selected, ColdFusion retrieves the number of characters specified in the BLOB Buffer setting.
LongText Buffer
The default buffer size; used if Enable Long Text Retrieval (CLOB) is not selected. The default value is
64000 bytes.
BLOB Buffer
The default buffer size; used if the BLOB option is not selected. The default value is 64000 bytes.
Allowed SQL
The SQL operations that can interact with the current data source.
Note: The ColdFusion Administrator does not display the JNDI data source option when running in the server
configuration.
Connecting to an external JDBC Type 4 data source
To use a JDBC driver that is not included with ColdFusion (such as SQLAnywhere) configure the JDBC driver and
add a data source for it.
Connect to an external JDBC data source:
1 Copy the database driver .jar file to one of the following directories:
• (server configuration only) cf_root/lib
• (multiserver or J2EE configuration) cf_webapp_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/lib
2 Restart ColdFusion.
Note: In Windows, ensure that you restart all of the ColdFusion 9 services.
3 In the ColdFusion Administrator, add the other JDBC Type 4 data source, selecting Other from the Driver drop-
down list.
For more information, see the chapter on data source management in Configuring and Administering ColdFusion.
You can now connect to an external JDBC Type 4 data source.
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Chapter 5: Web Server Management
You can connect Adobe ColdFusion to the built-in web server and to external web servers, such as Apache, IIS, and
Sun ONE Web Server (formerly known as iPlanet).
ColdFusion lets you manage web servers when running in the server configuration, in the multiserver configuration,
and when deploying on Macromedia JRun in the J2EE configuration. (Some J2EE application servers include web
server plug-ins that provide similar functionality.)
About web servers in ColdFusion
The web server is a critical component in your ColdFusion environment, and understanding how ColdFusion interacts
with web servers can help you administer your site. ColdFusion provides the following web server options:
Built-in web server A lightweight, all-Java, HTTP 1.0 web server. Suitable for development but not intended for use in
production applications. For more information, see “Using the built-in web server” on page 59.
External web server A customized web server connector module that forwards requests for ColdFusion pages from an
external web server to ColdFusion. For more information, see “Using an external web server” on page 60.
Using the built-in web server
The ColdFusion server configuration is built on top of JRun, which includes the JRun web server (JWS), also called the
built-in web server. Although not intended for use in a production environment, the built-in web server is useful in
the following cases:
Coexistence/transition The built-in web server lets you run a previous version of ColdFusion (using an external web
server) and ColdFusion (using the built-in web server) on the same computer while you migrate your existing
applications to ColdFusion.
Development If your workstation runs ColdFusion but does not run an external web server, you can still develop and
test ColdFusion applications locally through the built-in web server.
All web servers listen on a TCP/IP port, which you can specify in the URL. By default, web servers listen for HTTP
requests on port 80 (for example, http://www.adobe.com and http://www.adobe.com:80 are the same). Similarly, port
443 is the default port for https requests.
By default in the server configuration, the built-in web server listens on port 8500. For example, to access the
ColdFusion Administrator through the built-in web server, specify
http://servername:8500/CFIDE/administrator/index.cfm. In the multiserver configuration, the default port for the
built-in web server is 8300.
Note: URLs are case sensitive on UNIX operating systems.
If you enable the built-in web server during the installation process and the port is already in use, the installer
automatically finds the next-highest available port and configures the built-in web server to use that port. To
determine the port number used by the built-in web server, open the cf_root/runtime/servers/coldfusion/SERVERINF/jrun.xml file in a text editor and examine the port attribute of the WebService service. In the multiserver
configuration, the path is jrun_root/servers/cfusion/SERVER-INF/jrun.xml.
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Note: When you install ColdFusion Enterprise Edition using the multiserver configuration, the installation wizard
always configures the built-in web server, even if you select an external web server.
Keep in mind the following when using the built-in web server:
• Whenever possible, configure your external web server as part of the ColdFusion installation, except for the two
cases mentioned previously (coexistence with a previous ColdFusion version, and when the computer has no web
server). If you select the built-in web server by mistake, run the Web Server Configuration Tool manually to
configure your external web server after the installation. For information about the Web Server Configuration
Tool, see “Web server configuration” on page 61.
• The default web root when using the built-in web server is cf_root/wwwroot (server configuration) or
jrun_root/servers/cfusion/cfusion-ear/cfusion-war (multiserver configuration). By default, the ColdFusion
Administrator (CFIDE directory) is under this web root.
• If you want the built-in web server to serve pages from a different web root directory, define a virtual mapping in
the cf_root/wwwroot/WEB-INF/jrun-web.xml file (jrun_root/servers/cfusion/cfusion-ear/cfusion-war/WEBINF/jrun-web.xml in the multiserver configuration), as the following example shows:
<virtual-mapping>
<resource-path>/*</resource-path>
<system-path>C:/myApps/wwwroot</system-path>
</virtual-mapping>
Important: If you have CFML pages under your external web server’s root, ensure that ColdFusion is configured to serve
these pages through the external web server. If you did not configure ColdFusion to use an external web server, your
external web server serves ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) source code for ColdFusion pages saved under its web
root.
Using an external web server
ColdFusion uses the JRun web server connector to forward requests from an external web server to the ColdFusion
runtime system.
When a request is made for a CFM page, the connector on the web server opens a network connection to the JRun
proxy service. The ColdFusion runtime system handles the request and sends its response back through the proxy
service and connector. The web server connector uses web-server-specific plug-in modules, as the following table
describes:
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Web server
Connector details
Apache
The Web Server Configuration Tool adds the following elements to the Apache httpd.conf file:
•
A LoadModule directive defines the connector.
•
An AddHandler directive tells Apache to route requests for ColdFusion pages through the connector.
For Apache 1.3.x, the connection module is mod_jrun.so; for Apache 2.x, the connection module is
mod_jrun20.so.
IIS
The Web Server Configuration Tool adds the following elements at either the global level (default) or
website level:
•
An ISAPI filter (available on IIS 5 only).
•
Extension mappings that tell IIS to route requests for ColdFusion pages through the connector.
With IIS 5, the IIS connection module is jrun.dll. IIS 6 uses a connection module named jrun_iis6.dll and a
helper DLL named jrun_iis6_wildcard.dll.
Sun ONE Web Server, including
iPlanet and Netscape Enterprise
Server (NES)
The Web Server Configuration Tool adds the following elements to Sun ONE Web Server configuration
files:
•
obj.conf
A PathCheck directive for the JRun filter and ObjectType directives to route requests for
ColdFusion pages through the connector.
•
magnus.conf Init directives to load and initialize the connector.
In Windows, the Sun ONE Web Server connection module is jrun_nsapi.dll; on UNIX, the Sun ONE Web
Server connection module is jrun_nsapi.so.
With iPlanet 4.x, the Web Server Configuration Tool places all settings in the obj.conf file.
Web server configuration
ColdFusion uses the Web Server Configuration Tool to configure an external web server with the modules and settings
that the connector requires connect to ColdFusion. You can run the Web Server Configuration Tool through either
the command-line interface or the graphical user interface (GUI). In either case, the Web Server Configuration Tool
configures your external web server to interact with a ColdFusion server.
Using GUI mode
The Web Server Configuration Tool includes a GUI mode, which you can use to specify external web server
configuration settings through a graphical interface.
Note: When you use the Web Server Configuration Tool in GUI mode, select the Configure Web Server for ColdFusion
Applications check box.
Run the Web Server Configuration Tool in GUI mode
1 Open a console window.
Note: In Windows, to start the Web Server Configuration Tool, select Start > Programs > Adobe > ColdFusion 9 >
Web Server Configuration Tool.
2 Change to the cf_root/runtime/bin (server configuration) or jrun_root/bin (multiserver configuration) directory.
3 Start the Web Server Configuration Tool using the wsconfig.exe (Windows) or wsconfig (UNIX) command.
The Web Server Configuration Tool window appears.
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4 Click Add.
5 Select Configure Web Server For ColdFusion Applications.
6 In the Server drop-down list, select the server or cluster name that you want to configure. (Individual server names
in a cluster do not appear. Clustering support is only available on the multiserver configuration.)
Note: The server or cluster does not have to reside on the web server computer. In this case, enter the IP address or
server name of the remote computer in the JRun Host field.
7 In the Web Server Properties area, enter web-server-specific information, and click OK.
8 (Optional) Move the CFIDE directory and other directories (such as cfdocs) from the built-in web server’s web root
to your web server root directory. In addition, you can copy your application’s CFM pages from the built-in web
server’s web root to your web server root directory.
Note: When a page is requested, the web server connector first looks for the ColdFusion page in the cf_root/wwwroot
(server configuration) or jrun_root/servers/cfusion/cfusion-ear/cfusion-war (multiserver configuration) directory,
and then looks under the web server root. Alternatively, you can use the command-line interface and specify the cfwebroot option.
9 (Optional) The web server connector does not serve static content (such as HTML files and images) from the built-
in web server’s root directory. If your ColdFusion web application has an empty context root (/) and you want to
serve pages from the built-in web server’s root directory, you can create a web server mapping to the corresponding
directory under the built-in web server.
Using the command-line interface
You can also run the Web Server Configuration Tool through a command-line interface.
Run the command-line interface
1 Open a console window.
2 Change to the cf_root/runtime/bin (server configuration) or jrun_root/bin (multiserver configuration) directory.
3 Execute the wsconfig.exe (Windows) or wsconfig (UNIX) command:
wsconfig.exe [-options]
./wsconfig [-options]
The following table describes the options:
Option
Description
-ws
Specifies the web server, as follows:
•
IIS
•
Apache
•
SunOne
•
iPlanet
•
NES
The web server name you supply is not case sensitive.
-dir
Specifies the path to the configuration directory (Apache conf or NES/iPlanet config).
-site
Specifies the IIS website name (case-sensitive). Specify All or 0 to configure the connector at a
global level, which applies to all IIS websites.
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Option
Description
-host
Specifies the ColdFusion server address. The default value is localhost.
-server
Specifies the ColdFusion server name.
-username
Specifies a user name defined to the JRun server. The default value is guest account.
-password
Specifies a password that corresponds to -username. The default value is guest account.
-norestart
Specifies not to restart the web server.
-cluster
Specifies the JRun cluster name. Use this option to define a connection to a JRun cluster instead
of a single server.
-l
Enables verbose logging for the connector.
-a
Enables native OS memory allocation.
-map.cfm,.cfc,.cfml,.cfr,
Specifies the extension mappings list. (To use the web server connector with ColdFusion,
specify .cfm, .cfc, .cfml, .cfr, .cfswf, .jsp, .jws.)
.cfswf,.jsp,.jws
-filter-prefix-only
(IIS 5 only) Sets ignoresuffixmap=true in the jrun.ini file. This means that the connector
module runs as an IIS extension.
-coldfusion
Ensures that the proper ColdFusion mappings are set (.cfm, .cfml, .cfc, .cfswf, .cfr, .jsp, .jws), and,
if IIS, filter-prefix-only is implicitly specified.
Always use this option when you configure a web server for use with ColdFusion.
-upgrade
Upgrades existing configured connectors with newer modules from a newer wsconfig.jar file.
-service
Specifies the Apache Windows service name. The default value is Apache.
-bin
Specifies the path to the Apache server binary file (apache.exe in Windows, httpd on UNIX).
-script
Specifies the path to the Apache UNIX control script file (apachectl, but slightly different with
certain Apache variants, such as Stronghold).
-v
Enables verbose output from the Web Server Configuration Tool.
-cfwebroot
Specifies the directory corresponding to cf_root/wwwroot. If you use this option, the Web
Server Configuration Tool creates web server mappings for /CFIDE and /cfdocs, each of which
points to the corresponding directories under cf_root/wwwroot. This option is useful in a
multihoming or hosting environment where you want multiple applications to share the
ColdFusion Administrator.
-list
Lists all configured web servers.
-list -host server-host
Lists all JRun servers on the specified host.
-remove
Removes a configuration. Requires the -ws and either the -dir or -site options.
-uninstall
Removes all configured connectors.
-h
Lists all parameters.
Using the batch files and shell scripts
The ColdFusion server configuration includes batch files and shell scripts that implement typical command-line
connector configurations. These files are in the cf_root/bin/connectors directory. For example, the IIS_connector.bat
file configures all sites in IIS to site 0, which establishes a globally defined connector so that all sites inherit the filter
and mappings.
If you use Apache or Sun ONE Web Server, use these files as prototypes, editing, and saving them as appropriate for
your site.
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command-line interface examples
Examples of multiple use-cases for different web servers:
1 Configure a specific IIS site:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig.exe -server coldfusion -ws iis -site "web31" -coldfusion -v
On systems where all sites run ColdFusion, there is generally no need to configure an individual site.
2 Configure all existing IIS sites (ISPs):
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig.exe -server coldfusion -ws iis -site 0 -coldfusion -cfwebroot
C:\Inetpub\wwwroot -v
The -cfwebroot option allows all sites to share the ColdFusion Administrator that runs under
C:\Inetpub\wwwroot. This example does not automatically configure newly added sites after the first -site 0 run,
but you can rerun with -site 0 at a later time, and the Web Server Configuration Tool configures new sites only.
3 Configure Apache on UNIX #1:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig -server coldfusion -ws Apache -bin /opt/apache2/bin/httpd script /opt/apache2/bin/apachectl -dir /opt/apache2/conf -coldfusion -v
4 Configure Apache on UNIX #2:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig -server coldfusion -ws Apache-bin /usr/bin/httpd -script
/usr/bin/httpd -dir /etc/httpd/conf -coldfusion -v
5 Configure Apache in Windows:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig.exe -server coldfusion -ws apache -dir "c:\program
files\apache group\apache2\conf" -coldfusion -v
6 Configure Netscape on UNIX:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig -server coldfusion -ws nes -dir [path to config] -coldfusion -v
7 Configure Sun ONE Web Server on UNIX:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig -server coldfusion -ws sunone -dir [path to config] -coldfusion -v
Configuration files
The Web Server Configuration Tool stores properties in configuration files, as follows:
IIS In the jrun.ini file, typically found in a subdirectory of the cf_root/runtime/lib/wsconfig (server configuration) or
jrun_root/lib/wsconfig (multiserver configuration) directory. For IIS 5 only, it also defines filter and extension
mappings in the IIS metabase.
Apache In the httpd.conf file, typically found in the apache_root/conf directory.
Sun ONE Web Server/iPlanet In the obj.conf and magnus.conf files, typically found in the ws_root/server-http-
xxx/config directory.
The following table describes the web server connector properties in the web server configuration files. The web server
connector uses these settings to help it find the ColdFusion server and know which servers to connect to.
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Property
Description
bootstrap
Specifies the IP address and port on which the JRun server’s proxy service is listening for connector requests.
JRun must also be configured to listen on this port and address combination, the ProxyService must be
activated, and the JRun server must be running. Specify ipaddress:portnumber (for example, 127.0.0.1:51011).
serverstore
Specifies the full path and filename of the file that contains information for the associated JRun server. The
connector creates this file automatically. The default filename is jrunserver.store.
verbose
Creates more detailed web server log file entries for the connector. Enabling this option can cause the web
server’s log files to fill quickly. Specify true or false; the default value is false. In Apache and Sun ONE Web
Server, the connector writes to the error log configured for the web server; on IIS, the connector writes to its
own log in the related wsconfig subdirectory.
scriptpath
(IIS only) Points to the virtual /JRunScripts directory on the web server.
errorurl
(Optional) Specifies the URL to a file that contains a customized error message. This property is commented
out by default. Restart the web server after enabling this setting.
ssl
(Optional) Enables secure sockets layer (SSL) between the web server and the JRun server. Set this setting to
false.
apialloc
Enables native operating-system memory allocation rather than the web server’s allocator (for use on Solaris
with Sun ONE, at the direction of Adobe Support staff).
ignoresuffixmap
(IIS only) Forces the connector to use application mappings.
proxyretryinterval
Specifies the number of seconds to wait before trying to reconnect to an unreachable clustered server.
connecttimeout
Specifies the number of seconds to wait on a socket connect to a JRun server.
recvtimeout
Specifies the number of seconds to wait on a socket receive to a JRun server.
sendtimeout
Specifies the number of seconds to wait on a socket send to a JRun server.
Each time you run the Web Server Configuration Tool, it creates a configuration file and directory. For example, the
first time you run the tool in the server configuration, it creates files under cf_root/runtime/lib/wsconfig/1; the second
time, it creates cf_root/runtime/lib/wsconfig/2; and so on. Each of these subdirectories contains the appropriate
platform-specific connector module and web-server-specific supporting files.
Sample configuration files
The following are some examples of connector-specific web server properties that help describe the web server
configuration file parameters. These examples assume that JRun and the web server are on the same computer.
Apache configuration file
The following is a typical httpd.conf file for an installation of ColdFusion on the same computer as an Apache 2.0 web
server:
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# JRun Settings
LoadModule jrun_module "C:/coldfusion9/runtime/lib/wsconfig/1/mod_jrun20.so"
<IfModule mod_jrun20.c>
JRunConfig Verbose false
JRunConfig Apialloc false
JRunConfig Ssl false
JRunConfig Ignoresuffixmap false
JRunConfig Serverstore "C:/coldfusion9/runtime/lib/wsconfig/1/jrunserver.store"
JRunConfig Bootstrap 127.0.0.1:51011
#JRunConfig Errorurl <optionally redirect to this URL on errors>
#JRunConfig ProxyRetryInterval <number of seconds to wait before trying to reconnect to
unreachable clustered server>
#JRunConfig ConnectTimeout 15
#JRunConfig RecvTimeout 300
#JRunConfig SendTimeout 15
AddHandler jrun-handler .jsp .jws .cfm .cfml .cfc .cfr .cfswf
</IfModule>
IIS configuration file
For IIS, the connector uses the jrun.ini file to initialize the jrun.dll file (jrun_iis6.dll on IIS 6). The following is a typical
jrun.ini file:
verbose=false
scriptpath=/JRunScripts/jrun.dll
serverstore=C:/coldfusion9/runtime/lib/wsconfig/1/jrunserver.store
bootstrap=127.0.0.1:51011
apialloc=false
ssl=false
ignoresuffixmap=true
#errorurl=<optionally redirect to this URL on errors>
#proxyretryinterval=<number of seconds to wait before trying to reconnect to unreachable
clustered server>
#connecttimeout=<number of seconds to wait on a socket connect to a JRun server>
#recvtimeout=<number of seconds to wait on a socket receive to a JRun server>
#sendtimeout=<number of seconds to wait on a socket send to a JRun server>
Netscape, iPlanet, or Sun ONE configuration file
The following is a typical obj.conf file for Netscape, iPlanet, or Sun ONE Web Server:
Note: Java must be disabled for the virtual server class that contains the server configured for JRun.
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...
<Object name="default">
AuthTrans fn="match-browser" browser="*MSIE*" ssl-unclean-shutdown="true"
NameTrans fn="pfx2dir" from="/mc-icons" dir="C:/Sun/WebServer6.1/ns-icons" name="es-internal"
NameTrans fn="pfx2dir" from="/manual" dir="C:/Sun/WebServer6.1/manual/https"
NameTrans fn="document-root" root="$docroot"
PathCheck fn="nt-uri-clean"
PathCheck fn="check-acl" acl="default"
PathCheck fn="find-pathinfo"
PathCheck fn=find-index index-names="index.jsp,index.html,home.html,index.cfm"
PathCheck fn="jrunfilter"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.jsp type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.jws type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.cfm type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.cfml type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.cfc type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.swf type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.mxml type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn=type-by-exp exp=*.cfr type="jrun-internal/ext"
ObjectType fn="type-by-extension"
ObjectType fn="force-type" type="text/plain"
Service method=(GET|HEAD|POST) type="jrun-internal/*" fn="jrunservice"
Service method="(GET|HEAD)" type="magnus-internal/imagemap" fn="imagemap"
Service method="(GET|HEAD)" type="magnus-internal/directory" fn="index-common"
Service method="(GET|HEAD|POST)" type="*~magnus-internal/*" fn="send-file"
Service method="TRACE" fn="service-trace"
AddLog fn="flex-log" name="access"
</Object>
...
The following is a typical magnus.conf file for Netscape, iPlanet, or Sun ONE Web Server:
...
Init fn="load-modules" shlib="C:/coldfusion9/runtime/lib/wsconfig/1/jrun_nsapi.dll"
funcs="jruninit,jrunfilter,jrunservice"
Init fn="jruninit" serverstore="C:/coldfusion9/runtime/lib/wsconfig/1/jrunserver.store"
bootstrap="127.0.0.1:51011" verbose="true" apialloc="false" ssl="false"
ignoresuffixmap="false" #errorurl="<optionally redirect to this URL on errors>"
connecttimeout="15" recvtimeout="300" sendtimeout="15"
Multihoming
You typically use the Web Server Configuration Tool to configure a connection between the web server and
ColdFusion server running on the same computer. However, you can use the web server connector to route requests
to multiple virtual sites to a single ColdFusion server. This is known as multihoming.
In a multihomed environment, you have multiple virtual hosts (also known as virtual sites) connected to a single
ColdFusion server. You might use these virtual hosts for separate applications, such as Human Resources (HR),
payroll, and marketing, or for separate users in a hosting environment.
Note: You use web-server-specific methods to create separate virtual websites for each use.
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Multihoming configuration tasks include:
Enabling access to the ColdFusion Administrator If any of the applications under a virtual host need to access the
ColdFusion Administrator, create a web server mapping (Alias directive in Apache) for /CFIDE that points to the
original CFIDE directory. Alternatively, you can copy the entire CFIDE directory to the virtual website.
You can also configure the web server using the command-line Web Server Configuration Tool -cfwebroot option,
which allows access to the CFIDE directory under the specified web root.
Enabling access to the cfform.js file If you do not create a web server mapping for /CFIDE, and any of the applications
under a virtual host use the cfform tag, enable the virtual host to find the JavaScript files under the CFIDE/scripts
directory. To enable access to the scripts, use one of the following options:
• Copy the original_web_root/CFIDE/scripts directory to a CFIDE/scripts directory on your virtual host.
• Modify all cfform tags to use the scriptsrc attribute to specify the location of the cfform.js file.
Disabling the cacheRealPath attribute To ensure that ColdFusion always returns pages from the correct server,
disable Cache Web Server Paths in the Caching page of the ColdFusion Administrator. (When you use the multiserver
configuration, set the cacheRealPath attribute to false for the ProxyService in the
jrun_root/servers/servername/SERVER-INF/jrun.xml file.)
The procedures you perform to enable multihoming differ for each web server.
IIS
When you use IIS, you run the IIS Administrator to create additional websites and run the Web Server Configuration
Tool. You store ColdFusion pages under the web root of each virtual website.
Connect multiple virtual sites on IIS to a single ColdFusion server
1 Use the IIS Administrator to create virtual websites, as necessary. The web root directory should enable read, write,
and execute access. For more information, see your IIS documentation.
2 Configure DNS for each virtual website, as described in your IIS documentation.
3 Test each virtual website to ensure that HTML pages are served correctly.
4 Run the Web Server Configuration Tool, as follows:
• GUI - Select IIS for the Web Server, select All from the IIS Web Site drop-down list, and select the Configure
Web Server for ColdFusion Applications check box.
• Command line - Specify the -site
0 and -cfwebroot options, as the following server configuration example
shows:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig.exe -ws iis -site 0
-cfwebroot cf_root/wwwroot -coldfusion -v
5 Test each virtual website to ensure that ColdFusion pages are served correctly.
Apache
When you use Apache, you modify the apache_root/conf/httpd.conf file to create virtual hosts and run the Web Server
Configuration Tool. You store ColdFusion pages under the web root of each virtual website.
Connect multiple Apache virtual hosts on a web server to a single ColdFusion server
1 Configure DNS for each virtual website, as described in your web server documentation.
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2 Open the apache_root/conf/httpd.conf file in a text editor and create virtual hosts, as necessary. For more
information, see your Apache documentation. For example:
...
NameVirtualHost 127.0.0.1
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@yoursite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs"
ServerName SERVER02
ErrorLog logs/error.log
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@yoursite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs2"
ServerName mystore
ErrorLog logs/error-store.log
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@yoursite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs3"
ServerName myemployee
ErrorLog logs/error-employee.log
</VirtualHost>
...
3 Test each virtual host to ensure that HTML pages are served correctly.
4 Run the Web Server Configuration Tool, as follows:
• GUI - Specify Apache for the Web Server, specify the directory that contains the httpd.conf file, and select the
Configure Web Server for ColdFusion Applications check box.
• Command line - Specify -wsapache and the directory that contains the httpd.conf file, as the following example
shows:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig.exe -ws apache
-dir "c:\program files\apache group\apache2\conf"
-cfwebroot cf_root/wwwroot -coldfusion -v
For additional UNIX command-line examples, see “Using the command-line interface” on page 62.
The Web Server Configuration Tool updates the httpd.conf file. For a sample, see “Apache” on page 68.
5 Restart Apache. You store ColdFusion files for each virtual host in the directory specified by the DocumentRoot
directive.
6 Test each virtual host to ensure that ColdFusion pages are served correctly.
Sun ONE Web Server, iPlanet, and Netscape
When you use Sun ONE Web Server version 6, you use the Server Administrator to create virtual servers and run the
Web Server Configuration Tool. You store ColdFusion pages under the web root of each virtual server.
Note: For earlier versions of Sun ONE/iPlanet and Netscape Enterprise Server (NES), create separate server instances for
each site and run the Web Server Configuration Tool once for each site.
Connect multiple Sun ONE Web Server virtual hosts to a single ColdFusion server
1 Using the Sun ONE Web Server Administrator, create virtual web servers for ColdFusion to use. For more
information, see your Sun ONE Web Server documentation.
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2 Configure DNS for each virtual website, as described in your web server documentation.
3 Test each virtual server to ensure that HTML pages are served correctly.
4 Run the Web Server Configuration Tool, as follows:
• GUI - Specify Netscape Enterprise Server/Sun ONE for the web server, specify the directory that contains the
obj.conf and magnus.conf files, and select the Configure Web Server for ColdFusion Applications check box.
• Command line - Specify -wssunone and the directory that contains the obj.conf file, as the following example
shows:
cf_root/runtime/bin/wsconfig -ws sunone -dir [path to config]
-cfwebroot cf_root/wwwroot -coldfusion -v
5 Test each virtual server to ensure that ColdFusion pages are served correctly.
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Applications
Adobe ColdFusion includes archive and deployment options that let you package applications and create archive files.
Archive and deployment options
ColdFusion includes the following archive and deployment options.
ColdFusion archive files You can package your ColdFusion application’s pages, data sources, and settings in a
ColdFusion Archive (CAR) file. For more information, see “Packaging applications in CAR files” on page 71.
J2EE archives You can package your ColdFusion application as an Enterprise Application Archive (EAR) or Web
Application Archive (WAR) file for easy deployment to a J2EE application server. For more information, see
“Packaging applications in J2EE archive files” on page 72.
Cfcompile utility The cfcompile utility lets you precompile the ColdFusion pages of your application, into Java class
files. In addition, you can compile ColdFusion pages to bytecode and save this bytecode in files with the CFM, CFC,
or CFR extension. For more information, see “Using the cfcompile utility” on page 73.
Packaging applications in CAR files
CAR files let you archive and deploy website configuration information, files, and applications. Use this feature to
deploy your website applications to another location or to back up your files quickly and easily. You manage CAR files
using the Packaging & Deployment > ColdFusion Archives area of the ColdFusion Administrator.
Note: CAR file archiving and deployment is different from J2EE archiving and packaging through EAR and WAR files.
Perform the following steps when you archive and deploy site information:
1 Create the archive definition.
Identify the type of information to archive about a site. You can archive almost anything about the site, including
directories, files, CFX tags, ColdFusion mappings, Verity collections, automated tasks, and server settings. Each
archive definition that you create is assigned a name. You use this name each time you build or deploy its content.
2 Build the archive.
Select the name of the archive definition and specify a location to which you store the CAR file.
3 Deploy the archive.
Specify the location of the CAR file and the location to which you restore the contents.
Note: ColdFusion does not deploy Administrator and RDS passwords, nor does it unpack archives created in earlier
versions of ColdFusion.
For more information on creating, building, and deploying CAR files, see ColdFusion Administrator online Help.
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Packaging applications in J2EE archive files
When running ColdFusion in the multiserver and J2EE configurations, you deploy the ColdFusion application, in
enterprise application archive (EAR) or web application archive (WAR) format, on a J2EE application server. You then
create your ColdFusion application, configuring resources (such as data sources), and storing CFM, CFC, and CFR
files in the web application root or in the web server root. In earlier ColdFusion versions, your J2EE administrator had
to redo each of these steps when deploying your ColdFusion application onto a production J2EE server.
The ColdFusion Administrator lets you create an EAR or WAR file that contains the entire application. This archive
file contains the ColdFusion web application, settings for ColdFusion (such as data source definitions), and the CFM,
CFC, and CFR files that your application uses.
If you are using the multiserver configuration, you can combine J2EE archiving with the instance creation
functionality of the ColdFusion Administrator Enterprise Manager. First, create an EAR file that contains your
application and all of its settings. Use that EAR file in the Create From EAR/WAR option of the Instance Manager. For
more information on the Enterprise Manager, see “Defining additional server instances” on page 83.
Application packaging
The J2EE Archive feature lets you quickly create an archive file that a J2EE administrator can use to deploy your
ColdFusion application.
Add a new archive definition and create an archive file
1 Open the ColdFusion Administrator.
2 Specify a unique name for the archive file (no extension) in the Archive Name field.
3 Click Add. The Add New Archive screen appears.
4 Specify archive settings on the Add New Archive screen.
5 Click Create. ColdFusion creates an EAR or WAR file in the specified application distribution directory.
The following table describes the settings you make when creating or modifying an archive:
Setting
Description
Archive Type
Select EAR or WAR.
Context Root (EAR only)
Each J2EE web application running in a server is rooted at a unique base URL, called a context root (or
context path). The J2EE application server uses the initial portion of the URL (that is, the portion
immediately following http://hostname) to determine which web application services an incoming
request.
For example, if you are running ColdFusion with a context root of cfmx, you display the Administrator
using the URL http://hostname/cfmx/CFIDE/administrator/index.cfm. Most J2EE application servers
allow one application in each server instance to use a forward slash (/) for the context root. The Remote
Development Services (RDS) web application is not required if you use a context root of /.
Serial Number
Specifies a ColdFusion Enterprise Edition serial number. If you do not specify a valid ColdFusion
Enterprise Edition serial number when creating the archive file, it is deployed as an Enterprise Edition
evaluation version, which reverts to the Developer Edition after 30 days.
COM Support
If your application doesn’t use COM support, you can reduce the size of the archive file by omitting the
supporting files.
Debugging
If the current ColdFusion server is running with debugging enabled, you can disable debugging in the
application contained in the archive file.
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Setting
Description
Include CFML Source
You can optionally deploy Java bytecode instead of CFML source code. For more information, see
“Sourceless distribution” on page 74.
ColdFusion Administrator
If your application does not require modification by using the ColdFusion Administrator, you can reduce
archive size and reduce security issues by omitting the Administrator files.
Data sources
Specifies the data source definitions to include in the archive file.
Deployment considerations
After the archive file is created, you deploy by using standard ColdFusion J2EE configuration deployment techniques.
For more information, see Installing an EAR file or WAR files in Installing the J2EE Configuration of Installing
ColdFusion.
Post-deployment considerations
Depending on your application, the resources that it uses, and the environment in which it is deployed, you may need
to perform post-deployment configuration, as follows:
Mappings The ColdFusion mappings in the archived application refer to directories on the original computer. If those
directories do not exist on the deployment computer, modify the ColdFusion mappings by using the ColdFusion
Administrator or the Administrator API.
Verity Ensure that the Verity server settings on the original computer are appropriate for the deployment computer.
If they are not, use the ColdFusion Administrator or the appropriate tags to modify the Verity server settings.
Serial number J2EE deployment is a ColdFusion Enterprise feature. To upgrade to the Enterprise Edition, use the
ColdFusion Administrator or the Administrator API to enter a serial number.
For more information on the Administrator API, see “Administrator API” on page 30.
Using the cfcompile utility
You can use the cfcompile utility for the following purposes:
Precompiling ColdFusion pages Precompile your application’s CFM pages into Java class files. At runtime,
ColdFusion does not have to compile CFM pages.
Sourceless distribution Create CFM pages as Java bytecode. You can deploy these CFM pages instead of CFML source
code.
The cfcompile utility is located in the cf_root/bin (server configuration) or cf_webapp_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/bin
(multiserver and J2EE configuration) directory.
Before you can use the cfcompile utility in the J2EE configuration, set the CFUSION_HOME, J2EEJAR, and WEBINF
variables in the cfcompile.sh/cfcompile.bat file.
Precompiling ColdFusion pages
You can use the cfcompile utility to precompile ColdFusion pages (CFM, CFC, and CFR files). This can enhance
initial page loading time at runtime.
Use the following command to compile ColdFusion pages into Java classes:
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cfcompile webroot [directory-to-compile]
The following table describes these parameters:
Parameter
Description
webroot
Fully qualified path to the web server root; for example, C:\Inetpub\wwwroot or
C:\coldfusion9\wwwroot.
directory-to-compile
Fully qualified path to the directory where the files to be compiled are located. This directory must be
under the web root directory. If not specified, all ColdFusion templates in the web root directory are
compiled.
Sourceless distribution
You can use the cfcompile utility with the -deploy option to create ColdFusion pages (CFM, CFC, and CFR files)
that contain Java bytecode. You can then deploy the bytecode versions of the ColdFusion pages instead of the original
CFML source code.
Use the following command to compile CFML files into bytecode format that you can deploy instead of CFML source code:
cfcompile -deploy webroot directory-to-compile output-directory
The following table describes these parameters:
Parameter
Description
webroot
Fully qualified path to the web server root; for example, C:\Inetpub\wwwroot or
C:\coldfusion9\wwwroot.
directory-to-compile
Fully qualified path to the directory where the files to be compiled are located. This directory must be
under the web root directory. This is required for the -deploy option.
output-directory
Fully qualified path to the directory to contain the compiled deployable files. This cannot be the same
directory as the source directory.
After you run the cfcompile utility, perform the following steps:
1 Back up your original CFML files
2 Copy the generated bytecode CFML files to the original directory
3 Deploy the application.
The J2EE Archive screen of the ColdFusion Administrator lets you create an EAR or WAR file that contains bytecode
versions of your application’s CFML files.
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Chapter 7: Administering Security
You can secure many Adobe ColdFusion resources using password authentication and configure sandbox security.
About ColdFusion security
Security is especially important in web-based applications, such as those you develop in ColdFusion. ColdFusion
developers and administrators must fully understand the security risks that could affect their development and
runtime environments so they can enable and restrict access appropriately.
You can implement development security by requiring a password to use the ColdFusion Administrator and a
password for Remote Development Services (RDS), which allows developers to develop CFML pages remotely. You
implement runtime security in your CFML pages and in the ColdFusion Administrator. ColdFusion has the following
runtime security categories:
User security Programmatically determine the logged-in user and allow or disallow restricted functionality based on
the roles assigned to that user. For more information about user security, see ColdFusion security features in Securing
Applications in the Developing ColdFusion Applications.
Sandbox security Using the ColdFusion Administrator, define the actions and resources that the ColdFusion pages in
and below a specified directory can use.
Note: If you have the Enterprise Edition of ColdFusion, you can configure multiple security sandboxes. If you have the
Standard Edition of ColdFusion, you can only configure a single security sandbox.
The Security area in the Administrator lets you do the following tasks:
• Configure password protection for the ColdFusion Administrator. For more information, see “ColdFusion
Administrator password protection” on page 75.
• Configure password protection for RDS access. For more information, see “RDS password protection” on page 76.
• Enable, disable, and customize ColdFusion security, on the Security > Sandbox Security page (called Resource
Security page in the Standard edition). For more information, see “Using sandbox security” on page 77.
Using password protection
Password protection restricts access to the ColdFusion Administrator and to a ColdFusion server when you attempt
access through RDS security.
ColdFusion Administrator password protection
Secure access to the ColdFusion Administrator is enabled by default. The password that you enter during installation
is saved as the default. You are prompted to enter this password whenever you open the Administrator.
Password protection for accessing the Administrator helps guard against unauthorized modifications of ColdFusion,
and Adobe recommends using passwords. You can disable or change the Administrator password on the Security >
CF Admin Password page.
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Configurable seed for password encryption
In ColdFusion 9 Update 1, Administrator has option to specify a new seed value to encrypt data source passwords.
Previously, ColdFusion used to assign a default seed value to encrypt data source passwords, but modification was not
allowed.
To modify the default seed value assigned by ColdFusion or to change the value you specified,
1 In the ColdFusion Administrator, got to Security > Administrator and then in the Password Seed section, specify
the new seed value between 8-500 characters.
2 Click Submit Changes.
Note: When you modify the seed value, all data source connections are reset. Therefore, Adobe recommends that you
perform this task when the server is idle or at the initial phase (after installation).
RDS password protection
If you configured password protection for RDS access when you installed ColdFusion, you are prompted for the
password when you attempt to access ColdFusion from Dreamweaver MX 2004, HomeSite+, or the ColdFusion
Report Builder.
You can disable RDS or change the RDS password on the Security > RDS Password page.
Note: Disabling RDS also disables the applet that the ColdFusion Administrator uses in file-related dialog boxes.
If you use RDS security, you rely on web server and operating system security settings to set permissions for
ColdFusion application and document directories.
Exposing services to users
ColdFusion exposes many existing enterprise services as web services. You can access these services using SOAP and
AMF/Flash remoting.
The following are the exposed services:
• cfpdf
• cfImage
• cfdocument
• cfmail
• cfpop
• cfchart
• upload service
You can secure the exposed services to prevent access by unknown applications or users. This can be done by
configuring the client IP address range to which services are accessible. Also, you can set up user access control for the
services.
On the Security > User Manager page, you can select the services available to a user from the Exposed Services section.
By default, all the services are listed in the Prohibited Services drop-down list. Press CTRL and select the services that
you want the user to avail and click the << button.
Now, click Edit User to implement the changes to the user settings.
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Configure IP address to access exposed services
To configure IP addresses to access exposed services:
1 Go to Security > Allowed IP Addresses
2 To add an IP address, specify the IP address in the IP addresses field and click Add.
3 To remove an IP address, select the IP address from the View/Remove Selected IP Addresses for Exposed Services list.
4 Click Remove Selected to remove the IP addresses.
Using sandbox security
Sandbox security (called Resource security in the Standard Edition) uses the location of your ColdFusion pages to
control access to ColdFusion resources. A sandbox is a designated directory of your site to which you apply security
restrictions. Sandbox security lets you specify which tags, functions, and resources (for example, files, directories, and
data sources) can be used by ColdFusion pages located in and under the designated directory.
To use sandbox security in the multiserver and J2EE editions, the application server must be running a security
manager (java.lang.SecurityManager) and you define the following JVM arguments (for JRun, this is the java.args
line in the jrun_root/jvm.config file):
-Djava.security.manager "-Djava.security.policy=cf_root/WEBINF/cfusion/lib/coldfusion.policy" "-Djava.security.auth.policy=cf_root/WEBINF/cfusion/lib/neo_jaas.policy"
Note: Sandbox security is not enabled by default. You enable it on the Security > Sandbox Security page before
ColdFusion enforces the settings.
Using multiple sandboxes (Enterprise Edition only)
By default, a subdirectory of a sandbox inherits the settings of the directory one level above it. However, if you define
a sandbox for a subdirectory, the subdirectory no longer inherits settings from the parent, completely overriding the
parent directory’s sandbox settings. For example, consider the following directories:
C:\Inetpub\wwwroot
C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\sales
C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\rnd
C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\rnd\dev
C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\rnd\'a
If you define a sandbox for the wwwroot directory, the settings also apply to the sales and rnd directories. If you also
define a sandbox for the rnd directory, the rnd sandbox settings also apply to the dev and qa directories. The wwwroot
and sales directories maintain their original settings, and the rnd settings override the wwwroot directory settings for
the rnd directory and subdirectories.
This hierarchical arrangement of security permits the configuration of personalized sandboxes for users with different
security levels. For example, if you are a web hosting administrator who hosts several clients on a ColdFusion shared
server, you can configure a sandbox for each customer. This prevents one customer from accessing the data sources or
files of another customer.
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Resources that you can restrict
You can restrict the following resources:
Data Sources Restrict the use of ColdFusion data sources.
CF Tags Restrict the use of ColdFusion tags that manipulate resources on the server (or on an external server), such as
files, the registry, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), mail, and the log.
CF Functions Restrict the use of ColdFusion functions that access the file system.
Files/Dirs Enable tags and functions in the sandbox to access files and directories outside the sandbox.
Note: To use the Administrator API when sandbox security is enabled, allow access to the cf_web_root/CFIDE/adminapi
directory.
Server/Ports Specify the servers, ports, and port ranges that the ColdFusion tags that call third-party resources can use.
For more information, see the Administrator online Help.
Note: When you run ColdFusion in the J2EE configuration on IBM WebSphere, the Files/Dirs and Server/Ports tabs are
not enabled.
About directories and permissions
When you enable access to files outside the sandbox, you specify the filename. When you enable access to directories
outside the sandbox, you specify directoryname\indicator, where indicator is a dash or asterisk, as follows:
• A backslash followed by a dash (\-) lets tags and functions access all files in the specified directory, and recursively
allows access to all files in subdirectories.
• A backslash followed by an asterisk (\*) lets tags and functions access all files in the specified directory and also lets
tags and functions access a list of subdirectories. However, this option denies access to files in any subdirectories.
You can also specify the actions that ColdFusion tags and functions can perform on files and directories outside the
sandbox. The following table shows the relationship between the permissions of a file and a directory:
Permission
Effect on files
Effect on directories
Read
View the file
List all files in the directory
Write
Write to the file
Not applicable
Execute
Execute the file
Not applicable
Delete
Delete the file
Delete the directory
Add a sandbox (Enterprise Edition only)
ColdFusion Enterprise Edition lets you define multiple security sandboxes.
1 Open the Security > Sandbox Security page in the ColdFusion Administrator.
The Sandbox Security Permissions page appears.
2 In the Add Security Sandbox box, enter the name of the new sandbox. This name must be either a ColdFusion
mapping (defined in the Administrator) or an absolute path.
3 Select New Sandbox from the drop-down list to create a sandbox based on the default sandbox, or select an existing
sandbox to copy its settings to your new sandbox.
4 Click Add.
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The new sandbox appears in the list of Defined Directory Permissions.
Configure a sandbox
Before you begin security sandbox configuration, analyze your application and its usage to determine the tags,
functions, and resources that it requires. You can then configure the sandbox to enable access to the required resources
and disable use of the appropriate tags and functions. For example, if the applications in the sandbox do not use the
cfregistry tag, you can safely disable it.
Note: In the Standard Edition, the Root Security Context is the only sandbox without any initial list of defined directory
permissions.
1 Open the Security > Sandbox Security page (Security > Resource Security page in the Standard Edition) in the
ColdFusion Administrator.
2 (Enterprise Edition only) In the list of Defined Directory Permissions, click the name or Edit icon for the directory.
A page with several tabs appears. This is the initial page in the Standard Edition. The remaining steps describe the
use of each tab.
3 To disable a data source, in the left column of the Datasources tab, highlight the data source, and click the right
arrow.
By default, ColdFusion pages in this sandbox can access all data sources.
Note: If <<ALL DATASOURCES>> is in the Enabled Datasources column, any data source that you add is enabled.
If you move <<ALL DATASOURCES>> to the Disabled Datasources column, any new data source is disabled.
4 Click the CFTags tab.
5 To disable tags, in the left column of the CFTags tab, highlight the tags, and click the right arrow.
By default, ColdFusion pages in this sandbox can access all listed tags.
6 Click the CFFunctions tab.
7 To disable functions, in the left column of the CFFunctions tab, highlight the functions, and click the right arrow.
By default, ColdFusion pages in this sandbox can access all listed functions.
8 Click the Files/Dirs tab.
9 To enable files or directories, in the File Path box, enter or browse to the files or directories; for example, C:\pix. A
file path that consists of the special token <<ALL FILES>> matches any file. For information on using the
backslash-hyphen (\-) and backslash-asterisk (\*) wildcard characters, see “About directories and permissions” on
page 78.
10 Select the permissions.
For example, select the Read check box to let ColdFusion pages in the mytestapps sandbox read files in the C:\pix
directory.
11 Click Add Files/Paths. When you edit an existing sandbox, this button reads Edit Files/Paths.
The file path and its permissions appear in the Secured Files and Directories list.
12 In the Secured Files and Directories list, verify that the file path is correct.
The character after the backslash is important. For information, see “About directories and permissions” on
page 78.
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Note: The Files/Dirs tab works together with the file-based permissions of the operating system. To restrict a user from
browsing another user’s directory, use file-based permissions.
13 Click the Server/Ports tab.
14 To turn off default behavior (global access to all servers and ports), enter the IP addresses and port numbers that
pages in this sandbox can connect to by using tags that access external resources (for example, cfmail, cfpop,
cfldap, cfhttp, and so on). You can specify an IP address, a server name (such as www.someservername.com), or
a domain name (such as someservername.com). You can optionally specify a port restriction.
Note: This behavior differs from other tabs, such as CFTags, where you select items to disable. If you set any values in
this tab, external-resource tags executed in this sandbox can access only the specified servers and ports.
For example, to allow this sandbox access to 207.88.220.3 on ports 80 and lower, perform the following steps:
a In the IP Address field, enter 207.88.220.3.
b In the Port field, enter 80, and click This Port and Lower.
Note: To deny access by these ColdFusion tags to an entire site, enable access for a local resource, such as your local
mail server, FTP server, and so on.
15 Click Finish to save changes to the sandbox.
Sandbox Considerations
Using OpenOffice within Sandbox
Grant permissions in sandbox for the following filepaths:
• D:\ColdFusion9\runtime\servers\lib Read
• D:\ColdFusion9\runtime\servers\lib\- Read
• D:\ColdFusion9\runtime\lib\- Read
• D:\ColdFusion9\runtime\lib Read
• C:\Program Files\OpenOffice.org 3\ Read, Execute
• C:\Program Files\OpenOffice.org 3\- Read
, Execute
Using Caching within Sandbox
For disk-based caching to work inside a sandbox, the sandbox must provide read/write permission to the disk cache
directory. This can be the default directory (java.io.tmpdir) or a user-configured directory as identified by the
diskStore property.
The diskStore property in cf_root\lib\ehcache.xml is used to specify the directory for disk cache (<diskStore
path="java.io.tmpdir"/>).Use the following code to identify the temp directory:
<cfscript>
writeoutput("Temp Dir : " &
createobject("java","java.lang.System").getProperty("java.io.tmpdir") );
</cfscript>
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Also, read permission must be granted to cf_root\lib\ehcache.xml for certain functions that read from/write to
ehCache.xml to work. For example, cacheGetProperties and cacheSetProperties.
Using Service CFCs within Sandbox
Grant the following permissions:
• execute permission to cf_root\CustomTags\com\adobe\coldfusion
• read permission to cf_root\WEB-INF\cftags\META_INF\taglib.tld
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Chapter 8: Using Multiple Server Instances
When you use the multiserver configuration to install Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise Edition, you can use the
ColdFusion Administrator to create multiple server instances. Deploying ColdFusion on multiple server instances lets
you isolate individual applications and leverage clustering functionality.
Management of multiple server instances changed as of ColdFusion MX 7, as follows:
ColdFusion MX Use a J2EE deployment, along with J2EE application server features to deploy the ColdFusion
application on multiple instances of the J2EE application server.
Post-ColdFusion MX Use the ColdFusion Administrator in the multiserver configuration to create JRun server
instances and to automatically deploy the ColdFusion application on those instances. Additionally, you can combine
the Administrator-driven server-instance creation with the ColdFusion Administrator J2EE Archive feature to deploy
a ColdFusion application that contains all of your application’s CFM files (including CFCs and CFRs), settings
(including data source definitions), and the ColdFusion web application. For more information on J2EE Archive, see
“Packaging applications in J2EE archive files” on page 72.
About multiple server instances
The ColdFusion Administrator lets you create server instances and clusters. Additionally, you can connect to remote
JRun servers and add them to clusters.
Running multiple instances of ColdFusion has the following advantages:
Application isolation You deploy an independent application to each server instance. Each server instance has
separate settings and, because each server instance runs in its own Java Virtual Machine (JVM), problems that one
application encounter have no effect on other applications.
Clustering (load balancing and failover) You deploy the same application to each server instance and add the instances
to a cluster. The web server connector optimizes performance and stability by automatically balancing load and by
switching requests to another server instance when a server instance stops running.
The multiserver configuration is a specialized J2EE configuration that installs JRun and deploys ColdFusion as an
expanded Enterprise Application Archive (EAR) in the cfusion JRun server. The cfusion server is the only server that
can create servers and clusters. The JRun instance creation and clustering options in the ColdFusion Administrator
are not available in the server configuration, nor are they available in the J2EE configuration, even if you deploy
ColdFusion on JRun.
Note: You can also manually deploy ColdFusion on multiple server instances, using the server creation and deployment
facilities of your J2EE application server. For more information, see the ColdFusion documentation.
Expanded archive considerations
ColdFusion must run from an expanded directory structure. The Instance Manager expands the EAR or WAR file
automatically and then deploys the expanded directory structure into the new server instance.
For more information on deploying ColdFusion in the J2EE configuration, see Installing ColdFusion.
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File location considerations
ColdFusion lets you store CFM pages either under the external web server root or under the ColdFusion web
application root. The discussions here assume that you store your CFM pages under the ColdFusion web application
root and specify a context root for your application. However, in ColdFusion MX 6.1 documentation, the assumption
that you stored CFM pages under the web server root.
If you use the web server connector to access pages under the ColdFusion web application root and your ColdFusion
web application has an empty context root (this is the default), the connector does not automatically serve static
content, such as HTML pages and image files. If so, define web server mappings so that it can serve files from the
ColdFusion web application root.
For more information on serving CFM pages from the web server root, see “Web Server Management” on page 59
Defining additional server instances
The multiserver configuration is a customized installation of JRun. JRun supports multiple server instances (also called
JRun servers) running on the same computer. Each server instance runs in a separate JVM, which executes all
ColdFusion pages for that instance.
Use the Instance Manager area of the ColdFusion Administrator to define and manage server instances. The Instance
Manager only runs in the cfusion JRun server that is created as part of a multiserver configuration installation.
Note: When you create a server instance using the Instance Manager, if you previously modified the cfusion (Enterprise
Manager) instance, the log files for the new instance point to the default cfusion instance. Before you modify the cfusion
instance, ensure that you want to share the modification among all new instances.
When you create a server instance with the Instance Manager, by default it deploys a copy of the cfusion server
ColdFusion enterprise application, including data sources, mappings, and settings. Alternatively, you can create a
server instance and specify the location of an EAR or WAR file (created by the J2EE Archive page), which the Instance
Manager uses as the basis for your new ColdFusion server instance.
Note: If you are running JRun 4, you can also create a server in the JRun Management Console (JMC) and deploy the
ColdFusion application using JRun deployment functionality.
Define a server instance
1 Ensure that you installed ColdFusion using the multiserver configuration.
2 Open the ColdFusion Administrator for the cfusion server in a browser
(http://hostname:8300/CFIDE/administrator).
3 Select Enterprise Manager > Instance Manager.
4 Click Add New Instance.
5 Specify the following in the Add New ColdFusion Server area:
• Server name
• (Optional) Directory that contains the server instance. The ColdFusion Administrator fills in the default
automatically (jrun_root/servers/servername).
• (Optional) Create from EAR/WAR. If you use the J2EE Packaging feature to create a J2EE archive file with your
application files (including CFM, CFC, and CFR files) and data sources, use this field to specify the EAR or WAR
filename and create a server instance with your application deployed automatically.
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• (Optional, Windows only) Specify whether to create a Windows service for the server instance and whether to
define the Windows service with an auto restart recovery option.
6 Click Submit.
The ColdFusion Administrator creates a server instance with ColdFusion deployed in it and starts the server
instance. The ColdFusion application that it deploys is based on the application archive file specified in the Create
from EAR/WAR field or on the cfusion server instance (if you don’t specify an EAR or WAR file).
Creating a JRun server instance and deploying the ColdFusion application can take a few minutes.
7 Click Return to Instance Manager.
You can also start and stop the server instance using the JMC, the JRun Launcher, or the command line (jrun_root/bin
jrun start|stop --servername).
Enabling application isolation
You can create separate server instances, each with its own ColdFusion applications; each application then has its own
ColdFusion and J2EE server resources. In this configuration, you typically have a single external web server with
multiple server instances on one computer, and separate virtual hosts (or sites) for each server instance.
Note: Like ColdFusion, other J2EE application servers provide equivalent capabilities, and most of the concepts apply
when deploying the ColdFusion J2EE configuration on those J2EE servers.
Running independent applications this way has several advantages, including the following:
• Errors at the levels of the ColdFusion application or the JRun server do not affect any other ColdFusion
applications.
• You can support multihomed servers, where a single web server supports multiple IP addresses or domain names,
such as www.mycompany.com and services.anothercompany.com, each running from a separate web root. For
more information, see “Multihoming” on page 67.
• Individual applications can use different JVM configurations, or even different JVM implementations. This feature
is useful if one application requires a large Java heap. To specify customized JVM options, start the JRun server
instance from the command line using the -config option of the jrun command, which specifies a customized
jvm.config file. This feature is explained in the “Starting and stopping JRun servers” section in Installing and Using
ColdFusion.
Note: Installing and Using ColdFusion describes creating multiple server instances on a single computer. To create
multiple server instances on separate computers, each computer requires a separate license of ColdFusion Enterprise
Edition.
To achieve complete application isolation, you use web-server-specific functionality to create a separate website for
each application. Web servers have different terminology for this concept. For example, in IIS, you define separate
websites (available in Windows server editions only) and in Apache, you create multiple virtual hosts.
These instructions apply when running ColdFusion in the multiserver configuration. The principles apply when
running ColdFusion on other J2EE application servers. However, not all J2EE application servers integrate with
external web servers. For more information, see “Multihoming” on page 67.
These instructions assume that you deploy each application at a named context root, which enables users to access
CFM pages by specifying http://hostname/context-root/pagename.cfm. If other web applications are running in the
server instance, each web application must use a different context root.
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For example, with a context root of cf, users access CFM pages by specifying http://hostname/cf/pagename.cfm. For
more information on using a context root, see Installing ColdFusion.
Note: Although cf is the context root, it does not relate to your web application directory structure.
Use multiple server instances for application isolation
1 Create a separate server instance by using the instructions in “Defining additional server instances” on page 83. If
you are using the built-in web server, proceed to step 6 in this procedure.
2 Using your web-server-specific method, create a virtual website (or separate website) for the application.
For more information, see “Multihoming” on page 67, or consult your web server documentation.
3 Test each virtual website to ensure that HTML pages are served correctly.
4 Store the ColdFusion files of your application, in the ColdFusion web application root (recommended for
application portability) or the web root of the virtual website.
5 Follow the instructions for your web server to configure the connection between your virtual website and the server
instance. For more information, see “Web server configuration for application isolation” on page 85.
6 Test your application.
7 Repeat these steps for each server instance.
Web server configuration for application isolation
When you use multiple server instances for application isolation, the steps you perform to configure communication
between the website and the server instance differ for each web server.
To enhance performance when using an external web server with multiple server instances, place all static content
(HTML files and images, for example) under the web server root directory or one of its subdirectories. Minimize the
amount of static content served from ColdFusion web application root directory.
Configuring application isolation in IIS
When you use multiple virtual websites with multiple server instances under IIS, you define separate filters and
mappings for each virtual website and server instance combination.
It is assumed that you already created server instances and virtual websites, as described in “Enabling application
isolation” on page 84.
Configure multiple server instances for application isolation when using IIS
Run the Web Server Configuration Tool multiple times, once for each virtual website, and specify a different site and
server instance each time. Ensure that you select the Configure Web Server for ColdFusion MX Applications option
(GUI) or use the -coldfusion option (command line). For more information on running the Web Server
Configuration Tool, see “Using an external web server” on page 60.
Configuring application isolation in Apache
When you use multiple virtual hosts with multiple server instances under Apache, you edit the httpd.conf file
manually.
It is assumed that you already created server instances and virtual websites, as described in “Enabling application
isolation” on page 84.
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Configure multiple server instances for application isolation when using Apache
1 Run the Web Server Configuration Tool once, specifying the location of the Apache httpd.conf file and any other
required information. Ensure that you select the Configure Web Server for ColdFusion MX Applications option
(GUI) or use the -coldfusion option (command line).
2 The Web Server Configuration Tool creates a sequentially numbered subdirectory under jrun_root/lib/wsconfig.
You can use the subdirectory created by the Web Server Configuration Tool for one of your virtual hosts, but you
must create additional subdirectories for all other virtual hosts. For example, the first time you run the Web Server
Configuration Tool, it creates jrun_root/lib/wsconfig/1; if you have two other virtual hosts, manually create two
other directories (jrun_root/lib/wsconfig/mystore and jrun_root/lib/wsconfig/myemp in this example). These
directories can be empty.
3 Open the jrun_root/servers/servername/SERVER-INF/jrun.xml file for each server instance and locate the
ProxyService service. Ensure that the deactivated element is set to false, and note the value of the port element.
For example:
...
<service class="jrun.servlet.jrpp.JRunProxyService" name="ProxyService">
<attribute name="activeHandlerThreads">25</attribute>
<attribute name="backlog">500</attribute>
<attribute name="deactivated">false</attribute>
<attribute name="interface">*</attribute>
<attribute name="maxHandlerThreads">1000</attribute>
<attribute name="minHandlerThreads">1</attribute>
<attribute name="port">51002</attribute>
...
4 Restart each of the modified JRun servers.
5 Open the apache_root/conf/httpd.conf file in a text editor and find the VirtualHost directives. The settings added
by the Web Server Configuration Tool are after the last </IfModule> directive, as the following example shows:
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...
# JRun Settings
LoadModule jrun_module "C:/JRun4/lib/wsconfig/1/mod_jrun20.so"
<IfModule mod_jrun20.c>
JRunConfig Verbose false
JRunConfig Apialloc false
JRunConfig Ssl false
JRunConfig Ignoresuffixmap false
JRunConfig Serverstore "C:/JRun4/lib/wsconfig/1/jrunserver.store"
JRunConfig Bootstrap 127.0.0.1:51000
#JRunConfig Errorurl <optionally redirect to this URL on errors>
#JRunConfig ProxyRetryInterval <number of seconds to wait before trying to reconnect to
unreachable clustered server>
#JRunConfig ConnectTimeout 15
#JRunConfig RecvTimeout 300
#JRunConfig SendTimeout 15
AddHandler jrun-handler .jsp .jws .cfm .cfml .cfc .cfr .cfswf
</IfModule>
NameVirtualHost 127.0.0.1
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs"
ServerName SERVER02
ErrorLog logs/error.log
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs2"
ServerName mystore
ErrorLog logs/error-store.log
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs3"
ServerName myemployee
ErrorLog logs/error-employee.log
</VirtualHost>
...
6 For each VirtualHost directive that relates to a ColdFusion server instance, copy the entire IfModule
mod_jrun20.c directive from its original location outside the VirtualHost directive to the last element in the
VirtualHost directive.
7 Delete the Apialloc, Ssl, Ignoresuffixmap, and AddHandler elements in the IfModule directive for each virtual
host. Modify the Serverstore and Bootstrap elements to point to the appropriate proxy port (from the jrun.xml
file) and jrun_root/lib/wsconfig/subdirectory/jrunserver.store file, which the web server connector creates
automatically.
8 In the original IfModule directive, remove or comment out the Serverstore and Bootstrap lines (comments
start with #). The following example shows three virtual hosts, two of which are configured for ColdFusion:
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...
# JRun Settings
LoadModule jrun_module "C:/JRun4/lib/wsconfig/1/mod_jrun20.so"
<IfModule mod_jrun20.c>
JRunConfig Verbose false
JRunConfig Apialloc false
JRunConfig Ssl false
JRunConfig Ignoresuffixmap false
#JRunConfig Serverstore "C:/JRun4/lib/wsconfig/1/jrunserver.store"
#JRunConfig Bootstrap 127.0.0.1:51020
AddHandler jrun-handler .jsp .jws .cfm .cfml .cfc .cfr .cfswf
</IfModule>
NameVirtualHost 127.0.0.1
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs"
ServerName RNIELSEN02
ErrorLog logs/error.log
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs2"
ServerName rnielsenstore
ErrorLog logs/error-store.log
<IfModule mod_jrun20.c>
JRunConfig Verbose true
JRunConfig Serverstore "C:/JRun4/lib/wsconfig/mystore/jrunserver.store"
JRunConfig Bootstrap 127.0.0.1:51002
</IfModule>
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1>
ServerAdmin admin@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Group/Apache2/htdocs3"
ServerName rnielsenemployee
ErrorLog logs/error-employee.log
<IfModule mod_jrun20.c>
JRunConfig Verbose true
JRunConfig Serverstore "C:/JRun4/lib/wsconfig/myemp/jrunserver.store"
JRunConfig Bootstrap 127.0.0.1:51003
</IfModule>
</VirtualHost>
...
9 Restart Apache.
10 (Optional) Store the ColdFusion files of your application in the external web server root directory.
11 Test the applications under each virtual host.
Note: Remember that the web server connector doesn’t serve static content, such as HTML and images. Place these files
under the web root or create a web server mapping to the ColdFusion web application root.
Configuring application isolation in Sun ONE Web Server
Under Sun ONE Web Server, each ColdFusion server instance is mapped to a Sub ONE Web Server instance, when
you use multiple virtual hosts with multiple server instances.
It is assumed that you already created server instances, as described in “Enabling application isolation” on page 84.
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Configure multiple server instances for application isolation when using Sun ONE Web
Server
Run the Web Server Configuration Tool for each Sun ONE Web Server instance. Specify a different configuration
directory and ColdFusion server instance each time. Ensure that you select the Configure Web Server for ColdFusion
MX Applications option (GUI) or use the -coldfusion option (command line).
Enabling clustering for load balancing and failover
Load balancing is an enterprise-level feature in which the application server automatically alternates requests among
the server instances in a cluster. Clustering also enables application servers to route requests to a running server
instance when the original server instance goes down.
Note: These instructions apply only when you are running ColdFusion in the multiserver configuration. If you are
running JRun4, you can also create clusters in the JMC.
You can get load balancing and failover by deploying identical ColdFusion applications and configurations to multiple
server instances and adding the instances to a cluster. Each instance must have the same applications deployed and the
same resources configured (such as data sources, Verity collections, and mappings). The web server connector
optimizes performance and stability by automatically balancing load and by switching requests to another server
instance when a server instance stops running.
Note: Because clustering uses Jini Network Technology, you must be connected to a network for clustering to work.
For maximum failover protection, use multiple computers in a cluster. However, purchase a separate ColdFusion
Enterprise Edition license for each computer.
Note: If you set up and test multiple server instances while running the 30-day trial version, the cluster might not continue
to function appropriately when the trial version reverts to the Developer version after 30 days.
To implement session failover for the server instances in a cluster, enable session replication for each server instance.
Session replication coordinates session information in real time among the server instances in a cluster. Enabling
session replication lets JRun automatically route a request to a running server if the current server is unavailable.
Note: When a cluster uses session replication, session data is copied to other servers in the cluster each time it is modified.
This can degrade performance if you store a significant amount of information in session scope. If you plan to store a
significant amount of information in session scope, consider storing this information in client variables saved in a
database.
To enable session replication, manually edit the jrun-web.xml and set persistence to false. To do this, open the
jrun_root/servers/server_name/server_name-ear/server_name-war/WEBINF/jrun-web.xml file and modify the
<persistence-config> entry to false as follows:
<persistence-config><active>false</active></persistence-config>
For more information, see TechNote "JRun 4: Configuring session replication to enable session failover" at
www.adobe.com/go/tn_18226.
Configure a cluster of server instances for load balancing and failover
1 Create your application and the data sources required for the application.
2 Check that you installed ColdFusion by using the multiserver configuration.
3 Open the ColdFusion Administrator for the cfusion server in a browser
(http://hostname:8300/CFIDE/administrator).
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4 Select Packaging & Deployment > J2EE Packaging.
5 Use the J2EE Archives page to create an EAR file that contains the application, its CFM pages, the required data
sources, and other settings.
6 Select Enterprise Manager > Instance Manager.
7 Create server instances for the cluster as described in “Defining additional server instances” on page 83. Use the
Create From EAR/WAR field to specify the archive file that you created.
8 (Optional) Click the Register Remote Instance button to define existing remote server instances so that you can
include them in the cluster. If you use a remote server, ensure that it contains the same application and settings as
the local server instances.
Note: A server can participate in only one cluster. When adding remote instances to a cluster, ensure that the instance
is not already part of a cluster.
9 Ensure that each server instance is started.
Note: To administer a cluster, at least one member server instance must be running.
10 Select Enterprise Manager > Cluster Manager.
11 Name the cluster and click Add.
The ColdFusion Administrator adds the cluster to the Configured Clusters area.
12 Click the cluster name or the edit icon.
The Edit Cluster screen appears.
13 Use the arrow icons to add server instances to the cluster.
14 (Optional) Enable session replication, and specify a cluster algorithm.
Note: When you enable sticky sessions, the connector does not always route requests strictly based on the cluster
algorithm. For more information, see Administrator online Help.
15 Click Submit.
16 Select Enterprise Manager > Instance Manager.
17 Use the CF Admin icon on the Instance Manager to open the ColdFusion Administrator on each server instance.
Ensure that required resources (such as data sources and Verity collections) are defined appropriately. If you are
using session replication, go to the Memory Variables page and enable J2EE sessions. Enable J2EE sessions for all
server instances in the cluster. If J2EE sessions are not enabled in the ColdFusion Administrator, session replication
does not function properly.
CFC serialization lets you use J2EE session replication in a cluster and have access to the CFCs in session data across
all instances in the cluster. Session replication also ensures that that Session scope variables are replicated across the
cluster. However, session replication does not support replication of arrays in Session scope CFCs or variables.
You can also preserve and access data in a CFC in the case of session failover. ColdFusion structures stored inside
the session scope are available in the session scope, even after failover. For example, if you are running multiple
ColdFusion instances to balance server load, you can store useful data, including CFCs, inside the session so that
you can access the data across all the pages that are served in that session.
To enable CFC serialization, set the CFC in the session, as follows:
<cfset cfccomponent = CreateObject("component", "CFIDE.adminapi.datasource")>
<cfset session.datasourcecomponent = cfccomponent>
After failover, you can then access and call methods in the CFC, as follows:
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<cfset check = session.datasourcecomponent.verifyDSN("testdsn")>
18 For servers that are not on the same subnet, open the jrun_root/lib/security.properties file and add the IP addresses
of the other JRun servers in the cluster to the jrun.trusted.hosts property.
Note: This step is required only for servers that are not on the same subnet; it is not necessary if all servers are on the
same subnet.
19 Restart all JRun servers in the cluster.
20 Run the Web Server Configuration Tool. Choose your website, but instead of choosing a single server instance,
select the cluster. Ensure that you select the Configure Web Server for ColdFusion MX Applications option (GUI)
or use the -coldfusion option (command line). For more information, see “Web server configuration” on page 61.
21 Open the SERVER-INF/jrun.xml file for each server instance and ensure that the ProxyService deactivated
attribute is set to false.
22 (Optional) Store the ColdFusion files of your application in the external web server root directory.
23 Test the application to ensure that load balancing and failover work as expected.
Define remote server instances to the ColdFusion
Administrator
You can use the Cluster Manager to add ColdFusion server instances running on other computers. However, first define
them to the ColdFusion Administrator through the Add Remote Server Instance area of the Instance Manager page.
Note: To define a remote server instance, it must be running. You cannot start or stop servers remotely.
1 Open the ColdFusion Administrator for the cfusion server in a browser
(http://hostname:8300/CFIDE/administrator).
2 Select Enterprise Manager > Instance Manager.
3 Specify the following in the Add Remote ColdFusion Instance area:
• Server name
• The IP address or DNS name of the remote host.
• The remote port of the remote server. To determine the remote port, open the
jrun_root/servers/servername/SERVER-INF/jndi.properties file and note the port number in the
java.naming.provider.url property.
4 Click Add Remote ColdFusion Server.
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Monitor
The ColdFusion Server Monitor lets you track activities on a ColdFusion Server. You can identify information about
the server, including requests, queries, memory usage, and errors. You can start and stop collecting server information
and take snapshots of the server.
To track the status of more than one ColdFusion server, use the Multiserver Monitor.
Gathering information about ColdFusion servers
The Server Monitor and Multiserver Monitor provide information about your ColdFusion servers. Generally, the
information that the Server Monitor provides is more detailed than the information that the Multiserver Monitor
provides. However, the Multiserver Monitor provides a good way to track the status of multiple ColdFusion servers.
The Server Monitor provides information about the following:
• Requests, queries, sessions, and threads
• Response time
• Memory usage
• Alerts and errors
• Snapshots of server information
The Multiserver Monitor provides the following information:
• Requests
• Response time
• JVM memory usage
• Alerts, errors, and time outs
Starting the ColdFusion Server Monitor
The ColdFusion Server Monitor is a SWF application that you access from the ColdFusion Administrator. The Server
Monitor begins gathering and displaying data when you start it.
The ColdFusion Multiserver Monitor is a SWF application that can provide information about more than one
ColdFusion server. To gather detailed information about one ColdFusion server, use the Server Monitor. To gather
information about several servers, use the Multiserver Monitor.
Start the ColdFusion Server Monitor
1 Start the ColdFusion Administrator.
2 Select Server Monitoring > Server Monitor, and then click Launch Server Monitor.
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Start the ColdFusion Multiserver Monitor
1 Start the ColdFusion Administrator.
2 Select Server Monitoring > Server Monitor, and then click Launch Multiserver Monitor.
Note: The cross domain details need to be mentioned in the crossdomain.xml file and this file must be placed directly
under webroot. Previously, this file was placed under <webroot>/CFIDE/multiservermonitor-access-policy.xml. For
more information, see www.adobe.com/devnet/flashplayer/articles/fplayer9_security.html
By default, server monitoring is turned off. To start and stop monitoring, profiling, and memory tracking, click the
corresponding buttons in the top bar of the Server Monitor. The following table indicates what data the Server Monitor
collects when you click the Start button:
Button
Action
Start Monitoring
Starts gathering information about all requests, including active requests, slowest requests, active sessions,
cumulative server usage, highest hit counts, template cache status, request throttle data, requests that timed
out, requests with errors, and server alerts. The Server Monitor does not gather information for requests that
are excluded on the Filter Settings page.
Start Profiling
Starts gathering tag and function timing information for the Slowest Requests report; the CFML stack trace for
the Active Requests report; information about active queries, slowest queries, cached queries, and query
cache status; database pool status; and the most frequently run queries. This information gathering lets you
find bottlenecks in your application. You can view details about each request that is slow or consumes a lot
of memory. You can determine which tags and functions cause the request to run slowly and which variables
consume the most memory. You can use this information on development servers. To gather the profiling
information, turn on monitoring, profiling, and, if needed, memory tracking.
Start Memory Tracking
Starts gathering information about memory consumption, including overall memory usage, the queries and
sessions that use the most memory, the memory usage of all application and server scopes, and profiling
information on the largest variables on the Requests by Memory Usage report, if profiling is enabled.
You must enable profiling to view query-related reports; you must enable profiling and memory tracking to
view the Queries by Memory Usage report.
Reset All Statistics
Resets all statistics collected on the server.
Refresh
Updates the data for all the graphs, reports, and message boxes on the page.
Important: Do not enable these options on the production server. Enabling them will slow the server considerably.
Viewing Server Monitor Reports
When you start the Server Monitor, the Overview page appears. To return to the Overview page from any other page,
click Overview.
By default, the Server Monitor retrieves data for graphs every 5 seconds; it retrieves data for reports every 30 seconds.
All the graphs let you display either all the data collected, or the data collected for a specified recent period.
The Server Monitor lets you control the detail, which you turn on and off with the following buttons:
Start Monitoring Turns on all monitoring.
Start Profiling Turns on monitoring of individual tags, functions, and query execution times.
Start Memory Tracking Turns on tracking of memory that different scopes use. If Profiling is also on, the Server
Monitor tracks the memory that individual tags, functions, and queries use.
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Turning on or off monitoring, profiling, and memory tracking determines which data the Server Monitor gathers. For
example, all the query reports require that you turn on profiling. The performance effect of turning on monitoring and
profiling is minimal; however the performance effect of memory tracking can be significant.
Overview
The Overview page appears when you start the ColdFusion Server Monitor. It provides an indication of the overall
performance of the server, and displays the following reports:
Average response time Total response time divided by the number of requests. Click the drop-down list to view data
collected since the server started, for the past 5 min, or for the past minute.
Requests per second Number of requests per second. Click the drop-down list to view data collected since the server
started, for the past 5 min, or for the past minute.
Slowest active requests Lowest active requests that are slower than the threshold set on Slowest Requests page. The
number of requests in the list depends on the report size set on the Slowest Requests page.
Alerts Lists any alerts. To specify when an alert is generated, select Alerts > Alert Configuration. Alerts indicate
whether your server is approaching an unresponsive state or if it is running slowly.
Last error Most recent error that any application generates on the server that is in the included paths specified on the
Filter Settings page.
In addition, the Summary page lists the other reports available. To view a different report, click its name. The available
reports are:
• Requests with errors
• Requests that timed out
• Requests slower than 20 seconds
• Requests that use more than 40MB
• Sessions that exceed 4KB
• Queries slower than 20 seconds
• Queries slower than 10 seconds on average
• Queries that exceed 20KB
Statistics
Request Statistics
The Request Statistics section contains the following reports:
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Active Requests
The Active Requests report lists all currently active requests that take longer to load than the request interval for
reports specified in the Refresh Interval setting. Requests include browser requests, CFC HTTP requests, web services,
gateways, and Flash remoting. You can view a list, a detailed view, or a graph of active requests. The detailed view
includes the CFML stack trace, which you can use to find deadlocked requests and where a long running request is
blocked. To see all request graphs in one view, click Chart. The graph indicates the number of requests that the server
is currently processing and the number of requests that are awaiting allocation of an application server thread to begin
execution. If the graph indicates that many requests are queued, you might want to increase the size of the thread pool.
Alternatively, if ColdFusion is deployed in a cluster, you may want to add a server instance for more efficient load
balancing.
Note: The Server Monitor includes LiveCycle Data Management Assemblers as Flash Remoting requests.
Active ColdFusion Threads
The Active ColdFusion Threads report lists all currently active threads. You can view a list, a detailed view, or a graph
of active threads.
Slowest Requests
The Slowest Requests report lists the slowest requests. You can specify the threshold that determines whether a request
appears on this page. The lower the threshold, the more requests appear on the list. Use the Report Size option to limit
the number of items in the list. You can view a list or a detailed view of the slowest requests. The detailed view includes
the CFML stack trace. For more information, see “Request handling” on page 102.
Slowest ColdFusion Threads
The Slowest ColdFusion Threads report lists the slowest ColdFusion threads. You can specify the threshold that
determines whether a ColdFusion thread appears in this report. As the threshold decreases, the number of requests in
the report increases.
Active Sessions
The Active Sessions report lists all active sessions. You can view a list, a detailed view, or a graph of active sessions. The
graph displays the active sessions and the number of users logged in to the server.
Cumulative Server Usage
The Cumulative Server Usage report lists the requests that have cumulatively used the most CPU time on the server.
Even if a request runs rapidly, if it runs frequently, it can consume a large proportion of CPU time. Tuning requests
with high cumulative server time can provide server-wide performance benefits. You can view a list, a detailed view,
or a graph of cumulative server usage. Use the Report Size option to limit the number of items in the list.
Highest Hit Counts
The Highest Hit Counts report lists the requests that have the highest hit count. You can view a list or a graph of
requests with the highest hit count. Use the Report Size option to limit the number of items in the list.
Template Cache Status
The Template Cache status report shows information about the template cache to indicate how it is performing. The
template cache is where ColdFusion stores compiled CFM and CFC templates in memory. When a template is
executed for the first time, it is compiled to Java bytecode, and then stored in the template cache. As long as the
template is unchanged, ColdFusion uses the compiled form of the template stored in the template cache. The Template
Cache status page lets you monitor the cache-hit ratio, which indicates the number of cache hits in relation to the
number of cache misses. Cache hits are the templates retrieved from the cache. Cache misses are the templates that must
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be compiled before being placed in the cache. A server that is performing well should have more cache hits than misses,
which is a high cache-hit ratio. If the cache-hit ratio is too low, you might want to increase the cache size by selecting
Server Settings > Caching in the ColdFusion Administrator. For more information, see “Caching” on page 102. The
Template Cache page also lets you monitor the number of templates in the cache, and the estimated memory that the
cache occupies.
Note: The template cache count includes both the Least Recently Used (LRU) cache and the soft cache. As a result, the
count can exceed the number configured in the ColdFusion Administrator.
Request Throttle Data
The Request Throttle Data report lists all requests that the ColdFusion server throttles. Requests are throttled when
ColdFusion queues them, because not enough total memory is available to handle them. Requests smaller than the
specified limit are not queued or counted as part of the total memory. Requests larger than the specified limit are
counted as part of total memory and are queued if the request throttle-memory size of the request is exceeded. The
default value is 4 MB. To change the throttle threshold and memory, select Server Settings > Settings in the ColdFusion
Administrator.
Memory Usage
The Memory Usage section contains the following reports:
Memory Usage Summary
The Memory Usage Summary report displays a graph that shows the estimated memory consumption by persistent
scopes on the server, including the server scope, the application scopes, and the session scopes. If your server is
consuming too much memory, the graph provides information about which scope is using too much memory, and
when the increased memory consumption began. Detailed reports let you examine estimated memory consumption
for the server scope and all active application and session scopes. For more information, see “Variable memory usage”
on page 102.
Note: Memory usage information displayed in the Server Monitor is estimated and might vary from the actual memory
usage. The information in the memory usage report is based on empirical estimates of how different Java types, and their
corresponding ColdFusion types, consume memory. Use the information provided in the memory usage report as an
indicator rather than an absolute measure. Also, the Server Monitor does not track COM objects for memory usage
information.
Requests by Memory Usage
The Requests by Memory Usage report lists the requests that use the most memory. You can view a list or a detailed
view. The detailed view lists the variables that use the most memory during the execution of the request.
CF Threads by Memory Usage
The CF Threads by Memory Usage report lists the ColdFusion threads that use the most memory.
Queries by Memory Usage
The Queries by Memory Usage report lists the queries that use the most memory. When a query appears in this report,
you might want to tune the query to reduce the size of the result set, or cache the query to reduce memory consumption
and network traffic. This report does not include information about cached queries.
Sessions by Memory Usage
The Sessions by Memory Usage report lists the sessions that use the most memory.
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Application Scope Memory Usage
The Application Scope Memory Usage report lists the application scopes that use the most memory. The detail lists
the application scope variables that use the most memory.
Server Scope Memory Usage
The Server Scope Memory Usage page lists the server scope variables that use the most memory.
Database
The Database section contains the following reports:
Active Queries
The Active Queries report lists all currently active queries that take longer to load than the threshold specified on the
Slowest Queries report. You can view a list or a detailed view.
Slowest Queries
The Slowest Queries report provides the Slowest Queries report and the Slowest Queries by Average report. Both
reports let you identify queries by template name and line number. The slowest queries report shows specific instances
of a query that is slow, along with the SQL statement for the query. The detail view includes the SQL statement. This
information lets you determine why an instance of that query was slow. The Slowest Queries by Average report
indicates queries that are slow on average. This report does not provide the SQL code for the queries because the SQL
statement might vary from one instance of the query to another. Cached queries are not included in either report. To
improve performance, tune the queries listed in these reports. If the result of a query is static, you can improve
performance by caching the query using ColdFusion’s query cache. For more information, see “Database response
time” on page 102.
Cached Queries
The Cached Queries report lists the queries that were cached. You can view a list of cached queries or details about an
individual query. If the execution time of a query is low, determine if you really need to cache it. If the execution count
is high, tune the cachedafter and cachedwithin settings of the query.
Query Cache Status
The Query Cache Status report graphs the number of cached queries, the estimated memory that the query cache
consumes, and the query cache-hit ratio. Performance increases as the query cache-hit ratio increases. If the cache-hit
ratio is too low, you might want to increase the size of the query cache. Alternatively, to analyze how your application
uses the query cache, determine whether you can tune the cachedAfter and cachedWithin attributes of the cfquery
tag. If the query cache is too large, determine if you can move some queries out of the cache.
Pool Status
The Pool Status report lists the data sources, whether an application on the ColdFusion server is using the data source,
and the number of connections. You can view a list of data sources or details about an individual data source.
Most Frequently Run Queries
The Most Frequently Run Queries report lists the queries that were made the most. Even if individual instances of a
query run rapidly, tuning queries with a high frequency can result in improved performance. This report does not
provide information about cached queries. You can view a list of queries or details about an individual query.
Errors
The Errors section includes the following reports:
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Requests with Errors
The Requests with Errors report lists the templates that generate an error. The report includes the path of the template,
and the number of times errors occurred in that template. For the most recent error, the report indicates the time of
the error, the error message, CFML stack traces, and Java stack traces. You can view a list of templates or details about
an individual template. The detailed information includes the CFML stack trace.
Requests Timed Out
The Requests Timed Out page lists the templates that timed out. The report includes the path of the template, the
number of times the template timed out, the most recent response time for the template, the time when the template
was most recently used, the most recent estimated request size, and the CFML stack trace. A Java stack trace is not
provided because time outs can only occur within CFML. You can view a list of templates or details about an individual
template. The detailed information includes the CFML stack trace.
Alerts
The Alerts report lists all the snapshots that alerts generate.
Alert Configuration
The Alert Configuration page lets you specify the thresholds for when to generate an alert. Alerts provide warnings of
potential problems, including a slow server or an unresponsive server. The slow-server alert is triggered when the
server’s average response time exceeds a specified limit. The unresponsive-server alert is triggered when more than a
specified number of threads are busy for more than a specified number of seconds. The unresponsive-server alert
creates a snapshot file, which lets you determine where request threads are unresponsive. Both types of alert let you
run a custom CFC when the alert is triggered, which lets you provide your own automated response to an alert
condition. You can specify whether to send an e-mail notification when an alert is triggered, and to whom. You can
also specify the user name and password to log in to the server that is specified on the Mail page of the ColdFusion
Administrator.
Snapshots
The Snapshots report lists all snapshots that are triggered. Snapshots include details about the ColdFusion server at the
moment the snapshot is triggered. These details include:
• The time and reason the snapshot was triggered
• Whether profiling and memory tracking are enabled
• How many running and queued requests exist at the moment of the snapshot
• Information about memory usage, including:
• JVM memory usage
• Server, application, and session scope memory usage
• Throttle-queue size and memory usage
• Information about cached queries
• Status of the database pool
• The Java stack trace
Snapshots are triggered when one of the following occurs:
• You click Trigger Snapshot on the User Snapshots page of the Server Monitor
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• The threshold for either an unresponsive server or a slow server is exceeded
When you click Trigger Snapshot, the Server Monitor collects the information for the snapshot and saves it in a file
named snapshot_usrgen_timestamp.txt in the cf_root/logs/snapshots folder. When the Server Monitor creates a
snapshot, it saves the information in a file named snapshot_sysgen_timestamp.txt in the cf_root/logs/snapshots folder.
Specifying Server Monitor Settings
To specify the settings to use to generate reports, click Settings.
You can specify the following:
• How often to refresh Server Monitor reports
• How often to refresh Server Monitor graphs
• How often to calculate average response times
• Whether to show the entire template path
To specify what file paths to exclude and include in monitoring and whether to monitor the ColdFusion
Administrator, click Settings, and then click the Filter Settings tab.
To specify what file paths to exclude from profiling, click Settings, and then click the Profiling Filter tab.
By default, the Server Monitor collects information about all ColdFusion templates in the webroot directory and its
subdirectories and in any directories specified on the Mappings page of the ColdFusion Administrator. However, you
might not want to monitor all requests on the server. You specify a path to exclude so that the Server Monitor does not
collect information about files in that directory or in any of its subdirectories. This capability is especially useful in
restricting monitoring on production servers. Use the Include Paths option to monitor any subdirectories of an
excluded directory.
To specify an alias for a template path, click Settings, and then click the Aliasing tab.
ColdFusion Server Monitor API
Use the Server Monitor API to programmatically retrieve all the data that the Server Monitor collects. The
servermonitoring.cfc ColdFusion component contains methods that you call to perform Server Monitor tasks. For
example, use the getAverageResponseTime method to get the average response time for the server.
To view the methods, method arguments, and documentation for the Server Monitor API, use the CFC Explorer. To
do so, go to http://localhost:8500/CFIDE/adminapi/servermonitoring.cfc.
Use the Server Monitor API
1 Instantiate administrator.cfc:
<cfscript>
adminObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator");
Note: You can instantiate administrator.cfc and call the login method in a single line of code, as the following
example shows:
createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator").login("admin");
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2 Call the administrator.cfc login method, passing the ColdFusion Administrator password or the RDS password:
adminObj.login("admin");
3 Instantiate the Server Monitor CFC:
myObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.servermonitoring");
4 Call the CFC method you want (this example uses getAverageResponseTime):
myObj.getAverageResponseTime();
Example
The following example uses the Server Monitor API to list the data sources to which the ColdFusion Server is
connected and the number of connections:
<cfscript>
// Login to the ColdFusion Administrator.
adminObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.administrator");
adminObj.login("admin");
// Instantiate the Server Monitor object.
myObj = createObject("component","cfide.adminapi.servermonitoring");
// Get the dsn pool data array
dbpool = myObj.getDbPoolStats();
</cfscript>
<!--- List the data sources --->
The ColdFusion server is connected to the following data sources:<br />
<cfloop index="i" from="1" to="#ArrayLen(dbpool)#">
<cfoutput>#dbpool[i].DSN# #dbpool[i].TOTALCONNECTIONCOUNT#<br /></cfoutput>
</cfloop>
Using the Server Monitor to improve server
performance
The Server Monitor provides information that you can use to help improve the performance of your ColdFusion
server.
Find bottlenecks in your application during development
1 Turn on monitoring, profiling, and memory tracking.
2 Set the Slowest Request and Requests By Memory Usage report thresholds to zero (0).
3 Run your templates.
4 For each request, find the following:
• The slowest tags and functions in the Slowest Requests report.
• The largest variables in the Requests By Memory Usage report.
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JVM memory usage
Because ColdFusion is an enterprise Java application, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is the software component that
most influences performance. Different JVMs from different vendors and different versions of the same JVM from the
same vendor have different performance characteristics. You might benefit from changing the JVM that you are using
with ColdFusion.
ColdFusion contains an embedded version of JRun 4 as the application server and the Sun 1.6 version of the JVM. By
contrast, ColdFusion for J2EE running on IBM WebSphere Application Server uses the JVM that WebSphere is
configured to use.
To configure ColdFusion to use a different JVM, edit the cf_root/runtime/lib/jvm.config file with a text editor by
modifying the value of java.home to point to the root directory of the JVM to use. Alternatively, you can switch to a
different JVM in the ColdFusion Administrator on the Java and JVM Settings page.
Because switching the JVM changes the software environment significantly, do so first in a development or testing
environment. Also, fully test your ColdFusion applications before you make the change on a production server.
The JVM performs memory management and can have a significant effect on your performance depending on how
you configure the JVM. The most important settings for the JVM are the initial heap size and maximum heap size. The
initial heap size represents the amount of memory that the JVM uses on startup; the maximum heap size represents
the amount of memory that the JVM can use. You can modify these settings in the ColdFusion Administrator on the
Java and JVM Settings page. The Initial Memory Size setting specifies the initial heap size; the Maximum Memory Size
setting specifies the maximum heap size. The JVM arguments for initial heap size and maximum heap size are -XmsNm
and -XmxNm respectively, where N is the size of the heap in megabytes (MB). These JVM arguments are stored in the
jvm.config file, in the value of the java.args setting.
The default maximum heap size is set to 512 MB in ColdFusion. For best performance, set the initial heap size and the
maximum heap size to the same value. Determining the optimal size for the heap to run the applications on your
ColdFusion server results in improved performance. Setting the value too high can result in poorer performance
because of the higher degree of garbage collection and internal memory management required for the larger heap.
Conversely, setting the heap size too small can result in a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError error if your application tries
to use more memory than is available to it.
The best way to find the optimal heap size is to run your application under simulated peak load with a large heap and
monitor how much memory your application actually uses. If you find that your application uses only 180 MB of
memory, for example, you might see performance benefit from reducing your heap size to 256 MB.
The java.lang.OutOfMemoryError error can occur in other, more complicated, conditions. One common cause of the
error is when objects fill up the heap's permanent generation, which defaults to 64 MB. You can increase the value, for
example, to 128 MB, by adding the following JVM argument to the Java and JVM Settings page of the ColdFusion
Administrator:
-XX:MaxPermSize=128m.
Physical hardware memory is an important consideration when determining the optimal heap size. Setting the
maximum heap size to a value that exceeds the amount of free physical memory causes severe performance
degradation. For example, if you have only 512 MB of physical memory, do not set the maximum heap size to 512 MB.
Because the operating system and other running applications use memory, much less than 512 MB of memory is
available for the JVM process. it is important to have hardware that meets the requirements of your software
application. For best results, run on server hardware with 1 GB or more of physical memory.
The Server Monitor Summary page monitors the JVM’s memory usage. Use this information when determining the
optimal heap size.
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Variable memory usage
Configure client variable storage to use cookies or an RDBMS for best performance when using client variables; you
do this on the Client Variables page of the ColdFusion Administrator.
Wherever possible, it is best to fully scope your variable names, especially when using the isdefined() function. For
example, <cfif isdefined("variables.myvariable")> performs much better than <cfif
isdefined("myvariable")>.
To monitor how variables use memory, view the reports in the “Memory Usage” on page 96 of the Server Monitor.
Request handling
The Simultaneous Requests setting on the Settings page of the ColdFusion Administrator has the largest effect on how
well an application performs under load. This setting dictates how many threads are used to simultaneously process
incoming requests. For most applications, a good starting point for the optimal value for this setting is three per
processor; you can set a dual processor computer to six simultaneous requests. To find the optimal value for this
setting, test your application under load with different values until you find the value that provides the best
performance under load. While you test your application, you can view the average response time on the Server
Monitor Summary page and the reports in “Statistics” on page 94.
Caching
You can turn on the trusted-cache setting on the Caching page of the ColdFusion Administrator for production
applications so that the server does not check the file system to see if the CFML source code changed since it was last
compiled. This setting provides the benefit of minimizing system I/O, which has a major effect on performance. Set
the template-cache size on the Caching page of the ColdFusion Administrator to be roughly equal to the number of
ColdFusion templates that are normally used. To monitor how your settings affect performance, use the “Template
Cache Status” on page 95 in the Request Statistics section of the Server Monitor.
In addition, use one of the following methods to cache wherever possible in your application:
• The cfcache tag
• Database query caching. Database caching can provide significant performance and scalability improvements, and
is accomplished with the cachedwithin and cachedafter attributes of database tags that support them, such as
the cfquery tag.
• Storing data in persistent scopes such as session, making it available for longer than a single request.
Database response time
Wherever possible, it's best to allow database servers to handle data manipulation. Adding SQL code to handle this
work is much more efficient than doing string manipulations or doing in-memory queries (query of queries).
Additionally, stored procedures generally provide a higher level of performance than regular SQL queries. Converting
queries in cfquery calls to stored procedures and using the cfstoredproc tag typically improves performance. To
view database response time information, use the Database section of the Server Monitor (see “Database” on page 97).
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Setting up Server Manager client
Server Manager is an AIR-based desktop application that allows you to centrally manage multiple ColdFusion servers
from one location. From the Server Monitoring page, you can download and install the Server Manager client AIR
application.
For details about configuring the Server Manager client for ColdFusion server instances, see “Working with Server
Manager” on page 107.
Server monitoring enhancements in ColdFusion 9.0
Update 1
Enhancements in ColdFusion 9.0 Update 1 help you use Server Monitoring effectively in load conditions. In
ColdFusion 9 and older releases, Server Monitoring used to be unresponsive when the server load is high. To address
this issue, a new monitoring server has been introduced.
Also, the ColdFusion Administrator has the following monitoring options (ColdFusion Administrator > Server
Monitoring > Monitoring Settings):
• Enable monitoring
• Enable profiling
• Enable memory tracking
Configuring the Server monitoring settings
The monitoring server can be configured in one of the following ways:
• Use ColdFusion Administrator
• Manually edit neo-monitoring.xml and jetty.xml
• Use Admin API (servermonitoring.cfc)
Using the ColdFusion Administrator
The Server Monitoring Settings Page in the ColdFusion Administrator (Server Monitoring > Monitoring Settings) lets
the following configurations:
• Enable monitoring server.
Note: When you enable monitoring server and configure it to use SSL, include the following setting to java.args in the
JVM.config file: Dcoldfusion.jsafe=true
• Specify the port on which monitoring server listens. The default port is 5500
Note: If a server monitoring application is already running, the configuration mentioned here takes effect only after you
relaunch the application.
Manually editing neo-monitoring.xml and jetty.xml
neo-monitoring.xml
Go to the following location:
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cf_root\lib (in the server configuration)
or
cf_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/lib (in the J2EE configuration).
Modify the value to true in the following code:
<var name='ismonitoringserverenabled'><boolean value='false'/></var>
Jetty.xml
Modify Jetty.xml only if you have to change the port or if your connection uses HTTPS protocol.
Go to the following location:
cf_root\lib (in the server configuration)
or
cf_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/lib (in the J2EE configuration).
You can specify the following configurations in the XML file:
• Port
• MaxThreads
• Logging
For connections using HTTPS protocol
1 Open jetty.xml.
2 Remove or comment out the Set Connectors section:
<Call name="addConnector">
<Arg>
<New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.nio.SelectChannelConnector">
<Set name="host">0.0.0.0</Set>
<Set name="port">5500</Set>
<Set name="maxIdleTime">300000</Set>
<Set name="Acceptors">2</Set>
<Set name="statsOn">false</Set>
<Set name="lowResourcesConnections">10</Set>
<Set name="lowResourcesMaxIdleTime">5000</Set>
</New>
</Arg>
3 Uncomment the Set SSL Connector section:
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<Call name="addConnector">
<Arg>
<New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.ssl.SslSelectChannelConnector">
<Set name="host">0.0.0.0</Set>
<Set name="port">5500</Set>
<Set name="maxIdleTime">300000</Set>
<Set name="Acceptors">1</Set>
<Set name="AcceptQueueSize">100</Set>
<Set name="Keystore">"path to keystore"</Set>
<Set name="Password">OBF:1vny1zlo1x8e1vnw1vn61x8g1zlu1vn4</Set>
<Set name="KeyPassword">OBF:1u2u1wml1z7s1z7a1wnl1u2g</Set>
<Set name="truststore">"path to keystore"</Set>
<Set name="trustPassword">OBF:1vny1zlo1x8e1vnw1vn61x8g1zlu1vn4</Set>
</New>
</Arg>
</Call>
4 Specify the port and the keystore-related settings.
Using Admin APIs
To programmatically configure the Server Monitoring server, use the ServerMonitoring.cfc.
The following Administrator APIs are added in this release:
API
Description
setMonitoringServerPort(port);
Sets the port information for the monitoring server.
getMonitoringServerPort();
Gets details of the port to which the monitoring server listens.
getMonitoringServerProtocol();
Gets the protocol details for the monitoring server.
enableMonitoringServer();
Enables the monitoring server and starts it if not running.
stopMonitoringServer();
Stops the monitoring server
startMonitoringServer();
Starts the monitoring server
disableMonitoringServer();
Disables the monitoring server and stops it if it is running
isMonitoringServerEnabled();
Indicates if the monitoring server is enabled
isMonitoringServerRunning();
Indicates if the monitoring server is running
configureMonitoringServer(flag, port);
Enables monitoring server and sets port information
Troubleshooting scenarios
Multi-server monitoring
For multi-server monitoring, ensure that you specify the cross domain details in the crossdomain.xml in
(CFRoot/MonitoringServer).
Someone changes port in XML
The exception does not appear in the ColdFusion Administrator. You verify the log.
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Monitoring with SSL
You might encounter an error while starting Monitoring Server in SSL mode.
To resolve this known issue, add the following in the jvm.config:
"-Dcoldfusion.disablejsafe=true"
Updating the threadpool
You can update the threadpool in the jetty.xml.
Modify the threadpool in the Server Threadpool section of the XML file:
<Set name="ThreadPool">
<!-- Default queued blocking threadpool
-->
<New class="org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.QueuedThreadPool">
<Set name="minThreads">2</Set>
<Set name="maxThreads">50</Set>
</New>
<!-- Optional Java 5 bounded threadpool with job queue
<New class="org.eclipse.thread.concurrent.ThreadPool">
<Set name="corePoolSize">50</Set>
<Set name="maximumPoolSize">50</Set>
</New>
-->
</Set>
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Chapter 10: Working with Server Manager
Adobe ColdFusion Server Manager is an Adobe AIR application packaged with ColdFusion 9 installation. It enables
ColdFusion Server administrators to monitor and manage multiple servers and apply the settings from one
ColdFusion server to other ColdFusion servers.
Launch Server Manager
Before starting Server Manager, ensure that you have AIR installed because Server Manager requires the AIR platform
to run.
You can download AIR from:
http://get.adobe.com/air/
To launch the Server Manager for the first time:
1 Log into ColdFusion Administrator.
2 Click Server Monitor and then click Launch Server Manager.
To download the Server Manager AIR application for a standard version of ColdFusion, access the following URL
to download the file, ServerManager.air:
http://<Host>:<Port>/<Context root if applicable>/CFIDE/ServerManager/
3 Save and run the Server Manager AIR file to launch Server Manager on your computer.
Note: When you download ServerManager.air application that is running on IIS 7 web server or a J2EE server, set the
mimetype in the respective webserver or J2EE server. If you cannot configure the AIR mimetype, then you can either
download the ServerManager.zip file, change the file extension to .air, and run it, or run the AIR file located in the
<CF_HOME>/CFIDE/ServerManager directory.
For IIS7, you may get the following error when you try to download severmanager.air.
"The page you are requesting cannot be served because of the extension configuration. If the
page is a script, add a handler. If the file should be downloaded, add a MIME map."
To avoid this, configure the MIME type by adding '.air' as File name Extension and 'application/vnd.adobe.airapplication-installer-package+zip' as MIME type.
After the installation:
1 Run the Server Manager by calling ColdFusion Server Manager executable from the installation directory.
2 Set the master password when you log into the Server Manager for the first time. You can also reset this password.
Note: When you reset the password, the passwords of all the registered servers are nullified. You must provide
passwords to all registered servers to connect to.
Register servers
Register each ColdFusion server instance to manage it from the Server Manager.
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Note: The Server Manager AIR application supports only ColdFusion 9 instances.
To register a ColdFusion server:
1 Click the (+) sign in the right-pane of the Server Manager.
2 Enter the server details including the server name, host name/IP address, port number, context root (for J2EE
servers), and its user name and password.
You can configure the host by specifying any either the hostname or the IP address. It is recommended that you
register a particular server either using hostname or IP address only once from Server Manager AIR application. If
you register the same server more than once, you might experience the following exception:
[BlazeDS]Unhandled error when processing a message: flex.messaging.LocalizedException:
The FlexSession is invalid.
message = There was an unhandled failure on the server. The FlexSession is invalid.
Exception: flex.messaging.LocalizedException: The FlexSession is invalid.
3 Click Apply. After the server is registered, it appears in the All Servers list of the Server Manager. If the server details
and authentication details are correct then the server status is displayed as 'Logged In' otherwise 'Login Failed' or
'Unreachable' status is displayed.
4 Select the icon adjacent to the Server drop-down list in the left-pane to fetch details of the registered ColdFusion
server instance.
To get the latest information about a server instance, fetch these details from the main ColdFusion server.
Note: For server clusters, register each instance in the cluster with the Server Manager.
By default, the registered servers appear in Quick View in the right-pane of the All Servers tab. If you have associated
the server instance or cluster to a group, then it appears under the group tab also.
After you register a server instance, you can apply a hot fix or clear the server template cache. You can perform these
tasks for an individual server instance or for multiple servers. For details on performing these tasks, see “Apply hot fix”
on page 114 and “Clear template cache” on page 114.
Start and stop ColdFusion server instance
While reconfiguring some settings in ColdFusion, you may need to restart the server. With Server Manager, you can
restart the server without logging into host.
You can configure the start and stop functionality for any of the following server types that has a ColdFusion instance
deployed:
• JRun (Standalone/Multiserver)
• WebLogic
• WebSphere
• JBoss
For more information about deploying ColdFusion on an application server, see ColdFusion J2EE deployment and
configuration in the Installing ColdFusion.
The general approach to implement the start and stop operation for a server is as follows:
1 For starting/stopping server, deploy the WAR file specific to the application server on the application server to run
start and stop operations.
2 The deployed WAR instance should be in running state in the application server to be able to start or stop a
ColdFusion server instance from the Server Manager.
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For details about the WAR files corresponding to each application server and the parameters required to run start/stop
operations see:
• JRun-specific parameters
• WebLogic Server-specific parameters
• WebSphere-specific parameters
• JBoss specific parameters
Note: Options such as start, stop, or restart would be enabled only after you provide the required details under Start/Stop
Details tab.
JRun-specific parameters
For JRun (multiserver) or ColdFusion standalone server, deploy the jrunappstartup.war file on the admin server
instance.
For a ColdFusion standalone server, place the jrunappstartup.war file under the directory
<CF_Home>/runtime/servers/admin/ to deploy the WAR file. For JRun multiserver, you can either place the
jrunappstartup.war file under the directory <JRun_Home>/servers/admin/ to get the WAR file deployed or login
to the admin server (http://<HOST_NAME>:8000) and then deploy the WAR file.
There are two ways to start/stop a server:
• Using a service
• Using a JRun launcher
By default, the server start/stop happens using the JRun launcher. However, if you need to start/stop the server instance
using a service then specify the service name in Server Manager. To specify the service name:
1 From the Start/Stop Details tab in Server Manager, select the Server runs as a service check box.
2 Depending on whether the ColdFusion installation is multiserver or standalone, you can select the service name as
Macromedia JRun CFusion Server or ColdFusion 9 Application Server.
If you have created a ColdFusion service or renamed an existing service, then select the Other option and specify
the name of the service.
Important: Make sure that you specify the correct service name in Server Manager. If you specify the name of a service,
which corresponds to some other ColdFusion instance, then some other ColdFusion service may be stopped rather than
the intended one.
Note: If you start/stop a server using JRun launcher and a service is configured to run automatically, then if the server is
stopped using JRun launcher, the service starts the server automatically. To avoid this, stop the server using the service.
If the ColdFusion server instance is not running as a service, you can perform start/stop of the server using JRun
launcher.
To run start/stop operations, start JRun admin server. To start JRun admin server:
1 Go to <CF_HOME>/runtime/bin>.
2 Run jrun start admin.
Note: If debugging is enabled on the ColdFusion server instance, start admin server by calling adminstart.bat
(Windows) or adminstart.sh from <CF_HOME>/runtime/bin> directory.
After the server starts, login to the admin server (http://<HOST_NAME>:8000) and then deploy the WAR file.
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The JRun parameters in the Start/Stop Details tab of Server Manager are:
• User name and Password
The user name and password that you provide in the Start/Stop Details tab must also be specified in the jrunusers.xml file for both the administrator and ColdFusion server instances. The jrun-users.xml file is located in
the <CF_HOME>\runtime\servers\<coldfusion>|<admin>\SERVER-INF directory.
Following is the format for adding the user name and password, if it is not already there in jrun-users.xml:
<user>
<user-name>{usrname}</user-name>
<password>{password}</password>
</user>
Alternatively, you can add users to the ColdFusion sever instance from the JRun admin console. To add users from
the JRun admin console:
1 Log in to the JRun admin console (URL: http://<HOST_NAME>:8000).
2 Navigate to cfusion > Services > Security > Edit Users
3 Check if the user credentials that you want to use, exist in both admin and cfusion instance.
4 If the user credentials are missing, then click Edit to add the required user name and password.
• JNDI port of the admin server
• ColdFusion server name.
For J2EE deployments in JRun, the name of the server instance must be specified at “j2ee”.
• Admin server port number (where the deployed WAR files can be accessed)
• Context root of the deployed WAR file
WebLogic Server-specific parameters
Deploy the wlogicappstartup.war file on WebLogic server, either in admin or non-admin server but to the same
domain where ColdFusion is deployed.
The WebLogic parameters in the Start/Stop Details tab of Server Manager are:
• User name (user name of the domain on which ColdFusion application is deployed on WebLogic Server)
• Password (password corresponding to the user name)
• Port (port number for accessing the admin console)
• Context root (name of the WAR file when no context root is specified)
• ColdFusion Application Name (name of ColdFusion application deployed on WebLogic Server.)
• Admin Port (port number for accessing the deployed WAR file, which is typically the administrator server port)
WebSphere-specific parameters
Deploy the wsappstartup.war file on WebSphere in the same profile where the ColdFusion instance is deployed.
The WebSphere parameters in the Start/Stop Details tab of Server Manager are:
• User name (WebSphere Admin user name)
• Password (WebSphere Admin password)
• Context root (context root of the deployed WAR file)
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• ColdFusion Application Name (Name of ColdFusion application deployed on WebSphere.)
• Admin Port (port number for accessing the deployed WAR file, which is typically the administrator server port)
JBoss specific parameters
For JBoss, deploy the jbossappstartup.war file on JBoss server.
The start/stop operations work only when secure access of JNDI over HTTP is enabled.
To configure secure access of JNDI over HTTP:
1 In <jboss-home>/server/default/deploy/http-invoker.sar/invoker.war/WEB-INF/web.xml, uncomment the servlet
mapping
<servlet-mapping>
<servlet-name>JNDIFactory</servlet-name>
<url-pattern>/restricted/JNDIFactory/*</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>
2 In <jboss-home>/server/default/deploy/http-invoker.sar/invoker.war/WEB-INF/jboss-web.xml, uncomment the line:
<security-domain>java:/jaas/jmx-console</security-domain>
3
In <jboss-home>/server/default/conf/login-config.xml, add the following <policy> if it does not exist.
<application-policy name = "jmx-console">
<authentication>
<login-module code="org.jboss.security.auth.spi.UsersRolesLoginModule"
flag = "required">
<module-option name="usersProperties">props/jmx-consoleusers.properties</module-option>
<module-option name="rolesProperties">props/jmx-consoleroles.properties</module-option>
</login-module>
</authentication>
</application-policy>
The files props/jmx-console-users.properties and props/jmx-console-roles.properties must contain
the entries in the following format:
/jmx-console-users.properties:
Format: {username}={password}
/jmx-console-roles.properties
Format: {username}={comma-separated list of roles}
For more information on enabling secure access of JNDI over HTTP, see Securing Access to JNDI over HTTP.
The JBoss parameters in the Start/Stop Details tab of Server Manager are:
• User name (user name mentioned in jmx-console-users.properties)
• Password (password of the corresponding user)
• Port (port number for accessing the admin console)
• Context root (name of the deployed WAR file)
• Admin Port (port number from where the deployed WAR file can be accessed, which is usually the admin server port)
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View diff of two server settings
You can find out the differences in configuration of two server instances or clusters using the Diff With option
available with Server Manager. This option allows you to check for differences in the configuration settings of two
server instances. You can run Diff With on any two servers with the Logged In status.
To run Diff With:
1 Right-click any one of the servers that you need to run Diff With on.
2 Click Diff With and select the other server to compare your selected server instance.
3 In the Diff of Setting between <server A> and <server B> dialog box, select the settings that you need to compare.
4 Click Next.
5 Expand the settings by clicking the (+) sign. Any settings that are different for the two server instances, are
highlighted.
Create Groups
Using the Server Manager, you can create groups and associate a registered or new server to one or more groups. To
create groups and associate servers to groups:
1 Click Groups > Add from the Groups menu.
2 In the Add Group dialog box, enter the name of the new group and click Apply.
A new tab for the group is created in the right-pane of Server Manager.
To associate a server instance to a group:
1 Select the server instances and click Edit.
2 In the Edit Server dialog box, select the group to which you need to add the server instance.
3 Click Apply.
To verify that the selected server has been added to the group, click the group tab.
To edit or remove existing groups from Server Manager, click the group tab. From the Groups menu select Edit or
Remove to modify or remove a group from Server Manager.
Manage multiple servers
You can perform batch operations on multiple ColdFusion Server instances from Server Manager.
When you drag and drop any setting, if that setting exists on the server where the settings are being dropped, the
settings get overridden with the new settings. For example, if data source named XXX is being dropped on a server and
if that data source already exists on the other server, then the data source gets overridden with the new setting, without
any warning.
In a batch operation, you can perform the following tasks:
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Apply configuration settings on multiple servers
The left-pane of Server Manager lists the settings that you can configure for one or more ColdFusion servers. To apply
configuration settings on multiple ColdFusion servers:
1 Configure the settings for one ColdFusion server using the settings available in the left-pane of the Server Manager.
2 Select the other ColdFusion servers to which the settings have to be applied.
3 Right-click a setting and select the Apply to Selected Servers option. Alternatively, you can drag-and-drop the
setting to the selected servers in the right-pane of the Server Manager.
At the bottom of the Server Manager window, a progress bar displays the status of the setting being applied. Once
the task is completed, a message is displayed to confirm if the task was successful.
4 On the right-side of the progress bar, there are two icons, Remove and Save Snapshot. To save a batch operation
log, click the Save Snapshot icon and save the log file.
Apart from applying settings to multiple ColdFusion servers, you can use the Server Manager to perform the following
actions:
Settings
Actions
Datasources
•
Add a datasource by right-clicking the Datasources setting in the left pane.
•
Edit an existing datasource by right-clicking the datasource in the left pane.
•
Remove an existing datasource by right-clicking the datasource in the left pane.
•
Verify an existing datasource by right-clicking the datasource in the left pane. If the verification is successful, a
green icon appears beside the data source node. Otherwise, an error message is displayed along with a red icon
beside the data source.
•
Verify all data sources by right-clicking the Data Sources node in the left pane.
•
Add a mapping by right-clicking the Mappings setting.
•
Edit an existing mapping by right-clicking the mapping in the left pane.
•
Remove an existing datasource by right-clicking the mapping in the left pane.
Mappings
Scheduling Tasks
On Scheduling Tasks setting:
•
Add a scheduling task by right-clicking the Scheduling Tasks setting
•
Edit an existing scheduling tasks.
On a task:
•
Run a task by right-clicking the task item and clicking Run.
•
Pause a task by right-clicking the task item and clicking Pause.
•
Resume a task by right-clicking the task item and clicking Resume.
JVM
Edit and refresh the JVM settings by right-clicking the setting in the left pane.
Mail
Edit and refresh the mail settings by right-clicking the setting in the left pane.
Chart
Edit and refresh the chart settings by right-clicking the setting in the left pane.
Memory
Edit and refresh the memory settings by right-clicking the setting in the left pane.
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Settings
Actions
Server
Edit and refresh the server settings by right-clicking the setting in the left pane.
Request Tuning
Edit and refresh the request tuning configuration by right-clicking the setting in the left pane.
Logging
Edit and refresh the log settings by right-clicking the setting in the left pane.
Note: To edit any settings, first refresh them to fetch the latest setting and then edit them. The options for editing the
configuration settings are the same as in ColdFusion Administrator.
Clear template cache
Using Server Manager you can clear the template cache for multiple servers simultaneously. To clear the template
cache:
1 Select the servers by selecting the Apply server task and settings check box.
2 Click the Server Tasks option from the upper-right corner.
3 Click Clear Template Cache.
A progress bar at the bottom displays the cache clearing status.
After the task is completed, you can save the cache log by clicking the Save Snapshot icon or remove it by clicking
Remove.
Apply hot fix
You can update multiple ColdFusion Server instances, once they are registered with Server Manager.
Note: After applying a hotfix, restart the server for the hotfix to take effect.
To apply a hot fix to multiple servers:
1 Select the servers instances that need to be updated by selecting the Apply server task and settings check box.
2 From the upper-right menu bar, click Server Tasks > Apply Hot Fix.
3 Click Yes to confirm.
4 Navigate to the location of the JAR file to be used as a hot fix.
5 Click Open to apply the hot fix to the server instances.
Once you apply a hot fix (.jar) to a server instance, that JAR file appears in the <ColdFusion_home>/lib/updates
directory.
Note: This is useful only if the hotfix is a JAR file. Place this JAR file under <CF_Home/lib/updates> directory. If you
place a hotfix file to any other location, then you have to implement it manually.
Set Server Manager preferences
To set the Server Manager preferences, click Settings > Preferences. You can set the following preferences in Server
Manager:
• Polling Interval: Use this option to set the interval (in seconds) for Server Manager to check for any alerts and
warnings on ColdFusion server. In addition, if the status of your server instance on Server Manager is
“Unreachable”, then Server Manager tries to reconnect to the server after the specified polling interval.
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• Stop batch operations on error: This check box is selected by default. If you deselect this check box, Server Manager
continues to perform the batch operations even if an error occurs. Batch operations include tasks such as applying
hot fix, clearing template cache, fetching settings from server, or applying settings from one server to multiple
servers.
• Alert window position: Use this drop-down list to select the position where the notifications and alerts would be
displayed in Server Manager.
• Close the dialog box after receiving a server acknowledgment: Select this option to close any edited server
configuration dialog box only after receiving the acknowledgment.
• Show batch progress: This option is selected by default. If you do not want to see the progress of the batch
operations at the bottom of the Server Manager window, then deselect this option.
• Use inbuilt browser: By selecting this check box, you can open any server URL in the internal browser or the default
browser in system.
Monitor multiple servers
Server Manager provides different views to monitor servers that you register with the application. To toggle between
these views, click the required view icon from the upper-right corner.
Following views are available with Server Manager:
• Quick View: Displays a quick snapshot of server online time, alerts, warnings, and log in status.
• Detail View: Displays an elaborate server status with details about the type of alerts and the request/response time.
To view server details, expand the server row by clicking the green arrow in the right corner of that row.
• Error View: Displays details about the errors that have occurred while the server instance is running. It includes
details such as error time, fault code, fault string, and fault details.
Instant server alerts in Server Manager
When any alert like JVM memory, slow server, unresponsive server, or timeouts occur on the ColdFusion server
instance it reaches the Server Manager and is shown as a pop-up menu at the right bottom corner of Server Manager.
These alerts can be viewed only when the application is running.
To be able to view these alerts, enable the option to notify the client every time there is a server alert. To enable this
option in ColdFusion Administrator:
1 Click Server Monitoring > Server Monitor > Launch Server Monitor.
2 Click Alerts > Alert Configuration.
3 Now for any of the alert configuration tabs for which you want to receive alerts on Server Manager, select the Notify
Client check box.
Note: Make sure that you configure alerts on the server side to be able to view them on Server Manager. For more
information about configuring alerts, see “Alerts” on page 98.
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Chapter 11: Introducing Verity and Verity
Tools
ColdFusion includes Verity search technology that lets you quickly search databases; and create, index, diagnose, and
manage collections.
Collections and the ColdFusion Verity architecture
ColdFusion includes Verity K2 Server search technology. Verity K2 Server is a high-performance search engine
designed to process searches quickly in a high-performance, distributed system. The K2 search system has a clientserver model. K2 client applications, such as ColdFusion server, provide users access to document indexes stored in
Verity collections. K2 Server supports simultaneous indexing of distributed enterprise repositories, and handles
hundreds of concurrent queries and users.
The Verity search system takes advantage of the latest advances in hardware and software technology, and provides
the following features:
• Multi-threaded architecture
• Support for Verity knowledge retrieval features, including topics
• Continuous operation support
• High scalability
• Category support (also called parametric indexes)
Note: ColdFusion no longer uses VDK mode and K2 mode. All Verity processing now uses the K2 architecture.
Additionally, ColdFusion no longer uses the neo-verity.xml file.
Because, ColdFusion reads custom queries into memory, indexing a large query-result set can cause a Java out of
memory error. If your ColdFusion Java Virtual Machine (JVM) memory allocation is too small, it can also lead to
excessive disk use on your computer. Manage ColdFusion JVM memory settings as follows:
Server configuration Through the -Xmx argument to the java.args parameter in the cf_root/runtime/bin/jvm.config
file (for example, [Xmx512m]-).
Multiserver configuration Through the jrun_root/bin/jvm.config file.
J2EE configuration Through application server-specific methods.
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Verity information storage
Verity Search Server runs as a separate process from ColdFusion. This server controls all access to Verity collections,
as the following figure shows:
Server configuration
ColdFusion
Verity
Search
Server
Collections
Verity
Search
Server
Collections
Multiserver and J2EE configurations
ColdFusion
Instance
ColdFusion
Instance
ColdFusion
Instance
In the multiserver and J2EE configurations, multiple ColdFusion server instances all use the same Verity Search Server
to access the same set of Collections.
ColdFusion uses different processes for Windows and UNIX, as follows:
Windows The ColdFusion Verity Search Server service manages and controls configuration and services of a Verity
K2 domain. This service starts three processes: k2server.exe, k2index.exe, and k2admin.exe.
UNIX The cf_root/bin/cfmxsearch control script (cf_webapp_root/WEB-INF/cfusion/bin/cfmxsearch in the
multiserver configurations) starts and stops Verity. When you call this script with the start argument, it calls
verity_root/k2/platform_dir/bin/k2adminstart with the appropriate user context and environment, which in turn
starts up three processes: k2server, k2index, and k2admin. Calling the script with the stop argument calls the Verity
k2adminstop script, which kills those three processes.
Note: When you use the J2EE configuration, install Verity separately. For more information, see “Installing the Verity
search server separately” in Installing ColdFusion.
You can install Verity Search Server on a separate computer from ColdFusion. For more information, see
Administrator online Help.
Note: If no Verity collections appear in the ColdFusion Administrator, it probably means that the Verity Search Server
process isn’t running.
About Verity Spider
Verity Spider lets you index web-based and file system documents throughout your enterprise, including dynamic
content, and many application document formats, including Microsoft Office, WordPerfect, ASCII text, HTML, and
PDF (Adobe Acrobat) documents. For more information, see “Indexing Collections with Verity Spider” on page 119.
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About the Verity utilities
ColdFusion includes several Verity utilities to diagnose and manage your collections. These tools include the mkvdk,
rcvdk, rck2, and vspider utilities.
The following table describes the relationship between the major Verity utilities and the corresponding
cfcollection, cfsearch, and cfindex ColdFusion tags. The cfcollection tag operates on the entire collection;
the cfindex tag operates on records within a collection. For more information, see “Using Verity Utilities” on
page 150.
cfcollection
cfindex
utility
create
repair
mkvdk
X
X
delete
cfsearch
optimize
update
delete
purge
refresh
X
X
X
X
X
search
rcvdk
X (file-system
based)
rck2
X (serverbased)
ColdFusion OEM restrictions
ColdFusion includes a restricted version of Verity Server, with restrictions in the following areas:
• ColdFusion can only interact with one Verity Server at a time.
• Verity Server has the following document search limits (limits are for all collections registered to Verity Server):
• 10,000 documents for ColdFusion Developer Edition
• 125,000 documents for ColdFusion Standard Edition
• 250,000 documents for ColdFusion Enterprise Edition
Note: Each row in a database table is considered a document.
If you install a fully licensed version of Verity Server and you configure ColdFusion to use it, ColdFusion does not
restrict document searches.
• The Verity K2 server allows a maximum of 128 collections.
• The version of Verity Spider that is included with ColdFusion is licensed for local host indexing only. Contact
Verity Sales for licensing options regarding the use of Verity Spider for remote host indexing.
Additionally, ColdFusion OEMs and independent software vendors (ISVs) have the following document search limits:
• 5,000 documents for ColdFusion Developer Edition
• 62,500 documents for ColdFusion Standard Edition
• 125,000 documents for ColdFusion Enterprise Edition
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Verity Spider
Use the Verity Spider utility to index documents on your website and build collections that are searchable by the user.
About Verity Spider
Verity Spider enables you to index web-based and file system documents throughout your enterprise. Verity Spider
lets you index more than two hundred application document formats, including Microsoft Office, WordPerfect, ASCII
text, HTML, SGML, XML, and PDF (Adobe Acrobat) documents.
Another advantage of this method, is that the index that the vspider command creates includes dynamic content.
Using the cfindex tag and indexing a collection through the ColdFusion Administrator do not include dynamic
content.
The Verity Spider that is included with ColdFusion is licensed for websites that are defined and reside on the same host
on which ColdFusion is installed. Contact Verity Sales for licensing options regarding the use of Verity Spider for
external websites.
Web standard support
Verity Spider supports key web standards used by Internet and intranet sites. Standard href links and frames pointers
are recognized, so that navigation through them is supported. Redirected pages are followed so that the real underlying
document is indexed. Verity Spider adheres to the robots exclusion standard specified in robots.txt files, so that
administrators can maintain friendly visits to remote websites. Http Basic Authentication mechanism is supported so
that password-protected sites can be indexed.
Restart capability
When an indexing job fails, or for some reason Verity Spider cannot index a significant number or type of URLs, you
can restart the indexing job to update the collection. Only those URLs that were not successfully indexed previously
are processed.
State maintenance through a persistent store
Verity Spider stores the state of gathered and indexed URLs in a persistent store, which lets it track progress for the
purposes of gracefully and efficiently restarting stopped indexing jobs.
Performance
Verity Spider performance is greatly improved over previous versions, because of low memory requirements, flow
control, and the help of multi-threading and efficient Domain Name System (DNS) lookups.
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Flow control
When indexing websites, Verity Spider distributes requests to web servers in a round-robin manner. This means that
one URL is fetched from each web server in turn. With flow control, a faster website can finish before a slower one.
The Verity Spider optimizes indexing on every web server.
Verity Spider adjusts the number of connections per server depending on the download bandwidth. When the
download bandwidth from a web server falls below a certain value, Verity Spider automatically scales back the number
of connections to that web server. There is always at least one connection to a web server. When the download
bandwidth increases to an acceptable level, Verity Spider reallocates connections (per the value of the -connections
option, which is 4 by default). You can turn off flow control with the -noflowctrl option.
Multi-threading
Verity Spider separates the gathering and indexing jobs into multiple threads for concurrence. Additionally, Verity
Spider can create concurrent connections to web servers for fetching documents, and have concurrent indexing
threads for maximum utilization. This translates to an overall improvement in throughput.
Efficient DNS lookups
Verity Spider minimizes DNS lookups, which means great improvements to lookups throughput. If lookups are
limited by domain or host, then no DNS lookups are made on hosts that fall outside that range. In earlier versions,
DNS lookups were made on all candidate URLs.
Proxy handling efficiency
To allow for greater flexibility when dealing with indexing jobs that involve proxy servers and firewalls, use the
following options:
-noproxy To reduce proxy checking for certain hosts
-proxyauth To authenticate on proxy servers
About Verity Spider syntax
Before you create an indexing task for a new collection, make copies of the relevant default style files to ensure that you
have a set of template style files in a known, stable state.
Running multiple simultaneous Verity Spider jobs can cause performance problems for searches. This does not mean
that you should never run indexing jobs when users might be searching, because your collections are available for
searching even while indexing jobs are running. To optimize performance, try staggering your indexing jobs to avoid
overloading your server.
The Verity Spider command
The vspider executable file, which starts the Verity Spider utility, is located in the platform/bin directory, as follows:
Server and multiserver configuration The vspider.exe (Window) or vspider (UNIX) file is located in
cf_root/verity/k2/platform/bin (server configuration) or jrun_root/verity/k2/platform/bin (multiserver configuration)
where platform is _nti40 for Windows, _solaris for Solaris, or _ilnx21 for Linux.
J2EE configuration The vspider.exe (Window) or vspider (UNIX) file is located in verity_root/k2/platform/bin where
platform is _nti40 for Windows, _solaris for Solaris, or _ilnx21 for Linux.
At its most basic level, a Verity Spider command consists of the following:
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vspider -initialize -collection coll [options]
Where -initialize is -start or -refresh (when starting points have changed), and -collection is required to
provide a target for the Verity Spider, and [options] can be a near-limitless combination of the options described
later.
For example:
c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\_nti40\bin\vspider -common c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\common
-collection c:\new -start http://localhost -indinclude *
Dependencies exist for other options, depending on the nature of the indexing task. The following are some examples:
• To build a new collection, use -style.
• To control how Verity Spider operates, including which documents it indexes, use some Verity Spider options.
If you do not run the Verity Spider executable from its default installation directory, include that directory in your
path. This is because the Verity Spider executable depends on other files to run properly.
To use the vspider command on UNIX and Linux, the directory that contains the libvdk30.so file must be in your
LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable. In the server configuration, this directory is cf_root/verity/k2/platform/bin; in the
multiserver configuration, this directory is jrun_root/servers/cfusion/WEB-INF/cfusion/verity/k2/platform/bin. For
example, in the server configuration on Linux, this directory is cf_root/verity/k2/_ilnx21/bin.
Using a command file
For simpler reuse and archiving of your indexing commands, use the -cmdfile option for abstraction. By using an
ASCII text file to store a task’s options, you avoid the potential problem of using special characters in an option’s
parameter value. For example, the -processbif option requires the use of "!*" and therefore any task using that option
must also use the -cmdfile option.
command-line option reference
Verity Spider V 5.0 command-line options are case sensitive.
-start
Specifies a starting point for an indexing job. You can specify multiple instances, or use multiple values in a single
instance.
When you execute an indexing job from a command line, and you do not use a command file (with the -cmdfile
option), you must URL-escape any special characters in the starting point. To URL-escape a special character, use
"%hex-ASCII-character-number" in place of the character. For example, use /time%26/ instead of /time&/. This allows
the operating system to properly process the command string.
If an indexing task stops, you can rerun the task as-is. The persistent store for the specified collection is read, and only
those candidate URLs that are in the queue but not yet processed are parsed. Candidate URLs correspond to URLs of
the following status, as reported by vsdb:
cand, used, inse, upda, dele, fail
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Repository type
Starting point
Web
The URL or URLs from which Verity Spider is to begin indexing. Use other options, such as the -jumps option,
to control how far from the starting point Verity Spider goes.
File
The starting directory or directories in which Verity Spider start indexing. All subdirectories beneath the
starting point are indexed, unless you use the -pathlen option or any of the inclusion or exclusion criteria.
Note: By using the -start option with the -refresh option, you provide a starting point for Verity Spider and therefore
do not need to use at least one of the following options: -host, -domain, -nofollow, or -unlimited.
-refresh
Used for updating a collection, specifies that Verity Spider process only those documents that qualify, as follows:
• They are new documents in the repository, and they qualify for indexing under the criteria.
• They exist in the collection and are recorded in the Verity Spider persistent store with a status of done. If Verity
Spider determines that these indexed documents have been updated in the repository, then they are retrieved again
to be reparsed and reindexed. The document VdkVgwKey values do not change.
• They are deleted in the collection. If Verity Spider determines that documents have been deleted from the
repository, then they are also deleted from the persistent store and the collection. The exception to this rule is when
you use the -nooptimize option with the -refresh option. In this case, any document deleted from the repository
is marked for deletion in the collection. It is removed from the collection and the persistent store when the next
indexing task is run for the collection.
When you rerun an existing indexing job, Verity Spider automatically refreshes the collection. If you add or remove
any of the starting points, however, you must manually specify the -refresh option to refresh existing documents.
Note: You can also use the -start option to provide a starting point for Verity Spider. If you do not use the -start
option, use at least one of the following options: -host, -domain, or -nofollow. For further control, also see the refreshtime option. If you do not use any constraint criteria, Verity Spider operates without limits and indexes far more
than you intended.
Core options
Following are the Verity Spider core options:
-cmdfile
Syntax
-cmdfile path_and_filename
Specifies that Verity Spider reads command-line syntax from a file, in addition to the options passed in the command
line. This option includes the path to the file that contains the command-line syntax. The -cmdfile option
circumvents command-line length limits.
The syntax for the command-file is:
option optional_parameters
For better readability, place each option and any parameters on a single line. Verity Spider can properly parse the lines.
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Note: Adobe recommends that you take advantage of the abstraction that this option offers. This option can greatly
reduce user error in erroneously including or omitting options in subsequent indexing jobs.
-collection
Specifies the full path to the collection to create or update.
Note: You receive an error if you specify a filename with an extension of CLM. Meta collections are not supported.
-help
Displays Verity Spider syntax options.
-jobpath
Syntax
-jobpath path
Specifies the location of the Verity Spider databases and the indexing job-related files and directories.
The following are the job-related directories and their contents:
log All Verity Spider log files. For descriptions of the log files, see “-loglevel” on page 146.
bif Bulk insert files.
temp Web pages cached for indexing. You can also specify the temp directory using the -temp option.
These directories are created for you under the last directory specified in path.
Path values must be unique for all indexing jobs. If you do not use the -jobpath option, Verity Spider creates a
/spider/job directory within the collection. For multiple-collection tasks, the first collection specified is used.
Note: You cannot use multiple job paths for multiple simultaneous indexing tasks for the same collection. Only one
indexing task at a time can run for a given collection.
-style
Syntax
-style path
Specifies the path to the style files to use when creating a collection.
If the -style option is not specified, Verity Spider uses the default style files in cf_root/lib/common/style.
Note: You can safely omit the -style option when resubmitting an indexing job, as the style information is already a
part of the collection. If you are using the -cmdfile option, you can leave it there.
Processing options
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-abspath
Type
File system only
Generates absolute paths for files. Use this option when the document locations are not going to change, but the
collection might be moved around.
When you index a web server's contents through the file system, use the -prefixmap option with the -abspath option
to map the absolute file paths to URLs.
See also “-prefixmap” on page 127.
-detectdupfile
Type
File system only
Enables checksum-based detection of duplicates when indexing file systems.
By default, a document checksum is not computed on indexed files. By using the -detectdupfile option, a checksum
is computed based on the CRC-32 algorithm. The checksum combined with the document size is used to determine if
the document is a duplicate.
-indexers
Syntax
-indexers num_indexers
Specifies the maximum number of indexing threads to run on a collection.
The default value is 2. Increasing the value for the -indexers option requires additional CPU and memory resources.
See also
“-maxindmem” on page 124.
-license
Syntax
-license path_and_filename
Specifies the license file to use.
By default, the ind.lic file is used, from the verity_root/platform/bin directory.; where platform represents the platform
directory.
-maxindmem
Syntax
-maxindmem kilobytes
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Specifies the maximum amount of memory, in kilobytes, used by each indexing thread. Specify the number of threads
with the -indexers option.
By default, each indexing thread uses as much memory as is available from the system.
-maxnumdoc
Syntax
-maxnumdoc num_docs
Specifies the maximum number of documents to download or submit for indexing. The value for num_docs does not
necessarily correspond to the number of documents indexed. The following factors affect the actual number:
• Whether the value of num_docs falls within a block of documents dictated by the -submitsize option. If it does,
the entire block of documents must be processed.
• Whether documents retrieved are correctly indexed, because they can be invalid or corrupt.
-mimemap
Syntax
-mimemap path_and_filename
Specifies a control file (simple ASCII text) that maps filename extensions to MIME-types. This lets you make custom
associations and override defaults.
The following is the format for the control file:
#file_ext_no_dot
abc
mime-type
application/word
-nocache
Type
Web crawling only
Used with the -noindex or -nosubmit options, this option disables the caching of files during website indexing. This
has the effect of decreasing the demands on your disk space.
Normally, Verity Spider downloads URLs, then writes them to a bulk insert file and downloads the documents
themselves. When indexing occurs, once the -submitsize option has been reached, the cached files are indexed and
then deleted. If you use the -noindex option, the bulk insert file is submitted but not processed by Verity Spider, and
so the documents are not deleted until indexing occurs. This is mostly mkvdk or collsvc, or you can use Verity Spider
again with the -processbif option.
By using the -nocache option with the -noindex or -nosubmit option, you avoid storing files locally. Files are
downloaded only when indexing actually occurs.
See also
“-noindex” on page 126.
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-nodupdetect
Type
Web crawling only
Disables checksum-based detection of duplicates when indexing websites. URL-based duplicate detection is still
performed.
By default, a document checksum is computed based on the CRC-32 algorithm. The checksum combined with the
document size is used to determine if the document is a duplicate.
See also
“-followdup” on page 134.
-noindex
Specifies that Verity Spider gathers document locations without indexing them. The document locations are stored in
a bulk insert file (BIF), which is then submitted to the collection. This option is typically used with a separate indexing
process, such as mkvdk or collection servicers (collsvc). The BIF is processed by the next indexing process run for the
collection, whether it is Verity Spider, mkvdk, or collection servicers (collsvc).
Do not try to start Verity Spider and another process at the same time. Allow Verity Spider time to generate enough
work for the secondary indexing process. If you are using mkvdk, you can run it in persistent mode to ensure that it
acts upon work generated by Verity Spider.
Note: When you execute an indexing job for a collection and you use the -noindex option, the persistent store for the
collection is not updated.
See also
“-nocache” on page 125 and “-nosubmit” on page 126.
For more information on the mkvdk utility, see “Using the mkvdk utility” on page 150.
-nosubmit
Specifies that Verity Spider gathers document locations without submitting them. The document locations are stored
in a bulk insert file (BIF), which is not submitted to the collection. This option is typically used with a separate indexing
process, such as mkvdk or collection servicers (collsvc). You can also use Verity Spider again with the -processbif
option. With an indexing process other than Verity Spider, you must specify the name and path for the BIF, because
the collection has no record of it.
-persist
Syntax
-persist num_seconds
Enables the Verity Spider to run in persistent mode, checking for updates every num_seconds seconds until it is
stopped.
While Verity Spider is running in persistent mode, there is no optimization. After Verity Spider is taken out of
persistent mode, you need to perform optimization on the collection. For more information about using the mkvdk
utility, see “Using the mkvdk utility” on page 150.
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Note: Do not run more than one Verity Spider process in persistent mode. As the Verity Spider is a resource-intensive
process, only run it in persistent mode with an interval of less than one day. For time intervals greater than 12 hours, use
some form of scheduling. Some examples are cron jobs for UNIX, and the AT command for Windows server.
-preferred
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-preferred exp_1 [exp_n] ...
Specifies a list of hosts or domains that are preferred when retrieving documents for viewing. You can use wildcard
expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single characters. To use regular
expressions, also specify the -regexp option. Use this option when you leave duplicate detection enabled and do not
specify the -nodupdetect option.
When indexing, you might encounter a nonpreferred host first. In that case, documents are parsed and followed and
stored as candidates. When duplicates are encountered on another server, which is preferred, the duplicate documents
from the nonpreferred server are skipped. When documents are requested for viewing, they are retrieved from the
preferred server.
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
See also
“-regexp” on page 128.
-prefixmap
Syntax
-prefixmap path_and_filename
Specifies a control file (simple ASCII text) that maps file system paths to web aliases.
With the -abspath option, this option is typically used to create a URL field that is the web equivalent of a file system
path. File system indexing is faster than web crawling over the network. If you use the -prefixmap option to replace
the file system path with the web URL, relative hypertext links in the HTML pages are kept intact when returned in
Verity search results.
The following is the format for the control file:
src_field src_prefix dest_field dest_prefix
If you use backslashes, you must double them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
For example, to map the filepath /usr/pub/docs to http://web/~verity, use the following:
vdkvgwkey /usr/pub URL http://web/~verity
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See also
“-abspath” on page 124.
-processbif
Syntax
-processbif 'command_string !*'
Specifies a command string in which you can call a program or script that operates on BIFs generated by Verity Spider.
Due to the use of special characters, which represent the bulk insert file (BIF), run Verity Spider with a command file
using the -cmdfile option.
For example, if you want to use a script called fix_bif to add customized information to BIF files, use the following
command:
vspider -cmdfile filename
Where filename is the text-only command file that contains the following (along with any other necessary options):
-processbif 'fix_bif !*'
Your command file includes other options as well.
-regexp
Specifies the use of regular expressions rather than the default wildcard expressions for the following options: exclude, -indexclude, -include, -indinclude, -skip, -indskip, -preferred, and -nofollow.
Wildcard expressions allow the use of the asterisk (*) for text strings, and the question mark (?) for single characters,
as the following table shows:
Wildcard expression
Text string
a*t
although, attitude, audit
a?t
ant, art
file?.htm
files.htm, file1.htm, filer.htm
name?.*
names.txt, named.blank, names.ext
Regular expressions allow for more powerful and flexible matching of alphanumeric strings; for example, to match
"ab11" or "ab34" but not "abcd" or "ab11cd," you could use the following regular expression:
^ab[0-9][0-9]$
The full extent to which regular expressions can be employed is beyond the scope of this description.
-submitsize
Syntax
-submitsize num_documents
Specifies the number of documents submitted for indexing at one time. The default value is 128. The upper limit is
64,000.
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Note: Although larger values mean more efficient processing by the indexer, smaller values allow more parallelism on
multi-CPU systems. If an outage occurs during indexing, a smaller value means that fewer documents are lost.
If an outage occurs during indexing, the chunk of documents specified by the -submitsize option is lost because no
transactional rollback occurs for indexing. The documents are no longer in the queue for indexing. When you rerun
the indexing task, Verity Spider can only continue with URLs and documents that are enqueued.
-temp
Syntax
-temp path
Specifies the directory for temporary files (disk cache). By default, the temp directory is under the job directory
(optionally specified with the -jobpath option).
If you do not specify a value for this option, Verity Spider creates a /spider/temp directory within the collection. For
multiple-collection tasks, the first collection specified is used.
Note: Make sure that the location you specify contains enough disk space to handle the documents that are downloaded
and held before indexing. The documents are deleted from the hard disk after they are indexed.
See also
“-jobpath” on page 123, for specifying the location of all indexing job directories and files, one of which is the temp
directory.
Networking options
The Verity Spider networking options are listed here.
-agentname
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-agentname string
Specifies the value for the agent name field that is part of the HTTP request. You can use the -agentname option to
impersonate a browser client because web servers can be configured to return different versions of the same page
depending on the requesting agent.
Use double-quotation marks if the name contains a space. Use the -cmdfile option if the agent name you want to use
contains forbidden characters, such as slashes or backslashes.
-connections
Syntax
-connections num_connections
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Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous socket connections to make to websites for indexing. Each
connection implies a separate thread.
The default value is 6.
Note: The Verity Spider dynamic flow control makes the most use of all available connections when indexing websites. If
you are indexing multiple sites, you might want to increase this number. Increasing the number of connections does not
always help, because of such dependencies as your network connection and the capabilities of the remote hosts.
-delay
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-delay num_milliseconds
Specifies the minimum time between HTTP requests, in milliseconds. The default value is 0 milliseconds for no delay.
-header
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-header string
Specifies an HTTP header to add to the request; for example:
-header "Referer: http://www.verity.com/"
Verity Spider sends some predefined headers, such as Accept and User-Agent, by default. Special headers are
sometimes necessary to correctly index a site.
For example, earlier versions of Verity Spider did not support the Host header, which was needed for Virtual Host
indexing. Also, a Proxy-authentication header was required to pass a user name and password to a proxy server. In the
current version of Verity Spider, the Host header is supported by default, and the -proxyauth option is available for
proxy server authentication. Therefore, the -header option is maintained only for backwards compatibility and
possible future enhancements.
Note: Misuse of this option causes spider failure. If this happens, rerun the indexing task with modified -header values.
-hostcache
Syntax
-hostcache num_hostnames
Specifies the number of host names to cache to avoid DNS lookups. Without this option, the host cache continues to grow.
The default value is 256.
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-noflowctrl
Type
Web crawling only
Disables round-robin indexing of websites with network flow control.
By default, Verity Spider uses round-robin indexing of websites to avoid overwhelming a web server and to improve
indexing performance. Verity Spider connects to each web server in a round-robin manner, using up to the value for
the -connections option. This means that one URL is fetched from each web server, in turn.
Note: Using the -noflowctrl option can result in a significant drop in performance.
-noproxy
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-noproxy name_1 [name_n] ...
Used with the -proxy option, the -noproxy option specifies that Verity Spider directly access the hosts whose names
match those specified. By default, when you specify the -proxy option, Verity Spider first tries to access every host
with the proxy information. To improve performance, use the -noproxy option for the hosts you know can be
accessed without a proxy host. For the name variable, you can use the asterisk (*) wildcard for text strings; for example:
'*.verity.com'
You cannot use the question mark (?) wildcard, and the -regexp option does not let you use regular expressions.
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the asterisk special character (*). On
UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a command line.
Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
Note: You must have valid Verity Spider licensing capability to use this option.
-proxy
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-proxy proxyhost:port
Specifies host and port for proxy server.
Note: You must have valid Verity Spider licensing capability to use this option.
See also “-proxyauth” on page 132 for proxy servers that require authentication, and “-noproxy” on page 131 for hosts
that you know are accessible without having to go through a proxy server.
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-proxyauth
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-proxyauth login:password
Specifies login information for proxy server connections that require authorization to get outside the firewall. Use this
option with the -proxy option.
Note: You must have valid Verity Spider licensing capability to use this option. Information Server V3.7 does not support
retrieving documents for viewing through secure proxy servers. Do not use the -proxyauth option for indexing
documents that are viewed through Information Server V3.7
-retry
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-retry num_retries
Specifies the number of times that Verity Spider should attempt to access a URL. Use the -retry option when an
unstable network connection returns a false rejection.
The default value is 4.
-timeout
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-timeout num_seconds
Specifies the time period, in seconds, that Verity Spider should wait before timing out on a network connection and
on accessing data. The data access value is automatically twice the value that you specify for the network connection
time out.
The default value for the network connection time-out is 30 seconds, and therefore the default value for the data access
time-out is 60 seconds.
Path and URL options
The Verity Spider path and URL options are:
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-auth
Syntax
-auth path_and_filename
Specifies an authorization file to support authentication for secure paths.
Use the -auth option to specify the authorization file. The file contains one record per line. Each line consists of server,
realm, user name, and password, separated by whitespace.
The following is a sample authorization file:
# This is the Authorization file for HTTP's Basic Authentication
#server
realm
username
password
doleary
MACR
my_username
my_password
-cgiok
Type
Web crawling only
Lets you index URLs containing query strings. That is, a question mark (?) followed by additional information. This
typically means that the URL leads to a CGI or other processing program.
The return document produced by the web server is indexed and parsed for document links, which are followed and
in turn indexed and parsed. However, if the web server does not return a page, perhaps because the URL is missing
parameters that are required to produce a page, nothing happens. There is no page to index and parse.
Example
The following is a URL without parameters:
http://server.com/cgi-bin/program?
You can use the -start option to include parameters in the URL that you are indexing. The parameters are processed
and any resulting pages are indexed and parsed.
By default, a URL with a question mark (?) is skipped.
-domain
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-domain name_1 [name_n] ...
Limits indexing to the specified domains. Use only complete text strings for domains. You cannot use wildcard
expressions. URLs not in the specified domains are not downloaded or parsed.
You can list multiple domains by separating each one with a single space.
Note: You must have the appropriate Verity Spider licensing capability to use this option. The version of Verity Spider
that is included with ColdFusion is licensed for websites that are defined and reside on the same computer on which
ColdFusion is installed. Contact Verity Sales for licensing options regarding the use of Verity Spider for external websites.
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-followdup
Specifies that Verity Spider follows links within duplicate documents, although only the first instance of any duplicate
documents is indexed.
You might find this option useful if you use the same home page on multiple sites. By default, only the first instance
of the document is indexed, while subsequent instances are skipped. If you have different secondary documents on the
different sites, using the -followdup option lets you get to them for indexing, while still indexing the common home
page only once.
-followsymlink
Type
File system only
Specifies that Verity Spider follows symbolic links when indexing UNIX file systems.
-host
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-host name_1 [name_n] ...
Limits indexing to the specified host or hosts. Use only complete text strings for hosts. You cannot use wildcard
expressions.
You can list multiple hosts by separating each one with a single space. URLs not on the specified hosts are not
downloaded or parsed.
-https
Type
Web crawling only
Lets you index SSL-enabled websites.
Note: You must have the Verity SSL Option Pack installed to use the -https option. The Verity SSL Option Pack is a
Verity Spider add-on available separately from a Verity salesperson.
-jumps
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-jumps num_jumps
Specifies the maximum number of levels an indexing job can go from the starting URL. Specify a number from 0 to 254.
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The default value is unlimited. If you see large numbers of documents in a collection where you do not expect them,
consider experimenting with this option, with the Content options, to pare down your collection.
-nodocrobo
Specifies to ignore ROBOT META tag directives.
In HTML 3.0 and earlier, robot directives could only be given as the file robots.txt under the root directory of a website.
In HTML 4.0, every document can have robot directives embedded in the META field. Use this option to ignore them.
Use this option with discretion.
-nofollow
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-nofollow "exp"
Specifies that Verity Spider cannot follow any URLs that match the exp expression. If you do not specify an exp value
for the -nofollow option, Verity Spider assumes a value of "*", where no documents are followed.
You can use wildcard expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single
characters. Always encapsulate the exp values in double-quotation marks to ensure that they are properly interpreted.
If you use backslashes, double them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
To use regular expressions, also specify the “-regexp” on page 128 option.
Earlier versions of Verity Spider did not allow the use of an expression. This meant that for each starting point URL,
only the first document would be indexed. With the addition of the expression functionality, you can now selectively
skip URLs, even within documents.
See also
“-regexp” on page 128
-norobo
Type
Web crawling only
Specifies to ignore any robots.txt files encountered. The robots.txt file is used on many websites to specify what parts
of the site indexers should avoid. The default is to honor any robots.txt files.
If you are reindexing a site and the robots.txt file has changed, Verity Spider deletes documents that have been newly
disallowed by the robots.txt file.
Use this option with discretion and extreme care, especially with the “-cgiok” on page 133 option.
See also
“-nodocrobo” on page 135.
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-pathlen
Syntax
-pathlen num_pathsegments
Limits indexing to the specified number of path segments in the URL or file system path. The path length is determined
as follows:
• The host name and drive letter are not included. For example, www.spider.com:80/ or C:\ is not included in
determining the path length.
• All elements following the host name are included.
• The actual filename, if present, is included; for example, /world.html would be included in determining the path
length.
• Any directory paths between the host and the actual filename are included.
Example
For the following URL, the path length would be four:
http://www.spider:80/comics/fun/funny/world.html
<-1-><2><-3-> <---4--->
For the following file system path, the path length would be three:
C:\files\docs\datasheets
<-1-><-2-><---3--->
The default value is 100 path segments.
-refreshtime
Syntax
-refreshtime timeunits
Specifies not to refresh any documents that have been indexed since the timeunits value began.
The following is the syntax for timeunits:
n day n hour n min n sec
Where n is a positive integer. You must include spaces, and since the first three letters of each time unit are parsed, you
can use the singular or plural form of the word.
If you specify the following:
-refreshtime 1 day 6 hours
Only those documents that were last indexed at least 30 hours and 1 sec ago, are refreshed.
Note: This option is valid only with the -refresh option. When you use vsdb -recreate, the last indexed date is
cleared.
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-reparse
Type
Web crawling only
Forces parsing of all HTML documents already in the collection. Specify a starting point with the -start option when
you use the -reparse option.
You can use the -reparse option when you want to include paths and documents that were previously skipped due
to exclusion or inclusion criteria. In Verity Spider, make sure that you change the criteria while using the -cmdfile
option.
-unlimited
Specifies that no limits are placed on Verity Spider if the -host or the -domain option is not specified. The default is
to limit based on the host of the first starting point listed.
-virtualhost
Syntax
-virtualhost name_1 [name_n] ...
Specifies that DNS lookups are avoided for the hosts listed. Use only complete text strings for hosts. You cannot use
wildcard expressions. This lets you index by alias, such as when multiple web servers are running on the same host.
You can use regular expressions.
Normally, when Verity Spider resolves host names, it uses DNS lookups to convert the names to canonical names, of
which there can be only one per computer. This allows for the detection of duplicate documents, to prevent results
from being diluted. For multiple aliased hosts, however, duplication is not a barrier as documents can be referred to
by more than one alias and yet remain distinct because of the different alias names.
Example
You can have both marketing.verity.com and sales.verity.com running on the same host. Each alias has a different
document root, although document names such as index.htm can occur for both. With the -virtualhost option,
both server aliases can be indexed as distinct sites. Without the -virtualhost option, they would both be resolved to
the same host name, and only the first document encountered from any duplicate pair would be indexed.
Note: If you are using Netscape Enterprise Server, and you have specified only the host name as a virtual host, Verity
Spider cannot index the virtual host site. This is because Verity Spider always adds the domain name to the document key.
Content options
The Verity Spider content options are:
-casesen
Makes processing case sensitive by specifying that the spider separately process keys that differ only in case. Use only
for indexing UNIX servers.
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-exclude
Syntax
-exclude exp_1 [exp_n] ...
Specifies that files, paths, and URLs matching the specified expressions are not followed. If you use backslashes, double
them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
You can use wildcard expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single
characters; for example:
'/my_doc*/year199?'
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect special characters, such as the asterisk
(*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a command line.
Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
To use regular expressions, also specify the -regexp option.
To specify a file, path, or URL that you want followed but not indexed, use the -indexclude option. For document
types, use the -mimeexclude option instead; for example, specify -mimeexclude application/pdf rather than exclude*.pdf.
Note: When specifying a URL, use full, absolute paths using the same format that appears in the HTML hypertext link.
If the link is relative, change it to absolute to use it with the -exclude option.
See also
“-regexp” on page 128.
-include
Specifies that only those files, paths, and URLs that match the specified expression or expressions are followed. If you
use backslashes, double them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
You can use wildcard expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single
characters; for example:
'/my_doc*/year199?'
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
To use regular expressions, also specify the -regexp option.
If your starting points do not contain the specified -include expressions, nothing is indexed. The -include option
prevents Verity Spider from even following anything that does not match the specified expressions. You might want
to use the -indinclude option instead. Where the -include option prevents Verity Spider from even following
anything that does not match the specified expressions, the -indinclude option allows Verity Spider to follow what
matches the specified expressions, while not indexing.
For document types, use the “-mimeinclude” on page 143 option instead; for example, specify -mimeinclude
text/html rather than -include *.htm.
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Note: When specifying a URL, use full, absolute paths using the same format that appears in the HTML hypertext link.
If the link is relative, change it to absolute to use it with the -include option.
See also
“-regexp” on page 128.
-indexclude
Syntax
-indexclude exp_1 [exp_n] ...
Specifies that the files and paths in URLs that match the expressions are not indexed. They are, however, still followed.
If you use backslashes, double them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
You can use wildcard expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single
characters; for example:
'/my_doc*/year199?'
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
To use regular expressions, also specify the -regexp option.
You would use this option to gather some documents, such as HTML tables of contents, to gain access to other
documents for indexing.
Where the -exclude option prevents Verity Spider from even following anything that matches the specified
expressions, the -indexclude option allows Verity Spider to follow anything while only skipping that which matches
the specified expressions.
For document types, use the -indmimeexclude option instead.
Note: When specifying a URL, use full, absolute paths using the same format as appears in the HTML hypertext link. If
the link is relative, change it to absolute to use it with -indexclude.
See also
“-regexp” on page 128.
-indinclude
Syntax
-indinclude exp_1 [exp_n] ...
Specifies that only those files and paths in URLs that match the expressions be followed and indexed. If you use
backslashes, double them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
You can use wildcard expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single
characters; for example:
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'/my_doc*/year199?'
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
To use regular expressions, also specify the -regexp option.
Where the -include option prevents Verity Spider from even following anything that does not match the specified
expressions, the -indinclude option allows Verity Spider to follow anything while only indexing that which matches
the specified expressions.
Example
If you want to index all documents that include "search" in the URL at http://web.verity.com, you cannot use the
following:
vspider -collection collname -start http://web.verity.com
-include '*search*'
This is because the starting point does not match the -include option criteria. Instead, use the -indinclude option
to follow all documents (unless you have specified any of the exclude options) and index only those documents that
match your criteria. Replace the -include option with the -indinclude option in the preceding example.
Note: When specifying a URL, use full, absolute paths using the same format that appears in the HTML hypertext link.
If the link is relative, change it to absolute to use it with the -indinclude option.
See also
“-regexp” on page 128.
-indmimeexclude
Syntax
-indmimeexclude mime_1 [mime_n] ...
Specifies that only those MIME types that match the expressions be followed but not indexed.
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
Use this option to gather some documents, such as HTML tables of contents, to gain access to other documents for
indexing. The -mimeexclude option, on the other hand, prevents specified documents from being followed at all. For
the MIME variable, you can include the asterisk (*) wildcard for text strings; for example:
'text/*'
You cannot use the question mark (?) wildcard, and the -regexp option does not let you use regular expressions.
-indmimeinclude
Syntax
-indmimeinclude mime_1 [mime_n] ...
Specifies that only those MIME types that match the expressions are followed and indexed.
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The -mimeinclude option does not let you index desired documents if the starting URL is not followed. For the MIME
variable, you can include the asterisk (*) wildcard for text strings; for example:
'text/*'
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special character (*). On UNIX, use
single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a command line. Quotation marks
are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
You cannot use the question mark (?) wildcard, and the -regexp option does not allow you to use regular expressions.
Example
If you want to index all Word documents at http://web.verity.com, you cannot use:
vspider -collection collname -style style_dir -start
http://web.verity.com -mimeinclude 'application/msword'
This is because the starting point does not match the -mimeinclude criteria. You can use the -indmimeinclude
option to follow all documents (unless you have specified any of the exclude options) and index only those documents
that match your criteria. Replace the -mimeinclude option with the -indmimeinclude option in the preceding
example.
-indskip
Syntax
-indskip HTML_tag "exp"
Type
Web crawling only
Specifies that Verity Spider follow and parse links, but not index, any HTML document that contains the text of exp
within the given HTML_tag. For multiple HTML_tag and exp combinations, use multiple instances of the -skip
option.
You can use wildcard expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single
characters; for example:
'/my_doc*/year199?'
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
If you use backslashes, double them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
To use regular expressions, also specify the -regexp option.
Example 1
To skip all HTML documents that contain the word "personnel" in the Title element, while still parsing those
documents for links to other documents, use the following:
-indskip title "personnel"
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Example 2
To avoid indexing directory listing pages, while still parsing the document and path links except for the link to the
parent directory, use one of the following, depending on the web server being indexed:
1 For Netscape web servers, use the following:
-indskip title "*Index of*"
-nofollow "*parent directory*"
2 For Microsoft Internet Information Server, use the following:
-indskip a "*to parent directory*"
-nofollow "*parent directory*"
-maxdocsize
Syntax
-maxdocsize integer
Specifies the maximum size, in kilobytes, for documents to be indexed. Any documents larger than the value specified
by the -maxdocsize option are ignored.
The default is to index documents of any size.
-metafile
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-metafile path_and_filename
Lets you use a text file to map custom meta tags to valid HTTP header fields. If you use backslashes, double them so
that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
This means that you can use your own meta tag, in the document, to replace what is returned by the web server, or to
insert it if nothing is returned. Currently, the only header fields of real value are "Last-Modified" and "ContentLength." Future enhancements could allow for greater variety.
The following is the syntax for entries in the text file:
name Last-Modified y|n
or
name Content-Length y|n
Where y|n is an override flag, which can be yes or no.
Example
A mapping file for the -metafile option might include the following:
Doc_Last_Touched Last-Modified n
Doc_Size Content-Length y
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If you use the y override flag, the value for the custom meta tag overrides the value for the valid field, even if both values
are present and differ. This can be useful when the valid field value is always sent, but you want to specify your own
value with a custom meta tag.
If you use the n override flag, the value for the custom meta tag is used only if there is no value for the valid field
returned by the server. If a value for the valid field exists, it is given precedence.
Note: If you have several entries mapping to the same valid field, only the last entry takes effect.
-mimeexclude
Syntax
-mimeexclude mime_1 [mime_n] ...
Specifies MIME types that are not followed or indexed.
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
The default is to include all MIME types. For the MIME variable, you can include the asterisk (*) wildcard for text
strings; for example:
'text/*'
You cannot use the question mark (?) wildcard, and the -regexp option does not let you use regular expressions.
Use the -indmimeexclude option to allow Verity Spider to follow documents, without indexing them, to gain access
to other desirable document types.
-mimeinclude
Syntax
-mimeinclude mime_1 [mime_n] ...
Specifies MIME types to be included.
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
The default is to include all MIME types. For the MIME variable, you can include the asterisk (*) wildcard for text
strings; for example:
'text/*'
You cannot use the question mark (?) wildcard, and the -regexp option does not let you use regular expressions.
-mindocsize
Syntax
-mindocsize integer
Specifies the minimum size, in kilobytes, for documents to be indexed. Any documents smaller than the value specified
by the -mindocsize option are ignored.
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The default is to index documents of any sizes.
-skip
Type
Web crawling only
Syntax
-skip HTML_tag "exp"
Specifies that Verity Spider not index any HTML document that contains the text of exp within the given HTML_tag.
For multiple HTML_tag and exp combinations, use multiple instances of the -skip option.
You can use wildcard expressions, where the asterisk (*) is for text strings and the question mark (?) is for single
characters; for example:
'/my_doc*/year199?'
In Windows, include double-quotation marks around the argument to protect the special characters, such as the
asterisk (*). On UNIX, use single-quotation marks. This is only required when you run the indexing job from a
command line. Quotation marks are not necessary within a command file (the -cmdfile option).
If you use backslashes, double them so that they are properly escaped; for example:
C:\\test\docs\path
To use regular expressions, also specify the -regexp option.
Example 1
To skip all HTML documents that contain the word "personnel" in the Title element, use the following:
-skip title "personnel"
Example 2
To skip all HTML documents that contain both the word "private" and the phrase "internal user" in any paragraph
element, use the following:
-skip title "personnel"
-skip p "*internal use*"
See also
“-regexp” on page 128.
Locale options
The Verity Spider locale options are:
-charmap
Syntax
-charmap name
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Specifies the character map to use. Valid values are 8859 or 850. The default value is 8859.
-common
Specifies the path to the Verity home directory, cf_root/verity/k2/common.
Note: This option is typically not needed, as long as the PATH environment variable is set correctly.
-datefmt
Syntax
-datefmt format
Specifies the Verity import date format to use. Valid values are MDY (the default), DMY, YMD, USA, and EUR. (For
descriptions of these values, see “Date format options” on page 154.)
-language
Syntax
-language name
Specifies the Verity locale to use in indexing. This option is being replaced by the semantically consistent -locale
option, and is still supported for backwards compatibility.
-locale
Syntax
-locale name
Specifies the Verity locale to use in indexing, such as German (deutsch) or French (français). The default is English
(english). This option is identical to the -language option.
-msgdb
Syntax
-msgdb path
Specifies the path to the ind.msg message database file.
If Verity Spider was installed properly, this option should be unnecessary. By default, the ind.msg message database
file is read from the following directory:
cf_root/lib/platform/bin
Where platform represents the platform directory.
Logging options
The Verity Spider logging options are:
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-loglevel
Syntax
-loglevel [nostdout] argument
Specifies the types of messages to log. By default, messages are written to standard output and to various log files in the
subdirectory named /log beneath the Verity Spider job directory. If you add nostdout to the -loglevel option,
messages are not written to standard output. Log files, however, are still created.
The following table describes valid message types:
Message type
Description
information
Licensing information written to info.log. Included with all arguments.
warning
Warning messages written to warning.log. Included with all arguments.
error
Error messages written to error.log. Included with all arguments.
badkey
Messages regarding keys that could not be indexed due to invalid documents, written to badkey.log. Included
with all arguments.
progress
Current state of a document key written to progress.log. A key with a progress of "inserting" might be a badkey
and therefore skipped, rather than an indexed key. Included with all arguments.
summary
Inserted, indexed, and ignored messages written to summary.log. Included with all arguments except skip.
skip
Skipped documents, with explanation, written to skip.log. Included with all arguments, except summary.
debug
Internal Verity Spider processing messages, such as enqueued, written to debug.log. Included with both debug
and trace arguments.
trace
Internal Verity Spider processing messages written to debug.log. Included only with the trace argument.
Choose one of the following arguments to determine which message types are logged:
Loglevel arguments
Description
summary
Includes the following message types:
information, warning, error, badkey, progress, summary
Use this option only if you do not want to skip type messages.
skip
Includes the following message types:
information, warning, error, badkey, progress, skip
Use this option only if you do not want summary type messages.
verbose
Includes the following message types:
information, warning, error, badkey, progress, summary, skip
debug
Includes the following message types:
information, warning, error, badkey, progress, summary, skip, debug
Note: Only use this argument at the direction of Verity technical support or for troubleshooting indexing
problems.
trace
Includes the following message types:
information, warning, error, badkey, progress, summary, skip, debug, trace
Note: Only use this argument at the direction of Verity technical support or for troubleshooting indexing
problems.
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Maintenance options
The Verity Spider maintenance options are:
-nooptimize
Prevents Verity Spider from optimizing the collection, thus reducing processing overhead during indexing. Use this
option sparingly, as it leaves the collection in less than optimum shape. The following are some examples of when you
might want to use this option:
• You want to manually perform custom optimization of the collection, using the mkvdk utility. By default, the Verity
Spider optimization mimics the mkvdk actions of maxmerge and vdbopt. For more information on the mkvdk
utility, see Verity Command-Line Indexing Reference and “Using the mkvdk utility” on page 150.
• You are running multiple indexing jobs against a collection, and want to wait until they are all finished to optimize.
Generally, do not leave a collection unoptimized for too long, as search times can slow significantly.
In brief, optimizing a collection means creating a few large partitions, which can greatly reduce search times.
-purge
Deletes document tables and index files in the collection, and cleans up the collection's persistent store. The collection
is then fresh with its original style files, and is not deleted from the file system.
-repair
Specifies a failure-recovery mode for the collection, where the goal is to determine the causes of any errors, repair the
errors (if possible), and restart a collection.
Although the Verity indexing engine always leaves the collection in a consistent, usable state, and no data can be lost
or corrupted because of computer failures, it is possible for a process or event external to the Verity server to corrupt
one or more collections.
You can use the -repair option for constant failure-recovery operation, or you can run it selectively on collections
that failed.
Setting MIME types
You can use the -mimeinclude, -indmimeinclude, -mimeexclude, and -indmimeexclude MIME type criteria
options to include or exclude MIME types.
Syntax restrictions
Following are the restrictions when you specify MIME type criteria:
Using the wildcard character (*)
The asterisk (*) wildcard character does not operate as a regular expression for the value of the MIME type criteria.
Instead, you can only use it to replace the entire MIME type or MIME subtype.
For example, the following value is a valid substitute for text/html:
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text/*
The following value is NOT a valid substitute for text/html:
text/h*
Multiple parameter values
If you use quotataion marks while specifying a series of parameter values for a single instance of a MIME type critera,
enclose each separate parameter value in single-quotation marks. For example:
-mimeinclude 'text/plain' 'application/*'
If you enclose the entire sequence of parameter values, as follows:
-mimeinclude 'text/plain application/*'
Verity Spider considers the entire expression a single value.
You can also use multiple instances of the MIME type criteria, each with a single parameter value, where quotation
marks are necessary only if you use the wildcard character (*). For example:
-mimeinclude text/plain
-mimeinclude 'application/*'.Setting MIME Types
MIME types and web crawling
When you index a website, Verity Spider evaluates your MIME type criteria against the "Content-Type" HTTP headers
sent by the web server hosting that website. That web server passes along MIME type information based on its own
internal tables.
When you encounter MIME types being dropped, make sure that the web server you are indexing has the necessary
MIME type information. For information about specifying MIME types, see the documentation for your web server.
You can examine the indexing job’s log files for indications that files are being skipped due to MIME types. For
example, a typical ASCII file you might want indexed is a log file (filename.log). Unless the web server understands
that files with .LOG extensions are ASCII text, of MIME type text/plain, you see in the indexing job log file that .LOG
files are skipped because of MIME type, even if you use the following:
-mimeinclude 'text/*'
MIME types and file system indexing
When you index a file system, Verity Spider reads filenames and evaluates your MIME type criteria against an internal,
compiled list of known MIME types and associated filename extensions. You cannot edit this list. However, you can
use the -mimemap option to create a custom MIME type mapping.
When you encounter MIME types being dropped, check whether Verity Spider recognizes that particular MIME type.
For more information, see the table, “Known MIME types for file system indexing” on page 149.
You can examine the indexing job’s log files for indications that files are being skipped due to MIME types. For
example, a typical ASCII file you might want indexed is a log file (filename.log). Since Verity Spider does not
understand that files with .LOG extensions are ASCII text, of MIME type text/plain, you see in the indexing job log file
that .LOG files are skipped because of MIME type, even if you use the following:
-mimeinclude 'text/*'.Setting MIME Types
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Indexing unknown MIME types
Whenever you find MIME types being dropped, or you plan to index files whose extensions are not known to Verity
Spider by default, use the -mimemap option to point to a file that contains your own custom mappings for filename
extensions and MIME types.
You can also use the regular expression '*/*' for your MIME type criteria; for example:
-mimeinclude '*/*'
On either platform, you include single-quotation marks for values that include wildcard characters.
Also use inclusion and exclusion criteria to finely control what is indexed, as follows:
1 If your list of file types to index is rather long, use exclusion criteria (-exclude, -indexclude, -mimeexclude, or
-indmimeexclude) to exclude extensions you know you do not want to index; for example:
-exclude '*.exe' '*.com'
2 If the list of file types you want to index is relatively small, use inclusion criteria (-include, -indinclude, mimeinclude, or -indmimeinclude) to specify them; for example:
-include '*.txt' '*.1st' '*.log' .Setting MIME Types
Known MIME types for file system indexing
The following table lists the MIME types that Verity Spider recognizes when indexing file systems:
Format
MIME type
Extension
HTML
text/html
htm, html
ASCII
text/plain
txt, text, pl, eml
ASCII, source files
text/plain
c, h, cpp, cxx
PDF
application/pdf
pdf
MS Word
application/msword
doc
MS Excel
application/vnd.ms-excel
xls
MS PowerPoint
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
ppt
WordPerfect 5.1
application/wordperfect5.1
wpd
RTF
application/rtf
rtf
FrameMaker MIF
application/vnd.mif
mif
Applixware
application/applixware
aw
Zip files
application/zip
zip
Eudora mail
text/x-mbox
mbx
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Chapter 13: Using Verity Utilities
Use Verity utilities to configure, maintain, and troubleshoot Verity collections.
Overview of Verity utilities
The following command-line utilities are included with Adobe ColdFusion for performing various operations on
Verity collections:
Verity utility
Description
For more information
mkvdk
Create and maintain collections.
See “Using the mkvdk utility” on page 150.
rck2
Search K2 Server collections.
See “Using the rck2 utility” on page 159.
rcvdk
Search collections and display documents.
See “Using the rcvdk utility” on page 160.
didump
View collection word lists.
See “Using the didump utility” on page 164.
browse
Browse documents table and search results.
See “Using the browse utility” on page 166.
merge
Combine collections.
See “Using the merge utility” on page 167.
Location of Verity utilities
The Verity command-line utilities are located in the following directories:
Server and multiserver configuration The utility files are located in cf_root/verity/k2/platform/bin (server
configuration) or jrun_root/verity/k2/platform/bin (multiserver configuration), where platform is _nti40 for
Windows, _solaris for Solaris, or _ilnx21 for Linux.
J2EE configuration The utility files are located in verity_root/k2/platform/bin, where platform is _nti40 for Windows,
_solaris for Solaris, or _ilnx21 for Linux.
Using the mkvdk utility
The mkvdk utility is an indexing application, provided with other Verity utilities, that you can use to create and
maintain collections. It is a command-line utility that you can use within other applications or shell scripts to provide
more sophisticated scheduling and other capabilities.
The mkvdk executable file, which starts the mkvdk utility, is located in the platform/bin directory. For more
information on the specific location of this directory, see “Location of Verity utilities” on page 150.
Note: To display a list of mkvdk command-line options, enter the following command: mkvdk -help
The mkvdk utility syntax
The following is the basic syntax of the mkvdk command:
mkvdk -collection path [option] [dockey]
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Multiple options and dockeys can be included, as needed. If dockey is a list of files, it should consist of an at sign (@)
followed by the filename that contains a simple list of files (for example, @filelist). For more information about the
options for the mkvdk utility, see “Getting started with the Verity mkvdk utility” on page 151.
The following operations occur when you use the mkvdk utility to create a collection:
1 New collection directories are created and the specified style files are copied to the style subdirectory.
2 The style file settings are read and the required information is passed to the Verity search engine.
3 The gateway is used to open the document files, which are parsed according to the settings in various style files.
4 A new partition is created, which includes an index and an attribute table.
5 Assist data is generated, which might include a spanning word list.
When problems occur during an operation, the mkvdk utility writes error messages to the system log file (sysinfo.log).
You can direct error and other messages to the console by using the mkvdk command with the -outlevel option. You
can direct messages to a file of your choice by using the -loglevel and -logfile options.
The log file contains the following fields:
• Date
• Time
• Level
• Code
• Component
• Description
You can use the log file to view details about what happens during the collection creation process. Use the mkvdk loglevel command and specify the numeric identifier for the message level you want, as summarized in the following
table:
Type
Number
Fatal
1
Error
2
Warning
4
Status
8
Info
16
Verbose
32
Debug
64
To calculate the numeric parameter, add the numbers for the message types you want to include. The default for both
-outlevel and -loglevel is 15, which selects fatal, error, warning, and status messages (1+2+4+8).
Getting started with the Verity mkvdk utility
The following is the basic mkvdk syntax:
mkvdk -collection path [option] [...] [filespec] [...]
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Where:
• Brackets ( [ ] ) indicate optional items.
• An ellipsis (...) indicates repetition of the previous item. Thus, [filespec] [...] indicates an optional series of filespec
items.
• filespec represents a document filename or a list of document filenames. If filespec is a list of files, it should consist
of an at sign (@) followed by the filename containing the list (for example, @filelist).
• The -collection path argument creates or opens a collection. This argument is required.
Numerous optional syntax options are listed. All syntax options must precede the first filespec parameter.
Creating a collection
Creating a collection with the mkvdk utility involves setting up a collection directory structure and inserting
documents into this structure. You can create a collection using the following steps.
1 Set up a collection using the following syntax:
mkvdk -create -collection collectionname
Where collectionname is the path to the collection directory. Running this command creates a collection
directory that includes style files with configuration information.
2 Insert documents using the following syntax:
mkvdk -collection collectionname -bulk -insert filespec
Where filespec is the name of a bulk insert file that specifies which documents to index and insert into the
collection.
Collection setup options
The mkvdk utility provides the following collection setup options:
Option
Description
-create
Creates a collection in the specified collection directory. It creates the directory structure, determines the
index contents and sets up the document’s table schema according to the style files used. If the specified
collection exists, the mkvdk utility exits rather than overwriting the existing collection.
-style dir
Specifies the style directory that contains the style files to use to create a collection. This option can only be
used with the -create option. If you do not specify this option when you use the mkvdk utility to create a
collection, the mkvdk utility uses the style files in the common/style directory.
-description desc
Sets the collection’s description. Enter alphanumeric text, such as “This collection contains electronic mail
from ABC Company.” Include the quotation marks.
-words
Builds the word list for all partitions in the collection.
Examples: setting up collections
The following examples show the commands for creating a collection and building the word list:
Creating a collection The following command creates a collection in path_2 using the style files in path_1, and submits
and indexes the documents in filespec:
mkvdk -create -style path_1 -collection path_2 filespec
Building the word list The following command builds the word list in the collection residing in the path directory:
mkvdk -words -collection path
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General processing options
The mkvdk utility provides the following general processing options:
Option
Description
-collection path
Specifies the path of the collection to create or open. This option is required to execute the mkvdk utility.
-nolock
Turns off file locking. Locking is on by default.
-synch
Performs work immediately. If this option is not used, indexing work is done in the background, as time permits.
-about
Shows information about the collection, such as its description and the date when it was last modified.
-datapath path
Specifies the datapath to use to find documents that are added to the specified collection. All relative document
paths are relative to this setting. If you do not set this option, the mkvdk utility looks for documents next to the
collection directory.
-topicset path
Creates a topic index for the collection, based on the specified topic set, and stores it in the collection directory.
This facilitates quick and efficient searches over the collection data when using topics.
-mode mode
Sets the indexing mode. Values are not case sensitive. The following are the valid settings:
•
Generic
•
FastSearch
•
NewsfeedIdx
•
NewsfeedOpt
•
BulkLoad
•
ReadOnly
•
Any custom mode defined in the style.plc file.
The default is Generic mode.
-common
Specifies the path of the Verity common directory. If you do not use this option, the Verity engine looks for the
common directory in the directory containing the mkvdk executable, and then along the executable search path.
The executable search path depends on your operating system environment settings. It is the path used by the
OS to find the programs you run.
-help
Displays the mkvdk utility syntax options.
-debug
Runs the mkvdk command in debugging mode.
-nooptimize
Prevents optimization by this instance of the mkvdk utility. Using this option turns off the service-level
VdkServiceType_Optimize. The service types determine the type of work the Verity engine and its selfadministration features execute on a collection.
-nohousekeep
Prevents housekeeping by this instance of the mkvdk utility. Housekeeping includes deleting files that are no
longer needed. Using this option turns off the service-level VdkServiceType_DBA. (Service types are described
under -nooptimize.)
-noindex
Prevents indexing by this instance of mkvdk. Documents are not inserted or deleted. Using this option turns off
the service-level VdkServiceType_Index. (Service types are described under -nooptimize.)
-charmap name
Specifies the name of the character set to which to map all strings for your application. Set this to a character set
that your system can display properly. Using the search engine with the English locale, the character set that any
version of Windows displays is 8859. This is NOT the name of the character set of documents being indexed, it is
only the name of the character set that your display can handle properly. (The character set of the document is
set in the style.dft file using the /charmap option.)
Valid options are 850 and 8859. The default is no mapping.
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Option
Description
-locale name
Specifies the name of the Verity locale for the mkvdk utility. The locale name must correspond to the name of an
existing locale directory, which must exist in the install_dir/common/locale directory. Valid options are english,
deutsch, and francais. The default is english.
-datefmt format
Converts a date field value into Verity’s internal data representation. You can use this option with the mkvdk
options -extract (for the field extraction feature) and -bulk (for the bulk submit feature). The named format
string identifies to the date parsing routines in what order dates are written when the date string only consists of
a sequence of numbers (for example, 03/03/96). Valid options are described in “Date format options” on
page 154. The default is MDY.
-servlev level
Specifies service level. The specifier, level, is a string consisting of keywords separated by hyphens, such as searchindex-optimize. Valid keywords are described in “Service-level keyword options” on page 155.
Examples: processing documents
The following examples show the commands for processing documents.
Using the default options
By default, the mkvdk command submits and indexes documents specified in the command, and services the specified
collection. The following command executes the default options:
mkvdk -collection path filespec
Servicing only
The following command performs servicing only. Use this command to only index submitted documents and service
the collection:
mkvdk -collection path
Deleting documents from a collection
The following command deletes documents from a collection:
mkvdk -delete -collection path filespec
Bulk inserting or deleting
The following command specifies bulk insertion of a list of documents:
mkvdk -collection coll -bulk -insert filespec
Where filespec is the list of files to insert. Since insert is the default, the following command is equivalent to the
preceding command:
mkvdk -collection coll -bulk filespec
The following command specifies bulk deletion of a list of documents:
mkvdk -collection coll -bulk -delete filespec
Where filespec is the list of files to delete. It can be the same file used to insert documents; the only difference is that delete is specified instead of -insert (or no specification).
Date format options
The Verity engine supports many import date formats, including many textual date formats, and the numeric date
formats listed in the following table:
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Format variable
Description
MDY
Dates written as month-day-year (US format, the default)
DMY
Dates written as day-month-year (European format)
YMD
Dates written as year-month-day (ISO international format)
YDM
Dates written as year-day-month (Swedish format)
USA
Dates written in US format (the same as MDY)
EUR
Dates written in European format (the same as DMY)
Service-level keyword options
The following table describes the valid keywords for the -servlev keyword:
Keyword
Description
search
Enables search and retrieval
insert
Enables adding and updating documents
optimize
Enables opportunist collection optimization
assist
Enables building of word list
housekeep
Enables housekeeping of unneeded files
delete
Enables document deletion
backup
Enables backup
purge
Enables background purging
repair
Enables collection repair
dataprep
Same as search-index-optimize-assist-housekeep
index
Same as insert-delete
Message options
The mkvdk utility provides the following messaging options:
Option
Description
-quiet
Displays only fatal and error messages to the console. It overrides the
-outlevel setting. For a list of message types, see the table in “The mkvdk utility syntax” on page 150.
-outlevel (num)
Indicates which message types to display to the console. Valid values are determined by adding the numbers that
correspond to the desired message types. The default value is 15. For more information, see the table in “The
mkvdk utility syntax” on page 150.
-logfile filename
Saves messages in the specified file.
-loglevel (num)
Indicates which message types to route to the optional log file. Valid values are determined by adding numbers
together that correspond to the desired message types. The default value is 15. For more information, see the
table in “The mkvdk utility syntax” on page 150.
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Document processing options
The mkvdk utility provides the following document processing options:
Option
Description
-extract
Extracts field values from documents, using the field extraction rules specified in the style.tde file.
-insert
Adds documents to the collection. This is the default option for the mkvdk command.
-update
Adds documents to the collection by replacing all previous information about the specified documents.
-delete
Marks the specified documents as deleted, and makes them unavailable for searches. To actually remove deleted
documents from the collection’s internal documents table and word indexes, use the squeeze keyword (see
“Squeezing deleted documents” on page 158).
-nosave
Specifies that a work list, which is generated by the mkvdk utility automatically when you use the -extract
option, is not saved in the collection directory in a file called worklist (in the Verity bulk submit file format). By
default, the mkvdk utility saves the worklist in the worklist file.
-nosubmit
Specifies that a work list, which is generated by the mkvdk utility automatically when you use the -extract
option, is not submitted to the indexing engine and is saved in the collection directory in a file called worklist (in
the Verity bulk submit file format). This option allows the mkvdk utility to process field extraction separately from
other indexing tasks.
Bulk submit options
The mkvdk utility provides the following bulk submit options:
Option
Description
-bulk
Interprets filespec as a bulk submit file. You can use this option with the -insert, -update, and -delete
options.
-offset num
Specifies the offset into a bulk submit file or files. If you specify multiple bulk submit files and use the -offset
option, the offset is applied to all the bulk submit files.
-numdocs num
Specifies the number of documents to insert or delete from the bulk insert file or files. If you specify multiple bulk
insert or delete files and use the -numdocs option, the -numdocs setting is applied to all the bulk insert or delete
files.
-autodel
Deletes the bulk submit file or files when the bulk submission work has finished.
Use bulk insert and delete options
Use the bulk submit feature to populate fields. The bulk submit feature supports the insertion of documents and
related field values into collections.
1 Define the fields in the style.sfl and style.ufl file, as appropriate.
2 Create a bulk submit file that specifies the documents to insert and the field values for each document.
3 Run the mkvdk utility using the -bulk option and specifying the bulk submit file or files.
Collection maintenance options
The mkvdk utility provides the following collection maintenance options:
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Option
Description
-backup dir
Backs up the collection into the specified directory. The backup does not include the tde subdirectory. The tde
subdirectory is created by and for Topic Document Entry if Topic Document Entry is used to create or maintain
the collection.
-repair
Repairs the collection, performed by an API call.
-purge
Waits the amount of time specified by the -purgewait option and then deletes all documents in the collection,
but not the collection itself. It leaves the collection directory structure intact.
To specify a different wait period, use the -purgewait option instead of the
-purge option. If you do not use the -purgewait option, the default is 600 seconds.
-purgeback
Used with the -purge option, performs a purge in the background.
-purgewait sec
Specifies to the -purge option how many seconds to wait. If you do not specify sec, the default is 600.
-noservice
Prevents collection servicing, which includes indexing, by this instance of the mkvdk command, performed by an
API call.
-persist
Services the collection repeatedly, at default intervals of 30 seconds. Use the -sleeptime option to set a
different interval.
-sleeptime sec
Specifies the interval between service calls when the mkvdk utility is run with the -persist option.
-optimize spec
Performs various optimizations on the collection, depending on the value of spec. The specifier, spec, is a string
consisting of keywords separated by hyphens, such as maxmerge-squeeze-readonly. For valid keywords, see
“Optimization keywords” on page 158.
-noexit
Windows only. Causes the I/O window to remain after the program has finished. By default, the window closes
and the program exits, so that scripts calling the mkvdk utility do not hang.
Examples: maintaining collections
The following examples show the commands for maintaining a collection.
Repairing a collection
The following command automatically repairs a collection, or enables it after manual repairs:
mkvdk -repair -collection path
Backing up a collection
The following command backs up a collection to the specified directory:
mkvdk -backup path_1 -collection path_2
Deleting a collection
To delete a collection, use the appropriate command for your operating system. For example, to remove the collection
directory structure and control files on a UNIX system, use the following command:
rm -r -collection_path
Purging a collection
The following command deletes all documents from a collection, but does not delete the collection itself:
mkvdk -purge -collection path
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Purging a collection in the background
The following command purges the specified collection in the background:
mkvdk -purge -purgeback -collection path
Specifying persistent service
The following command runs the mkvdk command as a persistent process, so that servicing is performed repeatedly
after num idle seconds:
mkvdk -persist -sleeptime num -collection path
Deleting a collection
The -purge option deletes all documents in a collection, but does not delete the collection itself. To delete a collection,
use operating system commands, such as the rm command on UNIX, to remove the collection directory structure and
control files.
Optimization keywords
The following table describes the optimization keywords for the -optimize option:
Keyword
Description
maxclean
Performs the most comprehensive housekeeping possible, and removes out-of-date collection files. Adobe
recommends this optimization only when you are preparing an isolated collection for publication. When using
this type, if the collection is being searched, files sometimes get deleted too early, which can affect search results.
maxmerge
Performs maximal merging on the partitions to create partitions that are as large as possible. This creates
partitions that can have up to 64000 documents in them.
readonly
Marks the collection as read-only and unchanged after the function call is done. This is appropriate for CD-ROM
collections.
spanword
Creates a spanning word list across all the collection’s partitions. A collection consists of numerous smaller units,
called partitions, each of which includes a word list. Optionally, a spanning word list can be built with an ngram
index.
ngramindex
Builds an ngram index for the collection. An ngram index is designed to improve the search performance for
queries with the <TYPO> and <WILDCARD> operators. An ngram index cannot be built without a spanning word
list. You can build a spanning word list and ngram index in the same command, for example:
mkvdk -collection collname -optimize spanword -ngramindex
squeeze
Squeezes deleted documents from the collection. Squeezing deleted documents recovers space in a collection,
and improves search performance. (For more information about squeeze, see “Squeezing deleted documents” on
page 158.) Using this option invalidates the search results.
vdbopt
Configures the collection’s Verity databases (VDBs). Each collection consists of smaller units called VDBs. This
keyword has the effect of linearizing the data in a VDB, and making the collection metadata contained in the VDB
more streamlined. It also lets the VDB grow to a much larger size.
tuneup
Performs the same as combining the maxmerge, vdbopt, and spanword keywords.
publish
Performs the same as all of the optimization types combined. Use this keyword to optimize the collection for the
best possible retrieval performance, such as for publication to a network on a server or on a CD-ROM.
Squeezing deleted documents
When a document is deleted from a collection, its space is not recovered. It is merely marked as deleted and not
available for subsequent searches. Squeezing actually removes deleted documents from the collection’s internal
documents table and word indexes, thus creating a smaller collection and reducing the collection’s disk space. A
smaller collection has a more efficient structure that makes searching slightly faster and uses slightly less memory.
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You can safely squeeze deleted documents for a collection at anytime, because the mkvdk utility ensures that the
collection is available for searching and servicing through its self-administration features. The application does not
need to temporarily disable a collection to squeeze deleted documents, because when a squeeze request is made, the
mkvdk utility assigns a new revision code to the collection. After a squeeze has occurred, the next time the application
accesses the collection, the Verity engine notifies the application that dramatic changes have been made, and points
the application to the new collection data.
Squeezing deleted documents out of a collection is a significant update to the collection. If users are reviewing search
results at the time when squeezing occurs, the search results might be invalidated after the squeeze operation.
Optimized Verity databases
The Verity database (VDB) is the fundamental storage mechanism responsible for supporting dynamic access to
documents in collections. A VDB consists of simple tables with rows and columns that relate to each other by row
position. VDB tables are not relational, and their architecture supports quick and efficient searching over textual data.
A VDB consists of segments that are packed into a single file. One of the advantages of having one packed VDB file is
optimized search performance. The fewer files that need to be opened during search processing, the faster the search
performance.
The VDB optimization option optimizes the packing of a collection’s VDBs. When VDBs are built during normal
indexing operations, the segments are not stored sequentially in the one-file VDB file system. As a result of VDB
optimization, performance can be improved by reserializing the packed segments in the VDBs so that all segments are
contiguous, and VDBs can grow in size. Optimized VDBs can grow up to 2 GB, as opposed to the maximum 64 MB
for an unoptimized VDB.
Using this option might degrade your indexing performance when certain indexing modes are set for the collection.
Performance tuning options
The mkvdk utility provides the following performance tuning options:
Option
Description
-maxfiles num
Sets the maximum number of files that the mkvdk utility can have open at once. The default is 50.
-diskcache num
Sets the size of the mkvdk disk cache in kilobytes. The default is 128.
Using the rck2 utility
The rck2 command-line utility lets you search collections associated with a Verity server. The rck2 executable file,
which starts the rck2 utility, is located in the platform/bin directory. For more information on the specific location of
this directory, see “Location of Verity utilities” on page 150.
The rck2 syntax
Use the following syntax to start rck2 from the command line:
rck2 -server <servername> -port <portno>
For example:
c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\_nti40\bin\rck2 -server localhost -port 9901.
The following table describes rck2 syntax elements:
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Syntax element
Description
-server <servername>
The server name for K2 Server to which to attach. The server name is defined in the k2server.ini file. The
rck2 utility searches the collections attached to this server.
-port <portno>
The port number where K2 Server (specified by -server) is running.
The rck2 command options
The following table describes rck2 command options:
rck2 command
Description
p <sortspec>
The sort specification for the search results. By default, results are sorted by Score. Multiple fields must be
specified in a space-separated list using asc or desc to indicate ascending or descending order. For
example: p score desc title asc
m <maxdocs>
The maximum number of documents to return in the results list.
c <collections>
The list of collections to search. Multiple collections must be specified in a space-separated list. For
example: c coll1 coll2 coll3
f <fields>
The list of fields to retrieve. For example: f k2dockey title date
s <query text>
The query (or question) to be used to process the search. The query can be expressed as words and
phrases separated by commas. Additionally, the query can include Verity query language, operators and
modifiers.
g <collection>
Display collection information.
d <k2dockey>
Display fields for the K2 document key specified.
v <k2dockey>
Stream the document and display it with highlights.
r <docstart>
Display results starting with the first result in the results list. Fields specified using the f command are
displayed. Docstart indicates the first result to be displayed. For example, r 10 displays results starting
with the 10th document in the results list.
b <docstart>
Display results based on the last field selection.
i
Display information about K2 Server, including nodes and collections.
x <score precision>
Set score precision to 8- or 16-bit. By default, 16-bit precision is used.
h or ?
Display online Help for the rck2 command options.
Using the rcvdk utility
Using the Verity rcvdk utility, you can check the contents of a collection from the command line. The rcvdk utility lets
you write various queries, using words and phrases separated by commas and Verity query language. A viewing option
lets you see document contents and highlights in a simple text display.
Starting rcvdk
To start the rcvdk utility on most systems, type the path and executable name at a command prompt. The following
examples assume that you have set your PATH variable, so you have to enter rcvdk at a command prompt to run it.
For example:
c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\_nti40\bin\rcvdk /common = c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\common
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When you start the rcvdk utility with no arguments, you get the following message, followed by the rcvdk prompt:
Type 'help' for a list of commands.
RC>
The help command produces the following list of available commands:
RC> help
Available commands:
search
s Search documents.
results
r Display search results.
clusters
c Display clustered search results.
view
v View document.
summarize z Summarize documents.
attach
a Attach to one or more collections.
detach
d Detach from one or more collections.
quit
q Leave application.
about
Display VDK 'About' info
help
? Display help text; 'help help' for details.
expert
x Toggle expert mode on/off.
RC>
You can enter the letter q at the RC prompt at any time to quit the application.
Attaching to a collection using the rcvdk utility
To search a collection, you first must attach to it using the attach(a) command. This command must include the
path to a collection directory as an argument. After you press Return, the rcvdk utility reports whether the attach
command was successful; for example:
RC>a /z/doc1/c/public/Collection/file_walking/collbldg/html
Attaching to collection:
/z/doc1/c/public/Collection/file_walking/collbldg/html
Successfully attached to 1 collection.
RC>
The rcvdk utility lets you attach to one or more collections. The specified collections remain attached until you detach
from one or more collections using the detach(d) command.
Basic searching
To retrieve all documents, use the search(s) command without arguments. After you press Return, a search update
message is produced, as follows:
RC>s
Search update: finished (100%). Retrieved: 85(85)/85.
RC>
The search results indicate that 85 of the total 85 documents in the collection were retrieved. If you specify a query
argument, such as “universal filter,” a subset of the total documents in the collection that contain the specified string
is retrieved; for example:
RC>s universal filter
Search update: finished (100%). Retrieved: 18(18)/85.
RC>
In the message returned for the preceding search, the rcvdk utility indicates that 18 documents matched the query.
You can perform more elaborate queries using the Verity query language, as shown in the following example:
RC>s universal filter <OR> filter.Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools
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Viewing results of the rcvdk utility
After you have attached to a collection and issued a search command successfully, you can view the results list and look
at the retrieved documents. You can use the options in the following table:
Option
Description
r
Displays the results list, starting with the first document. A maximum of 24 documents are displayed.
rn
Displays the results list, starting with the nth document. A maximum of 24 documents are displayed.
v
Displays the first or next document in the results list. Highlights are indicated using reverse video, if possible. If
not, double angle brackets are used, as in:
>>universal<< >>filter<<
To exit the document display, enter the letter q.
vn
Displays the nth document in the results list. To exit the document display, enter the letter q.
The following is the results list for the “universal filter” search. For each document, these fields are displayed by default:
Number, Score, and VdkVgwKey.
RC> r
Retrieved: 18(18)/85
Number SCORE VdkVgwKey
1: 1.00 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg3.htm
2: 0.97 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\11_cbg2.htm
3: 0.97 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg7.htm
4: 0.97 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg1.htm
5: 0.95 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\cbgtoc.htm
6: 0.95 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg4.htm
7: 0.93 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\cbgix.htm
8: 0.92 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg6.htm
9: 0.90 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg.htm
10: 0.90 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\04_cbg1.htm
11: 0.90 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\01_cbg1.htm
12: 0.87 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\f_cbg.htm
13: 0.87 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg2.htm
14: 0.84 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\06_cbg1.htm
15: 0.80 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\part4.htm
16: 0.80 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\f_cbg1.htm
17: 0.80 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\11_cbg5.htm
18: 0.80 d:\search97\s97is\locale\english\doc\collbldg\08_cbg5.htm
RC>
The following table describes each of the default fields:
Field name
Description
Number
The rank of the document in the results list. The document with the highest score is ranked number 1.
Score
The score assigned to each retrieved document, based on its relevance to the query. For a NULL query, no scores
are assigned, so the Score column in the results list is blank.
VdkVgwKey
The document key used by the Verity engine to manage the document. If the document is accessed through the
file system, the primary key is a pathname. If the document is accessed through a web server, using HTTP, the
primary key is a URL.
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Displaying more fields
You can tell the rcvdk utility to display certain fields in the results list using the fields command, which is available
in the expert mode. To go to the expert mode, enter x or expert at the RC prompt, then press Return.
All fields in a column are blank if the field is not defined for the collection’s schema in the documents table (in
style.ddd, style.sfl, or style.ufl). A field in a document’s row is blank if the field is not populated by a gateway, bulk
submit action, or filter.
Displaying a field
The fields command includes the field name and length to be displayed. When used, the fields command overrides
the default Score and VdkVgwKey fields for the results list.
The search engine returns fields for the results list, so if you do a search, then go to expert mode to use the fields
command, you must run the search again to see the results list with the fields you requested. For example:
RC> expert
Expert mode enabled
RC> fields title 20
RC> s universal filter
Search update: finished (100%). Retrieved: 18(18)/85.
RC> r
Retrieved: 18(18)/85
Number title
1: Using the Universal Filter
2: Using the Zone Filter
3: The Zone Filter
4: Overview
5: Table of Contents
6: Universal Filter Configuration Using the
7: Index
8: The PDF Filter
9: Document Filters and Formatting
10: Collection Style Summary
11: Collection Basics
12: Universal Filter Document Types
13: Using the style.dft File
14: Supported Field Types
15:
16: Recognized Document Types
17: Custom Zone Definitions
18: The KeyView Filter Kit
RC>
Displaying multiple fields
You can specify multiple fields with the fields command, as shown in the following example. The field order
corresponds to the order of the columns, with the first field specified appearing in the second column. The first column
is reserved for the rank order.
Rerun the search before you display the results list with the fields specified.
For example:
RC> fields score 5 title 40
RC> s universal filter
Search update: finished (100%). Retrieved: 18(18)/85.
RC>
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Using the didump utility
Using the didump utility, you can view key components of the word index per partition. The word list is a list of all
words indexed by the Verity engine; the zone list is a list of all zones; and the zone attribute list is a list of the zone
attributes found by the Verity engine.
The didump executable, which starts the didump application, is located in the platform/bin directory. For more
information on the specific location of this directory, see “Location of Verity utilities” on page 150.
For example:
c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\_nti40\bin\didump /common = c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\common-pattern
llama
c:\new\parts\00000001.did
Viewing the word list with the didump utility
You can view the contents of the word list for a partition by using the didump utility with the -words flag. The
command-line syntax must include the -words flag and a path to a partition file, like the following:
didump -words /z/collbldg/html/parts/00000003.did
An alphabetical listing of the words in the word index displays, as follows:
didump - Verity, Inc. Version 2.5.0 (_nti31, Jul 7 1999)
Text
A
a
abbreviations
about
acronym
acronyms
actual
administrator
advance
all
also
Always
always
ampersand
Size
10
34
4
4
5
4
4
3
3
8
9
4
9
4
Doc
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
Word
4
24
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
4
1
3
1
The columns in the display indicate the following:
Size The number of bytes used by the Verity engine to store information about the word
Doc The number of unique documents in which the word appears
Word The total number of occurrences of a word for the partition
To view the occurrences of a specific word or pattern, enter a command using the -pattern option, as in the following
example:
didump -pattern acronym 00000003.did
In this example, the didump utility displays information about the number of occurrences of the word acronym. You
can display the individual occurrences of a word using the -verbose option.
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Viewing the zone list with the didump utility
The zone list contains a list of the zones identified by the zone filter. You can search the zones listed using the Verity
IN operator in a query. To view the contents of the zone list, use the didump utility with the -zones flag plus the path
to a partition, like the following:
didump -zones /z/collbldg/html/parts/00000003.did
This partition is for a collection containing the Verity Collection Building Guide in HTML. The Verity universal filter
started the HTML filter by default, and indexed the documents using these zones.
didump - Verity, Inc. Version 2.5.0 (_solaris, Jul 07 1999)
ZoneName
A
ADDRESS
BODY
CAPTION
CODE
H1
H2
H3
H4
HEAD
HTML
TITLE
Fmt
Wct
Array
Array
Wct
Wct
Array
Wct
Wct
Wct
Array
Array
Array
Size
10239
34
197
298
3868
80
646
517
128
70
165
70
Doc
85
1
85
31
66
83
53
49
8
85
85
85
Regions
5016
1
85
85
1829
83
212
171
47
85
85
85
The columns in the display indicate the following:
Fmt The internal data format used to store the zone information.
Size The number of bytes used by the Verity engine to store information about the zone.
Doc The number of unique documents in which the zone appears
Region The total number of instances of a zone for the partition
Viewing the zone attribute list with the didump utility
The zone attribute list contains a list of the HTML attributes for the zones identified by the HTML zone filter. You can
search the zone attributes listed using the Verity IN operator together with the WHEN operator in a query. To view
the contents of the zone attributes list, use the didump utility with the -attributes flag plus the path to a partition,
like the following:
didump -attributes /z/collbldg/html/parts/00000003.did
This partition is for a collection containing the Verity Collection Building Guide in HTML.
didump - Verity, Inc. Version 2.5.0 (_solaris, Jul 9 1999)
Text
href
href
href
href
href
href
...
01_cbg.htm
01_cbg.htm#282870
01_cbg.htm#282872
01_cbg1.htm
01_cbg1.htm#286513
01_cbg1.htm#286520
Size
10
3
6
8
7
3
Doc
2
1
2
2
2
1
Word
4
1
2
3
2
1
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The columns in the display indicate the following:
Size The number of bytes used by the Verity engine to store information about the zone attribute
Doc The number of unique documents in which the zone attribute appears
Word The total number of occurrences of a zone attribute for the partition
Using the browse utility
A documents table is built for each partition in a collection. The documents table is used for field searching and for
sorting search results. The fields within the documents table are defined by the following collection style files:
style.ddd Defines fields used internally by the Verity engine, identified by an initial underscore character (_).
style.sfl Defines standard fields (many of which are commented out to limit the size of the documents table).
style.ufl Defines custom fields that are not included in the style.sfl file.
The value of each field can be filled in from source documents or can be provided explicitly. If a field is blank, it has
not been populated.
The browse utility executable, which starts the browse utility application, is located in the platform/bin directory. For
more information on the specific location of this directory, see “Location of Verity utilities” on page 150.
For example:
c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\_nti40\bin\browse /common =
c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\commonc:\my_collection\parts\0000001.ddd
Using menu options with the browse utility
Use the following browse command to start the utility and display a set of menu options:
browse 00000003.ddd
The system displays the following menu of options available for the browse utility:
D:\VERITY\colltest\parts>browse 00000003.ddd
BROWSE OPTIONS
?) help
q) quit
c) Number of entries in field
_) Toggle viewing fields beginning with '_'
v) Toggle viewing selected fields
##) Display all fields in specified record number
Dispatch/Compound field options:
n) No dispatch
d) Dispatch
s) Dispatch as stream
Action (? for help):
Displaying document fields
You can use several options to control the display of document field information.
1 At the Action prompt, enter ##
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2 Press Return twice to display the fields for the first document record.
3 Press Return to view the document fields for the next sequential record.
The following partial display of the results of the browse command includes internal fields, used by the Verity search
engine. An internal field name starts with an underscore character (_).
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
Created
Modified
Size
DOC_OF
DOC_SZ
DOC_FN_OF
DOC_FN_SZ
_CACHE_FN_OF
_CACHE_FN_SZ
_ParentID_OF
_ParentID_SZ
Title_OF
Title_SZ
FIX-date
FIX-date
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
FIX-unsg
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
4)
4)
4)
4)
4)
4)
2)
4)
2)
4)
2)
4)
2)
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
12-Jan-1998 01:52:27 pm
24-Sep-1997 02:40:26 pm
5381
0
4294967295
436
58
2922
0
354
46
2481
15
You can eliminate the internal fields by typing the underscore character and then pressing Return. If you enter an
underscore character again, then press return, the internal fields are displayed.
Using the merge utility
The merge utility lets you combine multiple collections with identical schemas. This is useful for merging smaller
collections built from different sources into one, large collection. Also, you can use the merge utility to break up the
collection into smaller collections of a roughly uniform size.
Note: The Verity merge utility is available only in Windows.
Collections can be merged only if they have identical schemas. Collections can be merged if they have the same set of
style files (and style file entries).
Breaking up a large collection helps to optimize search performance, because it allows many applications to perform
multiple concurrent search requests over the different collections. After breaking up a large collection, you can also
discard older collections to reclaim limited disk storage space.
The merge executable, which starts the merge application, is located in the _nti40/bin directory. For more information
on the specific location of this directory, see “Location of Verity utilities” on page 150.
For example:
c:\coldfusion9\verity\k2\_nti40\bin\merge /common = c:\coldfusion9\lib\common
To obtain help for the merge utility, enter the following command:
merge -help
Note: After you run the merge utility, use the mkvdk -optimize option to optimize the collection.
Merging collections by using the merge utility
The following is the syntax for using the merge utility to merge multiple collections into a single collection:
merge <newCollection> <srcCollection1> <srcCollection2> [srcCollectionN]
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The utility reads srcCollection1, srcCollection2, and so on, and merges them into a single collection with the directory
name given for newCollection If the directory name given for newCollection does not exist, it is created.
Splitting collections using the merge utility
The following is the syntax for using the merge utility to split a single large collection into smaller collections:
merge -split <srcCollection> <newCollection1> <newCollection2> [-number]
The merge utility reads srcCollection and splits it into roughly equal pieces, using the filenames given for
newCollection1, and so on.
If you want to split a large collection into many new collections, you can use the following command, instead of
explicitly naming each new collection:
merge -split -number newCollection srcCollection
The merge utility reads the collection identified by srcCollection and splits it into the number of segments specified by
the -number option. The name of the first new collection is generated by appending the first two letters in the alphabet
(aa) to the directory name given for newCollection. Each subsequent filename is generated by incrementing one of the
appended letters (up to zz) for a maximum of 676 partitions. For example, if the value of -number is 3, and the value
of newCollection is Collection1, the collections are named, Collection1aa, Collection1ab, and Collection1ac.
Note: The maximum length of the directory name given for newCollection is two characters less than the length allowed
by the file system.
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Chapter 14: Solr Server and Collections
The Solr server instance runs as a separate server, which you can start or stop as a service. You can configure your Solr
collection for indexing and search capabilities using ColdFusion Administrator.
Solr collections
You can create Solr collections using ColdFusion Administrator or by using <cfcollection> tag.
The ColdFusion Administrator implements Solr support using the following panels in the Data & Services area:
ColdFusion Collections Select the Solr collection option when creating a collection. Once a Solr collection is created,
use the Index, Optimize, Purge, or Delete Actions under the Solr Collection area at the bottom of the panel.
You can also rename and alias a Solr collection in ColdFusion Administrator. To do this,
1 Click the ColdFusion collection that you need to rename from the ColdFusion Collections page. The Manage
Collection page is displayed.
2 In the Rename Collection section, enter a new name in the New Name for Collection field and click Submit.
3
To specify an alias for the collection, enter the alias in the Collection Alias field and click Submit.
Solr Server Configure the Solr server host name, home directory, and other advance settings using the Solr Server page.
Migrate Verity Collection Use this page to migrate an existing Verity collection to Solr. The Verity server must be
running to use this utility.
Solr server
You can install and configure the Solr search service on a local or remote host. For a remote server, you can configure
the host that ColdFusion uses when performing search operations.
Use the Solr Server page to specify the Solr server host name and home directory. You can also configure advance
settings including the admin port, web application name, and buffer limit.
Migrating from Verity to Solr
There are various differences in the way the search criteria is set in Solr and Verity. For more examples of how search
criteria is set in Solr, see Solr search examples and for Verity, see Using Verity Search Expressions in Developing
ColdFusion Applications.
To migrate from Verity to Solr, see Migrating from Verity to Solr in Developing ColdFusion Applications.
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