Animal Husbandry & Poultry Farming

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(81)
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20- Ñf=e nw/k
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(iii) i'kqvksa ls euq";ksa esa gksus okyh chekfj;ksa dh tkudkjh o cpko
(83)
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(84)
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25
ELEMENTS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
MILK TRADE & POULTRY FARMING
Time- 3 Hrs.
Class- XIth
Max. Mark. 75
Unit wise Distribution of Marks
Unit
Title
Marks
Periods
1.
2.
3.
Preliminary Studies
Elementary knowledge of parts of animal body
Study of main system of cows & buffaloes
02
04
04
08
10
10
4.
Improved breeds of buffaloes
04
08
5.
6.
7.
8.
Improved breeds of cows
Animal Reproduction
Artificial Insemination
Embryo Transfer Technology.
03
05
03
03
10
10
08
08
9.
10.
11.
12.
Animal Management I
Animal management II
Fish farming and piggery
Poultry Farming and Study of Important
04
05
02
10
10
08
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
breeds of poultry
Milk Trade
Cooperation
Milk Production
Composition of milk
Milk chilling & Testing
05
04
04
05
05
03
08
10
08
08
10
08
18.
19.
20.
Processing of Milk
Milk Packaging & Distribution
Artificial milk
04
03
03
10
10
08
75
180
Total
(85)
Unit-1
Mark 02
Preliminary studies :- Need scope and importance of Animal Husbandry
in Indian Economy.
Unit-2
Mark 04
Elementary study of parts of Animal body.
Study of External organs of Cow, Buffalo, Goat & Sheep.
Unit-3
Mark 04
Study of major systems of cow and buffalo.
digestive system, reproductive system, respiratory system, blood circulatory system,
milk secretory system and skeleton system.
Unit-4
Mark 04
Improved breeds of animals - I
Study of Indegenous and improved breeds of buffalo.
Unit-5
Mark 03
Improved breeds of animals -II
Description of Indegenous, exotic & hybrid breeds of cow.
Unit-6
Mark 05
Animal Reproduction :(i)
Meaning purpose and usefulness , oestrous cycle
(ii) Major methods of animal Reproduction..
(iii)
Animal breeding policy of M.P. Government.
Unit-7
Mark 03
Artificial Insemination :
Meaning, significance, merits and demerits, method of performing A. I.and
Precautions during it.
Unit-8
Mark 03
Embryo Transfer Technology Introduction, merits and demerits.
Unit - 9
Animal Management I
(i)
(ii)
Mark 04
Symptoms of healthy, and sick animal, cattle shed management for milch
animals, bullock and bull.
Management of calves, cows in heat, pregnant and milch cow
regarding their housing/shelter, feed, health and hygeine.
(86)
Unit-10
Animal Management II :(i)
Dehorning the calves its different methods and their merits and merits.
(ii) Castration of animals-significance, methods and merits / demerits.
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Unit-11
Mark 05
Identification of animals - significance, methods and merits/demerits.
Determination of animal body weight.
Casting procedures in Animal Husbandry.
Mark 02
Fish farming and piggery
(i)
Fish farming - Elementary Knowledge of usefulness of major types of fish and
their management.
(ii) Piggery Usefulness, Scope, Important breeds and Introductory information
about their management.
Unit-12
Mark 05
Poultry Farming and Study of Important breeds of poultry
(i)
History, Significance, Present status, limitation and scope of poultry farming .
(ii) Classification of importants breeds of poultry.
(iii) Knowledge of various important breeds of poultry.
(iv) Comparative study of egg laying and table purpose breeds.
Unit-13
Milk Trade :(i)
Historical account, present position and future scope.
(ii) Knowledge of major schemes of dairy development.
(iii) White Revolution - different phases and achieved targets.
Unit-14
Cooperation :(i)
Meaning, basic principles and significance.
(ii)
Mark 04
Mark 04
Three teir structure of milk cooperatives, constitutional process, function
and their role.
Unit-15
Mark 05
Milk Production :(i)
Major needs of milk trade - land, labour, capital, organisation skills, qualities
of a good dairy manager.
(ii) Principles of milk production.
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Different systems of milking.
Hygenic milking procedure.
Factors affecting milk quantiy and quality.
(87)
Unit-16
Composition of Milk :(i)
(ii)
Mark 05
Milk-definition, physical and chemical properties, factors affecting composition
of milk.
Colostrum : definition, composition, importance and comparative study.
Unit-17
Milk Chilling and Testing :(i) Study of different methods of milk collection, chilling and transportation.
(ii) Milk Testing Testing of a milk sample, study of different methods for
(iii)
Mark 03
finding out adulteration of milk.
Determination of relative density and fat percentage of the milk.
Unit-18
Mark 04
Processing of milk :(i)
Milk pasteurization, definition, significance, limitations, different methods,
H.T.S.T., method’s detailed study.
(ii)
(iii)
Milk homogenisation - definition, importance and methods.
Milk standardisation - difinition, importance of standard milk and study
of its various types.
Unit-19
Mark 03
Milk Packaging and Distribution :(i)
Meaning, importance, purposes and various processes/methods.
(ii) Milk sterilization - definition, significance, Principles and methods.
(iii)
Policy of milk cost determination.
Unit-20
Mark 03
Artificial milk :(i)
Artificial milk :- Definition, Adverse effects on helth tasting techniques
(ii)
(iii)
The study of harmful effects of use of oxytocin for milk production in animals.
Introduction and prevention from Zoonotic diseases.
(88)
Blue Print of Question Paper
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(90)
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(91)
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4
iz'u&11
nwX/k lgdkjh laLFkkvksa ds izeq[k pkj dk;Z ,oa mRrjnkf;Ro fyf[k,A
vFkok
lgdkfjrk ds pkj fl)kar fyf[k,A
4
iz'u&12
Hkkjr esa i'kq iztuu dh ikap leL;k;sa fyf[k,A
vFkok
ladj.k D;k gS blds pkj mn~ns'; fyf[k,A
5
iz'u&13
lhaxjks/ku fof/k;ksa ds uke fy[kdj mRrefof/k ij laf{kIr uksV fyf[k,A
5
vFkok
,d xk; dh yEckbZ 120 ls-eh- ifjf/k 150 ls-eh- gS rks i'kq dk Hkkj Kkr dhft,A
nwX/k O;olk; vraxZr Je dh ikap fo'ks"krk;sa fyf[k,A
5
vFkok
fQfLVax fof/k D;k gS\ ,oa blds nks ykHk o ,d gkfu fyf[k,A
iz'u&14
iz'u&15
vPNs v.Ms nsus okyh eqxhZ dh uLy dh igpku ds ikap y{k.k fyf[k,A
vFkok
Hkkjr esa eqxhZikyu fodkl esa vkus okyh ikap fnDdrsa fyf[k,A
5
iz'u&16
nwX/k olk ds ikap HkkSfrd xq.k fyf[k,A
vFkok
i'kq ds uotkr f'k'kq gsrq [khl dk egRo ikap fcUnqvksa esa nhft,A
5
(92)
vkn'kZ mRrj
fo"k;& i'kqikyu] nqX/k O;olk;] eqxhZikyu ,oa eRL;ikyu
iw . kkZ a d &75
le;&3 ?k.Vs
mRrj&1
1- 80 izfr'kr
4- r`rh;
2- [kjxksl
5- 1917
3- Hknkojh uLrd
6- 42 fMxzh ls¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad fn, tk;s½
mRrj&2
1- lksfyM ukV QsV ¼olk jfgr Bksl inkFkZ½
3- dSfEczt ;qfuoflZVh baXyS.M
5- Hknkojh
mRrj&3
1- bTtr uxj
4- vkDlhVksflu
2- 1000@fefuV
5- 42 fMxzh ls-
2- 0 ls 10 izfr'kr rd
4- mRrjizns'k
6- 20 izfr'kr
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad fn, tk;s½
3- 12 o"kZ
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad fn, tk;s½
mRrj&4
1- lR;
4- lR;
2- vlR;
5- lR;
3- vlR;
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad fn, tk;s½
mRrj&5
xk; ds flj Hkkxks ds uke&
1- pkan
4- yykV
7- diksy ;k xky
10- BqM~Mh
2- lhax
3- dku
5- vka[ks
6- psgjk
8- FkwFku
9- tcM+s
11- uklkgkj
12- eq[k
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij 1] 1] 1] 1 vad fn, tk;s½
vFkok
cdjhikyu ds pkj eq[; dkj.k&
1cgqr de txg dh vko';drk gksrhA
2jk'ku ij O;; deA
3'kh?kz iztuu }kjk de le; esa vf/kd c<+ksRrjhA
4Åu] ekal] peM+k] nw/k 'kh?kz feyuk izkjaHk gks ikrs gSA
5cdjh dk nw/k vkS"kf/k ds :i esa iz;ksx gksrkA
6de ns[kHkky dhA
¼dksbZ pkj fy[kus ij 4 vad½
(93)
12-
fuokZ g vkgkj
LokLF; j{kk gsrq fn;k tkrk gS &
bl dh ek=k fuf'pr gksrh gS &
3-
;g lHkh i'kq dks fn;k tkrk gS &
mRrj&6
vFkok
vkn'kZ i'kq 'kkyk dh fo'ks"krk;sa&
1- LoPN gksuh pkfg,
3- lkQ ihus ds ikuh dh O;oLFkk gks
5- ukfy;k xgjh de pkSM+h vf/kd gks
mRrj&7
o/kZ d vkgkj
i'kq }kjk mRikn c<+kus gsrq fn;k tkrk gSA
;g mRikn dh ek=k@dk;Z ds vk/kkj ij
fuf'pr gksrk gSA
;g dsoy mUgha i'kq dks nsrs tks nw/k] ekal]
Åu ;k dk;Z djrs gksA
¼dksbZ nks fy[kus ij 2$2=4 vad nsaos½
2- gok ,oe~ jks'kuh gks
4- Q'kZ [kqjnjk ,oa iDdk gks
6- pkjs ds fy, ukans gks
¼izR;sd fo'ks"krk;sa ij 1] 1] 1] 1 vad nasos½
nw/k rFkk Øhe esa olk dh fuf'pr ek=k dk fu/kkZj.k nw/k dk ekudhdj.k dgykrk gSA
rhu mn~ns'; %&
1- vf/kdre ykHk dekuk
2- nw/k dh miyC/krk c<+kus gsrq
3- nw/k dh dher okj djus gsrq
¼ifjHkk"kk ij 1 vad $ izR;sd mn~ns'; ij 1] 1] 1 vad nsaos 1$3=4½
vFkok
nw/k dh iks"kkFkZ ij ijLrqjhdj.k dk izHkko&
110&15 izfr'kr Fkk;ehu de gks tkukA
220 izfr'kr foVkfeUl lh lekIr gks tkukA
3nw/k dh vEyrk dqN de gks tkrh gSA
4foVkfeUl ,] Mh] ch ij dksbZ izHkko ughaA
5Øhe ys;j ij FkksM+k lk izHkko gksrk gSA
¼dksbZ pkj lgh fy[kus ij 1$1$1$1 vad nsaos½
mRrj&8
1234-
pkj ifj;kstuk;sa
&
Hkkjr fLol ifj;kstuk
&
Hkkjr teZu ifj;kstuk
&
Hkkjr Msful ifj;kstuk
&
Hkkjr vkLVªsfy;k ifj;kstuk
&
¼izR;sd lgh ifj;kstuk
(94)
lg;ksxh ns'k
LohV tjys.M
teZuh
MsuekdZ
vkLVªsfy;k
,oa lg;ksxh uke ij 1&1&1&1 vad nsaos½
vFkok
,u-Mh-ch-ch- ¼jk"Vªh; Msjh fodkl cksMZ½ ,d Ms;jh fodkl ls lacaf/kr ljdkjh cksMZ gS 1965
esa LFkkfir fd;k x;k gS bldk dk;Z {ks=&
1;kstuk;sa cukuk
2nwX/k mRiknu c<+kus esa lgk;rk iznku djuk
3ifj;kstukvksa ds fy, midj.k miyC/k djkuk
4Msjh dk;ksZa dk fu;kstu djuk
¼LFkkiuk o"kZ$rhu dk;Z {ks= ij 1$3 vad nsaos½
mRrj&9
ikpd vad ,oa xazfFk;k
1- eqag
3- vkek';
5- vXuk';
2- xzkluyh
4- vkars
6- ;d`r 7- frYyh
¼lgh fp= $ uke ij iwjs vad 3$1 = 4 vd nsaos½
123456-
mRrj&10
1234-
vFkok
xkS o a ' k ¼uj½ va x
xkS o a ' k eknk va x
,fifMfMeku
&
v.Mk';
'kqØk';
&
xHkkZ'k; uky
izksLVsV xzaFkh
&
xHkkZ';
dkmij xaFkh
&
;ksfu
eq=ekxZ ¼;wjsFkk½
&
xHkZ rFkk Hkx'ksQ
f'k'u
¼izR;sd lgh ij ½+½+½+½+½+½+½+½ vad nsaos½
uLy
ewyLFkku
fla/k
ikfdLrku ¼fla/k½
&
fxj
dfB;kokM ¼xqtjkr½
Fkkjikjdj
ikfdLrku
gfj;k.kk uLy
gfj;k.kk
(95)
nw/k@O;kar
1815 fd-xzk&
907 fd-xzk
&
4375 fd-xzk&
1135 fd-xzk-
vFkok
12-
ewyLFkku
igpku y{k.k
&
&
3-
nw/k@O;kar
&
eksaVxkejh ¼ikfdLrku½
1- xgjs yky jx dk 'kjhj
2- xwPNsnkj tehu NwrhiwN
3- xydEcy yEck
4- lhax NksVs eksV
2200&2500 fd-xzk¼izR;sd lgh fcUnw 1$2$1 vad nsaos½
mRrj&11
nwX/k lgdkjh laLFkkvksa ds dk;Z&
1nwX/k dk ,d=hdj.k dj.kA
2rduhdh izf'k{k.k O;oLFkk djukA
3xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa vkfFkZd lkekftd lq/kkj ykukA
4xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa jkstxkj volj l`ftr djukA
5nwX/k ,oa nwX/k mRikndksa dk ifj"dj.k djukA
¼dksbZ 4 lgh fcUnw fy[kus ij 1$1$1$1 vad nsaos½
vFkok
lgdkfjrk pkj fl)kar&
1,sfPNd laxBu
2lekurk
3,drk
4ferO;;rk
5lkekU; dY;k.k
¼dksbZ 4 lgh o.kZu ij 1$1$1$1 vad nsaos½
mRrj&12
123456-
d`f=e xHkkZ/kku dsUnzksa dh deh
i'kqvksa esa jksx vf/kd yxrs gS
mfpr pkjk nkuk deh
i'kqvksa dks nsj ls ;qok gksuk
lw[ks i'kqvksa dh vR;f/kd la[;k
xk; dk _rq dky Bhd le; ij u gksuk
¼dksbZ ikap lgh fy[kus ij ikap vad nsaos½
vFkok
ladj.k& i'kq lekxe dh iz.kkyh ftlesa fHkUu 'kq) nks uLyksa ds chp lekxe djk;k tkrk gSA
mn~ns'; %&
1ubZ tkfr mRiUu djuk
2o`f) tkfr mRiUu djuk
3tkfr eas bPNkuqlkj xq.k mRiUu djuk
4jksxksa ls cpko djuk
5vf/kd 'kkfDr iznku djuk
¼lgh ifjHkk"kk ij 1 ,oa mn~ns'; ij 4 vad nsaos½
(96)
mRrj&13
fof/k;ka&
1- jklk;fud fof/k
2- ;kaf=d fof/k
3- fo|qrh lhaxjks izfrfof/k
4- jdcj ds NYys fof/k
4- iztuu fof/k
5- ns'kh fof/k
jlk;fud fof/k mRre gS bl fof/k esa lhax fudyus ds LFkkuksa ds pkjksa vkSj cky dkVdj]lhax dh
xkaB dks [kqjprs gS fQj dkfLVd iksVkl NM+ dh lgk;rk ls tc rd jxM+rs gS rc rd fd [kqu
fudyus
yxs fQj xzhl pkjksa vkSj yxkdj NksM+ nsrs gSA NM+ dks jxM+us ls lhax cukus okyh dkSf'kdk;sa
lekIr
gks tkrh gSA
¼lgh fy[kus esa 2$2 vad nsaos½
lw=&
mRrj&14
vFkok
yEckbZ = 120 ls-ehifjf/k = 150 ls-eh-
i'kw Hkkj = \
lw=&
Hkkj = yEckbZ ¼ls-eh-½ x lhus dk ?ksjk ¼ls-eh-½
v
^v* dk eku 64-4 ls-eh= 120 x 150
64-4
= 279-5 fd-xzkvr% i'kqHkkj 279- fd-xzkJe dh fo'ks"krk;sa&
1Je lfØ; lk/ku gS
2Je uk'koku gksrk gS
3Je] Jfed ls vyx ugha gksrk
4Je mRiknu dk vfuok;Z vax
5Je xfr'khy gS
6Jfed Je csprk vius dks ugha
¼dksbZ ikap lgh fy[kus ij ikap vad½
vFkok
fQfLVax fof/k& nwX/k nksgu dh loksZRre fof/k ftlesa nw/k fudkyrs le; iwjs gkFk }kjk Fkuksa dks
idM+dj vxqafy;ksa ds fljs dks gFksyh dh rjQ nckrs gS ftlls Fkuks ij nokc iM+rk gS ,oa
nw/k ckgj fudyus yxrk gSA
ykHk %&
1nksgu 'kh?kzrk ls gksrk gS
2i'kq dks vkjke feyrk gS
3Fku esa xkaBs ugha iM+rh
gkfu %&NksVs Fkuks esa nksgu djus ls dfBukbZ vkrh gS
(97)
¼lgh fof/k ij 2 vad] ykHk ij 2 vad gkfu ij 2$2$1 = 5 vad½
mRrj&15
igpku
123456-
ds y{k.k &
i{kh ykyjax dk ,o iw.kZ fodflr
vka[ks pedhyh
;ksfu ue rFkk pkSM+h
pksp ls cgrs ikuh dk jax ihyk
ia[k rsth ls o`f) djrs gS
i{kh vf/kd QqrhZys gskrs gSa
¼dksbZ ikap lgh ij ikap vad nsaos½
vFkok
ck/kk;sa&
1iwath esa deh
2vkgkj esa deh
3mRiknu esa fHkUurk
4v.Mksa dh ekax eaas fHkUurk
5gkV O;oLFkk esa vlqfo/kk
6v.Mksa ds izfr va/k fo'okl
7O;olk; esa Kku ,oa vuqHkoksa dh deh
¼dksbZ lgh ikap ij ikap vad nsaos½
mRrj&16
135-
vkisf{kd ?kuRo 93
fo'ks"k xa?k gksrh gS
ftlesa vfoys; bZFkj esa foys;
24-
jaxhu gksrh gS
nzo;kad 28&33 fMxzh ls-
¼dksbZ lgh ikap ij ikap vad nsaos½
vFkok
[khl dk egRo&
1nLrkoj gksrk gS] tks uotkr f'k'kq dh vkgkj ufydk lkQ djrk gS
2jksx izfrjks/kd gksrk gS
3yksgk vf/kd gksus ls gheksXyksfcu cukrk gS
4'kfDr iznku djrk gS
5mRre idkj dk izksVhu nsrk gS
¼dksbZ lgh ikap ij ikap vad nsaos½
(98)
fo"k;& Ñf"k i'kqikyu] nqX/k O;olk;] eqxhZikyu ,oa eRL;ikyu
bdkbZ 1- izkjfEHkd v/;;u
dfBu vo/kkj.kk & i'kqikyu vko';drk ,oa {ks=
f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) i'kqikyu dk vFkZ
(ii) i'kqikyu vUrxZr ikyus ;ksX; i'kqvksa dh tkudkjh
(iii) Hkkjr esa i'kqikyu dh fLFkfr ,oa dfBukbZ
(iv) i'kqikyu dh vko';drk ,oa {ks=
f'k{kd] Nk=ksa dh lgHkkfxrk] iz'uksÙkjh mijkar vUrO;kZ[;k }kjk i'kqikyu dk vk'k; ,oa ikyus ;ksX;
i'kqvksa dh tkudkjh izLrqr djsxkA
f'k{kd lgk;d lkexzh tSl&
s pkVZ@ckj Mk;xzke ,oa CySd cksMZ ij miyC/k foKku vkadM+kas dks
iznf'kZr dj Nk=ksa dks i'kqikyu ls lacfa /kr jk"Vªh;@vUrjkZ"Vªh; tkudkjh] vko';drk ,oa {ks= Li"V djsxkA
bdkbZ 2- i'kq 'kjhj vaxksa dh izkjfEHkd tkudkjh
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % xk; ,oa HkSal dh ckgjh vaxksa dk v/;;uA
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) cká ,oa vkarfjd vaxksa esa foHksn djuk
(ii) cká ,oa vkarfjd vaxksa esa leUo; Li"V djuk
(iii) xk; ,oa HkSl
a ds cká vaxksa dh foLr`r tkudkjh nsuk
& f'k{kd Nk=ksa ls i'kqvksa ds fofHkUu vaxksa ds uke ,oa muds dk;Z pkVZ }kjk iz'uksÙkj ,oa lgHkkfxrk }kjk
varO;kZ[;k ls cká ,oa vkarfjd vaxksa esa foHksn Li"V djsxkA
& lgk;d lkexzh pkVZ@fp= ,oa lh/ks i'kq 'kkyk esa Nk=ksa dks ys tkdj f'k{kd }kjk Nk=ksa dks xk; ,oa
HkSl
a ds cká vaxksa dk voyksdu djokdj foLr`r tkudkjh miyC/k djok;sxkA
bdkbZ 3- HkSal ds izeq[k laLFkkuksa dk v/;;u
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % dadky rU= dk v/;;u
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) ^ra=^ dh O;k[;k djuk
(ii) ize[
q k laLFkkuksa dh lkekU; tkudkjh nsuk
(iii) ^dadky ra=^ dk vk'k; ,oa oxhZdj.k
(iv) dadky ra=dh foLr`r tkudkjh
& f'k{kd igys d{kk esa pkVZ] iz'uksÙkjh] Nk= lgHkkfxr }kjk ra= ,oa izeq[k laLFkkuksa dh varO;kZ[;k }kjk
vk'k; ,oa tkudkjh Li"V djsxkA
& iz;ksx'kkyk esa ¼lgk;d lkexzh½ fp=@pkVZ@ekMy }kjk dadky ra= dk Nk=ksa dk voyksdu
djokdj foLr`r tkudkjh f'k{kd Nk=ksa djsxkA
(99)
bdkbZ 4- i'kqvksa dh mér uLys
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % HkSal dh mér uLys igpkuuk
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) Hkal
aS dh lkekU; tkudkjh nsuk
(ii) izpfyr ,oa mér uLy esa varj Li"V djuk
I
(iii) HkSl
a dh mér uLyksa dh igpku djuk
& f'k{kd lkekU; iz'uksÙkjh ,oa pkVZ mnkgj.k }kjk Nk=ksa dk izpfyr ,oa mér uLy esa foHksn Li"V
djsxkA rn~ijkar Nk=ksa dks fdlh 'kkldh;@v'kkldh; QkeZgkml@MsjhQkeZ ys tkdj HkSl
a ksa dh
fofHkUu uLyksa dk voyksdu muds 'kkjhfjd vaxksa dh fo'ks"krkvksa ds vk/kkj ij djok;sx
a As
bdkbZ 5- i'kqvksa dh mér uLys ¼xk;½
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % xk; dh ns'kh@fons'kh@ladj uLyksa dk v/;;u djuk
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) ns'kh@fons'kh] ladj uLyksa dk vk'k; Li"V djuk
(ii) ns'kh] fons'kh] ladj uLyksa ds mnkgj.k izLrqr djuk
(iii) xk; dh fofHké ns'kh@fons'kh@ladj uLyksa dk foLr`r v/;;u
& f'k{kd Nk=ksa ls muds vklikl miyC/k xkS'kkyk ,oa mlls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh ,oa iz'uksÙkjh ds vk/kkj ij
ns ' kh] fons ' kh] la d j uLyks a dk vk'k; Li"V djs x kA
& fofHkUu MsjhQkeZ@QkeZ gkml ;k i'kq'kkyk esa Nk=ksa dks ys tkdj xk; dh fofHké uLyksa dks mudh
'kkjhfjd vax dh fo'ks"krkvksa dks Li"V djsxk ,oa foLr`r tkudkjh izLrqr djsxkA
bdkbZ 6- i'kq&iztuu
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % i'kq iztuu dh izeq[k fof/k;k¡
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) iztuu dk vk'k;
(ii) i'kq iztuu dh ize[
q k fof/k;k¡ dh tkudkjh nsuk
(iii) i'kq iztuu dh fof/k;ksa ls ykHk o gkfu;k¡
& Nk= iz'uksÙkjh ,oa mnkgj.k ls f'k{kd varO;kZ[;k }kjk iztuu dk vk'k; Li"V djsxkA
& f'k{kd] Nk=ksa dks utnhdh i'kq fpfdRlky; ,oa Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku dsUnz ij Hkze.k djokdj lacfa /kr
fpfdRld] ogka miyC/k ekMy] fp= o vU; lkexzh ls iztuu dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa ls ifjfpr djokdj
foLr`r tkudkjh izLrqr djsxkA
bdkbZ 7- Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku fØ;kfof/k dk v/;;u
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku dk vk'k;
(ii) Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku dk egRo
(iii) Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku fØ;kfof/k ,oa lko/kkfu;k¡
(100)
& f'k{kd] iztuu ¼izkÑfrd ,oa Ñf=e½ ij Nk=ksa ls iz'uksÙkjh] mnkgj.k ,oa pkVZ }kjk Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku
dk vk'k; ,oa egRo Li"V dj ldsxkA rn~ijkar utnhdh Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku dsUnz ij Nk=ksa dks ys tkdj
izk;ksfxd :i ls Ñf=e xHkkZ/kku dh fof/k] vko';d midj.k lkexzh ls ifjfpr djok;sxk ,oa foLr`r
tkudkjh izLrqr djsxkA
bdkbZ 8- Hkzw.k izR;kjksi.k
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % Hkwz.k izR;kjksi.k rduhdh
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) Hkw.z k izR;kjksi.k vFkZ
(ii) Hkw.zw k izR;kjksi.k xq.k] voxq.k
(iii) Hkwz.k izR;kjksi.k izfØ;k fof/k
& d{kk esa Nk= lgHkkfxrk] iz'uksÙkjh] pkVZ }kjk f'k{kd Hkwz.k izR;kjksi.k dk vFkZ] xq.k] voxq.k dks Li"V
djsxkA
& Hkwz.k izR;kjksi.k izfØ;k dks Li"V ,oa izk;ksfxd :i ls le>us ds fy, ikl ds fdlh i'kq fpfdRlky;
;k iz;ksx'kkyk dsUnz ij Nk=ksa dks Hkze.k djok;sxk ,oa rduhdh Kku ls ifjfpr djok ldsxkA
bdkbZ 9- i'kq izca/k ns[kjs[k& I
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % _rqe;h] xHkZorh ,oa nw/kk: xk; dk izcU/k
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) i'kq izcU/k dk vk'k;
(ii) _
+ rqe;h] xHkZorh xk; ds y{k.kksa ls ifjp; djokuk
(iii) izcU?k O;oLFkk _rqe;h] xHkZorh ,oa nq/kk: xk;
& i'kq izcU/k dk vk'k;] _rqe;h ,oa xHkZorh xk; dk ifjp; f'k{kd] Nk=ksa ds ikl miyC/k tkudkjh]
mnkgj.k] iz'uksÙkjh] vUrO;kZ[;k }kjk izLrqr dj ldsxkA
& f'k{kd] lewg esa Nk=ksa dks fdlh Msjh QkeZ@QkeZ gkml ij ys tkdj ogka dh izcU/k O;oLFkk ¼vkgkj]
vkokl ,oa LokLF;½ dk voyksdu izk;ksfxd :i ls djok ldsx
a s ,oa foLr`r tkudkjh izLrqr dj
ldsaxsA
bdkbZ 10- i'kq izcU/k ns[kjs[k&
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % i'kq cf/k;kdj.k vk'k;
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) cf/k;kdj.k vk'k;
(ii) cf/k;kdj.k egRo] xq.k ,oa nks"k
II
(iii) izeq[k fof/k;k¡
& Nk= dks mnkgj.k] pkVZ] iz'uksÙkjh ek/;e ls f'k{kd cf/k;kdj.k dk vk'k;] egRo] xq.k@nks"k Li"V
djsxkA
& f'k{kd lgk;d lkexzh tSl&
s pkVZ] ekMy] fp= }kjk i'kq ds cf/k;kdj.k fof/k;ksa ds izLrqrhdj.k ds
lkFk utnhdh i'kq fpfdRlky; esa izk;ksfxd :i ls cf/k;kdj.k izfØ;k dks le>kbl ns ldsx
a As
(101)
bdkbZ 11- eRL;ikyu ,oa 'kwdjikyu
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % eRL;ikyu rduhdh izcU/k
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) eRL;ikyu dk vFkZ
(ii) eRL;ikyu dk egRo
I
(iii) izeq[k uLys ,oa mudh foLr`r tkudkjh
& d{kk es]a pkVZ] fp=] mnkgj.k vkfn lgk;d lkexzh ls eRL; lac/a kh tkudkjh ,oa iz'uksÙkjh }kjk
f'k{kd d{kk esa vUrO;kZ[;k ls eRL;ikyu dk vFkZ ,oa egRo izfrikfnr djsxkA
& eRL; ikyu dsUnzkas ij Nk=ksa dks lewg esa Hkze.k djkdj izk;ksfxd ,oa rduhdh :i ls eRL;ikyu dh
fofHkUu uLyksa dh tkudkjh ,oa v/;;u dk izLrqrhdj.k f'k{kd }kjk fd;k tk ldsxkA
bdkbZ 12- eqxhZikyu ,oa eqxhZ dh egRoiw.kZ uLyksa dk v/;;u
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % eqxhZ dh fofHké uLyksa dh tkudkjh
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) eqxhZikyu dk vk'k;
(ii) oxhZdj.k
(iii) fofHké uLyksa dh tkudkjh
& loZizFke f'k{kd }kjk Nk=ksa dks fofHké iz'uksÙkjh ls eqxhZikyu dk vk'k; izLrqr djsxa As
& fdlh iksYVªhQkeZ esa Nk=ksa ds lewg dks ys tkdj O;fä'k% eqfxZ;ksa dh fofHké uLyksa dh 'kkjhfjd
fo'ks"krkvksa ds vk/kkj ij igpku izLrqr dj ldsxkA
bdkbZ 13- nqX/k O;olk;
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % Ms;jh fodkl dh izeq[k ;kstuk;sa
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) nqX/k O;olk; vFkZ
(ii) nqX/k O;olk; orZeku fLFkfr
(iii) izeq[k ;kstukvksa dh tkudkjh
& d{kk esa Nk=ksa dh lgHkkfxrk] iz'uksÙkjh ls f'k{kd nqX/k O;olk;dh varO;kZ[;k }kjk vk'k; Li"V
djsxkA
& fdlh 'kkldh; Msjh laLFkku dk;kZy; ij Nk= lewg dks ys tkdj Msjh O;olk; vUrxZr lapkfyr
fofHké ;kstukvksa dh tkudkjh dk izLrqrhdj.k djok;sxkA
bdkbZ 14- lgdkfjrk
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % nqX/k lgdkjh laLFkkvksa f=Lrjh; <+k¡pk
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) lgdkfjrk vFkZ
(ii) nqX/k lgdkjh laLFkk xBu izfØ;k
(iii) dk;Z ,oa Hkwfedk
& d{kk esa iz'uksÙkjh }kjk lgdkfjrk dk vFkZ ,oa egRo izfrikfnr fd;k tk;sxkA
(102)
& f'k{kd] f=Lrjh; nqX/k lgdkjh laLFkkvksa esa Nk=ksa dks Hkze.k djokdj izk;ksfxd :i ls muds xBu
izfØ;k] dk;Z ,oa Hkwfedk dh foLr`r tkudkjhA
bdkbZ 15- nqX/k mRiknu
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % 'kq) nqX/k dk ijh{k.k
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) 'kq) nw/k dk vk'k;
(ii) 'kq) nw/k dk egRo
(iii) 'kq) nqX/k ijh{k.k fof/k v/;;u djuk
& Nk= iz'uksÙkjh mijkar f'k{kd varO;kZ[;k }kjk 'kq) nw/k dk vk'k; Li"V djsxa As
& iz;ksx'kkyk esa Nk=ksa dks lewg esa ys tkdj ysDVksehVj ;a= dh lgk;rk ls nw/k dk ijh{k.k dj iz;ksx
}kjk 'kq) nw/k Li"V djsxkA
bdkbZ 16- nqX/k la?kVu
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % nqX/k la?kVu izHkkfor djus okys dkjd
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) nw/k dh ifjHkk"kk
(ii) nqX/k laxBu
(iii) nqX/k laxBu dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd
& Nk=ksa dh lgHkkfxrk] iz'uksÙkjh ,oa mnkgj.k ls f'k{kd varO;kZ[;k }kjk nw/k dh ifjHkk"kk Li"V djsxkA
fdlh Ms;jh rFkk Ms;jh iz;ksx'kkyk esa Nk=ksa dk Hkze.k djokdj iz;ksx ls nw/k dk laxBu esa ¼muds
vo;oks½a ij iM+us okys dkjdksa ds izHkko dk izLrqrhdj.k f'k{kd }kjk fd;k tk ldsxkA
bdkbZ 17- nqX/k vo'khru,oa ijh{k.k
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % nqX/k ds vo'khru fof/k;k¡
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) nqX/k vo'khru vk'k; Li"V djuk
(ii) nqX/k vo'khru dk egRo crkuk
(iii) nqX/k vo'khru dh fof/k;ksa dk v/;;u djuk
& Nk=ksa ls iz'uksÙkjh }kjk f'k{kd nqX/k vo'khru dk vk'k; ,oa egRo izfrikfnr djsxk] rn~ijkar
fuEukuqlkj nqX/k vo'khru fof/k;ksa dks Li"V djsxkA
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Xokys nw/k ls Hkjs fMCcksa ds pkjksa rjQ ikuh ls Hkhxsa diM+s ;k VkV yisV nsrs gS]a ftlls
rkiØe 'kh?kzrk ls ugha c<+rkA
nw/k ds dsUl esa <Ddu ds ikl xksykdkj crZu yxk nsrs gS]a ftlesa nw/k Hkjus ds ckn cQZ
Hkjdj <+Ddu yxk nsrs gS]a ftlls nw/k dk rkieku fLFkj cuk jgrk gSA
,d cM+s crZu esa ikuh o cQZ Hkjdj mlesa NksV&
s NksVs nw/k ls Hkjs crZu j[krs gSAa
mijksä iz;ksx ls Nk=ksa dks nqX/k vo'khru le>k;k tk;s rFkk cM+s iSekus ij nw/k ds vo'khru ds
izfØ;k dks Li"V djus gsrq vo'khru dsUnzkas ij Nk=ksa dks ys tkdj le>kbl nsoAas
(103)
bdkbZ 18- nqX/k lalk/ku
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % nqX/k ik'pqjhdj.k fof/k;k¡
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) ik'pqjhdj.k dk vFkZ
(ii) ik'pqjhdj.k dk egRo
(iii) nqX/k ik'pqjhdj.k dh fof/k;ksa dk v/;;u djuk
& Nk=ksa ls iz'uksÙkj ek/;e ls f'k{kd nq/; dk ik'pqjhdj.k dk vk'k; ,oa egRo izfrikfnr djsxkA
(i) Nk=ksa dks fuf'pr lewg eaas fofHké cM+h Msjh laLFkkuksa dk voyksdu djokdj nqX/k
ik'pqjhdj.k dh fofHké fof/k;ksa dk ik'pqjhdj.k dSls fd;k tkrk gS] le>kbl djsxkA
izk;ksfxd ,oa rduhdh :i ls Nk= mä izfØ;k dks le> ldsx
a As
bdkbZ 19- nqX/k iSdsftax ,oa forj.k
1- dfBu vo/kkj.kk % nqX/k iSfdax ,oa forj.k djuk
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) nqX/k iSfdax dk vFkZ Li"V djuk
(ii) nw/k forj.k dk vk'k;
(iii) nqX/k iSfdax ,oa forj.k fof/k;k¡
& f'k{kd Nk=ksa ls iz'uksa ds ek/;e ls nqX/k iSfdax ,oa forj.k dk vUrO;kZ[;k }kjk vk'k; Li"V djsxkA
& nqX/k dk iSfdax ,oa forj.k dh lgh fof/k;ksa ds v/;;u ds fy, fdlh cM+s Msjh laLFkkuksa ij Nk=ksa dks
ys tkdj voyksdu djok;sxk ,oa izk;ksfxd :i ls fof/k;ksa dks Li"V djsxkA
bdkbZ 20- Ñf=e nw/k
1- dfBu vo/kkj.k % Ñf=e nw/k
2- f'k{k.k fcUnq (i) Ñf=e nw/k vk'k;
(ii) Ñf=e nw/k dk izHkko
(iii) Ñf=e nw/k tkap fof/k;k¡
& f'k{kd d{kk esa Nk=ksa dks lkekU; nw/k fn[kkdj mlesa dqN vifeJ.k inkFkZ feykdj Ñf=e nw/k dk
vFkZ Li"V djsxkA rn~ijkar Ñf=e nw/k dh tkap fuEu iz;ksxksa ls Li"V djsxkA
(i)
(ii)
,d ij[kuyh esa nw/k $ ;wfj;e feykdj fgyk;s ,oa 0.1 ml ckseksFkkbehy Cyw foy;u (.5%)
feykdj fgyk;s xgjk uhyk jaxA Ñf=e nw/k esa ;wfj;k dk gksuk iznf'kZr djrk gSA
,d ij[kuyh esa 5 ml nw/k + .1 ml czkes ksfØlksy cSx
a uh feykdj fgyk;s& nw/k dk cSx
a uh jax
gksuk nw/k esa fMVjtsUV gksuk iznf'kZr djrk gSA
(104)
iz'u&5 tSfod [ksrh dk egRo Li"V dhft, \
vFkok
4
fefJr [ksrh (mixed farming) dk egRo Li"V dhft, \
iz'u&6 Qly pØ ds dksbZ pkj fl)kUrksa dks mnkgj.k lfgr Li"V dhft, \
vFkok
QlypØ
4
e-iz- ds flafpr ,oa vflafpr {ks=ksa ds fy, ,d o"khZ; ,oa f}o"khZ; ,d&,d yksdfiz;
nhft, \
iz'u&7 fefJr [ksrh (mixed cropping) ds :i esa iz;qDr e-iz- ds dksbZ pkj yksdfiz; Qly lewgksa dks
Li"V djsa \
4
vFkok
cgqQlyh [ksrh dh izeq[k vko';drkvksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
iz'u&8 ty }kjk gksus okys e`nk {kj.k dks le>kb;s \
4
vFkok
e`nk laj{k.k ds fofHkUu mik;ksa dks Li"V dhft, \
iz'u&9 ckSNkjh flapkbZ fof/k dk egRo fyf[k, \
4
vFkok
ikS/ks dh tyekax dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjdksa dks fyf[k, \
iz'u&10
ikuh mBkus okys ijEijkxr ;a=ksa dk lf{kIr oxhZdj.k nhft, \
4
vFkok
vijEijkxr ÅtkZ L=ksrksa dk laf{kIr ifjp; nhft, \
iz'u&11
vkyw vFkok VekVj dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEu 'kh"kZdksa ds vUrxZr dhft,&
1- okuLifrd uke
3- dksbZ nks mUur 'khy fdLesa
iz'u&12
4
2- chtnj
4- dksbZ nks izeq[k jksx
vEyh; e`nk cuus ds dksbZ ikap dkj.kksa dks Li"V dhft, \
vFkok
vEyh; e`nkvksa esa lq/kkj ds dksbZ ikap mik;ksa dk o.kZu dhft, \
(105)
5
iz'u&13
ns'kh gy ,oa feV~Vh iyr gky dh tqrkbZ esa varj Li"V dhft, \
5
vFkok
ns'kh gy dks xgjk ,oa mFkyk djus ds mi;ksa dks fyf[k, \
iz'u&14
xsagw vFkok ljlksa dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEu 'kh"kZdksa ds vUrxZr dhft, \
1- okuLifrd uke
3- mUur 'khy fdLesa ¼dksbZ nks½
5
2- chtnj
4- izeq[k jksx
¼dksbZ nks½
5- mit izfr gsDVs;j
iz'u&15
cxhpk (orcharct) js[kkadu dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa dks la{ksi esa fyf[k, \
5
vFkok
m|kuksa esa d`Uru (pruning) dh izeq[k fof/k;ksa dks la{ksi esa fyf[k, \
iz'u&16
xqykc vFkok xqynkonh dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEu 'kh"kZdksa ds vUrxZr dhft,\
vFkok
1- okuLifrd uke
3- nks mUur 'khy fdLesa
5- izeq[k jksx ¼dksbZ ,d½
2- ikS/k izlkj.k fof/k;ka
4- izeq[k dhV ¼dksbZ ,d½
(106)
5
gk;j lSds.Mjh ijh{kk & 2008
vkn'kZ mRrj
d{kk&11oha
fo"k;&Qly mRiknu ,oa m|ku 'kkL=
mRrj&1
lgh fodYi fuEukuqlkj gS&
¼v½ & (II) 45
6
¼c½ & (III) gSjks
¼l½ & (I) ewaxQyh
¼n½ & (IV) mijksDr lHkh
¼bZ½ & (IV) Mkdl dSjksVk
¼Q½ & (III) ubZ fnYyh
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad½
mRrj&2
fjDr LFkku esa Hkjs tkus okys 'kCn fuEukuqlkj gS&
¼v½ Hkw ifj"dj.k
¼c½ dksiEcVwj
¼l½ nkseV dkyh
¼n½ xkslsf¶;e gjcsfl;e
¼bZ½ xzgokfVdk
¼Q½ dqdjfcVslh
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad½
mRrj&3
,d ;k nks 'kCn fuEukuqlkj gS&
¼v½ gfjr Økafr
¼c½ d.k;qDr foU;kl
¼l½ nkseV e`nk
¼n½ izkFkfed Hkw ifj"dj.k
¼bZ½ Tokj
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad½
mRrj&4
lR;@vlR; dFku &
¼v½ lR;
¼c½ vlR;
¼n½ lR;
¼bZ½ lR;
¼l½ lR;
¼izR;sd lgh mRrj ij ,d vad½
(107)
mRrj&5
tSfod [ksrh dk egRo fuEukuqlkj gS&
1tSfod [ksrh }kjk jlk;u moZjdksa ds nq"izHkko ls e`nk] isM+&ikS/kksa ,oa tho&tUrqvksa
dks cpk;k tk ldrk gSA
2mPp xq.k iRrk okys d`f"k mRikn izkIr fd, tk ldrs gSA
3i;kZoj.k dks iznw"k.k ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA
4[kk|kUuksa dh Hk.Mkj.k {kerk esa o`f) gksrh gSA
5mRiknu ykxr esa deh dj vf/kd 'kq) ykHk izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
vFkok
fefJr [ksrh dk egRo fuEukuqlkj gS&
1Hkwfe dk iw.kZ :is.k iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA
2d`f"k mRiknu ds tksf[ke dks de fd;k tk ldrk gSA
3Qlyksa dh mRiknu ykxr dks de fd;k tk ldrk gSA
4bZdkbZ {ks=Qy ls vf/kd mRiknu izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
5miyC/k lalk/kuksa dk leqfpr iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA
¼dksbZ Hkh pkj egRo fy[kus ij vf/kdre 4 vad½
mRrj&6
Qly pØ ds fl)Lr fuEukuqlkj gS&
1-
xgjh tM+ okyh Qlyksa ds ckn mFkyh tM+ okyh Qlysa cksbZ tk,A
tSls& dikl ds ckn eVj ;k eSFkh vFkok vjgj ds ckn xUuk
2-
Qyhnkj Qlyksa ds ckn Qyhghu Qlyksa dk iz;ksx] tSls& ewax] yksfc;k] lubZ ds
ckn xsagw] Tokj ds ckn ojlhe] eVj
3-
vf/kd ty pkgus okyh Qly ds ckn de ty pkgus okyh Qly dk iz;ksx
tSls& /kku ds i'pkr puk
4-
vf/kd [kkn pkgus okyh Qly ds ckn de [kkn pkgus okyh Qly dk iz;ksx vkyw
ds ckn ewax] /kku ds ckn puk
5-
vf/kd fudkbZ&xqM+kbZ pkgus okyh Qlyksa ds ckn de fudkbZ&xqM+kbZ pkgus okyh
Qlysa dk iz;ksx tSls& vkyw ds ckn rEckdw] eDdk ds ckn puk vFkok eVj
6-
vf/kd thok'k inkFkZ iznku djus okyh Qlyksa ds ckn de thok'k iznku djus okyh
Qlyksa dk iz;ksx tSls& xsagw ,oa tkS ds i'pkr Tokj] vjgj] dikl bR;kfn Qlyksa
dk iz;ksx
7-
p;fur Qlysa dhV] O;kf/k ds izdksi dks de djus okyh gksuk pkfg,A
8-
p;fur Qlysa miyC/k lalk/kuksa dk iw.kZ mi;ksx djus okyh gksuk pkfg,A
¼dksbZ Hkh pkj fl)kUr lmnkgj.k nsus ij vf/kdre 4 vad½
(108)
vFkok
flafpr {ks=ksa ds fy, Qly pØ&
,do"khZ;&
/kku ;k eDdk& xsagw&ewax
ewaxQyh&xsagw&pjh
f}o"khZ;&
eDdk&vkyw&xUuk
ewaxQyh&vkyw&dikl&vylh
vflafpr {ks=ksa ds fy,&
,do"khZ;&
/kku&elwj ;k vylh
dikl&puk
Tokj&vjgj&mM+n
f}o"khZ;&
ladV Tokj&puk&dikl&vylh
Tokj xsagw&ckt;&puk
¼izR;sd oxZ ds ,d Qly pØ ij ,d vad vf/kdre 4 vad½
mRrj&7
fefJr [ksrh ds :i esa iz;qDr
1- dikl $ lks;kchu
4- eDdk $ lks;kchu
7- Tokj $ ewax
e-iz- ds yksdfiz; Qly lewg fuEufyf[kr gS&
2- vjgj $ ewaxQyh
3- eDdk $ mnZ
5- xsagw $ puk $ vylh
6- Tokj $ vjgj $ mnZ
6- vjgj $ ewaxQyh
9- xsagw $ ljlksa
¼dksbZ Hkh pkj lewg nsus ij vf/kdre 4 vad½
vFkok
cgqQlyh [ksrh dh izeq[k vko';drk,a fuEukuqlkj gS&
1flapkbZ ty ,oa vU; lalk/ku leqfpr ek=k esa gksuk pkfg,A
2e`nk moZjk'kfDr ls iw.kZ gksuk pkfg,A
3mRiknd dks Qly mRiknu laca/kh rduhdh Kku gksuk pkfg,A
4d`f"k mRikn foØ; dk mfpr izca/k gksuk pkfg,A
5mUur;hy d`f"k ;a=] cht bR;kfn dk mfpr izca/k gksuk pkfg,A
¼dksbZ Hkh pkj vko';drk,a fy[kus ij vf/kdre 4 vad½
mRrj&8
o"kkZ Mky ds e`nk lrg ij igqapus ds ifj.kkeLo:i e`nk ds d.k <hys gksdj vius ewy LFkku
ls vyx gksdj ikuh ds cgko ls vU;= pys tkrs gS ftls fd ty }kjk gksus okyk e`nk {kj.k
dgrs gSA ;g e`nk {kj.k eq[;rk fuEu izdkj dk gksrk gS&
1cwan {kj.k& o"kkZ dh cwanksa }kjk e`nk d.kksa dks b/kj&m/kj fNVdkus dks cwan {kj.k dgrs
gSA ;g {kj.k o"kkZ dh rhozrk] cwanks ds vkdkj ,oa vof/k ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
2ijrnkj {kj.k& vf/kd o"kkZ okys {ks=ksa esa e`nk dh Åijh ijr ds og dj u"V gksus
dks ijrnkj {kj.k dgrs gSA
(109)
3-
4-
{kqnzlfjrk {kj.k& <ykonkj {ks=ksa esa o"kZ dk Mky izkjfEHkd voLFkk esa NksVh&NksVh ukfy;ksa
ds :i esa cgrk gSA lkekU;r% bl izdkj dk {kj.k mu e`nkvksa esa ns[kk tkrk gS tks fd
ueh;qDr ,oa de <yku ij fLFkr gksrh gSaA
voukfydk {kj.k& {kqnz lfjrk dk fodflr :i gh voukfydk {kj.k gksrk gSA bl izdkj
ds {kj.k esa e`nk lrg ij vf/kd pkSM+h ,oa xgjh ufydk,a e`nk dVko ds dkj.k cu tkrh
gSA ftlesa fd tqrkbZ bR;kfn d`f"k dk;Z djuk laHko ugha gksrk gSA
e`nk laj{k.k ds fofHkUu mik; fuEukuqlkj gS&
1iz{ks= ,oa O;FkZ Hkwfe ij o`{kkjksi.k djukA
2O;FkZ Hkwfe ij pkjkxkg dk fodkl djukA
3[ksr ds pkjksa vksj es<+ canh djukA
4vlery Hkwfe dks lery djukA
5d.Vwj ij [ksrh djukA
6ifV~V;ksa esa cqvkbZ djukA
7fupys {ks= ,oa ukys bR;kfn ij NksVs cukukA
8ty fudkl dk mfpr izca/k djukA
9<kyw e`nk esa lh<+hnkj [ksrh djukA
¼dksbZ Hkh pkj mik; nsus ij vf/kdre 4 vad½
mRrj&9
123-
ckSNkjh flapkbZ fof/k dk egRo fuEukuqlkj gS&
1Åaph&uhph ,oa vf/kd <kynkj Hkwfe esa ;g flapkbZ dh mi;qDr fof/k gSA
2dhVuk'kh ,oa [kjirnkj uk'kh jlk;uksa dk fNM+dko 'kh?kzrk ls ,oa lq{kerk ls fd;k
tk ldrk gSA
3e`nk dVko dh laHkkouk ugha gksrh gSA
4d`f"k ;ksX; {ks=Qy ij dksbZ izHkko ugha iM+rk gSA
5d`f"k fØ;kvksa esa dksbZ ck/kk mRiUu ugha gksrh gSA
¼dksbZ Hkh pkj egRo nsus ij vf/kdre 4 vad½
vFkok
ikS/ks dh tyekax dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd fuEufyf[kr gS&
ok;qe.My dh vknzrk& ok;q esa vknzrk vf/kd gksus ij ikS/ks dh tyekax de ,oa vknzrk
de gksus ij tyekax vf/kd gksrh gSA
lkSj fodhj.k& /kwi dh rhozrk vf/kd gksus ij tyekax vf/kd ,oa rhozrk de gksus ij
ikS/ks dh tyekax Hkh de gksrh gSA
rkiØe& ok;qe.My ds rkiØe dh o`f) gksus ij ikS/ks dh tyekax vf/kd rFkk rkiØe
de gksus ij ikS/ks dh tyekax Hkh de gks tkrh gSA
(110)
4567-
mRrj&10
123-
1-
2-
3-
4-
5-
mRrj&11
12-
e`nk dh moZjrk& Hkwfe ds vumitkÅ gksus vFkkZr iks"k.k rRoksa dh deh gksus ij ikS/ks dh
tyekax c<+ tkrh gS blds foijhr mitkÅ e`nk esa ikS/ks dh tyekax de gksrh gSA
e`nk ueh& e`nk ueh dh vf/kd vFkok de gksus dh n'kk esa ikS/ks dh tyekax esa o`f) gks
tkrh gSA
ok;q dh xfr& rhoz ok;q osx dh n'kk esa mRlosnu dh fØ;k rhozrk ls gksrh gSA ifj.kke
Lo:i ikS/ks dh tyekax c<+ tkrh gSA
ikS/k jksx& ikS/ks ds jksx xzflr gksus dh n'kk esa mldh tyekax c<+ tkrh gSA
¼dksbZ Hkh nks dkjd Li"V djus ij ,d vad vf/kdre 4 vad½
ikuh mBkus okys ijEijkxr ;a=ksa dk oxhZdj.k fuEukuqlkj gS&
ekuo 'kfDr }kjk pfdr ikuh ds ;a=& csM+h] <sadyh] gs.MiEi] psuiEi] bftjf'k;u LØw
cSyks dh 'kfDr }kjk pfyr ikuh mBkus ds ;a=& jgV] pjlk ;k eksB] ek;knkl fy¶V]
cynso ckYVh
;kaf=d 'kfDr pfyr ikuh mBkus ds ;a=& VªsDVj eksVj] loeflZcy iEi] tsV iEi bR;kfnA
vFkok
vijEijkxr ÅtkZ L=ksr fuEukuqlkj gS&
lkSj ÅtkZ& lw;Z ds izdk'k ls izkIr ÅtkZ lkSj ÅtkZ dgykrh gSA gekjs ns'k esa lkSj ÅtkZ
dk mi;ksx fctyh mRiUu djus esa] Qlyksa dks lq[kkus esa] [kkuk cukus esa ,oa ikuh dks
Åij mBkus esa izeq[krk ls fd;k tkrk gSA
iou ÅtkZ& ok;q ds fo'kky nzO;eku dh xfr'khyrk ls lac) xfrt ÅtkZ dks gh iou
ÅtkZ dgrs gSA bldk mi;ksx Hkq";r fctyh mRiknu ,oa ikuh dks Åij mBkus esa fd;k
tkrk gSA
tSo ÅtkZ& tSfod mRikn tSls& ouLifr] vif'k"B inkFkZ ds fo?kVu ds i'pkr izkIr gksus
okyh ÅtkZ tSo ÅtkZ dgykrh gSA bldk mi;ksx bZa/ku ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gS tSls&
ck;ksxSl
ty fo|qr ÅtkZ& ty dks ,d fuf'pr ÅapkbZ ls fxjkdj mldh fLFkfrt ÅtkZ dks
xfrt ÅtkZ esa cnyk tkrk gS ,oa blds }kjk ty fo|qr ÅtkZ mRiUu dh tkrh gS tks
fd ty fo|qr dgykrh gSA
ukfHkdh; ÅtkZ& og izfØ;k ftlesa ,d Hkkjh ukfHkd fo[k.Mu dh fØ;k ds ifj.kke
Lo:i gYds ukfHkdksa esa VwV tkrk gS ,oa vR;f/kd ek=k esa ÅtkZ fudyrh gS ftls fd
ukfHkdh; ÅtkZ dgrs gSA
¼dksbZ Hkh pkj vijEijkxr L=ksrksa dks Li"V djus ij vf/kdre vad½
vkyw dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEukuqlkj gS&
okuLifrd uke& lkys ue V~;wcs'ksle
chtnj& dVs gq, vkyw 12&15 fDoaVy@gSDVs;j
2-5 ls 3-5 ls-eh- O;kl okys iwjs lkcqr vkyw 20&25 fDoaVy@gSDVs;j
(111)
3-
4-
123-
4mRrj&12
123456789-
123456mRrj&13
1234-
mUur'khy fdLesa& vxsrh fdLesa&dqQjh pUnzeq[kh] dqQjh vyadkj] dqQjh T;ksrh
e/;e fdLesa& dqQjh peRdkj] dqQjh thou
iNsrh fdLesa& dqQjh flnwaj] dqQjh nsuk
izeq[k jksx& Hkwjk foxyu] ekstsd] vxsrh >qylk
vFkok
VekVj dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEukuqlkj gS&
okuLifrd uke& ykbdksilhZdkau VLdwys.Ve
chtnj& 500&600 xzke@gSDVs;j
mUur 'khy fdLesa& vxsrh fdLesa& ckSuh csLV] xksYMu tqcyh] vjyh pS;e
e/;e fdLesa& iwlk :ch] dY;k.kiqj Vkbi
iNsrh fdLesa& fi;lZu] csLV vkWQ vky] vaxwjyrk
izeq[k jksx& dsfiax vkQ] yhQ drkZ] :V ukV uhesrksM+] ¶;wtsfj;e foYV
¼izR;sd lgh fcUnw ij vf/kdre 1 vad dqy vf/kdre 4 vad½
vEyh; e`nk cuus ds dkj.k fuEukuqlkj gS&
{kkjh; rRoksa dk fu{kkyu
vEyh; pV~Vkuksa ls e`nk dk fuekZ.k
jklk;fud moZjdksa dk izHkko
vf/kd o"kkZ
HkkVw tyok;q
Qlyksa }kjk {kkjdks dk mi;ksx
jDr rRoksa ls eqDr [kfut nzO;
dkcZu MkbZ vkDlkbZM dh ek=k ds dkj.k
d`f"k fØ;k,a
vFkok
vEyh; e`nk esa lq/kkj ds mik; fuEufyf[kr gS&
pwus dk iz;ksx
mfpr ty fudkl dk iz;ksx
{kkjh; moZjdksa dk iz;ksx
jks/kd Qlyks dk iz;ksx
d`f"k fØ;k,a
iksVk'k ;qDr moZjdksa dk iz;ksx
¼dksbZ Hkh ikpa fcUnq Li"V djus ij vf/kdre 5 vad½
ns'kh gy dh tqrkbZ
feV~Vh iyV gy dh tqrkbZ
bl gy ls feV~Vh dVrh gSA
&
bl gy ls feV~Vh dVrh ,oa iyVrh gSA
'V' ds vkdkj dk dwaM curk gSA
&
'L' ds vkdj dk dwaM curk gSA
dqN Hkwfe fcuk tqrh NwV tkrh gSA
&
fcuk tqrh Hkwfe fcYdqy ugha NwVrh gSA
tqrkbZ ls [ksr dh leryrk fcxM+us
&
[ksr dh leryrk fcxM+us dk Mj jgrk gS
dk Mj ugha jgrk
(112)
5-
gy ds ihNs cqvkbZ dh tk ldrh gSA &
gy ds ihNs cqvkbZ ugha dh tk ldrh gSA
vFkok
ns'kh gy dks xgjk djus ds mik;&
1gjhl esa iryh iPpj yxkukA
2gjhl dh [kwfV;ksa ¼gksuh½ dks vkxs c<+kus ls
3tqvk dh jLlh dks <hyk djukA
ns'kh gy dks mFkyk djus ds mik;&
1gjhl esa eksVh iPpj yxkukA
2gjhl dh [kwfV;ksa ¼gjsuh½ dks ihNs gVkdj
3tqvk dh jLlh dks dM+k djukA
¼lgh mRrj nsus ij vf/kdre 5 vad½
mRrj&14
xsagw dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEukuqlkj gS&
1okuLifrd uke& fVªfVde ,LVhoe
2chtnj&
fNVdok fof/k& 125&150 fd-xzk-@gSDVs;j
lhd fVªsy }kjk& 60&80 fd-xzk-@gSDVs;j
gy ds ihNs& 90&100 fd-xzk-@gSDVs;j
3mUur'khy fdLesa& MCY;w-,p- 147] lksukfydk] yksd&1] lh&306] ucZnk&4] lqtkrk]
,p-okbZ&65
4izeq[k jksx& xs:bZ fdg] Hkwjk fdg] ihyk fdg] d.Mqvk] djuky caV] pwf.kZr vkflrk]
>qylk] dkyk fdg
5mit& ckSuh fdLe& 50&60 fDoaVy@gSDVs;j
mUur fdLe& 80&90 fDoaVy@gSDVs;j
vFkok
ljlksa dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEukuqlkj gS&
1okuLifrd uke& czsfldk dEislfVªl
2chtnj& 5&6 fd-xzk-@gSDVs;j
3mUur'khy fdLesa& Hkwjh ljlks& iwlk dY;k.kh] lQyk] ch-,l-&2] ch-,l-&70
ihyk ljlksa& Vkbi&151] Vkbi&42] ds&88] okMZ-,l-&24
45-
izeq[k jksx& >qylk] Mkmuh] feYM~;w] lQsn xs:bZ] ikmMjh feYM~;w
mit& 10&12 fDoaVy@gSDVs;j
mUur'khy fdLesa& 18&20 fDoaVy@gSDVs;j
¼izR;sd lgh fcUnq ij ,d vad vf/kdre 5 vad½
(113)
mRrj&15
1-
2-
3-
4-
5-
6-
1-
2-
3-
cxhpk js[kkadu dh fofHkUu fof/k;ka fuEukuqlkj gS&
oxkZdkj i)fr& bl fof/k esa loZizFke 7 ehVj 37 LFkku ok;qjks/kh ;k ck<+ ds fy, NksM+
fn;k tkrk gSA bl fof/k esa o`{kksa dks bl izdkj yxk;k tkrk gS fd iafDr ls iafDr dh
nwjh ,oa o`{k ls o`{k dh nwjh leku gksrh gSA
vk;rkdkj i)fr& ;g fof/k oxkZdkj fof/k ds leku gS ijUrq bl fof/k esa iafDr ls iafDr
dh nwjh o`{k ls o`{k dh nwjh dh rqyuk esa de gksrh gS rFkk izfr bdkbZ {ks=Qy esa oxkZdkj
fof/k dh rqyuk esa vf/kd o`{k yxk;s tk ldrs gSA bl fof/k esa pkj o`{kksa ds feyus ls ,d
vk;r curk gSA
f=Hkqtkdkj i)fr& bl fof/k esa o`{kksa dh izFke drkj oxkZdkj fof/k ls yxkrs gS] ijUrq
f}rh; iafDr esa o`{k nks o`{kksa ds e/; yxkrs gSA bl fof/k esa o`{kksa dks vis{kkd`r vf/kd
{ks=Qy feyrk gS ijUrq o`{kksa dh la[;k izfr bZdkbZ {ks=Qy oxkZdkj fof/k ls de gksrh
gS bl fof/k esa Vhu o`{kksa ds feyus ij f=Hkqt dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA
"kVdks.kh; i)fr& bl i)fr dks lef=cgq f=Hkqt i)fr Hkh dgrs gSA bl i)fr esa izFke
iafDr vk;rkdkj i)fr ls ijUrq f}rh; iafDr esa o`{k nks o`{kks ds e/; yxk;k tkrk gSA
bl i)fr esa oxkZdkj i)fr dh rqyuk esa 15 izfr'kr vf/kd o`{k yxk;s tkrs gSA N% o`{kksa
ds feyus ls ,d "kVdks.k curk gS rFkk ,d o`{k e/; esa gksrk gSA
iwjd i)fr& ;g oxkZdkj i)fr ds leku gS ijUrq blesa ,d o`{k oxZ ds e/; esa yxk;k
tkrk gS tks fd iwjd o`{k gksrk gSA LFkk;h o`{k cu tkus ds mijkar bu iwjd o`{kksa dks dgk
fn;k tkrk gSA
dUVwj i)fr& ;g js[kkadu i)fr vlery Hkwfe ij js[kkadu gsrq viukbZ tkrh gSA bl
i)fr esa dUVwj ykbZu ij o`{kkjksi.k fd;k tkrk gSA bl i)fr esa o`{kksa dh la[;k vis{kko`{k
de gksrh gSA
vFkok
m|ksxksa esa iz;qDr d`Uru dh izeq[k fof/k;ka fuEukuqlkj gS&
vxz.kh fof/k& bl fof/k esa izeq[k Vus dks c<+us fn;k tkrk gS rFkk pkjksa vksj o`f) djrh
'kk[kkvksa dk d`Uru fd;k tkrk gS ifj.kk Lo:i o`{k >kM+huqek fn[krk gSA o`{k dk ruk
vf/kd etcwr gks tkrk gS ijUrq ikS/ks ds leLr Hkkxksa rd leqfpr ek=k esa izdk'k ugha
igqap ikrk gSA
Hk`axkdkj fof/k& bl fof/k esa ,d fuf'pr ÅapkbZ ds i'pkr eq[; rus dks dkV fn;k tkrk
gSA rus ls fudyus okyh vU; 'kk[kkvksa dks izf'kf{kr fd;k tkrk gSA ikS/ks dh 'kk[kk,a nks
Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr gks tkrh gSA ikS/ks ds izR;sd Hkkx rd lw;Z dk izdk'k igqaprk gS ijUrq
rhoz ok;q osx ds lkFk 'kk[kkvksa ds VwVus dk Hk; jgrk gSA
laifjofrZr vxz.kh fof/k& ;g fof/k mijksDr nksuksa fof/k;ksa dk feJ.k gSA loZizFke o`{k dks
fodflr gksus fn;k tkrk gS ,oa d`Uru dj izFke fof/k vuqlkj o`{k rS;kj djrs gS
rr~i'pkr o`{k ds Åijh 'kh"kZ Hkkx dks dkV fn;k tkrk gSA ftlls 'kk[kkvksa dk lekukUrj
fodkl vf/kd gksrk gS ,oa o`{k ds izR;sd Hkkx rd lw;Z dk leqfpr izdk'k igqaprk gSA
o`{k de ÅapkbZ ds gksus ds dkj.k etcwr jgrs gSA
(114)
¼izR;sd fcUnq dh O;k[;k ij leku vad vf/kdre 5 vad½
mRrj&16
12345-
12345-
xqykc dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEukuqlkj gS&
okuLifrd uke& jkstk b.Mhdk
ikS/k izlkj.k fof/k;ka& 1- cht }kjk
2- ØUru }kjk 3- nkc }kjk
4- jksi.k }kjk
5- dfydk;u }kjk
mUur'khy fdLesa& catky] MkW- ØksehHkkHkk] izsek] jDrxa/k] ,fQy Vkoj
izeq[k dhV& jsM Ldsy] jkst pkQj] nhed] ekgw
izeq[k jksx& fdxj ok"i] mdBk dkyk /kCck] pw.khZy QQwanh
vFkok
xqynkonh dh [ksrh dk o.kZu fuEukuqlkj gS&
okuLifrd uke& ØkblsfY'k;e b.Mhde
ikS/k izlkj.k fof/k;ka& 1- cht }kjk
2- ØUru }kjk 3- v/kks;Lrkjh ¼ldZl½ }kjk
mUur'khy fdLesa& 'kkjnekyk] fiad tksu] v:f.kek] t;Urh] chjcy] lkguh] clfUrdk
bR;kfn
izeq[k dhV& jsM LikbMj] ,fQM] ekbZV] jsM gs;jh] dsVj fiyj
izeq[k jksx& mdBk] jLV] i.kZ /kCck] ¶ykoj jkWV bR;kfn
¼izR;sd lgh fcUnq ij ,d vad vf/kdre 5 vad½
(115)
uewukFkZ dfBu vo/kkj.kk
,oa mudh
foLr`r f'k{k.k fof/k
(116)
?kuRo ,oa vkisf{kd ?kuRo
f'k{k.k fcUnq %&
1234-
?kuRo dh ifjHkk"kk ,o vk'k;
fofHkUu i)fr;ksa esa ?kuRo ds ek=d
vkisf{kd ?kuRo dk rkRi;Z
fdlh oLrq dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo Kkr djuk
lkekU; mn~ n s ' ; %&
1?kuRo dk vFkZ tkuukA
2?kuRo ds fofHkUu i)fr;ksa esa mlds ekud tkuukA
3?kuRo ,oa vkisf{kd ?kuRo esa vUrj Kkr djukA
4fofHkUu oLrqvksa ds ?kuRo tkuukA
5fofHkUu oLrqvksa ds vkisf{kd ?kuRo Kkr djukA
vo/kkj.k %&
ge tkusaxs fd&
1?kuRo D;k gSA
2?kuRo ds vk/kkj ij inkFkksZa ds gYds ,oa Hkkjh gksus dk KkuA
3fofHkUu i)fr esa ?kuRo dh bdkbZ;ka D;k gSaA
4fofHkUu oLrqvksa dk ?kuRo ikuh dh rqyuk esa de vFkok vf/kd gSA
5?kuRo ,oa vkisf{kd ?kuRo esa eq[; fHkUurk D;k gSA
izLrqrhdj.k %&
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 1- ?kuRo dk vk'k; ,oa ifjHkk"kk
xfrfof/k& vko';d lkexzh& nks leku vkdkj ds chdj] ikuh] 'kgn bR;kfn
fof/k %& izFke chdj esa ,d fuf'pr ÅapkbZ rd ikuh Hkjdj mls Åij mBkrs gSa o mldk Hkkj eglwl
djrs gSaA rRi'pkr~ nwljs chdj esa Hkh mlh fuf'pr ÅapkbZ rd 'kgn Hkjdj mls gkFk ls Åij mBkrs
gSa o Hkkjr eglwl djrs gSaA ikuh okyk chdj 'kgn ds chdj dh vis{kk gYdk izrhr gksrk gSA d{kk
ds ,d ;k nks Nk=ksa dks Hkh nksuksa chdjksa ds Hkkj dk rqyukRed vuqHko djkrs gSaA
vc iz'uksRrj fof/k }kjk ,oa vUrZO;k[;k ls ?kuRo dk vk'k; ,oa ifjHkk"kk Li"V djsaxsA
iz'u& D;k ikuh ,oa 'kgn okys chdj ds vk;ru leku gSa \
mRrj& gka ikuh rFkk 'kgn okys chdj ds vk;ru leku gSaA
iz'u& D;k nksuksa chdjksa esa fy, x, ikuh o 'kgn dk vk;ru Hkh leku gS \
mRrj& gka nksuksa chdjksa esa fy, x, ikuh o 'kgn dk vk;ru Hkh leku gSA
iz'u& ikuh ,oa 'kgn ds vk;ru leku gksus gq, Hkh mudk Hkkj fHkUu D;ksa gS \
mRrj& ikuh ds bdkbZ vk;ru esa mldh ek=k de gS] tcfd 'kgn ds bdkbZ vk;ru esa mldh ek=k
vf/kd gSA
(117)
fu"d"kZ %& vr% Li"V gS fd inkFkksZa ds vk;ru leku gksrs gq, Hkh mudk nzO;eku fHkUu&fHkUu gksrk
gSA ,slk mlds ?kuRo esa vUrj ds dkj.k gksrk gSA
vFkkZr fdlh inkFkZ ds bdkbZ vk;ru ds nzO;eku dks gh ge mldk ?kuRo dgrs gSaA bls xf.krh;
:i esa ge fuEu izdkj ls O;Dr dj ldrs gSaA
?kuRo (d)
=
nzO;eku ¼lagfr½ (M)
vk;ru
(v)
ew Y ;ka d u %&
123-
fdlh oLrq ds nzO;eku ,oa vk;ru dk vuqikr D;k dgykrk gSA
ikuh ,oa rkjihu ds rsy esa ls fdldk ?kuRo vf/kd gS o D;ksa \
?kuRo dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 2- fofHkUu i)fr;ksa esa ?kuRo ds ek=d
xfrfof/k&
vko';d lkexzh& pkVZ
fofHkUu i)fr;ksa eas ?kuRo ds ek=d
Øi)fr
nz O ;eku
vk;ru
?kuRo
dk ek=d
dk ek=d
dk ek=d
1lh-th-,lxzke
ls-eh- 3 ¼?ku ls-eh-½ xzke@?ku ls-eh¼C.G.S.½
2,e-ds-,lfdyksxzke
ehVj 3 ¼?kuehVj½
fdyksxzke@?kuehVj
3,Q-ih-,likm.M
QhV 3 ¼?ku QhV½
ikm.M@?kuQhV
f'k{kd pkVZ dh lgk;rk ls IokbUVj }kjk ,d&,d djds fofHkUu i)fr;ksa esa ?kuRo ds ek=d Li"V
djsxkA
fu"d"kZ %& vr%^ geus tkuk fd lsUVhehVj xzke lsd.M i)fr ¼C.G.S.½ esa ?kuRo dk ek=d xzke izfr ?ku
lsUVhehVj gSA
ehVj fdyksxzke lsd.M ¼M.K.S.½ i)fr esa ?kuRo dk ek=d fdyksxzke izfr ?kuehVj gSA
QqV ikm.M lsd.M ¼F.P.S.½ i)fr esa ?kuRo dk ek=d ikm.M izfr ?ku QhV gSA
ewY;kadu %& fofHkUu i)fr;ksa esa oLrqvksa dk ?kuRo ekius dh bdkbZ;ka crkbZ;sA
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 3- vkisf{kd ?kuRo dk rkRi;
rkRi;Z
xfrfof/k %&
vko';d lkexzh %& ikjk] ikuh] feV~Vh dk rsy] rhu leku vk;ru okys chdj] HkkSfrd rqyk bR;kfnA
f'k{kd ,oa chdj esa ikuh] ,d chdj esa ikjk o ,d esa feV~Vh ds rsy dh leku ek=k,a ysdj HkkSfrd
rqyk dh lgk;rk ls rhuksa chdjksa ds nzO;eku Kkr djsxk rFkk iz'uksRrj vUrZO;k[;k ls vkisf{kid ?kuRo dk
rkRi;Z Li"V djsxkA
(118)
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
rhuksa chdj esa dkSu ls inkFkZ okys chdj dk nzO;eku lokZf/kd gS \
rhuksa chdjksa esa ikjk okys chdj dk nzO;eku lcls vf/kd gSA
fdl inkFkZ okys chdj dk nzO;eku lcls de gS \
feV~Vh ds rsy okys chdj dk nzO;eku lcls de gSA
D;k ge fdUgha nks oLrqvksa ds ?kuRo dh rqyuk vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSa \
gka nks oLrqvksa ds ?kuRo dh rqyuk vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSaA
D;k izR;sd oLrq ds ?kuRo dh rqyuk vU; lHkh oLrqvksa ds ?kuRo ls vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSa\
ughaA izR;sd oLrq ds ?kuRo dh rqyuk vU; lHkh oLrqvksa ds ?kuRo ls djuk cgqr dfBu gSA
vr% lqfo/kk ds fy, ;g r; fd;k x;k fd fdlh oLrq ds ?kuRo dh rqyuk ikuh ds ?kuRo ls dh
tk,] D;ksafd ikuh gj txg vklkuh ls fey tkrk gSA blds fy, 4 fMxzh ls- rki okyk ikuh fuf'pr fd;k
x;kA
fdlh oLrq ds ?kuRo rFkk leku vk;ru okys 4 fMxzh ls- rki okys ikuh ds ?kuRo ds vuqikr dks
gh oLrq dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo dgrs gSaA
fdlh oLrq dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo =
oLrq dk ?kuRo
leku vk;ru okys 4 fMxzh ls- rki
okys ikuh dk ?kuRo
=
;fn oLrq dk vk;ru
=
oLrq dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo
=
oLrq dk nzO;eku@oLrq dk vk;ru
ikuh dk nzO;eku@ikuh dk vk;ru
ikuh dk vk;ru gks rks
oLrq dk ?kuRo
leku vk;ru okys ikuh dk nzO;eku
vkisf{kd ?kuRo nks leku oLrqvksa dh eki gS blfy, vkisf{kd ?kuRo dh dksbZ Hkh bdkbZ ¼ek=d½ ugha
gksrh gSA
fu"d"kZ %&
vr% fdlh oLrq ds ?kuRo ;k nzO;eku ,oa leku vk;ru okys 4 fMxzh ls- rki okys ikuh ds ?kuRo
¼nzO;eku½ ds vuqikr dks gh oLrq dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo dgrs gSaA bldh dksbZ bdkbZ ugha gksrh gS] D;ksafd ;g
nks leku jkf'k;ksa dk vuqikr gSA
ewY;kadu %%&
1fdlh oLrq ds nzO;eku ,oa leku vk;ru okys 4 fMxzh ls- rki okys ty ds nzO;eku ds
vuqikr dks D;k dgk tkrk gSA
2izR;sd oLrq ds ?kuRo dh rqyuk fdl oLrq ds ?kuRo ls dh tkrh gSA
3vkisf{kd ?kuRo dk lh-th-,l- i)fr esa ek=d fyf[k,A
(119)
f'k{kd fcUnq% 4- fdlh oLrq dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo Kkr djuk ¼'kh'kh ,oa fudylu gkbMªkes hVj }kjk½
mn~ns';;& vkisf{kd ?kuRo dh 'kh'kh }kjk fdlh oLrq dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo Kkr djukA
xfrfof/k 1&
vko';d lkexzh& ikjk] ikuh] bysDVªkWfud csysUl] vkisf{kd ?kuRo 'kh'kh bR;kfnA
loZizFke f'k{kd vkisf{kd ?kuRo 'kh'kh dks [kkyh bysDVªkWfud csysUl ls rkSydj mldk nzO;eku Cysd
cksMZ ij fy[ksxkA vc vkisf{kd ?kuRo 'kh'kh esa ikuh Hkjdj mldk csysUl ls nzO;eku Kkr dj CySd cksMZ
ij vafdr fd;k tk,xkA
blds i'pkr vkisf{kd ?kuRo 'kh'kh dks [kkyh djds iqu% mlesa ikjk Hkjdj mldk nzO;eku Kkr dj
ysrs gSaA
izs{k.k %&
123-
[kkyh vk-?k- 'kh'kh dk nzO;eku
vk- ?kuRo 'kh'kh $ ikuh dk nzO;eku
vk- ?kuRo 'kh'kh $ ikjs dk nzO;eku
12-
ikuh dk nzO;eku = (M2 - M1) xzke
ikjs dk nzO;eku = (M3 - M1) xzke
= M1 xzke
= M2 xzke
= M3 xzke
x.kuk %&
ikjs dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo =
ikjs dk nzO;eku
ikuh dk nzO;eku
¼leku vk;ru okys½
=
(M3 - M1)
(M2 - M3)
bl izdkj izs{k.k ds vk/kkj ij x.kuk dj ikjs dk ?kuRo Kkr djus dh fof/k Nk=ksa dks Li"V dh tk
ldrh gSA
mn~ns'; %& fudYlu gkbMªksehVj }kjk fdlh nzo dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo Kkr djukA
xfrfof/k & 2
vko';d lkexzh& fudYlu gkbMªksehVj] ckaV] tkj] HkkSfrd ;k bysDVªkWfud rqyk] ikuh] feV~Vh dk
rsy bR;kfnA
loZizFke f'k{kd Nk=ksa dks fudYlu gkbMªksehVj fn[kkdj mldh jpuk Li"V djsaxs o mls rqyk dh
lgk;rk ls rkSydj mldk nzO;eku Kkr djsaxsA
vc fudYlu gkbMªksehVj dks ikuh ls Hkjs tkj esa rSjkdj mls fuf'pr fpUg rd vko';d ckaV
p<+kdj Mqckdj ckaVksa dk eku uksV dj ysrs gSaA rRi'pkr~ fudYlu gkbMªksehVj dks feV~Vh ds rsy ls Hkjs tkj
esa rSjkdj fuf'pr fpUg rd Mqck;saxs o vko';d ckaV fy[k ysrs gSaA
(120)
izs{k.k %&
123-
fudYlu gkbMªksehVj dk Hkkj = W xzke
fudYlu gkbMªksehVj dks ty esa fuf'fpr
fpUg rd Mqckus ds fy, vko';d ckaV = W1 xzke
fudYlu gkbMªksehVj dks feV~Vh ds rsy esa = W2 xzke
fuf'pr fpUg rd Mqckus ds fy, vko';d ckaV
x.kuk %&
1gkbMªksehVj }kjk gVk, x, ikuh dk Hkkj = (W2 + W1) xzke
2gkbMªksehVj }kjk gVk, x, feV~Vh ds rsy dk Hkkj = (W + W2) xzke
pwafd gkbMªksehVj ikuh vkSj feV~Vh ds rsy esa ,d gh fpUg rd Mqcks;k tkrk gSA vr%
gkbMªksehVj }kjk gVk, x, nzo dk vk;ru leku gksrk gSA
feV~Vh ds rsy dk vkisf{kd
= gVk;s x, feV~Vh ds rsy dk Hkkj
gVk;s x, ikuh dk Hkkj
=
(W + W2)
(W + W1)
bl izdkj fudYlu gkbMªksehVj }kjk nks vFkok nzoksa ds vkisf{kd ?kuRo dh rqyuk vklkuh
ls dh tk ldrh gS o muds vkisf{kd ?kuRo Hkh vklkuh ls Kkr fd, tk ldrs gSA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1- vkisf{kd ?kuRo 'kh'kh }kjk feV~Vh ds rsy dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo fdl izdkj Kkr fd;k tkrk gSA
2- fudYlu gkbMªksehVj D;k gS \ ;g fdl fy, mi;ksxh gS \
3- fudYlu gkbMªksehVj }kjk ns nzoksa ds vkisf{kd ?kuRo fdl izdkj Kkr djrs gSa \
(121)
izksVkstksvk la?k o mlds fofHkUu oxZ
'kh"kZ d %&
1f'k{kd fcUnq %&
12-
izksVkstksvk la?k o mlds fofHkUu oxZ dh fo'ks"krk,a
la?k izksVkstksvk dh izk.kh txr esa oxhZd`r fLFkfr
la?k izksVkstksvk esa lfEefyr fofHkUu oxksZa dh fo'ks"krk,a
lkekU; mn~ n s ' ; %&
1izk.khtxr ds oxhZdj.k esa izksVkstksvk la?k dh oxhZd`r fLFkfr dks tkuukA
2izksVkstksvk la?k ds fofHkUu oxksZa dh fo'ks"krkvksa ls voxr gksukA
3izksVkstksvk la?k ds fofHkUu esa lfEefyr thoksa ls ifjfpr gksukA
4izksVkstksvk la?k ds thoksa dk vU; la?kksa ds thoksa ls rqyukRed fHkUurk tkuukA
vo/kkj.kk %&
ge tku ik;saxs fd &
1izksVkstksvk la?k
2izksVkstksvk la?k
3izksVkstksvk la?k
4izksVkstksvk la?k
dk izk.kh txr esa LFkku D;k gSA
ds thoksa dh fo'ks"krk,sa D;k gSaA
esda lfEefyr fofHkUu oxZ dkSu&dkSu ls gSaA
ds fofHkUu oxksZa dh fo'ks"krk,saA
f'k{kd fcUnq %& 1- la?k izksVkstksvk dh izk.kh txr esa oxhZd`r fLFkfr
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd vUrZO;k[;k }kjk Li"V djsxk fd lalkj esa thfor tUrqvksa dh la[;k yxHkx 11]60]200 gSA
budk vyx&vyx v/;;u djuk laHko ugha gSA vr% thoksa dks v/;;u dh lqfo/kk gsrq fof'k"V y{k.kksa dh
lekurk ,oa fHkUurk ds vk/kkj ij lewgksa esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gSA tUrqvksa dks fuEu nks vk/kkjksa ij izeq[k
:i ls oxhZd`r fd;k x;k gS&
1'kjhj dh cukoV ds vk/kkj ij&
tUrq txr
,d dksf'k; tUrq
cgq dks'kh; tUrq
mitxr izksVkstksvk
mitxr esVktksvk
(122)
2-
fodkl ds vk/kkj ij &
tUrq txr
mitxr uku dkMsZVk
¼vd'ks:dh tho½
izksVkstksvk
mitxr dkMsZVk
¼d'ks:dh tho½
esVktksvk
vr% Li"V gS fd izksVkstksvk ,sls tUrqvksa dk lewg gS tks ,d dks'kh; gksrs gSa vFkkZr izksVkstksvk ,d
dks'kh; tUrqvksa dk la?k gSA bls mitxr dk Hkh LFkku fn;k x;k gSA
mif'k{k.k fcUnq %& izksVkstksvk la?k ds tUrqvksa dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,a
xfrfof/k %&
vko';d lkexzh %& vksoj gsM izkstsDVj] vehck] ;wXyhuk] isjkehf'k;e] vksisykbuk thoksa ds fp=ksa dh
VªkUlisjsalhA
f'k{kd vksoj gsM izkstsDVj ij ,d&,d djds VªkUlisjsUlh dk voyksdu djk,xk o iz'uksRrj ds
ek/;e ls izksVkstksvk la?k dh fofHkUu fo'ks"krk,a Li"V djsxk rFkk Cysd cksMZ ij bl la?k ds tUrqvkas dh
fo'ks"krkvksa dks fy[kdj Nk=ksa dks le>k,xkA
izksVkstksvk la?k ds tUrqvksa dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,a %&
1bl la?k ds tUrq ,d dksf'kdh; gksrs gSaA
2;s tUrq ty] yo.kh; ty o ue feV~Vh esa ik;s tkrs gSaA
3bl la?k ds tUrqvksa esa izpyu dwV ikn] d'kkfHkdk rFkk i{ekfHkd }kjk gksrk gSA
4bl la?k ds tUrqvksa esa 'olu o ey R;kx fØ;k oká vkoj.k }kjk gksrh gSA
5buesa Ård laLFkku dk vHkko gksrk gSA
6buesa iztuu vySafxd fof/k tSls f} foHkktu] eqdqyu o cgqfoHkktu }kjk gksrk gSA
7ySafxd iztuu la;qXeu }kjk gksrk gSA
(123)
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1234-
;wXyhuk fdl izdkj dk tUrq gS \
vehck esa izpyu vax D;k gSa \
izksVkstksvk la?k ds tUrqvksa esa 'olu fØ;k fdl vax }kjk gksrh gSA
izksVkstksvk la?k ds tUrqvksa esa vySafxd iztuu fdu&fdu fof/k;ksa }kjk gksrk gSA
f'k{k.k fcUnq %& 2- la?k izksVkstksvk esa lfEefyr fofHkUu oxksZa dh fo'ks"krk,a
f'k{k.k iz'uksRrj fof/k }kjk izksVkstksvk la?k esa lfEefyr fofHkUu oxksZa ds uke Li"V djsxkA
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
vehck esa izpyu vax D;k gSa \
vehck esa izpyu dwV ikn ;k L;wMksiksfM;k }kjk gksrk gSA
;wXyhuk esa izpyu vax D;k gSa \
;wXyhuk esa izpyu vax d'kkfHkdk ¼¶ysftyk½ gSA
iSjkehf'k;e ,oa vksisfyuk esa izpyu vax dk uke crkbZ;s \
iSjkehf'k;e o vksisfyuk esa izpyu vax flfy;k gSA
(124)
izpyu vax ds vk/kkj ij izksVkstksvk la?k ds tUrqvksa dks pkj oxksZa esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS&
1oxZ jkbtksiksMk& izpyu&dwVikn
2oxZ& esLVhxksQksjk& izpyu vax&d'kkfHkdk
3oxZ& Liksjkstksvk& izpyu vax&dksbZ fo'ks"k vax ugha
4oxZ& flfy;ksQksjk& izpyu vax&flfy;k
vc f'k{kd izksVkstksvk la?k esa lfEefyr fofHkUu oxZ ds tUrqvksa oxZ ds tUrqvksa dh fo'ks"krk,a o muesda
lfEefyr tUrqvksa ds mnkgj.k crk,axsA
1-
jkbtksiksMk oxZ dh fo'ks"krk,a&
1bl oxZ ds tUrq typj gksrs gSa&
2buesa izpyu dwV iknksa ¼L;wMksiksfM;k½ }kjk gksrk gSA
3budk vkdkj vfu;fer gksrk gSA
4budk dksf'kdk nzO; ,DVksIykTe o ,.Mks IykTek esa foHkDr gksrk gSA
bl oxZ ds eq[; tUrq& vehck] ,.V vehck] ,DVhuksLiksfj;e] ,YihfM;e
2-
oxZ esLVhxksQksjk dh fo'ks"krk,a&
1tarq fu;fer vkdkj ds gksrs gSa] fo'ks"kdj v.Mkdj dsA
2bu thoksa esa DyksjksfQy ik;k tkrk gSA
3cká vkoj.k ds :i esa D;wVhdy ikbZ tkrh gSA
4izpyu d'kkfHkdk ¼Flagella½ }kjk gksrk gSA
mnkgj.k& okWyokWDl] ;wXyhuk] fØl] vehck] fØIVkseksukl
;wXyhuk dh cká lajpuk
3-
oxZ Liksjkstksvk
123-
dh fo'ks"krk,a&
;s ijthoh gksrs gSa vFkkZr Lo;a ds Hkkstu ds fy, vU; ij vkfJr gksrs gSaA
iztuu chtk.kq ¼Spores½ }kjk gksrk gSA
izpyu gsrq dksbZ fof'k"V vax ugha gksrk gSA
mnkgj.k& eysfj;k ijthoh ¼Plasmodium½ eksuksflLVl] feDlhfM;e
(125)
4-
oxZ lhfy;ksQksjk dh fo'ks"krk,a&
1fuf'pr vkdkj ds tarq gSaA
2dqN ijthoh gksrs gSaA
3'kjhj ij lhfy;k gksrs gSa tks Hkkstu xzg.k ,oa izpyu esa lgk;d gksrs gSaA
4,d dksf'k; gksrs gq, Hkh fofHkUu dk;ksZa ds fy, fofHkUu vax gksrs gSaA
mnkgj.k& iSjkehf'k;e] oksVhZlsyk] vksiksfyuk
iSjkehf'k;e dh cká lajpuk
ewY;kadu %&
1234-
vehck fdl oxZ dk tUrq gS \
flfy;ksQkjk oxZ esa vkus okys tUrqvksa dh ,d eq[; fo'ks"krk D;k gS \
iSjkehf'k;e ,oa vehck fdl oxZ esa vkrs gSa \
eysfj;k ijthoh esa iztuu fdl fof/k }kjk gksrk gS \
ikS/kksa ds fy, vko';d iks"kd rRo
f'k{k.k fcUnq %&
1234-
ikS/kksa ds fy, vko';d iks"kd rRoksa dk vFkZ
vko';d iks"kd rRoksa dk oxhZdj.k
vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds ikS/kksa }kjk iz;qDr :i
ikS/kksa dks iks"kd rRo izkIr gksus ds eq[; L=ksr
lkekU; mn~ n s ' ; %&
1vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds vFkZ dks le>uk
2vko';d iks"kd rRoksa dk oxhZdj.k djuk
3vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds ikS/kksa }kjk iz;qDr fofHkUu :iksa ls ifjfpr gksuk
4ikS/kksa dks iks"kd rRo izkIr gksus ds izeq[k L=ksrksa dk Kkr djkuk
vo/kkj.kk %&
ge tku ik;saxs fd &
1vko';d iks"kd rRo D;k gSA
2eq[; o lw{e iks"kd rRo D;k gSA
3fofHkUu iks"kd rRoksa dk ikS/kksa esa dk;ZA
(126)
4567-
vko';d
vko';d
vko';d
vko';d
iks"kd
iks"kd
iks"kd
iks"kd
rRoksa
rRoksa
rRoksa
rRoksa
ds izrhd o ikS/kksa }kjk iz;qDr :iA
ds L=ksrA
dk oxhZdj.k djukA
dh deh dk ikS/kksa ij izHkko
f'k{k.k fcUnq %& 1- iks"kd rRoksa dk vFkZ
iz L rq r hdj.k &
xfrfof/k &
f'k{kd iz'uksRrj ,oa Nk=ksa dh lgHkkfxrk ds ek/;e ls iks"kd rRoksa dk vFkZ Li"V djsxkA
iz'u& gesa dk;Z djus ds fy, ÅtkZ dgka ls feyrh gS \
mRrj& gesa dk;Z djus gsrq ÅtkZ Hkkstu ls izkIr gksrh gSA
iz'u& D;k ikS/kksa ds fy, Hkh ÅtkZ dh vko';drk gksrh gS \
mRrj& gka ikS/kksa ds fy, Hkh ÅtkZ dh vko';drk gksrh gSA
iz'u& ikS/kk ÅtkZ dgka ls izkIr djrk gS \
mRrj& ikS/kk ÅtkZ lw;Z ds izdk'k ,oa la'ys"k.k fØ;k ls mRiUu dkcksZgkbMªsV ls ysrk gSA
iz'u& ikS/kk izdk'k la'ys"k.k fØ;k esa dkcksZgkbMªsV dk fuekZ.k djrk gS \
mRrj& dkcZu MkbZvkDlkbM o ikuh dh lgk;rk ls ikS/kk lw;Z ds izdk'k esa dkcksgZ kbMªVs dk fuekZ.k djrk gSA
iz'u& ikS/kksa dh o`f) ds fy, ikuh o dkcZu MkbZvkDlkbM ds vfrfjDr vkSj fdu&fdu rRoksa dh
vko';drk gksrh gS \
mRrj& ikS/kksa dh o`f) ds fy, gok ,oa ikuh o dkcZu MkbZ vkDlkbM ds vfrfjDr yksgk] rkack] tLrk]
cksjku] ukbVªkstu] QkLQksjl] iksVkl bR;kfn iks"kd rRoksa dh vko';drk gksrh gSA
iz'u& buesa ls dkSu&dkSu ls rRo ,sls gSa tks ikS/kksa dh o`f) ds fy, vko';d gS \
mRrj& ikS/kksa dh o`f) ds fy, mijksDr lHkh rRo vko';d gSA
iz'u& D;k bu rRoksa dh deh gksus ij ikS/;kk viuk thou pØ iw.kZ dj ik,xk \
mRrj& ugha] ikS/kk bu rRoksa dh deh gksus ij viuk thou pØ iw.kZ ugha dj ik,xkA
iz'u& ,sls iks"kd rRoksa dks ge D;k dgasxs \
mRrj& ,sls iks"kd rRoksa dks ge vko';d iks"kd rRo dgasxs \
iz'u& vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds dqN mnkgj.k crkbZ;sA
mRrj& vko';d iks"kd rRo fuEu izdkj gSa&
¼Nitrogen½ u=tu] QkLQksjl] iksVkl] xa/kd] tLrk] rkack] yksgk] Dyksjhu] cksjku] eksfyCMhue bR;kfnA
vr% vko';d iks"kd rRo os rRo gSa tks ikS/kksa dh o`f) ds fy, vko';d gksrs gSa rFkk buds vHkko
esa ikS/kk viuk thou pØ lQyrkiwoZd iw.kZ ugha dj ikrk gSA ikS/kksa ds fy, dqy 16 rRo vko';d gksrs gSaA
buds uke fuEu izdkj ls gSaA
dkcZu ¼C½] gkbMªkstu ¼H½] vkDlhtu ¼O½] ukbVªkstu ¼N½] QkLQksjl ¼P½] iksVkl ¼K½]
dSfY'k;e ¼Ca½] eSXuhf'k;e ¼Mg½] xa/kd ¼S½] yksgk ¼Fe½] rkack ¼Cu½] ftad ¼Za½] esaxuht
¼Mn½] Dyksjhu ¼Cl½] cksjku ¼Bo½] eksfyCMhue ¼Mo½ f'k{kd ';ke&iV ij vko';d iks"kd
rRoksa ds uke o ladsr fy[kdj Li"V djsxkA
(127)
ikS/kksa ds fy, egRoiw.kZ rRo
¼Important Elements for Plants½
ikS/kksa ds fy, vko';d rRo tks vf/kd
ikS/kksa ds fy, os rRo ftudh
ek=k esa iz;ksx gksrs gSa
lw{e ek=k esa vko';drk gksrh gS
ok;q rFkk ty
Hkwfe ls izkIr rRo
Hkwfe ls izkIr rRo
}kjk izkIr rRo
1- dkcZu
2- gkbMªksdkcZu
3- vkWDlhtu
456789-
ukbVªkstu
QkWLQksjl
iksVsfj'k;e
dSfY'k;e
eSXuhf'k;e
xU/kd
10111213141516-
yksgk
eSaxuht
cksjksu
rkack
tLrk
eksyhCMsue
Dyksjhu
ew Y ;ka d u %&
iz'u& ikS/kkas dh o`f) ds vko';d rRoksa dks D;k dgk tkrk gS \
iz'u& ikS/ks dks o`f) ds fy, dkSu&dkSu ls rRoksa dh vko';drk gksrh gS \
iz'u& fdrus iks"kd rRo ikS/kksa dh o`f) ds fy, vko';d gksrs gSa \
f'k{k.k fcUnq %& 2- vko';d iks"kd rRoksa dk oxhZdj.k
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
ikS/kksa ds fy, vko';d iks"kd rRoksa dk oxhZdj.k djukA
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd d{kk ds 16 Nk=ksa dk p;u dj mUgsa 9 o 7 Nk=ksa ds lewg esa Li"V djsxk fd 16 vko';d
rRoksa esa ls 9 rRo ikS/kksa dks vf/kd ek=k esa vko';d gksrs gSa vr% bUgsa ge eq[; iks"kd rRo dgrs gSaA izR;sd
Nk= ,d rRo dks iznf'kZr djsxkA
eq[; iks"kd rRo %&
dkcZu]
ukbVªkt
s u]
dSfY'k;e]
gkbMªkstu]
vkDlhtu]
QkLQksjl]
iksVkl]
eSXuhf'k;e]
lYQj ¼xa/kd½
dqy la[;k&09
vc f'k{kd 7 Nk=ksa ds nwljs lewg eas ls izR;sd rRo ds uke dks i<+dj Li"V djsxk fd nwljk Nk=
lewg ,sls iks"kd rRoksa dks izdV djrk gS tks fd ikS/kksa ds fy, de ek=k esa vko';d gksrs gSaA bUgsa ge blh
dkj.k lw{e iks"kd rRo dgrs gSaA ;s rRo fuEu izdkj gSa&
(128)
lw{e iks"kd rRo %&
tLrk ¼Zn½]
cksjku ¼Bo½]
Dyksjhu ¼Cl½
rkack ¼Cu½]
eksfyCMhue ¼Mo½]
yksgk ¼Fe½]
eSXuht ¼Mn½
dqy la[;k&07
fu"d"kZ %&
vr% Nk=ksa ds nks lewg ds ek/;e ls f'k{kd Li"V djsxk fd ikS/kksa ds fy, vko';d iks"kd rRoksa dks
ge nks Hkkxksa esa foHkDr dj ldrs gS&
1eq[; iks"kd rRo
&
9 C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S
2lw{e iks"kd rRo
&
7 Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo, Mo, Cl
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1dSfY'k;e vkSj QkLQksjl fdl izdkj ds iks"kd rRo gSa \
2tLrk ,oa rkack dks lw{e iks"kd rRo D;ksa dgr gSa \
3eq[; iks"kd rRo dkSu&dkSu ls gSa \
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 3- vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds ikS/kksa }kjk iz;qDr :i
fof'k"V mn~ns';&
fofHkUu vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds ikS/kksa }kjk xzg.k fd, tkus okys :i
xfrfof/k&
vko';d lkexzh&
ikS/kksa }kjk iz;qDr iks"kd rRoksa ds :iksa dk pkVZ
ikS/kksa }kjk iz;qDr rRoksa ds :i
vla;qDr :i esa fy, tkus okys rRo
la;qDr :i esa fy, tkus okys rRo
1iksVsf'k;e K+
1ukbVªkstu NH4+, NO3
2dSfY'k;e Ca++
2QkLQksjl PO4---, H2PO4--, HPO4
345678-
vk;ju Fe++, Fe+++
eSaxuht Mn++
dkij Cu+, Cu++
ftad Zn++
Dyksjhu CleSXuhf'k;e Mg++
345678-
lYQj SO3--, SO4-cksjku BO3-eksfyCMhue MoO3-dkcZu CO3--, HCO3
gkbMªkstu H+3, OHvkDlhtu OH3-, CO3-, SO4--
mDr pkVZ }kjk f'k{kd Nk=ksa dks le>k;sxk fd fofHkUu iks"kd rRo ikS/kk fdu&fdu :iksa esa xzg.k
djrk gSA ikS/kk dqN rRo la;qDr vk;u ds :i esa xzg.k djrk gS rFkk dqN rRo vla;qDr vk;u ds :i esa
xzg.k djrk gSA
(129)
fu"d"kZ %&
ikS/kk fofHkUu vko';d iks"kd rRo eq[; :i ls nks :iksa esa xzg.k djrk gSA la;qDr vk;u ds :i
esa ,oa vla;qDr vk;u ds :i esaA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1ikS/kk ukbVªkstu fdl :i esa xzg.k djrk gS \
2ikS/kk iksVk'k fdl :i esa 'kksfHkr djrk gS \
3la;qDr :i es 'kksf"kr fd, tkus okys dksbZ nks iks"kd rRoksa ds uke crkbZ;sA
4vla;qDr :i ls 'kksf"kr fd, tkus okys dksbZ nks iks"kd rRoksa ds uke crkbZ;sA
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 4- ikS/kksa dks iks"kd rRo izkIr gksus ds eq[; L=ksr
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
fofHkUu vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds L=ksrksa ls ifjp; djkukA
iz L rq r hdj.k&
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd lkewfgd ppkZ ,oa Nk= lgHkkfxrk ds ek/;e ls fofHkUu vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds L=ksrksa ls
ifjp; djk,axs o le>k,axsA
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
ikS/kksa dks thfor jgus gsrq dkSu&dkSu ls inkFkZ vko';d gksrs gSa \
ikS/kksa dks thfor jgus ds fy, ikuh] gok o [kkn bR;kfn dh vko';drk gksrh gSA
ikuh esa dkSu&dkSu ls rRo gksrs gSa \
ikuh esa gkbMªkstu o vkWDlhtu rRo gksrs gSa \
ikS/kksa esa ikuh ij og ikS/kksa dks dkSu&dkSu ls rRo iznku djsxk \
ikS/kksa esa ikuh nsus ij og ikS/kksa dks gkbMªkstu o vkWDlhtu uked rRo iznku djsxkA
ikS/kk vkWDlhtu ty ds vykok vkSj dgka ls izkIr djrk gS \
ikS/kk vkWDlhtu ty ds vykok ok;q ls Hkh izkIr djrk gSA
ok;q ls ikS/kksa dks vkSj dkSu&dkSu ls rRo izkIr gksrs gSa \
ikS/kk ok;q ls vkWDlhtu ds vfrfjDr ukbVªkstu ,o dkcZu Hkh izkIr djrk gSA
ok;q vkSj ty ds vykok ikS/kk vko';d iks"kd rRo vkSj dgka ls izkIr djrk gS \
ok;q vkSj ty ds vykok ikS/kk vko';d iks"kd rRo e`nk ls Hkh izkIr djrk gSA
vc crkbZ;s ikS/ks vius vko';d iks"kd rRo dgka&dgka ls izkIr djrs gSa \
ikS/kk vius fy, vko';d iks"kd rRo ty] ok;q ,oa e`nk ls izkIr djrk gSA
¼mijksDr iz'uksRrjh ds i'pkr fp= }kjk iks"kd rRoksa ds L=ksrksa dks f'k{kd Li"V djsxkA½
(130)
fu"d"kZ %&
vr% ge le>rs gSa fd ikS/kk viuh o`f) gsrq vko';d iks"kd rRo ty] ok;q ,oa e`nk ls izkIr djrk
gSA ;gh vko';d iks"kd rRoksa ds eq[; L=ksr gSaA f'k{kd vc Li"V djsxk fd ikS/kk dkSu&dkSu ls rRo ok;q
ls] dkSu&dkSu ls rRo ty ls rFkk dkSu&dkSu ls rRo e`nk ls izkIr djrk gSA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
iz'u& vko';d iks"kd rRo dh la[;k fdruh gksrh gS \
iz'u& tks rRo ikS/kksa dks de ek=k esa vko';d gksrs gSa] mUgsa D;k dgrs gSa \
iz'u& tks rRo ikS/kksa dks vf/kd ek=k esa vko';d gksrs gSa mUgsa D;k dgrs gSa rFkk bldh la[;k fdruh
gSA
iz'u& ikS/kk vkWDlhtu dkSu&dkSu ls L=ksrksa ls izkIr djrk gSA
iz'u& fuEu rRoksa dks eq[; ,oa lw{e rRoksa esa oxhZd`r dhft,& ukbVªkstu] yksgk] QkLQksjl] lksfM;e]
Dyksjhu] iksVklA
(131)
{kkjh; e`nk
f'k{k.k fcUnq %&
1234-
{kkjh;
{kkjh;
{kkjh;
{kkjh;
e`nk
e`nk
e`nk
e`nk
dk ifjp;
dh ifgpku djuk
cuus ds dkj.k
lq/kkj ds fofHkuu mik;
lkekU; mn~ n s ' ; %&
1{kkjh; e`nk ds 'kkfCnd vFkZ dks Li"V djukA
2{kkjh; e`nk dh ifgpku esa lgk;rk djukA
3{kkjh; e`nk cuus ds dkj.kksa ls voxr djkukA
4{kkjh; e`nkvksa ds lq/kkj dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa dks le>kukA
vo/kkj.kk %&
ge tku ik,axs fd&
1{kkjh; e`nk dh fo'ks"krk,sa
2{kkjh; e`nk dh ifgpku
3{kkjh; e`nk esa mifLFkr lksfM;e rRo dh izfr'kr ek=k
4{kkjh; e`nk cuus ds dkj.k
5{kkjh; e`nk dks lq/kkjus ds fofHkUu mik;
6{kkjh; e`nk ds lq/kkj dk Qly mRiknu dh n`f"V ls egRo
iz L rq r hdj.k %&
f'k{k.k fcUnq %&
e`nk] Hkwfe dh Åijh lrg gksrh gS tks ikS/kksa dks fofHkUu iks"kd rRo ,oa ;kaf=d lgk;rk iznku djrh
gS] e`nk dbZ izdkj dh gksrh gSA muesa {kkjh; e`nk Hkh e`nk dk ,d izdkj gSA bls jsg@jsgkyk ;k Åij e`nk
Hkh dgrs gSaA
xfrfof/k %&
vko';d lkexzh& fyVel isij] e`nk] ty] ued] nks chdj bR;kfn
fyVel isij ,d izdkj dk lk/kkj.k dkxt gS tks iz;ksx 'kkyk esa dke vkrk gSA ;g uhys ,oa yky
jax dk gksrk gSA
,d chdj esa ty ,oa e`nk ysdj ?kksy rs;kj djsaxs o mlesa yky fyVel isij MkysaxsA
nwljs chdj esa e`nk] ued ,oa ty dh lgk;rk ls ?kksy rS;kj dj mlesa yky fyVel isij Mkysaxs
o nksuksa chdj ds fyVel isij Nk=ksa dks voyksdu djk;saxs o Nk=ksa ls iz'u djsaxsA
(132)
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
nksuksa chdj esa fyVel isij ds jax esa D;k ifjorZu gqvkA
igys chdj eas dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gqvk] tcfd nwljs chdj esa yky fyVel isij uhyk gks x;kA
ued ;qDr e`nk ?kksy esa fyVel isij ds jax esa D;k ifjorZu gqvkA
ued ;qDr e`nk ?kksy esa yky fyVel isij uhyk gks x;kA
ued ;qDr e`nk ?kksy esa fyVel isij dk jax D;ksa ifjofrZr gqvkA
ued esa lksfM;e vk;u gksrk gS] tks {kkjh; gSA vr% ?kksy dh {kkfj;rk ds dkj.k fyVel isij
dk jax ifjofrZr gqvkA
iz'u& ued esa dkSu&dkSu ls rRo gksrs gSaA
mRrj& ued esa lksfM;e o Dyksjhu uked rRo gksrs gaSA
fu"d"kZ %&
ued ;qDr e`nk ds ?kksy esa fyVel dk jax yky ls uhyk gks x;k] D;ksafd mleas lksfM;e vk;u
gksrk gS tks {kkjh; gksrk gSA lkekU;r% {kkj yky fyVel isij dks uhyk djrs gSaA vr% {kkjh; e`nk,as ,slh
e`nk,as gksrh gS] ftuesa lksfM;e vk;u vf/kd ek=k esa ik;k tkrk gSA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1vf/kd lksfM;e ;qDr eqnk,sa ftudk tyh; ?kksy yky fyVel dks uhyk dj nsrk gS] mUgsa
D;k dgrs gSa \
2Åij e`nk 'kCn fdl izdkj dh e`nk dk i;kZ;okph gSA
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 2- {kkjh; e`nk dh ifgpku djuk
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
{kkjh; e`nk dh ifgpku dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa dks le>kukA
xfrfof/k %&
vko';d lkexzh %& xhyh e`nk ,oa lw[kh e`nkA
bu nksuksa e`nkvksa dks Li'kZ djkdj ,oa mUgsa IysV esa ysdj muesa ty Hkjdj voyksdu djrs gSaA
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
xhyh e`nk fdl izdkj dh gSa \
xhyh e`nk Nwus ij fpduh yxrh gSA
xhyh e`nk ij Hkjk ty LoPN gS vFkok xank \
xhyk e`nk ij Hkjk gqvk ty xank gSA
D;k xhyh e`nk esa njkjsa fn[kkbZ nsrh gSa \
gka] xhyh e`nk esa njkjsa Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSaA
(133)
fu"d"kZ %&
vr% {kkjh; e`nk dks Li'kZ djds o mlesa Hkjs gq, ty o njkjksa ds fujh{k.k ls ge mudks vklkuh
ls ifgpku ldrs gSaA {kkjh; e`nk xhyh gksus ij fpduh gks tkrh gSA o ml ij Hkjk gqvk ty xank gksrk
gSA lw[kus ij {kkjh; e`nk esa njkjsa Hkh iM+ tkrh gSaA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1e`nk dh xhyk voLFkk Li'kZ djus ij og fpduh izrhr gksrh gSA ;g fdl izdkj dh e`nk
gksus dh lwpuk nsrh gSA
f'k{k.k fcUnq %& 3- {kkjh; e`nk cuus ds dkj.k
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
{kkjh; e`nk cuus ds fofHkUu dkj.kksa dks Li"V djukA
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd iz'uksRrjh fof/k }kjk {kkjh; e`nk cuus ds fofHkUu dkj.kksa dks Li"V djsxkA
iz'u& D;k vkius flapkbZ mijkar e`nk ds lw[kus ij mldh Åijh lrg ij cuh lQsn ijr dks ns[kk
gS \
mRrj& gka geus lw[kh e`nk ds Åij cuh lQsn iiM+h ;k ijr dks ns[kk gSA
iz'u& e`nk dh Åijh lrg ij bl lQsnk ijr ds cuus dk D;k dkj.k gS \
mRrj& e`nk dh Åijh lrg ij lksfM;e o vU; yo.k ,df=r gksus ds dkj.k lQsn ijr curh gSA
iz'u& D;k vkius bu e`nkvksa esa ty fudkl dh fLFkfr ij /;ku fn;k gS \
mRrj& gka geus bu e`nkvksa esa ty fudkl dh fLFkfr ij /;ku fn;k gS& bu e`nkvksa esa ty fudkl
mfpr ugha gksrk gSA
iz'u& e`nk esa mfpr ty fudkl u gksus ls D;k izHkko iM+rk gS \
mRrj& e`nk esa mfpr ty fudkl u gksus ls e`nk vf/kd xhyh o nynyh gks tkrh gSA
iz'u& D;k vkius dHkh ,slh e`nk dh fupyh ,oa Hkhrjh lrgksa dks lw{erk ls ns[kk gS \
mRrj& gka geus xkao ds [ksr esa ,slh e`nk dks ns[kkA bl e`nk dh fupyh lrg esa dM+h ijr mifLFkr
gksrh gSA
iz'u& D;k Qly mRiknu ds fy, e`nk esa jklk;fud moZjdksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa \
mRrj& e`nk esa QlyksRiknu gsrq jklk;fud moZjdksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
iz'u& e`nk esa dkSu&dkSu ls moZjd iz;ksx fd, tkrs gSa \
mRrj& lkekU;r% e`nk esa ;wfj;k] veksfu;e lYQsn] lksfM;e ukbVªsV] lqij QkLQsV] E;wjsV vkWQ&iksVkl
bR;kfn moZjd iz;ksx djrs gSaA
iz'u& e`nk esa lksfM;e ukbVªsV ds vf/kd iz;ksx ls D;k gksxk \
mRrj& e`nk esa vf/kd lksfM;e ukbVªsV ds iz;ksx ls e`nk esa lksfM;e vf/kd gks tk,xk o e`nk {kkjh;
gks tk,xhA
(134)
fu"d"kZ %&
12345-
mijksDr iz'uksRrj ds ek/;e ls Li"V gksrk gS {pkkjh; e`nk cuus ds eq[; dkj.k fuEu gSa&
de o"kkZ ;k 'kq"d {ks=
e`nk esa vuqfpr ty fudkl dk gksuk
{kkjh; moZjdksa dk yxkrkj iz;ksx
e`nk dh fupyh lrg esa dM+h ijr dk ik;k tkukA
{kkjh; iSr`d inkFkZ ls e`nk dh mRifRr gksukA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1'kq"d {ks=ksa esa fdl izdkj dh e`nk ikbZ tkrh gSA
2nyny ,oa vuqfpr ty fudkl dh fLFkfr] fdl izdkj dh e`nkvksa dk eq[; xq.k gS \
3;fn e`nk esa yxkrkj lksfM;e ukbVªsV tSls moZjd dk iz;ksx djsaxs rks e`nk esa dSlk izHkko
mRiUu gksxkA
f'k{k.k fcUnq %& 4- {kkjh; e`nk lq/kkj dh fofHkUu fof/k;ka
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
{kkjh; e`nk lq/kkj dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa dks tkuukA
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd d{kk ds ikap Nk=ksa dks p;u dj jksy Iys ds ek/;e ls {kkjh; e`nk ds lq/kkj dh fofHkUu
fof/k;ksa dks le>k,xkA
1izFke Nk= ftIle dk jksy Iys djrs gq, ftIle fy[kh gqbZ IysV ysdj lewg ds le{k mifLFkr gksdj
crk,xk] eSa ftIle gwaA
esjk lw= CaSo4 . 2H2O gSA eq>s e`nk esa 5 ls 10 Vu izfr gSDVs;j dh nj iz;ksx djus ij
eSa e`nk dh {kkjh;rk dks nwj djrk gwaA
2vc f}rh; Nk= xa/kd ¼lYQj½ dk jksy Iys djrk gS& eSa lYQj gwaA eSa gYds ihys jax dk gksrk gwaA
eq>s xa/kd Hkh dgrs gSaA esjk izrhd S gSaA eq>s pw.kZ ds :i esa e`nk esa feykus ij eSa e`nk dh {kkjh;rk
nwj djrk gwaA
3r`rh;k Nk= ikbjkbV~l dk jksy Iys djrs gq, lewg ds le{k ikbjkbV~l fy[kh gqbZ IysV ysdj
mifLFkr gksrk gSA eSa ikbjkbV~l gwaA esjk lw= FeS2 gSA eSa vk;ju ,oa xa/kd dk [kfut gwaA eSa
:ikUrfjr o vkXus; pV~Vkuksa ls feyrk gwaA eSa ,oa ikuh ls fØ;k djds lY¶fjd vEy cukrk gwaA
eq>s pw.kZ :i esa 2 ls 5 Vu izfr gSDVj dh nj ls e`nk esa feykus ij eSa e`nk dh vEyh;rk nwj djrk
gwaA
4prqFkZ Nk= 'khjk dk jksy Iys djus gsrq izLrqr gksdj lHkh Nk=ksa ls dgrk gS lkfFk;ksa eSa 'khjk gwaA eSa
xUus ds jl ls 'kDdj cukus ds ckn Hkwjs jax ds rjy inkFkZ ds :i esa izkIr gksrk gwaA eSa {kkjh; e`nk
esa 5 Vu ek=k izfr gSDVj dh nj ls 5 Vu izsl eM ds lkFk iz;ksx djus ij e`nk dh {kkjh;rk nwj
dj ldrk gwaA
(135)
ikapok Nk= gjh [kkn dk jksy Iys djus gsrq gjh [kkn fy[kh gqbZ IysV ysdj mifLFkr gksrk gS&
eSa gjh [kkn gwaA eSa lubZ] <Sapk ;k vU; nyguh Qly dks [ksr esa mxkdj mls gjh voLFkk esa tqrkbZ
dj [ksr ea feykus ds QyLo:i fo?kVu mijkar izkIr gksrk gwaA
rRi'pkr~ f'k{kd vUrj O;k[;k }kjk {kkjh; e`nk lq/kkj dh vU; fof/k;ksa& [kqjpuk] fu{kkyu]
ty fudkl] [kkbZ [kksnuk ,oa v|ks lrg dh l[; dh rksM+uk dks Li"V djsxkA
fu"d"kZ %&
123456-
vr% ge dg ldrs gSa fd {kkjh; e`nk dk lq/kkj fuEu fof/k;ksa }kjk fd;k tkrk gS&
ftIle dh mfpr ek=k dk iz;ksx djds
lYQj ;k xa/kd pw.kZ dk iz;ksx djds
ikbjkbV~l dh 2 ls 5 Vu ek=k izfr gSDVs;j iz;ksx djds
'khjk dk iz;ksx 5 Vu izfr gSDVs;j dh nj ls 5 Vu izsl eM ds lkFk iz;ksx djus ls
{kkjh; Hkwfe esa lubZ ;k <Sapk mxkdj gjh [kkn nsus lsA
fofHkUu HkkSfrd fof/k;ksa tSls& lrg [kqjpuk] fu{kkyu] [kkbZ [kksnuk] ty fodkl ,oa v|ks
lrg dh dM+h ijr rksM+dj bR;kfn ds iz;ksx }kjk
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1vf/kd lksfM;e izfr'kr okyh e`nk,as D;k dgykrh gSa \
2'kq"d {ks=ksa ,oa de o"kkZ okys {ks=ksa esa fdl izdkj dh e`nk ik;h tkrh gSA
3e`nk esa {kkjh;rk mRiUu djus okys moZjdksa ds nks mnkgj.k crkb;s \
4e`nk dh Hkhrjh lrg esa dM+h ijr gksus ij fdl izdkj dh e`nk mRiUu gksxh \
5ftIle e`nk {kkjh;rk dks dSls lq/kkjrk gS \
6ikbjkbV~l {kkjh; e`nkvksa ds lq/kkj esa fdl izdkj ls lgk;d gksrk gS \
7e`nk dh {kkjh;rk ds lq/kkj ds izeq[k mik; dkSu&dkSu ls gSa \
lkjka ' k %&
1234-
{kkjh; e`nk esa lksfM;e vk;u dh iz/kkurk gksrh gSA
{kkjh; e`nk 'kq"d tyok;q ,oa de o"kkZ okys {ks=ksa esa curh gSA
{kkjh; e`nk,sa xhyh voLFkk esa fpduh o lw[kus ij njkj;qDr gks tkrh gSA
ftIle] xa/kd pw.kZ ,oa ikbjkbV~l izeq[k {kkjh; e`nk lq/kkjd inkFkZ gSA
(136)
xk; dk ikpu laLFkku
f'k{k.k fcUnq %&
1xk; ds fofHkUu laLFkkuksa ds ukeksa dh tkudkjh
2xk; ds ikpu laLFkku ds fofHkUu vax o muds dk;Z
lkekU; mn~ n s ' ; %&
1xk; ds fofHkUu laLFkkuksa ls ifjfpr gksukA
2ikpu laLFkku ds fofHkUu vax rFkk mudh ikpu ls Hkwfedk dks le>ukA
vo/kkj.kk %&
1xk; ds fofHkUu laLFkkuksa ds ukeksa dh tkudkjh
2pkVZ }kjk ;k ';ke iV ij xk; dk fp= cuk;k tk;sxkA rFkk iz'uksRrj }kjk ikB~; oLrq
dk fodkl fd;k tk,xkA
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
xk; ds 'kjhj ds cká vax dkSu&dkSu ls gSa \
xk; ds 'kjhj ds cká vax] vka[k] ukd] dku] eqag] lhax] iSj] Fku] iwaN] veu vkfnA
xk; 'okl dSls ysrh gS \
xk; uFkqus ds fNnzksa }kjk 'okl ysrh gSA
xk; fdl vax ls ?kkl] pkjk [kkrh gS \
xk; eqag }kjk ?kkl pkjk [kkrh gSA
xk; }kjk fy;k x;k vkgkj eqag ls dgka tkrk gS \
xk; }kjk fy;k x;k vkgkj eqag ls xk; ds isV esa igqaprk gSA
isV esa Hkkstu ds igqapus ds ckn Hkkstu dk D;k gksrk gS \
isV esa Hkkstu iprk gS rFkk 'kjhj dks vko';d ÅtkZ feyrh gSA
Hkkstu dks ipkus okys laLFkku dks D;k dgsaxs \
Hkkstu dks ipkus okys laLFkku dks ikpu laLFkku dgsaxsA
ikpu ds i'pkr vifpr Hkkstu dgka tkrk gS \
ikpu ds i'pkr vifpr Hkkstu mRltZu laLFkku esa tkrk gSA
xk; dk <kapk fdl ls cuk gS \
xk; dk <kapk gfM~M;ksa ,oa ekl dk cuk gksrk gSA
bl izdkj ds laLFkku dks D;k dgsaxs \
bl izdkj ds laLFkku dks dadky laLFkku dgsaxsA
xk; esa cPps mRiUu gksus gh izfØ;k fdl laLFkku ls lacaf/kr gSa \
bldk lca/k iztuu laLFkku ls gSaA
xk; ds 'kjhj esa jDr fdlds }kjk izHkkfor gksrk gS \
(137)
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
xk; ds 'kjhj esa jDr f'kjk ,oa /kefu;ksa }kjk izokfgr fd;k tkrk gSA
jDr izokfgr gksus okys lacaf/kr vaxksa ds uke fy[kksA
ân;] f'kjk] /keuh
;s lc feydj dkSu lk ra= cukrs gSa \
;s lc feydj jDr lapj.k ra= cukrs gSaA
xk; ds 'kjhj esa ik;s tkus okys fofHkUu laLFkkuksa ds uke fy[kksA
ikpu laLFkku] 'olu laLFkku] iztuu laLFkku] nqX/k fu"dklu laLFkku] jDr lapkj ra=] mRltZu
ra=] dadky ra= raf=dk ra=] is'kh; ra=
ew Y ;ka d u %&
iz'u& xk; esa ân;] f'kjk] /keuh feydj dkSu&lk laLFkku cukrs gSa \
iz'u& xk; ds 'kjhj esa eyew= foltZu djus okys laLFkku dkSu&ls gSa \
iz'u& xk; ds 'kjhj esa Hkkstu ipkus okys laLFkku dks D;k dgrs gSa \
iz'u& i'kqvksa esa gfM~M;ksa ,oa ekal ls feydj dkSu&lk laLFkku curk gSA
f'k{k.k fcUnq %& 1- xk; ds ikpu laLFkku
xfrfof/k %&
xk; ds pkVZ ¼ikpu laLFkku laca/kh½ dk Nk=ksa ls voyksdu vFkok Cysd cksMZ ij fp= cukdj Nk=ksa
ls iz'uksRrj }kjk ikB fodflr fd;k tk,xkA
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
xk; ds vkgkj ¼?kkl o pkjk½ dk ikpu dgka gksrk gS \
?kkl o pkjs dk ikpu xk; ds ikpu laLFkku ls gksrk gSA
xk; ?kkl o pkjk [kkus ds i'pkr [kkyh le; esa dkSu&lh fØ;k djrk gS \
i'kq ¼xk;½ Hkkstu ds ckn tqxkyh djrk gSA
(138)
iz'u& xk; esa tqxkbZ izfØ;k dSls gksrh gS \
mRrj& xk; de pck;s okys Hkkstu dks j;wesu esa Hkj ysrh gSA [kkyh le; eas mls okil eqag esa ykdj
pckrh gSA ;gh izfØ;k tqxkyh dgykrh gSA
iz'u& ikpu laLFkku dk dk;Z D;k gS \
mRrj& Hkkstu pckuk] ipkuk] iks"kd rRoksa dks 'kksf"kr dj vips Hkkstu ¼xkscj½ dks 'kjhj ls ckgj djuk
ikpu laLFkku dk dk;Z gSA
iz'u& xk; ds ikpu laLFkku ds izeq[k Hkkx dkSu&dkSu ls gSa \
mRrj& xk; ds ikpu laLFkku ds izeq[k Hkkx eqag] xzluh] xzkl uh] vek'k;] vka=] eyk'k; gSA
fu"d"kZ %&
mijksDr ds vk/kkj ij xk; ds ikpu ra= dh lajpuk ,oa mi;ksfxrk dh tkudkjh izkIr gks ldsxhA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
iz'u& xk; ds fdl laLFkku esa Hkkstu dk ikpu ,oa iks"kd rRoksa dk vo'kks"k.k gksrk gSa \
iz'u& tqxkyh dh izfØ;k dSls gksrh gS \
iz'u& tqxkyh djus okys i'kqvksa ds uke fy[kks \
iz'u& ikpu laLFkku ds izeq[k Hkkxksa ds uke fy[kks \
iz'u& tqxkyh djus okys i'kqvksa ds vek'k; dh D;k fo'ks"krk,a gksrh gSa \
f'k{k.k fcUnq %&
xk; ds ikpu laLFkku ds fofHkUu vax ,o muds dk;Z
xfrfof/k %&
Nk=ksa dks xk; ds ikpu laLFkku ds fofHkUu vaxksa ds fp= fn[kkdj mldh O;k[;k dh tk,xhA
fof/k %&
Nk=ksa dks ikpu laLFkku ds fofHkUu vaxksa ds dV vkmV ds VqdM+s fn, tk,axs rFkk ,d lewg eas ;g
dk;Z Nk=ksa ls djok;k tk,xk rFkk muls muds mRrj iqfLrdk esa xk; ds ikpu laLFkku dk ukekafdr fp=
buds vk/kkj ij cuk;k tk,xkA
(139)
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
iz'u&
mRrj&
mijksDr ds vk/kkj ij iz'uksRrj ek/;e ls ikB dks fodflr fd;k tk,xkA
xk; ds eqag dh ikpu laLFkku esa D;k mi;ksfxrk gS \
Hkkstu dks pckus esa ,oa Hkkstu dks ykj }kjk mls ylylk cukus esa mi;ksxh gSA
eqag ds ckn Hkkstu dgka igqaprk gS \
eqag ds ckn Hkkstu iryh uyh ds vkdkj dh jpuk xzluh esa igqaprk gSA
xzluh ls layXu vxyk Hkkx dkSu&lk gS \
xzluh dk vxyk Hkkx xzkl uyh gksrh gS tks fd Hkkstu dks vek'k; rd igqapkrh gSA
xk; ds vkek'k; ds drus Hkkx gksrs gSa \
xk; ds vkek'k; ds pkj Hkkx gksrs gSa&
1- :eu]
2- jsfVdwye]
3- vksesle
4- ,cksesle
vkek'k; dk izeq[k dk;Z D;k gS \
vkek'k; dk izeq[k dk;Z Hkkstu laxzg.k ,oa mldk ikpuA
vkek'k; ls tqM+k vxyk va'k dkSu&lk gS \
vkar vkek'k; ls tqM+k vxyk vax gSA
vkar dh ikpu ra= esa D;k mi;ksfxrk gS \
Hkkstu ikP; rRoksa dk vo'kks"k.k ,oa vif'k"B inkFkksZa dks vkxs igqapkukA
vif'k"B inkFkZ dgka ,df=r gksrs gSa \
vif'k"B inkFkZ eyk'k; esa ,df=r gksrs gSaA
ikpu ra= ls tqM+ izeq[k xazfFk;ka dkSu&dkSu lh gSa \
;d`r ,oa vXuk'k; ikpu ra= dh izeq[k xazfFk;ka gSaA
fu"d"kZ %&
Nk= xk; ds ikpu laLFkku ds fofHkUu vaxksa ls ifjfpr gks ldaasxs ,oa muds dk;ksZa dks le>
ldsaxsA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
iz'u& xk; ds ikpu ra=ksa ds vaxksa ds uke Øe ls crkvks \
iz'u& ikpu ra= esa vkek'k; ds pkj Hkkxksa ds uke fy[kks \
iz'u& :esu] jsfVdqyu] vksesle] ,cksesle ds D;k dk;Z gSa \
iz'u& ey foltZu ls lacaf/kr Hkkx dkSu&lk gS \
(140)
flapkbZ dh izeq[k i`"Bh; fof/k;ka
f'k{k.k fcUnq %&
n
flapkbZ dk vFkZ
n
flapkbZ ds mn~ns';
n
flapkbZ dh izeq[k i`"Bh; fof/k;ka
lkekU; mn~ n s ' ; %&
n
flapkbZ dk vFkZ Li"V djuk
n
flapkbZ dh vko';drk izfrikfnr djuk
n
flapkbZ dh fofHkUu i`"Bh; fof/k;ksa ls voxr gksuk
n
falapkbZ dh i`"Bh; fof/k;ksa ds ykHk&gkfu Li"V djuk
n
flapkbZ ds varxZr viO;; jksduk
n
flapkbZ dh fofHkUu i`"Bh; fof/k;ksa dk rqyukRed v/;;u djuk
vo/kkj.kk %&
ge tku ik;saxs fd &
n
flapkbZ D;k gS \
n
flapkbZ dh i`"Bh; fof/k;ka
n
fofHkUu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuq:i flapkbZ fof/k dk p;u djuk
n
lCth] Qy o vU; lL; Qlyksa gsrq flapkbZ fof/k;ksa dk p;u djuk
n
flapkbZ dk egRo
iz L rq r hdj.k %&
f'k{k.k fcUnq %& flapkbZ dk vFkZ
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
flapkbZ dk vk'k; Li"V djukA
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd iz'uksRrjh izfØ;k }kjk flapkbZ dks le>kus dk iz;kl djrk gSA
iz'u& ikS/kksa dh o`f) o fodkl gsrq dkSu&dkSu ls inkFkksZsa dh vko';drk iM+rh gS \
mRrj& ikS/ks dh o`f) o fodkl gsrq gok] ty] [kkn vPNh Hkwfe] vPNk cht bR;kfn dh vko';drk iM+rh
gSA
iz'u& ikS/ks dks ty izkIr gksus dk izeq[k L=ksr D;k gS \
mRrj& ikS/ks dks eq[;r% ty o"kkZ ls izkIr gksrk gSA
iz'u& o"kkZ u gksus ds fLFkfr eas ikS/ks ty dgka ls izkIr djrs gSa \
(141)
mRrj& o"kkZ u gksus ij i`Fkd ls ty ikS/kksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA
iz'u& vr% o"kkZ ds ty ds vfrfjDr d`f=e :i ls ikS/kksa dks ty nsus dh fØ;k dks D;k dgsaxs \
mRrj& o"kkZ ds vfrfjDr d`f=e :i ls ikS/kksa dks ty dh izfØ;k dks flapkbZ dgrs gSaA
fu"d"kZ %&
vr% ikS/ks dh mfpr o`f) ,oa fodkl gsrq d`f=e :i ls ty nsus dh fØ;k dks flapkbZ dgrs gSa] rkfd
o"kkZ u gksus ij Hkh Qlyksa ls vf/kd iSnkokj izkIr dh tk ldsA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1o"kkZ ds ty ds vfrfjDr i`Fkd ls ikS/kksa dks ty nsus dh fØ;k dks D;k dgsaxs \
2dkSu&lh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa flapkbZ dh tkrh gSA
3flapkbZ Qlyksa esa D;ksa vko';d gS \
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 2- flapkbZ ds mn~ns';
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
flapkbZ djus ds fofHkUu mn~ns';ksa dks izdV djuk
iz L rq r hdj.k %&
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd fuEukuqlkj iz'uksRrjh izfØ;k }kjk flapkbZ ds mn~ns';ksa dks le>kus dk iz;kl djrk gSA
iz'u& vYi o"kkZ o vo"kkZ dh fLFkfr esa ikS/kksa dks ty dgka ls izkIr gksrk \
mRrj& vYi o"kkZ o vo"kkZ dh fLFkfr esa flapkbZ }kjk ty izkIr gksxkA
iz'u& o"kkZdky ds vfrfjDr xzh"edkyhu QlyksRiknu gsrq ty dgka ls izkIr djsaxs \
mRrj& xzh"edkyhu QlyksRiknu gsrq flapkbZ }kjk vyx ls ty fn;k tkrk gSA
iz'u& m|ku ds ikS/kksadks dgka ls ty izkIr gksrk gS \
mRrj& m|ku ds ikS/kksa dks flapkbZ }kjk ty izkIr gksrk gSA
iz'u& Hkwfe esa thokal inkFkZ ds fo?kVu gsrq ty dgka ls izkIr gksxk \
mRrj& Hkwfe esa thoka'k inkFkZ ds fo?kVu gsrq ty flapkbZ ds :i esa izkIr gksrk gSA
iz'u& ikys ;k dksgjs ls cpko dSls fd;k tkrk gS \
mRrj& flapkbZ }kjk [ksr esa ty Hkjdj ikys ;k dksgjs ls cpko djrs gSA
fu"d"kZ %&
vr% o"kkZ dh deh] o"kkZ dk forj.k leku u gksus dh fLFkfr] o"kkZ _rq ds vfrfjDr QlyksRiknu gsrq]
Hkwfe3 esa thoka'k inkFkZ fo?kVu djus] ikys ;k dksgjs ls cpko gsrq vkfn dk;ksZa ds fy, ,d fuf'pr le; lhek
esa d`f=e :i ls ty fn;k tkrk gS ftlls ikS/kksa dh o`f) o fodkl ds lkFk&lkFk vf/kdre mRiknu izkIr
fd;k tk ldsA
(142)
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1ikS/ks ds fodkl ds vfrfjDr flapkbZ ds vU; dk;Z dkSu&dkSu ls gSa \
2thoka'k inkFkksZa ds fo?kVu gsrq D;k vko';d gS \
3dksgjs ;k ikys esa cpko ds fy, D;k fd;k tkrk gS \
f'k{k.k fcUnq& 3- flapkbZ dh izeq[k i`"Bh; fof/k;ka
fof'k"V mn~ns'; %&
flapkbZ dh i`"Bh; fof/k;ksa ls voxr djkukA
xfrfof/k %&
f'k{kd fuEukuqlkj iz'uksRrj izfØ;k }kjk flapkbZ dh izeq[k i`"Bh; fof/k;ksa dks Li"V djus dk iz;kl
djrk gSA
iz'u& D;k vkius fdlku dks Qlysa esa flapkbZ djrs gq, ns[kk gSA
mRrj& gka geus fdlku dks flapkbZ djrs gq, ns[kk gSA
iz'u& vkius fdl izdkj fdlku dks flapkbZ djrs gq, ns[kk gS \
mRrj& lh/ks izokg }kjk] Fkkyk cukdj] D;kjh cukdj] QOokjk ,oa fLizdyaj fof/k ls Qlyksa esa flapkbZ
djrs gq, ns[kk gSA
mijksDr iz'uksRrjh mijkar Nk=ksa dks [ksr esa ys tkdj vFkok ekWMy ds ek/;e ls flapkbZ dh fofHkUu
i`"Bh; fof/k;ksa dk izn'kZu dj le>k;sxkA
1-
flapkbZ dh i`"Bh; fof/k;ka fuEukuqlkj gSa&
vlhfer ck<+d`r fof/k %& bl fof/k esa [ksr ds ,d fljs ls ty NksM+ fn;k tkrk rFkk tc rd
laiw.kZ [ksr esa ty Hkj ugha tkrk gS rc rd ty dk izokg tkjh jgrk gSA i;kZIr ek=k esa ty
ds miyC/k gksus ij gh bl fof/k dks viuk;k tkrk gS rFkk bl fof/kds iz;ksx ls feV~Vh dh HkkSfrd
n'kk izHkkfor gksrh gSA
(143)
2-
D;kjh fof/k %%& bl fo/k varxZr [ksr dks ,d fuf'pr vkdkj dh D;kfj;ksa esa foHkDr dj ty
D;kfj;ksa esa NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA ;g fof/k lCth okyh Qlyksa esa fo'ks"k :i ls viukbZ tkrh gS rFkk
bl fof/k esa ty ds izokg dks fu;af=r fd;k tk ldrk gSA
3-
Fkkyk fof/k %& ;g fof/k Qyks|ku esa viukbZ tkrh gS] buesa o`{k ds pkjksa vksj feV~Vh dh lgk;rk
ls Fkkyk cukdj flapkbZ dh tkrh gSA
4-
vaxwBh fof/k %& ;g fof/k Fkkyk fof/k dk gh ifjofrZr :i gSA vf/kd fpduh feV~Vh okyh Hkwfe ,oa
rkykcksa ds fudVoRrhZ; {ks=ksa esa ;g fof/k viukbZ tkrh gSA
5-
dwaM ,oa ukyh fof/k %& ;g fof/k xUuk] vkyw] 'kdjdan vkfn Qlyksa esa mi;ksxh gSA blesa Qly
yxkrs le; cuh dwaM o ukyh esa flapkbZ ds ty dks NksM+k tkrk gSA
6-
lhekar iV~Vh fof/k %& bl fof/k esa [ksr dks de pkSM+h o lqfo/kkuqlkj yEch D;kfj;ksa esa ckaVdj ty
NksM+k tkrk gSA tc D;kjh ds 2@3 Hkkx esa ikuh igqap tkrk gS rc flapkbZ candj nh tkrh gSA
7-
fMªi ;k Vidko fof/k %& bl fof/k esa ikS/kksa esa Hkwfe dh lrg ij cwan&cwan djds ikuh ikS/ks ds ikl
fn;k tkrk gSA ;g fof/k vR;f/kd ty dh deh okys LFkkuksa ij viukbZ tkrh gSA
8-
fLizadyj ;k QOokjk flapkbZ fof/k %& flapkbZ dh bl fof/k esa flapkbZ gsrq iz;qDr lEiw.kZ {ks= esa
uksty ;qDr fNfnzr ikbi ,d fuf'pr nwjh ij fcNk;s tkrs gSa ,oa bu ikbiksa esa ,d fuf'pr nkc ls
ty dks NksM+k tkrk gSA flapkbZ dh ;g fof/k vlery {ks=ksa ds fy, vR;f/kd egRoiw.kZ gSaA
ew Y ;ka d u %&
1Qy m|ku esa flapkbZ dh mRre fof/k D;k gSA
2xsagw] xUuk Qly esa flapkbZ dh dkSu&lh fof/k mRre gS \
3Vidko fof/k dgka viukbZ tkrh gS \
4ikyd o vU; lfCt;ksa esa flapkbZ dh dkSu&lh fof/k mRre gSA
5vlery {ks=ksa dh dkSu&lh fof/k Js"B gksrh gS \
(144)