Air Suspension Systems Basic Training 15 - WABCO

Air Suspension Systems
Introduction
Basic Training
15
If we look at the different suspension systems used in motor vehicles
today, the most apparent difference between them is that they are either
mechanical or air suspension systems.
Both types are, of course, incapable of meeting all technical
requirements. If they are, however, directly compared, it soon becomes
apparent that air suspension offers major benefits compared with
mechanical suspension systems.
As a result air suspension systems are used to an increasing extent in
commercial vehicles.
Benefits of Air Suspension Systems
1. By changing the bellows pressure, depending on the load carried on
the vehicle, the distance between the road surface and the vehicle’s
superstructure addresses the same level. This means that the
boarding or loading height, and the headlight settings, remain
constant.
2. Spring comfort remains almost unchanged across the whole of the
loading range; again this is achieved by changing the bellows
pressure. The passenger on a motor coach will always perceive the
same pleasant type of oscillations. Sensitive loads can thus be
carried without being severely damaged. The well-known “jumping”
of an unladen or partially laden trailer no longer occurs if an air
suspension system is used.
3. The stability of the steering system and the transfer of the braking
forces are improved since all wheels always have good adhesion to
the road surface.
4. The pressure in the air bellows, depending on the load the vehicle
carries, is ideal for use in controlling automatic load-sensitive
braking.
5. In the area of control for interchangeable platforms, air suspension
systems are an excellent basis for cost-effective loading and
unloading of containers.
6. The kneeling effect often required for routine buses can easily be
achieved by venting the nearside air bellows.
2
1
15
Basic Training
Purpose
Air Suspension Bellows
Depending on the levelling valve’s control, the air suspension bellows
are designed to take up the required pressure in the bellows’ volume,
depending on the load carried on the vehicle.
Air suspension bellows are used as elastic constructional elements
between the axle and the vehicle’s superstructure. Since its internal
friction is less than that of mechanical suspension systems, the airsprung vehicle has to have shock-absorbers fitted.
Design types
Today the following variants are mainly used:
Twin Concertina Bellows
Twin concertina bellows show a favourable ratio of height versus spring
travel, i. e. this type of bellows permits the lowest installation height.
The beaded heels around the bellows’ openings are held by metallic
bead rings which are screwed against supporting consoles or plates.
This causes part of the bellows’ heels to be deformed, thereby achieving
a sealing effect.
Rolling Tube Bellows
Rolling tube bellows achieve an excellent cushioning effect and offer
exceptionally good lateral movement. For this reason they are
particularly suitable for use in buses and passenger cars but are also
used on lorries and trailers.
In the course of their cushioning action, these bellows roll on a cylindrical
or similar piston whose shape essentially effects the cushioning
characteristic. This allows the natural frequency to be varied and the
best possible suspension for the vehicle to be achieved. For this
purpose, rolling tube bellows require no additional volume. The air
volume in the piston can also be used for cushioning.
These bellows are fairly easy to install and to seal. The bellows’ heels
are pushed onto conical fittings and assume their intended position
when connected to the air line.
Maintenance
No maintenance is required beyond the checks required by law.
Testing
Air suspension bellows merely need to be checked for any leakage, and
for mechanical wear.
2
Levelling Valves
Purpose
Basic Training
15
Levelling valves, also called air suspension valves, are used to control
the suspension in air-sprung vehicles. Their purpose is the sensitively
graded control of the compressed air for the air suspension bellows as
a ratio of the vehicle’s load.
Design types
464 002 ... 0
Levelling valves with single or double-stage characteristic curve. The
damping nozzles for energy delivery to the air suspension bellows varies
with the respective variants (1.3 mm resp. 3 mm). They use either a flat
lever with a ball joint, or a linkage with a rubber transmitting member.
464 006 ... 0
Levelling Valve 464 006 ... 0
Devives (in dual level characteristic) replace the designs 464 002 ... and
have a nominal width of 3 mm.
There are following design types:
Levelling Valve 464 006 00. 0 (without height limitation)
The device is available in different variants (with or without lever resp.
silencer).
They use either a flat lever with a ball joint, or a linkage with a rubber
transmitting member.
Levelling Valve with height limitation 464 006 100 0.
This variant has an additional 3/2 way valve which closes, from a special
adjustable lever angle up, the pressure supply to the air bellows and turn
into a venting position when the lever further is actuated.
Through this “Height Limitation” a lift up of the vehicle with the rotary
slide valve over the admissible level is prevented. This integrated
solution makes the former necessary seperate shutoff valve for stroke
limitation superfluous.
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15
Basic Training
Levelling Valves
Operation of Levelling Valve 464 002
a.
Pressurizing Position
If the vehicle is pressureless, its superstructure rests on the rubber
buffers of the chassis. The levelling valve has thus been reversed via the
linkage (10), causing the valve (5) on the inlet side to open. The
compressed air from the air suspension’s auxiliary air reservoir now
enters at port (1), opening the check valve (4), and flows through the
open valve (5) past the tappet (6) into chamber (a). Through the
calibrated nozzle holes (b), the compressed air flows to ports (21 and
22) and from there to the air suspension bellows. As the vehicle’s
superstructure rises, it simultaneously acts on the eccentric pin (8) via
the linkage (10). This causes the guide (7), together with the tappet (6),
to be pulled downwards. When the level for loading the vehicle, or for
boarding passengers, has been reached, the inlet side of the valve (5)
closes, and the process of pressurizing is finished. Because of the
groove-shaped top of the tappet (6), the nozzle holes (6) are now
covered.
b.
When Axles Oscillate
Any axle oscillations, caused by uneven road surfaces as a ratio of the
vehicle’s speed, are transferred directly to the levelling valve. Although
this may cause the valve (5) to open, the air consumption is kept to a
minimum because the nozzle holes (b) are covered by the tappet (6).
c.
When Loading
When the vehicle is being loaded, the existing bellows pressure is no
longer sufficient to keep the superstructure at its level. It moves
downwards, causing the tappet (6) to reverse via the guide (7). The inlet
side of the valve (5) opens, and the tappet (6) releases the nozzle holes
(b), allowing compressed air at a higher pressure to flow to the
connected air suspension bellows. As described under “a” above, the
levelling valve reverses as the vehicle’s superstructure is raised.
4
Levelling Valves
Basic Training
15
d. When Unloading
When the vehicle is unloaded, the levelling valve is controlled in reverse
order. Its superstructure rises, moving the guide (7), together with the
tappet (6), downwards via the linkage (10). As the tappet (6) is raised off
the valve (5), the nozzle holes (b) are released and the air suspension
bellows are connected with the levelling valve’s exhaust (3). As the
pressure in the air suspension bellows is reduced, the vehicle’s
superstructure drops and the levelling valve is set back to its original
position in which its air intake and its exhaust are closed.
Testing
Provided the air suspension bellows have the required pressure, the
levelling valve is only checked for any leakages, and for mechanical
wear of the linkage.
Important Note
The factory setting of the levelling valve should not be changed in terms
of its empty stroke via the adjusting screw (9), or the centering plate’s
Phillips screws, since this would neutralize its basic setting.
Schematic for Testing and Installation
Air-suspension bellows
8
8
1
Supply
2, 6
of the
Service Braking System
3
2, 6
3
7
2
7
1
2
5
41
1
42
42
1
4
1
2
Load sensing valve
8
41
1
2
4
Load sensing valve
2
1
2
5
8
5
15
Basic Training
Adjustment of Levelling Valve
After mounting the air levelling valve, the lever length is
adjusted
following
the
vehicle
manufacturer’s
instructions. For adjusting the valve at the vehicle it is
decisive which total spring travel the axle permits.
When the air suspension bellows are pressureless, the
vehicle’s superstructure rests on the rubber buffers of the
chassis. As the bellows are pressurized, the
superstructure is raised.
When the air suspension bellows’ “unladen” level (level
for loading or for mounting passengers) has been
reached, the lever on the valve is moved to its neutral
position. To facilitate the installation and adjusting of
lever and connecting linkage the levelling valve shaft can
be fixed by plugging a parallel pin of Ø 3 mm in the idle
position.
If the vehicle is at a normal level, the connecting linkage
can be installed. The linkage has to be aligned vertically.
instructions of the vehicle or Achsherstellers) betragen. If
a shorter lever has to be used, a higher air consumption
of the levelling valve has to be concerned.
Depending on the fitting positon various cranks of the
lever are possible. By accordingly fixing or turning the
lever for 180° the valve can be optionally operated from
right or left. Depending on the final installation positon vertical or horizontal - the lever is to be placed through
one of the two bores in the operating shaft which are
diplaced to each other for 90°.
Variant ... 100 0 is adjusted to a closing angle of 30° ± 2°
by plant. The pilot pressure is 15 - 45° bar. A closing
angle of 15° is not permissible, otherwise the crosssection will reduce itself and this can lead to complete
closing.
For adjustment of the closing angle the rubber plug
underneath the 3/2-Directional Control Valve has to be
removed to adjust the adjusting screw with a Torx T30
screwdriver:
-
Counterclockwise means a reduction of the closing
angle, clockwise means an increasing.
-
A rotation = approx. 10° changing of the angle
After the vehicle has been lowered to its buffers with the
help of a rotary valve the height of the chassis has to be
measured. Then the chassis has to be raised by the
rotary valve. Should the permissible full suspension be
achieved before the Height Limitation of the levelling
valve sets in, the raising has to be cancelled and the
vehicle has to be lowered. Turning the adjusting screw
counterclockwise the closing angle and also the
suspension way are reduced.
The space A between the fulcrum on the levelling valve
lever and the fulcrum on the angle bracket should not be
less than 150 mm. The linking 433 401 003 0 has to be
ordered seperately.
The relation lever length L / rod length A should be ≤ 1.2
if the closing angle of max. 45° is not exceeded. The lever
length “L” should be 175 to 295 mm (following the
6
If the height limitation sets in before the chassis is at the
required hub height, the vehicle has to be lowered also in
this case. Turning the adjusting screw counterclockwise
the closing angle and also the suspension way are
reduced. This process has to be repeated until the
required suspension way (equal or less than the
maximum suspension way given by the axle producer) is
achieved. The final braking position has been reached.
Important
The transfer linkage and the lever of the levelling valve
need not to be in one line, because the linking is turning
around and this could cause damages on the levelling
valve.
Rotary Slide Valves
Purpose:
Control of raising / lowering of air
suspended
interchangeable
platforms and semitrailer chassis
(lifting device).
The rotary slide valve 463 032 1..
includes the deadman control
meeting the accident prevention
requirement
of
the
metal
professional association (German
VBG 8, § 8). An automatic return is
required for chassis movement with
a stroke more than 300 mm,
measured at the axle.
With these valves, the lever
automatically returns to raise/stop
respectively lower/stop, all other
functions are like described below.
Operation:
Variant 463 032 1.. 0
I
III IV V
23 22
24
21
II
STOP
1
3
STOP
In the “driving”-position of the hand
lever the lifting device is turned off.
The rotary slide valve has an open
passage between the levelling
valves (port 21 to 23) and the
bellows (ports 22 and 24)
Upon that, this device enables 4
further lever park positions allowing
pressurizing/ venting of the bellows
for raise/ lower function.
Basic Training
15
The afterwards required lowering of
the chassis under normal level and
place down a container or the
loading platform and to drive out is
done with the hand lever position
“lower”. Like in the position “raise” ,
the ports (21 and 23) are now
closed. However, the bellows (22
and 24) are vented over exhaust 3.
After driving out of the chassis the
hand lever is to switched to “driving”
position to switch back to level
control with levelling valves. After
driving out of the chassis the hand
lever is to switched to “driving”
position to switch back to level
control with levelling valves.
Maintenance:
No maintenance is required beyond
the checks required by law.
Installation recommendation:
The rotary slide valve has to be fitted
vertically or horizontally with 4 M8
screws - exhaust 3 pointing
downwards.
The
unassembled
supplied plate with the lever
positions has to be installed
underneath the lever (see “fitting
dimensions”).
To raise the chassis, the lever is
dislocked by pressing it down axially
and then turned across position
“stop” to position “raise”. This will
close ports (21 and 23) and connect
the bellows (22 and 24) with
reservoir at port 1.
After reaching the required height,
the hand lever is to be turned to
“stop” position. In this position, all
ports to the levelling valve (21 and
23) as well as those to the bellows
(22 and 24) are closed. Support
arms can now be turned out.
2
7
15 Basic Training
Air suspension systems (examples)
Schematic for Testing and Installation for Trailers
Luftfederbalg
8
Vorrat
7
2, 3
1
1
2
1
von der
Betriebsbremsanlage
6
2
41
2
1
42
2
1
4
ALB-Regler
5
8
Pos.
Un
its
Description
Order number
1
1
Charging Valve without
return flow 6.0 bar
434 100 125 0
2
1
Air reservoirs
950 . . . . . . 0
3
2
Clamps
451 901 10 . 2
4
1
Line filter
432 500 02 . 0
Pos.
Un
its
Description
Order number
5
1
Drain valve
934 300 001 0
6
1
Test Connection
463 703 100 0
7
2
Levelling Valve
464 006 002 0
8
2
Test Connection
463 703 . . . 0
for semitrailer (24V)
(Raising/Lowering)
Luftfederbalg
8
Vorrat
1
41
2, 3
1
1
2
von der
Betriebsbremsanlage
1
2
21
22
4
12
6
23
21
1
22
23
24
9
1
42
2
ALB-Regler
5
8
7
Pos.
8
Un
its
Description
Order number
1
1
Charging Valve without
return flow 6.0 bar
434 100 125 0
2
1
Air reservoirs
950 . . . . . . 0
3
2
Clamps
451 999 . . . 2
4
1
Line filter
432 500 02 . 0
Pos.
Un
its
Description
Order number
5
1
Drain valve
934 300 001 0
6
1
Test Connection
463 703 100 0
7
1
Levelling Valve
464 006 100 0
8
2
Test Connection
463 703 . . . 0
9
1
Rotary Slide Valve
463 032 . . . 0
Lift Axle Control Valves
Purpose:
The lifting axle compact valve is in
charge of lowering or raising the
lifting
axle(s)
manually
or
automatically, if the axle(s) that are
down have reached their maximum
load.
Variants
• 463 084 000 0 mechanically
operated version
• 463 084 010 0
operated version
24
23
electrically
• 463 084 020 0 fully automated
pneumatic version
3
Operation:
II
20
I
22
21
41
1
42
Variant 000
43 44
24
23
3
II
20
I
22
21
1
42
For lowering the lifting axle
compressed air flows via port 21 (airsuspension bellows) through the
duct (k), through the throttling port of
the check valve (d) to port 41
(expansion tank) and through duct
(f) into chamber B. After reaching the
switch pressure which is adjusted by
the screw (c) the piston (e) is raised.
The compressed air flows via duct
(g) into chamber A and moves the
tappet (b) into its superior final
positon. Port 1 (supply) is closed.
Port 20 and the chambers D and E
are connected with vent 3. The
tappets (h and i) move towards the
lower stop and the bellows (21 with
22) and (23 with 24) are connected.
Basic Training
15
For raising the lifting axle the
actuation button (a) has to be
pushed ( only possible when piston
(e) is lowered) and the supply air
flows via port 20 to the
downstreamed lifting bag. At the
same time the compressed air flows
via duct (j) into the chambers D and
E, moves the tappets (h and i)
against
the
power
of
the
compression spring upwards. The
connection of the bellows (21 with
23) and (23 with 24) is closed and
compressed air from the bellows of
the lifting axle (port 22 and 24) is
venting through the tappets (h and j),
chamber C and exhaust 3 to
atmosphere.
Funktion of port 42 refer to p. 75.
Maintenance:
No maintenance is required beyond
the checks required by law.
Installation recommendation:
The fixing can made with the help of
3 M6 stud bolts [A] (torque 10 Nm)
or 2 M8 screws [B], torque 20 Nm,
(wholes 9 mm avaiable on the
appliance).
The fitting position for the lifting axle
control valve is shown on page 70.
41
Variant 010
24
23
3
II
20
I
22
21
1
41
42
Variant 020
2
9
15
Basic Training
Lifting Axle Systems (examples)
Lifting Axle Circuit electronically operated
Pos.
Un
its
Description
Order number
Pos.
Un
its
Description
Order number
1
1
Charging Valve
434 100 125 0
6
1
Pressure limiting valve
475 010 . . . 0
2
1
Air reservoirs
950 . . . . . . 0
7
1
Pressure switch
441 042 000 0
3
1
Line filter
432 500 020 0
8
1
Test Connection
463 703 100 0
4
1
Air reservoirs
950 410 004 0
9
1
Switch
5
1
Lifting axle valve
463 084 010 0
10
1
Levelling Valve
Pos.
Un
its
464 006 . . . 0
Lifting Axle Circuit mechanically operated
Pos.
10
Un
its
Description
Order number
Description
Order number
1
1
Charging Valve
434 100 125 0
5
1
Lifting axle valve
463 084 000 0
2
1
Air reservoirs
950 . . . . . . 0
6
1
Pressure limiting valve
475 010 . . . 0
3
1
Line filter
432 500 020 0
7
1
Test Connection
463 703 100 0
4
1
Air reservoirs
950 410 004 0
8
1
Levelling Valve
464 006 . . . 0
2
Lift Axle Control Valves
Setting Instruction
After the valve has been installed
according to the fixing instruction
and the scheme, the adjustment of
the switch pressure has to be made.
Enclosures
Range of Adjustment
1. 463 084 000 0
Wrench size 10
M = 4 ± 1Nm
mechanically operated version
(Diagram 841 801 448 0 see p. 32)
Actuation button (a) has to be
pushed.
The switch pressure for lowering the
lifting axle has to be set according to
the pressure, at which it is made
sure, that the permissible axle load
is not exceeded.
Therefore a test hose with pressure
gauge and pressure reduction valve
has to be connected with test
connection 42. The compressed air
flows via duct (f) into chamber B. By
increasing the pressure of the test
hose the switching point on which
the actuation button springs out is
detected, port 20 is getting
pressureless (lifting axle lowers) and
the air supply of the bellows on the
lifting axle sets in.
If the switch pressure is too high, it
Basic Training
15
can be lowered by turning the
adjusting screw counterclockwise. If
it is too low, it can be raised by
turning
the
adjusting
screw
clockwise.
While checking the test pressure
always has to be raised from 0 bar
on because the hysteresis has to be
switched off.
After setting the adjustment screw
has to be locked and covered with
the enclosed cap.
2. 463 084 010 0
electrically
operated
version
(Diagram 841 801 447 0 see p. 32)
According to the scheme the
pressure switch 441 042 000 0
(Range of Adjustment 1.0 to 5.0 bar)
has to be connected.
The setting of the pressure switch is
like the setting of the mechanically
operated lifting axle valve.
3. 463 084 020 0
fully automated pneumatic version
(Diagram 841 801 449 0 see page
33)
2 switching pressures have to be
adjusted.
Wrench size 12
M max. = 15 Nm
At first the protection cap has to be
removed with SW30 (M = 45 ± 5 Nm)
and the Philips screw A (size2) has
to be turned in until stop.
Now the adjustment of the switch
pressure for the lowering of the lifting
axle (screw B) follows with a 12 mm
wrench for hexagon head cap
screws almost like the adjustment of
the mechanically operated version.
Lowering
Lifting
Afterwards the adjustment of the
switch pressure for the automatic
raising has to be made with the help
of a Philips screwdriver (size 2) . For
this the test pressure of 8.0 bar has
to be lowered. The pressure
difference of the switch pressures for
the automatic lowering and raising
has to be 0.4 bar higher than the
difference in pressures for the air
suspension bellows between lifted
and non-lifted axle.
stop
Size 2
M max. = 1.5 Nm
^= 5 rotations
2
11
15 Basic Training
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
Picture 1: ECAS parts for vehicles
Picture 2: ECAS parts for trailers
12
2
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
Introduction:
Basic Training
15
q Highly flexible system due to teh fact
ECAS stands for
that electronics can be programmed
via operating parameters (trailing
end programming).
Electronically
Controlled
Air
Suspension
q Distinctive
safety
diagnosis facility.
ECAS is an electronically controlled air
suspension system with a large number
of functions included in the system. The
use of an electronic control unit has
achieved major improvements over the
conventional system:
q Reduction of air consumption whilst
the vehicle is moving.
q It is possible to maintain different
levels (e. g. ramp operation) by
means of automatic readjustment.
q In the case of complex systems,
installation is easier because less
pipes are required.
q Additional
functions
like
the
programmable vehicle levels, tyre
deflection compensator, overloading
protection,
tracion
help
and
automatic lifting axle control can be
easily integrated.
q Due to large valve diameters,
pressurizing and venting processes
are accelerated.
q Easy operations and maximum
safety for those operating the system
due to one single control unit.
concept
and
Unlike mechanically controlled air
suspension systems in which the valve
which measures the height also controls
the air bellows, ECAS achieves control
by means of an electronic control unit
(ECU) which actuates the air bellows via
solenoid valves, using information
received from sensors.
In addition to controlling the vehicle's
level, the ECU, together with the remote
control unit, also controls functions
which if implemented with conventional
air suspension systems, requires a large
number of valves.
Furthermore with ECAS additional
system functions are avaiable.
ECAS is adjustable to suit the different
types of trailer.
For trailers, power is supplied from the
ABS or the EBS system. In addition to
that the ABS system, provides ECAS
with the so-called C3 signal, i.e.
information on the vehicle's current
speed.
To permit adjustment of the level of a
trailer not connected to a towning
vehicle, an optional facility for a storage
battery may be provided for an additional
power supply on the trailer.
Sample function: Trailer without
lifting axle
1 ECU
2 remote control
3 height sensor
4 solenoid valve
5 bellow
nominal
level
Basic system:
2
13
15
Basic Training
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
Functional description
A height sensor (3) permanently
evaluates the vehicle´s height and send
its readings to to the ECU( 1). If the ECU
recognises that the normal level is not
being maintained, a solenoid valve (4) is
activated in such a way that - by
pressurizing or venting - the level is
adjusted accordingly.
Via a remote control unit (2) the user can
change the reference level (important for
e. g. rampdriving) underneath a given
speed threshold (during standstill).
An indicator lamp is used to notify the
driver that the trailer is outside its normal
ride height.
Diagnostics
pin 15
pin 31
ground
C3 Signal
brake light
ECAS Electronic
Supply
module ECAS
ABS
Vario-C
24N
14
ISO 7638
24S
2
A flashing of this lamp indicates a fault
within the systems which was discovered
by the ECU ( Electronic Control Unit).
Scheme of the basic system:
1
2
3
4
5
ECU (Electronic)
Remote control unit
Height sensor
Solenoid valve
Air-suspension bellows
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
Basic Training
15
ECAS Electronic (ECU)
446 055 . . 0
ECU 35-pin:*
ECU 35-pin:*
ECU 25-pin:*
ECU for Trailers
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
The Electronic Control Unit is the heart of
the system and is connected with the
singles components on the vehicle ba
means of a 35-pole or 25-pole plug-in
terminal. The ECU is located in the
driver´s cab.
Together with a plug-in terminal for
connecting the ECAS ECU for trailer's to
the other components, the ECU is
mounted on the trailer's chassis in a
protective housing. This protective
housing corresponds to the ABS-VARIOC System. The ECU can be used for
implementing a large number of system
configurations. The plug-in terminal has
a connector for each height sensor,
pressure sensor and solenoid valve.
Depending on the system used, parts of
the terminal may not be used.
As in the ABS-VARION-C system the
cables are fed through glands in the
lower part of the housing.
Function
The ECu contains a microprocessor
which processes digital signals only. A
memory managing the data is connected
to this processor.
The outlets to the solenoid valves and to
the indicator lamp are switched via dirver
modules.
The ECU is responsibe for
–
monitoring the axle loads
systems with pressure sensor)
(in
–
plausibility testing of the signals
received (for error detection)
–
error recovery.
In order to ensure swift control reactions
to any changes in actual values, the
micro-processor cyclically processes a
read-only program within fractions of a
second (25 milliseconds), one program
cycle meeting all of the above
requirements.
–
constantly monitoring the incoming
signals
–
converting these signals into counts
–
comparing these values (actual
values) to the values stored (index
values)
–
computing the required controlling
reaction in the event of any deviation
This program cannot be modified and is
fixed in a program module (ROM).
–
actuating the solenoid valves
However, it accesses numerical values
which are stored in a freely
programmable memory. These values,
the parameters, effect the computing
processes and thus the ECU's
controlling reactions. They are used to
communicate to the computing program
the calibrating positions, the system
configuration and the other preset values
concerning the vehicle and functions.
Additional responsibilities of the
= Electronic control unit
–
managing and storing the various
index values (normal levels,
memory, etc.)
–
data exchange with teh RCU and the
Diagnostic Controller
–
regularly monitoring the function of
all system components
2
15
15 Basic Training
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
solenoid valves
Special solenoid valve blocks have been
developed for the ECAS system. By
combining several solenoid valves in
one compact block, both space and
installation time are kept to a minimum.
The solenoid valves are actuated by the
ECU as a control element; they convert
the voltage present into a pressurizing or
venting process, e.g. they increase,
reduce or maintain the air volume in the
bellows.
In order to achieve a large throughput of
air, pilot valves are used. The solenoids
initially actuate those valves with a small
nominal width, and their control pressure
is then passed to the piston surface of
the actual switching valves (NW 10 and
NW 7 respectively).
Different types of solenoid valves are
used, depending on the application: For
controlling a single axle, one seat valve
is sufficient whilst a complex sliding
valve is required for controlling the lifting
axle.
Both types of solenoid valves are based
on a modular principle: Depending on
the application, the same housing is
used to accommodate different parts of
valves and solenoids.
ECAS solenoid valve
472 900 05 . 0
Valve for axle with two height sensors
The solenoid valve shown in the
illustrations below has three solenoids.
One solenoid (6.1) controls a central
breather valve (also known as a central
3/2 directional control valve), the others
control the connection between the two
air bellows (2/2 directional control
valves) and the central breather valve.
This valve can be used for establishing
what is known as 2-point control in which
both height sensors on both sides of the
axle separately control the level of both
sides of the vehicle so that the body kept
horizontal even when the load is not
evenly distributed.
Design of the valve
Solenoid 6.1 actuates a pilot valve (1),
and the actuating pressure from this
valve flows through hole (2) and acts on
piston valve (3) of the breather valve.
The pilot valve receives its pressure via
16
2
port 11 (supply) and connecting hole (4).
This drawing shows the breather valve in
its venting position in which air from
chamber (5) can flow to port 3 via the
hole of the piston valve.As solenoid 6.1
is energized, piston valve (3) is pushed
downwards, initially causing valve plate
(6) to close the hole of the piston valve.
The valve plate is then pushed off its
seat (hence the name seat valve'), and
supply pressure can flow into chamber
(5).
The other two valves connect the air
suspension bellows with chamber (5).
Depending on which solenoids (6.2 or
6.3) are energized, piston valves (9)
or(10) are pressurized via holes (7) or
(8), opening valve plates (11) and (12) to
ports 22 and 23.
A solenoid valve for control of the other
axle can be fitted to port 21.
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
Basic Training
15
ECAS solenoid valve
472 900 02 . 0
Valve for an axle with one height
sensor
This valve is similar to the valve
described above but it contains fewer
parts.
Since port 14 is connected to port 21 of
the valve described above, no breather
valve is needed and only one pilot valve
(1) is used. The piston valves (3) of both
air suspension bellows valves are
pressurized via two connecting holes (2)
so that each pressurizing or venting
process is effected evenly for both
bellows via chamber (5).
If the solenoid is not energized, the
valves are closed, as shown in the
illustration. At this time, the only
connection between the bellows is the
lateral choke (7), through which any
difference in pressures can gradually be
compensated.
The valve is connected to the air supply
via port 12. This port is needed merely to
permit the pilot valve to displace the
piston valve.
ECAS solenoid valve
472 905 1 . . 0
Sliding valve with rear axle block and
lifting axle block
ECAS solenoid valve
472 900 05 . 0
Valve for the bus with kneeling
function
2
17
15
Basic Training
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
ECAS Remote Control Unit
446 056 . . . 0
446 056 1.. 0
446 056 0.. 0
By means of the RCU the driver can
influence the vehicle's level within the
permissible maximum limits. However,
this can only be done whilst the vehicle is
either stationary or has not exceeded the
driving speed parameter.
The control keys for changing the level
are accommodated in a handy housing.
Contact with the ECU is established via
a coiled cable and a socket on the
vehicle.
There are different RCUs depending on
the type of system used. The above
illustration shows a unit with the largest
possible number of functions. The
functions of this RCU are:
–
raising and lowering of the chassis
–
setting normal level
–
stop
–
storage and actuation of three
preference levels
–
raising and lowering the lifting axle
–
unloading or loading the trailer axle
–
Switching automatic
operation on and off
–
activating of the Stand-By mode.
lifting
axle
ECAS Heightsensor
441 050 0 . . 0
From the outside, the height sensor
looks similar to WABCO's conventional
levelling valve which means that it can
often be fitted in the same location on the
vehicle frame (the pattern of the two
upper mounting bores is similar to that of
the levelling valve).
The sensor housing contains a coil in
which an armature is moved up and
down. Via a connecting rod, the
armature is connected to a cam on the
18
2
lever's shaft. The lever is connected to
the vehicle axle.
As
the
distance
between
the
superstructure and the axle changes, the
lever turned, causing the armature to
move into or out of the coil. This changes
the coil's inductance.
This inductance is being measured by
the electronic control unit at short
intervals and converted into a height
signal.
Electronically controlled air suspension
system (ECAS)
Basic Training
15
Pressure sensor
441 040 00 . 0
The pressure sensor produces a voltage
output which is proportional to the
pressure present. The measuring range
lies between 0 and 10 bar; a pressure of
16 bar must not be exceeded.
The signal voltage is sent to the ECU via
a connecting plug. Furthermore, the
sensor must receive a supply voltage
from the ECU via a third conductor. The
cable harness must be encased in a
hose or similar material in such a way
that the housing - which is otherwise
waterproof - can “breathe“.
Under no circumstances should the
pressure sensor be connected to the
connecting line between air suspension
bellows and solenoid valve since this
could result in wrong readings when
pressurizing or venting is in progress.
If air suspension bellows with two
threaded ports, as offered by renowned
manufacturers of air suspension
systems, cannot be used, a special
connector must be fitted.
2
This connector can consist of a Tshaped pipe union, with a small pipe
being welded into its pressure sensor
connection protruding into the inside of
the bellows, thereby sensing the
“settled” bellows pressure.
A normal tee-piece can be used but only
when a high raise/lowering-speed is not
required. Two examples:
–
One axle is sensed (drawbar-trailer
with one lifting axle). The feed pipe
from bellows to solenoid should be
small (nominal size ø 6) but the
connection between bellows and
sensor large.
–
Two axles are sensed (3-axlesemitrailer with one lifting axle). Use
ø 12 pipe between the sensed
bellows. Fit the pressure sensor in a
tee piece next to one bellows. The
line from the solenoid valve should
be ø 9) entering the system at the
other bellows.
19