Motorola | MSC8101 ADS | User`s guide | Motorola MSC8101 ADS User`s guide

MSC8101 USER’S GUIDE
16-Bit Digital Signal Processor
MSC8101UG/D
Revision 1, June 2001
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MSC8101 Overview
1
Reset Configuration and Boot
2
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
3
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5
DMA Channels
6
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7
Host Interface (HDI16)
8
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11
EOnCE/JTAG
12
Programming Reference
A
Glossary
B
Bootloader Program
C
Acronyms and Abbreviations
D
Index
IND
1
MSC8101 Overview
2
Reset Configuration and Boot
3
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
4
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
5
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
6
DMA Channels
7
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
8
Host Interface (HDI16)
9
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
10
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
11
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
12
EOnCE/JTAG
A
Programming Reference
B
Glossary
C
Bootloader Program
D
Acronyms and Abbreviations
IND
Index
Contents
Preface
Before Using This Manual—Important Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Audience and Helpful Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Notational Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Other MSC8101 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Chapter 1
MSC8101 Overview
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5
1.2.6
1.2.7
1.2.8
1.2.9
1.2.10
1.2.11
1.2.12
1.2.13
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.3.7
1.3.7.1
1.3.7.2
1.3.7.3
1.3.7.4
1.3.7.5
Target Markets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
High-performance StarCore SC140 Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
On-Device Memories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
100 MHz PowerPC System Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Eight-bank Memory Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
System Interface Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
On-Device Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
DMA Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Communications Processor Module (CPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Separate PLLs for SC140 Core, PowerPC Bus, and CPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Reduced Power Dissipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Packaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Software Development Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Hardware Development Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
SC140 Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
SRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
System Interface Unit (SIU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
DMA Controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Host Interface (HDI16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Communications Processor Module (CPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Serial Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
CPM Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Buffer Descriptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Parameter RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
BD and Buffer Memory Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
MSC8101 User’s Guide
v
Contents
1.3.7.6
1.3.7.7
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.5
RxBD Processing Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TxBD Processing Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MSC8101 Application Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media (Voice/Fax/Data) Over Packet Gateway (ATM/FR/IP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3G Infrastructure Cellular BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centralized DSP Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distributed DSP Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-18
1-20
1-21
1-22
1-23
1-23
1-24
1-26
Chapter 2
Reset Configuration and Boot
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.1.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.5
Reset Configuration and Boot Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Bootloader Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Configuring a Single MSC8101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Master Mode With EPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Slave Mode With No EPROM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Default Configuration With No EPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System, PowerPC Bus Connected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Reset Configuration Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Reset Configuration Word Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Boot in a Multi-MSC8101 PowerPC Bus System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via the Host Port . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Host Reset Configuration Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Reset Configuration Word Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Boot Through Host Port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Source Program Data Stream Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Host Interface Load Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Chapter 3
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
Memory Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Partitioning Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allocating Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Avoiding Memory Contentions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-4
3-5
Chapter 4
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4.1
4.2
4.3
vi
Memory Controller Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
External Bus Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Connecting the Bus to the Flash Memory Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Contents
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.6
GPCM Hardware Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Single-Bus Mode GPCM-Based Timings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Connecting the Bus to the SDRAM Memory Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Single-Bus Mode SDRAM Hardware Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Single-Bus Mode SDRAM Pin Control Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Single-Bus Mode SDRAM Timing Control Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
SDRAM Mode Register Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
PowerPC 60x Bus Mode SDRAM Hardware Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Connecting the Bus to the HDI16 Memory Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
HDI16 Hardware Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Single-Bus Mode HDI16 Timing Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Chapter 5
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.1.1
5.3.1.2
5.3.1.3
5.3.1.4
5.3.2
5.3.2.1
5.3.2.2
5.4
PowerPC System Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
PowerPC Local Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Bus Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
DMA Controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Selecting a Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
DMA FIFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Chained Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Bus Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
SDMA Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Bus Errors from SDMA access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
SDMA Bus Arbitration and Bus Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Chapter 6
DMA Channels
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.1.1
6.1.1.2
6.1.2
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.2
6.1.2.3
6.1.2.4
6.1.2.5
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
DMA Programming Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal Mode (Dual Access) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flyby Mode (Single Access) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transfer Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory to DMA FIFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DMA FIFO to Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peripheral to DMA FIFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DMA FIFO to Peripheral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory to Peripheral, Flyby Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initializing the DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DMA Channel Configuration Registers (DCHRx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DMA Pin Configuration Register (DPCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DMA Status Register (DSTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MSC8101 User’s Guide
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-4
6-4
6-5
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-8
6-9
vii
Contents
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.3
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.5
6.6
DMA Internal/External Mask Registers (DIMR/DEMR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
DMA Channel Parameters RAM (DCPRAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
FIFO Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Multiple Pending DMA Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Buffering and Bursting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Using DMA Signals to Initiate and Control DMA Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
DMA Programming Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Internal to External Dual Access, Simple Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
External to External Dual-Access Burst Transfer, Cyclic Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Internal Peripheral to External Dual Access, Simple Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
External to External Dual Access, Chained with Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Avoiding DMA and SC140 Core Contentions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26
Chapter 7
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4
7.4.4.1
7.4.4.2
Interrupt Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Programming MSC8101 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Setting the Interrupt Table Base Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Setting the Interrupt Priority Level and Trigger Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Monitoring the Status of Pending Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Routing Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Interrupt Programming Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
PIC Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Clearing Pending Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
EFCOP Programming Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
PIC Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Examples of SIC Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Examples of SIC Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Chapter 8
Host Interface (HDI16)
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.1.1
8.3.1.2
viii
HDI16 Programming Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Host-Side Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
DSP-Side Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Operating in Different Data Transfer Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Normal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Host DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Managing Data Transfers Via Handshaking Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Software Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
DSP Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Host Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Contents
8.3.1.3
8.3.1.4
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.4
8.5
Host Flags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmit Ready bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSP Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Host Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct Memory Access (DMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Issuing Host Commands and Non-Maskable Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-15
8-15
8-15
8-18
8-20
8-23
8-24
Chapter 9
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9.1
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.1.1
9.2.1.2
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
9.2.5
9.2.6
9.3
9.4
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.5
9.5.1
9.5.2
9.5.3
9.6
9.6.1
9.6.2
9.6.3
9.7
Programming the Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Specifying the Operating Modes for the FIR Filter Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Real Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Adaptive Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Multichannel Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Complex Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Alternating Complex Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Magnitude Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Data and Coefficient Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Decimation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Specifying the Operating Modes for the IIR Filter Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Specifying the ALU Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Rounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Input Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Transferring Data In and Out of the EFCOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
Programming Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Complex FIR Filter with Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Adaptive Filter With Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Real IIR Filter with DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
Chapter 10
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.3
MCC Configuration Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Procedure for Initializing the MCC Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Driver Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Memory Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Connect the TDM Interface to T1/E1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Provide Appropriate Signal Polarity and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Perform a Phased Test of the Transceiver Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Configure the Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
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Contents
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.5
10.4
10.4.1
10.4.2
10.5
10.6
Set Up the Global MCC Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up the MCC Configuration and Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up Channel-Specific Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up the Channel Extra Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initialize Circular Interrupt Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select the TSA Channel Route to a TDM Timeslot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define the Serial Interface Entries in SIRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set up Clocks, Baud Rate Generators (BRG), and Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up the External Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-10
10-11
10-12
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-16
10-16
Chapter 11
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
Configuring the SPI for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Setting the Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Specifying the Receive and Transmit Buffer Descriptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Operating the SPI as a Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Operating the SPI as a Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Responding to a Multi-master Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Chapter 12
EOnCE/JTAG
12.1
12.1.1
12.1.2
12.1.3
12.1.3.1
12.1.3.2
12.1.3.3
12.1.3.4
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
x
EOnCE/JTAG Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Executing a JTAG Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
CORE_CMD Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
CORE_CMD Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
CORE_CMD Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
CORE_CMD Example 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Writing EOnCE Registers Through JTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Reading EOnCE Registers Through JTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Executing a Single Instruction Through JTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Writing to the EOnCE Receive Register (ERCV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Reading From the EOnCE Transmit Register (ETRSMT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Downloading Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Writing and Reading the Trace Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19
Using EE0 to Enter Debug Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
Counting Core Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
Related Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Contents
APPENDIXES:
Appendix A
Programming Reference
A.1
A.2
Interrupt Sources and Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Programming Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
Appendix B
Glossary
Appendix C
Bootloader Program
Appendix D
Acronyms and Abbreviations
INDEX
MSC8101 User’s Guide
xi
Contents
xii
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Figures
Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-3.
Figure 1-4.
Figure 1-5.
Figure 1-6.
Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-8.
Figure 1-9.
Figure 1-10.
Figure 1-11.
Figure 1-12.
Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-6.
Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-2.
Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-4.
Figure 4-5.
Figure 4-6.
Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-8.
Figure 4-9.
Figure 4-10.
Figure 4-11.
Figure 4-12.
Figure 4-13.
MSC8101 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Buffer Descriptor Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Example SCC2 BD and Buffer Memory Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Example SPI BD and Buffer Memory Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
Example SCC UART RxBD Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
Example SCC UART TxBD Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Media (Voice/Fax/Data) Over Packet (ATM/FR/IP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
3G Infrastructure Cellular BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
Centralized DSP Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24
Distributed DSP Architecture Connected Through the HDI16 Port . . . . . . . 1-25
Distributed DSP Architecture Connected Through a Shared PowerPC Bus . 1-25
Software Development Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
MSC8101 Clocking Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Configuring a Single Device From EPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Configuring a Single Chip With the Default Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Multi-MSC8101 PowerPC Bus System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Multiple MSC8101s Connected Via the Host Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Boot Code Stream Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Memory Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Memory Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Memory Controller Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
MSC8101-to-Flash Interconnect in Single-Master Bus Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Flash Memory Read, Single Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Flash Memory Write, Single Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
MSC8101-To-SDRAM Interconnect in Single-Bus Master Mode . . . . . . . . . 4-8
MSC8101 SDRAM Address Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
SDRAM Burst Read Page Miss, Single Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
SDRAM Burst Write Page Miss, Single Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
SDRAM Mode Register Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
MSC8101-To-SDRAM Interconnection in PowerPC 60x Multi-Master
Bus Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus to HDI16 Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Multi-Master PowerPC System Bus to Buffered HDI16 Interface . . . . . . . . 4-17
HDI16 UPM Read, Single Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
MSC8101 User’s Guide
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Figures
Figure 4-14.
Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-7.
Figure 5-8.
Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-2.
Figure 6-3.
Figure 6-4.
Figure 6-5.
Figure 6-6.
Figure 6-7.
Figure 6-8.
Figure 6-9.
Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-2.
Figure 8-1.
Figure 8-2.
Figure 8-3.
Figure 8-4.
Figure 8-5.
Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-2.
Figure 10-1.
Figure 10-2.
Figure 10-3.
Figure 10-4.
Figure 10-5.
Figure 10-6.
Figure 10-7.
Figure 10-8.
Figure 10-9.
Figure 11-1.
Figure 11-2.
xiv
HDI16 UPM Write, Single Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
MSC8101 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
PowerPC System Bus External Memory Access Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
QBus-to-PowerPC System Bus Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Interface From PowerPC Local bus to Extended Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
SIU Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Bus Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Memory Controller Machine Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
SDMA Data Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
DMA Engine Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Normal Mode Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Memory to DMA FIFO Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
DMA FIFO to Memory Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Peripheral to DMA FIFO Transfers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
DMA FIFO to Peripheral Transfers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Memory to Peripheral, Flyby Mode Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Peripheral to Memory, Flyby Mode Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
DMA Buffer Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
MSC8101 Interrupt Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
PIC Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
HDI16 Programmer’s Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Example Hardware Set-up for Normal Mode Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
HDI16 Hardware set-up for DMA Mode Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
HDI16 DSP-Side Interrupt Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
HDI16 Host Request Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
FIR Filter Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
IIR Filter Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
MCC Resource Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Driver Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Driver Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Internal and External Memory Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
T1/E1 Transceiver Interface Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
T1/E1 Data Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Loopback Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Serial Interface Entry Definitions for Driver Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
SPI BRG Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
SPI BD and Buffer Memory Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Figures
Figure 11-3.
Figure 11-4.
Figure 11-5.
Figure 12-1.
Figure 12-2.
Figure 12-3.
Figure 12-4.
Figure 12-5.
Figure 12-6.
Figure 12-7.
Figure 12-8.
Figure 12-9.
Figure 12-10.
SPI as a Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
SPI as Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
SPI Response to Multi-Master Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
TAP Controller State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
Test Logic Diagram Showing the Five-Bit Instruction Register. . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Executing DEBUG_REQUEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
CORE_CMD Instruction Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Writing EOnCE Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Reading EOnCE Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Executing a Single Instruction Through JTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Writing to ERCV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Reading From ETRSMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Software Downloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18
MSC8101 User’s Guide
xv
Figures
xvi
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Tables
Table 1-1.
Table 1-2.
Table 1-3.
Table 1-4.
Table 1-5.
Table 1-6.
Table 2-1.
Table 2-2.
Table 2-3.
Table 2-4.
Table 2-5.
Table 2-6.
Table 2-7.
Table 2-8.
Table 2-9.
Table 2-10.
Table 2-11.
Table 2-12.
Table 4-1.
Table 4-2.
Table 4-3.
Table 5-1.
Table 6-1.
Table 6-2.
Table 6-3.
Table 6-4.
Table 7-1.
Table 7-2.
Table 7-3.
Table 7-4.
Table 8-1.
Table 8-2.
Table 8-3.
Table 8-4.
Table 8-5.
Table 8-6.
MSC8101 Serial Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
MSC8101 Serial Performance Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Buffer Descriptor Naming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Dual-Port RAM Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
MSC8101 Parameter RAM Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
SCC Parameter RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Pin Connectivity for a Reset Configuration From Boot EPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Pin Connectivity for a Reset Configuration With No Boot EPROM . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Pin Connectivity for the Default Reset Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Pin Connectivity for a Multi-MSC8101 System, PowerPC Bus Connected. . . . 2-7
RSTCONF Connections in a Multiple-MSC8101 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Configuration EPROM Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Hard Reset Configuration Word Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Host MSC8101 of a Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via Host Port . . . . . 2-12
Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via Host Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Reset Configuration Word Values for Host Reset Configuration . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Data Stream Source Program Block Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Structure of the Boot End Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
GPCM ORx Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
SDRAM Control Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
SDRAM Timing Control Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Features of the PowerPC System Bus and PowerPC Local Bus. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
DMA Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
DCHCRx Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
DCPRAM Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Buffer Descriptor Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Edge-Triggered/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Interrupt Priority Level Bit Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Interrupt Pending Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Routing of MSC8101 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Host-Side Programmer’s Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
DSP-Side Programmer’s Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Normal and DMA Mode Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Normal and DMA Mode Pin Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Single- and Dual-Strobe Bus Pin Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Single and Dual Host Request Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
MSC8101 User’s Guide
xvii
Tables
Table 8-7.
Table 8-8.
Table 8-9.
Table 8-10.
Table 8-11.
Table 8-12.
Table 8-13.
Table 8-14.
Table 8-15.
Table 8-16.
Table 8-17.
Table 8-18.
Table 8-19.
Table 8-20.
Table 8-21.
Table 9-1.
Table 9-2.
Table 10-1.
Table 10-2.
Table 10-3.
Table 10-4.
Table 11-1.
Table 11-2.
Table 12-1.
Table 12-2.
Table 12-3.
Table 12-4.
Table 12-5.
Table 12-6.
Table A-1.
Table A-2.
Table A-3.
Table A-4.
xviii
Transfer Control in Normal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Host-Defined Normal Mode Data Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
DSP-Defined Normal Mode Data Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Transfer Control in Host DMA Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Host-Defined DMA Transfer Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Host-Defined DMA Data Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
DSP-Defined DMA Data Size and Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
DMA Valid Data Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
HDI16 Interrupt Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
PIC Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Single or Double Request Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
HREQ Pin In Single Request Mode (ICR[13]:HDRQ=0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
HTRQ and HRRQ Pins In Double Request Mode (ICR[13]:HDRQ=1) . . . . . 8-20
DMA Request Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
DMA Single and Burst Mode Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
EFCOP Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
EFCOP Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
Interrupt Handler Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Memory Utilization for MCC Parameters and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
MSC8101 SI Mode Register Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
MCC TDM Usage in MSC8101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
SPI Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
SPI Parameter Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
JTAG Scan Paths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
JTAG Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
EOnce Control Register (ECR) Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
EOnce Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Trace Buffer Register Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19
Event Register Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
Guide to MSC8101 Programming Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
PIC Interrupt Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Source Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
About This Book
The MSC8101 device is the first Motorola product based on the SC140 DSP core
introduced by the StarCoreTM Alliance. It addresses the challenges of the networking
market. The benefits of the MSC8101 include not only a very high level of performance
but also a product design that enables effective software development and integration. The
StarCore/MSC8101 tool suite provides a full-featured development environment for C/
C++ and assembly languages as well as ease of integration with third-party software, such
as off-the-shelf libraries and a real-time operating system. The MSC8101 device is
logically partitioned into three distinct blocks: an extended core, a system interface unit
(SIU), and a communications processor module (CPM):
Serial I/O
CPM
SIU
Extended Core
Extended Core
Contains the SC140 core and internal memory for data and program storage, peripherals, and the MSC8101 interrupt controller.
The 512 KB zero wait state, on-device SRAM
is organized as a unified program and data
memory space. Minimum code density is
achieved using a 16-bit instruction set that is
grouped into execution sets by the compiler
(or by the programmer) for high instruction
parallelism. The core also contains an
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP) and
Host Interface (HDI16). The EFCOP can be
programmed in multiple modes to perform filtering functions, freeing the DSP core to perform other tasks. The HDI16 interface
provides a glueless interface to a host processor for data and command communication. The program interrupt controller (PIC)
processes all interrupt requests, notifying the
core, or an external device, of an interrupt
event.
System Bus
Host Interface
SIU
CPM
Supports on-board and
external system-related
functions. The SIU
includes a direct memory
access (DMA) controller,
clocks, and reset circuitry.
It also includes memory
controllers that provide a
glueless interface between
external memory devices
and/or other devices, such
as a system host or other
DSPs, and the MSC8101.
Implements communications protocols.
This user-programmable RISC controller
with an I/O interface enables direct connection to high-speed backbone networks
using such protocols as Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM), fast Ethernet, and
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) highways
such as E1/T1 and E3/T3. The communications processor, dual port RAM, baud
rate generators, CPM multiplexing, and
parallel I/O ports are required in most
implementations and must be understood, regardless of the protocol implemented. The communication processors
themselves (FCCs, SCCs, SMCs, I2C,
SPI and MCCs) implement the specifics
of each protocol and thus are presented
in terms of specific protocols. Timers,
DMA, and the serial Interfaces give additional functionality and flexibility.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
xix
Before Using This Manual—Important Note
Before Using This Manual—Important Note
This manual explains how to program the MSC8101. The information in this manual is
subject to change without notice, as described in the disclaimers on the title page of this
manual. Before using this manual, determine whether it is the latest revision and whether
there are errata or addenda. To locate any published errata or updates associated with this
manual or this product, refer to the world-wide web site listed on the back cover of this
manual or call your local distributor or sales representative.
Audience and Helpful Hints
This manual is for software and hardware developers and applications programmers who
are developing products using the MSC8101. It assumes that you have a working
knowledge of DSP technology. This user’s guide tells you how to program the different
parts of the MSC8101 device. It begins with a system overview and then covers specific
programming topics. For your convenience, the chapters of this manual are organized to
make the information flow as predictable as possible. Most chapters begin with a quick
review of basics for the topic MSC8101 module and then present programming
procedures, typically illustrated with examples. Each chapter ends with a “Related
Reading” section that summarizes other relevant parts of the documentation.
Notational Conventions and Definitions
This manual uses the following notational conventions:
mnemonics
Instruction mnemonics appear in lowercase bold.
COMMAND
NAMES
Command names are set in small caps, as follows: GRACEFUL STOP TRANSMIT
or ENTER HUNT MODE.
italics
Book titles in text are set in italics. Also, italics are used for emphasis and to
highlight the main items in bulleted lists.
0x
Prefix to denote a hexadecimal number.
0b
Prefix to denote a binary number.
REG[#]:FIELD
Abbreviations or acronyms for registers or buffer descriptors appear in uppercase text. Following the register name is the bit number or field number range
in brackets, and then the bit or field name. For example, ICR[8]:INIT refers to
the Force Initialization bit (bit 8) in the host Interface Control Register.
Active high
signals
xx
Names of active high signals appear in small caps, sans serif, as follows: TT[0–
and DP[0–7].
4], TSIZ[0–3],
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Organization
Active low
signals
Signal names of active low signals appear in small capital letters in a sans serif
typeface, with an overbar: DBG, AACK, and EXT_BG[2].
x
A lowercase italicized x in a register or signal name indicates that there are
multiple registers or signals with this name. For example, BRCGx refers to
BRCG[1–8], and MxMR refers to the MAMR/MBMR/MCMR registers.
On the MSC8101, the SC140 core is a 16-bit DSP processor and the CPM contains a 32bit RISC processor. The following table shows how the data types compare.
Table 1. SC140 and CPM Data Types
Name
SC140
CPM
Byte
8 bits
8 bits
Half Word
8 bits
16 bits
Word
16 bits
32 bits
Double Word
32 bits
64 bits
Quad Word
64 bits
—
Table 1. Data Type Sizes
Name
Size
char
8 bits
unsigned char
8 bits
short
16 bits
unsigned short
16 bits
long
32 bits
unsigned long
32 bits
Organization
Following is a summary and a brief description of the chapters of this manual:
■
Chapter 1, MSC8101 Overview. Features, descriptive overview of main modules,
configurations, and application examples.
■
Chapter 2, Reset Configuration and Boot. The MSC8101 reset and boot process
and examples of this process in different system configurations.
■
Chapter 3, Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core. Features of SC140 core
memory usage; how to allocate memory efficiently on an SC140 core-based device
and avoid memory contentions.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
xxi
Organization
■
Chapter 4, Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices. Memory
interconnection options for the bus and memory controller; hardware connections
and memory register settings for the MSC8101 when the PowerPC system bus is
connected to Flash EPROM, Synchronous DRAM, or an MSC8101 HDI16 slave
■
Chapter 5, Balancing Between the MSC8101 PowerPC System and Local Buses.
The functions of these two buses and the interaction of these buses.
■
Chapter 6, DMA Channels. Purpose and use of DMA on the MSC8101, illustrated
with numerous programming examples
■
Chapter 7, Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities. Interrupt basics and how to program
interrupts in the following steps: set the interrupt table base address, set the
interrupt priority level and the trigger mode of interrupt requests, monitor the status
of pending interrupts, and route the interrupts.
■
Chapter 8, Host Port (HDI16). The operating modes and when and how to use
them, the different handshaking protocols for managing data transfers and the pros
and cons of each, using the host command and non-maskable interrupt features.
Illustrated with examples.
■
Chapter 9, Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP). How to program the EFCOP to
operate in different modes and to use the different methods for transferring data
into and out of the EFCOP. Code examples demonstrate how the EFCOP can be
programmed to complete a variety of tasks.
■
Chapter 10, Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs). A step-by-step procedure for
setting up a 32-channel E1 link using one of the MSC8101 multi-channel
controllers (MCCs). The main steps in this procedure are three software
configuration phases for setting up MCC and CPM parameters. An example driver
implementation illustrates both hardware and software configuration for
connecting to an industry-standard E1 line transceiver.
■
Chapter 11, Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). How to configure port D for SPI
operation and how to configure the SPI baud-rate generator in master mode. Gives
examples of the SPI operating as a master and as a slave.
■
Chapter 12, EOnCE/JTAG. Examples of how the EOnCE port can be used for
system-level debugging of real-time systems.
■
Appendixes:
— Appendix A, Programming Sheets.
— Appendix B, Glossary.
— Appendix C, Bootloader Program.
— Appendix D, Acronyms and Abbreviations.
xxii
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Other MSC8101 Documentation
Other MSC8101 Documentation
■
MSC8101 Programmer’s Quick Reference. A hands-on reference to the pins,
registers, and instructions of the MSC8101; includes a memory-map table, interrupt
flow diagram, and port error exceptions.
■
MSC8101 Programmer’s Reference Manual. Describes the MSC8101 architecture
and functionality in detail, with a chapter on each of the MSC8101 blocks.
■
MSC8101 Data Sheet. Details the signals, AC/DC characteristics, PLL/DLL
performance issues, package and pinout, and electrical design considerations of the
MSC8101 device.
■
Application notes. Cover various programming topics related to StarCore and the
MSC8101 are available at the Web site listed on the back of this manual.
Further Reading
■
SC140 DSP Core Reference Manual (MNSC140CORE/D), Revision 1, June 2000.
Covers the SC140 core architecture, instruction set, PLL and clock generator, and
EOnCE.
■
MPC8260 User’s Manual: PowerQUICC II (MPC8260UM/D). Revision 0, May
1999.
■
Tools-related documentation is as follows:
— SC100 Application Binary Interface Reference Manual.
— SC100 Assembly Language Tools User’s Manual.
— SC100 C/C++ Compiler User’s Manual.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
xxiii
Further Reading
xxiv
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 1
MSC8101 Overview
The Motorola MSC8101 is a versatile, one-chip integration of a high-performance StarCore
SC140 core, large on-device memory (0.5 MB), a communications processor module
(CPM), a very flexible system interface unit (SIU), and a 16-channel DMA controller. The
MSC8101 is the first member of the family of programmable digital signal processors
(DSPs) based on the SC100 DSP cores. The SC140 core is the four-ALU flavor of the
StarCore SC100 DSP core family. It features high performance, low cost, low power, and
superscalar architecture. It performs at 1200 DSP MIPS using an internal 300 MHz clock
at 1.5 V core voltage.
The large on-device memory (0.5 MB) minimizes the penalty of off-chip program and data
access. The SC140 core accesses this memory at full speed using a 128-bit wide program
bus and two 64-bit wide data buses. The SIU user-defined memory controller interfaces
with almost any memory system and external peripherals. The CPM is based on the
PowerQUICC II™ (MPC8260) CPM. It supports a wide variety of serial interfaces and
protocols including new emerging protocols such as 155-Mbps Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) and 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet. The MSC8101 targets third-generation wireless
infrastructure systems as well as wireline multi-channel applications, such as media over
packet.
1.1 Target Markets
The MSC8101 target markets include:
■
Wireless infrastructure systems. The computational power of the MSC8101 can be
used in both 2.5G (EDGE) and 3G (3GPP) systems. In the base station (BTS), the
MSC8101 performs functions such as channel coding. In the base station controller
and the transcoder unit, the MSC8101 performs speech coding and echo
cancellation. Many wireless infrastructure applications are based around a
packetized network, so network connectivity is a key attribute. The MSC8101
performs not only the traditional digital signal processing tasks but also network
interface tasks, such as linking to the packetized ATM AAL2 network.
■
Media (Voice/Fax/Data) over Packet gateways. In these systems, media streams
(voice, fax, or data) are packetized and transmitted over a packetized network
MSC8101 User’s Guide
1-1
MSC8101 Overview
(ATM, Ethernet, IP). The MSC8101 performs digital signal processing tasks such
as speech compression, echo cancellation, fax or modem data pump, error
correction/data compression (ECDC), or even real-time protocol (RTP).
Furthermore, the MSC8101 performs the network interface task (using the CPM),
thus removing bottlenecks in these systems.
1.2 Features
The following sections give an overview of MSC8101 features.
1.2.1 High-performance StarCore SC140 Core
1-2
■
Up to 1200 true DSP MIPS or 3000 RISC MIPS with a 300 MHz clock at 1.5 V
core voltage, where a true DSP MIPS is a multiply-accumulate (MAC) operation
plus the associated MOVEs and pointers update
■
Estimated power dissipation of 0.13 mA/DSP MIPS @ 1.5 V (234 mW) for core
running from internal memory
■
Four 16-bit arithmetic logic units (ALUs), each with a 40-bit parallel barrel shifter
■
Two address arithmetic units (AAUs) with integer arithmetic capabilities and
unique DSP addressing modes
■
32-bit data and program address space
■
Sixteen 40-bit wide data registers
■
Eight 32-bit wide address pointer registers, eight 32-bit wide bus address registers,
four 32-bit wide offset registers, and four 32-bit wide modifier registers
■
Two 32-bit wide stack pointers: user stack pointer and supervisor stack pointer
■
Hardware support for fractional and integer data types
■
Very rich 16-bit wide orthogonal instruction set
■
Up to 6 instructions executed in a single clock cycle
■
Variable-Length Execution Set (VLES) execution model, optimized for
performance and code density
■
Zero overhead hardware DO loops
■
Single unified memory space with byte addressability
■
Position independent code (PIC) support
■
IEEE 1149.1-compatible JTAG port
■
Enhanced On-Chip Emulation (EOnCE) module with real-time debugging
capability
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Features
1.2.2 On-Device Memories
■
Total of 512 KB (256 K × 16-bit words) unified on-device RAM
■
2 KB bootstrap ROM
1.2.3 100 MHz PowerPC System Bus
■
64/32-bit data and 32-bit address 60x-compatible bus
■
Data width selectable at reset: 64-bit mode without the host interface (HDI16) or
32-bit mode, with the HDI16
■
Bus supports multiple master designs
■
Four-beat burst transfers (eight beat in 32-bit wide mode)
■
Port size of 64, 32, 16, and 8 bits wide controlled by on-device memory controller
■
Support for data parity
■
Bus can access off-device memory expansion and off-device peripherals or enable
an external host device to access internal resources
1.2.4 Eight-bank Memory Controller
■
Glueless interface to SRAM, 100 MHz page mode SDRAM, DRAM, EPROM,
FLASH and other user-definable peripherals
■
Byte write enables and selectable parity generation
■
32-bit address decodes with programmable bank size
■
User-programmable machines (UPMs); general-purpose chip-select machine
(GPCM); and a page-mode, pipelined SDRAM machine
■
Byte selects for 64-bit bus width and byte selects for 32-bit bus width
1.2.5 System Interface Unit
■
Clock synthesizer
■
Reset controller
■
Two interrupt controllers
■
Real-time clock register
■
Periodic interrupt timer
■
Hardware bus monitor and software watchdog timer
MSC8101 Overview
1-3
MSC8101 Overview
1.2.6 On-Device Peripherals
■
Enhanced 16-bit parallel host interface (HDI16) supports a variety of buses and
provides glueless connection to a number of industry-standard microcomputers,
microprocessors, and DSPs
■
Enhanced filter coprocessor (EFCOP) is a 300 MHz 32 x 32 bit filtering and
echo-cancellation coprocessor that runs in parallel to the SC140 core
1.2.7 DMA Engine
■
16 independent unidirectional channels (each one is either read or write)
■
Priority based time multiplexing between channels using 16 internal priority levels
between channels
■
Support for four external peripherals
■
Support for misaligned addresses in source and destination
■
Efficient bus usage via bursts and packing/unpacking
■
Support for either dual address or single address (flyby) transfers
■
Flexible buffer configuration; support for simple buffer, cyclic buffers, single
address buffers (I/O devices), multi buffers and chained buffers
1.2.8 Communications Processor Module (CPM)
■
Embedded 32-bit RISC controller architecture for flexible communication
peripherals
■
Interface to the SC140 core through dual-port RAM and serial DMA controllers
■
Two serial DMA (SDMA) channels for receive and transmit on all serial channels
■
Parallel I/O registers with open-drain and interrupt capability
■
Three full-duplex fast serial communication controllers (FCCs) support IEEE
802.3 and Fast Ethernet protocols, HDLC up to E3 rates (45 Mbps), and totally
transparent operation. Each FCC can be configured to transmit in fully transparent
mode and receive in HDLC mode or vice versa. FCC1 can also support the ATM
(155 Mbps) protocol through the UTOPIA2 interface. Two FCCs have dedicated
pins; the third one operates only in TDM mode.
■
Two multi-channel controllers (MCCs)
— Two 128-serial full-duplex data channels (a total of 256 64-Kbps channels);
each MCC can be split into four subgroups of 32 channels each
— Almost any combination of subgroups can be multiplexed to single or multiple
TDM interfaces
1-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Features
■
Four full-duplex serial communication controllers (SCCs) supporting IEEE
802.3/Ethernet, high-level synchronous data link control, HDLC, local talk, UART,
Synchronous UART, BISYNC, and transparent operations. Two SCCs have
dedicated pins; the other two can operate only in TDM mode.
■
Two full-duplex serial management controllers (SMCs) supporting GCI, UART,
and transparent operation
■
One serial peripheral interface (SPI)
■
One inter-integrated circuit (I2C) controller (microwire-compatible) with
multimaster, master, and slave modes
■
Up to four time-division multiplex (TDM) interfaces (one of which can be T3/E3)
— Support for two groups of TDM channels for a total of four TDMs
— Support for T1, CEPT, T1/E1,T3/E3, pulse code modulation highway, ISDN
basic rate, ISDN primary rate, Motorola interchip digital link (IDL), general
circuit interface (GCI), and user-defined TDM serial interfaces
— Up to 256 entries in SI RAM for each TDM interface
— Bit or byte resolution
— Independent transmit and receive routing, frame synchronization
■
Eight independent baud-rate generators and 10 input clock pins for supplying
clocks to FCC, SCC, and SMC serial channels
■
Four independent 16-bit timers that can interconnect as two 32-bit timers
1.2.9 Separate PLLs for SC140 Core, PowerPC Bus, and CPM
■
SC140 core, CPM, and PowerPC bus can run at different frequencies for
power/performance optimization
■
Phase-lock loop (PLL) values at reset are based on configuration pin values
1.2.10 Reduced Power Dissipation
■
Very low power CMOS design
■
MSC8101 power dissipation is estimated at 500 mW, of which half is the SC140
core and the other half is the system blocks (SIU, CPM)
■
Separate power supply for internal logic (1.5 V) and for I/O (3.3 V)
■
Wait and Stop low-power standby modes
■
Fully-static logic, operation frequency down to 0 Hz (DC)
■
Optimized power management circuitry (instruction-dependent,
peripheral-dependent, and mode-dependent)
MSC8101 Overview
1-5
MSC8101 Overview
1.2.11 Packaging
■
332-pin 0.8 mm pitch
■
17 × 17 mm flip chip plastic ball grid array (FCPBGA)
1.2.12 Software Development Tools
■
Highly efficient C and C++ compilers, which enable development of DSP
algorithms and control-oriented code in a high-level language
■
Debug environments, which support non-intrusive real-time tracing and profiling
■
Device simulation models integrated into leading system simulation environments
enable design and simulation of systems around SC140-based devices
1.2.13 Hardware Development Tools
■
MSC8101 application development system (ADS)
■
MSC8101 evaluation module (EVM)
1.3 Architecture
The MSC8101 is composed of the following major functional blocks:
■
SC140 core
■
SRAM block
■
System interface unit (SIU)
■
DMA controller
■
Host Interface (HDI16)
■
Enhanced filter coprocessor (EFCOP)
■
Communications processor module (CPM)
In addition to these major blocks, the MSC8101 features an enhanced filter coprocessor
(EFCOP) and a 16-bit parallel host interface (HDI16). Figure 1-1 shows a functional block
diagram of the MSC8101.
1.3.1 SC140 Core
The 16-bit SC140 core packs four data arithmetic-logic execution units (ALUs), each
consisting of a MAC unit, a logic unit, and a bit field unit (BFU), which also serves as a
barrel shifter. This number of MAC units delivers very high performance in such essential
DSP tasks as finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filters and
fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). In addition to the four data execution units, the core
1-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Architecture
contains two address arithmetic units (AAUs), one bit mask unit (BMU), and one branch
unit. Overall, the SC140 can issue and execute up to six instructions per clock—for
example, four independent arithmetic instructions and two pointer-related instructions
(such as moves or other operations on addresses).
At its initial clock speed of 300 MHz, the SC140 can therefore execute 1200 true DSP
MIPS—1.2 billion MAC operations per second, together with associated data movement
functions and pointer updates. Note that one such DSP MIPS is the equivalent of several
RISC MIPS, the performance measure used by some other DSPs. For purposes of
comparison, the SC140 can be said to perform 3000 RISC MIPS—ten RISC operations
per cycle at 300 MHz.
The SC140 core can sustain this high level of performance over time because its four data
execution units can operate simultaneously in any combination. For example, the SC140
core could execute four MAC operations in a single clock, or one MAC, two
arithmetic/logical operations, and one bit field operation. All four data ALUs are identical.
This permits great flexibility in the assignment and execution of instructions, increasing
the likelihood that four execution units can be kept busy on any given cycle and enabling
programs to take better advantage of the core’s parallel architecture. For details on the
SC140 core, consult the SC140 Core Reference Manual.
1.3.2 SRAM
The 512 KB of SRAM is arranged as a 256K × 16 bit unified memory. The on-device
memory provides zero-wait-state access to as many as 256 bits (128 program bits and 128
data bits) per 300 MHz cycle. It also provides access of 64 bit per PowerPC clock cycle on
the PowerPC local bus. At the same time, the DMA engine can perform its own 64-bit wide
access. The SRAM has sufficient storage capacity to hold all the program code and data the
MSC8101 needs for many target applications, thus eliminating the cost, space, and
performance penalties of off-device memory. When memory requirements exceed the
internal storage capacity, the MSC8101 can address up to 4 GB of external memory via the
PowerPC bus interface.
MSC8101 Overview
1-7
MSC8101 Overview
•
•
•
Other
Peripherals
‘MCC’ / UART / HDLC / Transparent /
Ethernet / FastEthernet / ATM / SCCs
TDMs
Serial Interface and TSA
UTOPIA
Interface
MII
PowerPC™ System
64-bit Bus
CPM
Interrupt
Controller
3 x FCC
MEMC
Timers
Parallel I/O
2 x MCC
DMA
Engine
Baud Rate
Generators
4 x SCC
PIT
System Protection
Reset Control
Clock Control
PowerPC
64/32-bit
System
Bus
Dual Ported
RAM
2 x SMC
Bridge
SPI
SIU
2 x SDMA
I2 C
®
RISC
Extended Core
Address
Register
File
Program
Sequencer
Local PowerPC
64-bit Bus
Q2PPC 128-bit Qbus
Bridge
Data ALU
Register
File
MEMC
EFCOP
HDI16
Boot
ROM
Host
Interface
8/16-bit
PIC
SC140
Core
Address
ALU
JTAG
EOnCE™
Data
ALU
SRAM
512 KB
Interrupts
L1 I/F
128-bit P-Bus
Power
Management
Clock / PLL
64-bit XA Data Bus
64-bit XB Data Bus
Figure 1-1. MSC8101 Block Diagram
1.3.3 System Interface Unit (SIU)
The SIU consists of the following:
1-8
■
A PowerPC 60x-compatible parallel system bus configurable at reset to either
64-bit or 32-bit data width. Port sizes can be 64, 32, 16, and 8 bits wide. The
MSC8101 on-device arbiter can support the external PowerPC bus. External
bus-request pins allows external masters to acquire the PowerPC bus. The
MSC8101 internal arbiter arbitrates between internal masters (SC140 core, CPM,
DMA, and three external masters). You can disable this arbiter and use an external
arbiter if necessary.
■
An internal local 64-bit data, 32-bit address PowerPC bus. The PowerPC local bus
is synchronous to the PowerPC system bus and runs at the same frequency.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Architecture
■
A memory controller supporting eight external memory banks. The memory
controller, which is based on the MPC8260 memory controller, supports UPMs as
well as an SDRAM machine with page mode and address data pipeline.
■
A bus monitor that prevents PowerPC system bus lock-ups, a real-time clock, a
periodic interrupt timer, and other system functions useful in embedded
applications.
1.3.4 DMA Controller
The 16 independent unidirectional channels of the DMA controller move data among
internal and external memories and internal and external peripherals without the
involvement of the SC140 core. Transfers occur on the internal (local) PowerPC bus, the
external PowerPC bus, or between the two buses. The DMA engine handles full 64-bit
transfers and bursting to take maximum advantage of available bus bandwidth.
Non-aligned transfers are also handled. Dual address transfers require two DMA channels.
Bus usage is further improved by the DMA unit’s first-in/first-out buffers (FIFOs), which
store data temporarily between read and write operations. For example, if the DMA is
transferring data from an external memory to internal memory, it need not wait until the
PowerPC local bus is free to begin reading the data. Instead, it fetches the data over the
system bus, storing it temporarily in a FIFO until the PowerPC local bus is available, and
then it completes the transfer by writing the data to internal memory. The DMA also runs
in a “flyby” mode in which data is transferred directly from a source to a destination in a
single cycle (from an internal peripheral to internal memory or from an external peripheral
to external memory). In flyby mode, the source and destination are of equal width and
aligned. The DMA controller supports complex addressing such as circular buffers, dual
buffers, and multiple buffers. Buffer type is configured in the DMA parameter RAM.
1.3.5 Host Interface (HDI16)
In addition to its PowerPC bus interface, the MSC8101 features an enhanced HDI16,
supporting a variety of standard buses and providing glueless connection to
industry-standard microcontrollers, microprocessors and DSPs. The host interface can be
used concurrently with the PowerPC interface operating in 32-bit mode. The combination
of bus interfaces provides a great deal of system design flexibility. For example, in
systems where a large amount of data is passed between a host processor (for example, a
PowerPC or PowerQUICC II) and a bank of MSC8101s, the DSPs can communicate with
the host via the PowerPC bus interface in 64-bit mode. In systems with a smaller amount
of host-DSP traffic, the MSC8101s could communicate via their 16-bit HDI16 interfaces,
while simultaneously connecting to private or shared memory via 32-bit PowerPC buses.
MSC8101 Overview
1-9
MSC8101 Overview
1.3.6 Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
The EFCOP performs filtering operations vital to such DSP tasks as echo cancellation.
These filtering operations include both adaptive and non-adaptive FIR and IIR filtering
with 32-bit precision (the EFCOP contains a 32-bit × 32-bit multiply unit and 72-bit
accumulator). The EFCOP’s hardwired circuitry performs one FIR filter tap per clock
cycle, drawing very little power. The EFCOP can also update coefficients in an adaptive
filter. The coprocessor operates independently and in parallel with the core processor. This
allows the MSC8101 to perform such operations as echo cancellation in parallel with such
operations as voice compression, boosting overall performance in applications such as
Internet telephony. At a 70-percent usage rate—a typical average for EFCOP utilization in
DSP applications—the coprocessor provides 210 MIPS above the SC140 core’s
1,200-MIPS performance.
1.3.7 Communications Processor Module (CPM)
The CPM allows the MSC8101 to excel in a variety of applications mainly targeted for the
networking and the telecommunication markets. The CPM, based on the PowerQUICC II,
is a superset of the MPC860 PowerQUICC CPM. It is enhanced with RISC performance
and additional hardware and microcode routines that handle high bit rate protocols, such as
ATM (up to 155-Mbps full-duplex) and Fast Ethernet (up to 100-Mbps full-duplex). The
CPM consists of the following functional blocks:
■
An embedded 32-bit RISC controller, also called the communications processor
(CP), that handles the lower-layer tasks and serial DMA control activities, freeing
the SC140 core to handle higher-layer activities as well as DSP tasks. The RISC
controller has an instruction set optimized for communication, but it can also
handle general-purpose applications, relieving the SC140 core of small, often
repeated tasks.
■
Two serial DMA (SDMA) controllers that can perform simultaneous transfers,
optimized for burst transfers to the PowerPC bus and to the PowerPC local bus.
■
Three full-duplex fast serial communication controllers (FCCs) support IEEE
802.3 and Fast Ethernet protocols, HDLC up to E3 rates (45Mbps), and totally
transparent operation. Each FCC can be configured to transmit in transparent mode
and receive in HDLC mode or vice versa. FCC1 can also support the ATM (155
Mbps) protocol through the UTOPIA2 interface. Two FCCs have dedicated pins;
the third one operates only in TDM mode.
■
Two multi-channel controllers (MCCs) that can handle an aggregate of 256 ×
64-Kbps HDLC or transparent channels, multiplexed on up to four TDM interfaces.
1-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Architecture
The MCC also supports super channels of rates higher than 64 Kbps and
subchanneling of the 64 Kbps channels.
■
Four full-duplex serial communication controllers (SCCs) supporting
IEEE802.3/Ethernet, synchronous data link control, high-level data link control
protocol (HDLC), local talk, UART, Synchronous UART, BISYNC, and
transparent mode. Two SCCs have dedicated pins; the other two can operate only
in TDM mode.
■
Two full-duplex SMCs supporting general circuit interface (GCI), UART, and
transparent operation.
■
SPI and I2C bus controllers.
■
Two serial interfaces (SIs) with time-slot assigners (TSAs) that support
multiplexing of data from any of the three FCCs, two MCCs, four SCCs, and two
SMCs.
■
A time-slot assigner (TSA) that supports multiplexing of data from any of the four
SCCs, three FCCS, and two SMCs.
The CPM includes many other functions; the preceding list is an overview of major
features.
1.3.7.1 Serial Protocol
Table 1-1 summarizes the available protocols for each serial port.
Table 1-1.
Available Protocol
FCC
MSC8101 Serial Protocols
SCC
ATM (UTOPIA)
+
ATM (serial)
+
100BaseT
+
10BaseT
+
+
HDLC
+
+
HDLC_BUS
TRANSPARENT
MCC
SMC
+
+
+
+
UART
+
+
DPLL
+
Multiple channel
+
MSC8101 Overview
1-11
MSC8101 Overview
1.3.7.2 CPM Configurations
The CPM comprises many different functional blocks and offers flexibility in configuring
the device for specific applications. The functions described in the preceding sections are
all available in the device, but not all of them can be used at the same time. This does not
mean that the device is not fully activated in any given implementation. The CPM
architecture uses common hardware resources for many different protocols and
applications. Two physical factors limit the functionality in any given system: pinout and
performance. To fit into a small pin count package, some pins have multiple functions. In
some cases, choosing a function may preclude the use of another function. The CPM
handles an aggregate rate of 750 Mbps on the communication channels at 150 MHz CPM
clock and 100 MHz system bus clock. Performance depends on the following factors:
■
Serial rate versus CPM clock frequency for adequate sampling on serial channels
■
Serial rate and protocol versus CPM clock frequency for CPM RISC protocol
handling
■
Serial rate and protocol versus bus bandwidth
■
Serial rate and protocol versus core clock for adequate protocol handling
Table 1-2 describes a few options to configure the fast communication channels on the
MSC8101. The frequency specified is the minimum CPM frequency necessary to run the
mentioned protocols concurrently at full-duplex.
Table 1-2.
FCC 1
FCC 2
MSC8101 Serial Performance Example
MCC
CPM Clock
PowerPC System Bus Clock
155-Mbps ATM
100 BaseT
150 MHz
100 MHz
100-BaseT
100 BaseT
150 MHz
100 MHz
128 64-Kbps channels
150 MHz
100 MHz
128 64-Kbps channels
150 MHz
100 MHz
155-Mbps ATM
256 64-Kbps channels
150 MHz
100 MHz
100-BaseT
256 64-Kbps channels
150 MHz
100 MHz
45-Mbps HDLC
256 64-Kbps
150 MHz
100 MHz
256 64-Kbps
150 MHz
100 MHz
16 576-Kbps
150 MHz
100 MHz
155-Mbps ATM
100-BaseT
45-hbps HDLC
100 BaseT
100 BaseT
100 BaseT
The FCCs run not only in high-speed mode but also in slower modes, such as HDLC or
10BaseT. The CPM RISC architecture has the advantage of using common hardware
resources for all FCCs.
1-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Architecture
1.3.7.3 Buffer Descriptors
If you are programming the CPM serial controllers, you need to know how the serial
controllers use buffer descriptors to define buffer allocation. A buffer descriptor (BD)
contains the essential information about each buffer in memory. Each buffer is referenced
by a BD that can reside anywhere in dual-port RAM. These BDs are shared among all
serial controllers, including:
■
SCCs in UART, HDLC, BISYNC, Transparent, Ethernet, and AppleTalk modes
■
FCCs in HDLC, Fast Ethernet, and Transparent modes
■
SMCs in UART, Transparent, and GCI modes
■
MCCs in HDLC and Transparent modes
■
SPI
■
I 2C
Each 64-bit BD has the structure shown in Figure 1-2. This structure is common to all
communications controllers. A receive buffer descriptor (RxBD) table and a transmit
buffer descriptor (TxBD) table are associated with each serial controller. Each table can
have multiple BDs.
Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0x0
Status and Control
0x2
Data Length
0x4
High-Order Buffer Pointer
0x6
Low-Order Buffer Pointer
10
11
12
13
14
15
Figure 1-2. Buffer Descriptor Structure
In this discussion, the BD and field values use the following convention:
BD.field
Table 1-3 shows the possible BD and field naming conventions. Bit names in
RxBD.bd_cstat and TxBD.bd_cstat use the following convention:
MSC8101 Overview
1-13
MSC8101 Overview
BD.bd_cstat.bit
Table 1-3. Buffer Descriptor Naming Conventions
BD
RxBD/TxBD
Field
Example
bd_cstat
TxBD.bd_cstat. R refers to the ready bit in the TxBD’s status and
control field. Refer to the MSC8101 Reference Manual for the
protocol’s status and control field bit definition.
bd_length
RxBD.bd_length refers to RxBD’s data length field.
bd_addr
RxBD.bd_addr refers to RxBD’s buffer pointer field.
The structural elements of a buffer descriptor are defined as follows:
■
Status and control. The 16-bit value at offset+0x0, which contains status and
control bits that control and report status information on the data transfer. The CPM
updates the status bits after the buffer is sent or received. Only this field differs for
each protocol. Refer to the MSC8101 Reference Manual for each protocol’s
RxBD.bd_cstat and TxBD.bd_cstat bit description.
■
Data length. The 16-bit value at offset+0x2, which contains the number of bytes
sent or received.
■
RxBD data length. The number of bytes the CP writes into the RxBD buffer once
the BD closes. The communications processor (CP) updates this field after the
received data is placed into the buffer and the buffer is closed. You do not need to
initialize this field. In frame-based protocols, except for the SCC transparent mode,
RxBD.bd_length contains the total frame length including CRC bytes. If a
received frame’s length, including CRC, is an exact multiple of the parameter
RAM maximum receive buffer length MRBLR, the last buffer holds no actual data
but the associated BD contains the total frame length.
■
TxBD data length. The number of data bytes the controller needs to transmit from
its buffer. The CP never modifies this field, which is initialized by the user.
■
Buffer pointer. The 32-bit data at offset+0x4, which points to the beginning of
the buffer in internal or external memory.
■
RxBD buffer pointer. The buffer pointer value must be a multiple of four to be
word-aligned.
■
TxBD buffer pointer. The buffer pointer value can be even or odd.
1.3.7.4 Parameter RAM
In the dual-port RAM memory map (see Table 1-4), Banks 9–10
(IMM+$8000:IMM+$8FFF) store parameters associated with the SCCs, FCCs, MCCs,
SMCs, SPI, and I2C controllers. The parameter RAM contains parameters for operating
1-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Architecture
these channels. The exact definition of the parameter RAM, which differs for each
protocol, is provided in the MSC8101 Reference Manual. Table 1-5 shows the MSC8101
parameter RAM structure. The parameters for the SCCs, FCCs, and MCCs are stored in
the parameter RAM. The parameters for the SMCs, SPI, and I2C are stored in locations to
which the user-programmable values in the parameter RAM point. For example,
IMM+$8200 contains the SCC3 parameters. However, IMM+$8AFC contains a pointer to
the I2C parameters, which can be placed in Banks 1–8 in the dual-port RAM.
Table 1-4. Dual-Port RAM Memory Map
IMM+0x0000
Bank 1
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x0800
Bank 2
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x1000
Bank 3
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x1800
Bank 4
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x2000
Bank 5
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x2800
Bank 6
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x3000
Bank 7
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x3800
Bank 8
BD/Data/Code
2 KB
IMM+0x4000
Reserved
16 KB
IMM+0x8000
Bank 9
Parameter RAM
2 KB
IMM+0x8800
Bank 10
Parameter RAM
2 KB
IMM+0x9000
Reserved
8 KB
IMM+0xB000
Bank 11
FCC Data
2 KB
IMM+0xB800
Bank 12
FCC Data
2 KB
Table 1-5. MSC8101 Parameter RAM Structure
Offset from IMM
Peripheral
Size
(Bytes)
Offset from IMM
Peripheral
Size
(Bytes)
0x8000
SCC1
256
0x8900
Reserved
224
0x8100
SCC2
256
0x89FC
SPI_BASE
2
0x8200
SCC3
256
0x89FE
Reserved
2
0x8300
SCC4
256
0x8A00
Reserved
224
0x8400
FCC1
256
0x8AE0
RISC Timers
16
0x8500
FCC2
256
0x8AF0
REV_NUM
2
0x8600
FCC3
256
0x8AF2
Reserved
2
0x8700
MCC1
128
0x8AF4
Reserved
4
0x8780
Reserved
124
0x8AF8
RAND
4
0x87FC
SMC1_BASE
2
0x8AFC
I2C_BASE
2
0x87FE
Reserved
2
0x8AFE
Reserved
2
MSC8101 Overview
1-15
MSC8101 Overview
Table 1-5. MSC8101 Parameter RAM Structure (Continued)
Offset from IMM
Peripheral
Size
(Bytes)
Offset from IMM
Peripheral
Size
(Bytes)
0x8800
MCC2
128
0x8B00
Reserved
1280
0x8880
Reserved
124
0x88FC
SMC2_BASE
2
0x88FE
Reserved
2
Table 1-6 shows the parameter RAM for all SCC protocols. You must initialize entries
with boldfaced names before the SCC can be enabled. Refer to the MSC8101 Reference
Manual for the protocol-specific parameters.
Table 1-6. SCC Parameter RAM
Offset
from SCC
Base1
Name
Width
Description
0x00
RBASE
16-bits
0x02
TBASE
16-bits
RxBD/TxBD table base address. Offset from the beginning of dual-port
RAM. The BD tables can be placed in any unused portion of Banks 1–8. The
CP starts BD processing at the top of the table. These values must be
initialized before the corresponding channels are enabled. RBASE and
TBASE values should be multiples of 8.
0x04
RFCR
8-bits
0x05
TFCR
8-bits
0x06
MRBLR
16-bits
Maximum receive buffer length. Defines the maximum number of bytes the
MSC8101 writes to a receive buffer before it goes to the next buffer. The
MSC8101 can write fewer bytes than MRBLR if an error or an end-of-frame
occurs. It never writes more bytes than the MRBLR value. MRBLR should be
changed only while the receiver is disabled.
0x08
RSTATE
32-bits
Rx internal state. For CP use only.
0x0C
—
32-bits
Rx internal buffer pointer. Updated by the SDMA channels to show the next
address in the buffer to be accessed.
0x10
RBPTR
16-bits
Current RxBD pointer. Points to the current BD being processed or to the
next BD the receiver uses when it is idling. After reset or when the end of the
BD table is reached, the CP initializes RBPTR to the value in RBASE.
0x12
—
16-bits
Rx internal byte count. Down-count value initialized with MRBLR and
decremented with each byte written by the supporting SDMA channel.
0x14
—
32-bits
Rx temp. For CP use only.
0x18
TSTATE
32-bits
Tx internal state. For CP use only.
0x1C
—
32-bits
Tx internal buffer pointer. Updated by the SDMA channels to show the next
address in the buffer to be accessed.
0x20
TBPTR
16-bits
Current TxBD pointer.
0x22
—
16-bits
Tx internal byte count. Down-count value initialized with TxBD.bd_length
and decremented with each byte read by the supporting SDMA channel.
1-16
Rx/Tx function code. Contains the transaction specification associated with
SDMA channel accesses to external memory.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Architecture
Table 1-6. SCC Parameter RAM (Continued)
Offset
from SCC
Base1
Name
Width
0x24
—
32-bits
Tx temp. For CP use only.
0x28
RCRC
32-bits
0x2C
TCRC
32-bits
Temp receive/transmit cyclic redundancy check (CRC). Does not need to
be accessed for normal operation but may be helpful for debugging.
0x30
—
NOTES: 1.
Description
Protocol-specific area.
SCC base is IMM+0x8000. Refer to Table 1-5
1.3.7.5 BD and Buffer Memory Structure
The BDs of all protocols can point to data buffers that are located in the internal dual-port
RAM. Banks 1–8 (IMM+0x0:IMM+0x4FFF) are available for storing BDs and their
buffers. However, if the data buffers are large, they can be located in external memory. In
the SCC2 example shown in Figure 1-3, the SCC2 RxBD and the TxBD parameters are
located in the dual-port RAM, and the buffers are located in external memory.
RxBD.bd_addr contains a pointer to the receive buffer in external memory, and
TxBD.bd_addr contains a pointer to the transmit buffer in external memory. The
256-byte SCC2 parameter RAM is located at IMM+0x8100.
In the SPI example shown in Figure 1-4, the SPI RxBD and TxBD tables are located in
the dual-port RAM, and the buffers are located in external memory. RxBD.bd_addr
contains a pointer to the receive buffer in external memory, and TxBD.bd_addr
contains a pointer to the transmit buffer in external memory. The two-byte SPI_BASE
parameter RAM is located at IMM+0x89FC, which contains a pointer to the SPI
parameter table. The SPI parameter table can be placed at any 64-byte aligned address in
the dual-port RAM’s general-purpose area or in Banks 1–8.
MSC8101 Overview
1-17
MSC8101 Overview
RxBDs
IMM+0x0000
Dual-Port RAM
SCC2 RxBD Table
RxBD.bd_cstat
SCC2 TxBD Table
RxBD.bd_length
External Memory
RxBD.bd_addr
TxBDs
Rx Buffer
TxBD.bd_cstat
TxBD.bd_length
SCC2 Parameters
TxBD.bd_addr
Tx Buffer
RBASE
IMM+0x8100
SCC2
Parameter RAM
TBASE
RFCR
TFCR
MRBLR
RSTATE
RBPTR
TSTATE
TBPTR
RCRC
TCRC
protocolspecific
Figure 1-3. Example SCC2 BD and Buffer Memory Structure
1.3.7.6 RxBD Processing Example
Figure 1-5 shows how the RxBD is processed in SCC UART mode. This example
assumes that the maximum receive buffer length (MRBLR) is 80 bytes. The MRBLR is
the number of bytes the MSC8101 writes to a receive buffer before it moves to the next
buffer. However, the MSC8101 can write fewer bytes than the MRBLR value if an error
or end-of-frame (for frame-based protocols) occurs. It never writes more bytes than the
MRBLR value, so the receive buffers cannot be smaller than the MRBLR.
When data arrives, the CP moves the data to the buffer to which the first RxBD in the table
is pointing. The CP continues to move data until the buffer is full or an error occurs. Then
the buffer is closed. Subsequent data uses the next BD.
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MSC8101 User’s Guide
Architecture
RxBDs
Dual-Port RAM
IMM+0x0000
SPI RxBD Table
RxBD.bd_cstat
SPI TxBD Table
RxBD.bd_length
External Memory
RxBD.bd_addr
TxBDs
SPI
Parameter Table
Rx Buffer
TxBD.bd_cstat
TxBD.bd_length
SPI Parameters
TxBD.bd_addr
Tx Buffer
RBASE
IMM+0x8100
TBASE
SPI_BASE
RFCR
TFCR
MRBLR
RSTATE
RBPTR
TSTATE
TBPTR
Figure 1-4. Example SPI BD and Buffer Memory Structure
If RxBD.bd_cstat.E is cleared, the current buffer is not empty, and it reports a busy
error. The CP does not move from the current BD until the SC140 core sets
RxBD.bd_cstat.E to indicate that the buffer is empty. After using a descriptor, the
CP clears RxBD.bd_cstat.E and does not reuse a BD until the core processes it.
However, in continuous mode when RxBD.bd_cstat.CM is set, RxBD.bd_cstat.E
remains set so the buffer can be overwritten when the CP accesses this BD again. When
the CP discovers a descriptor’s RxBD.bd_cstat.W (wrap) is set, which indicates that it
is the last BD in the circular BD table, it returns to the beginning of the table when it is
time to move to the next BD.
When the UART receives idle characters (all ones), the channel begins counting
consecutive idle characters received. If the maximum idle characters (MAX_IDL) is
reached, RxBD.bd_cstat.ID is set, the buffer is closed, and an interrupt is generated
if not masked. When the UART receives no stop bit, it reports framing errors. The channel
writes the received character to the buffer, closes it, sets RxBD.bd_cstat.FR,
generates an interrupt if not masked, and increments the received characters with the
framing error counter (FRMEC). A new receive buffer receives subsequent data.
MSC8101 Overview
1-19
MSC8101 Overview
SCC UART RxBD.bd_cstat
MRBLR=8 bytes
0
E
1
2
3
4
5
W
I
C
A
Byte 1
8000
xxxx
RxBD 1
0001
2020
RxBD 2
xxxx
Idle
time-out
occurred
0055
4750
8000
RxBD 3
xxxx
FF07
F000
RxBD n
8
CM ID AM
9
10
11 12 13 14
BR FR PR
15
OV CD
2. Clears RxBD.bd_cstat.E after buffer is full (8 bytes received).
Byte 8
3. Writes 0x08 to RxBD.bd_length.
Byte 1
4. Proceeds to next RxBD since RxBD.bd_cstat.W=0.
Byte 2
RxBD 2
1. Receives characters and stores them in the buffer at 0x554750.
Empty
Byte 4 has
framing
error
RxBD 1
1. Receives characters and stores them in the buffer at 0x12020.
Byte 2
...
Byte 1
...
Byte 4
Error
2. Sets RxBD.bd_cstat.ID because a programmable number
of consecutive idle sequences (MAX_IDL) was received.
3. Writes 0x02 to RxBD.bd_length. (Two bytes received before
idle time-out occurred).
4. Proceeds to next RxBD since RxBD.bd_cstat.W=0.
Empty
A000
Byte 1
xxxx
Byte 2
...
0089
C000
7
CPM Action:
RxBD Table
8000
6
Byte 8
RxBD 3
1. Receives characters and stores them in the buffer at 0xFF07F000.
2. Sets RxBD.bd_cstat.FR because byte 4 contains a frame
error.
3. Writes 0x04 to RxBD.bd_length.
4. Proceeds to the next RxBD since RxBD.bd_cstat.W=0.
RxBDx
1. Receives characters and stores them in the buffer at 0x89C000.
2. Clears RxBD.bd_cstat.E after buffer is full.
3. Proceeds to RxBD 1 since RxBD.bd_cstat.W=1.
Figure 1-5. Example SCC UART RxBD Processing
1.3.7.7 TxBD Processing Example
Figure 1-6 shows how the TxBD is processed in SCC UART mode. When the CP detects
that the TxBD.bd_cstat.R (ready) is set, it starts transmitting the buffer. After the
buffer is transmitted, the CP waits for the next descriptor’s TxBD.bd_cstat.R to be set
before proceeding. When the CP detects that a descriptor’s TxBD.bd_cstat.W (wrap)
is set, indicating that this BD is last in the BD table, it returns to the start of the BD table
after this last BD is processed. The CP clears TxBD.bd_cstat.R (not ready) after
using a TxBD, which keeps it from being retransmitted before the SC140 core confirms it.
However, some protocols support a continuous mode for which TxBD.bd_cstat.R
remains set after the buffer is closed to allow the buffer to be resent next time the CP
accesses this BD. Continuous mode is enabled by setting TxBD.bd_cstat.CM.
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MSC8101 User’s Guide
MSC8101 Application Examples
SCC UART TxBD.bd_cstat
0
R
1
2
3
W
I
4
5
CR A
6
7
CM P
8
9
10
11 12 13 14
NS
15
CT
CPM Action:
TxBD Table
TxBD 1
TxBD 1
TxBD.bd_cstat
8000
TxBD.bd_length
0027
1. Transmits 0x27 characters from the buffer
at 0x12020.
TxBD.bd_addr
0001
2020
2. Clears TxBD.bd_cstat.R after the buffer is sent.
9000
TxBD 2
TxBD 2
0104
1. Transmits 0x104 characters from the buffer
at 0x554750.
0055
4750
8200
3. Proceeds to the next TxBD since TxBD.bd_cstat.W=0.
TxBD 3
2. Clears TxBD.bd_cstat.R after buffer is sent.
0035
3. Sets SCCE[TX] after the CP processes the buffer, which
can cause an interrupt since TxBD.bd_cstat.I=1.
FF07
F000
4. Proceeds to next TxBD since TxBD.bd_cstat.W=0.
.
.
.
A000
TxBD 3
TxBD n
0018
1. Transmits 0x35 characters from the buffer
at 0xFF07F000.
2. TxBD.bd_cstat.R remains set since TxBD.bd_cstat.CM=1
3. Proceeds to next TxBD since TxBD.bd_cstat.W=0.
0089
C000
TxBD n
1. Transmits 0x18 characters from the buffer
at 0x89C000.
2. Clears TxBD.bd_cstat.R after buffer is sent.
3. Proceeds to TxBD 1 since TxBD.bd_cstat.W=1.
Figure 1-6. Example SCC UART TxBD Processing
1.4 MSC8101 Application Examples
The MSC8101 can be configured to meet many system application needs. Example
applications include:
■
Media (voice/fax/data) over packet gateway
■
3G infrastructure BTS
■
Centralized DSP architecture
■
Distributed DSP architecture
In all the examples, the SCCs, SMCs, I2C, SPI ports can be used for management.
MSC8101 Overview
1-21
MSC8101 Overview
1.4.1 Media (Voice/Fax/Data) Over Packet Gateway (ATM/FR/IP)
Figure 1-7 shows the media (voice/fax/data) over packet gateway (ATM/FR/IP)
configuration.
MSC8101
Quad
System
Bus
TDM
T1/E1
SDRAM/DRAM/SRAM (optional)
Channelized Data
Framer
155 Mbps
ATM PHY
UTOPIA Multi PHY
or
MII
Transceiver
10/100BaseT
or
Framer
E3 clear channel
(takes one TDM)
HDI16
Interface / Control from
External Host
(MPC860,
MPC8260, and so on)
Comm
PHY
SMC/I2C/SPI/SCC
Figure 1-7. Media (Voice/Fax/Data) Over Packet (ATM/FR/IP)
In this application, a single TDM port connects to an external framer. Up to four MSC8101
TDM interfaces can handle an aggregate of 256 channels (one of which can be T3/E3). One
TDM interface can support 32–128 channels. The MSC8101 receives and transmits data in
transparent or HDLC mode and stores or retrieves the channelized data from memory. The
data is stored either in memory residing internally in the device or externally via the
PowerPC system bus (optional). The main trunk can be configured as 155 Mbps full-duplex
ATM using the UTOPIA interface, as 100 Mbps 10/100 BaseT Fast Ethernet with the MII
interface, or as a high-speed serial channel (up to 45 Mbps).
The HDI16 can interface with/control a bank of MSC8101s via a host controller. Through
the HDI16, the host controller downloads the code via a bootstrap routine at reset and
handles scheduling and overall control of the MSC8101. The MSC8101 memory controller
1-22
MSC8101 User’s Guide
MSC8101 Application Examples
supports many types of memories, including EDO DRAM and page-mode as well as
pipeline SDRAM for efficient burst transfers.
1.4.2 3G Infrastructure Cellular BTS
Figure 1-8 shows a 3G infrastructure cellular BTS configuration.
SDRAM
MPC860
FLASH
SDRAM
RF/IF
System
Bus
MSC8101
ATM
AAL2
IMA
(Symbol Rate)
HDI16
DDC/DUC
SDRAM
MSC8101
+
ASIC / FPGA
(Chip Rate)
CPM
UTOPIA
System
Bus
Network
Driver
A/D/A
MSC8101
+
ASIC / FPGA
(Chip Rate)
MSC8101
(Symbol Rate)
CPM
UTOPIA
Figure 1-8. 3G Infrastructure Cellular BTS
In this application, the MSC8101 connects by the PowerPC system bus to SDRAM and an
external ASIC/FPGA. These external accesses are controlled by the programmable
memory controller. The main trunk in this configuration is configured as 155 Mbps
full-duplex ATM UTOPIA Multi-PHY interface.
1.4.3 Centralized DSP Architecture
Figure 1-9 shows a centralized DSP architecture configuration. The protocol processing is
in one place. The host—in this example, the MPC8260—terminates the protocol stack,
distributes the data payload to the slave devices, and coordinates the resource allocation.
The MPC8260 local bus can control a bank of DSPs. Data to and from the DSPs transfer
through the parallel bus with the internal virtual IDMA. The slow communication ports
(SCCs, SMCs, I2C, SPI) perform management and debug functions. Each MSC8101 is
memory-mapped, through its HDI16 port, on the MPC8260 local bus. In addition, each
MSC8101 can connect to a private local memory through the 32-bit wide PowerPC bus.
MSC8101 Overview
1-23
MSC8101 Overview
SDRAM/DRAM/SRAM
MPC8260
Quad
TDM0
T1
Framer
PowerPC
System Bus
Channelized Data
(up to 256 channels)
TDM7
SDRAM/DRAM/SRAM
155 Mbps
ATM PHY
UTOPIA Multi PHY
PowerPC
Local Bus
or
MII
Transceiver
ATM
Connection Tables
(optional)
10/100BaseT
or
Framer
E3 clear channel
(takes one TDM)
MSC8101
Slaves
Slow
Comm
DSP Bank
SMC/I2C/SPI/SCC
Optional
Distributed
Comms
PHY
Figure 1-9. Centralized DSP Architecture
1.4.4 Distributed DSP Architecture
Figure 1-10 shows a distributed DSP architecture connected through the HDI16 port. In
this example, the protocol processing is distributed, spreading the task of terminating the
protocol stack to both the host and slave devices. The host still coordinates the DSP
resource allocation. Either an MSC8101 or MPC8260 controls the bank of MSC8101s. If
an MPC8260 is the host, then the PowerPC bus system memory is split from the PowerPC
local bus. Each slave DSP completely manages its own subsystem resources, that is, HDI16
and TDM accesses are managed via the on-device DMA controller. Also, each slave has an
optional 32-bit PowerPC bus to connect to either a private or shared memory sub-system.
You have the option of whether to connect the host to slaves via either PowerPC to HDI16
or directly from PowerPC to PowerPC.
1-24
MSC8101 User’s Guide
MSC8101 Application Examples
Serial Backplane(s) (TDM, Ethernet, ATM)
DSP Bank
MSC8101 or MPC8260
PowerPC
System Bus or
Local Bus
on MPC8260
16
PPC
PowerPC
bus
HI16
CPM
CPM
MSC8101
32
Optional
SRAM/
SDRAM
SDRAM
Flash
Figure 1-10. Distributed DSP Architecture Connected Through the HDI16 Port
In the configuration depicted in Figure 1-11, the PowerPC bus port can be used in both
master and slave mode, eliminating the need for a separate HDI16 connection. The
PowerPC bus operates in either 32- or 64-bit wide mode, and each of the DSPs can access
the shared SDRAM, eliminating the need for private memories. The connection to the
serial backplane is a combination of TDMs, Ethernet, or ATM. When connected to an
ATM backbone, all devices connect to a shared UTOPIA bus. One of the device is the
UTOPIA master, and all others (including the PHY device) are UTOPIA slaves.
Serial Backplane
MSC8101 or MPC8260
PowerPC
System Bus or
Local Bus
on MPC8260
TDM0
DSP Bank
PowerPC
MSC8101s
SDRAM
Flash
Figure 1-11. Distributed DSP Architecture Connected Through a Shared PowerPC Bus
MSC8101 Overview
1-25
MSC8101 Overview
1.5 Software Development
Figure 1-12 shows the typical software development flow for the MSC8101.
C
Source
Code
Optimizing C/C++ compiler
generates extremely efficient
C/C++ Compiler control and DSP codes
Integrated Development
Environment (IDE)
Integrates all tools
Assembler
Assembly
Code
In-line Assembly
RTOS
Libraries
Scalable small footprint
RTOS from third parties
enables multi-tasking
Linker
Most of the
optimization is
done in C
Debugger
Simulator and
Profiler
Evaluation
Board
Real-time debug
capability gives
multiple views of
the code and enables
debugging of highly
optimized DSP loops.
Target
Hardware
Figure 1-12. Software Development Flow
Software development starts at the C level. The architecture of the SC140 DSP core is
very C friendly, so much of the code is written, optimized, and debugged in C. Most code
development time is spent optimizing the C code. The software development flow also
supports code optimization in assembly, either by linking assembly modules or by in-line
assembly embedded within the C code. The linker links C files, assembly files, application
software libraries, and real-time operating system (RTOS) files. The code generated can
then be debugged either on the software simulator or on the hardware. The debugger is
1-26
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Software Development
window-based and provides multiple views of the code. You can use it to debug C source
code, assembly code, or mixed code. It provides effective debug capabilities even within
tight DSP loops that have undergone significant optimization by the compiler. The
MSC8101 hardware provides non-intrusive real-time tracing for use by the profiler.
Another key element of the tool chain, the profiler provides detailed information on
deficiencies and hot spots in the code. The programmer can focus optimization efforts on
these critical code sections, either by modifying the C code or by optimizing code
segments in assembly.
A variety of optimization techniques can be implemented either in C code or assembly
code. Optimization focuses mainly on exposing the parallelism that is embedded in the
algorithm so that the compiler can place as many instructions as possible into the same
execution set. This is mainly true for the DSP routines in which the parallelism is not
always visible to the compiler. It is less true for the control code routines in which the
compiler can expose the potential parallelism (where it exists) by itself. Example
optimization techniques are split summation, multisample, loop unrolling, and loop
merging. These techniques are described in detail in an application note entitled
Introduction to the StarCore Tools: An Approach in Nine Exercises (AN2009/D), which is
available with accompanying code at the Website listed on the back cover of this manual.
All tools are integrated under a comprehensive integrated development environment
(IDE), which increases developer productivity by tying together code generation and
system debug tools with project management and editing tools.
Motorola also provides an MSC8101 application development module (ADM). This board
has an MSC8101 device surrounded by hardware that enables the customer to test most of
the device networking and connectivity capabilities. The board includes a memory
sub-system (SDRAM and Flash memory), various network transceivers (155 Mbps ATM,
100 Mbps Ethernet, Quad E1/T1, RS232), Stereo CODEC, and a JTAG debug interface to
the MSC8101. It links to the host via a variety of interfaces (parallel, serial, and PCI).
MSC8101 Overview
1-27
MSC8101 Overview
1-28
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 2
Reset Configuration and Boot
This chapter describes the MSC8101 reset and boot process illustrated with examples of
different system configurations. It also describes the device clocking system, as it pertains
to the reset and boot process. The MSC8101 communicates with other devices in a system
either through the PowerPC system bus or the host port (HDI16). The chosen f
communication mode defines the reset configuration and the boot method.
2.1 Reset Configuration and Boot Basics
Reset configuration sets the basic mode of operation for the MSC8101, including the
operating frequency, arbitration, boot port size, memory controller functionality, and bus
behavior. These are the minimal parameters that must be set for correct operation. The
system configuration (memory controller, system protection logic, interrupt controller,
parallel I/O, and clocks) do not change. There are three kinds of reset in the MSC8101
system:
■
Soft reset. Invoked externally by asserting the SRESET signal or internally by
events. The soft reset initializes the core and internal logic, but system
configuration and clocks do not change.
■
Hard reset. Invoked externally by asserting the HRESET signal or internally by
events. The hard reset initializes the core internal logic and system configuration.
The phased-lock loop (PLL) and delay-lock loop (DLL) are not affected.
■
Power-on reset. Invoked only externally by asserting the PORESET signal.
Power-on reset initializes the core internal logic, the system configuration, and the
clocks. Asserting PORESET input also asserts the HRESET and SRESET signals
internally. During power-on reset, several configuration pins are sampled to set the
boot mode, the source of the reset configuration values, and the basic clocking
mode. The configuration pins are sampled at the rising edge of PORESET, and then
the reset configuration process starts. During reset configuration, a reset
configuration word that determines basic parameter settings is written to the
MSC8101, and a PLL and DLL locking process starts. The HRESET and SRESET
pins remain asserted for a time after the PLL and DLL locking.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
2-1
Reset Configuration and Boot
2.1.1 Bootloader Program
The MSC8101 bootloader program resides in the on-device ROM, starting at location
0xF80000, and executes after reset. This bootloader program loads and executes the
source code that initializes the MSC8101 after the device completes a reset sequence. It
also programs the MSC8101 registers for the required mode of operation. The bootloader
program can receive the source program from either a host processor or an external
standard memory device. The boot source is chosen during power-on reset according to
the settings of the configuration pins.
The system does not support interrupt handling during bootloader operation in either
mode, and you must plan for any interrupts that occur while the boot procedure is in
progress.You should load code that handles any interrupts and change the location of the
table as soon as possible during the boot procedure. No non-maskable interrupt (NMI)
should occur before the interrupt handler is loaded.
2.1.2 Clocks
The MSC8101 clocking architecture includes two PLLs: the system PLL (SPLL) and the
core PLL (CPLL).
The SPLL provides the following:
■
Internal clocks for all blocks in the device except core blocks.
■
The internal PowerPC system bus clock in the device, which is the input clock to
the CPLL.
■
A DLL to eliminate possible clock skews in the system, thus allowing multiple
MSC8101s to be connected on the same board synchronously, as well as SRAM.
Each CPLL has the following:
■
A predivider that can divide by any integer number between 1 and 16.
■
The capability to multiply the input frequency by any integer number between 5
and 15, with a phase-locking mechanism for skew elimination.
■
The capability to multiply the input frequency by non-integer numbers, but without
the phase-locking mechanism.
The main timing reference for the MSC8101 is the CLKIN signal. CLKIN is the input to the
SPLL/DLL, which is fed to several internal clock modules providing several system
clocks. To generate the 2xCPM frequency, the CLKIN frequency is divided by the SPLL
pre-division factor, if necessary, and then multiplied by the SPLL multiplication factor.
The CPM post division factor has a constant value of two; therefore, the CPM
2-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Reset Configuration and Boot Basics
multiplication factor is determined by the values of the SPLL pre-division factor and the
SPLL multiplication factor.
The SPLL provides the input clock to the frequency divider for the PowerPC 60x buses.
The bus multiplication factor is therefore determined by the combination of the SPLL
pre-division factor, the SPLL multiplication factor, and the bus post-division factor. The
bus clock is the input reference clock to the CPLL predivider.
The serial communications controller (SCC) clock post-division factor has a constant
value of four. The value of the baud-rate generator (BRG) clock post-division factor is set
using the System Clock Control Register (SCCR), as described in the clocks chapter of the
MSC8101 Reference Manual. The DLL performs clock skew elimination, as described in
detail in the clocks chapter of the MSC8101 Reference Manual. Figure 2-1 shows the
block diagram of the MSC8101 clocking structure.
PDF: Pre-division factor
MF: Multiplication factor
DF: Post-division factor
PREDIV: Predivider
POSTDIV: Postdivider
BCLK, BCLK_90
Bus
POSTDIV
(DF)
SCLK, SCLK_90
SCC, BRG
POSTDIV
(DF) = 4
CLKIN
SPLL
(PDF)
SPLL
(MF)
2xfCPM
2xf
DLL
CPM
CPM
POSTDIV
(DF) = 2
CPMCLK, CPMCLK_90
SCC, BRG,
POSTDIV
(DF)
CKO
POSTDIV
(DF)
BRGCLK
CLKOUT
Figure 2-1. MSC8101 Clocking Structure
The MSC8101 supports the following set of frequency ratios:
■
Ratios between the PowerPC system bus clock and the CPM clock—limited to
1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5.
■
Ratios between the PowerPC system bus clock and the SC140 core clock—limited
to 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6.
■
The phase lock between the PowerPC system bus clock and CLKIN is guaranteed for
ratio 1:1 only.
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-3
Reset Configuration and Boot
Six bits map the MSC8101 clocks to one of 64 configuration mode options. Each option
determines the CLKIN, PowerPC system bus, SC140 core, and CPM frequency ratios. The
six bits comprise three dedicated pins (MOSCK[1-3]) and three bits from the reset
configuration word (MODCK_H). For information on clock configuration modes and
examples, see the clocks chapter in the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
2.2 Configuring a Single MSC8101
This section describes the configuration for a system that consists of a single MSC8101
and external memories. The input clock operates at 10 MHz, and the required system
clocks are the CPM clock at 150 MHz, the PowerPC system bus clock at 100 MHz, and
the SC140 core clock at 300 MHz. There are three possible ways to apply the hard reset
configuration word in such a system.
■
The MSC8101 is a reset configuration master and reads its own reset configuration
word from EPROM.
■
The MSC8101 is a reset configuration slave and the system has no boot EPROM.
■
The default configuration is used, and the system does not access the boot EPROM.
2.2.1 Master Mode With EPROM
In the configuration described in Figure 2-2 and Table 2-1, the MSC8101 works as a reset
configuration master and reads its own reset configuration word from external EPROM.
The MSC8101 performs the first part of the reset configuration process described in
Section 2.3.1, Reset Configuration Sequence.
.
PORESET
EPROM Control Signals
HRESET
Configuration Master
MSC8101
Address Bus
VCC
Boot EPROM
CS
A[..]
D[0–7]
CS0
A[0–31]
HPE, RSTCONF
Data Bus
PORESET
D[0–31]
Figure 2-2. Configuring a Single Device From EPROM
2-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Configuring a Single MSC8101
Table 2-1. Pin Connectivity for a Reset Configuration From Boot EPROM
Pin/Function
Connection
PORESET
External reset
HRESET
Pulled up
DBREQ/EE0
To GND for normal operation of the SC140 core
HPE/EE1
To GND to disable the host port
BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]
To GND to enable boot from external memory
MODCK[1–3]
To GND to enable the desired clock frequency
RSTCONF
To GND
Boot EPROM
To the address (A[0–31]) and data (D[0–63]) buses
2.2.2 Slave Mode With No EPROM
For a system with no boot EPROM, you can configure the MSC8101 as a configuration
slave by deasserting RSTCONF during PORESET assertion and then asserting RSTCONF
while driving an appropriate configuration word on D[0–31] (seeTable 2-2). In such a
system, asserting HRESET in the middle of an operation causes the MSC8101 to return to
the configuration programmed after PORESET assertion. The reset configuration word
should be applied to D[0–31] using pull-ups and pull-downs on each signal of the bus.
Table 2-2. Pin Connectivity for a Reset Configuration With No Boot EPROM
Pin/Function
Connection
External reset
To PORESET
HRESET
Pulled up
DBREQ/EE0
To GND for normal operation of the SC140 core
HPE/EE1
To GND to disable the host port
BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]
To GND to enable boot from external memory
MODCK[1–3]
To GND to enable the desired clock frequency
RSTCONF
To VCC during PORESET; is driven to GND when the configuration word is applied
Boot EPROM
Any external memory connected to address and data bus is not accessed for reset
configuration, but it can be accessed for boot and other purposes.
D[0–31]
Pull each line up to VCC or down to ground as appropriate to generate the correct reset
configuration word
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-5
Reset Configuration and Boot
2.2.3 Default Configuration With No EPROM
The default MSC8101 reset configuration is the simplest configuration scenario (see
Figure 2-3 and Table 2-3). The MSC8101 does not access the boot EPROM; it is
assumed that the default configuration is used when exiting hard reset.
PORESET
Vcc
Configuration
Slave MSC8101
HRESET
A[0–31]
Vcc
D[0–31]
PORESET
RSTCONF
Figure 2-3. Configuring a Single Chip With the Default Configuration
Table 2-3. Pin Connectivity for the Default Reset Configuration
Pin/Function
Connection
PORESET
External reset
HRESET
Pulled up
DBREQ/EE0
To GND for normal operation of the core
HPE/EE[1]
To GND to disable the host port
BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]
To GND to enable boot from external memory
MODCK[1–3]
To GND to enable the desired clock frequency
RSTCONF
To VCC during PORESET
Boot EPROM
Any external memory connected to address and data bus is not accessed for
reset configuration, but it can be accessed for boot and other purposes.
After exiting reset, the MSC8101 accesses an address table that starts from address
0xFE000110. This address table is a jump table that contains the address for the boot
routine. The address table has eight entries, which are accessed according to the MSC8101
internal space base (ISB) of the SIU Internal Memory Map Register (IMMR), which are
configured during reset. Each entry is four bytes wide. For example, an MSC8101 with an
ISB of 000 accesses the first entry, which resides at address 0xFE000110. An MSC8101
with an ISB of 010 accesses the third entry, which resides at address 0xFE000118. After
getting the boot code location, the MSC8101 starts executing the boot code. The boot
memory connects to CS0, which gates access to the memory.
2-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System, PowerPC Bus Connected
2.3 Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System, PowerPC Bus
Connected
This section describes a system of up to eight MSC8101s that connect to a PowerPC bus.
The reset configuration and boot process occur via the PowerPC bus. In such a system, an
EPROM or other standard memory device usually serves the reset and the boot process.
This memory device also connects to the PowerPC bus. The input clock operates at 10
MHz, and the required system clocks are the CPM clock at 150 MHz, the PowerPC bus
clock at 100 MHz, and the SC140 core clock at 300 MHz.
One of the MSC8101 devices acts as a reset configuration master for the reset
configuration process, and the rest are slaves. A reset configuration word for each
MSC8101 in the system is stored at a known address in the memory device. The reset
configuration master reads the first reset configuration word, configures itself, and then
reads the other configuration words to configure the rest of MSC8101s. This process is
described in detail in the following sections.
After exiting reset, each MSC8101 boots from a different address in order to provide
maximum system flexibility. After reset, the MSC8101 accesses the external memory
device to perform the boot routine. Each MSC8101 can access a unique address to
perform its own boot routine. Table 2-4 and Figure 2-4 describe the MSC8101 pins and
system connectivity.
Table 2-4. Pin Connectivity for a Multi-MSC8101 System, PowerPC Bus Connected
Pin/Function
Connection
All PORESET
External reset
HRESET
Connected among themselves and pulled up, if a simultaneous out of reset is
required. As long as one of the chips is still in the reset condition, HRESET is
asserted and does not allow the others to exit reset.
DBREQ/EE0
To GND for normal operation of the core
HPE/EE1
To GND to disable the host port
BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]
To GND to enable boot from external memory or to VCC to enable boot from
the HDI16
RSTCONF
Configuration master MSC8101:
To GND
Configuration slave MSC8101s:
To one of A[0–6]
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-7
Reset Configuration and Boot
PORESET
Configuration Master MSC8101
HRESET
Boot EPROM
A[..]
A[0–31]
D[0–31]
HPE
D[0–7]
RSTCONF
Data Bus
PORESET
HRESET
Address Bus
EPROM Control Signals
VCC
Configuration Slave MSC81011
HPE
D[0–31]
PORESET
HPE
HRESET
RSTCONF
A0
Configuration Slave MSC8101 2
D[0–31]
PORESET
HPE
RSTCONF
A1
Configuration Slave MSC8101 7
HRESET
PORESET
D[0–31]
HPE
RSTCONF
A6
Figure 2-4. Multi-MSC8101 PowerPC Bus System
2-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System, PowerPC Bus Connected
2.3.1 Reset Configuration Sequence
The reset configuration sequence supports a system with up to eight MSC8101 devices,
each configured differently. It needs no additional glue logic for reset configuration. In a
typical multi-MSC8101 system, one MSC8101 acts as the configuration master while all
other MSC8101s act as configuration slaves. The configuration master reads eight
configuration words from EPROM in the system and uses them to configure itself as well
as the configuration slaves. The way that the MSC8101 acts during hardware reset
configuration is determined by the value of the RSTCONF input during the period in which
PORESET is asserted and deasserted. If RSTCONF is asserted (0) while PORESET changes
state, the MSC8101 is a configuration master; otherwise, it is a slave.
In a typical multiple-MSC8101 system, the RSTCONF input to the configuration master is
hardwired to ground, while the RSTCONF inputs of other devices connect to the high-order
address bits of the configuration master, as described in Table 2-5.
Table 2-5. RSTCONF Connections in a Multiple-MSC8101 System
Configured Device
RSTCONF Connection
Configuration master
GND
First configuration slave
A0
Second configuration slave
A1
Third configuration slave
A2
Fourth configuration slave
A3
Fifth configuration slave
A4
Sixth configuration slave
A5
Seventh configuration slave
A6
The configuration words for all MSC8101s reside in an EPROM connected to CS0 of the
configuration master. Because the port size of this EPROM is not known to the
configuration master, the configuration master must read all the hard reset configuration
words byte-by-byte from locations that are port size independent before reading the
configuration words. Table 2-6 shows the addresses used to configure the various
MSC8101s. Byte addresses that are not listed in this table have no effect on the
configuration of the MSC8101 devices. The values of the bytes in Table 2-6 are always
read on byte lane D[0–7], regardless of the port size.
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-9
Reset Configuration and Boot
Table 2-6. Configuration EPROM Addresses
Configured Device
Byte 0 Address
Byte 1 Address
Byte 2 Address
Byte 3 Address
Configuration master
0x00
0x08
0x10
0x18
First configuration slave
0x20
0x28
0x30
0x38
Second configuration slave
0x40
0x48
0x50
0x58
Third configuration slave
0x60
0x68
0x70
0x78
Fourth configuration slave
0x80
0x88
0x90
0x98
Fifth configuration slave
0xA0
0xA8
0xB0
0xB8
Sixth configuration slave
0xC0
0xC8
0xD0
0xD8
Seventh configuration slave
0xE0
0xE8
0xF0
0xF8
The configuration master first reads a value from address 0x00 and then reads a value
from addresses 0x08, 0x10, and 0x18. These four bytes form the configuration word of the
configuration master, which then proceeds reading the bytes that form the configuration
word of the first slave device. The configuration master drives the whole configuration
word on D[0–31] and toggles its A0 address line. Each configuration slave uses its RSTCONF
input as a strobe for latching the hard reset configuration word during HRESET assertion
time. Thus, the first configuration slave whose RSTCONF input connects to the
configuration master’s A0 output latches the word driven on D[0–31] as its configuration
word. The configuration master continues to configure all MSC8101 devices in the
system. The configuration master always reads eight configuration words, regardless of
the number of MSC8101 devices in the system.
2.3.2 Reset Configuration Word Values
In the system described in Figure 2-4, one arbiter handles the system bus arbitration and
one memory controller controls the signals and attributes of all memory accesses. Any
MSC8101 in the system can handle the roles of system arbiter and memory controller. The
MSC8101 that serves as a system arbiter uses its internal arbiter, and the rest of the
MSC8101s are configured to work in an external arbitration mode. The MSC8101 that
serves as the memory controller for the system uses its memory controller, and the
remaining MSC8101s are configured to work with an external memory controller. The
arbitration mode and memory controller mode are set in the hard reset configuration word.
Each MSC8101 in the system must have a unique value in the IMMR. In the reset
configuration word, there can be up to eight different values for the first three bits of the
IMMR (ISB[0–2]). Each MSC8101 in the system must be configured to one of these
values. These values can be changed during boot. MODCK is also configured in reset
configuration to choose the desired clock frequency.
2-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System, PowerPC Bus Connected
Table 2-7. Hard Reset Configuration Word Values
Master MSC8101
Value
Slave MSC8101 Devices
Description
Value
Description
EARB = 0
Internal arbitration
EARB = 1
External arbitration
EXMC = 0
Internal memory controller
EXMC = 1
External memory controller
EBM = 1
PowerPC system bus-compatible
mode
EBM = 1
PowerPC system bus-compatible
mode
BPS = 01
8-bit boot port size according to the
example in Figure 2-4
BPS = 01
8-bit boot port size according to the
example in Figure 2-4
SCDIS = 0
SC140 core enabled
SCDIS = 0
SC140 core enabled
DLLDIS = 0
No DLL bypass for normal operation
DLLDIS = 0
No DLL bypass for normal operation
ISB = 000
IMMR value is 0xf000_0000
ISB = xxx
IMMR value is different for each
MSC8101
MODCK_H = xxx
To enable the desired clock
MODCK_H =
xxx
To enable the desired clock
The rest of the fields should be configured according to system requirements: IRQ7INT, ISPS, IRPC, DPPC, NMI
OUT, BBD, TCPC, BC1PC. Assume they are all equal to zero.
2.3.3 Boot in a Multi-MSC8101 PowerPC Bus System
The MSC8101 executes commands directly from external memory when BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]
are both pulled low. If required, a boot sequence can be loaded into internal RAM as part
of the boot routine. There are no restrictions on the format of the boot sequence. The
MSC8101 on-device memory controller supports specific boot functionality. The boot
chip-select operation allows address decoding prior to system initialization for the external
memory boot operation. CS0 is the boot chip-select output, and the external boot memory
should connect to it. The MSC8101 boot chip-select operation also provides a
programmable port size during system reset, if the BPS bits in the reset configuration
word are written.
The bootloader program accesses an address table that resides at address 0xFE000110.
This table holds the address of the boot routine as a 32-bit entry. This address is
user-programmable, and the routine can be placed at any address in the space controlled
by the chip-select. The MSC8101 retrieves the boot address from the table according to
the ISBs in first three IMMR[0–2], which are configured during reset. Each entry is four
bytes wide. For example, a device with an ISB cleared to 000 accesses the first entry,
which resides at address 0xFE000110. A device with an ISB of 010 accesses the third
entry, which resides at address 0xFE000118. After getting the boot code location, the
MSC8101 begins executing the boot. Therefore, each device can have its own boot
routine.
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-11
Reset Configuration and Boot
2.4 Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via the
Host Port
This section presents an example of a system with three MSC8101s controlled by one
MSC8101 that serves as a host. The host exits reset and boots, and then it writes the reset
configuration word to each of the other two MSC8101 devices. After the last MSC8101
hard reset configuration word is written, the MSC8101s exit reset and the boot process
starts. The host loads the hard reset configuration word into each MSC8101, which then
executes its boot code. The host MSC8101 can be configured in any of the ways described
for a single device, and it exits reset as a single device. In the example discussed here, it is
configured by reading a hard reset configuration word from external memory. Then it
executes its boot code, which resides in the external EPROM. The host MSC8101 is ready
to configure the rest of the system. It executes code from the EPROM or other external
memory, or it downloads the code to its internal SRAM. This code contains the hard reset
configuration words and the boot code for each MSC8101 device in the system. Table 2-8
and Table 2-9 show the pin connectivity for the host and for the multi-MSC8101 system.
Figure 2-5 describes the MSC8101 pins and basic system connectivity.
Table 2-8. Host MSC8101 of a Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via Host Port
Pin/Function
Connection
External reset
To all PORESET
HRESET
Does not connect to the HRESET of the other MSC8101s
DBREQ/EE0
To GND for normal operation of the SC140 core.
HPE/EE1
Connected to GND to disable the host port
BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]
Connected to GND to enable boot from external memory
RSTCONF
Connected to GND
Table 2-9. Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via Host Port
Pin/Function
Connection
External reset
To all PORESET
HRESET
Connected among themselves and pulled up, if a simultaneous out of reset is
required. As long as one of the devices is still in the reset condition, HRESET
is asserted and does not allow the others to exit reset.
DBREQ/EE0
To GND for normal operation of the SC140 core.
HPE/EE1]
To VCC to enable the host port
BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]
All BTM0s connect to GND and BTM1s connect to VCC to enable boot loading
through host port
2-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via the Host Port
Table 2-9. Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via Host Port (Continued)
Pin/Function
RSTCONF
Connection
Connects to VCC
NOTE: Ensure that the ISPS bit 7 of the hard reset configuration word is set (1) when the Host Port (HDI16) is in
use. This changes the PowerPC data bus from 64 to 32 bits wide. Failure to set this bit results in data bus conflicts
and errors.
VCC
VCC
PORESET
MSC8101 Configuration
Slave
PORESET
HRESET
RSTCONF
8-bit EPROM
VCC
HA[0–3]
HDI[0–15]
HPE
D[0–7]
A[..]
VCC
PORESET
RSTCONF
HRESET
MSC8101 Configuration
Slave
PORESET
Address Bus
MSC8101 Configuration
Master
PORESET
HRESET
VCC
RSTCONF
HA[0–3]
HDI[0–15]
A[0–31]
HPE
Data Bus
D[0–63]
HPE
VCC
MSC8101 Configuration
Slave
PORESET
RSTCONF
HRESET
VCC
HA[0–3]
HDI[0–15]
HPE
Figure 2-5. Multiple MSC8101s Connected Via the Host Port
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-13
Reset Configuration and Boot
2.4.1 Host Reset Configuration Sequence
This section describes how the reset configuration word is applied to a host-controlled
MSC8101. Host reset configuration allows the host to program the reset configuration
word via the host port after PORESET is deasserted. If HPE is sampled high at the rising
edge of PORESET, the host port is enabled. In this mode the RSTCONF pin must be pulled
up deasserted. The device extends the internal PORESET until the host programs the reset
configuration word register. The host must write four 8-bit half-words to the host reset
configuration register address to program the reset configuration word, which is 32-bits
wide.1 This register is programmed before the internal PLL and DLL in the MSC8101 are
locked. The host must program this register after the rising edge of PORESET input. The
host has its own clock and does not depend on the MSC8101 clock. After the PLL and
DLL are locked, HRESET remains asserted for another 512 bus clocks and is then released.
The SRESET is released three bus clocks later.
2.4.1.1 Reset Configuration Word Value
In the system depicted in Figure 2-5, the host MSC8101 transfers data and control to/from
the other MSC8101s through the host port. The host uses its address and data buses for
data transfers. Only the host can initiate transactions, so there is no need for a system
arbiter. The host accesses external memory via its PowerPC system bus. The other
MSC8101s connect to their own external memory, a memory for each MSC8101, so there
is no need for a system memory controller.
Table 2-10. Reset Configuration Word Values for Host Reset Configuration
Master MSC8101
Value
Slave MSC8101 Devices
Description
Value
Description
EARB = 0
Internal arbitration
EARB = 0
Internal arbitration
EXMC = 0
Internal memory controller
EXMC = 0
Internal memory controller
EBM = 0
Single-chip mode
EBM = 0
Single-chip mode
BPS = 01
8-bit boot port size according to the
example in Figure 2-5
BPS = 00
Boot occurs via the host port; this value
has no effect
SCDIS = 0
SC140 core enabled
SCDIS = 0
SC140 core enabled
DLLDIS = 0
No DLL bypass for normal operation
DLLDIS = 0
No DLL bypass for normal operation
ISB = 000
IMMR value is 0xF000_0000
ISB = 010
Each MSC8101 can have any IMMR value;
can be changed by boot
ISPS = 1
Select 32-bit PowerPC data bus
ISPS = 1
Selects 32-bit PowerPC data bus
The rest of the fields should be configured according to system requirements: IRQ7INT, ISPS, IRPC, DPPC, NMI
OUT, BBD, TCPC, BC1PC. Assume they are all equal to zero.
1. For details on the host port registers, refer to the HDI16 chapter in the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
2-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Configuring a Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via the Host Port
2.4.2 Boot Through Host Port
The MSC8101 host interface supports bootloading from hosts with 8-bit or 16-bit ports.
The system in the example discussed here uses a 16-bit port. The MSC8101 host treats all
accesses as address accesses. Single-data strobe or dual-data strobe access and data strobe
polarity are configured via external pins. The MSC8101 host interacts with the host port of
the MSC8101 slave in polling mode. The MSC8101 host accesses the host port registers to
determine the status of the host port—for example, whether the host port can receive more
data.
2.4.3 Source Program Data Stream Structure
The source program can be organized into several blocks. Each block is either a data block
or an instruction block, and it can be loaded to a different specified destination. The
checksum method ensures correct data loading. Each block specifies its size and
destination address, and it ends with a checksum and a CHECKSUM. Figure 2-6
summarizes the structure of the source program data stream.
Block 1
Block 2
.
.
.
Block n
Boot End
Block
Figure 2-6. Boot Code Stream Structure
The data stream source programs must be structured in the format shown in Table 2-11.
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-15
Reset Configuration and Boot
Table 2-11. Data Stream Source Program Block Structure
Word
Description
1
Block size in 16 bits of the first program block to be loaded, most significant part
2
Block size in 16 bits of the first program block to be loaded, least significant part
3
Address where the first block of the source program is to be loaded, most significant part
4
Address where the first block of the source program is to be loaded, least significant part
5
0x0000
6
0x0000
7
Checksum—xor
8
Checksum—xor
The bootloader routine expects at least one code block. When more than one block is
included in the source program data stream, word n+5 contains the address of the second
block, as shown in Table 2-11. The sequence repeats for subsequent blocks until the final
block in the data stream is reached. A special boot end block indicates the end of the boot
code stream (see Table 2-12).
Table 2-12. Structure of the Boot End Block
Word
Description
1
0x0000
2
0x0000
3
Boot start address, most significant part
4
Boot start address, least significant part
5
Checksum, XOR
6
Checksum, XOR
The first two words indicate the end of the source blocks. At least one block of source
code is loaded when the bootloader is invoked.
2.4.4 Host Interface Load Procedure
The host interface load procedure includes:
1.
Loading the source code blocks
2.
Storing the blocks in a given address
3.
Performing checks
The host MSC8101 writes the source code word after word to the host interface registers
of the MSC8101 slave. For each code word that is loaded, the routine calculates a
2-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Related Reading
checksum. The checksum is calculated by XORing the current word bit by bit with the
result of XORing previous words. The value of bit i of the current result is equal to
XORing bit i of the current word with bit i of the previous result. After the entire block is
loaded, the calculated checksum is compared to the loaded checksum to verify that the
code loading completed correctly. Note that the checksum is calculated on all the block
words, starting from the address.
A handshaking mechanism between the host and the slave indicates the status of the code
loading. The handshake mechanism uses one flag of the Interface Control Register (ICR)
and two flags in the Host Control Register (HCR). The host can set a flag in the ICR to
ignore the checksum comparison. If the flag is set, the checksum should be compared.
The SC140 core of the slave MSC8101 sets a flag in the HCR to indicate the completion
of code loading. It sets a different flag to indicate the occurrence of an error during the
checksum checks. The host MSC8101 ignores this flag if it does not need the checksum
checks.
2.5 Related Reading
C
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 5, Balancing Between the
PowerPC System and Local Buses
Chapter 8, Host Interface (HDI16)
Appendix C, Bootloader Program
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 3, External Signals
Chapter 4, System Interface Unit
(SIU)
Chapter 5, Reset
Chapter 6, Boot
Chapter 12, PowerPC System Bus
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-17
Reset Configuration and Boot
2-18
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 3
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
This chapter describes the memory mechanism of the SC140 core and explains how to
allocate the memory efficiently for an application running on the MSC8101. The
recommended SC140 application development methodology involves significant use of a
C compiler, which reduces development time and results in high-performance code. Most
of the memory allocation tasks are relegated to the compiler, and the recommendations
presented here complement the default memory allocation it performs.
3.1 Memory Requirements
Any memory used by the SC140 core must conform to the following system requirements:
■
The SC140 core supports only unified memory, meaning that memory is regarded
as a single space. There is no distinction between program memory locations and
data memory locations, and each memory location possesses a unique address. For
example, memory address 0x1000 can hold either data or program information.
■
Data must be byte-addressable and accessible to both memory data buses.
■
The memory must support all data width accesses used by the SC140 core, namely
half-word (8 bits), word (16 bits), double-word (32 bits), or quad-word (64 bits).
■
Memory must be accessed cycle by cycle so that all accesses on a given cycle are
identified and resolved before proceeding to accesses in the next cycle.
■
Multiple access rules in a given cycle are as follows:
— Multiple read or write accesses to different memory locations execute without
any predetermined sequence.
— When multiple accesses to the same memory location occur, the access
sequence is as follows: program fetch, data read, and data write.
— If two write operations access overlapping bytes in memory in the same cycle,
there is a memory contention. The memory subsystem detects these cases and
issues an interrupt to the SC140 core.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
3-1
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
■
The SC140 core does not support accesses to a non-existent memory location. If
required, the memory subsystem detects these occurrences and generates
non-maskable interrupts (NMIs) to the SC140 core.
3.2 Partitioning Memory
The SC140 core is flexible in its support for various memory structures, including
different division into submemories. The example in Figure 3-1 presents a general
structure that partitions the memory as follows:
■
The memory is made up of a number of 32 KB groups.
■
Each group consists of eight 4 KB modules.
■
Each module includes 128 rows.
Addresses are interleaved over the modules within a group, in row boundaries. This
organization enables consecutive addressing across more than one module in a group.
3.3 Allocating Memory
The compiler allocates program memory and data RAM. By default, the program memory
is allocated to the subroutines sequentially. In the data memory, a sophisticated algorithm
efficiently allocates the various arrays and variables. For each variable or array, a time
period analysis is performed in which the living time of the array or variable is examined,
and the option to share other variables on the same physical memory locations is tested. If
there is no overlap in the living times of two variables, they can share the same memory
location. The algorithm generally finds the most efficient way to allocate the variables.
Therefore, it is recommended that you allow the compiler to allocate the data RAM.
However, for flexibility, the option to allocate memory manually still exists. In
memory-critical applications, a more optimized allocation may be achieved by manual
allocation.
3-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Memory Configuration
.
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Row 127
.
.
.
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MODULE 9
4 KB Module
.
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MODULE 8
4 KB Module
MODULE 15
4 KB Module
.
Row 1
.
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Row 0 32K
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32543
32512
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32575
32544
MODULE 0
MODULE 1
4 KB Module
4 KB Module
.
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32767
32736
GROUP 0
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Row 127
.
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
Figure 3-1. Memory Organization
64 K-1
GROUP 1
MODULE 7
4 KB Module
.
.
286 287
288 289 290
.
.
. 318 319
480 481 482
.
.
. 510 511
.
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30
32
.
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. 62
224 225 226
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. 254 255
Row 0
0
1
2
31
33 34
63
3-3
Allocating Memory
Row 1 256 257 258 .
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
3.4 Avoiding Memory Contentions
Contentions occur when there are multiple requests for access to a memory group in the
same cycle. A contention event is followed by a stall cycle per conflict in which the
contention is resolved. The following guidelines apply:
■
There can be up to three core memory accesses per clock cycle:
— Two data accesses
— One program access
■
Only one program access, or one or two data accesses, can refer to a specific group
in the same clock cycle.
■
Two conflicting accesses to a group (program and data) stall the core for one cycle.
■
Two data accesses cause a one-cycle stall if the accesses are to two different rows
in the same module.
■
Two data accesses to the same group do not cause a stall in the following cases:
— Accesses to different modules
— Accesses to the same row of the same module
■
The address interleaving structure, in which consecutive addresses are interleaved
over the eight modules within a group, implies that two data accesses to different
memory locations do not cause a stall if the addresses of these locations fall within
a range of 224 bytes (7 rows).
As Figure 3-2 shows, the SC140 memory space is divided into 32 KB groups, each
divided into eight 4 KB modules. The modules are divided into 32-byte lines.
GROUP 0
Module 1
256
0 1
.......
Module 2
30 31
32 33
.......
Module 8
.....
62 63
224
.......
255
Figure 3-2. Memory Structure
Memory contentions between program memory and data memory occur when the program
bus and the data bus attempt to access the memory within the same group. To prevent
memory contentions, keep the data and program memory in different groups. For example
3-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Related Reading
use the addresses 0..0x7FFF (group0) for data storage and addresses 0x8000..0xFFF for
program memory.
A memory contention is also caused if the DMA and data bus attempt to access the
memory within the same group. For information on how to avoid this type of contention,
see Section 6.5, Avoiding DMA and SC140 Core Contentions, on page 6-25.
Data memory contentions are caused when the two address generation unit (AGU)
instructions in the execution set attempt to access two different lines in the same memory
module. This causes the execution set to take one more cycle. To avoid data memory
contentions, you can do the following:
■
If possible, write each memory access in a different execution set.
■
If not, analyze the code to find what combination of memory transfers may cause a
contention, and then separate them.
■
If possible, change the start addresses to avoid contention.
The analysis and contention checks can be done using the simulator, through the display
on stall option.
3.5 Related Reading
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 1, MSC8101 Overview
Chapter 6, DMA Channels
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 8, Memory Map
Chapter 9, Internal Memory
System and Reservation
Operation
Chapter 10, Memory Controller
Chapter 11, QBus
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
3-5
Optimizing Memory on the SC140 Core
3-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 4
Connecting External Memories and
Memory-Mapped Devices
This chapter illustrates several memory interconnection options for the MSC8101 bus and
memory controller. It outlines the hardware connections and memory register settings for
the MSC8101 when the PowerPC system bus connects to EPROM, Flash memory,
Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), or an MSC8101 HDI16 slave.
4.1 Memory Controller Basics
The MSC8101 has three integrated memory controllers tailored to suit a variety of bus
control profiles. This chapter discusses all of these memory controllers and illustrates
them with examples:
■
General-purpose chip-select machine (GPCM). A baseline controller for simple
non-multiplexed interfaces such as EPROM, Flash memory, and SRAM. A
GPCM-derived chip select interfaces simple, non-bursting devices over a selection
of port sizes (8-, 16-, 32- and 64-bit) and a wide range of speed grades. To illustrate
its use, the timing of a Flash EPROM interface example is discussed.
■
Dedicated SDRAM controller. Gluelessly connects to a variety of
JEDEC-compatible SDRAMs of varying size and number of banks. The SDRAM
controller generates the row address strobe (RAS), column address strobe (CAS), chip
select (CS), and control signal combinations. The programmable address
multiplexing and timing characteristics enable you to control the size of the
SDRAM, row to column address latch timing, page-mode burst operation, and
bank interleaving. To illustrate SDRAM controller operation, this chapter discusses
the interface to a 100-125 MHz SDRAM on the 100 MHz Bus.
■
User-programmable machine (UPM). A flexible alternative controller by which
users can define a fully programmable bus cycle profile for a range of such
standard or proprietary interfaces as SRAM, EDO DRAM, and ASICs. The UPM
offers much more flexibility in timing to target a broader range of system devices
than the GPCM. Through the UPM-controlled interface, software can define the
chip selects and control strobes on each bus clock to a one quarter of one clock
MSC8101 User’s Guide
4-1
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
granularity. Developers commonly use this flexibility for user-defined interfaces to
ASICs or DSPs. Any or all of the eight external chip selects (CS[0–7) can use the
same UPM timing. To illustrate the UPM’s capabilities, this chapter discusses a
UPM-defined interface that gives a programmable port size and strobe generation
matching that of the MSC8101 HDI16 host port.
For each chip select (CS[0–7], 10–11]) and associated memory bank, the associated memory
controller (that is, GPMC, SDRAM, or UPM) must be programmed in the Machine Select
field of the respective Base Register (BRx[MSEL]). Four of the total chip selects are
allocated internally on the PowerPC local bus (for peripherals and memory control). The
remaining eight chip selects are available for the external system PowerPC system bus.
For these chip selects, only one set of SDRAM settings and up to two separate UPM
settings are possible, although multiple chip selects can use the same configurations for
several different memory regions. Any remaining chip selects can be programmed in the
General-Purpose Chip Select mode with individual timing settings per chip select.
Whatever memory controller mode is selected, the following parameters must be
programmed:
■
base address
■
addressable memory window size
■
target bus (PowerPC system bus or PowerPC local bus)
■
port width (8, 16, 32, or 64 bit)
On the basis of the address decoded for an internal transaction, the bus operation is
mapped onto the selected bus. If the data is larger than the corresponding port size, the
memory controller automatically splits the data into multiple bus cycles of a data width up
to the programmed maximum—for example, a 64-bit transaction to a 16-bit port generates
four bus cycles back-to-back).
4.2 External Bus Basics
All memory controller types use exactly the same external 64-bit (or 32-bit) PowerPC
system bus, with the distinction that each memory controller offers differing additional
strobe signals. This system bus has two completely separate configurable bus modes,
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode and PowerPC Multi-Master Bus mode. The
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode is selected when the Bus Configuration Register
BCR[EBM] bit is cleared, and multimaster mode selected when this bit is set. The Flash,
SDRAM, and HDI16 examples in this chapter focus on the Single-Master MSC8101 Bus
mode.
4-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
External Bus Basics
Bank 0
MSEL
Bank 1
MSEL
Bank 2
MxMR[BS]
User-Programmable
Machine
MSEL
60x SDRAM
Machine
Bank 7
PowerPC
System Bus
Internal
DSP SRAM
PowerPC
System Bus
MSEL
Banks 8 and 9 are reserved for
future expansion.
This bank is used for internal DSP SRAM.
Bank 10
MSEL
This bank is used for internal DSP
peripherals.
Bank 11
MSEL
60x General-Purpose
Chip-Select
Machine
Internal Local General-Purpose
Chip-Select Machine
PowerPC
System Bus
Internal
DSP Peripheral
Figure 4-1. Memory Controller Overview
The Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode gives the simplest interconnection to external
peripherals. In this mode, there is no external arbitration, so the MSC8101 is the only
master on the bus. The MSC8101 drives the address and data for the duration of every bus
access so that external memories can connect directly to the MSC8101 address/data if the
capacitive load of the connected devices allows. This direct interconnect occurs across all
memory controller options, including GPCM-controlled Flash memory, UPM-controlled
HDI16 interfaces, and direct SDRAM interfacing in which all the signalling, and even row
and column address multiplexing, is handled internally.
The PowerPC system bus operating in multi-master mode has one or more bus masters
arbitrating access to the shared bus resource. The advantage of multi-master mode is that
several PowerPC 60x-compatible bus masters can interconnect directly and make full use
of the bus pipelining potential. To achieve full bandwidth performance, the separate
address and data tenures are pipelined. Therefore, the address and associated address
controls lines can be ready for the next access before the data phase for the current access
is complete. The interface to memory devices requires the use of external address latches
to register the address and maintain it to the memory for the full duration of the memory
access. Meanwhile, the processor can overlap the next arbitration and address phase in
readiness for a subsequent access. The MSC8101 simplifies external address latching
through an address latch signal, and for SDRAM usage, it also provides an address
multiplex signal for row and column multiplexing.
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-3
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4.3 Connecting the Bus to the Flash Memory Interface
In most embedded systems, Flash memory is the standard way to store the non-volatile
bootstrap code for the system at power-up. In a DSP environment, typically at least one
device connects to flash to configure the system and then bootload real-time firmware
code into other devices. The MSC8101 supports such a Flash memory boot operation, as
follows:
1.
Use Chip-Select 0 (CS0) programmed as a GPCM.
2.
Set timings to the most conservative timing mode (relaxed timing and 30 wait
states).
3.
Use the Flash memory chip select (CS0) to determine the 32-bit reset
configuration word that enables the many different MSC8101 modes during the
reset procedure.
4.
When HRESET is deasserted and code is fetched from memory as determined by
the Reset Vector pointer address.
Refer to Chapter 2, Reset Configuration and Boot for details on the reset configuration
and booting procedures. The following subsections present a typical MSC8101-to-flash
memory interconnection example, together with the primary GPCM register configuration
and timing assumptions.
4.3.1 GPCM Hardware Interconnection
GPCM
The GPCM timing can interface with any industry-standard Flash memory device directly.
The example discussed here illustrates the use of an AMD AM29LV160D 1M bit × 16
flash memory. The chip select (CS0), Output Enable (OE), and Write Enable (WE) signals
can connect directly to the Flash memory device, with appropriate register settings in
software (see Figure 4-2).
CS0
OE
WE
CE
OE
WE
PowerPC
60x bus
MSC8101
D[0-15]
D[15-0]
A[12-31]
A[19-0]
AM29LV160D
2MB Flash
Memory
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode
Figure 4-2. MSC8101-to-Flash Interconnect in Single-Master Bus Mode
4-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connecting the Bus to the Flash Memory Interface
4.3.2 Single-Bus Mode GPCM-Based Timings
The timing characteristics of the MSC8101 chip select must meet the worst-case timing
needs of the selected Flash memory device to assure operation over full temperature and
voltage range. Valid data is driven from the Flash memory on a read access based on the
combined address and CE and OE timings. During a write, such data is latched into the
memory on the rising WE (or CE) edge. The key timings to assure data transfer integrity are
therefore the set-up and hold times around these two data latch points.
To maintain data integrity, it is very important that only one device drive the data bus at
any given time, so data bus timing around the beginning and end of bus cycles is of great
interest. Typically, on a write cycle, the data is driven on the first clock edge of the access.
To prevent data bus contention, sufficient time should be allotted at the end of a read
access to ensure that the data bus is appropriately tri-stated before the next cycle.
The example illustrated in Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4 uses unbuffered data, so the
situation is relatively simple. However, if data is buffered, the BCTLx signals that control
the buffer direction (BCTL0) and output enable (BCTL1) timing are asserted on the first
memory controller clock and deasserted on the clock of the TA assertion. Therefore, if data
buffering is used for a GPCM Flash memory (or UPM) access, allot time at the end of read
accesses to ensure that data is tri-stated. Also, allot time at the beginning of read accesses
to ensure that OE timing does not contend with buffer write data.
8101:sp12
MSC8101:sp10
CLKin
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 EHTR 0
A[0-31]
29lv160:tRC
CSx=HCS
MSC8101:sp34
OE
29lv160:tOE
29lv160:tCE
29lv160:tOH
D[0-16]
PSDVAL
Figure 4-3. Flash Memory Read, Single Master
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-5
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
CLKin 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
~CLK
A[0-31]
29lv160:tCS
CSx
29lv160:tDS
29lv160:tWP
8101:sp34
29lv160:tWPH
29lv160:tDH
WE
MSC8101:sp33
D[0-16]
PSDVAL
Figure 4-4. Flash Memory Write, Single Master
For the AMD AM29LV160D-70ns device, the 70 ns access timing implies that around
seven to eight 10 ns clock accesses should be possible. Taking into account the full timing
requirements of the interdependent signals in the real timing examples of Figure 4-3 and
Figure 4-4, both read and write accesses actually use eleven 100 MHz clock accesses. To
achieve this, the Option Register (ORx) settings of ACS[0–1]) = 00, TRLX = 1, SCY = 4
wait states, CSNT = 1 are assumed for the eleven-clock read and write accesses.1
The memory controller timing options are set so that write accesses achieve the CS hold
time after deassertion of the WE latches the data. The relaxed timing (TRLX = 1) helps
prevent data contention on the data bus when reads and writes are alternated. In particular,
the extended hold time capability on reads ORx[EHTR] ensures that the troublesome case
of write data after a read does not cause data contention with the next cycle. The one
disadvantage of these timings is that for back-to-back write accesses, the WE deassertion
time (tWPH) requirements of the Flash memory device are not met directly. This is not
usually a problem because the Flash memory programming is infrequent and typically
involves a read (poll) access between each write.
Close inspection of the timings reveals that it is not essential to set TRLX when no
buffering is used. Therefore, the same timing settings can be altered so that TRLX = 0 and
SCY = 7 wait states to get a more aggressive 10-clock access with a 70 ns Flash memory
device. However, the case detailed here is more general because the relaxed timing allows
1. For details on the ORx, consult the “Memory Controller Programming Model” section of the Memory
Controller chapter in the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
4-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connecting the Bus to the SDRAM Memory Interface
more time at the beginning and end of cycles, so a buffered solution can use exactly the
same settings. See the Option Register settings of Table 4-1.
Table 4-1. GPCM ORx Settings
Register Setting
Description
OR[BCTLD] = 1
Buffering disabled
OR[CSNT] = 1
Early WE negation relative to address negation (and chip select with ACS = 00)
OR[ACS] = 00
CS asserted with new address
OR[RSV] = 0
Reserved
OR[SCY] = 100
4 x 2 = 8 wait states. Multiply by two because relaxed mode is enabled.
OR[SETA] = 0
Internal TA termination
OR[TRLX] = 1
Relaxed timing enabled
OR[EHTR] = 01
Extended hold time of one clock after a read
4.4 Connecting the Bus to the SDRAM Memory Interface
SDRAMs are the most cost effective, high capacity read/write memories on the market,
offering high-performance throughput with the cost benefits of a commodity item. The
synchronous nature of the SDRAM allows precise access timing control, with data
transactions possible on every clock cycle. SDRAMs are thus ideal for high-bandwidth
memory systems.
The SDRAM machine within the MSC8101 memory controller provides all the necessary
control functions and signals for interfacing to JEDEC-compliant SDRAMs. During the
initialization phase, configure the SDRAM memory controller registers appropriately and
then execute the following SDRAM power-up initialization sequence through software:
1.
Issue PRECHARGE-ALL-BANKS commands.
2.
Issue eight Auto-Refresh (REF) commands.
3.
Issue the MODE SET command to initialize the SDRAM modes.
The following subsections describe the hardware connection of a 32-bit SDRAM to the
MSC8101 in detail using the SDRAM controller in both Single-Master MSC8101 Bus and
PowerPC Multi-Master Bus modes. Notice that the hardware timings differ for both
modes. In Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode, the memory controller uses memory
timings and is completely glueless. In Multi-master mode, the memory controller allows
pipelined PowerPC system bus accesses and requires the external address latch and
multiplexor.
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-7
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4.4.1 Single-Bus Mode SDRAM Hardware Interconnect
When the MSC8101 operates in Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode, the MSC8101 is the
only master on the bus and typically connects directly to memory and/or slave peripherals.
The MSC8101 SDRAM controller provides the address, data, and control signals for a
direct, glueless interconnect to the SDRAM. All the address multiplexing is performed
internally within the MSC8101, so there is no need for the address latches or multiplexors
typically required for SDRAM control. For the SDRAM control commands, the SDRAM
needs a chip select together with Row and Column Address Strobes, Write Enable (WE),
byte lane selects, and a multiplexed A10/AP bank select pin. Figure 4-5 shows the
interconnect between the MSC8101 memory controller and a 32-bit Samsung
K4S643232C that can use page-based interleaving for optimal performance.
CS
MSC8101
MSC8101 SDRAM
CS2
PSDRAS
RAS
PSDCAS
CAS
PSDWE
WE
PSDDQM[0–3]
DQM[0–3]
A[18–29]
A[0–9]
PSDA10
A10/AP
BNKSEL[2–1]
BA[0–1]
D[0–31]
D[0–31]
CLKOUT
K4S643232C
SDRAM
CLK
DLLIN
CLKIN
Figure 4-5. MSC8101-To-SDRAM Interconnect in Single-Bus Master Mode
4.4.2 Single-Bus Mode SDRAM Pin Control Settings
This section presents an example 8-MB Samsung SDRAM with the following
characteristics:
■
an internal 512 KB x 32-bit x 4 bank structure
■
8 column, 11 row addresses
■
two bank address pins (BA[1–0]).
Figure 4-6 shows how the PowerPC bus address is split into equivalent row and column
addresses of a page-based interleaved configuration (PSDMR[PBI]=1). In page
interleaving, the least significant addresses (immediately below the row address lines) are
used for bank select addresses so that interleaving is possible on every page boundary. The
4-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connecting the Bus to the SDRAM Memory Interface
two least significant addresses from the MSC8101 are not connected to the SDRAM
because of the 32-bit port size.
Two registers configure the main SDRAM. The 60x-Bus SDRAM Mode Register
(PSDMR) defines the timing and control related parameters, and the Option Register (OR)
defines size parameters for the SDRAM. The ORx fields2 are programmed as follows:
■
The SDRAM mask OR[SDAM] is set to 0xFF8 and OR[LSDAM] = 00000 to
select 8 MB of addressable space for the chip select.
■
OR[BPD] = 01 for four internal banks
■
OR[NUMR] = 010 for 11 row addresses.
■
For the page-based interleaving example discussed here, Page Mode Select
OR[PMSEL] and OR[IBID] are both set to 0.
■
Figure 4-6 indicates that the appropriate row start address is A9 using
OR[ROWST] = 0110.
.
A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
/AP
A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19
SDRAM Address
Lines
Row
A22 A23 A24 A25 A26 A27A28 A29 Column
A0 ---- ---- A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20 A21 A22 A23 A24 A25 A26 A27 A28 A29 A30 A31 PowerPC
Row
BNKSEL
Column
LSB Address
Figure 4-6. MSC8101 SDRAM Address Multiplexing
The PSDMR fields are set as follows:
■
The address multiplexing control parameters of the PSDMR register indicate that
row addresses A[9–19] are output on the physical address pins A[19–29] during the
ACTIVATE command cycle using PSDMR[SDAM] = 010.
■
The MSC8101 BNKSEL pins BNKSEL[1–2] output A20/A21, so PSDMR[BSMA] = 111.
The A10/AP pin on the SDRAM functions as AP for READ, WRITE, and PRECHARGE
commands while it acts as A10 during an ACTIVATE command.
■
As Figure 4-6 shows, the row address A9 must be output on the PSDA10 pin by
programming PSDMR[SDA10] = 001.
2. For details on the Option Register and the 60x SDRAM Protocol-Specific Mode Register, consult the
“Memory Controller Programming Model” section of the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-9
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
Table 4-2 summarizes the control settings of the MSC8101 SDRAM controller.
Table 4-2. SDRAM Control Settings
Register Setting
Description
PSDMR[PBI] = 0b1
Page-based interleaving is used.
PSDMR[SDAM] = 0b010
Addresses A[5–21] are multiplexed on the physical address pins A[15–31].
PSDMR[BSMA] = 0b111
Addresses A[19–21] are output on BNKSEL[0–2]
PSDMR[SDA10] = 0b001
Address A9 connects to SDA10
OR[SDAM] = 0xFF8
OR[LSDAM] = 0b00000
8 MB size of SDRAM
OR[BPD] = 0b01
4 banks per device
OR[ROWST] = 0b0110
A9 is Row Start Address line
OR[NUMR] = 0b010
11 row address lines
OR[PMSEL] = 0
Page-based interleaving only
OR[IBID] = 0
Page-based interleaving only
NOTE: These settings are for a 32-bit Samsung K4S643232C SDRAM memory. For other memory types and
64-bit wide options, these values differ.
4.4.3 Single-Bus Mode SDRAM Timing Control Settings
The timing parameters for accessing an SDRAM device must be carefully selected based
on a timing analysis between the MSC8101 and the SDRAM that includes any external
glue logic required. For Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode, you can connect the devices
directly and verify one set of AC timing characteristics against another. Several
programmable timing parameters are available within the MSC8101 SDRAM controller.
Typically, these parameters vary according to the associated timing of the SDRAM. When
an access misses an 8 ns K4S643232C SDRAM page, the read access profile is 5-1-1-1.
The write access profile is 3-1-1-1 clocks. The Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode read
access is shown in Figure 4-7 and the write access in Figure 4-8, respectively.
For the read access, the SDRAM controller assumptions are CAS latency = 2, Last Data
Out to Precharge = –1, and Precharge to Activate = 2 clocks. The underlying assumption
here is that the 30 pF output timing is used in Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode to meet
the SDRAM address set-up time. Also, an 8 ns (125 MHz) SDRAM is used for aggressive
set-up and hold times to meet the MSC8101 specifications. This particular SDRAM at 125
MHz also has the advantage that a CAS latency of 2 is possible compared to a CAS latency
of 3 with a 100 MHz SDRAM.
4-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connecting the Bus to the SDRAM Memory Interface
MSC8101:sp12
MSC8101:sp10
ACT
READ
PRE
ACT
CLKIN
A[0–31]
Row
Column
Row
CS
DQM[0–7]
SDA10
Row
Row
SDRAS
SDCAS
SDWE
TA
SDRAM:Trac
D[0 - 31]
Figure 4-7. SDRAM Burst Read Page Miss, Single Master
SDRAM:Tras
SDRAM:Tsh
SDRAM:Tss
SDRAM:Tsh
ACT
WRITE
PRE
ACT
CLKin
A[0–31]
Row
Col
Row
CS
DQM[0–7]
SDA10
Row
Row
SDRAS
SDCAS
SDWE
TA
MSC8101:sp31
D[0–31]
Figure 4-8. SDRAM Burst Write Page Miss, Single Master
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-11
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
For write accesses, the SDRAM controller Activate to R/W = 2 and Write Recovery = 3
clocks. The write recovery period defines the earliest time a precharge can occur after the
last data output in a write cycle. For a single-cycle access, this write recovery period must
be three cycles to meet the overall SDRAM cycle time needs, assuming an Activate to
R/W of 2. Table 4-3 lists the SDRAM timing control values.
Table 4-3. SDRAM Timing Control Values
Register Setting
Description
PSDMR[RFRC] = 001
3-clock refresh recovery period
PSDMR[PRETOACT] = 010
2-clock precharge to activate period
PSDMR[ACTTORW] = 010
2-clock activate to read/write period
PSDMR[BL] = 1
8-beat burst length (for 32-bit memory)
PSDMR[LDOTOPRE] = 01
–1 clock last data out to precharge period
PSDMR[WRC] = 11
3-cycle write recovery period (Last data in to Precharge)
OR[EAMUX] = 0
No external address multiplexing
OR[BUFCMD] = 0
No external buffered control lines
OR[CL] = 10
2-clock CAS latency
For operation in Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode, the Burst Length (BL) of 8 and CAS
latency of 2 cycles should be used for compatibility with the specified 32-bit, 8ns device.
The corresponding settings must also be made in the SDRAM itself.
4.4.4 SDRAM Mode Register Settings
In addition to the MSC8101 SDRAM pin settings, there are mode options available in the
JEDEC-compatible SDRAM. During the initialization sequence for the SDRAM, the
mode register in the SDRAM must be set. Figure 4-9 illustrates the Samsung
K4S643232C mode register settings used. To issue the Mode Register Set (MRS)
command, set the PSDMR[OPCODE] field to 011 and then access the SDRAM. The
hexadecimal word to be written into this SDRAM register is 0x23, which means that a
mode register write operation to address Base+0x8C must be made.
A10
/AP A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
— — TM
CAS LAT BT
BL
SDRAM Address Lines
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0.
1
1
Burst Read and Write
CAS Latency 2
Burst Type Sequential
Burst Length 8
0x23
A19 A20 A21A22 A23 A24 A25 A26 A27 A28 A29 A30 A31
MSC8101 Address Lines
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0.
1
1
0
0
0x8C
SDRAM sees only this part of the bus. N/C
Figure 4-9. SDRAM Mode Register Configuration
4-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connecting the Bus to the SDRAM Memory Interface
4.4.5 PowerPC 60x Bus Mode SDRAM Hardware Interconnection
In PowerPC Multi-Master Bus mode, there are separate address and data tenure phases in
which the address is not driven for the entire bus transaction, so internal address
multiplexing is not used. Therefore, external logic must latch the address and multiplex
the column and row addresses to the SDRAM at the appropriate time. The MSC8101
memory controller provides an Address Latch Enable (ALE) and Select pin (SDAMUX) to
control these functions. Figure 4-10 shows the interconnection between the MSC8101
and the 32-bit Samsung K4S643232C using page-based interleaving and PowerPC
Multi-Master Bus mode.
MSC8101
MSC8101 SDRAM
The interface signals are essentially the same as for Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode,
apart from the address portion. While separate latch and multiplexor devices could be
used, this example uses a 74LVT16260, which has an integrated latch and 24:12
multiplexor. As Figure 4-6, MSC8101 SDRAM Address Multiplexing, on page 4-9 shows,
addresses A[22–29] are used during column accesses and A[9–19] are used for row
accesses. As A9 is output on the SDA10 pin, the connection to the multiplexor is A[10–19]
and A[22–29], respectively. The bank address lines are output on the BNKSEL lines. The LE
pin latches the 1B and 2B inputs on the falling edge of the ALE signal; the output of the
multiplexor is determined by the MSC8101 PSDAMUX pin.
CS
CS2
PSDRAS
PSDCAS
PSDWE
PSDDQM[0–3]
PSDA10
BNKSEL[2–1]
D[0–31]
CLKOUT
DLLIN
CLKIN
PSDAMUX
ALE
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM[0–3]
A10/AP
BA[0–1]
D[0–31]
CLK
K4S643232C
SDRAM
LE1B LE2B SEL
A[19–10] 1B[1–10]
OEA
LEA1B
LEA2B
OE1B
OE2B
Multiplex
+3.3V
Latch
A[29–22] 2B[1-8]
A[1–10]
A[0–9]
74LVT16260
Figure 4-10. MSC8101-To-SDRAM Interconnection in PowerPC 60x Multi-Master Bus
Mode
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-13
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4.5 Connecting the Bus to the HDI16 Memory Interface
The HDI16 host port is a programmable 8-bit or 16-bit wide parallel port that gives an
external host device an access window for data transactions. A parallel interface between
the PowerPC system bus of an MSC8101 host and a target HDI16 slave port is often used
as a control and data path. One use of the HDI16 interface is to download bootstrap code
at start-up. The MSC8101 is a RAM-based device, so at power-up the an external ROM
must directly provide DSP initialization instructions or the code must be downloaded into
the on-device RAM ready for execution. The MSC8101 can use either approach, based on
the mode selected on two input pins (BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5]) at reset. This discussion focuses on
a bootstrap download over the HDI16 that places code/data into internal DSP RAM under
complete control of an external host BTM[0–1]/EE[4–5] = 01). Once the HDI16 initialization
code is downloaded, a branch is made to the start of the downloaded initialization code,
and execution begins. When the DSP is initialized, the external host uses the same HDI16
host port to control and schedule the ongoing DSP tasks.
Note:
To enable the host port, you must pull up the HPE/EE1 bit at reset. In addition
to enabling the HDI16, you must set the ISPS bit in the Bus Control Register
(BCR) to disable the upper 32 bits of the PowerPC data bus and enable their use
with the HDI16. Then set the HEN bit in the Host Port Control Register
(HPCR).
The HDI16 offers various programmable options for chip selects and data strobe modes.
When the HDI16 interface downloads initialization bootstrap code, it is important to select
a strobe implementation that the HDI16 interface supports straight from reset. Therefore,
you select the dual-strobe, 16-bit bus mode by setting the H8BIT pin = 0 and HDDS pin = 1
at reset release.
One of the most important HDI16 host port hardware features is that it is an asynchronous
interface, which reduces concerns over clock skew between an external bus master such as
the PowerPC system bus and the HDI16 host port. Since all the host-side registers are
accessed by asserting a single chip select and four address lines, the HDI16 DSP host port
can be regarded an asynchronous memory-mapped region. In dual-strobe mode, the
MSC8101 bus master simply asserts a chip select and a data read (or write) strobe to
validate an HDI16 access. The hosts read or write strobe is the data latch control to
complete the bus transactions, eliminating the need for any handshake signal back from
the HDI16 target. Selecting the appropriate modes, an MSC8101 host can fully support the
HDI16 feature set through the UPM-controlled signals. The UPM-defined interface can be
used with any (or all) of the MSC8101 chip selects to give an 8-bit or 16-bit port size and
strobe generation matching that of the HDI16 host port.
4-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connecting the Bus to the HDI16 Memory Interface
Note:
The standard MSC8101 GPCM can gluelessly meet the timings required by the
HDI16 where ACS = 00 and CSNT = 1. However, this ACS setting requires
that the address and chip select be driven active on the first rising clock edge of
the bus cycle. This requirement may cause an issue in some systems that use
data buffering, in that slower devices may not have stopped driving data from
the one access before the next. Therefore, while a GPCM chip select is a
potential solution, the UPM is described here as a more general solution.
4.5.1 HDI16 Hardware Interconnection
The interconnection of the MSC8101 UPM-controlled PowerPC system bus operating in
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode with the MSC8101 HDI16 port is completely
glueless. See Figure 4-11. Each HDI16 slave interface demands at least one chip select
from the MSC8101 PowerPC host in order to access the memory map of each device
separately. During start-up, a second common chip select can enable all HDI16 slaves to
receive a broadcast bootstrap codes. Regardless of the chip select used, the MSC8101
Byte Strobe 0 [BS0] generates the HDI16 Write Data strobe (HWR), which must be asserted
every 16-bit write transaction. The General-Purpose Line GPL2 is programmed high in a
UPM write cycle and low for a UPM read cycle to generate the MSC8101 HDI16 read
strobe line (HRD). These pins correspond to the GPCM-equivalent memory control pins so
that the same pins can use either GPCM- or UPM-derived memory control. Operating in
dual strobe mode and with active low signal polarity, the HDI16 can be accessed directly
by the MSC8101 host-controlled PowerPC system bus.
The timing of the single-master interface permits 5-cycle read and write accesses between
a PowerPC system bus operating in Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode and an HDI16
slave. When the PowerPC system bus operates in Multi-Master Bus mode, arbitration is
demanded between the multiple masters to determine which one gains access to the bus.
As part of this multi-master bus protocol, the bus must be idle between separate
transactions, adding at least one clock cycle of latency. Since the pipelined PowerPC
address must be latched, an external address latch device is required.
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-15
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
IRQy
HREQ
IRQx
CS4
HCS1
CS5
HCS2
GPL2
HRD
BS0
HWR
HDI16
UPM
CS3
MSC8101
DSP1
HA[0–3]
HD[0–15]
D[0–15]
HREQ
HCS1
HCS2
A[27–30]
HWR
HA[0–3]
HDDS = VCC for Dual Data Strobe mode
HDSP = GND for active low data strobes
HCSP = GND for active low chip selects
H8BIT = GND for 16-bit mode
MSC8101
DSP2
HRD
HDI16
PowerPC System Bus
MSC8101
HD[0–15]
Single-Master
MSC8101 Bus
Figure 4-11. Single-Master MSC8101 Bus to HDI16 Interface
See Figure 4-12 for an example of a PowerPC system bus operating in Multi-Master
mode interconnected to a buffered HDI16 interface. For a few DSPs, the MSC8101 data
bus can connect directly to the DSP host port without any glue logic. However, because
many applications deal with a multi-DSP concept, appropriate buffering must be added to
meet the capacitive loading requirements and make the solution more scalable to a larger
bank of DSP devices. The same UPM programming can be used for both buffered and
unbuffered systems. The MSC8101 Buffer Control lines (BCTL[0–1]) control the direction
and output enable of the 74LCX245 bidirectional buffer. To enable the buffer control
lines, SIUMCR[BC1PC]=00; for an active low output enable, SIUMCR[BCTLC]=00 (or
01). Again, the BCTL[0–1] lines are used so that the same PowerPC system bus-to-HDI16
interconnect can also be controlled via a GPCM machine.
4-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connecting the Bus to the HDI16 Memory Interface
IRQx
CS3
CS4
HREQ
CS5
GPL2
HCS2
HRD
MC74LCX244
HWR
HA[0-3]
HD[0-15]
BS0
OE
BCTL1
BCTL0
MSC8101
HDI16
HCS1
MSC8101
DSP1
HDI16
UPM
IRQy
MSC8101
DSP2
ALE
DIR OE
60x bus
D[0–15]
MC74LCX245
HREQ
HCS1
HCS2
HRD
A[27–30] LE
HWR
MC74LCX373
HA[0–3]
HDDS = VCC for Dual Data Strobe mode
HDSP = GND for active low data strobes
HCSP = GND for active low chip selects
H8BIT = GND for 16-bit mode
HD[0–15]
Multi-master
60x Bus
Figure 4-12. Multi-Master PowerPC System Bus to Buffered HDI16 Interface
4.5.2 Single-Bus Mode HDI16 Timing Settings
The UPM offers some extremely flexible memory control options by which the memory
control signals can be controlled to one quarter of one clock resolution. However,
depending upon the CPM:Bus clock ratio, the relative phases of this one quarter of one
clock granularity may vary. There may be cases where the timing needs change with
different clock ratios. To ensure that the timing recommendations developed here hold
true at any clock speed or ratio, the analysis is performed using the maximum bus clock of
100 MHz and using only the invariable one half of one clock boundaries (T1 and T3) to
change signals. Therefore, the recommendations hold true for anything less than a 100
MHz bus clock.
The UPM-controlled HDI16 read access is illustrated in Figure 4-13 and the write access
in Figure 4-14. Both the read and write accesses on the PowerPC system bus operating in
Single-Master MSC8101 mode can be accessed within five clocks.
During a read access, the data into the MSC8101 is latched on the falling edge rather than
on the usual rising clock edge. The advantage of this change is a sufficient timing margin
to incorporate a further data buffer data delay with these same timing settings still in
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-17
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
effect. The DLT3 bit must be set in the corresponding UPM word to indicate the data latch
point on the falling clock, and MxMR[GPL4DIS] must be set to enable this mode.
Furthermore, the read and write strobe deassertion times are readily met with the
illustrated UPM configuration, and this is difficult to achieve with a competitive memory
access profile in the alternative GPCM-controlled case.
CLKIN
0
1
MSC8101:sp12
MSC8101:sp10
3
4
0
2
T1
T3
hdi16:t336R
hdi16:t337
A[0–31]
hdi16:t330
hdi16:t333
CSx = HCS
hdi16:t317
hdi16:t319
GPL2_OE = HRD
hdi16:t327
hdi16:t332
D[0–16]
PSDVAL
Figure 4-13. HDI16 UPM Read, Single Master
CLKIN
0
1
2
3
4
0
T1
T3
hdi16:t336W
hdi16:t337
A[0–31]
hdi16:t333
CS = HCS
hdi16:t324
hdi16:t320
hdi16:t321
hdi16:t325
BS = HWR
MSC8101:sp33
D[0–15]
PSDVAL
Figure 4-14. HDI16 UPM Write, Single Master
4-18
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Related Reading
4.6 Related Reading
CChC
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 2, Reset Configuration
and Boot
Appendix C, Bootloader
Program
Chapter 5, Balancing Between
the PowerPC System and Local
Buses
Chapter 8, Host Interface
(HDI16)
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 4, System Interface
Unit (SIU)
Chapter 5, Reset
Chapter 6, Boot
Chapter 12, PowerPC System
Bus
Chapter 13, PowerPC System
Bus Signals
Chapter 14, Host Interface
(HDI16)
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-19
Connecting External Memories and Memory-Mapped Devices
4-20
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 5
Balancing Between the PowerPC
System and Local Buses
The MSC8101 combines the SC140 core with the PowerPC bus and the PowerQUICC II
Communications Processor Module (CPM). The PowerPC system bus (a 60x-compatible
bus) makes it possible to place an MSC8101 device directly on an existing system
PowerPC bus. The MSC8101 has two 64-bit PowerPC buses: the PowerPC system bus
and the PowerPC local bus. The PowerPC system bus accesses external memory and any
external PowerPC bus resources. The PowerPC local bus provides efficient
communication between the MSC8101 extended core and the SIU and CPM. This chapter
describes the functions of these two buses and their interaction. Table 5-1 compares the
features of the PowerPC system bus and the PowerPC local bus. Figure 5-1 shows the
MSC8101 block diagram. Notice the PowerPC system and PowerPC local buses in the
SIU portion of the diagram.
Table 5-1. Features of the PowerPC System Bus and PowerPC Local Bus
PowerPC System Bus
64/32-bit data and 32-bit address
PowerPC Local Bus
64-bit data and 32-bit address
Data width selectable in software: 64-bit mode or
32-bit mode
Support for multiple-master designs
Support for four-beat burst transfers
Support for four-beat burst transfers
Port size of 64, 32, 16, and 8 bits controlled by
on-chip memory controller
Port size of 64, 32, 16, and 8 bits
Support for data and address parity
Support for data and address parity
Can access off-chip memory expansion or off-chip
peripherals, or can enable an external host device to
access internal resources
No external access
MSC8101 User’s Guide
5-1
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
MII
TDMs
•
•
•
Other
Peripherals
Serial Interface and TSA
UTOPIA
Interface
‘MCC’ / UART / HDLC / Transparent /
Enet / FastEnet / ATM / SCCs
CPM
2 x FCC
2 x MCC
2 x SCC
2 x SMC
PowerPC™ System
Bus (64-bit)
MEMC
Interrupt
Controller
Timers
DMA
Engine
Parallel I/O
Baud Rate
Generators
PIT
System Protection
Reset Control
Clock Control
Dual Ported
RAM
Internal
BIU
2 x SDMA
Bridge
PowerPC
64/32-bit
System
Bus
SIU
SPI
I2 C
®
RISC
PowerPC Local
Bus (64-bit)
Extended Core
Address
Register
File
Program
Sequencer
SC140
Core
Address
ALU
JTAG
EOnCE™
Data ALU
Register
File
L1 I/F
QIU
Q2PPC
Data
ALU
MEMC
Host
Interface
HDI16
SRAM
512 KB
PIC
Interrupts
EFCOP
128-bit P-Bus
Power
Management
Clock / PLL
64-bit XA Data Bus
64-bit XB Data Bus
Figure 5-1. MSC8101 Block Diagram
5.1 PowerPC System Bus
Because the PowerPC system bus has external access from the device, the MSC8101 can
be part of a system communication via the PowerPC system bus. The MSC8101 can act as
a master on a PowerPC system bus, directing other system devices for a given application.
Also, the MSC8101 can act as a slave on a PowerPC system bus so that another device on
the bus acts as a master. The PowerPC system bus master can gain access to the MSC8101
memory map and direct MSC8101 functions as needed for a given application.
The MSC8101 memory controller uses the PowerPC system bus to access external
memories. Figure 5-2 shows one example of an interface to external memories that uses
the general-purpose chip-select machine (GPCM) and user-programmable machine
5-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
PowerPC System Bus
(UPM) memory controllers. Since the PowerPC local bus does not have access external to
the MSC8101, any external memory accesses must use the PowerPC system bus.
MSC8101
GPCM
EPROM
Address
CE
OE
WE
Data
CS0
PGPL2
PBS/PWE[0–7]
Address
Data
DRAM
Address
RAS
CAS[0–7]
W
Data
CS1
UPMA
PGPLx
Figure 5-2. PowerPC System Bus External Memory Access Example
In addition to the PowerPC system bus and the PowerPC local bus, the MSC8101 contains
the QBus, which is the SC140 extended core interface. It handles all communication
between the SC140 core and the peripherals in the extended core: boot ROM, PIC,
EFCOP, and the HDI16 host interface. It also connects to the PowerPC system external
bus interface via a PowerPC interface called the QIU. Figure 5-3 shows the QBus
interface. Notice that the QBus does not have access to the PowerPC local bus.
PowerPC System Bus
PowerPC
Interface
Boot
ROM
PIC
EFCOP
Host
Interface
QBus
QBus Switch
SC140
Extended core
Figure 5-3. QBus-to-PowerPC System Bus Interface
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5-3
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
Access from the SC140 core to the QBus goes through a QBus switch. Since the QBus is
part of the extended core and is clocked at the same speed as the core, accesses to banks on
the QBus are fast. However, there is some latency inherent in accessing the QBus banks.
For example, it takes three DSP core clocks to access an EFCOP register from the SC140
core.
When the SC140 core initiates an access, any transaction that does not match the SC140
core internal address space or the QBus banks is routed to the PowerPC system bus. This
routing occurs through the PowerPC interface on the QBus. Accesses to the PowerPC
system bus can take 16–18 core clock cycles. For example, if the SC140 core needs to
access a DMA register on the PowerPC system bus, it requires 2–4 core clocks to get
through the QBus switch and PowerPC interface to the PowerPC system bus, 4 bus clocks
(12 core clocks assuming a 3:1 core/bus clock ratio) for a fast transaction on the PowerPC
system bus, and 2 core clocks to complete the transaction. Although the QBus PowerPC
interface enables the SC140 core to access information external to the SC140 core, such
QBus access are costly because each access through the PowerPC interface requires a
significant number of cycles to complete. You should use PowerPC system bus accesses
from the QBus sparingly so that the focus of the SC140 core remains on DSP data
processing tasks.
5.2 PowerPC Local Bus
The MSC8101 PowerPC local bus is the interface between the extended SC140 core and
the SIU and CPM blocks. DMA data exchanges between the extended core peripherals
(HDI16 and EFCOP), SRAM, and other modules of the MSC8101 occur through the
PowerPC local bus. As the MSC8101 block diagram in Figure 5-1 shows, the PowerPC
local bus does not have direct access to the SC140 core. Figure 5-4 shows the PowerPC
local bus interface to the extended core.
PowerPC Local
64-bit Bus
MEMC
L1 I/F
HDI16
SRAM
512 KB
PIC
EFCOP
Figure 5-4. Interface From PowerPC Local bus to Extended Core
5-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Bus Interaction
5.3 Bus Interaction
The PowerPC buses reside in the SIU portion of the MSC8101. The PowerPC local bus is
synchronous to the PowerPC system bus and runs at the same frequency as the PowerPC
system bus. Three SIU components interact with the two buses: the PowerPC bridge, the
memory controllers for each bus, and the DMA engine. Figure 5-5 shows a block diagram
of the SIU.
PowerPC System Bus (32-Bit Address/64-Bit Data)
Memory
Controller
PowerPC bus
Configuration Registers
DMA
Counters
Control
Bridge
Interrupt
Controller
Memory
Control
Controller
PowerPC local bus
PowerPC Local Bus (32-Bit Address/64-Bit Data)
DSP
SRAM
Q2PPCbridge
DSP
Peripherals
Figure 5-5. SIU Block Diagram
The bridge between the PowerPC system bus and PowerPC local bus allows a master on
the PowerPC system bus access to memory-mapped devices residing on the PowerPC
local bus. An external master can send information to the extended core HDI16 port or
EFCOP through the PowerPC system external bus interface. Assuming bus mastership, it
takes five bus clocks for a host to transmit data through the bus bridge to the PowerPC
local bus. Since this bridge is unidirectional, the extended core modules cannot send data
to the PowerPC system bus through the bus bridge. The extended SC140 core must use the
DMA channels to transmit data back to the PowerPC system bus.
Figure 5-6 shows the interaction between the PowerPC system bus and PowerPC local
bus through the memory controller. No data flows between the buses through the memory
controller. The external PowerPC system bus has eight memory banks (Bank 0–7); the
internal PowerPC local bus has two memory banks (Bank 10 and Bank 11). Banks 0–7 are
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5-5
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
allocated to the PowerPC system bus. User-Programmable Machine C (UPMC) controls
Bank 10, which is assigned for the internal DSP RAM. The GPCM controls Bank 11
which is assigned to the DSP peripherals EFCOP and HDI16. The GPCM can also control
external memories on the PowerPC system bus. Bank 8 and Bank 9 are reserved for future
use.
MSC8101
External
Master
SC140 Core
60x Address [0–31]
60x Address
Bus Interface
A[0–31]
60x Data[0–63]
60x Data
Bus Interface
D[0–63] / D[0:32]
SDRAM
Local
Slave
CS[0–7}
Address Decoders
60x
Slave
60x Memory
Control Signals
60x
Memory
Devices
60x
Memory
Controller
2 UPM
Arrays
GPCM
1 UPM
CS[10:11]
Local Address [0–31]
SC140 Extended Core
External Memory
and Peripherals
Local Data [0–63]
Figure 5-6. Bus Architecture
Each memory bank can be assigned to any one of the SDRAM, GPCM, and UPM
machines via BRx[MSEL]. For UPM machines, the MxMR[BSEL] bit is configured to
assign banks to the PowerPC system bus or the PowerPC local bus. The memory
controller machine selection is shown in Figure 5-7.
5-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Bus Interaction
External PowerPC System bus
BRx[MSEL] = 100
Bank 0
BRx[MSEL] = 101
Bank 1
Bank 2
UPMA
MxMR[BSEL]=0
PowerPC System
Bus
UPMB
MxMR[BSEL]=0
PowerPC System
Bus
SDRAM
PowerPC System
Bus
External 60x GPCM
PowerPC System
Bus
UPMC
MxMR[BSEL]=1
Internal DSP
SRAM
Internal Local GPCM
Internal DSP
Peripheral
BRx[MSEL] = 010
BRxMSEL] = 000
Bank 7
Internal PowerPC local bus
BRx[MSEL] = 110
Bank 10
BRx[MSEL] = 001
Bank 11
Figure 5-7. Memory Controller Machine Selection
Addresses are decoded by comparing the values on the address pins A[0–16] with the
following values:
■
Base address. Specified by BRx[BA]. The base address indicates the start address
of the bank in memory; it specifies the upper 17 bits of the base address register.
■
Address mask. Specified by ORx[AM] or ORx[SDAM]. The address mask
determines the bank size. In the UPM or GPCM mode, ORx[AM] specifies the
17-bit address mask. Any set bit causes the corresponding bit to be used in
comparison with the address pins. Any cleared bit masks the corresponding address
bit. In SDRAM mode, ORx[SDAM] specifies the SDRAM address mask and
ORx[LSDAM] specifies the lower SDRAM address mask.
If an address match occurs in multiple banks, the lowest-numbered bank has priority. If
the PowerPC system bus attempts to access a bank allocated to the PowerPC local bus, the
access is transferred to the PowerPC local bus. PowerPC local bus access attempts to
PowerPC system assigned banks are ignored.
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5-7
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5.3.1 DMA Controller
The multi-channel DMA controller connects to both the PowerPC system bus and the
PowerPC local bus. Data from the extended core transfers from the PowerPC local bus to
the PowerPC system bus and vice versa.
5.3.1.1 Selecting a Bus
The DMA Channel Configuration Register DCHCRx[PPC] bit selects the PowerPC bus
associated with the channel. Clearing this bit assigns the channel to the PowerPC local
bus, and setting this bit assigns the channel to the PowerPC system bus. For example,
when data is transferred from an external peripheral on the PowerPC system bus to the
DMA FIFO, the DCHCRx[PPC] bit is set to select the PowerPC system bus. When data is
transferred from an internal peripheral such as the EFCOP, which is located on the
PowerPC local bus to internal SRAM, the DCHCRx[PPC] is cleared to select the
PowerPC local bus.
5.3.1.2 DMA FIFO
The DMA uses a FIFO for its data transfers. Therefore, one bus can transfer its data to the
DMA FIFO and be free of the data transaction instead of waiting with the data until the
other bus is free. For example, in a transfer from the EFCOP data output register to
memory on the PowerPC system bus, the data is transferred on the PowerPC local bus to
the DMA FIFO, and the PowerPC local bus is released. Subsequently, the DMA arbitrates
for access to the PowerPC system bus. When access is granted, the DMA transfers the data
from the DMA FIFO to external memory, completing the transfer. The PowerPC local bus
does not have to wait for access to the PowerPC system bus before it can execute a second
transfer, which could be from the CPM to internal SRAM, for example.
5.3.1.3 Chained Buffers
A chained buffer is a type of buffer that jumps to the address of the next buffer when its
size reaches zero. If the buffers use different buses—for example, one buffer maps to the
PowerPC system bus while the other maps to the PowerPC local bus—the flush option
should be used to prevent out-of-sequence transactions from crossing the buses. When
data in the FIFO is flushed, data is transferred to the destination. The Buffer Attributes
BD_ATTR[FLS] bit configures the behavior of the DMA FIFO when BD_SIZE reaches
zero. Clearing this bit does not flush the FIFO, and setting this bit flushes the FIFO.
5-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Bus Interaction
5.3.1.4 Bus Errors
A non-maskable interrupt is generated and the DMA TEA Status Register (DTEAR) is
updated whenever a PowerPC system bus or a PowerPC local bus error occurs on a DMA
access.
The DTEAR[DBER_P] bit is set when a PowerPC system bus error occurs. The DMA
transfer error address is read from the PowerPC DMA Transfer Error Address (PDMTEA)
Register. The channel that caused the error is read from the PowerPC DMA Transfer Error
Requestor Number Register, PDMTER[RQNUM]. The DTEAR[DBER_L] bit is set when
a PowerPC local bus error occurs. The DMA transfer error address is read from the Local
DMA Transfer Error Address (LDMTEA) Register. The channel that caused the error is
read from the Local DMA Transfer Error Requestor Number Register,
LDMTER[RQNUM].
5.3.2 SDMA Channels
The CPM uses its own SDMA channels to transfer data to and from the CPM and the rest
of the MSC8101. The CPM SDMA channels are separate from the DMA channels in the
SIU. Each SDMA channel has access to a PowerPC bus. SDMA1 accesses the PowerPC
system bus so that a master on the PowerPC system bus can send information to the CPM
regarding incoming data on a CPM port. Data from the CPM can be sent directly to the
extended core for processing using the SDMA2 channel and the PowerPC local bus.
Figure 5-8 shows the interaction of the SDMA module with the system and PowerPC
local buses.
Although the CPM has only two physical SDMA channels, the communications processor
(CP) within the CPM can implement many dedicated virtual SDMA channels for each
FCC, MCC, SCC, SMC, SPI, and I2C. Each channel is permanently assigned to service
either the receive or transmit operation of an FCC, MCC, SCC, SMC, SPI, or I2C. As
Figure 5-8 shows, data from the peripheral controllers can be routed to external RAM
using the PowerPC system bus (path 1). To route data to internal SRAM, the PowerPC
local bus (path 2) must be used.
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5-9
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
External
RAM
1
Dual-Port
RAM
CP
System
External
ROM
SDMA
2
Local
2 MCCs
3 FCCs
4 SCCs
2 SMCs
1
PowerPC system bus = Path 1
2
PowerPC local bus = Path 2
SPI
I2C
Internal
SRAM
Figure 5-8. SDMA Data Paths
On a path 1 access, the SDMA channel must acquire the PowerPC system bus. On a path 2
access, the PowerPC local bus is acquired and the access is not seen on the external system
bus. Thus, the PowerPC local bus transfer occurs at the same time as other operations on
the external system bus. SDMA access times to memory on the buses varies depending on
the memory used. One example of transfer time is from the CPM to internal SRAM. A
single access to internal SRAM from the CPM using the PowerPC local bus requires 4 bus
clocks.
5.3.2.1 Bus Errors from SDMA access
If a PowerPC system bus or PowerPC local bus error occurs during a CP-related access by
the SDMA, the CP generates a unique interrupt in the SDMA Status Register (SDSR). The
interrupt service routine then reads the appropriate DMA transfer error address register
(PDTEA for the PowerPC system bus or LDTEA for the PowerPC local bus) to determine
the address at which the bus error occurred.1 The channel that caused the bus error is
determined by reading the channel number from the SDMA Transfer Error MSNUM
1. For details on the SDMA Transfer Error Address Registers (PDTEA and LDTEA), consult the “SDMA
Programming Model” section of the chapter on SDMA Channels in the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
5-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Related Reading
Registers, PDTEM and LDTEM. If an SDMA bus error occurs on a CP-related
transaction, all CPM activity stops and the entire CPM must be reset in the CP Command
Register (CPCR).
5.3.2.2 SDMA Bus Arbitration and Bus Transfers
On the MSC8101, the SC140 core and SDMA can become external bus masters.
Therefore, any SDMA channel can arbitrate for the bus against the other internal devices
and any external devices present. Once an SDMA channel becomes system bus master, it
remains bus master for one transaction (which can be a byte, half-word, word, burst, or
extended special burst) before it releases the bus.
5.4 Related Reading
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 4, Connecting
External Memories and
Memory-Mapped Devices
Details on connecting the PowerPC system bus to
the flash memory interface, SDRAM memory
interface, and the host interface.
Chapter 8, Host Interface
(HDI16)
Section 8.3.4, Direct Memory Access (DMA), on
page 8-20 describes the use of the PowerPC
system bus for external DMA.
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 4, System Interface
Unit (SIU)
Details on the bus monitors for the PowerPC
system bus and PowerPC local bus
Chapter 10, Memory
Controller
Especially the sections on the user-programmable
machines (UPMs), two of which are allocated to
the PowerPC system and PowerPC local buses
Chapter 11, QBus
Chapter 12, PowerPC System
Bus
Chapter 13, PowerPC System
Bus Signals
Chapter 24, SDMA Channels
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5-11
Balancing Between the PowerPC System and Local Buses
5-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 6
DMA Channels
The on-device direct memory access (DMA) controller channels transport data between
the various modules of the MSC8101 so that the data is available for processing when
needed. The DMA controller can transfer data to and from memory or enable
communication between peripherals directly without passing through memory. The DMA
requestors can be accessed by one of the following:
■
Host interface (HDI16), internal peripheral
■
Enhanced filter coprocessor (EFCOP), internal peripheral
■
External Peripherals (up to 4)
■
DMA FIFO (each channel is a requestor)
This chapter describes the purpose and use of DMA on the MSC8101 and provides
numerous programming examples.
6.1 DMA Programming Basics
The MSC8101 DMA controller is located in the system interface unit (SIU) between the
PowerPC system and PowerPC local buses (see Figure 6-1). The DMA controller
transfers data to and from the PowerPC system bus, the PowerPC local bus, or between the
two buses, so it is a highly flexible data transfer mechanism. The MSC8101 DMA
controller handles hot swap operation, so it can service one channel in the current clock
cycle and service a different channel in the following clock cycle with no addition of wait
states or delay between the two. Hot swap thus increases the efficiency of the DMA
transfers.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
6-1
DMA Channels
PowerPC System 64-bit
MEMC
PowerPC bus
64/32-bit
DMA
Engine
SIU
MEMC
PowerPC Local
64-bit
Host I/F
16-bit
HDI16
EFCOP
SRAM
512 KB
Figure 6-1. DMA Engine Interfaces
6.1.1 Operating Modes
The DMA controller operates in two modes: Normal (dual-access) mode and Flyby
(single-access) mode.
6.1.1.1 Normal Mode (Dual Access)
In Normal mode, data is read from the source and written to the destination through the
DMA FIFO. Two DMA channels are required in this mode (as illustrated in Figure 6-2),
so it is called a “dual-access.” The even-numbered channel is always the read path, and the
odd-numbered channel defines the transaction write path. For example, if channel 4 were
selected to read data from external memory to the DMA FIFO, then channel 9 could not be
used to write the data from the DMA FIFO to the EFCOP. Instead, DMA channel 5 must
be used.
6-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
DMA Programming Basics
PowerPC System 64-bit
PowerPC bus
64/32-bit
MEMC
DMA Transfer Steps, Normal Mode
DMA
Controller
1) Read from source, write to DMA FIFO
SIU
2) Read from DMA FIFO, write to Destination
MEMC
PowerPC Local
64-bit
Host I/F
16-bit
HDI16
EFCOP
SRAM
512 KB
Figure 6-2. Normal Mode Example
6.1.1.2 Flyby Mode (Single Access)
Flyby mode does not require two DMA channels to complete a data transfer between a
peripheral and a memory module. In this mode, the transaction occurs between two
resources with the same port size1 on the same bus so that it can be executed by a single
channel without going through the DMA FIFO. The read cycle data is transferred directly
“on the fly” to its destination.
There are constraints on which DMA channels can be used during a flyby transaction. If
the transaction is a read transaction from memory, then an even-numbered DMA channel
must be programmed for the transfer. If a write transaction to memory is required, an
odd-numbered DMA channel must be programmed. The channel must be programmed to
external request mode by clearing the (DCHCRx[25]:INT) bit, and the corresponding
BD_ADDR field is programmed to the memory address. The DCHCR requestor number
field points to the peripheral.
6.1.2 Transfer Types
Each DMA channel is configured in one of six possible ways. This section describes each
configuration.
1. Port size is programmed in the BRx registers. It can be 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits.
DMA Channels
6-3
DMA Channels
6.1.2.1 Memory to DMA FIFO
A memory transfer to the DMA FIFO can occur from either external or internal memory.
Figure 6-3 shows both possibilities. Note that in memory/DMA FIFO transactions, both
directions, the channel is programmed to internal request mode (DCHCRx[25]:INT=1).
PowerPC System
PowerPC System
MEMC
MEMC
DMA
DMA
FIFO
FIFO
SIU
External
Memory
SIU
MEMC
MEMC
PowerPC Local
PowerPC Local
SRAM
512 KB
Internal Memory Transfer
External Memory Transfer
Figure 6-3. Memory to DMA FIFO Transfers
6.1.2.2 DMA FIFO to Memory
A DMA FIFO to memory can access either external or internal memory. Figure 6-4
shows both possibilities.
PowerPC System
PowerPC System
MEMC
MEMC
DMA
DMA
FIFO
SIU
FIFO
MEMC
MEMC
PowerPC Local
SIU
PowerPC Local
SRAM
512 KB
Internal Memory Transfer
External Memory Transfer
Figure 6-4. DMA FIFO to Memory Transfers
6-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
External
Memory
DMA Programming Basics
6.1.2.3 Peripheral to DMA FIFO
The DMA controller transfers data from the internal peripherals HDI16 and EFCOP,
which reside on the PowerPC local bus, to the DMA FIFO. It also transfers data from
peripherals on the external PowerPC system bus to the DMA FIFO. Figure 6-5 shows
both of these options. The relevant DMA channel can be programmed either to external or
internal request mode, depending on the peripheral type.
PowerPC System
MEMC
DMA
FIFO
SIU
PowerPC System
MEMC
DMA
FIFO
MEMC
PowerPC Local
External
Peripheral
SIU
MEMC
PowerPC Local
HDI16
EFCOP
Internal Peripheral Transfer
External Peripheral Transfer
Figure 6-5. Peripheral to DMA FIFO Transfers
6.1.2.4 DMA FIFO to Peripheral
The DMA controller transfers data from the DMA FIFO to such internal peripherals as the
HDI16 and EFCOP. It also transfers data from the DMA FIFO to external peripherals on
the PowerPC system bus. Figure 6-6 shows both of these options.
DMA Channels
6-5
DMA Channels
PowerPC System
PowerPC System
MEMC
DMA
FIFO
DMA
SIU
SIU
FIFO
MEMC
PowerPC Local
External
Peripheral
MEMC
MEMC
PowerPC Local
HDI16
EFCOP
Internal Peripheral Transfer
External Peripheral Transfer
Figure 6-6. DMA FIFO to Peripheral Transfers
6.1.2.5 Memory to Peripheral, Flyby Mode
Flyby transactions can be executed from memory connected to the PowerPC system bus to
a peripheral connected to the same bus and to the DMA request/acknowledge lines. They
can also be executed from the SRAM connected to the PowerPC local bus, to the HDI16,
or to the EFCOP. Figure 6-7 shows DMA transfers from memory to a peripheral on the
same bus, and Figure 6-8 shows a DMA transfer from a peripheral to memory.
PowerPC System
External
Peripheral
MEMC
PowerPC System
DMA
FIFO
SIU
MEMC
PowerPC Local
MEMC
DMA
FIFO
SIU
External
Memory
MEMC
HDI16
PowerPC Local
EFCOP
SRAM
512 KB
Internal Memory to Internal Peripheral
External Memory to External Peripheral
Figure 6-7. Memory to Peripheral, Flyby Mode Data Transfer
6-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Initializing the DMA
PowerPC System
External
Peripheral
MEMC
PowerPC System
DMA
FIFO
SIU
MEMC
DMA
FIFO
MEMC
PowerPC Local
SIU
External
Memory
MEMC
HDI16
PowerPC Local
EFCOP
SRAM
512 KB
Internal Memory to Internal Peripheral
External Memory to External Peripheral
Figure 6-8. Peripheral to Memory, Flyby Mode Data Transfer
6.2 Initializing the DMA
The DMA controller uses registers and DMA Channel Parameters RAM (DCPRAM) to
configure each DMA channel. Table 6-1 summarizes the DMA registers involved in
initializing the DMA. For details on programming the DMA registers, consult the DMA
chapter of the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
Table 6-1. DMA Registers
Mnemonic
Name
Description
DCHCRx
DMA Channel Configuration
Registers
Configures the connection between a DMA requestor and the
corresponding DMA channel. There is one register per
channel.
DCPRAM
DMA Channel Parameters RAM
Holds the buffer parameters for all the channels
DPCR
DMA Pin Configuration Register
Selects the functionality of the DONE/DRACK pins.
DSTR
DMA Status Register
Reflects the interrupt requests of the various channels
DIMR
DMA Internal Mask Register
Enables interrupt requests of the corresponding channel on
the PIC.
DEMR
DMA External Mask Register
Enables interrupt requests of the corresponding channel to
the SIC_EXT.
DMA Channels
6-7
DMA Channels
6.2.1 DMA Channel Configuration Registers (DCHRx)
Each DMA channel has a DCHCR that defines whether the channel is active (ACTV), the
active bus (PPC), settings of the DMA request/acknowledge signals, Flyby mode (FLY),
active requestor (INT, RQNUM), and channel priority (PRIO). Since bit 0 of this register
activates the DMA channel, it should be set to 1 only after all registers are programmed.
Bit 0
1
ACTV
PPC
2
3
4
5
—
6
EXP
TYPE
RESET
8
9
DRS
DPL
10
11
12
13
14
15
BDPTR
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
FRZ
INT
0
0
DRACK FLY
—
RQNUM
TYPE
RESET
7
—
PRIO
R/W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 6-2. DCHCRx Bits
Four DCHCRx bit groupings control DMA signal usage:
■
EXP defines the number of cycles to ignore asserted level DREQ after DRACK or
DACK signal is asserted.
■
DRS defines the type of trigger used with the DREQ signal. It can be either
edge-triggered or level-triggered.
■
DPL defines the polarity of the DREQ signal.
■
is used to acknowledge a request before its execution. The external
peripheral must support the DRACK protocol.
DRACK
These bits do not affect DMA transactions involving internal peripherals. They are for use
in programming a DMA interface to external devices. See Section 6.3 for further
discussion of the DMA signals. When a flyby transaction (FLY = 1) is implemented, the
DMA cannot initiate the data transfer. Instead, the INT bit must be cleared so that a
peripheral initiates the request. The specific peripheral requesting the transfer is defined
by RQNUM. If INT is set to 1, the transaction does not start.
6.2.2 DMA Pin Configuration Register (DPCR)
The DPCR is an 8-bit register with two programmable bits. This register selects between
the DRACK/DONE signals, which are available only for external requestors 1 or 2. When an
external DMA requestor is in use and an external peripheral requires the DMA to notify it
when a transfer completes, the DMA activates a DONE signal to alert the peripheral that it
6-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Initializing the DMA
will not be serviced further. On the other hand, if the peripheral requires the DMA channel
to terminate before the DMA transfer completes, the peripheral generates the DONE signal
to alert the DMA that the channel must be terminated. Instead of using the DONE signal, an
external peripheral can use the DRACK signal. In this case, it receives acknowledgment
when the DMA samples its DMA request, and the peripheral either asserts a new request
or resumes other processes.
6.2.3 DMA Status Register (DSTR)
The bits in the DSTR indicate whether an interrupt request is pending for the associated
DMA channel. If the bit is set, the channel has requested service from the core processor.
6.2.4 DMA Internal/External Mask Registers (DIMR/DEMR)
The DIMR/DEMR enable generation of interrupt requests to their associated interrupt
controllers. The DIMR enables an interrupt to the Peripheral Interrupt Controller (PIC).
The DEMR enables an interrupt to the SIU-CPM Interrupt Controller (SIC_EXT).
Interrupts from the SIC_EXT generate interrupt requests to an external host on the
PowerPC system bus.
Note:
For each DMA channel, the respective bits in the DIMR and DEMR should
have different values. For example, if DIMR[Mx] = 0, ensure that the
corresponding DEMR[Mx] = 1 to avoid undefined system behavior. Enable
each channel for an internal or an external interrupt only.
6.2.5 DMA Channel Parameters RAM (DCPRAM)
The DCPRAM\) holds 64 buffer descriptors. Each buffer descriptor includes buffer
address, transfer size down counter, buffer base size, and buffer attributes. Each buffer
descriptor is allocated four 32-bit fields for these transaction parameters. Table 6-3 shows
addresses for the BD_ADDR, BD_SIZE, and BD_ATTR for 17 of the 64 buffer
descriptors. Note that there are 64 buffer descriptors that can be programmed but only 16
DMA channels.
Table 6-3. DCPRAM Addressing
Memory Map
DMA
Channel
Address*
Channel
Buffer
Address
Memory
Map
Address*
Channel
Transfer
Size
Memory
Map
Address*
Channel
Attributes
Memory
Map
Address*
Channel
Transfer
Base Size
0
0xF0010800 BD_ADDR0
0xF0010804 BD_SIZE0
0xF0010808 BD_ATTR0
0xF001080C BD_BSIZE0
1
0xF0010810 BD_ADDR1
0xF0010814 BD_SIZE1
0xF0010818 BD_ATTR1
0xF001081C BD_BSIZE1
* These addresses assume that the PowerPC Bus memory map is based at 0xF0000000. This is the default value for the
Internal Memory Map Register (IMMR) at reset.
DMA Channels
6-9
DMA Channels
Table 6-3. DCPRAM Addressing (Continued)
Channel
Buffer
Address
Memory Map
DMA
Channel
Address*
Memory
Map
Address*
Channel
Transfer
Size
Memory
Map
Address*
Channel
Attributes
Memory
Map
Address*
Channel
Transfer
Base Size
2
0xF0010820 BD_ADDR2
0xF0010824 BD_SIZE2
0xF0010828 BD_ATTR2
0xF001082C BD_BSIZE2
3
0xF0010830 BD_ADDR3
0xF0010834 BD_SIZE3
0xF0010838 BD_ATTR3
0xF001083C BD_BSIZE3
4
0xF0010840 BD_ADDR4
0xF0010844 BD_SIZE4
0xF0010848 BD_ATTR4
0xF001084C BD_BSIZE4
5
0xF0010850 BD_ADDR5
0xF0010854 BD_SIZE5
0xF0010858 BD_ATTR5
0xF001085C BD_BSIZE5
6
0xF0010860 BD_ADDR6
0xF0010864 BD_SIZE6
0xF0010868 BD_ATTR6
0xF001086C BD_BSIZE6
7
0xF0010870 BD_ADDR7
0xF0010874 BD_SIZE7
0xF0010878 BD_ATTR7
0xF001087C BD_BSIZE7
8
0xF0010880 BD_ADDR8
0xF0010884 BD_SIZE8
0xF0010888 BD_ATTR8
0xF001088C BD_BSIZE8
9
0xF0010890 BD_ADDR9
0xF0010894 BD_SIZE9
0xF0010898 BD_ATTR9
0xF001089C BD_BSIZE9
10
0xF00108A0 BD_ADDR10 0xF00108A4 BD_SIZE10 0xF00108A8 BD_ATTR10 0xF00108AC BD_BSIZE10
11
0xF00108B0 BD_ADDR11 0xF00108B4 BD_SIZE11 0xF00108B8 BD_ATTR11 0xF00108BC BD_BSIZE11
12
0xF00108C0 BD_ADDR12 0xF00108C4 BD_SIZE12 0xF00108C8 BD_ATTR12 0xF00108CC BD_BSIZE12
13
0xF00108D0 BD_ADDR13 0xF00108D4 BD_SIZE13 0xF00108D8 BD_ATTR13 0xF00108DC BD_BSIZE13
14
0xF00108E0 BD_ADDR14 0xF00108E4 BD_SIZE14 0xF00108E8 BD_ATTR14 0xF00108EC BD_BSIZE14
15
0xF00108F0 BD_ADDR15 0xF00108F4 BD_SIZE15 0xF00108F8 BD_ATTR15 0xF00108FC BD_BSIZE15
...
...
64
0xF0010BF0 BD_ADDR15 0xF0010BF4 BD_SIZE15 0xF0010BF8 BD_ATTR15 0xF0010BFC BD_BSIZE15
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
* These addresses assume that the PowerPC Bus memory map is based at 0xF0000000. This is the default value for the
Internal Memory Map Register (IMMR) at reset.
Each DMA channel uses buffer descriptors in the DCPRAM to point to a buffer and
characterize it. The buffer descriptor contains four distinct parameters: address
(BD_ADDRn), size (BD_SIZEn), base size (BD_BSIZEn), and attributes (BD_ATTRn).
Each DMA channel selects the buffer descriptor by setting DCHCRx[10–15]:BDPTR.
Therefore, DMA channel 15 and DMA channel 3 can both use the same buffer descriptor
if the parameters for both transfers are the same, but these channels can be requested by
different sources. Table 6-4 describes the four types of buffer descriptor parameters for
DMA data transactions.
Table 6-4. Buffer Descriptor Parameters
Parameter
BD_ADDR
6-10
Description
Address
Describes either the source or destination of the DMA data transfer. For a read cycle, BD_ADDR
describes the source address of the DMA transfer. For a write cycle, BD_ADDR describes the
destination address of the transfer. The BD_ADDR for a flyby request must be programmed to the
memory address.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Initializing the DMA
Table 6-4. Buffer Descriptor Parameters (Continued)
Parameter
Description
BD_SIZE
Size
A transfer byte size down counter. BD_SIZE is always the number of bytes left to transfer even
though the transfer size parameter may vary between eight bits to one burst.
BD_BSIZE
Base Size
Required only for programming continuous buffers. When the DMA transfer size reaches zero (the
complete buffer is transferred), BD_SIZE is updated with the value of the BD_BSIZE parameter, and
the transfer can resume.
BD_ATTR
Attributes
Defines the buffer characteristics.
The BD_ATTR bits are as follows.
BD_ATTR
Bit 0
Buffer Attributes Parameter
1
2
INTRPT CYC CONT
3
4
—
NO_INC
5
6
7
BP
8
—
R/W
RESET
Undefined
17
18
19
20
21
—
22
23
10
11
12
NBUS
TYPE
16
9
24
TSZ
TYPE
R/W
RESET
Undefined
13
14
15
NBD
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
—
FLS
RD
—
TC
—
GBL
Some of the bit functions are straightforward:
■
INTRPT defines whether the DMA issues an interrupt when BD_SIZE reaches
zero.
■
NO_INC defines the constant address for port access applications.
■
TSZ determines the transfer size.
■
FLS indicates whether the FIFO is flushed when BD_SIZE reaches zero.
■
RD must be set if data should be read from the buffer.
Other BD_ATTR bits work together in a particular mode. CYC, NBUS, and NBD must be
considered if CONT is set. CONT defines whether the buffer is closed when the transfer is
complete or whether the DMA transaction continues when BD_SIZE reaches zero. If a
continuous buffer is chosen (CONT=1), then BD_SIZE is reloaded with a BD_BSIZE
value. CYC defines whether BD_ADDR is a cyclic address. NBUS defines which bus is
used for the next transaction, and NBD defines the next buffer to be used.
DMA Channels
6-11
DMA Channels
Another grouping of bits that relate to each other are the BP, TC, and GBL bits. These bits
all regulate bus action for the DMA transfer. BP defines the priority for a given transfer on
the bus. This priority value goes into effect when the DMA arbitrates for mastership of the
bus. DMA bus priority 0 corresponds to BP = 00. This is the highest bus priority level.
BP=10 is DMA bus priority 2, the lowest DMA bus priority level. The transfer code bits
(TC) give the bus extra information about the source of a DMA transaction. Both settings
tell the bus that the transfer is a DMA transfer. Additional bus signals, TT[0–4], TSIZE[0–3],
and TBST, are used to define the bus transaction. These signals are described in detail in
the chapter on the PowerPC system bus in the MSC8101 Reference Manual. When GBL is
set, the bus transaction is global. This bit is set only when the DMA transfer accesses a
memory shared by multiple devices. Otherwise, the GBL bit is cleared. For details, consult
the chapter on the PowerPC system bus in the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
6.2.6 FIFO Requests
The DMA FIFO issues two types of requests that are generated by hardware within the
MSC8101: watermark requests and hungry requests. The DMA FIFO generates a
watermark request to notify the channel that the FIFO contains data to be transferred to a
destination by the DMA channel. Therefore, the DMA channel should write the data in the
FIFO to the destination. If the DMA FIFO has room for more data, it generates a hungry
request to notify the channel that it can accept more data.
The watermark request is asserted when the FIFO holds 32 bytes or more to notify the
destination DMA channel that the FIFO contains data to be transferred to the destination.
A hungry request is asserted when the FIFO contains less than 56 bytes of data to notify
the source DMA channel that the FIFO can receive more data. Both watermark and
hungry requests can be generated simultaneously to alert both DMA channels associated
with a given FIFO that there is room for more data and that data is ready to be transferred.
6.2.7 Multiple Pending DMA Requests
If multiple channels are needed, you can program the order in which each channel
executes by assigning each channel a priority by the DCHCRx[28–31]:PRIO bits. If all
channels are given the same priority, the channels are prioritized based on their number.
The lower channel number has priority over a higher channel number. For example, if
channels 0, 1, 14, and 15 are active, channel 0 has the highest priority and channel 15 has
the lowest. Correct multiple-channel prioritization enables smooth operation.
Lower-bandwidth channels should be assigned a higher priority, and the same rules goes
for lower-latency channels, such as voice channels.
6-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Initializing the DMA
6.2.8 Buffering and Bursting
The MSC8101 DMA module supports five types of buffering: simple, cyclic, chained,
incremental, and dual cyclic. For details regarding these buffer types, consult the DMA
chapter in the MSC8101 Reference Manual. For programming examples of cyclic and
chained buffers, refer to Example 6-2, External Memory to External Memory, Burst
Mode, Cyclic Buffer, on page 6-18 and Example 6-4, External Flash Memory to External
SDRAM Memory, Dual Access Mode, on page 6-22. Figure 6-9 shows a diagram of all
five buffer types for quick reference.
The MSC8101 DMA module can execute burst data transfers of up to 32 bytes per burst.
Timing of the transfer depends on the setting of the memory controller. Burst transfers can
be programmed to external devices as long as they are burst-capable controlled by either
the SDRAM controller or the UPM. The GPCM is not burst-capable. If a peripheral or
memory device is controlled by the GPCM and programmed for a burst transfer, the burst
is split into a single-beat transfer, and the address is incremented.
6.2.9 Interrupts
The DMA module controls the IRQ18 input to the Programmable Interrupt Controller
(PIC). Perform the following steps to initialize interrupts:
1.
Set up the interrupt routine by placing code to handle the interrupt at the
appropriate interrupt vector address.
The location of the vector address for IRQ18 is 0xC80 offset from VBA.
2.
Enable the interrupts by setting bits in various control registers:
a. To enable interrupts by a buffer, when BD_SIZE reaches zero, set the
INTRPT (bit 0) bit in the BD_ATTR field.
b. To specify which interrupt priority levels are allowed, set the interrupt mask
bits (I0–2) of the Status Register (SR) in the SC140 core. For details, refer to
the SC140 Core Reference Manual.
c. To define the priority level for each enabled interrupt, set the PIC
Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register E (ELIRE) Interrupt Priority
Level (PILxx) bits.
d. To set the interrupt trigger mode, set the PED18 bits of the ELIRE registers.
IRQ18 interrupts are edge-triggered.
e. To enable the transaction complete interrupt, set the mask bit in the DIMR
register corresponding to the DMA channel.
f. To enable interrupts, issue an ei (enable interrupts) instruction.
For an example of DMA programming with interrupts, see Example 6-4.
DMA Channels
6-13
DMA Channels
BDx
0x1000
0x1000
0x11F8
Interrupt
BDx
Interrupt
0x11F8
Cyclic Buffer
Simple Buffer
BDx
0x1000
0x1000
BDx
0x2000
0x1018
BDx
0x10F8
0x1100
Interrupt
0x11F8
0x1200
Interrupt
0x12F8
Interrupt
0x21F8
Interrupt
Chained Buffer
0x1000
BDx
0x2000
0x11F8
BDx
0x21F8
Interrupt
Interrupt
Dual Cyclic Buffer
Incremental Buffer
Figure 6-9. DMA Buffer Types
6.3 Using DMA Signals to Initiate and Control DMA Transfers
DMA has four signal types to initiate and control DMA transfers by external peripherals.
These signals are:
■
DREQ[1–4] (DMA
request)
■
DACK[1–4] (DMA
acknowledge)
■
DONE[1–2]
6-14
(DMA done)/DRACK[1–2] (DMA request acknowledge)
MSC8101 User’s Guide
DMA Programming Examples
DREQ[3–4] and DACK[3–4] are multiplexed
with IRQ lines on the MSC8101 pins, as shown in
the external signals chapter of the MSC8101 Reference Manual. The remaining DMA
signals are multiplexed on the CPM ports C and D. Since there are four groupings of
DMA signals, up to four external devices can request DMA service via DMA request
lines. However, only two of the devices can use the DONE/DRACK protocol. Also, if a
system requires use of the DONE/DRACK signals, then the SCC1:RXD and SCC1:TXD signals
are not available due to multiplexing on the CPM ports. Also, the DREQ and DACK signals
use the same pins as BRG7, BRG8, and CLK[7–10]. Therefore, a system designer must use
other baud-rate generators or clocks for the application design.
6.4 DMA Programming Examples
The code examples in this section illustrate how to program the DMA controller in various
modes:
■
A simple buffer to transfer data from internal memory to external memory.
■
Burst mode transactions between two external memory locations. It also uses a
cyclic buffer.
■
A simple buffer to transfer data from an internal peripheral (HDI16) to external
memory.
■
A data transfer between external flash memory, external memory, and internal
memory. The two transfers are chained. This example also shows how interrupts
are used. For an example of a flyby data transfer with an internal peripheral, see
Chapter 9, Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP).
The examples in this section use equate labels for the location of the DMA registers and
buffer descriptors. It is assumed that these equates are declared before the example code.
Equate labels include the register or field name preceded with “M_”.
6.4.1 Internal to External Dual Access, Simple Buffer
Example 6-1 uses a DMA channel to transfer data from internal to external memory with
a simple buffer. Since data is transferred from internal memory to external SDRAM, the
DMA transfer is a dual transaction. A transaction transfers SIZE bytes of data 32-bits at a
time. Bank 2 and bank 10 of the memory controller are configured to allow the DMA
channel to access external memory through the SDRAM and the internal DSP SRAM
through the UPMC, respectively. The memory buffer to which the OUT_ADDR equate
points must be within the memory range of bank 2; the memory buffer to which the
IN_ADDR equate points must be within the memory range of bank 10.
DMA Channels
6-15
DMA Channels
1.
Channel 0 reads data from internal memory to the DMA FIFO. The DMA control
registers for channel 0 are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the data, IN_ADDR, is written to the DMA buffer
address pointer field (BD_ADDR0). Note that the buffer descriptor is
associated to the channel by the DCHCR[10–15]:BDPTR bits.
2.
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, SIZE, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE0).
The DMA buffer base size (BD_BSIZE0) does not need to be programmed
since this is not a continuous buffer.
c. To configure DMA channel 0 for 32-bit read transactions, flush mode, the
value 0x000001b0 is written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR0).
d. To enable channel 0 as a dual transaction initiated by the DMA controller, the
value 0x80000040 is written to the DCHCR0.
Channel 1 writes data from the DMA FIFO to external SDRAM. The DMA
control registers for channel 1 are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of output data, OUT_ADDR, is written to the DMA
buffer address pointer field (BD_ADDR1).
3.
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, SIZE, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE1).
The DMA buffer base size (BD_BSIZE1) does not need to be programmed
since this is not a continuous buffer.
c. To configure channel 1 for 32-bit write transactions, the value 0x00000180 is
written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR1). Note that the flush bit
should be set, if desired, only for the read channel.
d. To enable channel 1 as a dual transaction initiated by the DMA controller, the
value 0xc0010040 is written to DCHRC1.
The DMA Status register is polled to see if channels 0 and 1 have completed their
transactions.
Bits 0 and 1 are checked in the DSTR. If bits 0 and 1 are clear, then the code
continues to run. If bits 0 and 1 are set, then DMA channels 0 and 1 have
completed their transactions.
Once the DMA channels are programmed, the data is transferred without intervention of
the SC140 core.
6-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
DMA Programming Examples
Example 6-1. Internal Memory to External Memory, Simple Buffer
;DMA0 init to input DATA to DMA Buffer
move.l #IN_ADDR,d0
;Init source address
move.l d0,M_BDADDR0
move.l #SIZE,d0
;Init transfer size
move.l d0,M_BDSIZE0
move.l #ATTR0,d0
;Init channel 0 attrib
move.l d0,M_BDATTR0
;DMA1 init to output DATA from DMA Buffer
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
#OUT_ADDR,d0
d0,M_BDADDR1
#SIZE,d0
d0,M_BDSIZE1
#ATTR1,d0
DMA_START
move.l d0,M_BDATTR1
moveu.l #dchcr0,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR0
moveu.l #dchcr1,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR1
CONT
move.l M_DSTR,d5
bmtstc #0xc000,d5.h
jt CONT
;Init destination address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 1 attrib
;Init channel 0 config
;Init channel 1 config
;Wait until output done
6.4.2 External to External Dual-Access Burst Transfer, Cyclic Buffer
Example 6-2 transfers data from external memory to external memory. Data is transferred
from SDRAM to SDRAM, so this is a dual access transaction with a cyclic buffer in burst
mode. Channel 0 reads data from external memory to the DMA FIFO; channel 1 writes the
64 bytes of data from the DMA FIFO to external memory. Thus, the first 32 bytes from
the source address are transferred to the destination twice. Bank 2 of the memory
controller is configured to allow the DMA channel to access external memory through the
SDRAM. The memory buffer to which the IN_ADDR and OUT_ADDR equates point
must be within the memory range of bank 2.
1.
Channel 0 reads data from cyclic buffer external SDRAM to the DMA FIFO. The
DMA control registers for channel 0 are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the data, IN_ADDR, is written to the DMA buffer
address pointer field (BD_ADDR0).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, SIZE0, is written to the DMA buffer
size field (BD_SIZE0).
DMA Channels
6-17
DMA Channels
2.
c. The buffer is a continuous cyclic buffer. The buffer size to be reloaded,
BSIZE0, is written to the DMA buffer base size field (BD_BSIZE0)
d. To configure channel 0 for burst cyclic read transactions, the value
0xe0400210 is written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR0).
e. To enable channel 0 as a dual transaction initiated by the DMA, the value
0xc0000040 is written to the DCHCR0.
Channel 1 writes data from the DMA FIFO to external SDRAM. The DMA
control registers for channel 1 are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of output data, OUT_ADDR, is written to the DMA
buffer address pointer field (BD_ADDR1).
3.
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, SIZE1, is written to the DMA buffer
size field (BD_SIZE1).
The DMA buffer base size (BD_BSIZE1) does not need to be programmed
since this is not a continuous buffer.
c. To configure channel 1 for burst write transactions, the value 0x00000200 is
written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR1).
d. To enable channel 1 as a dual transaction initiated by the DMA controller, the
value 0xc0010040 is written to DCHRC1.
The DMA Status register is polled to see if channels 0 and 1 have completed their
transactions. Bits 0 and 1 are checked in the DSTR. If bits 0 and 1 are clear, then
the code continues to run. If bits 0 and 1 are set, then DMA channels 0 and 1 have
completed their transactions.
Once the DMA channels are programmed, the data is transferred without intervention of
the SC140 core.
Example 6-2. External Memory to External Memory, Burst Mode, Cyclic Buffer
;DMA0 init to input DATA to DMA Buffer
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
#IN_ADDR,d0
d0,M_BDADDR0
#BSIZE0,d0
d0,M_BDBSIZE0
#SIZE0,d0
d0,M_BDSIZE0
#ATTR0,d0
d0,M_BDATTR0
;Init source address
;Init base size
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 0 attrib
;DMA1 init to output DATA from DMA Buffer
move.l #OUT_ADDR,d0
move.l d0,M_BDADDR1
6-18
;Init destination address
MSC8101 User’s Guide
DMA Programming Examples
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
#SIZE1,d0
d0,M_BDSIZE1
#ATTR1,d0
d0,M_BDATTR1
DMA_START
moveu.l #dchcr0,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR0
moveu.l #dchcr1,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR1
CONT
move.l M_DSTR,d5
bmtsts #0xc000,d5.h
jf CONT
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 1 attrib
;Init channel 0 config
;Init channel 1 config
6.4.3 Internal Peripheral to External Dual Access, Simple Buffer
Example 6-3 transfers 16-bit data from an internal peripheral to external memory as a
dual transaction with a simple buffer. The data is read from the host via the HDI16
interface to the DMA FIFO. The DMA FIFO writes the data to external SDRAM. Bank 2
and bank 11 of the memory controller are configured to allow the DMA channel to access
external memory through the SDRAM and to the HDI16 through the GPCM, respectively.
The memory buffer to which the BUFF_START equate points must be within the memory
range of bank 2.
1.
The HDI16 control registers are initialized in the following manner:
a. The Host Control Register (HCR) is programmed for Host DMA mode by the
value (INIT_HCR).
2.
b. The Host Port Control Register (HPCR) is programmed for 16-bit mode by
the value (INIT_HPCR).
c. After the control registers are programmed, the HDI16 is enabled as a host
interface by setting bit 8 of the HPCR.
Channel 0 reads data from the Host Receive Data Register (HORX) as a simple
buffer to the DMA FIFO. The DMA control registers for channel 0 are
programmed in the following manner:
a. The address location of the data, M_HORX, is written to the DMA buffer
address pointer field (BD_ADDR0).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, PATT_SIZE, is written to the DMA
buffer size field (BD_SIZE0).
The DMA buffer base size (BD_BSIZE0) does not need to be programmed
since this is a simple buffer.
DMA Channels
6-19
DMA Channels
3.
c. To configure channel 0 to perform 16-bit read transactions with no increment
of the address and a flush of the FIFO, the value 0x08000130 is written to the
DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR0).
d. To enable channel 0 as a dual transaction initiated by an HDI16 read request,
the value 0x81800005 is written to DCHCR0.
Channel 1 writes data from the DMA FIFO to external SDRAM. The DMA
control registers for channel 1 are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of output data, BUFF_START, is written to the DMA
buffer address pointer field (BD_ADDR1).
4.
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, PATT_SIZE, is written to the DMA
buffer size field (BD_SIZE1).
The DMA buffer base size (BD_BSIZE1) does not need to be programmed
since this is a simple buffer.
c. To configure channel 1 for 16-bit write transactions, the value 0x80000120 is
written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR1).
d. To enable channel 1 as a dual transaction initiated by the DMA, the value
0xc0010045 is written to DCHRC1.
The DMA Status register is polled to see if the channels 0 and 1 have completed
their transactions.
Bits 0 and 1 are checked in the DSTR. If bits 0 and 1 are clear, then the code
continues to run. If bits 0 and 1 are set, then DMA channels 0 and 1 have
completed their transactions.
Example 6-3. Internal Peripheral to External Memory, Simple Buffer
;setup HDI16 registers
move.w #INIT_HCR,r0
move.w r0,M_HCR
move.w #INIT_HPCR,r0
move.w r0,M_HPCR
bmset.w #0x80,M_HPCR
; Init HDI16 host control
; register
; Init HDI16 host port control
; register
;Enable HDI16
;DMA0 init to input DATA from HDI16 to DMA Buffer
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
6-20
#M_HORX,d0
d0,M_BDADDR0
#PATT_SIZE,d0
d0,M_BDSIZE0
#ATTR0,d0
d0,M_BDATTR0
;Init source address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 0 attrib
MSC8101 User’s Guide
DMA Programming Examples
;DMA1 init to output DATA from DMA Buffer
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
#BUFF_START,d0
d0,M_BDADDR1
#PATT_SIZE,d0
d0,M_BDSIZE1
#ATTR1,d0
d0,M_BDATTR1
DMA_START
moveu.l #dchcr0,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR0
moveu.l #dchcr1,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR1
CONT
move.l M_DSTR,d5
bmtsts #0xc000,d5.h
jf CONT
;Init destination address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 1 attrib
;Init channel 0 config
;Init channel 1 config
6.4.4 External to External Dual Access, Chained with Interrupts
Example 6-4 uses a dual access to transfer 100 bytes of data from external SDRAM
memory to a second external SDRAM memory location. DMA channel 2 reads data from
the first external SDRAM memory address controlled by the SDRAM controller. Then
DMA channel 3 reads data from the DMA FIFO and writes it to the second external
SDRAM memory location under control of the SDRAM controller. This first transfer is
chained to a second transfer that moves the data from the second external SDRAM address
to the DMA FIFO using DMA channel 2. DMA channel 3 then transfers the data from the
DMA FIFO to internal SRAM and generates an interrupt when the transfer is complete.
The code implements the DMA transfer as follows:
Note:
1.
This code does not show initialization of the external and internal memory
banks. It assumes that this is already complete.
The code begins with initialization of interrupts, as follows:
a. The interrupt mask bits (I0-2) of the Status Register (SR) are cleared. This
permits all interrupt priority levels.
2.
b. ELIRE is programmed with IRQ18 at priority level 5 level-triggered mode.
c. To allow a DMA Channel 3 interrupt, the associated mask bit in the DIMR is
set.
d. To enable interrupts, an ei instruction is issued.
The first DMA transaction is initialized. Since it is a dual access transaction, both
DMA channel 2 and DMA channel 3 must be programmed. BD_BSIZE is not
DMA Channels
6-21
DMA Channels
initialized for any of the transfers because the code is not implementing cyclic
buffers.
a. The DMA buffer descriptor 2 address is initialized to an SDRAM memory
location for a 32-bit transfer size, transferring a total of 100 bytes. Once the
buffer descriptor 2 read transfer is complete, it invokes the buffer descriptor 8
transfer.
3.
b. The DMA buffer descriptor 3 address is initialized to another SDRAM
memory location for a 32-bit transfer size, transferring a total of 100 bytes.
Also, BD_ATTR3 must include the next buffer pointer since this is a chained
buffer. DMA channel 3 invokes DMA buffer descriptor 9 once its transfer is
complete.
The second DMA transaction is initialized. Since it is a dual-access transaction,
both buffer descriptor 8 and buffer descriptor 9 must be programmed.
a. The buffer descriptor 8 address is initialized to the second SDRAM memory
location for a 32-bit transfer size, reading a total of 100 bytes.
4.
5.
b. The buffer descriptor 9 address is initialized to an internal SRAM memory
location for a 32-bit transfer size, writing a total of 100 bytes. BD_ATTR9
must also enable interrupts so that the SC140 core is notified when the entire
transaction is complete.
The DCHCRx for each channel must be initialized. Each DCHCRx value defines
which bus the transaction is occurring on (PowerPC System or PowerPC local
bus), which buffer descriptor is associated with the channel, and the priority level
of the DMA transfer. All of these transactions are internal requests, so none of
them are requested by a peripheral. The DCHCRx registers are programmed for
the first transfer buffer descriptors. Once the first transfer is complete, the
channel remains open, and the second two buffer descriptors define the
remainder of the transfer.
Processing begins as soon as the activate channel bit is set in DCHCR2.
Example 6-4. External Flash Memory to External SDRAM Memory, Dual Access Mode
; Memory Map Base Value
SDRAM_LOC
equ $20000000
; SDRAM Base Address
SRAM_LOC
equ $02000000
; SRAM base address on local bus
; Data Addresses
SDRAM_DATA1
equ SDRAM_LOC+$300
; Location of first SDRAM data
SDRAM_DATA2
equ SDRAM_LOC+$400
; Location of second SDRAM data
SRAM_DATA
equ SRAM_LOC+$4000
; Location of final data in SRAM
;-----------------------------------------------------MAIN
; Initialize 16 MB SDRAM at address $20000000
INIT_INTER
6-22
MSC8101 User’s Guide
DMA Programming Examples
; initialize interrupts
bmclr #$00e0,sr.h
move.l #M_ELIRE,r7
nop
move.w #$0500,(r7)
move.l
move.l
ei
INIT_DMA1
move.l
move.l
move.l
#$10000000,d7
d7,M_DIMR
; allow all interrupt levels
; set IRQ18 interrupt to
; level 5
; enable DMA channel 3 interrupt to PIC
; enable interrupts
#SDRAM_DATA1,d0
d0,BD_ADDR2
#$204801B0,d0
move.l d0,BD_ATTR2
move.l #100,d0
move.l d0,BD_SIZE2
move.l #SDRAM_DATA2,d0
move.l d0,BD_ADDR3
move.l #$200901A0,d0
move.l
move.l
move.l
INIT_DMA2
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
d0,BD_ATTR3
#100,d0
d0,BD_SIZE3
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
DMA_XFER
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
LOOP
bra *
END
debug
#SRAM_DATA,d0
d0,BD_ADDR9
#$80000180,d0
d0,BD_ATTR9
#100,d0
d0,BD_SIZE9
#SDRAM_DATA2,d0
d0,BD_ADDR8
#$00000190,d0
d0,BD_ATTR8
#100,d0
d0,BD_SIZE8
#$C0020045,d0
d0,M_DCHCR2
#$C0030045,d0
d0,M_DCHCR3
; continuous next bus 60x,
; xfer 32 bits, chained to BD8
; transfer 100 bytes
; continuous,next local,next buff
; 9,xfer 32, write bits
; transfer 100 bytes
; 32-bit xfer
; transfer 100 bytes
; enable interrupt, 32-bit xfer
; transfer 100 bytes
; activate DMA2,60x,BD2,int req, prio 5
; activate DMA3,60x,BD3,int req, prio 5
; Stay here until the interrupt
The SC140 core can run other application code while the DMA channel completes its data
transfer. When the transfer is complete, DMA channel 3 triggers an interrupt to the SC140
DMA Channels
6-23
DMA Channels
core using IRQ18. Once this interrupt is triggered, the processor jumps to the appropriate
interrupt vector address and begins processing. The interrupt vector code, shown in
Example 6-5, uses an equate level, I_IRQ18, to define the offset from the vector base
address for the interrupt request. All DMA interrupts generate an IRQ18 interrupt trigger.
The interrupt service routine must determine which DMA channel triggered the interrupt
and respond accordingly. Before a jump to the DMA interrupt service routine, all
interrupts are disabled so that the DMA service routine can operate without interruption by
any other resource on the device. The interrupts are re-enabled when the service routine
completes.
Example 6-5. Interrupt Vector Code
org p:I_IRQ18
di
jsr DMAHANDLER
ei
jmp END
;
;
;
;
;
;
DMA interrupt
disable interrupts
jump to subroutine to handle
the interrupt
enable interrupts
return from interrupt
The interrupt service routine shown in Example 6-6 completes the program as follows:
1.
The code gets the value of the DSTR and tests it to see if DMA channel 3
triggered the interrupt.
2.
If the interrupt is triggered by DMA channel 3, then the code operates as follows:
a. To notify the SC140 core that the interrupt has been serviced, the pending
IRQ18 interrupt is cleared in Interrupt Pending Register B (IPRB).
3.
b. The interrupt service bit in the DSTR is cleared. Service of the interrupt is
complete, so the code returns from the interrupt.
If the interrupt is not triggered by the DMA channel 3, then the code returns from
the interrupt and continues to process.
Example 6-6. Interrupt Service Routine
DMAHANDLER
move.l (M_DSTR),d7
move.l #I_IPRB,r7
bmtset #$0040,d7.h
bmset.w #$4,(r7)
jf DMA_END
; move dma status reg
; contents to d7
; test if dma3 int
; clear pending EMA interrupt
; if not dma3 int then return
; if dma3 was pending clear interrupt and finish
move.l d7,(M_DSTR)
; clear dma3 interrupt
DMA_END
rts
6-24
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Avoiding DMA and SC140 Core Contentions
6.5 Avoiding DMA and SC140 Core Contentions
The DMA and the SC140 core can access internal memory and peripheral registers
independently of each other. Thus, potential contention between the DMA controller and
the SC140 core can occur if both are trying to access the same memory location or
peripheral register at the same time. Here are some helpful hints to avoid contention:
■
Internal Memory. Both the DMA channel and the SC140 core interface with the
internal SRAM through the UPMC. The L1 bus has the highest priority over the P
and X buses. The DMA channel connects to internal SRAM on the L1 bus; the
SC140 core connects to internal SRAM on the P and X buses. Therefore, if the
DMA channel and SC140 core try to access the same memory location, the DMA
channel has priority over the SC140 core. To ensure that both the DMA controller
and SC140 core can access internal SRAM without interfering with each other, the
DMA controller and core should access different memory locations.
■
Peripheral Registers. The DMA controller and the SC140 core have access to the
HDI16 and EFCOP registers via the GPCM. If the DMA controller and SC140 core
both try to access the same peripheral register, the DMA controller has priority
over the SC140 core. To ensure that the correct value is written to or read from a
peripheral register, the DMA controller and SC140 core should not access the same
peripheral register at the same time
■
External Access. In the BP field of the BD_ATTR register, each DMA channel
indicates which bus mastership request will be initiated. The PRKM field of the
PowerPC System Bus Arbiter Configuration Register (PPC_ACR) and the
PowerPC Local Bus Arbiter Configuration Register (LCL_ACR) defines the
parked master on the PowerPC System bus and PowerPC local bus, respectively.
For the PowerPC System bus, the PowerPC system Bus Arbitration-Level Register
(PPC_ALRH and PPC_ALRL) define the arbitration priority for the PowerPC
system bus master. The bus master programmed in priority field 0 has the highest
priority. For example, 01 (arbitrate for bus mastership with request 1011) is
programmed in the BP field of the BD_ATTR register. 1011 (DMA priority 1) is
programmed in priority field 0, and 0101 (SC140 core interface) is programmed in
priority field 1. The DMA has priority over the SC140 core on the PowerPC system
bus.
For the local bus, the PowerPC Local Bus Arbitration Level Register (LCL_ALRH
and LCL_ALRL) define the arbitration priority for the local bus master. These
registers are programmed the same way as the PPC_ALRH and PPC_ALRL.
■
DMA Access. The SC140 core can access the DMA in mid-operation. The
DCHCR[INT, PRIO, FRZ, PPC, ACTV] bits can be modified while the DMA
DMA Channels
6-25
DMA Channels
channel is active. The DMA can also change the BDPTR and ACTV fields. To
prevent the SC140 core from conflicting with the DMA logic and overwriting the
DMA modifications, use byte access to the fields when the channel is active.
Modifying fields other than the DCHCR[INT, PRIO, FRZ, PPC, ACTV] bits may
result in erroneous results. For a chained buffer, if the DCHCR[BDPTR] bits are
written while the PRIO field is modified, the incorrect buffer may be selected.
6.6 Related Reading
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 1, MSC8101 Overview
Section 1.3.7.3, Buffer Descriptors, on page
1-13
Chapter 5, Balancing Between the
PowerPC System and Local Buses
Section 5.3.1, DMA Controller, on page 5-8
Chapter 8, Host Interface (HDI16)
Section 8.3.4, Direct Memory Access
(DMA), on page 8-20 (for information on
programming a DMA channel for access of
the HDI16 in flyby mode)
Chapter 9, Enhanced Filter
Coprocessor (EFCOP)
Section 9.6.3, Real IIR Filter with DMA, on
page 9-19 (for an example of a flyby data
transaction)
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 4, System Interface Unit
(SIU)
Chapter 10, Memory Controller
Chapter 12, PowerPC System Bus
Chapter 13, PowerPC System Bus
Signals
Chapter 15, Direct Memory Access
(DMA)
Chapter 16, Interrupt Scheme
Chapter 41, Parallel I/O Ports
6-26
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 7
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
This chapter describes a step-by-step procedure for handling MSC8101 interrupts. The
main steps in this procedure are the software configuration phases for setting up the
information in the interrupt controller registers and the interrupt subroutines to be
executed. An example driver implementation illustrates both the hardware and software
configurations for connecting to a peripheral (the EFCOP) and interrupting it. Refer to the
MSC8101 Reference Manual for information on features not implemented by the driver.
7.1 Interrupt Basics
The MSC8101 interrupt scheme consists of three different interrupt controllers:
■
Programmable interrupt controller (PIC), which operates in the SC140 core. The
PIC receives interrupts from DSP peripherals, DMA, external IRQ[2–3], and the SIC.
When the PIC detects an interrupt request (IRQ) on one or more of its inputs, it
arbitrates each IR according to its priority level.
■
SIU-CPM interrupt controller (SIC), which generates interrupt requests to the PIC.
The SIC receives interrupts from internal sources, such as the Periodic Interrupt
Timer (PIT) or Time Counter Register (TMCNT), from the CPM, and from
external sources such as port C parallel I/O pins or IRQs. The SIC generates
interrupt requests to the PIC to be handled by the SC140 core.
■
External SIU-CPM interrupt controller (SIC_EXT), which generates interrupt
requests to an external host CPU. The SIC_EXT receives interrupts from the same
sources as the SIC with additional IRQs from external IRQ[2–3] and DMA, but it
generates interrupts externally for handling by an external processor. The use of
two SICs increases flexibility since each SIC can handle different interrupt sources.
For example, the SC140 core can handle DSP-related interrupts while another
processor, such as the MSC8101 device or the PowerQUICC II, handles
communication-related interrupts.
This configuration provides maximum flexibility so that interrupts can be handled
internally by the SC140 core, by an external host, or by a combination of the two. Figure
7-1 shows the MSC8101 interrupt structure.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
7-1
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
External IRQ[2–3]
SDMA + CPM
Peripherals
INT_OUT
SIC_EXT
NMI_OUT
SIU
External NMI
SIC
SIC
Port C
Pins
External IRQ[1,4–7]
DMA
HOST
QBC
EFCOP
Q2PPC Bridge
EOnCE
SC140 Core
PIC
PIC IRQ[0–23]
and PIC NMI[0–7]
Figure 7-1. MSC8101 Interrupt Structure
7.2 Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC)
The MSC8101 PIC is a peripheral module that serves all the IRQs and non-maskable
interrupts (NMIs) received from MSC8101 peripherals and I/O pins. NMIs handled by the
SIC can be routed to the SC140 core through the PIC or to an external host. The NMI
handler is determined according to the NMI OUT bit in the hard reset configuration word.
Routing NMIs to an external host makes it possible to build a system in which a single
host handles all NMIs.
The PIC is memory-mapped to the SC140 core and can be accessed via the SC140 core
QBus. Key features of the PIC include the following:
■
32 inputs for IRQs and NMIs, consisting of:
— 8 asynchronous edge-triggered NMI inputs.
— 24 asynchronous edge-triggered/level-triggered IRQ inputs.
■
7-2
Auto-vector interrupt generation enable and disable.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC)
■
Support for software acknowledgment of all edge-triggered IRQ and NMI.
■
Visibility to all pending IRQ.
■
Support for nine priority levels:
— Interrupt disabled (level 0).
— Interrupt enabled (levels 1-7, where 7 is the highest priority).
— NMI level (8 inputs only).
■
Support for location-dependent priority for equi-level IRQ and NMI.
■
Ability to work with slow peripherals in edge-triggered/level-triggered modes.
Control
Priority and
Location Filter
RIPL[0–2]
VAB_EN
Interface Unit
VAB[0–5]
VAB
GEN
VAB
NMI
ELIRA REGISTER
ELIRB REGISTER
ELIRC REGISTER
ELIRD REGISTER
ELIRE REGISTER
ELIRF REGISTER
IPRA REGISTER
IPRB REGISTER
IPR
Pending Register
REMAIN_INT
IRQ
SC140 Core
IR0
Control
NMIR
PERIPH_IR
IR23
NMI_0
NMI_IR
NMI_7
16-bit
QBus
Interface
QBus
DATA[0–15]
64-bit
NOTE: Bolded lines are bus lines; the thinner lines are control and data lines.
Figure 7-2. PIC Block Diagram
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7-3
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7.3 Programming MSC8101 Interrupts
When the PIC detects an IRQ on one or more of its inputs, it arbitrates each IRQ according
to its priority level and location and then generates the following:
■
An IRQ signal to the SC140 core, indicating that an IR input has requested interrupt
service from the SC140 core.
■
An RIPL[2–0] signal indicating the priority of the IRQ.
■
An entry in the predefined Vector Address Bus (VAB), determined by the location
of the IR.
Programming MSC8101interrupts consists of the following overall steps:
1.
Set the interrupt table base address in the Vector Base Address (VBA) register.
2.
Program the PIC ELIRx registers to set the interrupt priority level (IPL) and
trigger mode of the interrupt requests.
3.
Monitor the status of pending interrupts.
4.
Route the interrupts.
7.3.1 Setting the Interrupt Table Base Address
You determine the base address for the interrupt vector table by writing it to the VBA
register in the SC140 core. At reset the value of the 20-bit wide VBA register is set to
zero. The offset for each exception vector is predefined. There are 64 possible exception
vector locations. The spacing between two exception vectors is 32 words (four full
execution sets).
7.3.2 Setting the Interrupt Priority Level and Trigger Mode
The SC140 core uses six edge-triggered/level-triggered interrupt priority registers (16-bit
read/write registers) to determine the interrupt priority level (IPL) and trigger mode of the
interrupt requests received at each of the 24 maskable PIC inputs. These registers are
software programmable. Each of the six edge-triggered/level-triggered interrupt priority
registers, ELIRA through ELIRF, defines a bank of four maskable IR inputs.
.
Table 7-1. Edge-Triggered/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Registers
Register Name
Description
Bank
IR Inputs
ELIRA
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register A
A
0–3
ELIRB
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register B
B
4–7
ELIRC
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register C
C
8–11
ELIRD
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register D
D
12–15
7-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Programming MSC8101 Interrupts
Table 7-1. Edge-Triggered/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Registers (Continued)
Register Name
Description
Bank
IR Inputs
ELIRE
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register E
E
16–19
ELIRF
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register F
F
20–23
Each register defines the interrupt trigger mode and IPL for four inputs. For each input,
three bits define the priority level, and one bit specifies the trigger mode for the interrupt.
Of the 32 PIC inputs, eight are non-maskable interrupts (NMI) and cannot be programmed.
The NMI are always assigned the highest priority, regardless of their source. Each of the
remaining 24 inputs can be programmed to one of seven maskable priority levels,
IPL 0 through IPL 6, with a corresponding numeric value of 1 through 7. The highest
maskable priority is IPL 6. Table 7-2 lists the possible settings for the three interrupt
priority level bits, with their corresponding value and IPL. A value of zero in these three
bits indicates that interrupts are disabled on this input.
Table 7-2. Interrupt Priority Level Bit Settings
PILxx0
PILxx1
PILxx2
Enabled
Value
IPL
0
0
0
No
0
----
0
0
1
Yes
1
0
0
1
0
Yes
2
1
0
1
1
Yes
3
2
1
0
0
Yes
4
3
1
0
1
Yes
5
4
1
1
0
Yes
6
5
1
1
1
Yes
7
6
7.3.3 Monitoring the Status of Pending Interrupts
The PIC interrupt pending registers, IPRA and IPRB, are 16-bit read/write registers used
by the SC140 core for two purposes:
■
Monitoring pending interrupts.
■
Resetting edge-triggered interrupts.
Reading the two interrupt pending registers, you can view the status of all current IRQ and
NMI. Each bit in the registers represents one of the 32 inputs. If an IRQ is configured as
level-triggered, its corresponding interrupt pending (IP) bit reflects the status of the IRQ
signal. The IP bit is set if at least one IRQ is pending and reset if there are no IRs pending.
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7-5
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
When the corresponding IR is configured as edge-triggered, its IP bit is set for every new
negative edge detected on the IR. A value of “1” written to the IP bit indicates that the
corresponding IR has been acknowledged. This feature is used for both IRs and NMIs to
indicate to the PIC that the SC140 core has acknowledged the corresponding
edge-triggered interrupt source and that the PIC should ignore any request from the
corresponding interrupt source until its next negative edge.
Each bit in the interrupt pending registers corresponds to an interrupt source, as shown in
Table 7-3. Interrupt pending register A (IPRA) defines the status of the first
16 programmable IRs, while interrupt pending register B (IPRB) defines the remaining
eight programmable IRs and the eight NMIs.
Table 7-3. Interrupt Pending Sources
Register Name
Description
Bank
Inputs
IRQ/NMI
IPRA
PIC Interrupt Pending Register A
A
0–15
IRQ
IPRB
PIC Interrupt Pending Register B
B
16–23
24–31
IRQ
NMI
7.3.4 Routing Interrupts
The MSC8101 PIC can serve a total of 24 IRQ and 8 NMI. Each IRQ is configured as
edge-triggered or level-triggered and can be assigned a priority in the range 0 through 7,
where priority 0 masks the interrupt. On reset, all IRQ are masked (set to priority 0) and
configured as level-triggered. On bootstrap, IRQ[19–20] are configured as edge-triggered.
The NMI relative priority is fixed, with NMI0 assigned the lowest priority and NMI7 the
highest. NMI are always edge-triggered.
To ensure that specific sets are executed in sequence, mask all interrupts using the di
(disable interrupts) instruction and unmask them using the ei (enable interrupts)
instruction. You can also mask interrupts up to a specified priority level by setting the
selected priority level in the SC140 core status register I[2–0] (SR[23–21]). The SC140
core handles only NMI or interrupts with an IPL higher than the current interrupt mask
value. At reset these bits are set, and all interrupts are disabled. The interrupt mask bits, I2,
I1, and I0, reflect the current IPL of the SC140 core.
The memory allocation for each interrupt routine is 64 bytes, which constitutes four
program fetches. SC140 core instructions are encoded as two to four bytes, with a
minimum instruction size of one word. An average of 20 instructions can be held in the
allocated memory area. The address calculation is based on the VBA and VAB registers,
as follows:
ADDR[0:31] = {VBA[0:19],VAB[0:5],6’b0}
7-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Programming MSC8101 Interrupts
Table 7-4 summarizes the routing of MSC8101 interrupts. Unless stated otherwise, all IRQ
are level-triggered.
Table 7-4. Routing of MSC8101 Interrupts
VAB[0–5]
Signal
0x0
TRAP
0x1
–
0x2
Description
Service Routine Address
(Offset from VBA)
Internal exception (generated by trap instruction)
0x0
Reserved
0x40
ILLEGAL
Illegal instruction or set
0x80
0x3
DEBUG
Debug exception (EOnCE)
0xC0
0x4
–
Reserved
0x100
0x5
OVERFLOW
Overflow exception (DALU)
0x140
0x6
DEFAULT NMI
In VAB disabled mode only
0x180
0x7
DEFAULT IRQ
In VAB disabled mode only
0x1C0
0x8-0x1F
–
0x20
IRQ0
EFCOP (0): Input FIFO not full
0x800
0x21
IRQ1
EFCOP (1): Input FIFO empty
0x840
0x22
IRQ2
EFCOP (2): Output FIFO full
0x880
0x23
IRQ3
EFCOP (3): Output FIFO not empty
0x8C0
0x24
IRQ4
EFCOP (4): Update done
0x900
0x25
IRQ5
HDI16 (0): Receive FIFO full
0x940
0x26
IRQ6
HDI16 (1): Receive FIFO not empty
0x980
0x27
IRQ7
HDI16 (2): Transmit FIFO empty
0x9C0
0x28
IRQ8
HDI16 (3): Transmit FIFO not full
0xA00
0x29
IRQ9
HDI16 (4): External HOST command
0xA40
0x2A
IRQ10
Bus controller (x-y contention)
0xA80
0x2B
IRQ11
Bus controller (level1 contention)
0xAC0
0x2C
IRQ12
Bus controller (p-x contention)
0xB00
0x2D
IRQ13
Bus controller (non-aligned data error)
0xB40
0x2E
IRQ14
Reserved
0xB80
0x2F
IRQ15
External IRQ2 (edge/level configurable)
0xBC0
0x30
IRQ16
SIC interrupt
0xC00
0x31
IRQ17
External IRQ3 (edge/level configurable)
0xC40
0x32
IRQ18
DMA interrupt (channel/buffer terminated)
0xC80
0x33
IRQ19
SMI (TEA) (edge-triggered)
0xCC0
0x34
IRQ20
EOnCE interrupt (edge-triggered)
0xD00
0x35
IRQ21
Reserved
0xD40
0x36
IRQ22
Reserved
0xD80
Reserved
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
0x200-0x7FF
7-7
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
Table 7-4. Routing of MSC8101 Interrupts (Continued)
Description
Service Routine Address
(Offset from VBA)
VAB[0–5]
Signal
0x37
IRQ23
Reserved
0xDC0
0x38
NMI0
HDI16: External Host NMI
0xE00
0x39
NMI1
Reserved
0xE40
0x3A
NMI2
Bus controller (memory write error)
0xE80
0x3B
NMI3
Bus controller (non-aligned error)
0xEC0
0x3C
NMI4
Reserved
0xF00
0x3D
NMI5
Reserved
0xF40
0x3E
NMI6
Reserved
0xF80
0x3F
NMI7
SIC NMI, for example, S/W watchdog, external
NMI, parity error
0xFC0
7.4 Interrupt Programming Examples
This section describes how to use the PIC programming model for IRs and NMIs. The
programming examples include the following functionality:
■
Setting the interrupt base address in the VBA register.
■
Initializing the stack pointer.
■
Masking interrupts in the MSC8101 status register.
■
Masking, unmasking, and programming IR properties in the ELIRx registers.
■
Clearing a pending IRQ in the IPRx register.
■
Using interrupt service routines longer than 64 bytes
The VBA holds the 20 MSB of the interrupt table base address. Consequently, the 12 LSB
of this register must be cleared. At bootstrap, the VBA is initialized to the ROM base
address (0x00F80000), and the stack pointer is initialized to 0x68000. You can change this
value before issuing a call to any subroutine, since, depending on the specific software,
this address may not be available for the stack. At reset, the SC140 core disables all
interrupts. When an IR occurs, the status register is pushed onto the stack and the interrupt
priority level (IPL) of the current IR is written to SR[23–21]. All IRs with a priority level
less than or equal to the IPL of the current IR are masked.
The following example programs the interrupt base address in the VBA, initializes the
stack pointer, and enables interrupts with priority levels of 6 or 7 only. All interrupts with
priority level 5 or less are masked.
7-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Interrupt Programming Examples
...
;Programming the VBA register to address 0x5000
move.l #$5000,vba
;Initializing the stack pointer to address 0x68000
move.l #$68000,r0
nop
tfra r0,sp
...
...
; Masking interrupts of priority 0,1,2.
bmclr #$00a0,sr.h
...
7.4.1 PIC Programming
In the PIC ELIRA–ELIRF registers, you can configure the priority level and select the
trigger mode for each interrupt. On reset, all IRs are masked (set to priority 0) and
configured as level-triggered. The following example shows how to assign priority 5 to
the SIC interrupt, priority 4 to the DMA interrupt, and priority 6 to the SMI interrupt. This
example also configures the SMI interrupt as edge-triggered, and the other two interrupts
as level-triggered.
...
; BASE0 is 0x00f00000
ELIRE equ $00f01c20
IRQ16 equ $50c00
IRQ18 equ $50c80
IRQ19 equ $50cc0
; VBA is set to 0x50000
move.l #$50000,vba
; assign priority 5 to SIC (irq 16) and priority 4 to DMA (irq 18)
; assign priority 6 to SMI (irq 19) and set to edge trigger.
move.w #$e405,ELIRE
...
org p:IRQ16
; interrupt routine for SIC
rte
org p:IRQ18
; interrupt routine for DMA
rte
org p:IRQ19
; interrupt routine for SMI
rte
7.4.2 Clearing Pending Requests
The first task that an interrupt routine normally handles is to clear pending requests by
writing to IPRx. If the size of the interrupt routine is larger then 64 bytes, you can use
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7-9
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
service routines to accommodate unlimited code size. The following example illustrates a
typical interrupt routine that uses a service routine. This example also demonstrates the
use of the ei and di instructions, which enable and disable IRs, respectively.
IPRB equ $00f01c38
...
org p:IRQ16
; interrupt routine for SIC
di ; disable any IR
jsr SIC_IRQ
nop
ei ; enable IR
rte
...
org p:SIC_IRQ
; clear pending interrupt in IRPB
move.w #$1,IPRB
; interrupt service routine to handle SIC
...
rts
7.4.3 EFCOP Programming Examples
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
; Interrupt Initialization
;
;
ELIR_A
equ
$7007
;
enable IRQ0 - IRQ3
;
ELIR_B
equ
$0000
; ;
IRQ0_SUB
equ
INIT
;
IRQ1_SUB
equ
INIT+$100
;
IRQ2_SUB
equ
INIT+$200
;
IRQ3_SUB
equ
INIT+$300
;
IRQ4_SUB
equ
INIT+$400
;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;
NM interrupt handle subroutine (SIC NMI vector)
;
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;
;
org p:NMI7
;
NMI
nmis
7
;
rte
;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;
interrupt handle subroutine (input buffer not full)
;
;
org p:IRQ0
;
irqs
0
;
jsr
IRQ0_SUB
;
7-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Interrupt Programming Examples
rte
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;;
interrupt handle subroutine (input buffer empty)
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------org p:IRQ1
irqs
1
jsr
IRQ1_SUB
rte
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;;
interrupt handle subroutine (output buffer full)
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------org p:IRQ2
irqs
2
jsr
IRQ2_SUB
rte
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;;
interrupt handle subroutine (output buffer not empty)
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------org p:IRQ3
irqs
3
jsr
IRQ3_SUB
rte
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;;
interrupt handle subroutine (update coefficient done)
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------org p:IRQ4
irqs
4
jsr
IRQ4_SUB
rte
;;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;; PIC init
;
; enable VAB in PIC-SR
;
write_w #$0000,PICSR
;
;
write_w #ELIR_A,ELIRA
; irq3 enable
;
write_w #ELIR_B,ELIRB
;
write_w #$0000,ELIRC
;
write_w #$0000,ELIRD
;
write_w #$0000,ELIRE
;
write_w #$0000,ELIRF
;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;
enable interupts
bmclr #$00e0,sr.h
;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
;;
interrupt handle subroutine
;
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7-11
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;;
interrupt handle subroutine (input buffer not full)
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------org p:IRQ0_SUB
write_l (r8)+,(r5)
nop
deceq d3
jf IBNF
move.l EFCTL,d5
nop
bmclr
#$0800,d5.l
nop
move.l d5,EFCTL
;
write long ( 32 bit ) to FDIR
;
clear FINFIE bit
IBNF
rts
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;;
interrupt handle subroutine (input buffer empty)
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------org p:IRQ1_SUB
dosetup0
loop0
doen0
#4
nop
nop
loopstart0
loop0
write_l (r8)+,(r5)
deceq d3
;
decrement the SRC_COUNT
nop
nop
nop
nop
loopend0
cmpeq.w #0,d3
jf IBE
move.l EFCTL,d5
;
clear FIEIE bit
bmclr
#$0400,d5.l
move.l d5,EFCTL
IBE
rts
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;;
interrupt handle subroutine (output buffer full)
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------org p:IRQ2_SUB
dosetup1
loop1
doen1
#4
nop
nop
loopstart1
7-12
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MSC8101 User’s Guide
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Interrupt Programming Examples
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decrement the DST_COUNT
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clear FOFIE bit
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OBF
;
rts
;
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;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;
;;
interrupt handle subroutine (output buffer not empty)
;
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;
org p:IRQ3_SUB
;
write_l EFDOR,(r6)+
;
read single word from FDOR
;
deceq d4
;
jf OBNE
;
move.l EFCTL,d5
;
clear FONEIE bit
;
bmclr
#$2000,d5.l
;
move.l d5,EFCTL
;
OBNE
;
rts
;
;
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;
;;
interrupt handle subroutine (update coefficient done)
;
;; ---------------------------------------------------------------;
org p:IRQ4_SUB
;
irqs
4
;
write_l EFDOR,(r6)+
;read single word from FDOR
;
write_l (r8)+,EFDIR
;write single word to FDIR after UCD
;
deceq d4
;
jf UPD
;
move.l EFCTL,d5
;
clear FUDIE bit
;
bmclr
#$0200,d5.l
;
move.l d5,EFCTL
;
UPD
;
rts
;
;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;
write_l (r4),(r6)+
deceq d4
nop
nop
nop
nop
loopend1
cmpeq.w #0,d4
jf OBF
move.l EFCTL,d5
bmclr
#$1000,d5.l
move.l d5,EFCTL
7.4.4 PIC Macros
Following is an irqs macro to clear an edge-triggered interrupt request:
irqs
MACRO
irq_num
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7-13
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
;; irq num from 0-23
nop
if
irq_num<16
move.l #irq_num,d6
move.l #1,d7
lsll d6,d7
nop
move.w d7,IPRA
else
move.l #irq_num-16,d6
move.l #1,d7
lsll d6,d7
nop
move.w d7,IPRB
endif
nop
ENDM
Following is an nmis macro to clear the edge-triggered interrupt request:
nmis
MACRO
nmi_num
;; nmi num from 0-7
nop
move.w PICSR,d6
nop
move.l #nmi_num+8,d6
move.l #1,d7
lsll d6,d7
nop
move.w d7,IPRB
nop
ENDM
7.4.4.1 Examples of SIC Interrupts
#include"Sic.h"
Sic_Branch SIC_BranchTable[64];
main ()
{
...... M A I N - P R O G R A M ......
}
7-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Interrupt Programming Examples
void SPI_InitInterrupt()
{
//create entry in SIC branch table:
SIC_BranchTable[SIC_SPI].Interrupt = SPI_Interrupt;
//the interrupt routine for the SPI must be called SPI_Interrupt
SIC_BranchTable[SIC_SPI].Serial=NULL; //temp
//Configure SPI:
IMM->spi_spie = 0xFF; //clear any previous SPI interrupt events in SPI-reg.
IMM->spi_spim = 0x01; //enable only Rx interrupt! Although we only use the
//Tx line, we need the Rx interrupt to make sure that
//we get an interrupt after all bits have been sent.
//The Tx Irq is useless here because it appears too
//early. All this is neccessary to set CS back to 1.
//Configure the SIU_CPM interrupt controller (SIC):
//When a SPI interrupt occurs, bit17 of the SIPNR_L will be
//set. Furthermore the corresponding interrupt code (SPI=2)
//0x08000000 is visible in SIVEC (dependent on priority
//level).
IMM->ic_sipnr_l |= 0x00004000; //clear any previous SPI interrupt
IMM->ic_simr_l |= 0x00004000; //enable SPI interrupt
return;
} // end SPI_InitInterrupt()
/**************/
/* SPI_Interrupt */
/**************/
void SPI_Interrupt(void *spi)
{
/*
This function is called only when a SIC/SPI interrupt occurs.
*/
QMM->Iprb = 0x0001; //clear SIC interrupt flag in Irq Pending Register B:
IMM->ic_sipnr_l |= 0x00004000; //clear SPI interrupt flag in SIC-reg.
IMM->spi_spie |= 0xFF;
//clear all SPI irq flags in SPIE-reg.
}
typedef struct sicbrancht Sic_Branch;
struct sicbrancht
{
void (*Interrupt)(void*);
void *Serial;
};
/* --------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Interrupt codes used for SIVEC and SIC branch table */
/* --------------------------------------------------------------- */
enum SIC_IRQ_CODE {
SIC_ERROR,
SIC_I2C,
SIC_SPI,
SIC_RISC,
SIC_SMC1,
SIC_SMC2,
SIC_IDMA1,
SIC_IDMA2,
SIC_IDMA3,
SIC_IDMA4,
SIC_SDMA,
SIC_RESV01,
SIC_TIMER1,
SIC_TIMER2,
SIC_TIMER3, SIC_TIMER4,
SIC_TMCNT,
SIC_PIT, S
IC_RESV02,
SIC_IRQ1,
SIC_IRQ2,
SIC_IRQ3,
SIC_IRQ4,
SIC_IRQ5,
SIC_IRQ6,
SIC_IRQ7,
SIC_RESV03, SIC_RESV04,
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7-15
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
SIC_RESV05,
SIC_FCC1,
SIC_MCC1,
SIC_SCC1,
SIC_RESV12,
SIC_PC15,
SIC_PC11,
SIC_PC07,
SIC_PC03,
};
void SIC_InitInterrupt();
void PIC_Code();
void SIC_IrqHandler();
SIC_RESV06,
SIC_FCC2,
SIC_MCC2,
SIC_SCC2,
SIC_RESV13,
SIC_PC14,
SIC_PC10,
SIC_PC06,
SIC_PC02,
SIC_RESV07,
SIC_FCC3,
SIC_RESV10,
SIC_SCC3,
SIC_RESV14,
SIC_PC13,
SIC_PC09,
SIC_PC05,
SIC_PC01,
SIC_RESV08,
SIC_RESV09,
SIC_RESV11,
SIC_SCC4,
SIC_RESV15,
SIC_PC12,
SIC_PC08,
SIC_PC04,
SIC_PC00
7.4.4.2 Examples of SIC Interrupts
#define VBA 0x00000000 //Value for Vector Base Address Register (VBA)
#define SET_VBA
asm("move.l #$00000000,vba") //macro to set vba register
#include "netcomm.h"
//Global defines
#include "msc8101.h"
#include "MM.h"
#include "Sic.h"
#include"segmentor.h"
extern BasePtrIMM *IMM;
//Internal Memory Map base pointer
extern QMMBank0 *QMM;
//This table contains all SIC interrupt function addresses.
extern Sic_Branch SIC_BranchTable[64];
//64 entries, each 4 bytes => 256 bytes of memory
/***********************************************/
/* SIC_InitInterrupt
*/
/***********************************************/
void SIC_InitInterrupt()
{
/*
Note! The SIU Interrupt Vector Register (SIVEC) is not used here,
so the ’SIC_IrqHandler’ must find out the reason for
every SIC interrupt.
*/
/* Establish relevant pointers and registers for SIC-Irq usage in PIC */
SET_VBA; // macro to set vba register
//Configure the Programmable Irq Controller (PIC) to enable SIC Irqs:
//Make sure that the Vector Base Address Reg. (VBA) is set correctly!
//At a SIC-Irq the core jumps into the PIC Irq routing table (base is VBA)
//to the offset 0x0C00.
//Create a PIC Irq routing table entry for SIC-Irq; that is, copy assembly code
//to the provided location of the PIC Irq Routing table. (Note! Here the maximum
//number of bytes per entry are copied, although maybe less are used. The
//rationale is that the number of bytes does not need to be changed when
//the assembly code changes.)
//SIC_BranchTable=(Sic_Branch*)get_seg(DATA,64*sizeof(Sic_Branch));
7-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Interrupt Programming Examples
memcpy((void*)(VBA + 0x0c00), &PIC_Code,0x50);
//clear whole SIC branch table
memset(SIC_BranchTable, 0 , sizeof(SIC_BranchTable));
//clear any previous SIC interrupt in Irq Pending Register B:
QMM->Iprb = 0x0001;
//Configure Edge/Level-Triggered Irq Priority Register E to enable IRQ16:
//Irq16 (SIC), level-triggered, Irq priority level=3
QMM->Elire = (QMM->Elire & 0xFFF0) | 0x0003;
IMM->ic_sipnr_l
IMM->ic_simr_l
= 0xFFFFFFFF;
//clear any previous interrupts in SIC-reg.
= 0x00000000; //disable all interrupts
asm("ei"); //enable interrupts
}
#pragma interrupt PIC_Code
void PIC_Code()
{
/* This function must be copied to the location ’VBA+0x0C00’ within the PIC
Irq routing table. Ensure that max. 50 bytes (64-(6+6+2)) of assembly code
are included into this function. */
//asm("jsr _QCtxtSave");
//6 bytes for JSR, created by #pragma to push registers into stack
asm("di");
SIC_IrqHandler();
asm("ei");
//asm("jsr _QCtxtRestore");
//6 bytes for JSR, created by #pragma to pop
//registers from stack
//asm("rte");
//2 bytes, created by #pragma to return from
//interrupt
}
/************************************************/
/* SIC_IrqHandler
*/
/************************************************/
void SIC_IrqHandler()
{
/*Ensure that the SIC interrupt branch
table is allocated (global) with ’UWORD SIC_BranchTable[64]’.*/
UBYTE sivec;
sivec=(IMM->ic_sivec>>26);//IMM->ic_sivec bits 0-31 wheras only bits 0-5 matters
SIC_BranchTable[ sivec].Interrupt(SIC_BranchTable[ sivec].Serial);
}
/*
asm("move.l _IMM,r0");
asm("move.l #$00010C04,r1");
//IMM base address
//SIVEC offset
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
7-17
Interrupts and Interrupt Priorities
asm("nop");
asm("adda r1,r0");
asm("nop");
asm("moveu.b (r0),r1");
source
asm("move.l #_SIC_BranchTable,r0");
asm("nop");
asm("adda r0,r1");
asm("nop");
asm("move.l (r1),r0");
asm("nop");
asm("jsr r0");
7-18
//SIVEC address
//get SIVEC to figure out the irq
//get branch table base
//add sivec to branch table base
//get address of irq function from
//branch
//table
//call interrupt function
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 8
Host Interface (HDI16)
The HDI16 host port is a Motorola MSC8101 DSP peripheral featuring a 16-bit-wide
parallel port for communication with a host processor. This parallel port is a full-duplex
and double-buffered slave interface. It transfers data between a host or DMA controller
and the DSP, and it transfers commands from the host to the DSP. The 16-bit-wide HDI16
data bus handles 16-bit, 32-bit, 48-bit, and 64-bit data transfers. In addition, an 8-bit data
mode handles 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit data transfers on an 8-bit-wide data bus.
Programmable options provide a glueless connection between the DSP and other
MSC8101 devices or MPC860 and MPC8260 host processors. Minimal glue logic is
required to interface the HDI16 port to several industry-standard processors and buses,
such as the PowerPC 603-750, ISA bus, and the Motorola 68K family.
This chapter tells you how and why to operate the HDI16 in different modes, discusses the
various handshaking protocols for managing data transfers and the pros and cons of each,
and examines how you can use the innovative host command feature of the host interface.
For information on the HDI16 and power-on reset, see Section 2.4, Configuring a
Multi-MSC8101 System Connected Via the Host Port, on page 2-12. For a detailed
discussion of the HDI16 registers and programming model, consult the MSC8101
Reference Manual.
8.1 HDI16 Programming Basics
Note:
The HDI16 interface is multiplexed with the upper 32 bits of the PowerPC
system data bus. To use the HDI16, you must configure the PowerPC data bus
as 32 bits to release the upper 32 bits for use by the HDI16. To do this, pull the
HPE/EE1 line up at reset and set the ISPS bit in the Hard Reset Configuration
Word or, after reset, set BCR[ISPS] and then set HPCR[HEN].
The HDI16 interface is a “slave” peripheral, which means that a “master” performs all the
external read and write accesses necessary to communicate with the HDI16 port. In this
chapter, the master is called the “host.” The internal MSC8101 resources that manipulate
the HDI16 interface are referred to as the “DSP.”
MSC8101 User’s Guide
8-1
Host Interface (HDI16)
As Figure 8-1 shows, the HDI16 peripheral has two register banks:
■
Host-side register bank. Accessible only to the host from the external HDI16 bus.
■
DSP-side register bank. Accessible only to the DSP internal resources.
For host-to-DSP transfers, the host writes the host-side registers and the DSP reads the
DSP-side registers; for DSP-to-host transfers, the DSP writes the DSP-side registers and
the host reads the host-side registers. The separate receive and transmit data paths are
double buffered for efficient, high-speed asynchronous transfers. On the DSP side, the
Host Transmit Data Register (HOTX) and the Host Receive Data Register (HORX) are
FIFOs of four 64-bit words. The host-side transmit data path (used for transfers from the
host to the DSP) is also the DSP-side receive path. The host-side receive data path (used
for transfers from the DSP to the host) is also the DSP-side transmit path.
Internal DSP Data Bus
DSP
Side
Host
Side
HCR
ISR
HSR HCVR HPCR
ICR
CVR
IVR
HOTX
RX0
RX1
RX2
Receive and
transmit
data paths
RX3
TX0
HORX
TX1
TX2
TX3
External Host Bus
Figure 8-1. HDI16 Programmer’s Model
8.1.1 Host-Side Model
To the host, the HDI16 appears as eleven 16-byte-wide locations mapped in its external
address space, as indicated in Table 8-1. The control registers provide the host with
control and status information and allow the use of host commands. The data registers
enable data transfers. Finally, the reset configuration registers are used only during reset to
configure the MSC8101 hardware.
8-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating in Different Data Transfer Modes
Table 8-1. Host-Side Programmer’s Model
Type
Control
Data
Reset
Configuration
Host Address
Host-Side Register
Mnemonic
0x0
Interface Control Register
ICR
0x1
Command Vector Register
CVR
0x2
Interface Status Register
ISR
0x3
Reserved
0x4
Transmit/Receive Register 3
TX3/RX3
0x5
Transmit/Receive Register 2
TX2/RX2
0x6
Transmit/Receive Register 1
TX1/RX1
0x7
Transmit/Receive Register 0
TX0/RX0
0x8
Reset Configuration Register 0
RSCFG0
0x9
Reset Configuration Register 1
RSCFG1
0xA
Reset Configuration Register 2
RSCFG2
0xB
Reset Configuration Register 3
RSCFG3
0xC–0xF
—
Reserved
—
8.1.2 DSP-Side Model
To the SC140 core, the DSP-side registers appear as six registers mapped in the QBus
memory space, as indicated in Table 8-2, allowing MSC8101 instructions and addressing
modes to access these registers. Four 16-bit control registers provide the SC140 core
control of the HDI16 functionality, and two 64-bit data registers transfer the data.
Table 8-2. DSP-Side Programmer’s Model
Type
Control
Host Address
(HA[0–3])
Host-Side Register
Mnemonic
0x0000
Host Control Register
HCR
0x0040
Host Status Register
HSR
0x0060
Host Command Vector Register
HCVR
—
0x0020
Host Port Control Register
HPCR
Data
0x0080
Host Transmit Data FIFO
HOTX
0x00A0
Host Receive Data FIFO
HORX
8.2 Operating in Different Data Transfer Modes
The HDI16 offers two modes for transferring data between the host and the DSP. Normal
mode refers to non-DMA transfers, and DMA mode refers to transfers using an external
DMA controller (not be confused with the operation of the on-device DMA controller).
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-3
Host Interface (HDI16)
The Host DMA Mode Enable bit in the Host Port Control Register, HPCR[14]:DMA,
defines the mode of operation as shown in Table 8-3. The hardware can be set up so that
both transfer modes, Normal and DMA, can be used on the same bus, though not
simultaneously. In Normal mode, the host transfers data one access at a time, with each
access requiring an address and data transaction on the host bus. In host DMA mode, the
data is transferred on the host bus without requiring address transactions, thus giving
faster data access.
Table 8-3. Normal and DMA Mode Selection
HPCR[14]:DMA
Mode
0
Normal
1
DMA
To accommodate these modes, each HDI16 pin serves multiple purposes, as Table 8-4,
Table 8-5, and Table 8-6 show.
Table 8-4. Normal and DMA Mode Pin Functions
Pin
Normal Mode
DMA Mode
HD[15–0]
HD[15–0]
HD[15–0]
HA[3–0]
HA[3–0]
—
HCS1
HCS1
—
HCS2
HCS2
—
The Host Port Control Register (HPCR) and the HDDS, HDSP, and H8BIT pins are used to set
the following options:
8-4
■
Width of the data bus. The HDI16 is programmed to use the 8-bit-wide or
16-bit-wide host data bus as indicated by setting the HPCR[9]:H8BIT bit or by
driving the H8BIT pin low to select 16-bit mode. The functionality of the HD[15–0]
data pins (indicated in Table 8-4) applies to a 16-bit wide host data bus. For an
8-bit host data bus width, only the HD[7–0] data pins are used.
■
Use of single or dual read/write strobes (signals). An OR of the HPCR[3]:HDDS
bit and the HDDS pin indicate a single or dual strobe. In a single-strobe bus, the Host
Data Strobe pin (HDS) indicates that valid data is present on the bus. The Host
Read/Write pin (HRW) indicates the type of transaction in process (read or write). In
dual-strobe mode, the Host Read (HRD) and the Host Write (HWR) lines each
indicate data validity and transaction type.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating in Different Data Transfer Modes
Table 8-5. Single- and Dual-Strobe Bus Pin Functionality
■
HDI16 Pin
Single-Strobe Bus
Dual-Strobe Bus
HRW/HRD
HRW
HRD/HRD
HDS/HWR
HDS/HDS
HWR/HWR
Polarity of the read/write strobes. Signals can be programmed as active high or
active low, as indicated by an ORing of the HPCR[6]:HDSP bit and the HDSP pin.
The HDI16 can be programmed to use a single host request line or dual host request lines.
Table 8-6. Single and Dual Host Request Lines
Pin
Single Request
Dual Request
HREQ/HTRQ
HREQ/HREQ
HTRQ/HTRQ
HACK/HRRQ
HACK/HACK
HRRQ/HRRQ
Refer to Section 8.3.3, Host Requests for information on the host request lines.
8.2.1 Normal Mode
In Normal mode, the HDI16 port appears to the host as eleven 16-bit wide registers
mapped to its external memory, much as a 16-bit SRAM would appear. To enable Normal
mode, the DSP core must clear the Host Port Control Register’s DMA bit
(HPCR[14]:DMA) and set the Host Enable bit (HPCR[8]:HEN). Once Normal mode is
enabled, the HCR[4]:HICR bit determines whether the DSP-side Host Control Register
(HCR) or the host-side Interface Control Register (ICR) defines the size of the data
transferred (see Table 8-7).
Table 8-7. Transfer Control in Normal Mode
HCR[4]:HICR
Defines Transfer
Register
0
DSP
HCR[5–7]:HDM[0–2]
1
Host
ICR[9–10]:HDM[0–1]
If the host defines the Normal mode transfer (HCR[4]:HICR=1), the host-side Interface
Control Register’s HDM[0–1] bits define the size as indicated in Table 8-8. The ICR
HDM[0–1] bits are reflected on the DSP-side’s HCR[6–7]:HM bits, allowing the
DSP-side to determine the data transfer size.
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-5
Host Interface (HDI16)
Table 8-8. Host-Defined Normal Mode Data Size
ICR[9]:HDM0
ICR[10]:HDM1
Data Size
Last Address
0
0
64-bit
0x7
0
1
48-bit
0x6
1
0
32-bit
0x5
1
1
16-bit
0x4
Conversely, if the DSP defines the data size of the Normal mode transfer
(HCR[4]:HICR=0), the DSP-side HCR[6–7]: HDM bits select the data size, as indicated
in Table 8-9. The HCR[6–7]:HDM bits are reflected on the host-side ICR[9–10]:HDM
bits, allowing the host side to determine the DMA data transfer size.
Table 8-9. DSP-Defined Normal Mode Data Size
HCR[6]:HDM1
HCR[7]:HDM2
DMA Data Size
Last Address
0
0
16-bit
0x7
0
1
32-bit
0x6
1
0
48-bit
0x5
1
1
64-bit
0x4
Recall that the host can read only the HDI16 host-side Receive Data Registers (RX[0–3])
or write the HDI16 host-side Transmit Data Registers (TX[0–3]). In DSP-to-host
transfers, the DSP first writes data to the DSP-side Transmit Data Register (HOTX) FIFO.
This data is automatically transferred to the host-side RX[0–3] when these registers are
empty. To access this data, the host first reads RX0/TX0 at address offset 0x7 and
continues, depending on the data size being used, with reads to RX1/TX1 at address 0x6,
RX2/TX2 at address 0x7, and finally RX3/TX3 at address 0x4. The final 16-bit portion of
the data is read from the corresponding “last address” register (see Table 8-8 and Table
8-9), automatically causing the transfer of any data available in the DSP-side HOTX FIFO
to the host-side RX[0–3] registers.
Similarly, in host-to-DSP transfers, the host begins by writing the host-side RX0/TX0 at
address offset 0x7 and continues, depending on the data size being used, with writes to
RX1/TX1 at address 0x6, RX2/TX2 at address 0x5, and finally RX3/TX3 at address 0x6.
The final 16-bit portion of the data is written to the corresponding “last address” register
(see Table 8-8 and Table 8-9), automatically causing the transfer of the entire datum from
the host-side TX[0–3] registers to the DSP-side HORX FIFO. Thus, the HDI16 supports
16-bit, 32-bit, 48-bit, and 64-bit transfers.
8-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating in Different Data Transfer Modes
The minimum hardware set-up necessary for using the HDI16 port in Normal mode is a
chip select, four address lines to access the eleven HDI16 host-side registers, sixteen data
lines (in 16-bit mode), and two data strobe lines. Figure 8-2 shows a simple hardware
set-up that supports Normal mode. The host bus performs the following actions:
1.
Selects the HDI16 device (HCS1).
2.
Indicates the direction of the transfer (HRD or HWR)
3.
Asserts the address of the HDI16 register to be accessed (HA[0–3]).
4.
Accesses the data (HD[0-15]).
Host
MSC8101
HDI16
Port
HD[0–15]
Data
HA[0–3]
Address
HCS1
Chip Select
HRD
Read Strobe
Host
Port
Write Strobe
HWR
Figure 8-2. Example Hardware Set-up for Normal Mode Transfers
The assembly language equate listed in Example 8-1 defines the initial values of the Host
Port Control Register (HPCR) to set up the HDI16 for the hardware set-up represented in
Figure 8-2.
Example 8-1. HPCR Values for Example in Figure 8-2
INIT_HPCR EQU
0x1000
; [0] = HAP = 0 => Not used. Write to 0
; [1] = HRP = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
; [2] = HCSP = 0 -> HCS1 active low
; [3] = HDDS = 1 -> Dual strobe
; [4:5] = reserved = 00
; [6] = HDSP = 0-> HRD & HWR active low
; [7] = reserved = 0
; [8] = HEN = 0 -> Host interface disabled
; [9] = H8BIT = 0 -> 16-bit mode used
; [10:13] = reserved = 0000
; [14] = DMA = 0 -> normal mode
; [15] = OAD = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
This initialization configures the HDI16 for 16-bit Normal mode transfers by clearing the
HPCR[9]:H8BIT and HPCR[14]:DMA bits. Bus transactions are programmed to use dual,
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-7
Host Interface (HDI16)
active low, read (HRD) and write (HWR) strobes by setting HPCR[3]:HDDS and clearing
HPCR[6]:HDSP. Active low Chip Select (HCS1) is programmed by clearing
HPCR[2]:HCSP.
The HPCR[8]:HEN bit is initially cleared, disabling the HDI16 port. To assure proper
operation, the HPCR[HAP, HRP, HCSP, HDDS, HDSP, and H8BIT] bits should be set
only when HPCR[8]:HEN is cleared. After these bits are set as required, the HDI16 port is
enabled by setting the HPCR[8]:HEN bit. The MSC8101 code listed in Example 8-2
meets these requirements and initializes and enables the HDI16 port.
Example 8-2. Initializing the HDI16 Port
move.l #HPCR_ADDR,r1
move.w #INIT_HPCR,(r1)
bmset.w #$80,(r1)
; r1 = HPCR address
; initialize HPCR
; enable HDI16
The following list summarizes the steps the DSP performs to initialize the HDI16 port in
Normal mode:
1.
Initialize the Host Port Control Register (HPCR), ensuring that HPCR[8]:HEN is
clear and setting the HPCR[3]:HDDS bit to select the dual-strobe mode.
2.
Enable the HDI16 by setting HPCR[8]:HEN.
3.
Initialize the HCR[4]:HICR bit to indicate which register (HCR or ICR) defines
the data size.
4.
Initialize the DSP-side HCR or the host-side ICR for the desired data size (recall
that only the host can access host-side registers)
8.2.2 Host DMA Mode
Host DMA mode supports external DMA controllers connected to the HDI16 on the host
bus and should not be confused with the operation of the (on-chip) DMA internal to the
MSC8101 DSP. In Host DMA mode, data is transferred in bursts without the need to drive
a new address on the host bus address lines for every transfer. To enable Host DMA mode,
the DSP core must set the Host Port Control Register DMA bit (HPCR[14]:DMA). Once
DMA mode is enabled, the HCR[HICR] bit determines whether the DSP-side Host
Control Register (HCR) or the host-side Interface Control Register (ICR) defines the
characteristics (direction and data size) of the DMA transfer (see Table 8-10).
Table 8-10. Transfer Control in Host DMA Mode
8-8
HCR[4]:HICR
Defines DMA
Register
0
DSP
HCR[5–7]:HDM[0–2]
1
Host
ICR[9–10]:HDM[0–1]
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating in Different Data Transfer Modes
If the host (external DMA controller) defines the DMA (HCR[4]:HICR=1), the host-side
ICR[RREQ] bit defines the direction of the DMA transfers (see Table 8-11) and the
ICR[9–10]:HM[0–1] bits select the DMA data size (see Table 8-12). The HM[0–1] bits
are reflected on the DSP-side HCR[6–7]:HM bits, allowing the DSP side to determine the
DMA data transfer size. The RREQ bit is reflected in the HCR[5]:RREQ bit, so the DSP
side can determine the DMA direction.
Table 8-11. Host-Defined DMA Transfer Direction
ICR[15]:RREQ
DMA Direction
0
Host-to-DSP
1
DSP-to-host
Table 8-12. Host-Defined DMA Data Size
ICR[9]:HM0
ICR[10]:HM1
DMA Data Size
Last Address
0
0
16-bit
0x7
0
1
32-bit
0x6
1
0
48-bit
0x5
1
1
64-bit
0x4
If the DSP defines the characteristics of the DMA (HCR[4]:HICR=0), the DSP-side HCR
HDM[0–2] bits select the DMA data size and direction as indicated in Table 8-13. HDM0 is
reflected in ICR[14]:HDM0 when read, and the HDM[1–2] bits are reflected on the
host-side ICR[9-10]:HDM bits, allowing the host-side to determine the DMA data transfer
size and direction.
Table 8-13. DSP-Defined DMA Data Size and Direction
HCR[5]:HDM0
HCR[6]:HDM1
HCR[7]:HDM2
DMA Direction
DMA Data Size
0
0
0
Host-to-DSP
64-bit
0
0
1
48-bit
0
1
0
32-bit
0
1
1
16-bit
1
0
0
1
0
1
48-bit
1
1
0
32-bit
1
1
1
16-bit
Host Interface (HDI16)
DSP-to-host
64-bit
8-9
Host Interface (HDI16)
There are two ways to set up the hardware connection for DMA transfers, depending on
the method of acknowledging that valid data is on the host bus. Data always transfers over
the HD[0–15] data lines (HD[0–7] in 8-bit mode). The HREQ output pin is always used to
request DMA transfers from the host or DMA controller. However, valid data on the host
bus can be acknowledged in two different ways, using the HACK input pin or the host
address 0x4, as defined in Table 8-14.
Table 8-14. DMA Valid Data Acknowledgment
HPCR[15]:OAD
Data Valid
0
HACK pin is asserted
1
Host address 0x4 is asserted
Consider the hardware set-up shown in Figure 8-3. In this example, the hardware set-up
uses sixteen data lines, the HREQ pin for DMA data transfer requests to the host, and the
HACK pin for valid data acknowledgment. No address lines are required. An internal 2-bit
address counter preloaded with the values in ICR[9–10] determines which host-side data
register is selected during the DMA transfer. The address counter is initialized using
(ICR[7] = INIT). After each DMA transfer on the host data bus, the address counter is
incremented to the next data register. When the address counter reaches the highest
register, the counter is reloaded with the value in ICR[9–10]. Reloading the counter allows
16-bit, 32-bit, 48-bit, and 64-bit circular data transfers and eliminates the need for the host
or DMA controller to supply an address transaction for each data transfer.
The HREQ pin is asserted to indicate a request for a data transfer (receive or transmit). The
HACK input pin is used as a DMA acknowledge. For DSP-to-host transfers, the HDI16
writes data on the bus when HACK is asserted; for host-to-DSP transfers, the data is valid
on the bus when HACK is asserted. The same principle would hold true if host address 0x4
were used for DMA data valid acknowledgment instead of HACK.
Host or
DMA Controller
MSC8101
HDI16
Port
HD[0–15]
HREQ
HACK
Data
DMA Request
Host
Port
DMA Acknowledge
Figure 8-3. HDI16 Hardware set-up for DMA Mode Transfer
8-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating in Different Data Transfer Modes
The assembly language equate listed in Example 8-3 defines the initial register values to
set up the HDI16 for the hardware set-up represented in Figure 8-3.
Example 8-3. Register Values for Example Shown in Figure 8-3
INIT_HPCR EQU
0xC002
; [0] = HAP = 1 -> HACK pin active high
; [1] = HRP = 1-> HREQ pin active high
; [2] = HCSP = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
; [3] = HDDS = 0-> Not used. Write to 0
; [4:5] = reserved = 00
; [6] = HDSP = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
; [7] = reserved = 0
; [8] = HEN = 0 -> Host interface disabled
; [9] = H8BIT = 0 -> 16-bit mode used
; [10:13] = reserved = 0000
; [14] = DMA = 1-> DMA mode
; [15] = OAD = 0 -> HACK pin for DMA acknowledge
INIT_HCR EQU
0x0600
; [0] = HF4 = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
; [1] = HF5 = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
; [2] = HF6 = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
; [3] = HF7 = 0 -> Not used. Write to 0
; [4] = HICR = 0 -> HCR defines DMA direction and size
; [5-7] = HDM[0-2] = 110 -> DSP-to-host DMA,32-bit data
; [8] = reserved = 0
; [9] = DBTE = 0 -> DMA transmit burst disabled
; [10] = DBRE = 0 -> DMA receive burst disabled
; [11] = HCIE = 0 -> Host command interrupt disabled
; [12] = HFTIE = 0 -> Host transmit not full interrupt disabled
; [13] = HTEIE = 0 -> Host transmit empty interrupt disabled
; [14] = HRFIE = 0 -> Host receive full interrupt disabled
; [15] = HREIE= 0 -> Host receive not empty interrupt disabled
This initialization configures the HDI16 for a 16-bit bus and DMA mode transfers by
clearing HPCR[9]:H8BIT and setting HPCR[14]:DMA. Bus transactions are programmed
to use active high HACK and HREQ signals by setting HPCR[0]:HAP and HPCR[1]:HRP.
The HPCR[8]:HEN bit is initially cleared, disabling the HDI16 port. To assure proper
operation, the HPCR[HAP, HRP, HCSP, HDDS, HDSP] bits should be set only when
HPCR[8]:HEN is cleared. After these bits are set as appropriate, then enable the HDI16 by
setting the HPCR[8]:HEN bit. The MSC8101 code listed in Example 8-4 meets these
requirements and initializes and enables the HDI16 port. The HCR[4]:HICR bit is cleared,
indicating that the HCR[5–7]:HDM[0–2] bits determine the DMA direction to be
DSP-to-host and the data size to be 32 bits.
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-11
Host Interface (HDI16)
Example 8-4. Initializing the HDI16 Port
move.w #HPCR_ADDR,r1
; r1 = HPCR address
move.l #HCR_ADDR,r2
; r2 = HCR address
move.w #INIT_HPCR,(r1)
; initialize HPCR
bmset.w #8,(r1)
; enable HDI16
move.w #INIT_HCR,(r2)
; initialize HCR
The following list summarizes the steps the DSP follows to initialize the HDI16 port in
DMA mode:
1.
Initialize the Host Port Control Register (HPCR), ensuring that the
HPCR[8]:HEN bit is clear.
2.
Enable the HDI16 by setting HPCR[8]:HEN.
3.
Initialize the HCR[4]:HICR bit to indicate which register (HCR or ICR) defines
the DMA direction and data size
4.
Initialize the DSP-side HCR or the host-side ICR for the desired DMA direction
and data size (recall that only the host can access host-side registers)
8.3 Managing Data Transfers Via Handshaking Protocols
The HDI16 interface port is slave-only, so the host is the master of all bus transfers. In
host-to-DSP transfers, the host writes data to the Transmit Word Registers (TX[0–3]). In
DSP-to-host transfers, the host reads data from the Receive Word Registers (RX[0–3]).
The DSP side has access only to the Host Receive Data Register (HORX) and the Host
Transmit Data Register (HOTX). Available data automatically moves between the
host-side data registers and the DSP-side data registers. This double-buffered mechanism
allows for fast data transfers, but it creates a “pipeline” that can stall (if the pipeline is
either full or empty) or cause erroneous data transfers (overwriting new data or reading old
data). Several HDI16 port handshaking mechanisms are available to reduce the possible
occurrence of such stalls and erroneous transfers.
For example, a host writing several pieces of data to the HDI16 port should first determine
whether any data previously written to the Transmit Word Registers (TX[0–3]) has
successfully transferred to the DSP side. A handshaking protocol makes this possible. If
the host-side Transmit Word Registers (TX[0–3]) are empty, the host writes the data to
these registers. The transfer to the DSP-side Host Receive Data Register (HORX) occurs
only if HORX is not full (recall that the HORX is a FIFO of four 64-bit words). Similarly,
the DSP core uses an appropriate handshaking protocol to move data from HORX to the
receiving memory buffer or register. If the handshaking protocol were not used, the host
might overwrite data not yet transferred to the DSP side, or the DSP might receive bogus
data.
8-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Managing Data Transfers Via Handshaking Protocols
A similar situation occurs when the host performs multiple reads from the HDI16 port
Receive Word Registers (RX[0–3]). The DSP side uses an appropriate handshaking
protocol to determine whether the 64-bit Host Transmit Register (HOTX) FIFO is not full.
If HOTX is not full, the DSP writes the data to this register. Data is transferred to the
host-side Receive Word Registers (RX[0–3]) only if they are empty (that is, the host has
previously read them). The host can then use any of the available handshaking protocols to
determine when data is ready to be read.
The MSC8101 HDI16 port offers the following handshaking protocols for data transfers
with the host:
■
Software polling (DSP and host)
■
DSP interrupts
■
Host requests
■
Direct Memory Access (MSC8101 on-device DMA and host DMA)
The following sections discuss several factors that determine which protocol to use,
including:
■
The amount of data to be transferred
■
The timing requirements for the transfer
■
The availability of resources such as processing bandwidth and DMA channels
Recall that the transfers described here occur between the host and the DSP
asynchronously. Each side transfers data at its own pace. However, using an appropriate
handshaking protocol allows data to be transferred at optimal rates. Furthermore, the DSP
and the host can use different handshaking techniques.
8.3.1 Software Polling
Software polling is the simplest handshaking protocol, but it can consume the most
processing power. In software polling, the host or the DSP core reads status bits to
determine the state of the HDI16 registers. While polling these status bits, the DSP or host
consumes processing clocks.
8.3.1.1 DSP Polling
On the DSP-side, four bits are available for polling. In DSP-to-host transfers (host reads),
the DSP core can determine whether the HOTX is empty, partially empty/full, or full. To
determine whether HOTX is empty, the DSP core polls the Host Transmit Empty bit in the
Host Status Register (HSR[13]:HTFE):
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-13
Host Interface (HDI16)
■
If HTFE is clear, the HOTX FIFO is not empty (it is either partially empty or full).
■
If HTFE is set, the HOTX FIFO is empty.
To determine whether HOTX is full, the DSP core polls the Host Transmit Not Full bit in
the Host Status Register (HSR[12]:HTFNF):
■
If HTFNF is clear, the HOTX FIFO is full, and the core should not write to it.
■
If HTFNF is set, the HOTX FIFO is not full (it is either partially full or empty).
The MSC8101 assembly code in Example 8-5 implements the polling and transfer of
16-bit data from a buffer in memory to the HOTX register:
Example 8-5. Implementing Polling and Data Transfer to HOTX
move.l #HSR_ADDR,r2
; r2 = HSR address
move.l #BUFF_ADDR,r3
; r3 = buffer start address
label1 bmtstc.w#4,(r2)
bt
; test HSR[13]:HTFE
label1
; loop if HSR[13]:HTFE=0
move.w p:(r3),d1
; d1 = data from buffer in memory
move.w d1,p:HOTX_ADDR
; move d1 to HOTX
For host-to-DSP transfers (host writes), the DSP side should determine whether the
HORX is full, partially full/empty, or empty. To determine whether HORX is full, the DSP
core polls the Host Receive Full bit in the Host Status Register (HSR[14]:HRFF):
■
If HRFF is clear, the HORX FIFO is not full (it is either partially full or empty)
■
If HRFF is set, the HORX FIFO is full and the DSP core should read it.
To determine whether HORX is empty, the DSP core polls the Host Receive Not Empty
bit in the Host Status Register (HSR[15]:HRFNE):
■
If HRFNE is clear, the HORX FIFO is empty.
■
If HRFNE is set, the HOTX FIFO is not empty (it is either partially empty or full).
The MSC8101 assembly code in Example 8-6 implements the polling and transfer of
16-bit data from the HORX register to a buffer in memory:
Example 8-6. Implementing Polling and Data Transfer From HORX
move.l #HSR_ADDR,r2
; r2 = HSR address
move.l #BUFF_ADDR,r3
; r3 = buffer start address
label1 bmtstc.w#1,(r2)
bf
8-14
; test HSR[0]:HRFNE
label1
; loop if HSR[13]:HRFNE=0
move.w p:HORX_ADDR,d1
; d1 = HORX data
move.w d1,p:(r3)
; move d1 to buffer in memory
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Managing Data Transfers Via Handshaking Protocols
8.3.1.2 Host Polling
A polling mechanism similar to that for the DSP is available for host use. When data is
transferred to the DSP (host writes), the host polls the Transmit Data Empty bit in the
Interface Status Register (ISR[14]:TXDE). If TXDE is set, the Transmit Data Registers
(TX[0–3]) are empty, and the host can write to them. Otherwise, it must wait until the data
in these registers is transferred to the DSP-side HORX. In DSP-to-host transfers, (host
reads), the host can poll the Receive Data Full bit in the Interface Status register
(ISR[15]:RXDF). When RXDF is set, there is valid data in the Receive Data registers
(RX[0–3]).
8.3.1.3 Host Flags
The HDI16 control registers, HCR on the DSP-side and ICR on the host-side, each have
four general-purpose flags for communication between the host and the DSP:
■
DSP side. The HCR Host Flag bits (HCR[0–3]:HF[4–7]) can pass
application-specific information to the host. The host-side ISR Host Flag bits
(ISR[9–12]:HF[4–7]) reflect the status of HCR Host Flag bits.
■
Host side. The ICR Host Flag bits (ICR[5–6]:HF[0-1] and ICR[11-12]:HF[2-3])
can pass application-specific information to the DSP. The DSP-side HSR Host Flag
bits (HSR[0–3]:HF[0–3]) reflect the status of the ICR Host Flag bits.
8.3.1.4 Transmit Ready bit
The ISR[13]:TRDY bit allows the host to determine whether the Transmit Data Registers
(TX[0–3]) and the HORX FIFO are empty. When TRDY is set, the TX[0–3] and HORX
are empty, so any information written from the host to the TX[0–3] immediately transfers
to the DSP side, thus ensuring that the DSP receives this data.
8.3.2 DSP Interrupts
HDI16 interrupts allow the DSP core to perform other processing tasks while waiting for
HDI16 resources to become ready. An enabled interrupt automatically occurs when the
HDI16 data resources are available for transfer. The interrupt routine can then transfer the
data to and from the HDI16 host port. Table 8-15 lists all the HDI16 sources that can be
used to interrupt the SC140 core. Notice that the interrupt sources associated with HORX
and HOTX are triggered by the same status bits the SC140 core reads when polling
techniques are used. The DSP uses these interrupts to move data to or from the HOTX and
HORX data registers. The host command interrupt and the non-maskable interrupt allow
the host to force execution of a DSP interrupt routine. (NMI and host commands are
addressed in Section 8.4, Issuing Host Commands and Non-Maskable Interrupts, on page
8-23).
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-15
Host Interface (HDI16)
Table 8-15. HDI16 Interrupt Sources
Interrupt Source
HCR Masking Bit
Host Command (HCVR[8]:HCP)
Host Command Interrupt Enable (HCR[11]:HCIE)
HOTX transmit FIFO not full (HSR[12]:HTFNF)
Host Transmit Not Full Interrupt Enable (HCR[12]:HTFIE)
HOTX transmit FIFO empty (HSR[13]:HTFE)
Host Transmit Empty Interrupt Enable (HCR[13]:HTEIE)
HORX receive FIFO full (HSR[14]:HRFF)
Host Receive Full Interrupt Enable (HCR[14]:HRFIE)
HORX receive FIFO not empty (HSR[15]:HRFNE)
Host Receive Not Empty Interrupt Enable (HCR[15]:HREIE)
Host non-maskable interrupt (NMI)
None
Figure 8-4 depicts how the interrupt source status bits and the masking bits operate to
generate an interrupt. When the appropriate interrupt mask bit in the HCR is set, the
interrupt is enabled. An event that causes the corresponding status bit in the HSR to be set
therefore generates an interrupt request to the Program Interrupt Controller (PIC).
For each interrupt service routine (ISR), the MSC8101 PIC must be programmed. Each
HDI16 interrupt source can cause an ISR to execute at a distinct offset from the vector
base address (VBA). The PIC Edge/Level triggered Interrupt Priority Registers (ELIRx)
enable you to mask and define the relative priority level of the interrupt, as Table 8-16
shows. Refer to the chapter on interrupts for a further discussion of the PIC and MSC8101
interrupt service routines.
Table 8-16. PIC Interrupts
ISR Address
(VBA offset)
PIC Priority
Level Bits
PIC Interrupt Source
PIC Trigger
Mode Bits
PIC Interrupt
Pending Bits
0x940
IRQ5–HDI16: Receive FIFO full
ELIRB[9–11]
ELIRB[8]
IPRA[10]
0x980
IRQ6–HDI16: Receive FIFO not empty
ELIRB[5–7]
ELIRB[4]
IPRA[9]
0x9C0
IRQ7–HDI16: Transmit FIFO empty
ELIRB[1–3]
ELIRB[0]
IPRA[8]
0xA00
IRQ8–HDI16: Transmit FIFO not full
ELIRC[13–15]
ELIRC[12]
IPRA[7]
0xA40
IRQ9Q–HDI16: External host command
ELIRC[9–11]
ELIRC[8]
IPRA[6]
0xE00
NMI0–HDI16: External host NMI
-
-
IPRB[7]
To clear the interrupt, the SC140 core interrupt service routine must read or write the
appropriate HORX or HOTX register or, for host commands and NMI interrupts, the
pending interrupt condition is cleared when the HCVR is read. Furthermore, the interrupt
service routine must also clear the interrupt request in the PIC Interrupt Pending Registers
(IPRx) if the PIC Trigger Mode is set to Edge Triggered. The exception routine may also
need to determine whether the current data is the last data to be transferred, since this is a
good place to decide whether to disable the interrupt.
8-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Managing Data Transfers Via Handshaking Protocols
Enable
15
0
HCIE
HTFIE
HTEIE
HRFIE
HREIE
HCR
Core Interrupts
IRQ5: Receive FIFO Full
IRQ6: Receive FIFO Not Empty
IRQ7: Transmit FIFO Empty
IRQ8: Transfer FIFO Not Full
IRQ9: External Host Command
NMI0: HDI16 External Host NMIHost N
0
15
HTFNF HTFE
HRFF
HRFNE HSR
Status
0
15
HCVR
HCP
Status
0
7
NMI
8
15
HC
CVR
Figure 8-4. HDI16 DSP-Side Interrupt Operation
Example 8-7 shows the set-up code for a simple interrupt that receives 16-bit data from
the HDI16 HORX and places it into a buffer in memory. For simplicity, the r3 register
used as a pointer into memory is assumed to retain its state throughout.
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-17
Host Interface (HDI16)
Example 8-7. Receive Interrupt Set-up Code
; setup HI16 registers
move.l
#M_HPCR,r1
; r1 = HPCR address
move.l
#M_HCR,r0
; r0 = HCR address
move.w
#INIT_HPCR,(r1)
; init HI16 HPCR
bmset.w
#M_HEN,(r1)
; enable HI16
move.w
#INIT_HCR,(r0)
; init HI16 HCR
move.w
#BUFF,r3
; r3 = pointer to buffer in memory
; set-up and enable interrupt
di
move.l
#I_ELIRB,r1
bmclr
#$00e0,sr.h
; enable all IPLs
move.w
#INIT_ELIRB,(r1)
; set hi16 rxne IPL
bmset.w
#M_HREIE,(r0)
ei
; enable HI16 RX interrupt
; enable interrupts
Example 8-8 shows code for a simple interrupt service routine that receives 16-bit data
from the HDI16 HORX into a buffer in memory. For simplicity, the initialization of buffer
pointer r3 and the saving of the SC140 core’s context are not shown.
Example 8-8. Receive Interrupt Service Routine
org
p:#VBA_INIT+0x980
; Receive FIFO not empty vector address
jsr
hi16_rxne
; jump to ISR
rte
org
; return from interrupt
p:HDI16_ISR
; ISR program code
hi16_rxne
move.w p:HORX_ADDR,d1
; d1 = HORX data
move.w d1,p:(r3)+
; move d1 to buffer in memory
rts
; return form ISR
8.3.3 Host Requests
The host request mechanism provides a set of signal lines by which the DSP can request
data transfers from the host. The request signal lines from the DSP normally connect to the
host’s interrupt request pins (IRQx) and indicate to the host when a HDI16 port requires
service. The DSP side can be configured to use either a single request line (HREQ) for
both receive and transmit requests or two signal lines, a Host Transmit Request (HTRQ)
and a Host Receive Request (HRRQ), one for each direction of transfer.
8-18
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Managing Data Transfers Via Handshaking Protocols
The host enables host requests using the Interface Control Register (ICR) as follows:
1.
Configure the HDI16 for single (HREQ) or double (HRRQ and HTRQ) requests
using the ICR Host Double Request bit as indicated in Table 8-17. This bit is
available only in Normal transfer modes.
Table 8-17. Single or Double Request Configuration
2.
ICR[13]:HDRQ
Host Request
0
Single
1
Double
Enable receive requests by setting the ICR Receive Request Enable bit
(ICR[15]:RREQ) and/or enable transmit requests by setting the ICR Transmit
Request Enable bit (ICR[14]:TREQ).
With host requests enabled, the host request pins operate as Figure 8-5 shows.
14
ISR:
TXDE
15
RXDF
HRRQ pin
HREQ pin
HTRQ pin
ICR:
TREQ
RREQ
1
0
Figure 8-5. HDI16 Host Request Operation
Table 8-18 shows how the HREQ pin operates in single request mode.
Table 8-18. HREQ Pin In Single Request Mode (ICR[13]:HDRQ=0)
ICR[14]:TREQ
ICR[15]:RREQ
HREQ Pin
0
0
No host requests enabled
0
1
ISR[15]:RXDF request enabled
1
0
ISR[14]:TXDE request enabled
1
1
ISR[15]:RXDF and ISR[14]:TXDE request enabled
Table 8-19 shows how the transmit request (HTRQ) and receive request (HRRQ) lines
operate with double host requests enabled.
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-19
Host Interface (HDI16)
Table 8-19. HTRQ and HRRQ Pins In Double Request Mode (ICR[13]:HDRQ=1)
ICR[14]=TREQ
ICR[15]=RREQ
HTRQ Pin
HRRQ Pin
0
0
No interrupts
No interrupts
0
1
No interrupts
ISR[15]:RXDF request enabled
1
0
ISR[14]:TXDE Request enabled
No interrupts
1
1
ISR[14]:TXDE Request enabled
ISR[15]:RXDF request enabled
The request signal lines from the DSP normally connect to the host’s interrupt request pins
(IRQx), which generate an interrupt in the host. Generally, the host interrupt service routine
must test the status bits in the HDI16 host-side ISR to determine the interrupt source. To
clear the interrupt request, the host must read or write the appropriate HDI16 host-side
data registers, TX[0–3] and RX[0–3].
8.3.4 Direct Memory Access (DMA)
Two distinct DMA mechanisms are associated with the HDI16: external DMA and
internal DMA. Externally, the host or an external DMA controller connected to the HDI16
host bus can transfer data between itself and the HDI16 port. External DMA operation is
described in Section 8.2.2, Host DMA Mode, on page 8-8. The DMA controller that is
internal to the DSP is the subject of this section.
The MSC8101 DMA controller performs data transfers between memory (either external
on the PowerPC system bus or internal) and the HDI16 HORX and HOTX data registers
with no SC140 core intervention. The DMA controller frees the core to use its processing
power on functions other than polling or interrupt routines associated with the HDI16.
DMA may well be the most efficient and least costly method to use for data transfers, but
it requires available DMA channels. If the HDI16 DMA controller transfers data to and
from the on-device SRAM, a single DMA channel can be used in flyby mode.1 If the
source or destination is on the PowerPC system bus, two DMA channels are required, one
to transfer data between the PowerPC memory and the DMA FIFO and the other to
transfer the data between the HDI16 data register and the DMA FIFO.
1. A flyby transfer is also known as a “single access data transaction.” The data path is between a peripheral
and memory with the same port size, located on the same bus. On the MSC8101, flyby transactions can
occur only between external peripherals and external memories located on the PowerPC bus, or between
internal peripherals and internal SRAM located on the local bus. Flyby operations do not require access
to the DMA FIFO.
8-20
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Managing Data Transfers Via Handshaking Protocols
The details of the MSC8101 internal DMA are beyond the scope of this chapter. The
overall steps involved in programming a DMA channel for access of the HDI16 in flyby
mode are as follows:
1.
Initialize a DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCRx) for the selected
DMA. In flyby mode, the DCHCRx describes the HDI16 peripheral; thus, the
Request Number bits (DCHCRx[19-23]:RQNUM) identify the HDI16 as
indicated in Table 8-20 (this field is valid only when an internal requestor is
defined by setting DCHCRx[25]:INT). The flyby transaction bit is asserted to
enable flyby mode and the DMA Active Channel bit is negated until later.
Table 8-20. DMA Request Sources
Requesting Device
2.
DCHCRx[19-23]=RQNUM
HDI16 read request
00000
HDI16 write request
00001
Configure the DMA Channel Parameter RAM (DCPRAM) for the buffer
descriptor to which the Buffer Pointer bits in the DCHCRx point.
In flyby mode the DCPRAM parameters describe the memory, so the
BD_ADDR parameter is initialized with the address in SRAM to be used as a
source/destination of the DMA. The BD_SIZE and BD_BSIZE parameters are
initialized with the size of the DMA transfer. The BD_ATTR parameter is
initialized with the characteristics of the access of the buffer in SRAM (simple,
cyclic, incremental, chained, or a combination of these).
3.
Activate the DMA by setting the Active DMA Channel bit, DCHCRx[0]=ACTV.
You can also specify whether to transfer the data in bursts or single accesses via
the DMA Transmit Burst Enable (DBTE) and the DMA Receive Burst Enable
(DBRE) in the Host Control Register (HCR). These bits define what condition
associated with the HOTX and HORX registers requests a DMA access, thus
indicating to the DMA controller whether to use burst for the data access. Table
8-21 shows the behavior of the DBTE and DBRE bits.
Table 8-21. DMA Single and Burst Mode Access
ICR[9]=DBTE
ICR[10]=DBRE
DMA Request Condition
0
n/a
HSR[12]:HTFNF
Single access to HOTX
1
n/a
HSR[13]:HTFE
Burst access to HOTX
n/a
0
HSR[15]:HRFNE
Single access from HORX
n/a
1
HSR[14]:HRFF
Burst access from HORX
Host Interface (HDI16)
DMA Transfer Type
8-21
Host Interface (HDI16)
Example 8-9 shows the code necessary to set up a dual DMA to receive BUFF_SIZE
16-bit data elements from the HDI16 and place them into a buffer in the internal SRAM
located at BUFF_START. An interrupt is generated when the DMA is finished.
Example 8-9. Receive Interrupt Service Routine
INIT_ATTR0
EQU
$08000010
INIT_ATTR1
EQU
$80000000
INIT_DCHCR0
EQU
$80000005
INIT_DCHCR1
EQU
$80010045
INIT_DIMR
EQU
$40000000
INIT_ELIRE
EQU
$0c00
; setup source DMA DCPRAM
move.l
#BD_ADDR0,r1
moveu.l
#I_GPCM+HORX,d0
move.l
d0,(r1)
move.l
#BD_SIZE0,r1
moveu.l
#BUFF_SIZE,d0
move.l
d0,(r1)
move.l
#BD_BSIZ0,r1
moveu.l
#$00000000,d0
move.l
d0,(r1)
move.l
#BD_ATTR0,r1
moveu.l
#INIT_ATTR0,d0
move.l
d0,(r1)
; set source address base
; set size of source transfer
; set source base size
; set source channel attributes
; setup dstination DMA DCPRAM
move.l
#BD_ADDR1,r0
moveu.l
#BUFF_START,d0
move.l
d0,(r0)
move.l
#BD_SIZE1,r0
moveu.l
#PATT_SIZE,d0
move.l
d0,(r0)
move.l
#BD_BSIZ1,r0
moveu.l
#$00000000,d0
move.l
d0,(r0)
move.l
#BD_ATTR1,r0
moveu.l
#INIT_ATTR1,d0
move.l
d0,(r0)
; set destination address base
; set size of destination transfer
; set destination base size
; set destination channel attributes
; setup DMA internal mask register
move.l
#M_DIMR,r1
; set DIMR
moveu.l
#INIT_DIMR,d0
move.l
d0,(r1)
; setup DMA channel configuration and activate
8-22
move.l
#M_DCHCR0,r1
moveu.l
#INIT_DCHCR0,d0
move.l
d0,(r1)
; set DCHCR0
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Issuing Host Commands and Non-Maskable Interrupts
move.l
#M_DCHCR1,r0
moveu.l
#INIT_DCHCR1,d0
move.l
d0,(r0)
; set DCHCR1
; setup PIC registers
move.l
bmclr
move.w
#M_ELIRE,r3
#$00a0,sr.h
#INIT_ELIRE,(r3)
; mask priorities < 2
; init PIC ELIRE reg
The internal MSC8101 DMA controller does not access the host bus, so the host must
determine when data is available in the host-side data registers using an appropriate
polling mechanism.
8.4 Issuing Host Commands and Non-Maskable Interrupts
The innovative host command feature of the HDI16 host interface allows the host to issue
any of 128 pre-programmed functions for the DSP to execute. For example, the host can
issue a host command that sets up and enables a DMA data transfer. This flexibility is
independent of the data transfer mechanisms in the HDI16; it enables the host processor to
read or write DSP registers or memory locations, perform control status or debugging
operations, and start DMA transfers, among other functions.
To enable host command interrupts, set the Host Command Interrupt Enable bit
(HCR[11]:HCIE) on the DSP-side Host Control Register (HCR). The MSC8101 PIC must
be programmed accordingly (refer to Section 8.3.2, DSP Interrupts, on page 8-15). The
PIC Edge/Level triggered Interrupt Priority Registers (ELIRx) allow you to mask and
define the relative priority level of the host command interrupts, as shown in Table 8-16.
The host can then issue a host command by writing the CVR[9-15]:HV bits with the
pointer to the interrupt service routine to execute and setting the Host Command
(CVR[8]:HC) to request the interrupt. The host can write the HC and HV bits
simultaneously.
When the MSC8101 Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) on the extended core
recognizes the host command interrupt request, the External Host Command interrupt
service routine at VBA offset 0xA40 is executed. This interrupt service routine must then
read the Host Vector bits of the DSP-side Host Command Vector Register
(HCVR[9–15]:HV), which reflect the CVR[HV] bits, to determine which command to
execute. The Host Command Pending bit, HCVR[8]:HCP, reflects the status of the
CVR[HC] bit. HCVR[8]:HCP and CVR[8]:HC are cleared when the interrupt service
routine reads the HCVR. The host must not clear CVR[HC] (which clears HCVR[HCP])
until the interrupt service routine clears them. However, the host can poll this bit to
Host Interface (HDI16)
8-23
Host Interface (HDI16)
determine when the PIC accepts this command. The ISR must also clear the interrupt
request in the PIC Interrupt Pending Registers (IPRx).
The operation is very similar for non-maskable interrupts (NMIs), except that the ISR
cannot be masked in the HCR. Typically, the host writes the CVR[HV] bits with the
pointer to the pre-programmed function and also sets the HC and NMI bits. This causes
the PIC on the MSC8101 extended core to execute the External Host NMI ISR at VBA
offset 0xE00. The pending interrupt condition is cleared when the interrupt service routine
reads the HCVR. As with host command interrupt service routines, the host NMI ISR
must also clear the interrupt request in the PIC Interrupt Pending Registers (IPRx).
8.5 Related Reading
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 6, DMA Channels
Chapter 7, Interrupts and
Interrupt Priorities
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 5, Reset
Chapter 14, Host Interface
(HDI16)
Chapter 15, Direct Memory
Access (DMA)
Chapter 16, Interrupt Scheme
8-24
Especially the section on the Programmable
Interrupt Controller (PIC)
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 9
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
The MSC8101 EFCOP module is a general-purpose, fully programmable filter with 32-bit
resolution. It has optimized modes of operation to perform real and complex finite impulse
response (FIR) filtering, infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering, adaptive FIR filtering,
and multichannel FIR filtering. EFCOP filter operations complete concurrently with
SC140 core operations, with minimal CPU intervention. For optimal performance, the
EFCOP has one dedicated filter multiplier accumulator (FMAC) unit. As a result, the
SC140 core/EFCOP combination offers multiple multiply-accumulate (MAC) filtering
capabilities.
Its dedicated modes make the EFCOP a very flexible filtering coprocessor with operations
optimized for cellular base station applications. In a transceiver base station, the EFCOP
performs complex matched filtering to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an
equalizer. The coefficients of the matched filter can be determined by a cross-correlation
filtering process between a received training sequence and a known reference sequence. In
a transcoder base station or a mobile switching center, the EFCOP can perform all types of
FIR and IIR filtering within a vocoder, as well as LMS-type echo cancellation.
This chapter discusses how to program the EFCOP to operate in different modes and how
to use the different methods for transferring data into and out of the EFCOP. Code
examples demonstrate how the EFCOP can be programmed to complete a variety of tasks.
The focus is on programming the EFCOP internally from the SC140 core. The EFCOP
can also be programmed from an external device on the PowerPC system bus, and all the
programming issues discussed here still apply.
9.1 Programming the Control Registers
The EFCOP is programmed by writing the desired settings to the memory-mapped control
registers. Table 9-1 summarizes the EFCOP control registers.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
9-1
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
:
Table 9-1. EFCOP Control Registers
Register Name
Description
Filter Count Register (FCNT)
A 16-bit read/write register that specifies the number of filter
taps. The count stored in the FCNT register is used by the
EFCOP address generation logic to generate correct
addressing to the filter data memory (FDM) and filter coefficient
memory (FCM).
EFCOP Control Register (FCTL)
A 16-bit read/write register used by the SC140 core to program
the EFCOP.
EFCOP ALU Control Register (FACR)
A 16-bit read/write register used by the SC140 core to program
the EFCOP data ALU operating modes.
EFCOP Data Base Address Register (FDBA)
A 16-bit read/write register used by the SC140 core to indicate
the EFCOP data buffer base start address pointer in FDM
RAM.
EFCOP Coefficient Base Address Register
(FCBA)
A 16-bit read/write register by which the SC140 core indicates
the EFCOP coefficient buffer base start address pointer in
FCM RAM.
EFCOP Decimation/Channel Count Register
(FDCH)
A 16-bit read/write register that sets the number of channels in
multichannel mode and the filter decimation ratio. The EFCOP
address generation logic uses this information to supply the
correct addressing to the FDM and FCM.
EFCOP Status Register (FSTR)
A 16-bit read-only register used by the SC140 core to examine
the status of the EFCOP module.
Filter Data Input Register (FDIR)
An 8-word deep 32-bit wide FIFO used for core-to-EFCOP and
DMA data transfers. Data from the FDIR is transferred to the
FDM for filter processing.
Filter Data Output Register (FDOR)
An 8-word deep 32-bit wide FIFO used for EFCOP-to-core and
DMA data transfers. Data is transferred to FDOR after
processing of all filter taps is completed for a specific set of
input samples.
Filter K-Constant Input Register (FKIR)
A 32-bit read/write register for core-to-EFCOP constant
transfers.
The EFCOP operates in many different modes based on the settings of these control
registers. However, the EFCOP performs only two basic modes of processing, FIR filter
type and IIR filter type processing. Various operating modes are available for each filter
type. The following sections discuss the two basic operating modes.
9-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Specifying the Operating Modes for the FIR Filter Type
9.2 Specifying the Operating Modes for the FIR Filter Type
This section discusses the various operating modes that are available for the FIR filter
type. The FIR filter type is selected by clearing the FCTL[14]:FLT bit, and it performs the
processing shown in Figure 9-1 using the following equation:
N
∑ Bi x ( n – i )
w( n ) =
i=0
For each sample to be filtered, the EFCOP completes the following steps:
1. Take an input, x(n), from the FDIR.
2. Save the input while shifting the previous inputs down in the FDM. The shifting
down of the previous inputs is accomplished by incrementing the value in the
FDBA register by one.
3. Multiply each input in the FDM by the corresponding coefficient, Bi, stored in the
FCM.
4. Accumulate the multiplication results.
5. Place accumulation result, w(n), into the FDOR.
FDIR
FDM
FCM
x(n)
B0
x(n-1)
B1
x(n-2)
B2
x(n-N)
BN
w(n)
FDOR
Figure 9-1. FIR Filter Block Diagram
Four operating modes are available for the FIR filter type: real, complex, alternating
complex, and magnitude mode.
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-3
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9.2.1 Real Mode
Real mode performs FIR type filtering with real data and is selected by clearing both
FCTL[10–11]:FOM bits. For each sample (the real input) written to the FDIR, one sample
(the real output) is read from the FDOR. In Real mode, the number written to the FCNT
register should be one minus the number of filter coefficients.
Two other options are available with the real FIR filter type: Adaptive and Multichannel
modes. These modes can be used singly or together.
9.2.1.1 Adaptive Mode
The Adaptive mode provides a way to update the coefficients based on filter input, x(n),
using the following equation:
h n + 1 ( i ) = h n ( i ) + K e ( n )x ( n – i )
where hn(i) is the ith coefficient at time n. The coefficients are updated when the
FCTL[12]:FUPD bit is set. When this bit is set, the EFCOP checks to see if a value has
been written to the FKIR. If no value is written, the EFCOP halts processing until a value
is written to the FKIR. When a value is written to the FKIR, the EFCOP updates all the
coefficients based on the preceding equation using the value in the FKIR for Ke(n). The
EFCOP automatically clears the FCTL[12]:FUPD bit when the coefficient update
completes.
If the coefficients are to be updated after every input sample, Adaptive mode is enabled by
setting the FCTL[13]:FADP bit. In Adaptive mode, the EFCOP automatically sets the
FCTL[12]:FUPD bit after each input sample is processed. This allows for continuous
processing using interrupts that includes a filter session and a coefficient update session
with minimal core intervention.
Additionally, the EFCOP can generate an interrupt request to the SC140 core when the
coefficient update is complete. This interrupt is controlled by the FCTL[6]:FUDIE bit. If
this bit is clear, the interrupt is disabled. If this bit is set, the interrupt is enabled. When the
interrupt is enabled, it is triggered by the FSTR[13]:FUDN bit. The EFCOP sets
FSTR[13]:FUDN when the coefficient update session completes. Thus, when both
FSTR[13]:FUDN and FCTL[6]:FUDIE are set, the EFCOP requests the coefficient update
complete interrupt from the SC140 core.
9.2.1.2 Multichannel Mode
In Multichannel mode, several channels of data are processed concurrently. This mode is
selected by setting the FCTL[9]:FMLC bit. The number of channels to process is one plus
the number in the FDCH[10–15]:FCHL bits. The number of channels can be programmed
9-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Specifying the Operating Modes for the FIR Filter Type
to be from 1 to 64. For each time period, the EFCOP expects to receive the samples for
each channel sequentially. This process repeats for consecutive time periods.
Filtering is performed with the same filter or different filters for each channel using the
FACR[8]:FSCO bit. If this bit is set, the same set of coefficients is used for all channels. If
FACR[8]:FSCO is clear, the coefficients for each channel are stored sequentially in
memory with the beginning address of each coefficient buffer at the next 2k address
(where 2k-1 ≤ filter length ≤ 2k). If the filter length is less than 2k there is a space between
the sequential buffers of 2k minus the filter length.
9.2.2 Complex Mode
Complex mode performs FIR type filtering with complex data based on the following
equations, in which Re is the real part and Im is the imaginary part:
N–1
Re ( F ( n ) ) =
∑ Re ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Re ( D ( n – i ) ) – Im ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Im ( D ( n – i ) )
i=0
N–1
Im ( F ( n ) ) =
∑ Re ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Im ( D ( n – i ) ) + Im ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Re ( D ( n – i ) )
i=0
where H(n) is the coefficients, D(n) is the input data, and F(n) is the output data at time n.
For every two samples written to the FDIR (the real part followed by the imaginary part of
the input), two samples (the real part followed by the imaginary part of the output) are
read from the FDOR.
Complex mode is selected by writing 01 to the FCTL[10–11]:FOM bits. When Complex
mode is used, the number written to the FCNT register should be twice the number of
filter coefficients minus one, (2*filter length) –1. Also, the coefficients should be stored in
the FCM with the real part of the coefficient in the memory location preceding the location
holding the imaginary part.
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-5
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9.2.3 Alternating Complex Mode
Alternating Complex mode performs FIR type filtering with complex data providing
alternating real and complex results based on the following equations:
N–1
Re ( F ( n
even
)) =
∑ Re ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Re ( D ( n – i ) ) – Im ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Im ( D ( n – i ) )
i=0
N–1
Im ( F ( n
odd
)) =
∑ Re ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Im ( D ( n – i ) ) + Im ( H ( i ) ) ⋅ Re ( D ( n – i ) )
i=0
where H(n) is the coefficients, D(n) is the input data, and F(n) is the output data at time n.
For every two samples (the real part followed by the imaginary part of the input) written to
the FDIR, one sample (alternating between the real part and the imaginary part of the
output) is read from the FDOR.
Alternating Complex mode is selected by writing 10 to FCTL[10–11]:FOM bits. When
Alternating Complex mode is used, the number written to the FCNT register should be
twice the number of filter coefficients minus one, (2*filter length) –1. Also, the
coefficients should be stored in the FCM with the real part of the coefficient in the
memory location preceding the location holding the imaginary part.
9.2.4 Magnitude Mode
Magnitude mode calculates the magnitude of an input signal using the following equation:
N–1
F( n) =
∑ D(n – i)
2
i=0
where D(n) is the input data and F(n) is the output data at time n. For each sample (the real
input) written to the FDIR, one sample (the real magnitude of the input signal) is read
from the FDOR. Magnitude mode is selected by setting both FCTL[10–11]:FOM bits. In
Magnitude mode, the number written to the FCNT register should be the number of data
samples to compute the magnitude of minus one, and the value in the FCBA register is
ignored.
9.2.5 Data and Coefficient Initialization
Before the first sample can be processed, the filter must be initialized, meaning that the
input samples for times before n = 0 (assuming that time starts at 0) must be loaded into
the FDM. The number of samples needed to initialize the filter is the number of filter
coefficients.
9-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Specifying the Operating Modes for the FIR Filter Type
The Data Initialization mode is selected via the FCTL[8]:FPRC bit:
■
If FCTL[8]:FPRC is set, initialization is disabled and the EFCOP assumes that the
SC140 core wrote the initial input values to the FDM before the EFCOP was
enabled. Thus, the first value written to FDIR is the first sample to be filtered.
■
If FCTL[8]:FPRC is clear, initialization mode is enabled and the EFCOP initializes
the FDM by receiving the number of coefficient data samples through the FDIR.
These samples are loaded into the FDM buffer and after the last value is loaded the
EFCOP begins processing the first result.
The EFCOP also allows the coefficient buffer to be initialized before processing begins.
The Coefficient Initialization mode is selected via FCTL[7]:FCIM:
■
If FCTL[7]:FCIM is clear, Coefficient Initialization mode is disabled and
processing completes as described earlier, depending on how the FCTL[8]:FPRC
bit is set.
■
If FCTL[7]:FCIM is set, the coefficients are initialized by a coefficient update
session with the original coefficients equal to zero, as in the following equation:
h ( i ) = Kx ( i )
The data buffer, x(i), should be initialized first, either by the SC140 core or the
EFCOP with data initialization. Then, K should be written to FKIR, and the
EFCOP initializes the coefficient buffer accordingly.
If data and coefficient initialization are both enabled, data initialization completes
first but the EFCOP does not begin processing the first result. After FKIR is
written, the EFCOP initializes the coefficients and then another input sample must
be written to FDIR to begin processing.
Coefficient initialization is usually used with Adaptive mode or can be used to clear the
coefficients by writing zero to FKIR.
9.2.6 Decimation
Decimation is another option that can be used with any of the four FIR filter type modes.
However, decimation cannot be used in conjunction with the Adaptive or Multichannel
modes. Decimation, also known as “downsampling,” decreases the sampling rate. The
decimation ratio defines the number of input samples per output sample. The decimation
ratio is one plus the number in the FDCH[4–7]:FDCM bits. The decimation ratio can be
programmed from 1 to 16.
For Real and Magnitude modes, the decimation ratio number of the sample must be
written to the FDIR before an output sample can be read from the FDOR. For Complex
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-7
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
mode, two times the decimation ratio number of samples must be written to the FDIR (one
for the real part and one for the imaginary part of the input) before two output samples
(one for the real part and one for the imaginary part of the output) can be read from the
FDOR. For Alternating Complex mode, two times the decimation ratio number of samples
must be written to the FDIR (one for the real part and one for the imaginary part of the
input) before one output sample (alternating between the real part and the imaginary part
of the output) can be read from the FDOR.
9.3 Specifying the Operating Modes for the IIR Filter Type
This section discusses the various operating modes that are available for the IIR filter type.
To process a complete IIR filter, a FIR filter type session followed by an IIR filter type
session is needed. The IIR filter type is selected by setting the FCTL[14]:FLT bit, and it
performs the processing shown in Figure 9-2 using the following equation:.
M
y( n) = w(n ) +
∑ Aj y ( n – j )
j=1
For each sample input to the FDIR, the EFCOP completes the following steps:
1. Multiply each previous output value in the FDM by the corresponding coefficient,
A, stored in the FCM.
2. Accumulate the multiplication results.
3. Add the input, w(n), from the FDIR.
4. Place the accumulation result, y(n), in the FDOR.
5. Save the output while shifting the previous outputs down in the FDM. The shifting
down of the previous outputs is accomplished by incrementing the value in the
FDBA register by one.
Only the Real and the Multichannel Operation modes are available for the IIR filter type.
Thus, the FCTL[10–11]:FOM bits are ignored when the IIR filter type is used. The Real
Operation mode performs IIR type filtering with real data. For each sample (the real input)
written to the FDIR, one sample (the real output) is read from the FDOR. In Real mode,
the number written to the FCNT register should be the number of filter coefficients minus
one.
9-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Specifying the ALU Modes
FDM
FCM
y(n-1)
A0
y(n-2)
A1
y(n-3)
A2
Scale here
if FISL = 1
Scale here
if FISL = 0
FDOR
FDIR
w(n)
y(n-N)
AN
Figure 9-2. IIR Filter Block Diagram
Multichannel mode for the IIR filter type works exactly the same way as for FIR filter type
as explained in Section 9.2.1.2, Multichannel Mode, on page 9-4. Decimation and
Adaptive modes are not available with the IIR filter type.
Initialization is always disabled with the IIR filter type, and the FCTL[8]:FPRC bit is
ignored. Thus, the SC140 core must write the initial input values to the FDM before the
EFCOP is enabled. The first value written to the FDIR is always the first sample to be
filtered.
9.4 Specifying the ALU Modes
Two modes that affect the arithmetic operation of the EFCOP are rounding and input
scaling. These ALU modes are independent of the filter type.
9.4.1 Rounding
Rounding mode is selected via the FACR[12–13]:FRM bits. These bits select the type of
rounding performed by the EFCOP data ALU (DALU) during arithmetic operations. The
EFCOP DALU performs the following types of rounding:
■
Convergent rounding (FACR[12–13]:FRM = 00)
■
Twos complement rounding (FACR[12–13]:FRM = 01)
■
No rounding, that is, truncation (FACR[12–13]:FRM = 10)
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-9
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9.4.2 Input Scaling
The Input Scaling mode affects only IIR filtering and the coefficient update session of
adaptive FIR filtering. The FACR[9]:FISL and FACR[14–15]:FSCL bits, determine how
the outputs are scaled. The result can be scaled up by the following values:
■
One, that is, no scaling (FACR[14–15]:FSCL = 00)
■
Eight (FACR[14–15]:FSCL = 01)
■
Sixteen (FACR[14–15]:FSCL = 10)
For IIR type filtering, FACR[9]:FISL determines whether the IIR input is scaled. When
FACR[9]:FISL is set, the IIR feedback terms are scaled, but the IIR input, w(n) is not
scaled. This case is represented by the following equation:
M
y ( n ) = w ( n ) + S ∑ Aj y ( n – j )
j=1
where S is the scaling factor. When FACR[9]:FISL is clear, the EFCOP ALU scales both
the IIR feedback terms and the IIR input. This case is represented by the following
equation:
M



y ( n ) = S w ( n ) + ∑ A j y ( n – j )




j=1
Figure 9-2 also shows where the scaling occurs, depending on the value of FISL.
For coefficient update sessions, FACR[9]:FISL determines whether the original
coefficients are scaled. When FACR[9]:FISL is set, the EFCOP ALU scales only the
input/constant term and not the original coefficients. This is represented by the following
equation:
h n + 1 ( i ) = h n ( i ) + SK e ( n )x ( n – i )
When FACR[9]:FISL is clear, both the input/constant term and the original coefficients
are scaled. This is represented by the following equation:.
h n + 1 ( i ) = S ( h n ( i ) + K e ( n )x ( n – i ) )
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Transferring Data In and Out of the EFCOP
9.5 Transferring Data In and Out of the EFCOP
When the EFCOP is programmed and enabled, it waits until input data is written to the
Filter Data Input Register (FDIR). The FDIR is an 8-element deep FIFO, so up to eight
32-bit wide data samples can be written into FDIR at the same address. When the EFCOP
finishes processing the input data from the FDIR, it sends the results to the FDOR. The
FDOR is an 8-element deep read-only FIFO, so up to eight 32-bit wide data samples can
be read from FDOR at the same address.
There are three methods for transferring data to or from the EFCOP data registers:
■
Polling. The easiest method, but it demands a large amount of the core processing
power. The SC140 core cannot be involved in other processing activities while it is
polling the input and output buffer bits.
■
Interrupts. This method requires more code, but the core can process other routines
while the EFCOP is computing.
■
DMA. This method requires even less core intervention and the set-up code is
minimal, but the DMA channels must be available.
The following sections describe each transfer method.
9.5.1 Polling
The EFCOP Status Register (FSTR) contains bits that notify when data is ready for
transfer to or from the EFCOP. These bits determine when to interact with the EFCOP.
For proper operation, the SC140 core must write to the FDIR only when it is empty or not
full and read from the FDOR only when it is full or not empty.
FSTR[11]:FIBNF and FSTR[12]:FDIBE determine when to write to the FDIR:
■
FSTR[11]:FIBNF is set when the FDIR is not full (that is, at least one of the
locations is empty). Thus, when FSTR[11]:FIBNF is set, the SC140 core can write
only one sample of data to the FDIR.
■
FSTR[12]:FDIBE is set when the FDIR is empty (that is, all eight of the locations
are empty). Thus, when FSTR[12]:FDIBE is set, the core can write up to eight
samples of data to FDIR. This bit is set immediately after the EFCOP is enabled by
setting FCTL[15]:FEN.
FSTR[9]:FOBNE and FSTR[10]:FDOBF determine when to read from the FDOR:
■
FSTR[9]:FOBNE is set when the FDOR is not empty (that is, at least one of the
locations is full). Thus, when this bit is set, the SC140 core can read only one
sample of data from the FDOR.
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-11
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
■
FSTR[10]:FDOBF is set when the FDOR is full (that is, all eight of the locations
are full). Thus, when this bit is set, the SC140 core can read up to eight samples of
data from the FDOR.
For an example of EFCOP programming with polling, see Section 9.6.1, Complex FIR
Filter with Polling, on page 9-14.
9.5.2 Interrupts
The EFCOP provides five interrupts. Table 9-2 describes these interrupts, including how
they are enabled and triggered and the location of the vector address.
Table 9-2. EFCOP Interrupts
Signal
Description
Enabled by
Setting
Triggered When
Vector Address
(Offset from
VBA)
IRQ0
Data Input FIFO Not
Full
FCTL[4]:FINFIE
FSTR[11]:FIBNF and FCTL[4]:FINFIE
are set simultaneously
0x800
IRQ1
Data Input FIFO
Empty
FCTL[5]:FIEIE
FSTR[12]:FDIBE and FCTL[5]:FIEIE
are set simultaneously
0x840
IRQ2
Data Output FIFO Full
FCTL[3]:FOFIE
FSTR[10]:FDOBF and FCTL[3]:FOFIE
are set simultaneously
0x880
IRQ3
Data Output FIFO Not
Empty
FCTL[2]:FONEIE
FSTR[9]:FOBNE and FCTL[2]:FONEIE
are set simultaneously
0x8C0
IRQ4
Coefficient Update
Done
FCTL[6]:FUDIE
FSTR[13]:FUDN and FCTL[6]:FUDIE
are set simultaneously
0x900
In general, configuring interrupts requires two steps:
1. Set up the interrupt routine by placing the code to be run during the interrupt at the
appropriate interrupt vector address.
The location of the vector address is shown in Table 9-2 and depends on the setting
of the Vector Base Address (VBA) Register. The memory allocation for each
interrupt is 64 bytes. To extend the interrupt code size further, service routines can
be used.
2. Enable the interrupts by setting bits in various control registers:
a. To enable the desired interrupts, set the appropriate bits in the FCTL.
b. To determine the interrupt priority level of the core, set the interrupt mask bits
(I0–2) bits of the Status Register (SR).
c. To determine the priority level for each enabled interrupt, set the PIC
Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Registers A and B (ELIRA and
ELIRB) Interrupt Priority Level (PILxx) bits.
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Transferring Data In and Out of the EFCOP
d. Clear the Interrupt Trigger Mode (PEDxx) bits of the ELIRx registers because
all peripheral interrupts are level triggered.
e. Enable the interrupts by issuing an ei (enable interrupts) instruction.
For an example of EFCOP programming with interrupts, see Section 9.6.2, Adaptive
Filter With Interrupts, on page 9-16.
9.5.3 DMA
The Direct Memory Access (DMA) controller is an on-chip device that permits data
transfers to and from the EFCOP without intervention of the SC140 core. The DMA can
move data to the EFCOP input register and from the EFCOP output register. The DMA
allows dual access and flyby transactions to the EFCOP. Flyby transactions occur directly
between the EFCOP and internal SRAM, and they do not require access to the DMA
FIFO.
The DMA request source is controlled by the requestor number bits (RQNUM, bits 19-23)
in the DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCRx). If these bits are equal to 00010,
the DMA is triggered by an EFCOP read request (the FDOR needs to be read because it is
full or not empty). If these bits are equal to 00011, the DMA is triggered by an EFCOP
write request (when the FDIR needs to be written because it is empty or not full).
On the EFCOP side, DMA transfers are controlled by the FCTL[1]:FDIM and
FCTL[0]:FDOM bits.
■
FCTL[1]:FDIM controls the data input mode:
— When FCTL[1]:FDIM is clear, the EFCOP issues a transfer request from the
DMA when the input buffer is not full (when FSTR[FIBNF] is set). Use this
mode when the DMA is programmed to transfer single 32-bit long samples to
the FDIR (DMA BD_ATTR field TSZ bits equal to 011). Burst or single
transfers of more than 32-bits cause an error when the FCTL[1]:FDIM is clear.
— When FCTL[1]:FDIM is set, the EFCOP issues a transfer request from the
DMA when the input buffer is empty (when FSTR[FDIBE] is set). Use this
mode when the DMA is programmed to transfer more than one 32-bit long
sample to the FDIR. For example, to use the PowerPC local bus most
efficiently, 64-bits can be transferred to the FDIR with this mode and the DMA
TSZ bits equal to 000. Also, the complete FDIR buffer can be written using
DMA burst mode (TSZ equal to 100) with FCTL[1]:FDIM set.
■
FCTL[0]:FDOM controls the data output mode:
— When FCTL[0]:FDOM is clear, the EFCOP issues a transfer request from the
DMA when the output buffer is not empty (when FSTR[9]:FOBNE is set). Use
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-13
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
this mode when the DMA is programmed to transfer single 32-bit long samples
from the FDOR (DMA BD_ATTR field TSZ bits equal to 011). Burst or single
transfers of more than 32-bits cause an error when FCTL[0]:FDOM is clear.
— When FCTL[0]:FDOM is set, the EFCOP issues transfer request from the DMA
when the output buffer is full (when FSTR[9]:FOBNE is set). Use this mode
when the DMA is programmed to transfer more than one 32-bit long sample
from the FDOR. For example, to use the PowerPC local bus most efficiently,
64-bits can be transferred from the FDOR with this mode and the DMA TSZ
bits equal to 000. Also, the complete FDOR buffer can be read using DMA
burst mode (TSZ equal to 100) and FCTL[0]:FDOM set.
For an example of EFCOP programming with DMA, see Section 9.6.3, Real IIR Filter
with DMA, on page 9-19.
9.6 Programming Examples
The code examples in this section illustrate how to program the EFCOP to complete three
basic EFCOP operations: FIR filtering, IIR filtering, and adaptive filtering. These
examples also illustrate the three EFCOP data transfer methods. The examples use equate
labels for the location of the EFCOP registers and assume that these equates are declared
prior to the example code. These labels include the register name preceded with “M_”.
9.6.1 Complex FIR Filter with Polling
The code in Example 9-1 exhibits a simple way to program the EFCOP using polling to
transfer complex data in and out of the EFCOP data registers. In Complex mode, each
filter operation begins with a write of two data samples to the FDIR: one for the real part
followed by one for the imaginary part of the input data. Two 32-bit data samples are
written to the FDIR register using two move.l instructions. More efficiently, two 32-bit
data samples (the real and the imaginary part) can be written to the FDIR with one
move.2l instruction. This code programs the EFCOP to implement a complex FIR filter
based on the equation from Section 9.2.2, as follows:
1. The address register pointers are initialized for the filter input and output data
(INPUT and OUTPUT) and for the EFCOP input and output registers.
2. EFCOP control parameters are written to the appropriate memory-mapped control
registers as follows:
a. The FDBA and FCBA registers are written with 0x400. To determine where the
FDM and FCM are located in memory based on these register settings, recall
that these registers contain the offset of the FDM and FCM from their base
addresses (0x70000 for the FDM and 0x78000 for the FCM) in four-byte
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Programming Examples
resolution and that memory is addressed in one byte resolution. Therefore, the
FDM and FCM are located at 0x400 multiplied by four plus the base address,
which is memory location 0x71000 for the FDM and 0x79000 for the FCM.
b. The FCNT constant defines the filter length and is equal to twice the number of
complex filter coefficients (that is, if there are five complex filter coefficients,
FCNT should be 10). FCNT –1 is written to the filter count register.
c. The value 0x0011 is written to FCTL to enable the EFCOP in complex FIR
filter mode with data initialization enabled.
3. Before the first filter operation, the FDM buffer must be initialized because the
FPRC bit is clear. To initialize the FDM buffer for complex data, FCNT/2 complex
samples must be written to the FDM through the FDIR. The code uses a short loop
to write the first FCNT/2 complex samples of the input data to the FDIR using
move.2l instructions.
4. The code waits until an output is available in the FDOR register by polling the
FSTR[9]:FOBNE bit. The code tests the FSTR[9]:FOBNE bit and jumps back to
the test if the bit is not set. When this bit is set, the output of the filter operation is
ready and the code continues.
5. The FDOR is read using a move.2l instruction, and the complex value is placed
into the output data buffer.
6. The next complex input data sample is written to the FDIR, and the process
continues until all the input data values are written to the FDIR.
7. The last output value is read, and the filter is complete.
Example 9-1. Complex FIR Filter Code
move.w #INPUT,r0
move.l #M_FDIR,r2
move.l #M_FDOR,r3
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
#$400,d0
d0,M_FDBA
#$400,d0
d0,M_FCBA
#FCNT-1,d0
d0,M_FCNT
#$0011,d0
d0,M_FCTL
doensh0 #FCNT/2
move.2l (r0)+,d0:d1
loopstart0
move.2l d0:d1,(r2)
move.2l (r0)+,d0:d1
loopend0
move.w #OUTPUT,r1
;Init data pointers
;Init FDBA
;Init FCBA
;Init FCNT
;Init FCTL
;Init data taps
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-15
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
empty
dosetup0 empty
loopstart0
move.w M_FSTR,d4
bmtstc #$0040,d4.l
jt empty
doen0 #NSAMP
;Wait until out not empty
move.2l (r3),d2:d3
move.2l d2:d3,(r1)+
move.2l d0:d1,(r2)
move.2l (r0)+,d0:d1
loopend0
;Read output
;Write input
endempty
move.w M_FSTR,d4
bmtstc #$0040,d4.l
jt endempty
move.2l (r3),d2:d3
move.2l d2:d3,(r1)
;Wait until out not empty
;Read last output
Before this code can run, the SC140 core must initialize the coefficient buffer because
EFCOP coefficient initialization is disabled for this example. Example 9-2 shows an easy
way to do this. Here the coefficients are positioned, with org and dcl directives, at the
location of the FCM (which is memory location 0x79000 as described earlier). For each
complex coefficient, the real and imaginary parts are stored in memory separately with the
real part first. The coefficients are stored in reverse order so that the coefficient with the
largest index is stored first and the coefficient with the smallest index is stored last.
Example 9-2. Coefficient Initialization
org P:$00079000
dcl [Re H(FCNT-1)]
dcl [Im H(FCNT-1)]
;Init coefficients
.
.
.
dcl [Im H(0)]
dcl [Im H(0)]
Code such as shown in Example 9-1 and Example 9-2 may not appear in an actual
application, but this code shows how the EFCOP works in a very simple way. The next
example shows a more sophisticated way to use the EFCOP.
9.6.2 Adaptive Filter With Interrupts
The code in Example 9-3 shows how to program the EFCOP to implement a real FIR
filter using interrupts as the transfer method. In Real mode, each filter operation begins by
writing one 32-bit data sample to the FDIR register using a move.l instruction. This code
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uses Adaptive mode and the data output not empty interrupt (IRQ3) to update the
coefficients as shown in Section 9.2.1.1, as follows:
1. Address register pointers are initialized for the filter input and output data (INPUT
and OUTPUT).
2. The EFCOP control parameters are written to the appropriate memory mapped
control registers as follows:
a. FDM and FCM are located at the beginning of the shared memory, so the
FDBA and FCBA registers are written with zero.
b. The FCNT constant defines the filter length and is equal to the number of real
filter coefficients. FCNT - 1 is written to the filter count register.
c. The value 0x2105 is written to the control register to enable the EFCOP in real
FIR filter mode with Adaptive mode enabled and data and coefficient
initialization enabled. This value also enables the Data Output Not Empty
(IRQ3) interrupt.
3. The code enables interrupts as follows:
a. The appropriate bits in the core control registers are set. The interrupt mask bits
(I0–2) of the SR are cleared to permit all interrupt priority levels.
b. The value 0x7000 is written to the ELIRA. This value sets the PIL[30–32] bits
to assign IRQ3 with a priority level a six. This value also clears the PED3 bit to
assign IRQ3 to be level triggered.
c. Interrupts are enabled by issuing an ei instruction.
4. The FDM buffer must be initialized because the FPRC bit is clear. To initialize the
FDM buffer, FCNT samples are written to the FDM through the FDIR. The code
uses a short loop to write the first FCNT input samples to the FDIR using a move.l
instruction.
5. The FCM buffer must be initialized because the FCTL[7]:FCIM bit is set. After the
FKIR value is written to the K-constant input register, the EFCOP initializes the
FCM buffer using a coefficient update session with the original coefficients equal
to zero (so it does not matter what the values are in the FCM buffer memory
locations before the code begins).
6. Processing begins with the write of the first input data sample to the FDIR.
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-17
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
Example 9-3. Adaptive Filter Code
move.w #INPUT,r0
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w #OUTPUT,r1
#0,d0
d0,M_FDBA
#0,d0
d0,M_FCBA
#FCNT-1,d0
d0,M_FCNT
#$2105,d0
d0,M_FCTL
;Init data pointers
;Init FDBA
;Init FCBA
;Init FCNT
;Init FCTL
bmclr #$00E0,sr.h
move.w #$7000,d0
move.w d0,M_ELIRA
ei
;Enable all IPL
;Out not empty IPL 6
;Enable interrupts
doensh0 #FCNT
loopstart0
move.l (r0)+,d0
move.l d0,M_FDIR
loopend0
;Init data taps
move.l #FKIR,d0
move.l d0,M_FKIR
;Init coeffs
move.l (r0)+,d0
;Write first input
move.l d0,M_FDIR
The main code is now complete and the SC140 core can run other application code while
the EFCOP completes the filter operation. When the EFCOP completes the filter
operation, it places the result in the FDOR, which triggers the data output not empty
interrupt. The processor jumps to the appropriate interrupt vector address.
The interrupt vector code, shown in Example 9-4, uses an equate label, I_IRQ3, for the
location of the EFCOP data output not empty interrupt vector address. The example
assumes that this equate is declared prior to the example code. The interrupt vector code
includes the command to jump to the interrupt service routine.
Example 9-4. Interrupt Vector Code
org P:I_IRQ3
jsr OBNE_ISR
rte
9-18
;Output not empty vector
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Programming Examples
The interrupt service routine code, shown in Example 9-5, completes the processing as
follows:
1. The code moves the filter output from FDOR to the output data buffer.
2. The step parameter is loaded into FKIR. Once FKIR is loaded, the EFCOP
performs the coefficient update session, as discussed in Section 9.2.1.1, and
replaces the filter coefficients with the updated coefficients.
3. The next input sample is written from the input data buffer to the FDIR to begin
the next filter operation, and the process begins again.
Example 9-5. Interrupt Service Routine Code
OBNE_ISR
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
move.l
rts
M_FDOR,d0
d0,(r1)+
#FKIR,d0
d0,M_FKIR
(r0)+,d0
d0,M_FDIR
;Output not empty ISR
;Read output
;Write coef update param
;Write input
Example 9-5 shows the basics of adaptive filtering. The transfer method of this example
is more complex than in the polling example, but the SC140 core can process other
routines while the EFCOP is computing. Code similar to this example may be seen in an
actual application. This example is not complete, because it does not contain code to
determine how many samples to process. This example also uses a simple constant for the
coefficient update parameter. Other applications may calculate a value to update the
coefficients.
9.6.3 Real IIR Filter with DMA
The code in Example 9-6 and Example 9-7 shows how to program the EFCOP to
implement a real IIR filter using DMA to transfer data into and out of the EFCOP data
registers. Processing a complete IIR filter requires two sessions: a FIR filter session (see
Section 9.2) followed by an IIR filter session (see Section 9.3). This example uses
dual-access DMA transactions for the FIR session and flyby DMA transactions for the IIR
session. Each DMA transaction transfers NSAMP bytes, so the EFCOP processes NSAMP/4
32-bit samples.
Example 9-6 and Example 9-7 use equate labels for the location of the DMA channel
configuration registers and DMA Channel Parameter RAM fields. The code assumes that
these equates are declared prior to the example code. These labels include the register or
field name preceded with “M_”. This code also assumes that banks 10 and 11 of the
memory controller are configured to allow the DMA to access the internal DSP SRAM
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-19
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
through the UPMC and to access the EFCOP registers through the GPCM, respectively.
The memory buffers to which the IN_ADDR, TMP_ADDR, and OUT_ADDR equates point must be
within the memory range of bank 10. The FDIR_ADDR and FDOR_ADDR equates must point
to the EFCOP input and output register locations in bank 11.
The code in Example 9-6 shows the code for the FIR session using dual-access DMA
transactions. Four DMA channels are used for the FIR session: two channels (0 and 1) to
transfer the data to the FDIR and two channels (2 and 3) to transfer the data from the
FDOR. The DMA transfers occur in single transfer mode, that is, the DMA transfers one
32-bit sample to the FDIR whenever the FDIR is not full, and the DMA transfers one
32-bit sample from the FDOR whenever the FDOR is not empty. The FIR session
proceeds as follows:
1. The following control parameters are written to the EFCOP control registers:
a. The FDM and FCM are located at an offset from the beginning of the shared
memory defined by the FIR_FDBA and FIR_FCBA constants.
b. The FIR_FCNT constant defines the FIR filter length and is equal to the
number of real filter coefficients. FIR_FCNT – 1 is written to the Filter Count
Register.
c. The value 0x0081 is written to FCTL to enable the EFCOP in real FIR filter
mode with data initialization disabled. This value also sets the input and output
data modes to single-transfer.
2. DMA Channel 0 transfers the data from memory to the DMA FIFO. The channel 0
DMA control registers are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the input data, IN_ADDR, is written to the DMA buffer
address pointer field (BD_ADDR0).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, NSAMP, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE0).
c. To configure channel 0 for 32-bit read transactions, the value 0x00000190 is
written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR0).
d. To enable channel 0 as dual access transaction initiated by the DMA, the value
0x80000045 is written to the DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCR0).
3. DMA Channel 1 transfers the data from the DMA FIFO to the FDIR. The channel 1
DMA control registers are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the FDIR in bank 11, FDIR_ADDR, is written to the DMA
buffer address pointer field (BD_ADDR1).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, NSAMP, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE1).
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Programming Examples
c. To configure channel 1 for 32-bit write transactions without incrementing the
buffer address (always transfers to the FDIR), the value 0x08000180 is written to
the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR1).
d. To enable channel 1 in dual access mode triggered by an EFCOP write request,
the value 0x80010305 is written to the DMA Channel Configuration Register
(DCHCR1).
4. DMA Channel 2 transfers the data from the FDOR to the DMA FIFO. The channel
2 DMA control registers are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the FDOR in bank 11, FDOR_ADDR, is written to the
DMA buffer address pointer field (BD_ADDR2).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, NSAMP, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE2).
c. The value 0x08000190 is written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR2). This
value configures channel 2 for 32-bit read transactions without incrementing the
buffer address (always transfers from the FDOR).
d. The value 0x80020205 is written to the DMA Channel Configuration Register
(DCHCR2). This value enables channel 2 in dual access mode triggered by an
EFCOP read request.
5. DMA Channel 3 transfers the data from the DMA FIFO to memory. The channel 3
DMA control registers are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the FIR output data, TMP_ADDR, is written to the DMA
buffer address pointer field (BD_ADDR3).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, NSAMP, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE3).
c. To configure channel 3 for a 32-bit write transaction, the value 0x00000180 is
written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR3).
d. To enable channel 3 as dual access transaction initiated by the DMA, the value
0x80030045 is written to the DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCR3).
Once the DMAs and EFCOP are programmed, they work together requesting and sending
data without intervention of the SC140 core. After all NSAMP/4 data samples are
processed, the IIR session begins.
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-21
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
Example 9-6. FIR Filter Session
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
#FIR_FDBA,d0
d0,M_FDBA
#FIR_FCBA,d0
d0,M_FCBA
#FIR_FCNT-1,d0
d0,M_FCNT
#$0081,d0
d0,M_FCTL
;DMA0 init to transfer Memory to DMA FIFO
move.l #IN_ADDR,d0
move.l d0,M_BDADDR0
move.l #NSAMP,d0
move.l d0,M_BDSIZE0
move.l #$00000190,d0
move.l d0,M_BDATTR0
move.l #$80000045,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR0
;DMA1 init to transfer DMA FIFO to FDIR
move.l #FDIR_ADDR,d0
move.l d0,M_BDADDR1
move.l #NSAMP,d0
move.l d0,M_BDSIZE1
move.l #$08000180,d0
move.l d0,M_BDATTR1
move.l #$80010305,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR1
;DMA2 init to transfer FDOR to DMA FIFO
move.l #FDOR_ADDR,d0
move.l d0,M_BDADDR2
move.l #NSAMP,d0
move.l d0,M_BDSIZE2
move.l #$08000190,d0
move.l d0,M_BDATTR2
move.l #$80020205,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR2
;DMA3 init to transfer DMA FIFO to Memory
move.l #TMP_ADDR,d0
move.l d0,M_BDADDR3
move.l #NSAMP,d0
move.l d0,M_BDSIZE3
move.l #$00000180,d0
move.l d0,M_BDATTR3
move.l #$80030045,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR3
;Init FDBA
;Init FCBA
;Init FCNT
;Init FCTL
;Init source address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 0 attrib
;Init channel 0 config
;Init destination address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 1 attrib
;Init channel 1 config
;Init source address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 2 attrib
;Init channel 2 config
;Init destination address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 3 attrib
;Init channel 3 config
Example 9-7 shows the code for the IIR session using flyby DMA transactions. Two
DMA channels are used for the IIR session: channel 0 to transfer the data to the FDIR and
channel 1 to transfer the data from the FDOR. The DMA transfers occur in burst transfer
mode, that is, channel 0 transfers eight 32-bit samples to the FDIR whenever the FDIR is
9-22
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Programming Examples
empty and channel 1 transfers eight 32-bit samples from the FDOR whenever the FDOR is
full. The IIR session proceeds as follows:
1. The EFCOP is disabled by clearing the FCTL before the IIR session parameters are
programmed into the FCTL.
2. The following control parameters are written to the EFCOP control registers:
a. The FDM and FCM are located at an offset from the beginning of the shared
memory defined by the IIR_FDBA and IIR_FCBA constants.
b. The IIR_FCNT constant defines the IIR filter length and is equal to the number
of real filter coefficients. IIR_FCNT – 1 is written to the Filter Count Register.
c. The IIR_FACR constant is written to the Filter ALU Control Register. This
constant can be used to enable scaling for the IIR output if necessary.
d. The value 0xC083 is written to FCTL to enable the EFCOP in IIR filter mode.
This value also sets the input and output data modes to burst transfer.
3. DMA Channel 0 of the DMA is used in flyby mode to transfer the input data from
memory to the FDIR in burst mode; that is, the DMA transfers eight 32-bit samples
to the FDIR whenever the FDIR is empty. The DMA control registers are
programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the input data (the FIR session output), TMP_ADDR, is
written to the DMA buffer address pointer field (BD_ADDR0).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, NSAMP, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE0).
c. To configure the DMA for a burst read transaction, the value 0x00000210 is
written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR0).
d. To enable DMA channel 0 in flyby mode triggered by an EFCOP write request,
the value 0x80004305 is written to the DMA Channel Configuration Register
(DCHCR0).
4. DMA Channel 1 of the DMA is used in flyby mode to transfer the output data from
the FDOR to memory in burst mode; that is, the DMA transfers eight 32-bit
samples from the FDOR whenever the FDOR is full. The DMA control registers
are programmed as follows:
a. The address location of the output data, OUT_ADDR, is written to the DMA buffer
address pointer field (BD_ADDR1).
b. The total number of bytes to transfer, NSAMP, is written to the DMA buffer size
field (BD_SIZE1).
c. The value 0x00000200 is written to the DMA attribute field (BD_ATTR1).
This value configures the DMA for a burst write transaction.
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-23
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
d. The value 0x80014204 is written to the DMA Channel Configuration Register
(DCHCR1). This value enables DMA channel 1 in flyby mode triggered by an
EFCOP read request.
Example 9-7. IIR Filter Session
move.w #0,d0
move.w d0,M_FCTL
;Disable EFCOP
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
move.w
;Init FDBA
#IIR_FDBA,d0
d0,M_FDBA
#IIR_FCBA,d0
d0,M_FCBA
#IIR_FCNT-1,d0
d0,M_FCNT
#IIR_FACR,d0
d0,M_FACR
#$C083,d0
d0,M_FCTL
;DMA0 init to input DATA to EFCOP
move.l #TMP_ADDR,d0
move.l d0,M_BDADDR0
move.l #NSAMP,d0
move.l d0,M_BDSIZE0
move.l #$00000210,d0
move.l d0,M_BDATTR0
move.l #$80004305,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR0
;Init FCBA
;Init FCNT
;Init FACR
;Init FCTL
;Init source address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 0 attrib
;Init channel 0 config
;DMA1 init to output DATA from EFCOP
move.l #OUT_ADDR,d0
move.l d0,M_BDADDR1
move.l #NSAMP,d0
move.l d0,M_BDSIZE1
move.l #$00000200,d0
move.l d0,M_BDATTR1
move.l #$80014204,d0
move.l d0,M_DCHCR1
;Init destination address
;Init transfer size
;Init channel 1 attrib
;Init channel 1 config
Once the DMAs and EFCOP are programmed, they work together requesting and sending
data without intervention of the SC140 core. When all NSAMP/4 data samples are
processed, the filter is complete.
Example 9-6 and Example 9-7 show the basics of IIR filtering and DMA transactions
with the EFCOP. The transfer method of this example requires the least core intervention
once the EFCOP and DMAs are programmed and requires no address registers. Code
similar to this may appear in an actual application. However, this example is not complete
because it does not contain code to initialize the FDM and FCM. This example also does
not contain code to determine when the DMA transfers of each session are complete,
which can be done with DMA interrupts or polling.
9-24
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Related Reading
9.7 Related Reading
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 1, MSC8101 Overview Section 1.3.7.3, Buffer Descriptors, on page 1-13
Chapter 6, DMA Channels
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 15, Direct Memory
Access (DMA)
Chapter 18, Enhanced Filter
Coprocessor (EFCOP)
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-25
Enhanced Filter Coprocessor (EFCOP)
9-26
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 10
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
This chapter describes a step-by-step procedure for setting up a 32-channel T1/E1 link
using one of the MSC8101 multi-channel controllers (MCCs). The main steps in this
procedure are three software configuration phases for setting up MCC and CPM
parameters. An example driver implementation illustrates both hardware and software
configuration for connecting to an industry-standard T1/E1 line transceiver. The physical
interface between the MSC8101 and the PMC PM6388 T1/E1 transceiver is described.
The procedure for global parameter set-up and channel-specific initialization exemplifies
the basic CPM concepts in use throughout the other CPM-supported protocols. This basic
procedure can be used for applications with varying numbers of channels and protocols.
Refer to the MSC8101 Reference Manual for information on features not implemented by
the driver discussed here.
10.1 MCC Configuration Basics
The MSC8101 communications processor module (CPM) contains two MCC blocks, each
capable of providing up to 128 full-duplex serial data channels routed through the
programmable time-slot assigner (TSA) in the serial interface blocks, SI1 and SI2. Target
applications of the MCC are mainly time-division multiplexing (TDM) interfaces such as
TDM backplanes/interconnects and WAN networks. The SI1 has one TDM interface, and
the SI2 has three.
MCC channels are individually configured to handle either transparent or HDLC
protocols. For each channel, the serial interface (SI) and its associated RAM (SIRAM)
control the routing of time-division multiplexing data through each of the four TDM
interfaces to the external network. The channels can be spread across the four TDMs, and
a single TDM can handle all 128 channels. The MCC operates in both normal mode, in
which a single logical channel is assigned to a single time slot, and a superchannel mode,
in which multiple MCC channel slots are assigned to a logical channel. The example
implementation illustrates only normal mode channels; for details on super channels, refer
to the MSC8101 Reference Manual.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
10-1
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
Communications Processor Module (CPM)
PowerPC
64-bit Bus
.
Serial Interface and TSA
2xFCC
2xMCC
2xSCC
2xSMC
MEMC
Interrupt Controller
Timers
Parallel I/O
Baud Rate Generators
PowerPC
64-bit
System Bus
SIU
Dual-Port
RAM
SPI
I2C
SDMA
RISC CP
Other Peripherals
4 x TDMs
MII
UTOPIA I/F
The main MCC configuration is through MCC-specific parameters in the on-device Dual
Port RAM (DPRAM). The MCC utilizes several other CPM resources, as the white boxes
in Figure 10-1 show.
MEMC
Local
PowerPC 64-bit Bus
SRAM
512 KB
SC140 Core
MSC8101
Figure 10-1. MCC Resource Usage
10.1.1 Procedure for Initializing the MCC Resources
The steps for initializing the MCC resources are as follows:
1. Configure the channels:
a. Initialize the buffer descriptors (BDs).
b. Set up the global parameters.
c. Set up the MCC control registers.
d. Set up the channel-specific parameters.
e. Initialize the interrupt queues.
2. Select the TSA channel route to a TDM timeslot:
a. Program the serial interface RAM (SIRAM).
b. Set up the baud-rate generators (BRGs).
10-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
MCC Configuration Basics
3. Configure the external interface:
a. Set up the parallel I/O pins.
b. Enable the TDM.
These steps map to the functionality flow of the software driver discussed in this chapter.
See Figure 10-2 for a listing of the driver functions.
main()
Load Tx
Buffers()
InitBDs()
SIInit()
MCC Global
Init()
InitTxRx
Params()
MCC ExChan
SpecInit()
ClockingInit()
MCCChan
SpecInit()
InitParallel
Ports()
Interrupt
ControlInit()
Init_PHY()
ExtIntHandler()
BDRxError()
LastBD()
BDEmpty()
GP01ed()
GP11ed()
FlashGP1Led()
Figure 10-2. Driver Functions
ExtIntHandler() provides an example interrupt handler. The handler checks the event that
causes the interrupt and, in the HDLC loopback modes, enables a memory check to ensure
that the received data is identical to the transmitted data. Table 10-1 shows examples of
functions that are useful in handling interrupts.
Table 10-1. Interrupt Handler Functions
Function Name
Function Details
BDRxError()
Identifies the reason for the Rx interrupt.
LastBD()
Indicates whether this is the last buffer descriptor in the ring.
BDEmpty()
Determines whether the buffer descriptor is empty.
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10-3
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10.1.2 Driver Memory Map
All values in the driver memory map are set up as offsets to the Internal Memory Map
Register (IMMR), indicated in Figure 10-3 as the DPRAM Base. These values are
changed via the mcc.h header file, with these exceptions: the MCC2 parameter RAM, in
which the global parameters are stored, and the channel-specific parameters, which both
have fixed locations. When writing to the parameter RAM, you must ensure that other
parameters are not inadvertently overwritten. External memory refers either to the on-chip
SRAM or off-chip memory. The software driver uses only the DPRAM and the 512 KB
on-chip SRAM, shown as external memory in Figure 10-4. Figure 10-3 shows a detailed
memory map for the specific driver example.
DPRAM
External Memory
DPRAM Base
MCCBASE = 0x00100000
0x2800
0x100000
MCC2 Channel 160–191
specific parameters
0x3000
Buffer
Descriptors
XTRABASE
= 0x3800
MCC2 Channel 160 - 191
extra channel parameters
Buffers
0x8800
TINTBASE
MCC2 Global Parameters
RINTBASE Tx Interrupt Table
0x200100
0x8880
Rx Interrupt Table
Offset to
DPRAM Base
Offset to
MCCBASE
Figure 10-3. Driver Memory Map
10-4
0x20000
MSC8101 User’s Guide
MCC Configuration Basics
MCCBASE
DPRAM Base
MCC1
ChannelSpecific
Parameters
Buffer
Descriptors
MCC2
Channel-extra
parameters
MCC1
XTRABASE
MCC2
Buffers
MCC1
MCC global
parameters
MCC2
DPRAM
TINTBASE
RINTBASE
Circular
Interrupt
Tables
External Memory (512 KB)
Figure 10-4. Internal and External Memory Usage
10.1.3 Memory Usage
Memory resources can become scarce as the number of MCC channels increases. The size
of the BD ring should be varied to suit the protocol being run and the amount of other
CPM activity. To avoid a receive overrun or transmit underrun, the circular BD table
should be sized to provide enough valid buffers for the available SC140 core servicing
rate. See Section 1.3.7.5, BD and Buffer Memory Structure, on page 1-17.
Table 10-2 details the potential memory usage for the MCC in two cases: (1) maximum
number of channels (256) supported; (2) the specific driver example code. It indicates
whether the parameters are stored in DPRAM or external memory. The interrupt circular
tables are shown in external memory; however they can also be stored in DPRAM
memory, space permitting.
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10-5
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
Table 10-2. Memory Utilization for MCC Parameters and Resources
Parameters
DPRAM
External Memory
Maximum
Driver
Maximum
Driver
MCC global parameters
2 × 128 bytes
128 bytes
N/A
N/A
Channel-extra parameters
256 × 8 bytes
32 × 8 bytes
N/A
N/A
Channel-specific
parameters
256 × 64 bytes
32 × 64 bytes
N/A
N/A
Buffer descriptors
N/A
N/A
(256 × 8 × 8) × 2 bytes
(32 × 8 × 8) × 2 bytes
Buffers
N/A
N/A
(256 × 8 × 64) × 2
bytes
(32 × 8 × 64) × 2 bytes
(4 × 64) × 5 bytes
(4 × 64) × 2 bytes
296192 bytes
37376 bytes
Circular interrupt tables
Total memory used
NOTES: 1.
18688 bytes
2432 bytes
External memory utilization assumptions: 8 Tx/Rx buffers per channel, 64 bytes each; 2 INTQs, 64
entries each.
To simplify the relocation, all BDs for each MCC start from a fixed base in external
memory, with the restriction that all BDs for a specific MCC are located within the same
512 KB block.
Rx and Tx BDs have the same structure, consisting of status, length and data buffer
address fields. The Empty and Ready status field bits of the Rx and Tx BDs, respectively,
are set by the core prior to channel start-up. These fields indicate to the CPM that each
buffer is ready to be processed. For the final BD in the ring, the wrap bit is set, indicating
to the CPM that the next BD entry wraps back to the first BD in the ring.
10.2 Connect the TDM Interface to T1/E1
This section details the interconnection of the MSC8101 to one port on the PM6388 Octal
T1/E1 line transceiver and outlines the loopback configurations available to aid in
software driver development.
The standardized TDM lines used for inter-hub backbones or trunks are T1/E1 (CEPT)
lines in Europe and T1 lines in the US. An T1/E1 interface implements 32 × 64 Kbps slots,
giving a 2.048 Mbps bandwidth. T1 implements 24 × 64 Kbps time slots for a 1.544 Mbps
line bandwidth link. Both time-division, multiplexed interfaces can be implemented using
the TSA capability of the serial interface in conjunction with an MCC of the MSC8101
CPM. The TDM pins must be carefully selected so that there are no conflicts with other
CPM functions multiplexed on the same pins. Figure 10-5 shows MCC2 on the MSC8101
connected to port 6 on the PM6388 Octal T1/E1 transceiver through TDMB. T1
applications can use the same interconnect, with the PM4388 transceiver as a drop-in
alternative.
10-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connect the TDM Interface to T1/E1
MSC8101
Memory Controller
MCC2
L1TSYNCB
L1RSYNCB
L1RXDB
L1TXDB
L1RCLKB
L1TCLKB
PM6388
Microprocessor
Interface
EFP[6]
IFP[6]
ID[6]
ED[6]
ICLK[6]
RLCLK[6]
RLD[6]
TLCLK[6]
TLD[6]
Receive PMC Line
Interface Unit
PM4314
Transformer
RJ45
Figure 10-5. T1/E1 Transceiver Interface Example
The TDM interface connection is relatively simple, consisting of a transmit and receive
clock, synchronization signals, and data signals. The MSC8101 expects L1RCLKB and
L1RSYNCB synchronization to be generated by an external device—in this case, the
T1/E1 line transceiver. The T1/E1 frame is delimited by the transceiver synchronization
signal (EFP/IFP) that marks the start of the first time slot in the frame and by a clock
(ICLK/TLCLK) that controls the line bit rate. The T1/E1 frame is split into multiple time
slots, each designated for a different logical channel. Figure 10-6 illustrates an T1/E1
frame consisting of thirty-two 8-bit logical channels (with common
L1RSYNC/L1TSYNC and L1RCLK/L1TCLK used).
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10-7
Data Frame 1
L1RSYNCB
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
32 Time Slots
slot 4
slot 5
-------
-------
-------
MCC MCC MCC MCC MCC MCC MCC
Ch160 Ch161 Ch162 Ch163 Ch164 Ch165 Ch---
MCC
Ch---
MCC
Ch---
slot 0
slot 1
slot 2
slot 3
------- slot29 slot30 slot31
MCC MCC MCC MCC
Ch--- Ch189 Ch190 Ch191
L1RCLKB
L1RSYNCB (RFSYNC)
L1TXDB
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
L1RXDB
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
8 Bit Slot
Figure 10-6. T1/E1 Data Frame
10.2.1 Provide Appropriate Signal Polarity and Timing
Table 10-3 defines the SI Mode Register bit settings required on the MSC8101 to provide
appropriate signal polarity and timing to the PM6388 line transceiver.
Table 10-3. MSC8101 SI Mode Register Settings
Register Setting
Description
SIxMR[RFSDx] = 00
SIxMR[TFSDx] = 00
L1RSYNCB/L1TSYNC have no L1RCLK/L1TCLK delay from synchronization to data.
SIxMR[FEx] = 0
L1TSYNCB and L1RSYNCB pulses are sampled at the falling edge of TCLK/RCLK.
SIxMR[SLx] = 0
L1TSYNCB and L1RSYNCB are active high signals.
SIxMR[CEx] = 0
SIxMR[DSCx] = 0
Rx Data is latched in on the falling edge, Tx data on the rising edge of
L1TCLK/L1RCLK. The double-speed TDM clock is not used.
10.2.2 Perform a Phased Test of the Transceiver Interface
During the development process, several loopback options can aid in a phased test of the
PHY interface.
■
SIRAM loopback. Allows verification of the MCC and serial interface
programming with loopback at the serial interface.
■
TDM loopback. Tests the time-slot assigner (TSA) programming with L1TXDB
connected internally to L1RXDB.
10-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Connect the TDM Interface to T1/E1
■
External PHY loopback. The full external Transmit-to-Receive path tests the
physical interface between the MSC8101 and the physical (PHY) device.
Figure 10-7 summarizes the three system-level loopback options: (1) SI-level internal
loopback, (2) TDM-level internal loopback, and (3) external PHY loopback.
MSC8101
L1TSYNC
MCC2
SI2
TDMB
L1RSYNC
L1TXD
L1TSYNC
L1RSYNC
L1TXD
2
PM6388
TFSYNC
RFSYNC
TSER
L1RXD
L1TCLK
L1RCLK
1
BRG5
L1RXD
L1TCLK
L1RCLK
RSER
BRGx
TCLK
RCLK
3
TINy
TOUTy
Internal connections
TOUTy
External pin connections
Figure 10-7. Loopback Modes
In the absence of an external PHY, loopback modes (1) and (2) can be used, with clocks
and synchronizing signals generated by the MSC8101. The transmit and receive clocks for
TDMB are selected through the CMX SI2 Clock Route Register (CMXSI2CR); the
selected clock input pin is sourced from one of the flexible internal baud rate generator
(BRG) outputs. Frame synchronization is generated from one of the internal timers: the
timer registers are programmed to divide the BRGCLK by (32 × 8), thus creating a
positive, bit-wide pulse every 32 timeslots.
The MSC8101 has independent receive and transmit clock signals and synchronization
signals; however, making these signals common can simplify the interconnection and
synchronization. The internal loopback configurations use this concept: setting the
SI2MR[CRTx] bit internally connects the transmit clock (L1TCLK) and synchronization
(L1TSYNC) to the respective receive clock (L1RCLK) and synchronization (L1RSYNC).
In external PHY loopback mode (3), the PM6388 PHY is used. It generates separate
transmit and receive frame syncs, so the physical connection between the timer output
(TOUT) and the L1RSYNC is not used. Instead, the Ingress Frame Pulse (IFP) from the
PM6388 connects directly to the L1RSYNC in the receive direction, and the Egress Frame
Pulse (EFP) sources L1TSYNC for the transmit side. The TDM clocks between the
MSC8101 and the T1/E1 transceiver are also generated by the PM6388 with the Transmit
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10-9
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
Line Clock (TLCLK) sourcing L1TCLK and the Ingress Clock (ICLK) connected to
L1RCLK (see Figure 10-5).
The PM6388 T1/E1 PHY transceiver is initialized in software through the Init_PHY()
function. The driver code sets up the PHY to be in internal loopback mode to enable
external PHY loopback.
10.3 Configure the Channels
Channel configuration proceeds in two steps:
■
Configure the global MCC resources applicable to all the channels supported by the
MCC.
■
Configure the individual, channel-specific parameters for the assigned protocol.
The main data structures for programming the MCC are held in the CPM DPRAM.
However, several other structures must reside in memory external to the CPM, either in
the on-device SRAM or in a memory device connected to the PowerPC system bus. The
next sections describe the global and channel-specific data structures for configuring
MCC resources.
10.3.1 Set Up the Global MCC Parameters
Each MCC has a set of global parameters that are held in DPRAM and are common to all
channels within that MCC. The global parameters define a base for the Transmit (Tx) and
Receive (Rx) circular buffer descriptor (BD) tables, the maximum buffer size, the number
of receive frame interrupts that cause an interrupt to the SC140 core, and the interrupt
queue addresses. The buffer descriptor tables, which are stored in on-chip SRAM, define
the Tx and Rx data buffer locations and maintain status information on received and
transmitted data frames. The global parameters provide the common functionality for all
active channels on each MCC.
The following parameters must be set up before the channel-specific parameters are
assigned:
■
MCCBASE. Defines the starting address of the 512 KB BD segment. In this case, it
is set to 0x1000000 via the variable BDRING_BASE in the header file.
■
MCCSTATE. Set to all zeros to define the initial MCC state.
■
MRBLR. Defines the maximum number of bytes written to a receive buffer before a
move to the next buffer. For transparent mode, the MRBLR should be assigned the
same length as the buffers, 64 bytes in this example.
10-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Configure the Channels
■
GRFTHR and GRFCNT. Two parameters relating to the reception of frames.
GRFTHR is a threshold value after which an interrupt is generated.
■
XTRABASE. Defines the offset in the dual-port RAM (DPRAM) that points to the
location holding the extra channel-specific parameters. Each channel’s extra
parameters are stored in order contiguously from this offset. (Offset 0x3800 is used
in this example.)
The following parameters relate to interrupt queue set-up and handling:
■
TINTBASE. Defines the Tx circular interrupt table location. In this driver example,
the interrupt tables are held in external memory; however, they can be held in
DPRAM.
■
RINTBASE. Points to the receive circular table location. This example uses RINT
Table 0.
Before the interrupts are enabled, the Rx and Tx temporary interrupt queue locations
should be initialized to zero, with the wrap bit set in the last entry.
10.3.2 Set Up the MCC Configuration and Control Registers
Part of the global setup is to initialize the three main MCC control registers:
■
MCCFx. Defines the mapping of MCC channel blocks to a TDM pin interface.
Table 10-4 shows the TDM-to-MCC usage available for the MSC8101. The 128
channels on each MCC are split into four subgroups, each of which can be routed to
a particular TDM. All MCC1 channels must be routed through TDMA. The MCC2
subgroups are routed to one of three TDMs (TDMB, TDMC, or TDMD). All
channels within a subgroup must be routed to the same TDM, though different
subgroups can be routed to the same or different TDMs (see Table 10-4 for
details). The transmit and receive data flow is controlled by the programmable
SIRAM and the respective MCCF2[0-7] register, which routes the data to the
specified channels. The TDM group channel assignments made in the respective
MCCF register must be coherent with the SI register programming. The example
driver code configures 32 MCC2 channels in the range 160–191 for TDMB by
setting the MCCF2 register to 0x10.
.
Table 10-4. MCC TDM Usage in MSC8101
SIRAM1 (MCC1)
MCC Subgroup
SIRAM2 (MCC2)
A
B
C
D
MCC Channel
0–31
32–63
64–95
96–127
Usable TDM
Yes
No
No
No
A
B
C
D
128–159 160–191 192–231 231–256
No
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
Yes
Yes
Yes
10-11
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
■
MCCM. The Interrupt Mask Register filters interrupt event requests to the core. In
this example, setting MCCM = 0x4004 enables the RINT0 and TINT interrupts.
■
MCCE. The Interrupt Event Register reports receive and transmit events. This
register is cleared by writing all ones (MCCE = 0xFFFF) at initialization. During
interrupt handling, only events serviced at that time should be cleared by writing a
one to the relevant register bit; otherwise interrupt events could be lost. Writing all
zeros has no effect on the register.
10.3.3 Set Up Channel-Specific Parameters
The main channel-specific characteristics include maximum receive frame size, allowable
core interrupts, start-up parameters for a channel, and the transparent or HDLC protocol to
be supported by an individual channel. In addition, the RISC CP uses areas of this
parameter RAM as temporary variable space. Both HDLC and transparent protocols have
parameters that the user must initialize. Most of these parameters are initialized to
predefined values. However, INTMSK, CHAMR, TSTATE and RSTATE are
user-configurable. In the example discussed here, you can configure all 32 channels to
handle either transparent or HDLC protocols by setting the MODE variable appropriately
in the driver.
■
INTMSK. Determines which non-masked events are passed to the interrupt queue
assigned to the channel. The driver code enables interrupts by setting INTMSK to
0x0105 when an RX frame is received (RXF event) or when buffers are transmitted
or received (TXB and RXB events).
■
CHAMR. Selects transparent or HDLC mode for the channel. The bit format of the
register varies depending on the protocol and enables receive interrupt queue
configuration for a respective channel. For the HDLC protocol, the CHAMR
register is programmed to 0xE080 so that no timestamp is added to the data buffers
and receive interrupt queue 0 is used. For transparent mode, this register is
programmed to 0x7000.
■
RSTATE/TSTATE. Provides the SDMA transactional details and starts the channel.
Bits 0–7 of the RSTATE/TSTATE registers are set to 0x18 to select the byte
ordering, the transfer code used during the SDMA channel memory access, and the
bus used for data BDs and interrupt queues. In the driver, all the channels are set up
in big-endian mode, with all data transactions on the local PowerPC bus for access
to the on-chip SRAM.
10-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Select the TSA Channel Route to a TDM Timeslot
10.3.4 Set Up the Channel Extra Parameters
Each MCC channel has an 8-byte allocation for parameters defining the actual address of
the Tx and Rx BDs for a specific channel. These extra parameters are located at an offset
from the base address of the DPRAM, defined by XTRABASE, in the global parameters.
The driver sets up all channel-extra parameters for MCC2 from the
[XTRABASE+(channel number × 8)] address. The TBASE/RBASE parameters define the
base address of the Tx and Rx BDs for a particular channel. For example, for channel 160,
the RBASE offset is 0x0500 and the TBASE offset is 0x0600. All channel BDs are
contiguous in memory.
10.3.5 Initialize Circular Interrupt Queues
Each unmasked channel interrupt generated during the transmission and reception of data
creates an entry in an interrupt queue. The receive and transmit entries are held in separate
tables, with four receive interrupt tables and one transmit table that can be allocated to the
MCC. The global MCC parameters define the MCC interrupt queue allocation; the queues
are stored in on-chip SRAM.
The interrupt circular queue is initialized to be stored in external memory. Each MCC can
be allocated up to five interrupt queues (one transmit and four receive). Each queue’s
length is user-definable in the global parameters. The final entry in the table is indicated
with a set wrap bit to indicate that the next entry to be used is the first in the table.
In the example discussed here, RINT0 and TINT are used for the receive and transmit
interrupts respectively, as set up in the global parameters. The Tx and Rx BDs of all
channels that use a particular interrupt table must reside on the same bus.
10.4 Select the TSA Channel Route to a TDM Timeslot
Once the MCC is configured to support 32 channels, the channel route to a particular
timeslot on the TDM interface must be selected based on the SIRAM entry and the CPM
multiplexing settings.
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10-13
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10.4.1 Define the Serial Interface Entries in SIRAM
Internal MSC8101
External MSC8101
TDMA Channels
MCC1
SIRAM1
TDMA pins
Time-Slot
Assigner
SIRAM2
MCC2
TDMB pins
TDMC pins
TDMD pins
TDMB channels
TDMC channels
TDMD channels
Figure 10-8. Serial Interface
The SIRAM is a block of memory internal to the CPM that routes data from the TDM pins
to the MCC. The SIRAM consists of a series of entries, one set for the Tx and one for the
Rx flow. Figure 10-9 shows an example of the bit definitions for the Tx and Rx entries of
channel 160 through the last entry for channel 191. To set the Tx and Rx entries, we
perform the following steps:
1. For the Rx entry of channel 191, enable SI loopback mode by setting the
Loop/Echo bit in the RX entry, thereby looping the transmit back to the receive.
Note that the Loop/Echo bit should be set for either the Tx or Rx entry, but not
both.
2. Define the MCC channel number in the MCSEL field.
3. Indicate the number of bytes routed using the CNT and BYT fields. A CNT of 000
represents “1,” and BYT indicates whether the CNT is measured in bits or bytes.
4. Set LST to indicate the last entry in the frame.
The TSA set-up is independent of the protocol in use; it simply routes programmed
portions of the received data frame from the TDM pins to the MCC. See Section 10.2,
Connect the TDM Interface to T1/E1, on page 10-6 for details on the TSA configuration.
10-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Select the TSA Channel Route to a TDM Timeslot
Loop/ Super
echo
MCSEL
CNT
BYT
LST
Channel 160
Rx entry
1
0
10100000
000
1
0
Channel 160
Tx entry
0
0
10100000
000
1
0
Channel 191
Rx entry
1
0
10111111
000
1
1
Channel 191
Tx entry
0
0
10111111
000
1
1
Figure 10-9. Serial Interface Entry Definitions for Driver Example
10.4.2 Set up Clocks, Baud Rate Generators (BRG), and Timers
The TDMB clocks (L1RCLKB, L1TCLKB) are always driven from an external source. In
our example, they are configured to be driven from the CLK[15–16] pins (the CMX SI2
Clock Route Register [CMXSI2CR] is cleared to 0x0). The reference clock input to these
pins is either from the T1/E1 framer, in external PHY loopback, or from the BRG in
internal (SI or TDM) loopback. The driver implements internal loopback clock generation
via BRG5. The BRG5 output is a fraction of the CPM BRGCLK clock and is determined
by the division factors programmed in the BRG Configuration (BRGC) registers. To give
a clock rate of ~2.048 MHz from a 150 MHz CPM, BRGC5 is set to 0x00010048. The
BRG is set for normal operation, with no prescaler and a clock divider of 37. The clocks
produced by the BRGs are sent to the bank-of-clocks logic, where they are either routed to
the serial controllers or to the external pins, as in this case. The BRG50 pin must be
externally connected to the CLK15 pin.
To provide the synchronization signals, the following CPM timer registers require
configuration:
1. Timer Global Configuration Register (TGCR). TGCR must be configured prior to
the TMR or erratic behavior can occur. Setting TGCR1 = 0x09 enables Timer1
with normal gate mode.
2. Timer Mode Register (TMR). Next, the TMR1 register is configured with the timer
prescaler set to 1, the capture event disabled and the timer counter is reset
immediately after the reference value is reached. The input source for the timer is
TIN1 (fed by BRG5); therefore TIMR1 is set to 0x000E.
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
10-15
Multi-Channel Controllers (MCCs)
3. Timer Reference Register (TRR). Finally, the TRR1 register is set to contain the
timeout reference value, resulting in a configuration of 0x00FF. The timer output
TOUT1 must be externally connected to L1RSYNC.
10.5 Set Up the External Interface
The CPM interface is essentially a set of I/O pins that can be configured for either a
peripheral or a general-purpose function. The multiplexed peripheral pins for TDMB are
configured through the parallel I/O port registers (PPAR, PSOR, PDIR). The driver
function InitParallelPorts() details the appropriate port registers assignment.
Note:
All the CPM I/O pins default to general-purpose inputs.
Enabling the TDM involves configuring the serial interface registers. The SI Global Mode
Register (SIGMR), which is the last register to be set up in the driver before the driver is
started, defines the activation of the TDM channels for each SI. Because TDMB is used,
this register is set at 0x02.
10.6 Related Reading
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 1, MSC8101 Overview Section 1.3.7, Communications Processor
Module (CPM), on page 1-10
Section 1.3.7.3, Buffer Descriptors, on page 1-13
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 19, Communications
Processor Module Overview
Chapter 20, Serial Interface
With Time-Slot Assigner
Chapter 22, Baud-Rate
Generators
Chapter 33, Multi-Channel
Controllers (MCCs)
10-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 11
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
The serial peripheral interface (SPI) is a synchronous serial data protocol that is standard
across many Motorola processors and other SPI-compatible devices, including EEPROMs
and analog-to-digital A/D converters. It is essentially a shift register that transmits and
receives data serially to and from other devices with an SPI. The MSC8101 SPI includes
the following features:
■
Four-wire interface (SPIMOSI, SPIMISO, SPICLK, SPISEL)
■
Full-duplex operation
■
Double-buffered receiver and transmitter
■
Independent programmable baud-rate generator
■
Master or slave mode
■
Multi-master environment support
This chapter describes how the MSC8101 exchanges data between other devices via the
SPI. It tells you how to configure port D for SPI operation and how to configure the SPI
baud-rate generator in master mode. It gives examples of the SPI operating as a master and
as a slave.
11.1 Configuring the SPI for Use
The first phase of SPI programming is to configure the MSC8101 to use the SPI signals on
port D pins, select the SPI peripheral function for port D, and select the pin direction.
Table 11-1 describes the functions of the SPI signals.
Table 11-1. SPI Signals
Signal
SPIMOSI
Description
SPI Master Out Slave In
When the SPI is configured as a master, SPIMOSI is the output signal that
transmits data to the slave device.
When the SPI is configured as a slave, SPIMOSI is the input signal that
receives data from the master device.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
11-1
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
Table 11-1. SPI Signals (Continued)
Signal
SPIMISO
Description
SPI Master In Slave Out
When the SPI is configured as a master, SPIMISO is the input signal that
receives data from the slave device.
When the SPI is configured as a slave, SPIMISO is the output signal that
transmits data to the master device.
SPICLK
SPI Clock
When the SPI is configured as a master, SPICLK is the output signal that shifts
received data in from SPIMISO and transmitted data out to SPIMOSI.
When the SPI is configured as a slave, SPICLK is the input signal that shifts
received data in from SPIMOSI and transmitted data out to SPIMISO.
SPISEL
SPI Select
When the SPI is configured as a master, SPISEL should be disabled to prevent
a multi-master error.
When the SPI is configured as a slave, SPISEL is the input signal that the
master device asserts to select the slave device.
The SPI signals are multiplexed with the port D pins, PD[16–19]. These pins can be
configured as general-purpose pins or as dedicated peripheral pins. To configure PD[16–19]
for SPI, the following registers must be initialized:
■
Port Pin Assignment Register D (PPARD). Assigns PD[16–19] as dedicated SPI
peripheral signals:
Bit
Name
Value
Description
16
DD16
1
PD16 is assigned to SPIMISO
17
DD17
1
PD17 is assigned to SPIMOSI
18
DD18
1
PD18 is assigned to SPICLK
19
DD19
1
PD19 is assigned to SPISEL
■
Special Options Register D (PSORD). Selects the SPI peripheral function by
assigning PD[16–19] to use the option 2 function. The SO[16–19] bits of this register
are all set to a value of one.
■
Data Direction Register D (PDIRD). Selects the pin direction, as follows:
11-2
PDIRD Bits
Name
Value
Description
16
DR16
0
SPIMISO is bidirectional.
17
DR17
0
SPIMOSI is bidirectional.
18
DR18
0
SPICLK is bidirectional.
19
DR19
0
SPISEL is input.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Setting the Clock
11.2 Setting the Clock
In the master mode, the baud rate is determined by the divide by 16 option and the
prescale modulus. The SPI baud rate generator (SPI BRG) takes its input from BRGCLK
and generates the SPICLK. The SPI BRG provides a divide-by 16 option and a prescale
divider option. Figure 11-1 shows the SPI BRG block diagram.
BRGCLK
Prescale
Modulus
Divide by
1 or 16
SPICLK
SPI BRG
Figure 11-1. SPI BRG Block Diagram
Note:
The BRGCLK is an internally derived signal generated from CLKIN. There is no
separate BRGCLK input. See the MSC8101 Technical Data sheet for details.
To divide the BRGCLK input to the SPI BRG by 16, set the DIV16 bit in the SPI Mode
Register (SPMODE). The SPMODE[4]:DIV16 bit description is as follows.
SPMODE Bit
Name
4
DIV16
Description
Selects the clock source for the SPI BRG.
0
BRGCLK is input to the SPI BRG.
1
BRGCLK/16 is input to the SPI BRG.
To divide the BRGCLK input to the SPI BRG by a value other than 16, configure the PM
bits in the SPMODE register. The SPMODE[12–15]:PM bits select the prescale modulus
for the SPI BRG. BRGCLK is divided by 4 × (PM[0–3])+1. The prescale modulus range is 4
to 64. The synchronous baud rate is calculated by dividing the BRGCLK input to the BRG
by the DIV16 and PM options:
Sync Baud Rate = BRGCLK / [DIV16 × (4 × PM+1)]
For this calculation, use 1 or 16 for the meaning of DIV16, instead of 0 or 1.
11.3 Specifying the Receive and Transmit Buffer Descriptors
The SPI parameter table (see Table 11-2) can be placed at any 64-byte aligned address in
Banks 1–8 in the dual-port RAM. The SPI parameters specify the receive and transmit
buffer descriptors. You must initialize the parameters shown in bold-face. They should be
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11-3
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
changed only when the SPI is disabled. The remaining parameters are for communications
processor (CP) use only, so you do not need to initialize them.
Table 11-2. SPI Parameter Table
IMM + 0x
Value in
0x89FC
Name
Width
0x00
RBASE
16-bits
0x02
TBASE
16-bits
0x04
RFCR
8-bits
0x05
TFCR
8-bits
0x06
MRBLR
16-bits
Maximum receive buffer length
Defines the maximum number of bytes the MSC8101 writes to a receive buffer
before moving to the next buffer. The MSC8101 can write fewer bytes than
MRBLR if an error or an end-of-frame occurs. It never writes more bytes than the
MRBLR value. MRBLR should be changed only while the receiver is disabled.
0x08
RSTATE
32-bits
Rx internal state
For CP use only.
0x0C
—
32-bits
Rx internal data pointer
Updated by the SDMA channels to show the next address in the buffer to be
accessed.
0x10
RBPTR
16-bits
Current RxBD pointer
Points to the RxBD being processed or to the next BD to be serviced when idle.
After reset or at the end of the RxBD table, the CP initializes RBPTR to RBASE.
0x12
—
16-bits
Rx internal byte count.
Down-count value initialized with MRBLR and decremented with each byte written
by the supporting SDMA channel.
0x14
—
32-bits
Rx temp
For CP use only.
0x18
TSTATE
32-bits
Tx internal state
For CP use only.
0x1C
—
32-bits
Tx internal data pointer
Updated by the SDMA channels to show the next address in the buffer to be
accessed.
0x20
TBPTR
16-bits
Current TxBD pointer
Points to the TxBD being processed or to the next BD to be serviced when idle.
After reset or at the end of the TxBD table, the CP initializes TBPTR to TBASE.
0x22
—
16-bits
Tx internal byte count.
Down-count value initialized with TxBD.bd_length and decremented with each
byte read by the supporting SDMA channel.
0x24
—
32-bits
Tx temp.
For CP use only.
0x34
—
32-bits
SDMA temp.
Description
RxBD/TxBD table base address
Indicates where the BD tables begin in the dual-port RAM. BD tables can be
placed in any unused portion of Banks 1–8. RBASE and TBASE must be
initialized before the SPI is enabled. These values should be multiples of 8.
Rx/Tx function code
Contains the transaction specification associated with SDMA channel accesses to
external memory.
Figure 11-2 shows an example of the memory structure of the SPI BDs and buffers.
SPI_BASE points to the beginning of the parameter table at location IMM + 0x89FC in
the dual-port RAM. For example, if the value at location IMM + 0x89FC were 0x3800,
11-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating the SPI as a Master
then the SPI parameter table would begin at IMM + 0x3800. The RxBDs reside in the
dual-port RAM, starting at the address in RBASE. The TxBDs also reside in the dual-port
RAM, starting at the address in TBASE. For example, if one RxBD is followed by one
TxBD, RBASE contains 0x0000, and TBASE contains 0x0008, then the RxBD is
located at IMM + 0x0000 and the TxBD is located at IMM + 0x0008. The data
buffers can reside in the internal dual-port RAM. However, if the data buffers are large,
they can reside in external memory. The receive buffer starts at the location to which
RxBD.bd_addr points, and the transmit buffer starts at location to which
TxBD.bd_addr points. RxBD.bd_addr and TxBD.bd_addr are the address fields in the
receive and transmit buffer descriptors.
RxBDs
Dual-Port RAM
External Memory or
Dual-Port RAM
IMM + 0x0000
SPI RxBD Table
RxBD.bd_cstat
SPI TxBD Table
RxBD.bd_length
RxBD.bd_addr
TxBDs
SPI
Parameter Table
Rx Buffer
TxBD.bd_cstat
TxBD.bd_length
SPI Parameters
TxBD.bd_addr
Tx Buffer
RBASE
IMM + 0x89FC
TBASE
SPI_BASE
RFCR
TFCR
MRBLR
Figure 11-2. SPI BD and Buffer Memory Structure
11.4 Operating the SPI as a Master
The state diagram in Figure 11-3 shows how the SPI transmits and receives characters as
a master. The SPI is enabled by setting SPMODE[7]:EN=1.
1.
Once the SPI is enabled, the start of data transfer is enabled by setting
SPCOM[STR]=1.
2.
TxBD[R] is set to indicate that the buffer is ready for transmission. As a master,
the SPI generates clock pulses on SPICLK for each character and simultaneously
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11-5
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
shifts transmit data out on SPIMOSI and receive data in on SPIMISO. Received data
is written into a receive buffer using the next available RxBD.
3.
The SPI transmits and receives data until the entire buffer is sent or an error
occurs. The CP clears TxBD[R] after the buffer is sent and clears RxBD[E] to
indicate that the buffer is full.
4.
If the current TxBD[L] is cleared, indicating that the current buffer does not
contain the last character of the message, the next TxBD is processed after data
from the current buffer is sent. The next TxBD[R] is set to indicate that the next
buffer is ready for transmission.
5.
If the current TxBD[L] is set, indicating that the current buffer contains the last
character of the message, transmission stops after the current buffer is sent. The
RxBD is closed after transmission stops even if the receive buffer is not full.
6.
To resume transmission, SPCOM[STR] is set.
7.
An error occurs when SPISEL is asserted while the SPI is master. To avoid this
error, SPISEL must be disabled.
8.
The SPI must be initialized after an error occurs by setting the SPCOM[STR] bit.
SPMODE[7]:EN=1
SPI
Enabled
1
Transmit
Start
2
3
8
6
5
Transmit
and
Receive
Full
Buffer
4
Close
Buffer
7
Error
Figure 11-3. SPI as a Master
11-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating the SPI as a Master
The following example shows the steps required to initialize the SPI as a master. The
master SPI drives the SCLK signal. The assumptions underlying this example are:
■
IMM is a pointer to the MSC8101 registers in the PowerPC system bus address
spaces and is initialized to 0xF0000000.
■
SPIPRAM is a pointer to the SPI parameter RAM.
■
RxTxBD is a pointer to the buffer descriptors RxBD and TxBD.
■
One RxBD and one TxBD are used.
The steps in initializing the SPI as a master are as follows:
1.
Configure port D for SPI.
In the master mode, SPISEL is disabled while SPIMOSI, SPIMISO, and SPICLK are
enabled. SPISEL must be configured as a GPIO. The PPARD, PDIRD, and
PSORD registers are configured as follows:
IMM->io_regs[PORT_D].ppar = 0x0000E000;
IMM->io_regs[PORT_D].pdir = 0x00001000;
IMM->io_regs[PORT_D].psor = 0x0000F000;
2.
Assign a pointer to the SPI parameter RAM.
At location IMM + 0x89FC, SPI_BASE points to the SPI parameter RAM area,
which can be placed at any 64-byte aligned address in the dual-port RAM’s
general-purpose area (Banks 1–8 are located at IMM + 0x0 through IMM +
0x3FFF). In this example, assume that the SPI parameter RAM area resides in
Bank 8 at IMM + 0x3800.
IMM->pram.standard.spi[0] = 0x38;
IMM->pram.standard.spi[1] = 0x00;
3.
Configure RBASE and TBASE.
Assume that there is one RxBD followed by one TxBD at the beginning of the
dual-port RAM and the RxBD starts at IMM+0. Since each buffer descriptor is
8-bytes, the TxBD starts at IMM+8.
SPIPRAM->rbase = 0x0000;
SPIPRAM->tbase = 0x0008;
4.
Configure RFCR and TFCR.
SPIRAM->rfcr = 0x10;
SPIRAM->tfcr = 0x10;
5.
Configure MRBLR.
Assume the maximum bytes per receive buffer is 16 bytes.
SPIRAM->mrblr = 0x0010;
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11-7
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
a. Configure the RxBD and TxBD.
Since there is only one RxBD, it is the last BD in the table. Assume the buffer is
empty and an interrupt is generated after the buffer is filled.
RxTxBD->RxBD[0].bd_cstatus = 0xB000;
Since there is only one TxBD, it is the last BD in the table. Assuming the buffer
is ready, an interrupt is generated after the buffer is filled and the buffer
contains the last character of the message.
RxTxBD->TxBD[0].bd_cstatus = 0xB800;
Assume that five 8-bit characters must be transmitted.
RxTxBD->TxBD[0].bd_length = 0x0005;
RxTxBD->RxBD[0].bd_length = 0x0000; (optional)
Assume that the receive buffer is located at IMM + 0x1000 and the transmit
buffer is located at IMM + 0x2000.
RxTxBD->RxBD[0].bd_addr = 0xF0001000;
RxTxBD->TxBD[0].bd_addr = 0xF0002000;
b. Execute the INIT RX AND TX PARAMETERS opcode.
This opcode operates on the SPI sub-block code 10 to initialize the transmit and
receive parameters.
IMM->cpm_cpcr = 0x25410000;
c. Clear any previous events.
Write a 1 to clear SPI Event Register (SPIE) bits to clear previous events.
IMM->spi_spie = 0xFF;
d. Enable all possible interrupts.
Setting SPI Mask Register (SPIM) bits enables the corresponding interrupt.
IMM->spi_spim = 0x37;
e. Configure the SPI Mode Register (SPMODE).
Assume normal operation, master mode, SPI enabled, 8-bits per character, and
the fastest speed possible.
IMM->spi_spmode = 0x0370;
f. Start the transfer.
Setting the SPCOM[0]:STR bit causes the SPI to start transferring data to and
from the Tx/Rx buffers.
IMM->spi_spcom = 0x80;
11-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating the SPI as a Slave
11.5 Operating the SPI as a Slave
The state diagram in Figure 11-4 shows how the SPI transmits and receives characters as
a master. The SPI is enabled by setting SPMODE[7]:EN=1.
1.
Once the SPI is enabled, the start of data transfer is enabled: SPCOM[0]:STR=1.
2.
TxBD[R] is set to indicate that the buffer is ready for transmission. Once SPISEL
is asserted, the slave shifts data out on SPIMISO and shifts data in on SPIMOSI.
3.
The SPI transmits and receives data until the entire buffer is sent.
4.
If the current TxBD[L] is cleared, indicating that the current buffer does not
contain the last character of the message, the next TxBD is processed after data
from the current buffer is sent. The next TxBD[R] is set to indicate that the next
buffer is ready for transmission.
5.
If the current TxBD[L] is set, the current buffer contains the last character of the
message and transmission stops after the current buffer is sent. Then the SPI
sends ones as long as SPISEL remains asserted.
6.
Transmission resumes when SPCOM[0]:STR is set.
7.
Transmission stops when SPISEL is deasserted.
8.
Transmission resumes when SPISEL is reasserted.
SPI
Enabled
SPMODE[7]:EN=1
1
Transmit
Start
2
7
3
6
Transmit
Close
Buffer
and
Receive
5
4
8
Transmit
Stop
No Transmit
Data
Figure 11-4. SPI as Slave
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11-9
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
The following example shows the steps required to initialize the SPI as a slave. The
assumptions underlying this example are:
■
IMM is a pointer to the MSC8101 registers in the PowerPC system bus and
PowerPC local bus address spaces.
■
SPIPRAM is a pointer to the SPI parameter RAM.
■
RxTxBD is a pointer to the buffer descriptors RxBD and TxBD.
■
One RxBD and one TxBD are used.
The steps in initializing the SPI as a slave are as follows:
1.
Configure Port D for SPI.
In the slave mode, SPISEL, SPIMOSI, SPIMISO, and SPICLK are enabled. The
PPARD and PDIRD and PSORD are configured as follows:
IMM->io_regs[PORT_D].ppar = 0x0000F000;
IMM->io_regs[PORT_D].pdir = 0x00000000;
IMM->io_regs[PORT_D].psor = 0x0000F000;
2.
Assign a pointer to the SPI Parameter RAM.
At location IMM+0x89FC, SPI_BASE points to the SPI Parameter RAM area
which can be placed at any 64-byte aligned address in the dual-port RAM’s
general-purpose area (Banks 1-8 located at IMM+0x0 through IMM+0x3FFF).
In this example, assume that the SPI Parameter RAM area is located in Bank 8 at
IMM+0x3800.
IMM->pram.standard.spi[0] = 0x38;
IMM->pram.standard.spi[1] = 0x00;
3.
Configure RBASE and TBASE.
Assume that there is one RxBD followed by one TxBD at the beginning of the
dual-port RAM and the RxBD starts at IMM+0. Since each buffer descriptor is
8-bytes, the TxBD starts at IMM+8.
SPIPRAM->rbase = 0x0000;
SPIPRAM->tbase = 0x0008;
4.
Configure RFCR and TFCR.
Assume big-endian byte ordering is used.
SPIRAM->rfcr = 0x10;
SPIRAM->tfcr = 0x10;
11-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Operating the SPI as a Slave
5.
Configure MRBLR.
Assume the maximum bytes per receive buffer is 16 bytes.
SPIRAM->mrblr = 0x0010;
6.
Configure the RxBD and TxBD.
Since there is only one RxBD, it is the last BD in the table. Assume the buffer is
empty and an interrupt is generated after the buffer is filled.
RxTxBD->RxBD[0].bd_cstatus = 0xB000;
Since there is only one TxBD, it is the last BD in the table. Assume the buffer is
ready, an interrupt is generated after the buffer is filled and the buffer contains
the last character of the message.
RxTxBD->TxBD[0].bd_cstatus = 0xB800;
Assume five 8-bit characters need to be transmitted.
RxTxBD->TxBD[0].bd_length = 0x0005;
RxTxBD->RxBD[0].bd_length = 0x0000; (optional)
Assume the receive buffer is located at IMM+0x1000 and the transmit buffer is
located at IMM+0x2000.
RxTxBD->RxBD[0].bd_addr = 0xF0001000;
RxTxBD->TxBD[0].bd_addr = 0xF0002000;
7.
Execute the INIT RX AND TX PARAMETERS opcode.
This opcode operates on the SPI sub-block code 10 and page 9 to initialize the
transmit and receive parameters.
IMM->cpm_cpcr = 0x25410000;
8.
Clear any previous events.
Write a 1 to clear bits to clear previous events.
IMM->spi_spie = 0xFF;
9.
Enable all possible interrupts.
Setting SPIM bits enables the corresponding interrupt.
IMM->spi_spim = 0x37;
10. Configure SPMODE.
Assume normal operation, slave mode, SPI enabled, 8-bits per character, and the
fastest speed possible.
IMM->spi_spmode = 0x0170;
11. Start the data transfer to and from the Tx/Rx buffers by setting the
SPCOM[0]:STR bit.
IMM->spi_spcom = 0x80;
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11-11
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11.6 Responding to a Multi-master Error
A multi-master error occurs when the SPISEL pin is asserted while the SPI is configured as
a master because more than one SPI device is a bus master. To avoid this error, the SPISEL
must be disabled as shown in Section 11.4, Operating the SPI as a Master, on page 11-5.
Figure 11-5 shows how the SPI responds to a multi-master error. When the SPI is
operating as a master and the SPISEL is asserted, the SPI sets the SPIE[2]:MME bit to
indicate that a multi-master error has occurred. Then a maskable interrupt is issued to the
SC140 core. The SPI operation and output drivers are disabled. The SC140 core must
clear SPMODE[7]:EN before the SPI is used again. The SPIE[2]:MME bit must be
cleared by writing a 1 before the SPI can be re-enabled.
START
SPISEL is
asserted
SPIE[2]:MME bit is set to 1
SPI operation and
output drivers are
disabled.
Y
SPIM[MME]
=1?
N
Interrupt occurs
Enable SPI:
SPMODE[7]:EN = 0
SPIE[2]:MME = 1
END
Figure 11-5. SPI Response to Multi-Master Error
11-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Related Reading
11.7 Related Reading
MSC8101 User’s Guide (This manual)
Chapter 1, MSC8101 Overview Section 1.3.7, Communications Processor
Module (CPM), on page 1-10
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 7, Clocks
Chapter 19, Communications
Processor Module Overview
Chapter 22, Baud-Rate
Generators (BRGs)
Chapter 39, Serial Peripheral
Interface (SPI)
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11-13
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
11-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Chapter 12
EOnCE/JTAG
This chapter presents examples of how the EOnCE port can be used for system-level
debugging of real-time systems. The following examples are presented:
■
Reading/writing EOnCE registers through JTAG
■
Executing a single instruction through JTAG
■
Writing to the EOnCE Receive Register (ERCV)
■
Reading from the EOnCE Transmit Register (ETRSMT)
■
Downloading software
■
Reading/writing the trace buffer
■
Using the EOnCE to perform profiling functions
12.1 EOnCE/JTAG Basics
In order to access the EOnCE through JTAG, you need to know about the JTAG scan
paths, the JTAG instructions, the EOnCE control register value, and the CORE_CMD
value. This section gives you these basics, starting with the scan paths.
The host controller transitions from one Test Access Port (TAP) controller state to another
by taking one of the following scan paths:
■
Select-IR JTAG scan path. Used when the host sends the JTAG instructions shown
in Table 12-2 to the MSC8101.
■
Select-DR JTAG scan path. Used when the host sends data to the MSC8101 or
receives status information from the MSC8101.
Figure 12-1 shows the TAP controller state machine, and Table 12-1 shows the states
associated with each scan path. The Test Mode Select (TMS) pin determines whether an
instruction register scan or a data register scan is performed. At power-up or during
normal operation of the host, the TAP is forced into the Test-Logic-Reset state by driving
TMS high for five or more Test Clock (TCK) cycles. When test access is required, TMS is set
low to cause the TAP to exit the Test-Logic-Reset and move through the appropriate
states. From the Run-Test/Idle state, an instruction register scan or a data register scan can
MSC8101 User’s Guide
12-1
EOnCE/JTAG
be issued to transition through the appropriate states. The first action that occurs when
either block is entered is a Capture operation. The Capture-DR state captures the data into
the selected serial data path, and the Capture-IR state captures status information into the
instruction register. The Exit state follows the Shift state when shifting of instructions or
data is complete. The Shift and Exit states follow the Capture state so that test data or
status information can be shifted out and new data shifted in. Latches in the selected scan
path hold their present state during the Capture and Shift operations. The Update state
causes the latches to update with the new data that is shifted into the selected scan path.
TMS=1
Test-Logic-Reset
TMS=0
TMS=0
TMS=1
Select-DR-Scan
Run-Test/Idle
TMS=1
Select-IR-Scan
TMS=0
TMS=1
TMS=0
TMS=1
Capture-DR
TMS=0
Capture-IR
TMS=0
TMS=0
Shift-DR
TMS=1
Exit1-DR
Exit1-IR
TMS=0
TMS=0
Pause-DR
TMS=0
TMS=0
Pause-IR
TMS=1
TMS=1
TMS=0
Exit2-DR
TMS=1
Exit2-IR
TMS=1
Update-DR
TMS=1
TMS=1
Update-IR
TMS=1
TMS=0
Figure 12-1. TAP Controller State Machine
12-2
TMS=0
Shift-IR
TMS=1
TMS=0
TMS=1
MSC8101 User’s Guide
TMS=0
TMS=1
EOnCE/JTAG Basics
Table 12-1. JTAG Scan Paths
Select-DR Scan Path
Select-IR Scan Path
Select-DR_SCAN
Select-IR_SCAN
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
Shift-DR
Shift-IR
Exit1-DR
Exit1-IR
Update-DR
Update-IR
12.1.1 Instructions
The host sends JTAG instructions to the MSC8101 least significant bit first. As Figure
12-2 shows, the TDI pin inputs the instruction into the MSC8101 and is sampled on the
rising edge of TCK.
Boundary Scan Register
Bypass Register
TDI
Identification Register
M
U
X
EOnCE Logic
M
U
X
TDO
M
Instruction Apply and Decode Register
4
TRST
3
2
1
MU
UX
X
0
5–Bit Instruction Register
TMS
TCK
TAP Controller
Figure 12-2. Test Logic Diagram Showing the Five-Bit Instruction Register
Table 12-2 describes the JTAG instructions and lists the bit values of the five-bit
instruction register for each instruction (B0–B4, with B0 as the least significant bit). In the
MSC8101, there is only one EOnCE module.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-3
EOnCE/JTAG
Table 12-2. JTAG Instructions
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
Instruction
Description
0
0
0
0
0
EXTEST
Selects the Boundary Scan Register. Forces a predictable
internal state while performing external boundary scan
operations.
0
0
0
0
1
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
Selects the Boundary Scan Register. Provides a snapshot
of system data and control signals on the rising edge of
TCK in the Capture-DR controller state. Initializes the BSR
output cells prior to selection of EXTEST or CLAMP.
0
0
0
1
0
IDCODE
Selects the ID Register. Allows the manufacturer, part
number and version of a component to be identified.
0
0
0
1
1
CLAMP
Selects the Bypass Register. Allows signals driven from the
component pins to be determined from the Boundary Scan
Register.
0
0
1
0
0
HIGHZ
Selects the Bypass Register. Disables all device output
drivers and forces the output to high impedance (tri-state)
as per the IEEE specification.
0
0
1
1
0
ENABLE_EONCE
Selects the EOnCE registers. Allows you to perform system
debug functions. Before this instruction is selected, the
CHOOSE_EONCE instruction is activated to define which
EOnCE is going to be activated.
0
0
1
1
1
DEBUG_REQUEST
Selects the EOnCE registers. Forces the MSC8101 into the
debug mode of operation. In addition, ENABLE_EONCE is
active to allow system debug functions to be performed.
Before this instruction is selected, the CHOOSE_EONCE
instruction is activated to define which EOnCE is going to
request debug mode in a system with multiple MSC8101
devices.
0
1
0
0
0
RUNBIST
Selects the BIST registers. Allows you to generate a built-in
self-test for checking the system circuitry.
0
1
0
0
1
CHOOSE_EONCE
Selects the EOnCE registers. Allows you to operate
multiple devices. This instruction is activated before the
ENABLE_EONCE and DEBUG_REQUEST instructions.
0
1
1
0
0
ENABLE_SCAN
Selects the DFT registers. Allows the DFT chain registers
to be loaded by a known value or examined in the Shift_DR
controller state.
0
1
1
0
1
LOAD_GPR
Allows the component manufacturer to gain access to test
features of the device.
0
1
1
1
0
LOAD_SPR
Allows the component manufacturer to gain access to test
features of the device.
1
1
1
1
1
BYPASS
Selects the Bypass register. Creates a shift register path
from TDI to the Bypass Register and to TDO. Enhances
test efficiency when a component other than the MSC8101
becomes the device under test.
12.1.2 Executing a JTAG Instruction
This section presents an example of how the host takes the instruction register scan path to
send the JTAG instruction DEBUG_REQUEST (00111) to the MSC8101. JTAG
12-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
EOnCE/JTAG Basics
instructions are sent least significant bit first on TDI. If the TAP controller is in the
Run-Test/Idle state, DEBUG_REQUEST is issued via JTAG, as shown in Figure 12-3.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
TCK
TMS
TDI
1
1
1
0
0
Figure 12-3. Executing DEBUG_REQUEST
The following sequence occurs at the rising edge of each TCK cycle:
1.
TMS
= 1 to enter the Select-DR state.
2.
TMS
= 1 to enter the Select-IR state.
3.
TMS
= 0 to enter the Capture-IR state.
4.
TMS
= 0 to enter the Shift-IR state.
5.
TMS
= 0 to stay in the Shift-IR state and TDI = 1.
6.
TMS
= 0 to stay in the Shift-IR state and TDI = 1.
7.
TMS
= 0 to stay in the Shift-IR state and TDI = 1.
8.
TMS
= 0 to stay in the Shift-IR state and TDI = 0.
9.
TMS
= 1 to enter the Exit1-IR state and TDI = 0.
10.
TMS
= 1 to enter the Update-IR state.
11.
TMS
= 0 to return to the Run-Test/Idle state.
12.1.3 Registers
Two registers of special concern to the EOnCE/JTAG programmer are the EOnCE
Control Register (ECR) and the Core Command Register (CORE_CMD). The 16-bit
write-only ECR receives its serial data from the TDI input signal. It is accessible only via
JTAG. The host writes to the ECR to specify the direction of the data transfer with the
selected register and additional control bits. Table 12-3 shows the ECR bit definitions,
and Table 12-4 summarizes the EOnCE registers, which are either a source or destination
for a read or write operation.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-5
EOnCE/JTAG
Table 12-3. EOnce Control Register (ECR) Bits
Name
15–10
Settings
Description
Reserved. Write to zero for future compatibility.
9
R/W
8
GO
Specifies the direction of a data transfer.
0
Write the data into the
register specified by REGSEL
1
Read the data in the register
specified by REGSEL
0
Inactive
1
Execute one instruction
When EX is set, the SC140 core leaves Debug
mode and resumes normal operation after
executing the read or write command.
0
Remain in debug mode
1
Exit debug mode
Defines which register is the source or destination
for the read or write operation.
See Table 12-4 for a the EOnCE
registers’ address offsets.
An instruction written to the CORE_CMD register
executes and the core remains in Debug mode
unless the EX bit is set. If EX is set, the system exits
Debug mode after the instruction executes.
When a register other than the CORE_CMD
register is written or read, the next instruction in the
pipeline executes.
7
6–0
EX
REGSEL
All the EOnCE registers are accessible from the core and are memory-mapped. Therefore,
each register has its own address in the memory space. The memory address of an EOnCE
register is defined by adding four times the register address offset from the address offset
shown in Table 12-4 to the EOnCE register base address defined for each SOC derivative.
The address offset is from the EOnCE base address 0x00EFFE00. For example, the
memory address for the LSB part of register ERCV is 58 + rba_via, where rba_via is
the derivative dependent register base address. For details, consult the SC140 DSP Core
Reference Manual.
Table 12-4. EOnce Register Summary
Address
Offset
Mnemonic
Width
00
ESR
EOnCE Status Register
32
01
EMCR
EOnCE Monitor and Control Register
32
02
ERCV
EOnCE Receive Register LSB
64
03
04
EOnCE Receive Register MSB
ETRSMT
05
12-6
Register
EOnCE Transmit Register LSB
64
EOnCE Transmit Register MSB
06
EE_CTRL
EOnCE Pins Control Register
16
07
PC_EXCP
Exception PC Register
32
08
PC_NEXT
PC of next execution set
32
09
PC_LAST
PC of last execution set
32
MSC8101 User’s Guide
EOnCE/JTAG Basics
Table 12-4. EOnce Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Offset
Mnemonic
0A
PC_DETECT
...
Reserved
10
Register
Width
PC Breakpoint Detection Register
32
EDCA0_CTRL
EDCA 0 Control Register
16
11
EDCA1_CTRL
EDCA 1 Control Register
16
12
EDCA2_CTRL
EDCA 2 Control Register
16
13
EDCA3_CTRL
EDCA 3 Control Register
16
14
EDCA4_CTRL
EDCA 4 Control Register
16
15
EDCA5_CTRL
EDCA 5 Control Register
16
...
Reserved
18
EDCA0_REFA
EDCA 0 Reference Value A
32
19
EDCA1_REFA
EDCA 1 Reference Value A
32
1A
EDCA2_REFA
EDCA 2 Reference Value A
32
1B
EDCA3_REFA
EDCA 3 Reference Value A
32
1C
EDCA4_REFA
EDCA 4 Reference Value A
32
1D
EDCA5_REFA
EDCA 5 Reference Value A
32
...
Reserved
20
EDCA0_REFB
EDCA 0 Reference Value B
32
21
EDCA0_REFB
EDCA 0 Reference Value B
32
22
EDCA0_REFB
EDCA 0 Reference Value B
32
23
EDCA0_REFB
EDCA 0 Reference Value B
32
24
EDCA0_REFB
EDCA 0 Reference Value B
32
25
EDCA0_REFB
EDCA 0 Reference Value B
32
...
Reserved
30
EDCA0_MASK
EDCA 0 Mask Register
32
31
EDCA0_MASK
EDCA 1 Mask Register
32
32
EDCA0_MASK
EDCA 2 Mask Register
32
33
EDCA0_MASK
EDCA 3 Mask Register
32
34
EDCA0_MASK
EDCA 4 Mask Register
32
35
EDCA0_MASK
EDCA 5 Mask Register
32
...
Reserved
38
EDCD_CTRL
EDCD Control Register
16
39
EDCD_REF
EDCD Reference Value
32
3A
EDCD_MASK
EDCD Mask Register
32
...
Reserved
40
ECNT_CNTRL
Counter Control Register
16
EOnCE/JTAG
12-7
EOnCE/JTAG
Table 12-4. EOnce Register Summary (Continued)
Address
Offset
Mnemonic
Register
Width
41
ECNT_VAL
Counter Value Register
32
42
ECNT_EXT
Extension Counter Value
32
...
Reserved
48
ESEL_CTRL
Selector Control Register
8
49
ESEL_DM
Selector DM Mask
16
4A
ESEL_DI
Selector DI Mask
16
4B
Reserved
4C
ESEL_ETB
Selector Enable TB Mask
16
4D
ESEL_DTB
Selector Disable TB Mask
16
...
Reserved
50
TB_CTRL
Trace Buffer Control Register
8
51
TB_RD
Trace Buffer Read Pointer
16
52
TB_WR
Trace Buffer Write Pointer
16
53
TB_BUFF
Trace Buffer
32
...
Reserved
7E
CORE_CMD
Core Command Register
48
7F
NOREG
No register selected
The external host writes the instruction to be executed by the SC140 core into the
CORE_CMD register. The SC140 core executes the instruction without leaving Debug
mode unless ECR[EXIT] = 1, in which case the SC140 core exits Debug mode after the
instruction executes. Figure 12-4 shows the instruction format of the 48-bit CORE_CMD
register. The bits in this format are defined as follows:
■
Word Length (bits 1–0). Specify the instruction word length. Valid CORE_CMD
word lengths are one, two, or three words, as shown here:
Word Length Bits
■
12-8
Description
0
0
Not supported
0
1
One-word instruction
1
0
Two-word instruction
1
1
Three-word instruction
Prefix Bits (bits 3–2). Derive from bits 5 and 7 of the Prefix1 word. The
CORE_CMD register does not use the other bits of the Prefix1 word.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
EOnCE/JTAG Basics
■
Opcode (bits 19–4). Derive from the instruction opcode. These bits are reversed in
order from the instruction opcode value. That is, bits 15–0 of the instruction opcode
are reversed as bits 0–15 of the CORE_CMD register.
■
Immediate A (bits 33–20). Derive from the instruction immediate A value. These
bits are reversed in order from the instruction immediate A value. The two most
significant bits of the instruction immediate A value are not used. Therefore, bits
15–0 of the instruction immediate A are reversed as bits 0–13 of the CORE_CMD
register.
■
Immediate B (bits 47–34). Derive from the instruction immediate B value. These
bits are reversed in order from the instruction immediate B value. The two most
significant bits of the instruction immediate B value are not used. Therefore, bits
15–0 of the instruction immediate B are reversed as bits 0–13 of the CORE_CMD
register.
CORE_CMD Instruction Format
Bit
Description
47–34
ImmB[0–13]
33–20
ImmA[0–13]
19–4
Opcode[0–15]
3–2
Prefix1[5, 7]
1–0
Length Control
Instruction Format
Prefix1[15–0]
Prefix2[15–0]
Opcode[15–0]
ImmB[15–0]
ImmA[15–0]
Figure 12-4. CORE_CMD Instruction Format
EOnCE/JTAG
12-9
EOnCE/JTAG
12.1.3.1 CORE_CMD Example 1
Instruction:
move.l #0xdead,d0
Opcode:
0x30C0 3EAD 8000
CORE_CMD:
0x0002 D5F0 30C3
ImmA
ImmB
Opcode
Prefix1[5, 7]
Length
3 words
0x8000
0x3EAD
0x30C0
ImmA[15:0]
1000 0000 0000 0000
ImmB[15–0]
0011 1110 1010 1101
Opcode[15–0]
0011 0000 1100 0000
ImmA[0:13]
0000 0000 0000 00
ImmB[0–13]
1011 0101 0111 11
Opcode[0–15]
0000 0011 0000 1100
00
11
Prefix1[5, 7]
Length
Note: The 48-bit CORE_CMD register is the concatenation of the bits in boldface.
12.1.3.2 CORE_CMD Example 2
Instruction:
move.l (r1)+,d1
Opcode:
0x5199
CORE_CMD:
0x0000 0009 98A1
ImmA
ImmB
Opcode
0x5199
1 word
Opcode[15–0]
0101 0001 1001 1001
ImmA[0–13]
0000 0000 0000 00
ImmB[0–13]
0000 0000 0000 00
Opcode[0–15]
1001 1001 1000 1010
00
01
Prefix1[5, 7]
Length
Note: The 48-bit CORE_CMD register is the concatenation of the bits in boldface.
12.1.3.3 CORE_CMD Example 3
Instruction:
move.2l d0:d1,(r0)+
Opcode:
0xC018
CORE_CMD:
0x0000 0001 8031
ImmA
ImmB
Opcode
0xC018
1 word
Opcode[15–0]
1100 0000 0001 1000
ImmA[0–13]
0000 0000 0000 00
ImmB[0–13]
0000 0000 0000 00
Opcode[0–15]
0001 1000 0000 0011
Note: The 48-bit CORE_CMD register is the concatenation of the bits in boldface.
12-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
00
01
Writing EOnCE Registers Through JTAG
12.1.3.4 CORE_CMD Example 4
Instruction:
move.l #$c0ffee,d8
Opcode:
0x3820 A000 30E0 3FEE 80C0
CORE_CMD:
0x0301 DFF0 70CB
ImmA
ImmB
Opcode
Prefix1
Length
0x3820
3 words
0x80C0
0x3FEE
0x30E0
ImmA[15–0]
1000 0000 1100 0000
ImmB[15–0]
0011 1111 1110 1110
Opcode[15–0]
0011 0000 1110 0000
Prefix1[5]
1
Prefix1[7]
0
ImmA[0–13]
0000 0011 0000 00
ImmB[0–13]
0111 0111 1111 11
Opcode[0–15]
0000 0111 0000 1100
Prefix1[5, [7]
10
11
Note: The 48-bit CORE_CMD register is the concatenation of the bits in boldface.
12.2 Writing EOnCE Registers Through JTAG
This section presents an example of how the host writes to the SC140 core 32-bit Event
Counter Value Register (ECNT_VAL) via JTAG. This example shows how an EOnCE
register can be written via JTAG. This general procedure applies to writing all the writable
EOnCE registers:
1.
Select-IR: CHOOSE_EONCE instruction to select EOnCE device.
2.
Select-DR: ‘1’ since the MSC8101 has only one EOnCE device.
3.
Select-IR: ENABLE_EONCE instruction to allow you to perform system debug
functions.
4.
Select-DR: Write 0x0041 into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 0 to perform a write access.
ECR[GO] = 0 to remain inactive.
ECR[REGSEL] = 1000001 to select the ECNT_VAL register.
5.
Select-DR: Write the 32-bit ECNT_VAL data on TDI.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-11
EOnCE/JTAG
Host
MSC8101
CHOOSE_EONCE
Shift in ‘1’ on TDI
MSC8101 EOnCE
device is selected.
ENABLE_EONCE
EOnCE is enabled and
system debug functions
can now be performed.
Write into ECR:
Write, no Go, ECNT_VAL
ECNT_VAL register is
selected.
Write 32-bit data into
ECNT_VAL
Figure 12-5. Writing EOnCE Registers
12.3 Reading EOnCE Registers Through JTAG
This section presents an example of the host reads from the SC140 core 32-bit Event
Counter Value Register (ECNT_VAL) via JTAG. This example shows how an EOnCE
register is read through JTAG. This general procedure applies to reading all the readable
EOnCE registers:
1.
Select-IR: CHOOSE_EONCE instruction to select EOnCE device.
2.
Select-DR: ‘1’ since the MSC8101 has only one EOnCE device.
3.
Select-IR: ENABLE_EONCE instruction to allow you to perform system debug
functions.
4.
Select-DR: Write 0x0241 into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 1 to perform a read access.
ECR[GO] = 0 to remain inactive.
ECR[REGSEL] = 1000001 to select the ECNT_VAL register.
5.
12-12
Select-DR: Read the 32-bit ECNT_VAL data on TDO.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Executing a Single Instruction Through JTAG
Host
MSC8101
CHOOSE_EONCE
MSC8101’s EOnCE
device is selected.
Shift in ‘1’ on TDI
EOnCE is enabled and
system debug functions
can now be performed.
ENABLE_EONCE
ECNT_VAL register is
selected.
Write into ECR:
Read, no Go, ECNT_VAL
Read 32-bit data from
ECNT_VAL
Figure 12-6. Reading EOnCE Registers
12.4 Executing a Single Instruction Through JTAG
This section presents an example of how the host writes an instruction into the
CORE_CMD register for the SC140 core to execute.
1.
Select-IR: CHOOSE_EONCE instruction to select EOnCE device.
2.
Select-DR: ‘1’ since the MSC8101 has only one EOnCE device.
3.
Select-IR: DEBUG_REQUEST instruction to generate a debug request to the
MSC8101 and to allow the user to perform system debug functions.
4.
Select-DR: Write 0x017E into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 0 to perform a write access.
ECR[GO] = 1 to execute the instruction.
ECR[REGSEL] = 1111110 to select the CORE_CMD register.
5.
Select-DR: Write 48-bit CORE_CMD data to move 0xdead into data register
d0.
move.l #$dead,d0
The CORE_CMD value is 0x0002 D5F0 30C3. See Section 12.1.3.1,
CORE_CMD Example 1, on page 12-10 for information on calculating this value.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-13
EOnCE/JTAG
Host
MSC8101
CHOOSE_EONCE
Shift in ‘1’ on TDI
MSC8101’s EOnCE
device is selected.
DEBUG_REQUEST
Debug request is
granted and system
debug functions can now
be performed.
Write into ECR:
Write, Go, CORE_CMD
CORE_CMD register is
selected.
Write 48-bit data into
CORE_CMD
The core executes the
instruction written
into the CORE_CMD
register.
Figure 12-7. Executing a Single Instruction Through JTAG
12.5 Writing to the EOnCE Receive Register (ERCV)
This section presents an example of how to write to the ERCV register through JTAG.
1.
Select-IR: CHOOSE_EONCE instruction to select EOnCE device.
2.
Select-DR: ‘1’ since the MSC8101 has only one EOnCE device.
3.
Select-IR: ENABLE_EONCE instruction to enable the EOnCE registers.
4.
Select-DR: Write 0x0002 into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 0 to perform a write access.
ECR[GO] = 0 to remain inactive.
ECR[REGSEL] = 0000010 to select the ERCV register.
5.
Select-DR: Write the 64-bit ERCV data on TDI. After the most significant bit of
the ERCV is written, the ESR[RCV] bit is set to indicate that the host has
finished writing to the ERCV. The MSC8101 can now access the ERCV. The
ESR[RCV] bit is cleared when the MSC8101 reads the most significant bit.
6.
The host can poll the EE3 pin when EE_CTRL[EE3DEF] = 01 to indicate that the
SC140 core has read the ERCV register.
12-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Reading From the EOnCE Transmit Register (ETRSMT)
Host
MSC8101
CHOOSE_EONCE
Shift in ‘1’ on TDI
MSC8101 EOnCE
device is selected.
ENABLE_EONCE
EOnCE is enabled and
system debug functions
can now be performed.
Write into ECR:
Write, no Go, ERCV
ERCV register is
selected.
Write 64-bit data into
ERCV
RCV bit in ESR is set
to indicate host has
finished writing to the
ERCV register.
SC140 core can now read the
ERCV. LSB is read first.
RCV bit is cleared after
MSB is read.
Figure 12-8. Writing to ERCV
12.6 Reading From the EOnCE Transmit Register (ETRSMT)
This section presents an example of how to read from the ETRSMT register through
JTAG.
1.
Select-IR: CHOOSE_EONCE instruction to select EOnCE device.
2.
Select-DR: ‘1’ since the MSC8101 has only one EOnCE device.
3.
Select-IR: ENABLE_EONCE instruction to enable the EOnCE registers.
4.
The host can poll the EE4 pin when EE_CTRL[EE4DEF] = 01 to indicate that the
SC140 core has written the ETRSMT register.
5.
Select-DR: Write 0x0204 into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 1 to perform a read access.
ECR[GO] = 0 to remain inactive.
ECR[REGSEL] = 0000100 to select the ETRSMT register.
6.
Select-DR: Read the 64-bit ETRSMT data on TDO.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-15
EOnCE/JTAG
Host
MSC8101
CHOOSE_EONCE
Shift in ‘1’ on TDI
MSC8101 EOnCE
device is selected.
ENABLE_EONCE
EOnCE is enabled and
system debug functions
can now be performed.
Write into ECR:
Read, no Go, ETRSMT
ETRSMT register is
selected.
Read 64-bit ETRSMT
data
ESR[]:TRSMT bit is set to indicate
that the SC140 core has finished
writing the MSB of the ETRSMT
register. The TRSMT bit
is cleared after ETRSMT is read.
The host can now read the
ETRSMT. The TRSMT bit is cleared
after ETRSMT is read.
Figure 12-9. Reading From ETRSMT
12.7 Downloading Software
This section presents an example showing how software is downloaded from the host to
the DSP via JTAG.
1.
Select-IR: CHOOSE_EONCE instruction to select EOnCE device.
2.
Select-DR: ‘1’ since the MSC8101 has only one EOnCE device.
3.
Select-IR: DEBUG_REQUEST instruction to generate a debug request to the
MSC8101 and to allow you to perform system debug functions.
4.
Select-DR: Write 0x0002 into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 0 to perform a write access.
ECR[GO] = 0 to remain inactive.
ECR[REGSEL] = 0000010 to select the ERCV register.
5.
Select-DR: Write the 64-bit ERCV data on TDI.
6.
Select-DR: Write 0x017E into the ECR to perform the following operation:
12-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Downloading Software
ECR[R/W] = 0 to perform a write access.
ECR[GO] = 1 to execute the instruction.
ECR[REGSEL] = 1111110 to select the CORE_CMD register.
7.
Select-DR: Write 48-bit CORE_CMD data to move data from the lower 32-bits
of the ERCV to an internal register. Assuming that address register r1 points to
0xEFFE08, the ERCV address, the following command moves the ERCV data
into data register d1:
move.l (r1)+,d1
The CORE_CMD value is 0x0000 0009 98A1. See Section 12.1.3.2,
CORE_CMD Example 2, on page 12-10 for information on calculating this value.
8.
Select-DR: Write 0x017E into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 0 to perform a write access.
ECR[GO] = 1 to execute the instruction.
ECR[REGSEL] = 1111110 to select the CORE_CMD register.
9.
Select-DR: Write 48-bit CORE_CMD data to move data from the upper 32-bits
of the ERCV to an internal register. The following command moves the upper
32-bits of ERCV data into data register d0:
move.l (r1)+,d0
The CORE_CMD value is 0x0000 0009 90A1.
After the move operation executes, the r1 pointer must be reinitialized to
0xEFFE08 so that it points to ERCV before the next iteration.
10. Select-DR: Write 0x017E into the ECR to perform the following operation:
ECR[R/W] = 0 to perform a write access.
ECR[GO] = 1 to execute the instruction.
ECR[REGSEL] = 1111110 to select the CORE_CMD register.
11. Select-DR: Write 48-bit CORE_CMD data to move data from address registers
d0 and d1 to memory. Assuming that address register r0 points to the starting
memory address, the following command moves the ERCV data into memory:
move.2l d0:d1,(r0)+
The CORE_CMD value is 0x0000 0001 8031. See Section 12.1.3.3,
CORE_CMD Example 3, on page 12-10 for information on calculating this value.
12. Repeat steps 4 – 11 until all data and code are downloaded.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-17
EOnCE/JTAG
Host
MSC8101
CHOOSE_EONCE
Shift in ‘1’ on TDI
MSC8101 EOnCE
device is selected.
DEBUG_REQUEST
Debug request is
granted and system
debug functions can
now be performed.
Write into ECR:
Write, no Go, ERCV
ERCV register is
selected.
RCV bit in ESR is
set to indicate host
has finished writing to
the ERCV register.
Write 64-bit data into
ERCV
Write into ECR:
Write, Go, CORE_CMD
CORE_CMD register
is selected.
Write 48-bit data into
CORE_CMD
move.l (r1)+,d1
The lower portion of
ERCV is moved to
register d1.
Write into ECR:
Write, Go, CORE_CMD
CORE_CMD register
is selected.
Write 48-bit data into
CORE_CMD
move.l (r1)+,d0
Reinitialize r1
The upper portion of
ERCV is moved to
register d0.
Write into ECR:
Write, Go, CORE_CMD
CORE_CMD register
is selected.
Write 48-bit data into
CORE_CMD
move.2l d0:d1,(r0)+
ERCV is moved to
memory.
Figure 12-10. Software Downloading
12-18
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Core can now read the
ERCV. LSB is read first.
RCV bit is cleared after
MSB is read.
Writing and Reading the Trace Buffer
12.8 Writing and Reading the Trace Buffer
This section presents an example that shows how the trace buffer is written and read.
Table 12-5 shows the trace buffer register set:
Table 12-5. Trace Buffer Register Set
Register
Description
TB_CTRL
Trace Buffer Control Register
TB_RD
Trace Buffer Read Pointer
TB_WR
Trace Buffer Write Pointer
TB_BUFF
Trace Buffer Virtual Register
1.
Enable the trace buffer by setting TB_CTRL[TEN] = 1. Both TB_WR and
TB_RD are cleared when the trace buffer is enabled.
2.
Select trace mode. Possible trace modes are:
•
trace change-of-flow instructions
•
trace addresses of interrupt vectors
•
trace issue of execution sets
•
trace MARK instruction
•
trace hardware loops
For this example, setting TB_CTRL[TEXEC] = 1 traces any execution set.
3.
The trace buffer is written.
The addresses of every issued execution set is written to TB_BUFF, and TB_WR
increments after every trace.
4.
Read TB_BUFF when the trace is buffer is full or disabled.
The ESR[TBFULL] flag is set when the trace buffer is full or when 2033 entries
(2 KB entry size minus 15) are written. Each entry is 32-bits long. When the end
of memory is reached, the trace buffer wraps around to address zero and
continues unless EMCR[TBFDM] is set. When this bit is set, the system enters
Debug mode when the trace buffer is full. Disabling the trace buffer by clearing
TB_CTRL[TEN] allows you to read the contents of the TB_BUFF.
5.
Wait three cycles before reading the trace buffer.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-19
EOnCE/JTAG
Because of the pre-fetch mechanism, a three-cycle delay must occur from the
time the trace buffer is disabled until the first read access to the trace buffer is
issued.
12.9 Using EE0 to Enter Debug Mode
In the previous examples, the JTAG instruction DEBUG_REQUEST is used to enter
Debug mode. Another method of entering Debug mode is to program the EE0 pin to cause
the SC140 core to enter Debug mode after core reset. Holding EE0 at logic 1 during and
after core reset forces the SC140 core to enter Debug mode.
12.10 Counting Core Cycles
Core cycles are counted using the event counter, event detection unit, and event selector.
This example shows how you can use the EOnCE port to perform program profiling. The
program executes and when the start address is detected, the counter is enabled and the
core clocks are counted. When the final address is detected, a debug exception is
generated. The interrupt service routine disables the counter and calculates the number of
clocks between the start and final addresses. The event counter, event detection, and event
selector register sets are shown in Table 12-6.
Table 12-6. Event Register Sets
Name
Event Counter
Event Detection Channel Address
Event Selector
Description
ECNT_CTRL
Event Counter Register
ECNT_VAL
Event Counter Value Register
ECNT_EXT
Extension Counter Value Register
EDCAi_CTRL
EDCA Control Register
EDCAi_REFA
EDCA Reference Value Register A
EDCAi_REFB
EDCA Reference Value Register B
EDCAi_MASK
EDCA Mask Register
ESEL_CTRL
Event Selector Control Register
ESEL_DM
Event Selector Mask Debug Mode Register
ESEL_DI
Event Selector Mask Debug Exception Register
ESEL_ETBL
Event Selector Mask Enable Trace Register
ESEL_DTB
Event Selector Mask Disable Trace Register
1.
Initialize the event counter value. Set ECNT_VAL to an initial value of
0xFFFFFFFF.
2.
Specify what needs to be counted. Configure the event counter to count core
clocks by setting ECNT_CTRL[ECNTWHAT] = 1100.
12-20
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Counting Core Cycles
3.
Enable the event counter. The event counter is disabled but hardware enables it
when EDCA #0 detects an event because ECNT_CTRL[ECNTEN] = 0001.
In this example, the event counter is enabled when EDCA #0 detects the starting
address.
4.
Enable the event detection channels. Set EDCA0_CTRL[EDCAEN] = 1111 and
EDCA1_CTRL[EDCAEN] = 1111 to enable the EDCA.
5.
Set the reference values to be compared by the event detection channel
comparators. Set EDCA0_REFA to the start address and EDCA1_REFA to the
final address of the program.
6.
Specify which condition generates an event detection. Set EDCA0_CTRL[CS] =
00 so only comparator A condition is detected and EDCA0_CTRL[CACS] = 00
to select equal to EDCA0_REFA.
Set EDCA1_CTRL[CS] = 00 so only the comparator A condition is detected and
EDCA1_CTRL[CACS] = 00 to select equal to EDCA1_REFA.
7.
Specify the access type and the bus to be sampled for comparison by comparator
A. Read accesses are detected by setting EDCA0_CTRL[ATS] = 00 and
EDCA1_CTRL[ATS] = 00. When EDCA0_CTRL[BS] = 11 and
EDCA1_CTRL[BS] = 11, the program counter is compared to reference
registers at every execution of an execution set.
8.
Specify which source causes a debug exception. Set ESEL_DI[EDCA1] = 1 so
that the detection of the final address causes a debug exception.
9.
Configure the event selector for debug exception.
A debug exception is reached upon detection of the event by any one of the
sources selected on the ESEL_DI register by setting ESEL_CTRL[SELDI] = 0.
In this example, a debug exception is reached when EDCA #1 reads the final
address of the program.
10. Service the debug exception. The interrupt service routine for the debug
exception disables the event counter by setting ECNT_CTRL[ECNTEN] =
0000, reads the ECNT_VAL register, and subtracts the number of cycles of the
interrupt service routine overhead.
EOnCE/JTAG
12-21
EOnCE/JTAG
When the event counter counts the core clock, the memory contention and
external wait state clocks are not counted.
12.11 Related Reading
StarCore SC140 Core Reference Manual
Chapter 4, Emulation and
Debug (EOnCE)
MSC8101 Reference Manual
Chapter 17, JTAG and IEEE
1149.1 Test Access Port
12-22
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Appendix A
Programming Reference
This reference for programmers includes a table summarizing the routing of programmable
interrupt controller (PIC) interrupts, a table showing interrupt source priority levels for the
internal and external SIU-CPM interrupt controllers (SIC and SIC_EXT), a table showing the
SIC and SIC_EXT interrupt vectors, and programming sheets for key programmable
MSC8101 registers, excluding the CPM registers. For information on the MSC8101 interrupt
controllers, refer to the chapter on the interrupt scheme in the MSC8101 Programmer’s
Reference Manual. The programming sheets are grouped in the order shown in Table A-1.
Each sheet has space to write in the value of each bit and the hexadecimal value for each
register. You can photocopy these sheets and reuse them for each application development
project. For details on the instruction set of the SC140 core, see the SC140 Core Reference
Manual, which is available at the web site listed on the back cover of this manual.
■
See Table A-2, PIC Interrupt Vectors, on page A-2
■
See Table A-3, SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Source Priority, on page A-4.
■
See Table A-4, SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Vectors, on page A-6.
Table A-1. Guide to MSC8101 Programming Sheets
Module
System
Interface Unit
(SIU)
Memory
Controller
Programming Sheet
Page
Bus Configuration Register (BCR)
page A-8
Periodic Interrupt Status and Control Register (PISCR)
page A-9
SIU Module Configuration Register (SIUMCR), Sheet 1
page A-10
SIU Module Configuration Register (SIUMCR), Sheet 2
page A-11
System Protection Control Register (SYPCR)
page A-12
Timer Counter Status and Control Register (TMCNTSC)
page A-13
Base Registers (BR[0–7, 10, 11])
page A-14
Option Registers (OR[0–7, 10, 11]), GPCM mode
page A-15
Option Registers (OR[0–7, 10, 11]), SDRAM mode
page A-16
Option Registers (OR[0–7, 10, 11]), UPM mode
page A-17
Machine A/B/C Mode Registers (MAMR, MBMR, MCMR)
page A-18
60x Bus SDRAM Mode Register (PSDMR), Sheet 1
page A-19
60x Bus SDRAM Mode Register (PSDMR), Sheet 2
page A-20
MSC8101 User’s Guide
A-1
Programming Reference
Table A-1. Guide to MSC8101 Programming Sheets (Continued)
Module
Programming Sheet
Interrupt
Scheme
Direct Memory
Access (DMA)
Enhanced
Filter
Coprocessor
(EFCOP)
Host Interface
(HDI16)
Page
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register A (ELIRA)
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register B (ELIRB)
page A-21
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register C (ELIRC)
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register D (ELIRD)
page A-22
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register E (ELIRE)
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register F (ELIRF)
page A-23
SIU Interrupt Configuration Register (SICR/SICR_EXT)
SIU External Interrupt Control Register (SIEXR/SIEXR_EXT)
page A-24
Buffer Attributes Parameter (BD_ATTR), Sheet 1
page A-25
Buffer Attributes Parameter (BD_ATTR), Sheet 2
page A-26
DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCR[0–15]), Sheet 1
page A-27
DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCR[0–15]), Sheet 2
page A-27
EFCOP ALU Control Register (FACR)
EFCOP Decimation/Channel Count Register (FDCH)
page A-29
EFCOP Control Register (FCTL), Sheet 1
page A-30
EFCOP Control Register (FCTL), Sheet 2
page A-31
Host Control Register (HCR) (HICR = 0)
page A-32
Host Control Register (HCR) (HICR = 1)
page A-33
Host Port Control Register (HPCR)
page A-34
Interface Control Register (ICR) (DMA = 0, DMA = 1, HCR = 0)
page A-35
Interface Control Register (ICR) (DMA = 0, DMA = 1, HCR = 1)
page A-35
A.1 Interrupt Sources and Priorities
Table A-2. PIC Interrupt Vectors
VAB[0–5]
Signal
0x0
TRAP
0x1
—
0x2
Description
Service Routine Address
(Offset from VBA)
Internal exception (generated by trap instruction)
0x0
Reserved
0x40
ILLEGAL
Illegal instruction or set
0x80
0x3
DEBUG
Debug exception (EOnCE)
0xC0
0x4
—
Reserved
0x100
0x5
OVERFLOW Overflow exception (DALU)
0x140
0x6
DEFAULT
NMI
In VAB disabled mode only
*Not supported in the MSC8101
0x180
0x7
DEFAULT
IRQ
In VAB disabled mode only
*Not supported in the MSC8101
0x1C0
0x8-0x1F
—
0x20
IRQ0
A-2
Reserved
0x200–0x7FF
EFCOP (0): Input FIFO not full
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0x800
Interrupt Sources and Priorities
Table A-2. PIC Interrupt Vectors (Continued)
Description
Service Routine Address
(Offset from VBA)
VAB[0–5]
Signal
0x21
IRQ1
EFCOP (1): Input FIFO empty
0x840
0x22
IRQ2
EFCOP (2): Output FIFO full
0x880
0x23
IRQ3
EFCOP (3): Output FIFO not empty
0x8C0
0x24
IRQ4
EFCOP (4): Update done
0x900
0x25
IRQ5
HDI16 (0): Receive FIFO full
0x940
0x26
IRQ6
HDI16 (1): Receive FIFO not empty
0x980
0x27
IRQ7
HDI16 (2): Transmit FIFO empty
0x9C0
0x28
IRQ8
HDI16 (3): Transmit FIFO not full
0xA00
0x29
IRQ9
HDI16 (4): External HOST command
0xA40
0x2A
IRQ10
Bus controller (x-y contention)
0xA80
0x2B
IRQ11
Bus controller (level1 contention)
0xAC0
0x2C
IRQ12
Bus controller (p-x contention)
0xB00
0x2D
IRQ13
Bus controller (non-aligned data error)
0xB40
0x2E
IRQ14
PIT interrupt request
0xB80
0x2F
IRQ15
External IRQ2 (edge/level configurable)
0xBC0
0x30
IRQ16
SIC interrupt
0xC00
0x31
IRQ17
External IRQ3 (edge/level configurable)
0xC40
0x32
IRQ18
DMA interrupt (channel/buffer terminated)
0xC80
0x33
IRQ19
Reserved
0xCC0
0x34
IRQ20
EOnCE interrupt (edge-triggered)
0xD00
0x35
IRQ21
Reserved
0xD40
0x36
IRQ22
Reserved
0xD80
0x37
IRQ23
Reserved
0xDC0
0x38
NMI0
HDI16: External Host NMI
0xE00
0x39
NMI1
Reserved
0xE40
0x3A
NMI2
Bus controller (memory write error)
0xE80
0x3B
NMI3
Bus controller (non-aligned error)
0xEC0
0x3C
NMI4
Bus controller (bus error)
0xF00
0x3D
NMI5
Reserved
0xF40
0x3E
NMI6
Reserved
0xF80
0x3F
NMI7
SIC NMI, for example, S/W watchdog, external NMI, parity
error
0xFC0
MSC8101 User’s Guide
A-3
Programming Reference
Table A-3. SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Source Priority
A-4
Priority Level
(Highest to Lowest)
Description
Multiple Events
1
Highest
—
2
XSIU1
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
3
XSIU2 (GSIU = 0)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
4
XSIU3 (GSIU = 0)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
5
XSIU4 (GSIU = 0)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
6
XCC1
Yes
7
XCC2
Yes
8
XCC3
Yes
9
XCC4
Yes
10
XSIU2 (GSIU = 1)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
11
XCC5
Yes
12
XCC6
Yes
13
XCC7
Yes
14
XCC8
Yes
15
XSIU5 (GSIU = 0)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
16
XSIU6 (GSU = 0)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
17
XSIU7 (GSU = 0)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
18
XSIU8 (GSU = 0)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
19
XSIU3 (GSIU = 1)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
20
YCC1 (Grouped)
Yes
21
YCC2 (Grouped)
Yes
22
YCC3 (Grouped)
Yes
23
YCC4 (Grouped)
Yes
24
YCC5 (Grouped)
Yes
25
YCC6 (Grouped)
Yes
26
YCC7 (Grouped)
Yes
27
YCC8 (Grouped)
Yes
28
XSIU4 (GSIU = 1)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
29
Parallel I/O–PC15
Yes
30
Timer 1
Yes
31
Parallel I/O–PC14
Yes
32
YCC1 (Spread)
Yes
33
Parallel I/O–PC13
Yes
34
SDMA Bus Error
Yes
35
Reserved
No
36
YCC2 (Spread)
Yes
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Interrupt Sources and Priorities
Table A-3. SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Source Priority (Continued)
Priority Level
(Highest to Lowest)
Description
Multiple Events
37
Parallel I/O–PC12
No
38
Reserved
No
39
Reserved
No
40
Timer 2
Yes
41
Reserved
No
42
XSIU5 (GSIU = 1)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
43
YCC3 (Spread)
Yes
44
RISC Timer Table
Yes
45
I2C
Yes
46
YCC4 (Spread)
Yes
47
Reserved
No
48
Reserved
No
49
IRQ6
No
50
Reserved
No
51
IRQ7
No
52
Timer 3
Yes
53
XSIU6 (GSIU = 1)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
54
YCC5 (Spread)
Yes
55
Parallel I/O–PC7
No
56
Parallel I/O–PC6
No
57
Parallel I/O–PC5
No
58
Timer 4
Yes
59
YCC6 (Spread)
Yes
60
Parallel I/O–PC4
No
61
XSIU7 (GSIU = 1)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
62
Reserved
No
63
SPI
Yes
64
Reserved
No
65
Reserved
No
66
SMC1
Yes
67
YCC7 (Spread)
Yes
68
SMC2
Yes
69
Reserved
No
70
Reserved
No
71
XSIU8 (GSIU = 1)
No (TMCNT,PIT = Yes)
MSC8101 User’s Guide
A-5
Programming Reference
Table A-3. SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Source Priority (Continued)
Priority Level
(Highest to Lowest)
Description
Multiple Events
72
YCC8 (Spread)
Yes
73
Reserved
—
Pending unmasked interrupts are presented to the core in order of priority. The core reads
SIVEC to get the interrupt vector. The interrupt vector gives the location of the interrupt
service routine. The interrupt controller passes an interrupt vector corresponding to the
highest-priority, unmasked, pending interrupt. Table A-4 lists encodings for the six low-order
bits of the SIC and SIC_EXT interrupt vectors.
Table A-4.
A-6
SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Vectors
Interrupt Number
Interrupt Source Description
Interrupt Vector
0
Error (No interrupt)
0b000000
1
I2C
0b000001
2
SPI
0b000010
3
RISC Timers
0b000011
4
SMC1
0b000100
5
SMC2
0b000101
6–9
Reserved
0b000110–0b001001
10
SDMA
0b001010
11
Reserved
0b001011
12
Timer1
0b001100
13
Timer2
0b001101
14
Timer3
0b001110
15
Timer4
0b001111
16
TMCNT
0b010000
17
PIT
0b010001
18
Reserved
0b010010
19
IRQ1
0b010011
20
IRQ2
0b010100
21
IRQ3
0b010101
22
IRQ4
0b010110
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Programming Sheets
Table A-4.
SIC and SIC_EXT Interrupt Vectors (Continued)
Interrupt Number
Interrupt Source Description
Interrupt Vector
23
IRQ5
0b010111
24
IRQ6
0b011000
25
IRQ7
0b011001
26–31
Reserved
0b011010–0b011111
32
FCC1
0b100000
33
FCC2
0b100001
34
FCC3
0b100010
35
Reserved
0b100011
36
MCC1
0b100100
37
MCC2
0b100101
38
Reserved
0b100110
39
Reserved
0b100111
40
SCC1
0b101000
41
SCC2
0b101001
42
SCC3
0b101010
43
SCC4
0b101011
44–47
Reserved
0b101100–0b101111
48
PC15
0b110000
49
PC14
0b110001
50
PC13
0b110010
51
PC12
0b110011
52–55
Reserved
0b110100–0b110111
56
PC7
0b111000
57
PC6
0b111001
58
PC5
0b111010
59
PC4
0b111011
60–63
Reserved
0b111100–0b111111
A.2 Programming Sheets
The programming sheets are presented in the order shown in Table A-1 on page A-1.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
A-7
ETM – Compatibility Mode Enable, Bit 12
0
Strict PowerPC system bus mode. Extended transfer mode is disabled
1
Extended transfer mode is enabled
LETM – Local Bus Compatibility Mode Enable, Bit 13
BCR
Bus Configuration Register
Address: 0x10024
Reset: Depends on reset configuration sequence
Read/Write
0
Extended transfer mode is disabled in the PowerPC local bus
1
Extended transfer mode is enabled on the PowerPC local bus
EPAR – Even Parity, Bit 14
EAV – Enable Address Visibility, Bit 11
0
0
Odd parity
1
Even parity
Bank select signals are driven on PowerPC system bus
address lines. There is no full address visibility
MSC8101 User’s Guide
1
NPQM[0–2] – Non-MSC8101 Master, Bits 16–18
Bank select signals are not driven on address bus. During
READ and WRITE commands to SDRAM devices, the full
address is driven on PowerPC system bus address lines
0
The bus master connected to the arbitration lines is an
MSC8101
1
The bus master connected to the arbitration lines is not
an MSC8101
PLDP – Pipeline Maximum Depth, Bit 8
0
Pipeline maximum depth is one
1
Pipeline maximum depth is zero
EXDD – External Master Delay Disable, Bit 21
0
The memory controller inserts one wait state between the
assertion of TS and the assertion of CS when external
master accesses an address space controlled by the
memory controller
1
The memory controller asserts CS on the cycle following
the assertion of TS by external master accessing an
address space controlled by the memory controller
APD[0–2] – Address Phase Delay, Bits 1–3
Specifies the minimum number of address tenure wait states for
address operations initiated by a PowerPC system bus master
EBM – External Bus Mode, Bit 0
0
0
Single-master bus mode
1
Multi-master bus mode
1
2
3
EBM APD0 APD1 APD2
ISPS – Internal Space Port Size, Bit 27
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
PLDP
*
0
*
0
11
EAV
12
13
14
ETM LETM EPAR
15
*
0
16
17
18
NPQM0 NPQM1 NPQM2
0
MSC8101 acts as a 64-bit slave to external master
accesses to its internal space
1
MSC8101 acts as a 32-bit slave to external master
accesses to its internal space
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
*
0
*
0
EXDD
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
ISPS
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
Programming Reference
A-8
SYSTEM INTERFACE UNIT
(SIU)
BCR
PISCR
SYSTEM INTERFACE UNIT
(SIU)
PISCR
PTF – Periodic Interrupt Frequency, Bit 14
Periodic Interrupt Status and Control Register
Address: 0x10240
Reset: 0
Read/Write
0
The input clock to the periodic interrupt timer is
4 MHz
1
The input clock to the periodic interrupt timer is
32 KHz
MSC8101 User’s Guide
PIE – Periodic Interrupt Enable, Bit 13
0
The periodic interrupt timer does not generate an
interrupt
1
The periodic interrupt timer generates an interrupt when
PS = 1
PTE – Periodic Timer Enable, Bit 15
0
Disable counter
1
Enable counter
PS – Periodic Interrupt Status, Bit 8
0
No effect on PS
1
Deasserts PS
*
0
1
*
0
2
*
0
3
*
0
4
*
0
5
*
0
6
*
0
7
8
*
0
PS
9
*
0
10
*
0
A-9
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
11
*
0
12
13
14
15
*
0
PIE
PTF
PTE
Programming Sheets
0
SIUMCR
Programming Reference
A-10
SYSTEM INTERFACE UNIT
(SIU)
SIUMCR
PBSE – Parity Byte Select Enable, Bit 2
0
Parity byte select is disabled
1
Parity byte select is enabled
IRQ7INT – IRQ7 or INT_OUT Selection, Bit 3
SIU Module Configuration Register (page 1 of 2)
Address: 0x10000
Reset: 0
Read/Write: Depends on reset configuration sequence
0
IRQ7/INT_OUT pin is IRQ7
1
IRQ7/INT_OUT pin is INT_OUT
DPPC[0–1] – Data Parity Pin Configuration, Bits 4–5
MSC8101 User’s Guide
ESE – External Snoop Enable, Bit 1
Pin
00
01
10
11
0
External snooping disabled (GBL/IRQ1 pin is IRQ1)
RES/DP0/EXT_BR2
RES
DP0
RES
EXT_BR2
1
External snooping enabled (GBL/IRQ1 pin is GBL)
DP1/IRQ1/EXT_BG2
IRQ1
DP1
IRQ1
EXT_BG2
DP2/IRQ2/EXT_DBG2
IRQ2
DP2
RES
EXT_DBG2
DP3/IRQ3/EXT_BR3
IRQ3
DP3
RES
EXT_BR3
BBD – Bus Busy Disable, Bit 0
DP4/IRQ4/EXT_BG3/DREQ3
IRQ4
DP4
DREQ3
EXT_BG3
0
ABB/IRQ2 pin is ABB, DBB/IRQ3 pin is DBB
DP5/IRQ5/EXT_DBG3/DREQ4
IRQ5
DP5
DREQ4 EXT_DBG3
1
ABB/IRQ2 pin is IRQ2, DBB/IRQ3 pin is IRQ3
DP6/IRQ6/DACK3
IRQ6
DP6
DACK3
IRQ6
DP7/IRQ7/DACK4
IRQ7
DP7
DACK4
IRQ7
See Sheet 2 – System Interface Unit – SIUMCR
0
BBD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ESE PBSE IRQ7INT DPPC0 DPPC1 IRPC0 IRPC1
8
9
*
0
*
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
TCPC0 TCPC1 BC1PC0 BC1PC1 BCTLC0 BCTLC1 MMR0 MMR1
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility. RES = Configuration is reserved.
TCPC[0–1] – Transfer Code Pin Configuration, Bits 10–11
SIUMCR
SYSTEM INTERFACE UNIT
(SIU)
SIUMCR
Pin
00
01
10
11
MODCK1/BNKSEL0/TC0
TC0
RES
BNKSEL0
RES
MODCK2/BNKSEL1/TC1
TC1
RES
BNKSEL1
RES
MODCK3/BNKSEL2/TC2
TC2
RES
BNKSEL2
RES
SIU Module Configuration Register (page 2 of 2)
Address: 0x10000
Reset: 0
Read/Write: Depends on reset configuration sequence
BC1PC[0–1] – Buffer Control 1-Pin Configuration, Bits 12–13
Pin
00
MSC8101 User’s Guide
BCTL1
01
BCTL1 BCTL1
10
11
RES
RES
IRPC[0–1] – Interrupt Pin Configuration (Multiplexing), Bits 6–7
Pin
Reserved/BADDR29/IRQ2
Reserved/BADDR30/IRQ3
00
01
10
11
RES
IRQ2
BADDR29
RES
RES
IRQ3
BADDR30
RES
IRQ5
BADDR31
RES
Reserved/BADDR31/IRQ5
BCTLC[0–1] – Buffer Control Configuration, Bits 14–15
RES
00
BCTL0: W/R – BCTL1: OE
01
BCTL0: W/R – BCTL1: OE
10
BCTL0: WE – BCTL1: RE
11
Reserved
See Sheet 1 – System Interface Unit – SIUMCR
MMR[0–1] – Mask Masters Requests, Bits 16–17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ESE PBSE IRQ7INT DPPC0 DPPC1 IRPC0 IRPC1
8
9
*
0
*
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
TCPC0 TCPC1 BC1PC0 BC1PC1 BCTLC0 BCTLC1 MMR0 MMR1
No masking on bus request lines
01
Reserved
10
Reserved
11
All external bus requests masked
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
A-11
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility. RES = Configuration is reserved.
Programming Sheets
0
BBD
00
LBME – Local Bus Monitor Enable, Bit 25
0
PowerPC local bus monitor is disabled
1
PowerPC local bus monitor is enabled
sypcr
System Protection Control Register
SWE – Software Watchdog Enable, Bit 29
Address: 0x10004
Reset: 0–15 1111_1111_1111_1111,
16–31 1111_1111_0000_0111
Read/Write
MSC8101 User’s Guide
PowerPC system bus monitor is disabled
1
PowerPC system bus monitor is enabled
0
Software watchdog timer is disabled
1
Software watchdog timer is enabled
SWRI – Software Watchdog Reset/Interrupt Select, Bit 30
PBME – 60x Bus Monitor Enable, Bit 24
0
Programming Reference
A-12
SYSTEM INTERFACE UNIT
(SIU)
SYPCR
0
Software watchdog timer and bus monitor time-out
cause a machine check interrupt to the core
1
Software watchdog timer and bus monitor time-out
cause a hard reset
BMT[0–7] – Bus Monitor Timing, Bits 16–23
SWP – Software Watchdog Prescale, Bit 31
Defines the time-out period for the bus monitor. The granularity of this
field is eight bus clocks
0
Software watchdog timer is not prescaled
1
Software watchdog timer clock is prescaled
SWTC[0–15] – Software Watchdog Timer Count, Bits 0–15
Contains the count value for the software watchdog timer
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
SWTC0 SWTC1 SWTC2 SWTC3 SWTC4 SWTC5 SWTC6 SWTC7 SWTC8 SWTC9 SWTC10 SWTC11 SWTC12 SWTC13 SWTC14 SWTC15 BMT0 BMT1 BMT2 BMT3 BMT4 BMT5 BMT6 BMT7 PBME LBME
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
26
27
28
29
30
31
*
0
*
0
*
0
SWE
SWRI
SWP
TMCNTSC
SYSTEM INTERFACE UNIT
(SIU)
TMCNTSC
ALE – Alarm Interrupt Enable, Bit 13
0
No alarm interrupt
1
The time counter generates an interrupt when ALR
is set
Timer Counter Status and Control Register
Address: 0x10220
Reset: 0
Read/Write
TCF – Time Counter Frequency, Bit 14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
SIE – Once per Second Interrupt Enable, Bit 12
0
The time counter does not generate an interrupt when
SEC is set
1
The time counter generates an interrupt when SEC
is set
0
The input clock to the time counter is 4 MHz
1
The input clock to the time counter is 32 kHz
TCE – Time Counter Enable, Bit 15
ALR – Alarm Interrupt, Bit 9
0
TMCNT value ≠ TMCNTAL value
1
TMCNT value = TMCNTAL value
0
The time counter is disabled
1
The time counter is enabled
SEC – Once Per Second Interrupt, Bit 8
This status bit is set every second and should be cleared by
software
*
0
1
*
0
2
*
0
3
*
0
4
*
0
5
*
0
6
*
0
7
8
9
*
0
SEC
ALR
10
*
0
A-13
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
11
12
13
14
15
*
0
SIE
ALE
TCF
TCE
Programming Sheets
0
Programming Reference
A-14
WP – Write Protect, Bit 23
BR
MEMORY CONTROLLER
BR[0–7, 10, 11]
0
Read and write accesses are allowed
1
Only read access is allowed
MSEL[0–2] – Machine Select, Bits 24–26
Base Register
000
Address: BR0 (0x10100), BR1 (0x10108), BR2 (0x10110),
BR3 (0x10118), BR4 (0x10120), BR5 (0x10128), BR6 (0x10130),
BR7 (0x10138), BR10 (0x10150), BR11 (0x10158)
Reset: 0–31 depends on reset configuration sequence,
After a system reset, the V bit is set in BR0 and reset in BR[1–7, 10, 11]
Read/Write
001
GPCM-PowerPC system bus
100
UPMA
101
UPMB
010
GPCM-PowerPC local bus
SDRAM-PowerPC system bus 110
UPMC
011
Reserved
Reserved
111
EMEMC – External MEMC Enable, Bit 27
0
Accesses are handled by the memory controller
1
Accesses are handled by an external memory controller
MSC8101 User’s Guide
ATOM[0–1] – Atomic Operation, Bits 28–29
DECC[0–1] – Data Error Correction and Checking, Bits 21–22
00
Address space controlled by the memory controller bank
is not used for atomic operations
Normal parity checking
01
Read-after-write-atomic (RAWA)
10
Read-modify-write parity checking
10
Write-after-read-atomic (WARA)
11
ECC correction and checking
11
Reserved
00
Data errors checking disabled
01
DR – Data Pipelining, Bit 30
PS[0–1] – Port Size, Bits 19–20
01
8-bit
11
32-bit
10
16-bit
00
64-bit
0
No data pipelining is done
1
Data beats of accesses to the address space controlled
by the memory controller bank are delayed by 1 cycle
V – Valid Bit, Bit 31
BA[0–16] – Base Address, Bits 0–16
0
Upper 17 bits of each base address register are compared to the
address on the address bus to determine if the bus master is
accessing a memory bank controlled by the memory controller.
BRx[BA] is used with ORx[AM]
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
BA0
BA1
BA2
BA3
BA4
BA5
BA6
BA7
BA8
BA9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
BA10 BA11 BA12 BA13 BA14 BA15 BA16
Bank is invalid
17
18
19
20
*
0
*
0
PS0
PS1 DECC0 DECC1
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
21
22
23
WP
24
1
25
26
Bank is valid
27
28
29
MSEL0 MSEL1 MSEL2 EMEMC ATOM0 ATOM1
30
31
DR
V
ACS[0–1] – Address to Chip-Select Setup, Bits 21–22
OR/GPCM
MEMORY CONTROLLER
OR[0–7, 10, 11]
00
CS is output at the same time as the address lines
01
Reserved
10
CS is output a quarter of a clock after the address lines
11
CS is output half a clock after the address lines
GPCM Mode
SCY[0–3] – Cycle Length in Clocks, Bits 24–27
Option Register
Address: OR0 (0x10104), OR1 (0x1010C), OR2 (0x10114),
OR3 (0x1011C), OR4 (0x10124), OR5 (0x1012C), OR6 (0x10134),
OR7 (0x1013C), OR10 (0x10154), OR11 (0x1015C)
Reset: 0–15 1111_1110_0000_0000,
16–31 0000_1110_1111_0100
Read/Write
0000
0 clock cycle wait states
1111
15 clock cycles wait states
••••••
SETA – External Access Termination, Bit 28
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
PSDVAL generated internally unless GTA is asserted externally
1
PSDVAL is generated after external logic asserts GTA
CSNT – Chip-Select Negation Time, Bit 20
TRLX – Timing Relaxed, Bit 29
0
CS/PWE is deasserted normally
1
CS/PWE is deasserted a quarter of a clock earlier
BCTLD – Data Buffer Control Disable, Bit 19
EHTR[0–1] – Extended Hold Time on Read Accesses, Bits 30–31
0
BCTLx is asserted upon access to the memory bank
1
BCTLx is not asserted upon access to the memory bank
AM[0–16] – Address Mask, Bits 0–16
0
Corresponding address bits are masked
1
Corresponding address bits are used in comparison with
address pins. Address mask bits can be set or cleared
in any order in the field
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
AM1
AM2
AM3
AM4
AM5
AM6
AM7
AM8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
AM9 AM10 AM11 AM12 AM13 AM14 AM15 AM16
17
18
*
0
*
0
19
No additional cycles are inserted, normal timing generated
01
One idle clock cycle is inserted
10
Four idle clock cycles are inserted (default)
11
Eight idle clock cycles are inserted
20
21
22
BCTLD CSNT ACS0 ACS1
A-15
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
23
*
0
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
SCY0 SCY1 SCY2 SCY3 SETA TRLX EHTR0 EHTR1
Programming Sheets
0
AM0
00
OR/SDRAM
Programming Reference
A-16
ROWST[0–3] – Row Start Address Bit, Bits 19–22
MEMORY CONTROLLER
OR[0–7, 10, 11]
PSDMR[PBI] = 0
0010
A7
1010
A11
0100
A8
1100
A12
SDRAM Mode
0110
A9
1110
A13
Option Register
1000
A10
Address: OR0 (0x10104), OR1 (0x1010C), OR2 (0x10114),
OR3 (0x1011C), OR4 (0x10124), OR5 (0x1012C), OR6 (0x10134),
OR7 (0x1013C), OR10 (0x10154), OR11 (0x1015C)
Reset: 0
Read/Write
0000
A0
1100
A12
Other values are reserved
PSDMR[PBI] = 1
0001
A1
1101–1111
Reserved
••••••
NUMR[0–2] – Number of Row Address Lines, Bits 23–25
MSC8101 User’s Guide
BPD[0–1] – Banks Per Device, Bits 17–18
000
9 row address lines
100
13 row address lines
00
2 internal banks per device
001
10 row address lines
101
14 row address lines
01
4 internal banks per device
010
11 row address lines
110
15 row address lines
10
8 internal banks per device (not valid for 128-Mb
SDRAMs)
011
12 row address lines
111
16 row address lines
11
Reserved
PMSEL – Page Mode Select, Bit 26
LSDAM[0–4] – Lower SDRAM Address Mask, Bits 12–16
0
Page is closed when the bus becomes idle
1
Page is kept open until a page miss or refresh occurs
Reset LSDAM to 0x0 to implement a minimum size of 1 Mb
IBID – Internal Bank Interleaving Within Same Device Disable, Bit 27
SDAM[0–11] – SDRAM Address Mask, Bits 0–11
Clearing bits masks the corresponding address bit. Setting bits
causes the corresponding address bit to be compared with the
address pins
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
0
Enables bank interleaving
1
Disables bank interleaving
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
SDAM0 SDAM1 SDAM2 SDAM3 SDAM4 SDAM5 SDAM6 SDAM7 SDAM8 SDAM9 SDAM10 SDAM11 LSDAM0 LSDAM1 LSDAM2 LSDAM3 LSDAM4 BPD0 BPD1 ROWST0 ROWST1 ROWST2 ROWST3 NUMR0 NUMR1 NUMR2 PMSEL IBID
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
28
29
30
31
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
OR/UPM
MEMORY CONTROLLER
OR[0–7, 10, 11]
UPM Mode
BI – Burst Inhibit, Bit 23
Option Register
0
Bank supports burst accesses
Address: OR0 (0x10104), OR1 (0x1010C), OR2 (0x10114),
OR3 (0x1011C), OR4 (0x10124), OR5 (0x1012C), OR6 (0x10134),
OR7 (0x1013C), OR10 (0x10154), OR11 (0x1015C)
Reset: 0
Read/Write
1
Bank does not support burst accesses. UPMx executes
burst accesses as series of single accesses
MSC8101 User’s Guide
EHTR[0–1] – Extended Hold Time on Read Accesses, Bits 29–30
BCTLD – Data Buffer Control Disable, Bit 19
0
BCTLx is asserted upon access to the memory bank
1
BCTLx is not asserted upon access to the memory bank
00
No additional cycles are inserted, normal timing generated
01
One idle clock cycle is inserted
10
Four idle clock cycles are inserted
11
Eight idle clock cycles are inserted
AM[0–16] – Address Mask, Bits 0–16
0
Corresponding address bits are masked
1
Corresponding address bits are used in comparison with
address pins. Address mask bits can be set or cleared
in any order in the field
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
AM1
AM2
AM3
AM4
AM5
AM6
AM7
AM8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
AM9 AM10 AM11 AM12 AM13 AM14 AM15 AM16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
*
0
*
0
BCTLD
*
0
*
0
*
0
BI
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
A-17
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
29
30
EHTR0 EHTR1
31
*
0
Programming Sheets
0
AM0
DSx[0–1] – Disable Timer Period, Bits 8–9
00
1 cycle disable period
10
3 cycle disable period
01
2 cycle disable period
11
4 cycle disable period
G0CLx[0–2] – General Line 0 Control, Bits 10–12
Machine A/B/C Mode Registers
Address: MAMR (0x10170), MBMR (0x10174), MCMR (0x10178)
Reset: 0–15 0000_0000_0000_0100,
16–31 0000_0000_0000_0000
Read/Write
000
A12
010
A10
100
A8
110
A6
001
A11
011
A9
101
A7
111
A5
GPL_x4DIS – GPL_A4 Output Line Disable, Bit 13
AMx[0–2] – Address Multiplex Size, Bits 5–7
AMx
External
Signal
PPC Bus
Driven on
Address Pin External Pin
External
Signal
PPC Bus
Driven on
Address Pin External Pin
AMx
MSC8101 User’s Guide
000
A[16–31]
A[8–23]
011
A[16–31]
A[5–20]
001
A[16–31]
A[7–22]
100
A[17–31]
A[5–19]
010
A[16–31]
A[6–21]
101
A[18–31]
A[5–18]
Normal Operation
10
Read from array
Write to array
11
Run pattern
1111
Loop executes 1 time
0010
Loop executes 2 times
Loop executes 15 times
0000
Loop executes 16 times
WLFx[0–3] – Write Loop Field, Bits 18–21
RFEN – Refresh Enable, Bit 1
Refresh services are required
PGTA/PUPMWAIT/PGPL4/PPBS behaves asPUPMWAIT
UPMx[G4T4/DLT3] is interpreted as DLT3
UPMx[G4T3/WAEN] is interpreted as WAEN
••••
01
1
1
0001
00
Refresh services are not required
PGTA/PUPMWAIT/PGPL4/PPBS behaves as PGPL4
UPMx[G4T4/DLT3] is interpreted as G4T4
UPMx[G4T3/WAEN] is interpreted as G4T3
RLFx[0–3] – Read Loop Field, Bits 14–17
OP[0–1] – Command Opcode, Bits 2–3
0
0
0001
Loop executes 1 time
0010
Loop executes 2 times
••••
1111
Loop executes 15 times
0000
Loop executes 16 times
TLFx[0–3] – Refresh Loop Field, Bits 22–25
BSEL – Bus Select, Bit 0
0
Banks that select UPMx are assigned to the PowerPC system bus
1
Banks that select UPMx are assigned to the PowerPC local bus
0001
Loop executes 1 time
0010
Loop executes 2 times
••••
1111
Loop executes 15 times
0000
Loop executes 16 times
MAD[0–5] – Machine Address, Bits 26–31
RAM address pointer for the command executed
0
1
2
BSEL RFEN OP0
3
OP1
4
*
0
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
AMx0 AMx1 AMx2 DSx0 DSx1 G0CLx0 G0CLx1 G0CLx2 GPL_x4- RLFx0 RLFx1 RLFx2 RLFx3 WLFx0 WLFx1 WLFx2 WLFx3 TLFx0 TLFx1 TLFx2 TLFx3 MAD0 MAD1 MAD2 MAD3 MAD4 MAD5
DIS
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
Programming Reference
MAMR
A-18
MEMORY CONTROLLER
MAMR, MBMR, MCMR
PSDMR
MEMORY CONTROLLER
PSDMR (page 1 of 2)
SDAM[0–2] – Address Multiplex Size, Bits 5–7
External
Signal
External
Signal
SDAM PowerPC Bus Driven on SDAM PowerPC Bus Driven on
Address Pin External Pin
Address Pin External Pin
60x Bus SDRAM Mode Register
Address: 0x10190
Reset: 0
Read/Write
000
A[13–31]
A[5–23]
011
A[16–31]
A[5–20]
001
A[14–31]
A[5–22]
100
A[17–31]
A[5–19]
010
A[15–31]
A[5–21]
101
A[18–31]
A[5–18]
BSMA[0–2] – Bank Select Multiplexed Address Line, Bits 8–10
OP[0–2] – SDRAM Operation, Bits 2–4
000
A1[2–14]
100
A[16–18]
A[13–15]
101
A[17–19]
MSC8101 User’s Guide
000
Normal operation
100
Precharge bank (debug)
001
001
CBR refresh (SDRAM)
101
Precharge all banks (SDRAM)
010
A[14–16]
110
A[18–20]
Activate bank (debug)
011
A[15–17]
111
A[19–21]
010
Self refresh (debug)
110
011
Mode register write (SDRAM) 111
Read/write (debug)
SDA10[0–2] – A10 Control, Bits 11–13
PBI = 0
RFEN – Refresh Enable, Bit 1
0
Refresh services are not required
1
Refresh services are required
000
A12
010
A10
100
A8
110
A6
001
A11
011
A9
101
A7
111
A5
PBI = 1
PBI – Page-Based Interleaving, Bit 0
0
Bank-based interleaving
1
Page-based interleaving (normal operation)
000
A10
010
A8
100
A6
110
A4
001
A9
011
A7
101
A5
111
A3
See Sheet 2 – Memory Controller – PSDMR
1
2
RFEN OP0
3
OP1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
OP2 SDAM0 SDAM1 SDAM2 BSMA0 BSMA1 BSMA2 SDA100 SDA101 SDA102 RFRC0 RFRC1 RFRC2 PRETO- PRETO- PRETO- ACTTO- ACTTO- ACTTOACT0 ACT1 ACT2 RW0 RW1 RW2
23
BL
30
31
LDOTO- LDOTO- WRC0 WRC1 EAMUX BUFCMD CL0
PRE0 PRE1
24
25
26
27
28
29
CL1
A-19
Programming Sheets
0
PBI
PSCMR/2
MEMORY CONTROLLER
PSDMR (page 2 of 2)
001
1 clock cycle
111
7 clock cycles
010
2 clock cycles
000
8 clock cycles
••••
60x Bus SDRAM Mode Register
BL – Burst Length, Bit 23
Address: 0x10190
Reset: 0
Read/Write
0
SDRAM burst length is 4
1
SDRAM burst length is 8
LDOTOPRE[0–1] – Last Data Out to Precharge, Bits 24–25
00
0 cycles
01
-1 cycle
10
-2 cycles
11
Reserved
PRETOACT[0–2] – Precharge to Activate Interval, Bits 17–19
001
1 clock-cycle wait states
010
WRC[0–1] – Write Recovery Time, Bits 26–27
2 clock-cycle wait states
01
••••
MSC8101 User’s Guide
111
7 clock-cycle wait states
000
8 clock-cycle wait states
Reserved
100
6 clock cycles
001
3 clock cycles
101
7 clock cycles
010
4 clock cycles
110
8 clock cycles
011
5 clock cycles
111
16 clock cycles
1
2
RFEN OP0
3
OP1
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
3 cycles
00
4 cycles
No external address multiplexing. Fastest timing
1
Memory controller asserts SDAMUX for an extra cycle
before issuing an ACTIVATE command to the SDRAM
BUFCMD – Command Buffer, Bit 29
0
Normal timing for control lines
1
All control lines except CS are asserted for 2 cycles
CL[0–1] – CAS Latency, Bits 30–31
00
0
2 cycles
0
See Sheet 1 – Memory Controller – PSDMR
PBI
10
EAMUX – External Address Multiplexing Enable/Disable, Bit 28
RFRC[0–2] – Refresh Recovery, Bits 14–16
000
1 cycle
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Reserved
21
22
OP2 SDAM0 SDAM1 SDAM2 BSMA0 BSMA1 BSMA2 SDA100 SDA101 SDA102 RFRC0 RFRC1 RFRC2 PRETO- PRETO- PRETO- ACTTO- ACTTO- ACTTOACT0 ACT1 ACT2 RW0 RW1 RW2
01
23
1
24
25
10
26
2
27
28
11
29
3
30
31
BL LDOTO-LDOTO-WRC0WRC1EAMUXBUFCMD CL0 CL1
PRE0 PRE1
Programming Reference
A-20
ACTTORW[0–2] – Activate to Read/Write Interval, Bits 20–22
ELIRA
INTERRUPT SCHEME
ELIRA
PIL[30–32, 20–22, 10–12, 0–2] – Priority Level for IRQ Input xx,
Bits 1–3, 5–7, 9–11, 13–15
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register A
Address: 0x1C00
Reset: 0
Read/Write
PED[3, 2, 1, 0] – Trigger Mode for IRQ Input xx, Bits 0, 4, 8, 12
0
Level-triggered mode
1
Edge-triggered mode
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Address: 0x1C08
Reset: 0
Read/Write
PED[7, 6, 5, 4] – Trigger Mode for IRQ Input xx, Bits 0, 4, 8, 12
Level-triggered mode
1
Edge-triggered mode
1
2
3
4
5
6
IPL4
101
IPL5
010
IPL1
110
IPL6
011
IPL2/IPL3
111
IPL7 (highest priority)
12
13
14
15
PIL12 PED0 PIL00 PIL01 PIL02
7
8
9
10
000
Interrupts disabled
100
IPL4
001
IPL0 (lowest priority)
101
IPL5
010
IPL1
110
IPL6
011
IPL2/IPL3
111
IPL7 (highest priority)
11
12
13
14
15
PED7 PIL70 PIL71 PIL72 PED6 PIL60 PIL61 PIL62 PED5 PIL50 PIL51 PIL52 PED4 PIL40 PIL41 PIL42
A-21
Programming Sheets
0
100
IPL0 (lowest priority)
PIL[70–72, 60–62, 50–52, 40–42] – Priority Level for IRQ Input xx,
Bits 1–3, 5–7, 9–11, 13–15
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register B
0
Interrupts disabled
001
11
PED3 PIL30 PIL31 PIL32 PED2 PIL20 PIL21 PIL22 PED1 PIL10 PIL11
ELIRB
000
ELIRC
PIL[110–112, 100–102, 90–92, 80–82] – Priority Level for IRQ Input xx,
Bits 1–3, 5–7, 9–11, 13–15
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register C
000
Address: 0x1C10
Reset: 0
Read/Write
PED[11, 10, 9, 8] – Trigger Mode for IRQ Input xx, Bits 0, 4, 8, 12
0
Level-triggered mode
1
Edge-triggered mode
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Interrupts disabled
100
IPL4
001
IPL0 (lowest priority)
101
IPL5
010
IPL1
110
IPL6
011
IPL2/IPL3
111
IPL7 (highest priority)
11
PED11 PIL110 PIL111 PIL112 PED10 PIL100 PIL101 PIL102 PED9 PIL90 PIL91 PIL92
ELIRD
Address: 0x1C18
Reset: 0
Read/Write
PED[15, 14, 13, 12] – Trigger Mode for IRQ Input xx, Bits 0, 4, 8, 12
Level-triggered mode
1
Edge-triggered mode
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
13
14
15
PIL[150–152, 140–142, 130–132, 120–122] – Priority Level for IRQ Input xx,
Bits 1–3, 5–7, 9–11, 13–15
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register D
0
12
PED8 PIL80 PIL81 PIL82
7
8
9
10
000
Interrupts disabled
100
IPL4
001
IPL0 (lowest priority)
101
IPL5
010
IPL1
110
IPL6
011
IPL2/IPL3
111
IPL7 (highest priority)
11
12
13
14
15
PED15 PIL150 PIL151 PIL152 PED14 PIL140 PIL141 PIL142 PED13 PIL130 PIL131 PIL132 PED12 PIL120 PIL121 PIL122
Programming Reference
A-22
INTERRUPT SCHEME
ELIRC
ELIRE
INTERRUPT SCHEME
ELIRE
PIL[190–192, 180–182, 170–172, 160–162] – Priority Level for IRQ Input xx,
Bits 1–3, 5–7, 9–11, 13–15
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register E
Address: 0x1C20
Reset: 1000_0000_0000_0000
Read/Write
PED[19, 18, 17, 16] – Trigger Mode for IRQ Input xx, Bits 0, 4, 8, 12
0
Level-triggered mode
1
Edge-triggered mode
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
000
Interrupts disabled
100
IPL4
001
IPL0 (lowest priority)
101
IPL5
010
IPL1
110
IPL6
011
IPL2/IPL3
111
IPL7 (highest priority)
11
12
13
14
15
PED19 PIL190 PIL191 PIL192 PED18 PIL180 PIL181 PIL182 PED17 PIL170 PIL171 PIL172 PED16 PIL160 PIL161 PIL162
ELIRF
PIL[230–232, 220–222, 210–212, 200–202] – Priority Level for IRQ Input xx,
Bits 1–3, 5–7, 9–11, 13–15
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered Interrupt Priority Register F
Address: 0x1C28
Reset: 0000_0000_0000_1000
Read/Write
PED[23, 22, 21, 20] – Trigger Mode for IRQ Input xx, Bits 0, 4, 8, 12
0
Level-triggered mode
1
Edge-triggered mode
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Interrupts disabled
100
IPL4
001
IPL0 (lowest priority)
101
IPL5
010
IPL1
110
IPL6
011
IPL2/IPL3
111
IPL7 (highest priority)
11
12
13
14
15
PED23 PIL230 PIL231 PIL232 PED22 PIL220 PIL221 PIL222 PED21 PIL210 PIL211 PIL212 PED20 PIL200 PIL201 PIL202
A-23
Programming Sheets
0
000
SICR/SICR_E
XT
Programming Reference
A-24
INTERRUPT SCHEME
SICR/SICR_EXT
GSIU – Group SIU, Bit 14
SIU Interrupt Configuration Register
0
Grouped. The XSIUs are grouped by priority at the top
of the table
1
Spread. The XSIUs are spread by priority in the table
Address: SICR (0x10C00), SICR_EXT (0x10C40)
Reset: 0
Read/Write
SPS – Spread Priority Scheme, Bit 15
HP[0–5] – Highest Priority, Bits 2–7
To retain the original priority, program HP to the interrupt number
assigned to XSIU1
0
Grouped. The YCCs are grouped by priority at the top
of the table
1
Spread. The YCCs are spread by priority in the table
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
*
0
*
0
HP0
HP1
HP2
HP3
HP4
HP5
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
GSIU
SPS
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
EDPC[4–7, 12–15] – Edge Detect Mode for Port Cx, Bits 4–7, 12–15
SIEXR/SIEXR_EXT
0
Any change on PCx generates an interrupt request
1
High-to-low change on PCx generates an interrupt request
SIU External Interrupt Control Register
Address: SIEXR (0x10C24), SIEXR_EXT (0x10C64)
Reset: 0
Read/Write
0
1
2
3
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
4
5
6
7
EDPC4 EDPC5 EDPC6 EDPC7
8
9
10
11
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
12
13
EDI[1–7] – Edge Detect Mode for IRQx, Bits 17–23
14
15
EDPC12 EDPC13 EDPC14 EDPC15
0
Low assertion on IRQx generates an interrupt request
1
High-to-low change on IRQx generates an interrupt request
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
*
0
EDI1
EDI2
EDI3
EDI4
EDI5
EDI6
EDI7
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
CONT – Continuous Buffer Mode, Bit 2
BD_ATTR
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
(DMA)
BD_ATTR
0
Buffer is closed when BD_SIZE reaches zero
1
Buffer continues operating when BD_SIZE reaches zero
Buffer Attributes Parameter (page 1 of 2)
0
Increment address after request is serviced
Reset: Undefined
Read/Write
1
Do not increment address after request is serviced
NO_INC – Increments Address, Bit 4
BP[0–1] – Bus Priority, Bits 5–6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
1
CYC – Cyclic Address, Bit 1
00
Sequential address. BD_ADDR is incremented
01
Arbitrate for bus mastership with request 1010
Arbitrate for bus mastership with request 1011
Cyclic address. BD_ADDR is restored to original value
10
Arbitrate for bus mastership with request 1100
11
Reserved
INTRPT – Interrupt, Bit 0
0
Do not issue interrupt
1
Issue interrupt when size reaches zero
NBUS – Next Bus, Bit 9
0
PowerPC local bus
1
PowerPC system bus
See Sheet 2 – Direct Memory Access – BD_ATTR
1
2
3
*
0
4
5
NO_INC BP0
6
7
8
BP1
*
0
*
0
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
NBUS NBD0 NBD1 NBD2 NBD3 NBD4 NBD5
16
17
18
19
20
21
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
A-25
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
22
23
24
TSZ0 TSZ1 TSZ2
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
*
0
FLS
RD
*
0
TC
*
0
GBL
Programming Sheets
0
INTRPT CYC CONT
BD_ATTR
2
Programming Reference
A-26
FLS – Flush FIFO, Bit 26
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
(DMA)
BD_ATTR
0
Do not flush FIFO
1
Flush FIFO
0
Write transaction
1
Read transaction
RD – Read Channel, Bit 27
Buffer Attributes Parameter (page 2 of 2)
Reset: Undefined
Read/Write
TSZ[0–2] – Transfer Size, Bits 22-24
MSC8101 User’s Guide
100
TC – Transfer Code, Bit 29
Max transfer size is
one burst
001
Max transfer size is 8 bits
010
Max transfer size is 16 bits
011
Max transfer size is 32 bits
101
Reserved
000
Max transfer size is 64 bits
11x
Reserved
0
TC[0–2] value is 110
1
TC[0–2] value is 111
GBL – Global Transaction, Bit 31
NBD[0–5] – Next Buffer, Bits 10–15
When size reaches zero and CONT is set, the next request will call
the buffer pointed to by NBD
0
Non global transaction
1
Global transaction
See Sheet 1 – Direct Memory Access – BD_ATTR
0
1
2
INTRPT CYC CONT
3
*
0
4
5
NO_INC BP0
6
7
8
BP1
*
0
*
0
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
NBUS NBD0 NBD1 NBD2 NBD3 NBD4 NBD5
16
17
18
19
20
21
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
22
23
24
TSZ0 TSZ1 TSZ2
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
*
0
FLS
RD
*
0
TC
*
0
GBL
DCHCR
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
(DMA)
DCHCR[0–15]
EXP[0–2] – Expiration Timer, Bits 5–7
The channel will ignore level request to ‘EXP+1’ bus cycles after the
assertion of DRACK or DACK signal, as defined by DRACK bit
DMA Channel Configuration Register (page 1 of 2)
DRS – DREQ Sensitivity Mode, Bit 8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Address: DCHCR0 (0x10700), DCHCR1 (0x10704),
DCHCR2 (0x10708), DCHCR3 (0x1070C), DCHCR4 (0x10710),
DCHCR5 (0x10714), DCHCR6 (0x10718), DCHCR7 (0x1071C),
DCHCR8 (0x10720), DCHCR9 (0x10724), DCHCR10 (0x10728),
DCHCR11 (0x1072C), DCHCR12 (0x10730), DCHCR13 (0x10734),
DCHCR14 (0x10738), DCHCR15 (0x1073C)
Reset: 0
Read/Write
0
DREQ is edge-triggered
1
DREQ is level-triggered
DPL – DREQ Polarity, Bit 9
0
DREQ is active high or rising edge-triggered, according
to DRS value
1
DREQ is active low or falling edge-triggered, according
to DRS value
PPC – PowerPC Bus, Bit 1
0
Channel is assigned to the PowerPC local bus
1
Channel is assigned to the PowerPC system bus
BDPTR[0–5] – Buffer Pointer, Bits 10–15
ACTV – Active DMA Channel x, Bit 0
0
Channel is disabled
1
Channel is enabled
Pointer to the line in the DCPRAM assigned to this channel
See Sheet 2 – Direct Memory Access – DCHCR[0–15]
1
2
3
4
*
0
*
0
*
0
5
6
7
8
EXP0 EXP1 EXP2 DRS
9
DPL
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
BDBDBDBDBDBD- DRACK
PTR0 PTR1 PTR2 PTR3 PTR4 PTR5
17
18
FLY
*
0
19
20
21
22
23
RQRQRQRQRQNUM0 NUM1 NUM2 NUM3 NUM4
A-27
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
24
25
26
27
FRZ
INT
*
0
*
0
28
29
30
31
PRIO0 PRIO1 PRIO2 PRIO3
Programming Sheets
0
ACTV PPC
RQNUM[0–4] – Requestor Number, Bits 19–23
DCHCR
DMA Channel Configuration Register (page 2 of 2)
Address: DCHCR0 (0x10700), DCHCR1 (0x10704),
DCHCR2 (0x10708), DCHCR3 (0x1070C), DCHCR4 (0x10710),
DCHCR5 (0x10714), DCHCR6 (0x10718), DCHCR7 (0x1071C),
DCHCR8 (0x10720), DCHCR9 (0x10724), DCHCR10 (0x10728),
DCHCR11 (0x1072C), DCHCR12 (0x10730), DCHCR13 (0x10734),
DCHCR14 (0x10738), DCHCR15 (0x1073C)
Reset: 0
Read/Write
00000 HDI16 read request
01000 External request 1, DREQ1
00001 HDI16 write request
01001 External request 2, DREQ2
00010 EFCOP read request
01010 External request 3, DREQ3
00011 EFCOP write request
01011 External request 4, DREQ4
001xx Reserved
011xx Reserved
1xxxx
Reserved
FRZ – Freezes Channel, Bit 24
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
Channel operates normally
1
Channel is frozen
FLY – Flyby Transaction, Bit 17
0
Dual access transaction
1
Flyby mode. Single access transaction
INT – Internal Requestor, Bit 25
DRACK – DRACK Protocol, Bit 16
0
Channel does not use DRACK. Expiration timer starts
counting after DACKassertion
1
Channel uses DRACK. Expiration timer starts counting
after DRACK assertion
0
External request. Transaction is initiated by a
peripheral
1
Internal request. Transaction between memory and
DMA is initiated by DMA
PRIO[0–3] – Channel Priority, Bits 28–31
0000
Highest priority
1111
Lowest priority
See Sheet 1 – Direct Memory Access – DCHCR[0–15]
0
1
ACTV PPC
2
3
4
*
0
*
0
*
0
5
6
7
8
EXP0 EXP1 EXP2 DRS
9
DPL
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
BDBDBDBDBDBD- DRACK
PTR0 PTR1 PTR2 PTR3 PTR4 PTR5
17
18
FLY
*
0
19
20
21
22
23
RQRQRQRQRQNUM0 NUM1 NUM2 NUM3 NUM4
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
24
25
26
27
FRZ
INT
*
0
*
0
28
29
30
31
PRIO0 PRIO1 PRIO2 PRIO3
Programming Reference
A-28
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
(DMA)
DCHCR[0–15]
FISL – Filter Input Scale, Bit 9
FACR
ENHANCED FILTER
COPROCESSOR
(EFCOP)
FACR
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Shared
Convergent rounding
01
Two’s complement rounding
10
Truncation (no rounding)
11
Reserved
FSCL[0–1] – Filter Scaling, Bits 14–15
00
FSCO – Filter Shared Coefficients Mode, Bit 8
1
Scales IIR feedback terms only
FRM[0–1] – Filter Rounding Mode, Bits 12–13
Address: 0x0CA0
Reset: 0
Read/Write
Not shared
Scales both IIR feedback terms and IIR input
1
00
EFCOP ALU Control Register
0
0
Scaling factor = 1 (no shift)
01
Scaling factor = 8 (3-bit arithmetic left shift)
10
Scaling factor = 16 (4-bit arithmetic left shift)
11
Reserved
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
FSCO
FISL
*
0
*
0
FRM0
FRM1
FSCL0
FSCL1
FDCM[0–3] Filter Decimation, Bits 4–7
FDCH
Select decimation factor options (from 1 to 16)
FCHL[0–5] - Filter Channels, Bits 10–15
EFCOP Decimation/Channel Count Register
Set number of filter channels to process simultaneously (1 to 64) in multichannel mode. Set FCHL to number of channels to process minus one
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
*
0
*
0
*
0
*
0
FDCM0
FDCM1
FDCM2
FDCM3
*
0
*
0
FCHL0
FCHL1
FCHL2
FCHL3
FCHL4
A-29
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
15
Programming Sheets
Address: 0x0D00
Reset: 0
Read/Write
FCTL
FOFIE – Data Output Full Interrupt Enable, Bit 3
Address: 0x0C80
Reset: 0
Read/Write
Data output buffer full interrupt enabled
0
Data input buffer not full interrupt disabled
1
Data input buffer not full interrupt enabled
FIEIE – Data Input Empty Interrupt Enable, Bit 5
FONEIE – Data Output Not Empty Interrupt Enable, Bit 2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
Data output buffer not empty interrupt disabled
1
Data output buffer not empty interrupt enabled
0
Data input buffer empty interrupt disabled
1
Data input buffer empty interrupt enabled
FUDIE – Coefficients Update Done Interrupt Enable, Bit 6
FDIM – Data Input Mode, Bit 1
1
Data output buffer full interrupt disabled
1
FINFIE – Data Input Not Full Interrupt Enable, Bit 4
EFCOP Control Register (page 1 of 2)
0
0
DMA triggered on input buffer not full
0
Coefficients update done interrupt disabled
DMA triggered on input buffer empty
1
Coefficients update done interrupt enabled
FDOM – Data Output Mode, Bit 0
0
DMA triggered on output buffer not empty
1
DMA triggered on output buffer full
FCIM – Coefficients Initialization Mode, Bit 7
0
Coefficients initialization mode disabled
1
Coefficients initialization mode enabled
See Sheet 2 – Enhanced Filter Coprocessor – FCTL
0
FDOM
1
2
3
4
FDIM FONEIE FOFIE FINFIE
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
FIEIE
FUDIE
FCIM
FPRC
FMLC
FOM0
FOM1
FUPD
FADP
FLT
FEN
Programming Reference
A-30
ENHANCED FILTER
COPROCESSOR
(EFCOP)
FCTL
FOM[0–1] – Filter Operation Mode, Bits 10–11
FCTL
ENHANCED FILTER
COPROCESSOR
(EFCOP)
FCTL
00
Mode 0: Real FIR filter
01
Mode 1: Full complex FIR filter
10
Mode 2: Complex FIR filter with alternate real and
imaginary outputs
11
Mode 3: Magnitude
FUPD – Filter Update, Bit 12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
EFCOP Control Register (page 2 of 2)
0
Update mode disabled
Address: 0x0C80
Reset: 0
Read/Write
1
Update mode enabled
FADP – Filter Adaptive Mode, Bit 13
FMLC – Filter Multichannel Mode, Bit 9
0
Multichannel mode disabled
1
Multichannel mode enabled
0
Adaptive mode disabled
1
Adaptive mode enabled
FLT – Filter Type, Bit 14
0
FIR filter
1
IIR filter
FPRC – Filter Processing State Initialization Mode, Bit 8
0
EFCOP processing starts after state initialization
1
EFCOP processing starts with no state initialization
FEN – Filter Enable, Bit 15
0
EFCOP operation disabled
1
EFCOP operation enabled
See Sheet 1 – Enhanced Filter Coprocessor – FCTL
1
2
3
4
FDIM FONEIE FOFIE FINFIE
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
FIEIE
FUDIE
FCIM
FPRC
FMLC
FOM0
FOM1
FUPD
FADP
FLT
FEN
A-31
Programming Sheets
0
FDOM
HCR
DBTE – DMA Transmit Burst Enable, Bit 9
0
DMA transmit burst mode disabled
1
DMA transmit burst mode enabled
DBRE – DMA Receive Burst Enable, Bit 10
Host Control Register
Address: 0x0000
Hardware Reset: 0,
Individual Reset: All bit values are indeterminate after reset
Read/Write
0
DMA receive burst mode disabled
1
DMA receive burst mode enabled
HCIE – Host Command Interrupt Enable, Bit 11
HDM[0–2] – Host DMA/Last Address Mode, Bits 5–7
0
Host command interrupt disabled
1
Host command interrupt enabled
MSC8101 User’s Guide
0
1
2
Transfer
Data Size
DMA
Non-DMA/Last
Address
0
0
0
64-bit
Output
0x4
0
0
1
48-bit
Output
0x5
0
1
0
32-bit
Output
0x6
0
1
1
16-bit
Output
0x7
0
Host transmit FIFO empty interrupt disabled
1
0
0
64-bit
Input
0x4
1
Host transmit FIFO empty interrupt enabled
1
0
1
48-bit
Input
0x5
1
1
0
32-bit
Input
0x6
1
1
1
16-bit
Input
0x7
HTFIE – Host Transmit Not Full Interrupt Enable, Bit 12
0
Host transmit FIFO not full interrupt disabled
1
Host transmit FIFO not full interrupt enabled
HTEIE – Host Transmit Empty Interrupt Enable, Bit 13
HRFIE – Host Receive Full Interrupt Enable, Bit 14
0
Host receive FIFO full interrupt disabled
1
Host receive FIFO full interrupt enabled
HICR – ICR/HCR Register Priority for DMA/Last Address Mode, Bit 4
0
DMA/last address mode defined in HCR
1
DMA/last address mode defined in ICR
HREIE – Host Receive Not Empty Interrupt Enable, Bit 15
0
Host receive FIFO not empty interrupt disabled
1
Host receive FIFO not empty interrupt enabled
HF[4–7] – Host Flags 4–7, Bits 0–3
These bits are reflected in the ISR[HF] bits
0
1
2
3
HF4
HF5
HF6
HF7
4
5
6
7
HICR HDM0 HDM1 HDM2
8
*
0
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
DBTE DBRE HCIE HTFIE HTEIE HRFIE HREIE
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
Programming Reference
A-32
HOST INTERFACE
(HDI16)
HCR (HICR=0)
DBTE – DMA Transmit Burst Enable, Bit 9
HCR/2
HOST INTERFACE
(HDI16)
HCR (HICR=1)
0
DMA transmit burst mode disabled
1
DMA transmit burst mode enabled
DBRE – DMA Receive Burst Enable, Bit 10
Host Control Register
Address: 0x0000
Hardware Reset: 0,
Individual Reset: All bit values are indeterminate after reset
Read/Write: 0–4, 8–15
Read Only: 5–7
0
DMA receive burst mode disabled
1
DMA receive burst mode enabled
HCIE – Host Command Interrupt Enable, Bit 11
0
Host command interrupt disabled
1
Host command interrupt enabled
HTFIE – Host Transmit Not Full Interrupt Enable, Bit 12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
HM[0–1] – HM Status, Bits 6–7
These bits reflect the status of the ICR[HM] bits, which indicate the
transfer data size
0
Host transmit FIFO not full interrupt disabled
1
Host transmit FIFO not full interrupt enabled
HTEIE – Host Transmit Empty Interrupt Enable, Bit 13
RREQ – RREQ Status, Bit 5
When HPCR[DMA] = 1, this bit reflects the status of ICR[RREQ],
which indicates the direction of the DMA transfer selected by
the host
When HPCR[DMA] = 0, this bit is invalid
DMA/last address mode defined in HCR
1
DMA/last address mode defined in ICR
Host transmit FIFO empty interrupt disabled
1
Host transmit FIFO empty interrupt enabled
HRFIE – Host Receive Full Interrupt Enable, Bit 14
HICR – ICR/HCR Priority for DMA/Last Address Mode, Bit 4
0
0
0
Host receive FIFO full interrupt disabled
1
Host receive FIFO full interrupt enabled
HREIE – Host Receive Not Empty Interrupt Enable, Bit 15
HF[4–7] – Host Flags 4–7, Bits 0–3
0
Host receive FIFO not empty interrupt disabled
1
Host receive FIFO not empty interrupt enabled
These bits are reflected in the ISR[HF] bits
1
2
3
HF5
HF6
HF7
4
5
HICR RREQ
6
7
HM0
HM1
8
*
0
9
10
DBTE DBRE
A-33
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
11
12
13
14
15
HCIE HTFIE HTEIE HRFIE HREIE
Programming Sheets
0
HF4
HPC1
HDDS – Host Dual Data Strobe, Bit 3
0
HDI16 operates in single-strobe bus mode
1
HDI16 operates in dual-strobe bus mode
HDSP – Host Data Strobe Polarity, Bit 6
Host Port Control Register
Address: 0x0020
Hardware Reset: 0,
Individual Reset: All bit values are indeterminate after reset
Read/Write
0
Data strobe signals are configured as active low inputs
1
Data strobe signals are configured as active high inputs
HEN – Host Enable, Bit 8
0
HDI16 host interface disabled
MSC8101 User’s Guide
1
HDI16 operates as the host interface
Note 1: Before setting this bit, ensure that BCR[ISPS] is set to 1
HRP – Host Request Polarity, Bit 1
H8BIT – H8-Bit Mode, Bit 9
Single host request mode (HDRQ cleared in ICR)
0
HREQ signal is an active low output
1
HREQ signal is an active high output
0
16-bit mode is enabled (default)
1
8-bit mode is enabled
DMA – Host DMA Mode Enable, Bit 14
In double host request mode (HDRQ set in ICR)
0
HTRQ and HRRQ signals are active low outputs
0
Host DMA mode is disabled
1
HTRQ and HRRQ signals are active high outputs
1
Host DMA mode is enabled
OAD – One-Address Host DMA Mode Enable, Bit 15
HAP – Host Acknowledge Polarity, Bit 0
0
HACK signal is configured as an active low input
1
HACK signal is configured as an active high input
1
HRP
2
*
0
HAP
0
3
HDDS
4
*
0
5
6
*
0
HDSP
7
8
9
*
0
HEN
H8BIT
10
*
0
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
0
HACK input pin is used as a DMA transfer acknowledge
input
1
Host address 0x4 is used as a host DMA transfer
acknowledge input
11
*
0
12
*
0
13
14
15
*
0
DMA
OAD
Programming Reference
A-34
HOST INTERFACE
(HDI16)
HPCR
HOST INTERFACE
(HDI16)
ICR (DMA=0, DMA=1, HICR=0)
HDRQ – HREQ/HTRQ and HACK/HRRQ Pin Control, Bit 13
ICR (DMA=0, HICR=0)
Interface Control Register
0
HREQ/HTRQ and HACK/HRRQ pins function as HREQ
and HACK, respectively
1
HREQ/HTRQ and HACK/HRRQ pins function as HTRQ
and HRRQ, respectively
Note 1: If ICR (DMA=0, HICR=0) then this pin functions as HDRQ;
otherwise, this bit is reserved and should be written to zero
Address: 0x0
Hardware Reset: 0,
Individual Reset: All bit values are indeterminate after reset
Read/Write: 0–8, 11–15
Read Only: 9–10
TREQ – HREQ and HTREQ Pin Control, Bit 14
HPCR[DMA]
0
MSC8101 User’s Guide
HF[2–3] – Host Flags 2–3, Bits 11–12
1
Reflects the status of
HCR[HDM0]
Reserved
These bits are reflected in the HSR[HF] bits
Note 2: TREQ when written, HDM0 when read
HDM[0–1] – Host DMA Mode, Bits 9–10
These bits reflect the status of the HCR[HDM] bits, which indicate
the transfer data size
RREQ – HREQ and HRREQ Pin Control, Bit 15
HPCR[DMA]
0
1
INIT – Force Initialization, Bit 8
Reserved
Reflects the status off
When the host sets the INIT bit, the HDI16 hardware executes the
INIT command. The interface hardware clears the INIT bit after the
command executes
HCR[HDM0]
Note 3: RREQ when written, HDM0 when read
HF[0–1] – Host Flags 0–1, Bits 5–6
These bits are reflected in the HSR[HF] bits
*
0
1
*
0
2
*
0
3
*
0
4
5
6
*
0
HF0
HF1
7
8
*
0
INIT
9
10
HDM0 HDM1
A-35
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
11
12
HF2
HF3
13
14
15
HDRQ TREQ RREQ
(Note 1) (Note 2)
(Note 3)
Programming Sheets
ICR1
0
ICR2
ICR (DMA=0, HICR=1)
Interface Control Register
0
HREQ/HTRQ and HACK/HRRQ pins function as HREQ
and HACK, respectively
1
HREQ/HTRQ and HACK/HRRQ pins function as HTRQ
and HRRQ, respectively
Note 1: If ICR (DMA=0, HICR=1) then this pin functions as HDRQ;
otherwise, this bit is reserved and should be written to zero
Address: 0x0
Hardware Reset: 0,
Individual Reset: All bit values are indeterminate after reset
Read/Write
TREQ – HREQ and HTREQ Pin Control, Bit 14
HPCR[DMA]
0
HF[2–3] – Host Flags 2–3, Bits 11–12
These bits are reflected in the HSR[HF] bits
MSC8101 User’s Guide
HM[0–1] – Host Mode, Bits 9–10
0
1
Transfer Data Size
Non-DMA/Last Address
0
0
64-bit
0x4
0
1
48-bit
0x5
1
0
32-bit
0x6
1
1
16-bit
0x7
1
0 TXDE interrupt disabled
0 DMA transfers are
DSP-to-host
1 TXDE interrupt enabled
1 DMA transfers are
host-to-DSP
• TREQ and RREQ should not be set at the same time
RREQ – HREQ and HRREQ Pin Control, Bit 15
HPCR[DMA]
0
1
0 RXDF interrupt disabled
0 DMA transfers are
host-to-DSP
1 RXDF interrupt enabled
1 DMA transfers are
DSP-to-host
INIT – Force Initialization, Bit 8
When the host sets the INIT bit, the HDI16 hardware executes the
INIT command. The interface hardware clears the INIT bit after the
command executes
• RREQ and TREQ should not be set at the same time
HF[0–1] – Host Flags 0–1, Bits 5–6
These bits are reflected in the HSR[HF] bits
0
*
0
1
*
0
2
*
0
3
*
0
4
5
6
*
0
HF3
HF2
7
8
9
10
11
12
*
0
INIT
HM0
HM1
HF1
HF0
* = Reserved. Write to 0 for future compatibility
13
14
15
HDRQ TREQ RREQ
(Note 1)
Programming Reference
A-36
HDRQ – HREQ/HTRQ and HACK/HRRQ Pin Control, Bit 13
HOST INTERFACE
(HDI16)
ICR (DMA=0, DMA=1, HICR=1)
Appendix B
Glossary
This glossary presents an alphabetical list of terms, phrases, and abbreviations that are used
in this manual. Many of the terms are defined in the context of how they are used in this
manual—that is, in the context of the MSC8101. Some of the definitions are derived from
Newton’s Telecom Dictionary: The Official Dictionary of Telecommunications, © 1998 by
Harry Newton.
AAL
ATM adaptation layer. This layer of the ATM Protocol Reference
Model is divided into the convergence sublayer (CS) and the
segmentation and reassembly (SAR) sublayer. The AAL
accomplishes conversion from the higher-layer, native data format
and service specifications of the user data into the ATM layer.
AAU
Address arithmetic unit. On the SC140 core, there are two identical
AAUs. Each contains a 32-bit full adder called an offset adder that can
add or subtract two AGU registers, add immediate value, increment or
decrement an AGU register, add PC, or add with reverse-carry. The
offset adder also performs compare or test operations and arithmetic
and logical shifts. The offset values added in this adder are pre-shifted
by 1, 2, or 3, according to the access width. In reverse-carry mode, the
carry propagates in the opposite direction. A second full adder, called
a modulo adder, adds the summed result of the first full adder to a
modulo value, M or minus M, where M is stored in the selected
modifier register. In modulo mode, the modulo comparator tests
whether the result is inside the buffer, by comparing the results to the
B register, and chooses the correct result from between the offset
adder and the modulo adder.
ABI
Application binary interface.
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Appendix B-1
Glossary
AGU
Address generation unit. One of the execution units in the MSC8101.
The AGU performs effective address calculations using the integer
arithmetic necessary to address data operands in memory, and it
contains the registers to generate the addresses. It performs four types
of arithmetic: linear, modulo, multiple wrap-around modulo, and
reverse-carry. The AGU operates in parallel with other chip resources
to minimize address generation overhead. The AGU also generates
change-of-flow program addresses and updates the stack pointers (SP)
as needed.
ALU
Arithmetic logic unit. The part of the CPU that performs the
arithmetic and logical operations. The SC140 core is the four-ALU
version of the StarCore SC100 DSP core family.
anti-aliasing
filter
Band limits the input, eliminating out-of-band signals that can be
aliased back into the pass band due to the sampling filter. The output
of the line driver probably has a low pass filter to remove the effects
of digitizing.
ASIC
Application-specific integrated circuit. An integrated circuit that
performs a particular function by defining the interconnection of a set
of basic circuit building blocks taken from a library provided by a
circuit manufacturer.
ATM
Asynchronous transfer mode. A very high-speed transmission
technology. ATM is a high bandwidth, low-delay
connection-oriented, packet-like switching and multiplexing
technique.
atomic
A bus access that attempts to be part of a read-write operation to the
same address uninterrupted by any other access to that address. The
MSC8101 initiates the read and write separately, but it signals the
memory system that it is attempting an atomic operation. If the
operation fails, status is kept so that MSC8101 can try again.
bandwidth
A measure of the carrying capacity, or size, of a communications
channel. For an analog circuit, the bandwidth is the difference
between the highest and lowest frequencies that a medium can
transmit and is expressed in hertz (Hz). Hz is equal to one cycle per
second.
Appendix B-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
baseband
The original band of frequencies of a signal before it is modulated for
transmission at a higher frequency. The signal is typically multiplexed
and sent on a carrier with other signals at the same time. See also
broadband.
beat
A single state on the MSC8101 interface that may extend across
multiple bus cycles. An MSC8101 transaction can be composed of
multiple address or data beats.
big-endian
For big-endian scalars, the most significant byte (MSB) is stored at
the lowest, or starting, address while the least significant byte (LSB)
is stored at the highest, or ending, address. This memory structure is
called “big-endian” because the big end of the scalar comes first in
memory. The MSC8101 supports both big-endian. See also
little-endian.
bootloader
Loads and executes source code that initializes the MSC8101 after it
completes a reset sequence and programs its registers for the required
mode of operation. The bootloader program, which is provided in the
on-chip ROM of the MSC8101, loads and executes source programs
received from a host processor, an EPROM, or a standard memory
device.
BMU
Bit mask unit. On the SC140 core, performs bit mask operations, such
as setting, clearing, changing, or testing a destination, according to an
immediate mask operand. All bit mask instructions typically execute
in two cycles and work on 16-bit data. This data can be a memory
location, or a portion (high or low) of a register. Only a single bit
mask instruction is allowed in any single execution set, since only one
execution unit exists for these instructions.
BRG
Baud rate generator. The CPM contains eight independent, identical
BRGs for use with the FCCs, SCCs, and SMCs. The clocks produced
by the BRGs are sent to the bank-of-clocks selection logic, where they
can be routed to the controllers. In addition, the output of a BRG can
be routed to a pin for external use. See also FCC, SCC, SMC.
Glossary
Appendix B-3
Glossary
broadband
Also called wideband. A type of data transmission in which a single
medium (wire) can carry several channels at once. Cable TV, for
example, uses broadband transmission. In contrast, baseband
transmission allows only one signal at a time. Most communications
between computers, including the majority of local-area networks, use
baseband communications. An exception is B-ISDN networks, which
employ broadband transmission. See also baseband.
buffer
descriptor
(BD)
Data associated with each communications controller channel is
stored in buffers and each buffer is referenced by a BD that can reside
anywhere in dual-port RAM. The total number of 8-byte BDs is
limited only by the size of the dual-port RAM. These BDs are shared
among all communications controllers—FCCs, SCCs, SMCs, SPI,
and I2C. The user defines how the BDs are allocated among the
controllers. For frame-oriented protocols, a message can reside in as
many buffers as necessary. Each buffer has a maximum length of
65,535 bytes. The CPM does not assume that all buffers of a single
frame are currently linked to the BD table. The CPM does assume,
however, that the core provides the unlinked buffers in time for them
to be sent or received; otherwise, an error condition is reported—an
underrun error during transmission and a busy error during reception.
burst
A multiple-beat data transfer whose total size is typically equal to a
cache sector size (in MSC8101: 32 bytes, or 4 data beats at 8 bytes per
beat). The MPC860 is a bursting device. It works best when the
memory to which it connects can burst.
CD
Carrier detect.
CDMA
Code division multiple access. A spread spectrum method of allowing
multiple users to share the radio frequency spectrum by assigning
each active user an individual code. In a CDMA system, each voice
circuit is labeled with a unique code and transmitted on a single
channel simultaneously along with many other coded voice circuits.
The only distinctions between the multiple voice circuits are the
assigned codes. The channel is typically very wide with each voice
circuit occupying the entire channel bandwidth.
CP
Communications processor. See CPM.
Appendix B-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
CPM
Communications processor module. One of three internal modules in
the MSC8101: CPM, SIU, and SC140 extended core. The CPM
consists of much more than PIO ports. The brains of the CPM is the
communications processor (CP), a 32-bit RISC microcontroller that
resides on a separate bus from the SC140 core and performs tasks
independently of the SC140 core. The CP handles lower-layer
communications tasks and DMA control, freeing the SC140 core to
handle higher-layer activities. The CP works with the peripheral
controllers, serial DMA (SDMA) channels, IDMA (independent
DMA) channels, timers, baud rate generators, and PIO ports.
CTS
Clear to send.
DALU
Data ALU. Performs arithmetic and logical operations on data
operands in the MSC8101. The source operands for the Data ALU,
which may be 16, 32, or 40 bits, originate either from data registers or
from immediate data. The results of all Data ALU operations are
stored in the data registers. All Data ALU operations are performed in
one clock cycle. Up to four parallel arithmetic operations can be
performed in each cycle. The destination of every arithmetic operation
can be used as a source operand for the operation immediately
following, without any time penalty.
double word
The MSC8101 is a 16-bit processor, so a double word is 32 bits.
Debug mode
On the MSC8101, the JTAG and IEEE 1149.1 Test Access Port gives
entry to the Debug mode of operation. With EOnce’s real-time
debugging capability, users can read the chip’s internal resources
without having to first stop the device and go into Debug mode. The
benefits range from faster debugging to reduced system development
costs and improved field diagnostics. The SC140 core has a debug
mode that is enabled at reset by pulling up the DBREG/EE0 pin. See
also EOnCE.
Glossary
Appendix B-5
Glossary
DMA
Direct memory access. A fast method of moving data from a storage
device to RAM, which speeds up processing. The MSC8101
multi-channel DMA controller supports up to 16 time-multiplexed
channels and buffer alignment by hardware. The DMA controller
connects to both the PowerPC system bus and the local PowerPC bus
and can function as a bridge between both buses. The MSC8101
DMA controller supports flyby transactions to either bus. The DMA
controller enables hot swap between channels, by time-multiplexed
channels with no cost in clock cycles. Sixteen priority levels support
synchronous and asynchronous transfers on the bus and give a varying
bus bandwidth per channel. The DMA controller can service multiple
requestors. A requestor can be any one of four external peripherals,
two internal peripherals, or sixteen internal requests generated by the
DMA FIFO itself. See also flyby transfer.
DRAM
Dynamic random-access memory. Dynamic memory is solid-state
memory in which the stored information decays over a period of time.
The decay time can range from milliseconds to seconds depending on
the device and its physical environment. The memory cells must
undergo refresh operations often enough to maintain the integrity of
the stored information. The dynamic nature of the circuits for DRAM
require data to be written back after being read, hence the difference
between access time and cycle time. DRAM memory is organized as a
rectangular matrix addressed by rows and columns. Every DRAM
must have every row refreshed within a certain time window, such as
2 milliseconds, or the information in the DRAM can be lost.
DSP MIPs
At its initial clock speed of 300 MHz, the SC140 core can execute
1,200 true DSP MIPS—1.2 billion multiply-accumulate operations,
together with associated data movement functions and pointer
updates—per second. One such DSP MIPS is the equivalent of several
RISC MIPS, the performance measure used by some other DSPs. For
purposes of comparison, the SC140 core can be said to perform 3000
RISC MIPS—ten RISC operations per cycle at 300 MHz. Moreover,
the MSC8101 enhanced filter coprocessor (EFCOP) performs filtering
operations at a 70 percent usage rate—a typical average for EFCOP
utilization in DSP applications—the coprocessor provides 210 MIPS
above the SC140 core’s 1,200-MIPS performance.
Appendix B-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
E1
The European equivalent of the North American T1, except that E1
carries information at the rate of 2.048 Mbps. This is a telephony
standard. Its size is based on the number of channels, each of which
carries 64 Kbps. See also T1.
EFCOP
Enhanced filter coprocessor. A peripheral MSC8101 module that
functions as a general-purpose, fully programmable complex filter. Its
optimized modes of operation perform complex finite impulse
response (FIR) filtering, infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering,
adaptive FIR filtering, and multichannel filtering. The EFCOP allows
filter operations to be completed concurrently with the SC140 core
operations with minimal CPU intervention. It has dedicated modes of
operation optimized for cellular base station applications. In a
transceiver base station, the EFCOP can be used for complex matched
filtering to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) within an
equalizer. In a transcoder base station or a mobile switching center,
the EFCOP can be used for all types of FIR and IIR filtering within a
vocoder, as well as for LMS-type echo cancellation.
EOnCE
Enhanced on-chip emulation. Allows nonintrusive interaction with the
MSC8101 and its peripherals so that a user can examine registers,
memory, or on-chip peripherals, define various breakpoints, and read
the trace-FIFO. These interactions facilitate hardware and software
development on the MSC8101 processor. The EOnCE module
interfaces with the debugging system through on-chip JTAG TAP
controller pins.
Glossary
Appendix B-7
Glossary
FCC
Fast communications controllers. A type of serial communications
controller (SCC) optimized for synchronous high-rate protocols.
MSC8101 FCCs can be configured independently to implement
different protocols. Together, they can implement bridging functions,
routers, and gateways; they can interface with a wide variety of
standard WANs, LANs, and proprietary networks. FCCs have many
physical interface options, such as interfacing to TDM buses, ISDN
buses, standard modem interfaces, fast Ethernet interface (MII), and
ATM interfaces (UTOPIA). The FCCs are independent from the
physical interface, but FCC logic formats and manipulates data from
the physical interface. That is why the interfaces are described
separately. The FCC is described in terms of the protocol that it runs.
When an FCC is programmed to a certain protocol, it implements a
certain level of functionality associated with that protocol. For most
protocols, this corresponds to portions of the link layer (layer 2 of the
seven-layer OSI model). Many FCC functions are common to all
protocols.
FC-PBGA
package
Flip Chip-Plastic Ball Grid Array. The MSC8101 FC-PBGA package
has 332 pins.
FDMA
Frequency division multiple access. A method of allowing multiple
users to share the radio frequency spectrum by assigning each active
user an individual frequency channel. In this practice, users are
dynamically allocated a group of frequencies so that the apparent
availability is greater than the number of channels.
Appendix B-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
FIR
Finite impulse response. A type of filter. FIR filters are characterized
by transfer functions that are polynomials, where the coefficients are
directly the impulse response of the filter. The most common
implementation of an FIR filter is the direct form with the recursive
section removed. The form of an FIR filter gives rise to the
terminology of tapped delay line and the coefficients as tap weights.
The length of an FIR filter is the number of taps, N, and thus the
convention of using indices from 0 through (N–1) for the coefficients.
FIR filters have two main advantages: they are inherently stable and
the finite length of the impulse response guarantees that the output
will go to zero within N samples from the epoch the input goes to
zero. Another advantage is that filters with a precisely linear-phase
characteristic can be designed and implemented. The disadvantage of
FIR filters is their computational complexity; for each output sample,
N multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations must be performed. For the
most part a target (magnitude) frequency response can be
approximated using IIR filters of less computational complexity,
expressed in MACs per input sample, than FIR filters. However, if
there is a sampling rate change, then FIR filters can be constructed to
compute only those output samples that are really necessary, thus
reducing the computational burden. If we allow the FIR filter to
operate on data in blocks, rather than sequentially on a
sample-by-sample basis, there are other techniques to reduce the
number of MACS per output sample.
flyby transfer
Also known as a “single access transaction.” The data path is between
a peripheral and memory with the same port size, located on the same
bus. On the MSC8101, flyby transactions can occur only between
external peripherals and external memories located on the PowerPC
bus, or between internal peripherals and internal SRAM located on the
local bus. Flyby operations do not require access to the DMA FIFO.
See also DMA.
full duplex
Transmission in two directions simultaneously—that is, simultaneous
two-way communications. Such communications occur on four-wire
circuits. In contrast, half duplex communications occur in only one
direction at one time. Two-wire circuits are a compromise between
full duplex and half duplex.
Glossary
Appendix B-9
Glossary
GPCM
General-purpose chip-select machine. Part of the MSC8101 memory
controller. The GPCM provides interfacing for simpler,
lower-performance memory resources and memory-mapped devices.
The GPCM has inherently lower performance because it does not
support bursting. For this reason, GPCM-controlled banks are used
primarily for boot-loading and access to low-performance
memory-mapped peripherals. The MSC8101 GPCM controls Bank
11, which is assigned for DSP peripherals. Banks 0–7 can be assigned
to the GPCM as well.
half-word
The MSC8101 is a 16-bit processor, so a half-word is 8 bits.
HDLC
High-level data link control. An ITU-TSS link layer protocol standard
for point-to-point and multi-point communications. In HDLC, control
information is always placed in the same position. Specific bit
patterns used for control differ dramatically from those used in
representing data so that errors are less likely to occur. On the
MSC8101, the SCCs can run in HDLC mode. See also SCC.
I2 C
Inter-integrated circuit, a simple and low-cost mechanism for
connecting multiple devices. I2C is more flexible than SPI for
multi-masters in handling collisions. I2C has a synchronous two-wire
interface (clock and data). It features bidirectional operation,
master/slave modes, and multi-master modes. Clock rates run up to
520 kHz@25 MHz system clock. Developed by Phillips.
IIR
Infinite impulse response. A type of filter. See FIR.
ISR
Interrupt service routine. In the MSC8101, the SC140 core handles
pending unmasked interrupts in order of priority. The interrupt
controller passes an interrupt vector corresponding to the
highest-priority, unmasked, pending interrupt.
lane
A sub-grouping of signals within a bus. An 8-bit section of the address
or data bus may be referred to as a byte lane for that bus.
little-endian
For little-endian scalars, the least-significant byte (LSB) is stored at
the lowest (or starting) address. This is called “little-endian” because
the little end of the scalar comes first in memory. See also big-endian.
Appendix B-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
MAC
Multiply and accumulate. On the SC140 core, the MAC unit is the
main arithmetic processing unit. It performs all the calculations on
data operands. The MAC unit outputs one 40-bit result in the form of
[Extension:Most Significant Portion:Least Significant Portion]
(EXT:MSP:LSP). The multiplier executes 16-bit x 16-bit fractional or
integer multiplication between two’s complement signed, unsigned, or
mixed operands. The 32-bit product is right-justified and added to the
40-bit contents of one of the 16 data registers.
maskable
interrupt
A hardware interrupt that can be enabled or disabled through
software.
master
The device that owns the address or data bus, the device that initiates
or requests the transaction.
MCC
Multi-channel controller. The two MSC8101 MCCs (MCC1 and
MCC2) each handle up to 128 serial, full-duplex data channels. The
128 channels are divided into four subgroups (of 32 channels each).
One or more subgroups can be multiplexed through corresponding SIx
time-division multiplexing (TDM) channels. Multiplexed in this way,
the MCCs can support a total of four T1 or E1 lines. MCC1 connects
through SI1, and MCC2 uses SI2. Each channel can be programmed
separately either to perform high-level data link control (HDLC)
formatting/deformatting or to act as a transparent channel. See also SI,
TDM, T1, and E1.
memory
controller
A unit whose main function is to control the external bus memories
and I/O devices. The MSC8101 memory controller is located on the
external PowerPC system bus. It controls a maximum of eight
memory banks shared by a high-performance SDRAM machine, a
general-purpose chip-select machine (GPCM), and two
user-programmable machines (UPMs). It supports a glueless interface
to synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), SRAM, EPROM, Flash memory,
burstable RAM, regular DRAM devices, extended data output DRAM
devices, and other peripherals.
Glossary
Appendix B-11
Glossary
MII
Media independent interface. Part of the Fast Ethernet specification,
the MII replaces 10BaseT AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) and
connects the MAC layer to the physical layer. The MII is the standard
for all three 100Base-T specifications: 100Base-TX, 100Base-T4, and
100Base0Fx. The MII interface can be used for both 100Base-T and
10Base-T. MSC8101 MII support includes four bits of data for
transmit and four bits of data for receive. If data is transmitted/
received at 100 MBPS, the clock rate must be at least 25 MHz (100
MBPS/4 bits).
MIPS
Millions of instructions per second. A rough measure of processor
performance, measuring the number of instructions that can be
executed in one second. However, different instructions require more
or less time than others, and performance can be limited by other
factors, such as memory and I/O speed.
modulo
An arithmetic term to designate an operation that uses the remainder
value from a division operation.
MPU
Microprocessor Unit.
NSP
Normal stack pointer.
operation
code
Also known as “opcode.” The command part of a machine instruction.
That is, in most cases, the first byte of the machine code that describes
the type of operation and combination of operands to the central
processing unit (CPU).
parameter
RAM
The CPM maintains a section of RAM called the parameter RAM,
which contains many parameters for the operation of the FCCs, SCCs,
SMCs, SPI, I2C, and IDMA channels. The exact definition of the
parameter RAM is contained in each protocol subsection describing a
device that uses a parameter RAM. For example, the Ethernet
parameter RAM is defined differently in some locations from the
HDLC-specific parameter RAM.
parking
Granting potential bus mastership without requiring a prior bus
request from that device. This eliminates the arbitration delay
associated with the bus request.
Appendix B-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
PIC
Program interrupt controller. A peripheral module to serve all the
interrupt requests (IRs) and non-maskable interrupts (NMIs) received
from MSC8101 peripherals and I/O pins. The PIC is memory mapped
to the SC140 core and is accessed via the SC140 core QBus. The PIC
not only handles incoming interrupts from internal and external
devices, but also generates interrupts to other devices. This capability
enables the MSC8101 to be used as a companion chip complementing
an external CPU such as a PowerPC processor. For example, the
MSC8101 might be used to provide protocol handling services,
sending an interrupt to notify the central processor each time it
finishes processing a batch of data.
pipelining
Initiating a bus transaction before the current one finishes. This
involves running an address tenure for a new bus transaction before
the data tenure for a current bus transaction completes.
PLL
Phase lock loop. An electronic circuit that controls an oscillator so
that it maintains a constant phase angle relative to a reference signal.
A PLL can be used to multiply or divide an input clock frequency to
generate a different output frequency.
quad word
The MSC8101 is a 16-bit processor, so a quad word is 64-bits.
reset
A means to bring a device and its components to a known state by
setting the registers and control bits to predetermined values and
signaling execution to start at a specified address.
RS-232 with
modem
controls
An ANSI standard specifying three interfaces: electrical, functional,
and mechanical. The RS-232 standard is typically used to
communicate between computers, terminals, and modems. All PCs
support RS-232, typically through a DB9 connector, as specified by
ANSI. The MSC8101 supports TXD, RXD, RTS, CTS, and CD signals.
RS-232 with
no modem
controls
The MSC8101 SMC1-2 interface supports TXD, RXD, and SMSYN
signals. The SMC interface does not support modem control signals,
and the data rates are not as fast as those of the SCC interface.
Glossary
Appendix B-13
Glossary
SCC
Serial communications controller. The MSC8101 has four SCCs,
which can be configured independently to implement different
protocols for bridging functions, routers, and gateways and to
interface with a wide variety of standard WANs, LANs, and
proprietary networks. An SCC offers many physical interface options,
such as interfacing to TDM buses, ISDN buses, and standard modem
interfaces. The SCCs are independent from the physical interface, but
SCC logic formats and manipulates data from the physical interface.
Furthermore, the choice of protocol is independent from the choice of
interface. An SCC is described in terms of the protocol it runs. When
an SCC is programmed to a certain protocol or mode, it implements
functionality that corresponds to parts of the protocol’s link layer
(layer 2 of the OSI reference model). See also CPM and FCC.
SDMA
Serial DMA. The MSC8101 has two physical SDMA channels. The
CP implements many dedicated virtual SDMA channels for each
FCC, MCC, SCC, SMC, SPI, and I2C—one for each transmitter and
receiver. Each channel is permanently assigned to service either the
receive or transmit operation of an FCC, MCC, SCC, SMC, SPI, or
I2C. On the MSC8101, the SDMA makes it possible for local
PowerPC bus transfers to occur at the same time as other operations
on the external PowerPC system bus. The SDMA channel can be
assigned a big-endian (Motorola) or little-endian format for accessing
buffer data. These features are programmed in the receive and
transmit registers associated with the FCCs, MCCs, SCCs, SMCs,
SPI, and I2C. See also CPM and IDMA.
SDRAM
A type of DRAM that can deliver bursts of data at very high speeds
using a synchronous interface.
set
To write a non-zero value to a bit or bit field; the opposite of clear.
The term set can also more generally describe the updating of a bit or
bit field.
SI
Serial interface. On the MSC8101, there are actually two serial
interfaces (SI1 and SI2).The “1” and “2” at the end of the TDM names
indicates which serial interface (SI) they belong to: SI1 or SI2. The
MSC8101 has one TDM from SI1 (TDMA1) and three from SI2
(TDMB2, TDMC2, TDMD2). The MSC8101 TDM interfaces are
split up between SI1 and SI2 to allow for higher system performance.
See also TDM.
Appendix B-14
MSC8101 User’s Guide
SIU
System interface unit. Controls system start-up and initialization, as
well as operation, protection, and the external system bus. The system
configuration and protection functions provide various monitors and
timers, including the bus monitor, software watchdog timer, periodic
interrupt timer, and time counter. The clock synthesizer generates the
clock signals for the SIU and other MSC8101 modules.
slave
The device addressed by the master. The slave is identified in the
address tenure and is responsible for sourcing or sinking the requested
data for the master during the data tenure.
SMC
Serial management controller. The CPM has two SMCs, which are
full-duplex ports that can be configured independently to support one
of three protocols or modes: UART mode, transparent mode, and
General-Circuit Interface (CGI) mode. UART operation provides a
debug/monitor port in an application, freeing the SCCs for other uses.
In totally transparent mode, the SMC can connect to a TDM channel
(for example, to support an E1 line) or directly to its own set of
signals. This mode can be used for a fast connection between
MSC8101s. In GCI mode, each SMC supports the C/I and monitor
channels of the GCI bus in ISDN applications, for which the SMC
connects to a time-division multiplex (TDM) channel in a serial
interface (SIx).
snooping
Monitoring addresses driven by a bus master to detect the need for
coherency actions.
SPI
Serial peripheral interface. A full-duplex, synchronous,
character-oriented channel that supports a four-wire interface
(receive, transmit, clock, and slave select). SPI supports master/slave
and multi-master modes. Character size is programmable. Developed
by Motorola.
splittransaction
A transaction with separate request and response tenures.
Glossary
Appendix B-15
Glossary
SRAM
Static random access memory. Contrast with dynamic random access
memory (DRAM). The dynamic nature of the circuits for DRAM
require data to be written back after being read, hence the difference
between the access time and the cycle time and also the need to
refresh. SRAMs use more circuits per bit to prevent the information
from being disturbed when read. Thus, unlike DRAMs, there is no
difference between access time and cycle time, and there is no need to
refresh SRAM. In DRAM designs, the emphasis is on capacity, while
SRAM designs are concerned with both capacity and speed. For
memories designed in comparable technologies, the capacity of
SRAMs is roughly 8 to 16 times faster than DRAMs. Most main
memory is composed of semiconductor DRAMS, and virtually all
caches use SRAM.
super channel
The super channel table entry redirects an MCC slot to a different
channel number. Therefore, the transmitter super channel uses more
FIFO in the MCC hardware (2 bytes—half of a single-channel
transmitter FIFO—multiplied by the number of the channels in the
super channel). On the transmitter side, super channels must be
defined in the SI RAM, and a super-channel table must be created. On
the receiver side, the transparent super channels that require slot
synchronization must be programmed in the SI RAM as super
channels. The slot synchronization ensures that the data is aligned in
the receiver buffer starting from the first time slot after a sync pulse.
One byte of FIFO is allocated for each super channel. Transparent
super channels that do not require slot synchronization and HDLC
super channels can be programmed in the SI RAM as regular channels
pointing to the same MCC channel. In this case, the FIFO allocated
for each super channel is 2 bytes (and the CP load is lower). See also
MCC, HDLC, and SI.
T1
Digital transmission link with a capacity of 1.544 Mbps. See also E1.
TDM
Time-division multiplexing. The external interface to the MSC8101
and the MSC8101 time-slot assigner (TSA) block. The MSC8101
supports four TDM interfaces: TDMA1, TDMB2, TDMC2, and
TDMD2.
tenure
The period of bus mastership. For MSC8101, there can be separate
address bus tenures and data bus tenures.
Appendix B-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
transaction
A complete exchange between two bus devices. A typical transaction
is composed of an address tenure and a data tenure, which may
overlap or occur separately from the address tenure. A transaction can
minimally consist of an address tenure alone.
TSA
Time-slot assigner. A functional block within the MSC8101 CPM that
connects the time-division multiplexing (TDM) interfaces to selected
communications controllers inside the MSC8101. If the TSA is not
used as intended, it can generate complex wave forms on dedicated
output pins. For instance, it can program these pins to implement
stepper motor control or variable-duty cycle and period control
on-the-fly.
UART
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter. A serial
communications interface.
UPM
User-programmable machine. The MSC8101 memory controller has
two UPMs. The UPMs support address multiplexing of the external
PowerPC bus, refresh timers, and generation of programmable control
signals for row address and column address strobes to allow for a
glueless interface to DRAMs, burstable SRAMs, and almost any other
kind of peripheral. The refresh timers allow refresh cycles to be
initiated. The UPM can generate different timing patterns for the
control signals that govern a memory device. These patterns define
how the external control signals behave during a read, write,
burst-read, or burst-write access request. Refresh timers are also
available to periodically generate user-defined refresh cycles.
UTOPIA
Universal Test and Operations Interface for ATM. UTOPIA is the
interface to an ATM network. It is defined by the ATM Forum in the
UTOPIA Specification Level 1 and UTOPIA Specification Level 2
documents. The Level 2 specification is a continuation of the Level 1
document. The MSC8101 is Level-1 and Level-2 compliant.
wait state
A period of time when a processor does nothing but wait. Wait states
are used to synchronize circuitry or devices operating at different
speeds so that they seem to be operating at the same speed.
word
The MSC8101 is a 16-bit processor, so a word is 16 bits.
.
Glossary
Appendix B-17
Glossary
Appendix B-18
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Appendix C
Bootloader Program
This appendix lists the boot program for the MSC8101.
;;/****************************************************************/
;;/*
*/
;;/* File : boot_code_rev0.asm
*/
;;/*
*/
;;/* (C) Copyright Motorola Inc, 2000.
*/
;;/* All rights reserved
*/
;;/*
*/
;;/* Author: Yair toaff
*/
;;/*
*/
;;/* Description:
*/
;;/*
This file contains the Q001 boot code acording to what
*/
;;/*
is specified in the boot section of the MSC8101
*/
;;/*
reference manual
*/
;;/*
*/
;;/*
*/
;;/****************************************************************/
;;definitions of addresses
STACK_ADDR
equ
$68000
;; BANKS
MASK0_A equ
BASE0_A equ
BASE0_D equ
BASE1_A equ
$00f0ff00
$00f0ff02
$00f00000
$00f0ff06
BASE_ROM_ADDRESS equ $00f80000
BASE_exception_TABLE equ $00f80000
EXTERNAL_MEM_BOOT_TABLE equ $fe000110
MSC8101 User’s Guide
C-1
Bootloader Program
;; HOST registers addresses definitions
;; dsp side
HCR
equ
BASE0_D+$0000
HPCR
equ
BASE0_D+$0020
HSR
equ
BASE0_D+$0040
HCVR
equ
BASE0_D+$0060
HOTX
equ
BASE0_D+$0080
HORX
equ
BASE0_D+$00a0
ELIRE
equ
BASE0_D+$1c20
ELIRF
equ
BASE0_D+$1c28
Fmain
;---------- illegal exception offset 0x80 ---------section illegal_exception
org
p:$0080+BASE_exception_TABLE
illegal_exception
rte
endsec
;---------- trap exception offset 0xc0 ---------section debug_exception
org
p:$00c0+BASE_exception_TABLE
debug_exception
rte
endsec
;---------- overflow exception offset 0x100 ---------section overflow_exception
org
p:$0100+BASE_exception_TABLE
overflow_exception
rte
endsec
;---------- auto nmi exception offset 0x180 ---------section auto_nmi_exception
org
p:$0180+BASE_exception_TABLE
auto_nmi_exception
rte
C-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
endsec
;---------- auto ir exception offset 0x1c0 ---------section auto_ir_exception
org
p:$01c0+BASE_exception_TABLE
auto_ir_exception
rte
endsec
;---------- in address 0 goto 0x200 ------------section start
org
p:$0000+BASE_ROM_ADDRESS
start
;; exception stack pointer initialization
move.l #BASE_exception_TABLE,vba
move.l #STACK_ADDR,r0
nop
tfra r0,sp
; init ESP
;
init vba
;; stack initialization
move.l #0,d3
move.l d3,(r0)
jmp $200+BASE_ROM_ADDRESS
endsec
;----------------------section boot
org
p:$200+BASE_ROM_ADDRESS
;the registers to be used are :
;
d4,d5 for reading from the host fifo
;
r3
for holding the block address
;
d6
for holding the size
;
d7
for holding the checksum
;
d2
for holding the ~checksum
;
d1,r6
for holding the IMMR
;
r5 for holding the SRAM BASE MEM
Bootloader Program
C-3
Bootloader Program
;; calculating the checksum
;
during the loading process the check sum is calculated for the whole
;
long and at the end of the block the two words in the calculated
;
checksum are xored with each other to get the real checksum
Fmain
move.l emr,d1
extractu #3,#19,d1,d3
; d3 xor 3’b100 to recover original isb
eor #$4,d3.l
nop
jmp find_siubase
return_find_siu
; SRAM INIT
jmp sram_init
return_sram_init
; initialize ELIRE
move.w #$8000,d0
nop
move.w d0,ELIRE
; initialize ELIRF
move.w #$0008,d0
nop
move.w d0,ELIRF
;;check the scmr to see which upm routine to load
move.l (r6+$c88),d1
;;scmr,d1
;; extract the busdf from scmr
extractu #4,#20,d1,d3
jmp upmc_init
check_boot
move.l emr,d1
;get EE4,EE5 -> d3
extractu #2,#17,d1,d3
nop ;
cmpeq.w #$0,d3
jt external_memory
cmpeq.w #$1,d3
jt from_host
;if the value of [EE4,EE5] is not 00 or 01 stop
stop
external_memory
;d3 <- isb[0,1,2]
extractu #3,#19,d1,d3
C-4
MSC8101 User’s Guide
; d3 xor 3’b100 to recover original isb
eor #$4,d3.l
;r3 <- d3
move.l d3,r3
nop
; FIND IMMR FROM ISB
;r3 *= 4 so the offset will be in long instead of bytes
;r3 = r3<<2
asl2a r3
;put the address of the external memory boot table in r4
move.l #EXTERNAL_MEM_BOOT_TABLE,r4
nop
adda r4,r3
nop
;move the address from the table into r3
move.l (r3),r3
nop
;jump to that address
jmp r3
from_host
;disables software watchdog
move.l (r6+$4),d1
;;sypcr,d1
and #$fffffffb,d1,d1
move.l d1,(r6+$4) ;;sypcr
;set the HEN bit in hpcr
move.w HPCR,d3
or #$0080,d3.l
move.w d3,HPCR
;get the 8bit bit from hpcr ( which is in d3 )
;if (8bit ) goto load_8bit else goto load_16bit
bmtsts #$0040,d3.l
jt load_8bit
jmp load_16bit
load_last_long_2_16
;if the size left to load is only 2 words (4 bytes)
;and the mode is 16 bit (so every load action is of 4 words)
;the load action already loaded the checksum
;and the ~checksum, so it is a special case which needs handling
;by itself
jsr load_from_fifo
;move the last 2 words to there address (which is kept in r3)
move.l d4,(r3)
adda #$4,r3
Bootloader Program
C-5
Bootloader Program
;write checksum , ~checksum at the and of the block
move.l d5,(r3)
;calculate the checksum of these words
eor d4,d7
;calculate ~checksum -> d2
;get the real checksum from d7 and
;get it into d7.l as explained in the beginning of the file
;d2 = (0xffff0000 & d7)>>16
extractu #16,#16,d7,d2
;d2 = d2 & 0x0000ffff
and #$0000ffff,d2,d2
;d7 = d7 & 0x0000ffff
and #$0000ffff,d7,d7
;d7 = d7 ^ d2 = checksum
eor d2,d7
;d2 = (~d7 & 0x0000ffff) = ~checksum
not d7,d2
and #$0000ffff,d2,d2
;get loaded checksum , ~checksum from d5
;get ~checksum into d4
extractu #16,#16,d5,d4
and #$0000ffff,d4,d4
;delete the ~checksum from d5
and #$0000ffff,d5,d5
;if ( checksum_loaded |= Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
cmpeq d5,d7
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;if ( ~checksum_loaded |= ~Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
cmpeq d4,d2
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;goto loading the next block
;goto load_16bit
load_16bit
;d7 = checksm =0 , clear the calculated checksum register
;clr
d7
;load the size and address
;clr
d7
move.l #0,d7
;load the size and address
jsr load_from_fifo
C-6
MSC8101 User’s Guide
;move the size into d6
move.l d4,d6
;move the address into r3
move.l d5,r3
;; check if the finished bit is set ,if it is set clear it
;; and the sticky bit . ( it means there was an error and
;; the blocks are being loaded for the second time)
move.w HCR,d4
bmtsts.w #$8000,d4.l
jf continue_loading_16
move.w HCR,d4
and #$6fff,d4.l
move.w d4,HCR
continue_loading_16
;if (size == 0 ) in the beginning of a block it means no more blocks
;then jump to the address loaded in r3 (from d5 )
tsteq d6
jt end_of_loading_16
load_loop_16
;if (size ==2 ) it is a special case so goto load_last_long_2_16
move.l #$00000002,d4
cmpeq d4,d6
jt
load_last_long_2_16
;load 2 data words
jsr load_from_fifo
;load the first 2 data words (4 bytes) to the address
move.l d4,(r3)
;increment the address by 4 bytes
adda #$4,r3
;load the second 2 data words (4 bytes) to the address
move.l d5,(r3)
;increment the address by 4 bytes
adda #$4,r3
;CALCULATE_CHECKSUM
eor d4,d7
eor d5,d7
;decrease the size by 4 words
sub #$4,d6
;jump to loading the next words
jmp load_loop_16
Bootloader Program
C-7
Bootloader Program
load_8bit
;d7 = 0 , checksm =0
clr
d7
;load the size into d6
jsr load_from_fifo
;; check if the finished bit is set ,if it is set clear it
;; and the sticky bit .( it means there was an error and
;; the blocks are being loaded for the second time
move.w HCR,d6
bmtsts.w #$8000,d6.l
jf continue_loading_8
move.w HCR,d6
and #$6fff,d6.l
move.w d6,HCR
continue_loading_8
move.l d5,d6
;if (size == 0) it means the last block was loaded
;so goto end_of_loading
tsteq d6
jt
end_of_loading
;load the address
jsr load_from_fifo
move.l d5,r3
load_loop_8
;load data word
jsr load_from_fifo
move.l d5,(r3)
;add 4 bytes to the address
adda #$4,r3
;CALCULATE_CHECKSUM d7 = d7 ^ d5
eor d5,d7
;subtract 2 words from the size
sub #$2,d6
;if ( size | = 0) go to load_loop_8
tsteq d6
jf
load_loop_8
;get the checksum into d7.l
;d2 = (0xffff0000 & d7)>>16
extractu #16,#16,d7,d2
;d2 = d2 & 0x0000ffff
and #$0000ffff,d2,d2
;d7 = d7 & 0x0000ffff
C-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
and #$0000ffff,d7,d7
;d7 = d7 ^ d2
eor d2,d7
;d2 = (~d7 & 0x0000ffff) = ~checksum
not d7,d2
and #$0000ffff,d2,d2
;load the checksum ,~checksum
jsr load_from_fifo
;get ~checksum into d4
extractu #16,#16,d5,d4
;delete the ~checksum from d4
and #$0000ffff,d5,d5
;if ( checksum_loaded |= Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
cmpeq d5,d7
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;if ( ~checksum_loaded |= ~Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
;clean d5.h
and #$0000ffff,d5,d5
cmpeq d4,d2
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;goto load the next block
jmp load_8bit
end_of_loading_16
;d7 = 0 , checksm =0
clr
d7
eor d6,d7
eor d5,d7
jsr load_from_fifo
;get the checksum into d7.l
;d2 = (0xffff0000 & d7)>>16
extractu #16,#16,d7,d2
;d2 = d2 & 0x0000ffff
and #$0000ffff,d2,d2
;d7 = d7 & 0x0000ffff
and #$0000ffff,d7,d7
;d7 = d7 ^ d2
eor d2,d7
;d2 = (~d7 & 0x0000ffff) = ~checksum
not d7,d2
and #$0000ffff,d2,d2
;get ~checksum into d5
extractu #16,#16,d4,d5
;delete the ~checksum from d4
Bootloader Program
C-9
Bootloader Program
and #$0000ffff,d4,d4
;if ( checksum_loaded |= Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
cmpeq d4,d7
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;clean d5.h
and #$0000ffff,d5,d5
;if ( ~checksum_loaded |= ~Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
cmpeq d5,d2
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;set hf7 bit in HCR to show that loading is finished
move.w HCR,d6
or #$00008000,d6.l
move.w d6,HCR
;check if the check sticky bit is set ( hf0 in HSR (HSR[12] )
move.w HSR,d6
and #$00001000,d6,d6
;check if the sticky bit is set ( hf4 in HCR (HCR[12]) )
move.w HCR,d4
and #$00001000,d4,d4
;if both of the flags are set start the loading again
and d4,d6
tsteq d6
jf from_host
;if everything is OK jump to the address in r3
jmp
r3
end_of_loading
;d7 = 0 , checksm =0
clr
d7
eor d6,d7
;load the destination address into r3
jsr load_from_fifo
move.l d5,r3
eor d5,d7
jsr load_from_fifo
;get the checksum into d7.l
;d2 = (0xffff0000 & d7)>>16
extractu #16,#16,d7,d2
;d2 = d2 & 0x0000ffff
and #$0000ffff,d2,d2
;d7 = d7 & 0x0000ffff
and #$0000ffff,d7,d7
C-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
;d7
eor
;d2
not
and
= d7 ^ d2
d2,d7
= (~d7 & 0x0000ffff) = ~checksum
d7,d2
#$0000ffff,d2,d2
;get ~checksum into d4
extractu #16,#16,d5,d4
;delete the ~checksum from d5
and #$0000ffff,d5,d5
;if ( checksum_loaded |= Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
cmpeq d5,d7
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;clean d4.h
and #$0000ffff,d4,d4
;if ( ~checksum_loaded |= ~Checksum_calculated ) goto set sticky bit
cmpeq d4,d2
iff jsr set_sticky_bit
;set hf7 bit in HCR to show that loading is finished
move.w HCR,d6
or #$8000,d6.l
move.w d6,HCR
;check the check sticky bit is set ( hf0 in HSR (HSR[12) )
move.w HSR,d6
and #$00001000,d6,d6
;check if the sticky bit is set ( hf4 in HCR (HCR[12]) )
move.w HCR,d4
and #$00001000,d4,d4
;if both of the flags are set start the loading again
and d4,d6
tsteq d6
jf from_host
; jump to the destination address
jmp r3
load_from_fifo
;if the host is empty wait for it to fill
move.w HSR,d4
bmtsts.w #$0001,d4.l
jf
load_from_fifo
;; the host is not empty so load 8 bytes from it
move.l #HORX,r0
nop
Bootloader Program
C-11
Bootloader Program
move.2l (r0),d4:d5
rts
set_sticky_bit
;set the hf6 bit in HCR
move.w HCR,d6
or #$00001000,d6.l
move.w d6,HCR
rts
find_siubase
cmpeq.w #$0,d3
nop
ift move.l #$f0000000,d1
isb1
cmpeq.w #$1,d3
nop
ift move.l #$f0f00000,d1
isb2
cmpeq.w #$2,d3
nop
ift move.l #$ff000000,d1
isb3
cmpeq.w #$3,d3
nop
ift move.l #$fff00000,d1
isb5
cmpeq.w #$5,d3
nop
ift move.l #$00f00000,d1
isb6
cmpeq.w #$6,d3
nop
ift move.l #$0f000000,d1
isb7
cmpeq.w #$7,d3
nop
ift move.l #$0ff00000,d1
isb4
cmpeq.w #$4,d3
nop
ift stop
move.l #$10000,d0
iadd d0,d1
jmp return_find_siu
sram_init
C-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
move.l d1,r6
move.l #$02000000,d1
move.l d1,r5
;
bmset #$00c1,d1.l
move.l #$fff80000,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$154)
move.l d1,(r6+$150)
; gpcm_init
move.l #$ffff0000,d1
move.l #$01f00021,d0
move.l d1,(r6+$15c)
move.l d0,(r6+$158)
jmp return_sram_init
;
base address for sram is 0x0200_0000
; SET OR10
; SET BR10
;
;
;
;
SET
SET
SET
SET
OR11
BR11
OR11
BR11
MASK 64 KB
TO $01f0_0000
MASK 64 KB
TO $01f0_0000
upmc_init
;; -------------- READ SINGLE ------------------------------------move.l #$90051240,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$178)
;
move.l #$00030040,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
cmpeq.w #$2,d3
jf continue_upmc1
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00030040,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
continue_upmc1
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00030045,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
;
;
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
;
;; -------------- READ BURST ------------------------------------move.l #$90051248,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$178)
;
move.l #$00030c48,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00030c4c,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00030c4c,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
;
;
Bootloader Program
C-13
Bootloader Program
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00030044,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00030045,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
;
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
;
;; -------------- WRITE SINGLE ------------------------------------move.l #$90051258,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$178)
;
move.l #$00000040,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
cmpeq.w #$2,d3
jf continue_upmc2
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00000040,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
continue_upmc2
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00000045,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
;
;
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
;
;; -------------- WRITE BURST ------------------------------------move.l #$90051260,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$178)
;
move.l #$00000c48,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
C-14
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00000c4c,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00000c4c,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00000044,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
;
;
;
MSC8101 User’s Guide
move.w #$0,(r5)
move.l #$00000045,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
;
;; -------------- EXCEPTION ------------------------------------move.l #$9005127c,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$178)
;
move.l #$ff000001,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$188)
;
move.w #$0,(r5)
;
;; -------------- RESUME NORMAL OPERATION ------------------------move.l #$80011240,d7
move.l d7,(r6+$178)
;
jmp check_boot
endsec
Bootloader Program
C-15
Bootloader Program
C-16
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Appendix D
Acronyms and Abbreviations
A
A
AACK
AAL
AAU
ABB
ABI
ABR
ACR
ADM
ADSL
ADTF
AGU
ALE
ALU
AM
APC
ARTRY
ASIC
ATM
ATOM1
address bus signal (A[0–31])
address acknowledge signal
ATM adaptation layer
address arithmetic unit
address bus busy signal
application binary interface
available bit rate
allowed cell rate
application development module
asymmetric digital subscriber line
ACR decrease time factor
address generation unit
address latch enable signal
arithmetic logic unit
address mode
ATM pace control
address retry signal
application-specific integrated
circuit
Asynchronous Transfer mode
ATM over T1/E1
BG
BIST
BISYNC
BLER
BMU
BNKSEL
BPU
BR
BR
BRC
BRG
BRGC
BRGCLK
BRI
BRKEC
B-RM
BS
BSR
bus grant signal
built-in self test
16-bit sync
block error result
bit mask unit
bank select signal
branch processing unit
Base Register
bus request signal
backward reporting cell
baud-rate generator
BRG Configuration Register
BRG clock
basic rate interface
break error counter
backward-RM
byte-select signal
MSC8101 Boundary Scan
Register
BSYNC
BISYNC SYNC Register
BT
burst tolerance
BTM
block transfer module
BUFCMD command buffers
BUID
bus unit ID
BUS DF BUS post-division factor
B
BADDR
BBW
BCC
BCR
BCS
BCTL
BD
BDLE
BEDC
BFU
burst address
bus bandwidth
block check code
Bus Configuration Register
block check sequence
buffer control signal
buffer descriptor
SCC BISYNC DLE Register
block error detection code
bit-field unit
C
CAM
CAS
CBR
CCR
CD
CDF
CDMA
CDV
CES
MSC8101 User’s Guide
content-addressable memory
channel-associated signaling
contant bit rate
current cell rate
carrier detect
cutoff decrease factor
code division muliple access
cell delay variation
circuit emulation service
D-1
CHAMR Channel Mode Register
C/I
command/indication (channel)
CI
congestion indication
CLP
cell loss priority
CLSN
collision signal
CM
continuous mode
CMX
CPM multiplexing logic
CMXFCR CMX FCC Clock Route Register
CMXSCR CMX SCC Clock Route Register
CMXSIxCR CMX SI[1–2] Clock Route
Registers
CMXSMR CMX SMC Clock Route Register
CMXUAR CMX UTOPIA Address Register
COL
collision detect
CP
communications processor, also
called the RISC microcontroller
CPCR
CP Command Register
CP-CS
common parts of the convergence
sublayer
CPLL
core PLL
CPLL MF CPLL multiplication factor
CPLL PDF CPLL pre-division factor
CPM
communications processor module
CPMCLK CPM general system clock
CPS
cells per slot
CR
condition register
CRC
cyclic redundancy check
CRCEC
CRC error counter
CRS
carrier sense output signal
CS
chip select signal
CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple
access/collision detect
CTR
count register
CTS
clear to send
CVR
Command Vector Register
(host-side)
D
D
DABR
DACK
DALU
DAR
DBB
data signal (D[0–31])
data address breakpoint register
DMA data acknowledge signal
data ALU
Data Address Register
data bus busy signal
DBG
DCHCR
data bus grant signal
DMA Channel Configuration
Register
DCM
IDMA Channel Mode Parameters
DCPRAM DMA Channel Parameter RAM
DEC
decrementer register
DEMR
DMA External Mask Register
DIMR
DMA Internal Mask Register
DLL
data link layer
DLL
delay-locked loop
DMA
direct memory access
DP
data parity signal
DPCR
DMA Pin Configuration Register
DPLL
digital phase-locked loop
DPR
dual-port RAM
DPRAM dual-port RAM
DRACK data request acknowledge signal
DRAM
dynamic random-access memory
DREQ
DMA request signal
DS
data strobe signal
DSISR
DSI Exception Source Register
DSP
digital signal processor
DSPRAM Internal DSP RAM
DSR
Data Synchronization
Registers[1–4]
DSTR
DMA Status Register
DTEAR
DMA Transfer Error Address
Status Register
DTLB
data translation lookaside buffer
E
E1
EA
ECC
EE
EED
EEST
EFCI
EFCOP
ELIR
EMR
D-2
MSC8101 User’s Guide
European standard TDM interface
line
effective address
error checking and correction
EOnCE event signal
EOnCE event detection signal
enhanced Ethernet serial
transceiver
explicit forward congestion
indication
enhanced filter coprocessor
PIC Edge/Level-Triggered
Interrupt Priority Register[A–F]
Exception and Mode Register
ENQ
EOB
EOnCE
EPD
EPROM
enquiry character
end-of-burst (data)
Enhanced On-Chip Emulation
early packet discard
erasable programmable read-only
memory
ER
explicit rate
ESP
exception stack pointer
ETB
end-of-block
ETX
end-of-text character
EVM
evaluation module
EXT_BG external bus grant signal
EXT_BR external bus request signal
EXT_DBG external data bus grant signal
FMAC
FMC
FPR
FPSCR
FPSMR
FPU
F-RM
FSB
FSTR
FTIRR
FTODR
F
FACR
FCBA
EFCOP ALU Control Register
EFCOP Coefficient Base Address
Register
FC-PBGA Flip Chip-Plastic Ball Grid
Array package
FCC
FCCE
FCCM
FCCS
FCM
FCNT
FCPBGA
FCR
FCS
FCTL
FDBA
fast communications controller
FCC Event register
FCC Mask register
FCC Status register
filter coefficient memory
EFCOP Filter Count Register
flip chip plastic ball grid array
FCC Function Code Registers
frame-check sequence
EFCOP Control Register
EFCOP Data Base Address
Register
FDCH
EFCOP Decimation/Channel
Count Register
FDIR
EFCOP Data Input Register
FDM
filter data memory
FDMA
frequency division multiple access
FDOR
EFCOP Data Output Register
FDSR
FCC Data Synchronization
Registers[1–3]
FEPROM flash EPROM
FIR
finite impulse response (filtering)
FKIR
EFCOP K-Constant Register
flyby
Also known as “single access
transaction”
filter multiplier accumulator
forward monitoring cell
Floating-Point Register
Floating-Point Status and Control
Register
FCC Protocol-Specifc Mode
Register
floating-point unit
forward-RM
fractional stop bits
EFCOP Status Register
FCC Transmit Internal Rate
Registers
FCC Transmit-on-Demand
Registers[1–3]
G
GB
GBL
GBps
GCI
GCRA
GFMR
GMODE
GPCM
GPR
GSMR
GTA
GUI
Gigabyte
global signal
Gigabyte per second
general-circuit interface
generic cell rate algorithm (also
known as the leaky bucket
algorithm)
FCC General Mode
Registers[1–3]
global mode entry
general-purpose chip-select
machine
General-Purpose Register
SCC General Mode
Registers[1–4]
external access termination signal
graphical user interface
H
H
HA
HACK
HCR
HCS
HCSP
HCVR
MSC8101 User’s Guide
host data signal
host address line signal
host acknowledge signal
Host Control Register (core-side)
host chip-select signal
host chip-select polarity signal
Host Command Vector Register
D-3
HD
HDDS
HDI16
HDLC
HDS
HDSP
H8BIT
HORX
HOTX
HPCR
HRD
HREQ
HRESET
HRRQ
HRW
HSR
HTRQ
HW
HWR
Hz
(core-side)
host data bus signal
host dual data strobe signal
host interface (enhanced 16-bit
parallel host interface)
high-level data link control
protocol
host data strobe
host data strobe polarity signal
8-bit mode control signal
Host Receive Data Register
(core-side)
Host Transmit Data Register
(core-side)
Host Port Control Register
(core-side)
host read strobe signal
host request signal
hard resest signal
host receive request signal
host write select signal
Host Status Register (core-side)
host transmit request signal
hardware reset
host write data strobe signal
hertz
IDSRx
IEEE
IDMA Event Registers[1–4]
Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
IFG
interframe gap
IIR
infinite impulse response
(filtering)
IMMR
Internal Memory Map Register
INTMSK interrupt mask
INT_OUT interrupt output signal
I/O
input/output
IPL
interrupt priority level
IPR
PIC Interrupt Pending Register
IR
individual reset
IR
interrupt request
IR
Instruction Register
IrDA
Infrared Data Association
IRQ
interrupt request signal
ISDN
integrated services digital network
ISR
Interface Status Register
(host-side)
ISR
interrupt service routine
ITLB
instruction translation look-aside
buffer
IU
integer unit
interworking function
IWF
J
I
I2ADD
I2BRG
I2C
I2CER
I2CMR
I2COM
I2MOD
ICR
ICR
ID
IDE
IDG
IDL
IDLC
IDMA
IDMRx
D-4
I2C Address Register
I2C BRG Register
inter-integrated circuit
I2C Event Register
I2C Mask Register
I2C Command Register
I2C Mode Register
initial cell rate
Interface Control Register
(host-side)
Identification Register
Integrated Development
Environment
interdialog gap
interchip digital link
internal idle counter
independent DMA
IDMA Mask Registers[1–4]
JTAG
joint test action group
K
KB
Kb
Kbps
KHz
kilobyte
kilobit
kilobits per second
kilohertz
L
LAPD
layer 2 protocol
LC
Loop Counter Register
LCL_ACR Local Bus Arbiter Configuration
Register
LCL_ACRLLocal Bus Arbitration Level
Register
LCL_ALRHLocal Bus Arbitration Level
Register
MSC8101 User’s Guide
LDMTEA Local PowerPC Bus DMA
Transfer Error Address Register
LDMTER Local PowerPC Bus DMA
Transfer Error Requestor Number
Register
LDTEA
Local PowerPC Bus SDMA
Transfer Error Address Register
LDTEM Local PowerPC Bus SDMA
Transfer Error MSNUM
LIFO
last-in/first-out
LR
Link Register
LRC
longitudinal redundancy checking
LRU
least recently used
lsb
least-significant bit
LSB
least-significant byte
LSU
load/store unit
L_TESCR Local Bus Transfer Error Status
and Control Register
M
MAC
MAC
MAMR
MAR
Mb
MB
MBMR
MBS
MCC
MCCE
MCCF
MCCM
MCMR
MCP
MCR
MCSN
MCTL
MDA
MDC
MDIO
MDR
MFLR
MHz
MII
MINFLR
MIPS
media access control
multiply-accumulate
Machine A Mode Register
Memory Address Register
megabit
megabyte
Machine B Mode Register
maximum burst size
multi-channel controller
MCC Event register
MCC Configuration register
MCC Mask register
Machine C Mode Register
machine check interrupt signal
minimum cell rate
monitoring cell sequence number
Modifier Control Register
maximum delay allowed
management data clock signal
management data I/O signal
Memory Data Register
maximum flow rate
megahertz
media-independent interface
Minimum Frame Length Register
million instructions per second
MMU
MODCK
MPTPR
MPU
msb
MSB
MSNUM
MSR
mux
MxMR
memory management unit
clock mode signal
Memory Refresh Timer Prescaler
Register
microprocessor unit
most-significant bit
most-significant byte
module serial number
Machine State Register
multiplexing logic
Machine A/B/C Mode Registers
N
Nan
NI
NIA
NIC
NIU
NMI
NMSI
NNI
No-op
NOSEC
NSP
not a number
no increase
next instruction address
network interface card
network interface unit
non-maskable interrupt
non-multiplexed serial interface
network-node interface
no operation
noise error counter
normal stack pointer
O
OAM
OE
OEA
opcode
OR
OSI
operations and maintenance
output enable signal
operating environment
architecture
operation code
Option Register
open systems interconnection
P
PA
PAG
PAREC
PB
PBS
PBSE
PC
PC
PCI
MSC8101 User’s Guide
general-purpose I/O port A signal
program address generator
parity error counter
general-purpose I/O port B signal
byte select signal
parity byte select signal
port C general-purpose I/O signal
Program Counter Register
peripheral component interconnect
D-5
PCM
PCMCIA
pulse-code modulation
Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association
PCR
peak cell rate
PCU
program control unit
PD
general-purpose I/O port D signal
PDAT
Port A–D Data Register
PDIR
Port A–D Data Direction Register
PDMTER PPC 60x Bus DMA Transfer Error
Requestor Number Register
PDTEA
PPC 60x Bus SDMA Transfer
Error Address Register
PDTEM
PPC 60x Bus SDMA Transfer
Error MSNUM Register
PDU
program dispatch unit
PGPL
PPC 60x Bus UPM
general-purpose signal
PGTA
60x GPCM TA signal
PHY
physical layer
PIC
position independent code
PIC
programmable interrupt controller
PIO
parallel I/O
PIR
Processor Identification Register
PISCR
Periodic Interrupt Status and
Control Register
PIT
periodic interrupt timer
PITC
Periodic Interrupt Timer Count
Register
PITR
Periodic Interrupt Timer Register
PLL
phase-locked loop
PODR
Port[A–D] Open-Drain Register
POE
PPC 60x Bus output enable signal
POR
power-on reset
PORESET power-on reset signal
PPAR
Port[A–D] Pin Assignment
Register
PPBS
PPC 60x Bus parity byte select
signal
PPC_ACR PPC 60x Bus Arbiter
Configuration Register
PPC_ALRHPPC 60x Bus Arbitration-Level
Register
PPC_ALRLPPC 60x Bus Arbitration-Level
Register
PRI
primary rate interface
PS
port size
D-6
PSDA
PPC 60x Bus SDRAM signal
PSDCAS PPC 60x Bus SDRAM CAS
PSDDQM PPC 60x Bus SDRAM DQM
signal
PSDMR
SDRAM Mode Register
PSDRAS PPC 60x Bus SDRAM RAS signal
PSDVAL port size data valid signal
PSDWE
PPC 60x Bus SDRAM write
enable signal
PSEQ
program sequencer
PSMR
Protocol-Specific Mode Registers
PSOR
Port Special Options Registers
PSRT
PPC 60x Bus-Assigned SDRAM
Refresh Timer Register
PURT
UPM Refresh Timer Register
PVR
Processor Version Register
PWE
PPC 60x Bus write enable signal
Q
QBC
QBDG
QBS
Qbus
QBUSBR
QBUSMR
QFP
bus control unit
qualified data bus grant
Qbus bus switch
peripheral bus
Qbus Base Address Register
Qbus Mask Register
quad flat pack
R
RAWA
RCCM
RCCR
RCCR
RCLK
RCT
RDF
RENA
RFCR
RFTHR
RISC
RM
RMW
MSC8101 User’s Guide
read-after-write atomic bus
operation
received control character mask
Received Control Character
Register
RISC (CP) Configuration Register
receive clock
receive connection table
rate decrease factor
receive enable signal
Receive Function Code Register
received frames threshold
parameter
reduced instruction set computing
resource management
read-modify-write
RQNUM
RSCFG
requestor number
Reset Configuration Registers
(host-side)
RSR
Reset Status Register
RSTATE receiver state
RSTCONF reset configuration signal
RSTRT
receive start signal
RTER
RISC (CP) Timer Event Register
RTMR
RISC (CP) Timer Mask Register
RTOS
real-time operating system
RTSCR
RISC Time-Stamp Control
Register
RTSR
RISC (CP) Time-Stamp Register
RWITM read with intent to modify
Rx
receive
RX
Receive Word Registers
(host-side)
RxBD
receive buffer descriptor
RxCLAV receive cell available signal
RX_CLK receive clock signal
RXD
receive data signal
RX_DV
receive data valid signal
RX_ER
receive error signal
S
SA
SAR
SC
SC140
SCC
SCCE
SCCM
SCCR
SCCS
SCL
SCLK
SCMR
SCP
SCPRR
SCR
SDA
SDLC
SDMA
SDMR
SDRAM
SDSR
Start Address Register
segmentation and reassembly
stop-completed event
StarCore 140
serial communications controller
SCC Event register
SCC Mask register
System Clock Control Register
SCC Status register
serial clock
SCC clock
System Clock Mode Register
serial control port
CPM Interrupt Priority Register
sustain cell rate
serial data
synchronous data link control
serial DMA
SDMA Mask Register
synchronous DRAM
SDMA Status Register
SFD
SI
SIA
SIC
SIC_EXT
start frame delimiter
serial interface
serial interface adaptor
SIU-CPM interrupt controller
external SIU-CPM interrupt
controller
SICR
SIU Interrupt Configuration
Register
SICR_EXT External SIU Interrupt
Configuration Register
SIEXR
SIU External Interrupt Control
Register
SIMM
signed immediate value
SIMR
SIU Interrupt Mask Register
SIPNR
SIU Interrupt Pending Register
SIPRR
SIU Interrupt Priority Register
SIRAM
serial interface RAM
SI2BMR SI2 TDMB2 Mode Register
SI2CMR SI2 TDMC2 Mode Register
SI2DMR SI2 TDMD2 Mode Register
SIU
system interface unit
SIUMCR SIU Module Configuration
Register
SIVEC
SIU Interrupt Vector Register
SIxAMR SI1 TDMA1 Mode Register
SIxCMDR SI[1–2] Command Register
SIxGMR SI[1–2] Global Mode Register
SIxRSR
SI[1–2] RAM Shadow Address
Register
SIxRxRAMSI[1–2] Receive Routing RAM
SIxSTR
SI[1–2] Status RegisterSIxAMR
SI1 TDMA1 Mode Register
SIxTxRAM SI[1–2] Transmit Routing RAM
Register
SMC
serial management controller
SMCE
SMC Event register
SMCM
SMC Mask register
SMCMR SMC Mode Register
SN
sequence number
SNA
systems network architecture
SNP
sequence number protection
SNR
signal-to-noise ratio
SP
stack pointer
SPCOM
SPI Command register
SPI
serial peripheral interface
SPIE
SPI Event Register
MSC8101 User’s Guide
D-7
SPIM
SPLL
SPLL MF
SPLL PDF
SPMODE
SPR
SR
SRAM
SRESET
SRR
SRTS
SS7
SWR
SWSR
SYNC
SYPCR
SPI Mask Register
system PLL
SPLL multiplication factor
SPLL pre-division factor
SPI Mode register
Special-Purpose Register
Status Register
static random access memory
soft reset signal
machine status save/restore
registers[0–1]
synchronous residual time stamp
Signaling System 7
Software Watchdog Register
Software Service Register
synchronization character
System Protection Control
Register
T
T1
TA
TAP
TB
TBST
TC
TCC
TCK
TCLK
TCN
TCN
TCR
TCR
TCT
TCTE
TDI
TDM
TDO
TEA
TEA
TENA
TER
TESCR
D-8
U.S. standard TDM interface lines
transfer acknowledge signal
test access port
time base register
transfer burst signal
transfer code signal
transmitted cell count
test clock (JTAG) signal
transmit clock
timer counter
Timer Counter Registers[1–4]
tag cell rate
Timer Capture Registers[1–4]
transmit connection table
transmit connection table
extension
test data in (JTAG) signal
time-division multiplex
test data out (JTAG) signal
transfer error acknowledge signal
transfer error address
transmit enable signal
Timer Event Registers[1–4]
PPC 60x Bus Transfer Error Status
and Control Register
TFCR
TGCR
Transmit Function Code Register
Timer Global Configuration
Register[1–2]
TLB
translation look-aside buffer
TM_CMD RISC Timer Command Register
TMCNT time counter
TMCNT Time Counter Register
TMCNTAL Time Counter Alarm Register
TMCNTSC Time Counter Status and Control
Register
TMR
Timer Mode Registers[1–4]
TMS
test mode select (JTAG) signal
TODR
Transmit-on-Demand
Registers[1–4]
TODT
disable timer control signal
T1
U.S. standard TDM interface lines
TOSEQ
Transmit Out-of-Sequence
Register
TRCC
total received cell count
TRR
Timer Reference Registers[1–4]
TRST
test reset (JTAG) signal
TS
transfer start signal
TSA
time-slot assigner
TSIZ
transfer size signal
TSTATE transmitter state
TSTP
time stamp
TT
transfer type signal
TUC
total user cell
Tx
transmit
TX
Transmit Word Registers
(host-side)
TxBD
transmit buffer descriptor
TX_CLK transmit clock signal
TXD
transmit data signal
TX_EN
transmit enable signal
TX_ER
transmit error signal
U
UART
UBR
UDC
UEAD
UIMM
UISA
MSC8101 User’s Guide
universal asynchronous receiver/
transmitter protocol
unspecified bit rate
user-defined cells
user-defined extended address
unsigned immediate value
user instruction set architecture
UNI
UPM
UPM
USART
USB
UTOPIA
user-network interface
user-programmable machine
user-programmable machine
universal
synchronous/asynchronous
receiver/transmitter
universal serial bus
universal test and operations
physical layer interface
V
VA
VAB
VBA
VBR
VC
VCIF
VCLT
VEA
VLES
VPLT
VRC
virtual address
vector address bus
Vector Base Address Register
variable bit rate
virtual channel
VCI Filtering
VC-level table
virtual environment architecture
variable-length execution set
VP-level address compression
table
vertical redundancy checking
W
WARA
WE
write-after-read atomic bus
operation
write enable signal
X
xDTEA
xDTEM
SDMA Transfer Error Address
Registers (LDTEA and PDTEA)
SDMA Transfer Error MSNUM
Registers (LDTEM and PDTEM)
MSC8101 User’s Guide
D-9
D-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Index
Numerics
300 MHz clock at 1.5 V core voltage 1-2
3G infrastructure cellular BTS configuration 1-23
60x SDRAM Protocol-Specific Mode Register
(PSDMR) 4-9
60x-compatible PowerPC parallel system bus 1-8
A
address 60x bus 1-3
address and data tenure phases 4-13
Address Arithmetic Units 1-2
address decoding prior to system initialization 2-11
address for the boot routine 2-6
Address Latch Enable (ALE) 4-13
address latches or multiplexors 4-8
address mask 5-7
address match occurs in multiple banks 5-7
address multiplexing 4-8
address pointer registers 1-2
addressable memory window size 4-2
addressing modes 1-2
ADM (Application Development Module) 1-6
advantage of multi-master mode 4-3
AMD AM29LV160D-70ns device 4-6
application examples
3G infrastructure BTS 1-21
Centralized DSP architecture 1-21
distributed DSP architecture 1-21
Media (Voice/FAX/Data) over packet 1-21
applications 1-5, 1-6
arbitration mode 2-10
arithmetic and logical shifts B-1
ASICs 4-1
assure operation over full temperature and voltage
range 4-5
Auto-Refresh (REF) command 4-7
B
base address 5-7
baud-rate generators (BRGs)
bank-of-clocks selection logic B-3
BD_ADDR 6-11
bit 5-6
bit mask operations B-3
boot
address for boot routine 2-6
checksum 2-17
completion of code loading 2-17
initialize MSC8101 after it completes a reset
sequence B-3
load and execute source programs B-3
program MSC8101 registers for required mode of
operation B-3
boot operation, flash 4-4
boot port size memory controller functionality 2-1
boot process starts 2-12
boot ROM 5-3
boot routine address 2-11
booting through the host port 2-15
bootloader program 2-2, B-3
bootloader routine 2-16
Bootstrap ROM 1-3
BRGCLK 10-9
bridge between the PowerPC system bus and PowerPC
local bus 5-5
MxMR 5-6
buffer control lines, enabling 4-16
buffer descriptors
BD is last in the BD table 1-20
buffer pointer 1-14
busy error 1-19
continuous mode 1-20
data length 1-14
dual-port RAM 1-13
dual-port RAM memory map 1-14
framing error counter FRMEC 1-19
how serial controllers use buffer descriptors to
define buffer allocation 1-13
how the RxBD is processed in SCC UART
mode 1-18
interrupt generated 1-19
maximum idle characters (MAX_IDL) 1-19
maximum receive buffer length (MRBLR) 1-14,
1-18
MSC8101 parameter RAM structure 1-15
name convention 1-14
number of bytes MSC8101 writes to a receive
buffer before it moves to next buffer 1-18
number of bytes the CP writes into the RxBD buffer
once the BD closes 1-14
parameter RAM for all SCC protocols 1-16
parameter RAM structure 1-15
possible BD and field values 1-13
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Index-1
receive buffer descriptor (RxBD) table 1-13
RxBD buffer pointer 1-14
RxBD data length 1-14
RxBD processing example 1-18
status and control 1-14
structure common to all serial controllers 1-13
transmit buffer descriptor (TxBD) table 1-13
TxBD buffer pointer 1-14
TxBD data length 1-14
TxBD data length. 1-14
TxBD processing example 1-20
bursts transfer 1-3
bus address registers 1-2
Bus Configuration Register (BCR) 4-2
bus monitor 1-9
bus pipelining potential, making use of 4-3
byte addressability 1-2
C
C compiler 3-1
CAS latency 4-10
cellular base station 9-1
centralized DSP architecture configuration 1-23
chained buffer 5-8
chip select 4-2, 4-8
timing characteristics 4-5
circular buffer, dual buffer, and multi buffer (DMA) 1-9
CLKIN signal. 2-2
clock synthesizer 1-3
clocking structure diagram 2-3
clocks
phase-locked loops 2-2
clocks to FCC, SCC, and SMC serial channels 1-5
CMOS design 1-5
code density 1-2
communication between SC140 core and peripherals in
extended core 5-3
communications processor (CP) 11-6
communications processor (CP) within the CPM 5-9
communications processor module (CPM) 1-1, 1-4,
1-6, 1-10
32-bit RISC controller 1-10
architecture 1-12
full-duplex SMCs 1-11
multi-channel controllers (MCCs) 1-10
super channel table B-16
SDMA channels
bus arbitration 5-11
bus transfers 5-11
serial communication controllers (SCCs) 1-11
serial DMA (SDMA) 1-10
SPI and I2C bus controllers 1-11
compare or test operations B-1
Index-2
configuring a multi-MSC1801 system 2-7
configuring the MSC8101 as a configuration master 2-9
connecting to an industry-standard E1 line
transceiver 10-1
Core Command Register (CORE_CMD) 12-5, 12-8
CP 1-18
CP Command Register (CPCR). 5-11
CPLL 2-2
CPM
SDMA channels 5-9
time-slot assigner (TSA) 1-11
cross-correlation filtering 9-1
cyclic buffers 1-4
D
data address space 1-2
data bus contention, preventing 4-5
Data Direction Register D (PDIRD) 11-2
data parity 1-3
DCHCRx PPC bit is cleared to select PowerPC local
bus 5-8
debug capabilities 1-2
decimation 9-2
dedicated SDRAM controller 4-1
delay-locked loop (DLL) 2-2
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
bit groupings control DMA signal usage 6-8
buffer descriptor parameters 6-10
buffer descriptors 6-10
burst data transfers of up to 32 bytes per burst 6-13
chained data transfers 6-21
constraints on which DMA channels can be used
during flyby transaction 6-3
continuous buffer 6-11
cyclic buffer 6-15
data transfer between external flash, external
memory, and internal memory 6-15
define channel priority 6-8
define how address is updated 6-11
define priority for a given transfer on bus 6-12
define priority level for each enabled interrupt 6-13
define settings of the DMA signals 6-8
define whether a channel is active 6-8
define whether BD_ADDR is a cyclic address 6-11
define whether the DMA issues an interrupt when it
is complete 6-11
defines whether buffer is closed when the transfer is
complete 6-11
determine transfer size 6-11
DMA Channel Configuration Register
(DCHCR) 6-7
DMA Channel Parameters RAM (DCPRAM) 6-7
DMA External Mask Register (DEMR) 6-7
MSC8101 User’s Guide
DMA FIFO peripheral data transfers 6-5
DMA FIFO to memory data transfers 6-4
DMA Internal Mask Register (DIMR) 6-7
DMA Pin Configuration Register (DPCR) 6-7
DMA Status Register (DSTR) 6-7
dual access to transfer 16 bytes of data from
external flash memory to external
SDRAM 6-21
dual-access transaction 6-2
enable generation of interrupt requests to their
associated interrupt controllers 6-9
enable interrupts 6-13
enable the interrupts 6-13
equate labels 6-15
example of flyby data transfer with an internal
peripheral 6-15
five types of buffering 6-13
Flyby mode 6-3
four signals to initiate and control DMA transfers
by external devices 6-14
helpful hints to avoid contention between DMA and
SC140 core 6-25
hot swap operation 6-1
hungry requests 6-12
indicate whether the FIFO is flushed when
BD_SIZE reaches zero 6-11
interrupt service routine 6-24
interrupt vector code 6-24
interrupts 6-13
interrupts from the SIC_EXT 6-9
location on MSC8101 6-1
memory controller 6-13
memory to DMA FIFO transfers 6-4
Normal (dual-access) mode and Flyby
(single-access) mode 6-2
notify channel that FIFO contains data to be
emptied by DMA channel 6-12
notify the channel that FIFO can accept more
data 6-12
peripheral to DMA FIFO data transfers 6-5
peripheral-initiated data transfers 6-8
PowerPC system bus 6-12
program order in which each channel executes 6-12
programming a DMA interface to external
devices 6-8
regulate bus action for the DMA transfer 6-12
SC140 core 6-23
select Flyby mode 6-8
set interrupt trigger mode 6-13
set up interrupt routine 6-13
simple buffer to transfer data from internal memory
to external memory 6-15
six possible ways to configure DMA channels 6-3
specify which interrupt priority levels are
allowed 6-13
terminating DMA data transfers 6-9
timing of burst transfer 6-13
transfer 16-bit data from internal peripheral to
external memory as a dual transaction with a
simple buffer. 6-19
transfer data from external memory to external
memory 6-17
transfer data from internal to external memory with
a simple buffer. 6-15
two transfers chained 6-15
two types of FIFO requests 6-12
watermark requests 6-12
whether the DMA buffer continues when BD_SIZE
reaches zero 6-11
distributed DSP Architecture 1-24
divide the BRGCLK input to the SPI BRG 11-3
DMA
Flyby mode 8-20
DMA and complex buffers 1-9
DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCR) 5-8,
6-8
DMA Channel Configuration Register (DCHCRx) 8-21
DMA Channel Parameter RAM (DCPRAM) 8-21
DMA Channel Parameters RAM (DCPRAM) 6-9
DMA data exchanges between extended core
peripherals (HDI16 and EFCOP), SRAM, and other
modules 5-4
DMA engine 1-4, 1-6
DMA FIFO 5-8
DMA Pin Configuration Register (DPCR) 6-8
DMA Receive Burst Enable (DBRE) 8-21
DMA Status Register (DSTR) 6-9
DMA TEA Status Register (DTEAR) 5-9
DMA Transmit Burst Enable (DBTE) 8-21
DMA, activating 8-21
DMA, external 8-20
DMA, internal 8-20
DO loops 1-2
DSP-to-host data transfers 8-2
dual address transfers 1-9
dual-port RAM memory map 1-14
E
earliest time a precharge can occur after last data output
in write cycle 4-12
echo cancellation 9-1
EDO DRAM 4-1
EFCOP 5-3, 5-5
EFCOP Status Register (FSTR) 9-11
efficient communication between the MSC8101
extended core and the SIU and CPM 5-1
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Index-3
eliminate clock skews 2-2
enhanced filter coprocessor (EFCOP) 1-4
Adaptive and Multichannel modes 9-4
Adaptive mode 9-4
Adaptive or Multichannel modes and
decimation 9-7
Alternating Complex mode 9-6, 9-8
basics of adaptive filtering. 9-19
basics of IIR filtering and DMA transactions with
the EFCOP 9-24
calculate the magnitude of an input signal 9-6
code examples that illustrate how to program
EFCOP 9-14
code for the IIR session using flyby DMA
transactions 9-22
coefficient update complete interrupt from the
SC140 core 9-4
Complex mode 9-5, 9-7
configuring interrupts 9-12
control the data input mode 9-13
control the data output mode 9-13
Convergent rounding (FRM = 00) 9-9
decimation 9-7
determine when to read from the FDOR 9-11
determine when to write to the FDIR 9-11
Direct Memory Access (DMA) controller 9-13
DMA 9-11
DMA Channel Configuration Register
(DCHCRx) 9-13
DMA Channel Parameter RAM fields 9-19
downsampling 9-7
dual access and flyby transactions 9-13
dual-access DMA transactions 9-20
enabling Adaptive mode 9-4
enabling and disabling data and coefficient
initialization 9-7
equate labels for the location of the DMA channel
configuration registers 9-19
equate labels for the location of the EFCOP
registers 9-14
filter multiplier accumulator (FMAC) unit 9-1
FIR filter type
Real mode 9-4
generate an interrupt request to SC140 core 9-4
initializing the filter 9-6
Input Scaling mod 9-10
Interrupts 9-11
interrupts 9-12
least core intervention 9-24
Magnitude mode 9-6
memory-mapped control registers 9-1
Multichannel mode for the IIR filter type 9-9
notify when data is ready for transfer to or from the
EFCOP 9-11
Index-4
operating modes available for FIR filter type 9-3
operating modes available for the FIR filter
type 9-3
operating modes available for the IIR filter type 9-8
Polling 9-11
program the EFCOP to implement a complex FIR
filter 9-14
program the EFCOP to implement a real FIR filter
using interrupts as the transfer method 9-16
program the EFCOP to implement a real IIR filter
using DMA to transfer data 9-19
program the EFCOP using polling to transfer
complex data 9-14
Real and Magnitude modes and decimation 9-7
Real and the Multichannel Operation modes 9-8
real FIR filter type
Adaptive and Multichannel modes 9-4
Real mode
Multichannel mode 9-4
rounding and input scaling 9-9
selecting Alternating Complex mode 9-6
selecting Coefficient Initialization mode 9-7
selecting Complex mode 9-5
selecting IIR filter type 9-8
selecting Magnitude mode 9-6
selecting Multichannel mode 9-4
selecting Rounding mode 9-9
selecting the FIR filter type 9-3
transferring data to or from EFCOP data
registers 9-11
truncation (FRM = 10) 9-9
two modes that affect the arithmetic operation of
EFCOP 9-9
Twos complement rounding (FRM = 01) 9-9
update coefficients based on filter input 9-4
EOnCE 1-2
EOnCE Control Register (ECR) 12-5
EOnCE Transmit Register (ETRSMT) 12-15
EOnCE/JTAG
capture data into the selected serial data path 12-2
Capture operation 12-2
capture status information into the instruction
register 12-2
cause latches to update with the new data that is
shifted into the selected scan path 12-2
Core Command Register (CORE_CMD) 12-5
CORE_CMD 12-8
CORE_CMD examples 12-10
counting core cycles 12-20
debug exception is generated 12-20
debug exception is reached 12-21
DEBUG_REQUEST 12-4, 12-20
determine whether an instruction register scan or a
data register scan is performed 12-1
MSC8101 User’s Guide
downloading software 12-1
entering Debug mode 12-20
EOnCE Control Register (ECR) 12-5
EOnCE registers 12-5
event counter, event detection, and event selector
register sets 12-20
executing a JTAG instruction 12-4
executing a single instruction through JTAG 12-1,
12-13
Exit state 12-2
host sends data to the MSC8101 or receives status
information from the MSC8101 12-1
host sends JTAG instructions to MSC8101 12-1
how software is downloaded from the host to the
DSP via JTAG 12-16
how the host writes an instruction into the
CORE_CMD register for the SC140 core to
execute 12-13
instruction format of the 48-bit CORE_CMD
register 12-8
JTAG instructions 12-3
reading EOnCE registers through JTAG 12-12
reading from the EOnCE Transmit Register
(ETRSMT) 12-1, 12-15
reading/writing EOnCE registers through
JTAG 12-1
reading/writing the trace buffer 12-1
registers of special concern to the EOnCE/JTAG
programmer 12-5
Run-Test/Idle state 12-1
SC140 core exits Debug mode after the instruction
executes. 12-8
scan paths 12-1
Select-DR JTAG scan path 12-1
Select-IR JTAG scan path 12-1
software downloading 12-16
specify the direction of the data transfer 12-5
specify the instruction word length 12-8
states associated with each scan path 12-1
TAP controller in the Run-Test/Idle state 12-5
TAP controller state machine 12-1
TAP is forced into the Test-Logic-Reset state 12-1
TDI input signal 12-5
transition from one Test Access Port (TAP)
controller state to another 12-1
Update state 12-2
using EEO to enter Debug mode 12-20
using the EOnCE to perform profiling
functions 12-1
write to SC140 core’s 32-bit Event Counter Value
Register (ECNT_VAL) 12-11
writing and reading the trace buffer 12-19
writing EOnce registers through JTAG 12-11
writing to EOnCE Receive Register (ERCV 12-14
writing to the EOnCE Receive Register
(ERCV) 12-1
EPROM 2-9, 2-10
EPROM or other external memory 2-12
equalization 9-1
EVM (evaluation module) 1-6
execute commands directly from external memory 2-11
external bus basics 4-2
external memory, execute commands directly from 2-11
external PHY loopback 10-9
external SIU-CPM interrupt controller (SIC_EXT) 7-1
F
features of the MSC8101 1-2
field 4-12
filter
cross-correlation 9-1
FIR 9-1
IIR 9-1
finite impulse response (FIR) filter 9-1
FIR
filter 9-1
flash EPROM 4-4
flash EPROM interface example 4-1
flash memory interface 4-4
flush option 5-8
fractional and integer data types 1-2
from EFCOP data output register to memory on
PowerPC system bus 5-8
from SC140 core to Qbus 5-4
G
general circuit interface (GCI) 1-5
General-Purpose Chip Select Machine (GPCM) 5-6
General-Purpose Chip Select mode 4-2
general-purpose chip-select machine (GPCM) 1-3, 4-1
GPCM 4-1
GPCM and UPM memory controllers 5-2
GPCM machine 4-16
GPCM timing 4-4
GPCM-controlled flash memory 4-3
H
handshaking mechanism between host and slave 2-17
handshaking protocols
HDI16 host interface 8-12
hard reset 2-1
hardware connection of a 32-bit SDRAM to the
MSC8101 4-7
HDI16 1-3, 1-4, 1-22, 4-2, 5-3
access memory map of each device separately 4-15
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Index-5
activate the DMA 8-21
as asynchronous interface 4-14
broadcast bootstrap code to all devices 4-15
clearing an interrupt 8-16
define the size of the data transferred 8-5
determine the data transfer size 8-5
determine when the PIC accepts command 8-24
determine whether current data is last data to be
transferred 8-16
DMA mode 8-3
DMA permits data transfers between memory
(external on PowerPC system bus or
internal) 8-20
double host requests enabled 8-19
downloads initialization bootstrap code 4-14
DSP-side control and data registers 8-3
DSP-to-host transfers 8-2
dual-strobe, 16-bit bus mode 4-14
eliminating the need for handshake signal 4-14
enable host requests 8-19
enable Normal mode 8-5
enable receive requests 8-19
executing External Host Command interrupt
service routine 8-23
generate an interrupt in the host 8-20
GPCM chip select 4-15
host command feature 8-23
Host Command Interrupt Enable bit 8-23
host commands and NMI interrupts 8-16
Host Data Strobe pin 8-4
host interrupt service routine determines interrupt
source 8-20
host issues any of 128 pre-programmed functions
for the DSP to execute 8-23
Host Port Control Register (HPCR) 8-4
Host Receive Data Register (HORX) 8-2
host request line 8-5
host request mechanism 8-18
Host Transmit Data Register (HOTX) 8-2
host-to-DSP transfers 8-2
indicate that valid data is present on the bus 8-4
indicate the type of transaction in process 8-4
interrupt service routine (ISR) 8-16
issue a host command 8-23
mask and define relative priority level of host
command interrupts 8-23
mask and define the relative priority level of the
interrupt 8-16
modes for transferring data between the host and
the DSP 8-3
most efficient and least costly method to use for
data transfers 8-20
pending interrupt condition cleared 8-24
PIC Interrupt Pending Registers (IPRx) 8-16
Index-6
PowerPC system bus operating in Multi-Master
mode interconnect 4-16
reset configuration registers 8-2
set up and enable a DMA data transfer 8-23
set use of single or dual read/write strobes
(signals) 8-4
set-up code for a simple interrupt 8-17
signal lines by which the DSP can request data
transfers from the host 8-18
single-strobe bus 8-4
steps in programming a DMA channel for access of
HDI16 in flyby mode 8-21
UPM-controlled PowerPC system bus operating in
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode 4-15
UPM-controlled signals 4-14
whether to use burst for the data access 8-21
Write Data strobe (HWR) 4-15
HDI16 host interface
allow host to determine whether Transmit Data
Registers (TX) and the HORX FIFO are
empty 8-15
configure the HDI16 for 16-bit Normal mode
transfers 8-7
define the mode of operation 8-4
determine the DMA data transfer size 8-6, 8-9
determine when data is ready to be read 8-13
determine whether data has successfully transferred
from host to DSP 8-12
determine whether HORX is full 8-14
determine whether the 64-bit Host Transmit
Register (HOTX) FIFO is not full 8-13
disabling the HDI16 port 8-8
double-buffered mechanism allows for fast data
transfers 8-12
DSP-side Transmit Data Register (HOTX) 8-6
enable the HDI16 8-8
general-purpose flags for communication between
the host and the DSP 8-15
handshaking mechanisms to counter pipeline
stalls 8-12
handshaking protocols 8-12
Direct Memory Access (MSC8101 on-device
DMA and host DMA) 8-13
DSP interrupts 8-13
host requests 8-13
software polling (DSP and host) 8-13
HDI16 sources that can be used to interrupt the
SC140 core 8-15
host command interrupt 8-15
host control registers 8-2
Host DMA mode 8-8
host performs multiple reads from the HDI16 port
Receive Word Registers (RX) 8-13
host polling mechanism 8-15
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Host Transmit Not Full bit in the Host Status
Register 8-14
host-side Receive Data Registers (RX) 8-6
host-side Transmit Data Registers (TX) 8-6
how interrupt source status bits and masking bits
operate to generate an interrupt 8-16
indicate a request for a data transfer (receive or
transmit) 8-10
indicate which register (HCR or ICR) defines the
data size 8-8
initialize and enable the HDI16 port 8-11
initialize the HDI16 port in DMA mode 8-12
interrupts 8-15
minimum hardware set-up necessary for use in
Normal mode 8-7
move data from HORX to the receiving memory
buffer or register 8-12
non-maskable interrupt 8-15
non-maskable interrupts (NMIs) 8-24
Normal mode 8-3
pass application-specific information to the
DSP 8-15
pass application-specific information to the
host 8-15
perform processing tasks while waiting for HDI16
resources to become ready 8-15
polling example 8-14
Receive Word Registers 8-12
request DMA transfers from the host or DMA
controller 8-10
select the DMA data size and direction 8-9
set up the hardware connection for DMA
transfers 8-10
set up the HDI16 for the hardware set-up 8-7
set width of the data bus 8-4
simplest handshaking protocol 8-13
slave interface 4-15
transfer data in bursts 8-8
transfer to the DSP-side Host Receive Data
Register (HORX) 8-12
Transmit Data Empty bit in the Interface Status
Register 8-15
Transmit Word Registers 8-12
TRDY 8-15
UPM-controlled read access 4-17
HDI16 polling mode 2-15
HDII6
chip selects and data strobe modes 4-14
Host Command Interrupt Enable 8-16, 8-23
Host Command Pending bit 8-23
host commands and NMI interrupts 8-16
Host Control Register (HCR) 2-17
host control registers 8-2
Host Data Strobe pin 8-4
host interface load procedure 2-16
host port (HDI16) 2-1, 2-12
Host Port Control Register (HPCR) 8-4, 8-7
Host Read/Write pin (HRW) 8-4
Host Receive Data Register (HORX) 8-2, 8-12
Host Receive Full Interrupt Enable 8-16
Host Receive Not Empty Interrupt Enable 8-16
Host Receive Request (HRRQ) 8-18
Host Transmit Data Register (HOTX) 8-2, 8-12
Host Transmit Empty Interrupt Enable 8-16
Host Transmit Not Full Interrupt Enable 8-16
Host Transmit Request (HTRQ) 8-18
host-to-DSP data transfers 8-2
how 1-18
HRESET 2-1, 2-10, 2-14
I
I2C bus controller 1-11
I2C controller (microwire-compatible) 1-5
IIR
filter 9-1
indicate the completion of code loading 2-17
indicate whether interrupt service is required for
associated DMA Direct Memory Access (DMA)
channel 6-9
infinite impulse response (IIR) filter 9-1
initialize MSC8101 after it completes a reset
sequence B-3
initializing the MSC8101 2-2
input clock to the CPLL 2-2
input clock to the frequency divider for the PowerPC
system bus 2-3
instruction set 1-2
integer arithmetic capabilities 1-2
integrated latch 4-13
interaction between PowerPC system bus and PowerPC
local bus through memory controller 5-5
interface between extended SC140 core and SIU and
CPM blocks 5-4
Interface Control Register (ICR) 2-17
internal address multiplexing 4-13
internal local 64-bit data, 32-bit address PowerPC
bus 1-8
Internal Memory Map Register (IMMR) 2-6
interrupt controllers 1-3
interrupt handling 2-2
interrupt handling during bootloader operation 2-2
interrupt priority level (IPL) 7-4
Interrupt Programming Examples 7-8
Interrupt requests 7-2, B-13
interrupt service routine (ISR) 8-16
interrupt vector code 6-24
interrupts
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Index-7
assign priority 5 to the SIC interrupt 7-9
clear an edge-triggered interrupt request 7-13
clear pending requests 7-9
disable interrupts instruction 7-6
edge-triggered IRs and NMIs 7-3
edge-triggered/level-triggered interrupt priority
registers 7-4
edge-triggered/level-triggered modes 7-3
enable interrupts instruction 7-6
encoding the interrupt vector A-6
external SIU-CPM interrupt controller
(SIC_EXT) 7-1
interrupt pending registers 7-6
interrupt vector A-6, B-10
non-maskable interrupts (NMIs) 7-5
pending interrupts 7-4
PIC ELIRA–ELIRF registers 7-9
PIC interrupt pending registers 7-5
PIC programming model for IRs and NMIs 7-8
priority levels 7-3
procedure for handling 7-1
Programmable interrupt controller (PIC) 7-1
QBus 7-2
routing 7-6
routing of MSC8101 interrupts 7-7
SC140 core status register 7-6
SIU-CPM interrupt controller (SIC) 7-1
trigger mode 7-5
Vector Address Bus (VAB) 7-4
IRs 7-2, B-13
ISDN primary rate 1-5
J
JEDEC-compliant SDRAMs 4-7
L
load and execute source programs B-3
M
Media (Voice/Fax/Data) over packet (ATM/FR/IP)
configuration 1-22
memory
accesses to a non-existent memory location 3-2
address interleaving 3-2, 3-4
allocate program memory and data RAM 3-2
avoid data memory contentions 3-5
compiler and allocation of variables 3-2
contentions 3-4
contentions between program memory and data
memory 3-4
cycle by cycle accesses 3-1
Index-8
data memory buses 3-1
data memory contentions 3-5
data width accesses 3-1
distinction between program memory locations and
data memory locations 3-1
DMA and data bus attempt to access the memory
within the same group 3-5
guidelines for handling contentions 3-4
multiple access rules 3-1
multiple accesses to the same memory location 3-1
multiple read or write accesses to different memory
locations 3-1
support for various memory structures 3-2
two write operations access overlapping bytes in
memory in same cycle 3-1
unified memory 3-1
memory controller 1-3, 1-9, 1-22, 2-10
memory controller connection options 4-1
memory controller timing options 4-6
memory controller use of PowerPC system bus 5-2
memory controllers and the PowerPC 60x system
bus 4-2
memory controllers, three integrated
Dedicated SDRAM controller 4-1
general-purpose chip-select machine (GPCM) 4-1
user-programmable machine (UPM) 4-1
memory interconnection options for the MSC8101 bus
and memory controller 4-1
memory mechanism of the SC140 core 3-1
mobile switching center 9-1
MODE SET command 4-7
modifier registers 1-2
Modulo adder B-1
modulo comparator B-1
modulo mode B-1
Motorola interchip digital link (IDL) 1-5
MSC8101 features 1-2
multi-channel controllers (MCCs) 10-1
absence of an external PHY 10-9
aid in a phased test of the PHY interface 10-8
baud rate generator (BRG) outputs 10-9
BRGCLK 10-9
BRGs setup 10-2
buffer descriptor tables 10-10
buffer descriptors 10-2
channel configuration 10-10
channel-specific parameters 10-2
common L1RSYNC/L1TSYNC and
L1RCLK/L1TCLK 10-7
configure global MCC resources 10-10
configure individual, channel-specific
parameters 10-10
control registers 10-2
CPM DPRAM 10-10
MSC8101 User’s Guide
define a base for the Transmit (Tx) and Receive
(Rx) buffer descriptor (BD) rings 10-10
define interrupt queue addresses 10-10
define mapping of MCC channel blocks to a TDM
pin interface 10-11
define number of receive frame interrupts that
cause an interrupt to the core 10-10
define the activation of the TDM channels for each
SI 10-16
define the initial MCC state 10-10
define the maximum buffer size 10-10
determine which non-masked events are passed to
the interrupt queue assigned to the
channel. 10-12
E1/T1 line transceiver 10-7
enable external PHY loopback 10-10
enable TDM 10-3
enabling the TDM 10-16
external PHY loopback 10-9, 10-15
external PHY loopback mode 10-9
frame synchronization 10-9
global parameters 10-2
HDLC loopback modes 10-3
initializing the MCC resources 10-2
internal (SI or TDM) loopback 10-15
Internal Memory Map Register (IMMR) 10-4
interrupt circular queue 10-13
interrupt circular tables 10-5
Interrupt Event Register 10-12
interrupt handler. 10-3
interrupt handling 10-12
Interrupt Mask Register 10-12
interrupt queues 10-2
L1RCLKB and L1RSYNCB synchronization 10-7
lines used for inter-hub backbones or trunks 10-6
loopback options 10-8
main data structures for programming the
MCC 10-10
maximum number of bytes written to a receive
buffer 10-10
memory usage 10-5
MODE variable 10-12
offset in DPRAM that points to location holding the
extra channel-specific parameters 10-11
on-device Dual Port RAM (DPRAM) 10-2
operating modes 10-1
parallel I/O pins 10-3
parallel I/O port registers (PPAR, PSOR,
PDIR) 10-16
parameter RAM 10-4
provide appropriate signal polarity and timing 10-8
provide SDMA transactional details and starts the
channel 10-12
provide the synchronization signals 10-15
receive circular table location 10-11
route data from the TDM pins to the MCC 10-14
routing of time-division multiplexing data 10-1
Rx and Tx BDs 10-6
select channel route to a particular timeslot on the
TDM interface 10-13
select transparent or HDLC mode for the
channel 10-12
serial interface (SI) and its associated RAM
(SIRAM 10-1
set up all channel-extra parameters 10-13
SI Global Mode Register (SIGMR) 10-16
SI Mode Register bit settings 10-8
simplify the interconnection and
synchronization 10-9
SIRAM 10-2, 10-14
SIRAM loopback 10-8
starting address of BD segment 10-10
super channel table B-16
TDM interface connection 10-7
TDM loopback 10-8
TDMB clocks (L1RCLKB, L1TCLKB) 10-15
Timer Global Configuration Register
(TGCR) 10-15
Timer Mode Register (TMR) 10-15
time-slot assigner (TSA) programming 10-8
TSA capability of the serial interface 10-6
Tx circular interrupt table location 10-11
multichannel controllers (MCCs) 1-4
multi-DSP concept 4-16
multi-master PowerPC bus system 2-8
multi-MSC8101 system connected via host port 2-12
multi-MSC8101 System, configuring 2-7
multiple master designs 1-3
multiplexed A10/AP bank select pin 4-8
N
NMIs 7-2, B-13
non-maskable interrupt 5-9
non-maskable interrupt (NMI) 2-2
Non-maskable interrupts 7-2, B-13
non-maskable interrupts (NMIs) 8-24
non-volatile bootstrap code 4-4
Normal mode 8-3
O
off-chip memory expansion 1-3
offset adder B-1
offset registers 1-2
PSDMR 4-12
operation frequency 1-5
Option Register (OR) 4-9
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Index-9
P
packaging 1-6
page-based interleaved configuration (PSDMR PBI bit
= 1) 4-8
page-based interleaving 4-8, 4-13
parallel arithmetic operations B-5
parameter RAM for all SCC protocols 1-16
periodic interrupt timer 1-3
Peripheral Interrupt Controller (PIC) 6-9
phase lock between the PowerPC system bus clock and
CLKIN 2-3
phase-locked loops (PLLs) 2-2
phase-locking mechanism for skew elimination 2-2
PIC 5-3, 7-2
Edge/Level triggered Interrupt Priority Registers
(ELIRx) 8-16, 8-23
Interrupt Pending Registers (IPRx) 8-16
Trigger Mode is set to Edge Triggered 8-16
pipelined PowerPC system bus accesses 4-7
plastic ball grid array (PBGA) 1-6
PLL and DLL locking process 2-1
PLL predivider 2-2
PLLs for SC140 core and for PowerPC bus 1-5
PORESET 2-1, 2-5, 2-9, 2-14
Port Pin Assignment Register D (PPARD) 11-2
port width 4-2
Position Independent Code (PIC) 1-2
power dissipation 1-2, 1-5
power management 1-5, 1-6
power management circuitry 1-5
power supply for internal logic 1-5
power-on reset 2-1
PowerPC 60x system bus and memory controllers 4-2
PowerPC bus 1-5, 2-7, 5-1
PowerPC local bus 5-4
PowerPC local bus error occurs on a DMA access 5-9
PowerPC system bus and local bus 6-1
PowerPC system bus and local bus features 5-1
PowerPC system bus clock and the CPM clock, ratios
between 2-3
PowerPC system bus clock and the SC140 core clock,
ratios between 2-3
PowerPC system bus connected to flash EPROM 4-1
PowerPC system bus connected to MSC8101 HDI16
slave 4-1
PowerPC system bus connected to Synchronous
DRAM 4-1
PowerPC system bus error 5-9
PowerPC system bus operating in multi-master
mode 4-3
PowerPC system bus operating in Multi-Master mode
interconnected to a buffered HDI16 interface 4-16
Index-10
PowerPC system bus or PowerPC local bus error during
communications processor (CP)-related access by
SDMA 5-10
PowerPC system bus, frequency divider 2-3
PowerPC system bus, pipelined accesses 4-7
PowerPC system bus-to-HDI16 interconnect 4-16
PowerQUICC II 1-10
PowerQUICC II (MPC8260) CPM 1-1
PowerQUICC II Communications Processor
Module 5-1
PPC DMA Transfer Error Address Register
(PDMTEA) 5-9
PPC DMA Transfer Error RQNUM Register
(PDMTER) 5-9
PRECHARGE-ALL-BANKS command 4-7
prevent out-of-sequence transactions from crossing
buses 5-8
program address space 1-2
Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) 8-23
programmable interrupt controller (PIC) 7-1
programmable port size during system reset 2-11
R
real-time clock register 1-3
Receive Word Registers (RX) 8-12
reset and boot
address of the boot routine 2-11
bus behavior 2-1
bus post-division factor 2-3
completion of code loading 2-17
configuring a single MSC8101 device 2-4
default MSC8101 reset configuration 2-6
hard reset 2-1
host port (HDI16) 2-1
MSC8101 as a configuration slave 2-5
non-maskable interrupt (NMI) 2-2
PLL and DLL locking 2-1
port size memory controller functionality 2-1
power-on reset 2-1
process 2-1
programmable port size during system reset 2-11
reset configuration sequence 2-9
reset configuration word 2-1, 2-7, 2-10, 2-11
reset configuration word applied to a
host-controlled MSC8101 2-14
reset configuration, default 2-6
RSTCONF 2-5
reset configuration registers, HDI16 8-2
reset controller 1-3
reverse-carry mode B-1
route data to internal SRAM 5-9
routing to PowerPC system bus 5-4
Row and Column address strobes 4-8
MSC8101 User’s Guide
RSTCONF 2-5, 2-9, 2-10, 2-14
RxBD buffer pointer 1-14
S
SC100 DSP cores 1-1
SC140 application development methodology 3-1
SC140 core 1-6, 5-1
SCC UART mode 1-18
SDMA channels
bus arbitration 5-11
bus transfers 5-11
SDMA Status Register (SDSR) 5-10
SDRAM
address mask 5-7
address mask, lower 5-7
advantages 4-7
control commands 4-8
controller control settings 4-10
controller operation illustrated 4-1
controller, programmable timing parameters 4-10
in Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode 4-7
JEDEC-compliant 4-7
SDRAM controller 4-8
SDRAM machine 1-3
SDRAM machine in the MSC8101 memory
controller 4-7
timing control values 4-12
timing parameters for accessing an SDRAM
device 4-10
timing parameters for accessing SDRAM
device 4-10
SDRAM, DRAM, EPROM, FLASH 1-3
Select pin (SDAMUX) 4-13
selectable parity generation 1-3
serial interface (SI) 10-1
serial management controllers (SMCs) 1-5
serial peripheral interface (SPI) 1-5, 11-1
big-endian byte ordering 11-10
configure the MSC8101 to use the SPI signals on
port D pins 11-1
current buffer contains the last character of the
message 11-6, 11-9
current buffer does not contain the last character of
the message 11-6, 11-9
Data Direction Register D (PDIRD) 11-2
disabling SPISEL 11-12
enabling the SPI 11-5
error 11-6
how the SPI responds to a multi-master error 11-12
indicate that the buffer is ready for
transmission 11-5, 11-9
indicate that the next buffer is ready for
transmission 11-6
initializing the SPI after an error 11-6
maskable interrupt 11-12
multi-master error 11-12
operating the SPI as a master 11-5
operating the SPI as a slave 11-9
pointer to the SPI parameter RAM 11-7
Port Pin Assignment Register D (PPARD) 11-2
resume transmission 11-6
select the pin direction 11-2
select the prescale modulus for the SPI BRG 11-3
signals 11-2
Special Options Register D (PSORD). 11-2
specify the receive and transmit buffer
descriptors 11-3
SPI baud rate generator (SPI BRG) 11-3
SPI Mode Register (SPMODE) 11-3
SPI parameter table 11-3
steps in initializing the SPI as a master 11-7
steps in initializing the SPI as a slave 11-10
SI RAM 1-5
single address (flyby) transfers 1-4
single-data strobe or dual-data strobe access 2-15
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode 4-2, 4-3, 4-8, 4-10,
4-13
single-strobe bus 8-4
SIRAM loopback 10-8
SIU 1-6, 1-8, 2-6
SIU Internal Memory Map Register (IMMR) 2-6
SIU-CPM interrupt controller (SIC) 7-1
SIUMCR 4-16
slow communication ports (SCCs, SMCs, I2C,
SPI) 1-23
software configuration phases for setting up MCC and
CPM parameters 10-1
software watchdog timer 1-3
source program organized into several blocks 2-15
Special Options Register D (PSORD) 11-2
SPI baud-rate generator 11-1
SPI BRG 11-3
SPI Mode Register (SPMODE) 11-3
SPISEL 11-12
SPLL multiplication factor 2-2
SPLL predivision factor 2-2
SRAM 1-6
SRESET 2-14
SRESET pin 2-1
SSRAM 4-1
stack pointer 1-2
StarCore SC140 core 1-1
Stop mode 1-5, 1-6
strobe access 2-15
supervisor stack pointer 1-2
system communication via PowerPC system bus 5-2
System Interface Unit (SIU) 6-1
MSC8101 User’s Guide
Index-11
system-level debugging of real-time systems 12-1
T
T1, CEPT, T1/E1,T3/E3, pulse code modulation
highway, ISDN basic rate 1-5
target applications 1-5, 1-6
target markets
media (voice/FAX/date) over packet gateways 1-1
wireless infrastructure systems 1-1
TDM backplanes/interconnects and WAN
networks 10-1
TDM interfaces 1-5
TDM loopback 10-8
Test Mode Select (TMS) pin 12-1
time-division multiplexing (TDM) interfaces 10-1
time-slot assigner (TSA) 1-11, 10-1, 10-8
trace buffer 12-19
transcoder basestation 9-1
Transmit Word Registers (TX)) 8-12
TRDY 8-15
true DSP MIPS 1-2
TxBD buffer pointer 1-14
TxBD data length 1-14
U
unified memory 3-1
UPM programming for both buffered and unbuffered
systems 4-16
UPM-controlled HDI16 interfaces 4-3
UPM-controlled HDI16 read access 4-17
UPM-controlled PowerPC system bus operating in
Single-Master MSC8101 Bus mode 4-15
user stack pointer 1-2
user-defined interfaces to ASICs 4-2
user-programmable machine (UPM) 4-1
User-Programmable Machine C (UPMC) 5-6
user-programmable machines (UPMs) 1-3
V
Variable-Length Execution Set (VLES) 1-2
Vector Base Address (VBA) register 7-4
vocoder 9-1
W
Wait and Doze low power standby modes 1-5
Wait mode 1-5, 1-6
write recovery period 4-12
Index-12
MSC8101 User’s Guide
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