Agilent RF and Microwave Switch Selection Guide

Agilent
RF and Microwave Switch Selection Guide
Agilent Technologies —
Your one-stop switching solution provider
Key Features
• High reliability and exceptional repeatability ensure excellent
measurement accuracy
• Excellent RF specifications optimize your test system
measurement capability
• Broad selection of switches provides configuration flexibility
for various applications
Agilent
RF and Microwave
Switches
Agilent RF and microwave
switches provide:
• Superior RF performance to
optimize test equipment
performance
• Unmatched quality and reliability
to minimize measurement
uncertainty
• Ultra broadband to meet the
demands of today’s devices
Agilent has been a leading designer and manufacturer of RF and microwave
switches in the global marketplace for more than 60 years. RF and microwave
switches are used extensively in microwave test systems for signal routing
between instruments and devices under test (DUT). Incorporating a switch into
a switch matrix system enables you to route signals from multiple instruments
to single or multiple DUTs. This allows multiple tests to be performed with the
same setup, eliminating the need for frequent connects and disconnects. The
entire testing process can thus be automated, increasing the throughput in
high-volume production environments.
Agilent designs and manufacturers a comprehensive range of RF and microwave
switches to meet your switching requirements. There are two mainstream
switch technologies in use today: solid state and electromechanical. Agilent’s
solid state and electromechanical switches operate across a broad frequency
range and come in a variety of configurations. Designed with high accuracy
and repeatability for automated test and measurement, signal monitoring and
routing applications, Agilent switches have a proven track record for high
performance, quality and reliability.
2
Agilent’s RF and Microwave Switch Portfolio
Agilent Technologies offers a
Electromechanical switches
broad portfolio of switches in
Frequency
configuration
various configurations. This gives
SPDT
SP3T SP4T SP5T SP6T Bypass Transfer
you the flexibility to create complex
DC to 4 GHz
▀
matrixes and automated test
DC to 18 GHz
▀
systems for many different
DC to 20 GHz
▀
applications.
DC to 26.5 GHz
▀
DC to 40 GHz
▀
▀
DC to 50 GHz
▀
▀
DC to 67 GHz
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
Solid state switches
Frequency
configuration
SPDT
300 kHz to 8 GHz
▀
FET hybrid
SP4T Transfer
SPDT
PIN diode
SP4T Transfer
▀
100 MHz to 8 GHz
▀
▀
▀
100 MHz to 18 GHz
▀
▀
▀
45 MHz to 50 GHz
▀
▀
300 kHz to 18 GHz
3
▀
▀
Agilent Electromechanical Coaxial Switch Features
Guaranteed performance
• < 0.03 dB insertion loss
repeatability guaranteed for
2 or 5 million cycles
Long operating life
• 5 or 10 million cycles (typical)
Flexible configurations
• SPDT, SP4T, SP6T
• bypass and transfer
• terminated and unterminated
High isolation
• typically > 85 dB at 26 .5 GHz
Low SWR
• minimize measurement
uncertainty
Unique design
• wiping action mechanism
eliminates particle buildup to
ensure reliable switching
Broad frequency range
• DC to 4, 20, 26.5, 40, or 50 GHz
4
Choose Between Life Expectancy and Cost
Without Sacrificing Performance
High performance
Agilent’s high-performance electromechanical coaxial switches provide reliable
switching in signal routing, switch matrices and ATE systems. With 0.03 dB
insertion loss repeatability guaranteed up to five million cycles and exceptional
isolation, Agilent high-performance switches provide the performance you need
from DC to 50 GHz.
Low cost
Agilent’s low-cost switches offer high-performance capability at a fraction of
the cost. For example, 40% cheaper than Agilent’s high-performance switches,
the L Series offers 0.03 dB insertion loss repeatability guaranteed up to two
million cycles and exceptional isolation, Agilent low-cost switches provide the
performance you need from DC to 26.5 GHz.
Agilent’s electromechanical switch product offerings
Terminated
High performance
Low cost
SPDT
N1810TL
8762A/B/C/F
SP4T
87104A/B/C/D
L7104A/B/C
SP6T
87106A/B/C/D
L7106A/B/C
N1811TL
8763A/B/C
Bypass
Unterminated performance
High performance
Low cost
Exceptional
reduces cost of test
SPDT
N1810UL
8765A/B/C/D/F
SP4T
8767K
L7204A/B/C
SP6T
8769K
L7206A/B/C
Bypass
N1812UL
8764A/B/C
Transfer
87222C/D/E
L7222C
5
Choose Between Life Expectancy and Cost Without Sacrificing Performance
Unique design — a wiping
mechanism eliminates particle
buildup to ensure reliable
switching
Contact
pressure
Center
contact
motion
Curved surface
Center
conductor
Jumper contact
EM switch mating configuration illustrating
microscopic wiping
Pressure
from pushrod
Long operating life with guaranteed 0.03 dB insertion
loss repeatability
Agilent EM coaxial switches are produced with meticulous manufacturing
processes and stringent quality assurance. The L Series is designed to guarantee
specifications for two million cycles and typically operates up to fi ve million
cycles. The high performance series is designed to guarantee specifications up
to fi ve million cycles and typically operates up to ten million cycles.
Agilent electromechanical switches have a guaranteed 0.03 dB insertion loss
repeatability throughout their operating life of two or fi ve million cycles. To
achieve this repeatability specification, Agilent EM switches incorporate a
unique design, which includes a wiping mechanism that cleans debris off
the center conductor tip every cycle, eliminating the particle buildup that is
prevalent in conventional EM switch designs.
More information on the wiping mechanism can be found in How Operating Life
and Repeatability of Agilent’s Electromechancial Switches Minimize System
Uncertainty, literature number 5989-6085EN.
Debris
Curved
surface
Center
conductor
Jumper contact
A piece of small debris is stuck on the
surface of center conductor
Pressure
released from pushrod
Debris is being
pushed away
Center
conductor
Jumper contact
Debris is being pushed away by wiping
process of the jumper contact
6
Choose Between Life Expectancy and Cost Without Sacrificing Performance
PNA
network
analyzer
Agilent switches exhibit exceptional isolation performance required to maintain signal integrity. Isolation between ports is typically > 90 dB to 12 GHz and
> 80 dB to 26.5 GHz, reducing the influence of signals from other channels and
system measurement uncertainties.
The repeatability of a switch has a direct effect on the measurement uncertainty of a test setup. Here, a PNA connected to a multiport test set is used to
test multiple devices.
In this example, a total of three 2-port devices can be tested successively or
individually, with any port. The following equations are used to calculate total
measurement uncertainty.
PNA network analyzer with a multiport
test set
Equations
Since uncertainty errors are random and not systematic, root sum square (RSS)
is used calculate the total measurement uncertainty.
Scenario 1:
PNA repeatability 0.01 dB, EM switch repeatability 0.03 dB
Total measurement uncertainty
0.012 + 0.03 2+ 0.032 0.044 dB
Scenario 2:
PNA repeatability 0.01 dB, EM switch repeatability 0.1 dB
Total measurement uncertainty
0.012 + 0.12 + 0.12 0.142 dB
As shown in the equations, repeatability of the EM switch has a significant
effect on the total measurement uncertainty of the system, affecting the
accuracy of all measurements made.
Agilent’s high performance 87 series offer exceptional RF performance with
low cost per switching cycle. Agilent’s L Series switches offer excellent
performance at an affordable price, minimizing the pressure associated with
stringent budgetary constraints.
7
Typical Applications for Electromechanical Switches
Electromechanical switch
applications
Electromechanical switches are used in switch matrix systems for testing
of telecommunication devices where low insertion loss is critical and power
handling requirements are higher.
• antennas
• transceiver modules
• low noise amplifiers (LNA)
• receiver modules
Electromechanical switches are widely used in both basic signal routing
and application specific switch matrices such as tree matrices or full access
matrices. They are also useful for bypassing an active device in a measurement
system or in a multisource/multi-device switching system.
2-port measurement of a multiport device
Application requirements
• 0.03 dB insertion loss
repeatability
USB/GPIB interface
(82357B)
• power handling of 50 W peak
• terminated
• long operating life
SP4T
switch
Recommended switches
HPF
SPDT
switch
• SPDT: N1810TL
• SP4T: 87104A/B, L7104A/B
LPF
Booster Isolator
amplifier
DUT
ATT
Calibration plane
setup for low-power S-parameter measurement
setup for high-power harmonic measurement
This configuration enables switching between high- and low-power measurements
The figure above shows the test setup for 2-port measurements on a multiport
device; additional EM switches may be required for a complete measurement
setup. Green is the S-parameter measurement with a low-power signal applied
to the DUT, while blue is for the harmonic distortion measurement with a highpower signal to the DUT. Both measurements can be selected by changing the
EM switch ports.
8
Typical Applications for Electromechanical Switches
Flexible configurations for signal routing purposes
Agilent EM switches can be used in large number of applications, increasing
system flexibility and simplifying system design. One of the most common
applications is to use the switches in a switch matrix automated testing
system which routes multiple input signals to multiple outputs. Examples
shown below are some possible configurations. You can also freely configure
Agilent switches to meet your needs.
1x16 full crossbar switch
matrix
SP4T
S2
SP4T
Switch 1
6 x 6 “common highway”
Inputs SP6T switch
SP6T switch Outputs
SP4T
S3
SP4T
S4
SP4T
S5
11713C attenuator/switch driver
Switch matrices use high performance multiport switches to route multiple input signals
to multiple output signals simultaneously.
Application requirements
11713C attenuator/switch driver
Application requirements
• 4-port switch configuration
(SP4T) for S1, S2, S3, S4, S5
• 0.03 dB insertion loss
repeatability
• 6-port switch configuration
• 0.03 dB insertion loss
repeatability
• power handling of 50 W peak
• terminated
• long operating life
• power handling of 50 W peak
• terminated
• long operating life
Recommended switches
• SP4T: 87104A/B/C/D,
L7104A/B/C
9
Recommended switches
• SP6T: 87106A/B/C/D,
L7106A/B/C
Agilent Solid State Switch Features
Fast switching speed
• 350 µs (typical)
High isolation
• > 100 dB at 8 GHz
Low video leakage
• prevent damage to sensitive
components
Broad frequency range
• from kHz to 8, 18 or 50 GHz
• low frequency testing
Exceptionally long operating life
10
Agilent Solid State Switch Features
There are three types of solid
state switches
• PIN diode switches
• field-effect transistor (FET)
switches
• hybrid switches
(FET and PIN diode)
Applications
• RFIC component test
• handset power amplifier test
Solid state switches are more reliable and exhibit longer lifetimes than
their electromechanical counterparts due to their superior resistance to
shock, vibration and mechanical wear. They also offer faster switching times.
However, solid state switches have higher insertion loss than electromechanical
switches due to their higher innate ON resistance. Therefore solid state switches
are preferred in systems where fast switching and long lifetime are essential.
Solid state switches are often used in switch matrix systems for testing of
semiconductor devices where high switching speed is critical and power
handling requirements are lower.
• SAW filter test
General performance for solid state switches
Pin diode
FET
Hybrid
Frequency range
from MHz
from DC
from kHz
Insertion loss
Medium (roll off
at low frequencies)
High (roll off
at high frequencies)
High (roll off
at high frequencies)
Isolation
Good at high frequencies
Good at low frequencies
Good at high frequencies
Repeatability
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Switching speed
Fast
Average
Average
Video leakage
Medium
Low
Low
Power handling
Low
Low
Low
Operating life
Long
Long
Long
Power consumption
High
Low
Moderate
Sensitive to
RF power, overstress,
temperature
RF power, overstress,
temperature
RF power, overstress,
temperature
Agilent switch examples
P9400/2/4
85331/2
U9397, U9400
U9397, U9400
11
Low Video Leakage and Ultra Fast Settling Time
Low video leakage
Video leakage refers to the spurious signals present at the RF ports of the
switch when it is switched without an RF signal present. These signals arise
from the waveforms generated by the switch driver and, in particular, from the
leading edge voltage spike required for high-speed switching of PIN diodes.
The amplitude of the video leakage depends on the design of the switch and
the switch driver. Video leakage can damage sensitive devices, such as satellite transponders, which use low-power switching (–100 dBm ON/OFF) and
instruments, depending on the amplitude of the video leakage.
FET switches have low video leakage,
typically < 30 mVpp
Agilent’s solid state switches are carefully designed to ensure extremely low
video leakage. For instance, P940x PIN diode switches offer video leakage of
10 mV ~ 500 mV which is extremely low for a PIN diode switch, while U9397
and U9400 FET switches have less than 30 mVpp video leakage.
Fast switching speeds
Fast switching speed is important in ATE applications where testing throughput
is critical. It is especially important in applications that require the stacking of
multiple switches in series. Agilent solid state switches exhibit fast switching
speed to enable high throughput.
Agilent PIN diode switches have low video
leakage for this type of switch, typically
780 mVpp
10% Vp
Signal
}
―0.01 dB + 0.115% Vp
Switching
wave
Most PIN diode switches have video leakage
for of < 10 Vpp
Rise time/speed
t=0
Settling time
Switching waveform and settling time diagram
12
90% Vp
Typical Applications for Solid State Switches
Solid state switches are widely used in both basic signal routing and application
specific switch matrices such as tree matrices and full access matrices as well
as for multisource/multi DUT switching in ATE systems.
Signal routing for multiple-instrument, multiple-DUT
testing
Application requirements
Agilent P9400A/C
transfer switch 1
• high isolation
• fast switching speed
3
4
DUT 2
Signal generator
Recommended switches
DUT 1
• P9400A/C, U9400A/C
1
2
Spectrum analyzer
Network analyzer
Agilent P9400A/C
transfer switch 2
4
2
3
1
–30 dBm
Testing two DUTs simultaneously using two different test sets
Control input
State
DUT 1 connected to
DUT 2 connected to
Tests
High
Network analyzer
Network analyzer
S-parameter
Low
Spectrum analyzer
and signal generator
Spectrum analyzer
and signal generator
Spurious signal,
harmonics
13
Typical Applications for Solid State Switches
Mobile handset power amplifier testing
Application requirements
Signal generator
• fast settling time
• low video leakage
Triggering
Recommended switches
• U9397A/C
Solid state switch
U9397A/C
1
com
2
DCS band Power amp
Solid state switch
U9397A/C
1
com
2
Attenuator
Attenuator
GSM band
Signal analyzer
Simplified test setup for testing GSM/EDGE handset power amplifiers
Filter bank: SAW filter testing
Application requirements
Network analyzer
• fast switching speed
• fast settling time
• low insertion loss
• compatible logic
P9404A/C
Recommended switches
• P9404A/C
Typical test setup for filter bank testing
14
Filter bank
P9404A/C
Typical Applications for Solid State Switches
Satellite: testing channel amplifiers with ALC systems
Application requirements
• low video leakage
RF IN
A1
AT1
A2
RF OUT
Detector
• fast switching speed
VR1
DC amp
Recommended switches
• U9397A/C, U9400A/C
A3
AT2
VR2
Step gain
control
Channel amplifier with automatic level control (ALC) system for satellite applications
Base station and satellite: antenna testing
Application requirements
• high isolation
V
Source
antenna
Antenna
under test
• fast switching speed
H
• fast settling time
• impedance matching
Switch
control unit
SP2T
PIN switch
SP4T
PIN switch
From transmit source
Recommended switches
• P9402A/C, P9404A/C
A typical multiple-channel, multiple-frequency system configuration
15
Switch
control unit
To receiver
Completing Your Switching Solution — Driving the Switches
11713B/C attenuator/switch driver — easy to
integrate, easy to use
Agilent 11713B/C attenuator/switch drivers provide remote or front panel
drive control for programmable attenuators and electromechanical or solid
state switches. Designed with both bench top and ATE environments in mind,
these attenuator/switch drivers provide an intuitive user interface, a variety of
switching options, software programmability and remote control features for
quick, easy design validation and automated testing.
Agilent 11713B switch driver
• GPIB (LXI optional)
control via front panel or
remotely with GPIB
• point-to-point interconnect
• intuitive user interface
easy to read LCD display
• integrated power supply
+24 Vdc
• software programmable
standard SCPI
• switch control
2 programmable attenuators
and 2 SPDT switches or
up to 10 SPDT switches
16
Agilent 11713C switch driver
• LXI compliant
control via front panel or
remotely with GPIB, USB,
or LAN
• point-to-point interconnect
• intuitive user interface
easy to read LCD display
• integrated power supply
+ 5 Vdc, +15 Vdc, +24 Vdc,
user defined
• software programmable
standard SCPI
• switch control
4 programmable attenuators
and 4 SPDT switches or
up to 20 SPDT switches
Completing Your Switching Solution — Driving the Switches
Point-to-point interconnect
Option
Description
Used for
11713B/C-201
Viking connector to 12-pin conductor cable, bare wire
Switch with solder lug (8762/3/4)
11713B/C-301
Viking connector to (4) ribbon cables
SPDT (8765)
11713B/C-401
Dual-viking connector to 16-pin DIP connector
SP6T (87106/L7106)
11713B/C-501
Viking connector to (4) 9-pin Dsub connectors
SPDT/bypass (N181x)
11713B/C-502
Viking connector to (2) 9-pin Dsub connectors
SPDT/bypass (N181x with TTL option)
11713B/C-601
Viking connector to 16-pin DIP connector
SP4T (87104/L7104)
11713B/C-701
Viking connector to 14-pin DIP connector
Inline (8769M)
11713B/C-801
Viking connector to (4) 4-pin DIP connectors
DPDT/transfer (87222/L7222)
Agilent switch drivers
Automated test equipment (ATE) systems come in different sizes and complexity.
Agilent meets these needs with a variety of switch drivers. Please review
Switch driver quick selection on page 18 for a quick overview of the different
features.
11713B/C attenuator/switch driver
The 11713B/C attenuator/switch driver is recommended for easy routing
of high-frequency signals in small scale ATE systems or benchtop testing.
For information on connectivity and cable options for the 11713B/C, see
“Ordering Information” at the end of this document. For more detailed
configuration information see the 11713B/C Attenuator/Switch Driver
Configuration Guide, literature number 5989-7277EN.
U2121A USB digital I/O module for RF switch control
With the optional RF switch integration kit, the Agilent U2121A digital input/
output (DIO) module becomes a convenient, cost-effective way to implement
RF switching in small test systems for a variety of applications. The simplified
installation and operation of the DIO card and breakout module allows straightforward control of small RF switching systems. This helps you quickly create
simple, yet cost-effective RF switch systems.
• Control and monitor up to fi ve RF switches
• Quick, easy setup with bundled RF switch driver software and cable
• Hassle-free setup eliminates complex DC connections, enabling you to focus
on RF signal routing
• Programmable DIO power-up states allow storage of pre-defined RF switch
state
• Watchdog timer provides fail-safe capability to preserve known states
• Support fail-safe and latching-relay switches for maximum flexibility
For more information on Agilent U2121A-based RF switch driver, go to
www.agilent.com/find/DIOSolution
17
Completing Your Switching Solution — Driving the Switches
The following switch drivers/platforms are usually used in large-scale ATE
systems and require configuration. Please see product literature or contact you
Agilent Sale Representative for more information.
L4445A microwave switch/attenuator driver
For more detailed information, see the Agilent L4445A Microwave Switch/
Attenuator Driver Data Sheet, literature number 5989-4828EN
L4490A/91A RF switch platform
For more detailed information, see the Agilent L4490A/91A RF Switch Platform
Data Sheet, literature number 5989-7857EN
34980A multifunction switch measure unit
For more detailed information, see the Agilent 34980A Multifunction Switch/
Measure Unit Data Sheet, literature number 5989-1437EN
Switch driver quick selection chart
Feature
U2121A with
Option 101
11713B/C
L4445A
L4490A/91A
34980A with
34945A
Front panel
control
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
LCD display
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Application
bench-top for
small systems
bench-top and
ATE in fixture
ATE with switches
in fixture
ATE with switches
in rack
ATE with mixed
signal needs
Capacity
5 channels with up to 20 channels
3 general digital
inputs and 3 digital
output ports
32 channels standard,
expandable to 256
switches
32 channels standard, 32 channels standard,
expandable to 64
expandable to 256
switches
switches (also wire
multiplexer channels
in one mainframe)
Physical size
154.60 mm x
2½ U
120.00 mm x
32.60 mm (for
U2121A); 153 mm
x 85 mm x 38 mm
(for Option 101 RF
switch board)
1U, ½ rack
2U/4U
3U mainframe
Voltage supply1 24 V
5 V, 15 V, 24 V
(and user defined
voltage)
24 V (external power
supply needed for
5 V and 15 V)
5 V, 12 V, 24 V
24 V (external power
supply needed for
5 V and 15 V)
Connectivity
USB
GPIB, USB, LAN
(LXI Class C)
LAN (Optional GPIB)
GPIB, USB, LAN
(LXI Class C)
GPIB, USB, LAN
(LXI Class C)
Options for
interconnect
Configuration
needed
Point-to-point
interconnect
Configuration
needed
Configuration
needed
Configuration
needed
1. All switch drivers are programmable to 30 V with an external power supply.
18
Typical Application for 11713B/C Attenuator/Switch Drivers
4 x 4 Full access non-blocking switch matrix and 2 x 2
full access blocking switch matrix
Application requirements
• easy front panel and remote
control
11713B/C attenuator/switch drivers provide the flexibility of driving switch
matrices that you create. It is easy to configure, and the instrument and
switches can be dismantled and reused where necessary.
• point-to-point cables for
easy integration
Recommended driver
• 11713B/C attenuator/switch
driver
4 x 4 full access
non-blocking switch matrix
Outputs
(SP4T switches)
Inputs
2 x 2 full access
blocking switch matrix
Inputs
(SP2T switches)
4-way
power
dividers
11713C attenuator/switch driver
19
Outputs
(SP4T switches)
Selection Guide — Selecting the Right Switch Technology
RF and microwave switches are used in a large number of applications, increasing system flexibility and simplifying system design. Expanded capability of
components requires numerous tests and more complex signal routing and
monitoring capability. Selecting the right switch for your application helps
ensure reliable, repeatable performance in your switch matrixes and automated
test systems. This section provides useful guidelines to help you in the decision making process. The section that follows provides specifications for all
Agilent RF and microwave switches.
Electromechanical and solid state switch parameters
Parameters
Electromechanical
Solid state
Frequency range
from DC
from kHz
Insertion loss
low
high
Return loss
good
good
Repeatability
good
excellent
Isolation
good
excellent
Switching speed
in ms
in ns
Settling time
< 15 ms
< 1 µs
Power handling
high
low
Video leakage
none
low
Operating life
5 million cycles
infinite
ESD immunity
high
low
Sensitive to
vibration
RF power overstress
Target markets
Wireless communications,
system integrators
Semiconductor
manufacturers,
semiconductor testers
20
Selection Guide — Selecting the Right Switch Technology
What selection criteria do I use?
Today’s high-speed manufacturing requires high performance, repeatable
switching elements in test instruments and switching interfaces and automated
test systems. These elements are defined by the following characteristics:
Frequency range
RF and microwave applications range in frequency from 100 MHz for semiconductor to 60 GHz for satellite communications. Broadband accessories increase
test system flexibility by extending frequency coverage. However, frequency is
always application dependent and a broad operating frequency may be need to
be sacrificed to meet other critical parameters. For example a network analyzer
may perform a 1 ms sweep for an insertion loss measurement, so for this
application settling time or switching speed becomes the critical parameter
for ensuring measurement accuracy.
Insertion loss
In addition to proper frequency selection, insertion loss is critical to testing.
Losses greater than one or two dB attenuate peak signal levels, and increase
rising and falling edge times. A low insertion loss system can be achieved
by minimizing the number of connectors and through-paths, or by selecting
low insertion loss devices for system configuration. As power is expensive,
especially at high frequencies, electromechanical switches should provide the
lowest possible loss along the transmission path.
Return loss
Return loss, expressed in dB, is a measure of voltage standing wave ratio
(VSWR). Return loss is caused by impedance mismatch between circuits. At
microwave frequencies, the material properties as well as the dimensions of a
network element play a significant role in determining the impedance match or
mismatch caused by the distributed effect. Agilent switches guarantee excellent return loss performance by incorporating appropriate matching circuits to
ensure optimum power transfer through the switch and the entire network.
Repeatability
Low insertion loss repeatability reduces sources of random errors in the measurement path, which improves measurement accuracy. The repeatability and
reliability of a switch guarantees measurement accuracy and can cut the cost
of ownership by reducing calibration cycles and increasing test system up time.
21
Selection Guide — Selecting the Right Switch Technology
Isolation
Isolation is the degree of attenuation from an unwanted signal detected at
the port of interest. Isolation becomes more important at higher frequencies.
High isolation reduces the influence of signals from other channels, sustains
the integrity of the measured signal, and reduces system measurement
uncertainties.
For instance, a switch matrix may need to route a signal to a spectrum analyzer
for measurement at –70 dBm and to simultaneously route another signal at
+20 dBm. In this case, switches with high isolation, 90 dB or more, will keep
the measurement integrity of the low-power signal.
VSWR
The VSWR of the switches is determined by the mechanical dimensions and
tolerances used in their manufacture. Poor VSWR indicates internal reflections
due to impedance mismatches, and can lead to inter-symbol interference (ISI)
from stray signals caused by these reflections. These reflections usually occur
near the connectors; therefore, good connector matching and proper termination are key test requirements.
Switching speed
Switching speed is defined as the time needed to change the state of a switch
port (arm) from “ON’ to “OFF” or from “OFF” to “ON”.
Settling time
As switching time only specifies an end value of 90% of the settled/final value
of the RF signal, settling time is often highlighted in solid state switch performance where the need for accuracy and precision is more critical. Settling time
is measured to a level closer to the final value. The widely used margin-to-finalvalue of settling time is 0.01 dB (99.77% of the final value) and 0.05 dB (98.86%
of the final value). This specification is commonly used for GaAs FET switches
because they have a gate lag effect caused by electrons becoming trapped on
the surface of the GaAs. Agilent GaAs FET switches have a patented design
that dramatically reduces the gate lag effect and reduces settling time to less
than 350 microseconds.
22
Selection Guide — Selecting the Right Switch Technology
Power handling
Power handling defines the ability of a switch to handle power and is very dependant on the design and materials used. There are different power handling
ratings for switches such as hot switching, cold switching, average power and
peak power. Hot switching occurs when RF/microwave power is present at
the ports of the switching at the time of the switching. Cold switching occurs
when the signal power is removed before switching. Cold switching results in
lower contact stress and longer life.
Termination
A 50-ohm load termination is critical in many applications, since each opened
unused transmission line may have the possibility to resonate. This is important, especially when designing a system which works up to 26 GHz or higher
frequencies, where switch isolation drops considerably. When the switch is
connected to an active device, the reflected power of an unterminated path
could possibly damage the source.
Electromechanical switches are categorized as terminated or unterminated. Terminated EM multiport switches: when a selected path is closed,
all other paths are terminated with 50 ohm loads, and the current to all the
solenoids is cut off. Unterminated switches reflect power.
Solid state switches are categorized as absorptive or reflective. Absorptive
switches incorporate a 50 ohm termination in each of the output ports to present a low VSWR in both the OFF and ON states. Reflective switches conduct
RF power when the diode is reverse biased and reflect RF power when forward
biased.
Equal path
There are some applications which require equal paths for amplitude match or
phase match. In differential signal systems, or systems where phase matching
is critical, equal-length, phase-matched paths are recommended. For example,
instead of having a low-profile multiport, an equal path is required. High-performance multiport switches configured to have the same path lengths between
the common port and outer ports are needed for these types of applications.
Also shorter path lengths in the switches lower insertion loss.
23
Selection Guide — Selecting the Right Switch Technology
Video leakage
Video leakage refers to the spurious signals present at the RF ports of the
switch when it is switched without an RF signal present. These signals arise
from the waveforms generated by the switch driver and, in particular, from the
leading edge voltage spike required for high-speed switching of PIN diodes.
The amplitude of the video leakage depends on the design of the switch and
the switch driver.
Operating life
A long operating life reduces cost per cycle and budgetary constraints allowing
manufacturers to be more competitive in today’s price sensitive markets. However manufacturers in some industries such as wireless communications and
semiconductors that do not require premium RF switches with a long operating life, may prefer a low-cost alternative that doesn’t compromise switching
performance.
Switch configurations
Switches come in different configurations providing the flexibility to create
complex matrixes and automated test systems for many different applications
and frequencies. A list of typical switch configurations and usage follows:
•
Single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switches route signals from
one input to two output paths.
•
Multiport switches allow a single input to multiple (three or more)
output paths. Agilent offers single-pole-three-throw (SP3T), single-polefour-throw (SP4T), single-pole-fi ve-throw (SP5T) and single-pole-six-throw
(SP6T) multiport switches.
•
Transfer switches (DPDT) can be used to switch between two inputs
and two outputs, as a drop-out switch, for signal reversal, as a SPDT
switch, or to bypass a test component.
•
Matrix switches can be individually connected via internal microwave
switches to form an RF path. They can be configured for blocking
1 x 5, 2 x 4, or 3 x 3 switching applications.
•
Bypass switches insert or remove a test component from a
signal path.
24
Electromechanical (EM) Switch Selection Tables
50 Ohm high performance EM switches
Family
Model
Frequency
Termination
Isolation
(dB)
Insertion
loss (dB)
SWR
Speed
Average
power
Peak
power
Life cycle
Connector
Driving
voltage (VDC)
N1810UL
DC to 67 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.12
1.9
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)1
5, 15, 24
DC to 67 GHz
Terminated
60
1.12
1.9
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
1
5, 15, 24
SPDT
SPDT
SPDT
N1810TL
Multiport
SP3T
8766K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.5
1.8
20 ms
1W
100 W
5 million
3.5 mm (f)
5, 10, 15, 24
SP4T
87104A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
100
0.36
1.2
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
SP4T
87204A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
100
0.36
1.2
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
70
0.6
1.45
SP4T
87104B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
SP4T
87204B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
70
0.6
1.45
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
65
0.7
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
65
0.7
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
3.5 mm (f)
5, 15, 24
SP4T
87104C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
SP4T
87204C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
SP4T
8767K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.5
1.8
20 ms
1W
100 W
5 million
65
0.7
1.95
SP4T
87104D
DC to 40 GHz
Terminated
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
2.92 mm (f)
24
SP4T
8767M
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
60
2.7
2.3
20 ms
1W
100 W
5 million
2.4 mm (f/m)
5, 15, 24
SP5T
8768K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.5
1.8
20 ms
1W
100 W
5 million
3.5 mm (f)
5, 15, 24
SP5T
8768M
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
60
2.7
2.3
20 ms
1W
100 W
5 million
2.4 mm (f/m)
5, 15, 24
SP6T
87106A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
100
0.36
1.2
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
SP6T
87206A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
100
0.36
1.2
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
SP6T
87106B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
70
0.6
1.45
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
70
0.6
1.45
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
SP6T
87206B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
SP6T
87106C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
65
0.7
SP6T
87206C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
65
0.7
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
SP6T
8769K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.5
2.05
20 ms
1W
100 W
5 million
3.5 mm (f)
24
SP6T
87106D
DC to 40 GHz
Termnated
65
0.7
1.95
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
2.92 mm (f)
5, 15, 24
8769M
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
60
2.7
2.3
20 ms
1W
100 W
5 million
2.4 mm (f/m)
5, 15, 24
Transfer
87222C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
40
0.9
1.65
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
Transfer
87222D
DC to 40 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.2
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
2.92 mm (f)
24
Transfer
87222E
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.15
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
2.4 mm (f)
24
87406B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
70
1
1.9
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
87606B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
70
1
1.9
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)
24
4-ports
N1811TL
DC to 67 GHz
Terminated
60
1.12
1.9
12 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)1
5, 15, 24
5-ports
N1812UL
DC to 67 GHz
Unterminated
60
1.12
1.9
15 ms
1W
50 W
5 million
SMA (f)1
5, 15, 24
SP6T
Transfer
Matrix
6-ports
6-ports
Bypass
1
Option 040: 2.92 mm (f), Option 050: 2.4 mm (f), Option 067: 1.85 mm (f)
25
Electromechanical (EM) Switch Selection Tables
50 Ohm economically priced EM switches
Family
Model
Frequency
Termination
Isolation
(dB)
Insertion
loss (dB)
SWR
Speed
Average
power
Peak
power
Life cycle
Connector
Driving
voltage (VDC)
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
90
0.25
1.2
30 ms
1W
100 W
1 million
SMA (f)
5, 15, 24
SPDT
SPDT
SPDT
SPDT
SPDT
SPDT
SPDT
SPDT
8762A
8762B
DC to 18 GHz
Terminated
90
0.5
1.3
30 ms
1W
100 W
1 million
SMA (f)
5, 15, 24
8762C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
50
1.25
1.8
30 ms
1W
100 W
1 million
3.5 mm (f)
5, 15, 24
8765A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
100
0.3
1.7
15 ms
2W
100 W
5 million
SMA (f)
5, 10, 15, 24
8765B
DC to 20 GHz
Unterminated
65
0.7
1.7
15 ms
2W
100 W
5 million
SMA (f)
5, 15, 24
8765C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
50
0.3
1.7
15 ms
2W
100 W
5 million
3.5 mm (f)
5, 10, 15, 24
8765D
DC to 40 GHz
Unterminated
50
1.12
1.5
15 ms
2W
100 W
5 million
2.4 mm (f)
5, 10, 15, 24
15 ms
2W
2 million
SMA (f)
1.2
15 ms
1W
50 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
Multiport
4-port
4-port
4-port
L7104A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
90
0.36
L7204A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
90
0.36
1.2
15 ms
2W
100 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
L7104B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
90
0.6
1.45
15 ms
1W
50 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
L7204B
DC to 20 GHz
Unterminated
90
0.6
1.45
15 ms
2W
100 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
4-port
L7104C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
60
0.7
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
4-port
4-port
L7204C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
60
0.7
1.7
15 ms
2W
100 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
6-port
L7106A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
90
0.36
1.2
15 ms
1W
50 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
6-port
L7206A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
90
0.36
1.2
15 ms
2W
100 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
6-port
L7106B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
90
0.6
1.45
15 ms
1W
50 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
6-port
L7206B
DC to 20 GHz
Unterminated
90
0.6
1.45
15 ms
2W
100 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
6-port
L7106C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
60
0.7
1.7
15 ms
1W
50 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
6-port
L7206C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
60
0.7
1.7
15 ms
2W
100 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
L7222C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
57
0.9
1.65
15 ms
1W
50 W
2 million
SMA (f)
24
8763A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
100
0.25
1.2
30 ms
1W
100 W
1 million
SMA (f)
5, 15, 24
4-ports
8763B
DC to 18 GHz
Terminated
90
1.3
1.3
30 ms
1W
100 W
1 million
SMA (f)
5, 15, 24
4-ports
8763C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
50
1.8
1.8
30 ms
1W
100 W
1 million
3.5 mm (f)
5, 15, 24
5-ports
8764A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
100
0.25
1.2
30 ms
2W
100 W
1 million
SMA (f)
5, 15, 24
5-ports
8764B
DC to 18 GHz
Unterminated
90
0.5
1.3
30 ms
2W
100 W
1 million
SMA (f)
5, 15, 24
8764C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
50
1.25
1.8
30 ms
2W
100 W
1 million
3.5 mm (f)
5, 15, 24
Transfer
Transfer
Bypass
4-ports
5-ports
50 Ohm high power hot switching
Family
Model
Frequency
Termination
Isolation
(dB)
Insertion
loss (dB)
SWR
Speed
Average
power
Peak
power
Life cycle
Connector
Driving
voltage (VDC)
SPDT
SPDT
8761A
DC to 18 GHz
Unterminated
45
0.8
1.3
50 ms
10 W
5 kW
1 million
SMA (f)
12
SPDT
8761B
DC to 18 GHz
Unterminated
45
0.8
1.2
50 ms
10 W
5 kW
1 million
SMA (f)
26
Frequency
Termination
Isolation
(dB)
Insertion
loss (dB)
SWR
Speed
Average
power
Peak
power
Life cycle
Connector
Driving
voltage (VDC)
75 Ohm switch
Family
Model
SPDT
SPDT
8762F
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
90
0.4
1.3
30 ms
2W
100 W
1 million
SPDT
8765F
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
90
0.4
1.2
15 ms
22W
W
100 W
5 million
26
Mini SMB
(m)
Mini SMB
(m)
24
5, 10, 15, 24
Electromechanical (EM) Switch Selection Tables
50 Ohm high performance EM switch options
Family
TTL logic
Solder lug
Suppression
diode
Driving
voltage (VDC)
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
5, 15, 24
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
5, 15, 24
n/a
n/a
n/a
5, 15, 24
Optional
▀
24
Model
Frequency
Termination
Indicator
Current
interrupt
SPDT
N1810UL
DC to 67 GHz
Unterminated
Optional
SPDT
N1810TL
DC to 67 GHz
Terminated
Optional
n/a
▀
SPDT
Multiport
SP3T
8766K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
SP4T
87104A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
SP4T
87204A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
SP4T
87104B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
SP4T
87204B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
SP4T
87104C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
SP4T
87204C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
SP4T
8767K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
n/a
n/a
n/a
5, 15, 24
SP4T
87104D
DC to 40 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
SP4T
8767M
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
n/a
n/a
n/a
5, 15, 24
SP5T
8768K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
n/a
n/a
n/a
5, 15, 24
SP5T
8768M
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
n/a
n/a
n/a
5, 15, 24
SP6T
87106A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
SP6T
87206A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
SP6T
87106B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
SP6T
87206B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
SP6T
87106C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
SP6T
87206C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
SP6T
8769K
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
n/a
n/a
n/a
5, 15, 24
SP6T
87106D
DC to 40 GHz
Termnated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
SP6T
8769M
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
n/a
n/a
n/a
5, 15, 24
Transfer
87222C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
Transfer
87222D
DC to 40 GHz
Unterminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
Transfer
87222E
DC to 50 GHz
Unterminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
6-ports
87406B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
6-ports
87606B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
n/a
▀
n/a
Optional
▀
24
4-ports
N1811TL
DC to 67 GHz
Terminated
Optional
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
5, 15, 24
5-ports
N1812UL
DC to 67 GHz
Unterminated
Optional
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
5, 15, 24
Transfer
Matrix
Bypass
A black square (■) represents the default option.
27
Electromechanical (EM) Switch Selection Tables
50 Ohm economically priced EM switch options
Family
Model
Frequency
Termination
Indicator
Current
interrupt
TTL logic
Solder lug
Suppression
diode
Driving
voltage (VDC)
SPDT
8762A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
SPDT
8762B
DC to 18 GHz
Terminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
SPDT
8762C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
SPDT
8765A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
Optional
▀
5, 10, 15, 24
SPDT
8765B
DC to 20 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
Optional
▀
5, 10, 15, 24
SPDT
8765C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
Optional
▀
5, 10, 15, 24
SPDT
8765D
DC to 40 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
Optional
▀
5, 10, 15, 24
4-port
L7104A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
4-port
L7204A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
4-port
L7104B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
4-port
L7204B
DC to 20 GHz
Unterminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
4-port
L7104C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
4-port
L7204C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
6-port
L7106A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
6-port
L7206A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
6-port
L7106B
DC to 20 GHz
Terminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
6-port
L7206B
DC to 20 GHz
Unterminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
6-port
L7106C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
6-port
L7206C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
▀
▀
Optional
Optional
▀
24
L7222C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
▀
▀
▀
Optional
▀
24
4-ports
8763A
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
4-ports
8763B
DC to 18 GHz
Terminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
4-ports
8763C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Terminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
5-ports
8764A
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
5-ports
8764B
DC to 18 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
5-ports
8764C
DC to 26.5 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
▀
Optional
▀
▀
5, 15, 24
SPDT
Multiport
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
▀
Transfer
Transfer
Bypass
50 Ohm high power hot switching switch options
Family
Model
Frequency
Termination
Indicator
Current
interrupt
TTL logic
Solder lug
Suppression
diode
Driving
voltage (VDC)
SPDT
8761A
DC to 18 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
▀
n/a
12
SPDT
8761B
DC to 18 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
▀
n/a
26
SPDT
75 Ohm switch options
Family
Model
Frequency
Termination
Indicator
Current
interrupt
TTL logic
Solder lug
Suppression
diode
Driving
voltage (VDC)
SPDT
8762F
DC to 4 GHz
Terminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
▀
▄
24
SPDT
8765F
DC to 4 GHz
Unterminated
n/a
n/a
n/a
Optional
▄
5, 10, 15, 24
SPDT
A black square (■) represents the default option.
28
Solid State Switch Selection Table and Ordering Information
Solid state switches
Family
Model
Frequency
Termination
PIN SPDT
Input power
Return loss
Driving
Isolation Insertion
Typical video
Switching
Connector (average)
for ON port
voltage (VDC)
(dB) loss (dB)
speed rise/fall le (mVpp)
(dBm)
(dB)
SPDT
P9402A
100 MHz to 8 GHz
Absorptive
80
3.2
15
380 ns
3400
SMA (f)
23
5
SPDT
P9402C
100 MHz to 18 GHz
Absorptive
80
10
380 ns
3400
SMA (f)
23
5
SPDT
85331B
45 MHz to 50 GHz
Absorptive
75
4
15.5 at
26.5 GHz
4.5
1 µs
7000
2.4 mm (f)
27
7
SP4T
P9404A
100 MHz to 8 GHz
Absorptive
80
3.5
15
350 ns
2800
SMA (f)
27
5
SP4T
P9404C
100 MHz to 18 GHz
Absorptive
80
350 ns
2800
SMA (f)
27
5
85332B
45 MHz to 50 GHz
Absorptive
75
4.5
15.5 at
26.5 GHz
10
SP4T
4.5
1 µs
7000
2.4 mm (f)
27
7
Transfer
P9400A
100 MHz to 8 GHz
NA
80
3.5
15
200 ns
600
SMA (f)
23
5
Transfer
P9400C
100 MHz to 18 GHz
NA
80
4.2
10
200 ns
600
SMA (f)
23
5
SMA (f)
1
20
PIN Transfer
FET SPDT
FET SPDT
U9397A
300 kHz to 8 GHz
Absorptive
100
3.5
15
5 /0.5 µs
10
SMA (f)
29
12 to 24 V
FET SPDT
U9397C
300 kHz to 18 GHz
Absorptive
90
6.5
10
5 /0.5 µs
10
SMA (f)
27
12 to 24 V
SMA (f)
1
20
FET Transfer
U9400A
300 kHz to 8 GHz
NA
100
3.5
15
4 /0.5 µs
5
SMA (f)
29
11 to 26 V
FET Transfer
U9400C
300 kHz to 18 GHz
NA
90
6.5
10
5 /1 µs
5
SMA (f)
27
11 to 26 V
FET Transfer
Solid state switches are standard and do not require option selection.
29
Ordering Information for Electromechanical Switches
SPDT switch options
Model
Option type
Coil voltage
8761A/8761B
Connector code
option (Port1)
(Port2) (PortC)
Option
A
B
0
1
2
8762F
8765A/8765B/
Coil voltage
Coil voltage
Coil voltage
8765C/8765D/
8765F
RF connector
DC connector
Frequency range
N1810TL/ N1810UL
Coil voltage
DC connector
Performance
Drive
30
12 to 15 Vdc
24 to 30 Vdc
N (f)
N (m)
3
APC-7 threaded sleeve
APC-t coupling nut
4
5
7mm for UT-250 coax
SMA (f)
6
7
024
8762A/8762B/8762C
Option description
T24
011
SMA (m)
50 Ohm termination (for Port 1 and Port 2 only)
24 Vdc
TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic with 24 Vdc supply
015
T15
5 Vdc
15 Vdc
TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic with 15 Vdc supply
024
011
24 Vdc
5 Vdc
015
005
305
15 Vdc
5 Vdc with 3-inch ribbon cable
010
310
5 Vdc with solder terminals
10 Vdc with 3-inch ribbon cable
015
315
10 Vdc with solder terminals
15 Vdc with 3-inch ribbon cable
15 Vdc with solder terminals
024
324
24 Vdc with 3-inch ribbon cable
24 Vdc with solder terminals
241
292
108
2.4 mm (f) (For 8765D only)
2.92 mm (f)
116
004
8-inch ribbon cable extension
16-inch ribbon cable extension
020
026
DC to 4 GHz
DC to 20 GHz
DC to 26.5 GHz
040
050
DC to 40 GHz
DC to 50 GHz
067
105
115
DC to 67 GHz
5 Vdc and includes Option 402
124
201
202
15 Vdc
24 Vdc
D-submini 9 pin (f)
Solder lugs
301
302
High isolation
Low SWR & insertion loss
UK6
401
Calibration certificate with test data
TTL/5V CMOS compatible
402
Position indicator
Ordering Information for Electromechanical Switches
Multiport switch options
Model
Option type
Coil voltage
8766K/8767K/
8768K/8769K
RF Connector
DC connector
87104A/87104B/
87104C/87104D,
87106A/87106B/
87106C/87106D
87204A/87204B/87204C,
87206A/87206B/87206C
L7104A/ L7104B/ L7104C,
L7106A/ L7106B/ L7106C
Control logic
DC connector
DC connector
Control logic
DC connector
Option
024
011
015
002
004
060
016
T24
024
161
100
161
100
T24
024
161
100
Option description
24 Vdc
5 Vdc
15 Vdc
SMA (f) (Use to 18 GHz only)
3.5 mm (f)
5 feet DC control cable; 12-pin viking
16-inch ribbon cable extension
TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic with 24 Vdc supply
24 Vdc
Ribbon receptacle
Solder terminals
Ribbon receptacle
Solder terminals
TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic with 24 Vdc supply
24 Vdc
Ribbon receptacle
Solder terminals
Transfer switch options
Model
Option type
87222C/87222D/
87222E/L7222C
DC connector
Accessories
Option
161
100
201
Option description
10-PIN DIP
Solder terminals and 10-PIN DIP
Mounting brackets; assembly required
Matrix switch options
Model
Option type
DC connector
87406B
Control logic
87606B
DC connector
31
Option
161
100
T24
024
161
100
Option description
Ribbon receptacle
Solder terminals
TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic with 24 Vdc supply
24 Vdc
Ribbon receptacle
Solder terminals
Ordering Information for Electromechanical Switches
Bypass switch options
Model
Option type
8763A/8763B/
8763C, 8764A/
8764B/8764C
Drive
Coil voltage
Frequency range
Coil voltage
N1811TL/ N1812UL
DC connector
Performance
Control logic
Option
T15
T24
024
011
015
004
020
026
105
115
124
201
202
301
302
UK6
401
402
Option description
TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic with 15 Vdc supply
TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic with 24 Vdc supply
24 Vdc
5 Vdc
15 Vdc
DC to 4 GHz
DC to 20 GHz
DC to 26.5 GHz
5 Vdc and includes Option 402
15 Vdc
24 Vdc
D-submini 9-pin (f)
Solder lugs
High isolation
Low SWR & insertion loss
Calibration certificate with test data
TTL/5V CMOS compatible
Position indicator
Electromechanical switch option descriptions
In general, electromechanical switches will be comprised of the options below.
Various options are needed for applications in the industry.
Indicator — A set of internally mounted contacts mechanically connected to
the switch actuator allowing external monitoring of switch RF status.
Suppression diodes — This option offers fast-recovery rectifiers (diodes) connected in parallel with the coils of the switch to suppress any transient voltage
generated by the coils. Suppression Diodes are recommended with TTL Logic.
TTL logic — Transistor-transistor-logic driver circuitry which enables the
status of the switch to be controlled by the level of the TTL logic input.
32
Ordering Information for Electromechanical Switches
Switch ordering example
Sensing type
1: Provides position sensing when used with customer supplied external circuitry only.
2: Provides position sensing when used with Agilent 87130A/70611A driver or customer supplied external circuitry.
Agilent 87 2 0 4 B
Switch type
4: SP4T
6: SP6T
Option 100
Frequency range
A: 4 GHz
B: 20 GHz
C: 26.5 GHz
DC connector
161: Ribbon receptacle
100: Solder terminals
Option T24
Control logic 1
Option UK6
Calibration documentation
024: 24 Vdc drive
UK6: Commercial calibration test data
T24: TTL/5V CMOS compatible logic
with certificate
with 24 Vdc supply
Here is an example of ordering system of Agilent switches. More detailed
information can be found in the Agilent Technologies RF and Microwave Test
Accessory Catalog 2006-07, literature number 5968-4314EN or in the
technical overview for the switch model.
33
11713B/C Attenuator/Switch Driver Ordering Information
11713B
Connectivity options
Option STD
Option LXI
Cable options Part number
11713B-001
11764-60004
11713B-101
8120-2703
11713B-201
5061-0969
11713B-301
11761-60001
11713B-401
11713-60042
11713B-501
11713-60043
11713B-502
11713-60049
11713B-601
11713-60044
11713B-701
5064-7848
11713B-801
11713-60047
Rack mount kit
options (optional)
11713B-908
5063-9240
11713B-909
5061-9496
and 5063-9212
Standard configuration, full backward compatibility to 11713A
LXI Class-C configuration, additional USB/LAN connectivity, full backward compatibility to 11713A
Viking connector to 10-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to viking connector
Viking connector to 12-pin conductor cable, bare wire
Viking connector to 4 ribbon cables
Dual-viking connector to 16-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to (4) 9-pin Dsub connectors
Viking connector to (2) 9-pin Dsub connectors
Viking connector to 16-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to 14-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to (4) 4-pin DIP connectors
Part number
Rack mount kit for one instrument
Rack mount kit for two instruments
11713C
Cable options Part number
11713C-001
11764-60004
11713C-101
8120-2703
11713C-201
5061-0969
11713C-301
11761-60001
11713C-401
11713-60042
11713C-501
11713-60043
11713C-502
11713-60049
11713C-601
11713-60044
11713C-701
5064-7848
11713C-801
11713-60047
Rack mount kit
options (optional)
11713C-908
5063-9240
11713C-909
5061-9496
and 5063-9212
Viking connector to 10-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to viking connector
Viking connector to 12-pin conductor cable, bare wire
Viking connector to 4 ribbon cables
Dual-viking connector to 16-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to (4) 9-pin Dsub connectors
Viking connector to (2) 9-pin Dsub connectors
Viking connector to 16-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to 14-pin DIP connector
Viking connector to (4) 4-pin DIP connectors
Part number
Rack mount kit for one instrument
Rack mount kit for two instruments
Note: Cable and rack mount kit can be ordered as stand-alone accessories.
For more detailed configuration information see the 11713B/C Attenuator/
Switch Driver configuration Guide, literature number 5989-7277EN.
34
Related Literature
Download free application notes
Selecting the right switch technology for your application,
literature number 5989-5189EN
Video Leakage Effects on Devices in Component Test,
literature number 5989-6086EN
How Operating Life and Repeatability of Agilent’s Electro-mechanical Switches
Minimize System Uncertainty, literature number 5989-6085EN
Power Handling Capability of Electromechanical Switch,
literature number 5989-6032EN
Understanding RF and Microwave Solid State Switch and Its Applications,
literature number 5989-7618EN
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35
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© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2010, 2011
Published in USA, August 3, 2011
5989-6031EN