Agilent Technologies Noise Figure Selection Guide

Agilent Technologies Noise Figure Selection Guide
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Minimize the Noise
X-Series signal analyzers
Giving you the confidence you need for the
noise figure measurements you make
Noise Figure Overview
Table of Contents
Noise Figure Overview .........................2
NFA ........................................................10
X-Series Signal Analyzers
(PXA/MXA/EXA/CXA) ....................11
PSA .........................................................13
ESA .........................................................14
PNA-X Microwave
Network Analyzer ...............................15
SNS Series Smart
Noise Sources .....................................16
346 Series Traditional
Noise Sources .....................................17
347 Series High Frequency
Noise Sources .....................................18
Noise Source Test Set .......................19
Noise figure is one of the key parameters used to characterize
the ability of receivers and their lower-level components to
process weak signals in the presence of thermal noise. For
example, when measuring low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), noise
figure describes the signal-to-noise degradation that occurs due
to the internally generated noise of the LNAs' active devices.
Agilent has provided noise figure test solutions for 50 years—
from noise meters to modern spectrum-, network-, and noise
figure analyzer-based solutions. These instruments provide easy
measurements that can be performed quickly, with high levels of
measurement accuracy.
Accurate measurements of noise figure are crucial in both R&D and
manufacturing situations. In R&D, better accuracy allows for
better agreement between simulations and measurements, and
may help uncover noise contributors that were not considered in
the simulation. In manufacturing, higher accuracy means smaller
guard bands for setting and verifying component specifications.
Better specifications yield more competitive products that can
command higher prices or attain greater market share.
Additional Resources ..........................20
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Measurement techniques
The two main methods of
measuring noise figure are:
• Y-factor
• Cold-source
To find out more about these
methods see Application Note
57-1, Fundamentals of RF
and Microwave Noise Figure
Measurements, literature
number 5952-8255E.
In order to select the right instrument for your noise figure needs, it is important
to have a basic understanding of how noise figure measurements are made as
well as their associated measurement uncertainties. Noise figure measurement
uncertainty depends not only on the test equipment, but is also a function of the
characteristics of the device under test (DUT)—for example, S-parameters and
noise parameters.
There are two main methods in use today to measure noise figure. The most
prevalent method is called the Y-factor or hot/cold-source technique. The
Y-factor method uses a noise source placed at the input of the DUT, providing
two levels of input noise. This method yields noise figure and scalar gain of
the DUT, and is used with both spectrum and noise figure analyzer solutions.
The Y-factor technique is easy to use, and it provides good measurement
accuracy, especially when the noise source has a good source match and
can be connected directly to the DUT.
The other method used is called the cold-source or direct-noise method. Instead
of using a noise source at the DUT’s input, only a known termination (usually
50 ohms) is needed. However, the cold-source method requires an independent
measurement of the DUT’s gain. This method works well with vector network
analyzers, since vector error correction can be used to get very accurate
gain (S21) measurements. When using the PNA-X, the combination of vector
error correction and the PNA-X’s unique source-correction method provides
the highest noise figure measurement accuracy in the industry. The other
advantage of the cold-source method is that both S-parameter and noise figure
measurements can be made with a single connection to the DUT. During system
calibration, a noise source is required.
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Measurement uncertainty
There are several key contributions to overall noise figure measurement
uncertainty. When selecting a noise figure solution, it is important to choose the
method that minimizes the main contributor to overall noise figure uncertainty.
Some of these contributions can be found on instrument data sheets—for
example, instrument uncertainty, excess noise ratio (ENR) uncertainty, and
jitter—while others depend on the interaction between the test system and
the DUT. For example, there are two sources of error due to imperfect system
source match (a deviation from the ideal 50 ohms). The first is mismatch error,
which results from non-ideal power transfer between the test system and the
DUT. The second source of error is from the interaction between the noise
generated within the DUT and the source match (Γs) seen by the DUT. The
following figure compares noise figure measurement uncertainty between the
Y-factor method and the cold-source method (as implemented on the PNA-X).
The example amplifier has a noise figure of 3 dB, gain of 15 dB, input and output
match of 10 dB, and moderate noise parameters (Fmin = 2.8 dB, Γopt = 0.27 + j0,
Rn= 37.4). For the Y-factor method, the uncertainty is calculated in two different
ways: one with the noise source connected directly to the DUT, and one with an
electrical network simulating the switches and cables from an automated-testequipment (ATE) setup placed between the noise source and the DUT (with loss
correction). The PNA-X example includes the ATE network.
Uncertainty breakdown
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
dB
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Figure 1. Breakdown of the major
contributors to noise figure
measurement uncertainty for the
Y-factor and cold-source (with
source correction) techniques.
Y-factor with ATE network
Y-factor with noise source
connected to DUT
Jitter
S-parameter
DUT noise/ГS
interaction
Mismatch
ENR uncertainty
Total uncertainty
PNA-X with ATE network
Notes:
Noise source = 346C
97% confidence
Uncertainty contributors
With the Y-factor method, the main sources of error are due to mismatch
between the noise source and DUT, as well as the interaction between the noise
generated by the DUT and the system. The simulated ATE network (inserted
between the noise source and DUT) causes the errors to increase. For the
PNA-X’s source-corrected cold-source method, the largest source of error is
the ENR uncertainty of the noise source, which affects the measurement of the
PNA-X’s internal noise receivers during calibration.
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System components for noise figure measurements
Total or overall noise figure of a system is a result of three individual
components: the instrument used to measure noise figure, the noise source
used in measurements or calibration, and the DUT. The Y-factor method
is the basis of most noise figure measurements. It uses a noise source to
determine the internal noise in the DUT, while calibrating, and when making
measurements. On the other hand, the cold-source method only uses the noise
source during calibration, as shown in the figures below.
Y-factor solution
Noise figure, signal
or spectrum analyzer
DUT
Noise source
Cold-source solution
VNA
ECal
tuner
DUT
For calibration only:
Calibration kit
or ECal module
Noise source
Figure 2. Basic components needed to make noise figure measurements.
Each of the components shown in the figures above are described in greater
detail in the following sections. The Y-factor method uses one of three different
instruments: NFA and signal/spectrum analyzers with noise figure option. The
cold-source technique uses the PNA-X network analyzer with a noise figure
option to make noise figure measurements.
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Selecting an instrument
Three noise figure solutions
from Agilent:
• Noise figure analyzer
— the only one-box solution
on the market
• Signal/spectrum analyzers
— economic solution with
good performance
• Network analyzers
— highest measurement
accuracy
With the wide range of instruments that Agilent offers for noise figure, it should
be easy to find a solution that fits your noise figure test needs. There are three
different types of solution platforms that Agilent offers: dedicated noise figure
analyzer, signal/spectrum analyzers, and vector network analyzers. The
benefits of each are outlined below:
Noise figure analyzer (NFA): As the leader in noise figure measurement
solutions, Agilent offers the only one-box solution for noise figure measurements
on the market today. The NFA Series is made exclusively for accurate noise
figure measurements, comes with a standard internal preamplifier, and covers
three frequency ranges: 3, 6.7, and 26.5 GHz. The NFA Series can also be used
with block downconverters to make measurements up to 110 GHz. These
analyzers use the Y-factor method to measure noise figure. They offer low
instrument noise figure and are a good compromise between a flexible signal/
spectrum analyzer and the most accurate network-analyzer-based solutions.
Signal/spectrum analyzers: Adding a noise figure option to a versatile spectrum
analyzer is an economical way to add noise figure measurement capabilities.
The accuracy and frequency range of this solution depends on which base
instrument it is installed. Signal/spectrum analyzers use the Y-factor method
to measure noise figure. Preamplification, either external or internal, often
improves accuracy.
Network analyzers: If you need the highest noise figure measurement accuracy,
choose Agilent’s PNA-X network analyzer with the noise figure option. This
solution is based on the cold-source technique, and it allows S-parameter and
noise figure measurements with a single connection to the DUT.
When selecting an instrument to meet your needs, it is first important to select
an instrument that will cover the frequency range of your DUT. Table 1 below
shows all the noise figure solutions that Agilent offers, as well as the frequency
ranges at which you can expect hard specifications, nominal specifications, or
those that are not recommended for noise figure measurements.
Specified frequency range for noise figure performance
Instrument series
200 kHz - 10 MHz 10 MHz - 3 GHz
3 GHz -7 GHz
7 GHz - 26.5 GHz 26.5 GHz - 110 GHz Page
CXA
ESA
11
14
EXA
MXA
PSA
PXA
11
11
13
11
NFA
10
PNA-X
15
Table 1. Agilent offers a wide range of instruments to cover different frequency ranges for noise figure measurements: nominal specifications are
specifications based on the testing of an instrument, but are not guaranteed performance; hard specifications are specifications that are proven
and guaranteed performance; and actual performance may exceed the numbers listed in the specification guide
Not recommended
Nominal specifications
Hard specifications
Hard specifications
to 3.6 GHz
Nominal specifications
with block downconverters
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Equally important when selecting an instrument to meet your noise figure
needs are the specifications. Please note that this table gives the nominal
specifications at 1 GHz for each instrument in order to provide customers with
a quick comparison chart. Refer to the individual specifications guide for each
product for full specification information, including but not limited to hard
specifications vs. nominal specifications at different frequency ranges.
Nominal specifications at 1 GHz
Y-factor
instruments
Noise figure instrument
uncertainty (dB)
Noise figure gain
uncertainty (dB)
Instrument match
Noise figure of the
instrument (dB)
Page
CXA
0.05
0.2
1.5
10.2
12
ESA
0.24
0.83
1.4
8.75
15
EXA
0.03
0.15
1.3
13
12
MXA
0.02
0.1
1.3
9.5
12
PSA
0.05
0.17
1.1
6.5
14
PXA
0.02
0.07
1.3
9.75
12
NFA
0.05
0.17
1.7
4.75
11
Linearity
S21 parameter
uncertainty
Instrument match
Noise figure of the
instrument (dB)
Page
0.05
0.05
1.02
12
16
Cold-source
instruments
PNA-X
Table 2. This chart compares the different noise figure solutions at 1 GHz with nominal specifications only; for full specifications, including hard
specifications, please refer to the specification guide for each instrument
Selecting a noise source
When measuring noise figure, the quality of the noise source is crucial for
accurate, repeatable measurements. The ENRs of Agilent noise sources are
carefully calibrated with traceability to national standards institutes in the U.S.
and U.K. The output of a noise source is defined in terms of its frequency range
and ENR. Nominal ENR values of 6 dB and 15 dB are commonly available. A low
ENR noise source will minimize error due to noise detector non-linearity. This
error will be smaller if the measurement is made over a smaller, and therefore
more linear, range of the instrument’s detector. A 6 dB noise source uses a
smaller detector range than a 15 dB noise source.
Use a 6 dB noise source for:
• Measuring a device with gain that is especially sensitive to changes in
the source impedance
• The DUT has a very low noise figure
• The device noise figure does not exceed 15 dB
Use a 15 dB noise source for:
• General-purpose applications to measure noise figure up to 30 dB
• User-calibrating the fullest dynamic range of an instrument before
measuring high gain devices
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Agilent offers three different families of noise sources, with different frequency
ranges, source matches, ENR, and connector types. The Smart Noise
Source Series simplifies measurement setup by automatically downloading
electronically stored calibration data to the instrument, saving valuable
engineering time. The traditional 346 Series is the most cost-effective solution—
these noise sources offer the widest range of frequency coverage. Lastly, Agilent
offers high-frequency noise sources with waveguide interfaces for making
measurements above 26.5 GHz.
Agilent noise sources
Smart noise
sources
SNS Series
Traditional
noise sources
346 Series
High frequency
noise sources
347 Series
Noise source
ENR- typical
Frequency range
Page
N4000A
4.6 – 6.5 dB
10 MHz – 18 GHz
17
N4001A
14 – 16 dB
10 MHz – 18 GHz
17
N4002A
12 – 17 dB
10 MHz – 26 GHz
17
346A
5 – 7 dB
10 MHz – 18 GHz
18
346B
14 – 16 dB
10 MHz – 18 GHz
18
346C
12 – 17 dB
10 MHz – 26 GHz
18
346C-K01
21 dB
1 GHz – 50 GHz
18
Q347B
6 – 13 dB
33 GHz – 50 GHz
19
R347B
10 – 13 dB
26.5 GHz – 40 GHz
19
Table 3. Agilent offers three different families of noise sources to fit within a variety of budgets and test requirements
The noise source families above work with different instruments, listed below
in Table 4.
Noise source support
Y-Factor
Instruments
346 Series
347 Series
N4000A SNS Series
Page
CXA
▲
▲
ESA
▲
▲
▲
15
EXA
▲
▲
▲
12
MXA
▲
▲
▲
12
PSA
▲
▲
PXA
▲
▲
▲
12
NFA
▲
▲
▲
11
PNA-X
▲
12
14
16
Table 4. This table lists noise source and instrument compatibility for noise figure measurements
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Device under test (DUT)
Your DUT contributes to the overall noise figure uncertainty based on its
individual noise figure, gain, port match, and noise parameters. In general,
there are two scenarios to consider when choosing the Y-Factor method. When
the output noise of the DUT is well above the input noise of the analyzer, the
analyzer with the best instrument uncertainty gives the most accurate results,
and the MXA signal analyzer is the best option. If the output noise of the
DUT is smaller, select the NFA noise figure analyzer, which gives the lowest
uncertainty. Refer to Table 2 for nominal specification comparison of these
solutions at 1 GHz.
The following graph shows how DUT gain affects noise figure uncertainty when using
a spectrum analyzer or noise figure analyzer. This example is at 1 GHz with a 346A
noise source and assumes the DUT has a 1.5 dB noise figure and 1.5:1 VSWR.
0.900
0.850
0.800
0.750
Noise Figure Uncertainty (dB)
0.700
0.650
ESA
CXA
EXA
8970B
MXA
NFA
PSA
PXA
0.600
0.550
0.500
0.450
0.400
0.350
0.300
0.250
0.200
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
DUT Gain (dB)
Figure 3. As the gain of a DUT decreases, Y-factor noise figure measurement uncertainty increases;
below 20 dB of gain, there are significant differences between the various instrument choices.
The values in the graph above were created via the noise figure uncertainty
calculator and nominal specifications at 1 GHz shown in Table 2. The uncertainty
calculator can be found at www.agilent.com/find/nfu. The uncertainty calculator
can be used for either of the following cases:
Modeling the performance of your system: For this purpose, defaults are available
for Agilent's noise figure instruments and noise sources. These defaults have typical
values associated with them and can be useful for estimating the effect individual
parameters have in overall uncertainty levels.
Making actual calculations of the uncertainty of your system: You will need to
obtain accurate values of all the associated parameters in question, such as match
and gain. Please consult the calibration certificates of your instruments to obtain the
measured uncertainty parameters of the equipment being used.
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Noise Figure
Analyzer (NFA)
N8973A
N8974A
N8975A
The only dedicated noise figure analyzer
on the market
The NFA Series is a family of dedicated noise figure analyzers designed to provide
comprehensive characterization of your DUT. These analyzers offer the traditional
benefits of a noise figure meter, plus the added features and functionality most
often requested by R&D and production-test engineers and technicians. Easeof-use features allow any engineer or technician to quickly setup measurements
correctly, view those measurements in different formats, and either print the
results or save them to a disk. In addition, on-screen limit lines simplify pass/
fail testing. Perform your measurements to the exact specifications required
with extended frequency coverage, high performance features, and selectable
measurement bandwidths. Repeatable, reliable measurements provide results that
you can trust. As a result, you will be able to produce more robust designs and
prototypes in the lab, and achieve higher yields and throughput in manufacturing.
Features:
• One-box analyzers to 3, 6.7, and 26.5 GHz, with extension to 110 GHz with
block downconverters
• Fully specified to 26.5 GHz with internal preamplifier
• Works with Agilent Smart Noise Source Series and 346 Series noise sources
• Internal measurement uncertainty calculator
Literature resources:
• NFA Series Brochure, literature number 5980-0166E
• NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzers Configuration Guide,
literature number 5980-0163E
• NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzers Data Sheet,
literature number 5980-0164E
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X-Series
Signal Analyzers
N9030A PXA
N9020A MXA
N9010A EXA
N9000A CXA
Noise figure for Agilent’s fastest
signal analyzers
Agilent's X-Series noise figure measurement application offers development engineers
a simple tool to make accurate and repeatable measurements. The noise figure option
utilizes the easy user interface and incredible speed of the Agilent X-Series signal
analyzers. The built-in help and internal step-by-step diagrams allow new users to start
making measurements instantly and save their results quickly. The W9069A for the
CXA signal analyzer offers hard specifications up to 7.5 GHz. The N9069A pairs with
the EXA for hard specifications up to 3.6 GHz, and the MXA or PXA for hard specifications up to 26.5 GHz. To meet these specifications, an internal preamplifier must also
be ordered with the noise figure option. In addition, these noise figure applications are
code-compatible with older Agilent noise figure solutions for similar measurements.
Features:
• Fully specified to 26.5 GHz with optional internal preamplifier on the
MXA or PXA signal analyzer
• MXA or PXA can be used with block downconverters for noise figure
measurements up to 110 GHz
• Fully specified to 3 GHz with optional internal preamplifier on the
EXA signal analyzer
• Fully specified to 7.5 GHz with optional internal preamplifier on the
CXA signal analyzer.
• Works with Agilent N4000A smart noise sources and 346 Series
noise sources
• Internal measurement uncertainty calculator
Literature resources:
• W9069A/N9069A Noise Figure Measurement Application,
Technical Overview with Self-Guided Demonstration,
literature number 5989-6536EN
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Block down conversion:
Noise figure measurements up to 110 GHz
Make noise figure
measurements up to 110 GHz
with either the NFA N8975A
or MXA N9020A-526.
Agilent offers the K-Series block downconverters which extend the upper
frequency limit of the N8975A or N9020A-526 from 26.5 GHz up to 110 GHz. The
downconverter uses an internal LO to down convert the input signal to an IF
that is within the measurement range. The K-Series is offered in 13.5 GHz bands.
For example, a customer that would like to do noise figure measurements to
52 GHz would order K40, K50, and K63 in order to bridge from the 26.5 GHz end
frequency of their instrument to 52 GHz.
Block downconverter options
N8975AZ - K40
(26.5 GHz to 40.0 GHz)
N8975AZ - K50
(36.5 GHz to 50.0 GHz)
N8975AZ - K63
(50.0 GHz to 63.5 GHz)
N8975AZ - K75
(61.5 GHz to 75.0 GHz)
N8975AZ - K88
(75.0 GHz to 88.5 GHz)
N8975AZ - K98
(86.5 GHz to 100 GHz)
N8975AZ - K99
(96.5 GHz to 110 GHz)
25 GHz
45 GHz
65 GHz
85 GHz
105 GHz
Figure 4. K-Series block downconverter frequency range chart.
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PSA Series
E4440A E4446A
E4443A E4447A
E4445A E4448A
High-performance spectrum analyzer
The high-performance Agilent PSA Series offers the highest performance in
spectrum analysis up to 50 GHz with powerful one-button measurements, a
versatile feature set, and a leading-edge combination of flexibility, speed, accuracy,
and dynamic range. Expand the PSA to include noise figure measurements with
the noise figure measurements personality (Option 219). Use either Option 1DS or
110 to include the internal preamplifier that is needed to meet the hard specifications of the PSA noise figure personality. Although these internal preamplifiers
may operate below 10 MHz or above 3 GHz, the noise figure personality gives only
nominal specifications outside the 10 MHz to 3 GHz frequency range. DUT setup
menus help guide you through amplifier and mixer measurements and a built-in
measurement uncertainty calculator makes it easy to qualify your measurement
system.
Features:
• Hard specifications between 10 MHz and 3 GHz, with internal preamplifier
for best accuracy
• Nominal specifications below 10 MHz and above 3 GHz, internal
preamplifier available
• Operates with the Agilent 346 Series noise sources
• Internal measurement uncertainty calculator
Literature resources:
• PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers Noise Figure Measurement Personality,
literature number 5988-7884EN
• PSA Series Brochure, literature number 5980-1283E
• PSA Series Configuration Guide, literature number 5989-2773EN
• PSA Series Data Sheet, literature number 5980-1284E
• PSA Specification Guide, literature number E4440-90347
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ESA Series
E4402B
E4404B
E4405B
E4407B
Economy class spectrum analyzer
The Agilent ESA-E Series spectrum analyzers with the noise figure measurement
personality (Option 219) provides the flexibility of general-purpose spectrum analysis
combined with built-in one-button noise figure measurements. This solution
automates the measurement process allowing all of the required calculations for
noise figure, gain, and related metrics from 10 MHz to 3 GHz to be made at the
touch of a button. With other features like DUT setup menus, context-based
help, and a built-in uncertainty calculator, the ESA is the solution to help you
comprehensively characterize your DUT’s noise figure at a reasonable cost.
Features:
• Hard specifications between 10 MHz and 3.6 GHz, with internal preamplifier
for best accuracy
• Works with Agilent N4000A smart noise sources and 346 Series
noise sources
• Internal measurement uncertainty calculator
Literature resources:
• ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzers Noise Figure Measurements,
literature number 5989-0215EN
• ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzers Brochure, literature number 5968-3278E
• ESA Spectrum Analyzer Configuration Guide, literature number 5968-3412E
• ESA Series Spectrum Analyzers Data Sheet, literature number 5968-3386E
• ESA Signal Analyzer Specifications Guide, literature number E4401-90490
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PNA-X
Microwave
Network Analyzer
Noise figure measurements with
the highest accuracy in the industry
N5242A
The Agilent PNA-X is the industry standard for high-performance microwave network analysis from 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz. This 2- or 4-port network analyzer offers a
flexible, single-connection solution for S-parameter, noise figure, intermodulation
distortion, compression, and pulsed-RF measurements. Agilent’s unique sourcecorrected noise figure method (Option 029) builds on the integrated, vector-errorcorrected cold-source technique pioneered by the Agilent 8510 network analyzer.
Using the PNA-X and an Agilent ECal module configured as an impedance tuner,
mismatch and noise-parameter errors due to imperfect system source match
are removed, greatly improving the accuracy of the cold-source technique. This
approach surpasses the accuracy provided by today’s Y-factor-based noise figure
analyzers or spectrum analyzer solutions. With this option built directly into the
Agilent PNA-X, the solution provides a complete single-connection, multiple-measurement package for R&D and manufacturing engineers developing and testing
low-noise transistors, amplifiers, and transmit/receive (T/R) modules.
Features:
• Unique measurement technique provides the highest accuracy of any noise
figure solution on the market
• Measure S-parameters, noise figure, compression, and intermodulation
distortion with a single connection to the DUT
• Typically four to ten times faster than NFA (using 51 or 201 points)
• Works with coaxial, in-fixture, or on-wafer devices
• Hard specifications from 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
Literature resources:
• PNA Series Brochure, literature number 5989-7604EN
• PNA Series Configuration Guide, literature number 5989-7606EN
• PNA-X Data Sheet, literature number N5242-90007
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SNS Series
Smart Noise
Sources
N4000A
N4001A
N4002A
Automatically downloads ENR tables
to your instrument
The SNS smart noise sources can be used in conjunction with the X-Series signal
analyzers, dedicated noise figure analyzers (NFA), and ESA spectrum analyzers.
The SNS noise sources replicate the ENR output and frequency coverage of the
traditional 346 Series noise sources; however, they have added benefits. The ENR
data is stored in an EPROM and is automatically downloaded to the instrument, saving the need to manually enter the values into the calibration table at
each cardinal frequency point. Another key benefit is that a thermistor is built in to
the noise source to continually update the analyzer with the correct temperature,
yielding more accurate measurements due to automatic temperature compensation/correction.
Features:
• Electronic storage of ENR calibration data decreases the opportunity
for user error
• Automatic download of ENR data to the instrument speeds overall
set-up time
• Temperature compensation improves measurement accuracy leading to
tighter specifications
Literature resources:
• SNS Product Overview, literature number 5988-0081EN
Find out more www.agilent.com/find/sns
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346 Series
Traditional
Noise Sources
346A
346B
346C
Agilent’s most popular
noise source series
The traditional and cost-effective noise source is the 346 Series, which operates
with the full range of Agilent noise figure solutions. The 346 Series is categorized
by its frequency coverage as well as ENR. Some active devices are sensitive to
port match. They exhibit different noise figure values dependent on the source
impedance. Noise sources will change their port impedance (SWR) as they are
switched from T Hot to T Cold. Noise sources like the 346A have output circuitry
that will minimize the impedance changes.
Features:
• Low SWR for reducing noise figure measurement uncertainty
• Individually calibrated ENR values at specific frequencies
• Calibration supplied on floppy disk for easy loading into NFA Series
noise figure analyzers
Literature resources:
• Agilent 346A/B/C Noise Sources: 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz,
literature number 5953-6452B
Find out more www.agilent.com/find/noisefigure
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347 Series
High Frequency
Noise Sources
R347B
Q347B
Noise source solution for
millimeter wave devices
These waveguide noise sources allow you to make accurate and convenient
noise figure measurements on millimeter-wave devices. The 347 Series provides
extremely precise broadband noise at the input of the system or component under
test. The noise figure meter then processes the ON/OFF ratio of noise power present in the system IF, and provides an accurate reading of noise figure and gain.
These noise sources have remarkable ENR stability over time, which allows longer
recalibration cycles and more accurate noise figure measurements.
Features:
• Performance and reliability at millimeter-wave frequencies
• Excellent ENR stability over time
• Low SWR
Literature resources:
• Q347B Data Sheet, literature number EPSG084753
• R347B Data Sheet, literature number EPSG084754
Find out more www.agilent.com/find/noisefigure
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Noise Source
Test Set
N2002A
Fast repeatable calibrations
with confidence
The Agilent N2002A noise source test set is a stand-alone instrument that, as part
of a calibration system, enables fast, repeatable calibrations with minimal levels of
uncertainty. It is needed when making ENR tests on a noise source. This low-cost,
easy-to-use test set ensures accurate calibration results, increasing measurement
confidence and allowing the development of DUTs with tighter specifications.
The N2002A noise source test set operates over a frequency range of 10.0 MHz
to 26.5 GHz.
Features:
• Reduces noise figure uncertainty to ensure accurate and
repeatable results
• Results traceable to national standard
• Full calibration of all Agilent SNS and 346 noise sources
• Manual control or remote operations using GPIB
Literature resources:
• N2002A Noise Source Test Set User’s Guide, literature number N2002-90001
• Using the Agilent N8975A Noise Figure Analyzer and the N2002A
Noise Source Test Set, literature number 5988-7229EN
Find out more www.agilent.com/find/nsts
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Additional Resources
• Noise Figure Primer (AN 57), literature number 5989-6192EN
• Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurement (AN 57-1),
literature number 5952-8255E
• Noise Figure Measurement Accuracy: The Y-Factor Method (AN 57-2),
literature number 5952-3760E
• 10 Hints for Making Successful Noise Figure Measurements (AN 57-3),
literature number 5980-0288E
• Noise Figure Measurements of Frequency Converting Devices (AN 1487),
literature number 5989-0400EN
• Non-Zero Noise Figure After Calibration (AN 1484),
literature number 5989-0270EN
• Practical Noise Figure Measurement and Analysis for Low-Noise
Amplifier Designs (AN 1354), literature number 5980-1916E
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Revised: October 1, 2009
Product specifications and descriptions
in this document subject to change
without notice.
© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2008, 2009
Printed in USA, November 11, 2009
5989-8056EN