Hagg et al - Bayerische Gletscher

Vol. 66 · No. 2 · 121–142
2012
CLIMATE AND GLACIER FLUCTUATIONS IN THE BAVARIAN ALPS
IN THE PAST 120 YEARS
Wilfried H agg, Christoph M ayer, Elisabeth M ayr and Achim Heilig
With 12 figures, 7 tables and 5 maps (appendix I–V)
Received 04. July 2011· Accepted 23. April 2012
Summary: Five small glaciers in the Bavarian Alps have been surveyed repeatedly since the late 19th century. This enables
the calculation of geodetic glacier mass balances, which are known to be key indicators for climate fluctuations. In this paper,
the record is extended by the analysis of additional historical maps and by a new survey of the glacier surfaces in 2009/2010.
After the 1960s and 1970s, when positive mass balances could be observed, the glaciers experienced severe mass losses,
which is consistent with observations from the vast majority of mountain glaciers worldwide. Although the glaciers show
individual behaviour which can be explained by topographic peculiarities, the overall trend is an intensified surface lowering
during the past decades. To identify the local causes and triggers, homogenized climate data from stations near the glaciers
have been analyzed. All records show an extensive warming in summer, but no increase over the altitudinal gradient. Winter
precipitation shows little variation on a decadal time scale and reveals no significant trends over time. An analysis of snow
height and winter precipitation measurements at Zugspitze proved that the precipitation measurements are not capable to
explain glacier behaviour due to gauge undercatch and redistribution of snow by wind. Correlations between geodetically
derived glacier mass balances and mean seasonal meteorological conditions indicate that mass losses are mainly caused by
increased summer air temperatures. However, mean seasonal values cannot take into account fluctuations of the temporary
snow line, which are crucial for the mass balance of small glaciers and which can only be considered using a daily time-step
model.
Zusammenfassung: Die fünf existierenden Gletscher in den Bayerischen Alpen wurden seit dem späten 19. Jahrhundert
wiederholt vermessen. Dies ermöglicht es, die Gletschermassenbilanz mit der geodätischen Methode zu bestimmen. In
dieser Arbeit wird die bestehende Messreihe durch die Auswertung bisher unberücksichtigter historischer Karten sowie
durch eine Neuvermessung der Gletscher in den Jahren 2009/2010 verlängert. Nach den 1960er und 1970er Jahren, als
zuletzt positive Massenbilanzen registriert wurden, erfuhren die Bayerischen Gletscher deutliche Massenverluste, was sich
mit der Mehrzahl der weltweiten Beobachtungen an Gebirgsgletschern deckt. Obwohl die bayerischen Gletscher durchaus
individuell auf Klimaschwankungen reagieren, was zumeist mit lokalen topographischen Bedingungen zu erklären ist, zeigt
der generelle Trend eine Verstärkung des Massenschwunds während der letzten Jahrzehnte. Um die Ursachen der Gletscherschwankungen zu identifizieren, wurden klimatologische Messreihen von nahe gelegenen Stationen analysiert. Die Daten
zeigen über den Beobachtungszeitraum eine deutliche Erwärmung im Sommer, aber keine signifikante Veränderung des
Winterniederschlags. Korrelationsanalysen deuten darauf hin, dass der Massenhaushalt der kleinen Gletscher hauptsächlich von der Lufttemperatur im Sommer gesteuert wird. Ein Vergleich mit Schneehöhenmessungen auf dem Nördlichen
Schneeferner zeigt allerdings, dass Niederschlagsmessungen vom Gipfel der Zugspitze nicht repräsentativ für die Akkumulation auf dem unmittelbar benachbarten Gletscher sind.
Keywords: Climate fluctuations, glacier fluctuations, Bavarian Alps, geodetic glacier mass balance
1 Introduction
The climate change we are observing at the
moment is not proceeding synchronously over the
whole planet. Magnitude and impact of climate fluctuations vary considerably from one region to another. When estimated over a linear trend, the global
mean surface temperatures have increased over the
past 100 years (1906–2005) by 0.74 °C (Trenberth
DOI: 10.3112/erdkunde.2012.02.03 et al. 2007). Land surfaces have warmed at a faster
rate than oceans. Temperatures in Europe (1901–
2005) have risen by 0.9 °C (updated from Jones and
Moberg 2003), with highest trends in central and
north-eastern Europe and in mountains (Böhm et al.
2001). The greater Alpine region reveals a 20th century temperature increase of 1.2 °C, the warming since
the late 19th century was twice as much as the mean
for the northern hemisphere (Auer et al. 2007).
ISSN 0014-0015
http://www.erdkunde.uni-bonn.de
122
The most obvious and evident effect of this pronounced warming in high mountain environments
is the downwasting and retreat of glaciers. Glaciers
are recognized as key indicators for climate change
(Oerlemans 1994), because their mass changes represent the direct and unfiltered response to changes
in the local climate. The glacier mass balance at any
time is defined as the sum of mass gains (accumulation) and mass losses (ablation) per unit area, expressed as water equivalent (Paterson 1994). In addition to direct measurements on the glacier (glaciological method), mass changes can be derived from
volume changes by comparing surface elevation
changes using geodetic surveying techniques and assuming mean densities for firn and ice (photogrammetric or geodetic method). Despite their strong relation to climate, mass balance fluctuations also depend on glacier size and topographic effects and can
differ significantly between neighbouring glaciers
(Huss et al. 2010; Winkler et al. 2010). The mass
balance of glaciers is mainly controlled by accumulation of snow and melting of snow and ice. In climates
where these processes generally do not occur simultaneously, the determining meteorological factors
are winter precipitation and summer temperature. In
the Alps, glaciers have lost almost half of their area
from the end of the Little Ice Age (1850) until 2000
(Zemp et al. 2007). This recession was not linear,
but it was divided into faster and slower periods and
even interrupted by periods with glacier advances in
the 1890s, 1920s, and 1970–1980s (Patzelt 1985;
Pelfini and Smiraglia 1988). On Swiss glaciers, the
melt rates in the 1940s were even higher than from
1998–2006, which is explained by reduced winter
snowfall (Huss et al. 2008) and by enhanced solar
radiation (Huss et al. 2009).
For a climatological interpretation of glacier fluctuations it is of crucial importance to have long-term
glacier observations from different regional climate
zones, topographic glacier types and size classes. Most
monitoring programs are installed on relatively large
glaciers, which are not necessarily representative for
the high number of very small glaciers in their region.
The Austrian Glacier Inventory 1998 (L ambrecht
and Kuhn 2007) lists 911 ice bodies, 90% of which
are smaller than 1 km² and 43% even smaller than
0.1 km². This means that an important fraction of total glacier area is built up by the enormous number
of small glaciers and glacierets. 34% of the Austrian
glacier area is formed by glaciers smaller than 1 km².
Very similar size distributions can be found in the
western Alps and in other mountain regions of the
mid latitudes like Caucasus or Altay (Hagg 2008).
Vol. 66 · No. 3
Although underrepresented in the literature,
a number of investigations of small glaciers can be
found, especially from mountain ranges where no
large ones exist, like those on the Iberian Pensinsula
(Trueba et al. 2008; Chueca et al. 2007) or the Balkan
(Hughes 2007; Grunewald and Scheithauer 2010).
The Bavarian Alps have a high potential for
comparing climate and glacier fluctuations due to
the availability of both long-term climate and glacier
observations, which is rarely the case for small glaciers. Moreover, these glaciers are the only ones with
mass balance observations from the Northern rim of
the Alps, which is the zone of highest precipitation
sums due to orographic uplift of air masses, making
those glaciers particularly interesting for climatological interpretations. In this paper, geodetic mass
balances were derived from historical maps and from
a new survey. Additionally, temperature and precipitation series of meteorological stations closest to the
glaciers are analyzed and correlated with the glacier
mass balance record.
2 Investigation sites and datasets
Although the German part of the Alps is rather small and limited to relatively low altitudes below the regional climatic snow line (3200 m a.s.l.
according to Glazirin and Escher-Vetter 1998),
five small glaciers in favourable locations could so
far survive the temperature increase since the end
of the Little Ice Age (about AD 1850). Three of
these glaciers (Nördlicher Schneeferner, Südlicher
Schneeferner, Höllentalferner) can be found in
the Wetterstein massif below Zugspitze (2962 m
a.s.l.), the highest peak in Germany. Two more glaciers (Watzmanngletscher, Blaueis) remain in the
Berchtesgaden Alps (Fig. 1).
The first theodolite measurements were carried
out from 1885–1887, when Waltenberger surveyed
the Berchtesgaden Alps on behalf of the German
and Austrian Alpine Club, resulting in a 1:50 000
map (Waltenberger , 1887). This map already
contain contours, but they have a large vertical
distance of 100 m. One year later, the originals of
Waltenberger were published in 1:25 000 (Schmidt
et al. 1888), being the first map of the Alpine Club
using this important scale (Figs. 2a, 3a).
The first maps of the Berchtesgaden glaciers that
contain enough height information for quantitative
analysis were produced by the Bavarian Topographic
Office (Topographisches Bureau des königlich bayerischen Generalstabs) by interpolating contours
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W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
123
Fig. 1: Location of the glacierised peaks (from west to east: Zugspitze, Watzmann, Hochkalter) in the Bavarian Alps
(GAP: Garmisch-Partenkirchen, REI: Bad Reichenhall). Elevation is based on SRTM-3 (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data (courtesy NASA/JPL -Caltech)
with an equidistance of 10 m from tachymetric
and barometric point measurements. The mapping
was based on the cadastral land register in the scale
1:5 000 and published as “Positionsblätter” in the
scale 1:25 000. At the Institute of Photogrammetry
and Cartography of the Technical University of
Munich, a copy of the original 1:5 000 map of Blaueis
from 1889 (Fig. 2b) was found and used for this
study. For Watzmanngletscher, a scan of the respective “Positionsblatt”, based on a survey in 1897 was
provided by the Bavarian State Office for Surveying
and Geoinformation (Fig. 3b). An additional map
from Blaueis (1924) was discovered in the storage of
the Technical University of Munich. This map was
produced by Thiersch using terrestrial photogrammetry and has never been used to calculate area or
volume changes before.
In the Wetterstein mountains, the earliest useable map is the one by Finsterwalder and Jäger
(1892), also surveyed by photogrammetry and covering Nördlicher and Südlicher Schneeferner at the
scale 1:10 000 (Fig. 4).
The glacier extent during the first half of the
20th century, however, is only documented by some
photographs (see www.bayerische-gletscher.de).
A new survey in 1949 (Finsterwalder 1951)
covered all glaciers except for Watzmanngletscher,
which was found to be dissolved into several firn
patches and therefore was excluded from this first
inventory. From the 1960s onwards, the glaciers
were surveyed regularly and at least once per decade
by the Commission for Glaciology of the Bavarian
Academy of Sciences and Humanities in collaboration with the Institute for Photogrammetry and
Cartography of the Technical University in Munich.
Based on these repeated surveys, changes in glacier
area, volume and thickness have been published for
the period 1892–2007 (Finsterwalder and R entsch
1973; Finsterwalder 1992; H agg et al. 2008a; www.
bayerische-gletscher.de).
For this contribution, three maps of
Watzmanngletscher (1897) and Blaueis (1889, 1924)
were newly added to the geodetic observations.
A new survey of all glaciers in 2009/10 provides a
benchmark for the most recent state of the glaciers
and extends the period of glacier observations to 120
years.
Zugspitze weather station (2962 m a.s.l.) is operated by the German Meteorological Office ( DWD)
and has been running continuously since 1901. It
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Vol. 66 · No. 3
Fig. 2: Early maps of Blaueis. a) Detail from the “Topographischer Plan vom Watzmann und Umgebung”, 1:25’000, based
on the survey by Waltenberger 1885–1887 (Schmidt et al. 1888), b) copy of the 1:5’000 original survey by the Bavarian
Topographic Office in 1889 (© Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation)
Fig. 3: Early maps of Watzmanngletscher. a) Detail from the “Topographischer Plan vom Watzmann und Umgebung”,
1:25’000, based on the survey by Waltenberger 1885–1887 (Schmidt et al. 1888), b) detail from the 1:25000 “Positionsblatt”
SO.028.44 of the Bavarian Topographic Office from 1897 (© Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation)
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W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
125
Fig. 4: Detail from the 1:10’000 map “Zugspitze” by Finsterwalder and Jäger (1892) (© Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation)
provides a very valuable and rare high altitude dataset, measured at a distance of 0.5–2.4 km from
the three glaciers. Not only standard meteorological
data is measured, but also snow height at a location
directly on Nördlicher Schneeferner (2600 m a.s.l.).
A meteorological station at Watzmannhaus (1923 m
a.s.l.) in the Berchtesgaden Alps was in operation
from 1948-1953, but no long-term series of a mountain station exists. The closest valley stations with a
long record are those in Schönau (616 m a.s.l., 7–10
km northeast of the glaciers, 1948-1998) and in Bad
Reichenhall (470 m a.s.l., 17 km north, 1945–2006).
Salzburg airport (450 m a.s.l., 25 km north) has a
record back to 1842.
3 Methods
3.1 Analysis of meteorological records
For Zugspitze station, the DWD has produced
homogenized monthly series of temperature and
precipitation to account for location changes of the
sensors (Koeltzschy 2008, pers. comm.). This series
deviates from the raw data mainly in the first half of
the 20th century. The long-term record of Salzburg
airport was homogenized within the HISTALP (his-
torical instrumental climatological surface time series of the Greater Alpine Region) project, where a
total of 557 series was gap-filled and outlier corrected
(Auer et al. 2007). Since the whole time series of
glacier variations should be correlated with climatic
conditions, data from Salzburg airport had to be used
for this purpose. To test its representativeness for
the glacier locations, correlation coefficients between
Salzburg and Bad Reichenhall have been determined
(Fig. 5). Since the Schönau data series is interrupted
by numerous gaps, it was omitted from this analysis.
There is a strong correlation between temperatures,
which can be expected over a horizontal distance of
17 km. Even winter precipitation, which has a stronger spatial variation than air temperature, shows a distinct interdependence. Temperature and precipitation
trends were derived by linear regression analysis.
Glacier changes in the Wetterstein group between 1892 and 1949 were correlated with the climate
record from Zugspitze, although this station began
operation only in 1901. The remaining 8 years were
assumed to have the same average meteorological
conditions as the 49 years with observations. This is
at least confirmed by data of Hohenpeißenberg meteorological station, located in the alpine foothills
about 40 km north of Zugspitze. Here, the summer
(5–9) mean temperature 1892–1901 and 1901–1949 is
Salzburg airport (450 m a.s.l.)
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Vol. 66 · No. 3
20.0
Summer (5-9) temperatures [°C]
18.0
16.0
y = 0.928x + 1.368
R2 = 0.94
14.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
19.0
18.0
Bad Reichenhall (470 m a.s.l.)
20.0
Salzburg airport (450 m a.s.l.)
1000
Winter (10-4) precipitation [mm]
800
600
400
y = 0.483x + 94.913
R2 = 0.73
200
0
400
600
800
1000
1200
Bad Reichenhall (470 m a.s.l.)
1400
Fig. 5: Correlation of summer temperatures and winter precipitation between Bad Reichenhall (data from DWD) and
Salzburg airport (HISTALP database, Auer et al. 2007)
12.2 °C and 12.4 °C, respectively. The corresponding
total winter (10–4) precipitation is 400 mm and 418 mm,
respectively.
3.2 Determination of geodetic mass balances
3.2.1
Analyzing additional historical maps
A historical research in different archives yielded contour maps that had not been used for volume
change calculations before. The oldest maps are those
of Watzmanngletscher (1897) and Blaueis (1889),
which were produced at the Bavarian Topographic
Office.
Since no technical details about the surveys are
known, the accuracy of these maps remains unclear.
It is estimated that the maps are less accurate than
those by terrestrial photogrammetry and include errors of about 2–5 meters. The subsequent surveys
have vertical accuracies of approximately 1 m (see
below), yielding a total error of height changes between the surveys of 6 meters. Since the time span is
quite large (Blaueis: 35 years, Watzmanngletscher: 62
years), the error of the mean annual height change is
reduced to 0.17 m/a and 0.10 m/a, respectively.
The Blaueis map of 1924 was discovered in the
archives of the Technical University of Munich. The
map had been generated by Thiersch using terrestrial
photogrammetry.
An investigation of the accuracy of early photogrammetric maps of glaciers shows that the in the
ablation zone it is usually higher than 1m, whereas
in the accumulation zone the error can be up to a
few meters in dependence of the baseline and the
possibilities of target identification (H aggren et al.
2008). Geo-referencing the scanned version of the
map introduces an additional error. The digitization
of the contour lines, the TIN calculation and the
subsequent DEM generation was tested against the
original scan. The elevation contours derived by this
method are almost identical with the original scan,
which indicates that this error is below the accuracy
of four pixels (less than 1 m) in horizontal location.
However, the geo-location of the maps depends on
the quality of the ground control point identification.
This is estimated to be better than 2 m. This uncertainty translates to a maximum vertical error of
1.6 m for the steepest parts of the glaciers (around
40°). For the flat parts of the glaciers (slope of up to
10°), the error is up to 35 cm. This corresponds to
the mean elevation accuracy of 1 m estimated by H.
R entsch (pers. comm.) for the photogrammetrical
maps of the second half of the 20th century. Between
two surveys, the maximum error sums up to 2 m.
Since the measurements were carried out on a decadal time scale, the error of the mean annual height
change is 20 cm.
The three maps were geo-referenced by identifying points with known coordinates such as peaks
or buildings. This was a difficult task for the 1889
Blaueis map, because the two most striking landmarks have changed their coordinates since then: the
peak of Hochkalter collapsed in a land-slide in 1908,
where 240000 m³ of rock were moved (Mühlberger
2007) and the Blaueis alpine hut was rebuilt at a different location after it was destroyed by an avalanche
in 1955.
3.2.2
Survey 2009/2010
In September 2009 and, in the case of
Höllentalferner, in October 2010, the surface of
all glaciers was surveyed by different methods.
Nördlicher Schneeferner was captured by a terrestrial
laser scanner (Riegl LMS-Z429i), the Berchtesgaden
glaciers and Höllentalferner were mapped using an
electronic tachymeter (Leica TPS1200-TCRM1205)
and Südlicher Schneeferner was measured using a
Leica SR 20 L1 kinematic GPS (M ayr 2010).
Terrestrial laser scanners and electronic tachymeters both operate using laser distance meas-
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W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
urements. A laser emits a light beam, which is reflected diffusely at a surface. Part of the dispersed
radiation returns to the station and is registered by
a photo diode. While the laser scanner samples the
target area automatically line by line, measuring in
the order of ten thousands of points, the view angle
of the tachymeter has to be changed manually after
every measured point. Within a few hours, several
hundred points can easily be recorded this way. This
is sufficient to model the surface of small glaciers
precisely enough for mass balance calculations. The
maximum range of the laser beam of typically 1–2
km restricts the method to small glaciers. The results
of both surveying methods are point clouds with
very high accuracy (a few cm), which have to be georeferenced and interpolated to a DEM.
Kinematic GPS profiling requires direct contact
of the surveyor with the object. The GPS device has
to be carried across the glacier, which limits application to relatively small glaciers with overall accessibility. The use of differential GPS technology ensures high horizontal and vertical accuracies of few
dm, as long as enough satellites are visible, which can
be a problem on cirque-type glaciers with high rock
cliffs. On Südlicher Schneeferner, a large portion of
the sky is visible due to the relatively flat topography.
The position was recorded every second as a GPS
track which could be interpolated directly to a DEM.
The uncertainty of the horizontal resolution
is below 10 cm (for all methods: GPS, Tachymetry
and Laser scanning). This translates into a vertical
error of less than 8 cm. In addition, the measurement uncertainty varies from a few centimeters for
Tachymetry and Lasercanning to about 20 cm for L1
GPS positions. Therefore the total error in elevation
of the point measurement is less than 30 cm. The
interpolation of the point measurements into digital
elevation models introduces additional uncertainty.
The error between our gridded results and the point
measurements has a standard deviation of 10–40 cm
on the individual glaciers. Thus, the total elevation
error for the new glacier maps is about 70 cm.
3.2.3
Calculating geodetic glacier mass balances
The gridded elevation data were used to calculate surface changes by subtracting subsequent DEMs. This step was performed using the
“Gletscherkataster” (GLEKA) software, which follows the geometric principles of Finsterwalder
(1953) and was developed in the frame of the
Austrian Glacier Inventory (Würländer and Eder
127
1998; Würländer and Kuhn 2000) for quick DEMcomparison in glaciological applications. The resulting volume changes were linked to ice thickness
measurements gathered from radar measurements in
2006 and 2007 (H agg et al. 2008a), which allows the
reconstruction of total ice volumes for each survey
and the respective changes relative to the initial volume. Divided by the mean glacier area between two
surveys, volume changes were converted into height
changes of the glacier surface. To convert ice volume
into water equivalent, a mean ice density of 0.9 g/cm³
was assumed.
4 Results and discussion
4.1 Climate change
The complete monthly series of summer temperatures and winter precipitation from all stations
considered is displayed in figures 6 and 7. The 10year running mean of temperature clearly shows
well-known features of sub-recent climate history.
The general warming trend is interrupted from the
1880s to the 1910s and in the 1960s–1970s, in both
periods glacier advances are reported in the Alps
(Zemp et al. 2007). In the most recent period since
1980 the temperature increase is enforced. The three
graphs run predominantly parallel, but the magnitude of fluctuations differ. Bad Reichenhall is starting on a very high level around 1950, meets the other
curves around 1980 and shows the strongest increase
since then. Salzburg and Zugspitze picture the same
anomalies during most periods, but started to divert
in the 1990s. The lowest increase in the past years is
observed at Zugspitze.
Mean precipitation amounts differ by more than
a factor of 2 between the stations, mostly due to elevation. Zugspitze reveals the strongest year-to-year
variation, winter sums range from 600 mm to 1800
mm, approximately. This station shows very low
winter precipitation around 1920 and in the 1940s.
The second anomaly is in agreement with the strong
melt rates observed on Swiss glaciers in this decade
(Huss et al. 2008). The glacier advances in the 1920s
were the delayed response to the cold and wet 1910s,
in the 1920s the mass balances were already negative
again.
Numerical values of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation trends are listed in table 1.
In general, the warming is significantly stronger
in more recent periods. Between 1976 and 2005, the
rates exceed the 20th century value by a factor of 3–5.
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Vol. 66 · No. 3
4.0
Summer (5-9) temperatures
anomalies to 1961-1990 (°C)
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
-1.0
-2.0
Salzburg
-3.0
1840
1860
1880
1900
Zugspitze
1920
1940
Bad Reichenhall
1960
1980
2000
2010
Fig. 6: Summer temperature anomalies of three relevant meteorological stations, relative to the standard period 1961–1990.
Thin lines represent annual values, thick lines the 10-year running mean. Data source: DWD (Zugspitze, Bad Reichenhall) and HISTALP (Salzburg airport, Auer et al. 2007)
2000
Winter (10-4) precipitation
1800
precipitation totals (mm)
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1840
Salzburg
1860
1880
1900
Zugspitze
1920
1940
Bad Reichenhall
1960
1980
2000
2010
Fig. 7: Winter precipitation of three relevant meteorological stations. Thin lines represent annual values, thick lines the
10-year running mean. Data source: DWD (Zugspitze, Bad Reichenhall) and HISTALP (Salzburg airport, Auer et al. 2007)
In almost all cases, warming is more pronounced in
summer when compared to the annual mean. The
most recent warming since 1976 is less pronounced
at Zugspitze when compared to the valley stations
of the Berchtesgaden area. According to findings
of the project “KLIWA” (Climate change and consequences for water management), summer (5–10)
temperatures in elevations of 1400–1500 m a.s.l.
in the western and eastern Bavarian Alps revealed
trends of 0.11 °C and 0.10 °C per decade, respectively. With increasing altitude, the positive temperature
trends at alpine stations between 500 and 1500 m
a.s.l. decreased or remained stable. In the Bavarian
Alps, a stronger warming in higher altitudes could
only be verified in October and January ( KLIWA
2005a).
Precipitation trends are weak and mostly positive. There is no significant difference between annual and winter sums and there is no clear pattern
between the stations or towards more recent periods.
The KLIWA study (2005b) revealed insignificant
trends of basin precipitation in catchments originating in the Bavarian Alps between 0.2% and 2.1% per
decade during the winter season (12–2) in the period
1931–1997. This is in accordance to Auer et al. (2007),
who find no general difference in warming rates between high and low altitude stations, but a very slight
difference between the four sub-regions defined in
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W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
Tab. 1: Linear temperature and precipitation trends in long-term records close to the glaciers. Trends have been calculated as linear regression coefficient multiplied by 10, all values are mean trends in units per decade. Data source: DWD
(Zugspitze, Bad Reichenhall) and HISTALP (Salzburg airport, Auer et al. 2007)
Annual temperature (°C)
Summer (5–9) temperature (°C)
Annual precipitation
(% of 1961–1990)
Winter (10–4) precipitation
(% of 1961–1990)
Zugspitze
(2963 m a s.l.)
Bad Reichenhall
(470 m a.s.l.)
Salzburg airport
(450 m a.s.l.)
0.14
0.22
0.40
0.14
0.23
0.58
2.4
1.6
3.1
2.2
1.9
2.3
–
0.35
0.84
–
0.27
0.85
–
-0.5
-3.1
–
2.0
-0.1
0.12
0.26
0.57
0.14
0.29
0.80
1.1
1.8
1.5
2.1
4.7
3.9
1901–2000
1951–2000
1976–2005
1901–2000
1951–2000
1976–2005
1901–2000
1951–2000
1976–2005
1901–2000
1951–2000
1976–2005
the HISTALP project. The Wetterstein belongs to
the subregion Northwest, whereas Berchtesgaden is
situated in the northeastern sector. Corresponding
decadal trends of annual temperatures are 0.14 °C
( NW ) and 0.12 °C ( NE) for 1900–2000 and 0.55 °C
( NW ) and 0.47 °C ( NE) for 1975–2000 (Auer et al.
2007). The annual trends for the 20th century are
identical to Zugspitze and Salzburg airport, which
also served as input to the HISTALP database. In
the more recent period the HISTALP trends diverge
from the station data in table 1, but since the periods do not match completely they can only be compared to a limited degree. In any case, the sub-region
mean trends of the HISTALP database confirm the
increase in warming rates.
4.2 Glacier changes
The two glaciers on Zugspitzplatt (Nördlicher
and Südlicher Schneeferner) have experienced the
strongest areal retreat (Fig. 8). This is due to the
fact that they formed a plateau type glacier with little vertical extent during the Little Ice Age and were
strongly affected by the rise of the equilibrium line.
The other glaciers, in contrast, were already restricted to their cirques around 1850. Watzmanngletscher
was dissolved into several firn patches and not considered as a glacier any more in the 1940s. Then
again, it shows the largest mass and area gains from
1960 to 1980, indicating that it is especially sensitive
to climate fluctuations.
The complete record of geodetically derived
mass balance is displayed in figure 9, numerical values can be taken from tables 4–7.
Blaueis reveals a slight mass gain from 1889 to
1924, followed by strong mass losses until 1949. The
overall mass balance 1889-1949 is similar to the other glaciers, but since Blaueis is the only case where a
survey from the first half of the 20th century is available, the question arises if other glaciers in Bavaria
had balanced or even positive budgets during this
period, too. This is not unlikely since enforced glacier re-advances are reported in the Alps in the 1890s
and from 1915–1930 ( WGMS 2008). In the past three
decades, the rate of surface lowering is declining at
Blaueis, revealing an opposite trend to the other glaciers. This is probably due to debris accumulation on
the lower glacier part after the extraordinary high
melt rates from 1980–1989. The supraglacial moraine
has an isolating effect and reduces ice melt as soon
as a critical thickness of few centimeters is reached
(Nakawo and Young 1981; Nicholson and Benn
2006; H agg et al. 2008b). The upper glacier part has
a very shaded location and shows only small surface
changes.
At Südlicher Schneeferner, the mass losses from
1990–2006 were moderate compared to the other
glaciers. This can be explained by the area-volume
relation of this glacier. The many hollows and sinks
in the rough terrain around the glacier quickly filled
with firn during the positive mass balances in the
1970s. In only 8 years (1971–1979), the glacier area
increased by 53%, which is by far the highest increase of all five glaciers in this decade. The new
glacier parts were not very thick and quickly disappeared again in the 1980s. From 1990 to 2006, the
protuberances in the lowermost parts and connection between the two main ice bodies melted out.
Since these glacier parts were relatively thin, the melt
130
Vol. 66 · No. 3
Nördlicher Schneeferner
Südlicher Schneeferner
Höllentalferner
Blaueis
Watzmanngletscher
100
Area (ha)
80
60
40
Nördlicher
Schneeferner
mean glacier mass balance (mm w.e.)
120
Südlicher
Schneeferner
Höllentalferner
20
0
1880
Blaueis
?
1900
1920
1940
1960
1980
2000 2010
Fig. 8: Area changes of Bavarian glaciers 1889–2009
rates were limited by the melt out of bedrock. Since
2006, the glacier area is restricted to the depressions
of the upper cirques and both melt rates and areal
retreat is again comparable to the other glaciers.
The main topographic features and the glacier
areas and ice volumes are given in tables 2 and 3.
4.3 Correlation of climate and glacier changes
The geodetic mass balances were related to
mean summer temperatures and winter precipitation of the respective periods. These correlations
are depicted in figure 10, the numerical values are
given in tables 4–7.
A clear dependence of the mass balance on
summer temperature (Fig. 10, upper graphs) is visible in most cases and confirmed by coefficients of
100
50
0
-50
-100
1890 1900
Watzmanngletscher
1920
1940
1960
1980
2000 2010
Fig. 9: Geodetically derived mass balance changes of the
Bavarian glaciers. A mean density of 0.9 g/cm³ was assumed to transfer volume changes into water equivalents.
Values are annual means between two geodetic surveys.
Note that the balanced state of Blaueis between 1889 and
1924 (+2 mm/a) is hardly visible
variation between 0.34 and 0.66. Only for Blaueis,
the coefficient of determination is very low (0.04).
This is caused by three data points (see table 7):
the strong negative mass balance of -68 cm w.e./a
between 1924 and 1949 cannot be explained by
summer temperatures which were 0.1 °C below the
baseline mean. This also holds for the equally strong
mass losses in the 1980s, when summer temperatures were 0.3 °C above baseline mean, which is still
a cold period compared to the ones that follow. The
positive mass balances in the 1970s are hard to relate
to the temperature anomaly of -0.2 °C, especially
Table 2: Location, area and main topographic features of the Bavarian glaciers
latitude (N)
longitude (E)
year of survey
area (ha)
max. elev. (m a.s.l.)
min. elev. (m a.s.l.)
mean elev. (m a.s.l.)
historical glacier
extents
ha (year)
Nördlicher
Schneeferner
47° 24.8‘
10° 58.4‘
2009
27.8
2792
2556
2628
30.7 (2006)
36.0 (1999)
33.5 (1990)
40.9 (1979)
39.7 (1969)
36.4 (1959)
37.9 (1949)
–
103.6 (1892)
Südlicher
Schneeferner
47° 24.0‘
10° 58.4‘
2009
4.8
2665
2557
2592
8.4 (2006)
11.6 (1999)
12.3 (1990)
31.4 (1979)
20.5 (1971)
19.4 (1959)
27.0 (1949)
–
85.5 (1892)
Höllentalferner
Blaueis
47° 25.4‘
10° 59.5‘
2010
22.3
2564
2203
2356
24.7 (2006)
25.7 (1999)
29.8 (1989)
30.2 (1981)
26.7 (1970)
25.7 (1959)
27.1 (1950)
–
–
47° 34.3‘
12° 52.0‘
2009
7.5
2368
1937
2163
11.0 (2006)
–
12.3 (1989)
16.4 (1980)
12.6 (1970)
13.1 (1959)
15.2 (1949)
20.2 (1924)
16.4 (1889)
Watzmanngletscher
47° 33.3‘
12° 55.8‘
2009
5.6
2119
1998
2034
10.1 (2006)
–
18.1 (1989)
24.0 (1980)
17.7 (1970)
10.0 (1959)
–
–
27.9 (1897)
2012
131
W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
Tab. 3: Volumes and thicknesses of the Bavarian glaciers
year of survey
volume (mil. m³)
max. thickness (m)
mean thickness (m)
Nördlicher
Schneeferner
Südlicher
Schneeferner
Höllentalferner
Blaueis
Watzmanngletscher
2006
5.2
49.0
16.8
2006
0.4
12.8
4.6
2010
2.4
48.0
11.7
2007
0.4
13.0
3.8
2007
0.6
16.0
5.9
since the same mean temperatures coincide with a
negative mass balance between 1959 and 1970.
For all five glaciers, the correlations between
winter precipitation and glacier mass balance are
negative. This means that in periods with above average winter snowfall, the glaciers experience above
average mass losses. Winter snow pack has a twofold impact on glacier mass balance: in most cases it
represents the most important accumulation source
and it determines the date when ice ablation sets
in, which means that it controls the duration of the
melting season. Both effects support a positive correlation with winter precipitation sums. On cirque
glaciers, avalanches can be the major contribution
to accumulation, but their activity is also positively
correlated with winter precipitation. The negative
correlation determined here is contradictory to the
concept of glacier mass balance. The only solution
we can suggest is that there is no correlation at all
and the negative dependence is a spurious correlation. This assumption is supported by the low precipitation variability and the very low correlation
coefficients.
For Nördlicher Schneeferner, also measured
snow heights are available. From this record, the
snow height on 1 May was taken as an index for
winter accumulation. Regression analyses for the
three Zugspitze glaciers (Fig. 10) show that glacier mass balances are more closely related to snow
height on 1 May (mean R²: 0.56) than to winter precipitation (mean R²: 0.17). Moreover, the correlation
with snow heights is positive and therefore consistent with the concept of glacier mass balance. This
means that winter precipitation and snow height
behave inversely proportional, the cross correlation between the two parameters varies between
R²=0.40 and R²=0.59. The most likely explanation
for this apparent contradiction is redistribution by
wind. For solid precipitation, most of the systematic measurement error is attributed to wind (Yang
et al. 1999). Ostrem and Tvede (1986) have shown
that wind-blown snow can strongly influence accumulation distribution and that changes in the wind
field can modify the spatial pattern of glacier mass
balance. This topic is also discussed in very recent
research (L ehning et al. 2011), including the persistency of drift features (Schirmer et al. 2011) as
well as the role of preferential deposition in the survival of small glaciers (Dadic et al. 2010).
While the Zugspitze meteorological station
on the crest is certainly subject to wind-induced
gauge undercatch, the concave terrain below the
leeward slope at Nördlicher Schneeferner supports
deposition of wind-blown snow. This illustrates the
problems connected with precipitation measurements in mountains. Even a very close proximity
of a high-standard long-term meteorological station
does not guarantee that measured winter precipitation is representative for the location under investigation. Capturing the redistribution by wind and
avalanches in a complex topography is the greatest
challenge if snow packs of relatively small areas are
calculated. Thus, snow measurements are essential
for an accurate determination of the snow water
equivalent in alpine environment.
According to Kuhn (1993), the mass balance of
glaciers in the northern Alps is strongly controlled
by accumulation, whereas central Alpine glaciers
are more influenced by summer temperatures. This
theoretical concept could not be confirmed by precipitation data, which might be due to the fact that
the measured precipitation is not representative for
the local accumulation on the glaciers. The closer
relation of the Bavarian glaciers to air temperature
is in accordance with the findings of Schöner et
al. (2000), who further state that during periods
of mass gain, the opposite correlations can be observed. Although most of the energy for melting is
provided by direct solar radiation, air temperature
is generally a good melt indicator, as it also correlates with radiation: high air temperatures occur on
days with high radiation sums. High summer air
temperatures also correlate with the number of hot
(and cloudless) days, which is an important value
for glacier mass balance. In a warmer climate, glacier melt is not only more intense, but also occurs
on more days per year. The most important factor,
which cannot be accounted for by long-term mean
air temperatures is the albedo effect of summer
snowfalls.
132
mean glacier mass balance (cm w.e./a)
Vol. 66 · No. 3
Nördlicher Schneeferner
20
20
2
0
-20
-40
-40
-60
-60
mean glacier mass balance (cm w.e./a)
R =0.18
-80
-80
0.0
0.5
1.0
-100
1.5
90
95
100
105
110
snow height 1 May
Südlicher Schneeferner
40
40
R2=0.34
20
2
0
-40
-60
2
R =0.17
20
0
-20
-40
-20
R =0.08
-60
-80
-80
-100
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
-100
1.5
90
95
100
105
110
snow height 1 May
mean glacier mass balance (cm w.e./a)
Höllentalferner
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-0.5
mean glacier mass balance (cm w.e./a)
2
R =0.62
0
-20
-100
-0.5
mean glacier mass balance (cm w.e./a)
2
R =0.66
60
2
R =0.59
2
2
R =0.88
40
20
R =0.25
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
0.0
0.5
1.0
-100
1.5
85
90
95
100
Blaueis
40
40
2
R =0.04
20
2
0
-20
-20
-40
-40
-60
-60
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
-80
90.0
95.0
100.0
105.0
110.0
115.0
Watzmanngletscher
60
60
2
R =0.61
40
20
2
R =0.24
40
20
0
0
-20
-40
-20
-60
-60
-80
-1.0
R =0.12
20
0
-80
-1.0
105
110
snow height 1 May
-40
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
mean summer (5-9) temperature anomalies to 1961-1990 (°C)
-80
90.0
95.0
100.0
105.0
110.0
115.0
mean winter (10-4) precipitation anomalies to 1961-1990 (%)
Fig. 10: Relation between geodetically derived glacier mass balances and mean summer temperatures and winter precipitation in the corresponding periods. For the Zugspitze glacier, also the measured snow height on 1 May is depicted
(unfilled dots and dashed trendline)
W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
2012
133
Tab. 4: Geodetically derived glacier mass balances for Nördlicher Schneeferner (cm w.e. per year) and mean anomalies
to 1961-1990 of summer (5-9) temperatures, winter (10-4) precipitation and snow height on 1 May at Zugspitze in the corresponding periods
Period
Summer temperature
anomalies (°C)
1892–1949
1949–1959
1959–1969
1969–1979
1979–1990
1990–1999
1999–2006
2006–2009
-0.4*
0.0
-0.3
-0.2
0.4
0.8
1.3
1.5
Nördlicher Schneeferner
Winter precipitation Snow height anomalies
anomalies (%)
(1 May) (%)
-21*
-7
-5
-3
7
2
9
-11
–
1
-1
1
-1
-3
-9
–
Glacier mass balance
(cm w.e./a)
-44
-43
-19
14
-28
-65
-78
-89
*mean value for 1901-1949
Tab. 5: Geodetically derived glacier mass balances for Südlicher Schneeferner (cm w.e. per year) and mean
anomalies to 1961–1990 of summer (5-9) temperatures, winter (10–4) precipitation and snow height on 1
May at Zugspitze in the corresponding periods
Period
Summer temperature
anomalies (°C)
1892–1949
1949–1959
1959–1971
1971–1979
1979–1990
1990–1999
1999–2006
2006–2009
-0.4*
0.2
0.0
-0.1
0.6
1.0
1.5
1.5
Südlicher Schneeferner
Winter precipitation Snow height anomalies
anomalies (%)
(1 May) (%)
-21*
-7
-4
-5
7
2
9
-11
–
1
-1
1
-1
-3
-9
–
Glacier mass balance
(cm w.e./a)
-42
-48
-15
27
-36
-27
-42
-75
*mean value for 1901–1949
Tab. 6: Geodetically derived glacier mass balances on Höllentalferner (cm w.e. per year) and mean anomalies to 1961–1990
of summer (5-9) temperatures and winter (10–4 precipitation and snow height on 1 May at Zugspitze in the corresponding
periods
Period
Summer temperature
anomalies (°C)
1950–1959
1959–1970
1970–1981
1981–1989
1989–1999
1999–2006
2006–2009
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.7
1.0
1.5
1.5
Höllentalferner
Winter precipitation Snow height anomalies
anomalies (%)
(1 May) (%)
-4
-4
3
4
1
9
-11
One should expect that using mean positive degree day sums ( PDDS) instead of air temperature
should yield higher coefficients of variation. PDDS
is the sum of positive daily air temperatures and
usually a better indicator for melt. Especially during
spring and fall, when both negative and positive air
temperatures occur, the two values have different
1
2
5
-11
-4
-9
–
Glacier mass balance
(cm w.e./a)
-13
23
40
-41
-53
-86
-68
information content: at the beginning of the melt
season, e.g., the first half of a month might have temperatures below zero, while days with positive temperatures and melt might occur during the second
half. A month like that can have mean temperatures
slightly below zero, indicating no melt, while PDDS
would be positive, describing melt more realistically.
134
Vol. 66 · No. 3
Tab. 7: Geodetically derived glacier mass balances on the Berchtesgaden glaciers (cm w.e. per year) and mean anomalies to 1961-1990 of summer (5-9) temperatures and winter (10-4) precipitation at Salzburg airport in the corresponding
periods
Period
1889-1924
1924-1949
1949-1959
1959-1970
1970-1980
1980-1989
1989-1999
1999-2009
Summer
temperature
anomalies
(°C)
-0.5
-0.1
0.0
-0.2
-0.2
0.3
1.0
1.7
Blaueis
Winter
precipitation
anomalies
(%)
-9
-7
-3
-5
-3
8
11
0
Glacier
mass
balance
(cm w.e./a)
2
-68
-38
-26
34
-68
-36
-21
At Zugspitze, PDDS were calculated for the periods
between geodetic surveys and correlated with glacier
mass balances. Surprisingly, the correlation did not
improve compared to monthly air temperatures.
A better climate-glacier correlation could probably only be achieved using daily information.
Summer snow falls are crucial for glacier mass balance. Fresh snow has a very high reflectivity (80–
97%), whereas typical albedos of glacier ice range
between 20 and 40% (Paterson 1994). Due to the
high air content, snow is an effective isolator and
prevents the conduction of sensible heat towards the
underlying ice. Summer snowfalls therefore immediately reduce ice melt and, depending on the thickness
of the snow pack, a considerable amount of energy
and time is required to reach pre-snowfall conditions. Therefore, it is essential if precipitation occurs
on warmer or colder days and such weather patterns
can only be described with daily meteorological data.
On Nördlicher Schneeferner, a 6 years series of direct mass balance observations using the glaciological method (1962/63–1967/68) exists. We applied a
method after Hoinkes and Steinacker (1975) to reduce positive degree day sums after snowfall events,
according to the amount of precipitation that falls
below freezing point. Additionally, the snow height
on 1 May is included as an index for the beginning
of the ablation period. It could be shown that the so
modified PDDS are more closely related to glacier
mass balance than the traditional ones (Fig. 11).
5 Conclusions
The Bavarian glaciers are at a critical stage.
Three glaciers have mean ice thicknesses of few me-
Period
–
–
1897-1959
1959-1970
1970-1980
1980-1989
1989-1999
1999-2009
Watzmanngletscher
Summer
Winter
temperature precipitation
anomalies
anomalies
(°C)
(%)
–
–
-0.3
-0.2
-0.2
0.3
1.0
1.7
–
–
-7
-5
-3
8
11
0
Glacier
mass
balance
(cm w.e./a)
–
–
-23
29
47
-31
-38
-51
ters only. If current melt rates continue in the future,
these ice patches are likely to disappear within a few
years, while the two larger ones have a somewhat
longer life expectancy. The analysis of meteorological data revealed that the glacier degradation can be
attributed to increased summer temperatures. The
long-term mass balances show no correlation with
mean winter precipitation from nearby stations, but
fairly good correlations with snow heights in the
case of the glaciers at Zugspitze. A sound estimate
of accumulation conditions requires labour-intensive field campaigns over several years using a spatially dense net of observation and ideally groundpenetrating radar. This is particularly true for small
glaciers below the regional snow line, because here,
redistributed snow often remarkably contributes to
total accumulation.
The glaciers in Bavaria owe their existence to
very special, local conditions and thus show a very
individual response to climate change. The larger the
area of a glacier, the closer its link to regional climate conditions. Short-term variations of the snow
line and consecutive albedo effects complicate the
climate-glacier relation. Therefore, a proper reproduction of glacier mass balances requires modelling
approaches on a daily time-step.
Acknowledgements
The work was funded by the DFG (project HA
5061/1-1) and supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health. The
laserscanner was kindly provided by the Chair of
Physical Geography of the KU Eichstätt (M. Becht),
C. Breitung supported the field work. The Bayer-
2000
glacier mass balance (mm)
135
W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
2012
R2=0.68
1500
R2=0.90
R2=0.97
1000
500
0
-500
-1000
-1500
300
350
400
450
PDDS
500
550
600 -100
0
100
200
PDDS(3)
300
400 -200
-100
0
100 200
PDDS(3), Wi
300
400
500
Fig. 11: Relation between glaciologically derived glacier mass balances on Nördlicher Schneeferner (1962/63–1967/68)
and different temperature indexes according to Hoinkes and Steinacker (1975): positive degree day sums (left), positive
degree day sums adjusted to summer snow falls (middle) and positive degree day sums adjusted to summer snow falls
and winter accumulation (right)
ische Zugspitzbahn AG (M. Hurm) and the National
Park Berchtesgaden offered logistic help. The German Meteorological Office very quickly provided
precipitation and homogenized air temperatures of
the Zugspitze station. Thomas Werz processed meteorological data for the degree-day model and Ines
Schwenkmeier took care of map reprojections. The
constructive comments of Stefan Winkler and two
anonymous referees are greatly acknowledged. We
thank Annelen Kahl for correcting the English.
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Authors
Dr. Wilfried Hagg
Department of Geography
Ludwig-Maximilians-University
Munich
Germany
hagg@lmu.de
Dr. Christoph Mayer
Commission for Geodesy and Glaciology
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Munich
Germany
christoph.mayer@kfg.badw.de
Elisabeth Mayr
Department of Geography
Ludwig-Maximilians-University
Munich
Germany
e.mayr@geographie.uni-muenchen.de
Dr. Achim Heilig
Commission for Geodesy and Glaciology
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Munich
Germany
heilig@r-hm.de
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Appendices
2600
2800
2600
5253000
5253200
2900
5253400
2700
2700
00
270
0
25
Glacier extent
(year)
1892
5252800
1949
1959
00
0
1979
270
2800
1969
26
4422400
Nördlicher Schneeferner
1990
1999
4422600
4422800
2009
4423000
0
25 50
100
150
200 m
Appendix I: Contour map of Nördlicher Schneeferner 2009 (after terrestrial laserscanning in September 2009 by C. Breitung, C. M ayer and E. M ayr) and historical glacier extents (Projection: UTM zone 32 North, source: www.bayerischegletscher.de)
139
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2012
649000
649200
649400
0
260
5251600
5251800
5251
5252000
2500
27
00
5252200
648800
Glacier extent
(year)
5251400
1892
1949
1959
1971
1979
00
28
2700
00
29
Südlicher Schneeferner
1990
1999
2009
0
25 50
100
150
200 m
Appendix II: Contour map of Südlicher Schneeferner 2009 (after kinematic GPS-profiling in September 2009 by C. M ayer
and E. M ayr) and historical glacier extents (Projection: UTM zone 32 North, source: www.bayerische-gletscher.de)
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650200
650400
5254600
650000
650600
650800
0
2200
250
0
240
1950
00
260
0
5254400
Glacier extent
(year)
23
1959
1970
1981
1989
1999
2010
00
5254000
25
00
24
00
5254200
23
00
27
Höllentalferner
0
25 50
100
150
200 m
Appendix III: Contour map of Höllentalferner 2010 (after a tachymetric survey in October 2010 by C. M ayer, W. H agg
and A. L ambrecht) and historical glacier extents (Projection: UTM zone 32 North, source: www.bayerische-gletscher.de)
2012
W. Hagg et al.: Climate and glacier fluctuations in the Bavarian Alps in the past 120 years
339600
339800
5271600
339400
141
1900
2
2100
5271400
00
0
2000
5271200
2200
23
21
00
00
5271000
0
240
0
220
Glacier extent
(year)
1889
1924
5270800
1949
1959
2300
1970
1980
0
1989
250
Blaueis
2009
0
25 50
100
150
200 m
Appendix IV: Contour map of Blaueis 2009 (after a tachymetric survey in September 2009 by C. M ayer and E. M ayr) and
historical glacier extents (Projection: UTM zone 33 North, source: www.bayerische-gletscher.de)
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344200
344400
344600
00
22
5268800
210
0
2100
5269000
20
00
230
0
5269200
220
0
250
0
5269400
240
0
344000
Glacier extent
(year)
1897
2200
1959
1970
1980
5268600
1989
Watzmanngletscher
2009
0
25 50
100
150
200 m
Appendix V: Contour map of Watzmanngletscher 2009 (after a tachymetric survey in September 2009 by C. M ayer and E.
M ayr) and historical glacier extents (Projection: UTM zone 33 North, source: www.bayerische-gletscher.de)