Epson | LX-86 | User`s manual | Epson LX-86 User`s manual

EPSON®
LX-86 PRINTER
TM
User's Manual
FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT
FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not installed and
used properly, that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions,
may cause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and
found to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device in accordance with
the specifications in Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed to
provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular
installation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio or television
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user
is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
-Reorient the receiving antenna
-Relocate the printer with respect to the receiver
-Plug the printer into a different outlet so that printer and receiver are on
different branch circuits.
If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/ television
technician for additional suggestions. The user may find the following booklet
prepared by the Federal Communications Commission helpful:
“How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems. ”
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington
DC 20402. Stock No. 004-000-00345-4.
WARNING
The connection of a non-shielded printer interface cable to this printer will
invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may cause interference levels
which exceed the limits established by the FCC for this equipment. If this
equipment has more than one interface connector, do not leave cables connected
to unused interfaces.
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Applesoft is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Centronics is a registered trademark of Centronics Data Computer
Corporation.
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
LX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc.
IX-86 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
Corporation.
Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
NOTICE:
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All rights reserved. Reproduction of any part of this manual in any form
whatsoever without EPSON’s express written permission is forbidden.
The contents of this manual are subject to change without notice.
All efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this
manual. However, should any errors be detected, EPSON would greatly
appreciate being informed of them.
The above notwithstanding, EPSON can assume no responsibility for any
errors in this manual or their consequences.
© Copyright 1986 by SEIKO EPSON CORPORATION
Nagano, Japan
Contents
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . .
vii
List of Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LX-86 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
2
1
Setting Up Your LX-86 Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Parts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper Feed Knob Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ribbon Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ribbon Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Pattern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the LX-86 to Your Computer . . . . . . . . .
First Printing Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3
4
4
5
8
9
10
11
11
12
13
14
2
SelecType . . . . . . . . . . . .
SelecType Operation . . .
Turning SelecType on .
Selecting typestyles. . .
SelecType exercise . . . .
SelecType Tips . . . . . . . .
...
...
...
...
...
15
15
15
16
17
19
3
Elements of Dot Matrix Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Print Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bidirectional Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Pitches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NLQ Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
21
22
22
24
4
Printer Control Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASCII Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ESCape Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Embeddedcodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserted codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
27
28
29
30
30
31
....
....
....
....
....
....
...*
....
....
....
....
....
......
......
......
......
......
......
iii
5
IX-86 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demonstration Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pica Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Pitches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cancelling Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pitch Comparison. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Near Letter Quality Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
33
33
34
35
35
36
36
37
6
Print Enhancements and Special Characters . . . . . . .
Bold Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emphasized mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double-strike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double-width Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode Combinations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Italic Mode.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Underline Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Select. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superscript and Subscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Epson character graphics set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
International characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphics character set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
39
39
40
41
42
43
43
44
45
47
47
47
48
51
7
Page Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Justification with NIQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skip Over Perforation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper-Out Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
53
54
55
55
57
8
User-Defined Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Your Own Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designing Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First definition program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running the program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second definition program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running the program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining NLQ Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NIQ grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First NLQ definition program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second NLQ definition program . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
iv
60
61
62
63
64
65
65
68
69
Introduction to Dot Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dot Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graph&Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First Graphics Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple-Line Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Density Varieties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reassigning Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Reservation Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WIDTH Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Your Own Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphics Programming Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Semicolons and command placement . . . . . . . . . .
String variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphics and low ASCII codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
71
72
73
73
74
76
76
78
79
79
80
81
84
84
86
87
Appendixes
A
LX-86 Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Epson Character Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-l
A-3
B
Commands in Numerical Order . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . .
Control Key Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-l
B-4
C
Command Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Near Letter Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Character Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode and Character Set Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Printer Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forms Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page Format.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User-defied Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dot Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c-1
c-2
c-4
C-6
c-9
c-11
c-13
C-16
c-19
c-20
C-23
D
The DIP Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-l
E
Using the Optional Tractor Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractor Unit Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading Continuous Paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-l
E-l
E-2
E-4
c-1
V
Troubleshooting and Advanced Features . . . . . . . . . .
Problem / Solution Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting print styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tabbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper-out sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beeper Error Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Dump Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coding Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solutions for Specific Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applesoft BASIC solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apple II solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM-PC solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fl
F3
F-3
F-3
F5
F6
F6
F-6
F7
G
Printer Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Always . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Now and Then . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rarely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G-l
G-l
G-l
G-l
H
Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . .
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Character size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characters per line . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensions and Weight. . . . . . . . .
Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
......
....,.
......
......
......
.....*
......
.....*
.*....
H-l
H-l
H-l
H-2
H-2
H-2
H-2
H-3
H-3
I
The Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Transfer Sequence . . . . . . . . .
Interface timing . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal relationships . . . . . . . . . .
......
......
......
......
I-l
I-3
I-3
I-3
F
vi
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
F-l
Fl
F-l
Fl
List of Figures
l-10
Printer parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper feed knob installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ribbon cassette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Print head assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ribbon cassette installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ribbon placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IX-86 ready for paper loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cable connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
2-l
Turning SelecType on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
3-l A capital T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2 The three pitches of the LX-86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-3 IX-86 dot matrix characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
23
24
39
l-l
l-2
l-3
l-4
l-5
l-6
l-7
l-8
l-9
3
5
6-l
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
Emphasized and standard print. . . . . . . . .
Double-strike and standard print. . . . . . . .
Double-width and standard characters . . .
Italic and pica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The underline mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special graphics characters . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
42
44
45
51
7-1
Standard line spacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
8-l
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
Grid for designing draft characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Correct and incorrect designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design for character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the bottom eight rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grid for NLQ characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data numbers for one column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arrow design and data numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
61
62
63
66
67
68
9-l
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-7
Pin labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating numbers for pin patterns . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designing in different densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arrow design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First line of arrow figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result of incorrect program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin patterns of incorrect program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
75
81
82
82
84
85
D-l DIP switch location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-l
41
vii
E-l
E-2
E-3
E-4
E-5
E-6
E-7
E-8
Continuous paper with printer stand. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuous paper without stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractor placement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper separator and paper guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractor release levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin feed holder adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open pin feed cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Top of page position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-l
E-2
E-2
E-3
E-4
E-5
E-5
E-6
I-l
Parallel interface timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-3
List of Tables
2-l
SelecType modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
5-1
Summary of LX-86 pitches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
6-1 International characters in NLQ mode. . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2 International characters in draft mode. . . . . . . . . . . .
6-3 International characters in draft italic . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
49
50
Graphics modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
D-l DIP switch functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-2 International DIP switch settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-2
D-2
Pins and signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal interrelations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-l, I-2
I-4
9-l
I-l
I-2
...
Vlll
Introduction
The Epson IX-86 printer combines low price with the high quality
and advanced features formerly available only on more expensive
printers.
LX-86 Features
In addition to the high performance and reliability you’ve come
to expect from Epson printers, the LX-86 offers:
l
Draft mode for quick printing of ordinary work
l
Near Letter Quality mode for top quality printing
l
Selection of typestyles with the control panel
l
Fast printing (120 characters per second in draft pica)
l
A variety of print styles, including Roman, italic, six widths,
and two kinds of bold printing
l
User-definable characters so you can create and print your own
symbols or characters
l
High-resolution graphics for charts, diagrams, and illustrations
l
Easy paper loading
l
Ribbon cassette for quick and clean ribbon changing
l
Epson Standard Character Graphics set, which includes character graphics that are used on IBM@ and compatible
computers as well as international characters used by IBM
software. These characters are shown below:
1
About This Manual
We’re not going to waste your time with unnecessary information,
but we won’t neglect anything you need to know about the Ix-86
and its many features.
You can read as much or as little of this manual as you wish. If you
have used printers before and have a specific program that you want
to use with the LX-86, a quick reading of the first chapter may be all
you need. If, on the other hand, you are new to computers and
printers, you will find this manual easy to follow and the LX-86 easy
to use. No matter what your background, if you want to learn about
and experiment with all the advanced features of the LX-86, the
information you need is here.
For a preview of what your LX-86 can do, look at the following
samples of a few of its typestyles.
*
N E A R
NLQ standard
NLQ emphasized
* D R A F T
Pica
Elite
Condensed
I t a l i c
L E T T E R
Q U A L I T Y
ABCDEFGHI.JKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
M O D E
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
Underlined ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
E m p h a s i z e d
d o u b l e - w i d t h
2
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your LX-86 Printer
Setting up your LX-86 printer is a simple matter of attaching two
parts, putting in the ribbon and paper, and connecting the printer to
your computer.
This chapter will have you printing a test pattern within fifteen to
twenty minutes and doing more complicated work not long after.
Printer Parts
First, see that you have all the parts you need. In addition to this
manual, the printer box should contain the items shown in Figure 1-l.
* In the United States, the printer is delivered with the power
cord attached.
Figure l-l. Printer parts
3
In addition to the items in the box, you need a cable and possibly
an interface board. The cable connects the printer to your computer,
and the interface board is necessary only for those computers that
can’t use the LX-86’s Centronics® paralle1 interface. Your computer
manual or your dealer will tell you which cable you need and whether
or not you need a special interface.
Printer Location
Now that you have unpacked your printer, you should choose a
suitable location for it. The main requirement, of course, is that the
printer be close enough to your computer for the cable to reach. Also
remember the following:
l
Use a grounded outlet, and do not use an adapter plug.
l
Avoid using electrical outlets that are controlled by wall switches.
Accidentally turning off a switch can wipe out valuable information in your computer’s memory and disrupt your printing.
l
Avoid using an outlet on the same circuit breaker with any large
electrical machines or appliances. These can cause disruptive power fluctuations.
l
Keep your printer and computer away from base units for cordless
telephones.
l
Protect the printer from direct sunlight, excessive heat, moisture,
and dust. Make sure that it is not close to a heater or other heat
source.
Paper Feed Knob Installation
Now that you have chosen where to set up your LX-86, the first
and simplest piece to install is the paper feed knob, which you use to
manually advance the paper-lust as you do on a typewriter. To
install the knob, merely push it onto the shaft found in the hole on the
right side of the printer. (See Figure l-2.) The shaft has one flat side
that must be matched with the flat side of the hole in the knob.
4
Figure 1-2. Paper feed knob installation
Ribbon Installation
The LX-86 printer uses a continuous-loop, inked fabric ribbon,
which is enclosed in a cassette that makes ribbon installation and
replacement a clean and easy job. The parts of this cassette are labelled
in Figure l-3.
Ribbon
Knob
Pin
Pin
Figure l-3. Ribbon cassette
5
To install the ribbon, first open the lid at the front of the LX-86 so
that you can see the print head assembly shown in Figure l-4. Move
the assembly by hand to the center of the printer so that the other
parts of the printer will not get in your way. Also be sure that the
paper bail is against the black roller so it too will not be in your way.
Note: Moving the print head by hand when the printer is turned on
can harm the printer. Always be sure that the printer is turned
off before you move the print head.
Figure 1-4. Print bead assembly
6
Then hold the ribbon cassette so that the small knob is on top and
the exposed section of ribbon is away from you. Insert the cassette in
its holder by first sliding the pins at the back of the ribbon cassette
under the small hooks on the holder. (See Figure l-5.) Then lower the
front of the cassette so that the exposed section of ribbon can fit
between the print head nose and the silver ribbon guide. Push down
until the cassette fits firmly in place.
Figure 1-5. Ribbon cassette installation
7
Now turn the knob on the cassette in the direction of the arrow to
tighten the ribbon. As you turn the knob, see that the ribbon slips
down into its proper place between the print head nose and the silver
ribbon guide (Figure l-6). If it doesn’t, guide it with a pen or a pencil.
Figure l-6. Ribbon placement
Ribbon Replacement
When your printing begins to become light and you need to replace the ribbon, lift the front of the cassette to remove it and then
follow the above instructions with a new cassette. If you have been
using your printer just before you change cassettes, be aware that the
print head becomes hot during use. Be careful not to touch it. Also
remember never to move the print head by hand when the printer is
turned on.
8
Paper Loading
Now put a sheet of paper in your LX-86 so you can test it. Figure
l-7 shows the names of the parts that you need to know.
Friction lever
Figure l-7. LX-86 ready for paper loading
9
See that the printer is turned off, open the front lid, and push the
friction lever back and the paper bail forward. Then move the print
head by hand to the center of the printer and feed the paper into the
paper slot in the top of the printer.
When the paper will not go any farther, turn the paper feed knob
to advance it as you would with a typewriter. Turn the knob until the
top of the paper is at least 3/4-inch above the ribbon guide. Then push
the paper bail against the paper. If the paper becomes crooked, pull
the friction-release lever forward, straighten the paper, and push the
friction lever back.
If you have the optional tractor unit for continuous pin-feed paper,
see Appendix E for instructions on its use.
Control Panel
Now that your paper is loaded, it is time to plug in the printer
and see what the buttons on the control panel do. First, see that
the power switch on the right side of the printer is off. Then plug
in the power cord. Now turn on the power switch and look at the
control panel.
Figure l-8. Control panel
10
There are three buttons and four indicator lights on the control panel.
Lights
l The POWER light glows green when the power is on.
l The READY light glows green when the printer is ready to accept data.
This light flickers somewhat during printing.
• The PAPER OUT light glows red to indicate that the printer is out of
paper or the paper is loaded incorrectly.
• The ON LINE light glows green when the printer can receive data.
Buttons
The buttons have several functions, including selecting draft or NLQ
(Near Letter Quality) printing. Draft is good for quick printing of
ordinary work, and NLQ has more fully-formed characters for final
copies or special purposes.
This is high-quality NLQ printing.
This i s fast draft printing.
l
ON LINE/OFF LINE. This button switches the printer between
on-line and off-line status. When the printer is on line, the ON
LINE light glows and the printer is ready to accept data.
l
FORM FEED/NLQ. When the printer is on line, pressing this
button turns on NLQ. When the printer is off line, this button
advances the paper to the top of the next page.
l
LINE FEED/DRAFT. When the printer is on line, this button
turns on draft printing. When the printer is off line, this button
advances the paper one line at a time.
11
Test Pattern
Now you’ll see your Lx-86 print something even though it’s not
connected to a computer yet. Make sure that your printer has paper in it
and that the power switch is off. Now, hold down the LINE FEED button
on the control panel while you turn the printer on with the power switch.
The Lx-86 will begin printing all the letters, numbers and other
characters that are stored in its ROM (Read Only Memory) for the draft
mode. When the printing starts, you can release the LINE FEED button;
the printing will continue until you turn the printer off or until the print
head gets near the end of the page. To see the same test in the NLQ (Near
Letter Quality) mode, turn the printer on while holding down the
FORM FEED button. Partial results of both tests are shown in Figure 1-9.
<Draft>
123456789 : <=> ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
3456789:;<=> ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[
4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = >?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\
5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]
6 7 8 9 : ' < = > ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ
789 : ;<=> ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_
8 9 : ; < = > ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_`
9 : ;<=> ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ˆ _ ` a
: ; <=>? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ / ] ˆ _ ` a b
;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQTRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_’abc
<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQTRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ._' a b c d
<NLQ>
123456789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMOPQPSTUVWXY
23456789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMHOPQRSTUVWXYZ
3456789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[
456789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\
56789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMHOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]
6789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ
789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQESTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ89: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQESTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_'
9:
;
<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMHOPQRSTUVWXYK[\]ˆ_'a
: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQESTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_' ab
; <=>?BABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ ’ a b c
<=> ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQESTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ ‘abed
Figure l-9. Test patterns
12
Connecting the LX-86 to Your Computer
Now that the test pattern has shown that your printer is working
well, it’s time to hook it up to your computer. It is best to have both
the printer and the computer turned off when you do this.
Remember that each computer system has its own way of communicating with a printer. If your computer expects to communicate
through a Centronics parallel interface, all you need is a cable. If your
computer requires any other kind of interface, you will also need an
interface board.
If you don’t know what a Centronics parallel interface is, your
computer manual or your dealer will tell you what you need. Then,
once you have plugged your printer cable into your printer and
computer, you will probably never think about interfaces again. (If
you do want the technical specifications, however, you can find them
in Appendix I.)
The first three steps in connecting your printer and computer are
shown in Figure l-10. Plug one end of your printer cable into the
cable connector of your LX-86 printer. The plug is shaped so that
there is only one way it will fit the connector. Now secure the plug to
the printer with the wire clips on each side of the connector. These
clips insure that your cable will not be loosened or unplugged
accidentally. If your cable has a grounding wire, fasten it to the
grounding screw below the connector.
Grounding
screw
Grounding
wire
Figure I-10. Cable connection
13
Next connect the other end of the printer cable to your computer.
On most computers you can easily find the correct connector for the
printer cable, but if you are not sure, consult your computer manual
or your dealer.
First Printing Exercise
Now it is time to see something more interesting than the test
pattern from your LX-86 printer. Your next step depends upon what
kind of printing you plan to do. If you have a word processing or
other commercial software program, just load the program in your
computer, follow its printing instructions, and watch your Lx-86
print. If you plan to use your LX-86 for printing program listings,
load a program and use your computer system’s listing command
(LLIST for MicrosoftTM BASIC, for example).
Note: If all the lines of your first printing exercise are printed on top
of each other, don’t worry. There is nothing wrong with your
printer. All you have to do is change the setting of a small
switch in the back of your printer. See the section on automatic line feeds in Appendix D.
14
Chapter 2
SelecType
The LX-86’s SelecType feature can produce four special
typestyles:
This is emphasized printing.
T h i s i s i n the d o u b l e - s t r i k e m o d e .
This is condensed printing.
This is in the elite mode.
SelecType Operation
Using SelecType is easy. You turn on SelecType and select a typestyle, then turn off SelecType and print.
Note: Each button has two names. For convenience, this chapter
uses the top names of the buttons.
Turning SelecType on
1. Make sure that the printer is on and that the POWER, READY,
and ON LINE lights are all on.
2. Press both the OFF LINE and FORM FEED buttons at the same
time, as illustrated in Figure 2-l. Hold them down for at least a
second, then release them.
15
Note: If the printer beeps twice before you release the buttons,
you have pressed the FORM FEED button before the OFF
LINE button instead of at the same time and the LX-86 is
in the NLQ mode. Press the OFF LINE button to put the
printer back on line and press the DRAFT button if you do
not want NLQ. Then press both the OFF LINE and FORM
FEED buttons to turn on SelecType.
Figure 2-1. Turning SelecType on
When you release the OFF LINE and FORM FEED buttons,
the LX-86 signals in three ways that SelecType is on.
• The printer beeps.
l The READY light turns off.
• The ON LINE light begins flashing.
Selecting typestyles
In SelecType, each button has a function:
• OFF LINE selects typestyles.
*FORM FEED sets the styles.
•LINE FEED turns SelecType off.
16
After turning on SelecType, follow these three steps to select
a typestyle:
1. Find the typestyle you want in Table 2-1.
Table 2-l. SelecType modes
Mode
1
2
3
4
Emphasized
Double&trike
condensed
Elite
Typestyle or Function
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyz
2. Press the OFF LINE button the number of times indicated in
the mode column. Be sure that the printer beeps each time you
press the OFF LINE button.
3. Press the FORM FEED button to set the typestyle.
4. Press the LINE FEED button to turn SelecType off. The control
panel returns to its normal functions, but the printer is off-line.
5. Press the OFF LINE button, and you are ready to print.
SelecType exercise
You don’t need to know anything about programming for this
exercise because it is merely for practice. If you would rather not use
BASIC, use your word processing or business program to create a
short file or document of the type you will usually print.
If you do want to use BASIC for this exercise, simply turn on your
computer and printer and load BASIC. Then type the short
program listed below. Only the words inside the quotation marks
are printed. You can put anything you want there. (If your version of
BASIC does not use LPRINT, consult your BASIC manual.)
10 LPRINT “This is an example”
20 LPRINT ” of LX printing. ”
17
Now, run the program by typing RUN and pressing RETURN, or
print your file or document by following the printing instructions of
your software. The LX-86 will print your example in standard singlestrike printing, as shown below:
This is an example
of LX printing.
Now that you have created a sample, follow these steps to print it
in condensed mode:
1.
See that both the ON LINE and READY lights are on.
2. Press the OFF LINE and FORM FEED buttons at the same time,
then release them. You hear a beep to signal that SelecType is on.
3. As shown in Table 2-1, the code for condensed is three. Therefore,
press the OFF LINE button three times. (Remember to make sure
you hear a beep each time you press the OFF LINE button when
you are in SelecType mode.)
4. Now that you have selected the condensed mode, push the
FORM FEED button once to set it.
5. Push the LINE FEED button once to return the panel to its standard operation.
6. Press the OFF LINE button so the IX-86 is ready to print.
Now you have set the LX-86 to print in condensed mode. Print
your sample once more. It should appear in condensed mode just as
you see below:
This is an example
of LX printing.
Turn off your printer to cancel the condensed setting, andif you wish-try this exercise with other modes.
Note: Some applications programs are designed to control all
typestyle functions. These programs cancel all previous
typestyle settings by sending an initialization signal before
printing. Because this signal cancels SelecType settings, you
will have to use the program’s print options function
instead of SelecType to select your typestyles. Therefore, if
SelecType does not work with a particular applications
program, consult its manual on how to select typestyles.
18
SelecType Tips
Once you have learned the simple technique for controlling print
styles with SelecType, you can use it whenever you wish.
You should be aware of a few restrictions, however.
l
l
l
l
SelecType is designed to control the printing of an entire file or
document, not an individual line or word.
If you are using the NLQ mode, remember that the following
SelecType modes are not available in NLQ: condensed, doublestrike, and elite.
If there are print codes in the document or file you are printing,
those codes will override your SelecType settings. This seldom
happens, since you usually won’t use SelecType with files that have
such codes, but if your IX-86 follows the SelecType instructions for
only part of a document, print codes in the document may
conflict with the SelecType modes.
After you turn on a mode with SelecType, it stays in effect until the
printer is turned off. If, for example, you use SelecType to print a
document in emphasized, anything you print after that will be
emphasized unless you first turn the printer off and back on.
19
Chapter 3
Elements of Dot Matrix Printing
This chapter is for those of you who want to know something
about how your printer works. It’s a simple, non-technical explanation of the basics of dot matrix printing that will help you understand
some of the later chapters.
The Print Head
The IX-86 uses a print head with nine pins or wires mounted
vertically. Each time a pin is fired, it strikes the inked ribbon and
presses it against the paper to produce a dot. This dot is about 1/72nd
of an inch in diameter. The size varies slightly depending upon the age
of the ribbon and the type of paper used. As the head moves horizontally across the page, these pins are fired time after time in different
patterns to produce letters, numbers, symbols, or graphics.
For example, to print a pica capital T, the head fires the top pin,
moves 1/60th of an inch, fires the top pin again, moves 1/60th of an
inch, fires the top seven pins, moves 1/60th of an inch, fires the top
pin, moves another 1/60th of an inch, and fires the top pin once more
to finish the letter.
Figure 3-l. A capital T
21
Bidirectional Printing
In nearly all of our discussions in this manual, we describe the
action of the LX-86 print head as moving from left to right, as a
typewriter does. During its normal operation while printing in the
draft mode, however, the LX-86 prints bidirectionally. That is, the
print head goes from left to right only on every other line. On the
other lines it reverses everything and prints right to left.
By reversing both the dot patterns and the printing direction, the
LX-86 produces a line that is correct and looks no different from a
line printed from left to right. It does this to save time. Otherwise, the
time the print head takes to go from the right margin back to the left
would be wasted.
The intelligence of the printer takes care of all the calculations
necessary for this bidirectional printing, so you don’t have to be
concerned about it. You simply do your part of the work as if the
printer will be printing from left to right on each line and let the
LX-86 do all the necessary calculations so that you can enjoy the
increased speed.
Changing Pitches
In addition to pica, in which there are 10 characters per inch,
the LX-86 can also print in other widths, or pitches. It does so by
reducing the distance between pin firings. In the elite mode i t
prints 12 characters per inch and in the compressed mode it prints
17 characters per inch. The pattern of the dots is not changed, but
the horizontal space between them is reduced.
In Figure 3-2 are enlargements of four sample letters in each of the
three pitches. These letters are chosen to show how the LX86 prints
letters that are uppercase and lowercase, wide and narrow, and with
and without descenders (the bottom part of the y).
22
In Figure 3-3 there is a grid of lines behind the pica characters so
that you can more easily see how they are designed. As you look at
these characters you can see three rules that govern their design: the
column on the right side is always left blank so that there will be
spaces between the characters on a line; no character uses both the top
and the bottom row; and a dot can be placed on a vertical line only
when the columns next to that line are not used.
Figure 3-3. LX-86 dot matrix characters
NLQ Mode
The preceding examples are in the LX-86’s draft mode, but the
LX-86 also has the high-quality NLQ (Near Letter Quality) mode
that you have seen in previous chapters.
The NLQ letters are more fully formed than the draft letters because they are made up of many more dots. Two differences between
draft and NLQ printing enable the IX-86 to print such a large number of dots for each character. In the NLQ mode, the head moves
more slowly, so that dots can overlap horizontally, and each character
is printed with two passes of the print head.
To further ensure the quality of NLQ characters, both passes of the
print head are in the same direction so the alignment of the dots is
exact.
Because the NLQ mode uses two passes for each line and prints
only in one direction, your printing does take longer in this mode.
With the two modes, draft and NLQ, the IX-86 lets you choose
high speed or high quality each time you print. You can print your
ordinary work or preliminary drafts quickly in the draft mode and
use the NLQ mode for final copies or special purposes.
24
The panel buttons make it especially easy to change from draft
to NLQ, but you can also select and cancel the NLQ mode with a
software command which you can find in Chapter 5.
25
Chapter 4
Printer Control Codes
The LX-86 printer is easy to use, especially with commercial software that has print control features. This chapter explains some of the
basics of printer control and communications to help you understand
how a computer communicates with your printer. This information
should also help you understand the terms used in your software or
computer manual.
If you are an advanced user or a programmer, you may want to
turn to Appendix C, which has a full summary of all the Ix-86
commands.
ASCII Codes
When you write a document with a word processing program, you
press keys with letters on them. When you send the document to a
printer, it prints the letters on paper. The computer and the printer,
however, do not use or understand letters of the alphabet. They
function by manipulating numbers. Therefore, when you press the A
key, for example, the computer sends a number to its memory. When
the computer tells the printer to print that letter, it sends the number
to the printer, which must then convert the number to a pattern of
pins that will fire to print the dots that make up that letter.
The numbers that computers and printers use are in binary form,
which means that they use only the digits 0 and 1. In this manual,
however, we use decimal numbers in our explanations because most
users are more familiar with these numbers and because most programming languages and applications programs can use decimal numbers. The computer system or the program takes care of changing the
decimal numbers to binary form for you.
27
Computer and printer interaction would be terribly confusing if
different kinds of computers and printers used different numbers for
the same letter of the alphabet. Therefore, most manufacturers of
computers, printers, and software use the American Standard Code
for Information Interchange, usually referred to as ASCII (pronounced ASK-Key). The ASCII standard covers the decimal numbers from 0 through 127 and includes codes for printable characters
(letters, punctuation, numerals, and mathematical symbols) and a few
control codes, such as the codes for sounding the beeper and performing a carriage return.
Although other codes are not standardized in the computer industry, the ASCII system means that at least the alphabet is standardized.
A programmer or engineer knows, for example, that 72 is the decimal
code for a capital H and 115 is the code for a lowercase s no matter
what system he or she is using.
ESCape Code
Although the original ASCII standard was designed to use the
decimal numbers 0 through 127, computer and printer manufacturers soon extended this range (to 0 through 255) in order to
make room for more features. On the IX-86, for example, the
codes from 160 through 254 are used for italic or character
graphics characters. Because even this extended range is not
enough for all the features used on modern printers, the range is
further extended with a special code called the Escape code. This
code is often printed with the first three letters capitalized
(ESCape) or abbreviated as ESC or <ESC> .
With the ESCape code, for which decimal 27 is used, printers and
computers are not restricted to only 256 instructions. The ESCape
code is a signal that the next code will be a printer control code
instead of text to print. For example, if the printer receives the number 69, it prints a capital E because 69 is the ASCII code for that letter.
If, however, the printer receives a 27 just before the 69, it turns on
emphasized mode, because ESCape “E” is the code for emphasized.
You can see how important the ESCape code is by looking at
Appendixes B and C. There you will see that nearly every code the
LX-86 uses is an ESCape code.
28
Printer Codes
To take advantage of the many print features of the IX-86, you
can use a software program that sends the correct codes or you can
use another method to send codes. It’s not possible to be as precise
and specific as we would like in the rest of this chapter because the
IX-86 works with so many different applications programs and computer systems. If we gave precise instructions on how to use your
LX-86 with every one of them, this manual would fill at least four
volumes and would have to be updated every month.
We will, therefore, give you the general principles of how software
communicates with your printer, plus several ways the codes of the
LX-86 are used by applications programs such as word processing
and business programs. With this information and possibly some help
from your dealer or the manual for your applications program, you
can take advantage of all the features of the LX-86 that you want to
use. Incidentally, there is no standard terminology for software
codes; thus, the terms in your software manual may be different from
the ones we use here.
In general there are three ways you send printer codes with commercial software:
l
Using SelecType, the feature described in Chapter 2.
l
Instructing the program during an installation or setup procedure
so that you can then use codes that are typed in along with your
text or numbers; we call these embedded codes.
l
Inserting LX-86 printer codes in your text along with a special
code that tells the printer that the inserted codes are not text or
data.
There are three common formats for sending printer codes. Your
applications software or its manual should tell you which one to use.
l
Decimal numbers-for example, 27 is the decimal number for the
ESCape code, and 13 is the decimal number for a carriage return.
l
Hexadecimal numbers, in which the ESCape code is 1B and a
carriage return is OD. You don’t have to understand hexadecimal
numbers to use them. If your software calls for hex numbers, just
consult Appendix B or the Quick Reference Card for the
appropriate number.
29
l
The ESCape and control keys on your computer’s keyboard. With
this system you send the ESCape code by pressing the ESCape
key and a carriage return by pressing the control key and the M at
the same time. (See Appendix B or the Quick Reference Card for
the control key codes.)
Embedded codes
A program that uses embedded codes usually has its own set
of codes that you type into your document or file. When the program receives one of these codes, it sends the proper code to the
LX-86. For example, one popular word processing program has
you turn italic mode on and off by pressing the control key and P
and then pressing the Q. So if you want to italicize a word, you type
Control-PQ before it and after it. When the program reaches the first
Control-PQ, it sends the code to turn italic mode on, and when it
reaches the second, it sends the code to cancel italic. Please note that
these are not the same as the control key codes mentioned above.
Once you tell such a program that you are using an Epson printer,
it will know which codes to send. (Often you don’t even need to
specify which Epson printer you are using.) You usually tell the
program what printer you are using through an installation or set-up
procedure. The instructions should be in your software manual. In
addition, your software or computer dealer may be able to help you.
Many programs that use embedded codes also have a few commands that the user can define. If you are new to using printers, don’t
worry about these yet. Just use the standard features. Later, when
you are more familiar with your software and with your LX-86, you
may want to investigate the user-defined commands and customize
your program.
Inserted codes
To take advantage of some of the advanced features of the IX-86,
some programs require inserted codes. Those codes allow you to send
commands to the printer in the middle of text or data. In most of
these programs one code signals that the next numbers are printer
instructions, not text or data. In one such program, for example, you
type Control-V (pressing V while holding down the control key) to
signal the beginning of printer instructions. Then you enter your
print codes and type Control-V again to signal the end of the printer
instructions.
30
If your word processing program allows inserted codes, it will
probably do standard printing without such codes. It is only for
special features that you will need to use inserted codes. For
example, if you want to have headings in wide bold printing
(called double-width emphasized), you would probably have to
use inserted codes. For the program we mentioned above you
would type Control-V, then the code for double-width emphasized, Control-V again, and then the text of the heading. The
codes for double-width emphasized are in Chapter 6 and
Appendix C.
Again, if this sounds terribly complicated, don’t worry. Use your
LX-86 with the standard features of your word processing program
until you become more familiar with both of them. Then you can
decide whether or not you need or want to learn to use inserted
codes.
See your software documentation for further information.
Programming Languages
If neither of the methods described above seems appropriate for
your application, you can write a program in BASIC or any other
programming language to send control codes to your printer. In the
chapter on page formatting you will find examples of such programs.
Just remember that with this method your printer control code stays
in effect for the whole document you print. This method is good for
setting margins, for example, but does not work for italicizing a word.
Now you have some background on how printers work and how
software can communicate with them. Turn to the next chapters to
learn about the specific features of your LX-86 printer.
31
Chapter 5
IX-86 Features
Beginning with this chapter we describe many of the printing features of the LX-86. Although we include programs that demonstrate
these features, you don’t have to be a programmer to learn about the
features from these chapters. How much of the rest of this manual
you use depends upon your expertise, your interest, and the software
you plan to use.
(Demonstration Programs
Along with our discussion and examples of the LX-86 features, we
include demonstrations in the BASIC programming language so that
you can see these features in action. Although we know that you will
probably not do much of your printing using BASIC, we chose it for
our demonstrations because most computer systems include some
form of BASIC, so our examples are ones that almost every one of
you can try.
You don’t need to know anything about BASIC to type in and run
these programs. Just check your BASIC manual to see how to load
BASIC in your computer and how to run a program. As you run the
programs (or even as you read the explanations and look at the
printed examples), you learn how the LX-86 responds to the messages your computer sends it by printing letters, numbers, symbols,
and graphics in various print modes.
Even if you never use BASIC again, you will know the capabilities of your printer, capabilities that can often solve your printing
problems. For example, if you need a special symbol you will know
that you can turn to the chapter on user-defined characters and
create such a character.
33
If you don’t want to do the exercises in BASIC, you don’t have to.
Many users are quite happy with their printers without ever learning
any more about them than how to turn them on and off and how to
load paper. Therefore, you shouldn’t be intimidated by the information in this manual. In most cases the software that you use for word
processing, business, or graphics does the calculating and communicating with the printer for you.
In fact, because of Epson’s long-standing popularity, many programs are designed to use Epson printers quite easily. Often all you
need to do is specify in an installation program that you are using an
Epson printer. Then the program sends the correct codes for the
various printing functions. The installation process, if there is one, is
explained in the manual for your software program.
We have designed these chapters so that you can concentrate on
using the features of the LX-86 instead of on programming, but
a few instructions are necessary. Because the examples in this
manual are in Microsoft BASIC (MBASIC), one of the most widely
used types of BASIC in personal computers, most users can enter
and run the programs exactly as they appear in these pages.
If your computer system uses any other kind of BASIC, you may
have to make a few changes. Probably the only item you will need to
change is the instruction LPRINT, which is the MBASIC command
to send something to the printer. Some forms of BASIC use PR#l at
the beginning of a program to route information to the printer and
PR#O at the end to restore the flow of information to the screen. If
you have such a system, just put PR#l at the beginning of your
program and then use PRINT instead of LPRINT in the programs. If
you have any other system, consult its manual to see if any modifications to our programs are necessary.
In Chapter 3 you saw the enlargements of the three LX-86 pitches.
Now you’ll learn how to produce them.
Pica Printing
The first exercise is a simple three-line program to print a sample
line of characters in pica, the standard pitch. Just type in this program
exactly as you see it:
40 FOR X=65 TO 105
50 LPRINT CHR$(X);
60 NEXT X: LPRINT
34
Now run the program. You should get the results you see below,
10 pica characters per inch.
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQTRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_`abcdefghi
Changing Pitches
Now you can try other pitches. As we explained in Chapter 3, the
IX-86 uses the same pattern of dots for pica, elite, and condensed
characters, but it changes the horizontal spaces between the dots to
produce the three different widths.
In elite mode there are 12 characters per inch, and in condensed
there are 17. The LX-86 prints in elite when it receives the ESCape
“M” command and prints in condensed when it receives the
ASCII 15 command. Print a sample line of elite characters by
adding this line to your previous program:
20 LPRINT CHR$ (27) “M” ;
This line uses the command for elite, ESCape “M”, to turn on that
mode. Your printout should look like the one below.
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\lˆ_`abcdefghi
The next addition to the program cancels elite with ESCape “P” and
turns on condensed with ASCII 15:
30 LPRINT CHR$ (27) “P” CHR$ (15) ;
Now run the program to see the line printed in condensed mode.
ABCDEFHIGKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_`abcdefghi
Cancelling Codes
As you saw in the third version of the print pitch program, you
must cancel a code when you do not want it any more. With very
few exceptions, the LX-86 modes stay on until they are cancelled.
It is important to remember this because an LX-86 mode can stay
on even if you change from BASIC to another type of software. For
example, if you print a memo with a word processing program
after you run the program above, the printer will still be in
condensed mode; therefore, the memo will be in condensed
print. To cancel, use ASCII 18.
35
To avoid having one program interfere with the printing modes of
another, you can cancel a mode one of two ways:
l
With a specific cancelling code, such as the ESCape “P” that we
used above to cancel elite. Each mode has a cancelling code, which
you can find in the discussion of the code and in Appendix B. Pica
is an exception to this rule. To cancel pica, turn on elite.
l
By resetting the printer, a method explained in the next section.
Resetting the Printer
Resetting your LX-86 cancels all modes that are turned on. You
can reset the printer with one of two methods:
l
Sending the reset code (ESCape “@”)
l
Turning the printer off and back on.
Either one of these methods returns the printer to what are
called its defaults, which are the standard settings that are in effect
every time you turn the printer on. The two effects of resetting the
printer that you should be concerned with are: it returns the
printing to single-strike pica, thus cancelling any other pitches or
enhancements you may have turned on with control codes or
SelecType, and the current position of the print head becomes the
top of page setting.
Some of our demonstration programs end with a reset code so that
the commands from one program will not interfere with the commands in the next one. After you run a program with a reset code in
it, remember to change the top of page setting before you begin
printing full pages.
Pitch Comparison
Now that you have used three short programs to produce samples
of the main pitches, you can choose the pitch that you prefer or the
one that best fits a particular printing job. Most people use either
pica or elite for printing text and condensed for spreadsheets or
other applications in which it is important to get the maximum
number of characters on a line.
36
In fact, if you need even more than the 132 characters per line
that condensed gives you, you can combine elite and condensed
for a mode we call condensed elite. It is not really another pitch,
because the size of the characters is the same as in the condensed
mode; only the space between the characters is reduced. You can
see this mode, which allows 160 characters to fit on a line, if you
replace line 30 in your last program with this line:
30 LPRINT CHR$(l5);
With this addition, the program turns on condensed but doesn’t
turn off elite, giving you the printout below:
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ_`abcdefghi
If your printout is different, you may need a WIDTH statement
such as the one below:
5 WIDTH LPRINT 255
The format for your system will probably be different. Consult
your BASIC manual.
Near Letter Quality Mode
The examples so far in this chapter are in the draft mode, and
you have already learned how to turn on the NLQ mode with a
panel button, but you can also see the NLQ mode with the
following program:
10 LPRINT CHR$ (27) “x”
20 FOR X=65 TO 105
30 LPRINT CHR$ (X);
40 NEXT X: LPRINT
CHR$ (1)
;
Note that you use a lowercase x, not a capital X, in line 10.
Because of the high resolution of the NLQ mode, it prints only in
pica, not in elite or condensed.
37
All the modes demonstrated in this chapter are compared in Table
5-l.
Table 5-1, Summary of LX-86 pitches
Print sample
CPI
1 inch
Codes
on
oft
N e a r L e t t e r Q u a l i t y
10.00
ESC "x" 1
ESC "x" 0
Pica
10.00
ESC "P"
ESC "M"
print
Elite print
12.00
ESC "M"
ESC "P"
Condensed print
17.16
ESC "P" 15
18
Condensed elite print
20.00
ESC "M" 15
ESC "P" 18
Remember that you don’t have to use BASIC to change modes;
you can use any method that sends the printer the proper codes.
38
Chapter 6
Print Enhancements and Special Characters
Now that you have seen how you can change the pitch of your
IX-86 printing, we can show you many more ways to vary and
enhance your printing. So that you won’t have to type in dozens of
programs to try all the features, we give you just one master program
that can demonstrate any feature.
Bold Modes
Besides the pitches (pica, elite, and condensed) that we covered
in Chapter 5, the LX-86 offers many other typestyles, including
two for bold printing-emphasized and double-strike.
Emphasized mode
In the emphasized mode the IX-86 prints each dot twice, with the
second dot slightly to the right of the first. In order to do this, the
print head must slow down so that it has time to fire, retract, and fire
the pins quickly enough to produce the overlapping dots. As you can
see in Figure 6-1, this method produces better-looking, more fullyformed characters that are darker than single-strike ones.
Standard P r i n t
Emphasized Print
Figure 6-l. Emphasized and standard print
3 9
Emphasized works only in draft pica and NLQ modes. In elite
and condensed the dots are already so close together that even
with the reduced print speed, the LX-86 cannot fire, retract, and
again fire the pins quickly enough to print overlapping dots.
You do sacrifice some print speed and ribbon life with emphasized,
because the print head slows down and prints twice as many dots, but
the increase in print quality is well worth it. Indeed, you may want to
use emphasized instead of the NLQ mode for some purposes because
emphasized printing is faster. than NLQ printing.
Now that you have seen our example of emphasized printing, we
will give you a master program that allows you to test almost any of
the ESCape codes, including the ESCape code to turn on emphasized: ESCape “E”.
Master program
First, type in the program below. If you have some programming
experience, you can see that the program asks you what codes
you want to test and then prints a sample of what the codes do. Be
sure to ty e in the blank spaces in lines 70 and 80. If you are using
Applesoft ™, BASIC, see Appendix F.
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
PRINT “Which ESCape code do you ”
INPUT “want to test” ; A$
PRINT .“What kind of printing ”
INPUT “does it produce” ; B$
LPRINT CHR$(27)A$
LPRINT “This sample uses ESCape “;A$
LPRINT “to produce “;B$; ” printing. ”
LPRINT CHR$(27)“@”
Now run the program. When the first question appears on the
screen, type a capital E and then press the RETURN key. Type
“emphasized” and press the RETURN key in answer to the second
question. The program is easy to use. Just remember to press the
RETURN key after the answer to each question and to use a capital
letter in the answer to the first question unless we tell you to use a
lowercase letter for a specific code.
40
You should get the following printout when you run this program
and type “E” and “emphasized” in answer to the questions.
U ses ESCape E
to produce emphasized printing.
This sample
The code to turn off emphasized is ESCape “F”.
Double-strike
The other bold mode on the LX-86 is double-strike. For this mode
the printer prints each line, then moves the paper up slightly and
prints the line again. Each dot is printed twice, with the second one
slightly below the first as you can see in Figure 6-2.
Standard Print
Double-strike
print
Figure 6-2. Double-strike and standard print
Unlike emphasized, double-strike combines with any draft pitch
(but not with NLQ) because it does not overlap dots horizontally.
Since each line in this mode is printed twice, the speed of your
printing is slowed. The code for double-strike is ESCape “G”. Try it
in the the master program if you wish. The code to turn off doublestrike is ESCape “H”.
41
Double-width Mode
Perhaps the most dramatic mode on the LX-86 is double-width.
It produces extra-wide characters that are good for titles and
headings. For this mode, the dot pattern of each character is
expanded and a duplicate set of dots is printed one dot to the
right. You can see the difference between pica and double-width
pica in Figure 6-3.
Standard
Print
D
o
u
b
l
e
-
w
i
d
t
h
Figure G-3. Double width and standard characters
You can try double-width yourself by using the code “W1” in
the master program. Notice that double-width uses an ESCape
code format that is slightly different from the previous ones. You
must use the numeral one as well as a capital W to turn on doublewidth. For this mode the letter and the numeral one together turn
on the mode and the letter and the numeral zero together turn it
off. Thus ESCape “Wl” turns on double-width and ESCape
"Wo” turns it off.
Those of you who are programmers may be interested in
another form of double-width. In this alternate form, called oneline double-width, the printing is the same as that in Figure 6-3,
but it is turned on by ASCII 14 and is turned off by a line feed,
ASCII 20, or ESCape “WO”.
42
Mode Combinations
You can combine nearly all of the print modes on the LX-86.
Indeed, your Ix-86 printer can print such complicated combinations as double-strike emphasized double-width underlined italic
subscript, although we’re not sure that you would ever want to use
such a combination. The point is, however, that the LX-86 has the
ability to produce almost any combination you can think of; it’s
up to you to decide which ones you want to use.
To see a few combinations, remove line 90 from the master program. (In MBASIC simply type 90 and press RETURN to delete the
line.) Now run the program once and enter “E” and “emphasized” in
response to the questions on the screen. This will give you the same
results as the first time you ran the program, but it will leave the
printer in emphasized mode so that you can add another mode. Then
run the program again (without turning off the printer). The second
time enter “W1” and “emphasized double-width.”
Your printout should be in the typestyle below, showing that the
two modes combine with no trouble. You can experiment with other
combinations if you wish or you can wait for the section later in this
chapter that explains a special ESCape code, Master Select, which
allows you to combine as many as seven features with one ESCape
code.
e m p h a s i z e d
d o u b l e - w i d
When you are through trying combinations, be sure to replace line
90 in the master program so that you can again try one feature at a
time.
Italic Mode
You may occasionally want to print italic words for emphasis,
titles, or other uses. The LX-86 has italic mode to enable you to use
italic characters for any purpose. Although characters produced by
the previous modes in this manual are modifications of the standard
pica characters, the LX-86 uses completely different characters for the
italic mode. In the printer’s Read Only Memory (ROM) is a complete
set of draft italic characters. You can see the difference between standard and italic draft characters in Figure 6-4.
43
Standard Pica Print
Italic Pica Print
Figure 6-4. Italic and pica
The code to turn italic mode on is ESCape “4”. Try it in the master
program if you wish. When you use this code in the master program,
enter “4” in answer to the first question just as if it were a letter of the
alphabet instead of a number. ESCape “5” turns off italic mode.
Those of you who use this code in an applications program should
remember that any character in quotation marks in our discussions of
ESCape codes is an alphanumeric character, not a numerical value.
Underline Mode
The LX-86 also has a mode that will underline characters and
spaces. You turn it on with ESCape “-1” and off with ESCape “-0".
Note that the underline code is like the expanded code in that it uses a
character, in this case the hyphen or minus sign, combined with
numeral one to turn it on and a character combined with the numeral
zero to turn it off. As you can see in Figure 6-5, this mode prints a dot
in the bottom row of each column, thus producing a continuous
underline.
44
This uses the underline mode.
Figure 6-5. The underline mode
As shown in Figure 6-5, the underline mode is continuous, but
some word processing and other applications programs produce an
underline that leaves spaces between characters as demonstrated in the
printout below.
This uses the under-line character
If your software prints this type of underline, it is using the
LX-86’s underline character (ASCII %), not the underline mode.
Because the underline character is only five dots wide, it does not fill
the spaces between characters. If you prefer a continuous underline,
you may be able to use the underline mode through one of the
methods we discussed in Chapter 4.
Master Select
The LX-86 has a special ESCape code called Master Select that
allows you to choose any possible combination of eight different
modes: pica, elite, condensed, emphasized, double-strike,
double-width, italic, and underline. The format of the Master
Select code is ESCape ‘!” followed by a number that is calculated
by adding together the values of the modes listed below:
underline
128
italic
64
double-width 32
double-strike
16
emphasized
8
4
condensed
1
elite
0
pica
45
For any combination,. just add up the values of each of the modes
you want and use the total as the number after ESCape “!“. For
example, to calculate the code for double-width italic underlined pica,
add the following numbers together:
underline
italic
double-width
pica
128
64
32
0
224
To print this combination, therefore, you use ESCape "!” followed
by the number 224. In BASIC the command is CHR$(27)“!”
CHR$(224).
To try this number or any other, enter and run this short program,
which will ask you for a Master Select number and then give you a
sample of printing using that code. Again, if you are using Applesoft
BASIC, see Appendix F.
10 INPUT “Master Select number” ;M
20 LPRINT CHR$ (27) ”!“ CHR$(M)
30 LPRINT “This sample of printing uses ”
40 LPRINT "Master Select number";M
50 LPRINT CHR$(27) “@”
In this program, you can use any number you calculate with the
formula above, but remember that emphasized can’t combine
with condensed or elite. If you try to combine emphasized with
either of the two narrow pitches, you won’t harm your printer; it
will simply use a priority list in its memory to determine which
mode to use. This priority list causes a corn bination of emphasized
and elite to produce elite only, a combination of emphasized and
condensed to produce emphasized only, and a combination of all
three to produce condensed elite.
Master Select is a powerful code that gives you an easy way to
produce multiple combination's with a single command. To see
double-strike emphasized italic printing, for example, you need only
one ESCape code instead of three.
46
Indeed, Master Select is such a powerful feature that it may occasionally be more powerful than you want it to be. Because it controls
eight different modes, a Master Select code will cancel any of those
eight that are not selected. For example, suppose that you have a page
in elite and want part of it printing in italic. If you use ESCape “!” 64
to turn on italic, your LX-86 will begin printing in italic pica instead
of italic elite because the 64 code does not include elite. Use 65 for
italic elite.
Superscript and Subscript
Your LX-86 can also print superscripts and subscripts, which you
can use for mathematical formulas, footnotes, and other items that
require numbers or letters above or below the usual print line.
ESCape “SO" turns on superscript and ESCape "S1" turns on subscript. ESCape “T” turns off either one. You can enter either ESCape
“SO" or ESCape “Sl" in the master program, but that will print the
whole sentence in superscript or subscript. Some more realistic examples are below:
2
E=MC
H 20
This fact is found in three sources.7
As you can see, you can use superscript or subscript for an individual character. Just find out how to send printer codes in your
applications program; then send the proper codes to the printer.
Special Characters
The LX-86 has three groups of special characters that can add
distinction to your printing. Character Graphics, international
characters, and the special graphics set.
Epson character graphics set
The Character Graphics set includes characters used by IBM
and compatible computers as well as international characters used
by IBM software. The characters in the set are shown on the next
Page.
You select the Character Graphics set in one of two ways: with
an ESCape code or with a DIP switch.
The ESCape code in BASIC has the following format:
LPRINT CHR$(27)"t"CHR$(n)
47
If n is 1, the command turns the Character Graphics set on; if
n is 0, the command turns that set off.
If you prefer to have the Character Graphics set on most of the
time, see Appendix D for instructions on using the DIP switches.
The Character Graphics set is actually two sets, the standard
and the international. The standard set contains only the
characters in the last three rows shown below. The international set
contains the characters in all four rows.
In order to print the international set, you must send the
ESCape “6” command. In BASIC it has the follwing format:
LPRINT C H R $ ( 2 7 ) ” 6 ”
ESCape “7” returns you to the standard set.
See your software manual for further instructions on printing
these characters. If you need the decimal or hexadecimal codes for
them, see Appendix A.
International characters
As you know, you need a few extra characters for languages other
than English. The LX-86 has provided for printing in many
languages by having 96 international characters in its ROM (Read
Only Memory). This total includes characters in three sets: draft
italic, and NLQ (Near Letter Quality).
In order to print any of these characters, first select one of the
following character sets and then use the individual characters within
that set.
0
1
2
3
4
5
48
USA
France
Germany
United Kingdom
Denmark I
Sweden
6
7
8
9
10
Italy
Spain
Japan
Norway
Denmark II
You select the character set in one of two ways: with an ESCape code
or with a switch in the back of your printer. The ESCape code in
BASIC has the following format:
LPRINT CHR$(27)“R”CHR$(n)
in which n stands for the appropriate number from the list above. In
other words, the BASIC command to select the French character set
is
LPRINT CHR$(27)“R”CHR$(1)
The other method of selecting an international character set is with
the small switches, called DIP switches, in the back of the printer. If
you plan to use one of the international sets quite a bit, see Appendix
D for instructions for using the DIP switches.
Once you have selected a character set, whether you do it with the
ESCape code or the DIP switches, you will be able to print several
new characters. The character sets are shown in Tables 6-1, 6-2, and
6-3.
Table 6-l. International characters in NLQ mode
35
36
64
91
92
93
94
96
123
124
125
126
USA
FRANCE
GERMANY
UK
DENMARK I
SWEDEN
ITALY
SPAIN
JAPAN
NORWAY
DENMARK II
Table 6-2. International characters in draft mode
35
36
64
91
92
93
94
96
123
124
125
126
USA
FRANCE
GERMANY
UK
DENMARK I
SWEDEN
ITALY
SPAIN
JAPAN
NORWAY
DENMARK II
49
Table 6-3. International characters in draft italic
35
36
6 4
91
92
93
9 4
96
123
124
125
126
USA
FRANCE
GERMANY
U K
DENMARK
SWEDEN
ITALY
SPAIN
JAPAN
NORWAY
DENMARK II
The number at the top of each column in the tables is the ASCII
code that prints the characters in that column.
Once you have selected an international character set with the DIP
switches or the ESCape “R” code, you can use the tables to see which
characters on your standard USA keyboard will produce the international characters you want. Simply type the character from the top
row of one of the figures in order to print the corresponding character
in the row of the set you have chosen. For example, if you have reset
the DIP switches for the UK character set and you press the # key,
the £ symbol will be generated. Even though you will see the #
symbol on the screen, the £ symbol will be printed on the paper. For
another example, if you have selected the Swedish character set and
you press the @ key, the É symbol will be generated.
If your keyboard does not have one of the keys that you need, you
will have to send the proper ASCII number to the printer in another
way, such as a programming language or inserted or embedded codes.
50
Graphics character set
The Lx-86 printer’s Read Only Memory (ROM) also contains the
32 graphics characters that you see in Figure 6-6.
Figure 6-6. Special graphics characters
Undoubtedly you can think of uses for many of the shapes and
symbols available in this set, and you can combine the line graphics
characters (the ones on the first row) to form various sizes and shapes
of boxes and other figures that use straight lines.
To print these graphics characters you must use either a programming language or a computer with a graphics shift or other special key
that allows you to send graphics codes.
Sending the codes for these characters to the printer is a two-step
process just as it is for the international characters. In BASIC, first
you send CHR$(27) “m”CHR$(4) to turn on the graphics character
set, then you send the code numbers given in Figure 6-6. After you
have used the ESCape code to turn on the graphics character set, the
LX-86 prints the codes from 128 through 159 as graphics characters.
You can change pitch and weight with the graphics characters
just as you can with the other characters in the ROM of the LX-86.
The characters in Figure 6-6 are printed in double-width elite.
The printout below shows the characters in pica:
51
The next printout shows the characters in emphasized doublewidth pica:
Because normal line spacing leaves space between the lines of
graphics characters just as it does between lines of text, you must
change the line spacing when you combine line graphics characters to
form boxes or other figures. For most programs ESCape “1” gives
you the best line spacing for combinations of graphics characters.
Further details on line spacing are in Chapter 7.
In addition, there are commands to specify the line spacing in 72nds
of an inch and 216ths of an inch. If you need to make such fine
adjustments in the line spacing see Appendix C for the proper
commands. In the chapter on dot graphics you will see how useful
ESCape “1” can be.
52
Chapter 7
Page Formatting
Although the LX-86 printer has many sophisticated commands to
set margins, line spacing, and horizontal and vertical tabs, we won’t
take up your time with extensive discussions of these because most of
these functions are taken care of by applications programs. This chapter merely describes a few commands that the average user might
need. If you want more information, you can find all the commands
in Appendixes B and C.
Margins
The LX-86 allows you to set the left and right margins with simple
ESCape sequences. The left margin command is ESCape “1” followed
by the number of the column you choose for the left margin. The
right margin command is ESCape “Q” followed by the column number of the right margin you want. For the left margin command, be
sure to use a lowercase letter 1, not the numeral one.
If your word processing program does not allow you to change the
margins, you can send margin commands to your IX-86 with BASIC
or another programming language before you print your documents.
For example, if you prefer wider margins than your word processing
program gives you, run the following BASIC program before printing. This program gives you a left margin of 10 and a right margin of
60, but you can use any numbers you prefer for the margin commands.
10 LPRINT CHR$(27)"1"CHR$(lO);
20 LPRINT CHR$(27)"Q"CHR$(60);
Such a program will also allow you to choose the margins you
prefer for program listings. Just remember that once you run a program that sets margins, those margins are in effect until you change
them with new margin commands or turn off or reset the printer.
53
You should be aware that a few applications programs reset the
printer before each document or file they print. These programs will,
of course, cancel your new margin settings. See Chapter 2 to find out
how to test for a reset code in your program.
The maximum right margins on the LX-86 printer are 80 in
pica, 96 in elite, 137 in condensed, and 160 in condensed elite. For
further information on this command see Appendix B.
Justification with NLQ
The NLQ (Near Letter Quality) mode offers a justification command that will give you four choices in the formatting of your text.
The command is ESCape “a” followed by one of these numbers:
0
1
2
3
Left justification
Centering
Right justification
Full justification
Left justification is the standard format, in which the left margin is
even and the right margin is not. This is the way most typewritten
pages look.
The centering command centers a line of text between the margins.
This is handy for headings, titles, and captions.
Right justification is the opposite of left justification. The right
margin is even and the left is not.
Full justification puts extra spaces between words where necessary
so that both the left and right margins are even. This is the way most
magazines, newspapers, and books (including this one) are printed.
With this command, you may need a WIDTH statement. Since different systems use different WIDTH statements, see your computer
or programming language manual for the proper format.
Remember also to use carriage returns only at the end of paragraphs
when you are using auto justification.
When you use any of the justification commands, be sure that you
send NLQ command first.
The justification command is designed to be used with BASIC or
another programming language, not with word processing
programs.
54
Skip Over Perforation
If you are using continuous pin-feed paper for printing program
listings or other material not controlled by an applications program,
you may find that the LX-86 prints right over the perforations between pages. The LX-86 has an ESCape code to prevent this: the
ESCape “N” command. You send ESCape “N” followed by the
number of lines you want the LX-86 to skip at the bottom of a page.
For example, in BASIC the following line will make the Lx-86 skip
six lines after each 60 lines:
10 LPRINT CHR$(27) “N” CHR$ (6) ;
Since a standard page is 66 lines, this will give you one inch of
blank space at the bottom of each page. If you prefer to have half of
the blank space at the top of the page and half at the bottom, simply
set the top of page approximately three lines (l/2 inch) below the
perforation. (See Appendix E if you need to refresh your memory on
setting the top of page.)
Line Spacing
Ordinarily you don’t have to worry about how the printer moves
the paper so that it doesn’t print lines of text on top of each other; the
LX-86 takes care of this without any special instructions. If, however,
you want to understand how line spacing works or you need to
change the line spacing for a special application such as graphics,
you’ll want to read this brief explanation of line spacing on the
Ix-86.
The movement of the paper between lines is called a line feed and
the distance the paper moves is called a line space. In ordinary printing the line spacing is l/6-inch, which produces six lines of print per
inch. Figure 7-l will help you visualize this spacing. As you can see in
the figure, the standard (default) spacing is the same as 12 rows of
dots. Since the Lx-86 characters use nine rows of dots, the 12-dot line
spacing leaves three blank rows between the lines of text.
55
l/6 inch
3 blank
rows
1/6 inch
3 blank
rows
Figure 7-l. Standard line spacing
The default line spacing illustrated in Figure 7-l is the only one
you need for almost all printing of text, but in some cases you may
want to increase or decrease the space between lines. The LX-86 has
several commands to do this. ESCape “0” decreases the line spacing
to 9-dot (9/72-inch), ESCape “1” decreases it to 7-dot, and ESCape
“2” returns it to 12-dot.
In addition, there are commands to specify the line spacing in 72nds
of an inch and 216ths of an inch. If you need to make such fine
adjustments in the line spacing see Appendix C for the proper
commands. In the chapter on dot graphics you will see how useful
ESCape “1” can be.
56
Paper-Out Sensor
Under the platen (the black roller) of your LX-86 printer is a small
switch that senses whether or not paper is in the printer. When the
end of the paper passes this switch, it sends a signal that sounds the
beeper and stops your printing. This saves wear on your print head,
ribbon, and platen, but because of the distance between the switch
and the print head, it stops the printing about 2 inches from the end of
the page. Therefore, if you use single-sheet paper in your IX-86, you
can’t print on the last 2 inches of each page without an adjustment.
For most computer systems, you merely send the printer an
ESCape “8” to deactivate the paper-out sensor or change one of the
DIP switches described in Appendix D. Then you can print to the
end of the page with single-sheet paper. Some systems, however,
ignore the ESCape code and the DIP switch setting. If ESCape “8” or
the DIP switch setting does not solve this problem for you, see
Appendix F for other solutions.
57
Chapter 8
User-Defined Characters
The LX-86 has several hundred different characters stored in its
ROM (Read Only Memory). Although this number includes
draft, italic, international, character graphics, special graphics,
and Near Letter Quality characters, sometimes you would like to
have a few more. For those occasions when you need a special
character or a few letters in a different typeface, the LX-86 allows
you to create your own characters and print them just as if they
were ordinary letters.
Defining Your Own Characters
The printout below displays a few such characters to give you an
idea of what can be done, but remember that these characters are truly
user-defined-you create what you need or want.
It may seem that designing a character and telling the LX-86 how
to print it would be extremely complicated, but we have reduced the
task to a simple three-step process: planning your character, running
one program that tests your work and calculates the required DATA
numbers, and running another program to put the character in your
printer’s RAM (Random Access Memory) for use whenever you
need it.
Because the high-resolution NLQ (Near Letter Quality) mode
uses many more dots per character than the draft mode, defining
NLQ characters is somewhat more complex than defining draft characters. You will find the programs for defining NLQ characters at the
end of this chapter.
59
After you have created your own characters with our programs,
certain keys that you seldom use will generate the user-defined characters. For example, you will be able to type < to print .
Your user-defined characters can be utilitarian or imaginative, anything from a scientific symbol to script letters for your initials. Just
follow the simple steps below.
The only restriction on your creativity is that the characters you
define must follow the same rules that govern the rest of the characters printed by the LX-86. They must fit into an 11 x 9 matrix, no dot
can overlap another, and either the top or the bottom row must be
empty. Look at the enlargements of sample letters in Chapter 3 to see
how the standard IX-86 characters are designed.
Designing Process
Suppose that you want to print the scientific symbol for the
planet Mercury. Although the LX-86 has a number of special
symbols, that is not one of them. You can, however, create and
print such a symbol with ease. First, use a grid like the one in
Figure 8-l to plan where to place the dots.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
123456789
Figure 8-1. Grid for designing draft characters
Because the last two columns are reserved for the space between
characters, we have not included them in the grid. And since most
characters do not use the bottom two rows, we have used a heavy line
to indicate the usual lower limit for an IX-86 character.
60
When you place your dots on this grid, remember that dots cannot
go on horizontal lines, but they can go on vertical lines so long as they
do not overlap any other dots. As you design your characters, draw
the dots as large as you see them in the example on the left in Figure
8-2. If you draw them smaller, you may have overlapping dots without realizing it.
overlapping dots
dot on horizontal line
Figure 8-2. Correct and incorrect designs
If you do accidentally call for overlapping dots, don’t worry. The
program will still work, but only one of the dots will be printed.
First definition program
Once you have drawn your dots on the grid, type in the following
BASIC program and run it. If you are using Applesoft BASIC, see
Appendix F.
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
DIM F(9)
FOR I=1 TO 9
PRINT "WHICH ROWS HAVE DOTS IN COLUMN";I
INPUT R: IF R=0 THEN 150
F(I)=F(I)+2^(R-1)
IF R=0 THEN NEXT I ELSE GOT0 130
LPRINT CHR$(27)": "CHR$(O)CHR$(O)CHR$(O);
LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(l)CHR$(O);
LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(O)CUR$(60)CHR$(60);
LPRINT CHR$(128);
200 FOR X=1 TO 9
210 LPRINT CHR$( F( X));:NEXT X
220 LPRINT CHR$(O) CHR$(0);
230 LPRINT "YOUR CHARACTER IN PICA: < < <"
240 LPRINT "IN DOUBLE-WIDTH EMPHASIZED PICA ";
250 LPRINT CHR$(27)"! *< < <"
260 LPRINT CHR$(27) "! "CHR$(O)"YOUR DATA NUMBERS:"
270 FOR K=l TO 9: LPRINT F(K);: NEXT K
300 LPRINT: END
61
So that you can see how the program works, we’ll present the
steps used to create the symbol for Mercury. First is the grid we
used to design the character.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
123456789
Figure 8-3. Design for character
Running the program
Now run the program. For each of the nine columns, the program asks for the numbers of the rows in which you want dots to
appear. Enter the row numbers one at a time, pressing the
RETURN key after each one. When you have entered all the
numbers for a column or when you want no dots in a column, press
RETURN without a number. Remember that the vertical lines in
the grid are the even-numbered columns.
To see Program 1 produce the character in Figure 6-4 run the program and follow these instructions: When the screen message asks
what rows have dots in column 1, respond with RETURN to indicate
that no dots go in that column. For column 2 (the vertical line), press
7, RETURN, 5, and RETURN again to indicate that you want dots
in rows 7 and 5. Then press RETURN alone to indicate that no more
dots go in column 2. For column 3 press 8, 6, 4, and 2, with a
RETURN after each of them. Then press RETURN to finish with
column 3 and go on to column 4.
For column 4 press RETURN only. (The rest of the directions
assume that you know to press RETURN after each number and
one extra time to end the entries for each column.) For column 5,
enter 6, 4, 3, 2, and 1. For column 6, press RETURN only; for
column 7 enter 8,6,4, and 2; for column 8 enter 7 and 5; and for
column 9 press RETURN only.
62
Now wait a moment for your computer to calculate the dot patterns and your LX-86 to print the new character in two different
typestyles. Your printout also gives you nine numbers, which you
will use in the next program. You should get the printout you see
below:
When you get to this point with a character of your own, you see
how it looks and whether or not you like it. If you want to make any
changes, move the dots as needed and re-run the program.
If you want to put dots in the bottom row, change the number in
line 190 from 128 to 0. Then the usable rows will be as shown in
Figure 8-4 below.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
123456789
Figure 8-4. Using the bottom eight rows
Second definition program
Once the character looks the way you want it to, enter, modify,
and run the next program. The program as listed creates the
Mercury character, but you can use it for any characters you create
if you make one or two changes that we explain after the program
listing.
63
90 FOR P=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(P);" ";: NEXT P
95 LPRINT
100 K=l: IF K>3 THEN A=58 ELSE A=60
110 LPRINT CHR$(27)": "CHR$(O)CHR$(O)CHR$(O);
120 LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(l)CHR$(O);
130 LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(0)CHR$(A)CHR$( A-1+K);
140 FOR Z=1 TO K
150 LPRINT CHR$(128);
160 FOR X=1 TO 9
170 READ R
160 LPRINT CHR$(R);: NEXT X
190 LPRINT CHR$(O)CHR$(0);
200 NEXT Z
210 DATA 0,80,170,0,47,0,170,80,0
290 FOR P=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(P);" ";: NEXT P
To use this program for your own character or characters, change
the DATA numbers in line 210 by substituting the numbers generated by the first program when you created your own character. If
you have created more than one character, put the DATA numbers
for each character on a separate line as you see in the example below:
2 1 0 DATA 1 1 2 , 8 , 0 , 1 3 8 , 1 1 6 , 1 3 8 , 0 , 8 , 1 1 2
2 2 0 DATA 56, 68, 146, 40, 130, 40, 130, 68, 5 6
Check your work by making sure that there are nine numbers in
each line and that the numbers are separated by commas.
To define more than one character, use the total number of characters you are defining instead of the 1 in line 100. (You can define as
many as six characters at a time. Just run the first program several
times and enter all the DATA numbers in this program.)
Running the program
When you run this second program, it prints six characters, then
re-defines some or all of them and prints them again, as in the example below.
64
The two lines when printed by your own program provide you
with a key to the characters your LX-86 will now print. When you
press the key for one of the characters in the top row, the printer will
print the corresponding character in the bottom row. In the example
above, if you type< your LX-86 will print (although your screen
will continue to show the character < ).
Because the program puts these new definitions in your printer’s
Random Access Memory (RAM), it will print the new characters (the
ones in the bottom row) unless it is turned off or receives the reset
code.
If you have designed a few characters and want to use them with
your word processing program, for example, just run the second
definition program before you start using your word processing
program. Then use the two-line printout as your guide to tell you
which keys to press for your new characters.
Defining NLQ Characters
Since NLQ characters use many more dots than draft characters,
defining NLQ characters is more complex than designing draft ones.
If you use the grid and the programs in this section, however, you
will be able to design your own NLQ characters.
NLQ grid
Because the NLQ characters can use as many as 18 dots vertically
and 12 dots horizontally, you plan your designs on a different grid
than the one you used for draft characters.
65
128
54
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure 8-5. Grid for NLQ characters
On this grid you can use any numbered line or space. As you can
see, that includes the bottom line and the line on the right side. You
should remember to leave one or two columns blank for space between characters, however.
Each NLQ character definition requires 36 data numbers. Therefore, each vertical column must be divided into three sections for the
calculation of data numbers. The process is not difficult once you get
some practice using it.
Figure 8-6 shows a single column to make clear how the data
numbers are calculated. Notice that in designing NLQ characters we
suggest using circles instead of dots to make it easier to keep track of
overlapping dots.
66
First
data
number
128
128
8 4
64
32
32
18
=229
8
4
4
2
1
1
128
6 4
Second
data
number
32
16
16
8
8
4
4
=28
2
Third
data
number
1
128
6 4
64 } =64
Figure 8-6. Data numbers for one column
To calculate the data numbers for this column, you see which dots
are used in the top group (the top eight positions) and add their values
together. Then you go down to the middle group (the next 8 positions) and add the values of any dots that are used there.. Finally, you
look at the bottom group (2 dot positions) and add together the
values used there.
If no dots are used in a group, the data number for that group is
zero. All zeros must be entered in the DATA statements for the
NLQ definition programs.
Now we’ll show you how to use the NLQ character definition
with a simple arrow design. Figure 8-7 shows the design drawn on a
grid and the data numbers printed at the top or bottom of each
column.
67
8
0
0
128
32
0
0
255
255
192
32
0
0
8
0
0
0
0
0
I
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
4
0
0
16
0
0
64
0
0
64
0
0
16
0
0
4
0
0
Figure 8-7. Arrow design and data numbers
If you look at each column individually, you can see how the
numbers were calculated.
data
First NLQ definition program
Now type in and run the following program. It has the data numbers for the arrow design. For a character of your own, change the
data numbers in lines 130-150.
68
10 LPRINT CHRS(27);"xl";
20 LPRINT CHR$(27);":" ;CHR$(O);CHR$(O);CHR$(O);
30 LPRINT CHR$(27);"%";CHR$(l);CHR$(O);
40 LPRINT CHR$(27);"&";CHR$(O);"<<";
50 LPRINT CHR$(O);CHR$(12);CHRS(O);
60 FOR X=1 TO 36
70 READ C: LPRINT CHR$(C);
80 NEXT X
90 LPRINT "YOUR CHARACTER IN PICA: < < <"
100 LPRINT "IN DOUBLE-WIDTH EMPHASIZED PICA: ";
110 LPRINT CHR$(27);"!*< < <"
120 LPRINT CHR$(27);"!";CHR$(O);
130 DATA 4,0,0,8,0,0,16,0,0,32,0,0
140 DATA 64,0,0,255,255,192,64,0,0,32,0,0
150 DATA 16,0,0,8,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0
YOUR CHARACTER IN PICA:
IN DOUBLE-WIDTH EMPHASIZED PICA:
When you run this program for your own character, you find out
whether or not it looks right to you. If it doesn’t, move the dots as
needed, recalculate and change the data numbers, and run the program again.
Second NLQ definition program
When you are satisfied with the character you have created, enter
and run the next program. Use your data numbers instead of the ones
in lines 130-150. If you want to define more than one character,
change line 10 so that J equals the total number of characters you are
defining (the maximum is six) and enter the extra data numbers (36
for each character).
1 0 J=1: IF J>3 THEN A=58 ELSE A=60
20 LPRINT CHR$(27)"x"CHR$(l)
30 FOR X=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(X)" ";: NEXT X
40 LPRINT
50 LPRINT CHR$(27)": "CHR$(O)CHR$(O)CHR$(0);
60 LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(l)CHR$(0);
70 LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(0)CHR$(A)CHR$(A-1+J);
80 FOR Y=1 TO J
90 LPRINT CHR$(0)CHR$(12)CHR$(0);
100 FOR X=1 TO 36
110 READ C: LPRINT CHR$(C);
120 NEXT X: NEXT Y
130 FOR X=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(X)" ";: NEXT X
140 DATA 4,0,0,8,0,0,16,0,0,32,0,0
150 DATA 64,0,0,255,255,192,64,0,0,32,0,0
160 DATA 16,0,0,8,0,0,4,0,0,0,0,0
69
When you run this program it prints six characters, then redefines
one or more of them and prints them again. As with the draft characters, you use this two-line printout as a guide to the new characters
your IX-86 will print. You can use them with an applications program or a program you write yourself.
70
Chapter 9
Introduction to Dot Graphics
The Epson dot graphics mode allows your LX-86 printer to produce pictures, graphs, charts, or almost any other illustrative or creative material you can devise. Instead of using the standard letters,
numerals, and symbols stored in the LX-86’s ROM (Read Only
Memory), the graphics mode prints dots column by column and line
by line. You plan where you want the dots to appear and then use a
program to tell the LX-86 where to put them.
Because many software programs take advantage of Epson dot
graphics, you may be able to print graphics like the ones on this page
and the next by simply giving your software a few instructions. The
chart on the next page, for example, was created and printed in about
10 minutes.
71
Bookstore Inventory
MAGAZINES
BEST-SELLERS
SCIENCE FICTION- - - - -
ROMANCE
NON-FICTION
CLASSICS
MYSTERIES
WESTERNS
If you have a program that produces graphics, all you need to
know about Epson dot graphics is how to use the software. If, on
the other hand, you wish to do your own programming or merely
wish to understand how the LX-86 prints graphics, read on.
Dot Patterns
The Lx-86 forms graphic images approximately the same way that
pictures in newspapers and magazines are printed. If you look closely
at a newspaper photograph, you can see that it is made up of many
small dots. The Ix-86 also forms its images with patterns of dots. In
fact, the resolution of Epson graphics is higher than that of standard
newspaper photographs because the LX-86 graphics mode allows as
many as 240 dot positions per inch horizontally and 72 vertically. The
images you print on the Ix-86 can, therefore, be as finely detailed as
the one on the first page of this chapter.
If you plan carefully where you want the dots to appear and then
use or create a program that gives the proper instructions to the
printer, your LX-86 will print nearly any pattern or figure you can
imagine.
72
Print Head
The graphics mode on the LX-86 is quite different from the text
modes. Instead of sending codes for letters and printing functions,
you send codes for dot patterns, one number for each column in a
line. Since none of the predefined characters or symbols in the printer’s memory is used, your program controls where each dot is
printed.
For each column on a print line, the print head prints the pattern of
dots you have specified. In the standard graphics mode it uses only
the top eight pins on the print head because the computer uses eight
data lines to communicate with the printer. Therefore, each of the top
eight pins of the print head corresponds to one of the data lines.
To print figures taller than eight dots, the print head makes more
than one pass. It prints one line, then advances the paper and prints
another, just as it does with text. To keep the print head from leaving
gaps between the graphics lines as it does between the text lines, the
line spacing must be adjusted to eliminate the space between lines.
When the line spacing is properly adjusted, the LX-86 prints finely
detailed graphics images that give no indication that they are made
up of separate lines, each no more than 1 / 8 of an inch high.
To ensure the proper alignment of dots in figures that use more
than one pass of the print head, the LX-86 abandons the bidirectional
printing it uses for draft text. Instead it prints graphics from left to
right only.
Each pass of the print head contains one piece of the total pattern,
which can be as tall or short and as wide or narrow as you desire. You
don’t have to fill the whole page or even an entire line with your
graphics figures. In fact, you can use as little or as much space as you
like for a figure and put it anywhere on the page.
Graphics Mode
The graphics mode command is quite different from the other
commands covered so far in this manual. For most of the other
LX-86 modes, such as italic and emphasized, one ESCape code turns
the mode on and another turns it off. For graphics, the command is
more complicated because the code that turns on a graphics mode also
specifies how many columns it will use.
73
The LX-86 has several different graphics densities, but we’ll keep
things simple by using only one in the first exercises. The code for
entering single-density graphics mode is ESCape “K” nl n 2. In Microsoft BASIC the command is given in this format:
LPRINT
CHR$(27)“K”CHR$(Nl)CHR$(N2);
ESCape “K” specifies single-density graphics, and the next two num.
bers (n1 and n2) specify the number of columns reserved for graphics.
The graphics command requires more than one number to specify
how many columns to reserve because as many as 1920 columns are
possible in graphics printing. Since the LX-86 uses eight digit binary
numbers, it can’t accept decimal numbers larger than 255. Therefore,
the graphics mode command uses two numbers for reserving columns.
The number of columns reserved is the first number plus 256 times
the second number. Since the command is set up for two numbers,
you must supply two even if you only need one. When you need less
than 256 columns, just make nl the number of columns you are
reserving and make n2 a zero.
Pin Labels
Once you put the printer into graphics mode and reserve the
number of columns you want, your next step is to tell the print head
which pins to fire in each column. There are 256 possible combinations of eight pins, and you send only one number for each column.
The numbering system that allows you to use a single number to
specify which of the 256 possible patterns you want is shown in
Figure 9-l.
74
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
not used
Figure 9-1. Pin labels
To fire any one pin, you send its number. To fire more than one
pin at the same time, add up the numbers of the pins and send the
sum to the printer. With these labels for the pins, you fire the top pin
by sending 128. To fire the bottom graphics pin, you send 1. If you
want to fire only the top and bottom pins, you simply add 128 and 1,
then send 129.
By adding the appropriate label numbers together, you can fire any
combination of pins you want. Figure 9-2 shows you three examples
of how to calculate the number that will fire a particular pattern of
pins.
I
128
128
64
64
16
16
8
8
4
4
2
1
not used
64
32
32
16
128
2
2
8
2
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1
not used
not used
4
Figure 9-2. Calculating numbers for pin patterns
75
With this numbering system any combination of the eight pins
adds up to a unique decimal number between 0 and 255. Although
you use a decimal number, it is, of course, converted to a binary
number before it goes to the printer.
Now that you know the principles of Epson graphics, we’ll give
you two simple exercises, more densities, and then something more
complex as a basis for writing your own programs.
First Graphics Program
For your first graphics exercise we could give you a program that
prints a single column of dots, but it is difficult to see the pattern of a
single column of dots, so your first graphics program prints the same
pattern 40 times.
The first line is the code for 40 columns of single-density graphics.
As usual, our example is in Microsoft BASIC, but you can adapt it to
the programming language you prefer.
10 LPRINT CHR$(27)"K"CHR$(40)CHR$(0);
The second line is the data that is printed as pin patterns. Be sure
that you type in the semicolons in both lines:
20 FOR X=1 TO 40: LPRINT CHR$(74);: NEXT X
That’s it. Run the program to see the result below. Although it is
not as interesting as the examples at the beginning of this chapter, it
does allow you to see exactly how the mode works.
Multiple-Line Exercise
Now that you’ve entered and run a simple graphics program, we’ll
go on to an exercise that shows you how the LX-86 combines several
lines of graphics for a figure taller than eight dots.
Start with a line for 100 columns of single-density graphics and
lines to print two pin patterns. Notice that since there are two pin
patterns in the loop, it is only executed 50 times.
76
30 LPRINT CHR$(27)"K"CHR$(100)CHR$(O);
40 FOR X=1 TO 50: LPRINT CHR$(85)CHR$(42);
50 NEXT X
If you run the program now, you’ll see how one line of the pattern
looks:
To see a how more than one line combines to form a figure, enter
and run the following program, which uses two of the lines you have
already typed and adds several more.
10 LPRINT CHR$(27)"1";
20 FOR R=1 TO 3
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
LPRINT CHR$(27)"K"CHR$(100)CHR$(0);
FOR X=1 TO 50: LPRINT CHR$(85)CHR$(42);
NEXT X: LPRINT
LPRINT CHR$(27)“K"CHR$(100)CHR$(O);
FOR X=1 TO 50: LPRINT CHR$(42)CHR$(85);
NEXT X: LPRINT: NEXT R
LPRINT CHR$(27)"@"
Now run the program to see the six print lines combine into a
pattern:
The short and simple program that produced the pattern demonstrates many elements of graphics programming. Therefore, we’ll explain each line. Line 10 changes the line spacing to ‘/-dot, which is the
height of the dot patterns used in the program. Therefore, there is no
space between the print lines.
77
Line 20 begins a loop to produce multiple print lines. Lines 30 and
40 were covered above, but an LPRINT is added to line 50 to produce a line feed after line 40. Lines 60 and 70 are like lines 30 and 40
except that lint! 70 uses a reversal of the patterns in line 40. As the loop
is executed, the program prints lines 40 and 70 alternately so that the
patterns of the print lines will fit together well.
Notice that the graphics command can be in effect for only one
print line. The command is in lines 30 and 60 so that it is issued each
time a new print line is begun. You cannot print more than one line of
graphics without having the graphics command issued more than
once.
Line 90 is the reset code to return the printer to its defaults.
Density Varieties
Although all the examples so far in this chapter have been in the
single-density graphics mode, the LX-86 offers five other eight-pin
density modes and two nine-pin ones. Nine-pin graphics is not necessary for most uses, but you can find its command (Escape “ ^ “) in
Appendix C. All the eight-pin densities and their commands are
described in Table 9-l.
Table 9-l. Graphics modes
Mode
Alternate
code
0
Single
ESC "K"
1
Low-Speed
Double
High-Speed
Double
ESC "L"
3
Quadruple
ESC "Z"
4
CRT
none
5
One-to-one
(plotter)
none
6
90 dots/inch none
2
78
Density
ESC "Y"
Description
60 dots/inch:
480 dots/8" line
120 dots/inch
960 dots/8 line
120 dot positions/inch
Faster than Mode 1; does not print
consecutive dots in a row.
240 dot positions/inch; 1920 dot
positions/8" line. Does not print
consecutive dots in a row.
80 dots/inch;
640 dots/8" line
72 dots/inch;
576 dots/8" line
Produces the same density horizontally as vertically, which makes
circles look round.
90 dots/inch;
720 dots/8" line
You are familiar with the command format that uses the ESCape
code and a letter, but LX-86 graphics commands can also be in the
following format:
LPRINT
CHR$(27)“*“CHR$(M)CHR$(N1)CHR$(N2);
with m being the mode number found in the left column of Table 9-1.
As usual, nl and n2 reserve the number of columns for graphics. The
seven modes include six densities, with two speeds for doubledensity.
Reassigning Code
The IX-86 has a graphics command that changes one graphics
mode to another. You can use it with many commercial graphics
software programs to change the density and shape of your printouts.
The code is ESCape “?s” n, where s is one of the four alternate
graphics codes (K, L, Y, or Z) and n is the number of the new code
(O-6).
For example, if you send the following code before you run a
graphics program, it will change every instance of mode “Y” (highspeed double-density) to mode 5 (one-to-one).
LPRINT CHR$ (27) “?Y” CHR$ (5) ;
As usual, this example is in MBASIC, but you can send the code in
any programming language.
Even if you don’t know which code your graphics program uses, a
little experimentation should tell you whether the reassigning code
can improve your graphics printouts.
Column Reservation Numbers
Now that we’ve introduced you to the rest of the 8-pin graphics
densities and the reassigning code, we’ll explain in more detail the part
of the graphics command that reserves the number of columns for
graphics (the numbers nl and n2 in our examples).
If you need fewer than 255 columns of graphics, n 1, is the number
of columns you want and n2 is zero. As you can see in Table 9-1,
however, a single line will hold as many as 1920 columns in quadruple-density. Specifying more than 255 is where the second number
slot (n2) fits in. The first number that you send (n 1) indicates a number of columns, but the second does not represent a number of
columns; it is multiplied by 256 and added to n l. The command for
79
the maximum number of dots you can reserve on the IX86, then, is:
CHR$(27)"Z"CHR$(128)CHR$(7);
or, in the other format:
CHR$(27)"*"CHR$(3)CHR$(l28)CHR$(7);
which is 128 dots plus 7 times 256 dots, for a total of 1920 dots in one
row.
Once you have chosen the number of columns you want to use,
you can have your program do the calculations for you with the
following format:
CHR$ (27) "L" CHR$ (N MOD 256) CHR$ (INT(N/256));
N is the total number of columns you want to specify. The MOD
(modulus) function calculates the value for nl, and the INT (integer)
function calculates the value for n2. For programming languages other
than BASIC, consult your manual for the proper form for these
functions.
This format can be used with any graphics density and with any
value of N up to the maximum number of columns per line for that
density.
WIDTH Statements
Many computer systems automatically insert the control codes for
a carriage return and a line feed after every 80 characters. This insertion is usually no problem with text, but it can spoil your graphics. In
the graphics mode they may insert the control codes after 120 columns, which could be in the middle of a line.
You can usually prevent these unwanted control codes with a
WIDTH statement such as the one below:
WIDTH LPRINT 255
The format for your system may be different. Consult your computer
or computer language manual to find the correct format for your
system. Then put a WIDTH statement in one of the first lines of all
your graphics programs. It is easier to put a WIDTH statement in all
but the simplest of your programs than to examine each one to see
whether or not such a statement is necessary.
80
Design Your Own Graphics
In this section we take you through the development of a graphics
program. The example is not especially complicated, but it does include the same steps you would use for a more complex figure so that
you have the basis for designing graphics on your LX-86.
You will plan your figure with dots on graph paper, but before
beginning to place the dots, you should decide which graphics density
you want. Figure 9-3 shows the differences between the three mostused graphics modes so that you can choose the one you want.
Single
High-speed
Double
Low-speed
Double
Figure 9-3. Designing in different densities
In this figure you can see the main rules for graphics design in the
three densities. In single density no dots can be placed on vertical
lines. In high-speed double density dots can be placed on vertical
lines, but no dots can overlap. In low-speed double density dots can
be placed on vertical lines and they can overlap.
Now look at our figure designed for high-speed double density. It
should point you in the right direction for your own designs.
81
Figure 9-4. Arrow design
After plotting all the dots as in Figure 9-4, you calculate the numbers for each pin pattern by dividing the design grid into separate
print lines. For the arrow design the grid was divided into three lines,
each seven dots high. Then each column was examined and the sums
of the pin values determined. This process for the first line is shown in
Figure 9-5. The pin values are on the left side and the sums are at the
bottom of each column.
Those of you who have read the previous chapter will see that
designing graphics is much like designing user-defined characters.
8 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 4 1 0 0
4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 0 0 0
Figure 9-5. First line of arrow figure
82
The numbers for the second and third lines were calculated in the
same manner. Once the numbers for the pin patterns are calculated,
they go in DATA statements, separated by commas.
First we’ll give you the whole program and its printout; then we’ll
explain two techniques we have not used before:
90 WIDTH LPRINT 255
100 LPRINT CHR$(27)"1"
590 FOR K=1 TO 3
600 LPRINT CHR$(27)"Y"CHR$(50)CHR$(0);
610 READ N: IF N=128 THEN 650
620 IF N>=0 THEN LPRINT CHR$(N);: GOT0 610
630 READ P,R: FOR J=1 TO -N
632 LPRINT CHR$(P)CHR$(R);: NEXT J
640 GOT0 610
650 LPRINT: NEXT K: LPRINT CHR$(27)"@": END
800 DATA 8, 4, 10, 1, -6, 8, 0, 4, 0, 2, 0, 1, -9, 0, 0, 0
805 DATA 23, 8, 4, 2, 1, -2, 0, 0, 0, 128
810 DATA 0, 0, 0, 0, 84, 32, 17, 10, 4, 0, -6, 0, 0, -10
815 DATA 64, 0, 0, 0, 0, 84, 32, 17, 10, 4, 128
820 DATA 2, 4, 10, 18, 34, 64, -5, 2, 0, 4, 0, 8, 0, 16
825 DATA 0, -9, 32, 0, 61, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 0, 0, 0, 128
In this program we used the number 128 in the DATA statements
to signal the end of a print line. This is the reason for the IF-THEN
statement in line 610 that skips to line 650 and causes a line feed.
The other special technique used in this program is found in lines
620 and 630. Since some of the data numbers are repeated many
times, we save typing by using negative DATA numbers for repetitions. Line 620 tests for a negative number, and if it finds one, reads
the next two numbers and prints their pin patterns the number of
times indicated by the negative number.
For example, when the minus 6 in line 800 is read, the program
then reads the next two numbers (8 and 0) and sends them to the
printer six times. This feature is not a necessary part of the program,
but it does allow you to type fewer data numbers.
Otherwise the program is a straightforward graphics program that
uses 7-dot line spacing and reads numbers from DATA statements
and sends them to the printer. If you want to see the figure in other
densities, change the “Y” in line 600 to “L” or “Z”.
83
Graphics Programming Tips
Now that we’ve shown you how to design your own graphics,
we’ll review and emphasize a few elements of graphics programming.
As usual, we use MBASIC in the examples, but the principles apply
to any programming language.
Semicolons and command placement
After the graphics command is issued, every number sent to the
IX-86 is interpreted as a pin pattern and printed on paper. Therefore,
you must be careful where you put graphics commands in your
program.
For example, suppose you want a SO-column graphics line with the
line spacing set to T-dot. You might enter the following program:
20 LPRINT CHR$( 27) “K”CHR$( 50)CHR$(0)
30 LPRINT CHR$( 27) " 1 "
40 FOR G=1 TO 50: LPRINT CHR$(74): NEXT G
This program has all the necessary elements. Line 20 has the command for single-density graphics and specifies 50 columns. (Remember that you must use two numbers to reserve columns even if you
only need the first one.) Line 30 has the correct command for T-dot
line spacing, and line 40 calls for the printing of a pin pattern 50 times.
(If you wish, refer back to Figure 9-2 to see a representation of the pin
pattern that 74 produces.)
Although this program has all the necessary elements, it will not
give you the single pin pattern that you want, as you can see in the
partial printout in Figure 9-6.
J
J
J
Expected pattern
Actual result
Figure 9-6. Result of incorrect program
84
What went wrong? To help you understand the graphics command
and avoid some of the more common errors made with it, we’ll
examine this program in detail.
First look at line 20. ESCape “K” calls for single-density graphics,
and the two CHR$ numbers specify 50 columns of dots. Once that
command is given, every number sent to the printer is interpreted as a
pin pattern and printed on the paper. Since there is no semicolon at
the end of the line, the numbers 13 and 10-the codes for carriage
return and line feed-are sent to the printer after CHR$(0). Because
the graphics command has been issued, these codes are printed as pin
patterns.
Line 30 would normally be the command for 7-dot line spacing,
but since the graphics mode is still in effect, the command is interpreted by the printer as two pin patterns: 27 and 49 (the ASCII codes
for ESCape and “1”). Since there is no semicolon at the end of this
line, the numbers 13 and 10 are sent again, and again they are printed
as pin patterns.
In line 40 nothing is sent to the printer until after the LPRINT.
Then the desired pin pattern-74-is finally sent, but since no semicolon is after it, 13 and 10 are sent next each time the loop is executed.
Figure 9-7 is an enlarged representation of the first 13 columns of
the printout. In this figure you can see exactly how the printer reacted
to the first part of the incorrect program.
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1 3
27
13
10
49
74
10
10
13
13
74
74
10
Figure 9-7. Pin patterns of incorrect program
85
You may also wonder why the program prints not only the different pin patterns but also the character “J” a number of times. The
reason lies in the number of columns you reserved with the graphics
command. After the LX-86 receives all the numbers reserved by a
graphics command-50 in this case-it leaves the graphics mode and
resumes interpreting numbers as printable characters or print commands.
Since the incorrect program has sent many extra numbers, mainly
10s and 13s, the 50 columns reserved are filled before the loop in line
40 has been executed 50 times. Therefore, during the last passes of the
loop the Ix-86 interprets CHR$(74) as the ASCII code for “J” and
prints that character each of the last 35 passes of the loop.
If you want to make the program work correctly, put the linespacing command in line 10, delete line 30, and add two semicolons:
one at the end of line 20 and one between CHR$(74) and the colon in
line 40.
We have explained this incorrect program in detail so that you will
remember two important tips about using the graphics command:
l
l
Use semicolons to prevent the LX-86 from printing carriage return and line feed codes as pin patterns.
Do not put any other commands between the graphics command
and its data.
Our example should help you understand the graphics mode better
and may help you find the problem when one of your own programs
gives you unexpected results.
String variables
In a long and complicated graphics program, typing in the graphics
command or repetitive data numbers over and over can become timeconsuming. You can avoid much of the repetitive typing by storing
commands and data in string variables.
Look at the program below. It is the same as the multiple-line
exercise earlier in the chapter except for the string variables.
86
10 G$=-CHR$( 27) + ”K” + CHR$( 100) + CHR(0)
2 0 A$=CHR$(85)+CHR$(42)
3 0 B$=CHR$(42)+CHR$(85)
40 LPRINT CHR$( 27 ”1” ;
5 0 FOR R=l TO 3
6 0 LPRINT G$;
70 FOR X=1 TO 50: LPRINT A$;: NEXT X
8 0 LPRINT
9 0 LPRINT G$;
100 FOR X=1 TO 50: LPRINT B$;: NEXT X
110 LPRINT: NEXT R
120 LPRINT CHR$( 27) “@”
Notice that the first line stores the whole graphics command in a
single string variable. In order to do this you must put plus signs
between the elements of the command. Once you have done this at
the beginning of the program, each time you enter LPRINT G$; you
have issued the graphics command. Lines 20 and 30 do the same thing
with the data used in this program. As you can see, the use of string
variables saves some typing even in this short program. In a long
program it can save you much more time and effort.
Graphics and low ASCII codes
Sending a few of the codes between 0 and 31 with BASIC or
another programming language can cause problems on some computer systems. The problem is that most computer systems handle some
of these codes in a special way instead of delivering them to the
printer.
For example, one computer system handles form feeds by itself. It
counts lines to keep track of the top of page. If a program sends the
ASCII code for form feed (12) to the printer, the computer system
intercepts it and sends instead the code for line feed (10) several times.
If you are in a graphics mode with this system and send a 12 to fire
pins 3 and 4, the computer system will intercept that 12 and send
several 10s instead. You can see how this would ruin your graphics.
You would get pins 2 and 4 (whose sum is 10) several times instead of
pins 3 and 4 only once.
If your computer system screens out or changes any codes sent to
it, you can often design around these problems by using other numbers with similar patterns, and you can see Appendix F for a method
to determine which codes may cause problems and for some ideas on
overcoming those problems.
87
Appendix A
IX-86 Characters
This appendix gives the control codes and characters for each code
from 0 through 255 decimal (00 through FF hex). Page A-3 shows
the characters in the Epson Character Graphics set.
Further information on the character sets is in Chapter 6.
A-l
Dec
Hex
5
6
7
8
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
9
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
OA
OB
OC
OD
OE
OF
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
0
1
2
3
4
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
55
57
58
59
60
37
38
39
3A
3B
3C
61
3D
62
63
3E
3F
A-2
CHR
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
SO
SI
none
none
DC2
none
DC4
none
none
none
CAN
EM
none
ESC
none
none
none
none
SP
!
”
*
$
%
&
'
(
)
*
+
,
.
/
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
<
=
>
?
Dec
Hex
CHR
Dec Hex CHR
Dec Hex CHR
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
5A
5B
5C
5D
5E
@
A
B
C
D
E
95
5 F
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
146
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
246
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
\
]
^
----
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
6A
6B
6C
6D
6E
6F
70
71
72
'
a
b
c
d
e
f
115
7 3
s
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
7A
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
{
|
}
~
DEL
g
h
i
j
k
1
m
n
o
p
q
r
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
AO
Al
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A6
A9
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
BO
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
co
Cl
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE
CF
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
DA
DB
DC
DD
DE
DF
EO
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
EA
EB
EC
ED
EE
EF
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
Epson Character Graphics
Standard
International
Dec Hex CHR
Dec Hex CHR
Dec Hex CHR
Dec Hex CHR
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
196
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
A0
Al
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
184
B8
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
SO
SI
none
none
DC2
none
DC4
none
none
none
CAN
EM
none
ESC
none
none
none
none
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE
CF
DO
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
DA
DB
DC
DD
DE
DF
EO
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
EA
EB
EC
ED
EE
EF
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE
CF
DO
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
DA
DB
DC
DD
DE
DF
EO
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
EA
EB
EC
ED
EE
EF
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
A-3
Appendix B
Commands in Numerical Order
This appendix lists all the LX-86 commands in numerical order.
The page number column indicates where a complete description
can be found.
Note that for commands from ESC SO onwards, the decimal
and hexadecimal columns show only the second code; the first
code for those commands is the ESCape code.
B-l
ASCII
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
so
SI
DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
CAN
DEL
ESC SO
ESC SI
ESC EM
ESC !
ESC %
ESC &
ESC *
ESC ESC /
ESC 0
ESC 1
ESC 2
ESC 3
ESC 4
ESC 5
ESC 6
ESC 7
ESC 8
ESC 9
ESC :
ESC <
ESC ?
ESC @
ESC A
ESC B
ESC C
ESC CO
ESC D
ESC E
ESC F
B-2
Dec
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
18
19
20
24
127
14
15
25
33
37
38
42
45
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
60
63
64
65
66
67
67
68
69
70
Hex
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
OF
11
12
13
14
18
7F
0E
0F
19
21
25
26
2A
2D
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3C
3F
40
41
42
43
43
44
45
46
Description
Beeper
Backspace
Tab horizontally
Line feed
Tab vertically
Form feed
Carriage return
Select double-width (1 line)
Select condensed mode
Select printer
Cancel condensed mode
Deselect printer
Cancel double-width (1 line)
Cancel line
Delete character
Select double-width (1 line)
Select condensed mode
Automatic sheet feeder on/off
Master select
Select user-defined set
Define user-defined characters
Select graphics mode
Turn underlining on/off
Select vertical tab channel
Select l/8 inch line spacing
Select 7 I7 2 inch line spacing
Select 1 / 6 inch line spacing
Select n/216 inch line spacing
Select italic mode
Cancel italic mode
International character set
Select standard character set
Disable paper out sensor
Enable paper out sensor
Copy ROM into RAM
Unidirectional mode ( 1 -line)
Reassign graphics mode
Initialize the printer
Select n/ 72 inch line spacing
Set vertical tabs
Set page length in lines
Set page length in inches
Set horizontal tabs
Select emphasized mode
Cancel emphasized mode
Page ref
C-24
c-9
c-17
c-11
c-17
c-13
C-23
c-3
c-2
C-6
c-2
C-6
c-3
C-24
C-24
c-3
c-2
c-10
c-7
c-20
c-20
c-22
C-6
c-17
c-11
c-12
c-12
c-12
c-7
c-7
c-9
c-9
c-14
c-14
c-19
c-10
C-23
c-7
c-13
C-16
c-14
c-15
C-18
C-4
c-4
ASCII
ESC G
ESC H
ESC J
ESC K
ESC L
ESC M
ESC N
ESC O
ESC P
ESC Q
ESC R
ESC SO
ESC Sl
ESC T
ESC U
ESC W
ESC Y
ESC Z
ESC /\
ESC a
ESC b
ESC e
ESC f
ESC 1
ESC m
ESC s
ESC t
ESC x
Dec
71
72
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
83
84
85
87
89
90
94
97
98
101
102
108
109
115
116
120
Hex
Description
47
48
4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
53
54
55
57
59
5A
5E
61
62
65
66
6C
6D
73
74
78
Select double-strike mode
Cancel double-strike mode
Perform n/ 216 inch line feed
Single density graphics
Double density graphics
Select elite pitch
Set skip over perforation
Cancel skip over perforation
Select pica pitch
Set right margin
International character set
Select superscript mode
Select subscript mode
Cancel superscript/subscript
Select unidirectional mode
Turn double-width on/off
High speed dbl. den. graphics
Quadruple density graphics
Nine-pin graphics
Select justification
Set vertical tabs in channels
Set tab increments
Horizontal / Vertical skip
Set left margin
Special graphic characters
Half speed mode on/ off
Set character table
Select print mode
Page ref
c-5
c-5
c-13
c-20
c-21
c-4
c-15
c-15
c-4
c-19
C-8
c-5
c-5
c-5
c-10
c-3
c-21
c-22
C-23
c-2
C-16
C-18
C-18
c-19
C-8
c-11
C-8
c-1
B-3
Control Key Chart
Some applications programs can use control key codes for decimal
values O-27. The table below gives you the proper values. The Control key column indicates that you press the control key at the same
time you press the key for the letter or symbol in that column. For
example, you press the control key and A at the same time to send the
value 1.
Some programs that use this system cannot use control-@, and
many programs use the control keys for other purposes.
B-4
Decimal
0
Hexadecimal
00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
Control key
@
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
0A
OB
0C
0D
OE
OF
J
K
L
M
N
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
P
Q
R
s
T
U
V
W
X
Y
z
Appendix C
Command Summary
This appendix lists and describes all the commands available on
the LX-86. This summary is divided into the following topics:
Forms Control
Page Format
User-defined Characters
Dot Graphics
Miscellaneous Codes
Near Letter Quality
Character Width
Print Enhancement
Mode and Character Set
Special Features
Line Spacing
Each command has a format section and a comment section.
The format section gives the ASCII, decimal, and hexadecimal
codes for the command, and the comment section describes and
explains the command.
For a list of the commands in numerical order, see Appendix B.
Near Letter Quality
ESC x
Format:
ASCII
code:
ESC
27
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1 B
Select Print Mode
x
(n)
120
(n)
78
(n)
Explanation:
Selects draft mode if n = 0, or Near Letter Quality (NLQ) mode
If n=1 .
c-1
ESC a
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Justification Mode
ESC
2 7 9 7 ( n )
1B 61 (n)
Explanation:
See Chapter 7 for information on this command.
Character Width
SI
Select Condensed Mode
Format:
ASCII code:
SI
Decimal:
15
Hexadecimal: O F
Explanation:
This command is only effective in draft mode. It produces
characters that are approximately 60% of their normal width.
ESC SI
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Condensed Mode
ESC SI
27 1 5
1B OF
Explanation:
Duplicates the SI command.
DC2
Format:
ASCII code:
DC2
Decimal:
18
Hexadecimal: 1 2
Cancel Condensed Mode
Explanation:
This command cancels the condensed printing selected by SI
and ESC SI.
c-2
so
Select Double-width (one line)
Format:
s o
ASCII code:
14
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: O E
Explanation:
Double-width mode doubles the width of all characters,
including spaces. It is cancelled by a carriage return or DC4.
ESC SO
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Double-width
ESC SO
27
14
1B 0E
Explanation:
Duplicates the SO command.
DC4
Format:
ASCII code: D C 4
20
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1 4
Cancel Double-width (one line)
Explanation:
Cancels the one-line enlarged printing set by SO or ESC SO,
but not the enlarged printing set by ESC W or ESC !.
ESC W
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Double-width
ESC
W
27
87
1B 57
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
Double-width doubles the width of all characters, including
spaces. This command turns double-width on (when n=l)
until switched off (when n = 0).
C-3
ESC M
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Elite Pitch
ESC
27
1B
M
77
4D
Explanation:
Selects elite pitch (12 characters per inch).
ESC P
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Pica Pitch
ESC
27
1B
P
80
50
Explanation:
Selects pica pitch (10 characters per inch). This is the default
character width; so this command is normally used to cancel the
elite pitch.
Print Enhancement
ESC E
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Emphasized Mode
ESC
27
1B
E
69
45
Explanation:
Makes text bolder by printing each dot twice, with the second
dot slightly to the right of the first.
ESC F
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Cancel Emphasized Mode
ESC
27
1B
F
70
46
Explanation:
Turns off the emphasized mode selected by ESC E.
c-4
ESC G
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Double-Strike Mode
ESC
27
1B
G
71
47
Explanation:
Makes text bolder by printing each line twice, with the second
printing slightly below the first.
ESC H
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Cancel Double-Strike Mode
ESC
27
1B
H
72
47
Explanation:
Turns off double-strike mode selected by ESC G.
ESC S
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Superscript/Subscript
ESC
S
27 83
1B 53
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
This command either selects superscript (when n = 0) or subscript (when n= 1).
ESC T
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Cancel Superscript/Subscript
ESC
27
1B
T
64
54
Explanation:
Turns off either superscript or subscript.
c-5
ESCFormat:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Underlining
ESC
27
1B
-45
2D
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
When the value of n = 1, underlining is turned on, when n = 0,
underlining is turned off.
Mode and Character Set Selection
Deselect Printer
Format:
DC3
ASCII code:
Decimal:
19
Hexadecimal: 1 3
Explanation:
Places the printer into the deselected state until the select
printer code DC1 is received.
DC1
Format:
ASCII code: D C 1
17
Decimal:
11
Hexadecimal:
Select Printer
Explanation:
Returns the printer to the selected state if it has been switched
off by the printer deselect code DC3.
C-6
ESC !
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Master Select
ESC
!
(n)
27 33 ( n )
1B 21 (n)
Explanation:
This command enables a number of commands to be added
together. Full details of the values and examples are given in
Chapter 6.
ESC 4
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Italic Mode
ESC
27
1B
4
52
34
Explanation:
This command causes characters to be printed using the italic
character set.
ESC 5
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Cancel Italic Mode
ESC
27
1B
5
53
35
Explanation:
Cancels the italic printing set by ESC 4.
ESC @
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Initialize Printer
ESC
27
1B
@
64
40
Explanation:
Resets the printer to the power-on state, including top of form.
Clears the buffer of printable data on the print line preceding
the command.
c-7
ESCR
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select International Character Set
ESC
27
1B
R
82
52
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
Some character codes produce different characters for different
countries. The characters are outlined in Chapter 6. The value
of n determines which character set is printed. The countries
corresponding to the values of n are the following:
n Country
0
USA
1
France
2
Germany
3
United Kingdom
4
Denmark1
5
Sweden
ESC m
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
n Country
Italy
6
Spain
7
8 Japan
Norway
9
Denmark II
10
Select Special Graphics Characters
ESC
27
1B
m
109
6D
Explanation:
This code allows ASCII codes 128 to 159 to print special graphics
characters. See Chapter 6 for details.
ESC t
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Character Set
ESC
27
1B
t
116
74
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
Selects either the character graphics set or the standard character set. The value n = 0 selects the standard character set. The
value n = 1 selects the character graphics set. See Appendix A for
the tables.
C-8
ESC 6
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select International Character Graphics
ESC
27
1B
6
54
36
Explanation:
When the character graphics set is selected, this code selects the
international set. See the table on page A-3
ESC7
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Standard Character Graphics
ESC
27
1B
7
55
37
Explanation:
When the character graphics set is selected, this code selects the
Standard Character Graphics set. See the table on page A-3.
This is the default.
Special Printer Features
BS
Format:
BS
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 08
Backspace
a
Explanation:
The print position is moved one space to the left.
c-9
ESC EM
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Control:
Automatic Sheet Feeder Control
ESC EM
27 25 (
1B 19
Ctrl[ Ctrl Y
(n)
n )
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
This command is used with the optional automatic-sheet
feeder. When n= 0 the feeder is turned off, when n = 4 it is
turned on. Using DIP Switch l-3 produces the same effect.
ESC <
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Unidirectional Mode (one line)
ESC
27
1B
<
60
3C
Explanation:
Selects unidirectional printing for more accurate positioning
during text printing for one line only, It is cancelled by a carriage return. (Graphics printing is always unidirectional.)
ESC U
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Unidirectional Mode
ESC
27
1B
U
85
55
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
Selects unidirectional printing for more accurate positioning
during text printing. If n = 1 unidirectional mode is enabled,
while n=O disables the feature. (Graphics printing is always
unidirectional.)
c-10
ESC s
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Half Speed Mode
ESC
27
1B
s
(n)
115
(n)
73
(n)
Explanation:
Selects half speed printing if n= 1 or returns to full speed if
n=0.
Line Spacing
Line Feed
LF
Format:
LF
ASCII code:
10
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 0 A
Explanation:
When this command is received, the data in the print buffer is
printed and the paper advances one line in the current line
spacing.
ESC 0
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select 1/8 Inch Line Spacing
ESC
27
1B
0
48
30
Explanation:
Sets the line spacing to l/8 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The “0" is the digit zero and not the character with
ASCII code 0.
c-11
ESC 1
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select 7/72 Inch Line Spacing
ESC
27
1B
1
49
31
Explanation:
Selects the line spacing to 7/72 of an inch for subsequent line
feed commands. The “1” is the digit one and not lower case L.
ESC 2
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select l/6 Inch Line Spacing
ESC
27
1B
2
50
32
Explanation:
Selects the line spacing to l/6 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The “2” is the digit two and not the character with
ASCII code 2. This is the default at power on.
ESC 3
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select n/216 Inch Line Spacing
ESC
3
27
51
1B 33
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
Selects the line spacing to n/216 of an inch for subsequent LF
commands. The “3” is the digit three and not the character
with ASCII code 3. The value of n should be in the range 0 to
255.
c-12
ESC J
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Perform n/216 Inch Line Feed for One Line
ESC
J
( n )
27 74 ( n )
1B 4A (n)
Explanation:
Advances the paper by one line at a spacing of n/216 of an inch.
The value of n should be in the range 0 to 255. This command
does not send a carriage return with the line feed.
ESC A
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set n/72 Inch Line Spacing
ESC
A
(n)
27 65 ( n )
1B 41 (n)
Explanation:
Sets the line spacing to n/72 of an inch for subsequent line feed
commands. The value of n should be in the range 0 to 85.
Forms Control
FF
Format:
FF
ASCII code:
11
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 0C
Form Feed
Explanation:
When this command is given, the data in the print buffer is
printed and the paper advances to the top of the next page
according to the current page length.
c-13
ESC 8
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Disable Paper-Out Sensor
ESC
27
1B
8
56
38
Explanation:
Turns off the paper sensor so that you can print right to the end
of a single sheet of paper. This command temporarily duplicates the function of DIP switch l-5. This command is not effective for computers that monitor pin 12.
ESC 9
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Enable Paper-Out Sensor
ESC
27
1B
9
57
39
Explanation:
Turns on paper-out sensor so that the printer beeper sounds
when the printer runs out of paper.
ESC C
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Page Length in Lines
ESC
27
1B
C
(n)
( n )
43 (n)
67
Explanation:
Sets the page length to n lines. The value of n should be in the
range 1 to 127.
C-14
ESC CO
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Page Length in Inches
C NUL
ESC
27
67
0
1B 43 00
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
Sets the page length to n inches where n has a value of 1 to 22.
ESC N
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Skip Over Perforation
ESC
27
1B
N
78
4E
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
The variable n is the number of lines between the last line
printed one page and the first line on the next page. For
example, ESC N 6 will cause the LX-86 to print 60 lines and
then skip 6.
ESC O
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Cancel Skip Over Perforation
ESC O
27
79
1B 4F
Explanation:
Cancels the mode selected by ESC N.
c-15
Page Format
ESC B
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Vertical Tabs
ESC
27
1B
B
66
(n1) (n2) . . . NUL
(n1) (n2) . . . 0
42 ( n 1 )
( n 2 ) ...
00
Explanation:
This command allows setting of up to 16 vertical tabs. The tabs
can be set in 8 channels using the ESC b command. This
command sets the tabs in channel 0. These are entered as nl,
n2, n3, etc. (in the range 1 to 254) with the NUL character as the
terminator. The tab settings nl, n2, n3, etc. must be entered in
ascending order. The tab settings can be cleared by executing
the command giving a value of zero to n1. Altering the line
spacing after giving this command does not affect the absolute
position of the tab setting.
ESC b
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Vertical Tabs in Channels
ESC b (c) (n1) (n2) . . . NUL
27 66 (c) (n1) (n2) . . . 0
1B 42 (c) (n1) (n2) . . . 00
Explanation:
This command allows setting of vertical tabs in eight channels
(the range of c is 0 to 7). These are entered as nl, n2, n3, etc. (in
the range 1 to 254) with the NUL character as the terminator.
The tab settings nl, n2, n3, etc. must be entered in ascending
order. The tab settings can be cleared by executing the command giving a value of zero to nl. Altering the line spacing after
giving this command does not affect the absolute position of
the tab setting.
C-16
ESC /
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select Vertical Tab Channel
ESC
27
13
/
47
2F
(c)
(c)
(c)
Explanation:
This command is used to set the vertical tab channel, where c
has the value 0 to 7.
VT
Format:
VT
ASCII code:
11
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 0 B
Tab Vertically
Explanation:
Advances the paper to the next tab setting in the channel
selected by ESC / . If no channel has been set, channel 0 is
used. If no vertical tabs have been set, the paper advances one
line.
HT
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Tab Horizontally
HT
9
9
Explanation:
When this command is given, the print position is advanced to
the next horizontal tab setting.
c-17
ESC D
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Horizontal Tabs
ESC
27
1B
D
(n1) (n2) . . . NUL
66 (n1) (n2) . . . 0
44 ( n 1 ) ( n 2 )
...
00
Explanation:
This command allows setting of up to 32 horizontal tabs. These
are entered as nl, n2, n3, etc. (in the range 1 to 137) with the
NUL character as the terminator. The tab settings nl, n2, n3,
etc. must be entered in ascending order. The tab settings can be
cleared by executing the command with nl set to zero. The
settings on power up or after an ESC @ command are every
eight characters.
ESC e
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Tab Increments
ESC
27
1B
e
101
6 5
(n)
(n)
( n )
(s)
(s)
( s )
Explanation:
This command sets the horizontal or vertical tab increments.
When n is 0, the horizontal tabs are set at intervals of s spaces.
Maximum values are 21 in pica, 25 in elite and 36 in compressed
text modes. When n is 1, the vertical tabs are set to s line feeds.
Horizontal/Vertical Skip
ESC f
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC f ( n ) ( s )
27
102 (n) ( s )
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 1 B
66 ( n )
(s)
Explanation:
Prints spaces or line feeds without carriage returns. When n is
0, s spaces will be inserted up to a maximum of 127. If n is set
to 1, s line feeds will be performed.
C-18
ESC Q
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Right Margin
ESC
Q
27
81
1B 51
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
This command sets the right margin to n columns in the current
pitch. This command clears previous tab settings and all previous characters in the print line.
ESCI
Format:
ASCII
code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Set Left Margin
ESC
I
( n )
27
108
(n)
1B 6C (n)
Explanation:
Use a lowercase 1 (for left), not the numeral one. This command
should be placed at the beginning of a line. The left margin is set
to n columns of the current character width. The value of n should
be in the range 0 to 160, but will be ignored if the setting would
give a margin of more than 8 inches. This command clears
previous tab settings and all previous characters in the print line.
User-Defined Characters
ESC :
ESC :
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Copy ROM Into User-Defmed Characters
Copy ROM Into User-Defined Characters
ESC
:
27
58
1B
3A
NUL NUL NUL
0
0
00
00
0
00
Explanation:
This code allows the characters in the ROM to be copied into the
user-defined character set so that specific characters can be
redefined. Select the mode to be used (draft or Near Letter
Quality as required) to ensure the correct set is copied.
c-19
ESC &
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Define User-Defined Characters
ESC & NUL (data1) (data2) . . . (data n)
27 3 8
0 (data1) (data2) . . . (data n)
1B 26 00 (data1) (data2) . . . (data n)
Explanation:
This command allows characters to be re-defined in the currently selected mode.
ESC %
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Select User-Defined Set
ESC
%
27
37
1B 25
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
This code selects the user-defined set if n = 1 and the normal set
if n=0. ESC & is required to define the character set.
Dot Graphics
Note: See Chapter 9 for further information on dot graphics.
ESC K
Select Single Density Graphics Mode
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
K (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) . . . (data(d))
Decimal:
27
75 (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) . . . (data(d))
Hexadecimal:
1B
48 (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) . . . (data(d))
Explanation:
Turns on Single Density Graphics Mode, printing 480 dots per
8-inch line. If d is the total number of dots required, nl and n2
are calculated thus:
nl=d MOD 256 and n2=INT (d/256).
and are followed by d data bytes.
c-20
Select Double Density
ESC L
Format:
ASCII code:
L (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
ESC
Decimal:
76 (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
27
Hexadecimal:
1B
4C (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
Graphics Mode
. . (data(d))
. . (data(d))
. . (data(d))
Explanation:
Turns on Low-Speed Double Density Graphics Mode, printing
960 dots per 8-inch line. If d is the total number of dots
required, nl and n2 are calculated thus:
nl=d MOD 256 and n2=INT (d/256).
and are followed by d data bytes.
Select High Speed Double Density
ESC Y
Format:
ASCII code:
Y (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
ESC
Decimal:
69 (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
27
Hexadecimal:
59 (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
1B
Graphics Mode
. . (data(d))
. . (data(d))
. . (data(d))
Explanation:
Turns on High-Speed Double Density Graphics Mode,
printing 960 dots per 8-inch line. Similar to ESC L but cannot
print two adjacent dots on the same row. If d is the total number
of dots required, nl and n2 are calculated thus.
nl=d MOD 256 and n2=INT (d/256).
and are followed by d data bytes.
c-21
Select Quadruple Density
ESC Z
Format:
ASCII code:
Z (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
ESC
Decimal:
27
90 (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
Hexadecimal:
1B
5A (n1) (n2) (data1) (data2) .
Graphics Mode
. . (data(d))
. . (data(d))
. . (data(d))
Explanation:
Turns on Quadruple Density Graphics Mode, printing’ 1920
dots per 8-inch line. If d is the total number of dots required,
nl and n2 are calculated thus:
nl=d MOD 256 and n2=INT (d/256).
and are followed by d data bytes.
Cannot print adjacent dots.
Select Graphics Mode
ESC *
Format:
ASCII code:
ESC
* (m) (n1) (n2) (data1)(data2) . . . (data(d))
Decimal:
27
42 (m) (n1) (n2) (data1)(data2) . . . (data(d))
Hexadecimal:
1B
2A (m) (n1) (n2) (data1)(data2) . . . (data(d))
Explanation:
Select Graphics Mode where m is mode 0 to 6. If d is the total
number of dots required, nl and n2 are calculated thus:
nl=d MOD 256 and n2=INT (d/256).
and are followed by d data bytes.
c-22
ESC ?
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Reassign Graphics Mode
ESC
27
1B
?
63
3F
(s)
(s)
(s)
(n)
(n)
(n)
Explanation:
Change one graphics mode to another. The mode s is the ASCII
code for the character K, L, Y, or Z which is reassigned to a mode
O-6 as in the ESC * command. Details of the modes are given in
Chapter 9.
Select 9-Pin Graphics Mode
ESC A
Format:
ASCII code:
^ (m) (n1) (n2) (data1)(data2) . . . (data(d))
ESC
Decimal:
94 (m) (n1) (n2) (data1)(data2) . . . (data(d))
27
Hexadecimal:
1B
5E (m) (n1) (n2) (data1)(data2) . . . (data(d))
Explanation:
Turns on Y-Pin Graphics Mode. The variable m defines density
of print (0 for single and 1 for double) and d is the total number
of dots required. nl and n2 are calculated thus:
nl=d MOD 256 and n2=INT (d/256).
and are followed by two times d data bytes. The printer expects
two data items for each column of print.
Miscellaneous Codes
CR
Format:
ASCII code:
CR
Decimal:
13
Hexadecimal: 0 D
Carriage Return
Explanation:
Prints the data in the buffer and returns the print position to
the left margin. A line feed may also be added if either 2-3 is
ON or the AUTO PEED XT line on the parallel printer interface
is held Low.
C-23
BEL
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Beeper
BEL
7
7
Explanation:
Sounds the beeper.
DEL
Format:
DEL
ASCII code:
127
Decimal:
Hexadecimal: 7 F
Delete
Explanation:
Removes the previous text character on the print line but does
not affect control codes. Does not work at left margin.
CAN
Format:
ASCII code:
Decimal:
Hexadecimal:
Control:
Cancel
CAN
24
Ctrl X
Explanation:
Deletes all data on the print line previous to this character but
does not affect control codes.
C-24
Appendix D
The DIP Switches
Several tiny switches called DIP (for Dual In-Line Package)
switches are in the back of your LX-86 printer. They control a number of important printer functions. For most uses they can be left as
they were set at the factory, but you may want to change some
settings.
The design of the LX-86 gives you easy access to the switches. You
can see them in the back of the printer as indicated in Figure D-l.
Figure D-l. DIP switch location
D-l
Always turn the power OFF (with the switch on the right side of
the printer) before you change the setting of any of these switches.
Any changes made while the power is on will be ignored until you
turn the printer off and back on. So set all switches with the power
off.
In Table D-l we show you the functions of all the switches. Then
we explain each of them.
Table D-I. DIP switch functions
Switch 1
No.
1-8
1-7
1-6
1-5
1-4
1-3
1-2
1-1
ON
ON
ON
ON
Inactive
12-inch
Active
Char. graphics
Condensed
Functions
International character set
International character set
International character set
Paper-out sensor
Form length
Cut-sheet feeder
Character set
Print width
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Active
11-inch
Inactive
Italics
Pica
Switch 2
No.
2-4
2-3
2-2
2-1
ON
Mute
CR + LF
Active
0
Functions
Beeper
Automatic line feed
Printer-select
Slashed zero
OFF
Sounds
CR only
Inactive
0
Note: The shaded boxes show the factory settings.
Switches l-6, l-7, and l-8 determine the active international character
set as shown in Table D-2.
Table D-2. International DIP switch settings
Country
USA
France
Germany
United Kingdom
Denmark
Sweden
Italy
Spain
Switch 1-6
On
O n
O n
O n
Off
Off
Off
Off
Switch 1-7
Switch 1-8
O n
On
Off
Off
On
On
Off
Off
On
On
On
Off
On
Off
O n
Off
The use of international sets is discussed in Chapter 6.
D-2
Switch l-5 controls the paper-end detector. When it is ON, the
detector is inactive, causing printing to continue even when the printer is out of paper. When it is OFF, the printer stops when the end of
the paper passes the paper-end detector. Some computer systems
ignore the setting of this switch. See Appendix F.
Switch l-4 selects the paper length. When it is OFF, the length is 11”;
when it is ON, the length is 12”.
Switch l-3 controls the optional cut-sheet feeder. When it is ON,
the cut-sheet feeder is enabled. When it is OFF, the cut-sheet
feeder is disabled.
Switch 1-2 selects character graphics or italics as the default
characters for the upper half of the character set, as shown in the
character tables in Appendix A. If switch l-2 is OFF, italics are
selected. If it is ON, character graphics are selected. Even if
character graphics are selected, you can still print italics with
ESCape 4.
Switch l-1 selects condensed or pica printing. ON is condensed; OFF
is pica. Regardless of the setting, you can still select condensed with
SelecType and either condensed or pica with ESCape codes.
Switch 2-4 enables the beeper to sound when it is OFF; when it is
ON, the beeper cannot sound.
Switch 2-3 controls line feeds. When it is ON, the LX-86 performs an
automatic line feed with each carriage return; when it is OFF, the
computer system sends the line feeds. If your printing has an extra
space between lines, turn the switch OFF. If all the lines of your
printing are on top of each other, turn the switch ON. This switch
enables the LX-86 to match either type of computer system.
Switch 2-2 selects the printer. When it is ON, the printer cannot be
deactivated by software codes. When it is OFF, the printer is inactive
until it receives the proper software code.
Switch 2-1 controls the printing of zeros. When it is ON, the zeros
are slashed (ø); when it is OFF, they are not.
D-3
Appendix E
Using the Optional Tractor Unit
The optional tractor unit for the LX-86 allows you to use
continuous paper with pin feed holes along the sides. The unit is
adjustable so that the continuous paper can be any width from 4
to 10 inches. (The LX-86 can also use the LX-80™ tractor unit.)
Printer Location
When you use the tractor and continuous paper, you must put
your LX-86 where the paper can flow freely in and out of the printer.
Use a printer stand or any other arrangement that fits your working
area. Just make sure that the paper coming out of the printer does not
interfere with the paper going in and that the paper going in does not
catch on the printer cable. Because of the cable, it is usually best for
the paper that feeds into the printer to be stacked somewhat behind
the printer instead of directly beneath it. Two possible setups are
shown in Figures E-l and E-2.
Figure E-l. Continuous paper with printer stand
E-l
Figure E-2. Continuous paper without stand
Tractor Unit Installation
To install the removable tractor unit, first pull the friction lever
toward the front of the printer. Then hold the tractor with the gears
to the right as shown in Figure E-3.
Figure E-3. Tractor placement
E-2
In each tractor slot are two pegs that fit into the notches on the
tractor fittings. Tilt the tractor back so that the rear notches fit over
the rear pegs. Then tilt the unit forward until it clicks into place.
That’s all there is to it.
Now install the paper separator and pull out the paper guide as
shown in Figure E-4. Fit the notches in the bottom corners of the
separator over the pins at the front of the paper slot. The separator
keeps the paper that is coming out of the printer from being pulled
back in. Pull out the paper guide at the back of the printer. This guide
helps keep the incoming paper from catching on the printer cable.
Figure E-4. Paper separator and paper guide
E-3
When you want to use single sheet paper in your LX-86, you can
remove the tractor unit quite easily. Just push back the two tractor
release levers shown in Figure E-5, tilt the unit backwards, and lift it
up.
Figure E-5. Tractor release levers
Loading Continuous Paper
Once your tractor is installed, you can load continuous paper. See
that the printer is turned off, and open the front lid. Then move the
print head to the center of the printer, and pull the paper bail away
from the platen (the black roller) just as you did for single sheet
loading. (Look back at Figure l-7 if you need to check on the names
of any of these parts.)
Now, using Figure E-6 as your guide, pull the locking levers forward so that you can move the pin feed holders to the left and right.
Put the left holder approximately 3/4 of an inch from the extreme left
position and then push the locking lever back to lock that holder in
place. Leave the other holder unlocked.
E-4
Figure E-6. Pin feed bolder adjustment
Next, open the pin feed covers as shown in Figure E-7 and feed the
paper under the paper separator and into the paper slot; push the
paper through until it comes up between the ribbon guide and the
platen.
Figure E-7. Open pin feed cover
E-5
Next pull the paper up until the top is above the pin-feed holders.
Fit the holes on the left side of the paper over the pins in the left
holder and close the cover. Now fit the right side of the paper in the
right holder, moving the holder as needed to match the width of the
paper. Close the second cover, make sure the paper has no dips or
wrinkles, lock the right holder in place, and push the paper bail
against the paper.
Now you are ready to set the top of page position. Turn the
paper-feed knob to advance the paper until a perforation between
sheets is approximately l/8 of an inch below the top of the ribbon
guide, as you see in Figure E-8.
Figure E-8. Top of page position
When you turn on your LX-86, it will remember this top of page
setting and will use it when any program tells it to move to the top of
the next page. If you later find that your word processing or other
applications program is putting your printing too high or too low on
the page or is printing on the perforations, check to see that your top
of page setting is correct.
Once you have set the top of page, each time you finish printing a
document, push the ON LINE button to put the printer off-line and
then push the FF button once o advance the paper so that you can
tear off your just-printed page and the paper will be in the right
position to begin the next docume n t .
E-6
Appendix F
Troubleshooting and Advanced Features
This appendix approaches troubleshooting from several directions.
The first section uses a columnar format to match solutions with
problems. Other sections cover beeper error warnings, hexadecimal
data dumping, coding and seven-bit solutions, and specific solutions
for several popular personal computer systems.
Problem/Solution Summary
Possible problems are listed on the left and solutions on the right.
Problem
Setting print styles
Can’t get condensed print.
Tabbing
Horizontal tabs don’t work.
Horizontal tabs are incorrect
when changing pitch.
Graphics
Strange things print.
Solution
Cancel emphasized; it has
priority over condensed.
Set margins before tabs, not after.
Tabs are set according to current
print pitch. Changes in pitch do
not affect the position of the tabs
on the page.
Some systems require a WIDTH
statement. See your system documentation.
Many computers have problems
sending one or more of the codes
between 0 and 13. Avoid any that
F-l
affect your system if possible.
You can also POKE the problem
codes directly to the printer port.
Seven- bit computers cannot
use the eighth pin (12 8). If you
have a seven-bit computer and
any of your graphics data
numbers are larger than 127,
change the design so that all
numbers are less than 128.
Be sure that no other commands
or carriage returns come between
the graphics command and its
data. See Chapter 9.
Printer
mode.
“freezes”
in graphics The printer expects a certain
number of pin patterns, determined by nl and n2. It will wait
patiently until the quota is full.
Note that 9-pin graphics mode
requires two bytes for each column of graphics.
Can’t get a full page in width.
Some systems require a WIDTH
statement. See your system documentation.
Problems with paper feeding or
irregular darkness of printing.
If a self-adhesive label comes off
of the backing, it may stick behind the platen and cause problems with paper feeding and
printing. If this happens, take
your LX-86 to a qualified service
person; do not attempt to remove the label yourself.
F-2
Paper-out sensor
Can’t deactivate paper-out sensor
with DIP switch l-5 or ESCape
"8".
Computer systems that monitor
printer cable pin 12 will ignore
both ESCape “8” and the setting
of switch l-5. These systems will
stop the printing when no paper
is in contact with the paper-end
detector (a small switch located
beneath the platen). Certain printer cables are designed to overcome this problem, or you can
use a longer page as a backing
sheet.
Beeper Error Warnings
When the LX-86’s beeper sounds, it usually indicates that the
printer is out of paper. The beeper can also be sounded by any
program that sends the ASCII 7 code and by certain error conditions
in the printer itself.
If the printer beeps and stops printing when it is not out of paper,
turn the printer off and check to see if the paper is loaded correctly. If
the paper is loaded correctly, turn the printer back on and try to print
again. If the printer beeps and does not print again, take it to a
qualified service person.
Data Dump Mode
The LX-86 has a special feature that makes it easy for experienced
printer users to find the causes of problems. Called the data dump
mode, it gives a printout of exactly what codes reach the printer.
Turn on this mode by turning on the printer while holding
down the FORM FEED and LINE FEED buttons at the same time.
The printer responds by printing the words “Data Dump Mode. ”
Then, when you run a program, either an applications program or
one you have written in any programming language, the LX-86
prints one or more lines. Each line has three parts: the line number
(four digits), the hexadecimal codes (up to 16 numbers), and the
guide section (16 characters at the end of each line except the last).
F-3
The hexadecimal numbers are the codes received by the printer,
and the guide section helps you find a certain place in the list of codes.
Each character in the guide section corresponds to one of the codes. If
the code is for a printable character, that character is printed. If the
code is for a non-printable character, such as the ESCape code or the
code for a line feed or carriage return, a dot is printed.
Therefore, if you ran the following BASIC program while your
IX-86 was in the data dump mode, you would get the printout below
it. The printer will print all but this last line and then stop. Press the
ON LINE button to make the printer print the last line.
10 FOR X=70 TO 73
20 LPRINT CHR$(X): NEXT X
30 LPRINT CHR$( 27) “E”
40 LPRINT "Sample text"
50 LPRINT CHR$( 27) “@”
You can consult Appendix A or the Quick Reference Card to see
the meaning of the hexadecimal codes. We will explain the first line to
put you on the right track for using the data dump mode.
The first code in line 0000 is hex 46, which is the same as decimal
70, which is the code for “F”; therefore “F” is printed in the first
position in the guide section. Then, because there is no semicolon in
line 20, MBASIC sends a carriage return and a line feed, hex codes 0D
and 0A. Each of these is represented by a dot in the guide section. The
program then sends the hex codes 47, 48, and 49, with each followed
by a carriage return and line feed.
When the program gets to line 30, it sends ESCape “E” and a
carriage return and line feed. These are hex codes lB, 45, 0D, and 0A,
which are represented in the guide section by a dot, an “E”, and two
more dots. Now you can follow a data dump printout on your own.
Some computer systems change one or more codes when sending
them from BASIC to the printer. The ability of the Ix-86 to dump in
hexadecimal lets you determine which codes are creating problems
for your system.
F-4
A hex printout of a program shows you exactly what the printer is
receiving, regardless of what the computer is sending. The following
test program lets you check to see what codes, if any, are problems
for your computer system.
10 FOR X=0 TO 255
20 LPRINT CHR$(X) ;
30 NEXT X
Put the printer in data dump mode and then RUN the program.
Remember to press the ON LINE button to make the Lx-86 print
the final line. Then compare your printout with the list of hex codes
in order in the middle columns of page A-2 in Appendix A. If any are
skipped or repeated, you will know that your BASIC language
changes some codes before it sends them to the printer.
For example, in the line below, which is the first line of the
printout of the test program run on a system that changes hex 09,
which is the code for horizontal tabbing, to several 20s, the code
for a space. Therefore, you know that if you use this system, you
must be careful about sending a decimal 9 (hex 09).
The data dumping capability can help you solve problems
quickly. Appendix A will help you translate the hex codes to
ASCII equivalents.
Coding Solutions
Once you’ve determined that a code creates problems for your
printing, either by trial and error or by using the data dumping
capability of the LX-86, you can start overcoming them.
Because each computer system deals with ASCII codes differently,
it is impossible to provide solutions for all potential problems in one
appendix. We can, however, point out generic problems and suggest
ways to handle them.
There are four common approaches. First, you may be able to buy
an alternative printer interface card for your system. This is the best
solution for 7-bit system problems. See your computer dealer for
advice about this.
F-5
The second approach is to use commercially available software that
is specifically designed to overcome these coding problems. Consult
your computer dealer or computer publications to see if a program
for your computer system is available.
The third approach consists of avoiding the software that is changing the codes. On most computers you can send each code directly to
the printer port. This bypasses the BASIC interpreter and avoids the
interface.
Unfortunately, this process is also different for each computer
system. Consult your computer’s manual to determine if you can
do the same on your system.
A fourth approach is to change the printer driver program in your
system. This requires a knowledge of machine language and of the
way your computer works. If you don’t have this knowledge, your
computer dealer may be able to help you or suggest someone who
can.
Solutions for Specific Systems
The next four subsections illustrate dealing with interface puzzles
on four types of computers.
Applesoft BASIC solutions
Applesoft BASIC does not use PRINT to send data to the screen
and LPRINT to send data to the printer as MBASIC does. Therefore,
put an PR#l at the beginning of a program and change all instances
of LPRINT to PRINT.
If one of our programs contains an INPUT statement or a PRINT
statement, there will be a message that should go to the screen before
anything is sent to the printer. In these programs, leave the first lines
as they are and after the INPUT and/or PRINT statements, add a line
that states PR#l ; then change all the instances of LPRINT to PRINT
and put a line that states PR#0 at the end of the program.
Apple® II solutions
There are two types of problems that you who own Apple II
computers will need to address. The first is that the Apple II is an
8-bit computer, but its printer interface only handles seven bits. The
second is that there is one problem code number: nine.
F-6
The printer interface card furnished with the Apple II computer
only passes seven bits to the LX-86, which means that you have a
7-bit system. Should you need an 8-bit system, the simplest solution
is to purchase a new printer interface card from your computer
dealer. Such a card is available for the Apple II.
The Apple II uses CHR$(9) to “initialize” the printer. This code
and the following character or characters are intercepted by the printer interface card and used to change modes. You can divert all output
to the printer instead of to the screen by sending the following line to
the printer:
PR#1
PRINT CHR$(9)"80N"
Then type anything, followed by RETURN.
The CHRS(9)“80N” code directs all subsequent output to the
printer, up to 80 characters per row. You can cancel this by typing:
PRINT
CHR$(9)"I"
or PR#O
The problem is that the LX-86 uses CHR$(9) to activate horizontal
tabulation and can also use it in graphics programs. When you send
this code, however, your system will interpret it as a printer initialization code and the program will not work properly. In these cases use
the following method to change your printer initialization code to a
number that is not used in the program. For example, you can change
your initialization code to one by typing:
PR#l
PRINT CHR$(9); CHR$(l)
IBM-PC solutions
There are two problems in using the IBM Personal Computer
BASIC to drive a printer. First, the IBM-PC BASIC inserts a
carriage-return/line-feed (CR-LF) after each 80 characters you send
it. Second, it adds an LF to each CR in an LPRINT statement.
Here is the way to adjust the width when it is the only problem.
Tell the computer that the print line is wider than 80 characters with
this WIDTH statement:
WIDTH "LPTl:", 255
F-7
he 255 is a special number that prevents the computer system from
inserting a CR-LF into the line. Unless, of course, there’s one in your
program.
The extra line feed-CHR$(10)--that accompanies each carriage
return--CHR$(13)-- is no problem except when you need to use
CHR$(13) in a graphics program. Getting rid of the extra CHR$(10)
is rather complicated. First you open the printer as a random file:
OPEN “LPT1 : ” AS #1
Although this allows you to send any code to the printer, you can no
longer use the LPRINT command. Instead, you must use a PRINT
# 1 command :
PRINT #1, “ N o w I c a n p r i n t , a n y t h i n g ”
This does allow you to print anything, but it ignores any previous
WIDTH statements.
If you want to print more than 80 characters per line in a
graphics program, you must therefore change your opening
statement to include the appropriate WIDTH statement:
OPEN “LPT1: ” AS #1 : WIDTH $1, 255
And for the programs in this manual, don’t forget to use PRINT #l
wherever we use LPRINT.
This won’t work for those of you who have the original release of
the Disk Operating System (DOS 1.0). It can’t run a printer like a
file. IBM has, however, issued a free update; take a disk to your
dealer to get your copy.
Another printer problem with DOS 1.0 is that it doesn’t send
CHR$(7) to the printer; it just rings the computer’s bell. This has also
been corrected in subsequent versions.
F-8
Appendix H
Technical Specifications
Printing
Printing method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact dot matrix
Printing speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 characters per second in draft
pica
Paper feed speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximately 150 ms/line (at l/6
inch/line)
Approximately 100 ms/line (during
continuous line feed)
Printing direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bidirectional, logic seeking
Unidirectional (left to right) in
graphics mode
Character size
Mode
Pica
Pica double-width
Elite
Elite double-width
Condensed
Condensed double-width
Super/Subscript
Width inches
.083
.166
.059
.118
.041
.083
in
in
in
in
in
in
Height inches
.122
.122
.122
.122
.122
.122
.063
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
Line spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Default is l/6 inch. Programmable in
increments of l/72 inch and l/216 inch
H-l
Characters per line:
Maximum
Pica
Pica double-width
Elite
Elite double-width
Condensed
Condensed double-width
Condensed elite
*137 if right margin is changed.
*68 if right margin is changed.
characters per line
80
40
96
48
132*
66*
160
Paper
Paper width
Paper feed
Tractor feed with
optional tractor
Friction feed
Single sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . up to 8.5”
Number of copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . One original plus one copy;
total thickness not to exceed 0.005”
Pin-feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4” to 10”
Printer
Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cassette ribbon, black
MTBF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 3 million lines (excluding print-head
life)
Print head life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 million characters
Dimensions and Weight
Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth (without paper
separator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..a*..
Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 in
16.6 in
12.4 in
11.5 lbs
120 VAC + 10% (US models)
220/240 VAC ± 10% (European
models)
Power usage .,.................... 70 volt-amperes maximum
Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49.5 to 60.5 Hz
H-2
Environment
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O perating 41°F to 95°F (5°C to 35°C)
Storage -- 22°F to 149°F (-30°C to
65°C)
Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating 10% to 80% (no condensation)
Storage 5% to 85% (no condensation)
Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating 1 G (less than 1 millisecond)
Storage 2 G (less than 1 millisecond)
Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating 0.25 G, 55Hz (maximum)
Storage 0.50 G, 55Hz (maximum)
Insulation resistance ......... 10 megaohms between AC power line
and chassis
Dielectric strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 VAC at 50 / 60Hz for 1 minute
between AC line and chassis
Interface
Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centronics compatible, 8-bit parallel
Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By externally supplied STROBE
pulses
Handshaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By ACKNLG and BUSY signals
Logic level . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . Input data and all interface control
signals are compatible with TTL levels
H-3
INDEX
For information on specific commands, see Appendix B or Appendix C.
A
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. See ASCII
Apple computers, F6 - F7
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), 27 - 28
codes listed for all characters, A-l -A-4
Automatic test. See Test pattern
B
Beeper, P-3
Bidirectional printing, 22
Bold printing. See Double-strike; Emphasized
C
Cable, 13 - 14
Centtonics, 13
Character graphics, 47 - 48
Codes. See ASCII codes; Control codes; ESCape code
Commands
in numerical order, B-l -B-4
by function, C-l -C-24
Condensed elite mode, 37
Condensed mode, 35
Continuous-feed paper, E-l -E-6
Control codes, 29
in numerical order, B-l -B-4
by function, C-l -C-24
Control panel, 10 - 11
Selecting typestyles with. See SelecType
Cut-sheet feeder option, D-2 -D-3
D
Data dump mode, F3 - P-5
Dimensions of printer, H-2
DIP switches, D-l -D-3
Dot graphics. See Graphics
Dot matrix, 21-25
Double-strike mode, 41
Double-width mode, 42
Dumping data in hexadecimal, P-3 - F5
J-1
E
Elite mode, 35
Emphasized mode, 39 - 40
Environment, specifications for, H-3
Error, F3
ESCape code, 28
listed by function, C-l -C-24
listed by number, B-l -B-4
F
FF. See Form feed
Foreign language characters. See International characters
FORM FEED button, 10 -- 11
Formatting, page, 53 -- 57
Friction lever, 9 -- 10, E-2
Function switches. See DIP switches
G
Graphics, 71-87, F-l -- F-2
Graphics characters, 47 -- 48, 51 -- 52
H
Head. See Print head
Hex dumping. See Data dump mode
I
IBM Personal Computer BASIC, F-7 -- F-8
Interface, H-3, I-l -1-4
International characters, 48 -- 50, D-2
Italic mode, 43 -- 44
J
Justification with NLQ, 54
K
Knob. See Paper-feed knob
L
Lever. See Friction lever
Line feed
automatic, DIP switch setting for, D-2 -- D-3
button, 10 -- 11
Line spacing, 55 -- 56
Location of printer, 4, E-l -E-2
Lubrication, G-l
J-2
M
Maintenance, G-l
Margins, 53 -- 54
Master Select, 45 -- 47
Matrix. See Dot matrix
N
Near Letter Quality (NLQ) mode, 24 -- 25, 37
0
ON LINE light and button, 10 -- 11
See also SelecType
P
Page formatting, 53 -- 57
Panel buttons, selecting typestyles with. See SelecType
Paper loading, 9 -- 10, E-4 -E-6
Paper-feed knob, 4-5
Paper-out sensor, 57, D-2 -D-3, F-3
Parallel interface. See Interface
Pica mode, 34 -- 35
Pitch, summary table of, 38
Print head, 21, 73
Print pitch summary table, 38
R
Reset code, 36
Ribbon, installation and replacement, 5 -- 8
S
SelecType feature, 15 -- 19
Self test. See Test pattern
Sensor. See Paper-out sensor
Seven-bit systems, F-5 -- F-6
Skip-over-perforation, 55
Special graphics characters, 51 -- 52
Specifications, H-l -H-3
Subscript, 47
Superscript, 47
Switches. See DIP switches
T
Technical specifications, H-l -H-3
Test pattern, 12
Tractor, optional, E-l -E-6
Troubleshooting, F-l -F-8
J-3
U
Underline mode, 44 -- 45
User-defined characters, 59 -- 70
W
WIDTH statements, 80
z
Zero, slashed, D-2 -D-3
J-4
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