E-Z-GO | TXT FREEDOM | Service manual | E-Z-GO TXT FREEDOM Service manual

605586
TECHNICIAN’S
REPAIR AND SERVICE MANUAL
GASOLINE POWERED GOLF CARS
REVISED DATE : JANUARY 2007
SAFETY
SAFETY
For any questions on material contained in this manual, contact an authorized representative for clarification.
Read and understand all labels located on the vehicle. Always replace any damaged or missing labels.
On steep hills it is possible for vehicles to coast at greater than normal speeds encountered on a flat surface. To prevent loss of vehicle control and possible serious injury, speeds should be limited to no more than the maximum speed
on level ground. See GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS. Limit speed by applying the service brake.
Catastrophic damage to the drivetrain components due to excessive speed may result from driving the vehicle above
specified speed. Damage caused by excessive speed may cause a loss of vehicle control, is costly, is considered
abuse and will not be covered under warranty.
For towing/transporting vehicle, refer to “TRANSPORTING VEHICLE”.
Signs similar to the ones illustrated should be used to warn of situations that could result in an unsafe condition.
BATTERY WARNING
Battery posts,
terminals and related
accessories contain
lead and lead compounds,
chemicals known
to cause cancer and
reproductive harm.
WASH HANDS
AFTER HANDLING!
BATTERIES
CONTAIN LEAD
AND RELATED PARTS
!
< 14˚ 25%
DO NOT
DRIVE ACROSS
SLOPES IN
EXCESS OF 14˚
WASH HANDS
AFTER HANDLING!
WARNING: Battery posts, terminals and related
accessories contain lead and lead compounds,
chemicals known to cause cancer and reproductive harm.
Be sure that this manual remains as part of the permanent service record should the vehicle be sold.
Throughout this guide NOTE, CAUTION and WARNING
will be used.
A NOTE indicates a condition that should be observed.
A CAUTION indicates a condition that may result in
damage to the vehicle.
A WARNING indicates a hazardous condition
that could result in severe injury or death.
Observe these NOTES, CAUTIONS and WARNINGS;
be aware that servicing a vehicle requires mechanical
skill and a regard for conditions that could be hazardous.
Improper service or repair may damage the vehicle or
render it unsafe.
Engine exhaust from this product contains
chemicals known, in certain quantities, to
cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm.
The exhaust emissions of this vehicles’ engine complies with
regulations set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) of the United States of America (USA) at time of manufacture. Significant fines could result from modifications or tampering with the engine, fuel, ignition or air intake systems.
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds. Wash
hands after handling.
This spark ignition system meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Regulations.
(NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS CONTINUED ON INSIDE OF BACK COVER)
TECHNICIAN’S
REPAIR AND SERVICE MANUAL
GASOLINE POWERED
TXT GOLF CARS & PERSONAL VEHICLES
FLEET GOLF CAR (9 hp, CE, CARB)
FREEDOM™ (9 hp, CE, CARB, SE, LE, HP)
SHUTTLE 2 + 2 ( 9 hp, CE, CARB)
STARTING MODEL YEAR 2007
TEXTRON Golf, Turf & Specialty Products reserves the right to make design changes without obligation to make these changes on units previously sold and the
information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice.
TEXTRON Golf, Turf & Specialty Products is not liable for errors in this manual or for incidental or consequential damages that result from the use of the material
in this manual.
CUSTOMER SERVICE DEPARTMENT IN USA PHONE: 1-800-241-5855 FAX: 1-800-448-8124
OUTSIDE USA PHONE: 001-706-798-4311, FAX: 001-706-771-4609
TEXTRON GOLF, TURF & SPECIALTY PRODUCTS, P.O.BOX 388, AUGUSTA, GEORGIA USA 30906-3852
Repair and Service Manual
Page i
NO TES
To obtain a copy of the limited warranty applicable to the vehicle, call or write a local
distributor, authorized Branch or the Warranty Department with vehicle serial number and
manufacturer code.
The use of non Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) parts may void the warranty.
Tampering with or adjusting the governor to permit vehicle to operate at above factory
specifications will void the vehicle warranty.
When servicing engines, all adjustments and replacement components must be per original
vehicle specifications in order to maintain the United States of America Federal and State
emission certification applicable at the time of manufacture.
BATTERY PROLONGED STORAGE
All batteries will self discharge over time. The rate of self discharge varies depending on the
ambient temperature and the age and condition of the batteries.
A fully charged battery will not freeze in winter temperatures unless the temperature falls
below -75° F (-60° C).
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Repair and Service Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE
PAGE
Safety ........................................................................................................................... Inside Covers
Notes .................................................................................................................................................ii
Safety Information ............................................................................................................................ v
TITLE
SECTION
General Information & Routine Maintenance ...................................................................................A
Safety ............................................................................................................................................... B
Body .................................................................................................................................................C
Wheels and Tires .............................................................................................................................D
Front Suspension and Steering........................................................................................................E
Speed Control .................................................................................................................................. F
Engine ............................................................................................................................................. G
Fuel System .....................................................................................................................................H
Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) ..................................................................................... J
Direction Selector .............................................................................................................................K
Electrical Wiring................................................................................................................................ L
Brakes ............................................................................................................................................. M
Rear Suspension..............................................................................................................................N
Rear Axle.......................................................................................................................................... P
Weather Protection.......................................................................................................................... Q
Paint .................................................................................................................................................R
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................................ S
Limited Warranty .............................................................................................................................. T
General Specifications .....................................................................................................................U
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
NOTES:
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Repair and Service Manual
SAFETY INFORMATION
SAFETY INFORMATION
This manual has been designed to assist in maintaining the vehicle in accordance with procedures developed by the
manufacturer. Adherence to these procedures and troubleshooting tips will ensure the best possible service from the
product. To reduce the chance of personal injury or property damage, the following must be carefully observed:
Certain replacement parts can be used independently and/or in combination with other accessories to modify an E-ZGO-manufactured vehicle to permit the vehicle to operate at or in excess of 20mph. When an E-Z-GO-manufactured
vehicle is modified an any way by the Distributor, Dealer or customer to operate at or in excess of 20mph, UNDER
FERERAL LAW the modified product will be a Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) subject to the strictures and requirements of
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 571.500. In these instances, pursuant to Federal law the Distributor or Dealer
MUST equip the product with headlights, rear lights, turn signals, seat belts, top, horn and all other modifications for
LSV’s mandated in FMVSS 571.500, and affix a Vehicle Identification Number to the product in accordance with the
requirements of FMVSS 571.565. Pursuant to FMVSS 571.500, and in accordance with the State laws applicable in
the places of sale and use of the product, the Distributor, Dealer or customer modifying the vehicle also will be the
Final Vehicle Manufacturer for the LSV, and required to title or register the vehicle as mandated by State law.
E-Z-GO will NOT approve Distributor, Dealer or customer modifications converting E-Z-GO products into LSV’s.
The Company, in addition, recommends that all E-Z-GO products sold as personal transportation vehicles BE OPERATED ONLY BY PERSONS WITH VALID DRIVERS LICENSES, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE STATE
REQUIREMENTS. This restriction is important to the SAFE USE AND OPERATION of the product. On behalf of E-ZGO, I am directing that E-Z-GO Branch personnel, Distributors and Dealers advise all customers to adhere to this
SAFETY RESTRICTION, in connection with the use of all products, new and used, the Distributor or Dealer has reason to believe may be operated in personal transportation applications.
Information on FMVSS 571.500 can be obtained at Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, section 571.500, or
through the Internet at the website for the U.S. Department of Transportation - at Dockets and Regulation, then to Title
49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (Transportation).
GENERAL
Many vehicles are used for a variety of tasks beyond the original intended use of the vehicle; therefore, it is impossible
to anticipate and warn against every possible combination of circumstances that may occur. No warnings can take the
place of good common sense and prudent driving practices.
Good common sense and prudent driving practices do more to prevent accidents and injury than all of the warnings
and instructions combined. The manufacturer strongly suggests that all users and maintenance personnel read this
entire manual paying particular attention to the CAUTIONS and WARNINGS contained therein.
If you have any questions regarding this vehicle, contact your closest representative or write to the address on the
back cover of this publication, Attention: Product Service Department.
The manufacturer reserves the right to make design changes without obligation to make these changes on units previously sold and the information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice.
The manufacturer is not liable for errors in this manual or for incidental or consequential damages that result from the
use of the material in this manual.
Repair and Service Manual
Page v
SAFETY INFORMATION
This vehicle conforms to the current applicable standard(s) for safety and performance requirements.
These vehicles are designed and manufactured for off-road use. They do not conform to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards of the United States of America (USA) and are not equipped for operation on public streets. Some communities may permit these vehicles to be operated on their streets on a limited basis and in accordance with local ordinances.
Refer to GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS for vehicle seating capacity.
Never modify the vehicle in any way that will alter the weight distribution of the vehicle, decrease its stability
or increase the speed beyond the factory specification. Such modifications can cause serious personal injury
or death. Modifications that increase the speed and/or weight of the vehicle will extend the stopping distance and may
reduce the stability of the vehicle. Do not make any such modifications or changes. The manufacturer prohibits and
disclaims responsibility for any such modifications or any other alteration which would adversely affect the safety of the
vehicle.
Vehicles that are capable of higher speeds must limit their speed to no more than the speed of other vehicles when
used in a golf course environment. Additionally, speed should be further moderated by the environmental conditions,
terrain and common sense.
GENERAL OPERATION
Always:
• Use the vehicle in a responsible manner and maintain the vehicle in safe operating condition.
• Read and observe all warnings and operation instruction labels affixed to the vehicle.
• Follow all safety rules established in the area where the vehicle is being operated.
• Reduce speed to compensate for poor terrain or conditions.
• Apply service brake to control speed on steep grades.
• Maintain adequate distance between vehicles.
• Reduce speed in wet areas.
• Use extreme caution when approaching sharp or blind turns.
• Use extreme caution when driving over loose terrain.
• Use extreme caution in areas where pedestrians are present.
MAINTENANCE
Always:
• Maintain the vehicle in accordance with the manufacturer’s periodic service schedule.
• Ensure that repairs are performed by those that are trained and qualified to do so.
• Follow the manufacturer’s maintenance procedures for the vehicle. Be sure to disable the vehicle before performing
any maintenance. Disabling includes removing the key from the key switch and removal of a battery wire.
Page vi
Repair and Service Manual
SAFETY INFORMATION
• Insulate any tools used within the battery area in order to prevent sparks or battery explosion caused by shorting the
battery terminals or associated wiring. Remove the battery or cover exposed terminals with an insulating material.
• Use specified replacement parts. Never use replacement parts of lesser quality.
• Use recommended tools.
• Determine that tools and procedures not specifically recommended by the manufacturer will not compromise the
safety of personnel nor jeopardize the safe operation of the vehicle.
• Support the vehicle using wheel chocks and jack stands. Never get under a vehicle that is supported by a jack. Lift
the vehicle in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
• Empty the fuel tank or plug fuel hoses to prevent fuel leakage.
• Maintain the vehicle in an area away from exposed flame or persons who are smoking.
• Be aware that a vehicle that is not performing as designed is a potential hazard and must not be operated.
• Test drive the vehicle after any repairs or maintenance. All tests must be conducted in a safe area that is free of both
vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
• Replace damaged or missing warning, caution or information labels.
• Keep complete records of the maintenance history of the vehicle.
The manufacturer cannot anticipate all situations, therefore people attempting to maintain or repair the vehicle must
have the skill and experience to recognize and protect themselves from potential situations that could result in severe
personal injury or death and damage to the vehicle. Use extreme caution and, if unsure as to the potential for injury,
refer the repair or maintenance to a qualified mechanic.
VENTILATION
Always store gasoline vehicles in a well ventilated area. Ventilation prevents gasoline fumes from accumulating.
Never fuel a vehicle in an area that is subject to flame or spark. Pay particular attention to natural gas or propane water
heaters and furnaces.
Never work around or operate a vehicle in an environment that does not ventilate exhaust gases from the area. Carbon
monoxide is a dangerous gas that can cause unconsciousness and is potentially lethal.
Repair and Service Manual
Page vii
SAFETY INFORMATION
NOTES:
Page viii
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’A’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
SERIAL NUMBER PLATE AND LOCATION ............................................................................................................. A - 1
STARTING THE VEHICLE WITH A DISCHARGED BATTERY ................................................................................. A - 1
SERVICING THE VEHICLE ....................................................................................................................................... A - 1
TOWING .................................................................................................................................................................... A - 2
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE ........................................................................................................................................ A - 3
POWERTRAIN MAINTENANCE ................................................................................................................................ A - 3
BRAKES ..................................................................................................................................................................... A - 3
TIRES ......................................................................................................................................................................... A - 3
CARE AND CLEANING OF THE VEHICLE ............................................................................................................. A - 4
VEHICLE CARE PRODUCTS .................................................................................................................................... A - 4
TOP AND WINDSHIELD ............................................................................................................................................ A - 4
TRAILERING .............................................................................................................................................................. A - 5
WINTER OR PROLONGED STORAGE ..................................................................................................................... A - 5
HARDWARE ............................................................................................................................................................... A - 5
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... A - 5
PERIODIC SERVICE SCHEDULE ............................................................................................................................. A - 6
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Serial Number Plate Location .......................................................................................................................... A - 1
Initial Service Chart ......................................................................................................................................... A - 2
Neutral Lock (Direction Selector) ..................................................................................................................... A - 3
Lubrication Points ............................................................................................................................................ A - 3
Bolt Grades ...................................................................................................................................................... A - 5
Torque Specifications ...................................................................................................................................... A - 5
Periodic Service Schedule ............................................................................................................................... A - 6
Repair and Service Manual
Page A-i
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page A-ii
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
SERIAL NUMBER PLATE
AND LOCATION
STARTING THE VEHICLE WITH
A DISCHARGED BATTERY
The serial number and manufacture date code label are
on the vehicle. One is placed on the body below the
front, driver side of the seat. The other is located on the
chassis under the seat.
Design changes take place on an ongoing basis. In
order to obtain correct components for the vehicle, the
manufacture date code, serial number and vehicle
model must be provided when ordering service parts.
Do not attempt to ‘jump start’ a vehicle using
another vehicle.
The vehicle is equipped with a starter/generator. When
starting the engine, the starter/generator functions as a
starter and with the engine running, it functions as a
generator.
Part A and B
With the short running times associated with this kind of
vehicle, the generator is more than adequate to maintain
the battery charge level. The generator is not designed
to charge a discharged battery.
Serial Number
Labels
Since the engine stops when the accelerator is
released, jump starting should not be attempted.
Lift Flap on Access Panel
If the vehicle is equipped with lights and/or accessories
that are used when the vehicle is not in motion, the
starter/generator may not be adequate to maintain battery charge. In this situation, the battery may require
charging with a 12V 10 amp max charger.
Part C/D
Observe all instructions provided by the manufacturer of
the charger.
SERVICING THE VEHICLE
PART A
Ref Spl 3
Label No.
PART C/D
PART B
V
Fig. 1 Serial Number Plate Location
To prevent severe injury or death, resulting
from improper servicing techniques, observe
the following Warnings:
Do not attempt any type of servicing operations before reading and understanding
all notes, cautions and warnings in this
manual.
Any servicing requiring adjustments to be
made to the powertrain while the motor is
running must be made with both drive
wheels raised.
Wear eye protection when working on the vehicle. In particular,
use care when working around
batteries, or using solvents or
compressed air.
To reduce the possibility of causing an
electrical arc, which could result in a battery explosion, turn off all electrical loads
Repair and Service Manual
Page A-1
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
from the batteries before removing any
heavy gauge battery wires.
To prevent the possibility of motor disintegration, never operate vehicle at full throttle for more than 4 - 5 seconds while
vehicle is in a “no load” condition.
B
It is in the best interest of both vehicle owner and servicing dealer, to carefully follow the procedures recommended in this manual. Adequate preventative
maintenance, applied at regular intervals, is the best
guarantee for keeping the vehicle both dependable and
economical.
TOWING
To prevent personal injury, do not ride on vehicle being towed. Do not attempt to tow the
vehicle with ropes, chains or any device other
than a factory approved tow bar. Towing a disabled vehicle can be dangerous and requires
extra caution. Attempting to tow with devices
other than an approved tow bar may result in
severe personal injury or death.
In any product, components will eventually fail to perform properly as the result of normal use, age, wear or
abuse.
It is virtually impossible to anticipate all possible component failures or the manner in which each component
may fail.
A vehicle requiring repair indicates the vehicle is no
longer functioning as designed and should be considered potentially hazardous. Use extreme care when
working on a vehicle. When diagnosing, removing or
replacing any components that are not operating properly, consider the safety of yourself and those around
you, should the component move unexpectedly.
Some components are heavy, spring loaded, highly corrosive, explosive, may produce amperage or reach high
temperatures. Gasoline, carbon monoxide, battery acid
and hydrogen gas could result in serious bodily injury to
the technician/mechanic and bystanders, if not treated
with the utmost caution. Be careful not to place hands,
face, feet or body in a location that could expose them
to injury should an unforeseen dangerous situation
occur.
Always use the appropriate tools listed in the tool list
and wear approved safety equipment.
Before a new vehicle is put into operation, it is recommended the items shown in the INITIAL SERVICE
CHART be performed.
Place direction selector in neutral. The neutral lock,
located on the rear axle or direction selector, should be
used to lock the direction selector in position (Ref. Fig. 3
on Page A-3). This will prevent it from moving into ‘F’
(forward) or ‘R’ (reverse) while being towed, causing
damage to the rear axle.
Use extra caution when towing vehicle. Do not tow a single vehicle at speeds in excess of 12 mph (19 kph). Do
not tow more than three vehicles at a time. Do not
exceed 5 mph (8 kph) while towing multiple vehicles.
Towing the vehicle at above recommended speed may
result in personal injury and/or damage to vehicle and
other property.
Tow bars are not intended for road use.
Tow bars are available from the Service Parts Department.
Tow bars are designed to tow only one vehicle at a maximum speed of 12 mph (19 kph) and up to three vehicles at a maximum speed of 5 mph (8 kph). Tow bars
are not intended for highway use. Before towing, place
direction selector in neutral and engage neutral lock. Do
not ride on vehicle being towed.
.
ITEM
SERVICE OPERATION
Battery Charge battery
Seats
Remove protective plastic covering
Brakes Check operation and adjust if necessary
Establish new vehicle braking distance
Tires
Check air pressure (see SPECIFICATIONS)
Fuel
Fill tank with correct fuel
Engine Check oil level
Fig. 2 Initial Service Chart
Page A-2
The neutral lock is located on the direction selector. To
operate neutral lock located on the direction selector,
first turn the key switch to ‘OFF’, place direction selector
in ‘R’ and remove seat. Pull out and rotate the neutral
lock pin handle so that the pointed portion of the handle
is over the side of the direction selector cam (Ref. Fig. 3
on Page A-3). Move direction selector lever towards the
area between ‘F’ and ‘R’. During that motion, the pin will
snap into the hole in the direction selector mounting
bracket, preventing any movement of the lever. When in
this position, the direction selector remains locked in
the neutral position
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Putting more than three pumps of grease in a grease fitting could damage grease seals and cause premature
bearing failure.
Spring loaded mechanism. To prevent possibility of fingers becoming pinched in the direction selector mechanism, hold direction
selector lever when releasing neutral lock pin
handle.
Rack Ball Joint
Tie Rod Ends
(If Equipped)
To activate the direction selector, pull the neutral lock
pin handle out and rotate until the pointed portion of the
handle fits into the hole in the direction selector cam
Front
Hole in Direction
Selector Cam
Hole in Direction
Selector Mounting
Bracket
Unlocked
Position
Direction
Selector
Lever
Locked
Position
Neutral Lock
Pin Handle
B
B
View From Underside Of Vehicle
Fig. 4 Lubrication Points
POWERTRAIN MAINTENANCE
Access the powertrain by raising or removing seat.
Some service procedures may require the vehicle be
lifted. Refer to LIFTING THE VEHICLE in section ‘B’ for
proper lifting procedure and safety information.
For maintenance procedures relating to the engine,
speed control, fuel system, transmission, and rear axle
or suspension refer to the particular section. See the
TABLE OF CONTENTS for section location.
BRAKES
After the vehicle has been put into service, it is recommended that the brakes be checked by periodically conducting a brake performance test.
Fig. 3 Neutral Lock (Direction Selector)
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
This vehicle will give years of satisfactory service, providing it receives regular maintenance. Refer to the
Periodic Service Schedule for appropriate service intervals (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page A-6). Refer to Lubrication
Points for appropriate lubrication locations (Ref. Fig. 4
on Page A-3)
To prevent severe injury or death resulting
from operating a vehicle with improperly operating brake system, the braking system must
be properly maintained. All driving brake tests
must be done in a safe location with regard for
the safety of all personnel
.
Over time, a subtle loss of performance may take place.
Therefore, it is important to establish the standard with a new
vehicle.
.
Some maintenance items must be serviced more frequently
on vehicles used under severe driving conditions.
For test method and brake service, refer to MECHANICAL BRAKES section.
TIRES
Do not use more than three (3) pumps of grease in
each grease fitting at any one time. Excess grease
may cause grease seals to fail or grease migration into
areas that could damage components.
Tire condition should be inspected on a daily basis.
Inflation pressures should be checked on a weekly
basis when the tires are cool. Be sure to reinstall valve
dust cap after checking or inflating tire. For additional
information, refer to WHEELS AND TIRES section.
Repair and Service Manual
Page A-3
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
CARE AND CLEANING OF THE
VEHICLE
authorized Branch, or the Service Parts Department,
among them are
•
When pressure washing vehicle, do not use pressure
in excess of 700 psi. To prevent cosmetic damage, do
not use any abrasive or reactive solvents to clean
plastic parts.
•
•
It is important that proper techniques and cleaning
materials be used.
Normal cleaning of vinyl seats and plastic or rubber trim
requires the use of a mild soap solution applied with a
sponge or soft brush and wipe with a damp cloth.
Removal of oil, tar, asphalt, shoe polish, etc. will require
the use of a commercially available vinyl/rubber
cleaner.
The painted surfaces of the vehicle provide attractive
appearance and durable protection. Frequent washing
with lukewarm or cold water is the best method of preserving the painted surfaces.
Do not use hot water, strong soap or harsh chemical
detergents.
•
•
•
•
Rubber parts should be cleaned with non-abrasive
household cleaner.
Occasional cleaning and waxing with non-abrasive
products designed for ‘clear coat’ automotive finishes
will enhance the appearance and durability of the
painted surfaces.
Corrosive materials used as fertilizers or for dust control
can collect on the underbody of the vehicle. These
materials could cause corrosion of underbody parts. It is
recommended that the underbody be flushed occasionally with plain water. Thoroughly clean any areas where
mud or other debris can collect. Sediment packed in
closed areas should be loosened to ease it’s removal,
taking care not to chip or otherwise damage paint.
If the engine does not start or runs improperly after washing,
remove the spark plug wires (by pulling the spark plug boots,
never the wires) and blow them dry. Reinstall the wires.
Remove moisture from coil by blowing across top.
VEHICLE CARE PRODUCTS
To help maintain the vehicle, the manufacturer has several products, available through a local Distributor, an
Page A-4
•
•
•
Touch-up paint specially formulated to match
vehicle colors for use on both metal and TPE
(plastic) bodies. (P/N 28140-G** and 28432-G**)
Multi-purpose Battery Protectant formulated to
form a long-term, flexible, non-tacky, dry coating
that will not crack, peel or flake over a wide temperature range. (P/N 75500-G01)
White Lithium Grease designed to provide lubrication protection in areas where staining or discoloring is a problem, or in areas of extreme
temperature ranges. (P/N 75502-G01)
Penetrant/Lubricant, a 4-in-1 product that penetrates the most stubborn of frozen parts, lubricates leaving a light lubricating film, prevents
corrosion by adhering to wet or dry surfaces and
displaces moisture, sealing against future moisture return. (P/N 75503-G01)
Multi-purpose Cleaner and Degreaser that contains natural, environmentally safe solvents. (P/N
75504-G01)
Multi-purpose Hand Cleaner is an industrial
strength cleaner containing no harsh solvents,
yet gently lifts grease off hands. May be used
with or without water. (P/N 75505-G01)
Battery Cleaner that promotes easy, non-violent
neutralization of battery acids and battery acid
crystals. The resulting sodium salts are water
soluble and easily washed away. (P/N 75506G01)
Biodegradable Cleaner that cleans the toughest
dirt and heavy soils by breaking down grease to
be easily wiped or rinsed away. (P/N 75507-G01)
Multi-purpose Value Pack sampler package
including 4 ounce (118 ml) aerosol cans of Battery Protector, Penetrant/Lubricant, White Lithium Grease, and Carburetor and Choke Cleaner.
(P/N 75508-G01)
Plexus plastic cleaner and polish removes minor
scratches from windshield. (P/N 28433-G**)
TOP AND WINDSHIELD
The top does not provide protection from roll
over or falling objects.
The windshield does not provide protection
from tree limbs or flying objects.
Clean with lots of water and a clean cloth. Minor
scratches may be removed using a commercial plastic
polish or Plexus plastic cleaner.
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
TRAILERING
To prevent personal injury to occupants of other highway vehicles, be sure that the vehicle
and contents are adequately secured to trailer.
Do not ride on vehicle being trailered.
Remove windshield before trailering.
Maximum speed with top is 50 mph (80
kph).
If the vehicle is to be transported on a trailer at highway
speeds, the windshield and top must be removed and
the seat bottom secured. Always check that the vehicle
and contents are adequately secured before trailering
the vehicle. The rated capacity of the trailer must
exceed the weight of the vehicle (see GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS for vehicle weight) and load. Lock the
parking brake and secure the vehicle to the trailer using
ratchet tie downs.
WINTER OR PROLONGED STORAGE
Place the direction selector in the neutral position and
engage the neutral lock (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page A-3) . Add
fuel stabilizer to the tank in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Disconnect the fuel line
from the engine at the fuel tank. With proper area of
ventilation, start the engine and allow to run until the
engine stops due to lack of fuel. Drain carburetor bowl
using drain screw and re-tighten the drain screw.
Remove the air filter and spray a commercial fogging or
cylinder oil into the carburetor while operating the
starter for 2 - 3 seconds. Reinstall the air filter and reattach the fuel line to the tank.
B
B
HARDWARE
Periodically the vehicle should be inspected for loose
fasteners. Fasteners should be tightened in accordance
with the Torque Specifications table (Ref. Fig. 6 on
Page A-5). Use care when tightening fasteners and
refer to the sections in this manual for specific torque
values.
Generally, two grades of hardware are used in the vehicle. Grade 5 hardware can be identified by the three
marks on the hexagonal head. Unmarked hardware is
Grade 2 (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page A-5)
.
Keep hands, clothing and jewelry away from
moving parts. Use care not to contact hot
objects. Raise the rear of the vehicle and support on jack stands before attempting to run
the engine.
Preparing the engine for winter or a prolonged storage
calls for a few simple steps to prevent build up of varnish and gum in the carburetor and corrosion in the
engine.
Grade 2
Grade 5
Fig. 5 Bolt Grades
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
ALL TORQUE FIGURES ARE IN FT. LBS. (Nm)
Unless otherwise noted in text, tighten all hardware in accordance with this chart.
The table below specifies 'lubricated' torque figures. Fasteners that are plated or lubricated when installed
are considered 'wet' and require approximately 80% of the torque required for 'dry' fasteners.
BOLT SIZE
1/4"
5/16"
3/8"
7/16"
1/2"
9/16"
5/8"
3/4"
7/8"
1"
Grade 2
4 (5)
8 (11)
15 (20)
24 (33)
35 (47)
55 (75)
75 (102)
Grade 5
6 (8)
13 (18)
23 (31)
35 (47)
55 (75)
80 (108) 110 (149) 200 (271) 320 (434) 480 (651)
130 (176) 125 (169) 190 (258)
Fig. 6 Torque Specifications
Repair and Service Manual
Page A-5
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
PERIODIC SERVICE SCHEDULE
3 Check
ΠClean, Adjust, etc.
S Replace
NOTE: Some maintenance items must be serviced more frequently on vehicles used under severe driving conditions
DAILY
BODY
3Clean body components as required
REVERSE WARNING DEVICE
S Check operation when direction selector is in reverse
TIRES
ΠExamine for cuts, excessive wear and pressure (See GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS)
WHEELS
3Check for bent rims, missing or loose lug nuts
FUEL GAUGE
3 Check for proper operation (at fueling), and fuel cap vent is free of dirt
ENGINE OIL
3 Check and refill engine oil
STARTER/GENERATOR BELT
3 Check for tension, wear, cracks
MONTHLY - 20 HOURS (includes items listed in previous table & the following)
Œ
BATTERY
Clean battery & terminals with 1/4 cup (60 ml) baking soda to 1 1/2 gallons (6 liters)
water solution, rinse with clear water
3 Check charge condition and all connections
WIRING
3 Check all wiring for loose connections and broken/missing insulation
ACCELERATOR
3 Check for smooth movement - DO NOT LUBRICATE CABLE
SERVICE BRAKE
3 Check brake performance, smooth operation and adjust if required
PARKING BRAKE
3 Check brake performance and adjust if required
CHOKE CABLE
3 Check for smooth movement and adjustment - DO NOT LUBRICATE CABLE
CARBURETOR LINKAGE
3 Check attachment, adjust as required
DIRECTION SELECTOR
3 Check attachment, adjust as required
ENGINE
3 Check for unusual noise, vibration, acceleration, oil leaks
COOLING FAN
3 Check for build-up of foreign matter inside blower housing and fins, clean if required
STEERING ASSEMBLY
3 Check for abnormal play, tightness of all hardware
REAR AXLE
3 Check for leakage, add SAE 30 oil as required
QUARTERLY - 50 HOURS (includes items listed in previous tables & the following)
FRONT AXLE
3 Check for damage to axle and loose or missing hardware
FRONT SHOCK ABSORBERS
3 Check for oil leakage and loose fasteners
FRONT SPRINGS
3 Check for loose hardware, cracks at attachments
FRONT WHEEL ALIGNMENT
3 Check for unusual tire wear, align if required
PARKING (PARK) BRAKE
3 Check for bent/binding linkage rod
3 Check for damage or wear to latch arm or catch bracket
ΠLubricate, use light oil. DO NOT LUBRICATE CABLES OR BRAKE LATCH
REAR SHOCK ABSORBERS
3 Check for oil leakage, loose mounting hardware
ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
3 Check coil/spark plug wires for cracks/loose connections
FUEL SYSTEM
3 Check for leaks at tank, cap, lines, filters, pump, carburetor
3 Check fuel lines for cracks/deterioration
THROTTLE/GOVERNOR LINKAGE
3
Check operation and governed speed
Fig. 7 Periodic Service Schedule
Page A-6
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
SEMI-ANNUAL - 125 HOURS (includes items listed in previous tables & the following)
DIRECTION SELECTOR
3 Check for wear and smooth movement (lubricate shaft with light oil if required)
3 Check shift cable spring length
KING PINS
3 Check for excessive play and tightness of retaining nuts
ΠLubricate, use wheel bearing grease
STEERING ASSEMBLY
3 Check bellows and pinion seal for damage or grease leakage
REAR AXLE
3 Check for unusual noise and loose or missing mounting hardware
AIR CLEANER
S Replace
OIL FILTER
Œ Clean in solvent (at oil change), replace ‘O’ rings if required
ENGINE OIL
S Replace with SAE 10W-30 or 10W-40 that meets or exceeds SF, SG, CC oil,
DO NOT OVERFILL.
B
B
ANNUAL - 250-300 HOURS (includes items listed in previous tables & the following)
FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS
Œ Adjust, see Technician’s Repair and Service Manual
ΠPack, use wheel bearing grease
REAR AXLE
3 Check lubricant, add lubricant (SAE 30 oil) as required
S Replace lubricant after 5 years
SERVICE BRAKES
Œ Clean and adjust, see Technician’s Repair and Service Manual
3 Check brake shoe linings, see Technician’s Repair and Service Manual
FUEL FILTER
S Replace
SPARK PLUGS
S Replace, gap new plugs .028 - .030 in. (.71 - .76 mm)
MUFFLER/EXHAUST
3 Check mounting hardware; check for leaks at head and muffler gaskets
VALVES
3 Check cold (intake/exhaust) per Technician’s Repair and Service Manual
500 HOURS (includes items listed in previous tables & the following)
TIMING BELT
3 Check tension and for signs of wear/damage, replace if worn or damaged
CARBURETOR
ΠClean
CYLINDER HEAD AND PISTONS
ΠRemove carbon from cylinder head and pistons
3 Check valve seats for carbon buildup and clean as required
Fig. 7 Periodic Service Schedule
Repair and Service Manual
Page A-7
GENERAL INFORMATION & ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page A-8
Repair and Service Manual
SAFETY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
GENERAL (ASME/ANSI) ........................................................................................................................................... B - 1
GENERAL (ASME/NGCMA) ...................................................................................................................................... B - 7
NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS ................................................................................................................... B - 11
IMPORTANT SAFETY WARNING ........................................................................................................................... B - 11
MODIFICATIONS TO VEHICLE ............................................................................................................................... B - 11
GENERAL MAINTENANCE ..................................................................................................................................... B - 11
BEFORE SERVICING THE VEHICLE ...................................................................................................................... B - 11
Battery Removal and Installation ................................................................................................................. B - 12
LIFTING THE VEHICLE ........................................................................................................................................... B - 13
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Battery Removal ............................................................................................................................................ B - 13
Fig. 2 Lifting the vehicle ........................................................................................................................................... B - 13
Repair and Service Manual
Page B-i
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page B-ii
Repair and Service Manual
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
GENERAL
The following text is provided as recommended by part II of American Society of Mechanical Engineers / American
National Standards Institute ASME/ANSI B56.8-2006. The manufacturer strongly endorses the contents of this specification.
PART II
FOR THE USER
4 GENERAL SAFETY PRACTICES
4.1
Introduction
4.1.1 Like other machines, carriers can cause injury if improperly used or maintained. Part II contains broad safety
practices applicable to carrier operations. Before operation, the user shall establish such additional specific safety
practices as may reasonably be required for safe operation.
4.2
Stability
4.2.1
Experience has shown that carriers which comply with the provisions stated in para. 7.3.9 are stable when
properly operated and when operated in accordance with specific safety rules and practices established to meet actual
operating terrain and conditions. However, improper operation, faulty maintenance, or poor housekeeping may contribute to a condition of instability and defeat the purpose of the standard. Some of the conditions which may affect stability
are failure of the user to follow safety practices; also, ground and floor conditions, grade, speed, loading, the operation
of the carrier with improper loads, battery weight, dynamic and static forces, and the judgement exercised by the carrier operator.
(a) The user shall train carrier operators to adhere strictly to the operating instructions stated in this Standard.
(b) The user shall survey specific operating conditions and environment, and establish and train carrier operators to
comply with additional, specific safety practices.
4.3
Nameplates, Markings, Capacity, and Modifications
4.3.1 The user shall maintain in a legible condition all nameplates, warnings, and instructions which are supplied
by the manufacturer.
4.3.2 The user shall not perform any modification or addition which affects capacity or safe operation, or make
any change not in accordance with the owner’s manual without the manufacturer’s prior written authorization. Where
authorized modifications have been made, the user shall ensure that capacity, operation, warning, and maintenance
instruction plates, tags, or decals are changed accordingly.
4.3.3 As required under paras. 4.3.1 or 4.3.2, the manufacturer shall be contacted to secure new nameplates,
warnings, or instructions which shall then be affixed in their proper place on the carrier.
4.4
Fuel Handling and Storage
4.4.1 The user shall supervise the storage and handling of liquid fuels (when used) to be certain that it is in accordance with appropriate paragraphs of ANSI/NFPA 505 and ANSI/NFPA 30.
4.4.2 Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas fuels shall be in accordance with appropriate paragraphs of
ANSI/NFPA 505 and ANSI/NFPA 58. If such storage or handling is not in compliance with these standards, the user
shall prevent the carrier from being used until such storage and handling is in compliance with these standards.
4.5
Changing and Charging Storage Batteries for Electric Personnel and Burden Carriers
4.5.1 The user shall require battery changing and charging facilities and procedures to be in accordance with
appropriate paragraphs of ANSI/NFPA 505.
Repair and Service Manual
Page B-1
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
4.5.2 The user shall periodically inspect facilities and review procedures to be certain that appropriate paragraphs
of ANSI/NFPA 505, are strictly complied with, and shall familiarize carrier operators with it.
4.1
Hazardous Locations
4.6.1 The user shall determine the hazard classification of the particular atmosphere or location in which the carrier is to be used in accordance with ANSI/NFPA 505.
4.6.2 The user shall permit in hazardous areas only those carriers approved and of the type required by ANSI/
NFPA 505.
4.2
Lighting for Operating Areas
4.7.1 The user, in accordance with his responsibility to survey the environment and operating conditions, shall
determine if the carrier requires lights and, if so, shall equip the carrier with appropriate lights in accordance with the
manufacturer’s recommendations.
4.3
Control of Noxious Gases and Fumes
4.8.1 When equipment powered by internal combustion engines is used in enclosed areas, the atmosphere shall
be maintained within limits specified in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists publication,
“Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment”. This shall be
accomplished by ventilation provided by the user, and/or the installation, use, and proper maintenance of emission
control equipment recommended or provided by the manufacturer of the equipment.
4.4
Warning Device(s)
4.9.1 The user shall make periodic inspections of the carrier to be certain that the sound-producing and/or visual
device(s) are maintained in good operating condition.
4.9.2 The user shall determine if operating conditions require the carrier to be equipped with additional sound-producing and/or visual devices and be responsible for providing and maintaining such devices, in accordance with the
manufacturer’s recommendations.
1 OPERATING SAFETY RULES AND PRACTICES
5.1
Personnel and Burden Carrier Operator Qualifications
5.1.1 Only persons who are trained in the proper operation of the carrier shall be authorized to operate the carrier.
Operators shall be qualified as to visual, auditory, physical, and mental ability to safely operate the equipment according to Section 5 and all other applicable parts of this Standard.
5.2
Personnel and Burden Carrier Operators’ Training
5.2.1
The user shall conduct an operators’ training program.
5.2.2 Successful completion of the operators’ training program shall be required by the user before operation of
the carrier. The program shall be presented in its entirety to all new operators and not condensed for those claiming
previous experience.
5.2.3
The user should include in the operators’ training program the following:
(a) instructional material provided by the manufacturer;
(b) emphasis on safety of passengers, material loads, carrier operator, and other employees;
(c) general safety rules contained within this Standard and the additional specific rules determined by the user in
accordance with this Standard, and why they were formulated;
(d) introduction of equipment, control locations and functions, and explanation of how they work when used properly
and when used improperly, and surface conditions, grade, and other conditions of the environment in which the carrier
is to be operated;
Page B-2
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SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
(a) operational performance tests and evaluations during, and at completion of, the program.
5.1
Personnel and Burden Carrier Operator Responsibility
5.3.1
5.2
Operators shall abide by the following safety rules and practices in paras. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7.
General
5.4.1
Safeguard the pedestrians at all times. Do not drive carrier in a manner that would endanger anyone.
5.4.2 Riding on the carrier by persons other than the operator is authorized only on personnel seat(s) provided by
the manufacturer. All parts of the body shall remain within the plan view outline of the carrier.
5.4.3 When a carrier is to be left unattended, stop carrier, apply the parking brake, stop the engine or turn off
power, turn off the control or ignition circuit, and remove the key if provided. Block the wheels if machine is on an
incline.
5.4.4 A carrier is considered unattended when the operator is 25 ft. (7.6 m) or more from the carrier which remains
in his view, or whenever the operator leaves the carrier and it is not within his view. When the operator is dismounted
and within 25 ft. (7.6 m) of the carrier still in his view, he still must have controls neutralized, and the parking brake(s)
set to prevent movement.
5.4.5
Maintain a safe distance from the edge of ramps and platforms.
5.4.6
Use only approved carriers in hazardous locations, as defined in the appropriate safety standards.
5.4.7
Report all accidents involving personnel, building structures, and equipment.
5.4.8
Operators shall not add to, or modify, the carrier.
5.4.9 Carriers shall not be parked or left unattended such that they block or obstruct fire aisles, access to stairways, or fire equipment.
5.3
Traveling
5.5.1 Observe all traffic regulations, including authorized speed limits. Under normal traffic conditions keep to the
right. Maintain a safe distance, based on speed of travel, from a carrier or vehicle ahead; and keep the carrier under
control at all times.
5.5.2
uations.
Yield the right of way to pedestrians, ambulances, fire trucks, or other carriers or vehicles in emergency sit-
5.5.3 Do not pass another carrier or vehicle traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or at other
dangerous locations.
5.5.4
Keep a clear view of the path of travel, observe other traffic and personnel, and maintain a safe clearance.
5.5.5 Slow down or stop, as conditions dictate, and activate the sound-producing warning device at cross aisles
and when visibility is obstructed at other locations.
5.5.6
Ascend or descend grades slowly.
5.5.7 Avoid turning, if possible, and use extreme caution on grades, ramps, or inclines; normally travel straight up
and down.
5.5.8 Under all travel conditions the carrier shall be operated at a speed that will permit it to be brought to a stop in
a safe manner.
5.5.9 Make starts, stops, turns, or direction reversals in a smooth manner so as not to shift the load, endanger
passengers, or overturn the carrier.
5.5.10 Do not indulge in dangerous activities, such as stunt driving or horseplay.
5.5.11 Slow down when approaching, or on, wet or slippery surfaces.
Repair and Service Manual
Page B-3
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
5.5.12 Do not drive carrier onto any elevator unless specifically authorized to do so. Approach elevators slowly,
and then enter squarely after the elevator car is properly leveled. Once on the elevator, neutralize the controls, shut off
power, and set parking brakes. It is advisable that all other personnel leave the elevator before a carrier is allowed to
enter or exit.
5.5.13 Avoid running over loose objects, potholes, and bumps.
5.5.14 To negotiate turns, reduce speed to improve stability, then turn hand steering wheel or tiller in a smooth,
sweeping motion.
5.1
Loading
5.6.1 Handle only stable and safely arranged loads. When handling off-center loads which cannot be centered,
operate with extra caution.
5.6.2
Handle only loads within the capacity of the carrier as specified on the nameplate.
5.6.3 Handle loads exceeding the dimensions used to establish carrier capacity with extra caution. Stability and
maneuverability may be adversely affected.
5.2
Operator Care of Personnel and Burden Carriers
5.7.1 At the beginning of each shift during which the carrier will be used, the operator shall check the carrier condition and inspect the tires, warning devices, lights, battery(s), speed and directional controllers, brakes, and steering
mechanism. If the carrier is found to be in need of repair, or in any way unsafe, the matter shall be reported immediately to the designated authority and the carrier shall not be operated until it has been restored to safe operating condition.
5.7.2 If during operation the carrier becomes unsafe in any way, the matter shall be reported immediately to the
designated authority, and the carrier shall not be operated until it has been restored to safe operating condition.
5.7.3
Do not make repairs or adjustments unless specifically authorized to do so.
5.7.4
The engine shall be stopped and the operator shall leave the carrier while refueling.
5.7.5 Spillage of oil or fuel shall be carefully and completely absorbed or evaporated and fuel tank cap replaced
before starting engine.
5.7.6
Do not operate a carrier with a leak in the fuel system or battery(s).
5.7.7
Do not use open flames for checking electrolyte level in storage battery(s) or liquid level in fuel tanks.
1 MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
6.1
Introduction
6.1.1 Carriers may become hazardous if maintenance is neglected. Therefore, maintenance facilities, trained personnel, and procedures shall be provided. Such facilities may be on or off the premises.
6.2
Maintenance Procedures
6.2.1 Maintenance and inspection of all carriers shall be performed in conformance with the manufacturer’s recommendations and the following practices.
(a) A scheduled preventive maintenance, lubrication, and inspection system shall be followed.
(b) Only qualified and authorized personnel shall be permitted to maintain, repair, adjust, and inspect carriers.
(c) Before undertaking maintenance or repair, follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for immobilizing the carrier.
(d) Block chassis before working underneath it.
(e) Before disconnecting any part of the engine fuel system of a gasoline or diesel powered carrier with gravity feed
fuel systems, be sure shutoff valve is closed, and run engine until fuel system is depleted and engine stops running.
Page B-4
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SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
(a) Before disconnecting any part of the engine fuel system of LP gas powered carriers, close the LP gas cylinder
valve and run the engine until fuel in the system is depleted and the engine stops running.
(b) Operation to check performance of the carrier shall be conducted in an authorized area where safe clearance
exists.
(c) Before commencing operation of the carrier, follow the manufacturer’s instructions and recommended procedures.
(d) Avoid fire hazards and have fire protection equipment present in the work area. Do not use an open flame to
check level or leakage of fuel, battery electrolyte, or coolant. Do not use open pans of fuel or flammable cleaning fluids
for cleaning parts.
(e) Properly ventilate the work area.
(f) Handle LP gas cylinders with care. Physical damage, such as dents, scrapes, or gouges, may dangerously
weaken the tank and make it unsafe for use.
(g) Brakes, steering mechanisms, speed and directional control mechanisms, warning devices, lights, governors,
guards, and safety devices shall be inspected regularly and maintained in a safe operating condition.
(h) Special carriers or devices designed and approved for hazardous area operation shall be inspected to ensure
that maintenance preserves the original approved safe operating features.
(i) Fuel systems shall be checked for leaks and condition of parts. If a leak is found, action shall be taken to prevent
the use of the carrier until the leak has been eliminated.
(j) The carrier manufacturer’s capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be maintained in legible condition.
(k) Batteries, motors, speed and directional controllers, limit switches, protective devices, electrical conductors, and
connections shall be inspected and maintained.
(l) Carriers shall be kept in a clean condition to minimize fire hazards and facilitate detection of loose or defective
parts.
(m) Modifications and additions which affect capacity and safe machine operation shall not be performed by the customer or user without manufacturer’s prior written authorization; where authorized modifications have been made, the
user shall ensure that capacity, operation, warning, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals are changed
accordingly.
(n) Care shall be taken to ensure that all replacement parts are interchangeable with the original parts and of a quality at least equal to that provided in the original equipment.
END OF ASME/ANSI B56.8-2006
Repair and Service Manual
Page B-5
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page B-6
Repair and Service Manual
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
GENERAL
The following text is provided as recommended by part II of ANSI/NGCMA 130.1-2004. EZGO, as a member of the
National Golf Car Manufacturer’s Association (NGCMA), strongly endorses the content of this specification.
PART II: MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONS
5 General safety practices
5.1
Introduction
Like other vehicles, golf cars can cause injury if improperly used or maintained. Part II contains broad safety practices
recommended for safe golf car operations. Before operation, the controlling party should establish such additional specific safety practices as may be reasonably required for safe operations.
Experience has shown that golf cars that comply with the provisions stated in Part III of this standard are safe when
properly operated in accordance with the safety and operation warnings affixed to every golf car. Safe operation is
enhanced when the golf cars are operated within a specific set of operation instructions, safety rules and practices
established to meet actual operating terrain and conditions.
The safety information contained in Part II is intended to enable the controlling party to implement a golf car safety program. It is suggested and recommended that Part II be reprinted in the golf car manufacturer’s operation and service
manuals to encourage safe operations and practices at the controlling party’s facility.
5.2
Safety survey
The controlling party shall perform a safety survey of its premises periodically, and as conditions warrant, identify areas
where golf cars should not be operated and possible hazards exist. See, for example, 5.2.1. See also NGCMA Golf
Course Safety Guidelines and NGCMA Golf Car Storage Facility Safety Guidelines.
5.2.1
Grades
All grades shall be descended at a reduced speed. Excessive speed while descending grades adversely affects the
stability of the golf car and its ability to stop. In areas where steep grades exist, golf car operations should be restricted
to designated golf car paths and roads where possible. Steep grades shall be identified with a suitable warning giving
the following information: "Warning, steep hill, apply brake to limit speed." Avoid parking on steep hills. Avoid sharp
turns on grades. Provide flat surface parking areas adjacent to golf car paths on steep grades.
5.2.2
Wet areas or icy terrain
Extreme caution should be used when driving on wet or icy terrain. Wet grassy areas or ice may cause a golf car to
lose traction and may affect operator control. Wet or icy areas should be chained or roped off to prevent golf car operations or be identified by a suitable warning to operators not to operate golf cars in that area.
5.2.3
Sharp turns, blind corners, bridge approaches
All turns shall be negotiated at a reduced speed. Negotiating a turn can affect the stability and control of a golf car,
causing loads and passengers to shift. Sharp turns, blind spots, bridge approaches, and other potentially hazardous
areas shall be closed off to prevent golf car operation or shall be identified with a suitable warning to the operator of the
nature of the hazard, stating the proper precautions to be taken to avoid the hazard.
5.2.4
Loose terrain
Extreme caution shall be used when driving in areas of loose terrain. Loose terrain, for example, sand or gravel, can
cause a golf car to lose traction and may affect stability. Areas of loose terrain should be repaired if possible, or closed
off to prevent golf car operation, or identified by a suitable warning to operators not to operate golf cars in those areas.
Repair and Service Manual
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B
5.2.5
Golf car/pedestrian interaction areas
Areas where pedestrians and golf cars could interact should be avoided by rerouting the golf car traffic or the pedestrian traffic. If avoidance of the interaction is not possible or is highly impractical, signs shall be erected warning pedestrians of the golf car traffic. Signs shall also be erected warning golf car operators of the pedestrian traffic and to drive
slowly and with caution.
6 Maintenance
6.1
Introduction
Golf cars may become hazardous if maintenance is neglected or improperly performed. Proper maintenance facilities,
trained personnel and maintenance procedures, in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, shall be
provided by the controlling party.
6.2.1
Personnel
Only qualified, trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to inspect, adjust and maintain golf cars.
6.2.2
Parts and materials
Manufacturer’s recommended replacement parts and materials should be used.
6.2.3
Maintenance and repair safety procedures
All maintenance shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommended maintenance and safety
procedures as outlined in the manufacturer’s operation and service manuals. For example:
a) Follow manufacturer’s instructions for immobilizing golf car before beginning any maintenance;
b) Block chassis before working underneath golf car;
c) Before disconnecting any part of the fuel system, drain the system and turn all valves, if so equipped, to the "off"
position to prevent leakage or accumulation of flammable fuels;
d) Avoid fire hazards and have fire protection equipment available;
e) Before performing any maintenance on an electric golf car, disconnect the electrical system in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions;
f) Use only properly insulated tools when performing maintenance;
g) Periodically inspect and maintain brakes, steering mechanisms, warning devices, governors, safety decals and
all other safety devices and maintain them in a safe operating condition. Do not modify these devices unless
instructed to do so by the manufacturer;
h) After each maintenance or repair, have the golf car driven by qualified and trained personnel to ensure proper
operation and adjustment; perform validation checks in an area that is free of vehicular and pedestrian traffic;
i) Record all maintenance performed in a maintenance record log by date, name of person performing maintenance
and type of maintenance. Controlling Party should periodically inspect maintenance log to ensure currency and
completeness of entries.
6.2.4 The controlling party shall maintain all Danger, Warning and Caution labels, (collectively and individually
“safety labels”); nameplates; serial numbers; and instructions, when supplied by the manufacturer, in a legible condition.
6.2.5 The controlling party shall not perform or allow to be performed, any modification or addition to the vehicle
that affects capacity or safe operation, or make any change not in accordance with the manufacturer’s operations and
service manuals, without the manufacturer's prior written authorization. Where authorized modifications have been
made, the controlling party shall ensure that capacity, operation, warning, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or
decals are changed accordingly.
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6.2.6 As required in 6.2.4, the manufacturer shall be contacted to secure new nameplates, warnings, or safety
labels, as necessary, which shall be affixed in their proper place on the golf car if and as designated in the owner’s
manual.
1 Fuels handling and storage/battery charging
7.1
Ventilation
Maintenance and storage areas shall be properly ventilated to avoid fire hazards in accordance with applicable fire
codes and ordinances.
Ventilation for internal combustion engine golf cars shall be provided to remove flammable vapors, fumes and other
flammable materials. Consult applicable fire codes for specific levels of ventilation.
Ventilation for electric-powered golf cars shall be provided, to remove the accumulation of flammable hydrogen gas
emitted during the charging process. Because of the highly volatile nature of hydrogen gas and its propensity to rise
and accumulate at the ceiling in pockets, a minimum of 5 air changes per hour is recommended for multiple vehicles
and one air change per hour may be adequate for one vehicle. The controlling party shall consult applicable fire and
safety codes for the specific ventilation levels required.
See NGCMA Golf Car Safety Storage Guidelines and SAE J1718.
7.2
The controlling party shall require battery changing and charging facilities and procedures to be in accordance
with applicable ordinances or regulations.
7.3
The controlling party shall supervise the storage and handling of liquid fuels in accordance with ANSI/NFPA 30.
7.4
Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas fuels shall be in accordance with ANSI/NFPA 58.
7.5
The controlling party shall periodically inspect charging and storage areas or facilities and review procedures to
be certain that the procedures in 7.1 through 7.4, inclusive, are being followed.
8 Operating safety rules and practices (Operator qualifications)
8.1
It is recommended that only persons qualified under the rules of the regulatory authority be allowed to operate a
golf car. Qualifications may include proof of insurance, minimum age requirement or other appropriate requirements.
8.2
The controlling party shall display the operation and safety instructions as recommended by the golf car manufacturers and the golf course safety rules in a conspicuous place near the golf car rental area or golf car pick-up
area, or on each golf car, or both. It is also recommended that the warning "Do not operate golf car when under
the influence of intoxicating or mind altering substances", be posted in a conspicuous location.
END OF ANSI/NGCMA Z130.1-2004
Repair and Service Manual
Page B-9
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page B-10
Repair and Service Manual
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
Throughout this manual, the following NOTES, CAUTIONS and WARNINGS are used. For the protection of
all personnel and the vehicle, be aware of and observe
the following:
A NOTE indicates a condition that should be observed.
A CAUTION indicates a condition that may result in damage to the vehicle or surrounding facilities.
Changes to the weight distribution or the center of gravity may make the vehicle unstable or
prone to roll over which could result in injury or
death to the operator or passenger(s).
GENERAL MAINTENANCE
When any maintenance procedure or inspection is performed, it is important that care be exercised to insure
the safety of the technician/mechanic or bystanders and
to prevent damage to the vehicle.
Always read and understand the entire relevant manual
section (chapter) before attempting any inspection or
service.
A WARNING indicates a hazardous condition
which could result in serious injury or death.
BEFORE SERVICING THE VEHICLE
IMPORTANT SAFETY WARNING
Before attempting to inspect or service a vehicle, be
sure to read and understand the following warnings:
In any product, components will eventually fail to perform properly as the result of normal use, age, wear or
abuse.
It is virtually impossible to anticipate all possible component failures or the manner in which each component
may fail.
Be aware that a vehicle requiring repair indicates that
the vehicle is no longer functioning as designed and
therefore should be considered potentially hazardous.
Use extreme care when working on any vehicle. When
diagnosing, removing or replacing any components that
are not operating correctly, take the time to consider the
safety ramifications if the component should move unexpectedly.
Some components are heavy, spring loaded, highly corrosive, explosive or may produce high amperage or
reach high temperatures. Gasoline, carbon monoxide,
battery acid and hydrogen gas could result in serious
bodily injury to the technician/mechanic and bystanders
if not treated with utmost caution. Be careful not to place
hands, face, feet or body in a location that could expose
them to injury should an unforeseen situation occur.
Always use the appropriate tools listed in the tool list
and wear approved safety equipment.
MODIFICATIONS TO VEHICLE
Do not modify the vehicle in any manner that will change
the weight distribution of the vehicle.
To prevent personal injury or death, observe
the following:
Before working on the vehicle, remove all
jewelry (rings, watch, necklaces, etc.).
Be sure that no loose clothing or hair can
become caught in the moving parts of the
powertrain.
Use care not to contact hot objects.
Before attempting to operate or adjust the
powertrain, the rear of the vehicle must be
raised and supported on jack stands.
Wear OSHA approved clothing and eye
protection when working on anything that
could expose the body or eyes to potential
injury. In particular, use care when working with or around batteries, compressed
air or solvents.
Always turn the key switch to ‘OFF’ and
remove the key before disconnecting a live
circuit.
When connecting battery cables, pay particular attention to the polarity of the battery terminals. Never confuse the positive
and negative cables.
Repair and Service Manual
Page B-11
B
B
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Set the parking ‘PARK’ brake before performing any work on the vehicle.
If repairs are to be made that will require
welding or cutting, the battery and fuel
tank must be removed and the fuel system
drained.
To prevent explosion that could result in
severe personal injury or death, keep all smoking materials, open flame or sparks away from
gasoline and batteries.
Never operate the starter with the spark
plugs removed unless the ignition system
has been disabled and the engine/exhaust
are cold. Fuel expelled from the cylinders
could be ignited by the ignition system or
the hot exhaust system.
Never work on an engine that is hot.
Never test the ignition system without
either connecting the spark plug lead to a
tester or spare grounded spark plug.
If the spark function is to be observed at
the spark plug, be sure to install a spare
spark plug into the open cylinder before
operating the starter.
Never test the function of a fuel pump in
the vicinity of a hot engine or other source
of flame or combustion.
Never confuse the hoses to and from the
fuel pump. Verify that the carburetor and
pulse lines are correctly installed before
starting the engine (see FUEL SYSTEM
section).
Wrap wrenches with
vinyl tape to prevent
the possibility of a
dropped wrench from
‘shorting out’ a battery, which could result
in an explosion and severe personal injury
or death.
Aerosol containers of battery terminal protectant must be used with extreme care.
Insulate metal container to prevent can
from contacting battery terminals which
could result in an explosion.
Page B-12
To prevent illness or death, observe the following:
Never work around or operate a vehicle in
an environment that does not ventilate
exhaust gases from the area.
Exhaust gas (carbon monoxide) is deadly.
Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas that
is formed as a natural part of the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.
Carbon monoxide is a dangerous gas that
can cause unconsciousness and is potentially lethal.
The following are symptoms of carbon
monoxide inhalation:
•Dizziness
•Vomiting
•Intense headache
•Muscular twitching
•Weakness and sleepiness
•Throbbing in temples
If experiencing any of these symptoms, get
fresh air immediately.
Battery Removal and Installation
Tool List
Qty. Required
Insulated wrench, 1/2" .................................................1
Socket, 1/2", 3/8" drive ................................................1
Extension, 12", 3/8" drive.............................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Battery carrier ..............................................................1
In the following text, there are references to removing/installing
bolts etc. Additional hardware (nuts, washers, etc.) that is
removed must always be installed in its original position unless
otherwise specified. Non-specified torques are as shown in
table contained in Section ‘A’.
At the battery, remove hardware from the negative (-)
cable before removing the positive (+) cable. Remove
the bolt from the battery hold down and remove the battery (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page B-13).
Repair and Service Manual
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Center of
Front Axle
Negative
Positive
Battery Hold Down
Fig. 1 Battery Removal
Flat Portion
of Frame
Connect the positive (+) battery cable first. Connect
negative (-) battery cable last.
Be sure to remove all corrosion from terminals and hardware. After installing battery, coat terminals with commercially available terminal protectant.
LIFTING THE VEHICLE
Tool List
Outside End
of Rear Axle
Qty. Required
Floor jack..................................................................... 1
Jack stands ................................................................. 4
Chocks ........................................................................ 4
Some servicing operations may require the front, rear or
the entire vehicle to be raised.
To prevent possible injury or death resulting
from a vehicle falling from a jack, be sure the
vehicle is on a firm and level surface. Never
get under a vehicle while it is supported by a
jack. Use jack stands and test the stability of
the vehicle on the stands. Always place chocks
in front and behind the wheels not being
raised. Use extreme care since the vehicle is
extremely unstable during the lifting process.
View from Underside of Vehicle
Fig. 2 Lifting the vehicle
Lower the jack and test the stability of the vehicle on the
two jack stands.
Place the jack at the center of the front axle. Raise the
vehicle and position jack stands under the frame crossmember as indicated.
Lower the jack and test the stability of the vehicle on all
four jack stands.
If only the front or rear of the vehicle is to be raised,
place the chocks in front and behind each wheel not
being raised in order to stabilize the vehicle.
Lower the vehicle by reversing the lifting sequence.
When lifting the vehicle, position jacks and jack stands
only on the areas indicated.
To raise the entire vehicle, install chocks in front and
behind each front wheel (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page B-13).
Center the jack under the rear frame crossmember.
Raise the vehicle and locate a jack stand under the
outer ends of the rear axle.
Repair and Service Manual
Page B-13
B
B
SAFETY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page B-14
Repair and Service Manual
BODY
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’C’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
BODY ......................................................................................................................................................................... C - 1
General .......................................................................................................................................................... C - 1
BODY COMPONENT REPLACEMENT ..................................................................................................................... C - 1
Instrument Panel Replacement ..................................................................................................................... C - 1
Cowl Replacement ......................................................................................................................................... C - 5
Front Shield Replacement ............................................................................................................................. C - 5
Rocker Panel Replacement ........................................................................................................................... C - 5
Body Replacement ........................................................................................................................................ C - 6
Shuttle 2+2 Component Replacement ........................................................................................................... C - 6
Rear Bumper Replacement ........................................................................................................................... C - 7
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Drill Out Metal Rivet ............................................................................................................................................C - 1
Body Components (Front) ..................................................................................................................................C - 2
Body Components (Rear) ...................................................................................................................................C - 3
Shuttle 2 + 2 Components ..................................................................................................................................C - 4
Repair and Service Manual
Page C-i
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page C-ii
Repair and Service Manual
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
BODY
Pop Rivet
Drill Out Rivet
Head Only
In the following text, there are references to removing/installing bolts etc. Additional hardware (nuts, washers etc.) that are
removed must always be installed in their original positions
unless otherwise specified. Non-specified torques are as
shown in the table in Section A.
Fig. 1 Drill Out Metal Rivet
General
BODY COMPONENT REPLACEMENT
To prevent possible injury or death from battery explosion, batteries should always be
removed before any servicing that could generate sparks or repairs that require welding or
cutting.
It is important to use a sharp drill bit when
removing the rivets on the side of the vehicle.
Extreme care must be used when drilling out
the rivets located in the front of the body and
the bottom side of the body. Excessive pressure could result in the drill bit being forced
through the body panel and penetrating a
component. As extra protection, it is recommended that a protective piece of sheet metal
be placed between the battery and the rivet.
Use of a drill depth stop will provide additional
protection.
In general, body component replacement can be
accomplished with a minimum of specialized tools. Most
body components are held in place with conventional
removable hardware (nuts, bolts, washers and screws).
Some components are mounted with ‘pop’ rivets which
require that the rivet head be removed in order to push
out the shank of the rivet. The rivet head is easily
removed by drilling into the head with a sharp drill bit
that is slightly larger than the shank of the rivet (Ref.
Fig. 1 on Page C-1). Care must be exercised when drilling to prevent the drill from being forced through the
plastic body components where it could damage components located immediately behind the rivet. The best
way to prevent this from occurring is to use a sharp drill
bit that requires very little pressure to cut successfully
and to place a piece of protective sheet metal between
the surface being drilled and components directly
behind it.
The body components can be replaced by removing the
securing hardware, replacing the component and securing with hardware in the same orientation as removed.
The illustrations on the following pages indicate the
assembly methods for the various components.
Instrument Panel Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Reqd.
Electric/air drill .............................................................1
Drill bit, 7/32"................................................................1
Wrench, 5/16" ..............................................................1
Phillips screwdriver ......................................................1
Rivet gun......................................................................1
The instrument panel may be removed without removing the
cowl or may be removed as part of the cowl.
When installing a replacement instrument panel, a new
console safety label (4) MUST be ordered and placed
on the new instrument panel. When ordering a replacement instrument panel, provide vehicle serial number to
the Service Parts Representative who will provide the
correct part number for the safety label.
Repair and Service Manual
Page C-1
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
10
9
7
6
1
6
8
20
4
17
18
19
5
14
11
15
16
12
23
22
24
11
26
Frame
25
Fig. 2 Body Components (Front)
Page C-2
Repair and Service Manual
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
28
29
27
33
34
30
31
32
Shuttle 2+2 Model Only
48
52
51
49
52
53
53
50
Fig. 3 Body Components (Rear)
Repair and Service Manual
Page C-3
B
B
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
39
41
40
44
47
42
45
46
43
38
36
37
Fig. 4 Shuttle 2 + 2 Components
Page C-4
Repair and Service Manual
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
From underneath the cowl, remove the ratchet fastener
(18) attaching the center of the splash panel (19) to the
frame cross member.
To prevent the possibility of injury due to lack
of vehicle information, the correct safety label
must be on the instrument panel at all times.
Using an insulated wrench, disconnect the battery cable
at the negative (-) battery terminal.
Pull the front of the floor mat (5) up to expose the rivets
(6) that secure the instrument panel to the floor. Drill out
the rivets attaching the bottom of the instrument panel to
the floor and across the top of the instrument panel
attaching it to the cowl (7).
Remove the four screws (8) located within the instrument panel pockets.
Remove the four screws (8) located within the instrument panel pockets.
Remove the bolts and washers (20) from the sides of the
cowl and lift the cowl assembly from the vehicle.
Reassembly is the reverse order of disassembly and will
require new rivets. The bolts and washers (20) reinstalled into the cowl should be tightened to 8 - 12 ft. lbs.
Front Shield Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Reqd.
Wrench, 7/16" ..............................................................1
Pry bar .........................................................................1
The instrument panel may now be pulled away from the
cowl.
The front shield (22) need not to be removed to replace
any other body components (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page C-2).
Remove the drive rivets (9) securing the ignition switch
plate (10) to the instrument panel. Rotate the ignition
switch plate and push it through the instrument panel
opening, freeing the panel for removal.
If the front shield is damaged, remove hardware (23)
securing the front shield to the frame.
Reassembly is the reverse order of disassembly and will
require new rivets.
If a bracket is damaged, remove screw (26) securing it
to the frame after removing the front shield.
Cowl Replacement
Install replacement shield in reverse order of disassembly.
Tool List
Qty. Reqd.
Electric/air drill ............................................................ 1
Drill bit, 7/32" ............................................................... 1
Wrench, 5/16".............................................................. 1
Phillips screwdriver...................................................... 1
Rivet gun ..................................................................... 1
Duct tape ..................................................................... 1
Allen key, 3/16"............................................................ 1
Drill out the rivets (6) across the top of instrument panel
(1) attaching it to the cowl (7) (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page C-2).
Remove the rivet (11) at the front and back of each
rocker panel (12).
Remove the two rivets (24) securing the front shield to
the brackets (25).
Rocker Panel Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Reqd.
Phillips screwdriver ......................................................1
Wrench, 7/16" ..............................................................1
Electric/Air drill .............................................................1
Drill bit, 7/32" ...............................................................1
Rivet gun......................................................................1
Remove the rocker panel sill plates (14) by removing the
hardware (15) securing them to the frame (Ref. Fig. 2 on
Page C-2). As the sill plate is removed, be sure to catch
the three spacers (16) under each sill plate for reuse
when sill plates are reinstalled.
Remove the rocker panel sill plates (14) by removing the
hardware (15) securing them to the frame. As the sill
plate is removed, be sure to catch the three spacers (16)
under each sill plate for reuse when sill plates are reinstalled.
To remove the rocker panel, remove the rivets (11) at the
front anad rear of the rocker panel (12). Unsnap the
rocker panel 12) from the vehicle frame.
Drill out the rivets (17) securing the sides of the cowl to
the frame.
Align the replacement sill plate with spacers in place and
install hardware.
Replace rocker panel in reverse order of disassembly.
Repair and Service Manual
Page C-5
B
B
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Body Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Reqd.
Electric/air drill ............................................................ 1
Drill bit, 7/32" ............................................................... 1
Socket, 3/8" ................................................................. 1
Socket, 7/16" ............................................................... 1
Socket, 9/16", deepwell, 3/8" drive .............................. 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive ....................................................... 1
Wrench, 3/8" ................................................................ 1
Wrench, 7/16" .............................................................. 1
Wrench, 9/16" .............................................................. 1
Rivet gun ..................................................................... 1
Phillips screwdriver...................................................... 1
Pry bar ......................................................................... 1
Prior to removing the rear body, the foot rest or cargo bed, as
applicable, must be removed. See the applicable paragraphs
for instructions for replacement of those items.
Remove the rocker panels as described above.
Remove seat from body (27) (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page C-3).
To prevent possible injury or death from battery explosion, batteries should always be
removed before any servicing that could generate sparks or repairs that require welding or
cutting.
It is important to use a sharp drill bit when
removing the rivets on the side of the vehicle.
Extreme care must be used when drilling out
the rivets located in the front of the body and
the bottom side of the body. Excessive pressure could result in the drill bit being forced
through the body panel and penetrating a battery. As extra protection, it is recommended
that a protective piece of sheet metal be
placed between the battery and the rivet. Use
of a drill depth stop will provide additional protection.
Remove hardware (28) attaching seat back supports
(29) to body.
At the front of the rear body, remove the rivets (30)
securing the rear body to the frame and floorboard area.
Drill out the heads of the large head rivets (31) that
secure the bottom of the body panel to the side of the
vehicle.
Page C-6
Remove the rivets (32) that secure the floor of the bagwell area to the frame underneath.
Remove the body.
If the trunk lid (33) is to be reused, remove the hardware
(34) securing the trunk lid to the body panel. Remove
the trunk lid.
Installation of rear body is in the reverse order of disassembly using new rivets. Install the bolts (28) into the
seat supports (29) and tighten to 21 - 25 ft. lbs.
Shuttle 2+2 Component Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Reqd.
Electric/air drill ............................................................1
Drill bit, 7/32"................................................................1
Socket, 9/16", 3/8" drive ..............................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Wrench, 9/16" ..............................................................1
Remove rear valance panel (36) by prying out plastic
fasteners (37) (Ref. Fig. 4 on Page C-4).
Remove the hardware (38) attaching rear facing seat
(39) to the seat back supports (40).
Remove the screws (41) that secure seat back support
to vehicle frame. Remove the hardware 42) that secures
seat back support to frame support (43). Remove each
seat back support and spacer (44) from the rear body.
Repeat procedure on other seat back support.
To avoid damage to the plastic body component, remove or
install seat support brackets by sliding to the open end of the
molded channel. Do not force the seat support brackets into or
out of the channels from above.
Remove the hardware (45) securing the vertical foot rest
bracket (46) to each frame support (43) (Ref. Fig. 4 on
Page C-4). (Leave the bolt in place.)
Remove the nut (47) securing the horizontal foot rest
bracket to each frame support. (Leave the bolt in place.)
While supporting the end of the foot rest, remove the
bolt attaching the vertical bracket to the frame support.
Replacement of the foot rest is the reverse order of
removal. Tighten bolts to 21 - 25 ft. lbs. torque.
Repair and Service Manual
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
.
The foot rest is heavy and awkward to handle.
To prevent possible personal injury, it is
strongly recommended that adequate help or
a lifting device be used to remove the foot rest
from the vehicle.
Rear Bumper Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Reqd.
Electric/Air drill .............................................................1
Drill bit, 7/32"................................................................1
Flat tip screwdriver.......................................................1
Allen wrench, 7/32" ......................................................1
For Golf Cars, drill out rivets (48) located at each end of
the rear bumper (49) (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page C-3). Carefully remove the plugs (53) with a screwdriver. Remove
the shoulder bolts (52) underneath the plugs. Remove
the rear bumper.
To replace the bumper, place the rear bumper against
the rear body panel and tighten the shoulder bolts (52)
to 9 - 12 ft. lbs. torque (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page C-3).
Replace the plugs. Using the existing holes in the frame
as a guide, drill holes in the bumper from underneath
the vehicle and install new rivets.
For Shuttle 2+2, remove bolt (50) and J-nut (51) located
at each end of the rear bumper (49) (Ref. Fig. 3 on
Page C-3). Carefully remove the plugs (53) with a
screwdriver. Remove the shoulder bolts (52) underneath the plugs. Remove the rear bumper.
To install this type bumper, engage the top of the
bumper with the underside of the fenders. Push bumper
upward as fender slides between the bumper clips and
the bumper.
Insert bolts through holes in the bumper into the frame
and tighten to 9 - 12 ft. lbs. torque.
Tap a bumper cover plug into each hole.
Secure each end of the bumper to the fender with bolt
and J-nut.
Repair and Service Manual
Page C-7
B
B
BODY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page C-8
Repair and Service Manual
WHEELS AND TIRES
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’D’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
WHEEL AND TIRE SERVICE .................................................................................................................................... D - 1
Tire Repair ..................................................................................................................................................... D - 1
Wheel Installation .......................................................................................................................................... D - 1
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Wheels and Tires ............................................................................................................................................. D - 2
Repair and Service Manual
Page D-i
WHEELS AND TIRES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page D-ii
Repair and Service Manual
WHEELS AND TIRES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
WHEEL AND TIRE SERVICE
Tools List
Qty. Required
Lug wrench, 3/4" ......................................................... 1
Impact wrench, 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
Impact socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive..................................... 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
To prevent injury caused by a broken socket,
use only sockets designed for impact wrench
use. Never use a conventional socket.
Tire condition should be inspected per the Periodic Service Schedule. Inflation pressures should be checked
when the tires are cool. When removing wheels with an
impact wrench, use only impact sockets. Regular sockets are not designed for impact pressures exerted by
power tools.
A tire explosion can cause severe injury or
death. Never exceed inflation pressure rating
on tire sidewall.
To prevent tire explosion, pressurize tire
with small amount of air applied intermittently to seat beads. Never exceed the tire
manufacturer’s recommendation when
seating a bead. Protect face and eyes
from escaping air when removing valve
core.
Use caution when inflating tires. Due to
the low volume of these small tires, overinflation can occur in a matter of seconds.
Overinflation could cause the tire to separate from the wheel or cause the tire to
explode, either of which could cause personal injury.
Use caution when inflating tires. Due to the low volume
of these small tires, overinflation can occur in a matter of
seconds. Overinflation could cause the tire to separate
from the rim or cause the tire to explode, either of which
could cause personal injury.
Tire inflation should be determined by the condition of
the terrain. See GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS section
for recommended tire inflation pressure. For outdoor
applications with major use on grassy areas, the follow-
ing should be considered. On hard turf, it is desirable to
have a slightly higher inflation pressure. On very soft
turf, a lower pressure prevents tires from cutting into the
turf. For vehicles being used on paved or hard surfaces,
tire inflation pressure should be in the higher allowable
range, but under no condition should inflation pressure
be higher than recommended on tire sidewall. All four
tires should have the same pressure for optimum handling characteristics. Be careful not to overinflate. Due to
the low volume of these small tires, overinflation can
occur in a matter of seconds. Be sure to install the valve
dust cap after checking or inflating.
Tire Repair
The vehicle is fitted with low pressure tubeless tires
mounted on one piece rims.
Generally, the most cost effective way to repair a flat tire
resulting from a puncture in the tread portion of the tire
is to use a commercial tire plug.
Tire plug tools and plugs are available at most automotive
parts outlets and have the advantage of not requiring the tire
be removed from the wheel.
If the tire is flat, remove the wheel and inflate the tire to
the maximum recommended pressure for the tire.
Immerse the tire in water to locate the leak and mark
with chalk. Insert tire plug in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.
If the tire is to be removed or mounted, the tire changing
machine manufacturer’s recommendations must be followed in order to minimize possibility of personal injury.
To prevent injury, be sure mounting/demounting machine is anchored to floor. Wear OSHA
approved safety equipment when mounting/
demounting tires.
Follow all instructions and safety warnings provided by
the mounting/demounting machine manufacturer.
Wheel Installation
Do not tighten lug nuts to more than 85 ft. lbs. (115
Nm) torque.
Repair and Service Manual
Page D-1
WHEELS AND TIRES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
It is important to follow the ‘cross sequence’ pattern when
installing lug nuts. This will assure even seating of the wheel
against the hub.
sequence’ pattern (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page D-2). Then,
tighten lug nuts to 50 - 85 ft. lbs. (70 - 115 Nm) torque in
20 ft. lbs. (30 Nm) increments following the same ‘cross
sequence’ pattern.
With the valve stem to the outside, mount the wheel onto
the hub with lug nuts. Finger tighten lug nuts in a ‘cross
Tire style may vary
Valve stem is always
to outside of wheel
Always replace dust cap
'CROSS SEQUENCE'
1
3
4
2
Fig. 1 Wheels and Tires
Page D-2
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’E’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................................................................... E - 2
Lubrication ..................................................................................................................................................... E - 2
Wheel Bearing and King Pin Bushing Inspection .......................................................................................... E - 2
Wheel Bearing Packing ................................................................................................................................. E - 2
Wheel Bearing Adjustment ............................................................................................................................ E - 3
Wheel Alignment ............................................................................................................................................ E - 3
FRONT SUSPENSION ............................................................................................................................................... E - 5
Front Shock Absorber Replacement .............................................................................................................. E - 5
Front Axle Replacement ................................................................................................................................ E - 6
Front Spring Replacement ............................................................................................................................. E - 6
Hub Replacement .......................................................................................................................................... E - 7
Wheel Bearing and Race Replacement ......................................................................................................... E - 8
STEERING ................................................................................................................................................................. E - 9
Rack Ball Joint Replacement ......................................................................................................................... E - 9
Tie Rod Inspection/Replacement ................................................................................................................. E - 10
Bellows Replacement .................................................................................................................................. E - 11
Pinion Seal Replacement ............................................................................................................................ E - 11
Spindle Replacement ................................................................................................................................... E - 12
Rack and Pinion Unit Disassembly and Inspection ..................................................................................... E - 13
Rack and Pinion Unit Replacement ............................................................................................................. E - 14
Checking/Adjusting Rack Extension-to-Rack and Pinion Unit Clearance .................................................... E - 14
Steering Wheel Replacement ...................................................................................................................... E - 15
Steering Shaft and Column Replacement ................................................................................................... E - 16
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Steering and Front Suspension .......................................................................................................................... E - 1
Fig. 2 Lubrication Points ............................................................................................................................................... E - 2
Fig. 3 Bearing Adjustment ............................................................................................................................................ E - 3
Fig. 4 Wheel Alignment ................................................................................................................................................ E - 4
Fig. 5 Disconnect Intermediate Shaft to Center Steering Wheel .................................................................................. E - 4
Fig. 6 Front Suspension Components .......................................................................................................................... E - 5
Fig. 7 Front Axle Alignment .......................................................................................................................................... E - 7
Fig. 8 Hub Replacement ............................................................................................................................................... E - 8
Fig. 9 Seal Installation .................................................................................................................................................. E - 8
Fig. 10 Wheel Bearing Replacement ............................................................................................................................ E - 8
Fig. 11 Steering Components ....................................................................................................................................... E - 9
Fig. 12 Rack Ball Joint Installation .............................................................................................................................. E - 10
Fig. 13 Tie Rod Replacement ..................................................................................................................................... E - 10
Fig. 14 Bellows Replacement ..................................................................................................................................... E - 11
Fig. 15 Pinion Seal Replacement ............................................................................................................................... E - 12
Fig. 16 Spindle Replacement ..................................................................................................................................... E - 12
Fig. 17 Rack and Pinion Unit Disassembly ................................................................................................................. E - 13
Fig. 18 Spindle Contact with Front Axle ...................................................................................................................... E - 15
Fig. 19 Checking Gap ................................................................................................................................................. E - 15
Fig. 20 Clipboard Removal ......................................................................................................................................... E - 15
Fig. 21 Steering Wheel Replacement ......................................................................................................................... E - 15
Fig. 22 Steering Shaft and Column ............................................................................................................................ E - 16
Fig. 23 Small Retaining Ring Orientation .................................................................................................................... E - 17
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-i
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page E-ii
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Part of
Frame
Rack & Pinion
Unit
Intermediate
Shaft with
U-Joints
Wave Washer
Bearing
Outer Snap Ring
Inner Snap Ring
Rack Extension
Thrust
Washer
King Pin
Tube
Rack Ball Joint
Spacer
Part of
Frame
Spindle &
King Pin
Bushing
Formed
Axle
Fig. 1 Steering and Front Suspension
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-1
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Wheel Bearing and King Pin Bushing
Inspection
MAINTENANCE
In the following text, there are references to removing/installing
bolts etc. Additional hardware (nuts, washers etc.) that is
removed must always be installed in its original position unless
otherwise specified. Non-specified torque specifications are as
shown in the table contained in Section A.
Routine maintenance of the front suspension and steering consists of:
•
•
•
periodic inspections for loose, worn or damaged
components
alignment checks
lubrication of ball joints and wheel bearings
See Lubrication Chart and Periodic Service Schedule in
Section A. Be sure to use only the recommended lubricants. Maintain the correct adjustment of the front bearings and repack them in accordance with the Periodic
Service Schedule or if a bearing replacement is
required. Routine examination of the tires will provide
indications if an alignment is required.
Lubrication
Tool List
Qty. Required
Grease gun.................................................................. 1
Shop towels .............................................................. AR
Grease the rack ball joint (1) (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page E-2)
per Periodic Service Schedule in Section A. Wipe off old
grease that is forced out of rubber boot.
To prevent possible injury or death resulting
from a vehicle falling from a jack, follow the lifting procedure in Section B of this manual. Be
sure the vehicle is on a firm and level surface.
Never get under a vehicle while it is supported
by a jack. Use jack stands and test the stability
of the vehicle on the stands before starting any
repair procedure. Always place chocks in front
and behind the wheels not being raised. Use
extreme care since the vehicle is extremely
unstable during the lifting process.
Lift the front of the vehicle and support on jack stands as
per SAFETY section. Rotate the front wheel and feel for
any roughness. While holding spindle with one hand,
grasp bottom of tire with other hand and rock tire back
and forth on spindle.
Some minor rocking movement of tire is normal.
If excess movement is detected, the wheel bearing may
require repacking and adjusting or replacement. “Wheel
Bearing Packing” on Page E-2) “Wheel Bearing Adjustment” on Page E-3)
If the wheel bearing is satisfactory, a worn spindle bearing, which is not a serviceable item, is indicated and the
spindle must be replaced. “Spindle Replacement” on
Page E-12)
Wheel Bearing Packing
Tool List
1
Front of Vehicle
Qty. Required
Grease gun ..................................................................1
Bearing packer (Recommended) .................................1
Remove hub from spindle and disassemble. “Wheel
Bearing and Race Replacement” on Page E-8)
2
3
Fig. 2 Lubrication Points
Page E-2
Clean all bearings, grease seal, hub and dust cap in solvent and dry thoroughly. Inspect for signs of damage.
Pitting or a blue coloration of the rollers will require
replacement of the bearing. If the roller portion of the
bearing is to be replaced, the race must also be
replaced. “Wheel Bearing and Race Replacement” on
Page E-8)
The front wheel bearings are tapered roller type and
must be packed with grease at installation or any time
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
the bearing is removed for inspection. It is recommended that a bearing packer attached to a grease gun
be used; however, manual packing is acceptable if done
correctly. To pack a bearing manually requires that a dab
of grease be placed in the palm of the hand and the
bearing be dipped in the grease. Force the grease up
through and around all of the rollers until the entire bearing is saturated in grease.
Assemble hub and install on spindle. “Hub Replacement” on Page E-7)
If completing a wheel bearing adjustment as part of
another procedure, tighten front wheels per WHEELS
AND TIRES section.
5
2
1
Once hub is placed onto spindle and before outer wheel bearing is installed, fill the area between the inner and outer wheel
bearings about 1/2 - 3/4 full with grease.
3
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
Tool List
Front of Vehicle
4
Qty. Required
Socket, 1 1/2", 1/2" drive ............................................. 1
Ratchet, 1/2" drive....................................................... 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Adapter, 3/8" drive to 1/2"............................................ 1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, in. lbs. ............................... 1
Fig. 3 Bearing Adjustment
Wheel Alignment
Tool List
Qty. Required
Tape measure ..............................................................1
Chalk............................................................................1
If performing a wheel bearing adjustment only, lift and
support front of vehicle per SAFETY section. Remove
dust cap (1) and cotter pin (2) and loosen castellated nut
(3).
Wrench, 9/16" ..............................................................1
If performing a wheel bearing adjustment as part of
another procedure, make sure wheel is mounted to hub
hand tight with lug nuts (4) and hub is loosely retained
on spindle (5) with castellated nut (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page
E-3).
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Seat bearings by rotating wheel while tightening castellated nut until slight resistance is felt.
Rotate the wheel 2 - 3 more turns to displace excess
grease. If required, tighten castellated nut (3) again until
slight resistance is felt. If the cotter pin hole in the spindle (5) aligns with a slot in the castellated nut, insert a
new cotter pin (2). If the hole does not align, the castellated nut must be loosened to align with the closest
available slot in the nut.
Check for smooth and free rotation of the wheel and an
absence of play when the wheel is grasped by the outside of the tire. Bend the cotter pin (2) against the flats
of the castellated nut (3).
Replace the dust cap (1) and lower vehicle per SAFETY
section.
Wrench, 3/4" ................................................................1
Crowfoot socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive..................................1
Socket, 13 mm, 3/8" drive............................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, in. lbs.................................1
Lift the front of the vehicle and support on jack stands as
per SAFETY section. Confirm the alignment of the front
springs. “Front Spring Replacement” on Page E-6)
Rotate each wheel and scribe a chalk line around the
circumference of the tire at the center of the tread pattern. Lower vehicle and, with tires in the straight ahead
position, roll it forward approximately five feet in order to
allow the tires to take their normal running position.
Measure the distance between the chalk lines at both
the front and rear of the tires (Ref. Fig. 4 on Page E-4).
The measurement taken at the front of the tires should
be 0" - 1/8" (0 - 3 mm) less than the rear.
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-3
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Test drive vehicle and confirm steering wheel is correctly centered. If it is not centered, disconnect intermediate shaft from steering shaft and center steering
wheel (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page E-4). Reconnect intermediate shaft and tighten bolt to 155 - 215 in. lbs. (180 - 250
kg cm) torque.
X
Rear
1
2
1
Remove Bolt
Front of Vehicle
+ 0" (0 mm)
X 1/8" (3 mm)
Front
Intermediate
Shaft
View from Underside
of Vehicle
Fig. 4 Wheel Alignment
Fig. 5 Disconnect Intermediate Shaft to Center Steering Wheel
To hold threaded tube while loosening jam nut, use a wrench
on the center, flat section of tube.
The tie rod has different threads on each end. The end with
the groove in the threaded tube has left hand threads while
the end without the groove has conventional right hand
threads.
To adjust wheel alignment, loosen tie rod jam nuts (1)
and turn tie rod (2) until correct alignment is achieved.
Tighten jam nuts to 36 - 40 ft. lbs. (49 - 54 Nm) torque.
Page E-4
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
FRONT SUSPENSION
2
Part of
Frame
3
5
7
4
15
16
29
19
1
14
11
9
12
21
23
22
13
24
25
18
Part of
Frame
24
10
8
28
6
20
*NOTE: Tie Rod Not
Shown for
Clarity
27
17
26
18
Fig. 6 Front Suspension Components
Front Shock Absorber Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Loosen the nut securing the top of the shock absorber to
the vehicle frame and then rotate the shock absorber
while holding the nut in place with a wrench.
Wrench, 9/16".............................................................. 1
Remove the nut (1) from the bottom of the shock
absorber(2) at the front axle (3)(Ref. Fig. 6 on Page E-5)
Compress shock absorber to clear the mounting
bracket.
Remove the shock absorber.
Installation of shock absorber is reverse of disassembly.
Mounting nuts should be tightened until rubber bushings
(4) expand to diameter of shock absorber washers (5).
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-5
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Front Axle Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Ratchet, 1/2" drive ....................................................... 1
Socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive ................................................ 1
Wrench, 9/16" .............................................................. 1
Wrench, 3/4" ................................................................ 1
Plastic faced hammer .................................................. 1
Shop towels .............................................................. AR
Wire .......................................................................... AR
Wrench, 5/8" ................................................................ 1
Wrench, 11/16" ............................................................ 1
Socket, 9/16", 1/2" drive .............................................. 1
Socket, 5/8", 1/2" drive ................................................ 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Loosen front wheels. Lift and support front of vehicle per
SAFETY section and remove front wheels.
Remove hardware (1, 4, 5) securing shock absorbers (2)
to front axle (3) (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page E-5).
On the driver side, remove lock nut (6) and washer (8)
from bolt (7) and discard nut. Pull bolt (7) and washer (9)
from spindle (10) and separate spindle from axle.
Remove thrust washer (11) and king pin tube (12) from
spindle, wrap towel around spindle and let spindle rest
on ground.
Repeat at passenger side letting rack ball joint (29) rest
on front spring to support spindle.
At the 3 1/2" long bolt (20) securing front of left spring,
note location of washer (22) and remove it from end of
bolt. Remove nut (21), 3 1/2" long bolt (20), spring plate
(24) and spacer (23) and retain them for assembly at
their original locations.
To prevent stress and possible damage to the rack and
pinion unit, the axle must first be mounted to the springs
with the hardware (20 - 23) installed in its original location
(Ref. Fig. 6 on Page E-5).
To prevent damage to bellows (16), the two 1 1/2" long
bolts (28) must be installed in their original location.
Front axle installation is the reverse order of disassembly using new lock nuts (15, 19). All hardware (18 - 24,
28) must be installed in its original location (Ref. Fig. 6
on Page E-5).
Tighten leaf spring and rack and pinion unit hardware
(13 - 15,18 - 21, 28) to 35 - 50 ft. lbs (50 - 70 Nm)
torque.
Install thrust washers (11), king pin tubes (12), spindles,
washers (9) and bolts (7). Tighten new lock nuts (6) to
56 - 70 ft. lbs. (75 - 95 Nm) torque. Check that spindle
turns freely on king pin tube after tightening.
Tighten shock absorber mounting hardware until rubber
bushings expand to diameter of shock absorber washer.
Install front wheels per WHEELS AND TIRES section
and lower vehicle per SAFETY section.
To prevent possible injury from falling steering
components, secure rack and pinion unit (16)
to front springs with wire. This will prevent the
intermediate shaft connecting the rack and pinion unit to the steering column from pulling
apart due to the weight of the steering system.
The intermediate shaft is assembled with the universal joints
set 90° out of phase with each other.
Remove hardware (13 - 15) securing rack and pinion
unit (16) to front axle and discard lock nuts (15). Move
rack and pinion unit back to rest on top of front springs
(17). Secure rack and pinion unit to spring with wire to
prevent pulling apart intermediate shaft.
Remove the three 1 3/4" long bolts (18), two 1 1/2" long
bolts (28), spring plate (24) and five lock nuts (19) securing axle to springs and discard lock nuts.
Page E-6
Check front wheel alignment and adjust if necessary.
“Wheel Alignment” on Page E-3)
Front Spring Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Jack stands ..................................................................4
Ratchet, 1/2" drive .......................................................1
Socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive ................................................1
Socket, 5/8", 1/2" drive ................................................1
Wrench, 5/8" ................................................................1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Tape measure ..............................................................1
Failure of a single spring will result in overstressing the other
spring; therefore, replace front springs as a set.
The following procedure will replace one spring at a
time.
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Loosen front wheels. Lift and support front of vehicle per
SAFETY section. In addition, support front axle with jack
stands. Remove front wheels.
To detach driver side spring:
Fully loosen the two rack and pinion unit lock nuts (15),
one near the bellows and one on the rear side of the
rack and pinion unit, until only one thread is engaged
(Ref. Fig. 6 on Page E-5). Remove the lock nut (15) and
washer (14) from the long bolt (20) and discard lock nut.
The rack and pinion unit is now loose.
Remove the two 1 3/4" long bolts (18) and lock nuts (19)
securing driver side spring to axle and discard lock nuts
(19).
After the springs are replaced, the axle will need to be aligned
to the frame. Unless the axle has been replaced, wheel alignment will not be affected; however, it is always good practice to
check wheel alignment any time the front-end components are
replaced or adjusted.
When front springs are replaced, the front axle must be
aligned to the frame. The distance from the center bolt
at rear of left spring to the center bolt at front of right
spring must be the same as the distance from the center
bolt at rear of right spring to the center bolt at front of left
spring (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page E-7). Tighten the spring
hardware (21, 19, 27) first and rack and pinion unit hardware (15) next to 35 - 50 ft. lbs. (50 - 70 Nm) torque.
Hold nut (21) with wrench and loosen long bolt (20).
Note location of washer (22) and thread long bolt out as
far as possible to remove the washer, nut and spacer
(23). Then pull long bolt and spring plate (24) from axle
and spring. Retain above items (20 - 24) for assembly at
their original locations.
View from Underside
of Vehicle
Pull upper driver side of floor mat out of plastic trim
retainer and away from floor. Locate and remove hardware (25 - 27) securing rear of spring (17) to vehicle
frame and discard lock nuts (27).
To prevent stress and possible damage to the rack and
pinion unit, the driver side spring must be mounted to
the axle with the hardware (20 - 23) installed in its original location (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page E-5).
Driver side spring installation is the reverse order of disassembly making sure to install the long bolt (20), spring
plate (24), spacer (23), nut (21) and washer (22) in their
original locations. Use new lock nuts (15, 19, 27) to
secure the rack and pinion unit (16), two short bolts (18)
and rear bolts (25).
Equal
Distance
Fig. 7 Front Axle Alignment
Replace upper portion of floor mat in plastic trim retainers. Install front wheels per WHEELS AND TIRES section and lower vehicle per SAFETY section.
Check front wheel alignment and adjust if necessary.
“Wheel Alignment” on Page E-3)
Hub Replacement
Tool List
To detach passenger side spring:
Qty. Required
Pull upper passenger side of floor mat out of plastic trim
retainer and away from floor. Locate and remove hardware (25 - 27) securing rear of spring (17) to vehicle
frame and discard lock nuts (27).
Socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive ................................................1
Ratchet, 1/2" drive .......................................................1
Straight blade screwdriver ...........................................1
Ball peen hammer........................................................1
Needle nose pliers .......................................................1
Socket, 1 1/2", 1/2" drive .............................................1
Wheel bearing grease...............................................AR
Seal driver....................................................................1
Using new lock nuts (19, 27), install passenger side
spring in the reverse order of disassembly.
Loosen front wheel(s). Lift and support front of vehicle
per SAFETY section and remove front wheel(s).
Remove the hardware (18, 19, 24, 28) securing the front
of the passenger side leaf spring (17) to the axle (3) and
discard lock nuts (19) (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page E-5).
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-7
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Remove the dust cap (1), cotter pin (2) and castellated
nut (3) (Ref. Fig. 8 on Page E-8). While holding outer
wheel bearing (4) in place, slide hub (5) from spindle (6)
and discard.
Wheel Bearing and Race Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Non-ferrous punch .......................................................1
Ball peen hammer........................................................1
Bearing driver ..............................................................1
Remove hub (1) from spindle (Ref. Fig. 10 on Page E-8).
“Hub Replacement” on Page E-7)
Remove the grease seal (3), inner wheel bearing (4) and
bearing races (5) by tapping, through the other side of
hub, the bearing race using a hammer and a soft nonferrous punch. Tap race in a circular pattern while moving from side to side to avoid damaging bore of hub.
Front of Vehicle
6
5
2
3
7
8
4
1
Fig. 8 Hub Replacement
Front of Vehicle
Clean spindle and new hub thoroughly with solvent.
2
1
Pack new bearings with grease. “Wheel Bearing Packing” on Page E-2)
Apply a light coat of grease to inner race and place inner
wheel bearing (7) in hub. Orient new grease seal (8) so
the flange side of the seal is facing into the bore. Tap
gently into place until seal is flush with end of hub. Lubricate lips of seal and spindle with grease (Ref. Fig. 9 on
Page E-8).
A - Install this side of seal
into housing
B - Lubricate lip of seal
B
A
Fig. 9 Seal Installation
Place new hub onto spindle and fill the area between the
two wheel bearings about 1/2 - 3/4 full with grease and
apply a light coating to the outer bearing race.
4
6
7
3
5
Fig. 10 Wheel Bearing Replacement
Clean outer wheel bearing (6), inner wheel bearing (4),
hub and dust cap (7) in solvent and dry thoroughly.
Inspect for signs of damage. Pitting or a blue coloration
of the rollers requires replacement of the bearing. If the
roller portion of the bearing is to be replaced, the race
must also be replaced.
To install race (5), make sure bore of hub (1) is clean
and place new race over bore of hub. Evenly tap with
hammer and bearing driver to drive race fully in bore.
Repeat on other side of hub.
Clean spindle (2) and pack new bearings with grease.
“Wheel Bearing Packing” on Page E-2)
Install outer wheel bearing (4) and secure hub loosely
with castellated nut. Place wheel onto hub and hand
tighten lug nuts.
Install inner wheel bearing (4) and new grease seal in
hub and mount hub to spindle. “Hub Replacement” on
Page E-7)
Adjust bearing.
E-3)
Adjust bearing.
E-3)
“Wheel Bearing Adjustment” on Page
“Wheel Bearing Adjustment” on Page
Replace the dust cap (1).
Replace the dust cap (7).
Lower vehicle per SAFETY section and tighten front
wheel(s) per WHEELS AND TIRES section.
Lower vehicle per SAFETY section and tighten front
wheel(s) per WHEELS AND TIRES section.
Page E-8
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
STEERING
15
Front of Vehicle
13
18
14
9
1
12
5
4
10
19
10
9
20
3
2
6
17
6
16
7
7
11
8
Flat
Section
11
Fig. 11 Steering Components
Rack Ball Joint Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Needle nose pliers....................................................... 1
Wrench, 11/16" ............................................................ 1
Ball joint separator....................................................... 1
Plastic faced hammer.................................................. 1
Tape measure.............................................................. 1
Wrench, 3/4"................................................................ 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Socket, 11/16", 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
To remove rack ball joint (1), loosen passenger side
front wheel and lift and support front of vehicle per
SAFETY section (Ref. Fig. 11 on Page E-9).
Remove passenger side front wheel and turn steering
wheel fully to the left.
Remove the cotter pin (2) and loosen the castellated nut
(3) until rack ball joint (1) threads are protected. Using a
ball joint separator as a lever, apply pressure to ball joint
and tap nut with plastic faced hammer to release ball
joint from passenger side spindle arm. Remove nut from
ball joint and ball joint from spindle arm.
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-9
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
To install new rack ball joint close to its correct position,
measure amount of threads exposed from jam nut (Ref.
Fig. 12 on Page E-10).
Tie Rod Inspection/Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Tape measure ..............................................................1
Wrench, 3/4" ................................................................1
Wrench, 9/16" ..............................................................1
Needle nose pliers .......................................................1
Wrench, 11/16".............................................................1
Ball joint separator .......................................................1
Plastic faced hammer ..................................................1
Socket, 11/16", 1/2" drive.............................................1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Crowfoot socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive..................................1
Grasp the tie rod (8) at ball joints (6) and check for any
vertical motion which would indicate a worn condition
and require replacement (Ref. Fig. 11 on Page E-9).
Measure exposed thread length
and use length to position new
ball joint at same location
Fig. 12 Rack Ball Joint Installation
Loosen jam nut (4) and remove rack ball joint from rack
extension (5).
Using measurement made earlier, thread jam nut and
new rack ball joint to previous location on rack extension
and set jam nut hand tight.
To remove tie rod, loosen wheel(s) and lift and support
front of vehicle per SAFETY section.
Remove front wheel.
To install new tie rod ball joint close to its correct position, measure distance to center of ball joint from jam nut
(Ref. Fig. 13 on Page E-10).
Attach rack ball joint to spindle arm. Tighten castellated
nut (3) to 36 ft. lbs. (50 Nm) torque and continue to
tighten as needed to insert new cotter pin (2). Maximum
torque is 50 ft. lbs. (70 Nm).
Measure distance from center of
ball joint to jam nut and use length
to position new ball joint at same
location
After replacing or servicing steering components, always
verify that an 1/8" gap exists between large hex of rack
extension and rack and pinion unit when steering is
turned fully to the right forcing passenger spindle arm
against front axle (Ref. Fig. 19 on Page E-15).
Fig. 13 Tie Rod Replacement
Loosen jam nut (7) at threaded tube (8).
Check for proper rack extension-to-rack and pinion unit
clearance before tightening jam nut (4) to 35 - 45 ft. lbs.
(47 - 61 Nm) torque. “Checking/Adjusting Rack Extension-to-Rack and Pinion Unit Clearance” on Page E-14)
Install passenger side front wheel per WHEELS AND
TIRES section and lower vehicle per SAFETY section.
Check front wheel alignment and adjust if necessary.
“Wheel Alignment” on Page E-3)
Page E-10
To hold threaded tube while loosening jam nut, use a wrench
on the center, flat section of tube (Ref. Fig. 11 on Page E-9).
The tie rod has different threads on each end. The end with
the groove in the threaded tube has left hand threads (clockwise to loosen) while the end without the groove has conventional right hand threads (counter-clockwise to loosen) (Ref.
Fig. 13 on Page E-10).
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Remove cotter pin (9) and loosen castellated nut (10)
until tie rod ball joint (6) threads are protected. Using a
ball joint separator as a lever, apply pressure to ball joint
and tap nut with plastic faced hammer to release tie rod
from spindle arm. Remove nut to drop tie rod from spindle arm.
Unscrew tie rod ball joint and jam nut from threaded
tube.
3
1
4
2
5
6
To install ball joint, first thread on new jam nut and then,
using measurement made earlier, screw ball joint to previous location in threaded tube. Set jam nut hand tight.
Grooves
Fig. 14 Bellows Replacement
Remove passenger side front wheel and turn steering
wheel fully to the left.
The distance to center of tie rod ball joint from jam nut on both
ends of threaded tube should be the same.
Install rubber boot (11) and attach tie rod to spindle. The
castellated nut (10) should be tightened to a minimum
of 36 ft. lbs. (50 Nm) torque and continue tightening as
required in order to insert a new cotter pin. Maximum
torque is 50 ft. lbs. (70 Nm).
Install front wheel(s) per WHEELS AND TIRES section
and lower vehicle per SAFETY section.
A worn tie rod is likely to have caused incorrect wheel
alignment. Check front wheel alignment and adjust if
necessary. “Wheel Alignment” on Page E-3)
Jam nut should be tightened to 36 - 40 ft. lbs. (49 - 54
Nm) torque.
Bellows Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Needle nose pliers....................................................... 1
Wrench, 11/16" ............................................................ 1
Ball joint separator....................................................... 1
Plastic faced hammer.................................................. 1
Tape measure.............................................................. 1
Wrench, 3/4"................................................................ 1
Wire cutters ................................................................. 1
Wire tie, 8" long ........................................................... 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Socket, 11/16", 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
To replace bellows (1) (Ref. Fig. 14 on Page E-11), first
loosen passenger side front wheel and lift and support
front of vehicle per SAFETY section.
Remove rack ball joint (2) and jam nut (3) from rack
extension(4). “Rack Ball Joint Replacement” on Page
E-9)
Cut wire ties (5,6) and slide bellows off rack extension.
Install new bellows aligning small end over groove in
rack extension and secure with new wire tie (5). Leave
large end loose until rack extension-to-rack and pinion
unit clearance is checked or adjusted.
Install jam nut (3) and rack ball joint (2) on rack extension (4) and reattach to spindle arm. “Rack Ball Joint
Replacement” on Page E-9)
After replacing or servicing steering components, always
verify that an 1/8" gap exists between large hex of rack
extension and rack and pinion unit when steering is
turned fully to the right forcing passenger spindle arm
against front axle.
Check for proper rack extension-to-rack and pinion unit
clearance before tightening jam nut (3) to 35 - 45 ft. lbs.
(47 - 61 Nm) torque. “Checking/Adjusting Rack Extension-to-Rack and Pinion Unit Clearance” on Page E-14)
Install passenger side front wheel per WHEELS AND
TIRES section and lower vehicle per SAFETY section.
Check front wheel alignment and adjust if necessary.
“Wheel Alignment” on Page E-3)
Pinion Seal Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Vice..............................................................................1
Straight blade screwdriver, small .................................1
Ball peen hammer........................................................1
Sandpaper, 600 grit ..................................................AR
Shop towel ................................................................AR
Wheel bearing grease...............................................AR
Socket, 1 1/2", 1/2" drive .............................................1
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-11
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Spindle Replacement
Tool List
Secure rack and pinion unit in vice by the mounting ears
only. The rack and pinion unit is made of aluminum and
can be damaged if held otherwise.
To access the pinion seal, remove rack and pinion unit
from vehicle. “Rack and Pinion Unit Replacement” on
Page E-14) Anchor in vice by clamping on the mounting
ears of the rack and pinion unit.
Qty. Required
Needle nose pliers .......................................................1
Wrench, 11/16".............................................................1
Ball joint separator .......................................................1
Plastic faced hammer ..................................................1
Wrench, 3/4" ................................................................1
Socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive ................................................1
Socket, 11/16", 1/2" drive.............................................1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Slide a small straight blade screwdriver between lip of
seal and pinion and pry top portion of seal up to remove
(Ref. Fig. 15 on Page E-12).
The spindle bearings are designed to be used "dry".
Lubrication attracts dirt and will ruin the bearings. Do not
apply grease to the spindle bearings.
Loosen front wheel. Lift and support front of vehicle per
SAFETY section and remove front wheel.
Lip of
Seal
Remove cotter pin (1) and loosen castellated nut (2)
until tie rod ball joint (3) threads are protected (Ref. Fig.
16 on Page E-12). Using a ball joint separator as a lever,
apply pressure to ball joint and tap nut with plastic faced
hammer to release tie rod from spindle arm (4). Remove
nut from tie rod and tie rod from spindle arm.
If removing passenger side spindle, repeat previous step
for rack ball joint.
Fig. 15 Pinion Seal Replacement
Use screwdriver to lift inner portion of seal up and off
pinion.
Check pinion surface for roughness and sand lightly if
needed.
Wipe bore clean and lubricate pinion and lip of seal with
grease.
Remove lock nut (5) and washer (7) from bolt (6) and
discard nut. Pull bolt (6) and washer (8) from spindle
and separate spindle from axle. Remove thrust washer
(9) and king pin tube (10) from spindle.
2
6
1
Front of Vehicle
9
8
The bore has a positive stop to correctly locate the seal during
installation.
10
Place seal over pinion and tap carefully with socket and
hammer to start seal straight in bore. Drive seal fully into
bore until it stops and wipe clean of any excess grease.
Attach rack and pinion unit to front axle. “Rack and Pinion Unit Replacement” on Page E-14)
7
4
3
5
Fig. 16 Spindle Replacement
Page E-12
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Spindle installation is the reverse order of disassembly.
The thrust washer (9) is located on top of spindle between
spindle and front axle.
Tighten new lock nut (5) to 56 - 70 ft. lbs. (75 - 95 Nm)
torque. Check that spindle turns freely on king pin tube
after tightening.
(3) and pinion (4) (Ref. Fig. 17 on Page E-13). Loosen
jam nut (5) and remove rack ball joint (6) from rack
extension (7). Cut wire ties (8, 14) securing bellows (9)
and slide bellows off rack extension. Pull rack (3) from
unit (1). Remove pinion seal (10). “Pinion Seal Replacement” on Page E-11) Remove internal retaining ring (11)
from rack and pinion unit and pull out pinion (4) and ball
bearing (12) as an assembly.
Tighten castellated nut (2) to 36 ft. lbs. (50 Nm) torque
and continue to tighten as needed to insert new cotter
pin. Maximum torque is 50 ft. lbs. (70 Nm).
Install front wheels per WHEELS AND TIRES section
and lower vehicle per SAFETY section.
Check front wheel alignment and adjust if necessary.
“Wheel Alignment” on Page E-3)
5
9
6
8
2
3
Rack and Pinion Unit Disassembly and
Inspection
Tool List
13
7
14
1
Qty. Required
Vice ............................................................................. 1
Socket, 3/8", 3/8" drive ................................................ 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive....................................................... 1
Wrench, 11/16" ............................................................ 1
Wrench, 3/4"................................................................ 1
Wire cutter ................................................................... 1
Retaining ring pliers..................................................... 1
Shop towel................................................................ AR
CITGO Lithoplex MP No. 2 grease........................... AR
Wire tie, 8" long ........................................................... 1
Wire tie, 10" long ......................................................... 1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, in. lbs. ............................... 1
The rack and pinion gears are not serviceable items. If they
are found to be damaged or excessively worn, a new rack and
pinion unit must be installed.
Secure rack and pinion unit in vice by the mounting ears
only. The rack and pinion unit is made of aluminum and
can be damaged if held otherwise.
Remove rack and pinion unit from vehicle. “Rack and
Pinion Unit Replacement” on Page E-14) Anchor in vice
by clamping on the mounting ears of the unit.
Disassemble rack and pinion unit (1) by first removing
screw (13) and tensioner (2) to relieve pressure on rack
11
10
4
12
Fig. 17 Rack and Pinion Unit Disassembly
Clean rack, pinion and housing. Inspect gear teeth,
bearing surfaces and grease seal surfaces of rack and
pinion for excessive wear or damage. If any is found, the
rack and pinion unit must be replaced as an assembly.
“Rack and Pinion Unit Replacement” on Page E-14)
If rack and pinion pass inspection, clean them, tensioner
and housing thoroughly and lubricate for assembly. Use
grease specified in tool list.
Assemble rack and pinion unit by first installing pinion in
reverse order of removal making sure to lubricate pinion
seal lip prior to installing seal. “Pinion Seal Replacement” on Page E-11) Insert rack into rack and pinion
unit. Turn pinion clockwise to help pull rack in if necessary. Install bellows and secure to rack extension with
wire tie (8). Do not secure large end of bellows to rack
and pinion unit until instructed to do so after setting
proper rack extension-to-rack and pinion unit clearance.
Install tensioner and tighten bolts (13) to 100 - 120 in.
lbs. (115 - 138 kg cm) torque. Thread jam nut and rack
ball joint to original location on rack extension and set
jam nut hand tight.
Install rack and pinion unit on vehicle. “Rack and Pinion
Unit Replacement” on Page E-14)
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-13
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Tighten castellated nut (3) to 36 ft. lbs. (50 Nm) torque
and continue to tighten as needed to insert new cotter
pin. Maximum torque is 50 ft. lbs. (70 Nm).
After replacing or servicing steering components, always
verify that an 1/8" gap exists between large hex of rack
extension and rack and pinion unit when steering is
turned fully to the right forcing passenger spindle arm
against front axle.
Set proper rack extension-to-rack and pinion unit clearance. “Checking/Adjusting Rack Extension-to-Rack and
Pinion Unit Clearance” on Page E-14)
Rack and Pinion Unit Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 13 mm, 3/8" drive ........................................... 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive ....................................................... 1
Needle nose pliers....................................................... 1
Wrench, 11/16" ............................................................ 1
Ball joint separator....................................................... 1
Plastic faced hammer .................................................. 1
Wrench, 5/8" ................................................................ 1
Socket, 5/8", 1/2" drive ................................................ 1
Ratchet, 1/2" drive ....................................................... 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Socket, 11/16", 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, in. lbs. ............................... 1
To remove rack and pinion unit (12) (Ref. Fig. 11 on
Page E-9), loosen front wheels and lift and support front
of vehicle per SAFETY section. Remove front wheels.
Remove bolt (13) and washer (14) securing intermediate
shaft (15) to rack and pinion unit (12).
Remove cotter pin (2) and loosen castellated nut (3)
until rack ball joint (1) threads are protected. Using a ball
joint separator as a lever, apply pressure to ball joint and
tap nut with plastic faced hammer to release ball joint
from passenger side spindle arm. Remove nut from ball
joint and ball joint from spindle arm.
Remove the three lock nuts (18) securing rack and pinion unit to front axle and discard nuts. The rack and pinion unit can now be removed from vehicle. Retain
washers (19), spacers (20) and the two bolts (16) for
assembly.
Tighten bolt (13) securing intermediate shaft to pinion to
155 - 215 in. lbs. (180 - 250 kg cm) torque.
After replacing or servicing steering components, always
verify that an 1/8" gap exists between large hex of rack
extension and rack and pinion unit when steering is
turned fully to the right forcing passenger spindle arm
against front axle.
Set proper rack extension-to-rack and pinion unit clearance. “Checking/Adjusting Rack Extension-to-Rack and
Pinion Unit Clearance” on Page E-14)
Install front wheels per WHEELS AND TIRES section
and lower vehicle per SAFETY section.
Check front wheel alignment and adjust if necessary.
“Wheel Alignment” on Page E-3)
Checking/Adjusting Rack Extension-to-Rack
and Pinion Unit Clearance
Tool List
Wrench, 11/16".............................................................1
Wrench, 3/4" ................................................................1
Wrench, 1/2" ................................................................1
Wire cutter ...................................................................1
Washer, 1/8" thick ........................................................1
Crowfoot socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive..................................1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Wire tie, 10" long..........................................................1
Check for proper rack extension-to-rack and pinion unit
clearance by first turning steering wheel fully to the right.
The rear spindle arm on the passenger side must rest
against the front axle (Ref. Fig. 18 on Page E-15). If it
does not, all adjustment is made at the rack ball joint (6)
(Ref. Fig. 17 on Page E-13). Loosen jam nut (5) at rack
ball joint and use wrench to thread shaft of rack extension (7) further into rack ball joint. This will provide more
travel for the steering wheel to be turned to the right
Replace rack and pinion unit in reverse order of
removal.
Use new lock nuts (18) and tighten them to 35 - 50 ft.
lbs. (50 - 70 Nm) torque.
Page E-14
Qty. Required
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Front
of Vehicle
To maintain correct orientation when replacing steering wheel,
first turn wheels straight ahead.
Rack
Ball
Joint
To prevent damage to the clipboard, perform the following removal procedure. Do not use a screwdriver to push
or pry the retaining tabs.
Passenger Side
Spindle Arm
Resting Against
Front Axle
Fig. 18 Spindle Contact with Front Axle
With spindle arm resting against front axle, cut wire tie
(14) securing bellows (9) to rack and pinion unit (1) and
slide bellows away from rack and pinion unit to see large
hex of rack extension. An 1/8" gap should exist between
the large hex and the end of the rack and pinion unit.
From the front side of the steering wheel (4), remove the
clipboard (5) by first pulling straight up on the bottom of
the clipboard to release the two bottom retaining tabs.
Then, using thumb for leverage as shown, reach from
behind steering wheel with fingertips to first pull down,
and then push up to release the two top clipboard retaining tabs (Ref. Fig. 20 on Page E-15).
4
5
Approximately
1/8" Thick Washer
Step 1
Step 2
Fig. 20 Clipboard Removal
Gap
6
Fig. 19 Checking Gap
Adjust, using an 1/8" thick washer as a gauge, by turning shaft of rack extension with wrench to create the 1/8"
gap. Tighten jam nut (5) to 35 - 45 ft. lbs. (47 - 61 Nm)
torque. Secure bellows to rack and pinion unit with new
wire tie (14).
7
Steering Wheel Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 15/16", 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
Ratchet, 1/2" drive....................................................... 1
Plastic faced hammer.................................................. 1
Ball peen hammer ....................................................... 1
Anti-seize compound................................................... 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Steering Shaft
Fig. 21 Steering Wheel Replacement
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-15
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Loosen the steering wheel retaining nut (6) two to three
turns (Ref. Fig. 21 on Page E-15). DO NOT REMOVE
NUT AT THIS TIME. Apply upward pressure to the
steering wheel. Place a plastic faced hammer against
the steering wheel nut and strike plastic faced hammer
sharply with a ball peen hammer.
Loosen front wheels. Lift and support front of vehicle per
SAFETY section and remove front wheels.
Remove the bolt (1) and washer (2) that secures the
intermediate shaft (3) to the steering shaft (4).
12
Do not strike steering nut or end of steering shaft directly
with ball peen hammer. Internal damage to rack and pinion unit can result.
7
When steering wheel is loosened, remove retaining nut
and remove steering wheel.
Prior to replacement, assemble the replacement steering wheel by aligning the retaining tabs on the rear collar
hub (7) with slots in back of steering wheel. Squeeze
tabs to allow insertion of hub. Do not force. Squeeze
hub on top and bottom to fully seat.
Replace steering wheel by first lightly coating the splines
of the steering shaft with a commercially available antiseize compound. With the vehicle wheels in the straight
ahead position, align the steering wheel on the steering
shaft and slide wheel on shaft. Tighten the steering
wheel nut (6) to 15 - 20 ft. lbs. (20 - 27 Nm) torque.
Inspect the four retaining tabs on the clipboard (5) for
white stress lines (Ref. Fig. 20 on Page E-15). If stress
lines are present, replace clipboard. Install by carefully
pressing, first the top two, then the bottom two retaining
tabs into the matching slots in steering wheel.
Steering Shaft and Column Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
Ratchet, 1/2" drive ....................................................... 1
Socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive ................................................ 1
Socket, 13 mm, 3/8" drive ........................................... 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive ....................................................... 1
Socket, 9/16", 1/2" drive .............................................. 1
Snap ring pliers............................................................ 1
Bearing separator ........................................................ 1
Gear puller................................................................... 1
Arbor press .................................................................. 1
Bearing driver set ........................................................ 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, in. lbs. ............................... 1
Wheel bearing grease .............................................. AR
5
6
10
11
4
3
9
8
2
Fig. 22 Steering Shaft and Column
Remove the four bolts (5) and washers (6) that secure
the steering column (7) to the chassis and remove the
column.
Remove large retaining ring (8) on bottom end of column
and pull shaft and bearing (9) out as an assembly. Slide
wave washer (10) out bottom end of steering column
and keep for reuse.
Remove small retaining ring (11) and press bearing from
steering shaft.
To assemble steering shaft, first press new bearing onto
shaft until it stops against shoulder. Then, with small
retaining ring oriented with arch up, slide ring onto shaft
as far as possible using snap ring pliers (Ref. Fig. 23 on
Page E-17). Use fingers to push retaining ring fully into
groove.
To remove steering shaft (4) (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page E16), remove the steering wheel. “Steering Wheel
Replacement” on Page E-15)
Page E-16
1
Repair and Service Manual
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Install with arch
up as shown
Steering
Shaft
Small
Retaining
Ring
Bearing
Groove
Fig. 23 Small Retaining Ring Orientation
Slide wave washer into base of steering column.
To install steering shaft and bearing assembly, apply
wheel bearing grease to lip of seal in bushing (12) at top
of column and press steering shaft and bearing assembly into column base. Secure with large retaining ring
making sure it is fully seated in groove of column.
Place steering column on vehicle and tighten column
bolts (5) to 29 ft. lbs. (39 Nm) torque.
Tighten bolt (1) securing intermediate shaft to steering
shaft to 156 - 216 in. lbs. (180 - 250 kg cm) torque.
Install front wheel(s) per WHEELS AND TIRES section
and lower vehicle per SAFETY section
Install steering wheel. “Steering Wheel Replacement” on
Page E-15)
Repair and Service Manual
Page E-17
B
B
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page E-18
Repair and Service Manual
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’F’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
ACCELERATOR, GOVERNOR AND CARBURETOR LINKAGE .............................................................................. F - 1
System Operation .......................................................................................................................................... F - 1
Governor Operation ....................................................................................................................................... F - 2
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................................... F - 2
SPEED CONTROL CABLES ...................................................................................................................................... F - 2
Throttle Cable Removal ................................................................................................................................. F - 2
Throttle Cable Installation .............................................................................................................................. F - 3
Throttle Cable Adjustment ............................................................................................................................. F - 3
Accelerator Cable Removal ........................................................................................................................... F - 3
Accelerator Cable Installation ........................................................................................................................ F - 3
Accelerator Cable Adjustment ....................................................................................................................... F - 3
PEDAL BOX ADJUSTMENTS .................................................................................................................................... F - 3
Accelerator Pedal Arm Adjustment ................................................................................................................ F - 3
Micro Switch Adjustment ............................................................................................................................... F - 4
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Accelerator and Governor System ..................................................................................................................... F - 1
Fig. 2 Throttle Cable Removal ...................................................................................................................................... F - 2
Fig. 3 Accelerator Cable Removal ................................................................................................................................ F - 3
Fig. 4 Access to Pedal Box ........................................................................................................................................... F - 4
Repair and Service Manual
Page F-i
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page F-ii
Repair and Service Manual
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Accelerator Pedal
Accelerator
Return Spring
Clevis
Accelerator Rod
Micro Switch
Micro Switch
Cam
Accelerator Cable
Carburetor
Throttle Plate
Axle
Governor
Arm
Governor
Spring
Throttle Cable
Fig. 1 Accelerator and Governor System
ACCELERATOR, GOVERNOR AND
CARBURETOR LINKAGE
As the accelerator pedal moves, the parking brake is
released, the micro switch closes and activates the ignition circuit.
System Operation
The rear end of the accelerator rod is joined to the micro
switch cam which connects to the accelerator cable.
The linkages that control the accelerator mechanism, governor
and carburetor are designed to operate as an integrated
assembly. Any adjustment to one portion of the system will
have an effect on the other components within the system.
When the accelerator pedal is depressed, the accelerator rod moves towards the rear of the vehicle by overcoming the resistance of the accelerator return spring
(Ref. Fig. 1 on Page F-1).
As the micro switch cam moves to the rear it pulls the
accelerator cable, which pulls against the governor
spring.
When the accelerator cable pulls against the accelerator
cable/governor spring, the spring compresses until it
overcomes the resistance exerted by the governor
mechanism. As the governor spring overcomes these
forces, the governor arm moves and the motion is transferred through cable to the carburetor throttle plate.
Repair and Service Manual
Page F-1
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Governor Operation
Until the vehicle reaches its governed speed, the vehicle will continue to accelerate in relation to the accelerator pedal position. When the governed speed is
reached, the ground speed governor in the rear axle
assembly operates against the governor spring and
closes the carburetor until the correct governed speed
is achieved (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page F-1).
It is the force of the governor spring in response to
accelerator pedal and governor arm position which controls the position of the carburetor throttle plate. This
spring cushions sudden changes in throttle linkage
position to provide smooth power transmission.
Remove the negative (-) battery cable at the
battery to prevent the vehicle moving and the
possible personal injury that may result. Refer
to section ‘B’ of this manual for additional cautions and warnings.
Be sure to follow the sequence indicated when making linkage
adjustments.
Throttle Cable Removal
Driving above governed speed could cause a
loss of vehicle control and possible injury or
death.
Tampering with or adjusting the governor or
other speed control components will void the
warranty.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Erratic acceleration and performance that does not
include a notable increase in governed speed, may indicate the need for a linkage adjustment.
Symptoms that include an increase in governed speed
indicate:
•
•
•
a possible governor failure within the rear axle
worn components in the governor system
improper adjustment of linkage system
To remove the throttle cable socket from the carburetor
throttle plate ball, pull down on the base of the connector to unsnap the end from the base. Remove cable end
socket from ball (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page F-2). With a pair of
pliers, pinch the bracket fitting to compress the sides
sufficient to push cable fitting through throttle cable
bracket.
Remove governor cover by drilling out rivets. (See
BODY section for rivet removal.)
To remove the throttle cable from the governor, loosen
the nuts securing the cable to the throttle cable bracket
on the rear axle. Lift cable from bracket and remove
cable end from governor arm.
Loosen the four bolts securing engine guard under
engine and remove cable.
Cable End
Socket
Other factors may effect the performance characteristics of
the vehicle but they should be investigated only after confirming the linkage adjustment.
SPEED CONTROL CABLES
Tool List
Accelerator
Cable
Governor
Arm
Qty. Required
Phillips screwdriver...................................................... 1
Needle nose pliers....................................................... 1
Slip joint pliers ............................................................. 1
Straight blade screwdriver ........................................... 1
Open end wrench, 9/16".............................................. 1
Open end wrench, 1/2"................................................ 1
Open end wrench, 3/8"................................................ 1
Drill, 1/4" ...................................................................... 1
Drill bit, 3/16" ............................................................... 1
Rivet gun ..................................................................... 1
Page F-2
To
Carburetor
Throttle
Cable
Repair and Service Manual
Fig. 2 Throttle Cable Removal
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Throttle Cable Installation
Accelerator
Cable
To install the throttle cable, proceed in reverse order.
Throttle Cable Adjustment
To adjust the throttle cable, check to ensure carburetor
throttle plate is fully closed and governor arm is rotated
fully counter-clockwise. Position cable in the throttle
cable bracket on rear axle so that the carburetor and
governor remain as previously positioned with no tension, but minimal slack, on the cable and secure cable in
position by tightening nuts on cable end.
Micro
Switch
Cam
Accelerator
Pedal
Box
Accelerator
Cable
To
Governor
Accelerator Cable Removal
To access the micro switch, remove the rocker panel, lift
the floor mat and remove the access cover from the floor
(Ref. Fig. 4 on Page F-4). Remove the screws (5) and
cover (6) from the pedal box (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page F-5).
To remove the accelerator cable socket from the accelerator pedal box, remove the box cover and unsnap the
cable end from the micro switch cam (Ref. Fig. 1 on
Page F-1). With a pair of pliers, pinch the cable fitting to
compress the sides sufficient to push cable fitting
through accelerator pedal box.
To remove the accelerator cable from the governor,
loosen the nuts securing the cable to the accelerator
cable bracket at the rear axle and lift cable from bracket.
Remove end of cable from governor arm by using a pair
of pliers to squeeze prongs on accelerator cable bushing.
Accelerator Cable Installation
To install the accelerator cable, proceed in reverse
order.
Accelerator Cable Adjustment
To adjust the accelerator cable, position the cable in the
accelerator cable bracket at the rear axle so that the
throttle is fully closed while allowing 1" travel at the top
of the accelerator pedal. Once correctly positioned,
tighten the cable securing nuts on the bracket.
PEDAL BOX ADJUSTMENTS
Tool List
Qty. Required
Needle nose pliers....................................................... 1
Phillips screwdriver...................................................... 1
Open end wrench, 9/16".............................................. 1
Open end wrench, 1/2"................................................ 1
Open end wrench, 7/16".............................................. 1
Open end wrench, 3/8"................................................ 1
Allen wrench, 1/8" ....................................................... 1
To
Pedal
Box
Accelerator
Cable
Governor
Arm
Accelerator Cable
Bushing
Rear Axle
Governor
Spring
Fig. 3 Accelerator Cable Removal
If any adjustments are made in the pedal box or accelerator
area, it is necessary to go back and perform the speed control
cable adjustment again. This must be done because any
adjustment made in the pedal box or accelerator area will inadvertently affect the cables.
Accelerator Pedal Arm Adjustment
Lift front of vehicle using procedures and safety information in section ‘B’.
Confirm the accelerator pedal arm (1) contacts the
accelerator pedal bracket (2) when in the released position (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page F-5). If there is no contact,
loosen the jam nut (3) and rotate the rod (4) until contact
is made.
Note that the factory applies a thread sealant to the accelerator rod threads before threading the rod into the clevis.
Repair and Service Manual
Page F-3
B
B
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Micro Switch Adjustment
When the system is in correct adjustment, the micro
switch in the accelerator pedal box will click when the
top of the accelerator pedal moves approximately 1/2" 5/8" (13 - 16 mm). The accelerator cable (as seen at the
rear axle) should have some slack present and not show
any movement until after the micro switch clicks.
To access the micro switch, remove the rocker panel, lift
the floor mat and remove the access cover from the floor
(Ref. Fig. 4 on Page F-4). Remove the screws (5) and
cover (6) from the pedal box.(Ref. Fig. 5 on Page F-5)
Rocker Panel
K
PAR
Access Cover
Floor Mat
GOVERNOR COMPRESSION SPRING
ADJUSTMENT
If the governor requires service, the service must be performed by an authorized service Branch or Distributor.
Tampering with or adjusting the governor to permit the
vehicle to operate at above the factory governed speed
as specified in GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS will void the
warranty.
Hold the accelerator cable when removing/adjusting the
compression spring lock nut. Failure to hold cable will
cause the accelerator cable to twist which may cause premature failure.
Pre-adjust the governor compression spring (13) by
rotating the nut (14) until a dimension of 2 1/2" (63.5
mm) is achieved between the back of the accelerator
cable bushing (15) and the outside of the cup washer
(16).
Tighten the nut (14). This dimension is a pre-adjustment
and may be further adjusted after the road test.
Pedal Box
Road Test
Install the negative (-) battery cable.
Fig. 4 Access to Pedal Box
Loosen the setscrew (7) in cam (8) using an 1/8" Allen
wrench. Loosen the jam nut (10) and move the cam to
adjust as needed .(Ref. Fig. 5 on Page F-5). Adjust to
permit 1/2" - 5/8" (13 - 16 mm) of accelerator pedal
travel before the micro switch (9) clicks. Measure the
distance at the top of the pedal with the pedal arm contacting the pedal bracket. Making sure the setscrew in
the cam does not contact the micro switch actuator,
tighten the setscrew to 45 - 55 in. lbs. (5 - 6 Nm) torque.
Tighten jam nut (10) to 10 - 11 ft. lbs (14 - 15 Nm)
torque.
Be sure the accelerator pedal moves smoothly and the
accelerator cable (11) pulls smoothly on the governor
arm (12) .(Ref. Fig. 5 on Page F-5)
Replace the cover on the pedal box. Tap lightly to set the
cover before installing screws. Replace the access
cover on the floor. Replace floormat and rocker panel
Page F-4
Test drive the vehicle and confirm that the compression
spring adjustment results in the maximum governed
speed specified in the GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
section. Determine speed by measuring the time it takes
to travel a known set distance with vehicle at maximum
speed. Enter time and distance into this formula to calculate speed: Rate (in MPH) = (Distance in feet / 5280)
/ (Time in seconds / 3600) or Rate (in KPH) = (Distance in meters / 1000) / (Time in seconds / 3600). For
example: (300 ft. / 5280) / (13.6 sec. / 3600) = 15 MPH
or (100 m / 1000) / (15 sec. / 3600) = 24 KPH. If the
speed is not within the specified speed range, stop the
vehicle and adjust the governor compression spring as
described in procedure above.
Repeat the test and adjustment until the factory recommended governed speed is achieved. Tightening the
spring results in a speed increase while loosening it will
result in a speed decrease.
Repair and Service Manual
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
5
6
9
1
3
4
11
Accelerator
Cable
2
7 8 10
To
Governor
To
Pedal
Box
To
Carburetor
12
Accelerator
Cable
12
Governor
Arm
15
13
16 14
2"
2 1/ mm)
5
(63.
Throttle
Cable
Throttle
Cable
Fig. 5 Accelerator Linkage
Repair and Service Manual
Page F-5
B
B
SPEED CONTROL - ALL CABLES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page F-6
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’G’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
POWERTRAIN MAINTENANCE ................................................................................................................................G - 1
Checking the Oil Level ...................................................................................................................................G - 1
Changing the Oil ............................................................................................................................................G - 1
AIR CLEANER INSPECTION/REPLACEMENT .........................................................................................................G - 3
Cleaning the Air Filter Element ......................................................................................................................G - 3
STARTER/GENERATOR BELT TENSION ................................................................................................................G - 3
Adjusting the Belt ...........................................................................................................................................G - 4
COOLING SYSTEM CLEANING ................................................................................................................................G - 4
SPARK PLUGS ..........................................................................................................................................................G - 5
FOUR CYCLE ENGINE ..............................................................................................................................................G - 5
Engine Specifications ....................................................................................................................................G - 5
Engine Description .........................................................................................................................................G - 5
Engine Operation ...........................................................................................................................................G - 5
Valve Adjustment ...........................................................................................................................................G - 6
Adjustment Procedure ...................................................................................................................................G - 6
Valve Cover Installation .................................................................................................................................G - 6
Timing Belt Adjustment ..................................................................................................................................G - 6
COMPRESSION TESTS ..........................................................................................................................................G - 10
Compression Test Readings .......................................................................................................................G - 11
ENGINE REMOVAL .................................................................................................................................................G - 11
Safety ...........................................................................................................................................................G - 11
Skid Plate Removal .....................................................................................................................................G - 11
Controls and Wiring .....................................................................................................................................G - 12
Removing the Engine from the Vehicle .......................................................................................................G - 12
Engine Installation .......................................................................................................................................G - 12
DRIVE CLUTCH REMOVAL ....................................................................................................................................G - 13
STARTER/GENERATOR REPLACEMENT .............................................................................................................G - 13
ENGINE ISOLATION MOUNT REMOVAL ...............................................................................................................G - 14
Engine Isolation Mount Installation ..............................................................................................................G - 14
MUFFLER REMOVAL ..............................................................................................................................................G - 14
Muffler Installation ........................................................................................................................................G - 14
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Clean Entire Dipstick ..........................................................................................................................................G - 1
Fig. 2 Check Oil Level on Dipstick ...............................................................................................................................G - 1
Fig. 3 Oil Viscosity Chart ..............................................................................................................................................G - 1
Fig. 4 Cleaning Top of Engine ......................................................................................................................................G - 2
Fig. 5 Remove Oil Filter ................................................................................................................................................G - 2
Fig. 6 Clean Oil Filter ....................................................................................................................................................G - 2
Fig. 7 Blowing Out Oil Filter ..........................................................................................................................................G - 2
Fig. 8 Add Engine Oil ....................................................................................................................................................G - 3
Fig. 9 Air Cleaner ..........................................................................................................................................................G - 3
Fig. 10 Checking Belt Tension with Gauge ..................................................................................................................G - 3
Fig. 11 Checking Belt Tension with Finger ...................................................................................................................G - 4
Fig. 12 Adjusting the Belt Tension ................................................................................................................................G - 4
Fig. 13 Cleaning Cooling System with Air ....................................................................................................................G - 4
Fig. 14 Cleaning Cooling System with Water ...............................................................................................................G - 4
Fig. 15 Air Drying Cooling System ................................................................................................................................G - 5
Fig. 16 Gapping the Spark Plug ...................................................................................................................................G - 5
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-i
ENGINE
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’G’
SECTION TITLE
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Page G-ii
PAGE NO.
Overhead Valve/Cam System .......................................................................................................................... G - 7
Four Cycle Operation ....................................................................................................................................... G - 8
Overhead Valve Adjustment ............................................................................................................................ G - 9
Valve Cover Tightening Sequence .................................................................................................................. G - 9
Timing Belt Adjustment .................................................................................................................................. G - 10
Compression Gauge ...................................................................................................................................... G - 11
Engine Assembly ........................................................................................................................................... G - 12
Engine Mounting ............................................................................................................................................ G - 13
Starter/Generator Wiring ................................................................................................................................ G - 14
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
For further engine information, see Four Cycle Engine
Shop Rebuild and Service Parts Manual, P/N 27615G01.
POWERTRAIN MAINTENANCE
Access the powertrain by raising or removing seat.
Some service procedures may require the vehicle be
lifted. Refer to LIFTING THE VEHICLE in section ‘B’ for
proper lifting procedure and safety information.
Checking the Oil Level
Oil should be added to bring the level into the safe operating range. Remember that oil expands as it gets hot,
Do not overfill (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page G-1). Check that
the oil cap is firmly in place.
When adding oil between oil changes, do not mix brands and
viscosity grades of oil.
Both the oil dipstick and fill cap must be in place before operating the engine. Failure to install the dipstick and fill cap will
result in oil becoming contaminated and/or oil being discharged into the engine compartment.
Changing the Oil
Do not overfill engine. Too much oil may cause smoking
or allow oil to enter the air filter enclosure.
The oil should be checked with the engine warm. The
vehicle should be on a level surface with the parking
(PARK) brake engaged. Allow adequate time for oil to
drain into the crankcase before checking.
Remove the dipstick and wipe off the entire area indicated with a lint free cloth (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page G-1).
L
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 3/8" drive, 10 mm ........................................... 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive ....................................................... 1
Extension, 3/8" drive, 8" .............................................. 1
Oil drain pan ................................................................ 1
For maximum performance and longevity, the engine oil
should be replaced after the first 100 hours of operation. After the initial oil change, it should be changed
every 125 hours of operation or semi-annually, whichever comes first.
The selection of oil is dependent upon the service that
the vehicle will perform. Most vehicles require 10W-30
oil, whereas vehicles used at capacity or near capacity
load applications will utilize 10W-40 oil after a break-in
period of 100 hours (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page G-1).
F
Fig. 1 Clean Entire Dipstick
HEAVY DUTY WORK
Fill Cold Engine
To This Point
L
LIGHT DUTY WORK
Maximum Oil Level
For Hot Engine
Do Not Overfill
ADD
F
10W-40
10W-30
Insert the dipstick fully into the dipstick hole and
remove. Examine the level of the oil on the dipstick.
10W-30
F
0
-20
C 0 -30
Safe Full
Low Add Oil
Operating Range
Hot Engine
0
-20
20
40
60
-10
0
10
20
(AIR TEMPERATURE)
80
100
30
40
Fig. 3 Oil Viscosity Chart
Fig. 2 Check Oil Level on Dipstick
The engine can be operated safely as long as oil is
within the safe operating range as indicated on the dip
stick. Do not operate vehicle if oil level is below the
safe area indicated on the dipstick.
If vehicle is to be stored over winter months, it can be stored
with old oil left in engine. The oil should be changed as part of
spring maintenance. This will remove any moisture that has
accumulated during storage.
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-1
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
'O' Ring
Be aware that engine fluids may be hot and
contact to the skin may cause severe burns.
Wear rubber gloves to protect skin from exposure to the old oil and degreaser.
The oil should be changed with engine warm. Park vehicle on a
level surface, engage parking brake and remove key. Place a
drain pan under engine. Wipe top of the engine clean with a cloth
(Ref. Fig. 4 on Page G-2). Remove the oil fill cap.
Fig. 6 Clean Oil Filter
Blow out the filter with low pressure air at 30 psi (210
kPa) or less from no closer than 3" (8 cm) and allow to
dry (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page G-2).
Oil Fill Cap
3" (8 cm)
Minimum
'O' Ring
Fig. 4 Cleaning Top of Engine
30 psi (210 kPa) Maximum
Clean the area around filter. Remove the three bolts
securing oil filter to engine. Remove filter by pulling it
from engine and allow the oil to drain. The ‘O’ rings may
remain on engine or filter (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page G-2)
Oil Filter
'O' Ring
Fig. 5 Remove Oil Filter
Inspect the filter. At the first oil change, small metal
chips and lint may be found. This is normal, resulting
from the break-in period. Inspect the filter at every oil
change. The presence of large metal chips could indicate possible damage to the engine.
Wear eye protection to prevent splashed solvent from contacting the eyes when cleaning
oil filter.
Clean the filter by washing in any shop degreaser and
brushing the metal screen clean with a soft brush (Ref.
Fig. 6 on Page G-2).
Page G-2
Fig. 7 Blowing Out Oil Filter
Wipe the area around the filter mount with a lint free
cloth and inspect both filter ‘O’ rings for damage; replace
if necessary. Install the filter into the engine. The filter
engages over a short nipple in the engine. The filter
should slide easily onto the nipple and seat against the
engine using light hand pressure only. Align the holes in
the filter mounting plate with the holes in the engine.
Install and snug the bolts before tightening them firmly.
Oil capacity is 1 1/2 quarts (1.4 liters). Add slightly less
than 1 1/2 quarts (1.4 liters) to allow for possible residual
oil left in engine. The oil must be high quality oil that
meets or exceeds API SF, SG, CC standards (Ref. Fig. 8
on Page G-3). Check oil level on dipstick. Oil should be
slightly below ‘F’ to allow for expansion. If necessary,
continue to add oil slowly and allow time for oil to flow
down into engine. Check oil level on dipstick. Do not
overfill.
Do not overfill engine. Too much oil may cause smoking
or allow oil to enter the air filter enclosure.
Inspect oil fill cap ‘O’ ring and replace if necessary.
Install the oil fill cap. Run the vehicle for one or two minutes and check the filter for oil leaks.
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Periodic Service Schedule (Ref Section A). Clean inside
of cover, canister and dust collector. Install the element
and cover the same way they were removed. Be sure
the positioning arrow on the cover is pointing upward
and all clips are fastened securely.
Cleaning the Air Filter Element
'O' Ring
Do not use compressed air to clean the air filter. Doing so
will damage the filter and will damage the engine.
If the element is in acceptable condition, loose dirt may
be removed by tapping the filter lightly. Do not use oil on
the filter element or any part of the unit. Install the element in the same way it was removed, being sure that
the clips are fastened securely.
Fig. 8 Add Engine Oil
Both the oil dipstick and fill cap must be in place before operating the engine. Failure to install the dipstick and fill cap will
result in oil being discharged into the engine compartment.
STARTER/GENERATOR BELT TENSION
As a final check, check the oil level again with the vehicle on level ground. Like all liquids, oil increases in volume when warm. The full ‘F’ mark on the dipstick is
calibrated for an engine at operating temperature. When
the engine is cold, the oil will be below the full mark. The
engine can be operated safely as long as the oil is within
the safe operating range as indicated on the dipstick. Do
not operate vehicle if oil level is below the safe area
indicated on the dipstick.
Tool List
AIR CLEANER INSPECTION/
REPLACEMENT
Qty. Required
Belt tension gauge .......................................................1
Wrench, 3/4" ................................................................1
Wrench, 9/16" ..............................................................2
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Socket, 3/4", 3/8" drive ................................................1
The starter/generator belt tension should be checked
after the first 15 - 20 hours and set to 75 - 80 lbs. (34 36 kg).
A loose belt can cause audible vibration and squeal.
Air Cleaner
Canister
Tighten a new starter/generator belt to 90 - 110 lbs. (41 50 kg) tension when a gauge is applied half way
between the two pulleys (Ref. Fig. 10 on Page G-3).
Air Filter
Element
Air Cleaner
Cover
Dust
Collector
Fig. 9 Air Cleaner
The air cleaner unit on the vehicle is a dry unit. Do not use oil
on the filter element or any part of the unit.
Fig. 10 Checking Belt Tension with Gauge
The air cleaner is attached to the engine and may be
accessed by raising the seat (Ref. Fig. 9 on Page G-3).
Inspect and replace air fillter in accordance with the
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-3
B
B
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Although not as accurate, a new belt may be depressed
with a finger. A maximum deflection of 3/8" (10 mm) is
acceptable (Ref. Fig. 11 on Page G-4).
3/8" (1 cm) Maximum
Deflection (New Belt)
COOLING SYSTEM CLEANING
At least once a year, or more often under adverse conditions) the cooling system should be cleaned. Cleaning
will assure an adequate supply of air to the cooling fins.
Compressed air may be used for routine cooling system
maintenance.
1/2" (1.3 cm) Maximum
Deflection (Existing Belt)
Fig. 11 Checking Belt Tension with Finger
Re-tighten an existing belt to 75 - 80 lbs. (34 - 36 kg)
tension using the same technique. A maximum deflection of 1/2" (13 mm) is acceptable.
Adjusting the Belt
Using a 3/4" socket and open end wrench, loosen the
starter/generator pivot bolt.
While holding the lower adjusting nut with a 9/16"
wrench, loosen the upper jam nut with another 9/16"
wrench. Move the lower nut up or down the adjustment
bolt until proper belt tension is achieved. Hold the lower
nut in place and tighten the upper jam nut against it (Ref.
Fig. 12 on Page G-4).
Fig. 13 Cleaning Cooling System with Air
Operation in wet or damp weather or overly fresh cut
grass may result in a variety of debris accumulating and
adhering to the internal shroud and fins of the cooling
system. If this condition exist, proceed as follows:
Avoid spraying water on electrical components.
With the engine cold, direct a strong stream of water at
the cylinder head cooling fins beside the timing belt
cover.
Jam Nut
Adjusting Nut
Fig. 12 Adjusting the Belt Tension
Using a 3/4" socket and open end wrench, tighten the
starter/generator pivot bolt.
Page G-4
Fig. 14 Cleaning Cooling System with Water
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Allow the water to flow freely over the cooling fins and
through the blower housing. After flushing, dry with low
pressure compressed air.
Air Hose
Fig. 15 Air Drying Cooling System
FOUR CYCLE ENGINE
B
B
Engine Specifications
Engine model ......................................... EH29, EH35C
Type............................Four cycle, overhead cam, OHV
Number of cylinders........................................2 (In-line)
Displacement..........................................295 cc, 350 cc
Rated horsepower ........................................... 9.0, 11.0
Spark plug type (295 cc).......................... NGK FR2A-D
Spark plug type (350 cc)......................... NGK BPR5ES
Spark plug gap (295 cc)...................... .0.035" (0.9 mm)
Spark plug gap (350 cc).......028" - .032" (.70 - .80 mm)
Cooling .............................................. Forced air cooled
Oil Filter ...................................... Washable, permanent
Oil Pump............................................................Gerotor
Engine Description
SPARK PLUGS
Tool List
Qty. Required
Spark plug wrench,13/16" ........................................... 1
Plug gauge, wire type.................................................. 1
Using a 13/16" spark plug wrench, remove the spark
plugs at 250 - 300 hours or annually and replace. All
new spark plugs should be properly gapped (Ref. Fig.
16 on Page G-5). Tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (24 Nm) torque.
Plug
The engine is a four cycle air cooled, in line, twin cylinder, overhead cam unit. It incorporates pressure lubrication, a washable permanent oil filter and a counter
rotating balance shaft (Ref. Fig. 17 on Page G-7).
An electronic ignition system fires both spark plugs
simultaneously which eliminates the need for a distributor. The pistons are aligned together which means that
they both are at TDC (Top Dead Center) and BDC (Bottom Dead Center) at the same time.
Engine Operation
A four cycle engine has a power stroke for each piston
every four strokes or two revolutions of the crankshaft.
Since this engine has two pistons, the engine is timed to
have one power stroke for every rotation of the crankshaft. To understand the operation of a four cycle
engine, it is easiest to consider a single cylinder engine.
295cc
.035”
(0.9 mm) Gap
350cc
.028” - .032”
(.70 - .80 mm) Gap
Fig. 16 Gapping the Spark Plug
Fouled spark plugs are indicated by a wet, black
appearance. This could be caused by a dirty air filter
element or other restrictions in the air intake system.
Incorrectly adjusted valves, spark plug wires which are
in poor condition or poor quality fuel could also contribute to the problem.
Use care not to over tighten the plug. Overtightening can
cause damage to the aluminum cylinder head threads.
The first cycle (stroke) takes place with the piston moving down and the intake valve open (Ref. Fig. 18 on
Page G-8). Fuel is drawn into the combustion chamber
from the carburetor and through the intake valve and is
known as the intake stroke. As the piston reaches the
bottom (BDC) of its travel and starts to move upwards,
the second cycle begins. The intake valve closes which
seals the combustion chamber since the exhaust valve
is already closed and causes the fuel air mixture to be
compressed as the piston rises. This is known as the
compression stroke. Just before the piston reaches
TDC (Top Dead Center) the spark plug fires which
causes a rapid burning of the air fuel mixture. The temperature rises rapidly which causes the air fuel mixture
to expand. The piston has been carried through TDC by
centrifugal force and is now forced downwards into the
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-5
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
third, or power stroke by the expanding gases. As the
piston reaches BDC it enters the fourth cycle. The
exhaust valve opens and the piston rises forcing burned
gases from the combustion chamber in what is known as
the exhaust stroke. As the piston moves through TDC
and starts down, the first cycle is repeated.
In the engine, there are two pistons that rise and fall
simultaneously, however the valve cycles are staggered.
When one piston is in the compression stroke the other
is in the exhaust stroke. When the spark plugs fire, only
one cylinder is on the power stroke.
In any engine there is vibration caused by the reciprocal
motion of the pistons. In this engine the vibration is minimized by a counter rotating balancer that is driven from
the crankshaft and is synchronized with the power
strokes.
The camshaft is driven from the crankshaft by a toothed
timing belt. The ignition timing is controlled by an electrical pulse received from a timing trigger which is activated by the crankshaft flywheel hub. The ignition curve
is controlled electronically by the solid state ignitor and
is not adjustable.
Valve Adjustment
Tool List
Qty. Required
Flat feeler gauge.......................................................... 1
Straight blade screwdriver ........................................... 1
Box end wrench, 10 mm.............................................. 1
To prevent engine from inadvertently starting, the negative cable must be removed
from battery.
The valves should be checked annually (250 Hours) to
insure that they are in adjustment. A valve that is set too
tight can cause excessive wear to the cam and rocker
and may result in a burned valve. The same is true for a
valve that is set too loose. The valve that is set too loose
may make itself known by a clacking or tapping noise.
The noise can often be masked by other mechanical
noises and go undetected. Poor performance and fouled
spark plugs can result from poor valve adjustment.
portion) of the cam. If the gauge slides in and out with
some light drag felt, the valve does not require any
adjustment.
If the gauge is hard to insert or withdraw, the valve is too
tight. Similarly if the gauge slides in and out with no
resistance, the valve is too loose. To correct either of
these undesirable conditions, loosen the jam nut of the
adjuster and loosen or tighten the adjuster using a snug
fitting straight blade screwdriver. Slide the feeler gauge
back and forth between the rocker and cam until light
resistance is felt. Hold the adjuster with the screwdriver
and tighten the jam nut with a box wrench. Confirm the
adjustment using the feeler gauge and readjust as necessary.
Manually rotate the engine until the cam lobe for the
next valve is in the fully down position and check/adjust
the valve as previously described. Repeat the process
with the remaining two valves.
Valve Cover Installation
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 10 mm, 3/8" drive............................................1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive (in. lbs.) ..............................1
It is important to use proper tightening procedures when
replacing
the valve cover,since distortion of the valve
cover may result in oil leakage (Ref. Fig. 20 on Page G9).
Examine the ‘O’ ring gasket for nicks, tears or other
damage and replace if any damage is found. Wipe the
valve cover and gasket clean, paying special attention to
the inner groove surface. Position the gasket in the
groove in the valve cover and apply a light coat of oil to
the gasket. Install the valve cover and bolts finger tight.
Stage tighten the bolts in the sequence shown to 60 - 65
in. lbs. (7 Nm) torque.
Timing Belt Adjustment
Tool List
Qty. Required
Adjustment Procedure
Socket, 12 mm, 3/8" drive............................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Screwdriver, straight blade ..........................................1
Extension, 3", 3/8" drive...............................................1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
The valve clearances are adjustable from the top of the
engine and should be done with the engine cold (Ref.
Fig. 19 on Page G-9). As an annual (250 hour) inspection, the valve clearance check consists of removing the
valve cover and sliding a .004" (.10 mm) flat feeler
gauge between the valve rocker and the heel (lowest
To prevent the engine from inadvertently starting, the negative cable must be removed from
battery
Page G-6
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Screw Type Adjuster
Cam Lobe Up
Cam Lobe
Down
Valve Return Spring
VALVE CLOSED
VALVE OPEN
VALVE OPERATION
Valve Cover
Timing Belt
Pulley
Camshaft
Cam Lobe
Timing Belt
Cylinder Head
Cylinder
Piston
NOTE: This is a simplified diagram for explanatory use only.
Rockers, guides, seals, etc. have been omitted.
Fig. 17 Overhead Valve/Cam System
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-7
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Intake
Exhaust
INTAKE
COMPRESSION
First Revolution
POWER
EXHAUST
Second Revolution
NOTE: This is a simplified diagram for explanatory use only.
Rockers, guides, seals, etc. have been omitted.
Fig. 18 Four Cycle Operation
Page G-8
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
2
Adjust with screwdriver
Release by
turning wrench
Screw type
adjuster
1
Cam lobe up
Cam lobe down
ADJUST
3
Valve return spring
Hold screwdriver
VALVE CLOSED
VALVE OPEN
Lock by
turning wrench
4
.004 (.10 mm)
Valve clearance
measured here
with the engine
cold
LOCK
Fig. 19 Overhead Valve Adjustment
5
3
1
4
6
2
Fig. 20 Valve Cover Tightening Sequence
At yearly intervals, the timing belt tension should be
adjusted. To do this, remove the rubber plug in the timing cover to provide access to the idler pulley adjusting
bolt (Ref. Fig. 21 on Page G-10). Loosen the tensioning
bolt (1/4 - 1/2 turn). Rotate the engine one full turn which
will allow the spring to apply tension to the belt. Tighten
the idler adjusting nut to 10 - 13 ft. lbs (14 - 18 Nm)
torque. Spray the rubber plug with a vinyl protective
spray in order to ease the installation of the plug.
For information relating to the replacement of the timing
belt, refer to 4 Cycle Engine Shop Rebuild and Service
Parts Manual (P/N 27615-G01).
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-9
B
B
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
To properly perform an accurate compression test:
Align Notch
and Mark
1. Remove belt to clutch.
2. Remove the air filter to eliminate the possibility of a
restricted air passage.
3. A well charged good battery should be used. Weak
batteries may not allow the correct cranking speed.
4. Starter belts that drag or slip will affect the compression reading.
5. Fully open the choke and accelerator baffle plate.
Should either of these baffle plates be partly closed,
the compression reading may be inaccurate and indicate low.
Idler
Idler Bolt
(Tighten to
10 - 13 ft. lbs.
(14 - 18 Nm)
torque)
1/8" - 1/4"
(3 - 6 mm)
Deflection at
10 lbs. (44 N)
'Push'
Align Keyway
with Mark
Remove Cover
to Align Keyway Replace After
Aligning
Fig. 21 Timing Belt Adjustment
6. The engine must be at normal operating temperature
in order for the components to expand.
To prevent possibility of personal injury, never
operate without spark plug installed in the cylinder not being tested. Fuel drawn into the cylinders will be expelled through the spark plug
opening and could be ignited by the ignition
system or another source, resulting in a fire
COMPRESSION TESTS
Tool List
Qty. Required
Compression gauge .................................................... 1
Spark plug wrench ....................................................... 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive ....................................................... 1
To prevent inadvertent movement of vehicle,
engage neutral lock per section ‘A’.
Compression tests are one of the most accurate methods of analyzing engine performance. To obtain maximum efficiency from the fuel explosion, the combustion
chamber must be sealed. Efficiency can be affected by
problems with rings, pistons, head gaskets and valves.
Most problems associated with these components can
be detected with a cylinder compression gauge. Incorrect use of a compression gauge can result in unnecessary work and expenditures (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page G-11).
Compression gauge part number 72524-G01 is recommended.
Page G-10
7. Remove one spark plug at a time. Removing both
spark plugs may cause the engine to rotate faster than
normal indicating a false reading and could be a
severe safety problem.
8. Use the starter to rotate the engine until the compression gauge reading does not change (usually no more
than ten seconds) This is referred as a dry compression test.
9. Record the gauge reading.
10. Pour approximately one half ounce of thirty weight oil
in the cylinder (through the spark plug hole) and
repeat the test. Record the result. The oil added to the
cylinder will cause a temporary seal between the piston rings, piston and cylinder wall. This is known as
wet compression.
Thin or very thick oils may cause a false reading.
11. Compare the dry test reading with the wet test reading. A higher wet test reading indicates poor ring sealing or a leaking head gasket (look for oil leakage
around the head gasket). No change between the dry
and wet test indicates valve sealing problems.
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
All readings should be compared with the engine manufactures specification. Engine cylinder specifications are
usually provided for unseated rings. As a general rule,
the compression will increase twenty pounds above the
rated PSI for an engine with seated rings. Compression
readings twenty pounds below the rated PSI indicates
poor cylinder sealing.
A
80 90 100
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
PSI
190
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
B
80 90 100
120
130
140
150
160
PSI
170
180
190
ENGINE REMOVAL
Tool List
Compression Test Readings
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
c) Indicates 100 psi (690 kPa). This indication could
be an engine with many hours of use. Adding oil to
the cylinder and rechecking should cause an
increase in compression. If so, a top end overhaul
should be considered. Refer to Engine Rebuild
manual, part number 27615-G01.
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
80 90 100
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
PSI
190
C
Qty. Required
Socket, 10 mm, 3/8" drive............................................1
Socket, 12 mm, 3/8" drive............................................1
Socket, 1/2", 3/8" drive ................................................1
Socket, 5/8", 3/8" drive ................................................1
Open end wrench, 9/16" ..............................................2
Open end wrench, 5/16" ..............................................1
Extension 3", 3/8" drive................................................1
Extension 6", 3/8" drive................................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Straight blade screwdriver ...........................................1
Phillips screwdriver ......................................................1
Side cutters..................................................................1
In the following text, there are references to removing/installing
bolts etc. Additional hardware (nuts, washers etc.) that are
removed must always be installed in their original positions
unless otherwise specified. Non specified torque specifications
are as shown in the table contained in Section “A”.
This operation will remove the engine through the top of the
engine compartment. The weight of the engine exceeds normal OSHA limits for one person; therefore, a second person or
an engine hoist will be needed to remove the engine. If a hoist
is employed, it will be necessary to remove the suntop.
Fig. 22 Compression Gauge
Safety
a) Indicates 140 psi (965 kPa) (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page
G-11). Compression is good and the engine may
be new or rebuilt. If the engine is new or rebuilt, the
compression will rise to approximately 160 psi
(1100 kPa) as the rings seat. If the engine has had
extensive use, a reading of 140 psi (965 kPa) may
indicate that the engine compression is in decline
and may need to be rebuilt when compression falls
to approximately 125 psi (860 kPa).
b) Indicates 50 - 60 psi (345 - 415 kPa). The rings are
in very bad condition or leaking valves are indicated. Pour approximately one half ounce of thirty
weight oil into the cylinder through the spark plug
hole and recheck. If the compression increases 10
psi (70 kPa) or more the rings are in poor condition. If little or no increase in compression is indicated, the valves are leaking.
To prevent the possibility of personal injury,
disconnect the negative (-) battery cable
before starting engine removal.
Disconnect the negative cable at the battery.
Remove and plug the fuel line at the fuel pump.
Skid Plate Removal
Remove the skid plate by cutting the wire tie that
secures the shift cables to the skid plate and remove the
four bolts (14) that secure the plate to the bottom of the
engine (Ref. Fig. 24 on Page G-13). Do not operate
vehicle without skid plate installed.
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-11
B
B
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
4
3
1
2
5
Fig. 23 Engine Assembly
Controls and Wiring
Engine Installation
Unplug the wiring harness from the engine and cut the
wire tie securing the accelerator cable to the engine.
Remove the choke cable from the carburetor. Remove
the push nut at the governor and discard the nut.
Remove the pulse line from the fuel pump. Remove the
ground strap from the engine. Loosen the starter/generator and remove the belt. Remove the short control rod
from the bellcrank and the governor. Remove the short
rod from the bellcrank to the carburetor.
When installing the fuel and pulse lines, pay particular
attention to assure that the lines are not confused.
Removing the Engine from the Vehicle
Place suitable blocks under the engine frame for support.
Although the blocks are not required for engine removal, they
will help maintain the alignment of the frames and simplify
engine installation.
Loosen the bolt (3) securing the muffler (4) to the rear
engine frame (5) (Ref. Fig. 23 on Page G-12).
Be sure to use a new push nut when installing the accelerator cable to the governor.
It is important to follow the assembly sequence recommended for mounting hardware.
With the assistance of a hoist or another person, lower
the engine into position over the engine support castings
(Ref. Fig. 24 on Page G-13).
Install one rear horizontal and one front bottom engine
bolt (15) through the casting and engine and lightly snug
in place.
Install the remaining horizontal engine bolts and finger
tighten. Remove the front bottom bolt and reinstall the
skid plate (8) finger tight.
It is not necessary to remove the muffler as part of the engine
removal.
Tighten the bottom and horizontal mounting bolts to 45
ft. lbs. (60 Nm) torque.
Remove the four bolts (15) that secure the engine to the
engine support castings (13, 17). Lift the engine and
drive clutch vertically through the engine compartment
using a hoist or with the assistance of another person.
The remaining installation is in the reverse order of disassembly using standard torque specifications.
Page G-12
Repair and Service Manual
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
1
4
17
2
3
15
10
13
Plastic Washer
12
11
15
9
7
5
6
16
8
14
Fig. 24 Engine Mounting
DRIVE CLUTCH REMOVAL
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 5/8", 3/8" drive ................................................ 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive....................................................... 1
Impact wrench, 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
Impact socket, 13/16", 1/2" drive................................. 1
Clutch puller, (P/N 19779-G2) ..................................... 1
Remove the clutch bolt (16). (Ref. Fig. 24 on Page G13).
To prevent the possibility of personal injury,
use only impact sockets when using an impact
wrench.
Install a well lubricated clutch puller into the clutch and
hand tighten for several turns. Remove the clutch by
driving it off with the impact wrench and the clutch puller.
In some extreme cases, the clutch will be resistant to removal
In stubborn cases the clutch removal tool should be removed
and the cavity filled with grease. Install the clutch puller and
use the impact wrench to drive off the clutch. The combination
of hydraulic pressure (grease) and the impact wrench will
remove the most stubborn clutch. To prevent damage to the
clutch, be sure to remove all grease from the body of the clutch
since grease penetrating the seal may cause premature clutch
failure.
It is not necessary to remove the engine to remove the
clutch. Refer to the CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE
TRANSMISSION (CVT) section for removal and installation with the engine installed in the vehicle.
STARTER/GENERATOR REPLACEMENT
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 3/4", 3/8" drive ................................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Wrench, 8 mm .............................................................1
Wrench, 10 mm ...........................................................1
Wrench, 9/16" ..............................................................2
Wrench, 3/4" ................................................................1
Torque wrench, ft. lbs., 3/8" drive.................................1
To prevent possibility of personal injury, disconnect negative (-) battery cable before
beginning starter/generator removal.
Remove the wiring from the starter/generator (1) (Ref.
Fig. 24 on Page G-13). Loosen the jam nut (2) and the
adjusting nut (3) securing the starter/generator adjuster
(4) until the starter/generator belt (5) can be removed
from the drive clutch (6). Remove the starter/generator
pivot bolt (7) and lift starter/generator from the vehicle.
Install the starter/generator pivot bolt (7) and hardware
loosely in place and install the belt (5) (Ref. Fig. 24 on
Repair and Service Manual
Page G-13
B
B
ENGINE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Page G-13). Tighten a new starter/generator belt per
‘Starter/Generator Belt Tension’ earlier in this section.
Tighten the isolation mount bolt (10) to 21 - 25 ft. lbs. (28
- 34 Nm) torque.
Tighten jam nut (2) securely and tighten pivot bolt (7) to
44 - 46 ft. lbs. (60 - 62 Nm) (Ref. Fig. 24 on Page G-13).
Install the wiring and tighten the terminals firmly into
place (Ref. Fig. 25 on Page G-14). Reconnect the battery.
FROM
TO
A1
Ground
A2
F1
F1
A2
F2
A on Solenoid
DF
Green from
voltage regulator
In cases where the rear springs or the rear axle to engine
frame junction has been disturbed, the isolation mount should
be allowed to ‘float’ until all other assembly has been completed. After the natural alignment of the powertrain components is established, the isolation mount should be tightened to
21 - 25 ft. lbs. (28 - 34 Nm) torque.
MUFFLER REMOVAL
Tool List
Fig. 25 Starter/Generator Wiring
Qty. Required
Socket, 12 mm, 3/8" drive............................................1
Wrench, 12 mm............................................................1
Socket, 1/2", 3/8" drive ................................................1
Wrench, 1/2" ................................................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Torque wrench, ft. lbs. 3/8" drive..................................1
ENGINE ISOLATION MOUNT
REMOVAL
Tool List
Qty. Required
Floor jack ..................................................................... 1
Socket, 9/16", 3/8" drive .............................................. 1
Wrench, 9/16" .............................................................. 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive ....................................................... 1
Phillips screwdriver...................................................... 1
Torque wrench, ft. lbs. 3/8" drive ................................. 1
Pull back the floormat and remove the access cover and
the cover of the accelerator switch enclosure.
Place a floor jack under the skid plate (8) and raise it just
enough to remove the load from the isolation mount (9)
(Ref. Fig. 24 on Page G-13).
Remove the isolation mount bolt (10).
It is not necessary to remove the engine in order to remove the
muffler.
Remove the bottom bolt (3) securing the muffler (4) to
the engine frame (5) (Ref. Fig. 23 on Page G-12).
Remove the muffler to manifold mounting bolts (2) and
remove the muffler by rotating it upwards through the
engine compartment.
Muffler Installation
Installation is in the reverse order of disassembly (Ref.
Fig. 23 on Page G-12). Install a new gasket (1) and
tighten the muffler to manifold bolts (2) to 16 - 18 ft. lbs.
(22 - 24 Nm) torque. Tighten the muffler to engine frame
bolts (3) to 10 - 12 ft. lbs. (14 - 16 Nm) torque.
Remove the flanged nuts (11) that attach the isolation
mount bracket (12) to the vehicle frame.
Remove the isolation mount bracket and disassemble
the isolation mount.
Engine Isolation Mount Installation
Installation of the isolation mount is in the reverse order
of disassembly. Be sure that the plastic washers noted
in illustration are installed facing the isolation mount.
Loosely attach the isolation mount (9) and hardware to
the isolation mount bracket (12) and engine frame (13)
(Ref. Fig. 24 on Page G-13). Attach the isolation bracket
to the vehicle frame and tighten the flanged nuts (11) to
21 - 25 ft. lbs. (28 - 34 Nm) torque.
Page G-14
Repair and Service Manual
FUEL SYSTEM
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’H’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................................. H - 1
CARBURETOR OPERATION .................................................................................................................................... H - 1
Float System .................................................................................................................................................. H - 1
Pilot Jet System ............................................................................................................................................. H - 1
Main Jet System ............................................................................................................................................ H - 1
Choke System ............................................................................................................................................... H - 1
Choke Operation ............................................................................................................................................ H - 2
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENT SERVICE AND REPLACEMENT ............................................................................. H - 2
Choke Cable and Housing Removal .............................................................................................................. H - 2
Choke Cable and Housing Installation ........................................................................................................... H - 3
Carburetor Service ......................................................................................................................................... H - 3
Carburetor Removal ...................................................................................................................................... H - 3
Carburetor Disassembly ................................................................................................................................ H - 3
Float Level Adjustment .................................................................................................................................. H - 4
Throttle Shaft Adjustment .............................................................................................................................. H - 4
Carburetor Installation ................................................................................................................................... H - 4
FUEL PUMP ............................................................................................................................................................... H - 6
Fuel Pump Replacement ............................................................................................................................... H - 6
FUEL LINES AND FILTER ......................................................................................................................................... H - 7
FUEL LINES & FILTER - CALIFORNIA EMISSION REQUIREMENT ....................................................................... H - 8
Carb Installation ............................................................................................................................................. H - 8
FUEL AND STORAGE ............................................................................................................................................... H - 9
Prolonged Storage ......................................................................................................................................... H - 9
CARBURETOR TROUBLESHOOTING ..................................................................................................................... H - 9
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fuel Tank ............................................................................................................................................................H - 1
Fuel System ........................................................................................................................................................H - 2
Choke Cable Attachment ....................................................................................................................................H - 2
Air Cleaner ..........................................................................................................................................................H - 4
Carburetor ..........................................................................................................................................................H - 5
Float Adjustment .................................................................................................................................................H - 6
Fuel Pump ..........................................................................................................................................................H - 6
Fuel Lines and Filter ...........................................................................................................................................H - 7
California Emission Requirement .......................................................................................................................H - 8
Repair and Service Manual
Page H-i
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page H-ii
Repair and Service Manual
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
GENERAL
1" MIN. (2.5 cm)
FUEL
In the following text, there are references to removing/installing
bolts etc. Additional hardware (nuts, washers etc.) that are
removed must always be installed in their original positions
unless otherwise specified. Non-specified torque specifications
are as shown in the table contained in Section A.
The fuel system consists of a fuel tank, fuel lines, fuel filter, fuel pump and carburetor (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page H-2).
To prevent serious injury or death resulting
from a possible explosion, do not smoke near
the fuel tank or refuel near open flame or electrical items which could produce a spark.
Always wear safety glasses while refueling
to prevent possible eye injury from gasoline or gasoline vapor.
When refueling, inspect the fuel cap for
leaks or breaks that could result in fuel
spillage.
Do not handle fuel in an area that is not
adequately ventilated. Do not permit anyone to smoke in an area where vehicles
are being fueled.
Fig. 1 Fuel Tank
Float System
The float chamber is located on the underside of the carburetor and the correct fuel level is maintained by
means of the float and needle valve.
As the fuel flows from the fuel pump it must pass
through the needle valve and into the float chamber. As
the fuel enters the float chamber, the float starts to rise
against the needle valve. When the buoyancy of the
float exceeds the fuel pressure on the needle valve, the
float closes the needle valve. The float is adjustable to
maintain the correct fuel level within the float chamber.
As fuel is consumed from the float chamber, the float
drops which allows the needle valve to admit additional
fuel.
Pilot Jet System
Do not over fill the fuel tank. Allow adequate space for the
expansion of gasoline. Leave at least 1" (2.5 cm) space
below bottom of filler neck.
The fuel tank is located under the seat, on the passenger side of the vehicle (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page H-1). Fill
tank with fresh, clean, automotive grade, unleaded, 87
octane (minimum) gasoline. High altitude or heavy use/
load applications may benefit from higher octane gasoline.
The pilot jet system function is to deliver fuel to the
engine during low speed operation. The fuel flow is
determined by the pilot jet size and the setting of the
pilot screw.
Main Jet System
CARBURETOR OPERATION
The main jet system function is to deliver fuel to the
engine during acceleration and heavy load conditions.
Fuel flow is determined by the main jet size. Air is mixed
with fuel that passes through the bleed opening in the
main nozzle. This mixture passes into the carburetor
venturi as atomized air/fuel and is mixed with intake air
and delivered to the engine.
The carburetor consists of four different systems:
Choke System
•
•
•
•
float
pilot jet
main jet
choke
The choke functions to make initial starting of the engine
easier in cold weather conditions. The choke plate
restricts the air flow into the carburetor which richens the
air/fuel ratio.
Repair and Service Manual
Page H-1
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Cap
Fuel Gauge
Sending Unit
Fuel Filter
Fuel Pump
Fuel Tank
Fuel Line
Carburetor
Pulse Line
To
Crankcase
Fig. 2 Fuel System
Choke Operation
Pull the choke knob out to operate the choke (Ref. Fig. 3
on Page H-2). Check that the cable operates smoothly
and that the cable returns when the knob is released.
The motion should be smooth throughout the entire
operating range. If there is any binding or sharp bends,
the choke cable assembly must be replaced.
36
Do not attempt to lubricate the choke cable. Lubricant tends to
retain dirt on the moving parts which will cause premature
deterioration of the cable.
33
See
AIR CLEANER
Section
32
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENT SERVICE AND REPLACEMENT
29
Choke Cable and Housing Removal
Tool List
Qty. Required
Open end wrench, 1/2" ................................................ 2
Open end wrench, 7/8" ................................................ 1
Phillips screwdriver...................................................... 1
Loosen the screw (9) attaching the carburetor choke
shaft to the inner choke cable (1) (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page H2). Remove the nuts (2) securing the outer choke cable
(3) to its bracket.
Page H-2
34
35
Fig. 3 Choke Cable Attachment
At the seat panel, remove the nut (4) and lock washer
(5) securing the outer cable to the bezel retaining
bracket (6). Slide the nut, lock washer and bezel retaining bracket over the choke cable. Remove the choke
cable assembly and bezel (7) from the seat panel.
Repair and Service Manual
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Choke Cable and Housing Installation
In the following text, there are references to removing/installing bolts etc. Additional hardware (nuts, washers etc.) that are
removed must always be installed in their original positions
unless otherwise specified. Non-specified torque specifications are as shown in the table contained in Section ‘A’.
Feed the choke cable assembly (8) through the hole in
the bezel (7) (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page H-2). Insert the cable
and bezel into the seat panel and install the bezel
retaining bracket (6), lock washer (5) and nut (4) finger
tight. Slide the threaded portion of the housing through
the carburetor mounted bracket and attach the nuts (2)
to the choke cable housing finger tight. Pass the choke
cable through the choke arm swivel and tighten the
swivel screw (9) after being sure that the choke and
choke knob are both in the open position.
Adjust the position of the curved portion of the cable
housing to ensure that the cable does not contact the
belts or other moving parts. Check the cable to be sure
that there are no sharp bends or kinks in the cable
before firmly tightening the nuts at both ends of the
cable.
Loosen the hose clamps (1) from each end of the air
intake hose (2). Remove hose (Ref. Fig. 4 on Page H-4).
Remove the two nuts (3) and two studs (4) that secure
the baffle (5) to the carburetor adapter (8).
Remove the two nuts (6) and two washers (7) that
secure the carburetor adapter (8) to the carburetor (10).
Remove PCV valve hose (9) from the rear of the carburetor adapter.
Disconnect the fuel line (12) from the carburetor and
plug the fuel line. Disconnect the solid linkage (13) from
the carburetor throttle lever. See SPEED CONTROL
section. Remove the choke cable (14) from the choke
lever swivel (15).
Remove the choke bracket (16) and slide the carburetor
from the engine studs.
If the carburetor contacts the starter/generator, it will be necessary to remove the starter belt and tilt the starter/generator
to permit carburetor removal. See the starter/generator adjustment instructions in ENGINE section.
Carburetor Disassembly
Carburetor Service
Tool List
Be sure that the ignition system is functioning correctly
before determining that servicing the carburetor is
required. Refer to ELECTRICAL section for ignition system information.
Socket, 12 mm, 1/4" drive ........................................... 1
Ratchet, 1/4" drive ....................................................... 1
Pliers ........................................................................... 1
Straight blade screwdriver, (narrow)............................ 1
To prevent an ignition spark which could ignite
gasoline from the fuel system and result in
personal injury, the negative battery cable
must be removed from battery (see Section
‘B’).
Carburetor Removal
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 10 mm, 1/4" drive ........................................... 1
Ratchet, 1/4" drive....................................................... 1
Extension, 3", 1/4" drive .............................................. 1
Parallel jaw pliers ........................................................ 1
Straight blade screwdriver........................................... 1
Phillips screwdriver ..................................................... 1
Torque wrench, 1/4" drive, in. lbs. ............................... 1
B
B
Qty. Required
Before disassembling the carburetor, drain the fuel bowl and
clean the outside of the carburetor thoroughly with solvent. All
work should be done on a clean surface. Care should be
taken when disassembling the carburetor or removing the jets.
Most carburetor malfunctions are due to wear or clogging of
internal passages with foreign material. Do not bend the float
pin during removal. See ‘Carburetor Troubleshooting’ elsewhere in this section.
Remove the float bowl (1) by removing the retaining
screw (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page H-5).
Inspect the bowl gasket (2) for nicks or cuts. Carefully
press out the float pin (3), float (4) and the inlet valve.
Inspect the float pin for wear at its tip.
Remove the main jet (5).
Remove the main nozzle (6) and inspect the holes.
Blow the nozzle clean with compressed air.
Repair and Service Manual
Page H-3
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
9
10
8
5
6
12
7
3
4
16 15
14 13
1
2
Fig. 4 Air Cleaner
Remove the pilot jet (8).
After adjusting float level, reassemble the carburetor in
reverse order of assembly. The pilot screw is factory
set.
Wash all parts in solvent and blow through all passages
with compressed air. Replace all gaskets and any parts
which show significant wear or damage.
Check for free movement of the choke shaft before
installing the carburetor. Lubricate the bushings with
WD-40® oil or equivalent.
Float Level Adjustment
Throttle Shaft Adjustment
Do not tamper with the pilot screw (7) or plastic cover.
When adjusting the float, never bend the float arm, always
bend tang #1 (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page H-6).
Turn carburetor upside down. Remove the bowl. With
the carburetor inverted, the ‘B’ side top edge of a properly adjusted float will be slightly above parallel to the
bowl gasket surface and both sides of the float will be
level with each other (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page H-6). If the
sides of the float are not parallel or if the ‘B’ side of the
float is not slightly above parallel with the bowl gasket
surface (.030" -.060”) (.8 - 1.5 mm), an adjustment is
required. Adjust by inserting needle nose pliers into the
slot on the top of tang #1 and hold firmly while adjusting
the floats by gently lifting or pushing with the other
hand. Reinstall the bowl, copper gasket and the screw.
Check for fuel leaks.
Page H-4
To adjust the throttle shaft (9) and throttle valve (10),
turn throttle stop screw (11) counterclockwise until it no
longer contacts tab on the throttle shaft (Ref. Fig. 5 on
Page H-5). Hold the throttle shaft in the closed position,
then turn the throttle stop screw clockwise until it contacts the tab on the throttle shaft; turn the screw clockwise 1/4 turn.
Carburetor Installation
To prevent possible injury from explosion or
fire, check for clogged or kinked hoses.
Clogged or kinked carburetor hoses are not
only detrimental to the proper operation and
performance of the vehicle, but can also be a
safety hazard in the case of fuel leaking on a
hot engine
Repair and Service Manual
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Fig. 5 Carburetor
Repair and Service Manual
Page H-5
B
B
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Do not let the carburetor vent hoses become clogged or
kinked. Engine heat will cause the fuel in the carburetor
bowl to expand and may result in fuel being expelled
from the carburetor if unable to vent through the vent
tubes.
To adjust the belt tension after installing the carburetor, see
starter/generator adjustment instructions in ENGINE section.
Replace carburetor and air box in reverse order of disassembly. Use a new gasket to ensure sealing of carburetor. Tighten hardware to 50 - 70 in. lbs. (6 - 8 Nm)
torque (Ref. Fig. 4 on Page H-4).
Tang #1
Float
Side A
Tang #2
Float
Side B
Gasket
Surface
Adjust Float
Side B Slightly
Above Parallel
To Gasket
Surface
Needle And
Seat
Floats Must Be Level
With Each Other
FUEL PUMP
The fuel pump is mounted on the vertical seat support
on the passenger side and is operated by crankcase
pressure impulses from the engine. As the pistons
move up in the cylinders, a negative pressure moves
the diaphragm within the fuel pump (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page
H-6). This movement draws fuel from the fuel tank into
the fuel pump chamber. This action also closes the outlet valve which prevents fuel back flowing from the carburetor.
Tang #1
Tang #2
Fig. 6 Float Adjustment
To Fuel
Line Filter
As the pistons move down in the cylinders, a positive
pressure is formed in the crankcase which causes the
diaphragm to move in the opposite direction (away from
the engine). This action forces the inlet valve to close
and the outlet valve to open and supply fuel to the carburetor float bowl.
Fuel Pump Replacement
Tool List
To
Carburetor
To Crankcase
Pulse Fitting
Qty. Required
Fig. 7 Fuel Pump
Socket, 7/16", 3/8" drive.............................................. 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive....................................................... 1
Needle nose pliers ...................................................... 1
Straight blade screwdriver........................................... 1
Page H-6
Do not confuse pulse and fuel lines. Attempting to operate engine with lines reversed will result in fuel entering
the crankcase and diluting the oil and possible engine
damage.
Repair and Service Manual
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
The length of the pulse hose from the fuel pump is important
for efficient pump operation. If the hose is to be replaced, be
sure to replace with a hose of the same length and approved
material.
Observe and identify the supply and pulse hoses.
Remove the hoses, plug the fuel lines and remove the
pump by removing the two mounting screws and removing the pump (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page H-6).
Installation is in the reverse order of disassembly. Be
sure to connect the pulse line to the correct location on
the pump (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page H-6).
FUEL LINES AND FILTER
Tool List
Qty. Required
To prevent possibility of personal injury, tests
that involve fuel flow should be avoided if at all
possible. If a test to determine fuel/vapor presence or flow is required, the ignition system
must be disabled. Remove the input wires to
the coil in order to prevent an ignition spark
that could ignite the fuel/vapor. Never permit
smoking or an open flame in an area that contains fuel/vapor. Clean up all fuel spills immediately.
The fuel filter, tank, hoses and cap should be checked
frequently for leaks, or signs that the cap vent or filter
have become clogged. The filter should be replaced as
required. See ‘Periodic Service Schedule’ in Section ‘A’.
Needle nose pliers....................................................... 1
Straight blade screwdriver ........................................... 1
Fuel is supplied to the fuel pump and carburetor through
flexible fuel hoses. An in-line filter is installed in the hose
between the fuel tank and the fuel pump (Ref. Fig. 8 on
Page H-7).
1
3
2
The filter is marked with a flow direction arrow. Be sure
that the arrow points towards the fuel pump.
To prevent possibility of injury from explosion
or fire, never attempt to repair a damaged or
leaking fuel tank. It must be replaced.
Fig. 8 Fuel Lines and Filter
Repair and Service Manual
Page H-7
B
B
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Fuel Pump
Fuel
Filter
Part of
Frame
Fuel
Tank
Fig. 9 California Emission Requirement
FUEL LINES & FILTER - CALIFORNIA
EMISSION REQUIREMENT
Tool List
Qty. Required
Needle nose pliers....................................................... 1
Straight blade screwdriver ........................................... 1
Fuel is supplied to the fuel pump and carburetor through
flexible fuel hoses. An in-line filter is installed in the hose
between the fuel tank and the fuel pump (Ref. Fig. 9 on
Page H-8).
Read and understand the following text and warnings before
attempting installation
Carb Installation
1 Disconnect the negative ground from the battery
before starting the installation.
2 Remove the existing hoses and clamps from the
fuel tank to the fuel pump and from fuel pump to
the carburetor and discard.
Care should be taken while removing hoses
due to the presents of fuel remaining in the
lines.
3 Install fuel filter assembly insuring a smooth loop In
the supply lines, secure with tubing clamps (4) provided. (Ref. Fig. 9 on Page H-8)
4 Install the new fuel hose from the fuel pump to the
carburetor, secure with hose clamps provided.
(Ref. Fig. 9 on Page H-8)
Page H-8
Repair and Service Manual
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Care should be taken while installing new hoses onto the plastic receptacles of the fuel tank
and the fuel pump.
5 Secure placement of the three hoses (two new fuel
supply lines and the existing pulse line) with nylon
clamp provided. (Ref. Fig. 9 on Page H-8)
6 Clean area on the top of the timing cover to facilitate the placement of required decal.
7 Reconnect the negative ground to the battery.
FUEL AND STORAGE
Fuel should be fresh, clean unleaded 87 (minimum)
octane.
Methanol and other alcohol based fuels are hygroscopic
fuels which attract and retain moisture. These types of
fuels can attack the aluminum fuel pump and carburetor,
and should be avoided.
Prolonged Storage
The recommended storage method is to operate the
vehicle for the later part of the operational season with
fuel stabilizer added to the bulk storage tank according
to the manufacturers directions. Maintain as little fuel as
possible in the individual vehicle fuel tank. It is desirable
to use fresh fuel with the correct octane rating. Attempt
to minimize bulk storage of fuel over the winter months.
For winter or prolonged storage, raise the rear of the
vehicle (see lifting instructions in Section B) and support
on jack stands. Add fuel stabilizer to the tank in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Disconnect the fuel line from the engine at the fuel tank.
With proper ventilation, start the engine and allow to run
until the engine stops due to lack of fuel. Drain carburetor bowl using drain screw and re-tighten the drain
screw. Remove the air filter and spray a commercial fogging or cylinder oil into the carburetor while operating
the starter for 2 - 3 seconds. Reinstall the air filter and
reattach the fuel line to the tank.
When vehicle is to be used again, the carburetor bowl
float drain valve must be closed and fuel tank filled with
fresh 87 (minimum) octane fuel. The addition of fresh
fuel mixed with the small quantity of stabilized fuel left in
fuel tank will provide satisfactory fuel to operate vehicle.
The fuel tank can be removed only by removing the rear
body, seat support panel and seat frame and unbolting
the tank (see BODY section).
CARBURETOR TROUBLESHOOTING
Condition
OVERFLOW/LEAK
POOR LOW SPEED
PERFORMANCE
Possible Cause
Correction
Worn inlet valve or dirty valve seat
Replace valve or clean valve seat
Improper fuel level in float bowl
Adjust float
Worn float mounting tang
Replace float
Worn float pin
Replace pin
Damaged float bowl gasket
Replace gasket
Damaged float
Replace float
Plugged or kinked vent tubes
Replace vent tube
Pilot screw improperly adjusted
Adjust pilot screw
Clogged pilot port
Clean pilot port
Clogged low speed jet
Clean low speed jet
Loose low speed jet
Tighten jet
Repair and Service Manual
Page H-9
B
B
FUEL SYSTEM
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Condition
POOR FUEL ECONOMY
POOR ACCELERATION
HARD STARTING
POOR HIGH SPEED OPERATION
ABNORMAL COMBUSTION
(FUEL MIXTURE)
LOSS OF POWER
(INSUFFICIENT FUEL)
LOSS OF POWER
(INSUFFICIENT AIR)
SURGING
Page H-10
Possible Cause
Correction
Fuel level too high
Adjust float
Loose jets
Tighten jets
Choke not opening fully
Adjust choke
Dirty air cleaner
Clean/replace air filter
Poor fuel quality
Replace with fresh fuel
Clogged fuel passages
Clean fuel passages
Clogged low speed jet or bleed tube
Clean
Fuel level too low
Adjust float
Dirty air cleaner
Clean/replace air filter
Choke plate not operating properly
Adjust choke system
Dirty carburetor
Clean carburetor
Loose carburetor
Tighten carburetor
Fuel overflow
Inspect float and valve. Repair or replace
Faulty fuel pump
Replace fuel pump
Poor fuel quality
Replace with fresh fuel
Fuel pump faulty
Replace fuel pump
Loose main jet
Tighten main jet
Incorrect fuel level in float bowl
Adjust float
Dirt in fuel tank or hoses
Clean
Clogged fuel filter
Replace fuel filter
Clogged main jet or main jet air passage
Clean jet
Dirty air filter
Clean/replace filter element
Dirty carburetor
Clean carburetor
Dirt in fuel tank, hoses or filter
Clean or replace
Clogged air or fuel filter
Replace
Poor fuel quality
Replace with fresh fuel
Faulty fuel pump
Replace fuel pump
Dirty carburetor
Clean carburetor
Dirt in fuel tank or hoses
Clean
Clogged fuel filter
Replace fuel filter
Air leak in system
Check mounting hardware and gaskets.
Repair or replace
Dirty air cleaner
Clean/replace filter element
Throttle linkage
Adjust or Repair
Blocked air inlet
Clean fuel filter
Governor linkage
Refer to SPEED CONTROL section
Repair and Service Manual
CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’J’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
GENERAL ...................................................................................................................................................................J - 1
CLUTCHES .................................................................................................................................................................J - 1
Drive Clutch ....................................................................................................................................................J - 1
Driven Clutch ..................................................................................................................................................J - 1
Increased Load ...............................................................................................................................................J - 1
Equilibrium ......................................................................................................................................................J - 2
Drive Clutch Removal .....................................................................................................................................J - 2
Drive Clutch Installation ..................................................................................................................................J - 3
Driven Clutch Removal ...................................................................................................................................J - 3
Driven Clutch Repair .......................................................................................................................................J - 3
Torque Ramp Buttons .....................................................................................................................................J - 3
Driven Clutch Assembly ..................................................................................................................................J - 3
Driven Clutch Installation ................................................................................................................................J - 3
DRIVE BELT ................................................................................................................................................................J - 4
Removing the Drive Belt .................................................................................................................................J - 4
Drive Belt Service ...........................................................................................................................................J - 4
STORAGE ...................................................................................................................................................................J - 4
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Continuously Variable Transmission System (CVT) .........................................................................................J - 1
Fig. 2 CVT Components .............................................................................................................................................J - 2
Fig. 3 Removing the Drive Belt ...................................................................................................................................J - 4
Repair and Service Manual
Page J- i
CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page J- ii
Repair and Service Manual
CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Driven Clutch
Drive Clutch
Starter/Generator Belt
Fig. 1 Continuously Variable Transmission System (CVT)
GENERAL
Power transmission from the engine to the rear axle is
by means of a continuously variable transmission (CVT).
The CVT consists of two matched clutch units joined by
a drive belt (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page J-1). The engine
mounted drive clutch is a centrifugal unit that responds
to engine speed and the rear axle mounted driven clutch
is a load sensing unit.
CLUTCHES
Drive Clutch
When the accelerator is depressed, the engine speed is
increased which causes the cams (weights) within the
centrifugal drive clutch to move outwards and force the
moveable sheave inwards. The drive belt is engaged by
the clutch sheaves and begins to rotate. At this point,
the ratio between drive and driven clutch is approximately 3:1.
As the engine speed continues to rise, the drive clutch
sheave continues to move inwards forcing the drive belt
to the outer diameter of the drive clutch sheaves which
increases the speed of the belt. The ratio is greatly
decreased and provides maximum speed.
When the accelerator is released, the engine speed is
decreased and the cams exert less pressure on the
moveable sheave which is forced outwards against the
cams by a compression spring. The drive belt disengages from the clutch sheave when engine speed is
reduced to the point where the cams exert less force
than the spring.
Driven Clutch
The driven clutch sheaves are closed at rest which
results in the drive belt being held at the outer diameter
of the driven clutch. The driven clutch has no weights
but is held closed by a torsion spring which is joined to
the moveable sheave and a torque ramp (cam) that is
attached to the fixed sheave. The moveable sheave
slides against the cam with the three points of contact
provided by low friction ‘buttons’.
As the drive belt starts to rotate, the driven clutch starts
to rotate. As the speed of the drive clutch increases and
the belt starts to climb the sheaves, the driven clutch
responds by being forced open in order to permit the
belt to ride lower in the driven clutches sheaves. The
sheaves overcome the pressure exerted by the torsion
spring and cam.
As the driven clutch slows, the belt rides lower in the
drive clutch sheaves. The driven clutch compensates by
closing in response to the torsion spring and cam.
Increased Load
When the vehicle is at governed speed and starts to
climb a grade or is subjected to other increased load
Repair and Service Manual
Page J-1
CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
conditions, the drive belt friction is overcome by the
additional load and the belt seeks a point where it can
achieve adequate friction to overcome its slippage. The
belt moves outwards on the driven clutch which closes
due to the torsion spring moving the moveable sheave
against the torque ramps. The movement of the drive
belt overcomes some of the centrifugal force exerted by
the cams in the drive clutch. This forces the belt lower
into the drive clutch which increases the drive ratio. This
‘downshifting’ applies more torque to the rear axle without an appreciable change to the engine speed since
the governor opens the carburetor in direct response to
the reduction in ground speed.
the vehicle that they are designed to operate. Changes
in vehicle weight or desired performance characteristics
require that both clutches be tuned to the needs of the
vehicle and remain compatible with each other.
Drive Clutch Removal
Tool List
Plastic faced hammer ..................................................1
Socket, 5/8", 3/8" drive ................................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
Clutch puller (P/N 19779-G2) ......................................1
Impact socket, 1 1/8", 1/2" drive ..................................1
Impact wrench, 1/2" drive (air or electric) ....................1
Thread locking sealant..............................................AR
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Equilibrium
The CVT functions because the drive and driven
clutches maintain equilibrium. Clutch sets are tuned to
8
Qty. Required
9
10
11
13 12
1
14
7
6
5
4
3
2
Fig. 2 CVT Components
Page J-2
Repair and Service Manual
CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Driven Clutch Removal
Tool List
To prevent burns and other possible injuries:
Disable the electrical system before attempting to remove the drive belt to prevent the
engine from inadvertently starting.
Be sure that the engine and exhaust components have cooled before attempting any service.
Do not allow fingers to become trapped
between the belt and clutch sheave.
Use only sockets designed for use with an
impact wrench. Never use a socket intended
for use with hand tools.
Remove the drive belt (1). (Refer to ‘Removing The
Drive Belt’ procedure elsewhere in this section.)
Remove the Starter/Generator belt (Refer to ‘Starter/
Generator Removal’ in ENGINE section.)
Remove the clutch bolt (2), lock washer (3) and pilot
washer (4) (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page J-2). Insert a greased
clutch puller and tighten (clockwise) using an impact
wrench which will remove the clutch from the engine
crankshaft.
In some extreme cases, the clutch may not separate from the
crankshaft. Remove the clutch puller and fill the cavity with
grease. Replace the clutch puller and tighten it with the impact
wrench. The combined mechanical and hydraulic effect will
remove the clutch. Remove all excess grease.
Drive Clutch Installation
Qty. Required
External snap ring pliers ..............................................1
Socket, 5/8", 1/2" drive ................................................1
Ratchet, 1/2" drive .......................................................1
Thread locking sealant..............................................AR
Phillips screwdriver ......................................................1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Remove the drive belt (1) (Refer to ‘Removing The
Drive Belt’ procedure elsewhere in this section).
Remove the clutch bolt (5), the lock washer (6) and the
pilot washer (7) and slide the clutch from the rear axle
input shaft.
Driven Clutch Repair
Parts must be reassembled in same position as their original
position. Mark all components to facilitate accurate reassembly.
Some minor field repairs may be made to the driven
clutch. Remove the retaining ring (8) and remove the
torque ramp (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page J-2). Remove the
spring (10) and the moveable sheave (11).
Inspect the shaft for signs of wear and inspect the bushings for signs of deterioration. If there is wear to the
point of causing vibration, the clutch must be replaced.
Torque Ramp Buttons
Remove any fragments and dirt. Remove the ramp button (12) by removing the screw (13) (Ref. Fig. 2 on
Page J-2). The buttons are replaced by inserting a new
button and screw and tightening firmly. It is good practice to replace all buttons as a set.
Driven Clutch Assembly
Do not install the bolt with an impact wrench.
Clean both the engine crankshaft and the drive clutch
bore. Slide the clutch onto the engine crankshaft and
rotate the clutch while lightly pushing the moveable
sheave in and out several times to seat the clutch with
the tapered crankshaft (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page J-2).
Install the lock washer (3) and the large pilot washer (4)
onto the clutch bolt (2).
Apply thread sealant to the threads of the clutch bolt
and install and tighten to 40 - 44 ft. lbs. (54 - 60 Nm)
torque.
Assemble the moveable sheave (11) to the fixed sheave
(14) and insert the spring (10) in the pilot hole in the
moveable sheave (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page J-2). Insert the
other end of the spring in the torque ramp (9) and rotate
the ramp counterclockwise 140° before engaging the
splines and inserting the retaining ring (8).
Driven Clutch Installation
Coat the rear axle input shaft with a light coating of antiseize compound and slide the clutch onto the shaft
(Ref. Fig. 2 on Page J-2). Install the lock washer (6) and
pilot washer (7) to the clutch bolt (5) and apply thread
sealant to the threads of the clutch bolt. Install the bolt
and tighten to 14 - 17 ft. lbs. (19 - 23 Nm) torque.
Repair and Service Manual
Page J-3
B
B
CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
DRIVE BELT
Removing the Drive Belt
With the vehicle on level ground, remove the drive belt
by pulling the belt upwards which will cause the driven
clutch sheaves to open and loosen the belt tension (Ref.
Fig. 3 on Page J-4). The belt may then be rolled off the
driven clutch.
Fig. 3 Removing the Drive Belt
Drive Belt Service
The drive belt will require no service unless the vehicle
has been operated in an extremely dusty or muddy location in which case it should be washed with plain water.
If the belt becomes frayed or badly worn, it must be
replaced.
STORAGE
If the vehicle is to be out of service for an extended
period of time, the clutches should not be coated with
any protecting spray. The drive clutch sheaves may
develop some surface rust which will be removed within
a few minutes of running time. The driven clutch is aluminum and requires no treatment.
Page J-4
Repair and Service Manual
DIRECTION SELECTOR
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’K’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
DIRECTION SELECTOR ........................................................................................................................................... K - 1
Removing Direction Selector ......................................................................................................................... K - 1
Replacing the Reverse Warning Buzzer ........................................................................................................ K - 1
Replacing a Micro Switch .............................................................................................................................. K - 1
Shift Cable Adjustment (Single Cable) .......................................................................................................... K - 1
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Direction Selector ............................................................................................................................................ K - 2
Repair and Service Manual
Page K-i
DIRECTION SELECTOR
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page K-ii
Repair and Service Manual
DIRECTION SELECTOR
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
DIRECTION SELECTOR
Before removing direction selector and replacing the
buzzer or a micro switch, ensure the electrical wires are
firmly attached and the wire is in good condition.
Removing Direction Selector
Tools List
Qty. Required
Wrench, 7/16" ............................................................. 2
Wrench, 5/16" ............................................................. 1
Phillips screwdriver ..................................................... 1
Digital Volt Ohm Meter (DVOM) .................................. 1
Always observe the following warnings when working on or
near batteries:
To prevent an electrical arc that could cause
an electrical explosion, be sure that the key
switch is off and all electrical accessories are
turned off before starting work on vehicle.
Never disconnect a circuit under load at a battery terminal.
The battery negative (-) cable must be
removed before starting work on vehicle.
Wrap wrenches with vinyl
tape to prevent the possibility of a dropped wrench
from ‘shorting out’ a battery, which could result in an explosion and
severe personal injury or death.
tach the wires to the new buzzer. After restoring power,
test the buzzer to ensure it is operational before continuing by moving the direction selector to ‘REVERSE’
position. Once it is determined that the buzzer will operate, continue reassembly of buzzer on the direction
selector and replacing on body.
Replacing a Micro Switch
To replace a micro switch, remove the attaching hardware (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page K-2). Carefully remove the
two electrical wires from the switch. Reattach the wires
to the new switch. Using a DVOM, test the switch to
ensure it is operational before continuing. Once it is
determined that the switch is functional, continue reassembly of micro switch to the direction selector and
installing to body. Tighten the brass screw attaching the
wires to the switch and the screws attaching the switch
to the assembly to 8 - 11 in. lbs. (0.7 - 0.9 Nm) torque
(on dual cable system).
Shift Cable Adjustment
The single cable direction selector is a mechanical
device that operates a cable connected to the rear axle
(Ref. Fig. 1 on Page K-2). The cable is sealed and does
not require lubrication. Required adjustment should be
minimal. Adjust threaded fitting at forward cable mount
while selector is in the ‘REVERSE’ position until direction selector cam will contact both stops, or contacts the
reverse stop and maintains no more than an 1/8” gap at
the ‘FORWARD’ stop. If further adjustment is nessesary, adjust threaded fitting at the rear axle cable
mount. Lubricate the direction selector, linkage and
related moving parts periodically.
Prior to removing the direction selector switch from the
body, the battery negative cable must be disconnected
to prevent the possibility of electrical spark or ‘shorting
out’ the battery, either of which could result in an explosion and severe personal injury or death.
Remove screw securing the handle to the direction
selector shaft, and remove handle (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page
K-2). Loosen the hardware attaching the direction
selector bracket to the seat frame and remove direction
selector from body.
Replacing the Reverse Warning Buzzer
To replace the reverse warning buzzer, remove the
attaching hardware . (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page K-2).Carefully
remove the two electrical wires from the buzzer. Reat
Repair and Service Manual
Page K-1
DIRECTION SELECTOR
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Front
Direction
Selector
Cam
Shift Cable
Adjustment
Micro
Switch
Reverse
Warning
Buzzer
Fig. 1 Direction Selector
Page K-2
Repair and Service Manual
Shift
Cable
Adjustment
ELECTRICAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’L’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
CIRCUITS AND CONTROLS ......................................................................................................................................L - 1
STARTER ....................................................................................................................................................................L - 1
GENERATOR ..............................................................................................................................................................L - 1
WIRING .......................................................................................................................................................................L - 1
TESTING IGNITION CIRCUIT .....................................................................................................................................L - 1
Testing the Ignition Coil ..................................................................................................................................L - 4
Testing the Pulser Coil ....................................................................................................................................L - 4
TESTING STARTING CIRCUIT ..................................................................................................................................L - 4
TESTING CHARGING CIRCUIT .................................................................................................................................L - 6
STARTER/GENERATOR ............................................................................................................................................L - 6
Starter/Generator Removal .............................................................................................................................L - 6
Starter/Generator Disassembly ......................................................................................................................L - 6
Starter/Generator Inspection ..........................................................................................................................L - 8
Starter/Generator Repair and Replacement ...................................................................................................L - 8
BATTERY VOLTAGE TEST ........................................................................................................................................L - 8
STORAGE OF BATTERY ...........................................................................................................................................L - 8
DVOM (DIGITAL VOLT OHM METER) .......................................................................................................................L - 8
TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................................................L - 9
POWER SUPPLY ........................................................................................................................................................L - 9
ACCESSORY WIRING ..............................................................................................................................................L - 10
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Electrical System Wiring Diagram ...................................................................................................................... L - 2
Electrical System (Physical Location) ................................................................................................................. L - 3
Ignition Coil Check Method ................................................................................................................................. L - 5
Normal Circuit ..................................................................................................................................................... L - 5
Starter/Generator ................................................................................................................................................ L - 7
Starter/Generator Brush Removal ...................................................................................................................... L - 7
Bearing Removal ................................................................................................................................................ L - 7
DVOM ................................................................................................................................................................. L - 9
Accessory Wiring Diagram ............................................................................................................................... L - 11
Repair and Service Manual
Page L- i
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page L- ii
Repair and Service Manual
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
CIRCUITS AND CONTROLS
The electrical system is a 12 volt negative ground system (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page L-2) (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page L-3)
consisting of a:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
battery
starter/generator
voltage regulator
solenoid
ignitor
ignition coil
accelerator limit switch
fuse
key switch
pulser coil
without regard to engine speed. However, the charging
current will vary depending on the condition of the battery. If it is fully charged, current is controlled at 3 to 5
amps.
WIRING
Before performing any test of wiring components, disconnect the battery cables from the
battery posts to prevent electrical shock or
explosion (see procedure in Section “B”).
To prevent injury or death from inadvertent
movement of vehicle, all tests performed
requiring starter/generator or engine to rotate
must be performed with the rear wheels raised
(see Section “B”) or the neutral lock engaged
(see Section “A”).
Follow the lifting procedure in Section “B” of
this manual. Place wheel chocks in front of
and behind the front wheels. Check the stability of the vehicle on the jack stands before
starting any repair procedure. Never work on a
vehicle that is supported by a jack alone.
STARTER
When starting the engine, the field coils are in series
with the armature and the starter/generator operates as
a motor (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page L-2). This circuit is controlled by a key switch, fuse, accelerator limit switch and
a solenoid. With the key in the ‘ON’ position, battery
current is available to the accelerator limit switch which
remains open until the accelerator pedal is pressed.
When the pedal is pressed, the plunger on the switch is
released, the contacts close and the ignition circuit is
energized. Battery current then energizes the solenoid
which closes the contacts and energizes the starter circuit. The starter/generator now functions as a starter to
start the engine.
Electrical tests of the wiring for continuity may be made
with a DVOM (Digital Volt Ohm Meter) available through
the Service Parts Department (P/N 27481-G01). Any
DVOM may be used, however the controls, displays
and features may vary depending on the make and
model. Set the meter selector to the ohms scale and
check continuity between each circuit component as
indicated. Example: If a switch is open or if there is a
break in the wiring, the meter will display a visual signal.
If an analog meter is used it will read infinity (∞).
TESTING IGNITION CIRCUIT
This section assumes the fuel system is functioning and that
the engine is receiving fuel.
Tool List
Qty. Required
DVOM.......................................................................... 1
Spark plug (NGK BPR4ES) ......................................... 1
Spark plug tester ......................................................... 1
To prevent possibility of personal injury, never
operate the starter unless both spark plugs are
installed or the ignition system is disabled.
Fuel drawn into the cylinders will be expelled
through the spark plug opening and could be
ignited by the ignition system or another
source, resulting in a fire.
GENERATOR
The engine incorporates a solid state ignition system
that fires both plugs simultaneously. There is no distributor.
When the engine is running, the starter/generator functions as a generator. This is used for charging the battery and for the ignition system. Generated output is
controlled by the voltage regulator at 14.25 - 14.75 V,
The engine can be stopped by turning the key switch to
the ‘OFF’ position. When the accelerator pedal is
released, the limit switch contacts open and the ignition
circuit is de-energized.
Repair and Service Manual
Page L-1
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Battery
-
A
Ignitor
BLK
+
BLK
A
D
RED
B
BLK
BLK
C
Solenoid
Reverse
Warning
Fuse
7 AMP
BLUE
BLK
BLK
RED
BLK
WHT
RED/WHT
RED/WHT
MS4
RED
GRN
Ignition Coil
GRN
Key
Switch
RED
MS3
Voltage
Regulator
RED
GRN
BLK
A
B
GRN
A
A2
Pulser Coil
F2
F1
D
DF
C
Starter/generator
A1
Engine
Letters Are For Reference Only
And Do Not Appear On Solenoid
Fig. 1 Electrical System Wiring Diagram
Page L-2
Repair and Service Manual
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Front of Vehicle
Battery
24
25
26
Starter/
Generator
Ignition
Coil
F2
DF
A2
F1
GRN
A1
Fig. 2 Electrical System (Physical Location)
Repair and Service Manual
Page L-3
B
B
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
TESTING STARTING CIRCUIT
Do not arc spark plug wire to ground. Connect to a
known good spark plug and ground plug to a clean metal
surface (muffler, cylinder, etc.). Permanent damage may
be caused to the coil or ignitor if the plug is not grounded
properly.
If the engine will not run, but the starter will turn the
engine, proceed as follows:
1. Check for loose terminals, wires and connections.
2. Check for an electrical discharge through the spark
plug wire as follows: Using a spark plug that is known
good, and with a spark plug installed in each cylinder,
place on a clean grounded engine surface, (muffler,
cylinder, etc.). Turn over the engine with the starter.
Look for a blue electrical arc at the spark plug electrode.
3. If there is either a weak arc or no arc, try a new spark
plug, then check the condition and the tightness of
the spark plug wires. Plug wires can be checked by
substituting them with good ones.
4. Replace the plugs if necessary. Gap the spark plug
.028" - .030" (.71 - .76 mm) using a wire type spark
plug gauge.
Testing the Ignition Coil
Set the meter to the ohms scale, measure the resistance between both primary wire terminals and between
the secondary wires (Ref Fig. 3 on page M-5). A normal
reading would be: Primary (+ and -): 1.87 - 2.53 W and
Secondary (A and B): 10.8 - 14.6KΩ. If readings
obtained are out of the above ranges, replace ignition
coil.
Testing the Pulser Coil
Unplug the connector leading into the engine. Place the
(-) probe from the DVOM (set to the ohms scale) on the
red/white wire from the pulser coil, and the (+) probe on
the black wire also from the pulser coil. A reading of
433.5 - 586.5 Ω should be observed. If the measurement obtained is out of this range or if a reading of no
continuity is displayed, replace the pulser coil. Make
certain that the air gap is correct. Set with a .032” feeler
gauge. There is no timing adjustment.
Page L-4
To prevent the possibility of injury resulting
from vehicle inadvertently starting, disconnect
battery for steps 1 through 8 (see Section “B”).
Tool List
Qty. Required
DVOM ......................................................................... 1
If the engine will not turn over, proceed as following
(Ref. Fig. 1 on Page L-2):
1. Check the battery for a voltage reading which should
be between 12.2 and 12.5 volts. Inspect for loose or
dirty battery post connections.
2. Check for a blown in line fuse and replace if necessary with a 7 amp fuse.
3. Check for loose wires at all terminal connections.
4. Check the complete electrical system for correct circuitry.
5. Inspect for worn insulation or bare wires touching the
frame. Bare wires will cause a short circuit.
6. Check for continuity through the key switch. Set the
DVOM to the ohms (Ω) scale. Detach wires. Place
positive (+) probe on one terminal and negative (-)
probe on the other terminal. The reading on the meter
should be “0” Ω with the switch key in the ‘ON’ position and a visual signal (∞) with the switch in the
‘OFF’ position. If the meter does not register, replace
the switch. Reconnect the wires.
7. Turn the key switch to ‘OFF’.
(a) Place one probe of the DVOM (set to ohms scale)
on the red wire at the solenoid. Place the other
probe on the key switch terminal with the blue
wire.
(b) Press the accelerator and observe the DVOM. A
reading of less than 2 Ω indicates a good limit
switch. A reading of greater than 2 Ω indicates that
the switch terminals should be checked. A reading
of infinity a visual signal (•) indicates that the
switch must be replaced. Connect the battery.
8. Check the starting solenoid operation. Turn the key
switch to the ‘ON’ position.
(a) Place the DVOM (set to the appropriate DC volts
scale) negative (-) probe on terminal “A” of the
solenoid. Place the positive (+) probe on terminal
“B”. The DVOM should indicate approximately 12
V.
Repair and Service Manual
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
(b) Press the accelerator pedal. The DVOM will indicate “0” voltage if the solenoid contacts are closed.
(c) If “0” voltage is not indicated while the accelerator
pedal is pressed, replace the solenoid.
Red
Probe
(+)
Black
Probe
(-)
K
Primary
To
+
Secondary
-
To
K
Ignition Coil
B
A
Black
Probe
(-)
Red
Probe
(+)
Fig. 3 Ignition Coil Check Method
+
Solenoid
-
Ignition Coil
Fuse
Key Switch
Ignitor
+
-
Frame
Ground
Pulser
Coil
12 VDC
Spark Plugs
Fig. 4 Normal Circuit
Repair and Service Manual
Page L-5
B
B
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
field wire to ground. If the voltage rises above
its prior reading, replace the regulator.
TESTING CHARGING CIRCUIT
Tool List
Qty. Required
DVOM.......................................................................... 1
9) If the above procedures do not correct the
problem, check for faults in the vehicles wiring harness and/or generator.
STARTER/GENERATOR
To prevent the possibility of injury resulting
from vehicle inadvertently starting, the drive
belt must be removed or both rear wheels
raised (see procedure in Section “B”).
Starter/Generator Removal
The charging circuit consists of a starter/generator, voltage regulator and battery (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page L-2). The
solenoid must be functional in order to start the vehicle,
but is not considered part of the charging circuit.
Tool List
1. If the battery charge is inadequate (less than 11 VDC),
proceed as follows:
a) Check the battery voltage and inspect for loose or
corroded terminal posts and connections. Check
electrolyte level.
b) Check charging circuit component terminals for
proper, clean, tight connections.
c) Check for charging voltage as follows:
See ENGINE section.
Starter/Generator Disassembly
Qty. Required
DVOM ..........................................................................1
Wrench, 24 mm............................................................1
Wrench, 10 mm............................................................1
Wrench, 6 mm..............................................................1
Wrench, 5 mm..............................................................1
Socket, 10 mm, 3/8" drive............................................1
Phillips screwdriver, 3/8" drive .....................................1
Two jaw puller .............................................................1
Straight blade screwdriver, ..........................................1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive .......................................................1
1) Raise the vehicle (see procedure in Section
B) so that both rear wheels are free to rotate.
2) With the engine off, measure the voltage at
the battery’s terminals by placing the negative (-) probe on the negative (-) post and the
positive (+) probe on the positive (+) post of
the battery. Note the reading.
3) Attach the DC voltmeter across the regulator’s red and black leads.
4) Start the engine and accelerate to governed
speed.
5) The meter should read higher than before
starting the engine. In a reasonable amount
of time, the reading should settle between 14
and 15 volts, indicating the regulator is functioning properly.
6) If no increase over battery voltage is
observed, there is a malfunction in the charging circuit.
7) If the reading is above 15 volts, check to
assure the wiring harness and generator field
winding (green lead) is not grounded. If it is
not, replace the regulator.
In general, starter/generator service is best performed by
trained motor technicians who have the knowledge and equipment to overhaul the unit. Some checks and repairs however,
can be accomplished by a skilled mechanic. Make your own
evaluation of the equipment and skills available before starting
disassembly.
Hold the pulley (1) and remove the pulley nut (2).
Remove the pulley, screws (4) and front cover (3) (Ref.
Fig. 5 on Page L-7).
Remove the brush covers (6) by prying out with a screwdriver. Pull up on the brush springs and move to the side
of brushes, slide the brushes out approximately 1/4" (6
mm) (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page L-7). Remove the through
bolts (7) and the rear cover (8). Remove the frame and
field coils (9). Remove the 5 mm screws from the brush
holder and 6 mm nuts from A1 and A2 terminals.
Remove the brush holder. If the bearing needs to be
replaced, use an automotive style two jaw puller to
remove the bearing from armature (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page
L-7).
8) If the reading is below 14 volts, disconnect
the regulator’s green field wire from the system harness. Temporarily connect the green
Page L-6
Repair and Service Manual
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
2
1
4
3
9
6
8
7
Fig. 5 Starter/Generator
Brush
Spring
Puller
Brush
Brush
Bearing Adapter (Puller)
Spring Position
for Installed Brushes
Fig. 6
Spring Position for
Removing/Replacing
Brushes
Starter/Generator Brush Removal
Repair and Service Manual
Fig. 7 Bearing Removal
Page L-7
B
B
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Starter/Generator Inspection
BATTERY VOLTAGE TEST
1. Inspect the commutator for wear or damage.
Battery voltage can be checked using a voltmeter.
Attach the negative (-) lead of the DVOM to the ground
terminal of the battery. The positive (+) lead is then
attached to the positive battery terminal. The voltage
reading obtained should be 12 volts or above. If the
reading is below 12 volts, the battery requires either
charging or replacement.
2. Inspect the brush assembly for wear and damage to
the brush holder insulators. Check the brushes for
length, approximately 11/16" (17 mm) or to the line
marked on the brush and signs of carbonization.
3. Inspect the armature for distortion or broken wires.
4. Inspect the field coil insulators and lead wire.
5. Check the bearings for free rotation and lack of end
play on shaft. Replace if necessary.
Starter/Generator Repair and Replacement
Tool List
Qty. Required
DVOM ..........................................................................1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, ft. lbs..................................1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, in. lbs.................................1
Clean cloth...................................................................1
Socket, 3/8" drive.........................................................1
1. Commutator - Clean with a soft, clean cloth.
2. Replace any damaged or cracked brush holders or
brushes worn to less than 11/16" (17 mm) in length or
to the line marked on the brush.
3. Test the insulation between the core and the commutator segments and shaft with a circuit tester. If continuity is indicated, the insulation is defective and the
armature must be replaced.
4. With the brushes removed, using a DVOM, check the
field coils for continuity between ‘F1’ and ‘F2’ and ‘DF’
and ‘F1’. If an open circuit exists, replace the field
coils. Check for continuity between all four terminals
and the frame (outer shell). If continuity is indicated,
the field coils are grounded against the frame and the
field coils must be replaced.
5. Clean all parts to be reinstalled and reassemble in the
reverse order of disassembly. Tighten bolts and nuts
to the following values:
• 4 mm - torque to 15 - 21 in. lbs. (17 - 24 kg/cm)
• 5 mm - torque to 30 - 43 in. lbs. (35 - 50 kg/cm)
• 6 mm - torque to 52 - 74 in. lbs. (60 - 85 kg/cm)
• 14 mm - torque to 33 - 40 ft. lbs. (45 - 55 Nm)
Tighten terminal nuts to the following torques:
•
•
F1 - F2 - torque to 43 - 52 in. lbs. (50 - 60 kg/cm)
DF - torque to 26 - 35 in. lbs. (30 - 40 kg/cm)
Page L-8
Hydrogen gas formed during battery charging
is explosive and can cause personal injury or
death. Avoid any electrical spark or open
flame near battery.
If the temperature of the battery or the ambient temperature is
below 60° F (15° C), the capacity of the battery will be less. It
will require more time to charge. A cold battery will build up
voltage and more rapidly reduce the charging rate.
Batteries that are new or have been stored must be fully
charged before being tested or placed in vehicle.
Do not overcharge battery.
STORAGE OF BATTERY
A battery that is removed from service for storage must
be cared for as follows:
For battery removal see ‘Battery Removal’ in Section B.
Charge fully. Cover terminals with petroleum jelly to prevent oxidation (use commercially available battery protectant when installed in vehicle). Store in a cool place
not below 32° F (0° C) or above 80° F (27° C) Battery
should be charged every 30 days using a 2 amp trickle
charger.
DVOM (DIGITAL VOLT OHM METER)
The DVOM shown (Ref. Fig. 8 on Page L-9) is representative only, the actual model may vary depending on
availability, and is available through the Service Parts
Department as P/N 27481-G01. For the purpose of this
section, the red probe (+) and black probe (-) are used.
Any DVOM may be used, however the controls, displays, accuracy and features may vary depending on
Repair and Service Manual
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
the make and model. Always follow the meter manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions for the use
and care of the meter.
obvious that voltage is present. Since bulbs will burn out
over time, the obvious place to start is at the headlight
that is not functioning. If power is present at the connector and the ground wiring is satisfactory, the only possibilities that exist are a burned out bulb or a poor contact
between the connectors and the headlight.
If power is not present but the other headlight functions,
a wiring problem is indicated between the two headlights.
In some cases where battery voltage is expected, the
easiest way to test the circuit is to set the DVOM to DC
volts and place the negative (-) probe of the DVOM to
the negative battery terminal. Move the positive (+)
probe to each wire termination starting at the battery and
working out to the device that is not working. Be sure to
check both sides of all switches and fuses.
When no battery voltage is found, the problem lies
between the point where no voltage is detected and the
last place that voltage was detected. In circuits where no
voltage is expected, the same procedure may be used
except that the DVOM is set to continuity. Place the negative (-) probe on a wire terminal at the beginning of the
circuit and work towards the device that is not working
with the positive (+) probe. When continuity is no longer
indicated, a failed conductor or device is indicated
POWER SUPPLY
Tool List
Qty. Required
DVOM ..........................................................................1
Fig. 8 DVOM
1. Check for loose or bare wires
TROUBLESHOOTING
In order to effectively troubleshoot the circuits that
include the horn, lighting, brake/turn signals and
gauges, the technician must be able to use the wiring
diagram and a DVOM.
The wiring diagram shows the path followed by a voltage or signal from its origination point to its destination.
Each wire is indicated by color and is divided into the
main harness and the dash harness (Ref. Fig. 9 on Page
L-11).
The technician should use simple logic troubleshooting
in order to reduce the number of steps required to isolate the problem.
Example 1: If the vehicle will not start and none of the
lights function (or burn dimly) the battery should be
tested before trying to troubleshoot the lighting circuit.
Example 2: If a problem occurs in the lighting circuit that
results in only one of the headlights not working, there is
no reason to check battery wiring or the fuse since it is
Check for loose wires at each terminal connection and
for worn insulation or bare wires touching the frame.
Bare wires may cause a short circuit.
If any DVOM readings indicate a faulty wire, it is recommended that the condition of the terminals and wire junction be
examined. A faulty wire should be replaced with one of the
same gauge and color and wired between the correct components and wire tied to the harness bundle. The faulty wire
should be cut back close to the harness and the ends protected with vinyl electrical tape.
2. Check battery condition
Check for adequate battery volts (nominal 12 VDC) by
setting DVOM to 30 VDC range and place the red
probe (+) on the battery post with the green wire
attached. Place the black probe (-) on the battery post
with the black wire attached. A reading of 11 VDC or
greater indicates adequate battery condition. No read-
Repair and Service Manual
Page L-9
B
B
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
ing indicates (a) a poor connection between the
probes and the battery terminals; (b) a faulty DVOM. A
voltage reading below 11 volts indicates poor battery
condition and the vehicle should be recharged before
proceeding with the test.
Due to the resistance of the wires involved within the harness,
voltage readings may be somewhat lower than battery voltage.
A reading of 1 volt below battery voltage is acceptable.
3. Check power wire
Firmly attach the black probe (-) to the battery post
with the black wire attached and the red probe (+) to
the green wire terminal at the fuse block. A reading of
battery voltage indicates that the power wire is in good
condition.
ACCESSORY WIRING
After determining that there is power to the fuse panel,
and the fuse is good, continue checking the circuit using
the procedures previously used to check the power supply, i.e. loose or rusted connections, bare wires, continuity of the wiring from terminal to terminal, operating
condition of switch, etc.
Use the wiring diagram (Ref. Fig. 9 on Page L-11) to
check correct wiring and wire routing. If there is power at
the fuse end of the wire, there must also be power at the
other end of the wire at the switch or electrical accessory, and eventually at the ground connection. Electricity
must flow from the fuse panel through the full length of
the circuit to the ground connection. Any interruption of
electrical flow must be corrected, whether by repairing or
replacing the wire, the switch or accessory
The power wire supplies power to the entire fuse block.
4. Check fuse
Place the red probe (+) to each wire terminal on the
fuse block. A reading of battery voltage indicates that
the fuse is in good condition. No reading indicates a
faulty fuse; replace with a good 15 amp fuse.
Page L-10
Repair and Service Manual
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Driver Side
Marker
Turn
Headlight
Passenger Side
Marker Turn
Headlight
RED
GRN
YEL
RED
BLK
BLK
BLK
BLU/WHT
GRN
BLK
RED
-
Horn
+
BLK
GRN
ORN/WHT
YEL
15 AMP
RED
Fuse
Block
15 AMP
BLU/WHT
BLU/WHT
Brake
Switch
15 AMP
Light Switch
( Part Of Key Switch )
BLK
WHT
RED
BLK
NO
C
RED
BLK
RED
BRN
Flasher
YEL
GRN
RED
BRN
WHT
YEL
Turn
Signal
Switch
RED
Fuel
Gauge
+12V
Key Switch RED
YEL
Low Oil
Pressure
Light
BLK
WHT
Solenoid
Oil Pressure
Sender
Fuel
Sender
Solenoid
-
+
YEL
BLK
BLU/WHT
BLK
BRN
YEL
BRN
BLK
WHT
Taillight
-
+
Hour Meter
YEL BRN
WHT
RED
RED
Turn Signal
WHT
BLK
Taillight
Turn Signal
Passenger Side
Driver Side
For Vehicles Without Turn Signals, Remove WHT Wire From Driver Side Taillight RED Wire
And YEL Wire From Passenger Side Taillight RED Wire. Connect Each RED Wire To BRN Wire.
Indicates Wires Included In Light and Accessory Harness
Indicates Wires Included In Fuel Gauge/Oil Light Harness
Indicates Butt Connection Within Wiring Harness
Fig. 9 Accessory Wiring Diagram
Repair and Service Manual
Page L-11
B
B
ELECTRICAL
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page L-12
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’M’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
BRAKE SYSTEM OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................M - 1
General Description .......................................................................................................................................M - 1
How the Service Brake Works .......................................................................................................................M - 2
Equalizer Link ................................................................................................................................................M - 2
Automatic Adjuster Mechanism .....................................................................................................................M - 2
How the Parking Brake Works .......................................................................................................................M - 2
Compensator Assembly .................................................................................................................................M - 3
Kick-Off Actuating Linkage ............................................................................................................................M - 3
TROUBLESHOOTING FLOWCHART ........................................................................................................................M - 4
TROUBLESHOOTING TABLE ...................................................................................................................................M - 6
TROUBLESHOOTING AND INSPECTION ................................................................................................................M - 8
New Vehicles .................................................................................................................................................M - 8
Troubleshooting and Inspection Procedures .................................................................................................M - 8
Brake Pedal and Linkage Inspection .............................................................................................................M - 8
Periodic Brake Performance Test (PBPT) ...................................................................................................M - 10
Aggressive Stop Test ...................................................................................................................................M - 11
Wheel Brake Inspection ...............................................................................................................................M - 12
MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS ..............................................................................................................................M - 14
Parts Replacement vs. Repair .....................................................................................................................M - 14
Adjusting Brake Pedal Free Travel ..............................................................................................................M - 14
Brake Drum Removal and Installation .........................................................................................................M - 16
Wheel Brake Service ...................................................................................................................................M - 16
Backing Plate/Entire Wheel Brake Assembly Removal and Installation ......................................................M - 17
Brake Shoe and Adjuster Replacement .......................................................................................................M - 18
Brake Cable and Equalizer Assembly Removal and Installation .................................................................M - 19
Compensator Assembly, Removal and Installation .....................................................................................M - 19
Brake Pedal Removal and Installation .........................................................................................................M - 19
Parking Brake Catch Bracket Removal and Installation ..............................................................................M - 20
Parking Brake Pedal, Removal and Installation ...........................................................................................M - 20
Pedal Bumper Adjustment ...........................................................................................................................M - 20
Parking Brake Release Linkage Removal and Replacement ......................................................................M - 21
Parking Brake Kick-Off Cam Removal, Replacement and Installation ........................................................M - 21
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Mechanical Brake System ...............................................................................................................................M - 1
Fig. 2 Wheel Brake Adjustment .................................................................................................................................M - 2
Fig. 3 Parking Brake and Kick-Off Mechanism ..........................................................................................................M - 3
Fig. 4 Compensator Assembly ..................................................................................................................................M - 3
Fig. 5 Troubleshooting Flowchart .............................................................................................................................M - 4
Fig. 6 Troubleshooting Table .....................................................................................................................................M - 6
Fig. 7 Brake Pedal Bumper Inspection ......................................................................................................................M - 8
Fig. 8 Brake Pedal Inspection ....................................................................................................................................M - 8
Fig. 9 Checking for Excessive Free Travel ................................................................................................................M - 9
Fig. 10 Equalizer and Compensator ..........................................................................................................................M - 9
Fig. 11 Parking Brake Pedal Hinge Inspection ........................................................................................................M - 10
Fig. 12 Kick-Off Cam Inspection ..............................................................................................................................M - 10
Fig. 13 Periodic Brake Performance Test ................................................................................................................M - 11
Fig. 14 Equally Load Vehicle ...................................................................................................................................M - 12
Fig. 15 Adjuster Mechanism ....................................................................................................................................M - 13
Fig. 16 Brake Shoe Wear ........................................................................................................................................M - 13
Fig. 17 Orientation of Brake Shoe Springs ..............................................................................................................M - 14
Fig. 18 Free Travel Adjustment ...............................................................................................................................M - 15
Fig. 19 Check Clevis Pins ........................................................................................................................................M - 15
Repair and Service Manual
Page M- i
MECHANICAL BRAKES
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’M’
SECTION TITLE
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29
Fig. 30
Page M- ii
PAGE NO.
Checking Parking Brake Latching Pressure ............................................................................................... M - 15
Brake Assembly .......................................................................................................................................... M - 16
Wheel Brake Lubrication Points .................................................................................................................. M - 17
Backing Plate Removal and Installation ...................................................................................................... M - 17
Brake Shoes and Springs ........................................................................................................................... M - 18
Setting Adjuster Screw ................................................................................................................................ M - 18
Brake Cable, Equalizer and Compensator .................................................................................................. M - 19
Brake Pedal Removal and Installation ........................................................................................................ M - 19
Catch Bracket and Latch Arm ..................................................................................................................... M - 20
Pedal Bumper Adjustment .......................................................................................................................... M - 20
Parking Brake Release Linkage and Kick-OffCam Removal and Installation ............................................. M - 21
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Parking Brake Pedal
Torsion Springs
Push Nut
Identification
Hole*
Hinge Pin
Pedal
Latch
Arm
Service
Brake Pedal
Kick Off
Cam
Set
Screw
Cam
Pivot
Spacer
Catch Bracket
Cap Screw
Brake Pedal Pivot Bolt
Compensator
Assembly
Spherical Nut
Lock Nut
Jam Nut
Pedal Bumper
Nylock Nut
Part of Frame
Brake Pedal
Bushing
Torsion
Spring
Clevis Pin
Equalizer
Link
Bushing Parking Brake
Release Linkage
Brake Cables
Retaining
Ring
Washers
Part of
Accelerator Pedal
Cotter Pin
Self Adjusting
Wheel Brake
Brake Lever
Fig. 1 Mechanical Brake System
BRAKE SYSTEM OVERVIEW
General Description
This vehicle is equipped with a mechanically activated
rear drum brake system. The brake system consists of a
service brake and parking brake pedal, parking brake
release linkage, compensator assembly, equalizer link,
brake cables and self adjusting wheel brake assemblies
(Ref. Fig. 1 on Page M-1)
Although the brake system is similar to an automobile, it
is different in important ways. The system operates in
a very severe environment. Fertilizer, dust, grass clippings, tree roots and other objects can cause corrosion
and physical damage to the brake components. Unlike
automotive hydraulic brakes, mechanical brakes depend
on the travel of the brake cables to move the brake
shoes against the brake drums. The travel of the brake
cables is governed by the brake pedal. If the cables cannot travel far enough to absorb the slack (free travel) in
the system and still apply the shoes to the drums, the
braking effort at the wheel brake will not be adequate.
The self adjusting mechanism in the wheel brakes
requires enough cable travel at the wheel brake to work
reliably. When the brake is released, there must be slack
in the system so the brakes will release fully and the
adjusters will function. Free pedal travel, pedal force,
shoe to drum clearance and braking capability are
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-1
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
closely related. It is very important to maintain the
proper relationships to assure braking performance and
the best wheel brake adjustment.
How the Service Brake Works
Brake Lever
Brake
Shoe
Depressing the service brake pedal pulls the compensator assembly and equalizer link, which are connected to
the brake cables (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page M-1). The first part
of the pedal travel removes slack from the system. Continued motion of the brake pedal pulls both the left and
right brake cables. Each brake cable pulls a brake lever
which pushes the rear brake shoe against the brake
drum. When the rear shoe contacts the brake drum, it
can no longer move rearward. Additional pedal (and
cable) travel causes the actuator bracket (moving
anchor) to move and applies force to the front shoe,
pushing it against the brake drum. The force applied to
the front and rear shoes is approximately equal. As the
shoes contact the moving brake drum, the shoes try to
move in the direction of drum rotation. This movement
results in the typical brake shoe wear patterns.
Equalizer Link
The equalizer link balances braking between the driver
and passenger sides of the vehicle. Variations in wheel
brake adjustment, cable friction and manufacturing tolerances may cause the equalizer to be slightly misaligned.
This misalignment is normal.
B
Adjuster Spring
C
Brake Adjuster Arm
Star Wheel
Adjusting Screw
Brakes adjust only while the vehicle is moving.
When the brake pedal is depressed, the brake lever moves
toward the front of the vehicle (A).
The other end of the brake lever moves to the rear of the
vehicle (B) where it contacts the brake adjuster arm,
causing it to move.
The brake adjuster arm moves away from the star wheel
(C). The amount of adjuster travel is limited by the amount
of brake shoe travel required to contact the brake drum.
The amount of travel increases as the brake shoe lining
wears.
When the brake pedal is released, the adjuster spring
retracts the brake adjuster arm which contacts the star
wheel. Note that adjustment only takes place when the
brake pedal is released while the vehicle is in motion.
If the brake shoes have worn far enough to permit the
brake adjuster arm to contact the next tooth of the star
wheel, the star wheel will be advanced by the tension
applied to the adjuster arm by the adjuster spring.
Automatic Adjuster Mechanism
Never manually adjust the brakes at the star wheel. Doing
so will cause permanent damage to the adjuster assembly and result in a gradual loss of brakes.
The wheel brakes are equipped with an automatic
adjuster mechanism that is designed to compensate for
brake shoe wear and eliminate the need for manual
brake shoe adjustment. Do not manually adjust the
brakes by prying back the adjuster arm and turning the
star wheel. Permanent damage to adjuster will result.
If the brake shoes have not worn enough to permit the
brake adjuster arm to contact the next tooth of the star
wheel, the brake adjuster arm will move on the flat of the
star wheel. The star wheel does not rotate and no
adjustment occurs.
Fig. 2 Wheel Brake Adjustment
How the Parking Brake Works
The parking brake is operated by a smaller pedal which
extends across the top of the service brake pedal. It is
attached to the service brake pedal with a hinge pin and
is spring loaded (Ref. Fig. 3 on Page M-3).
Adjustment takes place only when the brake is fully
applied and released while the vehicle is moving (Ref.
Fig. 2 on Page M-2). It is very important that the brake
cables permit the brake levers to release fully when the
brake pedal is in the released position.
Page M-2
A
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Older
Models
2001 and
Later
Compensator Assembly
The compensator assembly contains a spring, which is
compressed until the stop tube within the spring is
engaged and the linkage becomes solid (Ref. Fig. 4 on
Page M-3). The brake compensator assembly applies a
spring load to the parking brake system and insures that
the parking brake remains under tension whenever it is
engaged.
Stop Tube
No Hole in
Models Prior
to 2001
Pedal
Latch
Arm
Spring
Fig. 4 Compensator Assembly
Kick-Off Actuating Linkage
Pedal Latch Arm
Accelerator
Pedal
The kick-off actuating linkage may require periodic
adjustment to compensate for the normal wear.
Replacement of any linkage components will also
require an adjustment.
Catch
Bracket
Pedal Bumper
Kick-Off Cam
Fig. 3 Parking Brake and Kick-Off Mechanism
Depressing the parking brake pedal moves the latch arm
against the catch bracket attached to the chassis. As the
parking brake is depressed, the service brake is applied
until the notch in the latch arm engages with the catch
bracket. The service brake pedal is held in the applied
(down) position by the catch bracket. The latch arm is
held in position by the tension in the brake linkage. The
Parking Brake can be released by two methods:
1. Depressing the service brake, which permits the
spring loaded Parking Brake pedal to return to its original position, disengaging the latch arm from the catch
bracket. This is the preferred method which minimizes
wear on components.
2. Pressing the accelerator pedal rotates the kick-off
cam which forces the pedal latch arm to move away
from the catch bracket. The spring loaded Parking
Brake pedal returns to its original position, releasing
the brake.
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-3
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
TROUBLESHOOTING FLOWCHART
6 Remove Both Drums
Don't Disturb Brake
Mechanism
1
Brake Cables:
Frayed
Damaged
Seized
Sticky
Secured/Hardware
2
Park Brake
Pedal:
Hinge Pin
Torsion Springs
Hardware
Catch Bracket
Latch Arm
Kick-Off Cam
Adjustment
Pedal Pad
Pedal Bumper:
Condition
Secured
Adjustment
Pedal
Free Travel
Correct?
Adjust
Free
Travel
No
Perform the
Periodic Brake
Performance
Test (PBPT)
3 Times
Test
Result
See 'Periodic Brake Performance
Test (PBPT)' in the Technicians
Repair & Service Manual
Passes
2 out of 3
PBPT
3 Times
Test
Result
Fails
2 out of 3
Do steps 8 through 13
to one side at a time
Bad
Adjuster
Arm Bent or Not
Contacting Star Wheel?
Yes
Gouges or Galling on Backing Plate?
Gouges or Galling on
Sliding Anchor?
No
5 Remove Both Rear
Wheels and Tires
Replace
9
Passes
2 out of 3
Replace. See
Rear Axle
Section
in Manual
Good
Aggressive
Stop Test
(10 times)
Go to 6
Wheel Brake
Clevis Pins
Tight?
No
Return
To
Service
Yes
Go to 2
*
*Providing free travel is correctly
adjusted, the clevis pins will not
be under tension by the brake cables.
Fig. 5 Troubleshooting Flowchart
Page M-4
Remove Excess
Brake Dust from
Brake Components
Seal and
Thrust Washer
Condition
Fails
2 out of 3
4
Yes
No
8
3
Visually Inspect
Drums
Overheated,
Worn (Ledge),
Spline, Cracked, Glazed,
Grease Contamination,
Out of Round,
Scored
Yes
Compensator:
Clevis Pin
Adjustment
Bent Rod
Loose Spherical Nut
and Lock Nut
Service Brake
Pedal:
Pivot
Torsion Spring
Damage
Corrosion
Pedal Pad
7
Good
Condition of:
Clevis Pins
Cotter Pins
Equalizer:
Corrosion
Damage
Angle
Attachment
Adjust
Correct
Replace
Bad
Visual External
Inspection
Includes
Visually Check
Condition of:
Repair and Service Manual
Check Adjuster
Function by Holding
Front Brake Shoe,
Operate Brake Lever
Go to 10
Replace
Wheel
Brake
Assembly
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
10
Adjuster Tries
to Move Star Wheel?
Star Wheel Rotates?
Free Movement of
Sliding Anchor?
No
Disassemble
Brake,
Clean, Lube.
Replace
Adjuster
Both Sides.
18
Yes
11
17
Install Wheel and Tire,
Check Tire Pressure.
Torque Lug Nuts.
**Dynamic Adjust
Brakes and Pedal
Free Travel
Visually Inspect
Brake Springs
Springs
Bent, Broken
or Missing?
Yes
Wheel Brake
Clevis Pins
Tight?
Replace
Both
Sides
No
No
Yes
PBPT
Pass
Fail
19
Re-Adjust
Free Travel
12
Visually Inspect
Brake Shoes
Damaged,
Yes
Worn .06" or less,
Glazed?
Disassemble,
Clean and Lube
Bosses
No
13
14
Carefully
Reset
Adjuster
Wheel Brake
Clevis Pins
Tight?
Yes
Go to 19 first.
If tight after
second time,
go to 5 .
No
Return to Service
Repeat Wheel Brake
Work to Other Side
From Step 8 to 13
15 Install Inner Brake Drum
Washers and Apply
Anti-seize compound
to Splines
16
Install New
Shoes and
Springs
Aggressive
Brake Test
(10 times)
Install Brake Drum
and Torque
**Dynamic Adjust means to fully apply and release the brakes on a
vehicle while it is rolling. Do this by first verifying that some
braking function exists. Then drive vehicle at slow speed and
apply the brakes aggressively. As the brakes adjust and stop the
vehicle more effectively, start driving at maximum speed and brake
aggressively 10 times. At the spherical nut, readjust the free travel.
Drive and brake aggressively 10 more times. Repeat until the pedal
free travel stabilizes within the specified range.
Fig. 5 Troubleshooting Flowchart
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-5
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
TROUBLESHOOTING TABLE
Test (PBPT), and Aggressive Stop Test is performed
(Ref. Fig. 6 on Page M-6).
Refer to the following troubleshooting table only after the
thorough visual inspection, Periodic Brake Performance
Condition
Possible Cause
Fails Brake Performance Test by stop- Wheel brake failure due to severely
ping in a longer distance than normal worn or damaged components
Correction
Replace all severely worn or damaged
components
Brake pedal not returning
Brake not adjusting
Check for binding of brake pedal
Check brake pedal free travel
Check brake cables
Check brake adjusters
Check pedal pivot
Brake shoes wet
Check again when shoes are dry
Brake cables damaged or sticky
Check brake cable and replace if sticky or
damaged
Brake shoes severely worn
Replace
Brake shoes glazed
Sand shoes with emery cloth provided that
shoes have .06" (1.5 mm) min. material
System not adjusted properly
Check and adjust per manual
End of brake cable loose from anchor
brackets
Check and repair
Cracked brake drum
Replace
Starting 2001 Model Year - In excess of Low pedal force at parking brake latch Adjust per manual
1 1/8" (2.9 cm) free pedal travel (Soft Brake cables damaged
Replace
Pedal)
Prior to 2001 Model Year - In excess of Brake return bumper out of adjustment Adjust per manual
2 1/4" (5.7 cm) free pedal travel (Soft
Pedal)
End of brake cable loose from anchor
brackets
Check and repair
Wheel brake failure due to severely
worn or damaged components
Replace all severely worn or damaged
components
System not adjusted properly
Adjust per Manual
Starting 2001 Model Year - Less than High pedal force at parking brake latch Adjust per Manual
7/8" (2.2 cm) free pedal travel (Hard
Brake cables damaged or sticky
Check brake cable and replace if sticky or
Pedal)
damaged
Prior to 2001 Model Year - Less than 2"
(5 cm) free pedal travel (Hard Pedal)
System not adjusted properly
Check and adjust per manual
Wheel brake failure due to severely
worn or damaged components
Replace all severely worn or damaged
components
Fig. 6 Troubleshooting Table
Page M-6
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Condition
Possible Cause
Neither wheel locks when park brake Incorrect compensator spring adjustment
is latched. (Note: At full speed the
wheels may not lock, but should brake Excessive brake pedal free travel
aggressively).
Unequal braking (one wheel locks
while other rotates)
Neither wheel locks
Grabbing brakes (oversensitive)
Parking brake hard to latch
Parking brake will not stay latched
Correction
Return to factory specification
Adjust per manual
Wheel not locking is not adjusting
Check brake operation of wheel that is
not locking
Sticky/dragging cable
Check for brake lever return
Check that brake levers return at equal
rate - (Indication of dragging cable)
Cracked brake drum
Replace
Brake shoes wet or glazed
Check again when shoes are dry
Rusted or sticky brake pivot hardware
Replace
Brake system requires complete
adjustment
Adjust entire system
Brake pedal not returning
Check for binding of brake pedal
Check brake pedal free travel
Moisture has caused surface rust on
drums
Apply moderate force to pedal while at
maximum level ground speed to remove
rust until condition is relieved.
Brake Pivot binding
Check and replace poor components
Inadequate free play
Adjust pedal free travel at spherical nut
and check that wheel brake actuators
are returning fully
Sticky/dragging cable
Check for brake lever return
Check that brake levers return at equal
rate - (Indication of dragging cable)
Dragging shoes
Check wheel brakes
Excessive wear
Check for worn latch mechanism
Fig. 6 Troubleshooting Table
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-7
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
TROUBLESHOOTING AND
INSPECTION
New Vehicles
A new vehicle will undergo an initial break-in of components including brake cables and brake shoes. In this
break-in period, it is not uncommon for the brake pedal
free travel (and the effort required to latch the parking
brake) to change. The timing of this change varies with
terrain and the driving habits of the operator(s). When
this occurs, the brake linkage should be adjusted.
“Adjusting Brake Pedal Free Travel” on Page M 14 After this
initial period, no further adjustments should be required
until routine maintenance is scheduled.
Troubleshooting and Inspection Procedures
To troubleshoot the mechanical brake system, inspect
the brake pedal and linkage to find worn or damaged
parts per the Troubleshooting Flowchart (Ref. Fig. 5 on
Page M-4). Then, perform the Periodic Brake Performance Test to evaluate system performance. Based on
the results of the inspection and tests, refer to the Troubleshooting Table (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page M-6) to evaluate
symptoms and repairs. If required, disassemble the
wheel brake to locate and correct internal faults.
1/4" - 3/8" (6 - 9.5 mm) Diameter
Drill or Bolt Must Pass
Adjust At Bumper If Needed
Through Gap
Fig. 7 Brake Pedal Bumper Inspection
No Hole in
Models Prior
to 2001
Brake
Pedal
Arm
Part of
Frame
Pivot
Bolt
Instructions for removal or replacement of parts and
adjustments referred to in this section of the manual are
described in detail under ‘MAINTENANCE AND
REPAIRS’ .
Brake
Pedal Bushing
Torsion Spring
Fig. 8 Brake Pedal Inspection
Satisfactory brake performance does not eliminate the
need for routine brake testing and inspection as shown
on the Periodic Service Schedule in Section A. Continued proper brake operation depends on periodic maintenance.
Brake Pedal and Linkage Inspection
1. Inspect brake pedal return bumper.
Be sure that the brake pedal is contacting the pedal
return bumper when released, that the bumper is in
good condition and that a 1/4 - 3/8" (6 - 9.5 mm) gap
exists between the brake pedal arm and the setscrew
heads of the kick-off cam (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page M-8).
Replace or adjust the pedal bumper if required. “Pedal
Bumper Adjustment” on Page M 20
Page M-8
2. Check brake pedal return.
Apply the brake pedal and release. Check that the
brake pedal arm rests against the pedal bumper when
released. Check that the torsion spring is hooked
around both the pedal and the frame and is in good
condition. If the pedal does not return fully or is sluggish, the brake pedal bushings and pivot bolt should
be inspected (Ref. Fig. 8 on Page M-8). Replace
pedal, spring, bushings and bolt as required. “Brake
Pedal Removal and Installation” on Page M 19
3. Check the brake pedal free travel.
Brake pedal free travel is the distance the pedal
moves from rest to the point at which the brake shoes
first contact the brake drums. This should not be confused with the light resistance that is felt as the brake
pedal is depressed enough to remove slack from the
compensator and cables. Too much pedal free travel
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
may indicate wheel brakes not adjusting, wear in the
cables and linkages or initial break-in of components.
Not enough pedal free travel may indicate improper
adjustment of the wheel brake or the brake linkage.
Either condition can prevent the brakes from adjusting
properly.
Measured Amount of Free Travel
5. Check the clevis pins.
Check clevis pins attaching the brake cables to the
brake lever. They must be loose when the brake pedal
has been released (Ref. Fig. 19 on Page M-15). If the
clevis pins are not loose, but brake pedal free travel is
correctly adjusted and the brake cables move freely,
the problem is likely in the wheel brake.
6. Inspect the brake cable equalizer linkage.
Inspect for signs of corrosion, damage, wear or excessive misalignment (Ref. Fig. 10 on Page M-9).
Replace if corrosion, damage, or wear is found.
Floor
Board
Fig. 9 Checking for Excessive Free Travel
Adjustment of free travel depends on manufacturing date.
The correct brake pedal free travel setting varies
depending on the date of manufacture. Older models
(latch arm without a 1/4" (6 mm) diameter hole in the
lower portion (Ref. Fig. 8 on Page M-8)) should be set to
2" – 2 1/4" (5 - 6.5 cm) free travel. Starting model year
2001 (with a 1/4" (6 mm) diameter hole in the lower end
of the latch arm), free travel should be set to 7/8" - 1 1/8"
(2.2 - 2.9 cm) (Ref. Fig. 9 on Page M-9).
The parking brake latching force may be checked as a
verification after setting brake pedal free travel. The preferred method of checking parking brake latching force
is to place a ‘bathroom’ scale on the service and parking
brake pedals. Using both feet, press the scale down
evenly against the parking brake pedal until it latches.
The parking brake should latch between 65 and 75 lbs.
(29 - 34 kg) indicated on the scale (Ref. Fig. 20 on Page
M-15).
7. Inspect the compensator assembly.
Inspect for damage, corrosion or wear. Replace the
complete assembly if problems are found. In general,
no adjustment will be needed, as the spring assembly
is factory calibrated. With the parking brake disengaged check that the compensator spring length is 3
15/16" (10 cm) (Ref. Fig. 10 on Page M-9). If an
adjustment is required, it should be made at the nuts
at the spring facing the front of the vehicle. Tighten the
jam nut firmly after adjusting.
Not To
Exceed
1/8"
(3 mm)
in
Either
Direction
Normal
Position
Spherical Nut
Lock Nut
View From Below
NOTE: This dimension is factory pre-set with the
parking brake disengaged and is not to be changed.
Jam Nut
Adjust brake pedal free travel as described in ‘MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS’ if required.
4. Inspect the brake cables.
Inspect for damage to the outer cable, fraying of the
inner cable or lack of free motion when the pedal is
applied and released. Inspect the brake cable supports to be sure the cables are properly secured. If
any of these conditions are found, replace both cables
and equalizer as a set.
Front
3 15/16"
(10 cm)
Adjusting Nut
Spring
Fig. 10 Equalizer and Compensator
8. Inspect parking brake pedal hinge.
Check for broken or rusted springs and correct retention of the hinge pin. Operate parking brake pedal to
confirm smooth operation of the hinge mechanism
(Ref. Fig. 11 on Page M-10).
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-9
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
12. Inspect kick-off cam linkage and bushings.
Check for wear and damage. The kick-off cam pivot
and bushings should move freely and be free of corrosion. The kick-off cam should rotate when the accelerator pedal is depressed.
Hinge
Pin
Torsion
Springs
Push
Nut
Periodic Brake Performance Test (PBPT)
Fig. 11 Parking Brake Pedal Hinge Inspection
9. Check the condition and operation of the parking
brake latching mechanism.
The parking brake should latch firmly and release as
soon as the accelerator pedal is depressed.
To prevent serious injury or death from the use
of worn parking brake components, to not
attempt to re-new worn components. The parking brake latch arm, kick-off cam and catch
bracket are hardened parts. Do not grind or file
them as doing so will cause the parts to lose
their hardness characteristics. New parts must
be used.
10. Inspect catch bracket and latch arm.
Replace if showing signs of wear or damage (Ref. Fig.
12 on Page M-10).
11. Inspect the parking brake kick-off cam.
Look for wear and for correct adjustment. With the
parking brake engaged and fully latched, there must
be no gap between the top of the cam and the latch
arm. Adjust the kick-off cam (3) if required (Ref. Fig.
12 on Page M-10). It is very important that the correct
setscrews are used to hold the kick-off cam to the
pivot rod. Use of longer screws prevents correct
adjustment of pedal bumper (pedal travel) and may
prevent the brakes from adjusting properly
.
Pedal Latch Arm
Cam Must Be Against
Latch Arm At This Point
0.0" Gap
(0.0 mm)
Set
Screw
Catch
Bracket
Kick-Off
Cam
Fig. 12 Kick-Off Cam Inspection
Page M-10
To prevent severe injury or death resulting
from operating a vehicle with improperly operating brake system, the braking system must
be properly maintained. All driving brake tests
must be done in a safe location with regard for
the safety of all personnel.
The Periodic Brake Performance Test (PBPT) should be
performed regularly (see Periodic Service Schedule in
the GENERAL INFORMATION AND ROUTINE MAINTENANCE section of this manual) as an evaluation of
braking system performance. It is useful as a method of
identifying subtle loss of performance over time and as
part of troubleshooting a problem vehicle.
Before performing this test, inspect the brake pedal and
linkage and correct any problems found including adjusting the brake pedal free travel if required.
The purpose of this test is to compare the braking performance of the vehicle to the braking performance of
new or “known to be good” vehicles or to an established
acceptable stopping distance (see below). Actual stopping distances will be influenced by weather conditions,
terrain, road surface condition, actual vehicle weight
(accessories installed) and vehicle speed. No specific
braking distance can be reliably specified. The test is
conducted by latching the parking brake to eliminate different pedal pressures and to include the affects of linkage mis-adjustment. Significant changes or differences
in braking performance will be evident due to mis-adjustment.
Establish the acceptable stopping distance by testing a
new or “known to be good” vehicle and recording the
stopping location or stopping distance. For fleets of vehicles, several vehicles should be tested when new and
the range of stopping locations or distances recorded.
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
pedal. The vehicle should stop aggressively. The wheel
brakes may or may not lock. Observe the vehicle stopping location or measure the vehicle stopping distance
from the point at which the brakes were latched. The
vehicle should stop within the “normal” range of stopping
distances. If the vehicle stops more than 4 ft. (1.2 m)
beyond the acceptable stopping distance or pulls to one
side, the vehicle has failed the test.
Dry Paved Surface
Repeat test two more times.
If the vehicle fails to pass two of three Periodic Brake
Performance Tests, perform the Aggressive Stop Test 10
times as described below, then repeat the Periodic
Brake Performance Test three more times (second set of
three).
Accelerate To Maximum
Level Ground Speed
Latch
Parking Brake
and Take Foot
Off Pedal
Acceptable
Stopping 4 ft. (1.2 m)
Distance
Line or Marker
If the vehicle passes two of three Periodic Brake Performance Tests, check that the clevis pins at the brake
levers are loose. If they are loose, return vehicle to service. If they are tight, adjust free travel. “Adjusting Brake
Pedal Free Travel” on Page M 14 Then repeat the Periodic
Brake Performance Tests. If vehicle fails, remove from
service and refer to ‘Wheel Brake Inspection’, to evaluate the reason for failure.
Aggressive Stop Test
Line or Marker
Normal Range of
Stopping Distance
Any vehicles that stop
more than 4 ft. (1.2 m)
beyond the Acceptable
Stopping Distance or
pulls to one side should
be removed from service
and inspected by a
qualified mechanic
Fig. 13 Periodic Brake Performance Test
Over time, a subtle loss of performance may take place; therefore, it is important to establish the standard with a new vehicle.
Drive the vehicle at maximum speed on a flat, dry, clean,
paved surface (Ref. Fig. 13 on Page M-11). Quickly
depress the brake pedal to latch the parking brake at the
line or marker in the test area and remove foot from
To prevent serious injury or death, all brake
tests must be done in a safe location with
regard for the safety of all personnel.
Always conduct a visual inspection and evaluate pedal travel before operating a vehicle to
verify some braking function is present.
The purpose of this test is to attempt to fully expand and
release the brake adjusters on a vehicle which has failed
the first set of Periodic Brake Performance Tests. It is
important that the technician/mechanic exercise care
and perform the test in a non-congested area with
regard for the safety of all personnel.
To perform an Aggressive Stop Test, equally load both
sides of the vehicle (Ref. Fig. 14 on Page M-12) and
apply maximum force and travel to the service brake
pedal while moving. Do not latch the parking brake. Do
this a total of 10 times with the first few at slow speed. If
brake function is adequate or improves, increase speed
for the remaining tests. Before the end of the tests, both
wheels should lock at approximately the same time and
slide straight.
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-11
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
The brake adjuster mechanism must expand and release fully
to function. Under light usage this may not occur, even though
the vehicle stops acceptably. The adjuster functions most consistently with aggressive braking.
friction surface being significantly worn and leaving a
ledge of unworn drum. Inspect the splines for galling,
wear and corrosion. If any of these problems are
found, the drum must be replaced.
3. Remove any accumulated brake dust from the wheel
brake assembly with a brush.
4. Visually inspect the axle seal for oil leakage and the
condition of the thrust washer. If oil is present, see
REAR AXLE section.
5. Verify the inner brake drum washer is present and
check its condition. Replace if damaged or missing.
Fig. 14 Equally Load Vehicle
If one wheel brake assembly requires replacement, the second must also be replaced.
Wheel Brake Inspection
Wear a dust mask and eye protection whenever working on wheel brakes. Do not use pressurized air to blow dust from brake assemblies.
Replace both brake shoes on both wheels if
one or more shoes are worn below .06”
(1.5mm) thickness at any point.
Do NOT touch any of the wheel brake mechanism except
as instructed.
Do NOT use a commercial brake cleaner unless the
entire brake has been disassembled.
1. Remove the brake drums.
Do not disturb adjuster mechanisms. Remove excess
dust and dirt from the drum with a brush.
Use care when handling the adjuster arm. Too much
force will damage the adjuster and require that both
wheel brake assemblies be replaced.
6. Visually check the condition and operation of the
adjuster mechanism.
Inspect the brake lever for damage or wear. Test the
adjuster function as follows:
Push the front brake shoe in the direction of the rear of
the vehicle and hold in position.
Operate the brake lever.
Observe the brake adjuster arm and note if the arm
engages the star wheel and attempts to rotate it (Ref.
Fig. 15 on Page M-12)
.
Wheel Brake
Lever
Star
Wheel
Front of Vehicle
Adjusting
Screw
The drum must not be turned to “true” a worn
friction surface. Turning will make the drum too
thin causing drum failure and a loss of brakes
which could cause severe injury or death.
2. Inspect the brake drum.
Look for a blue coloration or blistered paint that would
indicate that it has overheated. Check for evidence of
scoring. Check for excessive wear indicated by the
Page M-12
Brake Adjuster
Arm
Fig. 15 Adjuster Mechanism
If the adjuster arm engages and turns the star
wheel, proceed. If the arm fails to engage the star
wheel, it has been damaged and both wheel brake
assemblies must be replaced.
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
If adjuster arm engages star wheel but fails to
rotate it, the adjuster assemblies must be replaced
with new color-coded adjusters. Note the location of
the two Teflon coated washers (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page
M-17).
7. Check the condition and operation of the moving
anchor assembly (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page M-17).
Operate the brake lever to check for free motion. The
adjuster assembly and brake lever should move
smoothly from front to back on the backing plate. If
the moving anchor assembly is damaged or binds
against the backing plate, replace both of the wheel
brake assemblies.
A backing plate assembly that shows any indication of galling or gouging is not repairable
and must be replaced with a new wheel brake
assembly. Always replace wheel brake assemblies in pairs.
.
The pattern of normal brake shoe wear is
shown in quadrant ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ & ‘D’ with
quadrant ‘A’ showing the most wear.
Quadrant ‘B’ will show the second most wear.
Driver side
Forward
Drum Rotation
C
B
A
D
Passenger Side
Forward
Drum Rotation
8. Inspect the backing plate.
Inspect for gouges, galling or other damage, particularly where the backing plate is contacted by the brake
shoes and by the moving anchor assembly. Replace
both backing plates if any gouges or galling is found.
B
C
9. Measure the brake shoe thickness.
Measure at the most worn area. Brake shoe thickness
must never be less than .06" (1.5 mm) at any point on
the shoe. It is normal for the shoes to show more wear
at the leading and trailing edges (Ref. Fig. 16 on Page
M-13). If the brake shoe thickness is approaching .06"
(1.5 mm), it is recommended that the shoes be
replaced. It is recommended that the brake shoe
springs and brake adjusters be replaced when installing new brake shoes.
D
A
Fig. 16 Brake Shoe Wear
10. Inspect the brake shoe springs.
Be sure that they are not broken or damaged and are
correctly installed. The hooked end of the adjuster
spring is inserted through the front of the front shoe
and the opposite end hooked to the adjuster with the
hook end facing out. The brake shoe springs must be
installed with the light spring closest to the adjuster
mechanism with the hook installed down through the
rear brake shoe and up through the front brake shoe.
The heavy top spring is installed with both spring
hooks installed down through the brake shoes (Ref.
Fig. 17 on Page M-14)
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-13
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Straight blade screwdriver, narrow...............................1
Pliers ............................................................................1
Vernier/Dial calipers .....................................................1
Heavy Shoe
Spring
Plastic tipped hammer .................................................1
Puller (P/N 15947-G1) .................................................1
Light
Shoe
Spring
Pry bar .........................................................................1
Dust mask ....................................................................1
Adjuster
Spring
Emery cloth ..................................................................1
Parts Replacement vs. Repair
Light
Shoe
Spring
Some maintenance or repair tasks can take considerable labor to do correctly. Assessment of the condition of
worn components is critical to the operation of the brake
system. In some cases, component replacement may be
more cost effective than the removal, cleaning, inspection and reassembly of the component(s).
Adjuster
Spring
Adjusting Brake Pedal Free Travel
Fig. 17 Orientation of Brake Shoe Springs
11. Repeat procedure at the opposite wheel brake.
12. Check/adjust brake pedal free travel.
Whenever the brake system is serviced or requires a
parts replacement, the brake pedal free travel must be
checked and adjusted. “Adjusting Brake Pedal Free
Travel” on Page M 14 This includes all linkage and
wheel brake components.
MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS
Tool List
Qty. Required
Hydraulic floor jack ...................................................... 1
Scale............................................................................ 1
Jack stands.................................................................. 4
Wheel chocks .............................................................. 4
Socket, 1/2", 1/2" drive ................................................ 1
Socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive ................................................ 1
Socket, 11/16", 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
Socket, 15/16", 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
Socket, 1 1/8", 1/2" drive ............................................. 1
Socket, 1/4", 3/8" drive ................................................ 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, in. lbs. ............................... 1
Extension, 6", 1/2" drive .............................................. 1
Ratchet, 1/2" drive ....................................................... 1
Open end wrench, 1/4" ................................................ 1
Open end wrench, 1/2" ................................................ 1
Open end wrench, 5/8" ................................................ 1
Straight blade screwdriver ........................................... 1
Page M-14
Brake pedal free travel MUST be checked and adjusted
any time that the brake system is serviced or when
parts are replaced.
Brake pedal free travel is the distance the pedal travels
from rest to the point at which the brake cables start to
move the brake levers. This should not be confused with
the light resistance that is felt as the brake pedal is
depressed enough to remove slack from the compensator and cables. Correct adjustment of free travel is
essential to proper brake function. Too much pedal free
travel will limit braking capability. Too little pedal free
travel may cause the brakes to drag (not fully released).
Either condition can prevent the brakes from adjusting
properly.
This procedure is intended to adjust the brakes
and seat brake system components. The brake
system may not be effective for the first few
applications of the brake pedal.
Pre-adjust service brake pedal free travel to the correct
setting by loosening the jam nut and adjusting the spherical nut (Ref. Fig. 18 on Page M-15). Tighten the jam nut
to 10 - 11 ft. lbs. (14 - 15 Nm).
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
.
7/8" - 1 1/8" (2.2 - 2.9 cm)
Jam Nut
Clevis Pin Loose?
Fig. 19 Check Clevis Pins
Spherical Nut
Fig. 18 Free Travel Adjustment
The correct brake pedal free travel should be set to 7/8"
- 1 1/8" (2.2 - 2.9 cm).
Press the brake pedal aggressively 4 - 6 times to establish known free travel.
The parking brake latching force can be checked as verification after setting brake pedal free travel. To check
parking brake latching force, place a ‘bathroom’ scale on
the service and parking brake pedals. Using both feet
press the scale down against the parking brake pedal
until it latches. The parking brake should latch between
65 and 75 lbs. (29 - 34 kg) indicated on the scale (Ref.
Fig. 20 on Page M-15).
Use a 'bathroom' scale
to confirm the latching force
required to engage and latch
the parking brake.
75
70
65
All brake tests must be done in a safe location
with regard for the safety of all personnel.
In a safe location free from people and vehicles, drive
the vehicle at reduced speed and apply the brakes
aggressively. As the brakes adjust and stop the vehicle
effectively, start driving at maximum speed and brake
aggressively 10 times.
At the spherical nut, adjust the free travel as noted
above.
Drive again and brake aggressively 10 times.
Repeat the previous step(s) until the pedal free travel
does not change during the aggressive braking.
Check to see that the clevis pins attaching the brake
cables to the brake levers are loose (Ref. Fig. 19 on
Page M-15). If they are not loose, inspect system again
and correct as required. If the clevis pins are loose,
tighten jam nut to 10 - 11 ft. lbs. (14 - 15 Nm) at the
spherical nut
Loosen Jam Nut
If required adjust spherical nut
to achieve correct parking brake
latching pressure of 65 - 75 lbs.
(29 - 34 kg).
Fig. 20 Checking Parking Brake Latching Pressure
Perform the Periodic Brake Performance Test as
described and return the vehicle to service if brake performance is satisfactory.
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-15
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Brake Drum Removal and Installation
Remove the dust cap (1) to gain access to the castellated nut (2) and the cotter pin (3) (Ref. Fig. 21 on Page
M-16).
Pay particular attention to the location of the inner brake drum
washer (6) inside the brake drum, which may be on the axle
shaft or attached to the rear of the drum hub. This washer must
be reinstalled when the brake is reassembled.
Front of Vehicle
To install the brake drum, clean the axle shaft and the
splines on the brake drum to remove dirt, grease and
foreign matter. Apply a small amount of anti-seize compound to the axle spline. Install the inner brake drum
washer (6) and slide the brake drum (5) into place.
Check to ensure the nose of drum hub is beyond the end
of the axle splines. If not, remove drum and install one
additional inner brake drum washer (total of 2) to obtain
required spacing.
5
3
6
1
2 4
Fig. 21 Brake Assembly
Remove the cotter pin and castellated nut as shown.
Do not back off nut to install cotter pin.
Do not apply the brake when removing the nut as the shoes
may not fully retract preventing removal of the brake drum.
Remove washer (4).
Slide the brake drum (5) from the axle shaft. If required,
tap the drum with a plastic faced hammer to loosen it
from the axle shaft or use drum puller (P/N 15947-G1).
Install the remaining hardware and tighten the nut to 8090 ft. lbs. (108 - 122 Nm) torque. Continue to tighten
until a new cotter pin can be installed through the castellated nut and the hole in the axle. Maximum torque is
140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm).
Wheel Brake Service
Use care when raising the adjuster arm. Too much
force will damage the adjuster and require that both
wheel brake assemblies be replaced.
If the drum does not slide from the brake assembly, the
brake shoes must be retracted. Rotate the hub so that
the hole in the drum is in the six o’clock position which is
directly over the brake mechanism. Use a small straight
blade screwdriver to raise the adjuster arm just above
the star wheel.
Loosen the star wheel to retract the brake shoes and
remove the brake drum.
Wheel brake service consists of disassembly, cleaning,
inspection, lubrication and re-assembly of the wheel
brake. Worn or damaged components must be replaced.
Wheel brake service is required periodically as a preventive maintenance measure (see Periodic Service
Schedule in Section A). The wear rate of brake shoes
and required service intervals will vary based on usage,
terrain and other conditions. It is recommended that
wheel brake service be performed periodically on a sample of vehicles within the service fleet to establish the
most efficient and effective service interval.
Remove the brake drum as described in ‘Brake Drum
Removal and Installation..
Wear eye protection and a mask when cleaning brake components. Do not use compressed air to remove brake dust from brake
assembly
Page M-16
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
.
Do NOT use a commercial brake cleaner unless the
entire brake has been disassembled.
Install the actuator components, adjuster components
and brake shoes. “Brake Shoe and Adjuster Replacement”
on Page M 18 If the brake shoes and drum are not to be
replaced, sand the friction surfaces lightly with emery
cloth to remove any foreign material.
Remove any accumulated brake dust with a brush.
Remove the brake shoes. “Brake Shoe and Adjuster
Replacement” on Page M 18
Clean backing plate with a commercial brake cleaner.
Allow to dry completely.
It is important that the friction areas between the backing plate and the brake shoes be lubricated. Be careful
not to allow lubricant to contact the braking portion of
the brake shoes or the friction surface of the brake
drum. Use only recommended lubricants.
Lubricate the backing plate friction points of the shoes
and moving anchor with Multi Purpose Grease (MPG)
lubricant (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page M-17).
Backing Plate
Be sure that the adjusting screw is screwed into the
star wheel nut until only 1 - 2 threads are exposed (Ref.
Fig. 25 on Page M-18). If the brake shoes are replaced,
replace the three brake springs and the adjuster components.
Replace the springs one side at a time, using the other
side as a guide.
Install brake drum as described in ‘Brake Drum Removal
and Installation’.
Repeat on other side of vehicle.
Adjust the brake pedal free travel. “Adjusting Brake Pedal
Free Travel” on Page M 14
Backing Plate/Entire Wheel Brake Assembly
Removal and Installation
Lubricate
(3) Bosses
Each Side
Lubricate
(3) Bosses
Each Side
Remove the four bolts (1) and lock nuts (2) securing the
wheel brake backing plate to the flange on the axle tube
(Ref. Fig. 23 on Page M-17).
Moving Anchor
2
Lubricate Surfaces In and Around
Slots and Plastic Slide Plate
1
DO NOT LUBRICATE
Adjuster
Arm
Adjuster
Housing
Fig. 23 Backing Plate Removal and Installation
Shim
Washer
(2) Teflon
Washers
Actuator
Piston
LUBRICATE
Fig. 22 Wheel Brake Lubrication Points
Remove the clevis pin securing the brake cable to the
brake lever.
Installation is the reverse of removal. Connect the brake
cable to the wheel brake with the clevis pin installed
from the top down and a new cotter pin. Install the brake
assembly or backing plate to the axle tube flange. Install
new hardware (locknut should only be used once) and
tighten to 23 - 28 ft. lbs (31 - 38 Nm) torque.
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-17
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Brake Shoe and Adjuster Replacement
It is recommended that when brake shoes are replaced, the
adjusters and springs also be replaced. It is good practice to
do one side at a time, using the other side for reference.
Remove the three brake shoe springs and discard (1, 2,
3). Note the location of the heavy spring and the
adjuster spring (Ref. Fig. 24 on Page M-18). Hold the
shoe clamp pin (4) and compress and rotate the shoe
clamp (5) 90° to release it from the shoe clamp pin.
Remove the brake shoes, adjusters and remaining components.
Shoe Clamp
5
Heavy Shoe Spring
1
Clean the backing plate with a commercial brake
cleaner. Allow to dry completely. Lubricate the friction
points of the shoes and moving anchor with Multi Purpose Grease (MPG) lubricant (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page M17).
Be sure that the adjusting screw is screwed into the
star wheel nut until only 1 - 2 threads are exposed
Install adjuster mechanism (driver side silver, passenger
side gold). Be sure that the two teflon coated washers
are installed as shown (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page M-17). The
adjusting screw must be screwed into the star wheel nut
until only 1 - 2 threads are exposed (Ref. Fig. 25 on
Page M-18).
New Brake Shoes
Screw Adjusting Screw In
Until 1 - 2 Threads Are Exposed
Existing Brake Shoes
Adjust 'in' 10 - 15 'clicks' (Minimum of
1 - 2 Threads Must Be Exposed)
4
Shoe
Clamp
Pin
Fig. 25 Setting Adjuster Screw
3
Adjuster
Spring
2
Light Shoe
Spring
Install the actuator piston. Be sure the hardened shim
washer is installed as shown (Ref. Fig. 22 on Page M17).
Always replace both brake shoes on both wheels as a
set. Install the shoes as indicated and install the shoe
clamp (5) over the shoe clamp pin (4) and rotate 90° to
lock them in place (Ref. Fig. 24 on Page M-18).
Install new brake shoe and adjuster springs. The hooked
end of the adjuster spring is inserted through the front of
the front shoe as shown (Ref. Fig. 24 on Page M-18).
The opposite end of the adjuster spring is hooked to the
adjuster with the hook end facing out. The brake shoe
springs must be installed with the light spring closest to
the adjuster mechanism with the hook installed down
through the rear brake shoe and up through the front
brake shoe. The heavy top spring is installed with both
spring hooks installed down through the brake shoes.
Check to see that the brake is functioning properly.
Install the brake drum. “Brake Drum Removal and Installation” on Page M 16
Fig. 24 Brake Shoes and Springs
Page M-18
Repeat on other side of vehicle.
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Adjust the brake pedal free travel. “Adjusting Brake Pedal
Free Travel” on Page M 14
Installation is the reverse of removal. Use new cotter
pins in the clevis pin.
Brake Cable and Equalizer Assembly
Removal and Installation
Adjust the brake pedal free travel. “Adjusting Brake Pedal
Free Travel” on Page M 14
Brake Pedal Removal and Installation
The brake cables and equalizer are only serviceable as a complete assembly.
Remove the cotter pins and clevis pins connecting the
brake cables to the brake levers. Remove the retaining
rings connecting the brake cables to their brackets at the
axle (rear of cable) and at the frame (front of cable).
Loosen and remove the jam nut and the spherical nut on
the equalizer link (Ref. Fig. 26 on Page M-19). Inspect
the hardware and replace if needed. Remove the brake
cable and equalizer assembly and discard.
Disconnect the compensator assembly (1) from the
brake pedal by removing the cotter pin (2) and the clevis
pin (3). Unplug the wiring harness on models equipped
with brake lights. Unhook the torsion spring (4) by inserting a thin blade screwdriver between the small hook and
the bracket. Move the hook back and to the side to
release the torsion spring (Ref. Fig. 27 on Page M-19).
Cotter
Pin
Clevis
Pin
Compensator
Assembly
Equalizer
Bracket
5
Spherical
Nut
Compensator
Rod
4
7
Jam
Lock
Nut Brake
Cables
2
1
6
Fig. 26 Brake Cable, Equalizer and Compensator
3
7
Slide the equalizer link of the new assembly over the
compensator rod. Loosely install the spherical nut and
new locking jam nut. Insert the cables into the frame and
axle brackets. Install new retaining rings. Connect the
cables to the brake levers using new clevis pins and
new cotter pins.
Adjust the brake pedal free travel. “Adjusting Brake Pedal
Free Travel” on Page M 14
Compensator Assembly, Removal and
Installation
Disconnect the compensator assembly from the brake
pedal by removing the cotter pin and clevis pin (Ref. Fig.
26 on Page M-19).
Loosen and remove the jam nut and the spherical nut
connecting the compensator rod to the equalizer link.
Remove the compensator assembly.
Older
Models
9
9
8
8
10
2001
and
Later
Pedal
No Hole in
Latch
Models Prior
to 2001
Fig. 27 Brake Pedal Removal and Installation
Remove the lock nut (5), the shoulder bolt (6) and
remove the brake pedal.
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-19
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Inspect the shoulder bolt for corrosion that could cause
binding. This bolt and both bushings (7) must be
replaced with new ones if corrosion or wear is found.
Parking Brake Pedal, Removal and Installation
Brake pedal installation is in the reverse order of disassembly. Tighten the nut (5) to 25 - 29 ft. lbs. (34 - 39 Nm)
torque and use a new cotter pin when installing the compensator assembly. Connect brake light wiring harness,
if equipped.
Note the location and orientation of the two torsion
springs (8). Remove the push nut (9) and pin (10) (Ref.
Fig. 27 on Page M-19) and remove the parking brake
pedal. Some models may use two push nuts on the pin.
Adjust the brake pedal free travel. “Adjusting Brake Pedal
Free Travel” on Page M 14
Check for proper brake light operation if equipped.
Parking Brake Catch Bracket Removal and
Installation
Remove the driver side front wheel to gain access to the
brake pedal release mechanism.
To prevent serious injury or death resulting
from the sue of worn parking brake components, do not attempt to re-new worn components. The catch bracket is a hardened part.
Do not grind or file it as doing so will cause the
part to lose its hardness characteristics. A new
part must be used.
Remove the two bolts (1) and nuts (2) which secure the
catch bracket. Replace the catch bracket with a new
one, replace and tighten the hardware to 85 - 95 in. lbs.
(10 - 11 Nm) torque (Ref. Fig. 28 on Page M-20).
If required, adjust the kick-off cam (3). “Parking Brake
Kick-Off Cam Removal, Replacement and Installation” on Page
M 21
Install wheel. See WHEELS AND TIRES section.
To prevent serious injury or death resulting
from the use of worn parking brake components, do not attempt to re-new worn components. The parking brake arm latch is a
hardened part. Do not grind or file it as doing
so will cause the part to lose its hardness characteristics. A new part must be used.
Installation is in the reverse order of disassembly. Use a
new push nut (or push nuts).
If required, adjust the kick-off cam (3). “Parking Brake
Kick-Off Cam Removal, Replacement and Installation” on Page
M 21
Pedal Bumper Adjustment
Loosen the bumper lock nut and adjust the bumper by
rotating it (Ref. Fig. 29 on Page M-20). The brake pedal
must contact the pedal bumper when pedal is released
and the dimension from the top of the pedal arm to the
setscrew heads in the kick-off cam should be approximately 1/4" - 3/8” (6 - 9.5 mm).
Tighten the lock nut to 12 - 14 ft. lbs. (16 - 19 Nm)
Pedal Latch Arm
1
2
.03" (.76 mm) Max Gap
After Adjustment Of Cam
Lock
Nut
Cam Must Be Against
Latch Arm At This Point
0.0" Gap
(0.0 mm)
4 3
Catch Bracket
1/4" (6 mm) Max Gap At This Point
Fig. 28 Catch Bracket and Latch Arm
Page M-20
1/4" - 3/8" (6 - 9.5 mm) Diameter
Drill or Bolt Must Pass
Pedal Bumper
Through Gap
Fig. 29 Pedal Bumper Adjustment
Repair and Service Manual
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Parking Brake Release Linkage Removal
and Replacement
Parking Brake Kick-Off Cam Removal,
Replacement and Installation
Remove the cotter pin (2), washers (3) and bushings (4)
from linkage rod (1). Remove the linkage rod (Ref. Fig.
30 on Page M-21).
Disconnect the parking brake release linkage as
described above. Loosen the two setscrews (5) from the
cam (6) and remove the cam pivot (7), cam and spacer
(8) (Ref. Fig. 30 on Page M-21).
Inspect the bushings (4). If they are worn replace them
with new ones.
Installation is in the reverse order of disassembly.
If required, adjust the kick-off cam (6). “Parking Brake
Kick-Off Cam Removal, Replacement and Installation” on
Page M 21
Accelerator
Pedal
3
Inspect the bushings (9,10) and spacer. If they are worn,
replace them with new ones.
Installation is in the reverse order of disassembly.
With the parking brake engaged and fully latched, there
must be no gap between the top of the cam and the
latch arm. To adjust the kick-off cam (6), engage the
parking brake and loosen the two cam setscrews (5) and
rotate the cam until it contacts the latch arm. Tighten the
setscrews to 45 - 55 in. lbs. (5 - 6 Nm) torque. Always
use new epoxy patch setscrews when replacing the
kick-off cam.
2 7
4
2
3
4
1
9
5
6
8 10
Fig. 30 Parking Brake Release Linkage and Kick-OffCam Removal and Installation
Repair and Service Manual
Page M-21
B
B
MECHANICAL BRAKES
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page M-22
Repair and Service Manual
REAR SUSPENSION
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’N’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
REAR SUSPENSION ................................................................................................................................................. N - 1
GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................................. N - 1
Shock Absorber Removal .............................................................................................................................. N - 1
Shock Absorber Installation ........................................................................................................................... N - 1
Rear Spring Removal .................................................................................................................................... N - 1
Rear Spring Installation ................................................................................................................................. N - 1
REAR AXLE REMOVAL ............................................................................................................................................. N - 3
Rear Axle Installation ..................................................................................................................................... N - 3
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Rear Suspension ................................................................................................................................................N - 2
Repair and Service Manual
Page N-i
REAR SUSPENSION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page N-ii
Repair and Service Manual
REAR SUSPENSION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
REAR SUSPENSION
Shock Absorber Installation
In the following text, there are references to removing/installing bolts etc. Additional hardware (nuts, washers etc.) that are
removed must always be installed in their original positions
unless otherwise specified. Non specified torque specifications are as shown in the table contained in Section “A”.
Shock absorber installation is in the reverse order of
disassembly except that the shock absorber nuts (1,3)
must be tightened until the shock absorber bushings (4)
expand to diameter of the shock absorber washer (5)
Rear Spring Removal
GENERAL
Tool List
Qty. Required
Wheel chocks.............................................................. 4
Jack stands ................................................................. 4
Floor jack..................................................................... 1
Wrench, 1/2"................................................................ 1
To reduce the possibility of personal injury, follow the lifting procedure in Section B of this
manual. Place wheel chocks in front and
behind the front wheels and check the stability
of the vehicle on the jack stands before starting any repair procedure. Never work on a
vehicle that is supported by a jack alone.
Wrench, 9/16".............................................................. 1
Wrench, 3/4"................................................................ 1
Socket, 1/2", 3/8" drive ................................................ 1
Socket, 9/16", 3/8" drive .............................................. 1
Socket, 9/16", deepwell, 3/8" drive.............................. 1
Extension, 3", 3/8" drive .............................................. 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive....................................................... 1
Torque wrench, ft. lbs., 3/8" drive ................................ 1
The rear suspension consists of the rear axle and
attachments that secure it to the springs and shock
absorbers .(Ref. Fig. 1 on Page N-2) In addition the rear
axle is secured to the rear of the engine by means of a
casting that is bolted to the engine and mounted to the
rear axle with ‘U’ bolts. This section is confined to the
removal and replacement of the springs and shock
absorbers. Rear axle shaft removal is covered in REAR
AXLE section.
If both springs are to be replaced and the rear axle is not to be
removed, it is important to remove and replace one spring at a
time. Springs must be replaced in sets. Never replace just
one.
Remove the bottom shock absorber nut (1) .(Ref. Fig. 1
on Page N-2)
Place a floor jack under the center section of the rear
axle (6) and raise just enough to place a second set of
jack stands under the axle tubes. With both the rear
axle and the frame supported, the ‘U’ bolt (7) and the
hardware (8) can be removed.
Remove the rear spring shackle assembly (9) and the
front spring mounting hardware (10).
Remove the spring (11).
Rear Spring Installation
Spring installation is in the reverse order of disassembly.
Shock Absorber Removal
Raise the rear of the vehicle in accordance with the
instructions provided in Section ‘B’ of this manual and
support the rear of the vehicle on the outer ends of the
rear bumper.
The shock absorber nuts (1,3) must be tightened until
the shock absorber bushings (4) expand to the diameter
of the shock absorber washer (5) (Ref. Fig. 1 on Page
N-2).
Remove the bottom shock absorber nut (1) (Ref. Fig. 1
on Page N-2).
Tighten the front spring hardware (10) to 21 - 25 ft. lbs.
(28 - 34 Nm) torque.
Compress the shock absorber (2) and remove the top
shock absorber nut (3).
Tighten all other hardware to 18 - 22 ft. lbs. (24 - 30 Nm)
torque.
Remove the shock absorber.
Repair and Service Manual
Page N-1
REAR SUSPENSION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
3
5
4
4
8
8
5
2
10
10
6
5
9
9
4
9
4
5
1
11
7
Fig. 1 Rear Suspension
Page N-2
Repair and Service Manual
REAR SUSPENSION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
REAR AXLE REMOVAL
Tools List
Qty. Required
Lug wrench, 3/4" ......................................................... 1
Impact wrench, 1/2" drive ............................................ 1
Impact socket, 3/4", 1/2" drive..................................... 1
Torque wrench, 1/2" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Socket, 5/8", 1/2" drive ................................................ 1
Ratchet, 1/2" drive....................................................... 1
Thread locking sealant ............................................. AR
Wrench, 12 mm ........................................................... 1
Wheel chocks .............................................................. 4
Jack stands ................................................................. 4
Floor jack..................................................................... 1
Wrench, 1/2"................................................................ 1
Wrench, 9/16".............................................................. 1
Wrench, 3/4"................................................................ 1
Socket, 1/2", 3/8" drive ................................................ 1
Socket, 9/16", 3/8" drive .............................................. 1
Socket, 9/16", deepwell, 3/8" drive.............................. 1
Extension, 3", 3/8" drive .............................................. 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive....................................................... 1
Torque wrench, ft. lbs., 3/8" drive ................................ 1
Remove the accelerator cable from the accelerator
bracket and take off the push nut holding the cable on
the governor and remove the cable. See SPEED CONTROL section. Remove the linkage rod off of the governor.
Remove the shock absorbers (see removal elsewhere in
this section)
Remove the ‘U’ bolts and hardware off of the springs
using a 9/16" socket.
Remove the clevis pin from both brake cables where
they attach to the wheel brake levers. Remove the brake
cable from the brakes. Remove the retaining rings at
either end of the outer brake cable and move cables out
of the way of the axle.
Place a floor jack under the center section of the rear
axle and raise just enough to place a second set of jack
stands under the axle tubes. With both the rear axle and
the frame supported, the ‘U’ bolt and the hardware can
be removed from the spring. Raise the back of the vehicle and take the springs loose at the rear shackle
Slide rear axle out of vehicle.
Rear Axle Installation
Rear axle installation is in the reverse order of disassembly.
To reduce the possibility of personal injury, follow the lifting procedure in Section B of this
manual. Place wheel chocks in front of and
behind the front wheels and check the stability
of the vehicle on the jack stands before starting any repair procedure. Never work on a
vehicle that is supported by a jack alone.
Pay particular attention to placement of axle in the
engine frame support. See ‘Engine Installation’ in the
ENGINE section.
Raise the rear of the vehicle in accordance with the
instructions provided in Section ‘B’ of this manual and
support the rear of the vehicle on the outer ends of the
rear bumper.
Remove the tires. See WHEELS AND TIRES section.
Remove the muffler. See ENGINE section. Remove the
triangular bracket supporting the differential to the
engine frame.
Remove the ‘U’ bolts holding axle to engine frame:
Remove the drive belt
CLUTCHES section).
and
driven
clutch
(see
Remove the F/R shifter bracket nut and loosen the cable
nuts, then remove the cable and bracket from the differential.
Repair and Service Manual
Page N-3
B
B
REAR SUSPENSION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page N-4
Repair and Service Manual
REAR AXLE
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’P’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
NEUTRAL LOCK ........................................................................................................................................................ P - 1
REAR AXLE ............................................................................................................................................................... P - 1
Checking the Lubricant Level ........................................................................................................................ P - 1
REAR AXLE DISASSEMBLY ..................................................................................................................................... P - 1
Axle Shaft Removal and Disassembly ........................................................................................................... P - 2
Axle Shaft Seal Removal and Replacement .................................................................................................. P - 2
Axle Shaft Replacement ................................................................................................................................ P - 3
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1 Neutral Lock (Direction Selector ........................................................................................................................ P - 1
Fig. 2 Add, Check and Drain Rear Axle Lubricant ...................................................................................................... P - 1
Fig. 3 Removing/Installing Outer Snap Ring .............................................................................................................. P - 2
Fig. 4 Removing/Installing Axle Shaft ......................................................................................................................... P - 2
Fig. 5 Pressing Bearing from Axle Shaft ..................................................................................................................... P - 2
Fig. 6 Removing/Installing Seal .................................................................................................................................. P - 3
Fig. 7 Cut Away of Outer Bearing and Brake Drum.................................................................................................... P - 3
Repair and Service Manual
Page P-i
REAR AXLE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page P-iii
Repair and Service Manual
REAR AXLE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
For further axle information, see Four Cycle Transaxle
Shop Rebuild and Service Parts Manual P/N 27660G01.
Refer to REAR SUSPENSION section for axle removal.
NEUTRAL LOCK
To prevent the driven clutch from turning the rear
wheels during service operations and to prevent wear to
the belt while being towed, a neutral lock is located on
the direction selector.
The neutral lock is located on the direction selector. To
operate neutral lock located on the direction selector,
first turn the key switch to ‘OFF’, place direction selector
in ‘R’ and remove seat. Pull out and rotate the neutral
lock pin handle so that the pointed portion of the handle
is over the side of the direction selector cam (Ref. Fig. 2
on Page P-1). Move direction selector lever towards the
area between ‘F’ and ‘R’. During that motion, the pin will
snap into the hole in the direction selector mounting
bracket, preventing any movement of the lever. When in
this position, the direction selector remains locked in
the neutral position.
REAR AXLE
The rear axle is provided with a lubricant level check
plug located on the driver side at the rear of the housing
(Ref. Fig. 2 on Page P-1). Unless leakage of rear axle
lubricant is evident, an annual lubricant check is sufficient
Checking the Lubricant Level
Tool List
Qty. Required
Socket, 13 mm, 3/8" drive ........................................... 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive....................................................... 1
Funnel ......................................................................... 1
Clean the area around the check and fill plugs. Remove
the check plug. The correct lubricant level is just below
the bottom of the threaded hole. If lubricant is to be
added, remove the fill plug and add lubricant using a
funnel. Add lubricant slowly until lubricant starts to seep
from the check plug hole. Install the check plug and the
fill plug. In the event that the lubricant is to be replaced,
a drain plug is provided at the bottom of the differential
housing. Capacity of axle is 40 ounces (1.2 liters).
Spring loaded mechanism. To prevent possibility of fingers becoming pinched in the direction selector mechanism, hold direction
selector lever when releasing neutral lock pin
handle.
Check Plug
To activate the direction selector, pull the neutral lock
pin handle out and rotate until the pointed portion of the
handle fits into the hole in the direction selector cam.
Front
Hole in Direction
Selector Cam
Hole in Direction
Selector Mounting
Bracket
Drain Plug
Unlocked
Position
Fig. 2 Add, Check and Drain Rear Axle Lubricant
REAR AXLE DISASSEMBLY
Locked
Position
Neutral Lock
Pin Handle
Fig. 1 Neutral Lock (Direction Selector)
The rear axle is a precision assembly, and therefore any
repair or replacement of parts must be done with
extreme care in a clean environment. Before attempting
to perform any service on the axle, read and understand
all of the following text and illustrations before disassembling the unit.
Repair and Service Manual
Page P-1
REAR AXLE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Handle all gears with extreme care since each is part of a
matched set.Damage to one will require replacement of
the entire set or result in an unacceptably high noise level.
Attach a slide hammer to the axle shaft thread and
remove the axle and bearing from the axle tube (Ref.
Fig. 4 on Page P-2).
Snap rings must be removed/installed with care to prevent damage of bearings, seals and bearing bores.
It is recommended that whenever a bearing, seal or ‘O’ ring is
removed, it be replaced with a new one regardless of mileage.
Always wipe the seals and ‘O’ rings with a light oil before
installing.
Fig. 4 Removing/Installing Axle Shaft
To reduce the possibility of personal injury, follow the lifting procedure in SAFETY section of
this manual. Place wheel chocks in front and
behind the front wheels and check the stability
of the vehicle on the jack stands before starting
any repair procedure. Never work on a vehicle
that is supported by a jack alone.
Remove the bearing by supporting the inner race of the
bearing on an arbor press bed and apply pressure to the
threaded end of the axle shaft (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page P-2).
Bearing
Separator
Axle Shaft Removal and Disassembly
Tool List
Qty. Required
Arbor press ..................................................................1
Bearing separator ........................................................1
Needle nose pliers .......................................................1
Internal snap ring pliers................................................1
Slide hammer, P/N 18753-G1 ......................................1
For brake drum removal, see BRAKES section.
Remove the outer snap ring from the axle tube (Ref. Fig.
3 on Page P-2).
Fig. 5 Pressing Bearing from Axle Shaft
Axle Shaft Seal Removal and Replacement
Tools List
Qty. Required
Internal snap ring pliers............................................... 1
Seal puller ................................................................... 1
Plastic faced hammer.................................................. 1
Ratchet, 3/8" drive....................................................... 1
Torque wrench, 3/8" drive, ft. lbs. ................................ 1
Socket, 17mm, 3/8" drive ............................................ 1
Using snap ring pliers, remove bearing retaining ring (1)
from the end of axle tube (2). (Ref. Fig. 6 on Page P-3).
Carefully pull axle shaft (3) and bearing out of the tube.
Using a 17 mm socket, remove the hardware (4) attaching the axle tube to the casing and carefully lift the tube
from the casing studs.
Fig. 3 Removing/Installing Outer Snap Ring
Page P-2
Using seal puller, remove axle shaft seal (5) from casiing.
Repair and Service Manual
REAR AXLE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Use care to prevent damage to the inner surface of axle
tube at the sealing area.
Cotter
Pin
Thrust
Washer
Lock
Washer Spline
Inner Snap
Ring
Replace the seal by lightly tapping around the circumference with a plastic faced hammer. Tighten nuts (4) to
26 - 31 ft. lbs. (35 - 42 Nm) torque.
Axle Shaft Replacement
Carefully insert the axle shaft and bearing through the
oil seal. Rotate the shaft until the spline engages with
the differential side gears. Install the outer snap ring.
Coat the outboard spline of the axle with an anti-seize
compound. Install the brake hub and drum, thrust
washer, nut and new cotter pin (Ref. Fig. 7 on Page P3)
Axle
Nut
Bearing
Brake
Drum
Outer
Snap Ring
Fig. 7 Cut Away of Outer Bearing and Brake Drum
Tighten the castellated axle nut to 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm) torque
minimum, 140 ft. lbs. (190 Nm) torque maximum. Continue to
tighten until the slot in the nut aligns with the cotter pin hole
.
1
3
4
2
5
A
A
2
Seal
Puller
It is not necessary to
remove brake assembly
for shaft/seal removal
Fig. 6 Removing/Installing Seal
Repair and Service Manual
Page P-3
B
B
REAR AXLE
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page P-4
Repair and Service Manual
WEATHER PROTECTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’Q’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
TOP AND WINDSHIELD ............................................................................................................................................Q - 1
Trailering ........................................................................................................................................................Q - 1
GOLF CAR SUN TOP ................................................................................................................................................Q - 1
Rear Support Installation ...............................................................................................................................Q - 1
Front Strut ......................................................................................................................................................Q - 1
Sun Top .........................................................................................................................................................Q - 1
SHUTTLE 2+2 SUN TOP ...........................................................................................................................................Q - 3
Rear Support Installation ...............................................................................................................................Q - 3
Front Support Installation ...............................................................................................................................Q - 3
Sun Top Installation .......................................................................................................................................Q - 3
SPLIT WINDSHIELD ..................................................................................................................................................Q - 5
ONE-PIECE FRONT WINDSHIELD ...........................................................................................................................Q - 6
REAR WINDSHIELD ..................................................................................................................................................Q - 7
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Golf Car Sun Top .............................................................................................................................................Q - 2
Shuttle 2+2 Sun Top ........................................................................................................................................Q - 4
Split Windshield ...............................................................................................................................................Q - 5
Front Windshield ..............................................................................................................................................Q - 6
Rear Windshield ..............................................................................................................................................Q - 7
Repair and Service Manual
Page Q- i
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page Q- ii
Repair and Service Manual
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
TOP AND WINDSHIELD
4. At the lower hole, slide a teflon washer (item 5)
between rear strut and seat back support and align
holes. Insert bolt (item 4) with washer (item 3) through
lower hole and secure with washer (item 3) and lock nut
(item 6). Finger tighten hardware to allow for adjustment.
The top does not provide protection from roll
over or falling objects.
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 for the other side.
The windshield does not provide protection
from tree limbs or flying objects.
Front Strut
The top and windshield are designed for weather protection only.
Clean with lots of water and a clean cloth. Minor
scratches may be removed using a commercial plastic
polish or Plexus plastic cleaner.
Trailering
1. Remove and discard the four bolts from the front cowl
(See Detail B).
2. At the upper hole (both sides of vehicle), install the
front strut (item 7) with bolt (item 8) and lock washer
(item 9) on the outside of strut, and a spacer (item 10)
between the front cowl and strut. Finger tighten hardware to allow for adjustment.
3. At the lower hole, secure the strut with bolt (item 8)
and lock washer (item 9) on the outside of strut, and two
washers (item 11) between the front cowl and strut as
shown. Finger tighten hardware to allow for adjustment.
Personal injury to occupants of other highway
vehicles may occur is vehicle and contents are
not adequately secured to trailer.
Sun Top
Do not ride on vehicle being trailered.
2. Secure sun top loosely with screws (item 16 at front
and item 12 at rear), plastic spacers (item 13), washers
(item 14), and lock nut (item 15). See illustrations for
installation sequence.
Remove windshield before trailering. Maximum speed with top is 50 mph (80 kph).
If the vehicle is to be transported on a trailer at highway
speeds, the windshield and top must be removed and
the seat bottoms secured. Always check that the vehicle and contents are adequately secured before trailering the vehicle.
GOLF CAR SUN TOP
1. Place sun top (item 1) onto struts (See Detail D).
3. Tighten all sun top hardware to 3 - 5 ft. lbs. (4 - 7 Nm)
torque.
4. Tighten all rear strut hardware to 13 - 15 ft. lbs. (18 20 Nm) torque.
5. Tighten all front strut hardware to 17 - 19 ft. lbs. (23 26 Nm) torque.
Rear Support Installation
1. Using a plastic faced hammer, tap end caps (item 17)
into the top of each rear strut (item 2) (Ref. Fig. 1 on
Page Q-2) (See Detail D).
2. Place washer (item 3) onto bolt (item 4) and insert
bolt just through the top hole in the seat back support (3
- 4 threads). Place the teflon washer (item 5) on the end
of the bolt. This teflon washer is needed to prevent
squeaking.
3. Insert rear strut (item 2) through the square hole in
the top of the seat back support and push the bolt
through the top hole in the rear strut. Place washer
(item 3) and lock nut (item 6) on the end of the bolt just
enough to prevent the bolt from falling out.
Repair and Service Manual
Page Q-1
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
12
14
FRONT OF
VEHICLE
2
1, 18
13
17
2
14
15
5
3
4
A
DETAIL A
D
C
DETAIL D
(REAR)
B
16
14
7
FRONT OF
VEHICLE
10
1, 18
8
9
13
7
14
15
DETAIL C
11
(FRONT)
DETAIL B
Fig. 1 Golf Car Sun Top
Page Q-2
Repair and Service Manual
3
6
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
SHUTTLE 2+2 SUN TOP
Sun Top Installation
Rear Support Installation
1. Position sun top (item 1) onto struts (See Detail C).
1. Tap end caps (item 7) into top of the rear support
(items 1 and 2) with rubber mallet (Ref. Fig. 2 on Page
Q-4) (See Detail D).
2. At driver side, align holes in the rear support (item 1)
with holes in seat back support bracket, making sure
that the open end of support faces the rear of vehicle as
shown.
3. Insert bolts (item 3) through washers (item 4) and
seat back support bracket. Place nylon washers (item
5) between seat back support bracket and rear support.
Secure with washers (item 4) and lock nuts (item 6) as
shown (see Detail A). Finger tighten hardware.
B
B
2. At front support, secure sun top loosely with bolts
(item 16) washers (item 4), spacers (item 17), washers
(item 18) and lock nuts (item 6). Finger tighten hardware.
3. At the rear of vehicle, secure top loosely with bolt
(item 20), washers (item 4) and lock nut (item 6).
4. Insert bolt (item 19) and washer (item 4) through the
other hole. Place spacer (item 21) between sun top and
strut. Secure with washer (item 4) and lock nut (item 6).
5. TIghten all hardware to 13 - 15 ft. lbs. (18 - 20 Nm)
torque.
4. Repeat procedure with rear support (item 2) at passenger side of vehicle.
Front Support Installation
1. Remove and discard four bolts from the front cowl
(See Detail B).
2. At the upper hole (both sides of vehicle), install the
front strut (item 9) with bolt (item 10) and black lock
washer (item 11) on the outside of strut, and a spacer
(item 12) between the front cowl and strut. Finger
tighten hardware.
3. At the lower hole, secure the strut with bolt (item 10)
and black lock washer (item 11) on the outside of strut,
and two black w3ashers (item 13) betwen the front cowl
and strut. Finger tighten hardware.
Repair and Service Manual
Page Q-3
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
20
19
4
21
7
4 6
REAR OF
VEHICLE
DETAIL D
4
1,2
(PASSENGER
SIDE SHOWN)
5
6 4
(REAR)
1,2
(DRIVER'S
SIDE SHOWN)
A
D
DETAIL A
C
B
9
16
15
(OUTSIDE TUBING
ON SUN TOP)
4
12
10
17
FRONT OF
VEHICLE
18
11
6
9
13
DETAIL C
(FRONT)
DETAIL B
Fig. 2 Shuttle 2+2 Sun Top
Page Q-4
3
Repair and Service Manual
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Position top grips (item 8) as shown (See Detail D) at
top hole on each side of front strut. Secure with top grip
fasteners (item 9).
SPLIT WINDSHIELD
Remove protective covering from the windshield (item 2)
(Ref. Fig. 3 on Page Q-5).
It may be necessary on early production sun tops to drill a 9/
32" hole in front face of both sides of front strut approximately
7" down from top of strut.
Install sash (item 3) on each side of the lower section of
windshield. Using a rubber mallet, gently tap sash to
ensure windshield seats properly (See Detail A).
Swing the top section of windshield up and secure by
hooking the top grip on each side of strut around the
windshield.
Insert bolt (item 4) through washer (item 5), rubber
grommet (item 6) and existing hole in front strut. Secure
with washer (item 5) and lock nut (item 7) (See Detail B).
Do not over-tighten or squeeze grommet.
To secure windshield when lowered, press edge of windshield firmly into windshield retainers (See Detail B).
Place bottom section of windshield on rubber grommets
and press the sash, starting at the bottom, onto the front
strut so that it snaps into place (See Details B and C).
Repeat for opposite side of windshield.
Strut
Take care not to warp windshield when raising and lowering the top section of windshield.
Windshield
DETAIL D
8
3
9
DETAIL B
2
Rubber
Latch
Strut
Front of
Vehicle
DETAIL A
3
Windshield
5
6
5
3
7
Strut
4
Front of Vehicle
DETAIL C
Windshield
Retainer
Fig. 3 Split Windshield
Repair and Service Manual
Page Q-5
B
B
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
ONE-PIECE FRONT WINDSHIELD
Insert screw (item 4) through washer (item 5), rubber
grommet (item 6) and existing hole in front strut. Secure
with washer (item 5) and lock nut (item 7) (See Detail B).
Do not over-tighten or squeeze grommet.
Remove protective covering from the windshield (item 2)
(Ref. Fig. 4 on Page Q-6).
Place bottom section of windshield on rubber grommets
and press the sash, starting at the bottom, onto the front
strut so that it snaps into place (See Details B and C).
Repeat for opposite side of windshield.
Install sash (item 3) on each side of the windshield.
Using a rubber mallet, gently tap sash to ensure windshield seats properly (See Detail A).
Windshield
DETAIL B
3
2
3
DETAIL A
7
5
6
5
Strut
4
Windshield
3
Strut
Front of Vehicle
DETAIL C
Fig. 4 Front Windshield
Page Q-6
Repair and Service Manual
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
REAR WINDSHIELD
with washer (item 5) and lock nut (item 7) (See Detail B).
Do not over-tighten or squeeze grommet.
Remove protective covering from rear windshield (item
2) (Ref. Fig. 5 on Page Q-7).
Place bottom section of rear windshield on rubber grommets and press the sash, starting at the bottom, onto the
rear strut so that it snaps into place (See Details B and
C). Repeat for opposite side of rear windshield.
Install sash (item 3) on each side of rear windshield.
Using a rubber mallet, gently tap sash to ensure rear
windshield seats properly (See Detail A).
Insert screw (item 4) through washer (item 5), rubber
grommet (item 6) and existing hole in rear strut. Secure
Windshield
DETAIL B
3
2
3
DETAIL A
7
5
5
6
Strut
4
Windshield
3
Strut
Front of Vehicle
DETAIL C
Fig. 5 Rear Windshield
Repair and Service Manual
Page Q-7
B
B
WEATHER PROTECTION
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page Q-8
Repair and Service Manual
PAINT
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’R’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
PAINTING ................................................................................................................................................................... R - 1
Minor Scratches ............................................................................................................................................. R - 1
Larger Scratches ........................................................................................................................................... R - 1
Complete Panel Repair .................................................................................................................................. R - 1
Repair and Service Manual
Page R-i
PAINT
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page R-ii
Repair and Service Manual
PAINT
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
PAINTING
Follow the paint manufacturer’s recommendations for
specific painting procedures and information.
All painting must be done in an area with adequate ventilation to safely disperse harmful
vapors.
Wear eye protection and respirator, following
manufacturer’s instructions, to protect from
overspray and airborne mist.
Provide protection from overspray to vehicle and surrounding area.
Minor Scratches
For minor scratches, the manufacturer suggests the following steps be taken to repair the Durashield™ body:
1. Thoroughly clean the surface to be repaired with alcohol and dry.
2. Touch up damaged area with sequential coats (two
coats minimum recommended, allowing 30 - 45 minutes between coats, increasing to 45 - 60 minutes in
higher humidity) using brush on touch-up paint, until
coating layer is visible, slightly above the surface of
the part.
3. Use 400 grit “wet” sand paper to blend touch up area
level with the rest of the part being repaired. Use a
polishing compound (3M Finesse or automotive
grade) to renew gloss and to further blend and transition newly painted surface.
4. Clean with alcohol and dry.
3. Apply spray touch up paint in light even overlapping
strokes. Multiple coats may be applied to provide adequate coverage and finish. Always remember to shake
the can for a minimum of one minute to mix the paint
and achieve the best color match.
4. After painting, allow to dry overnight. Smooth the
mask lines using 400 grit “wet” sand paper to blend
touch up area level with the rest of the part being
repaired. Use a polishing compound (3M Finesse or
automotive grade) to renew gloss and to further blend
and transition newly painted surface.
5. Clean with alcohol and dry.
6. (Optional but recommended) Follow this process with
clear coat to renew and protect depth of finish.
7. Wax or polish with Carnauba base product, available
at any automotive parts distributor.
Complete Panel Repair
In situations where large panels or areas must be
painted, touch up paint is not recommended. In such
cases professional painting or panel replacement is
called for. The manufacturer suggests body panel
replacement be considered as a cost effective alternative to painting. If the decision to repaint is taken, the
task can be accomplished by any paint and body shop
with experience in painting ‘TPE’ panels. TPE is a common material in modern automobile bodies and all body
shops should be familiar with the materials and processes required.
The finish will include an application of a primer coat, a
base color coat and a clear coat. The manufacturer does
not supply these materials due to the variety of paint
manufacturers and the preferences of the individual
painter.
Most paint manufacturers can perform a computer paint
match to assure accurate color matching.
5. (Optional but recommended) Follow this process with
clear coat to renew and protect depth of finish.
6. Wax or polish with Carnauba base product, available
at any automotive parts distributor.
Larger Scratches
For larger scratches, the manufacturer suggests the following steps be taken to repair the Durashield™ body:
1. Thoroughly clean the surface to be repaired with alcohol and dry.
2. Mask area to be painted (common masking tape is
adequate) prior to repair and use aerosol type touchup paint.
Repair and Service Manual
Page R-1
PAINT
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page R-2
Repair and Service Manual
TROUBLESHOOTING
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’S’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
GASOLINE VEHICLE PERFORMANCE .................................................................................................................... S - 1
STARTER / GENERATOR ......................................................................................................................................... S - 6
SUSPENSION AND STEERING ................................................................................................................................ S - 7
Repair and Service Manual
Page S-i
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page S-ii
Repair and Service Manual
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
GASOLINE VEHICLE PERFORMANCE
Condition
STARTER DOES NOT TURN
STARTER TURNS SLOWLY
Possible Cause
Correction
Weak or bad battery
Recharge or replace as necessary
Terminals are loose or corroded
Clean and retighten
Poor wiring connections
Repair or replace wire and/or connections
Faulty Ignition Switch
Repair or replace wire and/or connections
Blown fuse
Investigate cause and replace fuse
Solenoid faulty
If no audible ‘click’ is heard, check power
and ground. Replace solenoid if power
and ground is good
Accelerator micro switch
Check and adjust if no ‘click’ is heard.
Replace if adjustment does not work
Starter/generator terminals are loose or
corroded
Tighten or clean
Leads are broken or faulty ground
Check for breaks at bend or joint.
Replace or repair leads
Field coils are open
Repair or replace
Armature coil is open
Repair or replace
Terminals are loose or corroded
Retighten or clean
Weak battery
Charge battery
Leads are nearly broken or connections
are faulty
Check for any defect of leads at bend or
joint. Replace leads or repair connections
Mechanical problem inside
starter/generator
Check
Internal engine damage
Inspect and repair
Crankcase over filled with oil
Drain and fill to recommended level with
approved oil
Repair and Service Manual
Page S-1
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Condition
Possible Cause
STARTER ROTATES BUT VEHICLE Weak Battery
WILL NOT START OR HARD TO
Corroded or loose battery connections
START
Page S-2
Correction
Recharge or replace as necessary
Clean and tighten battery connections.
Apply a coat of battery protectorate to
terminals
Check for adequate fuel level
Fill with correct grade gasoline to 1"
(2.5 cm) below bottom of filler neck
No spark at spark plugs. Broken or
disconnected spark plug wiring
Check and replace if required
Spark plugs fouled
Clean or replace
Broken or disconnected coil wires
Check or replace
Faulty ignitor
Check or replace
Faulty pulser unit
Check or replace
Incorrect spark plug gap/type
Set gap correctly
Fuel pump faulty
Repair or replace
Fuel line clogged or clamp loose
Clean or replace if required
Cracked or broken fuel line
Replace with new hose
Main jet blocked
Clean jet
Throttle lever motion restricted
Check all linkages
Dirt or water in fuel line or carburetor
Clean lines and carburetor. Replace filter
Clogged fuel filter
Check and replace if required
Incorrect carburetor float settings
Adjust float level - check seats
Engine flooded
Push choke in. Clean/or replace spark
plugs
Engine fuel starved
Use choke and push in as soon as engine
runs smoothly
Air intake tube is blocked
Repair or clean
Clogged air filter
Wash or replace as required
Plugged muffler or pipe
Repair or replace
Low compression in engine
Check and repair
Repair and Service Manual
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Condition
ENGINE RUNS ROUGH OR LOSS
OF POWER
POOR LOW SPEED
PERFORMANCE
Possible Cause
Correction
Dirty or clogged air filter element
Wash or replace as required
Incorrect choke adjustment
Adjust choke
Dirty or incorrectly gapped spark plug
Clean plug and set gap
Faulty Ignitor
Check and/or replace
Leak in carburetor gasket
Inspect and replace if required
Faulty ignition wiring
Repair/replace correct wiring
Faulty coil
Test and replace if necessary
Incorrect valve lash
Check and adjust if required
Weak or damaged valve springs
Replace
Damaged intake/exhaust valves
Replace
Incorrect carburetor float setting
Adjust float setting
Dirt or water in fuel line, carburetor
Clean lines, carburetor and replace filter
Plugged fuel tank vent
Clean or replace vent cap
Muffler damaged or plugged
Repair or replace
Fuel pump vent dirty
Clean and replace if required
Fuel pump has a ruptured diaphragm
Replace
Low compression
Check engine
Poor quality of fuel
Drain and replace with correct clean fuel
Plugged gas tank vent
Clean or repair
Choke on
Push choke in
Carburetor float level incorrect
Adjust
Pilot screw
Clean or adjust as necessary
Fuel pump faulty
Repair or replace
Insufficient fuel level
Add fuel
Air leak at carburetor gasket
Repair component
Spark plug fouled
Clean or replace
Weak spark
Check ignition coil
Incorrect valve lash
Check and adjust
Repair and Service Manual
Page S-3
B
B
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
Condition
Possible Cause
POOR MIDRANGE OR HIGH SPEED Spark plug fouled
PERFORMANCE
Weak spark
ENGINE OVERHEATING
REPEATED SPARK PLUG
FOULING
Correction
Clean or replace
Check ignition coil
Faulty ignitor
Check and adjust
Carburetor float not level
Adjust
Incorrect or plugged main jet
Check size for appropriate altitude. Clean
Dirty air filter
Clean or replace
Brake dragging
Perform brake maintenance
Low compression
Check engine
Governor misadjusted
Adjust
Foreign matter in cylinder fins and blower
housing
Clean
Damaged blower housing or fins
Replace
Damaged or plugged muffler
Repair or replace
Inadequate oil supply
Check oil system, inspect oil pump,
change oil, fill to correct level
Wrong spark plug type
Replace with correct spark plug
Wrong spark plug gap
Check and adjust if required
Faulty coil
Check and replace if required
Faulty ignitor
Check and replace if required
Poor quality gasoline
Use correct fuel, check bulk storage tank
for proper storage and handling
Air leak allowing dirt to enter system
Repair
Choke sticking closed
Repair
Wrong main jet for conditions (high altitude Replace with correct altitude jet for
operations)
conditions
CARBURETOR FLOODS ENGINE
Page S-4
Inlet valve/seat dirty
Clean or replace
Fuel contamination
Clean fuel system/carburetor
Incorrect float level
Adjust
Vent hose pinched or clogged
Clear or replace
Clogged air filter element
Clean or replace
Repair and Service Manual
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
Condition
EXCESSIVE SMOKING
BACKFIRING
Possible Cause
Correction
Wrong oil weight
Replace with recommended oil
Dirty oil
Change
Crankcase overfilled with oil
Drain and fill to recommended level
Clogged PCV valve
Replace
Piston rings worn or broken
Replace
Valves worn
Replace
Valve seals or valve guides worn
Replace
Accelerator limit switch out of adjustment
Adjust
Loose muffler or leaking gasket
Repair
Carburetor throttle lever motion restricted
Repair
Carburetor throttle lever not closing fully
Adjust
Throttle stop preventing throttle from clos- Adjust
ing fully
ERRATIC, SURGING, OR SUDDEN
CHANGE IN GOVERNED SPEED
Carburetor throttle valve spring weak or
broken
Replace
Incorrect adjustment of accelerator,
governor and carburetor linkages
Adjust
Carburetor throttle lever shaft bent
Replace or rebuild carburetor
Governor torsion spring weak or broken
Replace
Faulty plug wires
Replace
Faulty ignitor
Replace
Faulty coil
Replace
Governor bracket spring dragging
Clean and/or oil
Problem with adjustment of accelerator,
governor and carburetor linkage
Adjust
Bent governor arm
Repair or replace
Bent governor shaft
Replace
Governor failure within the rear axle
Repair
Repair and Service Manual
Page S-5
B
B
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
B
STARTER / GENERATOR
Condition
STARTER IS NOISY
Possible Cause
Bolts are loose
Correction
Retighten
Starter/generator has foreign matter inside Clean starter/generator interior
RECTIFICATION IS IMPERFECT
Bearings are faulty
Replace
Bearings contain foreign matter
Replace
Bearing needs grease
Replace
Load exceeds specification
Adjust load to specification
Armature bent
Repair or replace if necessary
Brushes are worn beyond limits
Replace
Commutator is excessively rough
Smooth with emery cloth
Incorrect voltage output
Check and replace any components if
required
Commutator is dirty with oil or dust
Clean with a cleaner and dry cloth
Field coil is shorted or broken
Repair or replace
GENERATOR DOES NOT CHARGE Corroded or loose battery connections
Page S-6
Clean and tighten battery connections
Incorrect voltage regulator output
Replace
Poor voltage regulator ground connection
Repair
Open or short circuit
Repair or replace
Faulty starter/generator
Repair starter/generator
Repair and Service Manual
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Condition
UNEVEN TIRE WEAR
STIFF STEERING
PLAY IN STEERING
VIBRATION
STEERING PULLS TO ONE SIDE
Possible Cause
Correction
Incorrect tire pressure
Inflate to recommended pressure
Improper alignment (Incorrect toe in)
Align front tires
Water has entered steering box and may
freeze in cold conditions
Remove steering column, pinion and bearing and remove water before adding
grease; Inspect gasket for good seal
Excessive grease in steering box has migrated into steering rack bellows
Raise the vehicle and observe the rack
bellows while moving the steering from
lock to lock
Any distortion of the bellows may indicate
that an excess of grease has built up in the
bellows
Remove the bellows and remove excess
grease
Insufficient lubricant in king pins, tie rod
ends, idler bushing, rack tensioner or
steering box
Add one shot of lubricant to each grease
fitting and operate steering from lock to
lock. Do not overgrease
If steering does not return to acceptable
condition proceed to next step
Bent rack
Remove rack and place on flat surface with
rack teeth up; If a .015" (.381 mm) feeler
gauge will pass under the rack, the rack
must be replaced
Steering wheel loose
Inspect splines - replace steering wheel if
required; Tighten steering wheel nut
Steering components worn
Replace
Loose wheel bearings
Adjust or replace
Steering components worn
Replace
Loose wheel bearings
Adjust or replace
Out of round tires, wheels, or brake
drums
Inspect and replace if out of round
Loose lug nuts
Tighten to 50 - 80 ft. lbs. (68 - 115 Nm)
Incorrect tire pressure
Inflate to recommended pressure
Dragging wheel brakes
Service brake system
Suspension component failure
Repair
Alignment incorrect
Align
Repair and Service Manual
Page S-7
B
B
TROUBLESHOOTING
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page S-8
Repair and Service Manual
LIMITED WARRANTY
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’T’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
FEDERAL EMISSIONS COMPONENT DEFECT WARRANTY .................................................................... T - 1
CALIFORNIA EVAPORATIVE EMISSION CONTROL WARRANTY STATEMENT ..................................... T - 3
Repair and Service Manual
Page T-i
LIMITED WARRANTY
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page T-ii
Repair and Service Manual
VEHICLE WARRANTIES - FEDERAL (2006)
FEDERAL EMISSIONS COMPONENT DEFECT WARRANTY
EMISSIONS COMPONENT DEFECT WARRANTY COVERAGE - This emission warranty is applicable in all States,
except the State of California
Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. and E-Z-GO Division of Textron Augusta, Georgia, (herein “E-Z-GO”) warrant(s) to the
initial retail purchaser and each subsequent owner, that this Non-road engine (herein “engine”) has been designed,
built, and equipped to conform at the time of initial sale to all applicable regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and that the engine is free of defects in materials and workmanship which would cause this
engine to fail to conform with EPA regulations during its warranty period.
For the components listed under PARTS COVERED, the distributor, dealer, or service provider authorized by E-ZGO will, at no cost to you, make the necessary diagnosis, repair, or replacement necessary to ensure that the engine
complies with applicable U.S. EPA regulations.
EMISSISON COMPONENT DEFECT WARRANTY PERIOD
The warranty period for this engine begins on the date of sale to the initial purchaser and continues for a period of
2 years.
PARTS COVERED
Listed below are the parts covered by the Emission Components Defect Warranty. Some of the parts listed below
may require scheduled maintenance and are warranted up to the first scheduled replacement point for that part.
1) Fuel Metering System
(i) Carburetor and internal parts (and/or pressure regulator or fuel injection system)
(ii) Air/fuel ratio feedback and control system, if applicable.
(iii) Cold start enrichment system, if applicable.
(iv) Regulator assy (gaseous fuel, if applicable)
2) Air Induction System
(i) Intake manifold, if applicable
(ii) Air filter.
3) Ignition System
(i) Spark plugs.
(ii) Magneto or electronic ignition system.
(iii) Spark advance/retard system, if applicable.
4) Exhaust manifold, if applicable
5) Miscellaneous Items Used in Above Systems
(i) Electronic controls, if applicable
(ii) Hoses, belts, connectors, and assemblies.
(iii) Filter lock assy (gaseous fuel, if applicable)
OBTAINING WARRANTY SERVICE
To obtain warranty service, take your engine to the nearest authorized E-Z-GO distributor, dealer, or service provider. Bring your sales receipts indicating date of purchase for this engine. The distributor, dealer, or service provider
authorized by E-Z-GO will perform the necessary repairs or adjustments within a reasonable amount of time and
furnish you with a copy of the repair order. All parts and accessories replaced under this warranty become the property of E-Z-GO.
WHAT IS NOT COVERED
• Conditions resulting from tampering, misuse, improper adjustment (unless they were made by the distributor,
dealer, or service provider authorized by E-Z-GO during a warranty repair), alteration, accident, failure to use the
recommended fuel and oil, or not performing required maintenance services.
• The replacement parts used for required maintenance services.
• Consequential damages such as loss of time, inconvenience, loss of use of the engine or equipment, etc.
• Diagnosis and inspection charges that do not result in warranty-eligible service being performed.
• Any non-authorized replacement part, or malfunction of authorized parts due to use of non-authorized parts.
OWNER’S WARRANTY RESPONSIBILITIES
As the engine owner, you are responsible for the performance of the required maintenance listed in your owner’s
manual. E-Z-GO recommends that you retain all receipts covering maintenance on your engine, but E-Z-GO cannot
Owner’s Manual and Service Guide
Page T-1
VEHICLE WARRANTIES - FEDERAL (2006)
deny warranty solely for the lack of receipts or for your failure to ensure the performance of all scheduled maintenance.
As the engine owner, you should however be aware that E-Z-GO may deny warranty coverage if your engine or a
part has failed due to abuse, neglect, improper maintenance or unapproved modifications.
You are responsible for presenting your engine to the nearest distributor, dealer, or service provider authorized by
E-Z-GO when a problem exists.
If you have any questions regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities, you should contact the E-Z-GO Warranty Department at 1-800-241-5855 for the information.
THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM WARRANTY
MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS
You are responsible for the proper maintenance of the engine. You should keep all receipts and maintenance
records covering the performance of regular maintenance in the event questions arise. These receipts and maintenance records should be transferred to each subsequent owner of the engine. E-Z-GO reserves the right to deny
warranty coverage if the engine has not been properly maintained. Warranty claims will not be denied, however,
solely because of the lack of required maintenance or failure to keep maintenance records.
MAINTENANCE, REPLACEMENT OR REPAIR OF EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES AND SYSTEMS
MAY BE PERFORMED BY ANY REPAIR ESTABLISHMENT OR INDIVIDUAL; HOWEVER, WARRANTY
REPAIRS MUST BE PERFORMED BY A DISTRIBUTOR, DEALER OR, SERVICE PROVIDER AUTHORIZED BY E-Z-GO. THE USE OF PARTS THAT ARE NOT EQUIVALENT IN PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY TO AUTHORIZED PARTS MAY IMPAIR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM AND MAY HAVE A BEARING ON THE OUTCOME OF A WARRANTY CLAIM.
If other than the parts authorized by E-Z-GO are used for maintenance replacements or for the repair of components
affecting emission control, you should assure yourself that such parts are warranted by their manufacturer to be
equivalent to the parts authorized by E-Z-GO in their performance and durability.
HOW TO MAKE A CLAIM
All repair qualifying under this limited warranty must be performed by a distributor, dealer, or service provider authorized by E-Z-GO. In the event that any emission-related part is found to be defective during the warranty period, you
shall notify E-Z-GO Warranty Department at 1-800-241-5855 and you will be advised of the appropriate warranty
service providers where the warranty repair can be performed.
Page T-2
Owner’s Manual and Service Guide
VEHICLE WARRANTIES - CALIFORNIA (2007)
CALIFORNIA EVAPORATIVE EMISSION CONTROL WARRANTY STATEMENT
YOUR WARRANTY RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS: The California Air Resources Board and the E-Z-GO Division
of Textron Inc. (E-Z-GO) are pleased to explain the evaporative emission control system (EECS) on your 2007
gasoline powered vehicle. In California, new equipment that uses small off-engines must be designed, built,
and equipped to meet the State’s stringent anti-smog standards. E-Z-GO must warrant the EECS on your vehicle for the period listed below provided there has been no abuse, neglect or improper maintenance of your
equipment. For model year 2007 the EECS on your vehicle includes the liquid fuel lines, fuel line connectors,
and fuel line clamps. Where a warrantable condition exists, E-Z-GO will repair your EECS at no cost to you.
Expenses covered under warranty include diagnosis, parts, and labor.
MANUFACTURER’S WARRANTY COVERAGE: If any evaporative emission-related part included in the list of
EECS parts for your vehicle is defective, the part will be repaired or replaced by E-Z-GO.
OWNER’S WARRANTY RESPONSIBILITIES: As the vehicle owner, you are responsible for performance of the
required maintenance listed in your owner’s manual. E-Z-GO recommends that you retain all receipts covering
maintenance on your vehicle, but E-Z-GO cannot deny warranty solely for the lack of receipts. As the vehicle
owner, you should be aware that E-Z-GO may deny you warranty coverage if your vehicle or a covered part has
failed due to abuse, neglect, or improper maintenance, unapproved modifications, or the use of parts not made
or approved by E-Z-GO. You are responsible for performance of the required maintenance listed in your
owner’s manual. Your are responsible for presenting your vehicle to an E-Z-GO service center as soon as the
problem exists. Warranty repairs should be completed in a reasonable amount of time, not to exceed 30 days. If
you have a question regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities, you should contact your nearest
authorized service center or call the E-Z-GO Warranty Department at 1-800-448-7476.
WARRANTY COMMENCEMENT DATE: The warranty period begins on the date the vehicle is purchased.
LENGTH OF COVERAGE: This warranty shall be for a period of two (2) years from the initial date of purchase.
WHAT IS COVERED
REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT OF PARTS: Repair or replacement of warranted part will be performed at no
charge to the owner at an authorized E-Z-GO Service Center. If you have a question regarding your rights and
responsibilities, you should contact your nearest service center or call the E-Z-GO Warranty Department at
1-800-448-7476.
WARRANTY PERIOD: Any warranted part that is not scheduled for replacement as required maintenance, or
which is scheduled for regular inspection to the effect of “repair or replace as necessary” shall be warranted
for two (2) years. Any warranted part that is scheduled for replacement as required maintenance shall be warranted for the period of time up to the first scheduled replacement point for that part.
DIAGNOSIS: The owner shall not be charged for diagnostic labor that leads to the determination that the warranted part is defective if the diagnostic work is performed at an authorized E-Z-GO service center.
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE: E-Z-GO may be liable for damages to the engine or other equipment components
caused by the failure of an EECS warranted part still under warranty.
WHAT IS NOT COVERED: All failures caused by abuse, neglect, or improper maintenance are not covered.
ADD-ON OR MODIFIED PARTS: The use of add-on or modified parts may be grounds for disallowing a warranty
claim. E-Z-GO is not liable to cover failures of warranted parts caused by the use of add-on or modified part.
HOW TO FILE A CLAIM: If you have questions regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities, you should
contact your nearest authorized service center or call the E-Z-GO Warranty Department at 1-800-448-7476.
WHERE TO GET WARRANTY SERVICE: Warranty services or repairs shall be provided at all authorized E-Z-GO
service centers.
Page T-3
Owner’s Manual and Service Guide
VEHICLE WARRANTIES - CALIFORNIA (2007)
MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND REPLACEMENT OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSION RELATED PARTS: Any E-Z-GO
approved replacement part used in the performance of any warranted maintenance or repair on evaporative
emission related parts will be provided without charge to the owner if the part is under warranty.
EVAPORATIVE EMISSION CONTROL WARRANTY PARTS LIST: Fuel Line, fuel line fittings, and fuel line
clamps.
MAINTENANCE STATEMENT: The owner is responsible for the performance of all required maintenance as
defined in the owner’s manual.
Owner’s Manual and Service Guide
Page T-4
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION ’U’
SECTION TITLE
PAGE NO.
TXT GASOLINE - FLEET- CAR, CE, CARB .............................................................................................................. U - 1
TXT GASOLINE - FREEDOM AND FREEDOM HP, CE- SE - LE - HP,
TXT GASOLINE - FREEDOM - CE - SE - LE - HP, FLEET-CARB ............................................................................ U - 2
TXT GASOLINE - SHUTTLE 2+2, CE, CARB............................................................................................................. U - 3
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig.1 Vehicle Dimensions ........................................................................................................................................... U - 4
Fig.2 Vehicle Dimensions, Incline Specifications and Turning Clearance Diameter .................................................. U - 5
Repair and Service Manual
Page U-i
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Read all of Section B and this section before attempting any procedure. Pay particular attention to all Notes, Cautions and Warnings.
NOTES:
Page U-ii
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
TXT GASOLINE - FLEET CAR
WEIGHT (dry fuel tank)............................................................ 669 lbs. (304 kg) fuel capacity 31 lbs. (14 kg)
TIRES (4 ply rated) .................................................................. 18 X 8.50 x 8
TIRE PRESSURE .................................................................... 18 - 22 psi (124 - 152 kPa)
LOAD CAPACITY (including operator, passenger,
cargo and accessories) .............................. 800 lbs. (362 kg)
GROUND CLEARANCE .......................................................... 4.25 in. (10.8 cm) at differential
CHASSIS ................................................................................. Welded high yield strength tubular steel with powder coat paint
BODY & FINISH....................................................................... Flexible, impact resistant panels, Color coat/clear coat finish
SAFETY ................................................................................... Dash mounted key switch, reverse warning indicator, ’deadman’
accelerator control, integral handgrip on hip restraints, manual forward/
reverse selector
STEERING WHEEL................................................................. Dual handgrips and pencil holder integrated with scorecard clip/holder
BRAKES .................................................................................. Dual rear wheel mechanical, self-adjusting drum brakes. Combination
service / park brake with automatic parking brake release (accelerator
kick-off)
FRONT SUSPENSION ............................................................ Leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
REAR SUSPENSION .............................................................. Leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
STEERING .............................................................................. Self-compensating single reduction rack and pinion
DASH PANEL .......................................................................... Scuff resistant tee, ball and four drink holders
SEATING ................................................................................. Formed fabric backed vinyl covers over cushion foam. Seating for
operator and one passenger
ENGINE ................................................................................... 9 hp (6.7 kw) rated, 4 cycle, 295cc twin cylinder air cooled
VALVE TRAIN ......................................................................... Overhead valve, overhead cam, belt drive
LUBRICATION......................................................................... Pressurized oil system, washable permanent filter
BALANCER ............................................................................. Internal counter-rotating balance shaft
IGNITION ................................................................................. Solid State, electronic timing advance and RPM limiter
CARBURETOR........................................................................ Fixed jet
AIR CLEANER ......................................................................... Engine mounted with replaceable dry cartridge element
DRIVE TRAIN .......................................................................... Automatic, continuously variable transmission (CVT)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ........................................................... External starter/generator, Solid State regulator, 12 volt maintenance
free battery, 430 CCA, 60 minute reserve
TRANSAXLE (FLEET) ............................................................. High efficiency differential with helical gears, 13.32:1 ratio, ground
speed governor, forward and reverse with neutral lock
FUEL SYSTEM ........................................................................ 6 gallon (22.5 liters) tank
SPEED (FLEET) ...................................................................... 12 - 14 mph (19 - 23 kph) governed speed
NOISE...................................................................................... Sound pressure; continuous A- weighted equal to or less than 80db(A).
VIBRATION, WBV ................................................................... The weighted RMS acceleration is 0.8 m/s².
VIBRATION, HAV .................................................................... The weighted RMS acceleration; less than 2.5 m/s².
TXT GASOLINE - FLEET - CE
Same as TXT Gasoline Fleet 9 hp, except for, 11 hp (8.2 kW)(350 cc) Twin Cylinder, Air Cooled, Overhead Cam, Overhead Valve
TXT GASOLINE - FLEET - CARB
Same as TXT Gasoline Fleet 9 hp, except for, fuel system parts to meet Califoria emissions standards. See Parts Manual for replacement parts.
Specifications subject to change without notice
Repair and Service Manual
Page U-1
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
TXT GASOLINE - FREEDOM AND FREEDOM HP
WEIGHT (dry fuel tank)............................................................ 679 lbs. (308 kg) fuel capacity 31 lbs. (14 kg)
TIRES (4 ply rated) .................................................................. 18 X 8.50 x 8
TIRE PRESSURE .................................................................... 18 - 22 psi (124 - 152 kPa)
LOAD CAPACITY (including operator, passenger,
cargo and accessories) .............................. 800 lbs. (362 kg)
GROUND CLEARANCE .......................................................... 4.25 in. (10.8 cm) at differential
CHASSIS ................................................................................. Welded high yield strength tubular steel with powder coat paint
BODY & FINISH....................................................................... Flexible, impact resistant panels, Color coat/clear coat finish
SAFETY ................................................................................... Dash mounted key switch, reverse warning indicator, ’deadman’
accelerator control, integral handgrip on hip restraints, manual forward/
reverse selector, electric horn
LIGHTING PACKAGE.............................................................. Dual halogen headlights, taillights, brake lights, optional turn signals
STEERING WHEEL ................................................................. Dual handgrips and pencil holder integrated with scorecard clip/holder
BRAKES .................................................................................. Dual rear wheel mechanical, self-adjusting drum brakes. Combination
service / park brake with automatic parking brake release (accelerator
kick-off)
FRONT SUSPENSION ............................................................ Leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
REAR SUSPENSION............................................................... Leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
STEERING............................................................................... Self-compensating single reduction rack and pinion
DASH PANEL .......................................................................... Scuff resistant tee, ball and four drink holders, fuel gauge
SEATING ................................................................................. Formed fabric backed vinyl covers over cushion foam. Seating for
operator and one passenger
ENGINE ................................................................................... 9 hp (6.7 kw) rated, 4 cycle, 295cc twin cylinder air cooled
VALVE TRAIN.......................................................................... Overhead valve, overhead cam, belt drive
LUBRICATION ......................................................................... Pressurized oil system, washable permanent filter
BALANCER.............................................................................. Internal counter-rotating balance shaft
IGNITION ................................................................................. Solid State, electronic timing advance and RPM limiter
CARBURETOR ........................................................................ Fixed jet
AIR CLEANER ......................................................................... Engine mounted with replaceable dry cartridge element
DRIVE TRAIN .......................................................................... Automatic, continuously variable transmission (CVT)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ........................................................... External starter/generator, Solid State regulator, 12 volt maintenance
free battery, 430 CCA, 60 minute reserve
TRANSAXLE (FREEDOM) ...................................................... High efficiency differential with helical gears, 13.32:1 ratio, ground
speed governor, forward and reverse with neutral lock
TRANSAXLE (FREEDOM HP) ................................................ High efficiency differential with helical gears, 10.67:1 ratio, ground
speed governor, forward and reverse with neutral lock
FUEL SYSTEM ........................................................................ 6 gallon (22.5 liters) tank
SPEED (FREEDOM)................................................................ 12 - 14 mph (19 - 23 kph) governed speed
SPEED (FREEDOM HP).......................................................... 16 - 18 mph (26 - 29 kph) governed speed
NOISE ...................................................................................... Sound pressure; continuous A- weighted equal to or less than 80db(A).
VIBRATION, WBV.................................................................... The weighted RMS acceleration is 0.8 m/s².
VIBRATION, HAV .................................................................... The weighted RMS acceleration; less than 2.5 m/s².
TXT GASOLINE - FREEDOM - CE - SE - LE - HP
Same as TXT Gasoline Freedom 9 hp, except for, 11 hp (8.2 kW)(350 cc) Twin Cylinder, Air Cooled, Overhead Cam, Overhead
Valve
TXT GASOLINE - FLEET - CARB
Same as TXT Gasoline Freedom 9 hp, except for, fuel system parts to meet Califoria emissions standards. See Parts Manual for
replacement parts.
Specifications subject to change without notice
Page U-2
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
TXT GASOLINE - SHUTTLE 2+2
WEIGHT (dry fuel tank)............................................................ 765 lbs. (347 kg) fuel capacity 31 lbs. (14 kg)
TIRES (4 ply rated) .................................................................. 18 X 8.50 x 8
TIRE PRESSURE .................................................................... 18 - 22 psi (124 - 152 kPa)
LOAD CAPACITY (including operator, passenger,
cargo and accessories) .............................. 800 lbs. (362 kg)
GROUND CLEARANCE .......................................................... 4.25 in. (10.8 cm) at differential
CHASSIS ................................................................................. Welded high yield strength tubular steel with powder coat paint
BODY & FINISH....................................................................... Flexible, impact resistant panels, Color coat/clear coat finish
SAFETY ................................................................................... Dash mounted key switch, reverse warning indicator, ’deadman’
accelerator control, integral handgrip on hip restraints, manual forward/
reverse selector, electric horn
LIGHTING PACKAGE.............................................................. Dual halogen headlights, taillights, brake lights, optional turn signals
STEERING WHEEL................................................................. Dual handgrips and pencil holder integrated with scorecard clip/holder
BRAKES .................................................................................. Dual rear wheel mechanical, self-adjusting drum brakes. Combination
service / park brake with automatic parking brake release (accelerator
kick-off)
FRONT SUSPENSION ............................................................ Leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
REAR SUSPENSION .............................................................. Heavy duty leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
STEERING .............................................................................. Self-compensating single reduction rack and pinion
DASH PANEL .......................................................................... Scuff resistant tee, ball and four drink holders, fuel gauge
SEATING ................................................................................. Formed fabric backed vinyl covers over cushion foam. Seating for
operator and three passengers
ENGINE ................................................................................... 9 hp (6.7 kw) rated, 4 cycle, 295cc twin cylinder air cooled
VALVE TRAIN ......................................................................... Overhead valve, overhead cam, belt drive
LUBRICATION......................................................................... Pressurized oil system, washable permanent filter
BALANCER ............................................................................. Internal counter-rotating balance shaft
IGNITION ................................................................................. Solid State, electronic timing advance and RPM limiter
CARBURETOR........................................................................ Fixed jet
AIR CLEANER ......................................................................... Engine mounted with replaceable dry cartridge element
DRIVE TRAIN .......................................................................... Automatic, continuously variable transmission (CVT)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ........................................................... External starter/generator, Solid State regulator, 12 volt maintenance
free battery, 430 CCA, 60 minute reserve
TRANSAXLE ........................................................................... High efficiency differential with helical gears, 13.32:1 ratio, ground
speed governor, forward and reverse with neutral lock
FUEL SYSTEM ........................................................................ 6 gallon (22.5 liters) tank
SPEED..................................................................................... 12 - 14 mph (19 - 23 kph) governed speed
NOISE...................................................................................... Sound pressure; continuous A- weighted equal to or less than 80db(A).
VIBRATION, WBV ................................................................... The weighted RMS acceleration is 0.8 m/s².
VIBRATION, HAV .................................................................... The weighted RMS acceleration; less than 2.5 m/s².
TXT GASOLINE - SHUTTLE - CE
Same as TXT Gasoline Suttle 9 hp, except for, 11 hp (8.2 kW)(350 cc) Twin Cylinder, Air Cooled, Overhead Cam, Overhead Valve
TXT GASOLINE - SHUTTLE - CARB
Same as TXT Gasoline Shuttle 9 hp, except for, fuel system parts to meet Califoria emissions standards. See Parts Manual for
replacement parts.
Specifications subject to change without notice
Repair and Service Manual
Page U-3
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
67 in.
(170 cm)
49 in.
(124 cm)
Front
33.5 in. (85 cm)
65.5 in. (166 cm)
92.5 in. (235 cm)
105 in. (267 cm)
Rear
38 in. (97 cm)
NOTE: Shaded Area Indicates SHUTTLE 2+2
46.5 in.
(118 cm)
Fig. 1 Vehicle Dimensions
Page U-4
Repair and Service Manual
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
RECOMMENDED MAX SIDE TILT
25% GRADE or 14o MAX
RECOMMENDED MAX RAMP
25% GRADE or 14o MAX
TURNING CLEARANCE
DIAMETER
19 ft. (5.8 m)
Fig. 2 Vehicle Dimensions, Incline Specifications and Turning Clearance Diameter
Repair and Service Manual
Page U-5
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
NOTES:
Page U-6
Repair and Service Manual
Read and understand the following warnings before attempting
to operate the vehicle:
To prevent personal injury or death, observe the
following:
When vehicle is to be left unattended, engage
parking brake, move direction selector to ‘F’
(forward) position, turn key to ‘OFF’ position and
remove key.
Drive vehicle only as fast as terrain and safety
considerations allow. Consider the terrain and
traffic conditions. Consider environmental factors
which effect the terrain and the ability to control
the vehicle.
Avoid driving fast down hill. Sudden stops or
change of direction may result in a loss of control.
Use service brake to control speed when
traveling down an incline.
Use extra care and reduced speed when driving
on poor surfaces, such as loose dirt, wet grass,
gravel, etc.
All travel should be directly up or down hills.
Use extra care when driving the vehicle across
an incline.
Stay in designated areas and avoid steep slopes.
Use the parking brake whenever the vehicle is
parked.
Keep feet, legs, hands and arms inside vehicle at
all times.
Avoid extremely rough terrain.
Check area behind the vehicle before operating
in reverse.
Make sure the direction selector is in correct
position before attempting to start the vehicle.
Slow down before and during turns. All turns
should be executed at reduced speed.
Always bring vehicle to a complete stop before
shifting the direction selector.
See GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS for vehicle
load and seating capacity.
Read and understand the following text and warnings before
attempting to service vehicle:
In any product, components will eventually fail to perform
properly as the result of normal use, age, wear or abuse.
It is virtually impossible to anticipate all possible component failures or the manner in which each component
may fail.
Be aware that a vehicle requiring repair indicates that the
vehicle is no longer functioning as designed and therefore should be considered potentially hazardous. Use
extreme care when working on any vehicle. When diagnosing, removing or replacing any components that are
not operating correctly, take time to consider the safety of
yourself and others around you should the component
move unexpectedly.
Some components are heavy, spring loaded, highly corrosive, explosive or may produce high amperage or
reach high temperatures. Gasoline, carbon monoxide,
battery acid and hydrogen gas could result in serious
bodily injury to the technician/mechanic and bystanders if
not treated with the utmost caution. Be careful not to
place hands, face, feet or body in a location that could
expose them to injury should an unforeseen situation
occur.
Always use the appropriate tools listed in the tool list and
wear approved safety equipment.
Before working on the vehicle, remove all jewelry
(rings, watches, necklaces, etc.)
Be sure that no loose clothing or hair can contact
moving parts.
Use care not to touch hot objects.
Raise rear of vehicle and support on jack stands
before attempting to run or adjust powertrain.
Wear eye protection when working on or around
vehicle. In particular, use care when working
around batteries, using solvents or compressed
air.
Hydrogen gas is formed when charging batteries.
Do not charge batteries without adequate
ventilation.
Do not permit open flame or anyone to smoke in
an area that is being used for charging batteries.
A concentration of 4% hydrogen gas or more is
explosive.
Engine exhaust gas (carbon monoxide) is
deadly. Carbon monoxide is an odorless,
colorless gas that is formed as a natural part of
incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.
Carbon monoxide is a dangerous gas that can
cause unconsciousness and is potentially lethal.
The following are symptoms of carbon monoxide
inhalation:
• Dizziness
• Vomiting
• Intense headache
• Muscular twitching
• Weakness and sleepiness
• Throbbing in temples
If any of these symptoms are experienced, get
fresh air immediately. Never work around or
operate a vehicle in an environment that does not
ventilate exhaust gases from the area.
TEXTRON Golf, Turf & Specialty Products
P.O. Box 388 Augusta, Georgia 30906-3852 USA
Inside USA Phone: 1-800-241-5855, FAX: 1-800-448-8124
Outside USA Phone: 001-706-798-4311, FAX: 001-706-771-4609
Copyrighted Material
This manual may not be reproduced in whole or
in part without the express permission of
E-Z-GO Division of Textron Inc.
Technical Communications Department
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