Digi XStream-PKG-R RS-485 Product manual

XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem
Product Manual v4.2B5
For XStream RF Modem Part Numbers:
X09-001PK…-R…
X09-009PK…-R…
X09-019PK…-R…
X24-009PK…-R...
X24-019PK…-R…
900 MHz and 2.4 GHz Boxed RF Modems by Digi International Inc.
XH9-001PK…-R...
XH9-009PK…-R…
XH9-019PK…-R…
XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
XStream-PKG-R RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
(Part number 90002210 B)
Revision
B
Date
Description
10/15//14
Minor changes and new part number
© 2014 Digi International Inc. All rights reserved.
Digi, Digi International Inc., the Digi logo, and XStream®
are trademarks or registered trademarks in the United
States and other countries worldwide. All other
trademarks mentioned in this document are the property
of their respective owners.
Information in this document is subject to change without
notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of
Digi International Inc. Digi provides this document “as is,”
without warranty of any kind, expressed or implied,
including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
fitness or merchantability for a particular purpose. Digi
may make improvements and/or changes in this manual or
in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this
manual at any time.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Contents
1. XStream RS-232/485 RF Modem
1.1. Features
4
Appendix C: Additional Information
43
4
1-Year Warranty
43
4
Ordering Information
43
1.2. Specifications
5
Contact Digi
44
1.3. External Interface
6
2. Interfacing Protocol
7
1.1.1. Worldwide Acceptance
2.1. RS-232 Operation
2.1.1. DIP Switch Settings and Pin Signals
2.2. RS-485 (2-wire) Operation
2.2.1. DIP Switch Settings and Pin Signals
7
7
9
9
2.3. RS-485 (4-wire) and RS-422 Operation 10
2.3.1. DIP Switch Settings and Pin Signals
3. RF Modem Operation
3.1. Serial Communications
3.1.1. RS-232 and RS-485/422 Data Flow
10
12
12
12
3.1.2. Host and RF Modem I/O Settings
12
3.1.3. Flow Control
13
3.2. Modes of Operation
14
3.2.1. Idle Mode
14
3.2.2. Transmit Mode
14
3.2.3. Receive Mode
16
3.2.4. Sleep Modes
16
3.2.5. Command Mode
19
4. RF Modem Configuration
21
4.1. Automatic DIP Switch Configurations
21
4.2. Programming the Modem
22
4.2.1. AT Command Examples
22
4.2.2. Binary Command Example
23
4.3. Command Reference Table
24
4.4. Command Descriptions
25
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
FCC Certification
36
36
OEM Labeling Requirements
37
Antenna Usage
37
FCC-Approved Antennas
38
IC (Industry Canada) Certification
39
Appendix B: Development Guide
40
RS-232 Accessories Kit Contents
40
Adapters
41
Antennas
42
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
1. XStream RS-232/485 RF Modem
The XStream-PKG-R RF Modem provides long range data
communications and advanced networking for OEMs and system
integrators. Out-of-box, the modem is equipped to sustain long range
wireless links between devices. Simply enter serial data into one
modem and the data surfaces on the other end of the wireless link.
The modem transfers a standard asynchronous serial data stream
between two or more modems. Its built-in RS-232/485/422 interfacing facilitates rapid
integration into existing data systems.
1.1. Features
Long Range
Easy-to-Use
9XStream-PKG-R (900 MHz) Range:
Out-of-Box RF Communications -
•
Indoor/Urban: up to 1500’ (450 m)
no configuration required
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 7 miles (11 km)
w/ 2.1 dBm dipole antenna
External DIP Switch for configuring:
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 20 miles (32 km)
w/ high gain antenna
24XStream-PKG-R (2.4 GHz) Range:
•
Indoor/Urban: up to 600’ (180 m)
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 3 miles (5 km)
w/ 2.1 dBm dipole antenna
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 10 miles (16 km)
w/ high gain antenna
Receiver Sensitivity: -110 dBm (900 MHz),
-105 dBm (2.4 GHz)
Advanced Networking and Security
True peer-to-peer (no “master” required),
point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, multidrop
Retries and Acknowledgements
7 hopping channels, each with over 65,000
available network addresses
• RS-232/485/422 support
(multidrop included)
• 2-wire (half-duplex) or 4-wire
RS-485/422 operation
• Parity options
7-18 VDC power supply
Simple AT and Binary commands for
programming the modem
Software-selectable serial
interfacing rates
MODBUS, CTS, RTS, DTR, DCD
(and more) I/O Support
XII™ Interference Blocking
Power-saving Sleep Modes
(as low as 6 mA)
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)
1.1.1. Worldwide Acceptance
FCC Certified (USA) - Refer to Appendix A for FCC Requirements.
Systems that contain XStream RF Modems inherit Digi’s FCC Certification.
ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) frequency band
Manufactured under ISO 9001:2000 registered standards
9XStream (900 MHz) RF Modems are approved for use in US, Canada, Australia and Israel
(and more).
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
1.2. Specifications
Table 1.1.
XStream-PKG-R RS-232/485 RF Modem Specifications
Specification
9XStream-PKG-R (900 MHz)
24XStream-PKG-R (2.4 GHz)
Indoor/Urban Range
Up to 1500’ (450 m)
Up to 600’ (180 m)
Outdoor LOS Range
Up to 7 miles (11 km) w/ dipole antenna
Up to 20 miles (32 km) w/ high-gain antenna
Up to 3 miles (5 km) w/ dipole antenna
Up to 10 miles (16 km) w/ high-gain antenna
Transmit Power Output
100 mW (20 dBm)
50 mW (17 dBm)
Interface Data Rate
125 – 65,000 bps (software selectable)
125 – 65,000 bps (software selectable)
Throughput Data Rate
9,600 bps
19,200 bps
9,600 bps
19,200 bps
RF Data Rate
10,000 bps
20,000 bps
10,000 bps
20,000 bps
Receiver Sensitivity
-110 dBm
-107 dBm
-105 dBm
-102 dBm
Performance
Power Requirements
Supply Voltage
7-18 VDC
7-18 VDC
Receive Current
70 mA
90 mA
Transmit Current
170 mA
180 mA
Pin Sleep Power-Down
6 mA
6 mA
Frequency
902-928 MHz
2.4000-2.4835 GHz
Spread Spectrum
Frequency Hopping, Wide band FM modulator
Frequency Hopping, Wide band FM modulator
Network Topology
Peer-to-Peer, Point-to-Multipoint, Point-to-Point, Multidrop
Peer-to-Peer, Point-to-multipoint, Point-to-Point, Multidrop
Channel Capacity
7 hop sequences share 25 frequencies
7 hop sequences share 25 frequencies
Data Connection
DB-9 (RS-232/485/422)
DB-9 (RS-232/485/422)
Enclosure
7.1 oz. (200g), Extruded aluminum, black anodized
7.1 oz. (200g), Extruded aluminum, black anodized
Enclosure Size
2.750” x 5.500” x 1.125”
(6.99cm x 13.97” x 2.86cm)
2.750” x 5.500” x 1.125”
(6.99cm x 13.97” x 2.86cm)
Operating Temperature
0 to 70º C (commercial) or -40 to 85º C (industrial)
0 to 70º C (commercial) or -40 to 85º C (industrial)
Type
½ wave dipole whip, 6.75” (17.1 cm), 2.1 dBi Gain
½ wave dipole whip, 5.25” (13.3 cm), 2.1 dBi Gain
Connector
Reverse-polarity SMA
Reverse-polarity SMA
Impedance
50 ohms unbalanced
50 ohms unbalanced
General
Physical Properties
Antenna
Certifications (Refer to www.digi.com for additional certifications)
FCC Part 15.247
OUR9XSTREAM
OUR-24XSTREAM
Industry Canada (IC)
4214A-9XSTREAM
4214A 12008
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
1.3. External Interface
1.1a. Power Switch
Figure 1.1. Front View
Move the Power Switch to the on (up) position to power the
Interface Board. DIP Switch (1.2a) settings are only read
during a power-up sequence.
1.1b. I/O and Power LEDs
The LED indicators visualize diagnostic status information. The
modem’s status is represented as follows:
Yellow (top LED) = Serial Data Out (to host)
1.1a.
Power
Switch
Green (middle) = Serial Data In (from host)
1.1c. DB-9
Serial Port
1.1b. I/O and
Power LEDs
1.1d. Power
Connector
Red (bottom) = Power/TX Indicator (Red light is on when
powered, off briefly during RF transmission)
1.1c. Serial Port (DB-9 Connector)
Standard female DB-9 (RS-232) DCE connector – This connector
can be also used for RS-485 and RS-422 connections.
1.1d. Power Connector
7-18 VDC Power Connector (Center positive, 5.5/2.1mm) – Power
can also be supplied through Pin 9 of the DB-9 Serial Port.
1.2a. DIP Switch
Figure 1.2. Back View
The DIP Switch automatically configures the XStream RF Modem
to operate in different modes. Each time the modem is poweredon, intelligence inside the XIB-R interface board (inside the
modem) programs the modem according to the positions of the
DIP Switch. (See figure below for DIP Switch settings)
NOTE: In cases where AT Commands should not be sent each time
the RF Modem is powered-on, the processor must be disabled by
populating J7 on the interface board inside the modem (p21).
1.2b.
Config Switch
1.2a.
1.2c.
DIP Switch
Antenna Port
1.2b. Config (Configuration) Switch
The Configuration Switch provides an alternate way to enter “AT
Command Mode”. To enter “AT Command Mode” at the RF
modem’s default baud rate, hold the Configuration Switch down
while powering on the modem using the Power Switch (1.1a).
1.2c. Antenna Port
Figure 1.3. DIP Switch Settings
Port is a 50Ω RF signal connector for connecting to an external
antenna. The connector type is RPSMA (Reverse Polarity SMA) female.
The connector has threads on the outside of a
barrel and a male center conductor.
Refer to table in the “Automatic
DIP Switch Configurations” (p21)
section for more information about
configurations triggered by the
DIP Switch.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
2. Interfacing Protocol
The XStream-PKG-R RF Modem supports the following interfacing protocols:
• RS-232
• RS-485 (2-wire) Half-Duplex
• RS-485 (4-wire) and RS-422
2.1. RS-232 Operation
2.1.1. DIP Switch Settings and Pin Signals
Figure 2.1.
RS-232 DIP Switch Settings
Figure 2.2.
Pins used on the female RS-232 (DB-9)
Serial Connector
DIP Switch settings are read and applied
only while powering-on.
Table 2.1.
RS-232 Signals and their implementations on the XStream RF Modem
(Low-asserted signals are distinguished by horizontal line over pin name.)
DB-9 Pin
RS-232
Name
AT Command
Reference*
Description
Implementation
1
DCD
DO3
Data-Carrier-Detect
Connected to DSR (pin6)
2
RXD
DO
Received Data
Serial data exiting the RF Modem (to host)
3
TXD
DI
Transmitted Data
Serial data entering into the RF modem (from host)
4
DTR
DI3
Data-Terminal-Ready
Can enable POWER-DOWN on the RF Modem
5
GND
-
Ground Signal
Ground
6
DSR
DO3
Data-Set-Ready
Connected to DCD (pin1)
7
/
CMD
DI2
Request-to-Send
Provides
flow control or
enables “Command Mode” on the RF Modem
DO2
Clear-to-Send
-
Ring Indicator
8
9
RI
Provides
flow control
Optional power input that is connected internally to
the positive lead of the front power connector
* Inside the XStream RF Modem is an XStream OEM RF Module. The names in this column refer to the pin
signals of the embedded RF module. XStream Commands (p24) used to configure pin behaviors are named
according to the pins of the module, not the RS-232 connection pins.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Wiring Diagram: RS-232 DTE Device to a DCE RF Modem
Figure 2.3. RS-232 DTE (male connector) device wired to an XStream RF Modem (female connector)
Wiring Diagram: DCE RF Modem to an RS-232 DCE Device
Figure 2.4. XStream RF Modem (female connector) wired to an RS-232 DTE (male connector) device
Sample Wireless Connection: DTE  DCE
DCE  DCE
Figure 2.5. Typical wireless link between DTE and DCE devices
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
2.2. RS-485 (2-wire) Operation
2.2.1. DIP Switch Settings and Pin Signals
Figure 2.6.
RS-485 (2-wire) Half-Duplex
DIP Switch Settings
Figure 2.7.
Pins used on the female RS-232 (DB-9)
Serial Connector
Figure 2.8.
RS-485 (2-wire) with Termination (optional)
Termination is the 120 Ω resistor between T+ and T-.
DIP Switch settings are read and applied only while powering-on.
Note:
Refer to Figures 2.15 and 2.16 for RJ-45 connector pin designations used in
RS-485/422 environments.
Table 2.2.
RS-485 (2-wire half-duplex) Signals and their implementations on the XStream RF Modem
DB-9 Pin
RS-485 Name
Description
Implementation
2
T/R- (TRA)
Negative Data Line
Transmit serial data to and from the
XStream RF Modem
5
GND
Ground Signal
Ground
8
T/R+ (TRB)
Positive Data Line
Transmit serial data to and from the
XStream RF Modem
9
PWR
Power
Optional power input that is connected internally
to the front power connector
1, 3, 4, 6, 7
not used
Wiring Diagram: RS-485 (2-wire) Half-Duplex
Figure 2.9. XStream RF Modem in an RS-485 (2-wire) half-duplex environment
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
2.3. RS-485 (4-wire) and RS-422 Operation
2.3.1. DIP Switch Settings and Pin Signals
Figure 2.10.
RS-485 (4-wire) and RS-422
DIP Switch Settings
Figure 2.11.
Pins used on the female RS-232 (DB-9)
Serial Connector
Figure 2.12.
RS-485 (4-wire) and RS-422 with Termination (optional)
Termination is the 120 Ω resistor between T+ and T-.
DIP Switch settings are read and applied only while powering-on.
Table 2.3.
RS-485/422 (4-wire) Signals and their implementations with the XStream-PKG-R RF Modem
DB-9 Pin
RS-485/422
Name
Description
Implementation
2
T- (TA)
Transmit Negative
Data Line
Serial data sent from the XStream RF Modem
3
R- (RA)
Receive Negative
Data Line
Serial data received by the XStream RF Modem
5
GND
Signal Ground
Ground
7
R+ (RB)
Receive Positive
Data Line
Serial data received by the XStream RF Modem
8
T+ (TB)
Transmit Positive
Data Line
Serial data sent from the XStream RF Modem
9
PWR
Power
Optional power input that is connected internally
to the front power connector
1, 4, 6
not used
Wiring Diagram: RS-485 (4-wire) Half-Duplex
Figure 2.13.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
XStream RF Modem in an RS-485 (4-wire) environment
10
XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Wiring Diagram: RS-422
Figure 2.14.
XStream RF Modem in an RS-485 (4-wire) environment
RS-485/422 Connection Guidelines
The RS-485/422 protocol provides a solution for wired communications that can tolerate high
noise and push signals over long cable lengths. RS-485/422 signals can communicate as far as
4000 feet (1200 m). RS-232 signals are suitable for cable distances up to 100 feet (30.5 m).
RS-485 offers multi-drop capability in which up to 32 nodes can be connected. The RS-422
protocol is used for point-to-point communications.
Suggestions for integrating the XStream Modem with the RS-485/422 protocol:
1.
When using Ethernet twisted pair cabling: Select wires so that T+ and T- are connected to
each wire in a twisted pair. Likewise, select wires so that R+ and R- are connected to a
twisted pair. (For example, tie the green and white/green wires to T+ and T-.)
2.
For straight-through Ethernet cable (not cross-over cable) – The following wiring pattern
works well: Pin3 to T+, Pin4 to R+, Pin5 to R-, Pin6 to T-
3.
Note that the connecting cable only requires 4 wires (even though there are 8 wires).
4.
When using phone cabling (RJ-11) – Pin2 in the cable maps to Pin3 on opposite end of cable
and Pin1 maps to Pin4 respectively.
Figure 2.15.
Male (yellow) DB-9 to RJ-45 Adapters
Figure 2.16.
Female (green) DB-9 to RJ-45 Adapters
An RS-232 Accessories Kit is available that includes connectors that facilitate RS-232/485/422
and other serial communications. Refer to the Development Guide in Appendix B for information
concerning the connectors and tools included in the kit.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
3. RF Modem Operation
3.1. Serial Communications
3.1.1. RS-232 and RS-485/422 Data Flow
Devices that have a UART interface can connect directly through the pins of the XStream Modem
as is shown in the figure below.
Figure 3.1. System Data Flow Diagram in a UART-interfaced environment
(Low-asserted signals distinguished with horizontal line over signal name.)
3.1.2. Host and RF Modem I/O Settings
Serial communications between a host and an XStream RF Modem are dependent upon having
matching baud rate, parity, stop bit and number of data bits settings. Failure to enter the modem
into AT Command Mode is most commonly due to baud rate mismatch. Refer to the table below
to ensure host serial port settings match those of the modem.
Table 3.1.
Parameter values critical to serial communications between the RF Modem and host
Parameter Setting
XStream RF Modem Default Parameter Value
Baud (Serial Data Rate)
9600 bps or 19200 baud (Factory-set RF data rates)
Number of Data Bits
8
(NB parameter = 0)
Parity
None
(NB parameter = 0)
Number of Stop Bits
1
(NB parameter = 0)
Both the XStream RF Modem and host (PC) settings can be viewed and adjusted using Digi’s
proprietary XCTU Software. Use the “PC Settings” tab to configure host settings. Use the
“Terminal” or “Modem Configuration” tabs to configure the RF Modem settings. Refer to the RF
Modem Configuration sections for more information (p21).
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
3.1.3. Flow Control
Figure 3.2. Internal Data Flow Diagram
(The five most commonly-used pin signals are shown.)
DI (Data In) Buffer and Flow Control
When serial data enters the XStream Modem through the DI Pin, then the data is stored in the DI
Buffer until it can be transmitted.
When the RO parameter threshold is satisfied (refer to Transmit Mode (p14) and Command
Descriptions (p25) sections for more information), the modem attempts to initialize an RF
connection. If the modem is already receiving RF data, the serial data is stored in the modem’s
DI Buffer. If the DI buffer becomes full, hardware or software flow control must be implemented
in order to prevent overflow (loss of data between the host and XStream RF Modem).
How to eliminate the need for flow control:
1.
Send messages that are smaller than the DI buffer size. The size of the DI buffer varies
according to the packet size and parity setting used.
2.
Interface at a lower baud rate (BD Command) than the fixed RF data rate.
Two cases in which the DI Buffer may become full and possibly overflow:
1.
If the serial interface data rate is set higher than the RF data rate of the modem, the modem
will receive data from the host faster than it can transmit the data over-the-air.
2.
If the modem is receiving a continuous stream of RF data or if the modem is monitoring data
on a network, any serial data that arrives on the DI pin is placed in the DI Buffer. The data in
the DI buffer will be transmitted over-the-air when the modem no longer detects RF data in
the network.
Hardware Flow Control (
). When the DI buffer is 17 bytes away from being full; by
default, the modem de-asserts (high)
to signal to the host device to stop sending data (refer
to the FT (Flow Control Threshold) and CS (DO2 Configuration) commands).
is re-asserted
after the DI Buffer has 34 bytes of memory available.
Software Flow Control (XON). XON/XOFF software flow control can be enabled using the FL
(Software Flow Control) Command. This option only works with ASCII data.
DO (Data Out) Buffer and Flow Control
When RF data is received, the data enters the DO buffer and is then sent out the serial port to a
host device. Once the DO Buffer reaches capacity, any additional incoming RF data is lost.
Two cases in which the DO Buffer may become full and possibly overflow:
1.
If the RF data rate is set higher than the interface data rate of the modem, the modem will
receive data from the transmitting modem faster than it can send the data to the host.
2.
If the host does not allow the modem to transmit data out from the DO buffer because of
being held off by hardware or software flow control.
Hardware Flow Control (
). If
is enabled for flow control (RT Parameter = 2), data will
not be sent out the DO Buffer as long as
is de-asserted.
Software Flow Control (XOFF). XON/XOFF software flow control can be enabled using the FL
(Software Flow Control) Command. This option only works with ASCII data.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
3.2. Modes of Operation
XStream RF Modems operate in five modes.
Figure 3.3. XStream Modes of Operation
Modem can only be in one mode at a time.
3.2.1. Idle Mode
When not receiving or transmitting data, the modem is in Idle Mode. The modem uses the same
amount of power in Idle Mode as it does in Receive Mode.
The modem shifts into the other modes of operation under the following conditions:
• Serial data is received in the DI Buffer (Transmit Mode)
• Valid RF data is received through the antenna (Receive Mode)
• Command Mode Sequence is issued (Command Mode)
• Sleep Mode condition is met (Sleep Mode)
After responding to any of the preceding conditions, the modem automatically transitions back
into Idle Mode.
3.2.2. Transmit Mode
When the first byte of serial data is received from the UART in the DI buffer, the modem
attempts to shift to Transmit Mode and initiate an RF connection with other modems.
Figure 3.4. Transmission of Data 
Once in Transmit Mode, the modem
initializes a communications channel.
Channel initialization is the process of
sending an RF initializer that
synchronizes receiving modems with
the transmitting modem. When
streaming multiple RF packets, the
RF Initializer is only sent in front of
the first packet. During channel
initialization, incoming serial data
accumulates in the DI buffer.
After the channel is initialized, data in
the DI buffer is grouped into packets
(up to 64 bytes in each packet) and
is transmitted. The modem continues
to transmit data packets until the DI
buffer is empty. Once transmission is finished, the modem returns to Idle Mode. This progression
is shown in Figure 3.4.
As the transmitting modem nears the end of the transmission, it inspects the DI buffer to see if
more data exists to be transmitted. This could be the case if more bytes arrived from the host
after the transmission began. If more data is pending, the transmitting modem assembles a
subsequent packet for transmission.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
RF Packet
The RF packet is the sequence of data used for communicating information between Digi
Modems. An RF Packet consists of an RF Initializer and RF Data.
Figure 3.5. RF Packet Components
* When streaming multiple RF packets, the RF Initializer is only sent in front of the first packet.
RF Initializer
An RF initializer is sent each time a new connection sequence begins. The RF initializer contains
channel information that notifies receiving modems of information such as the hopping pattern
used by the transmitting modem. The first transmission always sends an RF initializer.
An RF initializer can be of various lengths depending on the amount of time determined to be
required to prepare a receiving modem. For example, a wake-up initializer is a type of RF
initializer used to wake remote modems from Sleep Mode (Refer to the FH, LH, HT and SM
Commands for more information). The length of the wake-up initializer should be longer than the
length of time remote modems are in cyclic sleep.
Header
The header contains network addressing information that is used to filter incoming RF data. The
receiving modem checks for matching a VID, Hopping Channel and Destination Address. Data
that does not pass through all three network filter layers is discarded.
Figure 3.6. Addressing layers contained in the header
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
To verify data integrity and provide built-in error checking, a 16-bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy
Check) is computed for the transmitted data and attached to the end of each RF packet. On the
receiving end, the receiving modem computes the CRC on all incoming RF data. Received data
that has an invalid CRC is discarded (Refer to the Receive Mode section, next page).
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
3.2.3. Receive Mode
If a modem detects RF data while operating in Idle Mode, the modem transitions into Receive
Mode to start receiving RF packets.
Figure 3.7. Reception of RF Data 
After a packet is received, the modem
checks the CRC (cyclic redundancy check)
to ensure that the data was transmitted
without error. If the CRC data bits on the
incoming packet are invalid, the packet is
discarded. If the CRC is valid, the packet
proceeds to the DO Buffer.
The modem returns to Idle Mode after
valid RF data is no longer detected or after
an error is detected in the received RF
data. If serial data is stored in the DI
buffer while the modem is in Receive
Mode, the serial data will be transmitted
after the modem is finished receiving data
and returns to Idle Mode.
3.2.4. Sleep Modes
Sleep Modes enable the XStream Modem to operate at minimal power consumption when not in
use. Three Sleep Mode options are available:
• Pin Sleep (Host Controlled)
• Serial Port Sleep (Wake on Serial Port activity)
• Cyclic Sleep (Wake on RF activity)
For the modem to transition into Sleep Mode, the modem must have a non-zero SM (Sleep Mode)
Parameter and one of the following must occur:
1.
The modem is idle (no data transmission or reception) for a user-defined period of time
(Refer to the ST (Time before Sleep) Command).
2.
SLEEP pin is asserted (only for Pin Sleep option).
In Sleep Mode, the modem will not transmit or receive data until the modem first transitions to
Idle Mode. All Sleep Modes are enabled and disabled using SM Command. Transitions into and
out of Sleep Modes are triggered by various mechanisms as shown in the table below.
Table 3.2.
Summary of Sleep Mode Configurations
Sleep Mode
Setting
Pin Sleep
(SM = 1)
Serial Port Sleep
(SM = 2)
Cyclic Sleep
(SM = 3-8)
Transition into
Sleep Mode
A microcontroller can shut down and wake
modems by asserting (high) SLEEP pin.
Note: The module will complete a
transmission or reception before activating
Pin Sleep.
Automatic transition to Sleep Mode occurs
after a user-defined period of inactivity (no
transmitting or receiving of data). The
period of activity is defined using the ST
(Time before Sleep) Command.
Automatic transition to Sleep Mode occurs
in cycles as defined by the SM (Sleep
Mode) Command.
Transition out of
Sleep Mode
Related
Commands
Typical Power
Consumption
De-assert SLEEP pin. SM
6 mA
When serial byte is
SM, ST
received on the DI pin.
25 mA
After the cyclic sleep
time interval elapses.
Note: Modem can be
Note: The cyclic sleep time interval must be forced into Idle Mode
shorter than the “Wake-up Initializer Timer” if PW (Pin Wake-up)
(set by LH Command).
Command is issued.
SM, ST, HT, LH, 6 mA
PW
when sleeping
For more information about Sleep Modes, refer to the individual commands listed in “Related Commands”
column of the table. SM Command is the best starting point for implementing sleep mode configurations.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Pin Sleep (SM = 1)
Pin Sleep requires the least amount of power. In order to achieve this state, DI3 (SLEEP) pin
must be asserted (high). The modem remains in Pin Sleep until the DI3 pin is de-asserted.
After enabling Pin Sleep, the SLEEP pin controls whether the XStream Modem is active or in Sleep
Mode. When DI3 is de-asserted (low), the modem is fully operational. When DI3 is asserted
(high), the modem transitions to Sleep Mode and remains in its lowest power-consuming state
until the DI3 (SLEEP) pin is de-asserted. DI3 is only active if the modem is setup to operate in
this mode; otherwise the pin is ignored.
Once in Pin Sleep Mode, DO2 (
) is de-asserted (high), indicating that data should not be sent
to the modem. The PWR pin is also de-asserted (low) when the modem is in Pin Sleep Mode.
Note: The module will complete a transmission or reception before activating Pin Sleep.
Serial Port Sleep (SM = 2)
Serial Port Sleep is a Sleep Mode in which the XStream Modem runs in a low power state until
serial data is detected on the DI pin.
When Serial Port Sleep is enabled, the modem goes into Sleep Mode after a user-defined period
of inactivity (no transmitting or receiving of data). This period of time is determined by ST (Time
before Sleep) Command. Once a character is received through the DI pin, the modem returns to
Idle Mode and is fully operational.
Cyclic Sleep (SM = 3-8)
Cyclic Sleep is the Sleep Mode in which the XStream Modem enters into a low-power state and
awakens periodically to determine if any transmissions are being sent.
When Cyclic Sleep settings are enabled, the XStream Modem goes into Sleep Mode after a userdefined period of inactivity (no transmission or reception on the RF channel). The user-defined
period is determined by ST (Time before Sleep) Command.
While the modem is in Cyclic Sleep Mode, DO2 (
) is de-asserted (high) to indicate that data
should not be sent to the modem during this time. When the modem awakens to listen for data,
DO2 is asserted and any data received on the DI Pin is transmitted. The PWR pin is also deasserted (low) when the modem is in Cyclic Sleep Mode.
The modem remains in Sleep Mode for a user-defined period of time ranging from 0.5 seconds to
16 seconds (SM Parameters 3 through 8). After this interval of time, the modem returns to Idle
Mode and listens for a valid data packet for 100 ms. If the modem does not detect valid data (on
any frequency), the modem returns to Sleep Mode. If valid data is detected, the modem
transitions into Receive Mode and receives incoming RF packets. The modem then returns to
Sleep Mode after a Period of inactivity that is determined by ST “Time before Sleep” Command.
The modem can also be configured to wake from cyclic sleep when SLEEP/DI3 is de-asserted
(low). To configure a modem to operate in this manner, PW (Pin Wake-up) Command must be
issued. Once DI3 is de-asserted, the modem is forced into Idle Mode and can begin transmitting
or receiving data. It remains active until no data is detected for the period of time specified by
the ST Command, at which point it resumes its low-power cyclic state.
Note: The cyclic interval time defined by SM (Sleep Mode) Command must be shorter than the interval
time defined by LH (Wake-up Initializer Timer).
For example: If SM=4 (Cyclic 1.0 second sleep), the LH Parameter should equal 0x0B (“1.1” seconds).
With these parameters set, there is no risk of the receiving modem being asleep for the duration of
wake-up initializer transmission. “Cyclic Scanning” explains in further detail the relationship between
“Cyclic Sleep” and “Wake-up Initializer Timer”
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Cyclic Scanning. Each RF transmission consists of an RF Initializer and payload. The wake-up
initializer contains initialization information and all receiving modems must wake during the
wake-up initializer portion of data transmission in order to be synchronized with the transmitting
modem and receive the data.
Figure 3.8. Correct Configuration (LH > SM)
Length of the wake-up initializer exceeds the time interval of Cyclic Sleep. The receiver is guaranteed to detect
the wake-up initializer and receive the accompanying payload data.
Figure 3.9. Incorrect Configuration (LH < SM)
Length of wake-up initializer is shorter than the time interval of Cyclic Sleep. This configuration is vulnerable
to the receiver waking and missing the wake-up initializer (and therefore also the accompanying payload data).
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
3.2.5. Command Mode
To modify or read modem parameters, the modem must first enter into Command Mode, the
state in which incoming characters are interpreted as commands. Two command types are
available for programming the modem:
• AT Commands
• Binary Commands
For modified parameter values to persist in the modem registry, changes must be saved to nonvolatile memory using WR (Write) Command. Otherwise, parameters are restored to previously
saved values when the modem is powered off and then on again.
AT Commands
To Enter AT Command Mode:
1.
Send the 3-character command sequence “+++” and observe guard times before and after
the command characters. (Refer to the “Default AT Command Mode Sequence” below.) The
“Terminal” tab (or other serial communications software) of the XCTU Software can be used
to enter the sequence.
(OR)
2.
Assert (low) the
pin and turn the power going to the modem off and back on. This
result can be achieved by keeping the configuration switch pressed while turning off, then on
again the power supplying the RF Modem)
Default AT Command Mode Sequence (for transition to Command Mode):
• No characters sent for one second (refer to the BT (Guard Time Before) Command)
• Input three plus characters (“+++”) within one second (refer to the CC (Command
Sequence Character) Command.)
• No characters sent for one second (refer to the AT (Guard Time After) Command.)
To Send AT Commands:
Send AT commands and parameters using the syntax shown below:
Figure 3.10. Syntax for sending AT Commands
NOTE: To read a parameter value stored in a register, leave the parameter field blank.
The preceding example would change the modem Destination Address to “1F”. To store the new
value to non-volatile (long term) memory, the Write (ATWR) Command must follow.
System Response. When a command is sent to the modem, the modem will parse and execute
the command. Upon successful execution of a command, the modem returns an “OK” message. If
execution of a command results in an error, the modem returns an “ERROR” message.
To Exit AT Command Mode:
1.
Send ATCN (Exit Command Mode) Command.
(OR)
2.
If no valid AT Commands are received within the time specified by CT (Command Mode
Timeout) Command, the Modem automatically returns to Idle Mode.
For examples that illustrate the steps of programming the modem using AT Commands, refer to
the RF Modem Configuration (p21) chapter.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Binary Commands
Sending and receiving parameter values using binary commands is the fastest way to change
operating parameters of the XStream RF Modem. Binary commands are used most often to
sample signal strength (RS parameter) and/or error counts; or change modem addresses and
channels for polling data systems. Since the sending and receiving of register values takes place
through the same serial data path as “live” data (received RF payload), interference between the
two types of data can be a concern.
Common questions about using binary commands:
• What are the implications of asserting CMD while live data is being sent or received?
• After sending serial data, is there a minimum time delay before CMD can be asserted?
• Is a delay required after CMD is de-asserted before payload data can be sent?
• How does one discern between live data and data received in response to a command?
The CMD pin must be asserted in order to send binary commands to the RF modem. The CMD pin
can be asserted to recognize binary commands anytime during the transmission or reception of
data. The status of the CMD signal is only checked at the end of the stop bit as the byte is shifted
into the serial port. The application does not allow control over when data is received, except by
waiting for dead time between bursts of communication.
If the command is sent in the middle of a stream of payload data to be transmitted, the
command will essentially be executed in the order it is received. If the radio is continuously
receiving data, the radio will wait for a break in the received data before executing the command.
The
signal will frame the response coming from the binary command request (Figure 3.11).
A minimum time delay of 100 µs (after the stop bit of the command byte has been sent) must be
observed before the CMD pin can be de-asserted. The command executes after all parameters
associated with the command have been sent. If all parameters are not received within 0.5
seconds, the modem returns to Idle Mode.
Note: When parameters are sent, they are two bytes long with the least significant byte sent first.
Binary commands that return one parameter byte must be written with two parameter bytes.
Refer to p23 for a binary programming example.
Commands can be queried for their current value by sending the command logically ORed (bitwise) with the value 0x80 (hexadecimal) with CMD asserted. When the binary value is sent (with
no parameters), the current value of the command parameter is sent back through the DO pin.
Figure 3.11. Binary Command Write then Read
Signal #4 is CMD
Signal #1 is the DIN signal to the radio
Signal #2 is the DOUT signal from the radio
Signal #3 is
In this graph, a value was written to a register and
then read out to verify it. While not in the middle
of other received data, note that the
(DO2
pin) signal outlines the data response out of the
modem.
IMPORTANT:
For the XStream Modem to recognize a binary command, the RT (DI2
Configuration) parameter must be set to one. If binary programming is not
enabled (RT ≠ 1), the modem will not recognize that the CMD pin is asserted and
therefore will not recognize the data as binary commands.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
4. RF Modem Configuration
4.1. Automatic DIP Switch Configurations
Each time the RF Modem is powered-on, intelligence on the XIB-R Interface Board (RS-232/485
interfacing board located inside the RF Modem) sends AT Commands that program the RF Modem
based on positions of the DIP Switch. Automatic configurations that take place during the poweron sequence affect stored RF Modem parameter values as shown in the tables below.
Figure 4.1. RF Modem DIP Switch
Table 4.1.
RF Modem Power-up Options (J7 jumper and Config Switch)
Condition
Behavior
If J7 is populated
Processor is disabled and AT Commands are not sent to the RF Modem
If Config Switch is pressed
Processor is disabled and RF Modem enters into AT Command Mode
If J7 is NOT populated and Config Switch
is NOT pressed
Execute logic as shown in table below.
Table 4.2.
AT Commands Sent as result of DIP Switch Settings (SW = DIP Switch)
Condition
Behavior
Restore Default Parameter Values of the RF Modem
If SW1 and SW2 are ON (up)
AT Commands sent:
ATRE (Restore Defaults) Command
ATWR (Write) Command
AT Commands sent:
ATCS 0 (RS-232 Operation: CTS function for CTS line,
DB-9 pin 8)
ATCD 2 (DO3 - RX LED = low)
ATCS 3 (RS-485 or RS-422 Operation)
ATCD 2 (DO3 - RX LED = low)
Serial Interfacing Options
If SW1 is ON (up)
If SW1 is OFF (down)
AT Commands sent:
Parity Options
If SW5 and SW6 are OFF (down)
If SW5 is OFF (down) and SW6 is ON
(up)
If SW5 is ON (up) and SW6 is OFF
(down)
If SW5 is ON (up) and SW6 is ON (up)
AT Commands sent:
ATNB 0 (parity = none)
AT Commands sent:
ATNB 1 (parity = even)
AT Commands sent:
ATNB 2 (parity = odd)
AT Commands sent:
ATNB 5 (parity = 9th bit data over-the-air, v4.30 only)
AT Commands sent:
ATCN (Exit AT Command Mode)
Exit AT Command Mode
Always
IMPORTANT: To avoid overwriting previously stored custom configurations (due to the automatic
configurations that take place each time the RF Modem is powered-on), it is necessary to disable a
processor located on the XIB-R interface board. To disable the processor, populate the J7 jumper of
the XIB-R Interface Board. By default, J7 is not populated.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
4.2. Programming the Modem
For information about entering and exiting AT and Binary Command Modes, refer to the
Command Mode section (p19).
4.2.1. AT Command Examples
Digi has provided XCTU software for programming the modem using an extensive list of AT
Commands. The XCTU software provides an interface that is divided into four tabs that facilitate
the following functions:
• PC Settings tab - Setup PC serial port to interface with an XStream RF Modem
• Range Test tab – Test XStream RF Modem's range in varying environments
• Terminal tab – Configure and read XStream RF Modem parameters using AT Commands
• Modem Configuration tab – Configure and read RF Modem parameters
To install the XCTU Software:
Navigate to: www.digi.com/support/ . Then select “XCTU” under the product list. Select the
appropriate driver to install the XCTU software.
PC Settings Tab
As stated in the Serial Communications section; in order to communicate data to the RF modem
through the PC, baud (serial data rate), data bit, parity and stop bit settings on the PC serial port
must match those of the RF modem. The PC Settings tab provides a software user interface that
facilitates the modification of PC serial port settings.
PC Setup
1.
Set the DIP Switch to RS-232 mode. Switch 1 is ON (up) and the remaining 5 switches are
OFF (down).
2.
Connect the male DB-9 connector of the PC with the female DB-9 connector of the RF
modem using an RS-232 cable.
3.
Power the RF modem through the power connector.
4.
Launch XCTU Software and select the PC Settings tab; then select parameter values from the
dropdown lists that match the current parameter values of the RF modem.
(Refer to
Table 3.1 on for more information.)
Figure 4.2. RF Modem Configurations through a Serial Cable
Terminal Tab
A terminal program has been built into the XCTU software and is located under the Terminal tab.
The Terminal tab provides an easy-to-use interface for programming the modem.
Multiple AT Commands. Multiple AT commands can be entered on one line with one carriage
return at the end of the line. Each command must be delimited by a comma (spaces in between
are optional). The “AT” prefix is only sent before the first command and should not be included
with subsequent commands in a line.
System Response. When a command is sent to the modem, the modem will parse and execute
the command. Upon successful execution of a command, the modem returns an “OK” message. If
execution of a command results in an error, the modem returns an “ERROR” message.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
EXAMPLE: Restore RF Modem Defaults using the Terminal tab
The following steps show how to read currently stored modem parameter values; then restore
the modem parameters to their factory-default states.
Method 1 (One line per command)
Issue AT Command
+++
ATHP <Enter>
ATRE <Enter>
ATWR <Enter>
ATCN <Enter>
System Response
OK<CR> (Enter into AT Command Mode)
(system shows current channel number) <CR>
OK<CR> (Restore modem default parameter values)
OK<CR> (Write new values to non-volatile memory)
OK<CR> (Exit AT Command Mode)
Method 2 (Multiple commands on one line)
Issue AT Command
System Response
+++
OK<CR>
ATRE, WR, CN <Enter>
OK<CR>
NOTE: Default parameter values of the RF modem can also be restored by selecting the “Restore
Defaults” button located on the Modem Configuration tab (refer to the instructions below).
Modem Configuration tab
The “Modem Configuration” tab of the XCTU software provides an easy-to-use interface for
reading and setting RF modem parameters.
EXAMPLE: Read Parameters and Restore Defaults using the Modem Configuration tab
The following steps show how to read currently stored modem parameter values; then restore
the modem parameters to their factory-default states.
1.
Open the XCTU program (Start --> Programs --> Digi --> XCTU):
2.
Under the “PC Settings” tab, select the PC Serial Com Port from the dropdown list that will be
used to connect to the RF Modem.
3.
Select a "Baud rate" to match the default RF data rate of the RF Modem. Use default values
for all other fields.
4.
Select the “Modem Configuration” tab.
5.
Select the “Read” button to read currently stored parameter values of the modem.
6.
Select the “Restore” button to restore factory-default parameter values.
7.
Select the “Write” button to save default values to non-volatile (long-term) memory.
4.2.2. Binary Command Example
Example: Send Binary Commands
Example: Use binary commands to change the XStream Modem’s destination address to 0x1A0D
and save the new address to non-volatile memory.
1. RT Command must be set to “1” in AT Command Mode to enable binary programming.
2. Assert CMD (Pin is driven high).
(Enter Binary Command Mode)
3. Send Bytes (Parameter bytes must be 2 bytes long):
00
(Send DT (Destination Address) Command)
0D
(Least significant byte of parameter bytes)
1A
(Most significant byte of parameter bytes)
08
(Send WR (Write) Command)
4. De-assert CMD (Pin is driven low).
Note:
(Exit Binary Command Mode)
is high when command is being executed. Hardware flow control must be disabled as
will hold off parameter bytes.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
4.3. Command Reference Table
Table 4.1
XStream Commands
(The XStream RF Modem expects numerical values in hexadecimal. “d” denotes decimal equivalent.)
AT
Command
Binary
Command
AT Command Name
Range
Command Category
# Bytes
Returned
Factory
Default
AT
0x05 (5d)
Guard Time After
0x02 – 0xFFFF (x 100 msec)
Command Mode Options
2
0x0A (10d)
Serial Interfacing
2
Set to equal
factory-set RF
data rate
BD v4.2B*
0x15 (21d)
Interface Data Rate
Standard baud rates:
0–6
Non-standard baud rates:
0x7D – 0xFFFF
BT
0x04 (4d)
Guard Time Before
2 – 0xFFFF (x 100 msec)
Command Mode Options
2
0x0A (10d)
CC
0x13 (19d)
Command Sequence Character
0x20 – 0x7F
Command Mode Options
1
0x2B (“+”)
CD v 4.2B*
0x28 (40d)
DO3 Configuration
0-4
Serial Interfacing
1
0
CN
0x09 (9d)
Exit AT Command Mode
-
Command Mode Options
-
-
CS v 4.27D*
0x1F (31d)
DO2 Configuration
0–4
Serial Interfacing
1
0
CT
0x06 (6d)
Command Mode Timeout
0x02 – 0xFFFF (x 100 msec)
Command Mode Options
2
0xC8 (200d)
DT
0x00 (0d)
Destination Address
0 – 0xFFFF
Networking
2
0
E0
0x0A (10d)
Echo Off
-
Command Mode Options
-
-
E1
0x0B (11d)
Echo On
-
Command Mode Options
-
-
ER
0x0F (15d)
Receive Error Count
0 – 0xFFFF
Diagnostics
2
0
FH
0x0D (13d)
Force Wake-up Initializer
-
Sleep (Low Power)
-
-
FL
0x07 (7d)
Software Flow Control
0–1
Serial Interfacing
1
0
FT v 4.27B*
0x24 (36d)
Flow Control Threshold
0 – 0xFF (bytes)
Serial Interfacing
2
varies
GD
0x10 (16d)
Receive Good Count
0 – 0xFFFF
Diagnostics
2
0
HP
0x11 (17d)
Hopping Channel
0–6
Networking
1
0
HT
0x03 (3d)
Time before Wake-up Initializer
0 – 0xFFFF (x 100 msec)
Sleep (Low Power)
2
0xFFFF
Networking
2
-
ID v 4.2B*
0x27 (39d)
Modem VID
User settable: 0x10 - 0x7FFF
Read-only: 0x8000 – 0xFFFF
LH
0x0C (12d)
Wake-up Initializer Timer
0 – 0xFF (x 100 msec)
Sleep (Low Power)
1
1
MK
0x12 (18d)
Address Mask
0 – 0xFFFF
Networking
2
0xFFFF
NB v 4.27B*
0x23 (35d)
Parity
0–4
Serial Interfacing
1
0
PC v 4.22*
0x1E (30d)
Power-up Mode
0–1
Command Mode Options
1
0
PW v 4.22*
0x1D (29d)
Pin Wake-up
0–1
Sleep (Low Power)
1
0
RE
0x0E (14d)
Restore Defaults
-
(Special)
-
-
RN v 4.22*
0x19 (25d)
Delay Slots
0 – 0xFF (slots)
Networking
1
0
RO v 4.2AA*
0x21 (33d)
Packetization Timeout
0 – 0xFFFF (x 200 µsec)
Serial Interfacing
2
0
RP v 4.2AA*
0x22 (34d)
RSSI PWM Timer
0 - 0x7F (x 100 msec)
Diagnostics
1
0
RR v 4.22*
0x18 (24d)
Retries
0 – 0xFF
Networking
1
0
RS v 4.22*
0x1C (28d)
RSSI
0x06 – 0x36 (Read-only)
Diagnostics
1
-
RT
0x16 (22d)
DI2 Configuration
0-2
Serial Interfacing
1
0
SB v 4.2B*
0x36 (54d)
Stop Bits
0–1
Serial Interfacing
1
0
SH v 4.27C*
0x25 (37d)
Serial Number High
0 – 0xFFFF (Read-only)
Diagnostics
2
-
SL v 4.27C*
0x26 (38d)
Serial Number Low
0 – 0xFFFF (Read-only)
Diagnostics
2
-
SM
0x01 (1d)
Sleep Mode
0–8
Sleep (Low Power)
1
0
ST
0x02 (2d)
Time before Sleep
0x10 – 0xFFFF (x 100 msec)
Sleep (Low Power)
2
0x64 (100d)
SY
0x17 (23d)
Time before Initialization
0 – 0xFF (x 100 msec)
Networking
1
0 (disabled)
TR v 4.22*
0x1B (27d)
Transmit Error Count
0 – 0xFFFF
Diagnostics
2
0
TT v 4.22*
0x1A (26d)
Streaming Limit
0 – 0xFFFF (0 = disabled)
Networking
2
0xFFFF
VR
0x14 (20d)
Firmware Version
0 x 0xFFFF (Read-only)
Diagnostics
2
-
WR
0x08 (8d)
Write
-
(Special)
-
-
* Firmware version in which command and parameter options were first supported.
NOTE: AT Commands issued without a parameter value will return the currently stored parameter.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
4.4. Command Descriptions
Commands in this section are listed alphabetically. Command categories are designated between
the “< >” symbols that follow each command title. XStream Modems expect numerical values in
hexadecimal and those values are designated by a “0x” prefix.
AT (Guard Time After) Command
<Command Mode Options> AT Command is used
to set the time-of-silence that follows the
command sequence character (CC Command). By
default, AT Command Mode will activate after one
second of silence.
Refer to the AT Commands section (p19) to view
the default AT Command Mode sequence.
AT Command: ATAT
Binary Command: 0x05 (5 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0x02 – 0xFFFF
(x 100 milliseconds)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Default Parameter Value: 0x0A (10 decimal)
Related Commands: BT (Guard Time Before),
CC (Command Sequence Character)
BD (Interface Data Rate) Command
<Serial Interfacing> BD Command allows the
user to adjust the interface data rate and thus
modify the rate at which serial data is sent to the
modem. The new baud rate does not take effect
until the CN (Exit AT Command Mode) Command
is issued. The RF data rate is not affected by the
BD Command.
AT Command: ATBD
Binary Command: 0x15 (21 decimal)
Parameter Range (Standard baud rates): 0 – 6
(Non-standard baud rates): 0x7D – 0xFFFF
Parameter
BAUD (bps)
Value
Configuration
0
1200
Although most applications will only require one
of the seven standard baud rates, non-standard
baud rates are also supported.
Note: If the serial data rate is set to exceed the
fixed RF data rate of the XStream modem,
flow control may need to be implemented as
described in the Pin Signals and Flow Control
sections of this manual.
1
2400
2
4800
3
9600
4
19200
5
38400
6
57600
Number of bytes returned: 2
Default Parameter Value: Set to equal to
modem’s factory-set RF data rate.
Non-standard Interface Data Rates: When
Minimum firmware version required: 4.2B
parameter values outside the range of standard
(non-standard baud rates not previously
baud rates are sent, the closest interface data
supported)
rate represented by the number is stored in the
BD register. For example, a rate of 19200 bps can be set by sending the following command line
"ATBD4B00". NOTE: When using Digi’s XCTU Software, non-standard interface data rates can
only be set and read using the XCTU “Terminal” tab. Non-standard rates are not accessible
through the “Modem Configuration” tab.
When the BD command is sent with a non-standard interface data rate, the UART will adjust to
accommodate the requested interface rate. In most cases, the clock resolution will cause the
stored BD parameter to vary from the parameter that was sent (refer to the table below).
Reading the BD command (send "ATBD" command without an associated parameter value) will
return the value that was actually stored to the BD register.
Table 4-01. Parameter Sent vs. Parameter Stored
BD Parameter Sent (HEX)
0
4
7
12C
1C200
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
Interface Data Rate (bps)
1200
19,200
115,200
300
115,200
BD Parameter Stored (HEX)
0
4
7
12B
1B207
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
BT (Guard Time Before) Command
<Command Mode Options> BT Command is
used to set the DI pin silence time that must
precede the command sequence character (CC
Command) of the AT Command Mode Sequence.
Refer to the AT Commands section (p19) to view
the default AT Command Mode sequence.
AT Command: ATBT
Binary Command: 0x04 (4 decimal)
Parameter Range: 2 – 0xFFFF
(x 100 milliseconds)
Default Parameter Value: 0x0A (10 decimal)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: AT (Guard Time After), CC
(Command Sequence Character)
CC (Command Sequence Character) Command
<Command Mode Options> CC Command is
used to set the ASCII character to be used
between Guard Times of the AT Command Mode
Sequence (BT+ CC + AT). The AT Command
Mode Sequence activates AT Command Mode
(from Idle Mode).
Refer to the AT Commands section (p19) to view
the default AT Command Mode sequence.
AT Command: ATCC
Binary Command: 0x13 (19 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0x20 – 0x7F
Default Parameter Value: 0x2B (ASCII “+” sign)
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: AT (Guard Time After), BT
(Guard Time Before)
CD (DO3 Configuration) Command
<Command Mode Options> CD Command is
used to redefine the behavior of the DO3/RX LED
line.
AT Command: ATCD
Binary Command: 0x28 (40 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 2
Parameter
Configuration
Value
0
RX LED
1
Default high
2
Default low
3
(reserved)
Assert only when packet
4
addressed to module sent
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2B
CN (Exit AT Command Mode) Command
<Command Mode Options> CN Command is
used to explicitly exit AT Command Mode.
AT Command: ATCN
Binary Command: 0x09 (9 decimal)
CS (DO2 Configuration) Command
<Serial Interfacing> CS Command is used to
select the behavior of the DO2 pin signal. This
output can provide RS-232 flow control, control
the TX enable signal (for RS-485 or RS-422
operations), or set the default level for the I/O
line passing function.
By default, DO2 provides RS-232
Send) flow control.
(Clear-to-
AT Command: ATCS
Binary Command: 0x1F (31 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 4
Parameter
Configuration
Value
0
RS-232
flow control
1
RS-485 TX enable low
2
high
3
RS-485 TX enable high
4
low
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: RT (DI2 Configuration), TO
(DO2 Timeout)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27D
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
CT (Command Mode Timeout) Command
<Command Mode Options> CT Command sets
the amount of time before AT Command Mode
terminates automatically. After a CT time of
inactivity, the modem exits AT Command Mode
and returns to Idle Mode. AT Command Mode can
also be exited manually using CN (Exit AT
Command Mode) Command.
AT Command: ATCT
Binary Command: 0x06 (6 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0x02 – 0xFFFF
(x 100 milliseconds)
Default Parameter Value: 0xC8 (200 decimal,
20 seconds)
Number of bytes returned: 2
DT (Destination Address) Command
<Networking> DT Command is used to set the
AT Command: ATDT
networking address of an XStream Modem.
Binary Command: 0x00
XStream Modems uses three network layers –
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Vendor Identification Number (ATID), Channels
(ATHP), and Destination Addresses (ATDT). DT
Default Parameter Value: 0
Command assigns an address to a modem that
Number of bytes returned: 2
enables it to communicate only with other
Related Commands: HP (Hopping Channel), ID
modems having the same addresses. All modems
(Modem VID), MK (Address Mask)
that share the same Destination Address can
communicate freely with each other. Modems in
the same network with a different Destination Address (than that of the transmitter) will listen to
all transmissions to stay synchronized, but will not send any of the data out their serial ports.
E0 (Echo Off) Command
<Command Mode Options> E0 Command turns
off character echo in AT Command Mode. By
default, echo is off.
AT Command: ATE0
Binary Command: 0x0A (10 decimal)
E1 (Echo On) Command
<Command Mode Options> E1 Command turns
on the echo in AT Command Mode. Each typed
character will be echoed back to the terminal
when ATE1 is active. E0 is the default.
AT Command: ATE1
Binary Command: 0x0B (11 decimal)
ER (Receive Error Count) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the receive-error. The
error-count records the number of packets
partially received then aborted on a reception
error. This value returns to 0 after a reset and is
not non-volatile (Value does not persist in the
modem’s memory after a power-up sequence).
Once the “Receive Error Count” reaches its
maximum value (up to 0xFFFF), it remains at its
maximum count value until the maximum count
value is explicitly changed or the modem is reset.
AT Command: ATER
Binary Command: 0x0F (15 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: GD (Receive Good Count)
FH (Force Wake-up Initializer) Command
<Sleep (Low Power)> FH Command is used to
force a Wake-up Initializer to be sent on the next
transmit. WR (Write) Command does not need to
be issued with FH Command.
AT Command: ATFH
Binary Command: 0x0D (13 decimal)
Use only with cyclic sleep modes active on remote modems.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
FL (Software Flow Control) Command
<Serial Interfacing> FL Command is used to
configure software flow control. Hardware flow
control is implemented with the XStream Modem
as the DO2 pin (
), which regulates when
serial data can be transferred to the modem. FL
Command can be used to allow software flow
control to also be enabled. XON character used is
0x11 (17 decimal). XOFF character used is 0x13
(19 decimal).
AT Command: ATFL
Binary Command: 0x07 (7 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
Value
0
1
Configuration
Disable software
flow control
Enable software
flow control
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
FT (Flow Control Threshold) Command
<Serial Interfacing> Set/Read the flow control
threshold. When FT bytes have accumulated in
the DI buffer,
is de-asserted or the XOFF
software flow control character is transmitted.
AT Command: ATFT
Binary Command: 0x24 (36 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – (Receiving modem DO
buffer size minus 0x11 bytes)
Default Parameter Value: Receiving modem DO
Buffer size minus 0x11
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27B
GD (Receive Good Count) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the count of good
received RF packets. Parameter value is reset to
0 after every reset and is not non-volatile (Value
does not persist in the modem’s memory after a
power-up sequence). Once the “Receive Good
Count” reaches its maximum value (up to
0xFFFF), it remains at its maximum count value
until the maximum count value is manually
changed or the modem is reset.
AT Command: ATGD
Binary Command: 0x10 (16 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: ER (Receive Error Count)
HP (Hopping Channel) Command
<Networking> HP Command is used to set the
modem’s hopping channel number. A channel is
one of three layers of addressing available to the
XStream modem. In order for modems to
communicate with each other, the modems must
have the same channel number since each
network uses a different hopping sequence.
Different channels can be used to prevent
modems in one network from listening to
transmissions of another.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
AT Command: ATHP
Binary Command: 0x11 (17 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 6
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: DT (Destination Address),
ID (Modem VID), MK (Address Mask)
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HT (Time before Wake-up Initializer) Command
<<Sleep (Low Power)> If any modems within
AT Command: ATHT
range are running in a “Cyclic Sleep” setting, a
Binary Command: 0x03 (3 decimal)
wake-up initializer must be used by the
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
transmitting modem for sleeping modems to
(x 100 milliseconds)
remain awake (refer to the LH (“Wake-up
Default Parameter Value: 0xFFFF (means that
Initializer Timer”) Command). When a receiving
long wake-up initializer will not be sent)
modem in Cyclic Sleep wakes, it must detect the
Number of bytes returned: 2
wake-up initializer in order to remain awake and
Related Commands: LH (Wake-up Initializer
receive data. The value of HT Parameter tells the
Timer), SM (Sleep Mode), ST (Time before
transmitter, “After a period of inactivity (no
Sleep)
transmitting or receiving) lasting HT amount of
time, send a long wake-up initializer”. HT
Parameter should be set to match the inactivity timeout (specified by ST (Time before Sleep)
Command) used by the receiver(s).
From the receiving modem perspective, after HT time elapses and the inactivity timeout (ST
Command) is met, the receiver goes into cyclic sleep. In cyclic sleep, the receiver wakes once per
sleep interval to check for a wake-up initializer. When a wake-up initializer is detected, the
modem will stay awake to receive data. The wake-up initializer must be longer than the cyclic
sleep interval to ensure that sleeping modems detect incoming data. When HT time elapses, the
transmitter then knows that it needs to send a long Wake-up Initializer for all receivers to be able
to remain awake and receive the next transmission. Matching HT to the time specified by ST on
the receiving modem guarantees that all receivers will detect the next transmission.
ID (Modem VID) Command
<Networking> Set/Read the “Vendor
Identification Number”. Only modems with
matching IDs can communicate with each other.
Modules with non-matching VIDs will not receive
unintended data transmission.
AT Command: ATID
Binary Command: 0x27 (39 decimal)
Parameter Range (user-settable):
0x10 - 0x7FFFF
(Factory-set and read-only) :
0x8000 – 0xFFFF
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2B
(Previous versions did not support usersettable VIDs)
LH (Wake-up Initializer Timer) Command
<Sleep (Low Power)> LH Command adjusts the
duration of time for which the RF initializer is
sent. When receiving modems are put into Cyclic
Sleep Mode, they power-down after a period of
inactivity (specified by ST (Time before Sleep)
Command) and will periodically awaken and listen
for transmitted data. In order for the receiving
modems to remain awake, they must detect
~35ms of the wake-up initializer.
AT Command: ATLH
Binary Command: 0x0C (12 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF
(x 100 milliseconds)
Default Parameter Value: 1
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: HT (Time before Wake-up
Initializer), SM (Sleep Mode), ST (Time before
Sleep)
LH Command must be used whenever a receiver
is operating in Cyclic Sleep Mode. This lengthens the Wake-up Initializer to a specific amount of
time (in tenths of a second). The Wake-up Initializer Time must be longer than the cyclic sleep
time that is determined by SM (Sleep Mode) Command. If the wake-up initializer time were less
than the Cyclic Sleep interval, the connection would be at risk of missing the wake-up initializer
transmission.
Refer to Figures 4.3 and 4.4 of the SM Command description to view diagrams of correct and
incorrect configurations. The images help visualize the importance that the value of LH be greater
than the value of SM.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
MK (Address Mask) Command
<Networking> MK Command is used to set/read
the Address Mask.
AT Command: ATMK
Binary Command: 0x12 (18 decimal)
All data packets contain the Destination Address
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
of the transmitting modem. When an RF data
Default Parameter Value: 0xFFFF
packet is received, the transmitter’s Destination
(Destination address (DT parameter) of the
Address is logically “ANDed” (bitwise) with the
transmitting modem must exactly match the
Address Mask of the receiver. The resulting value
destination address of the receiving modem.)
must match the Destination Address or the
Number of bytes returned: 2
Address Mask of the receiver for the packet to be
received and sent out the modem’s DO serial
Related Commands: DT (Destination Address),
port. If the “ANDed” value does not match either
HP (Hopping Channel), ID (Modem VID), MY
(Source Address)
the Destination Address or the Address Mask of
the receiver, the packet is discarded. (All “0”
values are treated as “irrelevant” values and are ignored.)
NB (Parity) Command
<Serial Interfacing> Select/Read parity settings
for UART communications.
AT Command: ATNB
Binary Command: 0x23 (35 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 4
Parameter
Value
Configuration
8-bit (no parity or
7-bit (any parity)
8-bit even
0
1
2
8-bit odd
3
8-bit mark
4
8-bit space
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27B
PC (Power-up to AT Mode) Command
<Command Mode Options> PC Command allows
the modem to power-up directly into AT
Command Mode from reset or power-on. If PC
Command is enabled with SM Parameter set to 1,
the DI3 Pin (SLEEP) can be used to enter the
modem into AT Command Mode. When the DI3
pin is de-asserted (low), the modem will Wake-up
into AT Command Mode. This behavior allows
modem DTR emulation.
AT Command: ATPC
Binary Command: 0x1E (30 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
Value
0
1
Configuration
Power-up to Idle Mode
Power-up to
AT Command Mode
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
PW (Pin Wake-up) Command
<Sleep (Low Power)> Under normal operation, a
modem in Cyclic Sleep Mode cycles from an
active state to a low-power state at regular
intervals until data is ready to be received. If the
PW Parameter is set to 1, the SLEEP/DI3 Pin can
be used to awaken the modem from Cyclic Sleep.
If the SLEEP Pin is de-asserted (low), the modem
will be fully operational and will not go into Cyclic
Sleep. Once SLEEP is asserted, the modem will
remain active for the period of time specified by
ST (Time before Sleep) Command, and will return
to Cyclic Sleep Mode (if no data is ready to be
transmitted). PW Command is only valid if Cyclic
Sleep has been enabled.
AT Command: ATPW
Binary Command: 0x1D (29 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
Value
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: SM (Sleep Mode), ST (Time
before Sleep)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
RE (Restore Defaults) Command
<Diagnostics> RE Command restores all
AT Command: ATRE
configurable parameters to factory default
Binary Command: 0x0E (14 decimal)
settings. However, RE Command will not write
the default values to non-volatile (persistent) memory. Unless the WR (Write) Command is issued
after the RE command, the default settings will not be saved in the event of modem reset or
power-down.
RN (Delay Slots) Command
<Networking> RN Command is only applicable if
retries have been enabled (RR (Retries)
Command), or if forced delays will be inserted
into a transmission (refer to TT (Streaming Limit)
Command). RN Command is used to adjust the
time delay that the transmitter inserts before
attempting to resend a packet. If the transmitter
fails to receive an acknowledgement after
sending a packet, it will insert a random number
of delay slots (ranging from 0 to (RN minus 1))
before attempting to resend the packet. Each
delay slot lasts for a period of 38ms.
AT Command: ATRN
Binary Command: 0x19 (25 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF (slots)
Default Parameter Value: 0 (no delay slots
inserted)
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: RR (Retries), TT
(Streaming Limit)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
If two modems attempted to transmit at the same time, the random time delay after packet
failure would allow one of the two modems to transmit the packet successfully, while the other
would wait until the channel opens up to begin transmission.
RO (Packetization Timeout) Command
<Serial Interfacing> RO Command is used to
specify/read the time of silence (no bytes
received) after which transmission begins. After a
serial byte is received and if no other byte is
received before the RO timeout, the transmission
will start.
AT Command: ATRO
Binary Command: 0x21 (33 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF (x 200 µs)
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2AA
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
RP (RSSI PWM Timer) Command
<Diagnostics> RP Command is used to enable a
PWM (“Pulse Width Modulation”) output on the
Config pin which is calibrated to show the level
the received RF signal is above the sensitivity
level of the modem. The PWM pulses vary from
zero to 95 percent. Zero percent means the
received RF signal is at or below the published
sensitivity level of the modem. The following
table shows levels above sensitivity and PWM
values.
AT Command: ATRP
Binary Command: 0x22 (34 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 - 0x7F
(x 100 milliseconds)
Default Parameter Value: 0 (disabled)
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2AA
The total period of the PWM output is 8.32 ms. There are 40 steps in the PWM output and
therefore the minimum step size is 0.208 ms.
Table 4-02. PWM Chart
dBm above Sensitivity
PWM percentage (high period / total period)
10
47.5%
20
62.5%
30
77.5%
A non-zero value defines the time that the PWM output will be active with the RSSI value of the
last received RF packet. After the set time when no RF packets are received, the PWM output will
be set low (0 percent PWM) until another RF packet is received. The PWM output will also be set
low at power-up. A parameter value of 0xFF permanently enables the PWM output and it will
always reflect the value of the last received RF packet.
PWM output shares the Config input pin. When the modem is powered, the Config pin will be an
input. During the power-up sequence, the Config pin will be read to determine whether the
modem is going into AT Command Mode. After this, if RP parameter is a non-zero value, the
Config pin will be configured as an output and set low until the first RF packet is received. With a
non-zero RP parameter, the Config pin will be an input for RP ms after power up.
RR (Retries) Command
Networking> RR Command specifies the number
AT Command: ATRR
of retries that can be sent for a given RF packet.
Binary Command: 0x18 (24 decimal)
Once RR Command is enabled (set to a non-zero
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF
value), RF packet acknowledgements and retries
are enabled. After transmitting a packet, the
Default Parameter Value: 0 (disabled)
transmitter will wait to receive an
Number of bytes returned: 1
acknowledgement from a receiver. If the
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
acknowledgement is not received in the period of
time specified by the RN (Delay Slots) Command,
the transmitter will transmit the original packet again. The packet will be transmitted repeatedly
until an acknowledgement is received or until the packet has been sent RR times.
Note: For retries to work correctly, all modems in the system must have retries enabled.
RS (RSSI) Command
<Diagnostics> RS Command returns the signal
level of the last packet received. This reading is
useful for determining range characteristics of the
XStream Modems under various conditions of
noise and distance.
AT Command: ATRS
Binary Command: 0x1C (28 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0x06 – 0x36 (Read-only)
Number of bytes returned: 1
Once the command is issued, the modem will
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
return a value between 0x6 and 0x36 where
0x36 represents a very strong signal level and 0x4 indicates a low signal level.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
RT (DI2 Configuration) Command
<Serial Interfacing> RT command is used to
dictate the behavior of the DI2/
/CMD line. RT
Command must be issued to enable
flow
control or binary programming.
AT Command: ATRT
Binary Command: 0x16 (22 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 2
Parameter
Value
Configuration
0
disabled
1
Enable Binary Programming
2
Enable
Flow Control
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
SB (Stop Bits) Command
SB Command is used to set/read the number of
stop bits in the data packets.
AT Command: ATSB
Binary Command: 0x36 (54 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
Value
Configuration
0
1 stop bits
1
2 stop bits
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2B
SH (Serial Number High) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the serial number high
word of the modem.
AT Command: ATSH
Binary Command: 0x25 (37 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF (Read-only)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: SL (Serial Number Low)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27C
SL (Serial Number Low) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the serial number low
word of the modem.
AT Command: ATSH
Binary Command: 0x26 (38 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF (Read-only)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: SH (Serial Number High)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27C
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
SM (Sleep Mode) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)> SM Command is
used to adjust Sleep Mode settings. By default,
Sleep Mode is disabled and the modem remains
continually active. SM Command allows the
modem to run in a lower-power state and be
configured in one of eight settings.
Cyclic Sleep settings wake the modem after the
amount of time designated by SM Command. If
the modem detects a wake-up initializer during
the time it is awake, it will synchronize with the
transmitter and start receiving data after the
wake-up initializer runs its duration. Otherwise, it
returns to Sleep Mode and continue to cycle in
and out of inactivity until the Wake-up Initializer
is detected. If a Cyclic Sleep setting is chosen,
the ST, LH and HT parameters must also be set
as described in the “Sleep Modes” section of this
manual.
Refer to the “Sleep Modes” section (p16) for
more information.
AT Command: ATSM
Binary Command: 0x01
Parameter Range: 0 – 8
Parameter
Value
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
Pin Sleep
2
4
Serial Port Sleep
Cyclic 0.5 second sleep
(Modem wakes every 0.5
seconds)
Cyclic 1.0 second sleep
5
Cyclic 2.0 second sleep
6
Cyclic 4.0 second sleep
3
7
Cyclic 8.0 second sleep
8
Cyclic 16.0 second sleep
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands:
For Pin Sleep – PC (Power-up Mode), PW (Pin
Wake-up)
For Serial Port Sleep – ST (Time before Sleep)
For Cyclic Sleep – ST (Time before Sleep), LH
(Wake-up Initializer Timer), HT (Time Before
Wake-up Initializer), PW (Pin Wake-up)
ST (Time before Sleep) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)> ST Command sets
the period of time (in tenths of seconds) in which
the modem remains inactive before entering into
Sleep Mode. For example, if the ST Parameter is
set to 0x64 (100 decimal), the modem will enter
into Sleep mode after 10 seconds of inactivity (no
transmitting or receiving). This command can
only be used if Cyclic Sleep or Serial Port Sleep
Mode settings have been selected using SM
(Sleep Mode) Command.
AT Command: ATST
Binary Command: 0x02
Parameter Range: 0x10 – 0xFFFF
(x 100 milliseconds)
Default Parameter Value: 0x64 (100 decimal)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: SM (Sleep Mode), LH
(Wake-up Initializer Timer), HT (Time before
Wake-up Initializer)
SY (Time before Initialization) Command
<Networking> SY Command keeps a
communication channel open as long as modem
transmits or receives before the active connection
expires. It can be used to reduce latency in a
query/response sequence and should be set 100
ms longer than the delay between transmissions.
AT Command: ATSY
Binary Command: 0x17 (23 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF
(x 100 milliseconds)
Default Parameter Value: 0 (Disabled - channel
initialization information is sent with each RF
packet.)
This command allows multiple XStream Modems
to share a hopping channel for a given amount of
Number of bytes returned: 1
time after receiving data. By default, all packets
include an RF initializer that contains channel
information used to synchronize any listening receivers to the transmitter’s hopping pattern.
Once a new modem comes within range or is powered on within range, it is able to instantly
synchronize to the transmitter and start receiving data. If no new modems are introduced into
the system, the synchronization information becomes redundant once modems have become
synchronized.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
SY Command allows the modems to remove this information from the RF Initializer after the
initial synchronization. For example, changing the SY Parameter to 0x14 (20 decimal) allows all
modems to remain in sync for 2 seconds after the last data packet was received. Synchronization
information is not re-sent unless transmission stops for more than 2 seconds. This command
allows significant savings in packet transmission time.
Warning:
Not recommended for use in an interference-prone environment. Interference can
break up the session and the communications channel will not be available again
until SY time expires.
With SY set to zero, the channel session is opened and closed with each transmission - resulting
in a more robust link with more latency.
TR (Transmit Error Count) Command
<Diagnostics> TR Command records the number
of retransmit failures. This number is
incremented each time a packet is not
acknowledged within the number of retransmits
specified by the RR (Retries) Command. It
therefore counts the number of packets that were
not successfully received and have been dropped.
The TR Parameter is not non-volatile and will
therefore be reset to zero each time the modem
is reset.
AT Command: ATTR
Binary Command: 0x1B (27 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: RR (Retries)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
TT (Streaming Limit) Command
<Networking> TT Command defines a limit on
the number of bytes that can be sent out before
a random delay is issued. TT Command is used to
simulate full-duplex behavior.
AT Command: ATTT
If a modem is sending a continuous stream of RF
data, a delay is inserted which stops its
transmission and allows other modems time to
transmit (once it sends number of bytes specified
by TT Command). Inserted random delay lasts
between 1 and “RN + 1” delay slots, where each
delay slot lasts 38ms.
Default Parameter Value: 0xFFFF (65535
decimal)
Binary Command: 0x1A (26 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF (0 = disabled)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: RN (Delay Slots)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
VR (Firmware Version) Command
<Diagnostics> Read the Firmware Version of the
XStream Modem.
AT Command: ATVR
Binary Command: 0x14 (20 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF (Read-only)
Number of bytes returned: 2
WR (Write) Command
<(Special)> WR Command writes configurable
AT Command: ATWR
parameters to the modem’s non-volatile memory
Binary Command: 0x08
(Parameter values persist in the modem’s
memory until overwritten by future use of WR Command).
If changes are made without writing them to non-volatile memory, the modem reverts back to
previously saved parameters the next time the modem is powered-on.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
FCC Certification
The XStream RF Modem complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules and regulations. Compliance with
the labeling requirements, FCC notices and antenna usage guidelines is required.
To fulfill the FCC Certification requirements, the OEM must comply with the following FCC
regulations:
1.
The system integrator must ensure that the text on the external label provided with this
device is placed on the outside of the final product (Figure A.1 for 900 MHz operations or
Figure A.2 for 2.4 GHz operations).
2.
The XStream RF Modem may be used only with Approved Antennas that have been tested
with this modem. (Table A.1 or Table A.2)
FCC Notices:
IMPORTANT: The 9XStream (900 MHz) and 24XStream (2.4 GHz) OEM Modems have been certified by
the FCC for use with other products without any further certification (as per FCC section 2.1091).
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Digi could void the user’s authority to operate
the equipment.
IMPORTANT: OEMs must test their final product to comply with unintentional radiators (FCC section
15.107 and 15.109) before declaring compliance of their final product to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
IMPORTANT: The XStream RF Modems have been certified for remote and base radio applications. If
the XStream will be used for portable applications, the device must undergo SAR testing.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment
off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:
• Re-orient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
OEM Labeling Requirements
Label Warning
WARNING
The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) must ensure that FCC labeling
requirements are met. This includes a clearly visible label on the outside of the
final product enclosure that displays the contents shown in the figure below.
Figure A.1.
Required FCC Label for OEM products containing 9XStream (900 MHz) RF Modem
Contains FCC ID: OUR9XSTREAM
The enclosed device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Figure A.2.
Required FCC Label for OEM products containing 24XStream (2.4 GHz) RF Modem
Contains FCC ID: OUR-24XSTREAM
The enclosed device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Antenna Usage
Antenna Warning
WARNING:
This device has been tested with Reverse Polarity SMA connectors with the
antennas listed in Tables A.1 and A.2 of Appendix A. When integrated in OEM
products, fixed antennas require installation preventing end-users from replacing
them with non-approved antennas. Antennas not listed in the tables must be
tested to comply with FCC Section 15.203 (unique antenna connectors) and Section
15.247 (emissions).
RF Exposure
WARNING:
This equipment is approved only for mobile and base station transmitting devices,
separation distances of (i) 20 centimeters or more for antennas with gains < 6 dBi
or (ii) 2 meters or more for antennas with gains ≥ 6 dBi should be maintained
between the antenna of this device and nearby persons during operation. To
ensure compliance, operation at distances closer than this is not recommended.
The preceding statement must be included as a CAUTION statement in manuals for OEM products
to alert users on FCC RF Exposure compliance.
Digi radio modems are pre-FCC approved for use in fixed base station and mobile applications. As
long as the antenna is mounted at least 20 cm (8 in) from nearby persons, the application is
considered a mobile application. If the antenna will be mounted closer than 20 cm to nearby
persons, then the application is considered “portable” and requires an additional test performed
on the final product. This test is called the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) testing and measures
the emissions from the radio modem and how they affect the person.
Over 100 additional antennas have been tested and are approved for use with Digi 900 MHz
Radio Modems (including “Mag Mount”, “Dome”, “Multi-path” and “Panel” antennas). Because of
the large number of approved antennas, Digi requests that you send specific information about
an antenna you would like to use with the modem and Digi will evaluate whether the antenna is
covered under our FCC filing.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
FCC-Approved Antennas
Table A.1.
Antennas approved for use with 9XStream (900 MHz) RF Modems.
Manufacturer
Part Number
Type
Gain
Application
Min. Separation Distance
*
*
Digi
*
*
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
*
*
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
*
*
A09-Y8
*
*
A09-Y11 (FCC pending)
A09-F2
A09-F5
A09-F8
*
*
A09-M7
A09-H
A09-HBMM-P5I
A09-QBMM-P5I
6.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
8.2 dBi
9.2 dBi
10.2 dBi
11.2 dBi
2.2 dBi
5.2 dBi
8.2 dBi
9.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
1.9 dBi
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
1 cm
1 cm
*
*
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
1/2 wave antenna
1/2 wave antenna
1/4 wave antenna
1/4 wave integrated wire
antenna
1.9 dBi
Fixed/Mobile **
1 cm
Table A.2.
Antennas approved for use with 24XStream (2.4 GHz) RF Modems.
Manufacturer
Part Number
Type
Gain
Application
Min. Separation Distance
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Digi
Digi
*
*
*
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
A24-P8
A24-P13
*
*
*
A24-P19
A24-HABMM-P6I
A24-HBMM-P6I
A24-HABSM
A24-QABMM-P6I
A24-Q1
*
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Panel
Panel
Panel
Panel
Panel
Panel
Dipole
Dipole
Dipole
Monopole
Monopole
Monopole
6 dBi
8.8 dBi
9 dBi
10 dBi
11 dBi
12 dBi
12.5 dBi
13.5 dBi
15 dBi
2.1 dBi
3 dBi
5 dBi
7.2 dBi
8 dBi
9.5 dBi
10 dBi
12 dBi
15 dBi
8.5 dBi
13 dBi
14 dBi
15 dBi
16 dBi
19 dBi
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
1.9 dBi
1.9 dBi
1.9 dBi
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20cm
* FCC-approved antennas not inventoried by Digi – Contact Digi (866) 765-9885 for information.
** Can be approved for portable applications if integrator gains approval through SAR testing
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
IC (Industry Canada) Certification
Labeling requirements for Industry Canada are similar to those of the FCC. A clearly visible label
on the outside of the final product enclosure must display the following text:
Contains Model 9XStream Radio (900 MHz), IC: 4214A-9XSTREAM
Contains Model 24XStream Radio (2.4 GHz), IC: 4214A 12008
Integrator is responsible for its product to comply with IC ICES-003 and FCC Part 15, Sub. B Unintentional Radiators. ICES-003 is the same as FCC Part 15 Sub. B and Industry Canada
accepts FCC test report or CISPR 22 test report for compliance with ICES-003.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Appendix B: Development Guide
RS-232 Accessories Kit Contents
The accessories listed below are included with XStream RF Modems that carry the “-RA” suffix on
the product number. For example: Part number “X09-019PKC-RA” includes the listed accessories
and part number “X09-019PKC-R” does not. The accessories kit includes hardware and software
needed for developing long range wireless links. For testing the modem’s range, Digi
recommends the purchase of one RF Modem with the accessories and one without.
Table B.1.
Accessories Kit Contents
Item
Qty.
Description
Part Number
Quick Start Guide
1
Familiarizes users with some of the modem’s most
important functions.
MD0019
CD
1
Contains documentation, software and tools needed for
RF operation.
MD0030
XStream-PKG-R™
RS-232/485 RF Modem
1
Long Range RF Modem with RPSMA Connector
X09… or
X19…
Antenna
1
RPSMA, 6" Half-Wave, dipole, articulating
A09-HASM-675
Serial Loopback Adapter
1
Connects to the female RS-232 (DB-9) serial connector of
the Interface Board and can be used to configure the
modem to function as a repeater (for range testing)
JD2D3-CDL-A
NULL Modem Adapter
(male-to-male)
1
Connects to the female RS-232 (DB-9) serial connector of
the Interface Board and can be used to connect the
modem to another DCE (female DB9) device
JD2D2-CDN-A
NULL Modem Adapter
(female-to-female)
1
Used to bypass radios to verify serial cabling is
functioning properly
JD3D3-CDN-A
Male DB-9 to RJ-45
Adapter
1
Facilitates adapting the DB-9 Connector of the Interface
Board to a CAT5 cable (male DB9 to female RJ45)
JE1D2-CDA-A
Female DB-9 to RJ-45
Adapter
1
Facilitates adapting the DB-9 Connector of the Interface
Board to a CAT5 cable (female DB9 to female RJ45)
JE1D3-CDA-A
Power Adapter
1
Allows Interface Board to be powered by a 110 Volt AC
power supply
JP4P2-9V10-6F
RS-232 Cable (6’)
1
Connects interface board to devices having an RS-232
serial port
JD2D3-CDS-6F
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Adapters
The XStream Development Kit comes with several adapters that support the following functions:
• Performing Range Tests (Serial Loopback)
• Connecting to other RS-232 DCE and DTE devices (Male-to-Male NULL modem)
• Testing Cables (Female-to-Female NULL modem)
• Connecting to terminal blocks or RJ-45 (for RS-485/422 devices)
Serial Loopback Adapter
Part Number: JD2D3-CDL-A (Red, DB-9 M-F) The serial loopback adapter is used for range
testing. During a range test, the serial loopback adapter configures the radio modem to function
as a repeater by looping serial data back into the radio for retransmission.
Figure B.1.
Serial loopback adapter and pinouts
NULL Modem Adapter (male-to-male)
Part Number: JD2D2-CDN-A (Black, DB-9 M-M) The male-to-male NULL modem adapter is used
to connect two DCE devices. A DCE device connects with a straight-through cable to the male
serial port of a computer (DTE).
Figure B.2.
Male NULL modem adapter and pinouts
Figure B.3.
Example of a Digi Radio Modem (DCE Device) connecting to another DCE device)
NULL Modem Adapter (female-to-female)
Part Number: JD3D3-CDN-A (Gray, DB-9 F-F) The female-to-female NULL modem adapter is
used to verify serial cabling is functioning properly. To test cables, insert the female-to-female
NULL modem adapter in place of a pair of modem assemblies (XIB-R-R interface board +
XStream Modem) and test the connection without radio modems in the connection.
Figure B.4.
Female NULL modem adapter and pinouts
For use in RS-485/422 systems:
DB-9 to RJ-45 adapters are
illustrated on p11.
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Antennas
(Refer to Appendix A for a list of FCC-Approved Antennas)
Factors that determine wireless link range:
• Ambient RF noise (interference)
• Line-of-sight obstructions
• Transmit power
• Receive sensitivity
• Antenna configuration
• XStream Antenna Connector Options
To comply with the FCC rules and obtain a “modular” certification, it is required that XStream
Modems utilize a “non-standard” connector. This is to ensure the modems are used only with
approved antennas.
RPSMA
The Reverse Polarity SMA (RPSMA) connector uses the same body as
a regular SMA connector. In order to be a “non standard” connector,
the gender of the center conductor is changed. The female RPSMA
actually has a male center conductor.
Antenna Cables
RF cables are typically used to connect a radio installed in a cabinet to an antenna mounted
externally. As a general rule, it is best to keep the RF cable as short as possible. All cables
promote signal loss which is usually measured in dB loss per 100 ft. Digi provides LMR-195 rated
cables. Common cables and dB losses are included in this table:
Table B.2.
Potential Signal Strength Loss due to Antenna Cable Length
Cable
Type
Loss at 900 MHz per 100’
(loss per 100m)
Loss at 2.4 GHz per 100’
(loss per 100m)
Diameter
RG-58
14.5 dB (47.4 dB)
25.3 dB (83.2 dB)
0.20” (4.95 mm)
RG-174
25.9 dB (85.0 dB)
44.4 dB (145.8 dB)
0.10” (2.54 mm)
RG-316
24.7 dB (81.0 dB)
42.4 dB (139.0 dB)
0.10” (2.59 mm)
LMR-195
11.1 dB (36.5 dB)
19.0 dB (62.4 dB)
0.20” (4.95 mm)
LMR-240
7.6 dB (24.8 dB)
12.9 dB (42.4 dB)
0.24“ (6.10 mm)
LMR-600
2.5 dB (8.2 dB)
4.4 dB (14.5 dB)
0.59” (15.0 mm)
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Appendix C: Additional Information
1-Year Warranty
XStream RF Modems from Digi International Inc. (the "Product") are warranted against defects in
materials and workmanship under normal use, for a period of 1-year from the date of purchase. In
the event of a product failure due to materials or workmanship, Digi will repair or replace the
defective product. For warranty service, return the defective product to Digi, shipping prepaid, for
prompt repair or replacement.
The foregoing sets forth the full extent of Digi's warranties regarding the Product. Repair or
replacement at Digi's option is the exclusive remedy. THIS WARRANTY IS GIVEN IN LIEU OF ALL
OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND DIGI SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO
EVENT SHALL DIGI, ITS SUPPLIERS OR LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES IN EXCESS OF
THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE PRODUCT, FOR ANY LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF TIME,
INCONVENIENCE, COMMERCIAL LOSS, LOST PROFITS OR SAVINGS, OR OTHER
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR
INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT, TO THE FULL EXTENT SUCH MAY BE DISCLAIMED BY
LAW. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. THEREFOR, THE FOREGOING EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY
IN ALL CASES. This warranty provides specific legal rights. Other rights which vary from state to
state may also apply.
Ordering Information
Figure C.1 Digi RF Modem Part Numbers Key
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
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XStream-PKG-R™ RS-232/485 RF Modem – Product Manual v4.2B5
Contact Digi
If you need assistance, contact technical support:
Documentation:
www.digi.com/support/
Technical Support:
Phone
Online
© 2014 Digi International Inc.
(866) 765-9885 toll-free U.S. and Canada
(801) 765-9885 Worldwide
8:00 am – 5:00 pm (U.S. Central Time)
www.digi.com/support/eservice
44