2nd International Congress, Budapest, 2005
Digital Imaging & Communications
in Dentistry: DICOM and
Interoperability
Allan G. Farman
ADA Representative to the DICOM Standard Committee
CoCo-Chair DICOM WG 22 (Dentistry)
CoCo-Chair ADA SCDI WG 12.1 (DICOM for Interoperability)
WHY
EXCHANGE?
Alter native Digital
System
in Same Office
Possible Networ k for DICOM
Networ k Inter change
Removable Media
Hospital or
Physi cian
Removable Media
Images
referred to specialist
e.g. Or thodontist
Removable Media
Domain
of DICOM
Dental
Office
Media Data
Removable Media
e.g. Maxi llofacial
Sur geon
Inter change
Removable Media
Removable Media
e.g. Endodontist
Removable Media
Pr actice
management
data base ar chive
Removable Media
Satellite
Dental
Office
WHY DICOM?
Digital images can include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Intra-oral radiography.
Panoramic radiography.
Cephalometric radiography.
Skull and sinus radiography.
Tomography.
CT, CBCT, MRI, PET, Nuclear Med.
Intra-oral photography/video.
Microscopy (surgical & histological).
INCREASING
DIGITAL
OPTIONS
INTRAORAL X-RAY OPTIONS
IP
FILM
CMOS
CCD
CMOS
CCD
DIGITAL PANORAMIC OPTIONS
INTEGRATED DIGITAL
Kodak 8000 Digital
Panoramic
SECONDARY CAPTURE
Scanner
Gendex Orthoralix 8500
DDE
and 9200 series
Digital camera.
ADD ON / RETROFIT CCD
PHOSPHOR PLATE
DenOptix (Gendex)
Paxorama HS and
DEXpan (Orex)
Digora PCT (Soredex)
ScanX (Air Techniques)
Schick Technologies
CDRPan
Kodak Trophy Digipan
Signet DXIS
Dent-X Eva Ortho Pan
Lightyear Digital
Panoramic
GE Dental OP 100D
Planmeca ProMax Dimax3
and Proline XC Dimax3
Soredex ScanoraD and
Cranex ExcelD
Morita Veraviewepocs
Sirona Orthophos XG
Owandy I-Max
CONE BEAM CT
Hitachi MercuRay
CB Throne
NewTom QR 2000
J. Morita 3DX
Accuitomo
Xoran/ISI iCAT (Ann Arbor, MI/Hatfield, PA)
Asahi Roentgen
PSR9000N
Efficiency: Integration of different
modalities in one dental office.
Portability: Exchange of images
between dental practitioners needed
when patients move or require
specialist care.
Integrity: Attributes uniquely identify
the patient, procedure, procedure date
and protect image integrity.
NEW ADDITION WG-24: Surgery
Raising the DICOM
Standard
2003
DICOM WG22 (Dentistry)
ADA WG 12.1 (DICOM & Interoperability)
2004
STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT
DICOM WG22/DICOM Standard Committee/National
Electrical Manufacturers Association
DICOM Supplement 92
Media Application Profile for
Dentistry
STANDARD DEVELOPMENT
WG 22 Future Plans
Dental Image e-mail attachments – proposes
new zip extension (.dcz)
Multi Frame Dx Standard for Cone Beam CT
Dental Visible Light Annex
DICOM
RM
~ N
SR
~M
WL
FUNCTIONAL PROFILES
Various profiles may be found in combinations
according to manufacturer specifications.
DICOM Removable Media (RM)
The DICOM Removable Media requirement provides
ability to exchange entire dental grayscale radiographic
studies between practitioner using removable media such
as a CD. The requirement provides for the ability to both
read and write valid DICOM datasets as defined in the
DICOM (Supplement 92) Media Application Profiles for
Digital Radiographic Images in Dentistry. The CD should
also contain a viewer that provides basic display
capabilities plus an optional print functionality.
DICOM Network Storage and
Retrieval (NSR)
The DICOM Network Storage and Retrieval requirement
provides for the ability to store dental grayscale
radiographic images studies from an image acquisition
device (client) to a network image DICOM archive
(server). It also provides for the ability to search the
image DICOM archive for a specific dental radiographic
exam using attributes such as patient name, patient ID,
study date of exam, retrieve the images and display
them for diagnostic review.
DICOM Modality Worklist (MWL)
The DICOM Modality Worklist is predominantly used by
large dental practices with multiple providers. This
requirement provides for the ability to request a dental
radiographic examination be performed on a specific
patient. Patient demographic information is also transferred,
which will then be used by the individual taking the
radiographic examination. The purpose is to provide for
efficient workflow from ordering to acquisition of
radiographic examination.
ADA SCDI
American Dental Association
Standards Committee on Dental Informatics
Vendors - Users - Interested Parties
IADMFR – Don Tyndall
AAOMR – Jie Yang
CARS Foundation – Allan G. Farman
AAO – Bill Harrell
TECHNICAL REPORT
American Dental Association
Standards Committee on Dental Informatics (SCDI)
TR 1023
Implementation
Requirements for DICOM in
Dentistry
Sample ADA SCDI TR 1023
USE CASES
Use Case #1: Interoperability without
digital radiographic equipment using
DICOM Removable Media (RM).
This use case scenario demonstrates the use of DICOM
RM as a means of communicating diagnostic radiographic
images to a practitioner who does not have a digital imaging
system.
Use Case #1: DICOM Removable Media (RM).
• A new patient arrives, with a CD containing images from the
previous dentist. The images are in DICOM format and a basic
DICOM viewer application is included on the disk.
• The Basic DICOM Viewer contains basic functionality such as
magnification, window/level and invert gray scale, and optional
non-DICOM printing. From now on, the Basic DICOM viewer will
just be called a viewer.
• Using his office PC, the dentist loads the CD into his computer
and the viewer automatically loads with a display of the
patient’s demographic data along with a list of all radiographic
examinations sent from the previous dentist.
Use Case #1: DICOM Removable Media (RM).
• Using the viewer the dentist is able to display the
radiographic images for interpretation and diagnosis.
• The images from the DICOM CD can be retained as part of the
patient record. If the viewer has print capability, the dentist
may print the images, including patient information, from the
CD for hard copy documentation. This print capability will not
produce diagnostic quality images.
• The dentist may make additional radiographs to aid diagnosis
before treating the patient.
Use Case #2: Interoperability between
different vendor’s digital radiographic
equipment using DICOM Removable
Media (RM).
This use case scenario demonstrates the use of DICOM
RM as a means of transferring diagnostic radiographic
images between dental practices with different vendor’s
digital imaging systems.
Use Case #2: DICOM Removable Media (RM).
• A new patient arrives with a CD containing DICOM images
that were obtained using a digital imaging system. The CD
contains several intra-oral images as well as a panoramic
radiographic image.
• The dentist imports the DICOM images into his digital imaging
system from the CD. The imported images and all associated
data (patient demographics, imaging equipment, image
information, etc.) are added to the database allowing the use of
his own imaging system. The dentist views the images to see
which images have been obtained and to potentially schedule
radiographic images to complement them.
Use Case #2: DICOM Removable Media (RM).
• The dentist decides to obtain two additional images on his
digital system.
• The dentist compares the previous images with the newly
acquired images and archives both the new and old images on
his local database/archive.
• The dentist decides to refer the patient to a specialist for
appropriate care. A new DICOM CD with the old and new images
is generated. This newly generated CD has a basic viewer, as
described in use case #1, in case the receiving specialist does
not have a DICOM viewer available.
Use Case #3: Conversion of radiographic
image archive from one vendor’s digital
imaging system to another’s using
DICOM Removable Media (RM).
This use case scenario demonstrates the use of DICOM
RM as a means of converting an entire dental practice
radiographic image archive between different vendor’s
digital imaging systems, thereby maintaining the dentist
investment in digital imaging.
Use Case #3: DICOM Removable Media (RM).
• A dentist decides to buy a new digital imaging system which
is from a different manufacturer than the one he/she currently
owns.
• The dentist wishes to transfer all of his radiographic
examinations from one vendors system to another’s.
• The dentist selects groups of patient examinations from his
current imaging system and archives them to CDs or other
removable media (such as DVDs or removable hard drive)
using DICOM.
Use Case #3: DICOM Removable Media (RM).
• After the installation of the new digital imaging system, the
dentist imports the DICOM radiographic examinations into his
new system from the DICOM removable media.
• The imported images and all associated data (patient
demographics, imaging equipment, image information, etc) are
added to the database allowing the use of its own viewer to
display the images for interpretation.
Use Case #4: Interoperability between a
dental practice using conventional film
radiography and a specialty dental
practice with digital radiography using
DICOM Network Storage and Retrieval
(NSR).
This use case scenario demonstrates the use of DICOM
NSR and DICOM RM as a means of integrating both
conventional film-based and digital radiography.
Use Case #4: DICOM Network Storage and
Retrieval (NSR).
• A new patient arrives at a dental specialist office with
conventional film intra-oral and extra-oral radiographs. The
receptionist creates a new record for the patient in their digital
imaging system and scans these films with a x-ray film
scanner. The scanned images are stored to the DICOM server.
• The specialist, using his/her digital imaging system, performs
a DICOM Query and retrieves the appropriate images from the
local server using DICOM Retrieve.
Use Case #4: DICOM Network Storage
and Retrieval (NSR).
• Additional digital extra-oral and/or intra-oral images are taken.
The dentist views the images on his workstation.
• The receptionist creates a DICOM RM CD with a copy of the
complete set of images for the patient to take back to her
referring general practitioner. This CD has the capabilities as
previously discussed.
Use Case #5: Communication of digital
radiographic images between a private
practitioner and an interested third-party
using DICOM Storage and Retrieval (NSR).
This use case scenario demonstrates the use of DICOM
NSR as a means transmitting digital radiographic studies
between dental practices using a secure third-party DICOM
server.
Use Case #5: DICOM Network Storage and
Retrieval (NSR).
• After a clinical and radiographic examination of the patient, a
dentist determines that a referral to a specialist is required to
address the chief complaint.
• The dentist selects the digital radiographic study that
supports the diagnosis and transfers the study to a secure
third-party DICOM server using DICOM NSR.
• The specialist, using his/her digital imaging system, performs
a DICOM Query and retrieves the appropriate images from the
third party DICOM server using DICOM Retrieve.
Use Case #5: DICOM Network Storage
and Retrieval (NSR).
• The specialist imports the DICOM images into his digital
imaging system. The imported images and all associated data
(patient demographics, imaging equipment, image information,
etc.) are added to the database allowing the use of his own
imaging system.
• The specialist views the images to see which images have
been obtained and to potentially schedule radiographic images
to complement them. The specialist decides to obtain two
additional images on his digital system and completes the
treatment.
• The specialist’s radiographic study can be returned to the
referring general practitioner by the same mechanism.
Use Case #6: Interoperability between a
dental practice management system and
a digital radiography system using
DICOM Modality Worklist (MWL).
This use case scenario demonstrates the use of DICOM
MWL as a means of integrating information from a dental
practice management system to a digital imaging system.
Use Case #6: DICOM Modality Worklist
(MWL).
• A new patient arrives at a large dental institution for a dental
examination. Patient demographic information is obtained and
a new record is created in a dental practice management
system.
• A preliminary clinical examination of the patient indicates the
need for a panoramic and a complete radiographic survey of
the patient’s dentition.
• Using the dental practice management system the
radiographic studies are ordered.
Use Case #6: DICOM Modality Worklist
(MWL).
• The patient is taken to the radiology clinic. Upon arrival, the
dental assistant retrieves patient demographic and the
requested studies from the institution’s patient management
system using DICOM Modality Worklist.
• A new record is created in the DICOM digital imaging system
and the intra-oral images are acquired as well as panoramic
which can be stored back at the DICOM archive.
• The dentist who ordered the studies retrieves images from the
DICOM archive for display and interpretation.
That is why dentistry needs
Interoperabilty NOW…
DICOM Connecting Dentists
EDUCATION
American Dental Association Demonstration Projects
Interoperabilty NOW…
DICOM Connecting Dentists
San Francisco
(2003)
ADA Pavilion Booth #1309
E
FRE
SS
A
P
For ADA Philadelphia (Oct 2005)
Initial validation with modified AGFA DICOM
Test Tool set up on NEMA/WG22 FTP site
Images uploaded by participating vendors to
NEMA FTP site
DICOMDIR created (SCDI WG 12.1)
David Clunie Final validation – no DICOM
errors permitted
Activity Sponsored by:
TigerView
David Clunie
Acknowledgment:
Dr. David Clunie freely donates his
time and talents to test and validate
DICOM images provided by the
participating vendors.