AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices

AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
AN 512: Using the Design Security
Feature in Stratix III Devices
AN-512-1.1
© March 2009
Introduction
In today’s highly competitive commercial and military environments, design security is
becoming an important consideration for digital designers. As FPGAs start to play a role in
larger and more critical system components, it is ever more important to protect the designs
from unauthorized copying, reverse engineering, and tampering. Stratix® III devices address
these concerns with the ability to decrypt a configuration bitstream using the 256-bit
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm, an industry standard encryption
algorithm.
During device operation, Altera® FPGAs store configuration data in SRAM configuration
cells. Because SRAM memory is volatile, SRAM cells must be loaded with configuration data
each time the device powers up. Configuration data is typically transmitted from an external
memory source, such as a flash memory or a configuration device, to the FPGA. It is possible
to intercept the configuration data when it is being send from the memory source to the
FPGA. The intercepted configuration data could then be used to configure another FPGA.
Stratix III FPGAs offer both volatile and non-volatile security key storage. When using the
Stratix III design security feature, the security key is stored in the Stratix III device.
Depending on the security mode, you can configure the Stratix III device using a
configuration file that is encrypted with the same key, or for board testing, configure with a
normal configuration file.
The design security feature is available when configuring Stratix III FPGAs using the fast
passive parallel (FPP) configuration mode with an external host (such as a MAX® II device or
microprocessor), or when using active serial (AS) or passive serial (PS) configuration
schemes. The design security feature is not available when you are configuring your
Stratix III FPGA using Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)-based configuration.
1
For more details, refer to “Supported Configuration Schemes” on page 25.
This document covers the following topics:
© March 2009
■
“Overview of the Design Security Feature” on page 2
■
“Hardware and Software Requirements” on page 4
■
“Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow” on page 5
■
“Supported Configuration Schemes” on page 25
■
“Serial FlashLoader Support with Encryption Enabled ” on page 26
■
“Considerations When Choosing a Configuration Scheme ” on page 29
■
“Timing Parameters with Design Security Feature Enabled ” on page 31
■
“US Export Controls” on page 33
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 2
Overview of the Design Security Feature
Overview of the Design Security Feature
The Stratix III design security feature is designed to protect against unauthorized
copying, reverse engineering, and tampering. The following are some of the design
approaches to make the solution secure:
■
The non-volatile security key is stored in polyfuses under layers of metals among
other polyfuses. It is very difficult to determine the functionality of a particular
fuse by simple visual inspection. Moreover, additional physical security has been
designed around the polyfuses to provide further security.
■
Stratix III devices do not support configuration file readback. This prevents
attempts to read back the configuration file after it is decrypted.
■
Two 256-bit sequences are required to generate the 256-bit security key and
therefore, are required to program the key into the Stratix III device. The FPGA
design cannot be copied by programming a 256-bit security key into another
FPGA and configuring it with an encrypted configuration file. It is virtually
impossible to generate the two 256-bit sequences from the security key.
■
For non-volatile key with tamper-protection bit set, the polyfuses used to store the
security key are non-volatile and one-time programmable. No battery is needed.
After the Stratix III device is programmed with the key, it can only be configured
with configuration files encrypted with the same key. Attempts to configure the
Stratix III device with an unencrypted configuration file or a configuration file
encrypted with the wrong key results in configuration failure. Therefore,
tampering of the design file can be detected.
Security Encryption Algorithm
Stratix III FPGAs have a dedicated decryption block that uses the AES algorithm to
decrypt configuration data using a user-defined 256-bit security key. Prior to receiving
the encrypted data, the user-defined 256-bit security key must be written into the
device.
The AES algorithm is a symmetrical block cipher that encrypts and decrypts data in
blocks of 256 bits. The encrypted data is subject to a series of transformations that
includes byte substitutions, data mixing, data shifting, and key additions.
Stratix III FPGAs contain an AES decryptor block that uses the AES algorithm to
decrypt the configuration data prior to configuring the FPGA device. If the security
feature is not used, the AES decryptor is bypassed. The Stratix III AES
implementation has been validated as conforming to the Federal Information
Processing Standards FIPS-197.
f
For more information about the AES algorithm, refer to the Federal Information
Processing Standards Publication FIPS-197 at
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/fips-197.pdf or the AES Algorithm
(Rijndael) Information at http://csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/aes/rijndael/.
f
For more information about the Stratix III AES validation, refer to the Advanced
Encryption Standard Algorithm Validation List published by the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/index.html.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Overview of the Design Security Feature
Page 3
Non-Volatile and Volatile Key Storage
Stratix III FPGAs offer both volatile and non-volatile security key storage. The volatile
security key storage requires battery back-up but enables the security key to be
updated, in which the non-volatile security key storage allows only one key to ever be
programmed but does not require a battery.
Table 1 shows a comparison of volatile and non-volatile key storage.
Table 1. Volatile and Non-Volatile Key Comparison
Option
Volatile Key
Non-Volatile Key
Key Length
256 bits
256 bits
Key
Programmability
Reprogrammable and erasable
key
One-time programmable key
External Battery
Required
Not required
Key Programming On-board
Method (1)
Both on-board and off-board
Design Protection Secure against copying and
reverse engineering
Secure against copying, reverse
engineering, and tampering (2)
Notes to Table 1:
(1) Key programming is carried out via the JTAG interface.
(2) Tampering is prevented only when the tamper-protection bit is set, thus preventing configuration with
unencrypted Programmer Object Files (.pof) files.
1
f
Enabling the tamper-protection bit disables the test mode in Stratix III
devices. This process is irreversible and prevents Altera from carrying out
failure analysis if the test mode is disabled. Contact Altera Technical
Support to enable the tamper-protection bit.
For more information about security modes that are available, refer to the
Design Security in Stratix III Devices chapter in volume 1 of the Stratix III
Device Handbook.
Key Programming
Table 2 describes the four different methods for key programming.
Table 2. Key Programming Methods
Programming Procedure
On-Board Programming
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
(Note 1) (Part 1 of 2)
Method
Programming Tool
Prototyping
EthernetBlaster, JTAG technologies,
ByteBlaster™ II, USB-Blaster™ (2)
Production
In-circuit tester®, JTAG technologies
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 4
Hardware and Software Requirements
Table 2. Key Programming Methods
Programming Procedure
Off-Board Programming
(Note 1) (Part 2 of 2)
Method
Programming Tool
Prototyping
System General, third-party programming
service
Production
System General, third-party programming
service
Notes to Table 2:
(1) Contact Altera Technical Support for information on programming support.
(2) ByteBlaster II and USB-Blaster support only volatile security key programming. For non-volatile key programming,
use the EthernetBlaster or JTAG technologies.
Key programming uses the following definitions:
■
On-board: procedure in which the device is programmed on the customer board.
■
Off-board: procedure in which the device is programmed on a separate
programming system.
■
Prototyping: method initially used to verify proper operation of a particular
method.
■
Production: method used for large-volume production.
Hardware and Software Requirements
This section provides the hardware and software requirements for the Stratix III
design security feature. When using this feature, a volatile or non-volatile security key
is stored in the Stratix III FPGA. The design security key is programmed before the
Stratix III is configured and enters user mode.
Hardware Requirements
Table 3 shows the voltage specifications that you need to follow for a successful
security key programming.
Table 3. Voltage Specifications for Design Security Feature
Parameter
Key Programming Mode
Voltage (VCCPT)
2.5 V ± 0.125 V
TCK Period (2)
10 µs ± 1 µs
Ambient Temperature
25°C ± 5°C
Voltage (VCCBAT) (1)
1.0 V (minimum), 3.0 V (typical), 3.3 V (maximum)
Note to Table 3:
(1)
VCCBAT is a dedicated power supply for the volatile key storage and is not shared with other on-chip power
supplies, such as VCCIO or VCC. VCCBAT continuously supplies power to the volatile register regardless of the
on-chip supply condition. If you do not use the volatile security key, you may connect the VCCBAT to either ground
or a 3.0 V power supply.
(2) The TCK period specification is applied to non-volatile key programming. The TCK period specification for volatile
key programming is the same as device JTAG TCK specification.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 5
1
Non-volatile key programming must be performed within the allowable
TCK frequency, which approximates up to 100 kHz.
1
After power-up, you must wait 100 ms (PORSEL = 0) or 12 ms (PORSEL =
1) before beginning the key programming to ensure that VCCBAT is at its
full rail.
1
Examples of lithium coin-cell type batteries that are used for volatile key
storage purposes are BR1220 (–30° to +80°C) and BR2477A (–40°C to
+125°C).
f
For more information about battery specifications, refer to the Stratix III
Device Datasheet: DC and Switching Characteristics chapter in volume 2 of
the Stratix III Device Handbook.
f
Additional operating conditions must be met in order to ensure proper
operation. For proper operating conditions for Stratix III devices, refer to
the Stratix III Device Datasheet: DC and Switching Characteristics chapter in
volume 2 of the Stratix III Device Handbook.
Software Requirements
To enable the design security feature of Stratix III FPGAs, you must use the Quartus II
software version 7.2 SP2 or later. You can obtain a license file to enable the Stratix III
design security feature from Altera Technical Support.
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
To implement a secure configuration flow, perform the following steps as shown in
Figure 1:
1. Generate the encryption key programming file and encrypt the configuration data.
The Quartus II configuration software always uses the user-defined 256-bit
security key to generate a key programming file and an encrypted configuration
file. The encrypted configuration file is stored in an external memory, such as a
flash memory or a configuration device. For more infomation, refer to “Step 1:
Generate the Encryption Key Programming File and Encrypt Configuration File”
on page 6.
2. Program the user-defined 256-bit security key into the Stratix III device.
For more infomation, refer to “Step 2a: Program the Volatile Security Key into
Stratix III Device ” on page 17 and “Step 2b: Program the Non-Volatile Security
Key into Stratix III Device” on page 17.
3. Configure the Stratix III device.
At power-up, the external memory source sends the encrypted configuration file
to the Stratix III FPGA. The Stratix III device uses the stored security key to
decrypt the file and to configure itself. For more infomation on how to configure
Stratix III device with encrypted configuration data, refer to “Step 3: Configure the
Stratix III Device with Encrypted Configuration Data” on page 24.
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
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Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Figure 1. Stratix III Secure Configuration Flow
Step 1. Generate the Encryption Key Programming File
Encrypt Configuration Data and Store in External Memory
Quartus II
Configuration
Data
AES
Encryptor
Encrypted
Configuration
Data
Encryption Key
Programming File
AES KEY
Step 3. Configure the Stratix III FPGA
Using Encrypted Configuration Data
Memory
Storage
Encrypted
Configuration
Data
Encrypted
Configuration
Data
FPGA
AES
Decryptor
Volatile and
Non-Volatile
Key Storage
AES KEY
Step 2. Program Security Key into
Stratix III FPGA
Step 1: Generate the Encryption Key Programming File and Encrypt Configuration File
To use the design security feature in Stratix III FPGAs, you must generate an
encryption key programming file and encrypt your configuration files using the
Quartus II software version 7.2 SP2 or later (make sure you use the same two 256-bit
sequences for both). The security key is not saved into any Quartus II-generated
configuration files and the actual 256-bit security key is generated from the two
256-bit sequences. This makes it impossible to copy the security key to other Stratix III
FPGAs.
1
To enable Stratix III design security feature, a license file must be obtained. Contact
Altera Technical Support for assistance.
The encryption key programming file has different formats, depending on the
hardware or system used for programming. There are three file formats supported by
the Quartus II version 7.2 SP2 and later:
■
JBC (.ekp)
■
JEDEC STAPL (.jam)
■
Serial Vector Format (.svf)
1
Only the .ekp file type is generated automatically from the Quartus II
software. You must create the .jam and .svf files using the Quartus II
software if these files are required in the key programming. Quartus II
software version 7.2 SP2 or later generates the JBC format of encryption key
programming file in the same project directory.
1
Altera recommends keeping the encryption key programming file
confidential.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 7
The JBC format is used with the EthernetBlaster communications cable or USB-Blaster
download cable and the Quartus II software. The EthernetBlaster communications
cable can support both volatile and non-volatile key programming whereas the
USB-Blaster download cable is used only for volatile key programming. The .jam file
format is generally used with third-party programming vendors and JTAG
programmer vendors. The .svf file format is used with JTAG programmer vendors
and in-circuit test vendors.
How to Generate the Single-Device Encryption Key Programming File and Encrypt
the Configuration File Using the Quartus II 7.2 SP2 or Later
Use the following steps to generate a single-device encryption key programming file
and encrypt your configuration file:
1. Obtain a license file to enable the Stratix III design security feature from Altera
Technical Support.
2. Start the Quartus II software.
3. In the Tools menu, click License Setup. The Options window displays the License
Setup options.
4. In the License file field, enter the location and name of the license file, or browse to
and select the license file.
5. Click OK.
6. Compile your design by using one of the following options:
a. In the Processing menu, click Start Compilation.
b. In the Processing menu, select Start, and click Start Assembler.
An unencrypted SRAM Object File (.sof) is generated.
7. In the File menu, click Convert Programming Files. The Convert Programming
Files window appears (Figure 2).
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
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Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Figure 2. Convert Programming Files Window
Select the appropriate
programming file type
Select the
appropriate mode
If applicable, select the
appropriate
configuration device
The file name for
the encrypted
configuration file
Add the unencrypted
SOF file for file conversion
Click to open
The SOF Files Properties:
Bitstream Encryption
window
a. In the Convert Programming Files window, select the programming file type
from the Programming file type list.
b. If applicable, select the appropriate configuration device from the
Configuration device list.
c. Select the mode from the Mode list.
d. Type the file name in the File name field, or browse to and select the file.
e. Under the Input files to convert section, click SOF Data.
f. Click Add File to open the Select Input File window.
g. Browse to the unencrypted SOF file and click Open.
h. Under the Input files to convert section, click on the SOF file name. The field is
highlighted.
i. Click Properties. The SOF Files Properties: Bitstream Encryption window
appears (Figure 3).
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 9
Figure 3. SOF File Properties: Bitstream Encryption Window
List the
file name
for the .svf file
j.
Select the
.svf file format
In the SOF Files Properties: Bitstream Encryption window, turn on Generate
encrypted bitstream.
k. Turn on Generate key programming file and type the encryption key
programming file path and file name in the text area, or browse to and select
<filename>.ekp.
l. Add the keys to the pull-down list either by using a .key file or the Add button.
The Add and Edit buttons bring up the Key Entry window. The Delete button
deletes the currently selected key from the pull-down list(Figure 3).
Using the .key file option allows you to specify one or two key files in the
corresponding pull-down list. You may use different files for the Key 1 and
Key 2 fields, or use one .key file for both. (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Use Key File Option
The .key file is a plain text file in which each line represents a key unless the line
starts with “#”. The “#” symbol is used to denote comments.
Each valid key line have the following format: <key identity><white space><256-bit
hexadecimal key>, as shown in Figure 5.
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
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Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Figure 5. Example of .key File
The key identity is an alphanumeric name that is used to identify the keys (similar
as the key file entry). It is also the text displayed when the Show entered keys
check box is turned off (Figure 6). It is displayed together with the full key when
Show entered keys is turned on (Figure 7).
Figure 6. Key Identity
Figure 7. Key Identity and the Full Key Entry
The keys in the pull-down list can be saved to a .key file. You need to click the
corresponding Save button to save a key. This displays the standard File dialog
box. All the keys in the pull-down list is saved to the selected or created .key file
(Figure 4 on page 9).
Select the Key Entry Method to enter the encryption key either with the on-screen
keypad or keyboard (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Key Entry Method
The on-screen keypad allows you to enter the keys using the keypad shown in
Figure 9. Select a key and click on the on-screen keypad to enter values. You have
the option of allowing the keys to be shown as they are entered; if this option is
used, you do not need to confirm the key.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 11
Figure 9. On-Screen Keypad
Enter the
encryption key from
the on-screen keypad
1
While the on-screen keypad is being used, any attempt to use the keyboard
to enter the keys generates a pop-up notification and the key press is
ignored. Alternatively, you can enter the encryption key from the keyboard
(Figure 10).
Figure 10. Keyboard
Enter the
encryption key from
the keyboard
m. .Read the Stratix II or Stratix III Design Security Feature Disclaimer. If you
agree to and acknowledge the Stratix II or Stratix III Design Security Feature
Disclaimer, turn on the acknowledgement box (Figure 10).
n. Click OK.
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
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Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Figure 11. Example of User Interface
8.
In the Convert Programming Files window, click OK. The <filename>.ekp and
encrypted configuration file are generated in the same project directory.
9.
In the Tools menu, click Programmer. The Programmer window appears
(Figure 12).
Figure 12. Programmer Window
10. In the Mode list, select JTAG as the programming mode.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 13
11. Click Hardware Setup. The Hardware Setup window appears.
a. In the currently selected hardware list, select EthernetBlaster as the
programming hardware.
b. Click Done.
12. Click Add File. The Select Programmer File window appears.
a. Type <filename>.ekp in the File name field.
b. Click Open.
13. Highlight the encryption key programming (.ekp) file you added and click
Program/Configure.
14. In the File menu, point to Create/Update and click Create JAM, SVF, or ISC File.
The Create JAM, SVF or ISC File window appears (Figure 13).
Figure 13. Create .jam File from Single-Device Encryption Key Programming File
List the file
name for the
.jam file
© March 2009
Select the
.jam file format
15.
Select the file format required, that is the JEDEC STAPL Format (.jam), for the
encryption key programming file in the File format field.
16.
Type the file name in the File name field, or browse to and select the file.
17.
Click OK to generate the .jam file.
18.
In the Tools menu, click Programmer Options. The Programmer Options
window appears (Figure 14).
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 14
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Figure 14. Programmer Options Window
Option for volatile or
non-volatile key programming
1
For Stratix III devices, you must turn off Configure volatile design security
key to generate a non-volatile .svf file of the encryption key programming
file (Figure 14).
19.
Click OK.
20.
Repeat Steps 15—17 to generate a .svf file of the encryption key programming
file. Use the default setting in the Create JAM, SVF, or ISC File window when
generating a .svf file of the encryption key programming file (Figure 15).
1
To generate a .svf file of the encryption key programming file using the
Quartus II software version 7.2 SP2, a Quartus II software patch must be
obtained. Contact Altera Technical Support for assistance.
Figure 15. Create .svf File from Single-Device Encryption Key Programming File
List the
file name
for the .svf file
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Select the
.svf file format
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 15
How to Generate the Single-Device Encryption Key Programming File Using the
Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later With Command-Line Interface
There is a command-line interface that allows you to generate a single-device
encryption key programming file. The command line uses the Quartus II Software
Command-Line Executable, quartus_cpf, and requires the following syntax or
options:
■
--gen_ekp/-e
■
--key/-k <path to key file>:<key identity>
■
An SRAM Object File (user design)
■
An encryption key programming file (encryption key programming file name that
is required)
Example 1 shows two sets of keys that are stored in two different key files: key1 in
mykeys.key and key2 in otherkeys.key.
Example 1.
quartus_cpf --key D:\SIII_DS\mykeys.key:key1 --key
D:\SIII_DS\otherkeys.key:key2 D:\SIII_DS\test.sof D:\SIII_DS\test.ekp
Example 2 shows two sets of keys that are stored in the same key file: key1 and key2
in mykeys.key.
Example 2.
quartus_cpf --key D:\SIII_DS\mykeys.key:key1:key2 D:\SIII_DS\test.sof
D:\SIII_DS\test.ekp
How to Generate the Multi-Device Encryption Key Programming File and Encrypt the
Configuration File using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later
Use the following steps to generate a multi-device encryption key programming file
and encrypt your configuration file:
1. Start the Quartus II software.
2. Repeat Steps 9 – 11 in “How to Generate the Single-Device Encryption Key
Programming File and Encrypt the Configuration File Using the Quartus II 7.2 SP2
or Later ” on page 7.
3. Click Add File. The Select Programmer File window displays.
a. Select the single-device encryption key programming file, and type
<single_ekp>.ekp in the File name field.
b. Click Open.
1
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
For the correct sequence of devices in the same JTAG chain, you can use the
Auto-Detect option in the Quartus II programmer. If one of the FPGA
devices does not need to be key-programmed, you do not need to replace
the device with the <single_ekp>.ekp file in the Quartus II programmer.
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Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
4. Repeat Step 3 for the number of the devices in the same chain. Ensure that the
right device sequence is used when adding the encryption key programming files
to the programmer window.
5. Highlight all the encryption key programming files you added and click
Program/Configure.
6. In the File menu, point to Create/Update and click Create JAM, SVF, or ISC File.
The Create JAM, SVF, or ISC File window appears. (Figure 16).
Figure 16. Multi-Device Key Programming: .jam File Generation
Example of two
Stratix III devices
in one JTAG
chain
Select the
.jam file format
7. Select the file format required, that is the JEDEC STAPL Format (.jam), for all the
encryption key programming files in the File format field.
8. Type the file name in the File name field, or browse to and select the file.
9. Click OK to generate the .jam file.
10. In the Tools menu, click Programmer Options. The Programmer Options window
appears.
1
For Stratix III devices, you must turn off Configure volatile design security
key to generate a non-volatile .svf file of the encryption key programming
file.
11. Click OK.
12. Repeat Steps 7–9 to generate .svf file for all the encryption key programming files.
Use the default setting in Create JAM, SVF, or ISC File window when generating a
.svf file of the encryption key programming file (Figure 17).
1
To generate a .svf file of the encryption key programming file using the
Quartus II software version 7.2 SP2, a Quartus II software patch must be
obtained. Contact Altera Technical Support for assistance.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 17
Figure 17. Multi-Device Key Programming: .svf File Generation
Step 2a: Program the Volatile Security Key into Stratix III Device
Before programming the volatile security key into the Stratix III FPGA, ensure that the
FPGA can be configured successfully with an unencrypted configuration file. The
volatile security key is a reprogrammable and erasable key. Before you program the
Stratix III device with the volatile security key, you must provide an external battery
to retain the volatile security key. Stratix III devices with successful volatile security
key programmed can accept both encrypted and unencrypted configuration
bitstreams. This enables the use of unencrypted configuration bitstreams for
board-level testing.
Any attempt to configure a Stratix III device containing the volatile security key with
a configuration file encrypted with the wrong key causes the configuration to fail. If
this occurs, the nSTATUS signal from the FPGA pulses low and continues to reset
itself.
You can program the security key into the Stratix III FPGA using on-board
prototyping from Table 2 on page 3 .
Step 2b: Program the Non-Volatile Security Key into Stratix III Device
Before programming the non-volatile security key into the Stratix III FPGA, ensure
that the FPGA can be configured successfully with an unencrypted configuration file.
The security key is one-time programmable through the JTAG interface. You can
program the non-volatile key into the Stratix III device without an external battery.
Stratix III devices with successful non-volatile security key programmed can accept
both encrypted and unencrypted configuration bitstreams. This enables the use of
unencrypted configuration bitstreams for board-level testing.
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
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Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Any attempt to configure a Stratix III device containing the non-volatile security key
with a configuration file encrypted with the wrong key causes the configuration to
fail. If this occurs, the nSTATUS signal from the FPGA pulses low and continues to
reset itself.
You can program the security key into the Stratix III FPGA using on-board
prototyping, volume production, and off-board prototyping and production solutions
from Table 2 on page 3 .
Volatile or Non-Volatile Security Key Programming Using EthernetBlaster and
Quartus II Software
Connect the EthernetBlaster communications cable to the EthernetBlaster header as
shown in Figure 18.
f
For additional information about connecting the EthernetBlaster communications
cable, refer to the EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide.
Figure 18. EthernetBlaster Header (Note 1), (2)
EthernetBlaster Header
10 K Ω
10 K Ω
1KΩ
J28
TCK
1
2
JTAG_CONN_TDO
3
4
JTAG_TMS
5
6
JTAG_CONN_TDI
7
8
9
10
VCCPD
Notes to Figure 18:
(1) A 1-KΩ pull-down resistor is added to the TCK while 10-KΩ pull-up resistors are added to the TMS and TDI signals
for security key programming.
(2) The EthernetBlaster header and USB-Blaster header are identical for security key programming.
How to Perform Single-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile Security Key Programming
Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later
To perform single-device volatile or non-volatile security key programming using the
Quartus II software through the EthernetBlaster, perform the following steps:
1. Check the firmware version of the EthernetBlaster. Verify that the JTAG firmware
build number is 101 or greater. If the version precedes build number 101, apply the
firmware upgrade.
1
Apply the firmware upgrade (EBFW100101.tar.gz) to the EthernetBlaster
unit. This updates the JTAG Firmware to Build 101. For firmware upgrade
directions, refer to the EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide.
2. Start the Quartus II software.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 19
3. In the Tools menu, click Programmer. The Programmer window appears
(Figure 19).
Figure 19. Key Programming Using EthernetBlaster and Quartus II Software
EthernetBlaster as
the programming
hardware
JTAG as the
programming mode
Add the <filename>.ekp file
4. In the Mode list, select JTAG as the programming mode (Figure 19).
5. Click Hardware Setup. The Hardware Setup window appears.
a. In the Currently selected hardware list, select EthernetBlaster as the
programming hardware.
b. Click Done.
6. Click Add File. The Select Programmer File window appears.
a. Type <filename>.ekp in the File name field.
b. Click Open.
7. Highlight the encryption key programming (.ekp) file you added and click
Program/Configure (Figure 20).
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 20
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Figure 20. Programming the Key
Click Start to
program the key
Highlight the file and click
Program/Configure
8. In the Tools menu, click Options. The Options window appears (Figure 21).
9. In the Category list, click Programmer. You can choose to turn on or turn off
Configure volatile design security key (for Stratix III devices) to perform volatile
or non-volatile security key programming.
10. Click OK to close the Options window.
11. Click Start to program the key.
12. The Quartus II software Message window provides information about the success
or failure of the key programming operation.
Figure 21. Programming Options Window
Option for volatile or
non-volatile
key programming
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 21
How to Perform Single-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile Security Key Programming
Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later With Command-Line Interface
To perform single-device volatile or non-volatile security key programming using the
Quartus II 7.2 SP2 command-line interface through the EthernetBlaster, perform the
following steps:
1. Perform Step 1 of “How to Perform Single-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile Security
Key Programming Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later” on page 18.
2. To determine the EthernetBlaster cable port number that is connected to the JTAG
server, type quartus_jli -n at the command-line prompt.
3. With the single_ekp.jam file generated in “Step 1: Generate the Encryption Key
Programming File and Encrypt Configuration File” on page 6, execute volatile or
non-volatile security key programming to a single FPGA by using the following
command line:
■
Volatile security key programming:
quartus_jli –c<n> single_ekp.jam -aKEY_CONFIGURE
■
Non-volatile security key programming:
quartus_jli –c<n> single_ekp.jam -aKEY_PROGRAM
<n> is the port number returned with the -n option.
4. The Quartus II software command-line executable provides information on the
success or failure of the key programming operation.
f
For more information about command-line executable quartus_jli,
refer to the Using the Command-Line Executable in Quartus II Software
section in AN 425: Using Command-Line Jam STAPL Solution for Device
Programming.
How to Perform Multi-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile Security Key Programming
Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later
To perform multi-device volatile or non-volatile security key programming using the
Quartus II software through the EthernetBlaster, perform the following steps:
1. Repeat Steps 1 – 5 in “How to Perform Single-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile
Security Key Programming Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later” on
page 18.
2. Click Add File. The Select Programmer File window displays (Figure 19).
a. Programming using single-device encryption key programming files:
i. Type <single_device>.ekp in the File name field.
ii. Click Open.
iii. Repeat Steps i–ii for the number of devices in the same chain.
iv. Highlight the encryption key programming files you added and click
Program/Configure (Figure 22).
1
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
For the correct sequence of the devices in the same JTAG chain, you can use
the Auto-Detect option in the Quartus II Programmer.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 22
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Figure 22. Multi-Device Key Programming with Encryption Key Programming Files
Ensure the right
device sequence is used
Example of two
Stratix III devices
in one JTAG chain
selected for key
programming
b. Programming using multi-device .jam file:
i. Type <multi_device>.jam in the File name field.
ii. Click Open.
iii. Highlight the .jam file you added and click Program/Configure (Figure 23).
3. Repeat Steps 8—10 of “How to Perform Single-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile
Security Key Programming Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later
With Command-Line Interface ” on page 21 to perform volatile or non-volatile
security key programming.
4. Click Start to program the key (Figure 23).
The Quartus II software Message window provides information on the success or
failure of the key programming operation.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Page 23
Figure 23. Multi-Device Key Programming with .jam Files
Click Start to
program the key
Highlight the file and click
Program/Configure
How to Perform Multi-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile Security Key Programming
Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later With Command-Line Interface
To perform multi-device volatile or non-volatile security key programming using the
Quartus II software version 7.2 SP2 or later command-line interface through the
EthernetBlaster, perform the following steps:
1. Perform Step 1 of “How to Perform Single-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile Security
Key Programming Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later With
Command-Line Interface ” on page 21.
2. To determine the EthernetBlaster cable port number that is connected to the JTAG
server, type quartus_jli -n at the command-line prompt.
3. With the multi_ekp.jam file generated in “Step 1: Generate the Encryption Key
Programming File and Encrypt Configuration File” on page 6, execute volatile or
non-volatile security key programming for multiple FPGAs by using the following
command line:
■
Volatile security key programming:
quartus_jli –c<n> multi_ekp.jam -aKEY_CONFIGURE
■
Non-volatile security key programming:
quartus_jli –c<n> multi_ekp.jam -aKEY_PROGRAM
<n> is the port number returned with the -n option.
The Quartus II software command-line interface provides information on the
success or failure of the key programming operation.
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 24
Steps for Implementing a Secure Configuration Flow
Key Programming Using JTAG Technologies
The security programming for your design is performed using a .svf file (encryption
key programming file in .svf format) and a JT 37xx boundary-scan controller in
combination with a JT 2147 QuadPod system.
1
Procedures for the JTAG programming can be found on the JTAG technologies
website at www.jtag.com.
Information about creating a .svf file to support multi-device programming is
described in “How to Generate the Multi-Device Encryption Key Programming File
and Encrypt the Configuration File using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later
” on page 15.
Key Programming Using System General and Other Third-Party Programming
Vendors
The System General T9600 and H9600 programming equipment support encryption
key programming for Stratix III devices. The System General programming models
include the T9600 and H9600 equipment.
The following two files are required:
■
JAM STAPL file (encryption key programming file in .jam format)
■
Encrypted Raw Binary file (.rbf) that contains encrypted configuration data. This
.rbf file is used to further verify the keys that have been programmed into the
FPGA. It can be any design file encrypted with the same set of keys used to
generate the .jam file.
The socket adapter availability for the Stratix III packages is shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Socket Availability for Stratix III Packages
Device
Stratix III
(Note 1)
Package
F484, F780, F1152, F1517, and F1760
Socket Adapter from System
General
Available in the middle or end of
2008
Note to Table 4:
(1) This information is preliminary.
1
The key programming service can be obtained from most Altera
distributors. In general, check with Altera Technical Support for updated
programming support status.
Step 3: Configure the Stratix III Device with Encrypted Configuration Data
The final step is to configure the protected Stratix III device with the encrypted
configuration file.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Supported Configuration Schemes
Page 25
During configuration, the encrypted configuration data is sent to the Stratix III FPGA.
Using the previously stored security key, the FPGA decrypts the configuration data
and uses the unencrypted data to configure itself. Only configuration files encrypted
using the correct security key are accepted by the FPGA for successful configuration.
Without a correct security key, a stolen encrypted file is useless.
Supported Configuration Schemes
The design security feature is available in all configuration methods, except in the
JTAG-based configuration. Therefore, you can use the design security feature in FPP
mode (when using an external controller, such as a MAX II device or a microprocessor
and a flash memory), or in Active Serial (AS) and Passive Serial (PS) configuration
schemes.
Table 5 summarizes the configuration schemes that support the design security
feature.
Table 5. Availability of Security Configuration Schemes
Configuration
Scheme
Configuration Method
Design
Security
v (1)
FPP
MAX II device or microprocessor, and flash memory
AS
Serial configuration device
v
PS
MAX II device or microprocessor, and flash memory
v
v (2)
Download cable
JTAG
MAX II device or microprocessor, and flash memory
—
Download cable
—
Notes to Table 5:
(1) In this mode, the host system must send a DCLK signal that is 4 times the data rate.
(2) The MicroBlaster™ tool is required to execute encrypted PS configuration using a .rbf file via ByteBlaster II or
ByteBlasterMV™ download cable. For more information about configuration, refer to the Configuration Center.
The Quartus II software version 7.2 SP2 supports encrypted .rbf file configuration via Altera download cables.
If you are using the MAX II device and flash memory configuration method, refer to
the MAX Series Configuration Controller Using Flash Memory white paper for more
information.
© March 2009
f
In addition, if your system contains a common flash interface (CFI) flash
memory, you can use it for the FPGA configuration as well. The MAX II
parallel flash loader (PFL) feature provides an efficient method to
program CFI flash memory through the JTAG interface.
f
For more information about PFL, refer to AN 386: Using the Parallel Flash
Loader with the Quartus II Software.
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 26
Supported Configuration Schemes
In JTAG mode, the configuration data does not use the same interface that is used in
the FPP, AS, and PS configuration schemes. Therefore, design security is not available
in JTAG-based configurations.
You can use the design security feature with other configuration features, such as the
compression and the remote system upgrade features. When compression is used
with the design security feature, the configuration file is first compressed and then
encrypted in the Quartus II software. During configuration, the FPGA first decrypts
and then uncompresses the configuration file.
You can perform Boundary Scan testing or use the SignalTap II logic analyzer to
analyze functional data within the FPGA. However, JTAG configuration is not
possible after the security key with tamper-protection bit set has been programmed
into the Stratix III FPGA.
When using the SignalTap II logic analyzer, you must first configure the device with
an encrypted configuration file using PS, FPP, or AS configuration modes. The design
must contain at least one instance of the SignalTap II logic analyzer. After the FPGA is
configured with a SignalTap II logic analyzer instance in the design and you open the
SignalTap II logic analyzer window in the Quartus II software, you simply scan the
chain and it is ready to acquire data over JTAG.
Serial FlashLoader Support with Encryption Enabled
Altera provides an in-system programming solution for serial configuration devices
called Serial FlashLoader (SFL). The SFL megafunction is available with the
Quartus II software version 6.0 SP1 or later. You may instantiate the SFL block to your
design and have the flexibility to update the design stored in the serial configuration
device without reprogramming the configuration device via the AS interface.
As long as the JTAG interface of the FPGA is accessible, you can use the SFL solution
for your application. If you are using the Design Security feature with tamper
protection bit is set, SFL solution will not work. Although the JTAG programming is
not supported when the tamper protection bit is set, you may instantiate the SFL
megafunction in your design and execute the SFL programming for the first time
before non-volatile key programming with the tamper protection bit is set on the
FPGA.
Perform the following procedures to use the SFL megafunction with the encryption
feature enabled in a single-FPGA device chain:
1. Start the Quartus II software.
2. Instantiate the SFL megafunction in your FPGA top-level design.
f
For detailed explanation about instantiating SFL megafunction, refer to
the Instantiating SFL Megafunction in the Quartus II Software section in
AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader With the Quartus II Software.
3. Compile your design by using one of the following options. An unencrypted
SRAM Object File (.sof) is generated.
a. In the Processing menu, click Start Compilation.
or
b. In the Processing menu, select Start, and click Start Assembler.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Supported Configuration Schemes
Page 27
4. Follow these steps to convert a .sof to a .jic file:
a. In the File menu, choose Convert Programming Files.
b. In the Convert Programming Files dialog box, scroll to the JTAG Indirect
Configuration File (.jic) from the Programming file type field.
c. In the Configuration device field, specify the serial configuration device.
d. In the File name field, browse to the target directory and specify an output file
name.
e. Highlight the .sof data in the Input files to convert section (Figure 24).
Figure 24. Generation of .jic File
f. Click Add File.
g. Select the .sof file that you want to convert to a .jic file.
h. Click OK.
i. Click on the .sof file name to encrypt the .sof file.
To encrypt the .sof file, refer to the Step 7 in “How to Generate the
Single-Device Encryption Key Programming File and Encrypt the
Configuration File Using the Quartus II 7.2 SP2 or Later ” on page 7.
j.
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
Highlight FlashLoader and click Add Device (Figure 25).
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 28
Supported Configuration Schemes
Figure 25. FlashLoader
Add the FlashLoader
bridge of the required
FPGA
k. Click OK. The Select Devices page appears.
l. Select the target FPGA that you are using to program the serial configuration
device.
m. Click OK.
5. Program the serial configuration device with the encrypted .jic file.
f
For more information about programming the serial configuration
device(s) with the .jic file that you just created, refer to the procedure in
Programming Serial Configuration Devices Using the Quartus II Programmer &
JIC Files section in AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader With the Quartus II
Software.
6. Program the security keys into the FPGA device.
1
To program the security keys to a single FPGA, follow the steps in“How to
Perform Single-Device Volatile or Non-Volatile Security Key Programming
Using Quartus II Software Version 7.2 SP2 or Later” on page 18.
7. The encrypted FPGA is then configured by the programmed serial configuration
device.
1
To program the key with a .jam file, you must convert the .jic file to a .jam
file.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Supported Configuration Schemes
Page 29
f
For more information about converting a .jic file to a .jam file, refer to
Converting JIC Files to JAM Files in the Quartus II Software section in AN 370:
Using the Serial FlashLoader With the Quartus II Software.
Specifying Configuration Schemes
To enable the design security feature, you must specify the configuration schemes
used by setting the MSEL[] pin settings, as shown in Table 6.
Table 6. Stratix III Configuration Schemes When Using Design Security Feature
MSEL2
MSEL1
MSEL0
Configuration Scheme
0
1
0
PS
0
1
1
Fast AS (40 MHz) (1)
0
1
1
Remote system upgrade fast AS (40 MHz) (1)
0
0
1
FPP with design security feature and/or decompression enabled (2)
Notes to Table 6:
(1) Existing batches of the EPCS1 and EPCS4 devices manufactured on 0.15-µm process geometry support the AS configuration up to 40 MHz.
However, batches of the EPCS1 and EPCS4 devices manufactured on 0.18-µm process geometry support only up to 20 MHz. The EPCS16,
EPCS64, and EPCS128 serial configuration devices are not affected. For more information, refer to the Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1,
EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet of the Configuration Handbook.
(2) These modes are only supported when using a MAX II device/microprocessor and flash memory for configuration. In these modes, the host
system must generate an output DCLK signal that is 4 times the data rate.
Considerations When Choosing a Configuration Scheme
As shown in Figure 26, in a serial configuration scheme (AS or PS), you can cascade a
series of Stratix III FPGAs that use the design security feature (accepts encrypted data)
along with devices that do not use the design security feature, such as other Altera
FPGAs that accept unencrypted data in the same configuration chain.
Figure 26. Stratix III Series Serial Configuration
Serial
Serial Configuration
Configuration Data
Data
Serial
Serial
Configuration
Configuration
Device
Device
Unencrypted
Unencrypted
Configuration
Configuration
Data
Data
Encrypted
Encrypted
Configuration
Configuration
Data
Data
AES
AES Decryptor
Decryptor
Stratix
Stratix III
III FPGA
FPGA
Stratix
Stratix III
III FPGA
FPGA
nCE
nCE
nCEO
nCEO
nCE
nCE
nCEO
nCEO
N.C.
N.C.
GND
GND
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 30
Supported Configuration Schemes
When using FPP, the design security feature must be either enabled or disabled for all
Stratix III FPGAs in the chain. The design security feature cannot be selectively
enabled for individual devices within the chain because of the relationship between
the DATA and DCLK signal, which is discussed in the following section. If the chain
contains devices that do not support the design security feature, Altera recommends
that you use a serial configuration scheme.
However, the DATA and DCLK signal relationship in FPP mode when using the
decompression feature is the same as when using the design security feature. If all the
devices in the chain use the decompression feature, the design security feature can be
selectively enabled or disabled for each device.
DCLK Considerations When Using the FPP Configuration Scheme
The FPP configuration scheme with the design security feature enabled requires that
an external host be used, such as a MAX II device or a microprocessor to control the
flow of the DATA and DCLK signal to the Stratix III FPGA.
DCLK is the clock source that is used to clock the configuration process. Configuration
data is received on the DATA[7..0] pins.
If you are using the Stratix III design security feature with the FPP configuration
scheme, the external host must be able to send a DCLK frequency that is four times the
data rate.
The 4× DCLK signal does not require an additional pin and is sent on the DCLK pin.
The maximum DCLK frequency supported in Stratix III devices is 100 MHz and
produces a maximum data rate shown in Equation 1:
Equation 1.
100 MHz/4 × 8 bits = 200 Mbps
When using the design security feature, the first configuration data byte is latched on
the FPGA on the first DCLK rising edge. Subsequent data bytes are latched four clock
cycles after each previous data byte (that is, data is latched on the first, fifth, ninth
DCLK rising edge, and so on). The configuration clock (DCLK) speed must be below the
frequency specified in Equation 1 to ensure correct configuration. No maximum DCLK
period exists, which means you can pause configuration by halting DCLK for an
indefinite amount of time.
If you need to stop DCLK while using the Stratix III design security feature with the
FPP configuration scheme, it can only be stopped three clock cycles after the last data
byte was latched into the Stratix III FPGA.
Stopping DCLK three clock cycles after the last data byte was latched into the Stratix III
FPGA gives the configuration circuit enough clock cycles to process the last byte of
latched configuration data. When the clock restarts, data must be present on the
DATA[7..0] pins prior to sending the first DCLK rising edge.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
Timing Parameters with Design Security Feature Enabled
Page 31
Timing Waveform for FPP Configuration
Figure 27 shows the timing waveform for the FPP configuration that uses a MAX II
device or a microprocessor as an external host. This waveform shows the timing when
the design security feature is enabled.
Figure 27. FPP Configuration Timing Waveform with Design Security Feature Enabled (Note 1), (2)
tCF2ST1
tCFG
nCONFIG
(3) nSTATUS
tCF2CK
tSTATUS
tCF2ST0
(4) CONF_DONE
tCF2CD
tCL
tST2CK
DCLK
tCH
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
(7)
1
3
(5)
4
tCLK
DATA[7..0]
Byte 0
Byte 1
tDH
tDH
tDSU
User I/O
(7)
Byte 2
Byte (n-1) Byte n
(6)
User Mode
User Mode
High-Z
INIT_DONE
tCD2UM
Notes to Figure 27:
(1) This timing waveform should be used when the design security feature is used.
(2) The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode, nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE are at logic-high levels.
When nCONFIG is pulled low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
(3) Upon power-up, the Stratix III FPGA holds nSTATUS low during the power-on reset (POR) delay.
(4) Upon power-up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(5) DCLK should not be left floating after configuration. It should be driven high or low, whichever is more convenient.
(6) DATA[7..0] pins are available as user I/O pins after configuration and the state of these pins depends on the dual-purpose pin settings.
(7) If needed, DCLK can be paused. When DCLK restarts, the external host must provide data on the DATA[7..0] pins prior to sending the first
DCLK rising edge.
Timing Parameters with Design Security Feature Enabled
Table 7 defines the timing parameters for Stratix III FPGAs that implement the FPP
configuration scheme with the design security feature enabled.
Table 7. FPP Timing Parameters for Stratix III FPGAs with Design Security Feature Enabled (Note 1), (2) (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
tPOR
POR delay
12
100
ms
tCF2CD
nCONFIG low to
CONF_DONE low
—
800
ns
tCF2ST0
nCONFIG low to
nSTATUS low
—
800
ns
nCONFIG low pulse
2
—
μs
10
100 (3)
μs
tCFG
width
tSTATUS
nSTATUS low pulse
width
© March 2009
Altera Corporation
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Page 32
Timing Parameters with Design Security Feature Enabled
Table 7. FPP Timing Parameters for Stratix III FPGAs with Design Security Feature Enabled (Note 1), (2) (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG high to
nSTATUS high
—
100 (3)
μs
tCF2CK
nCONFIG high to first
rising edge on DCLK
100
—
μs
tST2CK
nSTATUS high to first
rising edge of DCLK
2
—
μs
tDSU
Data setup time before
rising edge on DCLK
5
—
ns
tDH
Data hold time after
rising edge on DCLK
30
—
ns
tCH
DCLK high time
4
—
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
4
—
ns
tCLK
DCLK period
10
—
ns
fMAX
DCLK frequency
—
100
MHz
tDATA
Data rate
—
200
Mbps
tR
Input rise time
—
40
ns
tF
Input fall time
—
40
ns
tCD2UM
CONF_DONE high to
user mode (4)
20
100
μs
tCD2CU
CONF_DONE high to
CLKUSR enabled
4 × maximum
—
—
CONF_DONE high to
user mode with
CLKUSR option on
tCD2CU + (4,436 ×
—
—
tCD2UMC
DCLK period
CLKUSR period)
Notes to Table 7:
(1) This information is preliminary.
(2) Altera recommends that you use these timing parameters when the design security feature is used.
(3) This value can be obtained if you do not delay configuration by extending the nCONFIG or nSTATUS low pulse width.
(4) The minimum and maximum numbers apply only if the internal oscillator is selected as the clock source for initializing the device.
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
© March 2009 Altera Corporation
US Export Controls
Page 33
US Export Controls
The US export controls for the Stratix III family of devices are generally classified
under the US Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCN) 3A001.a.7 or 3A991.d.
Although Stratix III devices can perform decryption, the export control classification
of the devices does not change as the decryption capability is only used to protect the
configuration bitstream. Altera's Quartus II software development tools (version 7.2
SP2 or later), which encrypt the configuration bitstream, have been formally classified
under US ECCN 5D002 c.1 and subject to export under license exception ENC as a
“retail” commodity to most countries. You can contact [email protected] with
any export-related questions.
Conclusion
As FPGAs move from being glue logic to implementing critical system functions, the
need for design security is increasing. Stratix III FPGAs address this concern by
providing built-in design security. Stratix III FPGAs not only offer high density, fast
performance, and cutting-edge features to meet your design needs, but also protect
your designs against IP theft and tampering of your configuration files.
Document Revision History
Table 8 shows the revision history for this application note.
Table 8. Document Revision History
Date and Revision
Changes Made
March 2009
v1.1
■
Updated Table 3 andTable 5.
■
Updated Notes to Table 3 and Table 5.
■
Updated handnote in “Hardware Requirements” section.
■
Updated Example 1 and Example 2
■
Updated “Introduction” ,“Supported Configuration
Schemes” ,“Serial FlashLoader Support with Encryption
Enabled ” and “Considerations When Choosing a
Configuration Scheme ” section.
April 2008
v1.0
© March 2009
Initial Release.
Altera Corporation
Summary of Changes
—
—
AN 512: Using the Design Security Feature in Stratix III Devices
Document Revision History
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Copyright © 2009 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. Altera, The Programmable Solutions Company, the stylized
Altera logo, specific device designations, and all other words and logos that are identified as trademarks and/or service
marks are, unless noted otherwise, the trademarks and service marks of Altera Corporation in the U.S. and other
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under numerous U.S. and foreign patents and pending applications, maskwork rights, and copyrights. Altera warrants
performance of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty,
but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no
responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera Corporation. Altera customers are
advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
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