Campbell | CNR4 | Instruction manual | Campbell CNR4 Instruction manual

INSTRUCTION MANUAL
CNR4 Net Radiometer
Revision: 2/15
C o p y r i g h t © 2 0 0 0 - 2 0 1 5
C a m p b e l l S c i e n t i f i c , I n c .
Limited Warranty
“Products manufactured by CSI are warranted by CSI to be free from defects in
materials and workmanship under normal use and service for twelve months
from the date of shipment unless otherwise specified in the corresponding
product manual. (Product manuals are available for review online at
www.campbellsci.com.) Products not manufactured by CSI, but that are resold
by CSI, are warranted only to the limits extended by the original manufacturer.
Batteries, fine-wire thermocouples, desiccant, and other consumables have no
warranty. CSI’s obligation under this warranty is limited to repairing or
replacing (at CSI’s option) defective Products, which shall be the sole and
exclusive remedy under this warranty. The Customer assumes all costs of
removing, reinstalling, and shipping defective Products to CSI. CSI will return
such Products by surface carrier prepaid within the continental United States of
America. To all other locations, CSI will return such Products best way CIP
(port of entry) per Incoterms ® 2010. This warranty shall not apply to any
Products which have been subjected to modification, misuse, neglect, improper
service, accidents of nature, or shipping damage. This warranty is in lieu of all
other warranties, expressed or implied. The warranty for installation services
performed by CSI such as programming to customer specifications, electrical
connections to Products manufactured by CSI, and Product specific training, is
part of CSI's product warranty. CSI EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS AND
EXCLUDES ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. CSI hereby disclaims,
to the fullest extent allowed by applicable law, any and all warranties and
conditions with respect to the Products, whether express, implied or
statutory, other than those expressly provided herein.”
Assistance
Products may not be returned without prior authorization. The following
contact information is for US and international customers residing in countries
served by Campbell Scientific, Inc. directly. Affiliate companies handle
repairs for customers within their territories. Please visit
www.campbellsci.com to determine which Campbell Scientific company serves
your country.
To obtain a Returned Materials Authorization (RMA), contact CAMPBELL
SCIENTIFIC, INC., phone (435) 227-9000. After an application engineer
determines the nature of the problem, an RMA number will be issued. Please
write this number clearly on the outside of the shipping container. Campbell
Scientific’s shipping address is:
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC.
RMA#_____
815 West 1800 North
Logan, Utah 84321-1784
For all returns, the customer must fill out a “Statement of Product Cleanliness
and Decontamination” form and comply with the requirements specified in it.
The form is available from our web site at www.campbellsci.com/repair. A
completed form must be either emailed to repair@campbellsci.com or faxed to
(435) 227-9106. Campbell Scientific is unable to process any returns until we
receive this form. If the form is not received within three days of product
receipt or is incomplete, the product will be returned to the customer at the
customer’s expense. Campbell Scientific reserves the right to refuse service on
products that were exposed to contaminants that may cause health or safety
concerns for our employees.
Precautions
DANGER — MANY HAZARDS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSTALLING, USING, MAINTAINING, AND WORKING ON OR AROUND
TRIPODS, TOWERS, AND ANY ATTACHMENTS TO TRIPODS AND TOWERS SUCH AS SENSORS, CROSSARMS, ENCLOSURES,
ANTENNAS, ETC. FAILURE TO PROPERLY AND COMPLETELY ASSEMBLE, INSTALL, OPERATE, USE, AND MAINTAIN TRIPODS,
TOWERS, AND ATTACHMENTS, AND FAILURE TO HEED WARNINGS, INCREASES THE RISK OF DEATH, ACCIDENT, SERIOUS
INJURY, PROPERTY DAMAGE, AND PRODUCT FAILURE. TAKE ALL REASONABLE PRECAUTIONS TO AVOID THESE HAZARDS.
CHECK WITH YOUR ORGANIZATION'S SAFETY COORDINATOR (OR POLICY) FOR PROCEDURES AND REQUIRED PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT PRIOR TO PERFORMING ANY WORK.
Use tripods, towers, and attachments to tripods and towers only for purposes for which they are designed. Do not exceed design
limits. Be familiar and comply with all instructions provided in product manuals. Manuals are available at www.campbellsci.com or
by telephoning (435) 227-9000 (USA). You are responsible for conformance with governing codes and regulations, including safety
regulations, and the integrity and location of structures or land to which towers, tripods, and any attachments are attached. Installation
sites should be evaluated and approved by a qualified engineer. If questions or concerns arise regarding installation, use, or
maintenance of tripods, towers, attachments, or electrical connections, consult with a licensed and qualified engineer or electrician.
General
• Prior to performing site or installation work, obtain required approvals and permits. Comply
with all governing structure-height regulations, such as those of the FAA in the USA.
• Use only qualified personnel for installation, use, and maintenance of tripods and towers, and
any attachments to tripods and towers. The use of licensed and qualified contractors is
highly recommended.
• Read all applicable instructions carefully and understand procedures thoroughly before
beginning work.
• Wear a hardhat and eye protection, and take other appropriate safety precautions while
working on or around tripods and towers.
• Do not climb tripods or towers at any time, and prohibit climbing by other persons. Take
reasonable precautions to secure tripod and tower sites from trespassers.
• Use only manufacturer recommended parts, materials, and tools.
Utility and Electrical
• You can be killed or sustain serious bodily injury if the tripod, tower, or attachments you are
installing, constructing, using, or maintaining, or a tool, stake, or anchor, come in contact
with overhead or underground utility lines.
• Maintain a distance of at least one-and-one-half times structure height, 20 feet, or the
distance required by applicable law, whichever is greater, between overhead utility lines and
the structure (tripod, tower, attachments, or tools).
• Prior to performing site or installation work, inform all utility companies and have all
underground utilities marked.
• Comply with all electrical codes. Electrical equipment and related grounding devices should
be installed by a licensed and qualified electrician.
Elevated Work and Weather
• Exercise extreme caution when performing elevated work.
• Use appropriate equipment and safety practices.
• During installation and maintenance, keep tower and tripod sites clear of un-trained or nonessential personnel. Take precautions to prevent elevated tools and objects from dropping.
• Do not perform any work in inclement weather, including wind, rain, snow, lightning, etc.
Maintenance
• Periodically (at least yearly) check for wear and damage, including corrosion, stress cracks,
frayed cables, loose cable clamps, cable tightness, etc. and take necessary corrective actions.
• Periodically (at least yearly) check electrical ground connections.
WHILE EVERY ATTEMPT IS MADE TO EMBODY THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF SAFETY IN ALL CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTS,
THE CUSTOMER ASSUMES ALL RISK FROM ANY INJURY RESULTING FROM IMPROPER INSTALLATION, USE, OR
MAINTENANCE OF TRIPODS, TOWERS, OR ATTACHMENTS TO TRIPODS AND TOWERS SUCH AS SENSORS, CROSSARMS,
ENCLOSURES, ANTENNAS, ETC.
Table of Contents
PDF viewers: These page numbers refer to the printed version of this document. Use the
PDF reader bookmarks tab for links to specific sections.
1. Introduction ................................................................. 1
2. Cautionary Statements ............................................... 1
3. Initial Inspection ......................................................... 1
3.1
Ships With............................................................................................ 1
4. Quickstart .................................................................... 2
4.1
4.2
4.3
Siting Considerations ........................................................................... 2
Mounting .............................................................................................. 2
Short Cut Programming ....................................................................... 4
5. Overview ...................................................................... 7
6. Specifications ............................................................. 8
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
CNR4 Specifications .......................................................................... 10
Pyranometer Specifications................................................................ 10
Pyrgeometer Specifications................................................................ 11
Optional CNF4 Heater/Ventilator ...................................................... 12
6.4.1 CNF4 Specifications ................................................................... 12
7. Operation ................................................................... 12
7.1
Using the CNR4 in the Four Separate Components Mode................. 13
7.1.1 Measuring Short-wave Solar Radiation with Pyranometer ......... 13
7.1.2 Measuring Long-wave Far Infrared Radiation with
Pyrgeometer............................................................................. 13
7.1.3 Measuring CNR4 Temperature with Thermistor ........................ 14
7.1.4 Calculation of Albedo ................................................................. 16
7.1.5 Calculation of Net Short-wave Radiation ................................... 17
7.1.6 Calculation of Net Long-wave Radiation ................................... 17
7.1.7 Calculation of Net (Total) Radiation .......................................... 18
7.2
Wiring ................................................................................................ 18
7.3
Datalogger Programming ................................................................... 21
7.3.1 Sensor Sensitivity ....................................................................... 22
8. Troubleshooting........................................................ 22
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Testing the Pyranometer .................................................................... 23
Testing the Pyrgeometer .................................................................... 23
Testing the Thermistor ....................................................................... 23
Testing the Pt-100 .............................................................................. 24
i
Table of Contents
9. Maintenance and Recalibration ...............................24
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
Cleaning Windows and Domes ......................................................... 24
Recalibration ..................................................................................... 24
Replacing the Drying Cartridge......................................................... 24
Replacement Parts ............................................................................. 25
Appendices
A. Importing Short Cut Code Into CRBasic Editor ... A-1
A.1
Importing Short Cut Code into a Program Editor............................ A-1
B. Example Programs.................................................. B-1
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
CR1000 Program Using Differential Measurements ....................... B-1
CR3000 Program Using Differential Measurements ....................... B-4
CR5000 Program Using Differential Measurements ....................... B-7
CR3000 Program for Measuring Pt-100 Temperature Sensor....... B-10
C. CNR4 Performance and Measurements under
Different Conditions ............................................. C-1
D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator ........................................... D-1
D.1
D.2
D.3
D.4
D.5
General Information ........................................................................ D-1
Attaching the Optional CNF4 Heater/Ventilator Unit to CNR4...... D-3
Wiring ............................................................................................. D-7
CR3000 Datalogger Program with Heater/Ventilator Control ........ D-8
CNF4 Heater/Ventilator Maintenance ........................................... D-11
D.5.1 Testing the Heater .................................................................. D-11
D.5.2 Testing the Ventilator ............................................................. D-11
D.5.3 Replacing the Filter for the Ventilator ................................... D-11
4-1.
4-2.
Attaching the mounting rod to the CNR4 body ................................... 2
Attaching the CNR4 onto the mounting rod (pn 26120) using
vertical pole or horizontal crossarm ................................................. 3
The CNR4 net radiometer with cables and mounting rod, top view ... 9
The CNR4 net radiometer with CNF 4 heater/ventilator unit, top
view.................................................................................................. 9
The CNR4 sensor with SOLAR and TEMP cables ........................... 18
The marks on the end of the CNR4: S for SOLAR cable, and T
for TEMP cable .............................................................................. 19
Labels on the pigtail end of the SOLAR cable .................................. 19
Labels on the pigtail end of the TEMP cable. ................................... 20
Replacing the drying cartridge .......................................................... 25
Different measurement conditions and signals ................................ C-2
Partly cloudy day for the upward facing pyrgeometer .................... C-2
Clear day for the downward facing pyrgeometer ............................ C-3
CNF4 package contents ................................................................... D-3
Attaching the CNF4 to CNR4 using pan-head screws and
washers ........................................................................................ D-4
Making sure the cables are clear from the edges ............................. D-5
Figures
6-1.
6-2.
7-1.
7-2.
7-3.
7-4.
9-1.
C-1.
C-2.
C-3.
D-1.
D-2.
D-3.
ii
Table of Contents
D-4.
D-5.
D-6.
D-7.
CNF4 solar shield and four flat-head screws .................................. D-5
Attaching the solar shield to CNF4 using four flat-head screws ..... D-6
Affixing the sensor label to CNF4 .................................................. D-6
Connecting the CNF4 power control cable and the mounting rod .. D-6
7-1.
7–2.
7-3.
7-4.
B-1.
Resistance values versus CNR4’s thermistor temperature in °C........ 14
Resistance values versus CNR4’s Pt–100 temperature in °C ............. 16
Datalogger Connections for Differential Measurement ..................... 20
Datalogger Connections for Single-Ended Measurement .................. 21
Datalogger Connections for Differential Measurement with
Pt-100 ......................................................................................... B-10
Typical output signals of CNR4 under different meteorological
conditions. Explanation can be found in the text. ......................... C-1
CR1000 and CR3000 Datalogger Connections for Differential
Measurement with Heater/Ventilator Control ............................. D-7
Tables
C-1.
D-1.
iii
Table of Contents
iv
CNR4 Net Radiometer
1.
Introduction
The CNR4 is a research-grade net radiometer that measures the energy balance
between incoming and outgoing radiation. Our dataloggers measure the
CNR4’s output. This net radiometer offers a professional solution for
scientific-grade energy balance studies.
Before using the CNR4, please study:
•
•
•
2.
3.
Section 2, Cautionary Statements
Section 3, Initial Inspection
Section 4, Quickstart
Cautionary Statements
•
READ AND UNDERSTAND the Precautions section at the front of this
manual.
•
Although the CNR4 is rugged, it is also a highly precise scientific
instrument and should be handled as such.
•
Care should be taken when opening the shipping package to not damage or
cut the cable jacket. If damage to the cable is suspected, consult with a
Campbell Scientific application engineer.
•
Do not attempt to rotate the instrument using the sensor heads, or you may
damage the sensors; use the mounting rod only.
Initial Inspection
3.1
•
Upon receipt of the CNR4, inspect the packaging and contents for damage.
File damage claims with the shipping company.
•
The model number and cable length are printed on a label at the
connection end of the cable. Check this information against the shipping
documents to ensure the correct product and cable length are received.
•
Refer to the Ships With list to ensure that parts are included (see Section
3.1, Ships With).
Ships With
(2) 26006 Drying Cartridges
(1) WRR Traceable Calibration Certificate for the pyranometers
(1) WRR Traceable Calibration Certificate for the pyregeometers
(1) Mounting Arm from original manufacturer
(1) Extra Calibration Stickers from original manufacturer
(1) ResourceDVD
1
CNR4 Net Radiometer
4.
Quickstart
Please review Section 7, Operation, for wiring and CRBasic programming.
Appendix D, CNF4 Heater/Ventilator, provides information about using the
CNF4 heater/ventilator.
4.1
4.2
Siting Considerations
1.
Mount the sensor so no shadows or reflections will be cast on it at any
time of day from obstructions such as trees, buildings, or the mast or
structure on which it is mounted. If the instrument is h meters above the
surface, 99% of the input of the lower sensors comes from a circular area
with a radius of 10h. Shadows or surface disturbances with a radius < 0.1h
will affect the measurement by less than 1%.
2.
To avoid shading or reflection effects and to promote spatial averaging,
the CNR4 should be mounted at least 1.5 m above the ground or crop
surface. It is recommended that the CNR4 be mounted to a separate
vertical pipe at least 25 ft from any other mounting structures.
3.
Orient the sensor towards the nearest pole to avoid potential problems
from shading.
Mounting
A mounting bracket kit, pn 26120, is used to mount the CNR4 directly to a
vertical pipe, or to a CM202, CM203, CM204, or CM206 crossarm. Mount the
sensor as follows:
1.
Attach the mounting rod to the CNR4 (see FIGURE 4-1).
FIGURE 4-1. Attaching the mounting rod to the CNR4 body
2
CNR4 Net Radiometer
2.
Attach the 26120 mounting bracket to the vertical mounting pipe, or
CM200-series crossarm using the provided U-bolt (see FIGURE 4-2). If
mounted to a vertical pipe, ensure that the pipe does not cast a reflection
on the sensor. This includes both the incoming and outgoing sections of
the sensor.
FIGURE 4-2. Attaching the CNR4 onto the mounting rod (pn 26120)
using vertical pole or horizontal crossarm
3.
CAUTION
Insert the sensor’s support arm into the mounting block of the mounting
bracket kit. Make sure the sensor points in the direction of the arrows that
appear after the word SENSOR on top of the bracket (see FIGURE 4-2).
Do not attempt to rotate the instrument using the sensor
heads, or you may damage the sensors; use the mounting
rod only.
4.
Perform a coarse leveling of the sensor using the sensor’s bubble level.
3
CNR4 Net Radiometer
4.3
5.
Tighten the four screws on top of the mounting bracket to properly secure
the support arm so that it does not rotate (see FIGURE 4-2).
6.
Perform the fine leveling using the two spring-loaded leveling screws—
one on the front and the other on the back of the bracket.
7.
Route the sensor cable to the instrument enclosure.
8.
Use the UV-resistant cable ties included with the tripod or tower to secure
the cable to the vertical pipe or crossarm and tripod/tower.
Short Cut Programming
NOTE
The SCWin example provided here uses the thermistor to provide
the temperature correction.
Short Cut is an easy way to program your datalogger to measure the
pyranometer and assign datalogger wiring terminals. Use the following
procedure to get started.
4
1.
Install Short Cut by clicking on the install file icon. Get the install file
from either www.campbellsci.com, the ResourceDVD, or find it in
installations of LoggerNet, PC200W, PC400, or RTDAQ software.
2.
The Short Cut installation should place a Short Cut icon on the desktop of
your computer. To open Short Cut, click on this icon.
CNR4 Net Radiometer
3.
When Short Cut opens, select New Program.
4.
Select Datalogger Model and Scan Interval (default of 5 seconds is OK
for most applications). Click Next.
5
CNR4 Net Radiometer
5.
Under the Available Sensors and Devices list, select Sensors |
Meteorological | Solar Radiation folder. Select CNR4 Net Radiation.
Click
to move the selection to the Selected device window.
6. Enter the sensitivity values supplied on the manufacturer’s certificate of
calibration; these sensitivity values are unique to each sensor. The public
variables defaults can typically be used. After entering the information,
click on OK, and then select Next.
6
CNR4 Net Radiometer
7.
After selecting the sensitivity values, click at the left of the screen on
Wiring Diagram to see how the sensor is to be wired to the datalogger.
The wiring diagram can be printed out now or after more sensors are
added.
8.
Select any other sensors you have, then finish the remaining Short Cut
steps to complete the program. The remaining steps are outlined in Short
Cut Help, which is accessed by clicking on Help | Contents |
Programming Steps.
9.
If LoggerNet, PC400, RTDAQ, or PC200W is running on your PC, and the
PC to datalogger connection is active, you can click Finish in Short Cut
and you will be prompted to send the program just created to the
datalogger.
10. If the sensor is connected to the datalogger, as shown in the wiring
diagram in step 7, check the output of the sensor in the datalogger support
software data display to make sure it is making reasonable measurements.
5.
Overview
The CNR4 Net Radiometer consists of a pyranometer pair, one facing upward,
the other facing downward, and a pyrgeometer pair in a similar configuration.
The pyranometer pair measures short-wave solar radiation, and the
pyrgeometer pair measures long-wave far infrared radiation. The upper longwave detector of CNR4 has a meniscus dome to ensure that water droplets roll
off easily while improving the field of view to nearly 180°, compared with a
150° for a flat window. All four sensors are integrated directly into the
instrument body, instead of separate modules mounted onto the housing. Each
sensor is calibrated individually for optimal accuracy.
7
CNR4 Net Radiometer
Two temperature sensors, a thermistor and a Pt-100, are integrated with the
CNR4 body. The temperature sensor is used to provide information to correct
the infrared readings for the temperature of the instrument housing. Care has
been taken to place the long-wave sensors close to each other and close to the
temperature sensors. This ensures that the temperatures of the measurement
surfaces are the same and accurately known, improving the quality of the longwave measurements. A completion resistor is added in the pig tail end of the
thermistor cable providing an easy interface with dataloggers for half-bridge
measurement.
The CNR4 design is light weight and has an integrated solar shield that reduces
thermal effects on both the short-wave and the long-wave measurements. The
cables are made from Santoprene jacket, which is intended for outdoor use,
and is resistant to a variety of pollutants and UV-radiation. The mounting rod
can be unscrewed for transport.
An optional ventilation unit with a heater, CNF4, is designed as an extension of
the solar shield and can be fitted to the CNR4 or retrofitted later. The
heater/ventilation unit is compact and provides efficient air-flow over the
domes and windows to minimize the formation of dew and to reduce the
frequency of cleaning. The integrated heater can be used to melt frost.
The CNR4 design is such that both the upward facing and the downwardfacing instruments measure the energy that is received from the whole
hemisphere (180° field of view). The output is expressed in W/m2. The total
spectral range that is measured is roughly from 0.3 to 42 μm. This spectral
range covers both the short-wave solar radiation, 0.3 to 2.8 μm, and the longwave far infrared radiation, 4.5 to 42 μm. The gap between these two produces
negligible errors.
The CNR4 is manufactured by Kipp & Zonen, but cabled for use with
Campbell Scientific dataloggers. Its cables can terminate in:
•
•
6.
Pigtails that connect directly to a Campbell Scientific datalogger
(cable termination option –PT).
Connector that attaches to a prewired enclosure (cable termination
option –PW).
Specifications
Features:
8
•
Research-grade performance
•
Meniscus dome on upper long-wave detector allows water droplets to
easily roll off of it and increases field of view to nearly 180°
•
Internal temperature sensors provide temperature compensation of
measurements
•
Drying cartridge helps keep the electronics dry
•
Compatible with the CNF4 ventilation unit with heater that reduces
formation of dew and melts frost
CNR4 Net Radiometer
•
Separate outputs of short-wave and long-wave infrared radiation for
better accuracy and more thorough quality assurance
•
Solar shield reduces thermal effects on the sensors
Compatible Dataloggers:
CR6
CR1000
CR3000
CR5000
The properties of the CNR4 are mainly determined by the properties of the
individual probes. Generally the accuracy of the CNR4 will be higher than that
of competitive net-radiometers, because the solar radiation measurement
performed by the pyranometer is accurate, and offers a traceable calibration.
Also the optionally integrated heater/ventilator unit improves the accuracy.
Due to the fact that the net short-wave radiation can be very intense, 1000
W/m2 compared to a typical –100 W/m2 net long-wave radiation, the accuracy
of the short-wave radiation measurement is critical. Wind corrections, as
applied by less accurate competitive instruments are not necessary. The robust
materials used imply that the CNR4 will not suffer damages inflicted by birds.
FIGURE 6-1 and FIGURE 6-2 show the CNR4 with and without the CNF4
heater/ventilator. From a spectral point of view, the pyranometer and
pyrgeometer are complementary, and together they cover the full spectral
range.
FIGURE 6-1. The CNR4 net radiometer with cables and mounting rod,
top view
FIGURE 6-2. The CNR4 net radiometer with CNF 4 heater/ventilator
unit, top view
9
CNR4 Net Radiometer
6.1
CNR4 Specifications
Sensor sensitivities:
Four probes with unique sensitivity
values. Please refer to the calibration
sheets or label on the bottom of the
sensor for the sensitivity values.
Operating temperature:
–40 to 80 °C (–40 to 176 °F)
Operating humidity:
0 to 100% RH
Bubble level sensitivity:
< 0.5°
Sensor type:
Thermopile
Receiver paint:
Carbon Black
Desiccant:
Silica gel (replaceable)
Housing material:
Anodized aluminum body
Shock/vibration:
IEC 721-3-2-2m2
CE:
Complies with EC guideline
89/336/EEC 73/23/EEC
Environmental protection:
IP 67
Requirements for data acquisition
Radiation components:
4 differential or 4 single-ended analog
channels
Thermistor:
1 voltage excitation and 1 singleended analog channel
Pt-100 temperature:
1 current excitation and 1 differential
analog channel.
Cable length:
User defined
Weight
Sensor:
0.85 kg (1.89 lb) without cables
Heater/ventilator, CNF4
(optional):
0.50 kg (1.11 lb) without cables
Mounting rod:
6.2
34.7 cm (13.67 in) length
1.6 cm (0.63 in) diameter
Pyranometer Specifications
* indicates ISO specifications.
10
Spectral range:
305 to 2800 nm (50% points)
Sensitivity:
10 to 20 µV/W/m2
Response time*:
< 18 seconds (95% response)
Non-linearity*:
< 1% (0 to 1000 W m–2 irradiance)
Non-stability*:
< 1%
Temperature dependence of
sensitivity*:
< 4% (–10 to 40 °C)
Tilt response*:
< 1% at any angle with 1000 W/m2
CNR4 Net Radiometer
Directional error*:
Zero offset due to 0 to -200 W/m2
IR net irradiance*:
Zero offset due to temperature
change*:
Operating temperature:
Field of view
Upper detector:
Lower detector:
6.3
< 20 W/m2 at angle up to 80° with
1000 W/m2
< 15 W/m2
< 3 W/m2 (5 K/hr temperature change)
< 1 W/m2 (with CNF4 installed)
–40 to 80 °C
180°
150° (due to lower solar shield to
prevent illumination at low zenith
angles)
Maximum solar irradiance:
2000 W/m2
Expected accuracy for daily totals:
±10 %
Typical signal output for
atmospheric application:
0 to 15 mV
Impedance:
20 to 200 Ω, typically 50 Ω
Detector:
Copper-constantan multi-junction
thermopile
Level accuracy:
1 degree
Irradiance:
0 to 2000 W/m2
Spectral selectivity:
< 3% (330 to 1500 nm spectral
interval)
Uncertainty in daily total:
< 5% (95% confidence level)
Instrument calibration:
Indoors. Side by side against reference
CMP3 pyranometer according to ISO
9847:1992 annex A.3.1
Pyrgeometer Specifications
Spectral range:
4.5 to 42 μm (50% points)
Sensitivity:
5 to 15 μV/W/m2
Impedance:
20 to 200 Ω (typically 50 Ω)
Response time:
< 18 seconds (95% response)
Non-linearity:
< 1% (–250 to +250 W/m2 irradiance)
Temperature dependence of
sensitivity:
< 4% (–10 to 40 °C)
Tilt error:
Zero offset due to temperature
change:
< 1% (deviation when tilted at any
angle off horizontal)
±4 W/m2 (5 K/hr temperature change)
11
CNR4 Net Radiometer
Field of view
Upper:
Lower:
180 degrees
150 degrees
Net-irradiance:
–250 to +250 W/m2
Non-stability:
< 1% (sensitivity change per year)
Window heating offset:
< 6 W/m2 (1000 W/m2 solar
irradiance)
Uncertainty in daily total:
< 10% (95% confidence level) indoor
calibration
Typical signal output for
atmospheric application:
±5 mV
Temperature sensors
Thermistor:
10k Ω
Pt-100:
DIN class A
Instrument calibration:
6.4
Indoors, side by side against reference
CG(R) 3 pyrgeometer. On request
outdoors, side by side against
reference CG(R) 4 pyrgeometer
Optional CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
The purpose of the heater/ventilator is to prevent dew deposition on the
pyrgeometer and pyrgeometer window, thus enhancing the measurement
accuracy and reliability. Using the heater/ventilator will have negligible effect
on the pyranometer reading.
Generally, the errors caused by the heater/ventilator will be small relative to the
errors that would have been caused by water deposition.
6.4.1 CNF4 Specifications
7.
Heater
Power consumption:
10 W @ 12 Vdc (15 Ω)
Ventilator
Power consumption:
Supply voltage:
5 W @ 12 Vdc
8 to 13.5 Vdc
Weight without cable:
0.5 kg (1.11 lb)
Operating temperature:
–40 to 80 °C
Operation
If you are programming your datalogger with Short Cut, skip Section 7.2,
Wiring, and Section 7.3, Datalogger Programming. Short Cut does this work
for you. See Section 4.3, Short Cut Programming, for a tutorial.
12
CNR4 Net Radiometer
7.1
Using the CNR4 in the Four Separate Components Mode
In the four separate components mode configuration (measuring two shortwave radiation signals and two long-wave signals), all signals are measured
separately. Calculation of net-radiation and albedo can be done online by the
datalogger, or offline by the user during post-processing, using the stored raw
data.
The two pyranometers will measure the short-wave radiation, both incoming
and reflected. The two pyrgeometers will measure the long-wave radiation.
For proper analysis of the pyrgeometer measurement results, they must be
temperature corrected using the temperature measurement performed by the
onboard thermistor or Pt-100 sensor.
7.1.1 Measuring Short-wave Solar Radiation with Pyranometer
The pyranometer generates an mV signal that is simply proportional to the
incoming short-wave radiation. The conversion factor between voltage, V, and
W/m2 of solar irradiance E, is the calibration constant C or sensitivity
(Equation 7-1).
For each pyranometer,
E = V/C
(7-1)
Measuring with a pyranometer can be done by connecting two pyranometer
wires to a datalogger. Incidental light results in a positive signal. The
pyranometer mounting plate and ambient air should be at the same
temperature. Conversion of the voltage to irradiance can be done according to
Equation 7-1, and is computed by the datalogger program.
With the upward-facing pyranometer, the global (solar) downwelling radiation
is measured. The downward-facing pyranometer measures the reflected
upwelling solar radiation. When calculating the net radiation, the upwelling
radiation must be subtracted from the downwelling radiation. See Section
7.1.5, Calculation of Net Short-wave Radiation.
7.1.2 Measuring Long-wave Far Infrared Radiation with Pyrgeometer
When using the pyrgeometer, you should realize the signal generated by the
pyrgeometer represents the exchange of long-wave far infrared (thermal)
radiation between the pyrgeometer and the object that it is facing. This implies
that the pyrgeometer will generate a positive voltage output, V, when it faces
an object that is hotter than its own sensor housing, and that it will give a
negative voltage signal when it faces an object that is colder. Therefore, when
estimating the far infrared radiation that is generated by the object facing the
pyrgeometer, usually the sky or the soil, you will have to take the pyrgeometer
temperature, T, into account. This is why the temperature sensors are
incorporated in the CNR4’s body near the pyrgeometer sensing element, and
has, therefore, the same temperature as the pyrgeometer sensor surface. The
calculation of the long-wave far infrared irradiance, E, is done according to
Equation 7-2.
For the pyrgeometer only
E = V/C + 5.67•10-8•T4
(7-2)
13
CNR4 Net Radiometer
In this equation, C is the sensitivity of the sensor.
NOTE
T is in Kelvin, and not in Celsius or Fahrenheit.
The downward-facing pyrgeometer measures the far infrared radiation that is
emitted by the ground. The upward-facing pyrgeometer measures the far
infrared radiation from the sky. As the sky is typically colder than the
instrument, one can expect negative voltage signals from the upward-facing
pyrgeometer. Equation 7-2 is used to calculate the far infrared irradiance of the
sky and of the ground.
7.1.3 Measuring CNR4 Temperature with Thermistor
The CNR4 has two temperature sensors built inside: thermistor and Pt-100;
both have identical accuracy. Using the thermistor is recommended when
using Campbell Scientific dataloggers. The thermistor has a greater resistance
(10 kΩ @ 25 °C) than Pt-100 sensor (100 Ω @ 0 °C), and the change in
resistance with respect to temperature, in absolute terms, is greater. Therefore,
the cable resistance can be neglected, and the thermistor can easily be
measured using Half-Bridge Measurement instruction on Campbell Scientific
dataloggers.
TABLE 7-1 shows the thermistor resistance values as a function of
temperature.
TABLE 7-1. Resistance values versus CNR4’s thermistor temperature in °C
Temperature
[°C]
–30
–29
–28
–27
–26
–25
–24
–23
–22
–21
–20
–19
–18
–17
–16
–15
–14
–13
–12
–11
–10
–9
–8
14
Resistance
[Ω]
135200
127900
121100
114600
108600
102900
97490
92430
87660
83160
78910
74910
71130
67570
64200
61020
58010
55170
52480
49940
47540
45270
43110
Temperature
[°C]
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Resistance
[Ω]
29490
28150
26890
25690
24550
23460
22430
21450
20520
19630
18790
17980
17220
16490
15790
15130
14500
13900
13330
12790
12260
11770
11290
Temperature
[°C]
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
Resistance
[Ω]
8194
7880
7579
7291
7016
6752
6500
6258
6026
5805
5592
5389
5193
5006
4827
4655
4489
4331
4179
4033
3893
3758
3629
CNR4 Net Radiometer
TABLE 7-1. Resistance values versus CNR4’s thermistor temperature in °C
Temperature
[°C]
–7
–6
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
Resistance
[Ω]
41070
39140
37310
35570
33930
32370
30890
Temperature
[°C]
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Resistance
[Ω]
10840
10410
10000
9605
9227
8867
8523
Temperature
[°C]
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Resistance
[Ω]
3504
3385
3270
3160
3054
2952
2854
Relatively small errors occur when the CNR4 is not in thermal equilibrium.
This happens for example when the heater is on, or when the sun is shining.
When the heater and ventilator are on, the largest expected deviation between
the real sensor temperature and the thermistor reading is 1 degree. This results
in a worst case error for the pyrgeometer of 5 W/m2. When the sun is shining,
the largest expected deviation between the real sensor temperature and the
thermistor reading is again 1 degree. This results in a worst case error for the
pyrgeometer of 5 W/m2.
The thermistor will not give a good indication of ambient air temperature; at
1000 W/m2 solar radiation, and no wind, the instrument temperature will rise
approximately 5 degrees above the ambient temperature.
The offsets of both the pyranometers and the pyrgeometers might be larger
than 5 W/m2 if large temperature gradients are forced on the instrument (larger
than 5 K/hr); for example, when rain hits the instrument. This occurrence can
be detected using the thermistor readout, and can be used for data filtering.
The thermistor measurement is calculated by the datalogger, using the HalfBridge Measurement instruction, which requires one voltage excitation and
one single-ended analog channel.
Alternatively, you can use the Pt-100 to make the temperature measurement.
In order to make the temperature measurement, using the Pt-100 sensor, you
will need one current excitation channel, and one differential analog channel.
TABLE 7–2 shows the Pt-100 resistance values as a function of temperature.
Please refer to Appendix B.4, CR3000 Program for Measuring Pt-100
Temperature Sensor, for a sample program to measure Pt-100.
15
CNR4 Net Radiometer
TABLE 7–2. Resistance values versus CNR4’s Pt–100 temperature in °C
Temperature
[°C]
–30
–29
–28
–27
–26
–25
–24
–23
–22
–21
–20
–19
–18
–17
–16
–15
–14
–13
–12
–11
–10
–9
–8
–7
–6
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
Resistance
[Ω]
88.22
88.62
89.01
89.40
89.80
90.19
90.59
90.98
91.37
91.77
92.16
92.55
92.95
93.34
93.73
94.12
94.52
94.91
95.30
95.69
96.09
96.48
96.87
97.26
97.65
98.04
98.44
98.83
99.22
99.61
Temperature
[°C]
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Resistance
[Ω]
100.00
100.39
100.78
101.17
101.56
101.95
102.34
102.73
103.12
103.51
103.90
104.29
104.68
105.07
105.46
105.85
106.24
106.63
107.02
107.40
107.79
108.18
108.57
108.96
109.35
109.73
110.12
110.51
110.90
111.28
Temperature
[°C]
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Resistance
[Ω]
111.67
112.06
112.45
112.83
113.22
113.61
113.99
114.38
114.77
115.15
115.54
115.93
116.31
116.70
117.08
117.47
117.85
118.24
118.62
119.01
119.40
119.78
120.16
120.55
120.93
121.32
121.70
122.09
122.47
122.86
7.1.4 Calculation of Albedo
Albedo is the ratio of reflected short-wave radiation to incoming short-wave
radiation. This unitless value ranges between 0 and 1. Typical values are 0.9
for snow, and 0.3 for grassland. To determine the albedo, the measured values
of the two pyranometers are used. Do not use the measured values when the
solar elevation is lower than 10 degrees above the horizon. Errors in the
measurements at these elevations are likely and yield unreliable results. This is
due to deviations in the directional response of the pyranometers.
Albedo = (E lower Pyranometer) / (E upper Pyranometer)
(7-3)
In the equation above, E is calculated according to the Equation 7-1.
Albedo will always be smaller than 1. Checking this can be used as a tool for
quality assurance of your data. If you know the approximate albedo at your
16
CNR4 Net Radiometer
site, the calculation of albedo can also serve as a tool for quality control of your
measured data at a specific site.
7.1.5 Calculation of Net Short-wave Radiation
The net short-wave solar radiation is equal to the incoming (downwelling)
short-wave radiation minus the reflected (upwelling) short-wave radiation.
Net Short-wave Radiation = (E upper Pyranometer)
– (E lower Pyranometer)
(7-4)
In the equation above, E is calculated according to Equation 7-1.
Net short-wave solar radiation will always be positive. This can be used as a
tool for quality assurance of your measured data.
7.1.6 Calculation of Net Long-wave Radiation
The net long-wave far infrared radiation is the part that contributes to heating
or cooling of the earth’s surface. In practice, usually the net long-wave far
infrared radiation will be negative.
Net Long-wave Radiation = (E upper Pyrgeometer)
– (E lower Pyrgeometer)
(7-5)
In the equation above, E is calculated according to Equation 7-2. According to
Equation 7-5 above, the terms that contain the sensor body temperature, T,
cancel each other. Therefore, if one is only interested in the net long-wave
radiation, instead of separate upper and lower components of the long-wave
radiation, the CNR4 temperature measurement is not required.
The E measured with the pyrgeometer actually represents the irradiance of the
sky (for upward-facing pyrgeometer) or the ground (for downward-facing
pyrgeometer). Assuming that these two, ground and sky, behave like perfect
blackbodies, theoretically, one can calculate an effective “sky temperature” and
an effective “ground temperature”.
 E upper Pyrgeometer 
Sky Temperature = 

5.67 ⋅10 −8


1/ 4
 E lower Pyrgeometer 
Ground Temperature = 

5.67 ⋅ 10 −8


(7-6)
1/ 4
(7-7)
As a rule of thumb, for ambient temperatures of about 20 degrees Celsius, one
can say that one degree of temperature difference between two objects results
in a 5 W/m2 exchange of radiative energy (infinite objects):
1 degree of temperature difference = 5 W/m2 (rule of thumb)
17
CNR4 Net Radiometer
7.1.7 Calculation of Net (Total) Radiation
In the four separate components mode, net radiation, Rn, can be calculated
using the individual sensor measurement results:
Rn = {(E upper Pyranometer) - (E lower Pyranometer)}
+ {(E upper Pyrgeometer) - (E lower Pyrgeometer)}
(7-8)
Where E upper/lower pyranometers are calculated according to Equation 7-1,
and E upper/lower pyrgeometers are calculated according to Equation 7-2. The
terms with T cancel each other out.
7.2
Wiring
The CNR4 has two outputs for short-wave radiation, two outputs for long-wave
radiation, thermistor output, and Pt-100 temperature sensor output. In addition,
if a user chooses to attach the optional CNF4 heater/ventilator unit, it will have
power wires for heater and ventilator. All wiring diagrams shown in this
manual and the sample programs will use the thermistor for the temperature
measurement of the CNR4. The wiring diagrams for the thermistor in this
manual is applicable only if the CNR4 and the cables were purchased from
Campbell Scientific, Inc.
The CNR4 comes with two sets of cables labelled SOLAR and TEMP, as
shown in FIGURE 7-1. FIGURE 7-2 shows the marks by the connecting ports
at the sensor’s end for the cable connection: S and T for SOLAR and TEMP
cables, respectively. The two cables, SOLAR and TEMP, have identical
connectors, and care should be used to ensure that the correct cables are
connected to the correct ports of the sensor.
FIGURE 7-1. The CNR4 sensor with SOLAR and TEMP cables
18
CNR4 Net Radiometer
FIGURE 7-2. The marks on the end of the CNR4: S for SOLAR cable,
and T for TEMP cable
The measurement details for Pt-100 sensor, including the wiring diagram and
sample program, are explained in Appendix B.4, CR3000 Program for
Measuring Pt-100 Temperature Sensor.
The four radiation outputs can be measured using differential or single-ended
inputs on the datalogger. A differential voltage measurement is recommended
because it has better noise rejection than a single-ended measurement.
NOTE
When differential inputs are used, jumper the low side of the input
to AG or
to keep the signal in common mode range.
TABLE 7-3 and TABLE 7-4 show the wiring instructions for the differential
measurement and single-ended measurement connections to the datalogger,
respectively. The cables have the white band at the pigtail end of the cable
with the color keys. See FIGURE 7-3 and FIGURE 7-4 below for the labels on
the cable for both the SOLAR and TEMP cables.
FIGURE 7-3. Labels on the pigtail end of the SOLAR cable
19
CNR4 Net Radiometer
FIGURE 7-4. Labels on the pigtail end of the TEMP cable.
TABLE 7-3. Datalogger Connections for Differential Measurement
Function
Wire Color
CR6, CR1000,
CR3000, CR5000
Pyranometer Up Signal
Red
Differential Input (H)
Pyranometer Up Reference
*Blue
Differential Input (L)
Pyranometer Down Signal
White
Differential Input (H)
Pyranometer Down Reference
*Black
Differential Input (L)
Pyrgeometer Up Signal
Grey
Differential Input (H)
Pyrgeometer Up Reference
*Yellow
Differential Input (L)
Pyrgeometer Down Signal
Brown
Differential Input (H)
Pyrgeometer Down Reference
*Green
Differential Input (L)
Shield
Clear
Thermistor Signal
White
Single-Ended Input
Thermistor Voltage Excitation
Red
Voltage Excitation (VX)
Thermistor Signal Reference
Black
Shield
Clear
*Jumper to
20
with user supplied wire.
CNR4 Net Radiometer
TABLE 7-4. Datalogger Connections for Single-Ended Measurement
Function
Wire Color
CR6, CR1000,
CR3000, CR5000
Pyranometer Up Signal
Red
Single-Ended Input
Pyranometer Up Reference
Blue
Pyranometer Down Signal
White
Pyranometer Down Reference
Black
Pyrgeometer Up Signal
Grey
Pyrgeometer Up Reference
Yellow
Pyrgeometer Down Signal
Brown
Pyrgeometer Down Reference
Green
Shield
Clear
Thermistor Signal
White
Single-Ended Input
Thermistor Voltage Excitation
Red
Voltage Excitation (VX)
Thermistor Signal Reference
Black
Shield
Clear
Single-Ended Input
Single-Ended Input
Single-Ended Input
*Pull back wires for Pt-100 (grey, brown, green, and yellow), which are not in
use, and tie them around the TEMP cable using a cable tie or electrical tape to
avoid possible damage to the Pt-100, due to electrical short circuit.
7.3
Datalogger Programming
Short Cut is the best source for up-to-date datalogger programming code.
Programming code is needed,
•
•
when creating a program for a new datalogger installation
when adding sensors to an existing datalogger program
If your data acquisition requirements are simple, you can probably create and
maintain a datalogger program exclusively with Short Cut. If your data
acquisition needs are more complex, the files that Short Cut creates are a great
source for programming code to start a new program or add to an existing
custom program.
NOTE
Short Cut cannot edit programs after they are imported and edited
in CRBasic Editor.
A Short Cut tutorial is available in Section 4, Quickstart. If you wish to import
Short Cut code into CRBasic Editor to create or add to a customized program,
follow the procedure in Appendix A.1, Importing Short Cut Code into a
Program Editor. Programming basics for CRBasic dataloggers are provided
below. Complete program examples for select dataloggers can be found in
Appendix B, Example Programs.
21
CNR4 Net Radiometer
The CNR4 outputs four voltages that typically range from 0 to 15 mV for the
pyranometers, and ± 5 mV for the pyrgeometers. A differential voltage
measurement is recommended because it has better noise rejection than a
single-ended measurement. If differential channels are not available, singleended measurements can be used. The acceptability of a single-ended
measurement can be determined by simply comparing the results of singleended and differential measurements made under the same conditions.
Additionally, one voltage excitation channel and one single-ended analog
channel are required to make the temperature measurement of the sensor body,
using the thermistor.
7.3.1 Sensor Sensitivity
The CNR4 comes with four different sensor sensitivity values for four separate
probes. The CNR4 sensor comes with two copies of its ‘Certificate of
Calibration’ by the manufacturer. They show the sensor serial number and
sensitivity values for four individual probes: one copy for pyranometers, and
another copy for pyrgeometers. The serial number and sensitivity values are
also shown on a label affixed to the bottom of the sensor. If you choose to
attach the CNF4 heater/ventilator unit to the CNR4, the label showing the
serial number and sensitivity values will be covered. After attaching the CNF4
heater/ventilator, affix the extra label to the bottom of the CNF4 in a visible
location. The extra label containing the serial number and sensitivity values is
supplied with the purchase of the CNR4. Please refer to Appendix D, CNF4
Heater/Ventilator, for more details.
The sensor sensitivity is in µV/(W/m2). This needs to be converted into
(W/m2)/mV to be used as a multiplier parameter inside the datalogger program.
To convert the units, divide the sensor sensitivity value into 1000. For
example, if the sensitivity is 7.30 µV/(W/m2), the multiplier is 1000/7.3 =
136.99 (W/m2)/mV.
8.
Troubleshooting
If there is no indication as to what may be the problem, start performing the
following “upside-down test”, which is a rough test for a first diagnosis. It can
be performed both outdoors and indoors. Indoors, a lamp can be used as a
source for both short-wave and long-wave radiation. Outdoors, one should
preferably work with a solar elevation of more than 45 degrees (45 degrees
above horizon) and under stable conditions (no large changes in solar
irradiance, and preferably no clouds).
22
1.
Measure the radiation outputs in the normal position. Record the
measured values when the signals have stabilized, i.e. after about three
minutes.
2.
Rotate the instrument 180 degrees, so that the upper and the lower sensors
are now in the reverse orientation as to the previous position.
3.
Measure the radiation outputs once more. Record the measured values
when the radiometers have stabilized.
4.
The computed net radiation values in rotated position should be equal in
magnitude but only differing in sign. In a rough test like this, deviations
of ± 10 % can be tolerated. If deviations greater than this are encountered,
additional testing is warranted.
CNR4 Net Radiometer
8.1
Testing the Pyranometer
As a first test, check the sensor impedance. It should have a nominal value as
indicated in the specifications. Zero, or infinite resistance, indicates a failure in
hardware connection.
Before starting the second test measurement, let the pyranometer rest for at
least five minutes to let it regain its thermal equilibrium. For testing, set a
voltmeter to its most sensitive range setting. Darken the sensor. The signal
should read zero; this response can take up to one minute. Small deviations
from zero are possible; this is caused by the thermal effects, such as touching
the pyranometer with your hand. This thermal effect can be demonstrated by
deliberately heating the pyranometer with your hand. If the zero offset is
within specifications, proceed with the third test.
In the third test, the sensor should be exposed to light. The signal should be a
positive reading. Set the voltmeter range in such a way that the expected fullscale output of the pyranometer is within the full-scale input range of the
voltmeter. The range can be estimated on theoretical considerations. When the
maximum expected radiation is 1500 W/m2, which is roughly equal to normal
outdoor daylight conditions, and the sensitivity of the pyranometer is 15 μV per
W/m2, the expected output range of the pyranometer is equal to 22500 μV, or
22.5 mV. One can calculate the radiation intensity by dividing the
pyranometer output as measured by the voltmeter (for example, 22.5 mV) by
the sensor sensitivity (15 μV/W/m2). If no faults are found up to this point,
your pyranometer is probably operating correctly.
8.2
Testing the Pyrgeometer
It is assumed that the zero offset is no more than a few watts per square meter
(see second test in Section 8.1, Testing the Pyranometer).
The CNR4 body and the ambient air should be at the same temperature. Let
the pyrgeometer rest for at least five minutes to regain its thermal equilibrium.
Set the voltmeter to its most sensitive range. To test if the pyrgeometer is
working properly, put your hand in front of the pyrgeometer. The thermal
radiation from your hand will cause the pyrgeometer to generate a positive
voltage when the surface temperature of your hand is higher than the
pyrgeometer temperature. The pyrgeometer will generate a negative voltage if
the hand is colder. The signal is proportional to the temperature difference (see
the rule of thumb in Section 7.1.6, Calculation of Net Long-wave Radiation).
The radiation emitted by the hand can be calculated by dividing the
pyrgeometer output by the sensor’s sensitivity value, and subsequently
correcting for the temperature, according to Equation 7-2. If there are still no
faults found, your pyrgeometer is probably operating correctly.
8.3
Testing the Thermistor
Using a multimeter, measure the resistance between the black and white wires
of the thermistor, and compare the value with the resistance values listed in
TABLE 7-1. The resistance should be around 10 k Ω at 25 °C, and the cable
resistance should add about 0.026 Ω per each foot of cable. When in doubt, the
Pt-100 resistance (temperature) can be checked as well for reference.
23
CNR4 Net Radiometer
8.4
Testing the Pt-100
Using a multimeter, measure the resistance between the two opposite wires of
the Pt-100 (gray-yellow, gray-brown, green-yellow, green-brown), and
compare the measured value with the resistance values listed in TABLE 7–2.
The resistance should be above 100 Ω at 0 °C, and the cable resistance should
add about 0.026 Ω per each foot of cable. When in doubt, the thermistor
resistance (temperature) can be checked as well for reference.
9.
Maintenance and Recalibration
The CNR4 is weatherproof, and is intended for a continuous outdoor use. The
materials used in the pyranometer and the pyrgeometer are robust and require
little maintenance. For optimal results, however, proper care must be taken.
9.1
Cleaning Windows and Domes
The radiometer readings can be reduced if domes and windows are not clean.
The site operator should check the windows and domes of the CNR4 regularly,
and clean them as needed. Use distilled water or alcohol as cleaning solution,
being careful not to scratch the windows and domes during cleaning.
9.2
Recalibration
For quality assurance of the measured data, the manufacturer recommends the
CNR4 be recalibrated on a regular schedule by an authorized Kipp & Zonen
calibration facility.
The CNR4 should be recalibrated every two years. Alternatively, one can
check the sensor calibration by letting a higher standard run parallel to it over a
two-day period and, then, comparing the results. For comparison of
pyranometers, one should use a clear day. For comparison of pyrgeometers,
one should compare the nighttime results. If the deviations are greater than
6%, the sensor should be recalibrated.
Please contact Campbell Scientific to obtain an RMA number for recalibration.
9.3
Replacing the Drying Cartridge
The CNR4 has a drying cartridge inside the sensor to help keep the electronics
dry. The manufacturer recommends replacing the drying cartridge every 6 to
12 months. The three screws holding the white solar shield and the six screws
holding the aluminium base plate need to be removed to access the drying
cartridge, as shown in FIGURE 9-1. Make sure that the black rubber gasket is
put in place properly before the base plate is put back to keep the compartment
sealed. The CNR4 comes with two spare drying cartridges. Additional drying
cartridges, pn 26006, can be purchased from Campbell Scientific.
24
CNR4 Net Radiometer
Drying Cartridge
Rubber Gasket
FIGURE 9-1. Replacing the drying cartridge
9.4
Replacement Parts
The following is the list of replacement parts for the CNR4 and CNF4
(heater/ventilator) available from Campbell Scientific.
CSI Part
Number
Description
CNR4CBL1-L
Replacement CNR4 Solar Cable
CNR4CBL2-L
Replacement CNR4 Temperature Cable
CNF4CBL-L
Replacement CNF4 Cable
26006
Replacement Drying Cartridges
26010
Replacement Fan Filter (Set of 5).
See Appendix D, CNF4 Heater/Ventilator, for fan filter
replacement instruction.
25
CNR4 Net Radiometer
26
Appendix A. Importing Short Cut Code
Into CRBasic Editor
This tutorial shows:
•
•
How to import a Short Cut program into a program editor for
additional refinement
How to import a wiring diagram from Short Cut into the comments of
a custom program
A.1 Importing Short Cut Code into a Program Editor
Short Cut creates files that can be imported into either CRBasic Editor or
Edlog program editor. These files normally reside in the
C:\campbellsci\SCWin folder and have the following extensions:
•
•
•
•
•
.DEF (wiring and memory usage information)
.CR6 (CR6 datalogger code)
.CR1 (CR1000 datalogger code)
.CR3 (CR3000 datalogger code)
.CR5 (CR5000 datalogger code)
Use the following procedure to import Short Cut code into CRBasic Editor
(CR6, CR1000, CR3000, CR5000 dataloggers).
NOTE
1.
Create the Short Cut program following the procedure in Section 4,
Quickstart. Finish the program and exit Short Cut. Make note of the file
name used when saving the Short Cut program.
2.
Open CRBasic Editor.
3.
Click File | Open. Assuming the default paths were used when Short Cut
was installed, navigate to C:\CampbellSci\SCWin folder. The file of
interest has a “.CR6”, “.CR1”, “.CR3”, or “.CR5” extension, for CR6,
CR1000, CR3000, or CR5000 dataloggers, respectively. Select the file
and click Open.
4.
Immediately save the file in a folder different from \Campbellsci\SCWin,
or save the file with a different file name.
Once the file is edited with CRBasic Editor, Short Cut can no
longer be used to edit the datalogger program. Change the name
of the program file or move it, or Short Cut may overwrite it next
time it is used.
5.
The program can now be edited, saved, and sent to the datalogger.
6.
Import wiring information to the program by opening the associated .DEF
file. Copy and paste the section beginning with heading “-Wiring for
CRXXX–” into the CRBasic program, usually at the head of the file.
After pasting, edit the information such that a ' character (single quotation
A-1
Appendix A. Importing Short Cut Code Into CRBasic Editor
mark) begins each line. This character instructs the datalogger compiler to
ignore the line when compiling the datalogger code.
A-2
Appendix B. Example Programs
B.1 CR1000 Program Using Differential
Measurements
This example requires four differential channels to measure the four radiation
outputs, one excitation channel, and one single-ended channel to measure the
thermistor. The program measures the sensors every 1 second, performs the
online processing of the data, and stores the following processed data to a data
table called cnr4_data once every 60 minutes. It also stores the raw time-series
data from CNR4 to data table called cnr4_ts.
Minimum battery voltage
Sample datalogger panel temperature
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer up)
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer down)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (degrees C)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (Kelvin)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average short-wave net radiation
Average long-wave net radiation
Average albedo
Average net radiation
'CR1000 Series Datalogger
'
'CNR4 program
'This program measures CNR4 four-component net radiometer
'This program also measures the thermistor inside the CNR4
'
'User must enter the sensitivity values for all four probes in the program and save/compile
'prior to downloading it to the datalogger.
'Search for the text string "unique" to find places to enter the sensitivity values.
'
'Wiring
'
'ANALOG
'1H
'1L
'gnd
'
'2H
'2L
'gnd
'
'3H
'3L
'gnd
'
'4H
'4L
'gnd
'
'
'
Instructions
CHANNELS
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal (red)
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal reference (blue)
jumper to 1L
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal (white)
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal reference (black)
jumper to 2L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal (grey)
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal reference (yellow)
jumper to 3L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal (brown)
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal reference (green)
jumper to 4L
CNR4 shield (clear)
B-1
Appendix B. Example Programs
'
'8H
'8L
'gnd
'
'
CNR4 thermistor signal (white)
CNR4 thermistor signal reference (black)
CNR4 thermistor shield (clear)
'VOLTAGE EXCITATION
'
'EX2
CNR4 thermistor voltage excitation (red)
'
'CNR4 sensor
Public logger_temp, batt_volt
Public cnr4(4)
Alias cnr4(1) = short_up
Alias cnr4(2) = short_dn
Alias cnr4(3) = long_up
Alias cnr4(4) = long_dn
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
cnr4_T_C
cnr4_T_K
long_up_corr
long_dn_corr
Rs_net
Rl_net
albedo
Rn
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Celcius
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Kelvin
'Downwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'Upwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'short-wave net radiation
'long-wave net radiation
'Albedo
'total net radiation
logger_temp = degC
batt_volt = volts
short_up = W/m^2
short_dn = W/m^2
long_up = W/m^2
long_dn = W/m^2
cnr4_T_C = deg_C
cnr4_T_K = K
long_up_corr = W/m^2
long_dn_corr = W/m^2
Rs_net = W/m^2
Rl_net = W/m^2
albedo = W/m^2
Rn = W/m^2
Dim Rs, Vs_Vx
'CNR4 sensitivities: refer to the Certificate of Calibration from Kipp & Zonen
'for each probes, and enter them below.
Const pyranometer_up_sensitivity = 15.35
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyranometer_dn_sensitivity = 15.41
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity = 8.50
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity = 7.09
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
'CNR4 multipliers
Public cnr4_mult(4)
Const pyranometer_up_mult
Const pyranometer_dn_mult
Const pyrgeometer_up_mult
Const pyrgeometer_dn_mult
=
=
=
=
1000/pyranometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyranometer_dn_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity
DataTable (cnr4_data,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Minimum (1,batt_volt,FP2,0,False)
B-2
for sensitivity values
for upper pyranometer
for lower pyranometer
for upper pyrgeometer
for lower pyrgeometer
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
Appendix B. Example Programs
Sample (1,logger_temp,FP2)
Average (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_C,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_up_corr,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_dn_corr,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rs_net,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rl_net,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,albedo,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rn,IEEE4,False)
EndTable
DataTable (cnr4_ts,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,1,Sec,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Sample (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4)
Sample (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4)
EndTable
BeginProg
'Load the multiplier values for the CNR4
cnr4_mult(1) = pyranometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(2) = pyranometer_dn_mult
cnr4_mult(3) = pyrgeometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(4) = pyrgeometer_dn_mult
Scan (1,Sec,3,0)
PanelTemp (logger_temp,250)
Battery (batt_volt)
'CNR4 radiation measurements
VoltDiff (cnr4(),4,mV20C,1,True ,0,_60Hz,cnr4_mult(),0)
'CNR4 thermistor measurement
BrHalf (Vs_Vx,1,mV2500,16,Vx2,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0)
Rs = 1000*(Vs_Vx/(1-Vs_Vx))
cnr4_T_C = 1/(1.0295e-3+2.391e-4*LN(Rs)+1.568e-7*(LN(Rs))^3)-273.15
'Convert CNR4 temperature to Kelvin
cnr4_T_K = cnr4_T_C+273.15
'Correct the long-wave radiation values from pyrgeometers
long_up_corr = long_up+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
long_dn_corr = long_dn+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
'Compute short-wave net radiation
Rs_net = short_up - short_dn
'Compute long-wave net radiation
Rl_net = long_up - long_dn
'Compute albedo
albedo = short_dn/short_up
'Compute net radiation
Rn = Rs_net + Rl_net
CallTable cnr4_data
CallTable cnr4_ts
NextScan
EndProg
B-3
Appendix B. Example Programs
B.2 CR3000 Program Using Differential
Measurements
This example requires four differential channels to measure the four radiation
outputs and one excitation channel and one single-ended channel to measure
the thermistor. The program measures the sensors every 1 second, performs
the online processing of the data and stores the following processed data to a
data table called cnr4_data once every 60 minutes. It also stores the raw timeseries data from CNR4 to data table called cnr4_ts.
Minimum battery voltage
Sample datalogger panel temperature
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer up)
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer down)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (degrees C)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (Kelvin)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average short-wave net radiation
Average long-wave net radiation
Average albedo
Average net radiation
'CR3000 Series Datalogger
'
'CNR4 program
'This program measures CNR4 four-component net radiometer
'This program also measures the thermistor inside the CNR4
'
'User must enter the sensitivity values for all four probes in the program and save/compile
'prior to downloading it to the datalogger.
'Search for the text string "unique" to find places to enter the sensitivity values.
'
'Wiring
'
'ANALOG
'1H
'1L
'gnd
'
'2H
'2L
'gnd
'
'3H
'3L
'gnd
'
'4H
'4L
'gnd
'
'
'
'8H
'8L
'gnd
'
'
B-4
Instructions
CHANNELS
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal (red)
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal reference (blue)
jumper to 1L
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal (white)
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal reference (black)
jumnper to 2L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal (grey)
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal reference (yellow)
jumper to 3L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal (brown)
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal reference (green)
jumper to 4L
CNR4 shield (clear)
CNR4 thermistor signal (white)
CNR4 thermistor signal reference (black)
CNR4 thermistor shield (clear)
Appendix B. Example Programs
'VOLTAGE EXCITATION
'
'VX1
CNR4 thermistor voltage excitation (red)
'
'CNR4 sensor
Public logger_temp, batt_volt
Public cnr4(4)
Alias cnr4(1) = short_up
Alias cnr4(2) = short_dn
Alias cnr4(3) = long_up
Alias cnr4(4) = long_dn
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
cnr4_T_C
cnr4_T_K
long_up_corr
long_dn_corr
Rs_net
Rl_net
albedo
Rn
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Celcius
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Kelvin
'Downwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'Upwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'short-wave net radiation
'long-wave net radiation
'Albedo
'total net radiation
logger_temp = degC
batt_volt = volts
short_up = W/m^2
short_dn = W/m^2
long_up = W/m^2
long_dn = W/m^2
cnr4_T_C = deg_C
cnr4_T_K = K
long_up_corr = W/m^2
long_dn_corr = W/m^2
Rs_net = W/m^2
Rl_net = W/m^2
albedo = W/m^2
Rn = W/m^2
Dim Rs, Vs_Vx
'CNR4 sensitivities: refer to the Certificate of Calibration from Kipp & Zonen
'for each probes, and enter them below.
Const pyranometer_up_sensitivity = 15.35
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyranometer_dn_sensitivity = 15.41
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity = 8.50
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity = 7.09
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
'CNR4 multipliers
Public cnr4_mult(4)
Const pyranometer_up_mult
Const pyranometer_dn_mult
Const pyrgeometer_up_mult
Const pyrgeometer_dn_mult
=
=
=
=
1000/pyranometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyranometer_dn_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity
for sensitivity values
for upper pyranometer
for lower pyranometer
for upper pyrgeometer
for lower pyrgeometer
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
DataTable (cnr4_data,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Minimum (1,batt_volt,FP2,0,False)
Sample (1,logger_temp,FP2)
Average (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_C,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_up_corr,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_dn_corr,IEEE4,False)
B-5
Appendix B. Example Programs
Average
Average
Average
Average
EndTable
(1,Rs_net,IEEE4,False)
(1,Rl_net,IEEE4,False)
(1,albedo,IEEE4,False)
(1,Rn,IEEE4,False)
DataTable (cnr4_ts,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,1,Sec,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Sample (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4)
Sample (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4)
EndTable
BeginProg
'Load the multiplier values for the CNR4
cnr4_mult(1) = pyranometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(2) = pyranometer_dn_mult
cnr4_mult(3) = pyrgeometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(4) = pyrgeometer_dn_mult
Scan (1,Sec,3,0)
PanelTemp (logger_temp,250)
Battery (batt_volt)
'CNR4 radiation measurements
VoltDiff (cnr4(),4,mV20C,1,True ,0,_60Hz,cnr4_mult(),0)
'CNR4 thermistor measurement
BrHalf (Vs_Vx,1,mv5000,16,Vx1,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0)
Rs = 1000*(Vs_Vx/(1-Vs_Vx))
cnr4_T_C = 1/(1.0295e-3+2.391e-4*LN(Rs)+1.568e-7*(LN(Rs))^3)-273.15
'Convert CNR4 temperature to Kelvin
cnr4_T_K = cnr4_T_C+273.15
'Correct the long-wave radiation values from pyrgeometers
long_up_corr = long_up+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
long_dn_corr = long_dn+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
'Compute short-wave net radiation
Rs_net = short_up - short_dn
'Compute long-wave net radiation
Rl_net = long_up - long_dn
'Compute albedo
albedo = short_dn/short_up
'Compute net radiation
Rn = Rs_net + Rl_net
CallTable cnr4_data
CallTable cnr4_ts
NextScan
EndProg
B-6
Appendix B. Example Programs
B.3 CR5000 Program Using Differential
Measurements
This example requires four differential channels to measure the four radiation
outputs, one excitation channel, and one single-ended channel to measure the
thermistor. The program measures the sensors every 1 second, performs the
online processing of the data, and stores the following processed data to a data
table called cnr4_data once every 60 minutes. It also stores the raw time-series
data from CNR4 to data table called cnr4_ts.
NOTE
The variables for the CR5000 datalogger can be up to 16
characters in length. However, if the variable is processed in the
output table by an output type other than Sample, the name will be
truncated in the datalogger to 12 characters, plus an underscore
and a 3 digit suffix indicating the output type (for example, _avg,
_max).
Minimum battery voltage
Sample datalogger panel temperature
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer up)
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer down)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (degrees C)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (Kelvin)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average short-wave net radiation
Average long-wave net radiation
Average albedo
Average net radiation
'CR5000 Series Datalogger
'
'CNR4 program
'This program measures CNR4 four-component net radiometer
'This program also measures the thermistor inside the CNR4
'
'User must enter the sensitivity values for all four probes in the program and save/compile
'prior to downloading it to the datalogger.
'Search for the text string "unique" to find places to enter the sensitivity values.
'
'Wiring
'
'ANALOG
'1H
'1L
'gnd
'
'2H
'2L
'gnd
'
'3H
'3L
'gnd
'
Instructions
CHANNELS
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal (red)
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal reference (blue)
jumper to 1L
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal (white)
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal reference (black)
jumnper to 2L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal (grey)
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal reference (yellow)
jumper to 3L
B-7
Appendix B. Example Programs
'4H
'4L
'gnd
'
'
'
'8H
'8L
'gnd
'
'
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal (brown)
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal reference (green)
jumper to 4L
CNR4 shield (clear)
CNR4 thermistor signal (white)
CNR4 thermistor signal reference (black)
CNR4 thermistor shield (clear)
'VOLTAGE EXCITATION
'
'VX1
CNR4 thermistor voltage excitation (red)
'
'CNR4 sensor
Public logger_temp, batt_volt
Public cnr4(4)
Alias cnr4(1) = short_up
Alias cnr4(2) = short_dn
Alias cnr4(3) = long_up
Alias cnr4(4) = long_dn
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
cnr4_T_C
cnr4_T_K
long_up_corr
long_dn_corr
Rs_net
Rl_net
albedo
Rn
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Celcius
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Kelvin
'Downwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'Upwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'short-wave net radiation
'long-wave net radiation
'Albedo
'total net radiation
logger_temp = degC
batt_volt = volts
short_up = W/m^2
short_dn = W/m^2
long_up = W/m^2
long_dn = W/m^2
cnr4_T_C = deg_C
cnr4_T_K = K
long_up_corr = W/m^2
long_dn_corr = W/m^2
Rs_net = W/m^2
Rl_net = W/m^2
albedo = W/m^2
Rn = W/m^2
Dim Rs, Vs_Vx
'CNR4 sensitivities: refer to the Certificate of Calibration from Kipp & Zonen for sensitivity values
'for each probes, and enter them below.
Const pyra_up_sensitiv = 15.35 'unique sensitivity for upper pyranometer (microV/W/m^2)
Const pyra_dn_sensitiv = 15.41 'unique sensitivity for lower pyranometer (microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrg_up_sensitiv = 8.50
'unique sensitivity for upper pyrgeometer (microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrg_dn_sensitiv = 7.09
'unique sensitivity for lower pyrgeometer (microV/W/m^2)
'CNR4 multipliers
Public cnr4_mult(4)
Const pyra_up_mult =
Const pyra_dn_mult =
Const pyrg_up_mult =
Const pyrg_dn_mult =
1000/pyra_up_sensitiv
1000/pyra_dn_sensitiv
1000/pyrg_up_sensitiv
1000/pyrg_dn_sensitiv
DataTable (cnr4_dat,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
B-8
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
Appendix B. Example Programs
Minimum (1,batt_volt,FP2,0,False)
Sample (1,logger_temp,FP2)
Average (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_C,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_up_corr,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_dn_corr,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rs_net,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rl_net,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,albedo,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rn,IEEE4,False)
EndTable
DataTable (cnr4_ts,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,1,Sec,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Sample (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4)
Sample (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4)
EndTable
BeginProg
'Load the multiplier values for the CNR4
cnr4_mult(1) = pyra_up_mult
cnr4_mult(2) = pyra_dn_mult
cnr4_mult(3) = pyrg_up_mult
cnr4_mult(4) = pyrg_dn_mult
Scan (1,Sec,3,0)
PanelTemp (logger_temp,250)
Battery (batt_volt)
'CNR4 radiation measurements
VoltDiff (cnr4(),4,mV20C,1,True ,0,_60Hz,cnr4_mult(),0)
'CNR4 thermistor measurement
BrHalf (Vs_Vx,1,mv5000,21,Vx1,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0)
Rs = 1000*(Vs_Vx/(1-Vs_Vx))
cnr4_T_C = 1/(1.0295e-3+2.391e-4*LN(Rs)+1.568e-7*(LN(Rs))^3)-273.15
'Convert CNR4 temperature to Kelvin
cnr4_T_K = cnr4_T_C+273.15
'Correct the long-wave radiation values from pyrgeometers
long_up_corr = long_up+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
long_dn_corr = long_dn+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
'Compute short-wave net radiation
Rs_net = short_up - short_dn
'Compute long-wave net radiation
Rl_net = long_up - long_dn
'Compute albedo
albedo = short_dn/short_up
'Compute net radiation
Rn = Rs_net + Rl_net
CallTable cnr4_dat
CallTable cnr4_ts
NextScan
EndProg
B-9
Appendix B. Example Programs
B.4 CR3000 Program for Measuring Pt-100
Temperature Sensor
This example measures the Pt-100 sensor for the body temperature of the
CNR4. This program requires four differential channels to measure the four
radiation outputs, one current excitation channel, and one differential channel
for Pt-100 measurement. The program measures the sensors every 1 second,
performs the online processing of the data, and stores the following processed
data to a data table called cnr4_data once every 60 minutes. It also stores the
raw time-series data from CNR4 to data table called cnr4_ts.
Minimum battery voltage
Sample datalogger panel temperature
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer up)
Average short-wave radiation (pyranometer down)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (degrees C)
Average CNR4 thermistor temperature (Kelvin)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer up)
Average corrected long-wave radiation (pyrgeometer down)
Average short-wave net radiation
Average long-wave net radiation
Average albedo
Average net radiation
TABLE B-1. Datalogger Connections for Differential Measurement with Pt-100
Function
Wire Color
CR3000/CR5000
Pyranometer Up Signal
Red
Differential Input (H)
Pyranometer Up Reference
*Blue
Differential Input (L)
Pyranometer Down Signal
White
Differential Input (H)
Pyranometer Down Reference
*Black
Differential Input (L)
Pyrgeometer Up Signal
Grey
Differential Input (H)
Pyrgeometer Up Reference
*Yellow
Differential Input (L)
Pyrgeometer Down Signal
Brown
Differential Input (H)
Pyrgeometer Down Reference
*Green
Differential Input (L)
Shield
Clear
PRT (Pt-100) Current Excitation
Grey
Current Excitation (IX)
PRT (Pt-100) Current Return
Brown
Current Excitation Return (IXR)
PRT (Pt-100) Signal
Green
Differential Input (H)
PRT (Pt-100) Signal Reference
Yellow
Differential Input (L)
Shield
Clear
*Pull back wires for thermistor (white, red, and black), which are not in use, and tie
them around the TEMP cable using a cable tie or electrical tape to avoid possible
damage to the thermistor, due to electrical short circuit.
B-10
Appendix B. Example Programs
'CR3000 Series Datalogger
'
'CNR4 program
'This program measures CNR4 four-component net radiometer
'This program also measures the Pt-100 sensor inside the CNR4
'
'User must enter the sensitivity values for all four probes in the program and
save/compile
'prior to downloading it to the datalogger.
'Search for the text string "unique" to find places to enter the sensitivity values.
'
'Wiring Instructions
'
'ANALOG CHANNELS
'1H
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal (red)
'1L
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper signal reference (blue)
'gnd
jumper to 1L
'
'2H
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal (white)
'2L
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower signal reference (thin black)
'gnd
jumnper to 2L
'
'3H
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal (grey)
'3L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper signal reference (yellow)
'gnd
jumper to 3L
'
'4H
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal (brown)
'4L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower signal reference (green)
'gnd
jumper to 4L
'
CNR4 shield (clear)
'
'
'8H
CNR4 PRT (Pt-100) signal (green)
'8L
CNR4 PRT (Pt-100) signal reference (yellow)
'gnd
CNR4 PRT (Pt-100) shield (clear)
'
'CURRENT EXCITATION
'IX1
CNR4 PRT (Pt-100) current excitation (grey)
'
'IXR
CNR4 PRT (Pt-100) current excitation return (brown)
'
'CNR4 sensor
Public logger_temp, batt_volt
Public cnr4(4)
Alias cnr4(1) = short_up
Alias cnr4(2) = short_dn
Alias cnr4(3) = long_up
Alias cnr4(4) = long_dn
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
cnr4_T_C
cnr4_T_K
long_up_corr
long_dn_corr
Rs_net
Rl_net
albedo
Rn
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Celcius
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Kelvin
'Downwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'Upwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'short-wave net radiation
'long-wave net radiation
'Albedo
'total net radiation
logger_temp = degC
batt_volt = volts
short_up = W/m^2
short_dn = W/m^2
long_up = W/m^2
long_dn = W/m^2
cnr4_T_C = deg_C
B-11
Appendix B. Example Programs
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
cnr4_T_K = K
long_up_corr = W/m^2
long_dn_corr = W/m^2
Rs_net = W/m^2
Rl_net = W/m^2
albedo = W/m^2
Rn = W/m^2
Dim cnr4_prt_R, Rs_R0
'CNR4 sensitivities: refer to the Certificate of Calibration from Kipp & Zonen
'for each probes, and enter them below.
Const pyranometer_up_sensitivity = 15.35
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyranometer_dn_sensitivity = 15.41
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity = 8.50
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity = 7.09
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
'CNR4 multipliers
Public cnr4_mult(4)
Const pyranometer_up_mult
Const pyranometer_dn_mult
Const pyrgeometer_up_mult
Const pyrgeometer_dn_mult
=
=
=
=
for sensitivity values
for upper pyranometer
for lower pyranometer
for upper pyrgeometer
for lower pyrgeometer
1000/pyranometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyranometer_dn_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
DataTable (cnr4_data,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Minimum (1,batt_volt,FP2,0,False)
Sample (1,logger_temp,FP2)
Average (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_C,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_up_corr,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_dn_corr,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rs_net,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rl_net,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,albedo,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,Rn,IEEE4,False)
EndTable
DataTable (cnr4_ts,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,1,Sec,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Sample (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4)
Sample (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4)
EndTable
BeginProg
'Load the multiplier values for the CNR4
cnr4_mult(1) = pyranometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(2) = pyranometer_dn_mult
cnr4_mult(3) = pyrgeometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(4) = pyrgeometer_dn_mult
Scan (1,Sec,3,0)
PanelTemp (logger_temp,250)
Battery (batt_volt)
'CNR4 radiation measurements
VoltDiff (cnr4(),4,mV20C,1,True ,0,_60Hz,cnr4_mult(),0)
'PRT (Pt-100) temperature measurement
Resistance (cnr4_prt_R,1,mV200,8,Ix1,1,1500,True,True,0,_60Hz,1,0)
Rs_R0 = cnr4_prt_R/100
B-12
Appendix B. Example Programs
PRT (cnr4_T_C,1,Rs_R0,1,0)
'Convert CNR4 temperature to Kelvin
cnr4_T_K = cnr4_T_C+273.15
'Correct the long-wave radiation values from pyrgeometers
long_up_corr = long_up+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
long_dn_corr = long_dn+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
'Compute short-wave net radiation
Rs_net = short_up - short_dn
'Compute long-wave net radiation
Rl_net = long_up - long_dn
'Compute albedo
albedo = short_dn/short_up
'Compute net radiation
Rn = Rs_net + Rl_net
CallTable cnr4_data
CallTable cnr4_ts
NextScan
EndProg
B-13
Appendix B. Example Programs
B-14
Appendix C. CNR4 Performance and
Measurements under Different
Conditions
TABLE C-1 shows what one might typically expect to measure under different
meteorological conditions.
The first parameter is day and night. At night, the solar radiation is zero. The
second column shows if it is cloudy or clear. A cloud acts like a blanket,
absorbing part of the solar radiation, and keeping net far infrared radiation
close to zero. The third parameter is ambient temperature; this is included to
show that the sky temperature, column nine, “sky T”, tracks the ambient
temperature. Under cloudy conditions this is logical; cloud bases will be colder
than the ambient temperature. At instrument level, the temperature difference
depends roughly on cloud altitude.
Under clear sky conditions, it is less obvious that sky temperature “adjusts” to
the ambient temperature. This can roughly be attributed to the water vapor in
the air, which is a major contributor to the far infrared radiation.
TABLE C-1. Typical output signals of CNR4 under different meteorological conditions.
Explanation can be found in the text.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Day
night
Cloudy
clear
+20ºC
–20ºC
Pyrgeo–
meter
Up
Pyrgeo–
meter
low
Pyrano–
meter
up
Pyrano–
meter
low
Pt
100
sky T
ground
T
d
cloud
+20
0
0
0–500
0–150
20
20
20
d
cloud
–20
0
0
0–500
0–150
–20
–20
–20
d
clear
+20
–100*
0
0–1300
0–400
20
1*
20
d
clear
–20
–100*
0
0–1300
0–400
–20
–53*
–20
n
cloud
+20
0
0
0
0
20
20
20
n
cloud
–20
0
0
0
0
–20
–20
–20
n
clear
+20
–100***
0
0**
0
20
1***
20
n
clear
–20
–100***
0
0**
0
–20
–53***
–20
* Values may suffer from the so-called window heating offset; the sun heats the pyrgeometer window causing a
measurement error of +10 Watts per square meter (maximum).
** Values may suffer from negative infrared offsets, caused by cooling off of the pyranometer dome by far
infrared radiation. The maximum expected offset value is 15 Watts per square meter.
*** Values may suffer from dew deposition. This causes the pyrgeometer-up values to rise from –100 to 0 Watts
per square meter.
C-1
Appendix C. CNR4 Performance and Measurements under Different Conditions
FIGURE C-1. Different measurement conditions and signals
Upper pyrgeometer
Day with
alternating
cloud fields
Upper
Pyrgeometer
Day/ Sensitivity
with Alternating
pyrgeometer: U_emf
[W/m²] Cloud Fields
Temp YSI 44031 [°C]
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
0:00:00
23:00:00
22:00:00
21:00:00
20:00:00
19:00:00
18:00:00
17:00:00
16:00:00
15:00:00
14:00:00
13:00:00
12:00:00
11:00:00
10:00:00
9:00:00
8:00:00
7:00:00
6:00:00
5:00:00
4:00:00
3:00:00
2:00:00
1:00:00
0:00:00
FIGURE C-2. Partly cloudy day for the upward facing pyrgeometer
C-2
Appendix C. CNR4 Performance and Measurements under Different Conditions
Upwelling signal
Signal(downward
(Downwardfacing)
Facing)
Pyrgeometer
upwelling
pyrgeometer
30
Pyrgeometer: U-emf / sensitivity [W/m²]
Temp of instrument [°C]
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
0:00:00
23:00:00
22:00:00
21:00:00
20:00:00
19:00:00
18:00:00
17:00:00
16:00:00
15:00:00
14:00:00
13:00:00
12:00:00
11:00:00
10:00:00
9:00:00
8:00:00
7:00:00
6:00:00
5:00:00
4:00:00
3:00:00
2:00:00
1:00:00
0:00:00
FIGURE C-3. Clear day for the downward facing pyrgeometer
It is assumed that when ambient temperature varies, the net far infrared
radiation remains roughly the same, independent of ambient temperature. The
resulting measured values of the pyrgeometers and pyranometers are shown in
columns 4 to 7 in TABLE C-1. These are indicative figures only, they depend
strongly on other circumstances; the pyrgeometer results, of course, change
with the sensor temperature. This is indicated in column 8. During the day,
the Pt-100 reading may rise due to solar heating, up to 10 degrees above
ambient temperature. During the night, the sensor temperature may be lower
than the ambient temperature due to far infrared radiative cooling. The latter
two effects do not influence the end result of the calculations of sky T and
ground T. Therefore, they are not taken into account in the table. In column 4,
one might expect to see “0 to –50” for all positions that are showing “0”; in
column 5, the “0” values may in reality be “–20 to +20”. The resulting sky
temperature is indicated in column 9. Under cloudy conditions, this sky
temperature is equal to ambient temperature. Under clear conditions, the sky
temperature is lower than the ambient temperature.
The ground temperature, in column 10, is assumed to be equal to the ambient
temperature. In practice, it may be higher during the day, due to solar heating.
Ground temperature may be lower than ambient during the night, due to far
infrared radiative cooling. The sky and the ground temperature can be
calculated from the measured values of the sensors using formulas C-1 and C-2
below.
C-3
Appendix C. CNR4 Performance and Measurements under Different Conditions
 E upper CG3 
Sky Temperature = 

 5.67 ⋅10 −8 
1/ 4
 E lower CG3 
Ground Temperature = 

 5.67 ⋅ 10 −8 
C-4
(C-1)
1/ 4
(C-2)
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
NOTE
Whenever the heater is used, the heating may cause errors in the
measurement of the sensor temperature. Under most conditions,
the accuracy gained by heating will be larger than the errors
introduced by heating.
In both the pyranometer and the pyrgeometer, thermal sensors are used, and
these sensors, in principle, measure a heat flow. For optimal performance,
these sensors should be at thermal equilibrium with the ambient air. Heating
the sensor disturbs this equilibrium. The heating causes the zero offset error on
the pyranometer (10 W/m2 typical), and the temperature measurement error on
the sensor (2 degree typical). Therefore, the heater should be used only if
absolutely necessary. The pyrgeometer is less sensitive to this. Offset values
for the pyrgeometer cannot be determined, and, therefore, are not specified.
D.1 General Information
The primary reason for heating the sensor is to avoid the water deposition on
the pyrgeometer sensor window and on the pyranometer domes. The water
deposition on the pyrgeometer window will ultimately obstruct the far infrared
radiation completely. During a rain event, this will probably not lead to
significant errors, because with an overcast sky, the signal is close to zero
anyway. However, the dew deposition is far more significant. Dew deposition
will probably take place under conditions with large far infrared irradiation
from the pyrgeometer to the clear sky, typically –100 W/m2. The dew on the
windows of pyrgeometer can cause the –100 W/m2 signal to go to zero. In such
a case, the heater should be used because the error described above is
significantly smaller than the gain obtained by heating the sensor to avoid the
dew deposition.
Please refer to the following diagram to determine whether or not the heater
should be used.
D-1
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
10 watt power available?
Not available
DO NOT HEAT
Consider options below
Available
Clock and relay available?
Not Available
DO NOT HEAT
(recommendation)
Available
Heat from 1 hour before sunset
until 1 hour after sunrise.
The heater power can be controlled using one of the SW12V channels of the
Campbell Scientific dataloggers. The heater’s current drain is approximately
850 mA at 12 Vdc (10 W). The ventilator draws additional 5 W of power at 12
Vdc. Connect the power ground from the heater to a G terminal close to the
SW12V channel of the datalogger (not to an analog ground near the
measurement inputs).
The heater power can be controlled by the datalogger program. For example,
the datalogger program can turn on the heater only when the light level falls
below 20 W/m2 or, if a measurement of air humidity is available, when the dew
point of the air falls to within 1ºC of the sensor body temperature.
CAUTION
D-2
Do not use the datalogger’s switched 12 V channel to
simultaneously power the heater and ventilator.
Simultaneously powering the heater and ventilator will
exceed the current limit of the switched 12 V channel. If the
heater and ventilator need to be used at the same time,
connect the CNF4 to the 12V channel instead of the
switched 12 V channel and use an external relay to switch
the power on and off. Refer to Section 4.2 of the CR1000
and CR3000 manual for details on the 12V current source
limits.
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
D.2 Attaching the Optional CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
Unit to CNR4
1.
The CNF4 heater/ventilator unit comes with the following: the
heater/ventilator, the white solar shield, three pan-head screws with
washers, and four flat-head screws as shown in FIGURE D-1.
FIGURE D-1. CNF4 package contents
D-3
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
2.
Attach the heater/ventilator unit unto the bottom of the CNR4 sensor,
using the three pan-head screws and washers, as shown in FIGURE D-2.
Make sure that the pyranometer and the pyrgeometer windows are not
scratched during the installation.
FIGURE D-2. Attaching the CNF4 to CNR4 using pan-head screws and
washers
D-4
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
3.
Make sure the cables are cleared from the edges of the CNF4, as shown in
FIGURE D-3, and place the white solar shield over it. Use the four flathead screws provided to complete the solar shield installation to the CNF4,
as shown in FIGURE D-4 and FIGURE D-5.
FIGURE D-3. Making sure the cables are clear from the edges
FIGURE D-4. CNF4 solar shield and four flat-head screws
D-5
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
FIGURE D-5. Attaching the solar shield to CNF4 using four flat-head
screws
4.
Once the CNF4 heater/ventilator unit is attached to the bottom side of the
CNR4, the CNF4 will cover the label that contains the serial number and
the sensitivity values for the four sensors. Affix the extra label that came
with the sensor to the bottom side of the CNF4’s anodized aluminium base
so that the label is in a visible location. See FIGURE D-6 below.
FIGURE D-6. Affixing the sensor label to CNF4
5.
Connect the heater/ventilator power control cable and the mounting rod to
the CNF4, as shown in FIGURE D-7.
FIGURE D-7. Connecting the CNF4 power control cable and the
mounting rod
D-6
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
D.3 Wiring
The following table shows the recommended datalogger wiring for using the
CNR4 sensor with the CNF4 heater/ventilator while making the differential
measurement.
TABLE D-1. CR1000 and CR3000 Datalogger Connections for
Differential Measurement with Heater/Ventilator Control
Function
Wire Color
CR6, CR1000, CR3000
Pyranometer Up Signal
Red
Differential Input (H)
Pyranometer Up Reference
*Blue
Differential Input (L)
Pyranometer Down Signal
White
Differential Input (H)
Pyranometer Down Reference
*Black
Differential Input (L)
Pyrgeometer Up Signal
Grey
Differential Input (H)
Pyrgeometer Up Reference
*Yellow
Differential Input (L)
Pyrgeometer Down Signal
Brown
Differential Input (H)
Pyrgeometer Down Reference
*Green
Differential Input (L)
Shield
Clear
Thermistor
Thermistor Signal
White
Single-Ended Input
Thermistor Voltage Excitation
Red
Voltage Excitation
(VX)
Thermistor Signal Reference
Black
Shield
Clear
CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
Ventilator Power
Red
SW12V
Ventilator Ground
Blue
G
Heater Power
Green
SW12V
Heater Ground
Yellow
G
*Jumper to
Shield
Clear
with user supplied wire
Pull back wires for Pt-100 (grey, brown, green, and yellow), which are not in
use, and tie them around the TEMP cable using a cable tie or electrical tape to
avoid possible damage to the Pt-100, due to electrical short circuit.
CAUTION
Do not use the datalogger’s switched 12 V to simultaneously
power the heater and ventilator. Simultaneously powering
the heater and ventilator will exceed the current limit of the
switched 12 V channel. If the heater and ventilator need to
be used at the same time, connect the CNF4 to the 12V
channel instead of the switched 12 V channel and use an
external relay to switch the power on and off. Refer to
Section 4.1 of the CR1000 and CR3000 manual for details
on the 12V current source limits.
D-7
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
D.4 CR3000 Datalogger Program with
Heater/Ventilator Control
This example measures the four radiation outputs, thermistor temperature, and
controls the ventilator and heater using SW12V-1 and SW12V-2 channels on
the CR3000, respectively. In this example program, the ventilator and heater
can be turned on or off by manually setting the flag(1) and flag(2) high or low,
respectively. The program can be modified to include the conditional
statements to control the heater and ventilator based upon the environmental
parameters, such as light level and dew point temperature.
'CR3000 Series Datalogger
'
'CNR4 program
'This program measures CNR4 four-component net radiometer
'This program also measures the thermistor inside the CNR4
'In addition this program controls heater and ventilator
' using separate SW12V-1 and SW12V-2 channels
'The heater and ventilator are turned on/off by setting flag(1), and flag(2) high and low, respectively.
'
'
'User must enter the sensitivity values for all four probes in the program and save/compile
'prior to downloading it to the datalogger.
'Search for the text string "unique" to find places to enter the sensitivity values.
'
'Wiring Instructions
'
'ANALOG CHANNELS
'1H
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper
'1L
CNR4 Pyranometer Upper
'gnd
jumper to 1L
'
'2H
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower
'2L
CNR4 Pyranometer Lower
'gnd
jumper to 2L
'
'3H
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper
'3L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Upper
'gnd
jumper to 3L
'
'4H
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower
'4L
CNR4 Pyrgeometer Lower
'gnd
jumper to 4L
'
CNR4 shield (clear)
'
'
'8H
'8L
CNR4 thermistor signal
'gnd
CNR4 thermistor signal
'
CNR4 thermistor shield
'
signal (red)
signal reference (blue)
signal (white)
signal reference (thin black)
signal (grey)
signal reference (yellow)
signal (brown)
signal reference (green)
(white)
reference (black)
(clear)
'VOLTAGE EXCITATION
'
'VX1
CNR4 thermistor voltage excitation (red)
'
'POWER OUT
'SW12V-1
'
'SW12V-2
'
'G
D-8
CNF4 ventilator + (red)
CNF4 heater + (green)
CNF4 ventilator - (blue)
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
'
'
'gnd
CNF4 heater - (yellow)
ventilator & heater shield (clear)
PipeLineMode
'CNR4 sensor
Public logger_temp, batt_volt
Public flag(2) As Boolean
Public cnr4(4)
Alias cnr4(1) = short_up
Alias cnr4(2) = short_dn
Alias cnr4(3) = long_up
Alias cnr4(4) = long_dn
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Public
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
Units
cnr4_T_C
cnr4_T_K
long_up_corr
long_dn_corr
Rs_net
Rl_net
albedo
Rn
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Celcius
'CNR4 thermistor temperature in Kelvin
'Downwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'Upwelling long-wave radiation with temperature correction
'short-wave net radiation
'long-wave net radiation
'Albedo
'total net radiation
logger_temp = degC
batt_volt = volts
short_up = W/m^2
short_dn = W/m^2
long_up = W/m^2
long_dn = W/m^2
cnr4_T_C = deg_C
cnr4_T_K = K
long_up_corr = W/m^2
long_dn_corr = W/m^2
Rs_net = W/m^2
Rl_net = W/m^2
albedo = W/m^2
Rn = W/m^2
Dim Rs, Vs_Vx
'CNR4 sensitivities: refer to the Certificate of Calibration from Kipp & Zonen
'for each probes, and enter them below.
Const pyranometer_up_sensitivity = 15.35
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyranometer_dn_sensitivity = 15.41
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity = 8.50
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
Const pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity = 7.09
'unique sensitivity
'(microV/W/m^2)
'CNR4 multipliers
Public cnr4_mult(4)
Const pyranometer_up_mult
Const pyranometer_dn_mult
Const pyrgeometer_up_mult
Const pyrgeometer_dn_mult
=
=
=
=
1000/pyranometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyranometer_dn_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_up_sensitivity
1000/pyrgeometer_dn_sensitivity
for sensitivity values
for upper pyranometer
for lower pyranometer
for upper pyrgeometer
for lower pyrgeometer
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
'(W/m^2/mV)
DataTable (cnr4_data,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Minimum (1,batt_volt,FP2,0,False)
Sample (1,logger_temp,FP2)
Average (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_C,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4,False)
Average (1,long_up_corr,IEEE4,False)
D-9
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
EndTable
(1,long_dn_corr,IEEE4,False)
(1,Rs_net,IEEE4,False)
(1,Rl_net,IEEE4,False)
(1,albedo,IEEE4,False)
(1,Rn,IEEE4,False)
DataTable (cnr4_ts,True,-1)
DataInterval (0,1,Sec,10)
CardOut (1,-1)
Sample (4,cnr4(1),IEEE4)
Sample (1,cnr4_T_K,IEEE4)
EndTable
BeginProg
'Load the multiplier values for the CNR4
cnr4_mult(1) = pyranometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(2) = pyranometer_dn_mult
cnr4_mult(3) = pyrgeometer_up_mult
cnr4_mult(4) = pyrgeometer_dn_mult
Scan (1,Sec,3,0)
PanelTemp (logger_temp,250)
Battery (batt_volt)
'CNR4 radiation measurements
VoltDiff (cnr4(),4,mV20C,1,True ,0,_60Hz,cnr4_mult(),0)
'CNR4 thermistor measurement
BrHalf (Vs_Vx,1,mv5000,16,Vx1,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0)
Rs = 1000*(Vs_Vx/(1-Vs_Vx))
cnr4_T_C = 1/(1.0295e-3+2.391e-4*LN(Rs)+1.568e-7*(LN(Rs))^3)-273.15
'Convert CNR4 temperature to Kelvin
cnr4_T_K = cnr4_T_C+273.15
'Correct the long-wave radiation values from pyrgeometers
long_up_corr = long_up+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
long_dn_corr = long_dn+5.67e-8*cnr4_T_K^4
'Compute short-wave net radiation
Rs_net = short_up - short_dn
'Compute long-wave net radiation
Rl_net = long_up - long_dn
'Compute albedo
albedo = short_dn/short_up
'Compute net radiation
Rn = Rs_net + Rl_net
'CNF4 ventilator control - the ventilator will be turned on when flag(1) is set high
SW12 (1,flag(1))
'CNF4 heater control - the heater will be turned on when flag(2) is set high
SW12 (2,flag(2))
CallTable cnr4_data
CallTable cnr4_ts
NextScan
EndProg
D-10
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
D.5 CNF4 Heater/Ventilator Maintenance
D.5.1 Testing the Heater
The optional CNF4 consists of a heater and a ventilator. To check the heater
unit, measure the resistance between the two heater wires (green and yellow).
The resistance value of the heating resistor inside should be around 15 Ω (cable
resistance should add about 0.026 Ω per each foot of cable). An infinite
resistance reading indicates the likelihood of a broken wire, or cable.
D.5.2 Testing the Ventilator
To check the ventilator, first measure the impedance of the ventilator motor.
The value should be around 30 Ω (cable resistance should add about 0.026 Ω
per each foot of cable). If the correct resistance value is measured, but the
ventilator still mal-functions, it is possible that the ventilator is stalled by an
object blocking the fan. Remove the black cover at the bottom side of the
ventilator unit, by prying it open with a small flat-head screw driver or by
pulling it straight out. Inspect the fan inside for any object that might impede
the fan’s rotation. Upon completing the inspection, put the filter and the cover
back in place.
D.5.3 Replacing the Filter for the Ventilator
The filter needs to be checked for every 6 to 12 months. Remove the black
cover at the bottom side of the ventilator by prying it open with a small flathead screw driver or by pulling it straight out. Inspect the filter for dust and
particles that might impede the air flow into the ventilator. The filter can be
cleaned with warm clean water, or can be replaced with the new one. You can
purchase the replacement filters, pn 26010, from Campbell Scientific.
D-11
Appendix D. CNF4 Heater/Ventilator
D-12
Campbell Scientific Companies
Campbell Scientific, Inc. (CSI)
815 West 1800 North
Logan, Utah 84321
UNITED STATES
www.campbellsci.com • info@campbellsci.com
Campbell Scientific Centro Caribe S.A. (CSCC)
300 N Cementerio, Edificio Breller
Santo Domingo, Heredia 40305
COSTA RICA
www.campbellsci.cc • info@campbellsci.cc
Campbell Scientific Africa Pty. Ltd. (CSAf)
PO Box 2450
Somerset West 7129
SOUTH AFRICA
www.csafrica.co.za • cleroux@csafrica.co.za
Campbell Scientific Ltd. (CSL)
Campbell Park
80 Hathern Road
Shepshed, Loughborough LE12 9GX
UNITED KINGDOM
www.campbellsci.co.uk • sales@campbellsci.co.uk
Campbell Scientific Australia Pty. Ltd. (CSA)
PO Box 8108
Garbutt Post Shop QLD 4814
AUSTRALIA
www.campbellsci.com.au • info@campbellsci.com.au
Campbell Scientific Ltd. (CSL France)
3 Avenue de la Division Leclerc
92160 ANTONY
FRANCE
www.campbellsci.fr • info@campbellsci.fr
Campbell Scientific (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
8B16, Floor 8 Tower B, Hanwei Plaza
7 Guanghua Road
Chaoyang, Beijing 100004
P.R. CHINA
www.campbellsci.com • info@campbellsci.com.cn
Campbell Scientific Ltd. (CSL Germany)
Fahrenheitstraße 13
28359 Bremen
GERMANY
www.campbellsci.de • info@campbellsci.de
Campbell Scientific do Brasil Ltda. (CSB)
Rua Apinagés, nbr. 2018 ─ Perdizes
CEP: 01258-00 ─ São Paulo ─ SP
BRASIL
www.campbellsci.com.br • vendas@campbellsci.com.br
Campbell Scientific Spain, S. L. (CSL Spain)
Avda. Pompeu Fabra 7-9, local 1
08024 Barcelona
SPAIN
www.campbellsci.es • info@campbellsci.es
Campbell Scientific Canada Corp. (CSC)
14532 – 131 Avenue NW
Edmonton AB T5L 4X4
CANADA
www.campbellsci.ca • dataloggers@campbellsci.ca
Please visit www.campbellsci.com to obtain contact information for your local US or international representative.
Download PDF