ZyXEL Communications | ES-4024 | User guide | ZyXEL Communications ES-4024 User guide

ZyXEL ES-4024A Series
(ES-4024A)
Ethernet Switch
Support Notes
Version 3.60
March 2006
ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
INDEX
How to manage & maintain your Switch?
Firmware Upgrade
Restore a Configuration File
Backing Up a Configuration File
Load Factory Defaults
Physical Switch connection
Connecting two switches via Fiber Channel
General Networking
DHCP option 82 (Relay Agent Information Option)
Separating a physical network into many virtual networks
Introduction to Virtual LAN
Port Based Virtual LAN
Setting up Port Based VLAN
IEEE 802.1Q Tag-based VLAN
Setting up Tag-based VLAN
Setting up VLAN Trunking
IP Multicasting
IGMP Snooping
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR)
To ring a network by building reducdent links and connections between Switch
Introduction to Spanning Tree Protocol
How does Spanning Tree Protocol Work?
Switching Security
Setting up 802.1x Radius Authentication
Fault Free Protection
Introduction to Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
Scenario 1 – Redundancy
Scenario 2 – Load Sharing
CLI for VRRP
Centralized Management
Introduction of SNMPc and NetAtlas
*Current version of NetAtlas does not support ES-4024A Series
Cluster Management -- iStacking
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
FAQ
What is the default setting of the IP parameters?
What is the default login Name and Password of the Web
Configuration?
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
How to access the Switch through the console port?
What is default login password of the console, telnet, and FTP?
How to change the password?
How to access the Command Line Interface?
If I forgot the Switch password, how can I reset the password to
default?
How do I configure an IP address?
Is Online Help available on the Web GUI?
How to restart device from Web?
How to check the current running firmware version?
Is the mini GBIC transceiver hot-swappable?
What is so called "Dual-Personality interface" in Ethernet Switching?
Remaining:
Some demonstration in this support note may not use the exact model that you
are using. However, their functions and settings work the same way.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
How to manage & maintain your Switch?
Firmware Upgrade
From Web GUI:
1. Download (and unzipped) the correct model firmware to your computer.
2. Click Management and then Maintenance in the navigator panel to bring
up the following screen.
3.
Click on the “Click Here” link of the Firmware Upgrade to bring up the
following screen.
4.
5.
Browse the firmware located or type in the path into the “File Path” field.
Click on the Upgrade button.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
From Console Port:
1. Download (and unzipped) the correct model firmware to your computer.
2. Connect to the console port and open the Terminal Emulation Software.
3. Restarting the switch to enter the debug mode via the terminal.
4. Enter “ATUR”.
5. Use X-modem protocol to transfer (Send File) the firmware.
6. Enter “ATGO” to restart the switch after done uploading the firmware.
From Command Line FTP:
1. Download (and unzipped) the correct model firmware to your computer.
2. Launch the FTP client on your PC to login to Switch. (From the command
prompt, type “ftp <Switch IP>”
3. Press “Enter” for the User name
4. Enter password to get the ftp prompt.
5. Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6. Use “put” to transfer the firmware from the computer to the switch, for
example: “put firmware.bin ras” transfers the firmware on your computer
(firmware.bin) to the switch and renames it “ras”.
7. Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Restore a Configuration File
From Web GUI:
1. Click Management and then Maintenance in the navigator panel to bring
up the following screen.
2.
Click on the “Click Here” link of the Restore Configuration to bring up the
following screen.
3.
Browse to locate the file with the file name or type in the path and the file
name into the “File Path” field.
Click on the Restore button.
4.
From Console Port:
1. Connect to the console port and open the Terminal Emulation Software.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
2.
3.
4.
5.
Restarting the Switch to enter the debug mode via the terminal.
Enter “ATLC”
Use X-modem protocol to transfer (Send File) the firmware.
Enter “ATGO” to restart the Switch after done uploading the configuration
file.
From Command Line FTP:
1. Download (and unzipped) the correct model firmware to your computer.
2. Launch the FTP client on your PC to login to Switch. (From the command
prompt, type “ftp <Switch IP>”.
3. Press “Enter” for the User name
4. Enter password to get the ftp prompt.
5. Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6. Use “put” to transfer the the configuration file from the computer to the
switch, for example: “put comfig.rom rom-0” transfers the firmware on your
computer (config.rom) to the switch and renames it “rom-0”.
7. Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Backing Up a Configuration File
From Web GUI:
1. Click Management and then Maintenance in the navigator panel to bring
up the following screen.
2.
Click on the “Click Here” link of the Backup Configuration to bring up the
following screen.
3.
Click on the “Backup” button to bring up the File Download dialog. Then,
clicking on the Save button to backup the configuration rom file to a proper
location.
From Console Port:
1. Connect to the console port and open the Terminal Emulation Software.
2. Restarting the Switch to enter the debug mode via the terminal.
3. Enter “ATTD”
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
4.
5.
Use X-modem protocol to transfer (Receive File) the firmware.
Enter “ATGO” to restart the Switch after done uploading the configuration
file.
From Command Line FTP:
1. Download (and unzipped) the correct model firmware to your computer.
2. Launch the FTP client on your PC to login Switch. (From the command
prompt, type “ftp <Switch IP>”
3. Press “Enter” for the User name
4. Enter password to get the ftp prompt.
5. Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6. Use “get” to transfer the firmware from the computer to the switch, for
example: “get rom-0 config.rom” transfers the firmware on your computer
(config.rom) to the switch and renames it “config.rom”.
7. Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Load Factory Defaults
From Web GUI:
1. Click Management and then Maintenance in the navigator panel to bring
up the following screen.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Click on the “Click Here” button of the Load Factory Defaults to bring up
the following screen.
A dialog pops up with the message “Are you sure you want to load factory
defaults?”.
Click OK to go to the following dialog.
Click on the OK button. Now, all switch configurations has been reset to
the factory defaults and the system will be restarted.
Please note that the switch IP address is now 192.168.1.1.
From Console Port:
1. Connect to the console port and open the Terminal Emulation Software.
2. Type in the correct password to bring up the prompt.
Type “erase run” to load the factory default configurations.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Physical Switch connection
How to connect two switches via Fiber Channel
Your Switch may come with one or many mini-GB ports. ZyXEL offers Small
Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) transceivers for Gigabit Ethernet and Fiber
Channel applications. These small, modular optical interface transceivers offer
a convenient and cost effective solution for the adoption of Gigabit Ethernet
and Fiber Channel in data center, campus, metropolitan area access, ring
networks, and storage area networks. It supports full duplex Gigabit speeds
and hot-pluggable feature.
Scenario
In this scenario, ES-2108-LC is connected to GS-4024 via the mini-GB
Port with a LC/LC Fiber cable (62.5/125MM). PC “Alpha” is connected to
ES-2108-LC and another PC “Delta” is connected to the GS-4024 Switch via
the RJ45 Port.
What you need here to complete this scenario:
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
z
z
z
ZyXEL Switch with Mini-GB port
x2
(note: Each ES-4024A Series Switch comes with 2 Mini-GB Port)
SFP-SX Transceiver
x2
LC/LC Fiber Cable (62.5/125MM)
x1
Here is the photo of the SFP-SX Transceiver & the LC/LC Fiber Cable.
Steps to complete this scenario
1. First, pick up your ES-2108-LC and GS-4024Switch and power them up.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Photo of the ES-2108-LC Switch
2. Find both Mini-GB Port on ES-2108-LC and GS-4024.
3. Get one transceiver and plug it into the Mini-GB Port of ES-2108-LC
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
4. Plug another transceiver into the Mini-GB Port of GS-4024 Switch
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
5. Remove both side of the protection cap from the LC/LC Fiber Cable.
6. Plug the LC/LC Fiber Cable into the transceivers on both ES-2108-LC and
GS-4024 Switch.
If you connected the cable correctly, the LED of the “LINK” will light up.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
7. Now, connect the first PC “Alpha” to ES-2108-LC and the second PC
“Delta” to the GS-4024 via the regular Ethernet cable.
8. Set the NICs in both computers to the same IP Domain.
(ex, PC “Alpha” :192.168.1.4/24; PC “Delta” : 192.168.1.5/24)
9. From PC “Alpha”, PING PC “Delta” at 192.168.1.5
10. From PC “Delta”, PING PC” Alpha” at 192.168.1.4
11. Now you can confirm that the network connection between ES-2108-LC
and GS-4024 is up and running.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
General Networking
DHCP Relay Option 82 Application
ISP may want to limit the number of IP address or deliver some specific IP
addresses according to certain Switch port, VLAN ID and option 82 string.
They can easily to achieve this with DHCP Relay Option 82 feature and a
DHCP server supporting Option 82 function.
Network
DHCP
Server
192.168.1.99
Ethernet Port
Port 25
DHCP Client
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
How to set up DHCP Relay Option 82 Environment
Here, we will set up an environment to allow a PC to get DHCP IP address in
specific IP pool according to its Switch port, VLAN ID and the option 82 string.
In this case, we are using GS-3012 for the demonstration. PC is behind 25th
Switch port and the option 82 string is a string “GS-3012”. We use the IP
Commander as DHCP server. Its IP is 192.168.1.99 and the IP pool is between
192.168.1.201 and 192.168.1.203 for VID=1, Switch port=25 and the option 82
string is “GS-3012”.
1. Switch (GS-3012) settings
Click IP Application, DHCP Relay in the navigation panel to display configuration
screen as shown. You will see the DHCP Relay setup page. Active the DHCP relay
and Option 82 function. Also, click Information to make “GS-3012” as the
Option 82 string. Information is READ ONLY here and it is the same as the
host name of the Switch.
Now we can connect PC to the 25th SWITCH port. Please see former
applications for detailed settings.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
3. IP Commander settings
Open IP Commander. Right click “IP commander and then click “connect new
server”.
Input the DHCP IP address or domain name and click “ok”. Our IP is
192.168.1.99.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Input user name and password. The default user name is “administrator” and
password is “incognito”.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
It will bring up the following screen, please make sure that your DHCP is in
“online” status. Then click “wizard” in the top tool bars and select “rule
wizard”.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Give a name and description to the new rule.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Assign a range of IP addresses or just one IP address to this rule. In our case,
we set the IP pool from 192.168.1.201 to 192.168.1.203.
After input IP pool, we select “DHCP Option” in Keywords combobox.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
After select the “DHCP Option”, it will pop up “Add DHCP Option Rule” dialog.
Select “option 82 Relay Agent Information”, sub-option 1, binary data. For port
25, VLAN 1, “GS-3012”, please key in “0019000147532d33303132” as the key
value and click OK. Please note that the first 2 bytes define port number, the
second 2 bytes is VLAN ID and the other bytes are the Option 82 string.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
After you finish above step, you will see the following figure.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Then pop up the following screen and you can just press Next button.
Then you can add DHCP template (option) such as gateway, DNS server and
so on.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Here we use “192.168.1.1” as gateway IP address of DHCP client PC.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
You can apply DDNS service to DHCP server or not.
The rule creation has been finished.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
After finishing all above procedures, your PC will get the IP address
192.168.1.201 when you send a DHCP request.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Separating a physical network into many virtual
networks
What is Virtual LAN?
•
VLAN Overview
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be
partitioned into multiple logical networks. Stations on a logical network belong
to one group called VLAN Group. A station can belong to more than one group.
The stations on the same VLAN group can communicate with each other. With
VLAN, a station cannot directly talk to or hear from stations that are not in the
same VLAN group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
In MTU or IP-DSLAM applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and
security among the subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents
one subscriber from accessing the network resources of another on the same
LAN, thus a user will not see the printers and hard disks of another user in the
same building.
VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller
and more manageable logical broadcast domain. A VLAN group is a broadcast
domain. In traditional Layer-2 switched environments, all broadcast packets go
to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a
specific broadcast domain.
There are two most popular VLAN implementations, Port-based VLAN and
IEEE 802.1q Tagged VLAN. ES-4024A series supports both VLAN
implementations. The most difference between both VLAN implementations is
Tagged VLAN can across Layer-2 switch but Port-based VLAN cannot.
•
Port-based VLAN
Port-based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based
on the destination MAC address and its associated port. You must define
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
outgoing ports allowed for each port when using port-based VLANs. Note that VLAN
only governs the outgoing traffic, in the other word, it is unidirectional.
Therefore, if you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, e.g.,
between conference rooms in a hotel, you must define the egress (outgoing
port) for both ports. An egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through
which a data packet leaves.
There are 5 hosts (Host A, B, C, D and E) connected to a 5-port layer-2 switch
which supported port-based VLAN.
Case 1: Host A and Host B can talk to each other, because they are in the
same VLAN group. But Host A and Host B can't talk to Host C, D, and E.
Port-based VLAN definition:
•
•
Egress port for port 1: port 2
Egress port for port 2: port 1
Case 2: There are 3 VLAN groups in the physical network. Host A and Host B
can talk to each other; they are in the same VLAN group 1. Host B and Host C
are in VLAN group 2. Host A, Host D and Host E are in VLAN group 3.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Port-based VLAN definition:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Egress port for port 1: port 2, port 4, port 5
Egress port for port 2: port 1, port 3
Egress port for port 3: port 2
Egress port for port 4: port 1, port 5
Egress port for port 5: port 1, port 4
Port-based VLAN across different switch
Port-based VLAN is specific only to the switch on which it was created. Definitely,
Port-based VLAN can't across different switches. As the following network diagram
shown in most MTU case, for the sake of security, subscribers are isolated with each
other except for the gateway. There are two switches, Switch-2 and Switch-3,
supported port-based VLAN and uplink to a none-port-based VLAN switch, Switch-1.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
For Switch-2, port 1, port 2, and port 3 are allowed to communicate back and forth
with uplink port 4, but not with other ports.
•
Switch-2 VLAN 1 member port: port 1 and port 4
•
Switch-2 VLAN 2 member port: port 2 and port 4
•
Switch-2 VLAN 3 member port: port 3 and port 4
For Switch-3, port 2, port 3, and port 4 are allowed to communicate back and forth
with uplink port 1, but not with other ports.
•
Switch-3 VLAN 1 member port: port 2 and port 1
•
Switch-3 VLAN 2 member port: port 3 and port 1
•
Switch-2 VLAN 3 member port: port 4 and port 1
Host A can't talk to Host B due to the port-based VLAN in Switch-2, and Host C can't
talk to Host D due to the port-based VLAN in Switch-3. But both Switch-2 and
Switch-3 uplink to the none VLAN Switch-1. Host A and Host B will talk to Host C and
Host D via the none VLAN switch because port-based VLAN can't across different
switches.
To achieve the security between different switches, you must put another port-based
VLAN switch for the uplink. Each port on the uplink switch also should be separated
into different VLAN, except for the port to the gateway. So subscribers only can talk to
the gateway for Internet access but not communicate with each other.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
For Switch-1, port 1, port2, and port 3 are allowed to communicate back and forth with
uplink port 4, but not with other ports.
•
Switch-1 VLAN 1 member port: port 1 and port 4
•
Switch-1 VLAN 2 member port: port 2 and port 4
•
Switch-1 VLAN 3 member port: port 3 and port 4
How to configure Port-Based VLAN
Port-based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based
on the destination MAC address and its associated port.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Scenario
In this scenario, Port Based VLAN is used to separate one physical Switch into
two smaller logical Switches. Port 1~4 and 9, 10 are in one group. And Port
5~10 are in another group. Port-based VLANs are specific only to the switch
on which they were created.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Configuring your Switch to fulfill this scenario (GUI)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Connect port 1 with a PC or Notebook via the RJ45 Cable.
By default the MGMT IP on every port is 192.168.1.1/24
Set your NIC to 192.168.1.2/24
Open an Internet browser such as IE and give http://192.168.1.1 on
the URL.
5. By default you will need to put “admin” as the username and “1234” as
the password.
6. After you login successfully, you will see a similar screen like below.
7. First, we need to tell the Switch to run VLAN as port based instead of
802.1q based. In order to do so, we first click on the “Basic Setting”,
then “Switch Setup”; on your right screen the VLAN Type, choose “Port
Based” instead of “802.1Q”, and click “Apply” to save your changes.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
8. Now, you need to tell the Switch how you are going to separate the
physical Switch into some logical small Switches. Thus, we click
“Advanced Application” then “VLAN”. On the right screen, check the
boxes to suit your need. In this case, we need to make port 1~4 and
port 9, 10 in a group in order for them to communicate in both ways.
And port 5~10 in another group but these two groups cannot talk with
each others. Here we also logically defined Port 9 and Port 10 as the
uplink ports. Therefore, both groups can pass data to Port 9 and Port
10. In another word, these two ports belong to both of the groups on
the same time. Please confirm if your setting looks similar to below.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
9. Finally, you can now verify your result. If everything works fine, PC A
can ping PC B and PC Z. But it cannot ping PC C or PC D. On the
same time, this should work vice versa.
10. For example,
PC A: 192.168.1.4/24
PC B: 192.168.1.5/24
PC C: 192.168.1.6/24
PC D: 192.168.1.7/24
PC Z: 192.168.1.99/24
11. PING PC B from PC A (Should work)
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
12. PING PC Z from PC A (Should work)
13. PING PC C from PC A (Should NOT work)
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Configuring your Switch to fulfill this scenario (CLI)
1. Connect the Switch Console port with your PC or Notebook.
2. Open your Terminal program.(Ex, Hyper Terminal in Windows
System)
3. Make sure that your port settings are
bps:9600
Data bits:8
Parity: None
Stop bits:1
Flow control: None:
4. After you connected successfully, give the correct user name and
password.
5. Put “en” or “enable” to go into the privileged mode. Then put “config” to
go into the configuration mode.
6. Put the following commands to setup Port Based VLAN on your Switch
in this
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
scenario.
7. When all of the above are done, do not forget to give the “write
memory” command under the enable mode to save your configuration.
What is IEEE 802.1Q Tag-based VLAN?
•
Tag-based VLAN Overview
Regarding IEEE 802.1Q standard, Tag-based VLAN uses an extra tag in the MAC
header to identify the VLAN membership of a frame across bridges. This tag is used
for VLAN and QoS (Quality of Service) priority identification. The VLANs can be
created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The VLAN ID associates a
frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that switches need to
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
process the frame across the network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an
untagged frame and contains two bytes of TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier, residing
within the type/length field of the Ethernet frame) and two bytes of TCI (Tag Control
Information, starts after the source address field of the Ethernet frame).
•
TPID: TPID has a defined value of 8100 in hex. When a frame has the
EtherType equal to 8100, this frame carries the tag IEEE 802.1Q / 802.1P.
•
Priority: The first three bits of the TCI define user priority, giving eight (2^3)
priority levels. IEEE 802.1P defines the operation for these 3 user priority bits.
•
CFI: Canonical Format Indicator is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for
Ethernet switches. CFI is used for compatibility reason between Ethernet type
network and Token Ring type network. If a frame received at an Ethernet port
has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as it is to an
untagged port.
•
VID: VLAN ID is the identification of the VLAN, which is basically used by the
standard 802.1Q. It has 12 bits and allows the identification of 4096 (2^12)
VLANs. Of the 4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to identify priority
frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved, so the maximum possible VLAN
configurations are 4,094.
Note that user priority and VLAN ID are independent of each other. A frame
with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a priority frame, meaning that
only the priority level is significant and the default VID of the ingress port is
given as the VID of the frame.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
•
How 802.1Q VLAN works
According to the VID information in the tag, the switch forward and filter the
frames among ports. These ports with same VID can communicate with each
other. IEEE 802.1Q VLAN function contains the following three tasks, Ingress
Process, Forwarding Process and Egress Process.
1. Ingress Process:
Each port is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. Ingress Process
identifies if the incoming frames contain tag, and classifies the incoming frames
belonging to a VLAN. Each port has its own Ingress rule. If Ingress rule accept
tagged frames only, the switch port will drop all incoming non-tagged frames. If
Ingress rule accept all frame type, the switch port simultaneously allow the incoming
tagged and untagged frames:
•
When a tagged frame is received on a port, it carries a tag header that has a
explicit VID. Ingress Process directly pass the tagged frame to Forwarding
Process.
•
An untagged frame doesn't carry any VID to which it belongs. When a
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
untagged frame is received, Ingress Process insert a tag contained the PVID
into the untagged frame. Each physical port has a default VID called PVID
(Port VID). PVID is assigned to untagged frames or priority tagged frames
(frames with null (0) VID) received on this port.
After Ingress Process, all frames have 4-bytes tag and VID information, and
then go to Forwarding Process.
2. Forwarding Process:
The Forwarding Process decides to forward the received frames according to
the Filtering Database. If you want to allow the tagged frames can be
forwarded to certain port, this port must be the egress port of this VID. The
egress port is an outgoing port for the specified VLAN, that is, frames with
specified VID tag can go through this port. The Filtering Database stores and
organizes VLAN registration information useful for switching frames to and
from switch ports. It consists of static registration entries (Static VLAN or
SVLAN table) and dynamic registration entries (Dynamic VLAN or DVLAN
table). SVLAN table is manually added and maintained by the administrator.
DVLAN table is automatically learned via GVRP protocol, and can't be created
and upgraded by the administrator.
The VLAN entries in Filtering Database have the following information:
1.
2.
3.
VID: VLAN ID
Port: The switch port number
Ad Control: Registration administration control. There are 3 type of ad
control, including forbidden registration, fixed registration and normal
registration.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
4.
•
Forbidden registration: This port is forbidden to be the egress
port of specified VID..
•
Fixed registration: While ad control is fixed registration, it means
this is a static registration entry. This port is the egress port of the
specified VID (a member port of the specified VLAN). The frames
with specified VID tag can go through this port.
•
Normal registration: While ad control is normal registration, it
means this is a dynamic registration entry. The forwarding
decision is depended on Dynamic VLAN table.
Egress tag Control: This information is used for Egress Process. The
value may be tagged or untagged. If the value is tagged, the outgoing
frame on the egress port is tagged. If the value is untagged, the tag will be
removed before frame leaves the egress port.
VID
Port
Ad Control
Tag Control
10
1
Forbidden
Tag
10
2
Fixed
Tag
10
3
Normal
UnTag
20
1
Fixed
Tag
20
5
Fixed
UnTag
Filtering Database
VID
Egress Port
10
1
10
2
20
3
Dynamic VLAN (DVLAN) table
3. Egress Process:
The Egress Process decides if the outgoing frames but be sent tagged or
untagged. The Egress Process refers to the egress tag control information in
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Filtering Database. If the value is tagged, the outgoing frame on the egress
port is tagged. If the value is untagged, the tag will be removed before frame
leaves the egress port.
How to connect two switches using VLAN?
I want to make VLAN on two layer 2 switches, and I want to connect first switch
to second switch with trunk port. There will be 5 VLAN on first Switch and there
will be 7 VLAN on second switch. Trunk port will be port 25 on both switches
as well. I made VLAN s on both switch, but I did not find trunk options on both
switches. How can I use Port 25 as trunk port?
The scenario is described as below:
Where the configurations of VLAN in this two switches are:
VLAN 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 on switch A
VLAN 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 on switch B
Configuration of VLAN on switch A
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
------------------------------------2. Configuration of VLAN on switch B
Answer:
------------------------------------In switch A, add port 25 in each VLAN
VID:101 (port 1,2,3,"25 TAG")
VID:102 (port 4,5,6,,"25 TAG")
VID:103 (port 7,8,9,10,"25 TAG")
VID:104 (port 23,24,"25 TAG")
VID:105 (port 11,12,13,14,"25 TAG")
VID:106 (port 15,16,17,"25 TAG")
VID:107 (port 18,19.20,21,"25 TAG")
------------------------------------In switch B, add port 25 in each VLAN
VID:101 (port 1,2,3,,4,"25 TAG")
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
VID:102 (port 6,7,8,9,10,"25 TAG")
VID:103 (port 11,12,13,14,"25 TAG")
VID:104 (port 15,16,17,18,"25 TAG")
VID:105 (port 19,20,21,23,22"25 TAG)
Clients in same VLAN on both switches can communicate each other.
PVID:
z
Set PVID on switch 1
Port 1, 2, 3 : 101
Port 4, 5, 6 : 102
Port 7, 8, 9, 10 : 103
Port 23, 24: 104
Port 11, 12, 13, 14: 105
Port 15, 16, 17: 106
Port 18, 19, 20, 21: 107
port 25: PVID=any
z
Set PVID on switch 2:
Port 1, 2, 3, 4 : 101
Port 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, : 102
Port 11, 12, 13, 14, : 103
Port 15, 16, 17, 18: 104
Port 19, 20, 21, 22, 23: 105
Port 25:PVID=any
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Setting up VLAN Trunking
With the benefit of deploying VLAN trunking, we can connect two switches by a
port that is configured as VLAN trunking port. PC1 with each VLAN tag frames
from switch 1 can communicate with PC2 with another VLAN tag frames in
switch 2 via VLAN trunking port. In our example, we set up port 5 in switch 1 as
the VLAN Trunking port while in switch 2, we set up port 10 as the VLAN
Trunking port.
In the switch 1, the configuration is:
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
In the switch 2, the configuration is
In the switch 1, we set port 2 as VLAN 2 untag
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
In the switch 2, we set port 6 as VLAN 2 untag.
The switch 1 IP address: 192.168.1.31
The switch 2 IP address: 192.168.1.21
After the configuration, we can observe that in the switch 1, the PC1 running on
port 2 can find the PC2 running on port 6 in the switch 2.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
IP Multicasting
How to setup IGMP snooping in your switch?
Figure 1: IGMP and IGMP snooping
IGMP snooping is designed for application with deployment of multicast traffic.
It operates on the underlying IGMP mechanism where a layer two switch
passively listens to the IGMP Query, Report and Leave (IGMP version 2)
packets transmitted between the IGMP router and clients and collects passing
IGMP messages. After that, the switch records the message’s group
registration information, and configures multicasting information accordingly. If
the multicast group information is unknown (not recorded on the switch), the
switch discards that multicast traffic. Only the registered clients that join the
group will receive multicast stream from the IGMP router. Thus this
significantly reduces the multicast traffic forwarded down to the clients.
Another advantage of IGMP snooping is to allow the intermediate switch to
learn multicast group information without manually configuring switches.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Configuration of IGMP snooping by web
In this example, we enable the IGMP function on the GS-4024 (an IGMP router)
to connect to a multimedia server. Also, we enable IGMP snooping function on
the ES-3124 or other ZyXEL L2 Switch to connect to the multimedia clients.
Figure 2: IGMP snooping Example
Step one: In the GS-4024, click the IP Application, select IGMP where,
IGMP function can be enabled and we can select either IGMP-v1 or IGMP-v2.
Figure 3: IGMP Setup
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Step two: In the L2 Switch, click Basic Setting and then Switch Setup
where we can enable IGMP snooping function with WEB-GUI.
Figure 4: IGMP Snooping Setup
Configuration of IGMP and IGMP snooping by CLI
Step one: Enable IGMP function
In the configure mode
GS-4024(config)# router igmp
Step two: Enable IGMP snooping
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In the configure mode of CLI,
L2Switch(config)# igmp-snooping
Step three: Display the IGMP Status
In the exec mode of CLI
GS-4024# show router igmp
Step Four: Display the IGMP snooping Status
In the exec mode of CLI
L2Switch# show igmp-snooping
______________________________________________________________
Note: One thing needs to be mentioned is that in the IGMP router, we do not
need to enable IGMP snooping function.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Overview of MVR
MVR refers to Multicast VLAN Registration that enables a media server to
transmit multicast stream in a single multicast VLAN while clients receiving
multicast VLAN stream can reside in different VLANs. Clients in different
VLANs intend to join or leave the multicast group simply by sending the IGMP
Join/leave message to a receiver port. The receiver port belongs to one of the
multicast group can receive multicast stream from media server. In the Figure
1, without support of MVR, the Multicast stream from media server and
subscriber must reside in the same VLAN. For each VLAN, A media server is
required to transmit multicast stream once and totally, media server transmits 6
times. In the Figure 2, on the contrary, with MVR, a media server is required to
transmit multicast traffic once to clients in different VLANs.
Figure 1
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Figure 2
MVR Mode
‹
Dynamic Mode
If we select the dynamic mode in MVR setting, IGMP report message
transmitted from the receiver port will be forwarded to a multicast router
through its source port. Multicast router knows which multicast groups exist on
which interface dynamically.
‹
Compatible mode
If we select the dynamic mode in MVR setting, IGMP report message
transmitted from the receiver port will not be transmitted to a multicast router.
Multicast router must be statically configured.
Operation Mode
‹
Join Operation
A subscriber sends an IGMP report message to the switch to join the
appropriate multicast. Whether IGMP report matches the switch
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configured multicast MAC address. If matches, the switch CPU
modifies the hardware address table to include this receiver port and
VLAN as a forwarding destination of the MVLAN
‹
Leave Operation
Subscriber sends an IGMP leave message to the switch to leave the
multicast. The switch CPU sends an IGMP group-specific query
through the receiver port VLAN. If there is another subscriber in the
VLAN, subscriber must respond within the max response time. If
there is no subscriber, the switch eliminates this receiver port.
‹
Immediate Leave Operation
Subscriber sends an IGMP leave message to the switch to leave the
multicast. Subscribers do not need to wait the switch CPU to send an
IGMP group-specific query through the receiver port VLAN. The
switch will immediately eliminate this receiver port.
Scenario of MVR
In the following section, we will provide an example to illustrate how to
configure MVR. In this scenario, the main job of media server is to transmit the
media stream via port 10 to ES-4024A and the multicast traffic flowing into the
ES-4024A will be tagged with PVID=100. In the ES-3124, we enable the MVR
function to allocate the multicast traffic from ES-4024A to separate VLAN
hosts.
Figure 3 illustration of MVR
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Configuration via Web
Step 1: We need to create a VLAN for multicast traffic in ES-4024A. In the
ES-4024A, Click the Advanced Application and then select the VLAN and in
the VLAN Configuration, create a new VLAN 100.
Figure 4 VLAN Configuration
Step 2, In the ES-4024A, click the Advanced Application and then select the
VLAN. In the VLAN port Setting, please be noted to set the PVID of the port
10 to 100 as the multicast traffic that flowing from media server in port 10 must
be tagged with PVID=100 to communicate with the port in MVR VLAN 100 in
ES-3124.
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Figure 5 VLAN Port Setting
Step 3, we need to create separate VLANs for different Clients. In the ES-3124,
in the Advanced Application, click Multicast to enter the Multicast Setting
and configure the MVR VLAN=100. Define port 14, port 15 and port 16 as the
receiver ports to forward multicast stream to clients in different VLANs; set port
22 as a source port to receive traffic from the media server. Also, we select
mode as dynamic mode. The switch sends IGMP report message to multicast
router through its source port.
Figure 6 MVR Configuration
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Step 4: In the ES-3124, after the MVR configuration, click the Advanced
Application to browse the VLAN Status and see we have add a new VLAN
100 in the VLAN list. We also create three separate VLANs, 20, 30, 40 and
assign their PVID as 20, 30 and 40 respectively.
Figure 7 VLAN Status
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Figure 8 VLAN Port Setting
Step 5: Before we start to use the MVR, it is quite fundamental to enable the
IGMP Snooping first. In the ES-3124 Menu, click the Multicast and go toe the
Multicast Setting, activate the IGMP Snooping.
Figure 10 Multicast Setting
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Step 6: In the ES-3124, in the advanced application, select Multicast, and
then in the Multicast setting, and choose MVR and click the Group
configuration. Here, we configure 233.1.1.1~ 233.1.1.100 as the range of
multicast address and only the clients belong to that range of multicast group
will receive the multicast traffic.
Figure 11 Group Configuration
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Configuration via CLI
Step 1: On the ES-3124, in the configure mode, create VLAN 100
ES-3124# config
ES-3124(config)# vlan 100
Step 2: In the VLAN 100, set the port 22 to be fixed port.
ES-3124(config-vlan)# fixed 22
Step 3: On the ES-3124, in the configure mode, create VLAN 20, and set
the port 4 and port 14 to be fixed port.
ES-3124(config)# vlan 20
ES-3124(config-vlan)# untagged 4
ES-3124(config-vlan)# fixed 4
ES-3124(config-vlan)# untagged 14
ES-3124(config-vlan)# fixed 14
Step 4: On the ES-3124, in the configure mode, create VLAN 30, and set
the port 5 and port 15 to be fixed port.
ES-3124(config)# vlan 30
ES-3124(config-vlan)# untagged 5
ES-3124(config-vlan)# fixed 5
ES-3124(config-vlan)# untagged 15
ES-3124(config-vlan)# fixed 15
Step 5: On the ES-3124, in the configure mode, create VLAN 40, and set
the port 6 and port 16 to be fixed port.
ES-3124(config)# vlan 40
ES-3124(config-vlan)# untagged 6
ES-3124(config-vlan)# fixed 6
ES-3124(config-vlan)# untagged 16
ES-3124(config-vlan)# fixed 16
Step 6: On the ES-3124, set the PVID of specific VLAN 20
ES-3124(config)# interface port-channel 4
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ES-3124(config-interface)# pvid 20
ES-3124(config-interface)# exit
ES-3124(config)# interface port-channel 14
ES-3124(config-interface)# pvid 20
Step 7: On the ES-3124, set the PVID of specific VLAN 30
ES-3124(config)# interface port-channel 5
ES-3124(config-interface)# pvid 30
ES-3124(config-interface)# exit
ES-3124(config)# interface port-channel 15
ES-3124(config-interface)# pvid 30
Step 8: On the ES-3124, set the PVID of specific VLAN 40
ES-3124(config)# interface port-channel 6
ES-3124(config-interface)# pvid 40
ES-3124(config-interface)# exit
ES-3124(config)# interface port-channel 16
ES-3124(config-interface)# pvid 40
Step 9: On the ES-3124, in the configure mode, enable IGMP snooping
ES-3124(config)#igmpsnooping
Step 10: On the ES-3124, in the configure mode, create MVR
ES-3124(config)# mvr 100
Step 11: Define the Dynamic mode
ES-3124(config-mvr)# mode dynamic
Step 12: on the ES-3124, in the MVR 100, set up the multicast group
address.
ES-3124(config-mvr)#
group
test
start-address
233.1.1.1
end-address 233.1.1.100
Step 13: In the MVR 100, specify receiver ports on port 14~16 as tagged
ports
ES-3124(config-mvr)# receiver-port 14-16
ES-3124(config-mvr)# untagged 14-16
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Step 14: Then, specify the source port 22 and assign it to be tagged ports
ES-3124(config-mvr)# source-port 22
ES-3124(config-mvr)# tagged 22
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
To ring a network by building reducdent links and
connections between Switch
What is Spanning Tree Protocol
•
Spanning Tree Overview
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol designed to run on bridges
and switches. The specification for STP is defined in IEEE 802.1d. The main
purpose of STP is to ensure that you do not run into a loop situation when you
have redundant paths in your network. STP detects/disables network loops
and provides backup links between switches or bridges. It allows the device to
interact with other STP compliant devices in your network to ensure that only
one path exists between any two stations on the network.
The redundant topology without STP will cause the following problem:
1. Broadcast storm:
Without Spanning Tree loop avoidance mechanism, each switch will endlessly
flood broadcast packets to all ports. This situation is called broadcast storm.
1.
2.
3.
4.
When Host sends a broadcast frame, like an ARP request to Router,
the frame will be received by Switch A.
Switch A identify the destination MAC address field (broadcast
FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF) in the frame and determine to flood it onto
Segment B.
When the broadcast frame arrives at Switch B, Switch will repeat
above process, flood it to Segment A.
The broadcast frame will endlessly travel around the loop network
even Router has already received this frame.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
2. Filtering Database Instability:
When multiple copies of a frame arrive at different ports of a switch, the MAC
entry instability in Filtering Database will occur.
1.
2.
3.
Host sends an unicast frame to Router (source MAC address is
Host's MAC, destination MAC address is Router's MAC). Both
Switch A and Switch B will receive this frame and learn MAC
address of Host on Port 2.
Switch A has not yet learned the MAC address of Router. So Switch
A will flood a copy of the received frame to Segment B.
When the copy of the frame from Switch A arrives at Switch B,
Switch B will remove the first entry (Host MAC address on Port 2) in
Filtering Database and add a new mapping of Host MAC address
on Port 1. Switch B incorrectly learn Host MAC address on Port 1.
Switch B can't forward frames properly because the instability of
mapping MAC address to Port.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
How STP Works
Spanning Tree provide a loop-free network. When a switch supported STP
recognize a loop in the network topology, it blocks one or more redundant
ports. Spanning Tree Protocol continually explore the network, so when the
network topology changes, STP automatically reconfigure switch ports to avoid
the failure by blocking certain port.
Spanning tree algorithm aware switches (bridges) exchange configuration
messages periodically. The configuration message is a multicast frame called
BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Unit) or Hello message. According to BPDU,
these STP aware will construct a loop free network with "tree" architecture.
STP operation is listed as the following:
1. Select a root bridge
Only one switch/ bridge can be selected as the root bridge in a given network.
All other decisions in the network, such as which port is blocked and which port
is put in forwarding mode, are made regarding this root bridge. The root bridge
is the "root" of the constructed "tree".
1.
One of the important field included in the BPDU is the bridge ID.
Each bridge has unique bridge ID. The root bridge is the bridge
with the lowest bridge ID in the spanning tree network.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
2.
The bridge ID includes two parts, bridge priority (2 bytes) and
bridge MAC address (6 bytes). The 802.1d default bridge priority is
32768. For example, a switch with default priority 32768 (8000 hex),
MAC address is 00:A0:C5:12:34:56, its bridge ID is
8000:00A0:C512:3456.
3.
On the root bridge, all its ports are designated ports. Designated
ports are always in the forwarding state. While in forwarding
state, a port can receive and send traffic.
2. Select a root port for the non-root bridge
For the non-root switch/bridge, there will be one root port. The root port is the
port through which this non-root switch / bridge communicates with the root
bridge (the "leaf" side of the "tree").
1.
2.
The root port is the port on the non-root bridge with the lowest path
cost to the root bridge. The root port is normally in forwarding
state.
Path cost is the total cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN
through that port to bridge root. It is assigned according to the
bandwidth of the link. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Some of the path costs specified in the IEEE 802.1d specification
are listed below.
Link Speed
3.
Recommended Recommended
Cost
Cost Range
4Mbps
250
100 to 1000
10Mbps
100
50 to 600
16Mbps
62
40 to 400
100Mbps
19
10 to 60
1Gbps
4
3 to 10
10Gbps
2
1 to 5
When multiple ports have the same path cost to root bridge, the
port with lowest port priority is selected as root port.
3. Select a designated port on each segment
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
For each LAN segment (collision domain), there is a designated port. The
designated port has the lowest cost to the root bridge. Designated ports are
normally in the forwarding state to forward and receive traffic to the segment. If
more than one port in the segment have the same path cost, the port on which
bridge has lowest bridge ID is selected as a designated port.
1. How STP works
After STP determines the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports
and designated ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are
therefore only forwarded between root ports and designated ports, eliminating
any possible network loops. STP-aware devices exchange Bridge Protocol
Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the bridged LAN topology changes, a
new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for
Hello BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a
bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Max Age), the
bridge assumes that the link to the root bridge is down. This bridge then
initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to
re-establish a valid network topology.
For example:
Switch A:
MAC = 00A0C5111111,
Priority = 32768
Cost
Switch C: MAC =
Switch B:
MAC = 00A0C5222222, 00A0C5333333
Priority = 32768
Priority = 1
Port 1
Port 2
19
100
Cost
128
Priority 128
Priority 128
Port 1
Port 2
Port 1
19
100
Cost
128
Priority 128
19
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
1.
Switch A bridge ID = 8000:00A0:C511:1111, Switch B bridge ID =
8000:00A0:C522:2222, Switch C bridge ID =
2.
3.
0001:00A0:C533:3333. Switch C has the lowest bridge ID, so
Switch C is the root bridge. All ports of the root bridge are
designated ports, so Port 1 is designated port.
For non-root bridge Switch A, Port 1 path cost to root bridge is 19,
Port 2 path cost is 119, 100 (Switch A Port 2) + 19 (Switch B Port 1).
For Switch B, Port 1 path cost is 19, Port 2 path cost is 119. Root
port = Port 1 of Switch A and Switch B because it has the lowest
path cost to the root bridge Switch C.
On Segment A, both Port 2 of Switch A and Switch B have the
same path cost to root bridge. Since Switch A has lower bridge ID
than Switch B, the designated port is selected on Switch A. So Port
2 of Switch A is designated port.
Blocking = Port 2 of Switch B, the non designated port on the segment.
Forwarding = All designated ports and root ports.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Switching security
Setting up 802.1x Radius Authentication.
Port-Authentication -- RADIUS settings:
Click Advanced Application, Port Authentication in the navigation
panel to display configuration screen as shown. Click Enable
Authentication Server and set the RADIUS server IP address, UDP
port and shared Secret, which is the same as Radius server. Then click
Apply to make the settings take effect.
Click the 802.1x link to enter the 802.1x settings. Check the Enable
Authentication and click Apply button to enable 802.1x authentication.
Check Enable to turn on 802.1x authentication on that port. You can leave
other settings as default values. Click Apply to save your changes.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
RADIUS server setup
Click RADIUS, RADIUS SERVER in the navigation panel to display
configuration screen as shown. You can use the default values or change
the Authentication port, Shared Secret. Remember these values MUST
be the as the settings of client.
Create User Account
Click RADIUS, USER ACCOUNT in the navigation panel to display
configuration screen as shown. You can use the existed user account or
create the new one by clicking Add New User button. Remember the
client site MUST use the account in RADIUS server.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Windows XP(Supplicant) settings:
There are many supplicants we can choose like MeetingHouse Aegis
client, Funk Odyssey client and Microsoft 802.1x client. We take Microsoft
802.1x client as an example here.
802.1x/MD5-challenge setup
Open the Local Area connection Properties, and then click
Authentication page. Check the Enable IEEE 802.1x authentication for
this network and select the MD5-challenge in EAP type combobox.
Please see the following figure.
When the 802.1x starts, it will prompt you to enter the user name and
password. Please see the following figure.
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After click the icon, there will be a dialog for entering the user name
and password. Click ok after input the correct user name and password
that are in the database of authentication server. The settings of client site
are finished.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
After finishing the above procedures, we can allow the authenticated
port the access the server. If the switch port doesn’t be authenticated, the
PCs behind the port can’t access the network.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Fault Free Protection
Overview of VRRP
Traditional network has one and only one gateway to put between internal
network and external network. When the link of router has some trouble, the
user can’t access to internet anymore. But when we enable VRRP,.if MASTER
router fails, and the BACKUP router will take over, and ensure the traffic still go
through.
x
x
Master
Without VRRP
Backup
With VRRP
VRRP (Virtual Redundancy Routing Protocol) provides a fail-over solution to
increase network high availability and prevent single point of failure. Basically,
VRRP utilizes two or more switches to work together. The master switch
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handles all packets while the others are backup devices. When the master one
fails, the backup device with highest priority will take over the packet handling.
Terminology:
•
VRRP Router: A router running the Virtual Router Redundancy
Protocol.
•
Virtual Router: An abstract object managed by VRRP that acts as a
default router for hosts on a shared LAN.
•
Virtual Router Master: VRRP Router with forwarding responsibility of a
VR.
•
Virtual Router Backup: Set of VRRP Routers available to assume
forwarding responsibility when VR Master fails.
When do you need it?
VRRP is a L3 virtual routing protocol. For a network administrator, to ensure
serice/network always available without down time at gateway, VRRP can
benefit this and further provide load sharing if more than one uplink is applied.
Scenario 1 -- Redundancy
The network administrator Peter of ZyCompany wants to ensure the high
available of their server farm from LAN users. According to vendor’s
recommendation, they buy two ZyXEL ES-4024 switches and have the
configuration step by step as following.
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PC
IP:192.168.1.x
Gateway:192.168.1.100
Switch A – ES-4024
downlink network:192.168.1.6
uplink IP:192.168.254.2
uplink gateway:192.168.254.1
virtual IP:192.168.1.100
Switch B – GS-4012F
downlink network:192.168.1.5
uplink IP:192.168.254.3
uplink gateway:192.168.254.1
virtual IP:192.168.1.100
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Note1. Please notice that two IPs in switch A and switch B should be in
different vlan groups. For example:
Switch A: 192.168.1.6 in vlan 1; 192.168.254.2 in vlan 2
Switch B: 192.168.1.5 in vlan 1; 192.168.254.3 in vlan 2
Note2. For VRRP application, you must configure two different VLAN groups for
downlink network and uplink network. Otherwise, it’s not secure that the
authentication will be forwarded under same VLAN group.
Step 1. Configure a PC’s IP as same subnet of switchA (by default, it’s
192.168.1.1). Login switch’s GUI by http://switch’s_IP. Please refer to quick
start quick if you got problem at this step.
Step 2.
Setup the switch A’s VLAN info to apply the environment.
By default, ZyXEL switch has all ports with VLAN=1 setting already. We need
to create another VLAN2 for uplink interface. In addition, please notice the “Tx
tagging” setting to be unchecked if uplink device might be VLAN-unaware.
In this example, we assume
1. the ZyWALL which is VLAN-unaware is the uplink gateway, so here we
configure VLAN1 and VLAN2 groups are with Tx tagging “untagged”.
2. the network is very simple and we configure all ports are the member of
both VLAN1 & VLAN2 groups
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a. Go to GUI menu Advanced Application >> VLAN >> Static VLAN >>
choose VLAN1 to show the detail. Modify VLAN1 with all ports with “Fixed”
and uncheck “Tx Tagging”. Press Add button then.
b. Create the VLAN2 via GUI menu Advanced Application >> VLAN >>
Static VLAN, and configure all ports with “Fixed” and uncheck “Tx Tagging”.
Press Add button then. See the figure below.
c. Configure uplink port in GUI menu. Set the PVID to the same ID with uplink
is 20.
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Step 3. Setup the switch A’s IP address of two interfaces for layer 3 routing
and its uplink gateway. Take ES-4024 for example.
Configure Switch A’s IP setting via GUI menu Basic Setting >> IP Setup.
-
Default Gateway: 192.168.254.1
1st IP address: 192.168.1.6/24 with VID=1, see figure example as
below.
2nd IP address: 192.168.254.2/24 with VID=2
After add the change, it will become as following setting.
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Step 4.
Setup the switch A’s VRRP as the Master of group 1.
In the GUI menu Advanced Application >> VRRP, enter the “Configuration”
link.
1. choose ‘Simple’ for authentication
2. Enter type ‘12345’ for the key.
3. Press ‘add’ button.
4. Then input the VRRP information as following figure. Here we use
VRRP=7 and use priority=254 to indicate it is the Master role.
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Step 5. Setup the switch B’s VLAN to apply the environment. Refer to Step2
for the same setting.
Step 6. Setup the switch B’s IP address of two interfaces and uplink gateway.
Similar as switch A’s setting at Step3, but different IP address as following.
Configure Switch B’s IP setting via GUI menu Basic Setting >> IP Setup.
-
Default Gateway: 192.168.254.1
1st IP address for user subnet interface: 192.168.1.5/24 with VID=1,
see figure example as below.
2nd IP address for uplink interface: 192.168.254.3/24 with VID=2
Step 7. Setup the switch B’s VRRP as the Backup of group 1. Please refer to
Step6. Please note to use
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
choose ‘Simple’ for authentication
type ‘12345’ for the key and press ‘Apply’ button
same ‘Virtual Router ID” (=7 in this example)
lower priority (=100 in this example) to be a backup role
same uplink gateway in this scenario example (192.168.254.1)
same primary virtual IP (192.168.1.100 in this example)
Note: The design of authentication and key is for the authentication between Master
and Backup. It only takes effect to configure for downlink network.
Step 8. Make sure uplink is ok to be ping. (Otherwise, the uplink status will
stay at ‘Init’.
Note: The redundancy works when it detect uplink gateway can be ping and other
VRRP group members are not available or the switch is with the highest priority
among alive VRRP switches.
Step 9. Check the VRRP status via GUI. Both Master and Backup switches
should be alive as following.
For Master,
For Backup,
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Scenario 2 – Load Sharing
Furthermore, ZyCompany wants to achieve load sharing based on the
high availability application. To reach this target, two VRRP groups would be
recommended. Each switch is a Master of one VRRP group and also acts a
Backup of another VRRP group.
Network Admin will need to separate LAN users to two groups, each one
use one virtual IP to share LAN traffic loading. So if the both Master are alive,
PC group1’s traffic will mainly go via SwitchA while PC group2’s will mainly go
via SwitchB. See following topology and configuration step by step.
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PCs in group1
IP:192.168.1.x
Gateway:192.168.1.100
PCs in group2
IP:192.168.1.x
Gateway:192.168.1.200
Switch A – ES-4024
downlink network:192.168.1.5
downlink VLAN ID=1
VLAN Uplink
ID
Interface IP
Uplink gateway Virtual IP
VRRP
ID
VRRP
Role
2
192.168.254.2 192.168.254.1
192.168.1.100 7
Master
3
192.168.253.2 192.168.253.1
192.168.1.200 1
Backup
Switch B – GS-4012F
downlink network:192.168.1.6
downlink VLAN ID=1
VLAN Uplink
ID
Interface IP
Uplink gateway
Virtual IP
VRRP ID
VRRP
Role
2
192.168.254.3
192.168.254.1
192.168.1.100 7
Backup
3
192.168.253.3
192.168.253.1
192.168.1.200 1
Master
Note1. Two IPs in switch A and switch B should be in different vlan groups.
For example:
Switch A: 192.168.1.6 in vlan 1; 192.168.253.2 in vlan 2
Switch B: 192.168.1.5 in vlan 1; 192.168.254.3 in vlan 2
Note2. In this example, we connect to two ISPs to simulate the real world. It’s
in order to prevent the single point of failure additionally.
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Step 1. Here we assume that all setting are based on Scenario1’s
configuration. Therefore, we will skip the basic setting in this Scenario.
Step 2.
ISP2.
Add one more VLAN ID on SwitchA for another subnet connecting to
Same as Scenario1, in this example, we assume
1. The uplink gateway, ZyWALL, which is VLAN-unaware
2. The network is very simple and we configure all ports are the member
of both VLAN1, VLAN2, and VLAN3 groups
a. Create the VLAN3 via GUI menu Advanced Application >> VLAN >>
Static VLAN, and configure all ports with “Fixed” and uncheck “Tx Tagging”.
Press Add button then. See the figure below.
Step 3. Add one more Switch A’s IP setting via GUI menu Basic Setting >> IP
Setup.
-
Default Gateway: no change
Add 3rd IP address: 192.168.253.2/24 with VID=3, see following figure
after the change.
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Step 4.
Setup the switch A’s VRRP as the Backup of VRRP group 1.
In the GUI menu Advanced Application >> VRRP, enter the “Configuration”
link.
1. authentication: no change
2. key: no change
3. Then input the VRRP information as following figure. Here we use
VRRP=1 and use priority=100 to indicate it is the Backup role.
Step 5. Setup the switchB’s VLAN to apply the environment. Refer to Step2
for the same setting.
Step 6. Add one more interface info for the switch B’s IP. Similar as switch
A’s setting at Step3, but different IP address as following.
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Configure Switch B’s IP setting via GUI menu Basic Setting >> IP Setup.
-
Default Gateway: no change
Add 3rd IP address for another uplink interface: 192.168.253.3/24 with
VID=3
Step 7. Setup the switch B as the Master role of VRRP group 1. Please note to
use
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
authentication: no change
key: no change
same ‘Virtual Router ID” (=1 in this example)
lower priority (=254 in this example) to be a Master role
uplink gateway: 192.168.253.1
primary virtual IP: 192.168.1.200
Note: The design of authentication and key is for the authentication between Master
and Backup. It only takes effect to configure for downlink network.
Step 8. Make sure uplink is ok to be ping. (Otherwise, the uplink status will
stay at ‘Init’.
Note: The redundancy works when it detects uplink gateway can be ping and other
VRRP group members are not available or the switch is with the highest priority
among VRRP switches alive.
Step 9. Check the VRRP status via GUI. Both Master and Backup switches
should be alive as following.
For Master,
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For Backup,
CLI for VRRP
no ip vrrp authentication-key
•
Description: Resets the VRRP authentication settings
ip vrrp authentication-key <k>
•
•
Description: Sets the VRRP authentication key in the routing domain.
Ex: ip vrrp authentication-key 12345
router vrrp network <ip>/<mask-bits> vr-id <1-7> uplink-gateway <ip>
•
•
Description: Set VRRP detail information.
Ex: router vrrp network 192.168.1.5/24 vr-id 7 uplink-gateway
192.168.254.1
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name VRRP-7-B
primary-virtual-ip 192.168.1.100
no inactive
no preempt
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Centralized Management
* Current version of NetAtlas does not support ES-4024A Series
Introduction of SNMPc and NetAtlas
With the number of network device increase, the demand to detect and
respond to the network failure or external event in a very short time posts a
great challenge to network administrator. How to easily manage and monitor
network devices across networks becomes more and more important in
network management.
Figure 1 presents main elements of the system architecture. Element
Management System (EMS), NetAtlas provides a centralized remote
management platform and acts as SNMPc manager to perform network
configuration, system management, event/alarm management, performance
management and security for all ZyXEL’s Ethernet Switch solutions. SNMPc is
network management software produced by Castle Rock that constantly probe
the network element (NE) and collect information of those NE for EMS.
Underneath the EMS is Postgres SQL, the enterprise relational database
system, provides query for EMS
Figure 1 System Architecture
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Overview of SNMPc
The following diagram shows the main elements of SNMPc. SNMPc includes
the following function
♦
♦
♦
♦
Main Button Bar: Button and controls to execute commands quickly
Edit Button Bar: Button to quickly insert map element
Event Log Tool: Button display filtered event log entries
View Window Area: Map View, Mib Tables and Mib Graph windows are
displayed here.
♦
View Window Area: Map View, Mib Tables and Mib Graph windows.
Figure 2 Main elements of SNMPc
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Overview of EMS
The following diagram illustrates the main elements in EMS. EMS contains the
four main functions.
♦
♦
♦
Menu Shortcut Bar: The buttons execute common commands
Device Panel: This is a graphical device display.
Device List Panel: View devices in a tree structure. The colors of the
device indicate the status of the devices. Green is working and Rd is no
response from the device.
♦
System message Panel: View the alarm Status and port status of the
selected switch.
Figure 3 Overview of EMS
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Configuration of adding a new device via SNMPc
In the following example, we will illustrate how to get started with SNMPc and
Netatlas with adding a new device. Follow the procedures from Step 1 to Step
11.
Step 1: In the edit button bar shown in the Figure 4 where you may select the
icon to insert a new element.
Figure 4 Adding a new Device
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Add a new device
Step 2: In the map object properties, give the label name and enter the IP
address of the selected device. In this example, we configure 172.23.3.11 as
its IP address of your Switch as shown in Figure 5
Figure 5 Map Object Properties
Step 4: In the map object properties, select Access tab to set the parameters
of Read Access Mode to SNMP V2c shown in Figure 6. Change the value of
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Read Access Mode to SNMP V2c.
Figure 6 Read Access mode
Step 5: In the map object properties, select Access tab to set the parameters
of Read /Write Access Mode to SNMP V2c shown in Figure 7. Change the
value of Read/write Access Mode to SNMP V2c.
Figure 7 Read/Write Access Mode
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Step 6: In the map object properties, select Access tab to set the parameters
of Read community to public as shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8 Read Community
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Step 7: In the map object propeies, select Access tab to set the parameters of
Read community to public in Figure 9. Change the value of Read//write
Community to Public.
Figure 9 Read/write Community
Step 8: In the Selection tool menu, Click the name of your Switch to manage
the device.
Figure 10 Device Selection
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Step 9: After the selection, a pop-up menu will display the NetAtlas switch
manager diagram. Click the Switch Manager to enter the EMS Mapping
shown in Figure 11
Figure 11 Device Selection
Step 10: In the EMS mapping, it display a logical hierarchy for the device. In
the device list, you may see the devices are added in the Rootmap shown in
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Figure 12.
Figure 12 Rootmap
Step 11: Click the your Switch to configure the device shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13 Device mapping
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VLAN Configuration via EMS
In this section, we will give an example to illustrate how to use EMS to create a
VLAN2 in GS-4024. Here are the procedures.
Step 1: In the device panel list shown in Figure 12, right-click Configuration,
Switch Configuration and then Switch Setup tab as shown in Figure 12 and
Figure 13.
Step 2: Define the VLAN type, there are two types of VLAN, one is 802.1Q and
the other is Port-based VLAN. Select 802.1Q as the VLAN type and click
Apply in the Figure 14.
Figure 12 Device panel list
Figure 13 Switch Configuration
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Figure 14 Selecting a VLAN Type
After the VLAN type selection, a pop-up window indicates that you have
finished the configuration. Then after we have defined the VLAN type to be the
802.1Q, go back to click the Configuration and then VLAN configuration in
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Figure 15.
Figure 15 VLAN Configuration
Click the New button to create a new VLAN ID in Figure 16.
Figure 16 Creating a new VLAN ID
Selecting Egress ports and defines them to be tagged or untagged in Figure 17
Figure 17 Selecting the ports
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For more information, reference the user guide of NetAtlas.
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Cluster Management Overview
Cluster Management allows you to manage up to 24 switches through a single
IP to manage up to 24 switches simultaneously in the same broadcast domain
and the same VLAN group ID. The cluster manager which can manage other
switches is called the master device. The other terminology we use for cluster
management is “istacking”.
•
How Cluster Management works
Step 1:
1. HDAP Discover REQ
Cluster manager
(Master device)
Cluster member
(Slave device)
To discover the clustering members, the clustering Manager broadcasts a
HDAP (Host Discovery and Address assignment Protocol) Discover request.
Step 2:
2. HDAP Discover RSP
Cluster manager
(Master device)
Cluster member
(Slave device)
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A clustering member listens on UDP port 263. When a clustering member
receives a request with the matching signature, it answers with a HDAP
Discover Response. In the response, the clustering member provides identity
information about itself.
Step 3:
3. HDAP_SET_ADDR_REQ
(Address set / Password
challenge)
Cluster manager
(Master device)
Cluster member
(Slave device)
HDAP_SET_ADDR_REQ (Master device) packet request is used for a
clustering manager to assign an IP address and subnet mask to a clustering
member.
Step 4:
Cluster manager 4. HDAP_SET_ADDR_RSP
(Master device)
Cluster member
(Slave device)
HDPA_SET_ADDR_RSP (Slave device) packet response is for a clustering
member to acknowledge a "Set Address" request. The hardware address
uniquely identifies the sender of this response.
After the processes are done, the cluster master will be able to manage the
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slave switch.
•
How to set up Cluster Management in switch
Step 1:
Go to menu: “Management” Æ ”Cluster Management” Æ ”Clustering
Management Configuration”
In “Clustering Management Configuration” pages, check the “Active” check
box to enable Cluster Manager.
In the middle of this page, there is a table shows all the clustering candidates
which can be selected and added as the clustering members.
Step 2:
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Select a device in the Clustering Candidate table and enter the password
which is the admin password for the candidate device to add the clustering
member.
Step 3:
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Click on the index number to manage the selected clustering member.
Step 4:
In “Member Menu” pages, you can change any setting of the clustering
member, except Cluster Management, Firmware Upgrade and Restore
Configuration.
Step 5:
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Enter “Management”->”Cluster Management”->”Clustering Management
Status:” In “Clustering Management Status” pages, you can check the status
for each member.
Step 6:
Enter “Management”->”Cluster Management”->”Clustering Management
Configuration:” In “Clustering Management Configuration” pages , by
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checking the remove checkbox and then, click on the Remove button to
remove a cluster member.
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Overview of RMON
Remote Monitoring (RMON) is a standard monitoring specification that
enables various network monitors and console systems to exchange
network-monitoring data. RMON provides network administrators with more
freedom in selecting network-monitoring probes and consoles with features
that meet their particular networking needs.
RMON was originally developed to address the problem of managing LAN
segments and remote sites from a central location. The RMON specification,
which is an extension of the SNMP MIB, is a standard monitoring specification.
Within an RMON network monitoring data is defined by a set of statistics and
functions and exchanged between various different monitors and console
systems. Resultant data is used to monitor network utilization for network
planning and performance-tuning, as well as assisting in network fault
diagnosis.
RMON solutions are comprised of two components: a probe (or an agent or a
monitor), and a client, usually a management station. Agents store network
information within their RMON MIB and are normally found as embedded
software on network hardware such as routers and switches although they can
be a program running on a PC. Agents can only see the traffic that flows
through them so they must be placed on each LAN segment or WAN link that
is to be monitored. Clients, or management stations, communicate with the
RMON agent or probe, using SNMP to obtain and correlate RMON data.
Now, there are a number of variations to the RMON MIB. For example, the
Token Ring RMON MIB provides objects specific to managing Token Ring
networks. The SMON MIB extends RMON by providing RMON analysis for
switched networks.
RMON Groups
RMON delivers information in nine RMON groups of monitoring elements,
each providing specific sets of data to meet common network-monitoring
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requirements. Each group is optional so that vendors do not need to support all
the groups within the Management Information Base (MIB). Some RMON
groups require support of other RMON groups to function properly. Table 1
summarizes the nine monitoring groups specified in the RFC 1757 Ethernet
RMON MIB.
Table 1: RMON Monitoring Groups
RMON 1
Function
Elements
Contains statistics
Packets dropped, packets sent, bytes
measured by the
sent (octets), broadcast packets,
probe for each
multicast packets, CRC errors, runts,
monitored interface
giants, fragments, jabbers, collisions,
on this device.
and counters for packets ranging from
MIB
Group
Statistics
64 to 128, 128 to 256, 256 to 512, 512
to 1024, and 1024 to 1518 bytes.
History
Records periodic
Sample period, number of samples,
statistical samples
items sampled.
from a network and
stores for retrieval.
Alarm
Periodically takes
Includes the alarm table and requires
statistical samples
the implementation of the event group.
and compares them
Alarm type, interval, starting threshold,
with set thresholds for stop threshold.
events generation.
Host
Contains statistics
Host address, packets, and bytes
associated with each
received and transmitted, as well as
host discovered on
broadcast, multicast, and error packets.
the network.
HostTopN
Prepares tables that
Statistics, host(s), sample start and
describe the top
stop periods, rate base, duration.
hosts.
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Matrix
Stores and retrieves
Source and destination address pairs
statistics for
and packets, bytes, and errors for each
conversations
pair.
between sets of two
addresses.
Filters
Enables packets to be Bit-filter type (mask or not mask), filter
matched by a filter
expression (bit level), conditional
equation for capturing expression (and, or not) to other filters.
or events.
Packet
Enables packets to be Size of buffer for captured packets, full
Capture
captured after they
status (alarm), number of captured
flow through a
packets.
channel.
Events
Controls the
Event type, description, last time event
generation and
sent
notification of events
from this device.
Groups of RMON MIB
The objects are arranged into the following groups:
Statistics
(iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1).mgmt(2).mib-2(1).rmon(16).statistics(1))
History
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.2)
Alarm
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.3)
Hosts
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.4)
hostTopN
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.5)
Matrix
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.6)
Filter
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.7)
Capture
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.8)
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Event
(1.3.6.1.2.1.16.9)
All groups in this MIB are optional. (MIB-II is mandatory)
Scenario (ES-4024A Series supports RMON 1.2.3.9)
In this illustration, SNMPc Enterprise Edition Version 5.1.6c is installed on
the PC. And this PC is defined as “RMON management console”. This PC can
ping both ZyXEL ES-3148 (both Switch A & Switch B). And there are some
probes / networking devices to generate the traffic to the ZyXEL Switches in
order to verify the RMON result. Since the work flow and the technology of
RMON on the two switches are the same, only one of the ZyXEL ES-3148
Switch will be demonstrated at this time.
Since RMON is an extension of the SNMP, SNMP must be enabled first in
the ZyXEL ES-3148. By default SNMP is enabled and it has set Community
(Get,Set,Trap) to “public”. And Trap Destination to 0.0.0.0; It is not mandatory
to change the default value in order for SNMP & RMON to work. Therefore,
modification is not necessary in this case.
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In this scenario, we are going to monitor the Broadcast Packets by using the
RMON MIB. The following will demonstrate the steps to monitor the Broadcast
Packets by using SNMPc Enterprise Edition Version 5.1.6c.
1.
Methodology of Scenario Verification
1.Open your SNMPc program first, then pick the ZyXEL-3148 Switch (it is
first named as device “root”) and give it the correct IP information to get
the SNMP information. Also, you can rename it to whatever you want.
You can verify if your configuration is correct by using the “Poll
Object” option. Just right click our mouse on the ES-3148 icon and it is
located inside the “Tools”.
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2.
Secondly, click on the “Mib” tab and expend the SNMP Mibs’ tree. You will
find that there is an “rmon” group over there and again you can expend its
sub-tree.
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3.
Right click the “etherStatsTable” and choose “View Table”
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4.
Find the interface or port that you are looking for. And you can look at the
corresponding field and therefore find the value that you want to monitor.
In this case, we are looking for the Broadcast Packets.
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ES-4024A Series Switch Support Notes
Try to generate some broadcast traffic from the probe or your network
device, then you should see the BroadcastPkts increasing.
5.
In conclusion, if the Switch
supports RMON, then you can
get the values from the Switch
in
the
RMON
Group(s),
otherwise, it will return 0 and
always stays 0. Without the
supporting of RMON, then it is
impossible to monitor those
elements in the RMON MIB
Group
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FAQ
What is the default setting of the IP parameters?
IP address: 192.168.1.1
Subnet: 255.255.255.0
What is the default login Name and Password of the Web Configurator?
ID: admin
Password: 1234
How to access my SWITCH through the console port?
Connect the male 9-pin end of the console cable to the console port of the
Switch. Connect the female end to a serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM
port) of your computer, which has terminal emulation software configured to
the follow parameters:
Terminal emulation: VT100
Baud rate: 9600 bps
Data bits: 8
Parity: none
Stop bit: 1
Flow control: none
What is default login password of the console, telnet, and FTP?
Password: 1234
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How to change the password?
Web Configurator is the only place you can change the password. After you log
in for the first time, it is recommended you change the default administrator
password.
From Web Configurator: Click Advanced Application, Access Control, and
then Logins to display the next screen.
From there you can change a new password.
How to access the Command Line Interface?
There are two ways to access the Command Line Interface. One is “Telnet to
the switch” and another is “Connect a computer to the console port and use
the terminal emulation software.” Please check “How to access the Switch
through the console port?” to set up the parameters.
If you forget the password, how to reset the password to default?
If you forget the password, you will need to reload the factory default
configuration. Please be aware that you will lose all previous configurations.
1. Connect the console cable to your computer and open the terminal
emulation software.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Power off and then power on the Switch, and press any key to enter the
debug mode when the screen shows “Press any key to enter Debug Mode
within 3 seconds.”
Type “atlc” and press the enter key
When the message “starting XMODEM upload” appears, do XMODEM
upload of the default rom file to the Switch
After it is done uploading the rom file successfully, type “atgo” to leave the
debug mode.
The system will be restarted automatically. After the system is up, you
should be able to log in with the default password “1234” and the IP
address is now 192.168.1.1.
How do I configure an IP address?
From Web Configurator:
Click Basic Setting and then IP Setup to display the next screen.
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Is Online Help available on the Web Configurator?
Yes, the Web Configurator’s Online Help is available. Clicking on the Help link
will bring up a description of the online help of that screen.
How to restart device from Web?
1.
Click Management and then Maintenance in the navigation panel to
display the following screen.
2.
Click on the “Click Here” button next to the Reboot System will restart the
Switch.
How to check the current running firmware version?
From console, issuing a command, “show system-information” will return the
information of the firmware version installed on the switch.
Is the mini GBIC transceiver hot-swappable?
Yes, it is hot-swappable. You can change transceivers while the switch is
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operating.
What is so called "Dual-Personality interface" in Ethernet Switching?
Dual-Personality GbE interface means that one 1000Base-T Copper port and
one SFP port share the same physical interface. Only one of them can be used
at one of a time. Dual-Personality interface is also called "Combo Port" in
some cases.
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