Allied Telesis | AT-GS950/16 | User`s guide | Allied Telesis AT-GS950/16 User`s guide

Management
Software
AT-S79
User’s Guide
For use with the AT-GS950/16 and
AT-GS950/24 Gigabit Ethernet Smart
Switches
Version 2.0.0
613-000207 Rev. C
Copyright 2008 Allied Telesis, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from Allied Telesis, Inc.
Allied Telesis and the Allied Telesis logo are trademarks of Allied Telesis, Incorporated. All other product names, company names, logos or
other designations mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Allied Telesis, Inc. reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior
written notice. The information provided herein is subject to change without notice. In no event shall Allied Telesis, Inc.be liable for any
incidental, special, indirect, or consequential damages whatsoever, including but not limited to lost profits, arising out of or related to this
manual or the information contained herein, even if Allied Telesis, Inc. has been advised of, known, or should have known, the possibility of
such damages.
Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................................................................ 13
Where to Find Web-based Guides ................................................................................................................... 14
Document Conventions .................................................................................................................................... 15
Contacting Allied Telesis .................................................................................................................................. 16
Online Support ........................................................................................................................................... 16
Email and Telephone Support.................................................................................................................... 16
Warranty..................................................................................................................................................... 16
Returning Products .................................................................................................................................... 16
Sales or Corporate Information .................................................................................................................. 16
Management Software Updates................................................................................................................. 16
Chapter 1: Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 17
Management Overview..................................................................................................................................... 18
Local Management Connection........................................................................................................................ 19
Remote Management Connection.................................................................................................................... 20
Remote SNMP Management............................................................................................................................ 21
Management Access Level .............................................................................................................................. 22
Ports 15 and 16 on the AT-GS950/16 Switch and Ports 23 and 24 on the AT-GS950/24 Switch.................... 23
Section I: Using the Menus Interface ...................................................................... 25
Chapter 2: Getting Started with the Menus Interface ................................................................................. 27
Starting a Local Management Session............................................................................................................. 28
Using the Menus Interface................................................................................................................................ 30
Quitting from a Local Management Session..................................................................................................... 31
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters ........................................................................................................... 33
Configuring the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address .................................................................. 34
Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client ......................................................................................................... 37
Configuring System Administration Information ............................................................................................... 38
Setting the User Interface Configuration .......................................................................................................... 40
Viewing Switch Information .............................................................................................................................. 45
Rebooting the Switch........................................................................................................................................ 48
Pinging a Remote System ................................................................................................................................ 50
Returning the AT-S79 Management Software to the Factory Default Values .................................................. 53
Displaying Statistics.......................................................................................................................................... 55
Displaying Port Statistics............................................................................................................................ 55
Chapter 4: Port Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 59
Displaying the Port Parameters........................................................................................................................ 60
Enabling and Disabling a Port .......................................................................................................................... 63
Setting a Port’s Speed and Duplex Mode......................................................................................................... 64
Changing the Flow Control Setting................................................................................................................... 66
Chapter 5: Port Trunking .............................................................................................................................. 67
Port Trunking Overview .................................................................................................................................... 68
Static Port Trunk Overview ........................................................................................................................ 68
3
Contents
Creating a Port Trunk........................................................................................................................................ 70
Modifying a Port Trunk ...................................................................................................................................... 73
Enabling and Disabling a Port Trunk ................................................................................................................ 74
Chapter 6: IGMP Snooping ........................................................................................................................... 75
IGMP Snooping Overview................................................................................................................................. 76
Configuring IGMP Snooping ............................................................................................................................. 78
Enabling or Disabling IGMP Snooping ....................................................................................................... 78
Setting the Age-out Timer........................................................................................................................... 80
Setting Group Members ............................................................................................................................. 80
Chapter 7: Static Multicast Address ............................................................................................................. 83
Static Multicast Address Overview.................................................................................................................... 84
Creating a Static Multicast Address .................................................................................................................. 85
Adding a Static Multicast Address .............................................................................................................. 85
Deleting a Static Group .............................................................................................................................. 86
Deleting a Static Member Port.................................................................................................................... 87
Chapter 8: Port Mirroring .............................................................................................................................. 89
Port Mirroring Overview .................................................................................................................................... 90
Configuring Port Mirroring ................................................................................................................................. 91
Disabling Port Mirroring .................................................................................................................................... 93
Chapter 9: Dial-in User Configuration .......................................................................................................... 95
Dial-in User Configuration Overview ................................................................................................................. 96
Configuring a Dial-in User ................................................................................................................................. 97
Adding a Dial-in User.................................................................................................................................. 97
Deleting a Dial-in User................................................................................................................................ 98
Modifying a Dial-in User ...........................................................................................................................100
Chapter 10: Virtual LANs .............................................................................................................................101
VLAN Overview...............................................................................................................................................102
Port-based VLAN Overview ............................................................................................................................104
VLAN Name..............................................................................................................................................104
Group ID ...................................................................................................................................................104
General Rules for Creating a Port-based VLAN.......................................................................................104
Tagged VLAN Overview .................................................................................................................................105
Tagged and Untagged Ports ....................................................................................................................105
Port VLAN Identifier..................................................................................................................................106
General Rules for Creating a Tagged VLAN ............................................................................................106
Creating a VLAN .............................................................................................................................................107
Configuring the PVID of Untagged Ports ........................................................................................................111
Changing the PVID...................................................................................................................................113
Changing Port VLAN Type .......................................................................................................................114
Displaying the VLANs .....................................................................................................................................115
Resetting a VLAN to the Default Value ...........................................................................................................117
Modifying a VLAN ...........................................................................................................................................118
Deleting a VLAN .............................................................................................................................................120
Deleting a Port-based VLAN ....................................................................................................................120
Deleting a Tagged VLAN..........................................................................................................................121
Chapter 11: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) ...................................................................123
SNMP Overview..............................................................................................................................................124
Community String Attributes ...........................................................................................................................125
Community String Name ..........................................................................................................................125
Access Mode ............................................................................................................................................125
Operating Status.......................................................................................................................................125
Open or Closed Access Status.................................................................................................................125
4
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Trap Receivers......................................................................................................................................... 125
Default SNMP Community Strings ................................................................................................................. 127
Creating an SNMP Community ...................................................................................................................... 128
Adding an SNMP Community .................................................................................................................. 128
Deleting an SNMP Community ................................................................................................................ 130
Modifying an SNMP Community .............................................................................................................. 131
Creating an SNMP Host ................................................................................................................................. 133
Adding an SNMP Host ............................................................................................................................. 133
Deleting an Host Entry ............................................................................................................................. 134
Modifying an Host Entry ........................................................................................................................... 135
Enabling and Disabling SNMP Traps ............................................................................................................. 137
Enabling an SNMP Trap .......................................................................................................................... 137
Deleting a Trap Receiver ......................................................................................................................... 139
Modifying a Trap Receiver ....................................................................................................................... 139
Enabling or Disabling Traps ..................................................................................................................... 141
Chapter 12: Quality of Service (QoS) ......................................................................................................... 143
QoS Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 144
Mapping CoS Priorities to Egress Queues ..................................................................................................... 147
Configuring CoS ............................................................................................................................................. 150
Chapter 13: Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) ................................................................................. 155
RSTP Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 156
Bridge Priority and the Root Bridge.......................................................................................................... 156
Mixed STP and RSTP Networks .............................................................................................................. 161
Rapid Spanning Tree and VLANs ............................................................................................................ 162
Enabling or Disabling RSTP ........................................................................................................................... 163
Configuring the RSTP Bridge Settings ........................................................................................................... 166
Configuring STP Compatibility........................................................................................................................ 168
Configuring RSTP Port Settings ..................................................................................................................... 169
Configuring the Basic RSTP Port Settings............................................................................................... 169
Configuring the Advanced RSTP Port Settings........................................................................................ 171
Displaying the RSTP Topology....................................................................................................................... 174
Chapter 14: Bandwidth Control .................................................................................................................. 177
Bandwidth Control Overview .......................................................................................................................... 178
Configuring Bandwidth Control....................................................................................................................... 179
Assigning Broadcast or Multicast Packets ............................................................................................... 179
Setting the Ingress Limit Rate .................................................................................................................. 180
Setting Ingress Status .............................................................................................................................. 180
Setting Ingress DLF Status ...................................................................................................................... 181
Chapter 15: IP Access List ......................................................................................................................... 183
IP Access List Overview ................................................................................................................................. 184
Configuring IP Access List.............................................................................................................................. 185
Enabling or Disabling IP Access List........................................................................................................ 185
Adding or Removing IP Addresses .......................................................................................................... 186
Chapter 16: Destination MAC Filtering ...................................................................................................... 187
Destination MAC Filtering Overview............................................................................................................... 188
Configuring Destination MAC Filtering ........................................................................................................... 189
Setting Destination MAC Filtering ............................................................................................................ 189
Removing Destination MAC Filtering Addresses ..................................................................................... 190
Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control ........................................................................ 191
802.1x Port-based Network Access Control Overview................................................................................... 192
Authentication Process ............................................................................................................................ 193
Authenticator Ports................................................................................................................................... 193
5
Contents
General Steps...........................................................................................................................................195
Port-based Network Access Control Guidelines.......................................................................................195
Guest VLANs ..................................................................................................................................................198
Configuring 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control ................................................................................199
Configuring MAC Based Access Control ........................................................................................................203
Chapter 18: RADIUS Authentication Protocol ...........................................................................................207
RADIUS Overview ..........................................................................................................................................208
RADIUS Implementation Guidelines ........................................................................................................208
Configuring the RADIUS Client .......................................................................................................................209
Displaying the RADIUS Client Settings...........................................................................................................211
Chapter 19: Management Software Updates .............................................................................................213
Downloading a New Management Software Image Using TFTP....................................................................214
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface .......................................................217
Chapter 20: Starting a Web Browser Management Session ....................................................................219
Establishing a Remote Connection to Use the Web Browser Interface ..........................................................220
Web Browser Tools.........................................................................................................................................223
Quitting a Web Browser Management Session ..............................................................................................224
Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters .......................................................................................................225
Configuring an IP Address, Subnet Mask and Gateway Address...................................................................226
Setting Up the IP Access List..........................................................................................................................228
Creating an IP Access List .......................................................................................................................228
Deleting an IP Address.............................................................................................................................229
Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client ........................................................................................................230
Configuring System Management Information................................................................................................231
Configuring System Administration Information ..............................................................................................233
Adding System Administration Information...............................................................................................233
Modifying Administration Information .......................................................................................................234
Deleting Administration Information..........................................................................................................235
Setting the User Interface Configuration .........................................................................................................236
Viewing System Information ...........................................................................................................................238
Rebooting a Switch .........................................................................................................................................241
Pinging a Remote System ..............................................................................................................................243
Returning the AT-S79 Management Software to the Factory Default Values.................................................245
Chapter 22: Port Configuration ...................................................................................................................247
Viewing and Configuring Ports Using the Port Configuration Page ................................................................248
Chapter 23: Port Trunking ...........................................................................................................................251
Creating a Port Trunk......................................................................................................................................252
Modifying a Port Trunk ....................................................................................................................................254
Enabling and Disabling a Port Trunk ..............................................................................................................255
Chapter 24: Port Mirroring ..........................................................................................................................257
Configuring Port Mirroring ...............................................................................................................................258
Disabling Port Mirroring ..................................................................................................................................259
Chapter 25: Static Multicast Address Table ..............................................................................................261
Configuring Static Multicast Address Table ....................................................................................................262
Modifying a Static Multicast Address Table ....................................................................................................264
Deleting a Group MAC Address......................................................................................................................265
Chapter 26: IGMP Snooping .......................................................................................................................267
Configuring IGMP Snooping ...........................................................................................................................268
6
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Chapter 27: Destination MAC Address Filter ............................................................................................ 271
Setting a Destination MAC Filter .................................................................................................................... 272
Removing a MAC Address ............................................................................................................................. 274
Chapter 28: Bandwidth Control .................................................................................................................. 275
Configuring Bandwidth Control....................................................................................................................... 276
Chapter 29: Virtual LANs ............................................................................................................................ 279
Assigning Ports to a VLAN ............................................................................................................................. 280
Creating a Tagged VLAN ............................................................................................................................... 281
Modifying a Tagged VLAN.............................................................................................................................. 283
Deleting a Tagged VLAN................................................................................................................................ 284
Creating a Port-Based VLAN.......................................................................................................................... 285
Modifying a Port-Based VLAN........................................................................................................................ 286
Deleting a Port-Based VLAN .......................................................................................................................... 287
Chapter 30: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) .................................................................. 289
Creating an SNMP Community ...................................................................................................................... 290
Modifying an SNMP Community..................................................................................................................... 291
Deleting an SNMP Community....................................................................................................................... 292
Creating a Host Table..................................................................................................................................... 293
Modifying a Host Table Entry ......................................................................................................................... 294
Deleting a Host Table Entry............................................................................................................................ 295
Enabling or Disabling Traps ........................................................................................................................... 296
Modifying Traps .............................................................................................................................................. 297
Deleting Traps ................................................................................................................................................ 298
Chapter 31: Quality of Service (QoS) ......................................................................................................... 299
Mapping CoS Priorities to Egress Queues ..................................................................................................... 300
Configuring CoS ............................................................................................................................................. 302
Chapter 32: Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) ................................................................................. 305
Basic RSTP Configuration.............................................................................................................................. 306
Configuring RSTP Port Settings ..................................................................................................................... 309
Configuring the Basic RSTP Port Settings............................................................................................... 309
Configuring the Advanced RSTP Port Settings........................................................................................ 311
Viewing the RSTP Topology........................................................................................................................... 313
Chapter 33: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control ........................................................................ 315
Configuring 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control ............................................................................... 316
Chapter 34: Dial-in User .............................................................................................................................. 319
Adding a Dial-in User...................................................................................................................................... 320
Modifying a Dial-in User ................................................................................................................................. 321
Deleting a Dial-in User.................................................................................................................................... 322
Chapter 35: RADIUS Authentication Protocol .......................................................................................... 323
Configuring the RADIUS Client ...................................................................................................................... 324
Chapter 36: Statistics .................................................................................................................................. 325
Displaying Switch Statistics ............................................................................................................................ 326
Displaying Traffic Comparison Statistics.................................................................................................. 326
Displaying Error Group Statistics ............................................................................................................. 330
Displaying Historical Status Charts .......................................................................................................... 332
Chapter 37: Management Software Updates ............................................................................................ 335
Upgrading a Firmware Image Using TFTP..................................................................................................... 336
Upgrading a Firmware Image Using HTTP .................................................................................................... 338
7
Contents
Appendix A: AT-S79 Software Default Settings ........................................................................................341
Index ..............................................................................................................................................................345
8
Figures
Figure 1. Connecting the Management Cable to the Console Port .....................................................................................28
Figure 2. Login Menu...........................................................................................................................................................29
Figure 3. Main Menu............................................................................................................................................................29
Figure 4. Basic Switch Configuration Menu.........................................................................................................................34
Figure 5. System IP Configuration Menu.............................................................................................................................35
Figure 6. System Administration Configuration Menu .........................................................................................................38
Figure 7. User Interface Configuration Menu.......................................................................................................................41
Figure 8. General Information Menu....................................................................................................................................45
Figure 9. Switch Tools Configuration Menu.........................................................................................................................48
Figure 10. System Reboot Menu .........................................................................................................................................49
Figure 11. Ping Execution Menu .........................................................................................................................................50
Figure 12. Ping Results .......................................................................................................................................................52
Figure 13. Statistics Menu ...................................................................................................................................................55
Figure 14. Port Configuration Menu.....................................................................................................................................60
Figure 15. Static Port Trunk Example..................................................................................................................................68
Figure 16. Advanced Switch Configuration Menu................................................................................................................70
Figure 17. Trunk Configuration Menu ..................................................................................................................................71
Figure 18. Advanced Switch Configuration Menu................................................................................................................78
Figure 19. IGMP Snooping Configuration Menu..................................................................................................................79
Figure 20. Static Multicast Address Table Menu .................................................................................................................85
Figure 21. Port Mirroring Menu............................................................................................................................................91
Figure 22. Dial-in User Configuration Menu ........................................................................................................................97
Figure 23. VLAN Management Menu ................................................................................................................................107
Figure 24. Tagged-based VLAN Configuration Menu........................................................................................................108
Figure 25. VLAN Creation Menu........................................................................................................................................109
Figure 26. Port-Based VLAN Configuration Menu.............................................................................................................112
Figure 27. Config VLAN Member Menu.............................................................................................................................116
Figure 28. Basic Switch Configuration Menu.....................................................................................................................128
Figure 29. SNMP Configuration Menu...............................................................................................................................129
Figure 30. Community Configuration Menu .......................................................................................................................129
Figure 31. Host Configuration Menu..................................................................................................................................133
Figure 32. Trap Receiver Configuration Menu...................................................................................................................138
Figure 33. Quality of Service Configuration Menu .............................................................................................................147
Figure 34. Traffic Class Configuration Menu .....................................................................................................................148
Figure 35. Port Priority Configuration Menu ......................................................................................................................151
Figure 36. Point-to-Point Ports ..........................................................................................................................................160
Figure 37. Edge Port .........................................................................................................................................................161
Figure 38. Point-to-Point and Edge Port............................................................................................................................161
Figure 39. VLAN Fragmentation ........................................................................................................................................162
Figure 40. RSTP Configuration Menu................................................................................................................................163
Figure 41. RSTP Basic Port Configuration Menu ..............................................................................................................169
Figure 42. RSTP Advanced Port Configuration Menu .......................................................................................................172
Figure 43. Topology Information Menu..............................................................................................................................174
Figure 44. Bandwidth Control Switch Configuration Menu ................................................................................................179
Figure 45. IP Access List Menu .........................................................................................................................................185
Figure 46. Destination MAC Filter Menu............................................................................................................................189
Figure 47. Example of the Authenticator Role ...................................................................................................................194
Figure 48. Port-based Authentication Across Multiple Switches .......................................................................................197
Figure 49. Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu ..............................................................................................199
Figure 50. MAC Based Access Control Configuration Menu.............................................................................................204
9
Figures
Figure 51. RADIUS Server Configuration Menu ................................................................................................................209
Figure 52. Software Upgrade Menu (1 of 2) ......................................................................................................................215
Figure 53. Software Upgrade Menu (2 of 2) ......................................................................................................................215
Figure 54. Entering a Switch’s IP Address in the URL Field..............................................................................................220
Figure 55. AT-S79 Login Dialog Box .................................................................................................................................221
Figure 56. Switch Information Page for the AT-GS950/24 Switch .....................................................................................221
Figure 57. AT-S79 Management Software Front Panel.....................................................................................................222
Figure 58. IP Setup Page ..................................................................................................................................................226
Figure 59. IP Access List Page..........................................................................................................................................228
Figure 60. Management Page ...........................................................................................................................................231
Figure 61. Administration Page..........................................................................................................................................233
Figure 62. Modify Administration Page ..............................................................................................................................234
Figure 63. User Interface Page..........................................................................................................................................236
Figure 64. Switch Information Page...................................................................................................................................238
Figure 65. Reboot Page.....................................................................................................................................................241
Figure 66. Ping Page .........................................................................................................................................................243
Figure 67. Ping Test Results Page ....................................................................................................................................244
Figure 68. Physical Interface Page ....................................................................................................................................248
Figure 69. Trunking Page ..................................................................................................................................................252
Figure 70. Mirroring Page ..................................................................................................................................................258
Figure 71. Static Multicast Address Table Page ................................................................................................................262
Figure 72. Static Multicast Table with Group MAC Addresses ..........................................................................................263
Figure 73. Modify Static Multicast Address Table Page ....................................................................................................264
Figure 74. IGMP Snooping Page .......................................................................................................................................268
Figure 75. Destination MAC Filter Page ............................................................................................................................272
Figure 76. Destination MAC Address with New Entries.....................................................................................................273
Figure 77. Bandwidth Control Page ...................................................................................................................................276
Figure 78. VLAN Mode Page .............................................................................................................................................280
Figure 79. Tagged VLAN Page..........................................................................................................................................281
Figure 80. Example of Tagged VLAN Page.......................................................................................................................282
Figure 81. Modify VLAN Page ...........................................................................................................................................283
Figure 82. Port-Based VLAN Page ....................................................................................................................................285
Figure 83. Modify Port-based VLAN ..................................................................................................................................286
Figure 84. Community Table Page ....................................................................................................................................290
Figure 85. Host Table Page ...............................................................................................................................................293
Figure 86. Trap Setting Page.............................................................................................................................................296
Figure 87. CoS Page .........................................................................................................................................................300
Figure 88. Port Priority Configuration Page .......................................................................................................................303
Figure 89. Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Page ........................................................................................................306
Figure 90. RSTP Basic Port Configuration Page ...............................................................................................................310
Figure 91. RSTP Advanced Port Configuration Page........................................................................................................311
Figure 92. Designated Topology Information Page ...........................................................................................................313
Figure 93. 802.1x Access Control Configuration Page ......................................................................................................316
Figure 94. Dial-in User Page..............................................................................................................................................320
Figure 95. RADIUS Page...................................................................................................................................................324
Figure 96. Traffic Comparison Page ..................................................................................................................................327
Figure 97. Error Group Chart Page....................................................................................................................................330
Figure 98. Historical Status Chart Page.............................................................................................................................332
Figure 99. Historical Status Chart ......................................................................................................................................334
Figure 100. Firmware Upgrade via TFTP Page .................................................................................................................337
Figure 101. Firmware Upgrade via HTTP Page.................................................................................................................338
10
Tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Menus Interface Operations .................................................................................................................................30
Default Mappings of IEEE 802.1p Priority Levels to Egress Port Priority Queues .............................................145
RSTP Auto-Detect Port Costs ............................................................................................................................158
RSTP Auto-Detect Port Trunk Costs ..................................................................................................................158
Port Priority Value Increments ............................................................................................................................159
RSTP Point-to-Point Status ................................................................................................................................173
RSTP Point-to-Point Status ................................................................................................................................312
Traffic Comparison Options ................................................................................................................................327
AT-S79 Default Settings .....................................................................................................................................341
11
Tables
12
Preface
This guide contains instructions on how to use the AT-S79 management
software to manage and monitor the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24
Gigabit Ethernet Smart switches.
The AT-S79 management software has two management interfaces: a
menus interface and a web browser interface. You access the menus
interface through the console port on the switch. You access the web
browser interface from any management workstation on your network that
has a web browser application. For background information on the
management interfaces, refer to Chapter 1, “Overview” on page 17.
Note
The AT-S79 management software does not support remote
management with the Telnet application protocol or an SNMP
program.
Note
The interface illustrations in this book show the interface for the
AT-GS960/16 Gigabit Ethernet Smart Switch. With the exception of
the number of ports displayed, the features also apply to the
AT-GS9500/24 Gigabit Ethernet Smart Switch.
This preface contains the following sections:
ˆ
“Where to Find Web-based Guides” on page 14
ˆ
“Document Conventions” on page 15
ˆ
“Contacting Allied Telesis” on page 16
13
Preface
Where to Find Web-based Guides
The installation and user guides for all Allied Telesis products are
available in portable document format (PDF) on our web site at
www.alliedtelesis.com. You can view the documents online or download
them onto a local workstation or server.
For information about installing the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24
switches, see AT-GS950/16, AT-GS950/24 Gigabit Ethernet Smart
Switches Installation Guide (P/N 613-000190).
14
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Document Conventions
This document uses the following conventions:
Note
Notes provide additional information.
Caution
Cautions inform you that performing or omitting a specific action may
result in equipment damage or loss of data.
Warning
Warnings inform you that performing or omitting a specific action
may result in bodily injury.
15
Preface
Contacting Allied Telesis
This section provides Allied Telesis contact information for technical
support as well as sales and corporate information.
Online Support
You can request technical support online by accessing the Allied Telesis
Knowledge Base:
www.alliedtelesis.com/support. You can use the Knowledge Base to
submit questions to our technical support staff and review answers to
previously asked questions.
Email and
Telephone
Support
For Technical Support via email or telephone, refer to the Support section
of the Allied Telesis web site: www.alliedtelesis.com. Select your country
from the list displayed on the website. Then select the appropriate menu
tab.
Warranty
All Allied Telesis warranties are subject to the terms and conditions set out
in the Allied Telesis Limited Warranties on our web site at
www.alliedtelesis.com/warranty.
Returning
Products
Products for return or repair must first be assigned a return materials
authorization (RMA) number. A product sent to Allied Telesis without an
RMA number will be returned to the sender at the sender’s expense.
To obtain an RMA number, contact the Allied Telesis Technical Support
group at our web site: www.alliedtelesis.com/support/rma. Select your
country from the list displayed on the website. Then select the appropriate
menu tab.
Sales or
Corporate
Information
Management
Software Updates
You can contact Allied Telesis for sales or corporate information through
our web site at www.alliedtelesis.com. Select your country from the list
displayed on the website. Then select the appropriate menu tab.
New releases of the management software for our managed products are
available from the following Internet sites:
ˆ
Allied Telesis web site: www.alliedtelesis.com
ˆ
Allied Telesis FTP server: ftp://ftp.alliedtelesis.com
If the FTP server prompts you to log on, enter “anonymous” as the user
name and your email address as the password.
16
Chapter 1
Overview
This chapter provides an overview of the AT-S79 management software
for the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches. The chapter describes
the different methods for accessing the software and the management
access levels. This chapter contains the following sections:
ˆ
“Management Overview” on page 18
ˆ
“Local Management Connection” on page 19
ˆ
“Remote Management Connection” on page 20
ˆ
“Remote SNMP Management” on page 21
ˆ
“Management Access Level” on page 22
ˆ
“Ports 15 and 16 on the AT-GS950/16 Switch and Ports 23 and 24 on
the AT-GS950/24 Switch” on page 23
17
Chapter 1: Overview
Management Overview
The AT-S79 management software allows you to view and adjust the
operating parameters of the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 Smart
Switches. Here are a few examples of the functions that you can perform
with the management software:
ˆ
Enable and disable ports
ˆ
Configure a port’s speed and duplex mode
ˆ
Create port trunks
ˆ
Configure a port mirror
ˆ
Configure Quality of Service (QoS)
ˆ
Create port-based and tagged virtual LANs
ˆ
Configure 802.1x port-based network access control
The AT-S79 management software comes preinstalled on the switch with
default settings for all of the switch’s operating parameters. You do not
have to manage the switch if the default settings are adequate for your
network. Instead, you can use the device as an unmanaged switch by
connecting it to your network, as explained in the hardware installation
guide, and powering on the unit.
Note
The default settings for the management software are listed in
Appendix A, “AT-S79 Software Default Settings” on page 341.
To actively manage the switch and adjust its operating parameters, you
must access the switch’s AT-S79 management software. There are two
ways to manage the switch:
ˆ
Local management using the menus interface
ˆ
Remote management using the web browser interface
The chapters in Section I of this guide explain how to manage the switch
from a local management session using the menu interface, while the
chapters in Section II explain how to manage the device from a remote
session using the web browser interface. Both interfaces allow you to
configure all parameters on the switch.
The following sections in this chapter briefly describe each type of
management connection.
18
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Local Management Connection
To establish a local management connection with an AT-GS950/16 or
AT-GS950/24 Smart Switch, you connect a terminal or a PC with a
terminal emulator program to the terminal port on the front of the switch
using the management cable included with the unit. This type of
connection is referred to as “local” because you must be physically close
to the switch, such as in the wiring closet where the switch is located.
Note
For instructions on how to start a local management session, refer to
“Starting a Local Management Session” on page 28.
A switch does not need an Internet Protocol (IP) address for you to
manage it locally. You can start a local management session on a switch
at any time. It does not interfere with the forwarding of network packets by
the device.
19
Chapter 1: Overview
Remote Management Connection
The AT-S79 management software has a web browser interface that you
can use to manage an AT-GS950/16 or AT-GS950/24 Smart Switch from
any management station on your network that has a web browser
application. This is referred to as a remote connection.
The switch must have an IP address in order for you to manage it remotely
with a web browser. You can assign the switch an IP address manually or
you can activate the DHCP client so that the switch automatically obtains
its IP configuration from a DHCP server on the network. The initial
assignment of an IP address on a switch must be made through a local
connection to the unit.
For instructions on how to start a remote management session, refer to
“Establishing a Remote Connection to Use the Web Browser Interface” on
page 220.
Note
In order to remotely manage a switch using a web browser, the
remote management station must be a member of the switch’s
Default VLAN. The switch processes remote management packets
only when they are received on an untagged port of the Default
VLAN.
Note
The AT-S79 management software does not support remote
management with the Telnet application protocol.
20
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Remote SNMP Management
You can also remotely configure the switch using a Simple Network
Management (SNMP) application such as AT-View. This management
method requires an understanding of Management Information Base
(MIB) objects.
Note
You must assign an IP address to the switch for remote SNMP
management. For background information, see “Configuring the IP
Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34.
21
Chapter 1: Overview
Management Access Level
The AT-S79 management software has one level of management access:
manager. When you log in as a manager, you can view and configure all
of a switch’s operating parameters. You log in as a manager by entering
the appropriate username and password when you start an AT-S79
management session. The default username is “manager” and the default
password is “friend.”
22
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Ports 15 and 16 on the AT-GS950/16 Switch and Ports 23 and 24 on the
AT-GS950/24 Switch
This section applies to the twisted pair and optional SFP ports 15 and 16
on the AT-GS950/16 switch and ports 23 and 24 on the AT-GS950/24
switch. Note the following when configuring these ports:
ˆ
The twisted pair ports are, by default, the active ports.
ˆ
An optional SFP port becomes active when it establishes a link with an
end node, at which point the corresponding twisted pair port changes
to the redundant state.
ˆ
A twisted pair port and its corresponding optional SFP port share the
same configuration settings, including port settings and VLAN
assignments. When an SFP port establishes a link with an end node, it
operates with the same settings as its corresponding twisted pair port.
23
Chapter 1: Overview
24
Section I
Using the Menus Interface
The chapters in this section explain how to manage the switch using the
menus interface of the AT-S79 management software. The chapters
include:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
Chapter 2, “Getting Started with the Menus Interface” on page 27
ˆ
Chapter 3, “Basic Switch Parameters” on page 33
ˆ
Chapter 4, “Port Configuration” on page 59
ˆ
Chapter 5, “Port Trunking” on page 67
ˆ
Chapter 6, “IGMP Snooping” on page 75
ˆ
Chapter 7, “Static Multicast Address” on page 83
ˆ
Chapter 8, “Port Mirroring” on page 89
ˆ
Chapter 9, “Dial-in User Configuration” on page 95
ˆ
Chapter 10, “Virtual LANs” on page 101
ˆ
Chapter 11, “Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)” on page
123
ˆ
Chapter 12, “Quality of Service (QoS)” on page 143
ˆ
Chapter 13, ”Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)” on page 155
ˆ
Chapter 14, “Bandwidth Control” on page 177
ˆ
Chapter 15, “IP Access List” on page 183
ˆ
Chapter 16, “Destination MAC Filtering” on page 187
ˆ
Chapter 17, “802.1x Port-based Network Access Control” on page 191
ˆ
Chapter 18, “RADIUS Authentication Protocol” on page 207
ˆ
Chapter 19, “Management Software Updates” on page 213
25
26
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 2
Getting Started with the Menus
Interface
This chapter provides information and instructions on how to access the
menu interface of the AT-S79 Management Software by starting a local
management session. This chapter contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Starting a Local Management Session” on page 28
ˆ
“Using the Menus Interface” on page 30
ˆ
“Quitting from a Local Management Session” on page 31
27
Chapter 2: Getting Started with the Menus Interface
Starting a Local Management Session
You establish a local management session with the switch by connecting
a terminal or personal computer with a terminal emulation program to the
the RS-232 console port on the front panel of the switch.
Note
You do not need to assign an IP address to the switch to manage
the unit from a local management session.
To start a local management session, perform the following procedure:
1. Connect one end of the management cable included with the switch to
the console port on the switch, as shown in Figure 1.
CO
NS
23
OL
E
24
Figure 1. Connecting the Management Cable to the Console Port
2. Connect the other end of the cable to the RS-232 port on a terminal or
PC with a terminal emulator program.
3. Configure the terminal or terminal emulator program as follows:
ˆ
Baud per second: 9600
ˆ
Data bits: 8
ˆ
Stop bits: 1
ˆ
Flow control: None
Note
These settings are for a DEC VT100 or ANSI terminal, or an
equivalent terminal emulation program. They cannot be changed.
28
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
The Login Menu is shown in Figure 2.
=======================================================
AT-GS950/24 Management System Version AT-S79 V2.0.0
Local - Console
Allied Telesis International Corp.
Copyright 2008
=======================================================
Login Menu
Login:
Figure 2. Login Menu
4. Enter the manager login name and press Return. The default name is
“manager.”
You are prompted for a password.
5. Enter the manager password. The default password is “friend.”
Note
To change the login name or password, refer to “Setting the User
Interface Configuration” on page 40.
The Main Menu is shown in Figure 3.
Main Menu
[G]eneral Information
[B]asic Switch Configuration
[A]dvanced Switch Configuration
Switch [T]ools
[S]tatistics
[Q]uit
Command>
Figure 3. Main Menu
6. Enter the character in square brackets to select an option.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
29
Chapter 2: Getting Started with the Menus Interface
Using the Menus Interface
If you are using a DEC VT00 or ANSI (the default) terminal configuration,
refer to Table 1 for instructions on how to move through the menus and
select menu options.
Table 1. Menus Interface Operations
When directed to
You must
Enter your selection
Type the menu option letter.
Enter information (for
example, entering a port
number)
Type the information and press Enter.
Return to previous menu
Type Q for Quit to Previous Menu.
When you press Enter to select a field in which you can enter a value, the
“>” symbol is displayed. For example:
Enter new password>
The “>” symbol indicates that you can enter a new value for the parameter
or change the existing value. After you have entered a value, press Enter.
Changes are immediately activated on the AT-GS950 Series switch.
30
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Quitting from a Local Management Session
To quit a local management session, return to the Main Menu and type Q
for Quit. When you are finished managing the switch, make sure you exit
from a management session. Quitting from a local session prevents
unauthorized changes to the switch’s configuration if you leave your
workstation unattended.
Note
A local management session automatically times out if there is no
management activity during a pre-defined length of time referred to
as the timeout period. The timeout feature is intended to protect the
parameter settings on the switch from unauthorized changes if you
leave your management station unattended during a management
session. The default timeout value is 10 minutes. To change the
timeout default value, refer to “Setting the User Interface
Configuration” on page 40.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
31
Chapter 2: Getting Started with the Menus Interface
32
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 3
Basic Switch Parameters
This chapter contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Configuring the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on
page 34
ˆ
“Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 37
ˆ
“Configuring System Administration Information” on page 38
ˆ
“Setting the User Interface Configuration” on page 40
ˆ
“Viewing Switch Information” on page 45
ˆ
“Rebooting the Switch” on page 48
ˆ
“Pinging a Remote System” on page 50
ˆ
“Returning the AT-S79 Management Software to the Factory Default
Values” on page 53
ˆ
“Displaying Statistics” on page 55
33
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
Configuring the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address
This procedure explains how to manually assign an IP address, subnet
mask, and gateway address to the switch. Before performing the
procedure, note the following:
ˆ
An IP address and subnet mask are not required for normal network
operations of the switch. Values for these parameters are only required
if you want to remotely manage the device with a web browser.
ˆ
A gateway address is only required if you want to remotely manage
the device from a remote management station that is separated from
the switch by a router.
ˆ
To configure the switch to automatically obtain its IP configuration from
a DHCP server on your network, go to “Enabling and Disabling the
DHCP Client” on page 37.
To set the switch’s IP configuration, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4.
Main Menu -> Basic Switch Configuration Menu
System [A]dministration Configuration
System [I]P Configuration
S[N]MP Configuration
[P]ort Configuration
[U]ser Interface Configuration
Rapid [S]panning Tree Configuration
[B]andwidth Control Configuration
IP Access [L]ist
Destination MAC [F]ilter
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 4. Basic Switch Configuration Menu
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select System IP
Configuration.
The System IP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 5.
Basic Switch Configuration -> System IP Configuration Menu
MAC Address:
IP Address:
Subnet Mask:
Gateway:
DHCP Mode:
00:06:5H:B2:65:84
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Disabled
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set [I]P Address
Set Subnet [M]ask
Set Default [G]ateway
Enable/Disable [D]HCP Mode
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 5. System IP Configuration Menu
The top portion of the menu displays the current IP address, subnet
mask, and gateway address for the switch. The menu also displays the
switch’s MAC address. The MAC address cannot be changed. The
menu also displays the current status of the DHCP client on the switch.
The Enable/Disable DHCP Mode option is described in “Enabling and
Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 37.
3. To set the switch’s IP address, do the following:
a. Type I to select Set IP Address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new IP address>
b. Type the IP address for the switch in the format
XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX. Then press Enter.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
35
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
4. To set the switch’s subnet mask, do the following:
a. Type M to select Set Subnet Mask.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new subnet mask>
b. Type the subnet mask for the switch and press Enter.
5. To set the switch’s gateway address, do the following:
a. Type G to select Set Default Gateway.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new gateway IP address>
b. Type the gateway IP address for the switch and press Enter.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client
This procedure explains how to activate and deactivate the DHCP client
on the switch. When the client is activated, the switch obtains its IP
configuration, such as its IP address and subnet mask, from a DHCP
server on your network. Before performing the procedure, note the
following:
ˆ
An IP address and subnet mask are not required for normal network
operations of the switch. Values for these parameters are only required
if you want to remotely manage the device with a web browser.
ˆ
A gateway address is only required if you want to remotely manage the
device from a remote management station that is separated from the
switch by a router.
ˆ
The DHCP client is disabled by default on the switch.
ˆ
The DHCP client does not support BOOTP servers.
To activate or deactivate the DHCP client on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select System IP
Configuration.
The System IP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 5 on page 35.
3. Type D to select Enable/Disable DHCP Mode.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable DHCP mode (E/D)>
4. Type E to select Enable or D to select Disable.
If you enable the client, it immediately begins to send queries to the
DHCP server. It continues to send queries until it receives a response.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
37
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
Configuring System Administration Information
This section explains how to assign a name to the switch, as well as
specify the location of the switch and the name of the switch’s
administrator. Entering this information is optional.
To set a switch’s administration information, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type A to select System
Administration Information.
The System Administration Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 6.
Basic Switch Configuration -> System Admin. Configuration Menu
Description:
Name:
Location:
Contact:
AT-GS950/16
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set System [N]ame
Set System [L]ocation
Set System [C]ontact Information
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 6. System Administration Configuration Menu
The Description parameter in the top portion of the menu displays the
model name of the switch. This parameter cannot be changed.
3. To set the system’s name, do the following:
a. Type N to select Set System Name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter system name>
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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b. Type a name for the switch (for example, Sales). The name is
optional and can contain up to 50 characters.
Note
Allied Telesis recommends that you assign names to the switches.
Names can help you identify the switches when you manage them
and can also help you avoid performing a configuration procedure
on the wrong switch.
4. To enter the system’s location, do the following:
a. Type L to select Set System Location.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter system location>
b. Type information to describe the location of the switch (for
instance, Third Floor). The location is optional and can contain up
to 50 characters.
5. To enter the administrator’s name, do the following:
a. Type C to select Set System Contact Information.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter system contact>
b. Type the name of the network administrator responsible for
managing the switch. The contact name is optional and can
contain up to 50 characters.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
39
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
Setting the User Interface Configuration
This procedure explains how to adjust the user interface and security
features on the switch. With this procedure you can:
ˆ
Change the console timer, used to automatically end inactive local
management sessions.
ˆ
Change the AT-S79 management login user name and password.
ˆ
Enable and disable the web server, used to manage the switch from a
remote management station with a web browser.
For information about how to configure a dial-in user, see Chapter 9, “Dialin User Configuration” on page 95.
To set the switch’s user interface configuration, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type U to select User
Interface Configuration.
40
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
The User Interface Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 7.
Basic Switch Configuration -> User Interface Configuration Menu
Console UI Idle Timeout:
5 Min.
Password Protection: Enabled
SNMP Agent:
Enabled
Web Server:
Enabled
Administrator List:
No. Username
Password
---------------1
manager
******
3
5
7
No. Username Password
-------- -------2
4
6
8
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set [C]onsole UI Time Out
Enable/Disable [S]NMP Agent
[A]dd Administrator
[M]odify Administrator
[Q]uit to previous menu
Enable/Disable [W]eb Server
[R]ADIUS Server Configuration
[D]elete Administrator
Enable/Disable Password Pr[o]tection
Command>
Figure 7. User Interface Configuration Menu
The RADIUS Server Configuration option is described Chapter 18,
“RADIUS Authentication Protocol” on page 207.
3. To configure the console idle time out parameter, do the following:
a. Type C to select Set Console UI Time Out.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter console idle timeout>
b. Enter a number for the timeout value. The range is 0 to 60 minutes.
The default is 5 minutes. A timeout value of 0 causes the switch to
never timeout a local management session.
The console idle time out parameter specifies the length of time a
local management session can be inactive before the management
software automatically ends it. The purpose of this parameter is to
prevent unauthorized individuals from configuring the switch
should you leave your management workstation unattended.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
41
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
This parameter applies to a local management session but not to a
remote web management session. A web browser management
session remains active so long as your web browser is open.
Note
If you select 0, you must always remember to properly log off from a
local management session when you are finished to prevent
blocking future management sessions with the switch.
4. To enable or disable the web server, do the following:
a. Type W to select Enable/Disable Web Server.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable web server (E/D)>
b. Type E to enable the web server or D to disable it. The default is
enabled. If you disable the web server, you can not manage the
switch from a remote management station using a web browser.
5. To enable or disable an SNMP agent, do the following:
a. Type S to select SNMP Agent.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable SNMP agent (E/D)
b. Type E to enable an SNMP agent or D to disable the SNMP agent.
6. To add a new user and password, do the following:
a. Type A to select Add Administrator.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
b. Enter the number of the user name. You can select numbers 2
through 8.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new user name>
c. Enter the name of a user.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new password>
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
d. Enter a password for the new user. You are prompted to reenter
the password.
The following prompt is displayed:
Retype new password>
e. Retype the password for the new user.
7. To delete a user name, do the following:
a. Type D to select Delete Administrator.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
b. Enter the number of the user name that you want to delete. After
you enter it, the Administrator List is refreshed.
8. To modify a user name, do the following
a. Type M to select Modify Administrator.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
b. Enter the number of the user name. You can select numbers 2
through 8.
The following prompt is displayed:
Choose which to be modified (U/P/B)>
c. Type U to change the user name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new user name>
d. Enter the name of the new user. Type P to change the password.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new password>
e. Type the new password and press Enter. The password can be
from 0 to 12 characters. Allied Telesis recommends not using
special characters, such as spaces and exclamation points. The
password is case sensitive. Not entering a new password deletes
the current password without assigning a new one.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
43
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
The following prompt is displayed:
Retype new password.
f.
Enter the new password a second time. You must use the new
login password the next time you start a local or web browser
management session.
g. To change both the user name and its corresponding password,
type B.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new user name>
h. Enter the name of the new user.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new password>
i.
Enter the new password.
The following prompt is displayed:
Retype new password>
j.
Reenter the new password.
9. To enable or disable password protection, type O.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable password protection (E/D)?>
a. Type E to enable password protection or D to disable password
protection.
You can control login authentication by enabling password
protection which requires a user to supply a password when
logging onto the switch. If you disable password protection, a user
can login without inputting a password.
10.Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your
changes.
44
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Viewing Switch Information
To view general information about the switch, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type G to select General Information.
The General Information menu is shown in Figure 8.
Main Menu -> General Information
System up for: 24min(s), 36sec(s)
Runtime Image: Version 2.0
Boot Loader: Version 2.0
Hardware Information
Version:
DRAM Size:
Fixed Baud Rate:
9600bps
Flash Size:
Administration Information
Switch Name: Marketing
Switch Location: Fourth Floor
Switch Contact: Ralph
System Address Information
MAC Address:
00:06:5H:B2:65:84
IP Address:
149.35.8.237
Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.0
Gateway:
149.35.8.1
Automatic Network Features
DHCP Mode:
Disabled
16MB
4 MB
Press any key to continue...
Figure 8. General Information Menu
The General Information Menu displays the following information:
System up for
The number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last reset or
power cycle.
Runtime Image
The version of the runtime software.
Boot Loader
The version of the boot loader software.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
45
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
Hardware Information Section
Version
The hardware version number.
Fixed Baud Rate
The baud rate of the console port.
DRAM Size
The size of the DRAM, in megabytes.
Flash Size
The size of the flash memory, in megabytes.
Administration Information Section
Switch Name
The name assigned to the switch. To assign the switch a name, refer
to “Configuring System Administration Information” on page 38.
Switch Location
The location of the switch. To specify the location, refer to “Configuring
System Administration Information” on page 38.
Switch Contact
The contact person responsible for managing the switch. To specify
the name of a contact, refer to “Configuring System Administration
Information” on page 38.
System Address Information Section
MAC Address
The MAC address of the switch. You cannot change this information.
System IP Address
The IP address of the switch. Refer to “Configuring the IP Address,
Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34 to manually assign
an IP address or “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on
page 37 to activate the DHCP client.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask for the switch. Refer to “Configuring the IP Address,
Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34 to manually assign a
subnet mask or “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 37
to activate the DHCP client.
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Gateway
Default gateway IP address. Refer to “Configuring the IP Address,
Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34 to manually assign a
gateway address or “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on
page 37 to activate the DHCP client.
Automatic Network Features Section
DHCP Mode
The status of the DHCP client on the switch. For information about
setting this parameter, refer to “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP
Client” on page 37.
2. Press any key to return to the previous menu.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
47
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
Rebooting the Switch
This procedure reboots the switch and reloads the AT-S79 management
software from flash memory. You might reboot the device if you believe it
is experiencing a problem. Rebooting the device does not change any of
the device’s parameter settings.
Caution
The switch does not forward network traffic during the reboot
process. Some network traffic may be lost.
To reboot the switch, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu type T to select Switch Tools.
The Switch Tools Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 9.
Main Menu -> Switch Tools Configuration Menu
Software [U]pgrade...
System [R]eboot
[P]ing Execution
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 9. Switch Tools Configuration Menu
2. From the Switch Tools Configuration Menu, type R to select System
Reboot.
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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The System Reboot Menu is shown in Figure 10.
Main Menu -> System Reboot Menu
Reboot Status:
Reboot Type:
Stop
Normal
---------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------Set Reboot [O]ption
Start [R]eboot Process
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 10. System Reboot Menu
3. From the System Reboot menu, type O to select Set Reboot Option.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select reboot option (F/I/N)>
4. Type N to select Normal.
Note
The F and I options are described in “Returning the AT-S79
Management Software to the Factory Default Values” on page 53.
5. Type R to select Start Reboot Process.
The following prompt is displayed:
Are you sure you want to reboot the system (Y/N)>
6. Type Y to start the reboot process or N to cancel the reboot.
The switch immediately begins to reload the AT-S79 management
software. This process takes approximately one minute to complete.
You can not manage the device during the reboot. After the reboot is
finished, you can log in again if you want to continue to manage the
device.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
49
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
Pinging a Remote System
This procedure instructs the switch to ping a node on your network. This
procedure is useful in determining whether an active link exists between
the switch and another network device. Note the following before
performing the procedure:
ˆ
The switch where you are initiating the ping must have an IP address
and subnet mask.
ˆ
The device you are pinging must be a member of the Default VLAN.
This means that the port on the switch through which the node is
communicating with the switch must be an untagged or tagged
member of the Default VLAN.
To ping a network device, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools.
The Switch Tools Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 9 on page 48.
2. From the Switch Tools Configuration Menu, type P to select Ping
Execution.
The Ping Execution Menu is shown in Figure 11.
Switch Tools Configuration -> Ping Execution
Target IP Address:
0.0.0.0
Number of Requests:
10
Timeout Value (sec): 3
================Result=================
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set Target [I]P Address
[E]xecute Ping
Set [N]umber of Requests
[S]top Ping
Set [T]imeout Value
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 11. Ping Execution Menu
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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3. Type I to select Set Target IP Address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new target IP address>
4. Type the IP address of the node you want the switch to ping and press
Enter.
5. Type N to select Set Number of Requests.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new number of requests>
6. Enter the number of ping requests you want the switch to perform. The
range is 1 to 10. The default is 10.
7. Type T to select Set Timeout Value.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new timeout value>
8. Enter the length of time in seconds the switch is to wait for a response
before assuming that a ping has failed. The range is 1 to 5 seconds.
The default is 3 seconds.
9. Type E to select Execute Ping.
The following prompt is displayed:
Execute ping or Clean ping data (E/C)>
10. Type E to execute the ping or C to clear previous ping data before
performing this ping.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
51
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
Figure 12 shows an example of the results of a ping.
Switch Tools Configuration -> Ping Execution
Target IP Address:
149.35.8.33
Number of Requests:
4
Timeout Value (sec): 3
================Result=================
No. 1
20 ms
No. 2
20 ms
No. 3
20 ms
No. 4
20 ms
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set Target [I]P Address
[E]xecute Ping
Set [N]umber of Requests
[S]top Ping
Set [T]imeout Value
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 12. Ping Results
11. To stop the ping, type S to select Stop Ping.
12. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu.
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Returning the AT-S79 Management Software to the Factory Default
Values
This procedure returns all AT-S79 management software parameters to
their default values and deletes all tagged and port-based VLANs on the
switch. The AT-S79 management software default values are listed in
Appendix A, ”AT-S79 Software Default Settings” on page 341.
Caution
This procedure causes the switch to reboot. The switch does not
forward network traffic during the reboot process. Some network
traffic may be lost.
To return the AT-S79 management software to the default settings,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools.
The Switch Tools Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 9 on page 48.
2. From the Switch Tools Menu, type R to select System Reboot to start
the reboot.
The System Reboot menu is shown in Figure 10 on page 49.
3. Type O to select Set Reboot Option.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select reboot option (F/I/N)>
4. Type F or I to select one of the following:
F (Factory Default)
Resets all switch parameters to the factory default settings, including
IP address, subnet mask, and gateway address.
I (Reset to Defaults Except IP Address)
Resets all switch parameters to the factory default settings, but retains
the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway settings. If the DHCP client
is enabled, it remains enabled after this reset.
Note
Option N is described in “Rebooting the Switch” on page 48.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
53
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
5. Type R to select Start Reboot Process.
The following prompt is displayed:
Are you sure you want to reboot the system (Y/N)>
6. Type Y to start the reboot process.
The switch returns its operating parameters to the default values and
begins to reload the AT-S79 management software. This process
takes approximately one minute to complete. You can not manage the
device during the reboot. After the reboot is finished, you can log in
again if you want to continue to manage the device.
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Displaying Statistics
The procedure in this section describe how to display port statistics.
Displaying Port
Statistics
To display port statistics, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type S to select Statistics.
The Statistics Menu is shown in Figure 13.
Main Menu-> Statistics Menu
Port: 1
Elapsed Time Since System Reset: 000:00:11:54
<Counter Name>
<Total>
<Avg./s>
Total RX Bytes
0
0
Total RX Pkts
0
0
Good Broadcast
0
0
Good Multicast
0
0
CRC/Align Errors
0
0
Undersize Pkts
0
0
Oversize Pkts
0
0
Fragments
0
0
Jabbers
0
0
Collisions
0
0
64-Byte Pkts
0
0
65-127
0
0
128-255
0
0
256-511
0
0
512-1023
0
0
1024-1522
0
0
-------------------------------<COMMAND>-----------------------------[S]elect/[N]ext/[P]rev. Port Since [U]p [R]eset [S]top Refresh [Q]uit
Command>
Figure 13. Statistics Menu
2. Type S to select a port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port number>
3. Enter the number of the port whose statistics you want to view. Then
press Return.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
55
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
4. To display the statistics of the next port, type N for Next.
The statistics for the next port in the sequence is displayed. For
example, if port 2 statistics were displayed, pressing N displays the
statistics for port 3.
5. To display the statistics of the previous port, type P for Previous.
The statistics for the previous port in the sequence is displayed. For
example, if port 6 statistics were displayed, pressing P displays the
statistics for port 5.
6. To view the statistics for the port since the switch has been running,
type U for Since Up.
7. To clear the counters on the port and return them to 0, type R for
Reset.
8. To stop a screen refresh, type T for Stop refresh.
The information in the Statistics Menu is for viewing purposes only.
The statistics are defined below:
Total RX Bytes
Number of bytes received on the port.
Total RX Packets
Number of packets received on the port.
Good Broadcast
Number of valid broadcast packets received on the port.
Good Multicast
Number of valid multicast packets received on the port.
CRC/Align Errors
Number of packets with a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error but
with the proper length (64-1518 bytes) received on the port.
Undersize Packets
Number of packets that were less than the minimum length specified
by IEEE 802.3 (64 bytes including the CRC) received on the port.
Oversize Packets
Number of packets exceeding the maximum length specified by IEEE
802.3 (1518 bytes including the CRC) received on the port.
Fragments
Number of undersized packets, packets with alignment errors, and
packets with FCS errors (CRC errors) received on the port.
Jabbers
Number of electrical signal errors detected on the port.
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Collisions
Number of packet collisions on the port.
64-Byte Pkts
The number of 64-Byte packets sent or received by the port. The
minimum length of an Ethernet packet is 64 bytes.
65-127 Pkts
The number of 65-to-127-byte packets sent or received by the port.
128-255 Pkts
The number of 128-to-255-byte packets sent or received by the port.
256-511 Pkts
The number of 256-to-511-byte packets sent or received by the port.
512-1023 Pkts
The number of 512-to-1023-byte packets sent or received by the port.
1024-1518 Pkts
The number of 1024-to-1518-byte packets sent or received by the port.
The maximum length of an Ethernet packet is 1518 bytes.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
57
Chapter 3: Basic Switch Parameters
58
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 4
Port Configuration
This chapter contains the procedures for viewing and adjusting the
parameter settings for the ports on the switch. This chapter contains the
following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Displaying the Port Parameters” on page 60
ˆ
“Enabling and Disabling a Port” on page 63
ˆ
“Setting a Port’s Speed and Duplex Mode” on page 64
ˆ
“Changing the Flow Control Setting” on page 66
59
Chapter 4: Port Configuration
Displaying the Port Parameters
To display the parameter settings for the ports on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Configuration.
The Port Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 14.
Basic Switch Configuration -> Port Configuration Menu
Port Trunk
Type
Link Status
Mode
Flow Ctrl
---- ------------- -------------------------1
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
Auto (100F)
Enabled
2
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
Auto (100F)
Enabled
3
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
100-FDx Enabled
4
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
Auto (1000F) Enabled
5
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
Auto (100F)
Enabled
6
--1000tx
Down Enabled
Auto
Enabled
7
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
Auto (1000F) Enabled
8
--1000tx
Down Enabled
Auto
Enabled
9
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
Auto (1000F) Enabled
10
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
100-FDx Enabled
11
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
10-FDx
Enabled
12
--1000tx
Up
Enabled
Auto (100F)
Enabled
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------------[N]ext Page
Set [S]tatus
Set [F]low Control
[P]revious Page
Set [M]ode
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 14. Port Configuration Menu
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The Port Configuration Menu displays the following columns of
information about the status of the ports:
Port
The port number.
Trunk
The trunk group number. This column contains the number of the port
trunk if the port is a member of a trunk. To configure a trunk, refer to
Chapter 5, “Port Trunking” on page 67.
Type
The port type. The type for a 10/100/1000Base-TX port is 1000TX. The
port type for an optional fiber optic SFP module is 1000BaseX.
Link
The status of the link between the port and the end node connected to
the port. The possible values are:
Up - A link exists between the port and the end node.
Down - The port has not established a link with an end node.
Status
The current operating status of the port. The possible values are:
Enabled - The port is able to send and receive Ethernet frames. This is
the default setting for all ports on the switch.
Disabled - The port has been manually disabled.
To change a port’s status, see “Enabling and Disabling a Port” on
page 63.
Mode
The port’s speed and duplex mode setting. The possible values are:
Auto - The port is using Auto-Negotiation to set the operating speed
and duplex mode. This is the default setting for all ports. The actual
operating speed and duplex mode of the port are displayed in
parentheses (for example, “Auto (1000F)” for 1000 Mbps full duplex
mode).
If the speed and duplex mode were set manually on a port, mode will
be one of the following:
10-HDx - 10 Mbps in half-duplex mode
100-HDx - 100 Mbps in half-duplex mode
10-FDx - 10 Mbps in full-duplex mode
100-FDx - 100 Mbps in full-duplex mode
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Chapter 4: Port Configuration
1000-FDx - 1000 Mbps in full-duplex mode
1000-HDx - 1000 Mbps in half-duplex mode
To change a port’s speed and duplex mode setting, see “Setting a
Port’s Speed and Duplex Mode” on page 64.
Flow Ctrl
Whether flow control is enabled on the port. Flow control is enabled by
default. To disable flow control, refer to “Changing the Flow Control
Setting” on page 66.
3. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu.
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Enabling and Disabling a Port
This procedure enables and disables a port. You may want to disable a
port and prevent packets from being forwarded if a problem occurs with
the node or cable connected to the port. After the problem has been fixed,
you can enable the port to resume normal operation. You can also disable
an unused port to secure it from unauthorized connections. The default
setting for a port is enabled.
To change the port’s status, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Configuration.
The Port Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 14 on page 60.
3. Type S to select Set Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set Status->Enter port number>
4. Enter the number of the port you want to enable or disable. You can
configure only one port at a time.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable port n (E/D)>
5. Type E to enable the port or D to disable it. The default is enabled. A
disabled port immediately stops forwarding all ingress and egress
traffic until you enable it again.
The display is refreshed to show the port’s new status.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
63
Chapter 4: Port Configuration
Setting a Port’s Speed and Duplex Mode
To change a port’s speed or duplex mode, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Configuration.
The Port Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 14 on page 60.
3. Type M to select Set Mode.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set Mode -> Enter port number >
4. Enter the number of the port whose speed or duplex mode you want to
change. You can configure only one port at a time.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new mode for port n (a/h/H/F/f/t/T)>
5. Enter the letter that corresponds to the desired speed and duplex
mode setting for the port. The port settings are:
a - Auto: The port uses Auto-Negotiation to set its speed and duplex
mode. This is the default setting for all ports.
h - 10 Mbps, half-duplex
f - 10 Mbps, full-duplex
H - 100 Mbps, half-duplex
F - 100 Mbps, full-duplex
When selecting a setting, note the following:
ˆ
64
When a twisted-pair port on the switch is set to Auto-Negotiation,
the default setting, you must set the end node to Auto-Negotiation
to prevent a duplex mode mismatch. A switch port using AutoNegotiation defaults to half-duplex if it detects that the end node is
not using Auto-Negotiation. This can result in a mismatch if the end
node is operating at a fixed duplex mode of full-duplex. To avoid
this problem when connecting an end node with a fixed duplex
mode of full-duplex to a switch port, disable Auto-Negotiation on
the port and set the port’s speed and duplex mode manually.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
ˆ
Allied Telesis does not recommend manually setting a 10/100/
1000Base-T twisted-pair port to either 1000 Mbps full duplex or
1000 Mbps half duplex. For 1000 Mbps operation, Allied Telesis
recommends setting a port to Auto-Negotiation.
ˆ
The only valid setting for an optional SFP port is Auto-Negotiation.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
65
Chapter 4: Port Configuration
Changing the Flow Control Setting
Flow control applies to ports operating in full-duplex mode. A switch port
uses flow control to control the flow of ingress packets from its end node.
A port using flow control issues a special frame, referred to as a PAUSE
frame, as specified in the IEEE 802.3x standard, to stop the transmission
of data from an end node. When a port needs to stop an end node from
transmitting data, it issues this frame. The frame instructs the end node to
cease transmission. The port continues to issue PAUSE frames until it is
ready again to receive data from the end node.
To change the flow control setting on a port, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Configuration.
The Port Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 14 on page 60.
3. Type F to select Flow Control.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set Flow Control -> Enter port number >
4. Enter the port number whose flow control setting you want to change.
You can configure only one port at a time.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable flow control for port <n> (E/D)>
5. Type E to enable flow control or D to disable it. The default is enabled.
The display is refreshed to show the port’s new flow control setting.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 5
Port Trunking
This chapter provides information and procedures for creating a port trunk
and contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Port Trunking Overview” on page 68
ˆ
“Creating a Port Trunk” on page 70
ˆ
“Modifying a Port Trunk” on page 73
ˆ
“Enabling and Disabling a Port Trunk” on page 74
67
Chapter 5: Port Trunking
Port Trunking Overview
A port trunk is an economical way for you to increase the bandwidth
between the Ethernet switch and another networking device, such as a
network server, router, workstation, or another Ethernet switch. A port
trunk is a group of ports that have been grouped together to function as
one logical path. A port trunk increases the bandwidth between the switch
and the other network device and is useful in situations where a single
physical link between the devices is insufficient to handle the traffic load.
Static Port Trunk
Overview
A static port trunk consists of two to eight ports on the switch that function
as a single virtual link between the switch and another device. A static port
trunk improves performance by distributing the traffic across multiple ports
between the devices and enhances reliability by reducing the reliance on a
single physical link.
A static trunk is easy to configure. You simply designate the ports on the
switch that are to be in the trunk and the management software on the
switch automatically groups them together.
The example in Figure 15 illustrates a static port trunk of four links
between two AT-GS950/48 Gigabit Ethernet Smart Switches.
AT-GS950/24
1
3
5
7
24-Port 10/100/1000Mbps + 2 SFP Combo WebSmart Switch
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
SPEED
LINK/ACT
SPEED
LINK/ACT
POWER
2
4
6
8
AT-GS950/24
1
3
5
7
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
LINK/ACT
23
24
24-Port 10/100/1000Mbps + 2 SFP Combo WebSmart Switch
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
SPEED
LINK/ACT
SPEED
LINK/ACT
POWER
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
LINK/ACT
23
24
1306
Figure 15. Static Port Trunk Example
Network equipment vendors tend to employ different techniques to
implement static trunks. Consequently, a static trunk on one device might
not be compatible with the same feature on a device from a different
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manufacturer. For this reason static trunks are typically employed only
between devices from the same vendor. That is not to say that an Allied
Telesis layer 2 managed switch cannot form a static trunk with a device
from another manufacturer; but there is the possibility that the
implementations of static trunking on the two devices might not be
compatible.
Also, note that a static trunk does not provide for redundancy or link
backup. If a port in a static trunk loses its link, the trunk’s total bandwidth is
diminished. Although the traffic carried by the lost link is shifted to one of
the remaining ports in the trunk, the bandwidth remains reduced until the
lost link is reestablished or you reconfigure the trunk by adding another
port to it.
Static Port Trunk Guidelines
Following are the guidelines for creating a static trunk:
ˆ
Allied Telesis recommends setting static port trunks between Allied
Telesis networking devices to ensure compatibility. While an
Allied Telesis device may be able to form a static trunk with a device
from another equipment vendor, it is possible that the implementation
of this feature on the two devices may not be compatible, resulting in
undesired switch behavior.
ˆ
A static trunk can contain up to eight ports.
ˆ
The ports of a static trunk must be of the same medium type. They can
be all twisted-pair ports or all fiber optic ports.
ˆ
The ports of a trunk can be either consecutive (for example Ports 5-9)
or nonconsecutive (for example, ports 4, 8, 11, 20).
ˆ
Before creating a port trunk, examine the speed, duplex mode, flow
control, and back pressure settings of all of the ports that will be
included in the trunk. Verify that the settings are the same for all ports
in the trunk. If these settings are not the same, then the switch will not
allow you to create the trunk.
ˆ
After you have created a port trunk, a change to the speed, duplex
mode, flow control, or back pressure of any port in the trunk
automatically implements the same change on all the other member
ports.
ˆ
A port can belong to only one static trunk at a time.
ˆ
The ports of a static trunk can be untagged or untagged members of
the same VLAN.
The switch selects a port in the trunk to handle broadcast packets and
packets of unknown destination. The switch makes this choice based on a
hash algorithm, depending upon the source and destination MAC
addresses.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
69
Chapter 5: Port Trunking
Creating a Port Trunk
This procedure explains how to create a port trunk.
Caution
Do not connect the cables to the ports on the switches until you
have configured the trunk with the management software.
Connecting the cables before configuring the software creates a
loop in your network topology, which can result in broadcast storms
and poor network performance.
To create a port trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16.
Main Menu -> Advanced Switch Configuration Menu
[V]LAN Management
[T]runk Configuration
[I]GMP Snooping Configuration
Static Multicast [A]ddress Configuration
Quality of [S]ervice Configuration
Port [M]irroring Configuration
[D]ial-in User Configuration
802.1[X] Port Based Access Control Configuration
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 16. Advanced Switch Configuration Menu
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type T to select
Trunk Configuration.
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The Trunk Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 17.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Trunk Configuration Menu
Group
------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Status
Port Members
Trunk ID
-------------- --------------------- ---------Disabled
1
Disabled
2
Disabled
3
Disabled
4
Disabled
5
Disabled
6
Disabled
7
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------[A]dd Trunk Member
[S]et Trunk Status
[R]emove Trunk Member
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 17. Trunk Configuration Menu
3. From the Trunk Configuration Menu, type A to select Add Trunk
Member.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter trunk group number>
4. Select a trunk group number from 1 to 7 and press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port members (up to 8 ports) for trunk n >
5. Enter the ports you want to include in the trunk and press Enter.
You can specify the ports individually separated by commas (for
example, 1,2,5), as a range of ports separated by a hyphen (for
example, 2-4), or both (for example, 4,6,11-14).
6. Type S to select Set Trunk Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter trunk group number>
7. Type the trunk group number and press Enter.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Chapter 5: Port Trunking
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable trunk group number n (E/D)>
8. Type E to enable the trunk.
9. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
The trunk is now operational on the switch.
10. Configure the port trunk on the other switch and connect the cables.
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Modifying a Port Trunk
This procedure adds and removes ports from a port trunk.
Caution
Before modifying a trunk, disconnect the cables from the ports of the
trunk. Adding or removing ports from a trunk without first
disconnecting the cables can create loops in your network topology,
which can cause poor network performance and broadcast storms.
To add or remove ports from a trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type T to select Trunk
Configuration.
The Trunk Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 17 on page 71.
3. To add ports to a port trunk, type A to select Add Trunk Member. To
remove ports, type R to select Remove Trunk Member.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter trunk group number>
4. Type the number of the trunk group you want to modify and press
Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port members (up to 8 ports) for trunk <n>>
5. Type the ports you want to add or remove from the trunk and press
Enter.
You can specify the ports individually separated by commas (for
example, 1,2,5), as a range of ports separated by a hyphen (for
example, 2-4), or both (for example, 4,6,11-14).
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
7. Modify the port trunk on the other switch and reconnect the cables.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Chapter 5: Port Trunking
Enabling and Disabling a Port Trunk
This procedure enables and disables a port trunk. Note the following
before performing this procedure:
ˆ
Do not enable a port trunk until after you have configured the trunk on
both switches.
ˆ
Do not connect the cables to the ports on the switches until after you
have configured and enabled the trunk on both switches.
Caution
Before disabling a port trunk, first disconnect all cables from the
ports of the trunk. Leaving the cables connected can create loops in
your network topology because the ports of a disabled port trunk
function as normal network ports, forwarding individual network
traffic.
To enable or disable a port trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type T to select
Trunk Configuration.
The Trunk Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 17 on page 71.
3. From the Trunk Configuration Menu, type S to select Set Trunk
Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter trunk group number>
4. Type the number of the trunk group you want to enable or disable and
press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable trunk group number n (E/D)>
5. Type E to enable the trunk or D to disable it.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
74
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 6
IGMP Snooping
This chapter explains how to activate and configure the Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping feature on the switch. Sections in
the chapter include:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“IGMP Snooping Overview” on page 76
ˆ
“Configuring IGMP Snooping” on page 78
75
Chapter 6: IGMP Snooping
IGMP Snooping Overview
IGMP enables IPv4 routers to create lists of nodes that are members of
multicast groups. (A multicast group is a group of end nodes that want to
receive multicast packets from a multicast application.) The router creates
a multicast membership list by periodically sending out queries to the local
area networks connected to its ports.
A node that wants to become a member of a multicast group responds to a
query by sending a report. A report indicates an end node’s desire to
become a member of a multicast group. Nodes that join a multicast group
are referred to as host nodes. After becoming a member of a multicast
group, a host node must continue to periodically issue reports to remain a
member.
After the router has received a report from a host node, it notes the
multicast group that the host node wants to join and the port on the router
where the node is located. Any multicast packets belonging to that
multicast group are then forwarded by the router out the port. If a particular
port on the router has no nodes that want to be members of multicast
groups, the router does not send multicast packets out the port. This
improves network performance by restricting multicast packets only to
router ports where host nodes are located.
There are three versions of IGMP — versions 1, 2, and 3. One of the
differences between the versions is how a host node signals that it no
longer wants to be a member of a multicast group. In version 1 it stops
sending reports. If a router does not receive a report from a host node
after a predefined length of time, referred to as a time-out value, it
assumes that the host node no longer wants to receive multicast frames,
and removes it from the membership list of the multicast group.
In version 2 a host node exits from a multicast group by sending a leave
request. After receiving a leave request from a host node, the router
removes the node from appropriate membership list. The router also stops
sending multicast packets out the port to which the node is connected if it
determines there are no further host nodes on the port.
Version 3 adds the ability of host nodes to join or leave specific sources in
a multicast group.
The IGMP snooping feature on the AT-GS950 switches support IGMP
versions 1 and 2. The switch monitors the flow of queries from a router
and reports and leave messages from host nodes to build its own
multicast membership lists. It uses the lists to forward multicast packets
only to switch ports where there are host nodes that are members of
multicast groups. This improves switch performance and network security
by restricting the flow of multicast packets only to those switch ports
connected to host nodes.
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Without IGMP snooping a switch would have to flood multicast packets out
all of its ports, except the port on which it received the packet. Such
flooding of packets can negatively impact network performance.
The AT-GS950 switches maintain a list of multicast groups through an
adjustable timeout value, which controls how frequently it expects to see
reports from end nodes that want to remain members of multicast groups,
and by processing leave requests.
Note
By default, IGMP snooping is disabled on the switch.
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Chapter 6: IGMP Snooping
Configuring IGMP Snooping
The procedures in this section describe how to enable or disable IGMP
snooping, set the age-out timer, and view group members. See the
following procedures:
Enabling or
Disabling IGMP
Snooping
ˆ
“Enabling or Disabling IGMP Snooping” on page 78
ˆ
“Setting the Age-out Timer” on page 80
ˆ
“Setting Group Members” on page 80
To activate or deactivate IGMP snooping on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 18.
Main Menu -> Advanced Switch Configuration Menu
[V]LAN Management
[T]runk Configuration
[I]GMP Snooping Configuration
Static Multicast [A]ddress Configuration
Quality of [S]ervice Configuration
Port [M]irroring Configuration
[D]ial-in User Configuration
802.1[X] Port Based Access Control Configuration
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 18. Advanced Switch Configuration Menu
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select IGMP
Snooping Configuration.
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The IGMP Snooping Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 19.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> IGMP Snooping Configuration Menu
IGMP Snooping Status:
IGMP Snooping Age-Out Timer:
Disabled
280 seconds
Multicast Group Address
-----------------------
-------------------------------<COMMAND>-----------------------------[N}ext Page
[E]nable/Disable IGMP Snooping
[P]revious Page
[S]et Age-Out Timer
[V]iew Group Members
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 19. IGMP Snooping Configuration Menu
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type E to select Enable/Disable
IGMP Configuration.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable IGMP snooping (E/D) >
4. Type E to enable IGMP snooping or D to disable IGMP snooping.
By default, IGMP snooping is disabled.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 6: IGMP Snooping
Setting the Ageout Timer
Use the following procedure to set the age-out timer.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 18 on
page 78.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select IGMP
Snooping Configuration.
The IGMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 19 on page 79.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type S to select Set Age-Out
Timer.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter age-out time>
For an IGMP member port, the Set Age-Out Timer is set to 280
seconds by default. The range of this parameter is from 280 to
420 seconds.
For an IGMP router port, the Set Age-Out Timer is set to 130 seconds
by default. This value cannot be changed.
4. Type the number of seconds that you want the switch to wait before it
purges an inactive dynamic MAC address which is called the aging
time. Enter a value between 280 and 420 seconds.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Setting Group
Members
To set the MAC addresses of IGMP group members, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 18 on
page 78.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type I to select IGMP
Configuration.
The IGMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 19 on page 79.
3. From the IGMP Configuration Menu, type V to select View Group
Members.
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The following prompt is displayed:
Enter MAC Address (xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx)>
4. Enter a Multicast Group MAC address in the format xx:xx:xx:xx:xx.
The range of the multicast MAC address is from 01:00:5E:00:01:00 to
01:00:5E:7F:FF:FF.
The IGMP Configuration Menu is updated with the information.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 6: IGMP Snooping
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 7
Static Multicast Address
This chapter explains how to assign static multicast addresses. Sections in
the chapter include:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Static Multicast Address Overview” on page 84
ˆ
“Creating a Static Multicast Address” on page 85
83
Chapter 7: Static Multicast Address
Static Multicast Address Overview
There are 4 ways to populate the database of a MAC address table:
ˆ
Static unicast addresses which can only be assigned to one port
ˆ
Static multicast addresses which can be assigned to multiple ports
ˆ
Broadcast addresses which are broadcast to all of the ports on a
switch
ˆ
Dynamically learned MAC addresses
If you want the MAC address table to act as a forwarding database,
configure it with static multicast MAC addresses.
The Static Multicast Address feature allows you to assign an IP address to
more than one host. This feature is used for video streaming when you
also enable IGMP snooping. For more information about configuring IGMP
snooping, see Chapter 6, “IGMP Snooping” on page 75.
For the static multicast address, the MAC addresses are prelearned. This
means that you can assign a MAC address before you create a physical
connection to a host.
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Creating a Static Multicast Address
The procedures in this section describe how to create, delete, and modify
static multicast addresses. See the following procedures:
Adding a Static
Multicast
Address
ˆ
“Adding a Static Multicast Address” on page 85
ˆ
“Deleting a Static Group” on page 86
ˆ
“Deleting a Static Member Port” on page 87
To assign a static multicast address or to assign a group number to an
existing group MAC address, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type A to select Static
Multicast Address Configuration.
The Static Multicast Address Table Menu is shown in Figure 20.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Static Multicast Address Table Menu
Group MAC Address
----------------01:00:5E:00:01:00
01:00:5E:00:01:01
01:00:5E:00:01:02
01:00:5E:00:01:03
01:00:5E:00:01:04
01:00:5E:00:01:05
01:00:5E:00:01:06
Group Members
-------------------------------------------1
2
3, 4,5,6
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
19, 20
21
22
-------------------------------<COMMAND>-----------------------------[N}ext Page
[A]dd Static Member Port
Delete Static [G]roup
[P]revious Page
[D]elete Static Member Port [Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 20. Static Multicast Address Table Menu
3. Type A to select Add Static Member Port.
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Chapter 7: Static Multicast Address
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter MAC address for multicast entry >
4. Type a multicast MAC address. Then press enter. The range of
acceptable multicast MAC addresses is from 01:00:5E:00:01:00 to
01:00:5E:7F:FF:FF.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select group member >
5. Enter a group member in the range of 1 to 24.
You can add more than one group member at a time. You can specify
the values individually (for example, 2,5,11), as a range (for example,
4-7), or both (for example., 2,5,11-15).
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Deleting a Static
Group
To delete a group from a Group MAC address, perform the following
procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type A to select
Static Multicast Address Configuration.
The Static Multicast Address Table Menu is shown in Figure 20 on
page 85.
3. Type G to select Delete Static Group.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter MAC address for multicast entry >
4. Type a multicast MAC address. Then press enter. The range of
acceptable multicast MAC addresses is from 01:00:5E:00:01:00 to
01:00:5E:7F:FF:FF.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select group member >
5. Enter a group member in the range of 1 to 24.
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You can add more than one group member at a time. You can specify
the values individually (for example, 2,5,11), as a range (for example,
4-7), or both (for example., 2,5,11-15).
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Deleting a Static
Member Port
To delete a group from a Group MAC address, perform the following
procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type A to select Static
Multicast Address Configuration.
The Static Multicast Address Table Menu is shown in Figure 20 on
page 85.
3. Type D to select Delete Static Member Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter MAC address for multicast entry >
4. Type a multicast MAC address. Then press enter. The range of
acceptable multicast MAC addresses is from 01:00:5E:00:01:00 to
01:00:5E:7F:FF:FF.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select group member >
5. Enter a group member in the range of 1 to 24.
You can add more than one group member at a time. You can specify
the values individually (for example, 2,5,11), as a range (for example,
4-7), or both (for example., 2,5,11-15).
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 7: Static Multicast Address
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 8
Port Mirroring
This chapter contains the procedure for setting up port mirroring. Port
mirroring allows you to unobtrusively monitor the ingress and egress traffic
on a port by having the traffic copied to another port. This chapter contains
the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Port Mirroring Overview” on page 90
ˆ
“Configuring Port Mirroring” on page 91
ˆ
“Disabling Port Mirroring” on page 93
89
Chapter 8: Port Mirroring
Port Mirroring Overview
The port mirroring feature allows you to unobtrusively monitor the traffic
received and transmitted on one or more ports by copying the traffic to
another switch port. You can connect a network analyzer to the port where
the traffic is being copied and monitor the traffic on the other ports without
impacting network performance or speed.
The port(s) whose traffic you want to mirror is called the source port(s).
The port where the traffic will be copied to is called the monitor port.
Observe the following guidelines when you create a port mirror:
90
ˆ
You can select more than one source port at a time. However, the
more ports you mirror, the less likely the monitor port is able to handle
all the traffic. For example, if you mirror the traffic of six heavily active
ports, the destination port is likely to drop packets, meaning that it will
not provide an accurate mirror of the traffic of the six source ports.
ˆ
The source and monitor ports must be located on the same switch.
ˆ
You can mirror either the ingress or egress traffic of the source ports,
or both.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Configuring Port Mirroring
To set up port mirroring, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type M to select Port
Mirroring Configuration.
The Port Mirroring Menu is shown in Figure 21.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Port Mirroring Configuration Menu
Status:
Mirroring Port:
Ingress Port:
Egress Port:
Disabled
1
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------[S]et Mirroring Port
Set [M]irrored Port
[E]nable/Disable Port Mirroring
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 21. Port Mirroring Menu
3. Type S to select Set Mirroring Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set monitoring port-> Enter port number>
4. Type the number of the port where the network analyzer is connected
and press Enter. You can specify only one port.
5. Type M to select Set Mirrored Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set monitored port-> Enter port number>
6. Type the number of the port whose ingress and egress traffic you want
to monitor and press Enter. You can specify only one port.
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Chapter 8: Port Mirroring
7. Type E to select Enable/Disable Port Mirroring.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable monitoring (E/D)>
8. Type E to enable port mirroring.
You can now connect your data analyzer to the mirroring port.
9. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Disabling Port Mirroring
To disable port mirroring, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type M to select Port
Mirroring Configuration.
The Port Mirroring Menu is shown in Figure 21 on page 91.
3. Type E to select Enable/Disable Port Mirroring.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable monitoring (E/D)>
4. Type D to disable port mirroring.
The port that was functioning as the mirroring port can now be used as
a normal networking port.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 8: Port Mirroring
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 9
Dial-in User Configuration
This chapter explains how to assign a user name, password, and VLAN to
a dial-in user. This chapter contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Dial-in User Configuration Overview” on page 96
ˆ
“Configuring a Dial-in User” on page 97
95
Chapter 9: Dial-in User Configuration
Dial-in User Configuration Overview
The Dial-in User Configuration feature allows you to add, delete, and
modify dial-in users to the AT-GS950 switch. In addition, you must assign
each dial-in user to a VLAN. See Chapter 10, “Virtual LANs” on page 101
for more information about VLANs and VIDs.
The purpose of the Dial-in User feature in local mode is to configure user
authentication data when 802.1x ports are operating in local mode. In the
local mode, the switch uses its own authentication data to authenticate a
user.
Note
In local mode, the switch does not authenticate through a RADIUS
server.
To configure a system administrator or set user information for the switch,
see Chapter 3, “Basic Switch Parameters” on page 33.
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Configuring a Dial-in User
The procedures in this section describe how to create, delete, and modify
dial-in users. See the following procedures:
Adding a Dial-in
User
ˆ
“Adding a Dial-in User” on page 97
ˆ
“Deleting a Dial-in User” on page 98
ˆ
“Modifying a Dial-in User” on page 100
For each dial-in user, you must assign a user name, password, and VLAN.
To add a dial-in user, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type D to select
Dial-in User Configuration.
The Dial-in User Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 22.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Dial-in User Configuration Menu
User Name
----------------Jenny
Jill
Ellen
MaryAnn
Tom
Sam
Password
----------------------*****
*******
*****
******
*****
*****
Dynamic VLAN
-----------------2
2
3
3
3
1
-------------------------------<COMMAND>-----------------------------[N]ext Page
[D]elete User
[P]revious Page
[M]odify User
[A]dd User
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 22. Dial-in User Configuration Menu
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Chapter 9: Dial-in User Configuration
3. Type A to select Add User.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter dial-in user name >
4. Type a name of a dial-in user. Then press Enter.
You can enter up to 23 alphanumeric characters. Special characters
are permitted.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter dial-in user password >
5. Type the password of the dial-in user.
You can enter up to 23 alphanumeric characters. Special characters
are permitted.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter dial-in user dynamic VLAN ID >
6. Assign the dial-in user to a VLAN by entering a VID.
The range for the VID is from 1 to 4,000.
7. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Deleting a Dial-in
User
To delete a dial-in user, perform the following procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type D to select
Dial-in User Configuration.
The Dial-in User Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 22 on page
97.
3. Type type D to select Delete User.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter dial-in user name >
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4. Type the name of the dial-in user that you want to delete.
The dial-in user name is removed from the Dial-in User Configuration
Menu.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 9: Dial-in User Configuration
Modifying a Dialin User
This procedure explains how to modify an existing Dial-in User on the
switch. For each user, you may change the password and the VLAN
assignment. However, you cannot change the user name.
To modify a Dial-in user, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type D to select
Dial-in User Configuration.
The Dial-in User Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 22 on page
97.
3. Type type M to select Modify User.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter dial-in user name >
4. Type the name of the dial-in user that you want to modify.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter dial-in user password >
5. Type the password of the dial-in user. You may type in a new
password or the existing password.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter dial-in user dynamic VLAN ID >
6. Type the VID of the dial-in user. You may type in a new VID or the
existing VID.
7. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 10
Virtual LANs
This chapter contains the procedures for creating, modifying, and deleting
port-based and tagged Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs). This chapter
contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“VLAN Overview” on page 102
ˆ
“Port-based VLAN Overview” on page 104
ˆ
“Tagged VLAN Overview” on page 105
ˆ
“Creating a VLAN” on page 107
ˆ
“Configuring the PVID of Untagged Ports” on page 111
ˆ
“Displaying the VLANs” on page 115
ˆ
“Resetting a VLAN to the Default Value” on page 117
ˆ
“Modifying a VLAN” on page 118
ˆ
“Deleting a VLAN” on page 120
101
Chapter 10: Virtual LANs
VLAN Overview
A VLAN is a group of ports on an Ethernet switch that form a logical
Ethernet segment. The ports of a VLAN form an independent traffic
domain where the traffic generated by the nodes of a VLAN remains within
the VLAN.
With VLANs, you can segment your network through the switch’s AT-S79
management software and so be able to group nodes with related
functions into their own separate, logical LAN segments. These VLAN
groupings can be based on similar data needs or security requirements.
For example, you could create separate VLANs for the different
departments in your company, such as one for Sales and another for
Accounting.
VLANs offer several important benefits:
ˆ
Improved network performance
Network performance often suffers as networks grow in size and as
data traffic increases. The more nodes on each LAN segment vying for
bandwidth, the greater the likelihood overall network performance
decreases.
Because VLAN traffic stays within the VLAN, they improve network
performance. The nodes of a VLAN receive traffic only from nodes of
the same VLAN. This reduces the need for nodes to handle traffic that
are not destined for them. It also frees up bandwidth within all the
logical workgroups.
In addition, because each VLAN constitutes a separate broadcast
domain, broadcast traffic remains within the VLAN. This too can
improve overall network performance.
ˆ
Increased security
Because data traffic generated by a node in a VLAN is restricted only
to the other nodes of the same VLAN, you can use VLANs to control
the flow of packets in your network and prevent packets from flowing to
unauthorized end nodes.
ˆ
Simplified network management
In addition, VLANs can simplify network management. Before the
advent of VLANs, physical changes to the network often had to be
made at the switches in the wiring closets. For example, if an
employee changed departments, changing the employee’s LAN
segment assignment might require a change to the wiring at the
switches.
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But with VLANS, you can change the LAN segment assignment of an
end node connected to the switch through the switch’s AT-S79
management software. You can change the VLAN memberships
through the management software without moving the workstations
physically, or changing group memberships by moving cables from one
switch port to another.
In addition, a virtual LAN can span more than one switch. This means
that the end nodes of a VLAN do not need to be connected to the
same switch and so are not restricted to being in the same physical
location.
The AT-GS950 switches support the following types of VLANs you can
create yourself:
ˆ
Port-based VLANs
ˆ
Tagged VLANs
These VLANs are described in the following sections.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Chapter 10: Virtual LANs
Port-based VLAN Overview
As explained in “VLAN Overview” on page 102, a VLAN consists of a
group of ports on an Ethernet switch that form an independent traffic
domain. Traffic generated by the end nodes of a VLAN remains within the
VLAN and does not cross over to the end nodes of other VLANs unless
there is an interconnection device, such as a router or Layer 3 switch.
A port-based VLAN is a group of ports on a Gigabit Ethernet Switch that
form a logical Ethernet segment.
A port-based VLAN can have as many or as few ports as needed. The
VLAN can consist of all the ports on an Ethernet switch, or just a few ports.
The parts of a port-based VLAN in the AT-S79 management software are:
ˆ
VLAN name
ˆ
Group ID
VLAN Name
To create a port-based VLAN, you must give it a name. The name should
reflect the function of the network devices that are be members of the
VLAN. Examples include Sales, Production, and Engineering.
Group ID
Each VLAN in a network must have a unique number assigned to it. This
number is called the Group ID. This number uniquely identifies a VLAN in
the switch.
Each port of a port-based VLAN can belong to as many VLANs as
needed. Therefore, traffic can be forwarded to the members of the groups
to which the port is assigned. For example, port 1 and port 2 are members
of group 1 and ports 1 and 3 are members of group 2. In this case, traffic
from port 1 is forwarded to ports 2 and 3, traffic from port 2 is forwarded
only to port 1, and traffic from port 3 is forwarded only to port 1.
General Rules for
Creating a Portbased VLAN
104
Below is a summary of the general rules to observe when creating a portbased VLAN.
ˆ
Each port-based VLAN must be assigned a name.
ˆ
Each port-based VLAN must be assigned to one or more Group IDs. If
a particular VLAN spans multiples switches, each part of the VLAN on
the different switches should be assigned the same Group ID.
ˆ
A port-based VLAN that spans multiple switches requires a port on
each switch where the VLAN is located to function as an
interconnection between the switches.
ˆ
The AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches can support up to 256
port-based VLANs.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Tagged VLAN Overview
The second type of VLAN supported by the AT-S79 management software
is the tagged VLAN. VLAN membership in a tagged VLAN is determined
by information within the frames that are received by a port and the VLAN
configuration of each port.
The VLAN information within an Ethernet frame is referred to as a tag or
tagged header. A tag, which follows the source and destination addresses
in a frame, contains the Group ID of the VLAN to which the frame belongs
(IEEE 802.3ac standard). This number uniquely identifies each VLAN in a
network.
When a switch receives a frame with a VLAN tag, referred to as a tagged
frame, the switch forwards the frame only to those ports whose Group ID
equals the VLAN tag.
A port to receive or transmit tagged frames is referred to as a tagged port.
Any network device connected to a tagged port must be IEEE 802.1Qcompliant. This is the standard that outlines the requirements and
standards for tagging. The device must be able to process the tagged
information on received frames and add tagged information to transmitted
frames.
The parts of a tagged VLAN are:
Tagged and
Untagged Ports
ˆ
VLAN Name
ˆ
Group ID
ˆ
Tagged and Untagged Ports
ˆ
Port VLAN identifier (PVID)
When you specify that a port is a member of a tagged VLAN, you need to
specify that it is tagged or untagged. You can have a combination of
tagged and untagged ports in the same VLAN.
Packet transmission from a tagged port differs from packet transmission
from an untagged port. When a packet is transmitted from a tagged port,
the tagged information within the packet is maintained when it is
transmitted to the next network device. If the packet is transmitted from an
untagged port, the VLAN tag information is removed from the packet
before it is transmitted to the next network device.
The IEEE 802.1Q standard describes how tagging information within a
packet is used to forward the traffic throughout the switch. If the VLAN tag
of an incoming packet matches one of the Group IDs (of which the port is a
member), the packet is accepted and forwarded to the appropriate port(s)
within that VLAN. If the incoming packet’s VLAN tag does not match one of
the Group IDs assigned to the port, the packet is discarded.
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Chapter 10: Virtual LANs
Port VLAN
Identifier
General Rules for
Creating a
Tagged VLAN
106
When an untagged packet is received on a port in a tagged VLAN, it is
assigned to one of the VLANs of which that port is a member. The
deciding factor in this process is the Port VLAN Identifier (PVID). Both
tagged and untagged ports in a tagged VLAN must have a PVID assigned
to them. The default value of the PVID for each port is 1. The switch
associates a received untagged packet to the Group ID that matches the
PVID assigned to the port. As a result, the packet is only forwarded to
those ports that are members of that VLAN.
The following list contains a summary of the rules to observe when you
create a tagged VLAN:
ˆ
Each tagged VLAN must be assigned a unique VID. If a particular
VLAN spans multiple switches, each part of the VLAN on the different
switches must be assigned the same VID.
ˆ
A tagged port can be a member of multiple VLANs.
ˆ
The AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches can support up to 48
tagged VLANS.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Creating a VLAN
This section contains the procedure for creating a new port-based or
tagged VLAN. This procedure assigns the VLAN a name, a VID number,
and the untagged and tagged member ports.
After you have performed this procedure, you must configure the untagged
ports of the VLAN by adjusting their PVID values to match the virtual
LAN’s VID number. The PVID value of a port must match its virtual LAN’s
VID in order for a port to be considered an untagged member of the VLAN.
This procedure is found in “Configuring the PVID of Untagged Ports” on
page 111.
To create a VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select VLAN
Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> VLAN Management Menu
Port VLAN Type:
Port
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
----------------------------------------------------------------------802.1Q
* * * * * * * * * *
*
*
*
* *
*
*
* *
* *
*
*
*
Port-Based
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------------802.10 [V]LAN
[C]hange Port VLAN Type
[P]ort-Based VLAN
[Q]uit to Previous Menu
Command>
Figure 23. VLAN Management Menu
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3. Type V to select 802.1Q VLAN.
The Tagged-based VLAN configuration Menu is shown in Figure 24.
VLAN Management Menu -> Tagged-based VLAN configuration
VLAN ID
------1
2
VLAN Name
------------------------------Default VLAN
Sales
VLAN Type
--------Permanent
Static
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------------[N]ext Page
[C]reate VLAN
C[o]nfig VLAN Member
[P]revious Page
[D]elete VLAN
[S]et Port Config
[R]eset VLAN to Default
[Q]uit to Previous Menu
Command>
Figure 24. Tagged-based VLAN Configuration Menu
4. Type C to select Create VLAN.
The VLAN Creation Menu is shown in Figure 24.
5. From the VLAN Management Menu, type C to select Create VLAN.
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The VLAN Creation Menu is shown in Figure 25.
VLAN Management -> VLAN Creation Menu
VLAN ID:
VLAN Name:
Port Member
---------------------------------------------------------------------Tagged:
UnTagged:
------------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------------Set VLAN [I]D/[I]ndex
[S]elect Port Member
Set VLAN [N]ame
[A]pply
[Q]uit to Previous Menu
Command>
Figure 25. VLAN Creation Menu
6. Type I to select Set VLAN ID/Index.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set VLAN ID->Enter VLAN ID>
Note
You must assign a VLAN a VID.
7. Type a value from 2 to 4094 and press Enter.
8. Type S to select Select Port Member.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port number >
9. Enter the untagged and tagged ports of the VLAN.
You can specify the ports individually separated by commas, for
example, 2,7,15, as a range of ports separated by a hyphen, for
example, 2-4, or both, for example, 2-7,15,17.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port tagging. Type (T/U) >
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10. Type T to indicate a tagged port or U to indicate an untagged port.
11. When the VLAN is complete, type A to select Apply and apply the
VLAN settings.
The Tagged-based VLAN Configuration Menu is displayed again with
information about the VLAN you just created. The VLAN is now active
on the switch.
12. If the VLAN contains untagged ports, perform the next procedure,
“Configuring the PVID of Untagged Ports” on page 111, to change the
PVID of the untagged ports to match the virtual LAN’s VID.
13. Type N to select Set VLAN Name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set VLAN Name -> Enter VLAN Name >
14. Type a name for the VLAN and press Enter. The VLAN name can
contain up to 32 characters including spaces.
15. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Configuring the PVID of Untagged Ports
This procedure adjusts a port’s VID value. The PVID value determines the
VLAN in which the port is an untagged member. A port can be an
untagged member of only one VLAN at a time. A port is an untagged
member of the VLAN whose VID value matches its PVID.
The ports of a new VLAN are initially designated as tagged ports by the
software. Their PVID values retain their previous settings when they are
assigned to a new VLAN. You must change their PVID values to match the
VID of the VLAN, if you want the ports to function as untagged members of
a new VLAN. This is explained in the following procedure.
You can also use this procedure to change the VLAN assignment of an
untagged port. With this procedure you can move an untagged port from
one VLAN to another by changing its PVID value.
To assign the PVID value of a port, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select VLAN
Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type P to select Port-Based VLAN.
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The Port-Based VLAN Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 26.
VLAN Management -> Port-Based VLAN Configuration Menu
Index
------3
4
Group Name
------------Sales
Marketing
Group Member
--------------------------3-6
7,9-11
------------------------- <COMMAND> ---------------------------------[N]ext Page
[A]dd Member Port
[C]hange VLAN Group Name
[P]revious Page
[D]elete Member Port
[Q]uit to Previous Menu
Command>
Figure 26. Port-Based VLAN Configuration Menu
4. Type A to select Add Member Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter Group ID >
5. Enter a Group ID. Enter a value from 1 to 52. Then press Return.
The following prompt is displayed:
Add Member -> Enter port number ->
6. Enter a port number or a range of port numbers. You can add more
than one port at a time. You can specify the ports individually (for
example, 2,5,11), as a range (for example, 4-7), or both (for example,
2,5,11-15).
7. Type C to select Change VLAN Group Name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter Group ID >
8. Enter a Group ID of an existing group. Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new VLAN group name >
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9. Type the name of the VLAN group. The VLAN name can contain up to
32 characters including spaces. Then press Enter.
10. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Changing the
PVID
To change the value of a VLAN’s PVID, perform the following procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select VLAN
Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type V to select 802.1Q VLAN.
The Tagged-based VLAN configuration Menu is shown in Figure 24 on
page 108.
4. Type S to select Set Port Config.
The VLAN Port Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107
5. Type V to select Set Port VID.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set PVID-> Enter port number
6. Type the number of the port whose PVID value you want to change
and press Enter. You can configure only one port at a time.
The following prompt is displayed where n indicates the port number
that you selected in the previous step:
Enter PVID for port n >
7. Type the new PVID for the port and press Enter. The PVID should
equal the VID of the VLAN where you want the port to be an untagged
member.
Note
If you specify a PVID that does not correspond to any VIDs on the
switch, the management software creates a new VLAN with a VID
that equals the PVID. The VLAN is not assigned any name.
8. Repeat steps 4 through 6 to configure additional ports.
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Changing Port
VLAN Type
To change the of ports that are assigned to a port-based VLAN on the
VLAN Management Menu, perform the following procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type C to select Change Port VLAN Type.
The following prompt is displayed:
Add member -> Enter port number >
4. Type a port number (or numbers) that is assigned to a port-based
group. Then press Enter.
You can specify ports individually, separated by commas, for example,
2,7,15, as a range of ports separated by a hyphen, for example, 2-4, or
both, for example, 2-7,15,17.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port VLAN type (1/2) >
5. Type 1 to indicate the ports belong to a port-based VLAN or 2 to
indicate the ports belong to a tagged VLAN.
You can set ports that are assigned to a port-based group to either 1 a
port-based VLAN or 2 a tagged VLAN. However, ports that are not
assigned to a port-base group can only be set to 2 to indicate a tagged
VLAN.
The VLAN management Menu is updated with the new port
assignments.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Displaying the VLANs
To display a list of the port-based and tagged VLANs on the switch,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select VLAN
Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type V to select 802.1Q VLAN.
The Tagged-based VLAN configuration Menu is shown in Figure 24 on
page 108. The currently configured VLANs are displayed in a table
with the following columns of information:
VLAN ID
The ID of the VLAN.
VLAN Name
The name of the VLAN.
VLAN Type
The type of VLAN, either permanent or static. Only the Default VLAN is
permanent. All other port-based and tagged VLANs are static.
4. To view the ports of a VLAN, type O to select Config VLAN Member.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID >
5. Enter the VID of the VLAN you want to view and press Enter.
The range of the VID is from 2 to 4094.
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The Config VLAN Member Menu is shown in Figure 27.
VLAN Management -> Config VLAN Member
VLAN ID: 3
VLAN Name: Marketing
Port
Tagging
---------------------------------------------------------------------4
No
5
No
6
No
7
No
8
No
24
Yes
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------------[N]ext Page
[C]hange VLAN Name
[A]dd VLAN Member
[P]revious page
[R]emove VLAN Member
[Q]uit to Previous Menu
Command>
Figure 27. Config VLAN Member Menu
The menu displays the following information:
VLAN ID
The VID number of the VLAN.
VLAN Name
The name of the VLAN.
Port
The ports of the VLAN.
Tagging
Whether a port is a tagged or untagged member of the VLAN. An
untagged port is designated with No and a tagged port with Yes.
The selections in this Config VLAN Member menu are explained in
“Modifying a VLAN” on page 118.
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Resetting a VLAN to the Default Value
To delete all of the Port-based and Tagged VLANs on the switch and
restore the default VLAN with a value of 1, perform the following
procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select VLAN
Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type V to select 802.1Q VLAN.
The Tagged-based VLAN configuration Menu is shown in Figure 24 on
page 108.
4. Type R to select Reset VLAN to Default.
The following prompt is displayed:
Are you sure you want to reset VLAN configuration to
factory default (Y/N) >
5. Type Y to delete all of the configured VLANs on the switch.
A confirmation message is displayed on the screen.
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Modifying a VLAN
This procedure allows you to perform the following functions:
ˆ
Change the name of a VLAN.
ˆ
Add or remove tagged ports from a VLAN.
Before performing this procedure, note the following:
ˆ
You cannot change the VID of a VLAN.
ˆ
You cannot add an untagged port to a VLAN with this procedure. That
function requires changing a port’s VID value, as explained in
“Configuring the PVID of Untagged Ports” on page 111
ˆ
You cannot remove an untagged port from a VLAN with this procedure.
To remove an untagged port from a VLAN, you must assign it as an
untagged member of another VLAN by changing its PVID, as
explained in “Configuring the PVID of Untagged Ports” on page 111.
To change the name of a VLAN or to add or remove tagged ports, perform
the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type V to select 802.1Q VLAN.
The Tagged-based VLAN configuration Menu is shown in Figure 24 on
page 108.
4. Type O to select C[o]nfig VLAN Member.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID >
5. Type the number of the VLAN you want to modify and press Enter.
The range of the VID is from 2 to 4094.
The Config VLAN Member menu is shown in Figure 27 on page 116.
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6. To change the VLAN’s name, do the following:
a. Type C to select Change VLAN Name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter new VLAN name>
b. Type the new name for the VLAN and press Enter. A VLAN name
can be up to 32 characters and can include spaces.
7. To add a tagged port to the VLAN, do the following:
a. Type A for Add Member and press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Add member->Enter port number >
b. Enter the number of the port and press Enter. You can add more
than one port at a time. You can specify the ports individually (i.e.,
2,5,11), as a range (i.e., 4-7), or both (i.e., 2,5,11-15).
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port tagging type (T/U)>
c. Type T to indicate a tagged port or U to indicate an untagged port.
8. To remove a tagged port from the VLAN, do the following:
a. Type R for Remove Member and press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Delete number -> Enter port number >
b. Enter the number of the tagged port you want to remove and press
Enter. You can remove more than one port at a time. You can
specify the ports individually (for example, 2,5,11), as a range
(for example, 4-7), or both (for example, 2,5,11-15).
9. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Deleting a VLAN
There are two separate procedures for deleting a VLAN depending on
whether it is a Tagged or Port-based VLAN. See the following sections.
Deleting a Portbased VLAN
To delete a port from a Port-based VLAN, perform the following
procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select
VLAN Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type P to select Port-Based VLAN.
The Port-Based VLAN Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 26 on
page 112.
4. Type D to select Delete Member Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter Group ID >
5. Type the Group ID if the VLAN you want to remove ports from. Then
press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Delete member -> Enter port number >
6. Type the port number or numbers that you want to remove from the
VLAN. Then press Enter.
You can add more than one port at a time. You can specify the ports
individually (for example, 2,5,11), as a range (for example, 4-7), or
both (for example, 2,5,11-15).
The Port-Based VLAN Configuration Menu is updated.
7. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Deleting a Tagged
VLAN
To delete a Tagged VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type V to select VLAN
Management.
The VLAN Management Menu is shown in Figure 23 on page 107.
3. Type V to select 802.1Q VLAN.
The Tagged-based VLAN configuration Menu is shown in Figure 24 on
page 108.
4. Type D to select Delete VLAN.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter VLAN ID >
5. Type the VLAN ID of the VLAN you want to delete and press Enter.
You can enter only one VID.
The range of the VID is from 2 to 4094.
Note
The VLAN is immediately deleted with no confirmation prompt.
Note
You cannot delete the Default VLAN which has a VID of 1.
The VLAN Management Menu is updated to show that the VLAN is
deleted. The untagged ports of a deleted VLAN are automatically
returned to the Default VLAN.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 11
Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP)
This chapter explains how to activate SNMP management on the switch
and how to create, modify, and delete SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c community
strings. This chapter contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“SNMP Overview” on page 124
ˆ
“Creating an SNMP Community” on page 128
ˆ
“Creating an SNMP Host” on page 133
ˆ
“Enabling and Disabling SNMP Traps” on page 137
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SNMP Overview
You can manage a switch by viewing and changing the management
information base (MIB) objects on the device with the Simple Network
Management Program (SNMP). The AT-S79 Management Software
supports SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c.
To manage a switch using an SNMP application program, you must do the
following:
ˆ
Activate SNMP management on the switch. The default setting for
SNMP management is disabled.
ˆ
Load the Allied Telesis MIBs for the switch onto your management
workstation containing the SNMP application program. The MIBs are
available from the Allied Telesis web site at www.alliedtelesis.com.
To manage a switch using SNMP, you need to know the IP address of the
switch or of the master switch of an enhanced stack and at least one of the
switch’s community strings.
A trap is a message sent by the switch to a management workstation or
server to signal an operating event, such as when the device is reset.
An authentication failure trap is similar to other the traps. It too signals an
operating event on the switch. But this trap is somewhat special because it
relates to SNMP management. A switch that sends this trap could be
indicating an attempt by someone to gain unauthorized management
access using an SNMP application program to the switch. There are two
events that can cause a switch to send this trap:
ˆ
An SNMP management station attempts to access the switch using an
incorrect or invalid community name.
ˆ
An SNMP management station tried to access a closed access
community string, to which its IP address is not assigned.
Given the importance of this trap to the protection of your switch, the
management software allows you to disable and enable it separately from
the other traps. If you enable it, the switch will send this trap if either of the
above events occur. If you disable it, the switch will not send this trap. The
default is disabled.
If you enable this trap, be sure to add one or more IP addresses of trap
receivers to the community strings so that the switch will know where to
send the trap if it needs to.
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Community String Attributes
A community string has attributes for controlling who can use the string
and what the string will allow a network management to do on the switch.
The community string attributes are defined below:
Community
String Name
A community string must have a name of one to eight alphanumeric
characters. Spaces are allowed.
Access Mode
This attribute defines the permissions of a community string. There are two
access modes: Read and Read/Write. A community string with an access
mode of Read can only be used to view but not change the MIB objects on
a switch. A community string with a Read/Write access can be used to
both view the MIB objects and change them.
Operating Status
Open or Closed
Access Status
A community string can be enabled or disabled. When disabled, no one
can use it to access the switch. You might disable a community string if
you suspect someone is using it for unauthorized access to the device.
When a community string is enabled, then it is available for use.
This feature controls which management stations on your network can use
a community string. An open access status permits any network manager
who knows the community string to use it. A closed access status restricts
the string to those network managers who work at particular workstations,
identified by their IP addresses. You specify the workstations by assigning
the IP addresses of the workstations to the community string. A closed
community string can have up to eight IP addresses of management
workstations.
If you decide to activate SNMP management on the switch, it is a good
idea to assign a closed status to all community strings that have a Read/
Write access mode and then assign the IP addresses of your management
workstations to those strings. This helps reduce the chance of someone
gaining management access to a switch through a community string and
making unauthorized configuration changes.
Trap Receivers
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
A trap is a signal sent to one or more management workstations by the
switch to indicate the occurrence of a particular operating event on the
device. There are numerous operating events that can trigger a trap. For
instance, resetting the switch or the failure of a cooling fan are two
examples of occurrences that cause a switch to send a trap to the
management workstations. You can use traps to monitor activities on the
switch.
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Trap receivers are the devices, typically management workstations or
servers, that you want to receive the traps sent by the switch. You specify
the trap receivers by their IP addresses. You assign the IP addresses to
the community strings.
Each community string can have up to eight trap IP addresses.
It does not matter which community strings you assign your trap receivers.
When the switch sends a trap, it looks at all the community strings and
sends the trap to all trap receivers on all community strings. This is true
even for community strings that have a access mode of only Read.
If you are not interested in receiving traps, then you do not need to enter
the IP addresses of trap receivers.
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Default SNMP Community Strings
The AT-S79 Management Software provides two default community
strings: public and private. The public string has an access mode of ReadOnly and the private string has an access mode of Read/Write. If you
activate SNMP management on the switch, you should delete or disable
the private community string, which is a standard community string in the
industry. Or, change the status of the community string from open to
closed to prevent unauthorized changes to the switch.
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Creating an SNMP Community
The procedures in this section describe how to create, delete, and modify
an SNMP community. See the following procedures:
Adding an SNMP
Community
ˆ
“Adding an SNMP Community” on page 128
ˆ
“Deleting an SNMP Community” on page 130
ˆ
“Modifying an SNMP Community” on page 131
To create an SNMP community, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28.
Main Menu -> Basic Switch Configuration Menu
System [A]dministration Configuration
System [I]P Configuration
S[N]MP Configuration
[P]ort Configuration
[U]ser Interface Configuration
Rapid [S]panning Tree Configuration
[B]andwidth Control Configuration
IP Access [L]ist
Destination MAC [F]ilter
Storm [C]ontrol Configuration
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 28. Basic Switch Configuration Menu
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
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The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29.
Basic Switch Configuration -> SNMP Configuration Menu
[C]ommunity Configuration
[H]ost Configuration
[T]rap Receiver Configuration
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 29. SNMP Configuration Menu
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type C to select Community
Configuration.
The Community Configuration Menu is displayed as show in Figure 30.
SNMP Configuration Menu -> Community Configuration Menu
No.
---1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Access
-------Read-Only
Read-Write
Community
--------------public
private
------------------------------<COMMAND>------------------------------[A]dd New Community Entry
[M]odify Community Entry
[D]elete Community Entry
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 30. Community Configuration Menu
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4. To add a new community, type A to select Add New Community
Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Type an available entry number from 1 through 8.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name>
b. Type the name of the new SNMP community.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community access (R/W)>
c. Enter R to indicate Read-Only access and W to indicate
Read-Write access.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
The new SNMP community is now operational on the switch.
Deleting an
SNMP
Community
To delete an SNMP community, perform the following procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. Type D to select Delete Community Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter the number of the SNMP community (from 1 through 8) that
you want to delete followed by Enter.
The entry is removed from the Community Configuration Menu.
4. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Modifying an
SNMP
Community
Use the following procedure to modify an existing SNMP community.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on
page 128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. Type M to select Modify Community Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter the entry number (from 1 through 8) that you want to modify.
Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Choose which to be modified (A/C/B)?
Note
In the above prompt, A represents access level, C represents
community name, and B represents both the access level and
community name.
b. Select A to modify the access level of a community.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community access (R/W)>
c. Enter R to indicate Read-Only access and W to indicate ReadWrite access.
The Community Configuration Menu is updated with the new access
level.
4. Select C to change the community name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter a number from 1 through 8.
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The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name>
b. Enter the new name of the SNMP community. You can enter a
name of up to 20 characters in length. Special characters such as
*, $, @ are permitted.
The Community Configuration Menu is updated with the new SNMP
community name.
c. Select B to modify both the name and access of a community.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name>
d. Enter the name of an exiting SNMP community.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community access (R/W)>
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
The new SNMP community is now operational on the switch.
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Creating an SNMP Host
This procedures in this section adds, removes, and modifies SNMP hosts.
Adding an SNMP
Host
To add or remove ports from a trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type H to select Host
Configuration.
The Host Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 31.
SNMP Configuration Menu -> Host Configuration Menu
No.
IP Address
Community
---------------------------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
------------------------------<COMMAND>------------------------------[A]dd New Host Entry
[M]odify Host Entry
[D]elete Host Entry
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 31. Host Configuration Menu
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4. Type A to select Add New Host Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter a value between 1 and 10. Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address for host>
b. Enter an IP address for an SNMP community that you previously
defined in the Community Configuration menu. The IP address
format must be in the xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx format. See “Creating an
SNMP Community” on page 128.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name>
c. Enter the community name for an existing SNMP community that
you previously defined in the Community Configuration menu. See
“Creating an SNMP Community” on page 128.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Deleting an Host
Entry
To delete an entry from the Host Community Menu, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type H to select Host
Configuration.
The Host Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 31 on page 133.
4. Type D to select Delete Host Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter the number of the SNMP community that you want to
remove from the list of SNMP hosts. Then press Enter.
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The Host Configuration Menu is updated.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Modifying an
Host Entry
To modify an entry from the Host Community Menu, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type H to select Host
Configuration.
The Host Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 31 on page 133.
4. Type M to select Modify Host Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter a number between 1 and 10. Then press enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Choose which to be modified (I/C/B)>
Note
In the prompt above, I represents the IP address, C represents
the community name, and B represents both the IP address and the
community name.
b. Select I to change the IP address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address for host>
c. Type the IP address for the host in the format xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx.
Then press Enter.
d. Select C to change the community name.
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The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name>
e. Enter the new community name followed by Enter.
f.
Select B to change both the IP address and Community.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address for host>
g. Type the IP address for the host in the format xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx.
Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name>
h. Enter the new community name followed by Enter.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Enabling and Disabling SNMP Traps
The procedures in this section describe how to enable, disable, and modify
traps. See the following procedures:
Enabling an
SNMP Trap
ˆ
“Enabling an SNMP Trap” on page 137
ˆ
“Deleting a Trap Receiver” on page 139
ˆ
“Modifying a Trap Receiver” on page 139
To enable an SMNP trap, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type T to select Trap Receiver
Configuration.
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The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 31.
SNMP Configuration Menu -> Trap Receiver Configuration Menu
Authentication Trap:Enabled
No.
Version
IP Address
Community
----------------------------------1
V1
167.114.71.1
Tech Com
2
V2c
167.114.71.2
Tech Com
3
V2c
167.114.71.3
System Test
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
------------------------------<COMMAND>------------------------------[A]dd New Trap Receiver
[M]odify Trap Entry
[Q]uit to previous menu
[D]elete Trap Receiver
[E]nable/Disable Authentication Trap
Command>
Figure 32. Trap Receiver Configuration Menu
4. Type A to select Add New Trap Receiver.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Type a trap number between 1 and 10. Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter trap version (1/2) >
b. Type the trap version and then press Enter. Select 1 for SNMP
version 1 or select 2 for SNMP version 2vc.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address for trap receiver>
c. Enter an IP address in the xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx format.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name >
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d. Enter a previously defined community name followed by Enter. See
“Adding an SNMP Community” on page 128.
The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is redrawn with the new trap
displayed.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Deleting a Trap
Receiver
To delete a trap receiver, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type T to select Trap Receiver
Configuration Menu.
The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 31 on
page 133.
4. Type D to select Delete Trap Receiver.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter a trap number between 1 and 10. Then press Enter.
The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is updated.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Modifying a Trap
Receiver
To modify a trap receiver, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type T to select Trap Receiver
Configuration Menu.
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The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 31 on
page 133.
4. Type M to select Modify Trap Receiver Entry.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
a. Enter a trap number between 1 and 10. Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Choose which to be modified (V/I/C/A) >
Note
In the above prompt, V represents Trap Version, I represents IP
address, C represents community name, and A represents all of the
previous choices.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter entry number>
b. Enter a trap number between 1 and 10. Then press Enter.
c. Type V to change the Trap SNMP version number.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter trap version (1/2) >
d. Type the trap version and then press Enter. Select 1 for SNMP
version 1 or select 2 for SNMP version 2vc.
The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is updated.
e. Type I to change the IP address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address for trap receiver>
f.
Enter an IP address in the xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx format.
The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is updated.
g. Type C to change the community name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name >
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h. Enter a previously defined community name followed by Enter. See
“Adding an SNMP Community” on page 128.
i.
Type A to change the trap version, IP address, and community
name. Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter trap version (1/2) >
j.
Type the trap version and then press Enter. Select 1 for SNMP
version 1 or select 2 for SNMP version 2vc.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address for host >
k. Enter an IP address in the xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx format.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter community name >
l.
Enter a previously defined community name followed by Enter. See
“Adding an SNMP Community” on page 128.
The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is updated.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Enabling or
Disabling Traps
To enable or disable a trap, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type N to select SNMP
Configuration.
The SNMP Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 29 on page 129.
3. From the SNMP Configuration Menu, type T to select Trap Receiver
Configuration Menu.
The Trap Receiver Configuration Menu is displayed in Figure 31 on
page 133.
4. Type E to select Enable/Disable Authentication Trap.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable SNMP Authentication Trap (E/D) >
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a. Enter E to enable all configured traps. Or, enter D to disable all
configured traps.
Note
You can only enable or disable all traps. You may not enable or
disable traps individually.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 12
Quality of Service (QoS)
This chapter contains the procedures for configuring the Quality of Service
(QoS) parameters of the switch. This chapter contains the following
sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“QoS Overview” on page 144
ˆ
“Mapping CoS Priorities to Egress Queues” on page 147
ˆ
“Configuring CoS” on page 150
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QoS Overview
When a port on an Ethernet switch becomes oversubscribed—its egress
queues contain more packets than the port can handle in a timely
manner—the port may be forced to delay the transmission of some
packets, resulting in the delay of packets from reaching their destinations.
A port may be forced to delay transmission of packets while it handles
other traffic, and, in some situations, some packets destined to be
forwarded to an oversubscribed port from other switch ports may be
discarded.
Minor delays are often of no consequence to a network or its performance.
But there are applications, referred to as delay or time sensitive
applications, that can be impacted by packet delays. Voice transmission
and video conferencing are two examples. If packets carrying data for
either of these are delayed from reaching their destination, the audio or
video quality may suffer.
This is where QoS can be of value. It allows you to manage the flow of
traffic through a switch by having the switch ports give higher priority to
some packets, such as delay sensitive traffic, over other packets. This is
referred to as prioritizing traffic.
QoS actually consists of several different elements. The element
supported by the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches is called
Class of Service (CoS). CoS applies primarily to tagged packets. As
explained in “Tagged VLAN Overview” on page 105, a tagged packet
contains information within it that specifies the VLAN to which the packet
belongs.
A tagged packet can also contain a priority level. This priority level is used
by network switches and other networking devices to know how important
(delay sensitive) that packet is in comparison to other packets. Packets of
a high priority are typically handled before packets of a low priority.
CoS, as defined in the IEEE 802.1p standard, has eight levels of priority.
The priorities are 0 to 7, with 0 the lowest priority and 7 the highest.
When a tagged packet is received on a port on the switch, it is examined
by the AT-S79 software for its priority. The switch software uses the
priority to determine which egress priority queue the packet should be
stored in on the egress port.
Each port on the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches has four
priority queues, 0 (low) to 3 (high). When a tagged packet enters a switch
port, the switch responds by placing the packet into one of the queues
according to the assignments shown in Table 2 on page 145. A packet in a
high priority egress queue is typically transmitted out a port sooner than a
packet in a low priority queue.
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Table 2. Default Mappings of IEEE 802.1p Priority Levels
to Egress Port Priority Queues
AT-GS950 Series
Egress Port Priority
Queue
IEEE 802.1p Traffic Class
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
1
4
2
5
2
6
3
7
3
For example, a tagged packet with a priority tag of 6 is placed in the
egress port’s highest priority queue of 3, while a packet with a priority tag
of 1 is placed in the lowest priority queue.
Note
QoS is disabled by default on the switch.
You can customize these priority-to-queue assignments using the AT-S79
management software. The procedure for changing the default mappings
is found in “Mapping CoS Priorities to Egress Queues” on page 147. Note
that because all ports must use the same priority-to-egress queue
mappings, these mappings are applied at the switch level. They cannot be
set on a per-port basis.
You can configure a port to ignore the priority levels in its tagged packets
and instead use a temporary priority level assigned to the port. For
instance, perhaps you decide that all tagged packets received by port 4
should be assigned a priority level of 5, regardless of the priority level in
the packets themselves. The procedure for overriding priority levels is
explained in “Configuring CoS” on page 150.
CoS relates primarily to tagged packets rather than untagged packets
because untagged packets do not contain a priority level. By default, all
untagged packets are placed in a port’s Q0 egress queue, the queue with
the lowest priority. But you can override this and instruct a port’s untagged
frames to be stored in a higher priority queue. The procedure for this is
also explained in “Configuring CoS” on page 150.
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One last thing to note is that CoS does not change the priority level in a
tagged packet. The packet leaves the switch with the same priority it had
when it entered. This is true even if you change the default priority-toegress queue mappings.
The default setting for Quality of Service is disabled. When the feature is
disabled, all tagged packets are stored in the lowest priority queue of a
port.
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Mapping CoS Priorities to Egress Queues
This procedure explains how to change the default mappings of CoS
priorities to egress priority queues, shown in Table 2 on page 145. This is
set at the switch level and applies to all ports. This procedure also enables
and disables QoS.
To change the mappings, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select
Quality of Service Configuration.
The Quality of Service Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 33.
AT-GS950/16 Local Management System
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Quality of Service Configuration Menu
[T]raffic Class Configuration
[P]ort Priority Configuration
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 33. Quality of Service Configuration Menu
3. From the Quality of Service Configuration Menu, type T to select
Traffic Class Configuration.
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The Traffic Class Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 34.
AT-GS950/16 Local Management System
Quality of Service Configuration -> Traffic Class Configuration Menu
QoS Status: Disabled
Traffic Class
------------0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
----0
0
0
1
2
2
3
3
3 : Highest
0 : Lowest
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------------Set [S]tatus
Set [P]riority Queue
[Q]uit to previous Page
Command>
Figure 34. Traffic Class Configuration Menu
4. To enable or disable QoS, do the following:
a. Type S to select Set Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable QoS (E/D) >
b. Type E to enable QoS or D to disable it. The default setting is
disabled. When disabled, all tagged packets are stored in the
lowest priority queue of a port.
5. To change the egress priority queue assignment of an 802.1p traffic
class, do the following:
a. Type P to select Set Priority Queue.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter traffic class>
b. Enter the traffic class whose egress priority queue you want to
change. The range is 0 to 7. You can specify only one traffic class
at a time.
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The following prompt is displayed where n represents the traffic
class you selected in the previous step:
Enter queue for traffic class n >
c. Enter the new egress queue number for the traffic class. The range
is 0 to 3. 0 is the lowest priority queue and 3 is the highest. You can
specify only one egress queue.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Configuring CoS
As explained in “QoS Overview” on page 144, a packet received on a port
is placed it into one of four priority queues on the egress port according to
the switch’s mapping of 802.1p priority levels to egress priority queues.
The default mappings are shown in Table 2 on page 145.
You can override the mappings at the port level by assigning a different
egress queue to a port. Note that this assignment is made on the ingress
port and before the frame is forwarded to the egress port. Consequently,
you need to configure this feature on the ingress port. For example, you
can configure a switch port so that all ingress frames are stored in egress
queue 3 of the egress port.
Note
The switch does not alter the original priority level in tagged frames.
As a result, the frames leave the switch with the same priority level
they had when they entered the switch.
To configure CoS for a port, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select
Quality of Service Configuration.
The Quality of Service Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 33 on
page 147.
3. From the Quality of Service Configuration Menu, type P to select Port
Priority Configuration.
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The Port Priority Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 35.
AT-GS950/16 Local Management System
Quality of Service Configuration -> Port Priority Configuration Menu
QoS Status: Disabled
Port
Trunk
Queue
Override
------------------1
--0
Disabled
2
--0
Disabled
3
--0
Disabled
4
--0
Disabled
5
--0
Disabled
6
--0
Disabled
7
--0
Disabled
8
--0
Disabled
9
--0
Disabled
10
--0
Disabled
11
--0
Disabled
3 : Highest
12
--0
Disabled
0 : Lowest
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------------------[N]ext Page
Set P[r]iority Queue
Set [T]runk Priority Queue
[P]revious Page
Set [O]verride Status
Set Trun[k] Override Status
[Q]uit to previous Page
Command>
Figure 35. Port Priority Configuration Menu
The columns in the menu display the following information:
Port
Displays the port number.
Trunk
Displays the trunk number if the port is a member of a trunk.
Queue
Displays the number of the queue where untagged packets received
on the port are stored on the egress queue.
Override
Displays whether the priority level in ingress tagged frames is being
used or not. If No, the override is deactivated and the port is using the
priority levels contained within the frames to determine the egress
queue. If Yes, the override is activated and the tagged packets are
stored in the egress queue specified in the Queue column.
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4. To configure a port that is not a member of a trunk, type R to select
Set Priority Queue. To configure the ports of a port trunk, type T to
select Set Trunk Priority Queue.
The following prompt is displayed if you are configuring a port:
Set Priority Queue-> Enter port number >
The following prompt is displayed if you are configuring a trunk:
Enter trunk group number >
5. Enter the port or trunk number that you want to configure. You can
configure only one port or trunk at a time.
A prompt similar to the following is displayed where n is the port or
trunk number that you selected in the previous step:
Enter queue for port n >
6. Enter the egress queue where you want to store the ingress untagged
frames received on the port or trunk on the egress port. The range is 0
(lowest) to 3 (highest). For example, if you enter 3 for queue 3, then all
of the ingress untagged packets that are received on the port are
stored in egress queue 3 on the egress port. The default is 0. (If you
perform Step 7 and override the priority level in ingress tagged
packets, this also applies to those packets as well.)
7. To configure a tagged port or trunk so that the switch ignores the
priority tag in ingress tagged frames, type O to select Set Override
Status to configure a port or K to select Set Trunk Override Status to
configure a trunk.
The following prompt is displayed is you are configuring a port:
Set Priority Queue-> Enter port number >
The following prompt is displayed if you are configuring a trunk:
Enter trunk group number >
8. Enter the port or trunk number that you want to configure. You can
configure only one port or trunk at a time.
A prompt similar to the following is displayed:
Enable or Disable override for port n (E/D) >
9. Type E to enable the override or D to disable it.
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Note
The tagged information in a frame is not changed as the frame
traverses the switch. A tagged frame leaves a switch with the same
priority level that it had when it entered.
The default for this parameter is disabled, meaning that the priority
level of tagged frames is determined by the priority level specified in
the frames themselves.
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Chapter 13
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
This chapter describes how to configure the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
(RSTP) on the switch and includes the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“RSTP Overview” on page 156
ˆ
“Enabling or Disabling RSTP” on page 163
ˆ
“Configuring the RSTP Bridge Settings” on page 166
ˆ
“Configuring STP Compatibility” on page 168
ˆ
“Configuring RSTP Port Settings” on page 169
ˆ
“Displaying the RSTP Topology” on page 174
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Chapter 13: Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
RSTP Overview
The performance of a Ethernet network can be negatively impacted by the
formation of a data loop in the network topology. A data loop exists when
two or more nodes on a network can transmit data to each other over
more than one data path. The problem that data loops pose is that data
packets can become caught in repeating cycles, referred to as broadcast
storms, that needlessly consume network bandwidth and can significantly
reduce network performance.
RSTP prevents data loops from forming by ensuring that only one path
exists between the end nodes in your network. Where multiple paths exist,
this protocol places the extra paths in a standby or blocking mode, leaving
only one main active path.
In addition, RSTP can activate a redundant path if the main path goes
down. So not only do these protocols guard against multiple links between
segments and the risk of broadcast storms, but they can also maintain
network connectivity by activating a backup redundant path in case a main
link fails.
When a change is made to the network topology, such as the addition of a
new bridge, a spanning tree protocol must determine whether there are
redundant paths that must be blocked to prevent data loops, or activated
to maintain communications between the various network segments. This
is the process of convergence.
RSTP can complete a convergence in seconds, and so greatly diminishes
the possible impact the process can have on your network.
At this time, only RSTP is available on the switch.
The RSTP implementation complies with the IEEE 802.1w standard. The
following subsections provide a basic overview on how RSTP operates
and define the different parameters that you can adjust.
Bridge Priority
and the Root
Bridge
The first task that bridges perform when a spanning tree protocol is
activated on a network is the selection of a root bridge. A root bridge
distributes network topology information to the other network bridges and
is used by the other bridges to determine if there are redundant paths in
the network.
A root bridge is selected by the bridge priority number, and sometimes the
bridge’s MAC address, also referred to as the bridge identifier. The bridge
with the lowest bridge priority number in the network is selected as the
root bridge. If two or more bridges have the same bridge priority number,
of those bridges the one with the lowest MAC address is designated as
the root bridge.
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You can designate which switch on your network you want as the root
bridge by giving it the lowest bridge priority number. In addition, you may
consider which bridge should function as the backup root bridge in the
event you need to take the primary root bridge offline. Then assign the
back up root bridge the second lowest bridge identifier number.
You can change the bridge priority number for the switch. The bridge
priority has a range of 0X0000 to 0XF000 and is specified in multiples of
0x1000.
After the convergence process has completed, there is only one path
between the switch and the root bridge. The active port on the switch
through which the bridge is communicating with the root bridge is called
the root port. Each switch in the spanning tree domain has a root port with
the exception of the root bridge, which has no root port.
Designated Bridge and Designated Port
The switch that is directly connected to the root port of the switch is called
the designated bridge. The port on the designated bridge that is connected
to the switch’s root port is called the designated port.
Path Costs and Port Costs
After the root bridge has been selected, the bridges must determine if the
network contains redundant paths and, if one is found, they must select a
preferred path while placing the redundant paths in a backup or blocking
state.
If redundant paths exist, the bridges that are a part of the paths must
determine which path will be the primary, active path, and which path(s)
will be placed in the standby, blocking mode. This is accomplished by an
determination of path costs. The path offering the lowest cost to the root
bridge becomes the primary path and all other redundant paths are placed
into blocking state.
Path cost is determined through an evaluation of port costs. Every port on
a bridge participating in STP has a cost associated with it. The cost of a
port on a bridge is typically based on port speed. The faster the port, the
lower the port cost. The exception to this is the ports on the root bridge,
where all ports have a port cost of 0.
Path cost is the sum of the port costs between a bridge and the root
bridge.
Port cost also has an Auto-Detect feature. This feature allows spanning
tree to automatically set the port cost according to the speed of the port,
assigning a lower value for higher speeds. Auto-Detect is the default
setting.
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Table 3 lists the RSTP port costs with Auto-Detect.
Table 3. RSTP Auto-Detect Port Costs
Port Speed
Port Cost
10 Mbps
2,000,000
100 Mbps
200,000
1000 Mbps
20,000
Table 4 lists the RSTP port costs with Auto-Detect when the port is part of
a port trunk.
Table 4. RSTP Auto-Detect Port Trunk Costs
Port Speed
No. of Ports/
Trunk
Port Cost
10/100/1000
2
10,000
10/100/1000
3
6,666
10/100/1000
4
5,000
10/100/1000
5
4,000
10/100/1000
6
3,333
10/100/1000
7
2,857
10/100/1000
8
2,500
You can override Auto-Detect and set the port cost manually. However,
you must assign the same port cost to all ports that are members of a
trunk.
Port Priority
If two paths have the same port cost, the bridges must select a preferred
path. In some instances this can involve the use of the port priority
parameter. This parameter is used as a tie breaker when two paths have
the same cost.
The range for port priority, in hexadecimal format, is 0 to 240, with 240
being the highest priority. As with bridge priority, this range is broken into
multiples of 16. To select a port priority for a port, you enter the desired
value.
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Table 5 lists the values. The default value is 0.
Table 5. Port Priority Value Increments
Port
Priority
Port
Priority
0
128
16
144
32
160
48
176
64
192
80
208
96
224
112
240
If two paths have the same port cost and the same priority, then the ports
with the lowest port MAC addresses become the root ports of their
respective bridges.
Hello Time and Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs)
The bridges that are part of a spanning tree domain communicate with
each other using a bridge broadcast frame that contains a special section
devoted to carrying STP or RSTP information. This portion of the frame is
referred to as the bridge protocol data unit (BPDU). When a bridge is
brought online, it issues a BPDU in order to determine whether a root
bridge has already been selected on the network, and if not, whether it has
the lowest bridge priority number of all the bridges and should therefore
become the root bridge.
The root bridge periodically transmits a BPDU to determine whether there
have been any changes to the network topology and to inform other
bridges of topology changes. The frequency with which the root bridge
sends out a BPDU is called the hello time. This is a value that you can set
in the AT-S79 management software. The interval is measured in seconds
and the default is two seconds. Consequently, if an AT-GS950 switch is
selected as the root bridge of a spanning tree domain, it transmits a BPDU
every two seconds.
Point-to-Point and Edge Ports
Part of the task of configuring RSTP is defining the port types on the
bridge. This relates to the device(s) connected to the port. With the port
types defined, RSTP can quickly reconfigure a network when a change in
network topology is detected.
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There are two possible selections:
ˆ
Point-to-point port
ˆ
Edge port
The default setting for the RSTP port point-to-point status is automatic.
With the automatic setting, the point-to-point status is True of the port is
operating in full-duplex mode. If the port is operating in half-duplex mode,
then the point-to-point status is False.
Figure 36 illustrates two AT-GS950/24 switches that have been connected
with one data link. With the link operating in full-duplex, the ports are pointto-point ports.
AT-GS950/24
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Figure 36. Point-to-Point Ports
If a port is operating in half-duplex mode and is not connected to any
further bridges participating in STP or RSTP, then you need to manually
define the port as an edge port. The default setting for the edge port status
is False. You must manually configure this setting for each port. There is
no automatic mode for the edge port setting. Figure 37 on page 161
illustrates an edge port on an AT-GS950/24 switch. The port is connected
to an Ethernet hub, which in turn is connected to a series of Ethernet
workstations. This is an edge port because it is connected to a device
operating at half-duplex mode and there are no participating STP or RSTP
devices connected to it.
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AT-GS950/24
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Edge Port
Hub
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Figure 37. Edge Port
A port can be both a point-to-point and an edge port at the same time.
Figure 38 illustrates a port functioning as both a point-to-point and edge
port. You must manually configure the edge port status.
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Point-to-Point and Edge Port
Workstation
(Full-duplex Mode)
Figure 38. Point-to-Point and Edge Port
Determining whether a bridge port is point-to-point, edge, or both, can be a
bit confusing. For this reason, do not change the default values for this
RSTP feature unless you have a good grasp of the concept. In most
cases, the default values work well.
Mixed STP and
RSTP Networks
RSTP IEEE 802.1w is fully compliant with STP IEEE 802.1d. Your network
can consist of bridges running both protocols. STP and RSTP in the same
network can operate together to create a single spanning tree domain.
The switch monitors the traffic on each port for BPDU packets. When you
set the switch to RSTP mode, all the ports operate in that mode and reject
STP BPDU packets. When you set the switch to operate in STP-
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compatible mode, the ports can receive either RSTP or STP BPDU
packets.
Rapid Spanning
Tree and VLANs
The spanning tree implementation in the AT-S79 management software is
a single-instance spanning tree. The switch supports just one spanning
tree. You cannot define multiple spanning trees.
The single spanning tree encompasses all ports on the switch. If the ports
are divided into different VLANs, the spanning tree crosses the VLAN
boundaries. This point can pose a problem in networks containing multiple
VLANs that span different switches and are connected with untagged
ports. In this situation, STP blocks a data link because it detects a data
loop. This can cause fragmentation of your VLANs.
This issue is illustrated in Figure 39. Two VLANs, Sales and Production,
span two switches. Two links consisting of untagged ports connect the
separate parts of each VLAN. If RSTP is activated on the switches, one of
the links is disabled. In the example, the port on the top switch that links
the two parts of the Production VLAN is changed to the block state. This
leaves the two parts of the Production VLAN unable to communicate with
each other.
Sales
VLAN
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Blocked Data Link
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Sales
VLAN
Production
VLAN
Figure 39. VLAN Fragmentation
You can avoid this problem by not activating rapid spanning tree or by
connecting VLANs using tagged port members instead of untagged ports.
(For information on tagged and untagged ports, refer to Chapter 10,
“Virtual LANs” on page 101.)
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Enabling or Disabling RSTP
To enable or disable RSTP, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select Rapid
Spanning Tree Configuration.
The Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 40.
AT-GS950/16 Local Management System
Basic Switch Configuration -> Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu
Global RSTP Status: Disabled
Protocol Version: RSTP
Root Port:
Root Path Cost:
0
0
Time Since Topology Change: 118 Sec.
Topology Change Count:
1
Designated Root:
Hello Time:
Maximum Age:
Forward Delay:
8000 00C08F1211BB
2 Sec.
20 Sec.
15 Sec.
Bridge
Bridge
Bridge
Bridge
ID:
Hello Time:
Maximum Age:
Forward Delay:
8000 010203AABB04
2 Sec.
20 Sec.
15 Sec.
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------[E]nable/Disable Global RSTP
Set Bridge [F]orward Delay
Set RSTP Protocol [V]ersion
RSTP [B]asic Port Configuration
Set Bridge [P]riority
RSTP [A]dvanced Port Configuration
Set Bridge [H]ello Time
Topology [I]nformation
Set Bridge [M]aximum Age
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 40. RSTP Configuration Menu
The RSTP menu allows you to configure RSTP as well as to view the
current settings and contains the following items of information in the
middle portion:
Root Port
The active port on the switch that is communicating with the root
bridge. If the switch is the root bridge for the LAN, then there is no root
port and the root port parameter will be 0.
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Root Path Cost
The sum of all the root port costs of all the bridges between the
switch’s root port and the root bridge including the switch’s root port
cost.
Time Since Topology Change
The time in seconds since the last topology change took place. When
RSTP detects a change to the LAN’s topology or when the switch is
rebooted, this parameter is reset to 0 seconds and begins
incrementing until the next topology change is detected.
Topology Change Count
An integer that reflects the number of times RSTP has detected a
topology change on the LAN since the switch was initially powered on
or rebooted.
The following parameters refer to the designated root bridge:
Designated Root
This parameter includes two fields: the root bridge priority and the
MAC address of the root bridge. For example, 1000 00C08F1211BB
shows the root bridge priority as 1000, and 00C08F1211BB as the
MAC address.
Hello Time
The hello time. See “Hello Time and Bridge Protocol Data Units
(BPDUs)” on page 159. This parameter affects only the root bridge.
Maximum Age
The maximum amount of time that BPDUs are stored before being
deleted on the root bridge.
Forward Delay
The time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the root bridge.
The following parameters refer to the switch.
Bridge ID
The MAC address of the bridge. The bridge identifier is use as a tie
breaker in the selection of the root bridge when two or more bridges
have the same bridge priority. You cannot change this setting.
Bridge Hello Time
This is the time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the bridge. This parameter is active only when the switch
is the root bridge.
Bridge Maximum Age
The length of time after which stored bridge protocol data units
(BPDUs) are deleted by the bridge.
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Bridge Forward Delay
This is the time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the bridge.
3. Type E to select Enable/Disable Global RSTP.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable Global RSTP (E/D)>
4. Type E to enable RSTP or D to disable RSTP.
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Configuring the RSTP Bridge Settings
To configure the RSTP bridge settings, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select Rapid
Spanning Tree Configuration.
The Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 40
on page 163.
3. Type P to select Set Bridge Priority.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter bridge priority>
The value is in the range from 0x0000 to 0xF000 and in
increments of 0x1000.
This indicates the priority number for the bridge, in hexadecimal
format. This number is used to determine the root bridge for RSTP.
The bridge with the lowest priority number is selected as the root
bridge. If two or more bridges have the same low priority value, that is,
the lowest of all the other bridges, then the bridge with the numerically
lowest MAC address becomes the root bridge. When a root bridge
goes offline, the bridge with the lowest priority number automatically
takes over as the root bridge. This parameter can be from 0X0000 to
0XF000, with 0XF000 being the highest priority.
The bridge priority is shown as the first field in the “Designated Root”
and “Bridge ID” parameters.
4. Enter a number for the bridge priority.
5. Type H to select Set Bridge Hello Time.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter bridge hello time>
This is the time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the bridge. This parameter can be from 1 to 10 seconds.
The default is 2 seconds.
6. Enter a number for the bridge hello time.
7. Type M to select Set Bridge Maximum Age.
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The following prompt is displayed:
Enter bridge maximum age>
The bridge maximum age is the length of time after which stored
bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) are deleted by the bridge. All
bridges in a bridged LAN use this aging time to test the age of stored
configuration messages called bridge protocol data units (BPDUs). For
example, if you use the default value 20, all bridges delete current
configuration messages after 20 seconds. This parameter can be from
6 to 40 seconds.
When you select a value for maximum age, observe the following
rules:
MaxAge must be greater than (2 x (HelloTime + 1)).
MaxAge must be less than (2 x (ForwardingDelay - 1)).
Note
The aging time for BPDUs is different from the aging time used by
the MAC address table.
8. Enter a number for the bridge maximum age.
9. Type F to select Set Bridge Forward Delay.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter bridge forward delay>
The bridge forwarding delay is the waiting period in seconds before a
bridge changes to a new state, for example, becomes the new root
bridge after the topology changes. If the bridge transitions too soon,
not all links may have yet adapted to the change, resulting in network
loops. The range is 4 to 30 seconds. The default is 15 seconds.
10. Enter a number for the bridge forward delay, between 4 and 30
seconds.
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Configuring STP Compatibility
Choosing an RSTP protocol version allows you to determine if the switch
ports will operate in RSTP-only mode or are STP-compatible. This setting
applies to all of the ports; you cannot set this on a per-port basis.
To configure the STP compatibility, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select Rapid
Spanning Tree Configuration.
The Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 40
on page 163.
3. Type V to select Set RSTP Protocol Version.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set RSTP protocol version (S/R)>
4. Type S to make the ports STP-compatible, or R to make the ports
operate only in RSTP mode.
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Configuring RSTP Port Settings
This section contains the following topics:
Configuring the
Basic RSTP Port
Settings
ˆ
“Configuring the Basic RSTP Port Settings,” next
ˆ
“Configuring the Advanced RSTP Port Settings” on page 171
To configure the basic RSTP port settings, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select Rapid
Spanning Tree Configuration.
The Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 40
on page 163.
3. From the Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu, type B to select
RSTP Basic Port Configuration.
The RSTP Basic Port Configuration menu is shown in Figure 41.
AT-GS950/16 Local Management System
Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration -> RSTP Basic Port Configuration
Port Trunk Link State
Role
Priority
Path Cost
STP Status
---- ----- ---- ------------------ --------------------------1
--Up
Forwarding
Disabled
128
200000
Disabled
2
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
200000
Enabled
3
--Up
Forwarding
Root
128
200000
Enabled
4
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
200000
Enabled
5
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
200000
Enabled
6
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
200000
Enabled
7
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
200000
Enabled
8
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
200000
Enabled
9
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
20000
Enabled
10
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
20000
Enabled
11
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
20000
Enabled
12
--Down Forwarding
Disabled
128
20000
Enabled
----------------------------- <COMMAND> --------------------------------[N]ext Page
Set Path [C]ost
[P]revious Page
Set Port STP [S]tatus
Set Port Pr[i]ority
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 41. RSTP Basic Port Configuration Menu
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4. Type I to select Set Port Priority.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port number to be changed>
Port number is in range from 1 to 9, 0 to set all ports
5. Enter the number of the port you want to change, or type 0 (zero) to
apply the settings to all ports on the switch.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter priority for port n>
This parameter is used as a tie breaker when two or more ports are
determined to have equal costs to the root bridge. The range is 0 to
240 in increments of 16. The default value is 8 (priority value 128). For
a list of the increments, refer to Table 5 on page 159.
Note
If two or more ports have the same cost and priorities, then the port
with the lowest MAC address becomes the forwarding port.
6. Enter a number for the priority.
7. Type C to select Set Path Cost.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port number to be changed>
Port number is in range from 1 to 9, 0 to set all ports
8. Enter the number of the port you want to change, or type 0 (zero) to
apply the settings to all ports on the switch.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter path cost for port n>
The spanning tree algorithm uses the cost parameter to decide which
port provides the lowest cost path to the root bridge for that LAN.The
range is from 0 to 240, with 240 being the highest priority. For a list of
the increments, refer to Table 5 on page 159.
The default setting is based on the Auto-Detect Port Cost feature,
which sets port cost depending on the speed of the port. The default
values are shown in Table 3 on page 158.
9. Enter a number for the path cost.
10. Type S to select Set Port STP Status.
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Select port number to be changed>
Port number is in range from 1 to 9, 0 to set all ports
This parameter enables or disables RSTP on a specified port or a
group of ports in a trunk.
11. Enter the number of the port you want to change, or type 0 (zero) to
apply the settings to all ports on the switch.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable STP for port n (E/D)>
12. Type E to enable or D to disable STP on the port.
Configuring the
Advanced RSTP
Port Settings
To configure the advanced RSTP port settings, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select Rapid
Spanning Tree Configuration.
The Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 40
on page 163.
3. From the Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu, type A to select
RSTP Advanced Port Configuration.
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The RSTP Advanced Port Configuration menu is shown in Figure 41.
AT-GS950/16 Local Management System
Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration -> RSTP Advanced Port Configuration
Port Trunk Link State
Role
Admin/OperEdge Admin/OperPtoP Migrat
---- ----- ---- ---------- --------- ---------------------------------1
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
2
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
3
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
4
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
5
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
6
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
7
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
8
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
9
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
10
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
11
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
12
--Down Forwarding Disabled False/False
Auto/False
Init.
------------------------------- <COMMAND> --------------------------------[N]ext Page
Set Port P-[t]o-P Status
[P]revious Page
Restart Port [M]igration
Set Port [E]dge Status
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 42. RSTP Advanced Port Configuration Menu
4. Type E to select Edge Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port number to be changed>
Port number is in range from 1 to 9, 0 to set all ports
5. Enter the number of the port you want to change, or type 0 (zero) to
apply the settings to all ports on the switch.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set edge port for port n >(T/F)>
This parameter defines whether the port is functioning as an edge port.
The possible settings are True and False. For an explanation of this
parameter, refer to “Point-to-Point and Edge Ports” on page 159.
6. Enter T for True or F for False to change the Admin/OperEdge status.
7. Type P to select P-to-P Status.
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The following prompt is displayed:
Select port number to be changed>
Port number is in range from 1 to 9, 0 to set all ports
8. Enter the number of the port you want to change, or type 0 (zero) to
apply the settings to all ports on the switch.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set point-to-point for port n >(A/T/F)
This parameter defines whether the port is functioning as a point-topoint port. The possible settings are Auto, True, and False. For an
explanation of this parameter, refer to “Point-to-Point and Edge Ports”
on page 159.
9. Enter A for Auto, T for True, or F for False, according to the operating
status that your network requires. See the guidelines in Table 6.
Table 6. RSTP Point-to-Point Status
Admin
Auto
Operation
Port Duplex Operation
True
Full
False
Half
True
True
Full or Half
False
False
Full or Half
10. Type M to select Restart Port Migration.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select port number to be changed>
11. Enter the number of the port you want to change.
The following prompt is displayed:
Restart the protocol migration process for port n? (Y/N)
This parameter resets an RSTP port, allowing it to send RSTP BPDUs.
When an RSTP bridge receives STP BPDUs on an RSTP port, the port
transmits STP BPDUs. The RSTP port continues to transmit STP
BPDUs indefinitely.
12. Enter T for True or F for False.
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Displaying the RSTP Topology
To display the RSTP topology, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type S to select Rapid
Spanning Tree Configuration.
The Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 40
on page 163.
3. From the Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Menu, type I to select
Topology Information.
The Topology Information menu is shown in Figure 41.
AT-GS950/16 Local Management System
Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration -> Designated Topology Information
Port Trunk
---- ----1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Link
---Up
Down
Up
Down
Down
Down
Down
Down
Down
Down
Down
Down
Desig. Root
Desig. Cost Desig. Bridge
Desig. Port
-------------------------------------------------------8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 000c46aa7fal 200000
8000 003084000000 00 03
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
8000 00c08f1211bb 0
8000 00c08f1211bb 00 00
--------------------------------- <COMMAND> --------------------------------[N]ext Page
[P]revious Page
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 43. Topology Information Menu
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The Topology Information Menu displays the following information
about the ports:
Trunk
The trunk of which the port is a member.
Link
Whether the link on the port is up or down.
Desig. Root
The designated root bridge is the switch that is directly connected to
the local switch. The MAC address of the designated root bridge is
displayed. In the network topology, the designated bridge is located
between the local switch and the root bridge.
Desig. Cost
The sum of all the root port costs on all bridges, including the switch,
between the switch and the root bridge.
Desig. Bridge
An adjacent bridge to which the root port of the switch is actively
connected.
Desig. Port
The port on the designated bridge that is directly connected to the root
port of the local switch.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
175
Chapter 13: Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
176
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 14
Bandwidth Control
This chapter explains how to activate and configure the Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping feature on the switch. Sections in
the chapter include:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Bandwidth Control Overview” on page 178
ˆ
“Configuring Bandwidth Control” on page 179
177
Chapter 14: Bandwidth Control
Bandwidth Control Overview
If the performance of your network is affected by heavy traffic, you can use
bandwidth control to set the rate of various types of packets that a port
receives. You can control ingress packet types, including broadcast,
multicast, and DLF packets or a combination of all three types, and limit
their rates.
Note
DLF packets are unicast packets that are broadcast because of a
destination address lookup failure.
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AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Configuring Bandwidth Control
The procedures in this section describe how to set bandwidth control
options on the switch and on the ports. See the following sections:
Assigning
Broadcast or
Multicast Packets
ˆ
“Assigning Broadcast or Multicast Packets” on page 179
ˆ
“Setting the Ingress Limit Rate” on page 180
ˆ
“Setting Ingress Status” on page 180
ˆ
“Setting Ingress DLF Status” on page 181
To assign broadcast or multicast packets to a port, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type B to select
Bandwidth Control.
The Bandwidth Control Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 44.
Basic Switch Configuration -> Bandwidth Control Configuration Menu
Broad/Multicast Packet Threshold:Low
Port
Ingress
Mode
----------------------1
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
2
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
3
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
4
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
5
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
6
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
7
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
8
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
9
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
10
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
11
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
12
Disabled
Bcast/Mcast
DLF Ingress Packet Status: Enabled
---------------------------------<Command>----------------------------[N]ext Page
Set Ingress [M]ode
[Q]uit to previous menu
[P]revious Page
Set Ingress [L]imit Rate
Set [I]ngress
Set Ingress [D]LF Status
Command>
Figure 44. Bandwidth Control Switch Configuration Menu
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
179
Chapter 14: Bandwidth Control
3. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type M to select Set
Ingress Mode.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set Bandwidth Control-> Enter port number>
4. Type a port number. Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed for port 12:
Enter Ingress Mode for port 12 (B/M) >
5. Type B to select broadcast or M to select multicast.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Setting the
Ingress Limit
Rate
To set the ingress limit rate on the switch, perform the following procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type B to select
Bandwidth Control.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 44 on
page 179.
3. Type L to select Set Limit Rate.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter threshold level for all ports (L/M/H)>
4. Type L for a low threshold level, M for a medium threshold level, or H
for a high threshold level.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Setting Ingress
Status
To enable or disable ingress status on a port, perform the following
procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type B to select
Bandwidth Control.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 44 on
page 179.
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3. Type I to select Set Ingress.
The following prompt is displayed:
Set Bandwidth Control-> Enter port number>
4. Type a port number. Then press Enter.
The following prompt is displayed if you select port 12:
Enable or Disable Ingress Bandwidth Control for port 12
(E/D)>
5. Type E to enable ingress or D to disable ingress on a port.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Setting Ingress
DLF Status
To enable or disable DLF ingress status on a switch, perform the following
procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type B to select
Bandwidth Control.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 44 on
page 179.
3. Type D to select Set DLF Ingress Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable DLF Bandwidth Control for all ports
(E/D)>
4. Type E to enable DLF Bandwidth Control or D to disable DLF
Bandwidth Control.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
181
Chapter 14: Bandwidth Control
182
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 15
IP Access List
This chapter explains how to activate and configure the IP Access List
feature on the switch. This chapter contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“IP Access List Overview” on page 184
ˆ
“Configuring IP Access List” on page 185
183
Chapter 15: IP Access List
IP Access List Overview
The IP Access List feature, when enabled, restricts remote access to
management by means of a user-configured list of IP addresses. It does
not restrict the management ping response activity, only web access to
the management software.
Note
By default, the IP Access List feature is disabled.
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AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Configuring IP Access List
The procedures in this section describe how to enable or disable the IP
Access List feature and how to add or remove IP addresses from the list.
See the following sections:
Enabling or
Disabling IP
Access List
ˆ
“Enabling or Disabling IP Access List” on page 185
ˆ
“Adding or Removing IP Addresses” on page 186
To enable or disable the IP Access List feature, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type L to select IP Access
List.
The IP Access List Menu is shown in Figure 45.
Basic Switch Configuration -> IP Access List Menu
IP Restriction: Disabled
Accessible IP
------------100.10.10.4
Accessible IP
-------------
Accessible IP
-------------
Accessible IP
-------------
[Q]uit to previous menu
------------------------------<Command>------------------------------Set IP Restriction [S]tatus
Set [I]P Address
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 45. IP Access List Menu
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
185
Chapter 15: IP Access List
3. To enable the IP Access List feature, type S to select Set IP
Restriction Status.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or Disable IP Restriction (E/D) >
4. Type E to enable the IP Restriction feature or D to disable the IP
Restriction feature.
By default, IP Restriction feature is disabled.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Adding or
Removing IP
Addresses
To add or remove IP addresses from the IP Access List, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 28 on page
128.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type L to select IP Access
List.
The IP Access List Menu is shown in Figure 45 on page 185.
3. To add or remove an IP address, type I to select Set IP Address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Add or Delete accessible IP (A/D) >
4. Type A to add an IP address or D to delete an IP address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter allowed accessible IP>
5. Type an IP address in the following format:
XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX.
6. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Chapter 16
Destination MAC Filtering
This chapter explains how to activate Destination MAC Filtering on the
switch. This chapter contains the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“Destination MAC Filtering Overview” on page 188
ˆ
“Configuring Destination MAC Filtering” on page 189
187
Chapter 16: Destination MAC Filtering
Destination MAC Filtering Overview
Destination MAC Filtering is a security feature that applies to the ATGS950 switches. It prevents AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches
from receiving packets from a particular device which is specified by its
MAC address. After you add a MAC address of a device to the list of
Destination MAC Filtering, then the AT-GS950 switch drops or discards
packets sent from this device.
To reverse this process and allow an AT-GS950 switch to receive packets
from a device on the Destination MAC Filtering list, you must remove the
MAC address of the device from the list.
Note
By default, Destination MAC Filtering is disabled on the switch.
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AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Configuring Destination MAC Filtering
The procedures in this section describe how to add or remove MAC
addresses from the Destination MAC filtering addresses. See the following
procedures:
Setting
Destination MAC
Filtering
ˆ
“Setting Destination MAC Filtering” on page 189
ˆ
“Removing Destination MAC Filtering Addresses” on page 190
To add a MAC address to the destination MAC filtering addresses on the
switch, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration menu, type F to select
Destination MAC Filter.
See the Destination MAC Filter Menu in Figure 46.
Basic Switch Configuration -> Destination MAC Filter
MAC Address
-----------
MAC Address
-----------
MAC Address
-----------
MAC Address
------------
-------------------------<COMMAND>---------------------------[N]ext Page
[A]dd MAC Address
[Q]uit to previous menu
[P]revious Page
[R]emove MAC Address
Command>
Figure 46. Destination MAC Filter Menu
3. To add a destination MAC address filter, type A to select Add MAC
Address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Add MAC Address to filter >
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
189
Chapter 16: Destination MAC Filtering
4. Enter a MAC address in the following format:
xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
The MAC address is displayed in the Destination MAC Filter menu.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
Removing
Destination MAC
Filtering
Addresses
To remove a destination MAC filtering address on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration menu, type F to select
Destination MAC Filter.
See the Destination MAC Filter Menu in Figure 46 on page 189.
3. Type R to select Remove MAC Address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Delete MAC address from filter >
4. Enter a MAC address in the following format:
xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
The MAC address is removed from the Destination MAC Filter menu.
5. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
190
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 17
802.1x Port-based Network Access
Control
This chapter contains information about and the procedure for configuring
the 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control feature. This chapter
includes the following sections:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“802.1x Port-based Network Access Control Overview” on page 192
ˆ
“Guest VLANs” on page 198
ˆ
“Configuring 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control” on page 199
ˆ
“Configuring MAC Based Access Control” on page 203
191
Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
802.1x Port-based Network Access Control Overview
802.1x Port-based Network Access Control (IEEE 802.1x) is used to
control who can send traffic through and receive traffic from a switch port.
With this feature, the switch will not allow an end node to send or receive
traffic through a port until the user of the node logs on by entering a
username and password.
This feature can prevent an unauthorized individual from connecting a
computer to a switch port or using an unattended workstation to access
your network resources. Only those users to whom you have assigned a
username and password will be able to use the switch to access the
network.
This feature must be used with the RADIUS authentication protocol and
requires that there be a RADIUS server on your network. The RADIUS
server performs the authentication of the username and password
combinations.
Note
RADIUS with Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) extensions
is the only supported authentication server for this feature.
Following are several terms to keep in mind when using this feature.
ˆ
Supplicant - A supplicant is an end user or end node that wants to
access the network through a switch port. A supplicant is also referred
to as a client.
ˆ
Authenticator - The authenticator is a port on the switch that prohibits
network access by a supplicant until the network user has entered a
valid username and password.
ˆ
Authentication server - The authentication server is the network device
that has the RADIUS server software. This is the device that does the
actual authenticating of the user names and passwords from the
supplicants.
The AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches do not authenticate the
usernames and passwords from the end users. Rather, they act as an
intermediary between a supplicant and the authentication server during
the authentication process.
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Authentication
Process
Authenticator
Ports
Below is a brief overview of the authentication process that occurs
between a supplicant, authenticator, and authentication server. For further
details, refer to the IEEE 802.1x standard.
ˆ
Either the authenticator (that is, a switch port) or the supplicant can
initiate an authentication prompt exchange. The switch initiates an
exchange when it detects a change in the status of a port (such as
when the port transitions from no link to valid link), or if it receives a
packet on the port with a source MAC address not in the MAC address
table.
ˆ
An authenticator starts the exchange by sending an EAP-Request/
Identity packet. A supplicant starts the exchange with an EAPOL-Start
packet, to which the authenticator responds with a EAP-Request/
Identity packet.
ˆ
The supplicant responds with an EAP-Response/Identity packet to the
authentication server via the authenticator.
ˆ
The authentication server responds with an EAP-Request packet to
the supplicant via the authenticator.
ˆ
The supplicant responds with an EAP-Response/MDS packet
containing a username and password.
ˆ
The authentication server sends either an EAP-Success packet or
EAP-Reject packet to the supplicant.
ˆ
Upon successful authorization of the supplicant by the authentication
server, the switch adds the supplicant’s MAC address to the MAC
address as an authorized address and begins forwarding network
traffic to and from the port.
ˆ
When the supplicant sends an EAPOL-Logoff prompt, the switch
removes the supplicant’s MAC address from the MAC address table,
preventing the supplicant from sending or receiving any further traffic
from the port.
All of the ports on the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24 switches are
authenticator ports. An authenticator port can have one of three settings.
These settings are referred to as the port control settings. The settings
are:
ˆ
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Auto - Activates 802.1x port-based authentication. An authenticator
port with this setting does not forward network traffic to or from the end
node until the client has entered a username and password that the
authentication server must validate. The port begins in the
unauthorized state, sending and receiving only EAPOL frames. All
other frames, including multicast and broadcast frames, are discarded.
The authentication process begins when the link state of the port
changes or the port receives an EAPOL-Start packet from a supplicant.
The switch requests the identity of the client and begins relaying
authentication prompts between the client and the authentication
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Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
server. Each client that attempts to access the network is uniquely
identified by the switch using the client's MAC address.
ˆ
Force-unauthorized - Places the port in the unauthorized state,
ignoring all attempts by the client to authenticate. This port control
setting blocks all users from accessing the network through the port
and is similar to disabling a port and can be used to secure a port from
use. The port continues to forward EAPOL packets, but discards all
other packets, including multicast and broadcast packets.
ˆ
Force-authorized - Disables IEEE 802.1x port-based authentication
and causes the port to transition to the authorized state without any
authentication exchange required. The port transmits and receives
normal traffic without 802.1x-based authentication of the client. This is
the default setting. Use this port control setting for those ports where
there are network devices that are not to be authenticated.
Figure 47 illustrates the concept of the authenticator port control settings.
Port 23
802.1x Port Control:
Setting: Force-unauthorized
Port 2
802.1x Port Control
Setting: Auto
Supplicant with
802.1x Client
Software
Port 18
802.1x Port Control:
Setting: Force-authorized
RADIUS
Authentication
Server
Figure 47. Example of the Authenticator Role
194
ˆ
Port 2 is set to Auto. The end node connected to the port must use its
802.1x client software and provide a username and password to send
or receive traffic from the switch.
ˆ
Port 18 is set to the Force-authorized setting so that the end node
connected to the port does not have to provide a user name or
password to send or receive traffic from the switch. In the example, the
node is the RADIUS authentication server. Since the server cannot
authenticate itself, its port must be set to Force-authorized in order for
it to pass traffic through the port.
ˆ
Port 23 is set to Force-unauthorized to prevent anyone for using the
port.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
As mentioned earlier, the switch itself does not authenticate the user
names and passwords from the clients. That is the responsibility of the
authentication server, which contains the RADIUS server software.
Instead, a switch acts as an intermediary for the authentication server by
denying access to the network by the client until the client has provided a
valid username and password, which the authentication server validates.
General Steps
Following are the general steps to implementing 802.1x Port-based
Network Access Control:
1. You must install RADIUS server software on one or more of your
network servers or management stations. Authentication protocol
server software is not available from Allied Telesis. Consult the
vendor’s documentation for server installation instructions.
2. You need to install 802.1x client software on those workstations that
are to be supplicants. Microsoft WinXP client software and Meeting
House Aegis client software have been verified as fully compatible with
the AT-S79 management software.
3. You must configure and activate the RADIUS client software in the
AT-S79 management software. The default setting for the
authentication protocol is disabled. You will need to provide the
following information:
ˆ
The IP address of a RADIUS servers.
ˆ
The encryption key used by the authentication server.
For instructions, refer to Chapter 18, “RADIUS Authentication Protocol”
on page 207.
4. You must configure the authenticator port settings, as explained in
“Configuring 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control” on page 199
in this chapter.
Port-based
Network Access
Control
Guidelines
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Following are the guidelines for using this feature:
ˆ
Ports set to Auto do not support port trunking or dynamic MAC address
learning.
ˆ
The appropriate setting for a port on an AT-GS950/16 or AT-GS950/24
switch connected to an authentication server is Force-authorized, the
default setting. This is because an authentication server cannot
authenticate itself.
ˆ
The authentication server must be a member of the Default VLAN by
communicating with the switch through a port that is an untagged
member of the Default VLAN.
ˆ
Allied Telesis does not support connecting more than one supplicant to
an authenticator port on the switch. The switch allows only one
supplicant to log on per port.
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Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
Note
Connecting multiple supplicants to a switch port set to the Auto
setting does not conform to the IEEE 802.1x standard. This can
introduce security risks and can result in undesirable switch
behavior. To avoid this, Allied Telesis recommends use the Forceauthorized setting of the Port Control feature on ports that are
connected to more than one end node, such as a port connected to
another switch or to a hub.
ˆ
A username and password combination is not tied to the MAC address
of an end node. This allows end users to use the same username and
password when working at different workstations.
ˆ
After a supplicant has successfully logged on, the MAC address of the
end node is added to the switch’s MAC address table as an
authenticated address. It remains in the table until the end user logs off
the network. The address is not timed out, even if the end node
becomes inactive.
Note
End users of port-based access control should be instructed to
always log off when they are finished with a work session. This
prevents unauthorized individuals from accessing the network
through unattended network workstations.
ˆ
196
There should be only one port in the authenticator port control setting
of Auto between a client and the authentication server.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
ˆ
Ports used to interconnect switches should be set to the port control
setting of Force-authorized. This is illustrated in Figure 48.
Switch A
Port 22:
802.1x Port Control
Setting: Force-authorized
Port 6:
802.1x Port Control
Setting: Force-authorized
RADIUS
Authentication
Server
Port 15:
802.1x Port Control
Setting: Force-authorized
Switch B
Ports 1 to 12:
802.1x Port Control
Setting: Auto
Supplicants with
802.1x Client Software
Figure 48. Port-based Authentication Across Multiple Switches
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
Guest VLANs
An authenticator port in the unauthorized state typically accepts and
transmits only 802.1x packets while waiting to authenticate a supplicant.
However, you can configure an authenticator port to be a member of a
Guest VLAN when no supplicant is logged on. Any client using the port is
not required to log on and has full access to the resources of the Guest
VLAN.
If the switch receives 802.1x packets on the port, signalling that a
supplicant is logging on, it moves the port to its predefined VLAN and
places it in the unauthorized state. The port remains in the unauthorized
state until the log on process between the supplicant and the RADIUS
server is completed. When the supplicant logs off, the port automatically
returns to the Guest VLAN.
Note
The Guest VLAN feature is only supported on an authenticator port
in the Single operating mode.
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Configuring 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
To configure 802.1x port-based network access control, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type X to select
802.1x Port Based Access Control Configuration.
The Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu is shown in
Figure 49.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu
NAS ID
Authentication Method
Port No
Port Status
Port Control
Transmission Period
Maximum Request
Quiet Period
Re-authentication Period
Re-authentication Status
Multi-host
Current PVID
Guest VLAN ID
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Nas1
1
1
Authorized
Force Authorized
30
seconds
2
60
seconds
3600 seconds
Disabled
Disabled
1
Disabled
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------------[N]AS ID
[M]aximum Request
[I]nitialize Port
[N]ext Page
Q[u]iet Period
[G]uest VLAN ID
Pre[v]ious Page
R[e]-auth Period
Auth [M]ode
[P]ort No
Re-[a]uth Status
Aut[h]entication Method
Port [C]ontrol
Multi-h[o]st
[Q]uit to previous Page
[T]ransmission Period
Command>
Figure 49. Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
3. Type P to select Port No.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port number>
4. Enter the number of the port on the switch you want to configure. You
can configure only one port at a time.
The Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu is updated with
the current settings of the selected port.
5. Configure the 802.1x settings for the port. A change to a parameter
takes affect immediately on the port. The settings are described here:
NAS ID.
This parameter assigns an 802.1x identifier to the switch that applies
to all ports. The NAS ID can be up to sixteen characters. Valid
characters are 0 to 9, a to z, and A to Z. Spaces are allowed.
Specifying an NAS ID is optional.
Authentication Method
Select an authentication method that is enabled on the switch either R
(RADIUS) or L (local).
Port Status.
Displays the current 802.1 status of the port as either authorized or
unauthorized. This is not an adjustable parameter.
Port Control.
Sets the 802.1x port control setting. The possible settings are:
A (Auto) - Enables 802.1x port-based authentication and causes the
port to begin in the unauthorized state, allowing only EAPOL frames to
be sent and received through the port. The authentication process
begins when the link state of the port changes or the port receives an
EAPOL-Start packet from a supplicant. The switch requests the
identity of the client and begins relaying authentication prompts
between the client and the authentication server.
U (Force-unauthorized) - Causes the port to remain in the
unauthorized state, ignoring all attempts by the client to authenticate.
F (Force-authorized) - Disables IEEE 802.1x port-based authentication
and causes the port to transition to the authorized state without any
authentication exchange required. The port transmits and receives
normal traffic without 802.1x-based authentication of the client. This is
the default setting.
Transmission Period.
Sets the number of seconds that the switch waits for a response to an
EAP-request/identity frame from the client before retransmitting the
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AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
request. The default value is 30 seconds. The range is 1 to 65,535
seconds.
Maximum Request.
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch retransmits an EAP
Request packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. The default value for this parameter is 2 retransmissions. The
range is 1 to 10 retransmissions.
Quiet Period.
Sets the number of seconds that the port remains in the quiet state
following a failed authentication exchange with the client. The default
value is 60 seconds. The range is 0 to 65,535 seconds.
Re-auth Period.
Specifies the time period between periodic reauthentication of the
client. The default value is 3600 seconds. The range is 1 to 65,535
seconds.
Re-auth Status.
Specifies if reauthentication should occur according to the
reauthentication period. The options are Enabled or Disabled.
Multi-host
Permits you to enable or disable multi-host status.
Current PVID
Displays the current port VLAN identifier or PVID assignment of the
port. You cannot change this value from the Port Based Access
Control Configuration Menu. See Chapter 10, “Virtual LANs” on page
101 for information about assigning a PVID.
6. To permit a guest VLAN ID, type G.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter guest VLAN ID >
a. Type a VLAN ID and then press Enter.
The Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu is updated with
the new guest VLAN ID.
7. To enable 802.1x to support multiple hosts, type O.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enable or disable multi-host status? >
a. Select E to enable multi-host status and D to disable multi-host
status.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
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Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
The Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu is updated with
the status of the multi-host feature.
8. To select between port-base or MAC address based authentication,
type M to select Auth Mode.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select the Port based or MAC based auth mode (P/M) >
a. Select P and the menu Port Based Access Control Configuration
Menu is displayed.
b. Select M and the menu is redrawn.
9. If the port control setting is Auto and you want to return the EAPOL
machine state on the port to the initialized state, do the following:
a. Type I to select Initialize Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Would you initialize authenticator? (Y/N)>
b. Typing Y returns the EAPOL machine state on the port to the
initialize state. Typing N cancels the step.
10. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save the settings.
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Configuring MAC Based Access Control
To configure a MAC Based Access Control, perform the following
procedure.
1. From the Main Menu, type A to select Advanced Switch
Configuration.
The Advanced Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 16 on
page 70.
2. From the Advanced Switch Configuration Menu, type X to select
802.1x Port Based Access Control Configuration.
The Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu is shown in Figure
49 on page 199.
3. From the 802.1x Port Based Access Control Configuration Menu,
type M to select Auth Mode.
The following prompt is displayed:
Select Port based or Mac based auth mode (P/M) >
4. Type M to select MAC Based Access Control.
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Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
The MAC Based Access Control Configuration Menu is shown in
Figure 50.
Advanced Switch Configuration -> MAC Based Access Control Configuration Menu
Port No: 1
Port Control: Forced Authorized
Authentication Method: Local
Transmit Period: 30 sec
Max Request: 2
Quiet Period: 60 sec
Re-auth Period : 3600 sec Re-auth Status: Disabled
Supplicant MAC Addr
MAC Control
Auth Status
---------------------------------------
----------------------- <COMMAND> -----------------------------------[N]AS ID
[M]aximum Request
[I]nitialize Port
[N]ext Page
Q[u]iet Period
[G]uest VLAN ID
Pre[v]ious Page
R[e]-auth Period
Auth [M]ode
[P]ort No
Re-[a]uth Status
Aut[h]entication Method
Port [C]ontrol
Multi-h[o]st
[Q]uit to previous Page
[T]ransmission Period
Command>
Figure 50. MAC Based Access Control Configuration Menu
5. Type P to select Port No.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port number>
6. Enter the number of the port on the switch you want to configure. You
can configure only one port at a time.
The MAC Based Access Control Configuration Menu is updated with
the current settings of the selected port.
7. Configure the 802.1x settings for the port. A change to a parameter
takes affect immediately on the port. The settings are described here:
NAS ID
This parameter assigns an 802.1x identifier to the switch that applies
to all ports. The NAS ID can be up to sixteen characters. Valid
characters are 0 to 9, a to z, and A to Z. Spaces are allowed.
Specifying an NAS ID is optional.
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Port Control
Sets the 802.1x port control setting. The possible settings are:
A (Auto) - Enables 802.1x port-based authentication and causes the
port to begin in the unauthorized state, allowing only EAPOL frames to
be sent and received through the port. The authentication process
begins when the link state of the port changes or the port receives an
EAPOL-Start packet from a supplicant. The switch requests the identity
of the client and begins relaying authentication prompts between the
client and the authentication server.
U (Force-unauthorized) - Causes the port to remain in the
unauthorized state, ignoring all attempts by the client to authenticate.
F (Force-authorized) - Disables IEEE 802.1x port-based authentication
and causes the port to transition to the authorized state without any
authentication exchange required. The port transmits and receives
normal traffic without 802.1x-based authentication of the client. This is
the default setting.
Transmission Period.
Sets the number of seconds that the switch waits for a response to an
EAP-request/identity frame from the client before retransmitting the
request. The default value is 30 seconds. The range is 1 to 65,535
seconds.
Maximum Request.
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch retransmits an EAP
Request packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. The default value for this parameter is 2 retransmissions. The
range is 1 to 10 retransmissions.
Quiet Period.
Sets the number of seconds that the port remains in the quiet state
following a failed authentication exchange with the client. The default
value is 60 seconds. The range is 0 to 65,535 seconds.
Re-auth Period.
Specifies the time period between periodic reauthentication of the
client. The default value is 3600 seconds. The range is 1 to 65,535
seconds.
Re-auth Status.
Specifies if reauthentication should occur according to the
reauthentication period. The options are Enabled or Disabled.
Multi-host
Permits you to enable or disable multi-host status.
Authentication Method
Select an authentication method that is enabled on the switch either R
(RADIUS) or L (local).
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Chapter 17: 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
8. To permit a guest VLAN ID, type G.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter guest VLAN ID >
a. Type a VLAN ID and then press Enter.
The MAC Based Access Control Configuration Menu is updated with
the new guest VLAN ID.
9. If the port control setting is Auto and you want to return the EAPOL
machine state on the port to the initialized state, do the following:
a. Type I to select Initialize Port.
The following prompt is displayed:
Would you initialize authenticator? (Y/N)>
b. Typing Y returns the EAPOL machine state on the port to the
initialize state. Typing N cancels the step.
10. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save the settings.
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Chapter 18
RADIUS Authentication Protocol
This chapter describes how to configure the RADIUS client software on the
switch. You can use the RADIUS client with 802.1x port-based network
access control to control who can forward packets through the switch.
Sections in the chapter include:
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
ˆ
“RADIUS Overview” on page 208
ˆ
“Configuring the RADIUS Client” on page 209
ˆ
“Displaying the RADIUS Client Settings” on page 211
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Chapter 18: RADIUS Authentication Protocol
RADIUS Overview
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Services) is an
authentication protocol for enhancing the security of your network. The
protocol transfers the task of authenticating network access from a
network device to an authentication protocol server.
The AT-S79 management software comes with RADIUS client software.
You can use the client software together with 802.1x port-based network
access control. See Chapter 17, “802.1x Port-based Network Access
Control” on page 191, to control which end users and end nodes can send
packets through the switch.
RADIUS
Implementation
Guidelines
What do you need to use the RADIUS protocol? Following are the main
points.
ˆ
You must install RADIUS server software on a network server or
management station. Authentication protocol server software is not
available from Allied Telesis.
ˆ
The RADIUS server must be communicating with the switch through a
port that is an untagged member of the Default VLAN.
ˆ
If the RADIUS server is on a different subnet from switch, be sure to
specify a default gateway in the System IP Configuration Menu, shown
in Figure 5 on page 35, so that the switch and server can communicate
with each other.
ˆ
You need to configure the RADIUS server software on the
authentication server by specifying the username and password
combinations. The maximum length of a username or password is 12
alphanumeric characters.
Note
This manual does not explain how to configure RADIUS server
software. Refer to the documentation that came with the software for
instructions.
ˆ
You must activate the RADIUS client software on the switch using the
AT-S79 management software and configure the settings. This is
explained in “Configuring the RADIUS Client” on page 209. By default,
authentication protocol is disabled.
Note
For more information on the RADIUS authentication protocol, refer
to the RFC 2865 standard.
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Configuring the RADIUS Client
To configure the RADIUS client, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type U to select User
Interface Configuration.
The User Interface Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 7 on page
41.
3. Type R to select RADIUS Server Configuration.
The RADIUS Server Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 51.
User Interface Configuration -> RADIUS Server Configuration
Server IP Address
Server Port
Shared Secret
:
:
:
0.0.0.0
1812
----------------------- <COMMAND> ----------------------------Set Server [I]P
Set UDP [P]ort Number
Set Shared Se[c]ret
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 51. RADIUS Server Configuration Menu
4. Type I to select Set Server IP.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address for RADIUS server>
5. Type the IP address of the RADIUS server and press Enter.
6. Type P to select UDP Port Number.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter port number>
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Chapter 18: RADIUS Authentication Protocol
7. Enter the port number that you want to assign to UDP. You may only
assign one port number to this parameter. The default value is 1812.
8. Type C to select Shared Secret.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter secret string for server>
9. Enter the encryption key of the RADIUS server and press Enter.
10. Type Q to select Quit to previous menu and save your changes.
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Displaying the RADIUS Client Settings
To display the RADIUS client status and settings, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type B to select Basic Switch Configuration.
The Basic Switch Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 4 on page 34.
2. From the Basic Switch Configuration Menu, type U to select User
Interface Configuration.
The User Interface Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 7 on page
41.
3. Type R to select RADIUS Server Configuration.
The RADIUS Server Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 51 on
page 209. The top of the menu shows the current RADIUS server
configuration.
4. Type Q to return to the previous menu.
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Chapter 18: RADIUS Authentication Protocol
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Section I: Using the Menus Interface
Chapter 19
Management Software Updates
The procedure in this chapter explains how to download a new version of
the AT-S79 management software onto the switch. The procedure is:
ˆ
“Downloading a New Management Software Image Using TFTP” on
page 214
Note
For information about how to obtain new releases of the AT-S79
management software, refer to “Management Software Updates” on
page 16.
Note
For procedures to download software from the web interface using
TFTP or HTTP, see “Upgrading a Firmware Image Using TFTP” on
page 336 and “Upgrading a Firmware Image Using HTTP” on
page 338.
Section I: Using the Menus Interface
213
Chapter 19: Management Software Updates
Downloading a New Management Software Image Using TFTP
Before downloading a new version of the AT-S79 management software
onto the switch, note the following:
ˆ
Both models of the AT-GS950 series use the same AT-S79
management software image.
ˆ
The current configuration of a switch is retained when a new AT-S79
software image is installed. To return a switch to its default
configuration values, refer to “Returning the AT-S79 Management
Software to the Factory Default Values” on page 53.
ˆ
Your network must have a node with TFTP server software.
ˆ
You must store the new AT-S79 image file on the server.
ˆ
You should start the TFTP server software before you begin the
download procedure.
ˆ
The switch where you are downloading the new image file must have
an IP address and subnet mask. For instructions on how to configure
the IP address on a switch, refer to “Configuring the IP Address,
Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34 or “Enabling and
Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 37.
Caution
Downloading a new version of management software onto the
switch causes the device to reset. Some network traffic may be lost
during the reset process.
The following procedure assumes you have already obtained the new
software from Allied Telesis and stored it on the TFTP server.
To download the AT-S79 image software onto the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Main Menu, type T to select Switch Tools.
The Switch Tools Configuration Menu is shown in Figure 9 on page 48.
2. From the Switch Tools Menu, type U to select Software Upgrade.
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The Software Upgrade Menu is shown in Figure 52.
Switch Tools Configuration -> Software Upgrade Menu
[T]FTP Software Upgrade
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 52. Software Upgrade Menu (1 of 2)
3. Type T to select TFTP Upgrade.
The Software Upgrade Menu (2 of 2) is shown in Figure 53.
Main Menu -> Software Upgrade Menu
Image Version/Date:
AT-S79 V2.0.0 [1.1.1.53]/ 2007 20:57:07
TFTP Server IP:
Image File Name:
Retry Count:
0.0.0.0
5
---------------------- <COMMAND> ------------------------Set TFTP [S]erver IP Address
Set Image [F]ile Name
[U]pgrade Image and Reboot
Set [R]etry Count
[Q]uit to previous menu
Command>
Figure 53. Software Upgrade Menu (2 of 2)
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Chapter 19: Management Software Updates
4. Type S to select Set TFTP Server IP Address.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter IP address of TFTP server:
5. Type the IP address of the TFTP server and press Enter.
6. Type F to select Set Image File Name.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter file name>
7. Enter the file name of the AT-S79 image file on the TFTP server and
press Enter.
8. Type R to select Set Retry Count.
The following prompt is displayed:
Enter retry count>
9. Enter the number of times you want the switch to retry in the event a
problem occurs during the download process. The range is 1 to 20.
The default is 5 times.
10. To begin the download, type U to select Upgrade Image and Reboot.
The following prompt is displayed:
Download file? (Y/N)>
11. Type Y for yes to begin the upgrade or N for no to cancel the
procedure.
If you select yes, the software immediately begins to download the file
onto the switch. After the software download is complete, the switch
initializes the software and reboots. You will lose your local
management connection to the switch during the reboot process.
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Section II
Using the Web Browser Interface
The chapters in this section provide information and procedures for using
the web browser interface in the AT-S79 management software. The
chapters include:
ˆ
Chapter 20, “Starting a Web Browser Management Session” on page
219
ˆ
Chapter 21, “Basic Switch Parameters” on page 225
ˆ
Chapter 22, “Port Configuration” on page 247
ˆ
Chapter 23, “Port Trunking” on page 251
ˆ
Chapter 24, “Port Mirroring” on page 257
ˆ
Chapter 25, “Static Multicast Address Table” on page 261
ˆ
Chapter 26, “IGMP Snooping” on page 267
ˆ
Chapter 27, “Destination MAC Address Filter” on page 271
ˆ
Chapter 28, “Bandwidth Control” on page 275
ˆ
Chapter 29, “Virtual LANs” on page 279
ˆ
Chapter 30, “Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)” on page
289
ˆ
Chapter 31, “Quality of Service (QoS)” on page 299
ˆ
Chapter 32, ”Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)” on page 305
ˆ
Chapter 33, “802.1x Port-based Network Access Control” on page 315
ˆ
Chapter 34, “Dial-in User” on page 319
ˆ
Chapter 35, “RADIUS Authentication Protocol” on page 323
ˆ
Chapter 36, “Statistics” on page 325
ˆ
Chapter 37, “Management Software Updates” on page 335
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
217
218
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
Chapter 20
Starting a Web Browser Management
Session
This chapter contains the procedures for starting, using, and quitting a web
browser management session on the AT-GS950/16 and AT-GS950/24
switches. This chapter includes the following sections:
ˆ
“Establishing a Remote Connection to Use the Web Browser Interface”
on page 220
ˆ
“Web Browser Tools” on page 223
ˆ
“Quitting a Web Browser Management Session” on page 224
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
219
Chapter 20: Starting a Web Browser Management Session
Establishing a Remote Connection to Use the Web Browser Interface
In order for you to manage an AT-GS950/16 or AT-GS950/24 switch using
the web browser interface, the switch must have an IP address and subnet
mask. To manually assign an IP address, refer to “Configuring the IP
Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34. To configure
the switch to obtain its IP configuration from a DHCP server, refer to
“Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 37. The initial
assignment of an IP address must be made through a local management
session.
Note
Enhanced stacking, a feature of other Allied Telesis Layer 2 and
Layer 2+ managed switches, is not supported by the AT-GS950/16
and AT-GS950/24 Smart Switches.
Note
The remote management station must be a member of the switch’s
Default VLAN. The switch responds and processes management
packets only if they are received on an untagged port of the Default
VLAN.
To start a web browser management session, perform the following
procedure:
1. Start your web browser.
2. In the URL field of the browser, enter the IP address of the switch to be
managed.
Switch’s IP Address
Figure 54. Entering a Switch’s IP Address in the URL Field
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The AT-S79 management software displays the login dialog box,
shown in Figure 55.
Figure 55. AT-S79 Login Dialog Box
3. Enter the AT-S79 management login user name and password. The
default user name is “manager” and the default password is “friend.”
Then press OK. The login name and password are case-sensitive.
The Switch Information page is displayed. See Figure 56.
To change the user name and password, refer to “Configuring System
Management Information” on page 231.
Figure 56. Switch Information Page for the AT-GS950/24 Switch
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
221
Chapter 20: Starting a Web Browser Management Session
The main menu is on the top of the home page. It consists of the following
folders:
ˆ
Switch Info.
ˆ
Front Panel
ˆ
System
ˆ
Physical Interface
ˆ
Bridge
ˆ
SNMP
ˆ
Security
ˆ
Statistics Chart
ˆ
Tools
4. To see the front panel of the switch. Click on Front Panel in the
bookmarks on the left side of the page.
The AT-S79 management software displays the home page. The
window contains an image of the front of the switch. Ports that have a
link to an end node are green. Ports without a link are grey. An
example of a front panel is shown in Figure 57.
Figure 57. AT-S79 Management Software Front Panel
A web browser management session remains active even if you link to
other sites. You can return to the management web pages anytime as long
as you do not quit the browser.
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Web Browser Tools
You can use the web browser tools to move around the management
pages. Selecting Back on your browser’s toolbar returns you to the
previous display. You can also use the browser’s bookmark feature to
save the link to the switch.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
223
Chapter 20: Starting a Web Browser Management Session
Quitting a Web Browser Management Session
To exit a web browser management session, close the web browser.
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Chapter 21
Basic Switch Parameters
This chapter contains the following sections:
ˆ
“Configuring an IP Address, Subnet Mask and Gateway Address” on
page 226
ˆ
“Setting Up the IP Access List” on page 228
ˆ
“Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 230
ˆ
“Configuring System Management Information” on page 231
ˆ
“Configuring System Administration Information” on page 233
ˆ
“Setting the User Interface Configuration” on page 236
ˆ
“Viewing System Information” on page 238
ˆ
“Rebooting a Switch” on page 241
ˆ
“Pinging a Remote System” on page 243
ˆ
“Returning the AT-S79 Management Software to the Factory Default
Values” on page 245
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
225
Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
Configuring an IP Address, Subnet Mask and Gateway Address
This procedure explains how to change the IP address, subnet mask, and
gateway address to the switch. Before performing the procedure, note the
following:
ˆ
An IP address and subnet mask are not required for normal network
operations of the switch. Values for these parameters are only required
if you want to remotely manage the device with a web browser.
ˆ
A gateway address is only required if you want to remotely manage
the device from a remote management station that is separated from
the switch by a router.
ˆ
To configure the switch to automatically obtain its IP configuration from
a DHCP server on your network, go to “Enabling and Disabling the
DHCP Client” on page 230.
ˆ
The initial assignment of an IP address must be made through a local
management session using the menus interface.
To change the switch’s IP configuration, perform the following procedure:
1. From the System folder, select IP Setup.
The IP Setup page is shown in Figure 58.
Figure 58. IP Setup Page
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2. Change the IP configuration parameters by entering new information in
the fields:
System MAC Address
This parameter displays the MAC address of the switch. You cannot
change this parameter.
System IP Address
Enter the IP address for the switch.
System Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask for the switch.
System Default Gateway
Enter the default gateway’s IP address.
DHCP Mode
For information about setting this parameter, refer to “Enabling and
Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 230.
3. Click Apply.
Note
Changing the IP address ends your management session. To
resume managing the device, enter the new IP address of the switch
in the web browser’s URL field, as shown in Figure 54 on page 220.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
227
Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
Setting Up the IP Access List
The procedures in this section describe how to enable or disable the IP
Access List feature and how to add or remove IP addresses from the list.
See the following sections:
ˆ
“Creating an IP Access List” on page 228
ˆ
“Deleting an IP Address” on page 229
For background information regarding the IP Access List feature, see
Chapter 15, “IP Access List” on page 183.
Creating an IP
Access List
To create a list of restricted IP addresses, perform the following
procedure:
1. Click on the System folder.
2. From the System folder, select IP Access List.
The IP Access List Page is shown in Figure 59.
Figure 59. IP Access List Page
3. To set the IP restriction status, select Disable or Enable in the pulldown menu next to the IP Restriction Status field. Then click Apply.
By default, the IP Restriction Status field is set to Disable.
4. Enter an IP address that you want to prevent from accessing the
switch in the xxx.xxx.xxx.xxxx format next to the IP Address field.
Then click Add.
The IP address is added to the IP Access List Table.
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Deleting an IP
Address
To delete an IP address from the IP Access List, perform the following
procedure:
To create a list of restricted IP addresses, perform the following procedure:
1. Click on the System folder.
2. From the System folder, select IP Access List.
3. Select delete next to the IP address that you want to remove.
The IP address is removed from the IP Access List Table.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client
This procedure explains how to activate and deactivate the DHCP client
on the switch. When the client is activated, the switch obtains its IP
configuration, such as its IP address and subnet mask, from a DHCP
server on your network. Before performing the procedure, note the
following:
ˆ
An IP address and subnet mask are not required for normal network
operations of the switch. Values for these parameters are only required
if you want to remotely manage the device with a web browser.
ˆ
A gateway address is only required if you want to remotely manage
the device from a remote management station that is separated from
the switch by a router.
ˆ
The DHCP client is disabled by default on the switch.
ˆ
The DHCP client does not support BOOTP.
ˆ
The initial assignment of the IP address must be made through a local
management session using the menus interface.
To activate or deactivate the DHCP client on the switch, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the System folder, select IP Setup.
The IP Setup page is shown in Figure 58 on page 226.
2. For the DHCP Mode, select Enable or Disable.
3. Click Apply.
If you enable the client, it immediately begins to send queries to the
DHCP server. It continues to send queries until it receives a response.
Note
Enabling DHCP ends your management session. To resume
managing the device, enter the IP address assigned to the switch by
the DHCP server in the web browser’s URL field.
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Configuring System Management Information
This section explains how to assign a name to the switch, as well as the
location of the switch and the name of the switch’s administrator. Entering
this information is optional.
To set a switch’s administration information, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the System folder, select Management.
The Management Page is shown in Figure 60.
Figure 60. Management Page
2. Configure the following parameters as necessary:
System Description
Specifies the model number of the switch. You cannot change this
parameter.
System Name
Specifies a name for the switch, for example, Sales. The name is
optional and may contain up to 50 characters.
Note
Allied Telesis recommends that you assign a name to the switch. A
name can help you identify the switch when you manage it and can
also help you avoid performing a configuration procedure on the
wrong switch.
System Location
Specifies the location of the switch. The location is optional and may
contain up to 50 characters.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
System Contact
Specifies the name of the network administrator responsible for
managing the switch. This contact name is optional and may contain
up to 50 characters.
3. Click Apply.
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Configuring System Administration Information
This section explains how to enable password protection and create users
in the web interface. See the following sections:
Adding System
Administration
Information
ˆ
“Adding System Administration Information” on page 233
ˆ
“Modifying Administration Information” on page 234
ˆ
“Deleting Administration Information” on page 235
To set a switch’s administration information, perform the following
procedure:
1. Click on the System folder.
2. From the System folder, select Administration.
The Administration Page is shown in Figure 61.
Figure 61. Administration Page
3. To enable or disable password protection, select Enable or Disable
from the pull-down menu next to the Password Protection field.
You can control login authentication by enabling password protection
which requires a user to supply a password when logging onto the
switch. If you disable password protection, a user can login without
inputting a password. By default, this field is set to Enable.
4. To create an entry number, type 1 through 8 in the box next to the
Entry number field.
This value appears as the Index value in the Administration table.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
5. To create a user name, enter a user name in the box next to the User
Name field.
You can enter a value of up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
6. To add a password to the above user name, enter a password of up to
12 alphanumeric characters in the box next to the Password field.
7. To confirm the above password, retype the password in the box next
to the Confirm Password field.
8. Click Add to activate your changes on the switch.
Modifying
Administration
Information
To modify the password of a user name, perform the following procedure.
1. Click on the System folder.
2. From the System folder, select Administration.
The Administration Page is shown in Figure 61 on page 233.
3. Select the user name that you want to change and click modify. The
Modify Administration Page is displayed. See Figure 62.
Figure 62. Modify Administration Page
4. Click Apply to activate your changes on the switch.
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Deleting
Administration
Information
To delete a user name, perform the following procedure.
1. Click on the System folder.
2. From the System folder, select Administration.
The Administration Page is shown in Figure 61 on page 233.
3. Select the user name that you want to delete and click delete.
The user name is removed from the Administration Table.
4. Click Add to activate your changes on the switch.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
Setting the User Interface Configuration
This procedure explains how to adjust the user interface and security
features on the switch. With this procedure you can:
ˆ
Change the console timer, used to automatically end inactive local
management sessions.
ˆ
Change the AT-S79 management login user name and password.
ˆ
Enable and disable the web server, used to manage the switch from a
remote management station with a web browser.
To set the switch’s user interface configuration, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the System folder, select User Interface.
The User Interface page is shown in Figure 63.
Figure 63. User Interface Page
The User Interface page has three parameters:
ˆ
Console UI Idle Time Out
ˆ
SNMP Agent
ˆ
Web Server
2. To configure the console idle time out parameter, do the following:
a. Click the Console UI Time Out field and enter a new value. The
range is 0 to 60 minutes. The default is 5 minutes. A timeout value
to 0 causes the console connection to never time out.
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The console idle time out parameter specifies the length of time a
local management session can be inactive before the management
software automatically ends it. The purpose of this parameter is to
prevent unauthorized individuals from configuring the switch should
you leave your management workstation unattended.
This parameter applies to a local management session but not to a
web management session. A web browser management session
remains active so long as your web browser is open.
Note
If you select 0, you must remember to properly log off from a local
management session when you are finished to prevent blocking
future management sessions with the switch.
b. Click Apply.
3. To enable or disable an SNMP agent, do the following:
a. Click the SNMP Agent parameter and choose Enable or Disable
from the list. The default is Enable. When you enable this
parameter, the SNMP agent is enabled.
b. Click Apply.
4. To enable or disable the web server, do the following:
a. Click the Web Server parameter and choose Enable or Disable
from the list. The default is Enable. When you enable this
parameter, an individual can manage the switch remotely using a
web browser.
Note
Disabling the web browser automatically ends your remote
management session.
b. Click Apply.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
Viewing System Information
To view general information about the switch, perform the following
procedure:
1. Select Switch Info.
The Switch Information page is shown in Figure 64.
Figure 64. Switch Information Page
The Switch Information page displays the following information:
System Up Time
The number of days, hours, and minutes that the switch has been
running since it was last rebooted.
Runtime Image
The version number and build date of the runtime firmware.
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Boot Loader
The version number and build date of the bootloader firmware.
Hardware Information Section:
Reversion
The hardware version number.
DRAM Size
The size of the DRAM, in megabytes.
Flash Size
The size of the flash memory, in megabytes.
Contact Baud Rate
The baud rate of the console port.
Administration Information Section:
Switch Name
The name assigned to the switch. To give the switch a name, refer to
“Configuring System Management Information” on page 231.
Switch Location
The location of the switch. To specify the location, refer to “Configuring
System Management Information” on page 231.
Switch Contact
The contact person responsible for managing the switch. To specify
the name of a contact, refer to “Configuring System Management
Information” on page 231.
System MAC Address, IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway
Section:
MAC Address
The MAC address of the switch. You cannot change this value.
IP Address
The IP address of the switch. Refer to “Configuring an IP Address,
Subnet Mask and Gateway Address” on page 226 to manually assign
an IP address or “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on
page 230 to activate the DHCP client.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask for the switch. Refer to “Configuring an IP Address,
Subnet Mask and Gateway Address” on page 226 to manually assign
a subnet mask or “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on
page 230 to activate the DHCP client.
Default Gateway
Default gateway’s IP address. Refer to “Configuring an IP Address,
Subnet Mask and Gateway Address” on page 226 to manually assign
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
a gateway address or “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP Client” on
page 230 to activate the DHCP client.
DHCP Mode
The status of the DHCP client on the switch. For information about
setting this parameter, refer to “Enabling and Disabling the DHCP
Client” on page 230.
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Rebooting a Switch
This procedure reboots the switch and reloads the AT-S79 management
software from flash memory. You may want to reboot the device if you
believe it is experiencing a problem.
Caution
The switch does not forward network traffic during the reboot
process. Some network traffic may be lost.
To reboot a switch, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Tools folder, select Reboot.
The Reboot page is shown in Figure 65.
Figure 65. Reboot Page
2. For the Reboot Type, select Normal Reset. This is the default setting.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
Note
The two Reboot Type options Reset to Factory Default and are
Reset to Factory Default Except IP Address are described in
“Returning the AT-S79 Management Software to the Factory Default
Values” on page 245.
3. For the Reboot Status, select Start to start the reboot.
4. Click Apply. The switch immediately begins to reload the AT-S79
management software. This process takes approximately one minute
to complete. You can not manage the device during the reboot. After
the reboot is finished, you can log in again if you want to continue to
manage the device.
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Pinging a Remote System
This procedure instructs the switch to ping a node on your network. This
procedure is useful in determining whether an active link exists between
the switch and another network device. Note the following before
performing the procedure:
ˆ
The switch where you are initiating the ping must have an IP address.
ˆ
The device you are pinging must be a member of the Default VLAN. In
other words, the port on the switch through which the node is
communicating with the switch must be an untagged or tagged
member of the Default VLAN.
To ping a network device, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Tools folder, select Ping.
The Ping Page is shown in Figure 66.
Figure 66. Ping Page
2. Configure the following parameters:
Destination IP Address
The IP address of the node you want to ping.
Timeout Value
Specifies the length of time in seconds the switch waits for a response
before assuming that a ping has failed. The default is 3 seconds.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
Number of Ping Requests
Specifies the number of ping requests you want the switch to perform.
The default is 10.
3. Click Start.
4. To view the ping results, click Show Ping Results.
A sample Ping Test Results page is shown in Figure 67.
Figure 67. Ping Test Results Page
5. Click Back to Ping Test to return to the Ping Test Configuration page.
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Returning the AT-S79 Management Software to the Factory Default
Values
This procedure returns all AT-S79 management software parameters to
their default values and deletes all tagged and port-based VLANs on the
switch. The AT-S79 management software default values are listed in
Appendix A, “AT-S79 Software Default Settings” on page 341.
Caution
This procedure causes the switch to reboot. The switch does not
forward network traffic during the reboot process. Some network
traffic may be lost.
To return the AT-S79 management software to the default settings,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Tools folder, select Reboot.
The Reboot page is shown in Figure 65 on page 241.
2. For the Reboot Type, select one of the following:
Reset to Factory Default
Resets all switch parameters to the factory default settings, including
IP address, subnet mask, and gateway address.
Reset to Factory Default Except IP Address
Resets all switch parameters to the factory default settings, but retains
the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway settings. If the DHCP client
is enabled, it remains enabled after this reset.
3. For the Reboot Status, select Start to start the reboot.
4. Click Apply.
The switch is rebooted. You must wait for the switch to complete the
reboot process before reestablishing your management session.
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Chapter 21: Basic Switch Parameters
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Chapter 22
Port Configuration
The sections in this chapter explain how to view and change the parameter
settings of the individual ports on the switch. There is also a section for
viewing port statistics. The sections are:
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“Viewing and Configuring Ports Using the Port Configuration Page” on
page 248
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Chapter 22: Port Configuration
Viewing and Configuring Ports Using the Port Configuration Page
This procedure explains how to configure the ports on the switch using the
Port Configuration page. This page allows you to view and configure the
parameter settings of all the switch ports at one time.
To configure the ports, perform the following procedure:
1. From the System folder, select Physical Interface.
The Physical Interface Page is shown in Figure 68. The page lists all
the ports on the switch and their current settings.
Figure 68. Physical Interface Page
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2. Adjust the port settings as needed. Not all parameters are adjustable.
The parameters are defined here:
Port Index
The port number. You cannot change this parameter.
Trunk
The trunk group number. A number in this column indicates that the
port has been added to a trunk. For information about configuring a
trunk, refer to Chapter 23, “Port Trunking” on page 251.
Type
The port type. The port type is 1000TX for 10/100/1000Base-T twistedpair ports and 1000BaseF for an optional SFP fiber port.
Link Status
The status of the link between the port and the end node connected to
the port. The possible values are:
Up - A valid link exists between the port and the end node.
Down - The port and the end node have not established a valid link.
Admin. Status
The operating status of the port.
You can use this parameter to enable or disable a port. You may want
to disable a port and prevent packets from being forwarded if a
problem occurs with the node or cable connected to the port. After the
problem has been fixed, you can enable the port to resume normal
operation. You can also disable an unused port to secure it from
unauthorized connections. The possible values are:
Enabled - The port is able to send and receive Ethernet frames. This is
the default setting for a port.
Disabled - The port is disabled.
Mode
The speed and duplex mode settings for the port.
You can use this parameter to set the speed and duplex mode of a
port. Possible settings are:
Auto - The port is using Auto-Negotiation to set the operating speed
and duplex mode. This is the default setting for all ports. The actual
operating speed and duplex mode of the port are displayed in
parentheses (for example, “1000F” for 1000 Mbps full duplex mode)
after a port establishes a link with an end node.
10M/Half - 10 Mbps in half-duplex mode
10M/Full - 10 Mbps in full-duplex mode
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Chapter 22: Port Configuration
100M/Half - 100 Mbps in half-duplex mode
100M/Full - 100 Mbps in full-duplex mode
1000M/Half - 1000 Mbps in half-duplex mode
1000M/Full - 1000 Mbps in full-duplex mode
When selecting a setting, note the following:
ˆ
When a twisted-pair port is set to Auto-Negotiation, the default
setting, the end node should also be set to Auto-Negotiation to
prevent a duplex mode mismatch. A switch port using AutoNegotiation defaults to half-duplex if it detects that the end node is
not using Auto-Negotiation. This can result in a mismatch if the end
node is operating at a fixed duplex mode of full-duplex. To avoid
this problem when connecting an end node with a fixed duplex
mode of full-duplex to a switch port, disable Auto-Negotiation on
the port and set the port’s speed and duplex mode manually.
ˆ
Allied Telesis does not recommend manually setting a 10/100/
1000Base-T twisted-pair port to either 1000 Mbps full duplex or
1000 Mbps half duplex. For 1000 Mbps operation, Allied Telesis
recommends setting the port to Auto-Negotiation.
ˆ
The only valid setting for an optional SFP port is Auto-Negotiation.
Flow Control
The current flow control setting on the port. The switch uses a special
pause packet to notify the end node to stop transmitting for a specified
period of time. The possible values are:
Enabled - The port is allowed to use flow control. This is the default
setting for all ports on the switch.
Disabled - The port does not use flow control.
3. Click Apply to save the configuration.
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Chapter 23
Port Trunking
This chapter contains the following procedures for working with port
trunking:
ˆ
“Creating a Port Trunk” on page 252
ˆ
“Modifying a Port Trunk” on page 254
ˆ
“Enabling and Disabling a Port Trunk” on page 255
Note
For background information, refer to “Port Trunking Overview” on
page 68.
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Chapter 23: Port Trunking
Creating a Port Trunk
This procedure explains how to create a port trunk.
Caution
Do not connect the cables of a port trunk to the ports on the switch
until after you have configured the ports on both the switch and the
end node. Connecting the cables prior to configuring the ports can
create loops in your network topology. Loops can result in broadcast
storms, which can adversely affect the operation of your network.
To create a port trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Trunking.
The Trunking page is shown in Figure 69.
Figure 69. Trunking Page
If the switch does not contain a port trunk, all of the ports on the switch
are unchecked. If there is a port trunk, the ports in the trunk are
checked.
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3. In any one of the unused Trunk ID rows, click the dialog boxes of the
ports that will make up the port trunk. A check in a box indicates the
port is a member of the trunk. No check means the port is not a
member. A port trunk can contain up to eight ports.
4. Change the status of the trunk from Disable to Enable.
5. Click Apply.
The trunk is now operational on the switch.
6. Configure the port trunk on the other switch and connect the cables.
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Chapter 23: Port Trunking
Modifying a Port Trunk
This procedure adds and removes ports from a port trunk.
Caution
Before you modify a port trunk, disconnect the cables from the ports
of the trunk. Adding or removing ports from a trunk without first
disconnecting the cables can create loops in your network topology,
which can cause broadcast storms and poor network performance.
To add or remove ports from a trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Trunking.
The Trunking page is shown in Figure 69 on page 252.
3. Click the status of the port trunk to be modified and change the status
from Enable to Disable.
4. Click Apply.
5. To add or remove a port from a trunk, click the dialog box for the port
in the corresponding trunk row. A check in a box indicates the port is a
member of the trunk. No check means the port is not a member.A port
trunk can contain up to eight ports.
6. Click Apply.
7. Modify the port trunk on the other switch and reconnect the cables.
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Enabling and Disabling a Port Trunk
This procedure enables and disables a port trunk. Note the following
before performing this procedure:
ˆ
Do not enable a port trunk until after you have configured the trunk on
both switches.
ˆ
Do not connect the cables to the ports on the switches until after you
have configured and enabled the trunk on both switches.
Note
Before you disable a port trunk, disconnect all of the cables from the
ports of the trunk. Leaving the cables connected can create loops in
your network topology because the ports of a disabled port trunk
function as normal network ports, forwarding individual network
traffic.
To enable or disable a port trunk, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Trunking.
The Trunking page is shown in Figure 69.
3. Click the status of the port trunk and change it to Enable or Disable.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 23: Port Trunking
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Chapter 24
Port Mirroring
This chapter contains the procedure for setting up port mirroring. Port
mirroring allows you to unobtrusively monitor the ingress and egress traffic
on a port by having the traffic copied to another port. This chapter contains
the following sections:
ˆ
“Configuring Port Mirroring” on page 258
ˆ
“Disabling Port Mirroring” on page 259
Note
For background information, refer to “Port Mirroring Overview” on
page 90.
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Chapter 24: Port Mirroring
Configuring Port Mirroring
To set up port mirroring, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Mirroring.
The Mirroring page is shown in Figure 70.
Figure 70. Mirroring Page
3. In the Mirroring Port section, click Mirroring Port and from the pulldown menu select the port where the network analyzer is connected.
4. In the Port Being Mirrored section, click Port and from the pull-down
menu select the port whose ingress and egress traffic you want to
monitor. You can select only one port.
5. Click Apply on the right-hand side of the page.
6. From the Mirroring Status list, select Enable and click Apply.
Port mirroring is immediately enabled on the switch. You can now
connect a data analyzer to the mirroring port to monitor the traffic on
the other port.
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Disabling Port Mirroring
To disable port mirroring, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Mirroring.
The Mirroring page is shown in Figure 70 on page 258.
3. From the Mirroring Status list, select Disable and click Apply.
Port mirroring is immediately disabled on the switch. You can now use
the mirroring port for regular network operations.
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Chapter 24: Port Mirroring
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Chapter 25
Static Multicast Address Table
This chapter contains the following procedures for setting group MAC
addresses in the web interface:
ˆ
“Configuring Static Multicast Address Table” on page 262
ˆ
“Modifying a Static Multicast Address Table” on page 264
ˆ
“Deleting a Group MAC Address” on page 265
Note
For background information, refer to Chapter 7, “Static Multicast
Address” on page 83.
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Chapter 25: Static Multicast Address Table
Configuring Static Multicast Address Table
This procedure explains how to add group MAC addresses to the Static
Multicast Address Table.
To configure the Static Multicast Address Table, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
The Spanning Tree folder opens.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Static Multicast.
The Static Multicast Address Table Page is shown in Figure 71.
Figure 71. Static Multicast Address Table Page
3. To add a group MAC address to the Static Multicast Address Table
Page, enter a MAC address in the format xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx.
Enter a value between 01:00:5E:00:01 to 01:00:5E:7F:FF:FF.
Note
Use the Tab key to advance from one MAC address segment to the
next.
4. To set the group member of the group MAC address, click a number
next to the Group Member field. Then press Add.
The Static Multicast Address Table is updated with the new
information. See Figure 72 on page 263 for an example.
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Figure 72. Static Multicast Table with Group MAC Addresses
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Chapter 25: Static Multicast Address Table
Modifying a Static Multicast Address Table
This procedure explains how to change the group number of the Static
Multicast Address Table.
To modify the group number in the Static Multicast Address Table,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
The Spanning Tree folder opens.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Static Multicast.
The Static Multicast Address Table Page is shown in Figure 71 on
page 262.
3. Click modify next to the group number that you want to change.
The Modify Static Multicast Address Table Page is displayed. See
Figure 73.
Figure 73. Modify Static Multicast Address Table Page
4. Click the new Group Member number and deselect the original Group
Member number.
Note
To restore the previous Group Member number, click Restore.
5. Click Apply.
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Deleting a Group MAC Address
To delete a Group MAC Address from the Static Multicast Address Table,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
The Spanning Tree folder opens.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Static Multicast.
The Static Multicast Address Table Page is shown in Figure 71 on
page 262.
3. Click delete next to the group number that you want to change.
The Static Multicast Address Table Page is updated.
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Chapter 25: Static Multicast Address Table
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Chapter 26
IGMP Snooping
This chapter contains the following procedures for working with IGMP
Snooping in the web interface. Sections in the chapter include:
ˆ
“Configuring IGMP Snooping” on page 268
Note
For background information, refer to “IGMP Snooping Overview” on
page 76.
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Chapter 26: IGMP Snooping
Configuring IGMP Snooping
This procedure explains how to set IGMP snooping on the switch and set
the IGMP Snooping age-out timer.
To configure IGMP snooping, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select IGMP Snooping.
The IGMP Snooping page is shown in Figure 74.
Figure 74. IGMP Snooping Page
3. To enable or disable IGMP Snooping on the switch, select Enable or
Disable. Then press Apply.
By default, IGMP is disabled.
4. To set the age-out timer, type the number of seconds you want the
switch to wait before it purges an inactive dynamic MAC address.
Then press Apply.
For an IGMP member port, the Set Age-Out Timer is set to 280
seconds by default. The range of this parameter is between 280 to
420 seconds.
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For an IGMP router port, the Set Age-Out Timer is set to 130 seconds
by default. This value cannot be changed.
Note
The Multicast Group Address field contains MAC addresses of
nodes that are members of multicast groups. To set a Multicast
Group Address, see “Setting Group Members” on page 80. You
cannot configure this field in the web interface.
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Chapter 26: IGMP Snooping
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Chapter 27
Destination MAC Address Filter
This chapter contains the following procedures for setting MAC addresses
in the Destination MAC Filter in the web interface:
ˆ
“Setting a Destination MAC Filter” on page 272
ˆ
“Removing a MAC Address” on page 274
Note
For background information, refer to “Destination MAC Filtering
Overview” on page 188.
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Chapter 27: Destination MAC Address Filter
Setting a Destination MAC Filter
This procedure explains how to set a Destination MAC Filter on the switch.
To add a MAC address from a Destination MAC Filter list, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Security.
2. From the Security folder, select Destination MAC Filter.
The Destination MAC Filter Page is shown in Figure 75.
Figure 75. Destination MAC Filter Page
3. To add a device, type in a MAC address in the xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
format. Then click Add.
Note
Use the Tab key to advance from one MAC address segment to the
next.
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The Destination MAC Filter table is updated with the new MAC
address. See Figure 76 for an example
Figure 76. Destination MAC Address with New Entries
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Chapter 27: Destination MAC Address Filter
Removing a MAC Address
To remove a MAC address from a Destination MAC Filter list, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Security.
2. From the Security folder, select Destination MAC Filter.
The Destination MAC Filter Page is shown in Figure 75 on page 272
3. To remove a device, click delete next to the MAC address you want to
delete.
The Destination MAC Filter table is updated.
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Chapter 28
Bandwidth Control
This chapter contains the following procedures for working with Bandwidth
Control in the web interface. Sections in the chapter include:
ˆ
“Configuring Bandwidth Control” on page 276
Note
For background information, refer to “Bandwidth Control Overview”
on page 178.
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Chapter 28: Bandwidth Control
Configuring Bandwidth Control
This procedure explains how to set Bandwidth Control on a port.
To configure Bandwidth Control, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Bandwidth Control.
The Bandwidth Control page is shown in Figure 77.
Figure 77. Bandwidth Control Page
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3. To change the status of the packet threshold for all the ports on the
switch, select the pull-down menu next to Broad/Multicast Packet
Threshold field. Choose Low, Medium, and High. Then press Apply.
By default, the packet threshold is set to Low.
4. To set the DLF Ingress Packet Status for all the ports on the switch,
select the pull-down menu next to the DLF Ingress Packet Status field.
Choose between Enable or Disable. Then press Apply.
By default, the packet status is set to Disable.
5. To select the Ingress mode of a port, select the pull-down menu next to
the Ingress field. Choose between Enable and Disable. Then press
Apply.
By default, the Ingress field is set to Disable.
6. To select the mode of a port, select the select the pull-down menu next
to the Mode field. Choose between Bcast for broadcast mode or
Bcast/Mcast for multicast mode. Then press Apply.
By default, the Mode field is set to Bcast/Mcast.
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Chapter 28: Bandwidth Control
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Chapter 29
Virtual LANs
This chapter contains the procedures for creating, modifying, and deleting
port-based and tagged Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) from a web
browser management session. This chapter contains the following
sections:
ˆ
“Assigning Ports to a VLAN” on page 280
ˆ
“Creating a Tagged VLAN” on page 281
ˆ
“Modifying a Tagged VLAN” on page 283
ˆ
“Deleting a Tagged VLAN” on page 284
ˆ
“Creating a Port-Based VLAN” on page 285
ˆ
“Modifying a Port-Based VLAN” on page 286
ˆ
“Deleting a Port-Based VLAN” on page 287
Note
For background information, refer to “Port-based VLAN Overview”
on page 104 and “Tagged VLAN Overview” on page 105.
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Chapter 29: Virtual LANs
Assigning Ports to a VLAN
To assign ports to a tagged or port-based VLAN, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
3. From the VLAN folder, select VLAN Mode.
The VLAN Mode page is shown in Figure 78.
Figure 78. VLAN Mode Page
4. To add ports to a Tagged or Port-Based VLAN, select the ports and
then click Apply.
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Creating a Tagged VLAN
To create a tagged VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
3. From the VLAN folder, select Tagged VLAN.
The Tagged VLAN page is shown in Figure 79
Figure 79. Tagged VLAN Page
4. To assign a VLAN ID, type in a VLAN ID in the VLAN ID field.
You can choose a value between 2 and 4,000.
5. To assign a name to the VLAN, type in a name in the VLAN Name
field.
6. To assign ports to the VLAN, click on the port numbers labeled either
Static Tagged or Static Untagged. Then click Apply.
By default, all the ports are assigned to the Not Member category.
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Chapter 29: Virtual LANs
For an example of a Tagged VLANs, see Figure 80.
Figure 80. Example of Tagged VLAN Page
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Modifying a Tagged VLAN
To modify a tagged VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
3. From the VLAN folder, select Tagged VLAN.
An Example of a Tagged VLAN page is shown in Figure 80 on page
282.
4. In the VLAN Action column, click modify next to the VLAN that you
want to change.
The Modify VLAN Page is displayed, see Figure 81
Figure 81. Modify VLAN Page
5. To change the VLAN ID, type in a VLAN ID in the VLAN ID field.
You can choose a value between 2 and 4,000.
6. To change the name of the VLAN, type in a name in the VLAN Name
field.
7. To assign ports to the VLAN, click on the port numbers labeled either
Static Tagged or Static Untagged. Then click Apply.
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Deleting a Tagged VLAN
To delete a tagged VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
3. From the VLAN folder, select Tagged VLAN.
An example of the Tagged VLAN page is shown in Figure 80 on page
282.
4. In the VLAN Action column, click delete next to the VLAN that you
want to delete.
A confirmation prompt is displayed.
5. Click OK to delete the VLAN or Cancel to cancel the deletion.
Note
You cannot delete the Default VLAN which has a VID of 1.
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Creating a Port-Based VLAN
To create a port-based VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
3. From the VLAN folder, select Port-Based VLAN.
The Port-Based VLAN page is shown in Figure 82.
Figure 82. Port-Based VLAN Page
4. To assign a VLAN ID, type a VLAN ID in the VLAN ID field.
You can choose a value between 2 and 4,000.
5. To assign a name to a VLAN, type in a name in the VLAN Name field.
6. To assign ports to the VLAN, click on the port numbers labeled either
Static Tagged or Static Untagged. Then click Apply.
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Modifying a Port-Based VLAN
To modify a port-based VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
3. From the VLAN folder, select Port-Based VLAN.
The Port-Based VLAN page is shown in Figure 82 on page 285.
4. In the VLAN Action column, click modify next to the VLAN that you
want to change.
The Modify Port-based VLAN Page is shown in Figure 83.
Figure 83. Modify Port-based VLAN
5. To change the VLAN ID, type a VLAN ID in the Index field.
You can choose a value between 2 and 4,000.
6. To change the name of the VLAN, type in a name in the VLAN Name
field.
7. To assign ports to the VLAN, click on the port numbers labeled either
Static Tagged or Static Untagged. Then click Apply.
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Deleting a Port-Based VLAN
To delete a port-based VLAN, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
3. From the VLAN folder, select Port-Based VLAN.
The Port-Based VLAN page is shown in Figure 82 on page 285.
4. In the VLAN Action column, click delete next to the VLAN that you
want to delete.
A confirmation prompt is displayed.
5. Click OK to delete the VLAN or Cancel to cancel the deletion.
Note
You cannot delete the Default VLAN which has a VID of 1.
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Chapter 30
Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP)
This chapter contains the following procedures for working with SNMP:
ˆ
“Creating an SNMP Community” on page 290
ˆ
“Modifying an SNMP Community” on page 291
ˆ
“Deleting an SNMP Community” on page 292
ˆ
“Creating a Host Table” on page 293
ˆ
“Modifying a Host Table Entry” on page 294
ˆ
“Deleting a Host Table Entry” on page 295
ˆ
“Enabling or Disabling Traps” on page 296
ˆ
“Modifying Traps” on page 297
ˆ
“Deleting Traps” on page 298
Note
For background information, refer to “SNMP Overview” on page 124.
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Creating an SNMP Community
This procedure explains how to create an SNMP community.
To create an SNMP community, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Community Table.
The Community Table page is shown in Figure 84.
Figure 84. Community Table Page
4. Type an available entry number from 1 through 8 next to the Entry
number field.
5. To select the read/write access for the community, use the pull-down
menu next to the Access field to select Read-Only access or ReadWrite access.
6. Type the name of the new SNMP community in the Community field.
Then click Add.
Enter a name between 1 and 20 characters in length.
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Modifying an SNMP Community
Use the following procedure to modify an existing SNMP community in the
Community Table.
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Community Table.
The Community Table page is shown in Figure 84 on page 290.
4. To change the access level of an SNMP community, select the pulldown menu under the Access column in the Community table for the
community you want to modify. Select Read-Only access or ReadWrite access.
5. To change the community name, type over an existing community
name. Then click Apply.
Note
You cannot change the index number of an SNMP community.
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Deleting an SNMP Community
Use the following procedure to delete an existing SNMP community in the
Community Table.
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Community Table.
The Community Table page is shown in Figure 84 on page 290.
4. To delete a community, select delete in the Community Table next to
the community that you want to remove.
The Community Table page is updated.
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Creating a Host Table
Use the following procedure to create a Host Table.
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Host Table.
The Host Table Page is shown in Figure 85.
Figure 85. Host Table Page
4. To specify an entry number, type a value between 1 and 10 in the
Entry number field.
5. Enter an IP address for an SNMP community that you previously
defined in the Community Table page.
The IP address must be in the xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx format.
6. Select a community name from the pull-down menu next to the
Community Name field. Then click Apply.
The new host is added to the table.
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Modifying a Host Table Entry
Use the following procedure to modify an entry in the Host Table.
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Host Table.
The Host Table page is shown in Figure 85 on page 293.
4. To change the IP Address, type in the new IP address in the Host
Table.
5. To change the community name, use the pull-down menu to select a
new community name in the Host Table.
6. To activate your changes on the switch, click Apply next to the entry
that you want to modify.
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Deleting a Host Table Entry
Use the following procedure to delete a Host Table entry.
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Host Table.
The Host Table page is shown in Figure 85 on page 293.
4. To delete an entry in the host table, click delete next to the entry in the
table that you want to remove.
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Enabling or Disabling Traps
This procedure enables or disables traps for an SNMP community.
To enable or disable a trap, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Trap Setting.
The Trap Setting page is shown in Figure 86.
Figure 86. Trap Setting Page
4. Type a trap number between 1 and 10 in the Entry number field.
5. Select the SNMP version of the trap by selecting V1 for SNMP version
1 or V2c for SNMP version 2vc in the Version field.
6. Enter an IP address, in the xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx format, in the IP Address
field.
7. Enter a previously defined community name in the Community field.
Then click Add.
A new trap is displayed in the Trap Setting table.
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Modifying Traps
Use this procedure to modify traps for an SNMP community.
To modify a trap, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Trap Setting.
The Trap Setting page is shown in Figure 86 on page 296.
4. Within the Trap Setting table, select a pull-down menu in the Version
column to the change the SNMP version of a trap that you want to
modify.
Select the SNMP version of the trap by selecting V1 for SNMP version
1 or V2c for SNMP version 2vc.
5. Change an IP address by typing in the new IP address for a particular
community within the Trap Setting table.
Use the IP address format: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
6. To activate your changes on the switch click Apply.
The Trap Setting page is updated.
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Deleting Traps
Use this procedure to delete traps for an SNMP community.
To delete a trap, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
2. From the Bridge folder, select SNMP.
3. From the SNMP folder, select Trap Setting.
The Trap Setting page is shown in Figure 86 on page 296.
4. In the Trap table, click delete next to the trap you want to delete from
the table.
The Trap Setting page is updated.
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Chapter 31
Quality of Service (QoS)
This chapter contains the procedure for configuring Quality of Service
(QoS). This chapter includes the following procedures:
ˆ
“Mapping CoS Priorities to Egress Queues” on page 300
ˆ
“Configuring CoS” on page 302
Note
For background information, refer to “QoS Overview” on page 144
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Mapping CoS Priorities to Egress Queues
This procedure explains how to change the default mappings of CoS
priorities to egress priority queues, as shown in Table 2 on page 145. This
is set at the switch level. You cannot set this at the per-port level. This
procedure also enables and disables QoS.
To change the default mappings of CoS priorities to egress priority queues
or to enable or disable QoS, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
2. From the VLAN folder, select CoS.
The CoS page is shown in Figure 87.
Figure 87. CoS Page
3. To enable or disable QoS, select Enable or Disable from the QoS
Status pull-down menu. The default is disabled.
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4. To change the egress priority queue assignment of an 802.1p priority
class, click the dialog circle of the queue for the corresponding priority.
For example, to direct all tagged traffic with a priority of 4 to egress
queue 3 on the ports, you would click the dialog circle for queue 3 in
the priority 4 row.
5. Click Apply.
Note
The switch does not alter the original priority level in tagged frames.
Frames leave the switch with the same priority level they had when
they entered the switch.
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Configuring CoS
As explained in “QoS Overview” on page 144, a packet received on a port
is placed it into one of four priority queues on the egress port according to
the switch’s mapping of 802.1p priority levels to egress priority queues.
The default mappings are shown in Table 2 on page 145.
You can override the mappings at the port level by assigning a new default
egress queue to a port. Note that this assignment is made on the ingress
port and before the frame is forwarded to the egress port. Consequently,
you need to configure this feature on the ingress port. For example, you
can configure a switch port so that all ingress frames are stored in egress
queue 3 of the egress port, regardless of the priority levels that might be in
the frames themselves, as found in tagged frames.
Note
The switch does not alter the original priority level in tagged frames.
Frames leave the switch with the same priority level they had when
they entered the switch.
To configure CoS for a port, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Bridge folder, select VLAN.
2. From the VLAN folder, select CoS.
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The Default Port VLAN & CoS page is shown in Figure 88.
Figure 88. Port Priority Configuration Page
The columns in the menu display the following information:
Port
Displays the port number.
Trunk
Displays the trunk number if the port is a member of a trunk.
Queue
Displays the number of the queue where untagged packets received
on the port are stored on the egress queue. In this field, 0 is the lowest
value and 3 is the highest value.
Override
Displays whether the priority level in ingress tagged frames is being
used or not. If No, the override is deactivated and the port is using the
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priority levels contained within the frames to determine the egress
queue. If Yes, the override is activated and the tagged packets are
stored in the egress queue specified in the Queue column.
3. To change the egress queue where ingress untagged frames received
on a port are to be stored on the egress port, use the pull-down menu
in the QoS Priority column and select the desired queue. The range is
0 (lowest) to 3 (highest). The default is 0. For example, if you select 3
for queue 3 for a port, all ingress untagged packets received on the
port are stored in egress queue 3 on the egress port. (If you perform
Step 3 and override the priority level in ingress tagged packets, this
also applies to tagged packets as well.)
If the selected port is part of a port trunk, all ports in the trunk are
automatically assigned the same egress queue.
4. To configure a tagged port so that the switch ignores the priority tag in
ingress tagged frames, select Enable from the Override column for the
corresponding port.
The default for this parameter is disabled, meaning that the priority
level of tagged frames is determined by the priority level specified in
the frame itself.
5. Click Apply.
Note
The tagged information in a frame is not changed as the frame
traverses the switch. A tagged frame leaves a switch with the same
priority level that it had when it entered.
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Chapter 32
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
This chapter contains the following procedures for working with the
Remote Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP):
ˆ
“Basic RSTP Configuration” on page 306
ˆ
“Configuring RSTP Port Settings” on page 309
ˆ
“Viewing the RSTP Topology” on page 313
Note
For background information on RSTP, refer to “RSTP Overview” on
page 156.
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Basic RSTP Configuration
To configure the RSTP settings, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
The Spanning Tree folder is displayed.
2. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
3. From the Spanning Tree folder, select RSTP.
The Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration page is shown in Figure 89.
Figure 89. Rapid Spanning Tree Configuration Page
The RSTP Configuration page allows you to configure RSTP as well
as to view the current settings. In the upper portion of the page, you
can set the following parameters:
Global RSTP Status
Set this field to enable to activate RSTP on the switch. The default is
disable.
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Protocol Version
Set this field to enable to activate RSTP on the switch. This field is
greyed out until you set the Global RSTP Status to enable. To activate
this field click Apply.
This page contains the following items of information in the middle
portion of the page. You cannot change these fields.
Root Port
The active port on the switch that is communicating with the root
bridge. If the switch is the root bridge for the LAN, then there is no root
port and the root port parameter is set to 0.
Root Path Cost
The sum of all the root port costs of all the bridges between the
switch’s root port and the root bridge including the switch’s root port
cost.
Time Since Topology Change
The time in seconds since the last topology change took place. When
RSTP detects a change to the LAN’s topology or when the switch is
rebooted, this parameter is reset to 0 seconds and begins
incrementing until the next topology change is detected.
Topology Change Count
An integer that reflects the number of times RSTP has detected a
topology change on the LAN since the switch was initially powered on
or rebooted.
The following parameters refer to the designated root bridge. You
cannot change these fields.
Designated Root
This parameter includes two fields: the root bridge priority and the
MAC address of the root bridge. For example, 1000 00C08F1211BB
shows the root bridge priority as 1000, and 00C08F1211BB as the
MAC address.
Hello Time
The hello time. See “Hello Time and Bridge Protocol Data Units
(BPDUs)” on page 159. This parameter affects only the root bridge.
Maximum Age
The maximum amount of time that BPDUs are stored before being
deleted on the root bridge.
Forward Delay
The time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the root bridge.
The lower section provides information about the bridge. The following
parameters appear in the bottom third of the page.
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Bridge ID
The MAC address of the bridge. The bridge identifier is use as a tie
breaker in the selection of the root bridge when two or more bridges
have the same bridge priority. You cannot change this setting.
Bridge Priority
The priority number for the bridge, in hexadecimal format. This number
is used to determine the root bridge for RSTP. The bridge with the
lowest priority number is selected as the root bridge. If two or more
bridges have the same priority value, that is, the lowest value of all the
other bridges, then the bridge with the numerically lowest MAC
address becomes the root bridge. When a root bridge goes offline, the
bridge with the lowest priority number automatically takes over as the
root bridge. This parameter can be from 0X0000 to 0XF000, with
0XF000 being the highest priority.
Bridge Hello Time
This is the time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the bridge. This parameter is active only when the switch
is the root bridge.
Bridge Maximum Age
The length of time after which stored bridge protocol data units
(BPDUs) are deleted by the bridge.
Bridge Forward Delay
This is the time interval between generating and sending configuration
messages by the bridge.
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Configuring RSTP Port Settings
This section contains the following topics:
Configuring the
Basic RSTP Port
Settings
ˆ
“Configuring the Basic RSTP Port Settings,” next
ˆ
“Configuring the Advanced RSTP Port Settings” on page 311
To configure the basic RSTP port settings, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
The Spanning Tree folder is displayed.
2. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
3. From the Spanning Tree folder, select RSTP.
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The RSTP Basic Port Configuration page is shown in Figure 90.
Figure 90. RSTP Basic Port Configuration Page
4. In the STP Status column for the port you want to configure, select the
STP status from the list, either Enable or Disable.
5. In the Priority column for the port you want to configure, type a number
for the port priority.
Port priority is described in “Port Priority” on page 158.
6. In the Path Cost column for the port you want to configure, type a
number for the Path Cost.
Path cost is described in “Path Costs and Port Costs” on page 157.
7. Click Apply.
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8. To configure all of the ports to the same settings, in the All row,
configure one, two, or all of the following settings: STP Status, Priority,
and Path Cost. Then click Apply.
Configuring the
Advanced RSTP
Port Settings
To configure the advanced RSTP port settings, perform the following
procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
The Spanning Tree folder is displayed.
2. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
3. From the Spanning Tree folder, select RSTP Advanced Port
Configuration.
The RSTP Advanced Port Configuration page is shown in Figure 91.
Figure 91. RSTP Advanced Port Configuration Page
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4. In the Admin/OperEdge column for the port you want to configure,
choose True or False to set whether or not the port will operate as an
edge port.
5. In the Admin/OperPtoP column for the port you want to configure,
choose a setting based on the information in Table 7.
Table 7. RSTP Point-to-Point Status
Admin
Auto
Operation
Port Duplex Operation
True
Full
False
Half
True
True
Full or Half
False
False
Full or Half
6. In the Migration column for the port you want to configure, click
Restart to reset the port.
7. Click Apply.
8. To configure all of the ports to the same settings, in the All row,
configure one, two, or all of the following settings: Admin/OperEdge,
Admin/OperPtoP, and Migration. Then click Apply.
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Viewing the RSTP Topology
To view the current RSTP topology, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Bridge.
The Spanning Tree folder is displayed.
2. From the Bridge folder, select Spanning Tree.
3. From the Spanning Tree folder, select Topology Info.
The Designated Topology Information page is shown in Figure 92.
Figure 92. Designated Topology Information Page
This page displays the following information about the ports:
Port Trunk
The trunk of which the port is a member.
Link Status
Whether the link on the port is up or down.
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Designated Root
The designated root bridge to which the switch’s root port is actively
connected.
Designated Cost
The sum of all the root port costs on all bridges, including the switch,
between the switch and the root bridge.
Designated Bridge
An adjacent bridge to which the root port of the switch is actively
connected.
Designated Port
The root bridge to which the root port of the switch is actively
connected.
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Chapter 33
802.1x Port-based Network Access
Control
This chapter contains the procedure for configuring 802.1x port-based
network access control:
ˆ
“Configuring 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control” on page 316
Note
For background information, refer to “802.1x Port-based Network
Access Control Overview” on page 192.
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Configuring 802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
To configure 802.1x port-based network access control, perform the
following procedure:
1. From the Security folder, select Port Access Control.
The 802.1x Access Control Configuration page is shown in Figure 93.
Figure 93. 802.1x Access Control Configuration Page
Note
The Initialize and Re-auth Initialize parameters are described in
Steps 5 and 6, respectively.
2. To select a port, do the following:
a. Click Port and select the port you want to configure from the pulldown menu. You can configure only one port at a time.
b. Click Apply.
The current settings for the selected port are displayed.
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3. Configure the following parameters as needed. The parameters are
defined here:
NAS ID.
This parameter assigns an 802.1x identifier to the switch that applies
to all ports. The NAS ID can be up to sixteen characters. Valid
characters are 0 to 9, a to z, and A to Z. Spaces are allowed.
Specifying an NAS ID is optional.
Port Status.
Displays the current 802.1 status of the port as either authorized or
unauthorized. This is not an adjustable parameter.
Port Control.
Sets the 802.1x port control setting. The possible settings are:
Auto - Enables 802.1x port-based authentication and causes the port
to begin in the unauthorized state, allowing only EAPOL frames to be
sent and received through the port. The authentication process begins
when the link state of the port changes or the port receives an EAPOLStart packet from a supplicant. The switch requests the identity of the
client and begins relaying authentication prompts between the client
and the authentication server.
Force-unauthorized - Places the port in the unauthorized state,
ignoring all attempts by the client to authenticate. The switch cannot
provide authentication services to the client through the interface.
Force-authorized - Disables IEEE 802.1x port-based authentication
and causes the port to transition to the authorized state without any
authentication exchange required. The port transmits and receives
normal traffic without 802.1x-based authentication of the client. This is
the default setting
Quiet Period.
Sets the number of seconds that the port remains in the quiet state
following a failed authentication exchange with the client. The default
value is 60 seconds. The range is 0 to 65,535 seconds.
Transmission Period.
Sets the number of seconds that the switch waits for a response to an
EAP-request/identity frame from the client before retransmitting the
request. The default value is 30 seconds. The range is 1 to 65,535
seconds.
Maximum Request.
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch retransmits an EAP
Request packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. The default value for this parameter is 2 retransmissions. The
range is 1 to 10 retransmissions.
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Re-authentication Period.
Specifies the time period between periodic reauthentication of the
client. The default value is 3600 seconds. The range is 1 to 65,535
seconds.
Re-authentication Status.
Specifies if reauthentication should occur according to the
reauthentication period. The options are Enabled or Disabled.
4. When you are finished configuring the parameters, click Apply at the
bottom of the 802.1x Configuration page.
5. If the port control setting is Auto and you want to return the EAPOL
machine state on the port to the initialized state, select Yes for the
Initialize parameter and click Apply.
6. If the port control setting is Auto and you want the node connected to
the port to reauthenticate with the RADIUS server, select Yes for the
Re-auth Initialize parameter and click Apply.
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Chapter 34
Dial-in User
This chapter contains the following procedure for setting the Dial-in User
feature in the web interface.
ˆ
“Adding a Dial-in User” on page 320
ˆ
“Modifying a Dial-in User” on page 321
ˆ
“Deleting a Dial-in User” on page 322
Note
For background information, refer to “Dial-in User Configuration
Overview” on page 96.
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Adding a Dial-in User
This procedure explains how to add a Dial-in User on the switch. For each
user, you must assign an user name, password, and a VLAN.
To configure a Dial-in user, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Security.
2. Select Dial-in User.
The Dial-in User Page is shown in Figure 94.
Figure 94. Dial-in User Page
3. To create a new user, enter a user name in the User Name field.
You can enter an alphanumeric value of up to 23 characters. Special
characters are permitted.
4. To assign a password to the user name, enter a password in the
Password field.
You can enter an alphanumeric value of up to 23 characters. Special
characters are permitted.
5. Assign the user name to a VLAN, by entering a VLAN to the Dynamic
VLAN field.
Enter a value between 1 and 4,000. Type “0” to ignore this field.
6. Click Add to save the user information.
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Modifying a Dial-in User
This procedure explains how to modify an existing Dial-in User on the
switch. For each user, you may change the password and the VLAN
assignment. However, you cannot change the user name.
To modify a Dial-in user, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Security.
2. Select Dial-in User.
The Dial-in User Page is shown in Figure 94 on page 320.
3. To change the password for a particular user, type the new password
in the Password field.
4. To change the VLAN assignment, type the new VLAN number in the
Dynamic VLAN field.
5. Click Apply to save your changes on the switch.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
321
Chapter 34: Dial-in User
Deleting a Dial-in User
This procedure explains how to delete an existing Dial-in User on the
switch.
To delete a Dial-in user, perform the following procedure:
1. From the bookmarks on the left side of the page, select Security.
2. Select Dial-in User.
The Dial-in User Page is shown in Figure 94 on page 320.
3. To delete a user name and its associated password and VLAN
assignment, click delete next to the user that you want to remove.
4. Click Apply to save your changes on the switch.
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Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
Chapter 35
RADIUS Authentication Protocol
This chapter explains how to configure the RADIUS client on the switch.
You can use the RADIUS client with 802.1x port-based network access
control to control who can forward packets through the switch. The chapter
contains the following section:
ˆ
“Configuring the RADIUS Client” on page 324
Note
For background information, refer to “802.1x Port-based Network
Access Control Overview” on page 192 and “RADIUS Overview” on
page 208.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
323
Chapter 35: RADIUS Authentication Protocol
Configuring the RADIUS Client
To configure the RADIUS client, perform the following procedure:
1. From the Security folder, select RADIUS.
The RADIUS page is shown in Figure 95.
Figure 95. RADIUS Page
2. To enter the RADIUS server’s IP address, enter the address in the
Server IP Address field.
3. To specify the server’s encryption key, click the Shared Secret field
and enter the encryption key.
4. To select the port number that you want to assign to UDP, type in the
port number in the Server Port field. You may only assign one port
number to this parameter. The default value is 1812.
5. Click Apply to save your changes.
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Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
Chapter 36
Statistics
The sections in this chapter explain how to display traffic, error, and history
statistics about the AT-GS950 switch and its ports. This chapter includes
the following section:
ˆ
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
“Displaying Switch Statistics” on page 326
325
Chapter 36: Statistics
Displaying Switch Statistics
Statistics provide important information for troubleshooting switch
problems at the port level. The AT-S79 management software provides a
versatile set of statistics charts that you can customize for your needs,
including (depending upon the chart) the ports whose statistics you want
to view and the color to use in drawing the statistics in the chart.
The three types of statistics charts are:
Displaying
Traffic
Comparison
Statistics
326
ˆ
Traffic Comparison. This chart allows you to display a specified traffic
statistic over all of the ports. You can select from 24 statistics types
and choose from 12 colors for the ports. The Traffic Comparison
statistics chart is described in “Displaying Traffic Comparison
Statistics” on page 326.
ˆ
Error Group. The Error Group chart displays the discard and error
counts for a specified port and is described in “Displaying Error Group
Statistics” on page 330.
ˆ
Historical Status. This chart allows you to select from 12 statistics to
view for a selection of ports for however long this chart is running on
the management workstation. The Historical Status chart is described
in “Displaying Historical Status Charts” on page 332.
To display traffic comparison statistics, perform the following procedure:
1. Select the Statistics Chart folder.
2. From the Statistics Chart folder, select Traffic Comparison.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
The Traffic Comparison page opens as shown in Figure 96.
Figure 96. Traffic Comparison Page
3. To view traffic statistics, click on the arrow next to “Statistics” and
select one of the options in Table 8.
Table 8 Traffic Comparison Options
Option
Definition
Inbound Octet Rate (Bytes/s)
Measures the rate of inbound octet bits in bytes per
second.
Inbound Unicast Packet Rate (Pkts/s)
Measures the rate of inbound unicast packets in
packets per second.
Inbound Non-unicast Packet Rate
(Pkts/s)
Measures the rate of inbound non-unicast packets
(such as broadcast and multicast packets) in packets
per second.
Inbound Error Rate (Pkts/s)
Measures the number of inbound errors in packets per
second.
Outbound Octet Rate (Bytes/s)
Measures the number of outbound octet bits in bytes
per second.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
327
Chapter 36: Statistics
Table 8 Traffic Comparison Options (Continued)
Option
Definition
Outbound Unicast Packet Rate (Pkts/s)
Measures the number of outbound unicast packets in
packets per second.
Outbound Non-unicast Packet Rate
(Pkts/s)
Measures the number of outbound non-unicast
packets (such as broadcast and multicast packets) in
packets per second.
Outbound Discard Rate (Pkts/s)
Measures the rate of outbound discarded packets in
packets per second.
Outbound Error Rate (Pkts/s)
Measures the rate of outbound errors in packets per
second.
Ethernet Undersize Packet Rate
(Pkts/s)
Measures the rate of undersized Ethernet packets in
packets per second.
Ethernet Oversize Packet Rate
(Pkts/s)
Measures the rate of oversized Ethernet packets in
packets per second.
Inbound Octet (Bytes/s)
Measures the number of inbound octet bits in bytes
per second.
Inbound Unicast Packets (Pkts/s)
Measures the number of inbound unicast packets in
packets per second.
Inbound Non-unicast Packets (Pkts/s)
Measures the number of inbound non-unicast packets
(such as broadcast and multicast packets) in packets
per second.
Inbound Discard (Pkts)
Measures the number of inbound discarded packets in
packets per second.
Inbound Error (Pkts/s)
Measures the number of inbound errors in packets per
second.
Outbound Octet (Bytes/s)
Measures the rate of outbound octet bits in bytes per
second.
Outbound Unicast Packets (Pkts/s)
Measures the number of inbound unicast packets in
packets per second.
Outbound Non-unicast Packets
(Pkts)
Measures the number of outbound non-unicast (such
as broadcast and multicast packets) packets.
Outbound Discard (Pkts)
Measures the number of outbound discarded packets.
Outbound Error (Pkts/s)
Measures the number of outbound error packets.
Ethernet Undersize Packet (Pkts)
Measures the number of undersized Ethernet packets.
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Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Table 8 Traffic Comparison Options (Continued)
Option
Definition
Ethernet Oversize Packet (Pkts/)
Measures the number of oversized Ethernet packets.
4. To select the amount of time before the screen is refreshed, click Auto
Refresh. Choose from the following options:
–
5 seconds
–
10 seconds
–
15 seconds
–
30 seconds
5. To select the color of the traffic comparison graph, select Color.
Choose one of the following colors:
–
Green (This is the default.)
–
Blue
–
Red
–
Purple
–
Yellow
–
Orange
–
Gray
–
Light Red
–
Light Blue
–
Light Green
–
Light Yellow
–
Light Gray
6. To create the traffic comparison graph, select Draw.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
329
Chapter 36: Statistics
Displaying Error
Group Statistics
To display error group statistics for a port, perform the following
procedure:
1. Select the Statistics Chart folder.
2. From the Statistics Chart folder, select Error Group.
The Error Group Chart Page is displayed in Table 97.
Figure 97. Error Group Chart Page
3. Select a port number from the pull down menu next to Port.
4. To select the amount of time before the screen is refreshed, click Auto
Refresh. Choose from the following options:
330
–
5 seconds
–
10 seconds
–
15 seconds
–
30 seconds
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
5. To select the color of the traffic comparison graph, select Color.
Choose one of the following colors:
–
Green (This is the default.)
–
Blue
–
Red
–
Purple
–
Yellow
–
Orange
–
Gray
–
Light Red
–
Light Blue
–
Light Green
–
Light Yellow
–
Light Gray
6. To create the Error Group Chart, select Draw.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
331
Chapter 36: Statistics
Displaying
Historical Status
Charts
To display historical status charts statistics for a port, perform the following
procedure:
1. Select the Statistics Chart folder.
2. From the Statistics Chart folder, select Historical Status.
The Historical Status Chart page is displayed in Table 98.
Figure 98. Historical Status Chart Page
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Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
3. To select the amount of time before the screen is refreshed, click Auto
Refresh. Choose from the following options:
–
5 seconds
–
10 seconds
–
15 seconds
–
30 seconds
4. To select the color of the traffic comparison graph, select Color.
Choose one of the following colors:
–
Green (This is the default.)
–
Blue
–
Red
–
Purple
–
Yellow
–
Orange
–
Gray
–
Light Red
–
Light Blue
–
Light Green
–
Light Yellow
–
Light Gray
5. To create the history group chart, select Add. Then click Draw.
6. To draw the historical group chart, select Draw. See Figure 99 on page
334.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
333
Chapter 36: Statistics
Figure 99. Historical Status Chart
334
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
Chapter 37
Management Software Updates
The procedure in this chapter explains how to download a new version of
the AT-S79 management software update onto the switch. The procedure
is:
ˆ
“Upgrading a Firmware Image Using TFTP” on page 336
ˆ
“Upgrading a Firmware Image Using HTTP” on page 338
Note
For information on how to obtain new releases of the AT-S79
management software, refer to “Management Software Updates” on
page 16.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
335
Chapter 37: Management Software Updates
Upgrading a Firmware Image Using TFTP
Before downloading a new version of the AT-S79 management software
onto the switch, note the following:
ˆ
Both models of the AT-GS950 Series use the same AT-S79 software
image.
ˆ
The current configuration of a switch is retained when a new AT-S79
software image is installed. To return a switch to its default
configuration values, refer to “Returning the AT-S79 Management
Software to the Factory Default Values” on page 53.
ˆ
Your network must have a node with TFTP server software.
ˆ
You must store the new AT-S79 image file on the TFTP server.
ˆ
Start the TFTP server software before you begin the download
procedure.
ˆ
The switch where you are downloading the new image file must have
an IP address and subnet mask. For instructions on how to configure
the IP address on a switch, refer to “Configuring the IP Address,
Subnet Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34 or “Enabling and
Disabling the DHCP Client” on page 37.
Caution
Downloading a new version of management software onto the
switch causes the device to reset. Some network traffic may be lost
during the reset process.
This procedure assumes that you have already obtained the software and
have stored it on the computer from which you will be performing this
procedure.
To download the AT-S79 image software onto the switch using TFTP,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Tools folder, select the Firmware Upgrade folder.
2. From the Firmware Upgrade folder, select via TFTP.
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AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
The Firmware Upgrade via TFTP page is shown in Figure 100.
Figure 100. Firmware Upgrade via TFTP Page
The Image/Version Date shows the current version and date of
software installed on the switch.
3. Change the following parameters as necessary:
Download Server IP
The IP address of the TFTP server from which you are downloading
the new software.
Download File Name
The name of the AT-S79 file you are downloading.
Retry Count:
The number of times the firmware upgrade is retried. The default
number of tries is 5. The range is 1 through 20.
4. Click Apply.
The software immediately begins to download onto the switch. This
process takes a few minutes. After the software download is complete,
the switch initializes the software and reboots. You will lose your web
browser connection to the switch during the reboot process.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
337
Chapter 37: Management Software Updates
Upgrading a Firmware Image Using HTTP
Before downloading a new version of the AT-S79 management software
onto the switch with HTTP, note the following:
ˆ
The current configuration of a switch is retained when a new AT-S79
software image is installed. To return a switch to its default
configuration values, refer to “Returning the AT-S79 Management
Software to the Factory Default Values” on page 53.
ˆ
On the switch that you are downloading the new image file to, assign
an IP address and subnet mask. For instructions on how to set the IP
address on a switch, refer to “Configuring the IP Address, Subnet
Mask, and Gateway Address” on page 34 or “Enabling and Disabling
the DHCP Client” on page 37.
Caution
Downloading a new version of management software onto the
switch causes the device to reset. Some network traffic may be lost
during the reset process.
This procedure assumes that you have already obtained the software and
have stored it on the computer from which you will be performing this
procedure.
To download the AT-S79 image software onto the switch using HTTP,
perform the following procedure:
1. From the Tools folder, select the Firmware Upgrade folder.
2. From the Firmware Upgrade folder, select via HTTP.
Figure 101. Firmware Upgrade via HTTP Page
338
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
3. Change the following parameters as necessary:
Firmware File:
Enter the path of the firmware file or click the Browse button and
select the filename.
4. Click Apply.
The software immediately begins to download onto the switch. This
process takes a few minutes. After the software download is complete,
the switch initializes the software and reboots. You will lose your web
browser connection to the switch during the reboot process.
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
339
Chapter 37: Management Software Updates
340
Section II: Using the Web Browser Interface
Appendix A
AT-S79 Software Default Settings
Table 9 lists the factory default settings for the management software.
Table 9. AT-S79 Default Settings
Parameter
Default Setting
IP Configuration
IP Address
0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
0.0.0.0
Default Gateway Address
0.0.0.0
DHCP Client
Disabled
System Administration
System Name
(blank)
System Location
(blank)
System Contact
(blank)
Manager Interface
Manager Username
manager
Manager Password
friend
Console Idle Timeout
5 minutes
Web Server
Enabled
Ping Configuration
Target IP Address
0.0.0.0
Number of Requests
10
Timeout
3 seconds
Port Configuration
Port Status
Enabled
Speed
Auto-Negotiation
Duplex Mode
Auto-Negotiation
341
Appendix A: AT-S79 Software Default Settings
Table 9. AT-S79 Default Settings (Continued)
Parameter
Default Setting
Flow Control (Full-duplex Mode)
Enabled
Back pressure (Half-duplex Mode)
Enabled (not adjustable)
Port Trunking
Status
Disabled
IGMP Snooping
Status
Disabled
IGMP Snooping Age-Out Timer
280 seconds
Port Mirroring
Status
Disabled
VLAN
Name
Default VLAN
VID
1
Ports
All Ports (Untagged)
SNMP
public community
Enabled, Read Only
private community
Enabled, Read Write
Quality of Service
Status
Disabled
Mappings of IEEE 802.1p Priority
See Table 2 on page 145.
Levels to Egress Port Priority Queues
Priority Override Status
Disabled
Priority Queue
Queue 0
RSTP
Status
Disabled
Bandwidth Control
DLF Ingress Packet Status
Disabled
Broadcast/Multicast Packet Threshold Low
Packet Threshold Mode
342
Broadcast/Multicast
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
Table 9. AT-S79 Default Settings (Continued)
Parameter
Default Setting
IP Access List
IP Restriction
Disabled
802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
NAS ID
Nas1
Port Control
Force Authorized
Transmission Period
30 seconds
Supplicant Timeout
30 seconds
Server Timeout
30 seconds
Maximum Requests
2
Quiet Period
60 seconds
Re-authentication Period
3600 seconds
Re-authentication Status
Disabled
RADIUS Client
Server IP Address
0.0.0.0
Shared Secret
(blank)
Response Time
10 seconds
Maximum Retransmissions
3
Upgrade Configuration
TFTP Server IP Address
0.0.0.0
Image Filename
(blank)
Retry Count
5
343
Appendix A: AT-S79 Software Default Settings
344
Index
Numerics
E
802.1x Port-based Network Access Control
authentication process 193
authenticator port, described 192
configuring 199, 315
described 192
guidelines 195
supplicant, described 192
edge port
described 160
factory default settings 341
factory defaults, resetting switch 53, 245
flow control, configuring 66, 248
A
G
AT-S79 management software
features 18
resetting to factory defaults 53, 245
upgrading 214
upgrading with HTTP 338
upgrading with TFTP 336
authentication protocol 208
authentication server 192
authenticator port, described 192
B
back pressure 342
Bandwidth Control
configuring 276
described 178
bridge identifier, described 156
bridge priority, described 156
bridge protocol data unit (BPDU) 167
C
Class of Service (CoS)
configuring 150, 302
described 144
community names
SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c 125
console timeout, configuring 40, 236
CoS. See Class of Service (CoS)
D
Destination MAC Filter
configuring 272
destination port 90
DHCP client, enabling or disabling 37, 230
dial-in user
adding a user 55, 97, 320
deleting a user 98, 322
described 96
modifying a user 100, 321
document conventions 15
F
gateway address, configuring 34, 226
H
hardware information 45, 238
hello time, described 159
I
IEEE 802.1p standard 144
IGMP snooping
configuring 78, 80, 179, 185, 189, 228, 268
described
setting the age-out timer 80
viewing group members 80
Internet Group Management Protocol. See (IGMP) snooping
IP address, configuring 34, 226
L
local management session
explained 19
quitting 31
starting 28
login name, configuring 40, 236
login password, configuring 40, 236
M
management access level 22
manager access, defined 22
menus interface, using 30
P
password protection, configuring 233
password, configuring 233
path cost, described 157
pinging 50, 243
point-to-point port
described 160
port control
802.1x port-based access control 193, 200, 205, 317
345
Index
force-authorized 194, 200, 205, 317
force-unauthorized 194, 200, 205, 317
port cost
described 157
port duplex mode, configuring 64, 248
port mirror
destination port 90
source port 90
port mirroring
configuring 91, 258
described 90
disabling 93, 259
port parameters
displaying 60
port priority, described 158
port speed, configuring 64, 248
port statistics
error group statistics 330
historical status charts 332
traffic comparison 326
port statistics, displaying 326, 330, 332
port status, enabling or disabling 63, 248
port trunk
configuring 55, 70, 97, 128
creating 252
described 68
disabling 74, 255
enabling 74, 255
guidelines 69
modifying 73, 254
port trunking, example 68
port VLAN identifier (PVID)
configuring 111
port-based VLAN
defined 104
rules 104
Q
Quality of Service (QoS)
configuring 147, 299
R
RADIUS
configuring 209, 324
displaying settings 211
guidelines 208
overview 208
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
advanced port settings, configuring 171, 311
and VLANs 162
basic port settings, configuring 169, 309
configuring 166, 306
enabling or disabling 163
port configuration, displaying 174, 313
rebooting the switch 48, 241
remote management session
explained 20
quitting 224
starting 220
346
root bridge 156
RSTP. See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
S
SNMP
creating a community 290
creating a host 133
creating a host table 293
deleting a host table entry 295
deleting traps 139, 298
disabling traps 141
enabling traps 137, 141, 296
modifying a host table entry 294
modifying traps 139, 297
SNMP application program 20
SNMP community strings
access mode 125
closed access status 125
default 127
name 125
open access status 125
operating status 125
trap receivers 125
SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c
community names 125
described 124
software information 45, 238
source port 90
static multicast address
adding an address 85
deleting a static group 86
deleting a static member port 87
described 84
Static Multicast Address Table
configuring 262
deleting a Group MAC address 265
modifying 264
statistics
described 326
STP compatibility, configuring 168
subnet mask, configuring 34, 226
supplicant, described 192
switch
hardware information 45, 238
software information 45, 238
switch, rebooting 48, 241
system contact, configuring 38, 231
system location, configuring 38, 231
system name, configuring 38, 231
T
tagged VLAN
defined 105
overview 105
rules 106
Telnet application protocol 20
trap receivers 125
AT-S79 Management Software User’s Guide
U
user name
configuring 40, 236
user name, configuring 233
V
virtual LAN. See VLAN
VLAN
configuring PVID of untagged ports 111
creating 107, 280
defined 102
deleting 121
displaying 115
modifying 118
overview 102
port-based, defined 104
tagged, defined 105
VLAN ID, described 104
VLAN name, described 104
W
web browser management session
explained 20
quitting 224
starting 220
web browser tools 223
web server, configuring 40, 236
347
Index
348
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