10 things you must do about email security right now! Email is a constant. Email is everywhere. Email is something few of us could live without. Billions of messages are sent each month, and countless hundreds are received every week, often every day by your end users. And each of these missives could be a vector of attack, a container of malware, or a way to destroy your company’s very business. It would be easy to stop attacks if there was just one way hackers use email to bring your shop to its knees. Unfortunately, email is vulnerable in myriad ways and hackers have nearly unlimited ways to attack. And it gets worse literally every second. Don’t believe it? How many times have you gotten bogus emails from friends or colleagues because their address books were hacked? And because they are from people you trust, how easy is it for a security novice to fall for these ploys and, say, click on an infected link? You must protect your network from these incursions. One way is to go back to basics, and make sure you are taking all the traditional steps to fortify your email. At the same time, there are new attack techniques and you must be on guard for these as well. So you must implement traditional best practices and move ahead to the future to ward off attacks on your shop’s email, as well as your own. Meanwhile this entire threat is organized, international, criminal, and ever growing in sophistication. In this paper, we’ll lay out the problem, and then give 10 solutions to this increasingly dangerous problem. Why is email so vulnerable? Email can be an insanely easy way for attackers to get into your network, and once they’re in, they truly have the keys to the kingdom. Not only can they gain higher level access to the network, especially if they launch an elevation of privilege attack, they now can see all the targeted user’s email content, and at the same time can impersonate that user by taking over their identity. And email is far too vulnerable. Not only are passwords commonly weak, but users are easy prey for social engineering, and controlling a user’s address book is a bot’s delight. What harm can hackers do via email? We sometimes think of certain email attacks as an annoyance. So what if Aunt Betsy’s Gmail got taken over by a bot and we got a bogus message? Even if you sidestepped the danger of Aunt Betsy’s bogus email, not everyone did. And those who fell for it probably harmed other users, including those in your own corporate or personal address book. The evil beauty of these attacks is the user sometimes only knows they were compromised once they get email back from their contacts asking about suspicious mail. And if the email is taken over just to spread spam, the victim only knows if their performance slows to a distinct crawl. And these attacks may be the least of your worries. There is far more to fear, and battle. Traditional style email viruses are still a massive problem. This threat was really brought to the fore with a little nasty virus named Melissa back in 1999. Far from sweet, Melissa used email to bring systems to their knees simply by overloading them. The virus spread by tricking users into opening an attachment hoping to get free pornography by offering up a list of supposed passwords. The attack was finally beaten back after much harm was done, but that didn’t mean the virus was done for the good. To the contrary, Melissa proved to hackers what was possible, and those creeps took the Melissa code and propagated new versions. This is one of the biggest drivers for hack attacks. The bad guys share code, and these days even a programming dunce can relaunch an existing attack with just a few tweaks. These clowns are known as script kiddies, and with a slight bit of knowledge and a penchant for social dysfunction can indeed wreak havoc. With Melissa, the hacker gloves were off, and email was suddenly prime game. Attacks broaden and worsen Hackers love easy pickings and they more so love a target that is ubiquitous. This is why Microsoft® software has long been the biggest target, and email fits the same exact profile of near-total commonality. And the typical email user is regularly confronted by phishing, malicious links, elevation of privilege exploits, and address book attacks. The rise of email makes it a bigger problem: today users have corporate email, but they likely also have multiple web mail accounts, multiplying the attack vector. The very use case of email makes it vulnerable. For most all of us, email is the app we still spend the most time with. It is hard to keep up with the volume of legit mail, never mind the spam. So when malicious mail masquerades as legitimate, even seasoned users can fall victim. Email is the perfect conduit for worms, a form of malware that multiplies and spreads largely through email distribution. And with script kiddies, these worms never die: they are simply tweaked and turned into more dangerous entities. Take Win32/Brontk, which has been around for years. This is a classic worm with proliferates through mass mailing. In typical fashion, this worm mails itself off with an innocent-looking email attachment, and finds addresses by hijacking end user address books. To make things worse, worms like Win32/Brontk can shut off your defenses such as anti-virus software and even use the hijacked email to launch denial of service (DoS) attacks. One new clever, near diabolical attack is a variant of the Nigerian scams. In one example, Mrs. Bridggie William from Kenya writes that her husband died after a “Cardiac Arteries Operation,” leaving behind over $10 million. As Bridggie herself is dying of cancer, she wants the recipient to provide a safe place for all this money. Instead of an email address to respond to, Bridggie was kind enough to include an Outlook meeting invitation. Acknowledging such invites can open you up to serious attacks. Of course, these meeting requests must be deleted immediately, and not just moved to your junk folder. And just as you ought not to respond to spam, do not decline the invite as this is akin to a response. Having multiple accounts that employees use at work multiplies the threat. It is best to restrict user to the corporate email system while they are on the corporate network that hopefully is equipped with defense-in-depth protection tools. Unprotected accounts are a major source of data leakage, worms, and other malware. On the other hand, if users do a lot of web surfing and sharing, it may make sense for you to help support these web email clients. They can use these accounts for non-business purposes, but still need to make sure they are protected since they can ultimately impact the company. Spam still a problem, maybe more than ever Spam, is often seen as a pure annoyance. Our inboxes are daily flooded with junk, and we are exposed to often offensive messages. But spam is a main conduit for hack attacks, be it malware or phishing. And spam is more dangerous than ever. The bad guys are not just trying to lure you to buy bogus wares, but want your information, your address book, and to use your connection to elevate their privileges and attack your company’s network. Even worse, with newer attacks, you don’t need to open an attachment to be compromised, nor do you need to click a link. The 2013 Microsoft Security Intelligence Report laid this out with precision. “More than 75 percent of the email messages sent over the Internet are unwanted. Not only does all this unwanted email tax recipients’ inboxes and the resources of email providers, but it also creates an environment in which emailed malware attacks and phishing attempts can proliferate. Email providers, social networks, and other online communities have made blocking spam, phishing, and other email threats a top priority,” the report said. There is far more to it than that. Spam wastes productive time as your workers pore over their inboxes and sift through the garbage. And spam is not going away. While not exploding as in years past, spam isn’t exactly disappearing either. At the same time, it is getting more dangerous and laden with malware and phishing attacks every day. The new ThingBot threat When we think of hack attacks, we imagine some jerk behind the keyboard with nothing better to do than cause problems. But most attacks are now automated, such as with worms. But there is a new threat. More and more small devices and even appliances are now IP devices and communicate with each other and our networks. This is known as the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine-tomachine (M2M). The problem is that the number of devices that can attack are greatly multiplying. Playing off the IoT term, these new attacks are called ThingBots and they use these newfangled devices to launch botnet attacks. In fact, a single botnet last year took control of over 100,000 of these small devices to spread its attack. This resulted in over 750,000 spam and phishing messages being sent out in just two short weeks. Many types of attacks can be launched this way including malware, and the spreading of inappropriate content and spam – which comes with its own litany of troubles. It’s not just smart refrigerators and intelligent thermostats, but our mobile phones, home routers, and consumer electronics that can now attack our email. It’s time to fight back Your company’s network, applications and data are the lifeblood of your business. Compromised a little and you are seriously damaged. Compromised a lot, and you may be down for the count. Protection is of the essence, and this protection must be deep and rich. Here are 10 top tips and an action plan to lock down email for good. 1. Demand passwords 2. Stop data leakage with content filtering 3. Stop spam before it really stinks 4. Stop breaches with content filtering 5. Make malware go away 6. Block breaches 7. Consider compliance 8. Training and best practices 9. Fight phishing 10. Implement defense in depth 1. Proper passwords What is email’s first and often only layer of defense? It is often a password. And since users generally use one password for multiple apps, if that password is cracked that exposure is compounded. Unfortunately, passwords are usually far too weak, as easy to crack as a freshly-laid egg. Even many shared accounts set by IT have insanely simple passwords. How many times has someone told you to key in “password”, “admin”, or “guest’. Maybe if the admin is sneaky they’ll have you enter “password123, “admin123”, or “guest123”. Like that will stop a motivated hacker! USERNAME •••••• Another good practice is to have different passwords for different email and other accounts, so if one gets discovered, the others aren’t found out as well. And if you decide to go with just one master password, make sure it has a high level of complexity and is changed regularly. Making matters worse, email is not just email any more. It often has integration and links to Facebook and other social media, and at the very least notifications from services such as LinkedIn, Amazon or eBay that can reveal a lot about the user. If a hacker is in your email, the first thing they will do is see if your password works with these other services. If it does, they know enough about you to make identity theft a breeze, or use this information to launch false personal attacks and create other mischief. These attacks can easily come from people you know. If they have your email address and know you love Harley-Davidson motorcycles, they might figure out after a few attempts that your password is harley1234 or something similar. Jilted lovers are just example of those who would do such a thing. Your users need complex passwords that are changed regularly. Even more so, they need a safe way to store passwords, as complex passwords are easy to forget. Having them in an encrypted file is best. And please, make sure they never write them a on a Post-It note and stick it to their computer or shove it in their top drawer. We tend to think that it is end users that are the real risk, but a 2013 survey by Ping Identity found that 83 percent of security pros use one password to use multiple applications. Trustwave, a security consultancy, looked at millions of passwords that had been compromised and founds that in most cases the passwords were far too weak. Half of these passwords had low level security, but in many cases had at least a number combination and upper and lower case letters which isn’t horrible. Close to 90 percent of the passwords had no special characters. Even worse, the most popular password today remains “Password1”, which is almost as bad as “admin” or “guest”. 2. Block data leakage Data leakage is a huge and growing problem. Confidential corporate data is leaked out, as are credit card numbers, social security numbers and sometimes medical information. What you really need is a policy that dictates that this information, under no circumstances, should be sent out without explicit management approval. And you need a tool that checks for keywords that would indicate that inappropriate data is going out the door. This keyword scanning should apply to both the email themselves (social security and confidential are two examples of terms to look out for), as well as attachments. You don’t want your Q4 numbers sent out to a broker before they are announced, do you? And these attachments all too often carry viruses which can be spotted with good content scanning tools. The scanning really needs to be configurable to search deep into the messages, such as scanning the subject line, message body, headers and content. And like spam and anti-malware where you want multiple engines, you want a content tool that employs a variety of pattern matching techniques. Data leakage comes in three main forms – inadvertent, on purpose by the end user, and on purpose by a hacker. In any of these cases confidential data can be compromised. Competitors can get your financials or intellectual property, and thieves can get customer’s personal information. 3. Stop spam before it really stinks Did you know that over 3 percent of spam messages contain some form of malware, and that spam levels are not predicted to decrease in 2014? Spam is not just a nuisance, but a real danger to your business. Spam is a huge productivity waster, so the ROI on getting rid of it is fast and large. Ferris Research took a look at this issue, and in one analysis assumed the end user got five spams a day, and spent just 30 seconds on each message. That is 15 hours a year. Shops without proper anti-spam protections can be pretty much assured of getting a multiple of this amount of spam every day, and consequently will waste far more employee time. Data leakage can be just as dangerous as an overt outside hack. Sometimes your end users will inadvertently email confidential data. Sometimes they misuse distribution lists and mail private information to dozens, perhaps hundreds, of recipients. Other times, the employee leaks data on purpose, and the biggest conduit is the easiest most ubiquitous form of communication – email. Let’s face it, no one is going to text confidential company plans, it just isn’t workable. The 2013 Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report shows that 14 percent of all breaches come from insiders, and because these insiders have company knowledge and already have network access, they can do more damage than a hacker. This includes skimming and distributing credit card information, selling private medical data, giving employee lists to recruiters, or selling confidential plans and results. Other spam costs include the price of bandwidth to transmit these worthless messages –and disks or online storage to hold them. So what do you do to stop this scourge? Some of it is technical and some is policy-based or accomplished through training. One technique is to keep email addresses under a tight lid. Don’t have end users give them out willy-nilly and post them on any website that comes down the pike. It might make sense to have a corporate policy that restricts where email addresses can be posted. Have users take maximum advantage of spam filters and be careful of how they deal with the messages in the junk mail folder. And be sure they never ever open or respond to spam. By opening them, you are inviting a malware or phishing attack. And by responding you are simply proving that your email address is valid, and that you are a good target. Finally, make email addresses complex enough that they are difficult to guess at. 4. Controlling content via filtering and monitoring IT and upper management know that data that is perhaps their most precious resource, and some more precious than others, such as financials, client data, unreleased products, strategies – all of which are all games changers if purloined. On the other hand, inappropriate content is another risk. While many believe the only real security threat comes from outside hackers, the insider threat can be more insidious and dangerous. And with email, your end users don’t even always know they are causing such as problem. Some of these problems are the inadvertent spreading of malware or exposing corporate data by falling prey to phishing. Another problem has to do with employee misbehavior and here email content monitoring and control can be a lifesaver. There are myriad ways these bad deeds can bite you; data leakage, criminal complaints if email is used to break the law, and lawsuits if an employee, for instance, uses email to sexually harass someone. More and more often, courts are ruling that organizations are responsible for what happens on their systems, including email. Email content monitoring can help solve most of these problems, keeping your company out of hot water by blocking inappropriate messages. Email content security tools can stop data leakage, but also helps put an end to unproductive work such as spending all day on online gambling or fantasy football. And it can help insure that compliance regulations are met. Frost & Sullivan studies this market, and recently did a survey of 12,396 security pros which informed its Analysis of the Global Web and Email Content Security Market report. One key is for vendors to integrate email content with other security tools, easing management and licensing. “As common intellectual property for content security is spread across communication channels like web, email and social media, vendors will be driven to offer a unifying suite of content security products with a single point of interface. As such, market consolidation will reduce complexity for customers and decrease administrative overheads for security professionals,” said Frost & Sullivan Network Security Industry Principal Frank Dickson. The need for this kind of tool is driving the market to grow from $3.07 billion in 2013 to $3.35 billion in 2017. 5. Make malware go away Malware of all shapes and sizes isn’t going away, but instead is getting more vicious and numerous. And new attacks are coming out all the time. Not only do you have to beat back the thousands of exploits already out there, you also have to protect yourself from zero-day exploits. Just like with spam, you need multiple antimalware engines for true protection. Content filtering is another way to fight zeroday attacks. Good filtering will recognize and block the types of attachments likely to carry a viral payload. 6. Block breaches Every year Verizon studies breaches in its Data Breach Investigations Report. One disturbing finding is that email attacks are being used more and more for espionage, and these can be launched by criminals or state-supported organizations. Some attacks, often launched from or built in China, are in the form of a phishing email that once clicked on downloads even more malware onto the end user’s computer. The goal is to let the hacker gain domain level access which it can do by capturing credentials, installing a key logger or other technique. “Throughout this process, attackers promulgate across the systems within the network, hiding their activities within system processes, searching for and capturing the desired data, and then exporting it out of the victim’s environment,” Verizon said. Verizon further finds that email remains the most popular way to launch social attacks, with phishing being the most frequent. 7. Compliance All these issues are more serious for those companies covered by compliance regulations where you must beyond a shadow of a doubt prove that your email, and the data it contains, is safe. Here, you must protect all aspects of your mail and insure that your key corporate data, be it credit card numbers, personal information, or financial information. Fortunately, the same basic protection techniques that serve those ordinary shops can also protect those that fall under compliance. Compliance isn’t just a guideline, but a mandate. Take the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), for example. Here violating compliance rules can mean real dollars. These fines can start out relatively small, but are nonetheless painful. For instance, in Idaho, a hospice had a laptop pilfered. Despite all the hospice’s good deeds, it was still fined a stinging $50,000. And insecure email cost a small Phoenix medical practice a cool $100,000. That’s the small potatoes. In Boston, a misplaced physicians’ laptop – just that one computer – netted a $1 million fine. And even state government isn’t immune. The Alaska State Health Department lost just one backup drive, which cost them $1.7 million. Email creates this kind of compliance exposure thousands of times a day, especially when it becomes a source of data leakage. For instance, an employee of The Regional Medical Center in Memphis mistakenly sent out email with patients’ private medical information. Even though an accident, the center had to warn hundreds of people of the compromise. No big deal? Close to 1,200 patients had their records compromised, and that data included not just medical history but also personal information such as social security numbers, a hacker’s goldmine. 8. Training and best practices IT is used to deploying technology to solve technical problems, so they implement firewalls, anti-malware and other devices. Unfortunately, these defenses aren’t always rich or deep enough. Just as large an issue is end-user behavior. All these the defenses in the world can’t defend against an easily fooled employee who may be tricked into giving a hacker full network access. Training clearly pays off, especially in blocking phishing, and perhaps no one knows this better than famed hacker Kevin Mitnick who now works for security training company KnowBe4, LLC. This company spent a year studying 372 shops representing some 291,000 endpoints. Before training kicked in, nearly 16 percent were prone to falling for phishing attacks. After training, that fell by a factor of 12, down to just 1.28 percent. KnowBe4 believes the real weak security link is end users. “The threat posed by malware should not be underestimated, particularly considering that employees have consistently proven to be the weak link in companies’ Internet security efforts,” Mitnick said. “In most cases, their involvement is unintentional – they unknowingly allow access to corporate networks simply because they don’t know what to watch out for” A properly trained employee, on the other hand, can act as what Mitnick calls a ‘human firewall’. Training tips and tricks Never click a link in an email you aren’t 100 percent certain is legit. Never respond to spam. Never open an attachment unless you asked for it or know precisely what it is. And don’t be fooled because it looks like a Word doc or some other seemingly innocent file. It is a piece of cake to change an .EXE extension to .DOC. Never interact with an email from a business you weren’t expecting. Even if a message seems to come from your bank, ignore it and use the website, protected by your password and user name to see if there is anything you need to tend to. Use professional-grade spam filters, and make sure the settings and quarantine policies meet your needs. One phishing technique is to lure you to an actually legitimate site, but once you get there, a malicious dialog pops up asking for personal information. Resist the urge to fill in any data. Activating your browser’s pop-up blocker might help. If you think you clicked a bad link or did something else to launch an attack, either start a scan immediately or shut down the machine and immediately get help from an IT professional before the problem spreads. Set up your anti-malware to run regularly, keep it updated, and do a full scan immediately if you suspect trouble. Some scams never die because they are so darn enticing that they just keep on working, and not enough users are trained to avoid them. Most by now can at least spot the old Nigerian scam. But the lure of money keeps lottery scams going and here the trusted names of Microsoft and Google are often used. And instead of Nigeria which raises immediate suspicions, these messages want users to Be wary of public Wi-Fi. Try to keep to trusted providers, and take immediate steps if you sense your computer has been compromised. Hackers often use network sniffers to study your connection, and nab user names and passwords. Consider a separate, non-corporate email account for personal use, but treat this with the same respect as you do corporate email, and try to not to use it while on the corporate network. Be wary of sharing your address by posting it on forums, blogs, and websites as hackers can scrape these sites and add you to their spam list. If you feel you must share, use a personal email address rather than your corporate account. Keep applications and apps updated and patched. Use legitimate (non-pirated) software. Make sure an attachment is legit before you open it. Don’t open unusual messages, even from friends, family, and colleagues. Report phishing and other attacks to key vendors and security firms. If you get an unexpected calendar invite, delete and contact the sender, if you know them, to see if was legit. If so, have it resent. Never respond to these invites. contact someone in England or another industrial country. Microsoft in particular is keen to stop these scams, so if you get one of these messages, by all means contact Microsoft. In fact, Microsoft is one of many vendors that work closely with law enforcement to hunt down and punish criminals. 9. Fight phishing Recently, there was a major phishing scam where hackers sent out fake bills supposedly from Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The bills include fraudulent account numbers and malicious links, and so looked authentic. This is only the tip of the iceberg – and phishing is on the rise. In the last couple of years, nearly 40 million users were hit by phishing, and this is a nearly 90 percent increase from the two years prior. Phishing all too often works, and that’s why the bad guys are so persistent in sending it. In fact, even if the first attempt doesn’t work, there is a good chance the second or third will, according to findings by Verizon. Referring to research from ThreatSim, “running a campaign with just three emails gives the attacker a better than 50 percent chance of getting at least one click. Run that campaign twice and that probability goes up to 80 percent, and sending 10 phishing emails approaches the point where most attackers would be able to slap a ’guaranteed‘ sticker on getting a click,” Verizon said. Training to spot phishing is one half of the prevention equation. The other half is strong tools that can spot and block phishing messages. The Microsoft Security Center wants users to avoid phishing, and gave this annotated phishing example to help. Things to look for include bad grammar and incorrect spelling, something especially found in phishing messages from China and Eastern Europe. And, of course, links in the email can be another tell-tale sign. Even more telling are messages that threaten to close your account or take some other form of action if you don’t respond. 10. Implement defense in depth Training users to spot malicious mail and social engineering attacks is critical, but even more so is having proper technical defenses. That means protections against all forms of intrusion and data leakage. And that means having: • Anti-virus/anti-malware • Spam protection • Content filtering And it is best if all these tools are integrated, and offer the choice of running them in the cloud or on premise. On the malware and spam protection front, you also want to make sure that there are multiple engines that are updated frequently so that nothing gets through. The return on investment (ROI) on email security isn’t a precise measurement, but it is assuredly positive and fast. And if you block just one major attack, which you certainly will, the ROI is off the charts. And you have to ask yourself, how much is your business worth? Integrated tools Fortunately GFI Software™ has integrated tools that offer this defense in depth and work either on premise, in the cloud, or in a hybrid fashion where some pieces of software are in-house and some in the cloud, working together. On-premise solution On the on-premise side, GFI offers GFI MailEssentials®, which has three versions ranging from full-on unified protection with anti-virus/anti-malware, and spam protection; an anti-spam/anti-phishing edition; and a pure anti-virus/anti-malware tool. On the malware side, GFI MailEssentials can offer five powerful anti-virus engines which scan your emails for potential exploits. In addition, GFI MailEssentials can sanitize, or in other words cleanse the HTML code of malicious scripts in email before it is transmitted, possibly causing an infection. Users should also know how to protect themselves, which is where training from IT comes in. GFI adds to that tools that let end users manage spam quarantines, whitelists and blacklists. Even better, the GFI tool catches more than 99 percent of all spam messages. And don’t worry about your legitimate messages not getting through. GFI MailEssentials is regularly awarded the VBSpam+ award for its 0 percent false positive rate. Tracking content and enforcing policies is also critical, and here GFI MailEssentials lets IT set policies based on groups or users, and rules can be based on email headers, keywords or attachments. And all this management is eased for IT through a web console, which includes powerful integrated reporting. Finally, the software is only installed on the server, with no need to install client applications. The cloud answer On the cloud side, GFI also offers GFI MailEssentials® Online which provides email protection in a way that leaves less for IT to manage, and offers some unique features such as email continuity. GFI MailEssentials Online can spot even the newest viruses with its zero hour protection, as well as employing multiple signaturebased engines. Meanwhile, the spam filtering is highly accurate, and by blocking spam before it even gets to your network, you save on bandwidth and boost network performance. And because all this is in the cloud, you can still get email even if your primary email service is disrupted by maintenance, software issues or a hardware crash. Finally, GFI MailEssentials Online has an email archiving option which is great for shops that fall under compliance regulations, or anyone that wants to safeguard important information. About GFI GFI Software develops quality IT solutions for small to mid-sized businesses with generally up to 1,000 users. GFI® offers two main technology solutions: GFI MAX™, which enables managed service providers (MSPs) to deliver superior services to their customers; and GFI Cloud™, which empowers companies with their own internal IT teams to manage and maintain their networks via the cloud. Serving an expanding customer base of more than 200,000 companies, GFI’s product line also includes collaboration, network security, anti-spam, patch management, faxing, mail archiving and web monitoring. GFI is a channel-focused company with thousands of partners throughout the world. The company has received numerous awards and industry accolades, and is a longtime Microsoft® Gold ISV Partner. About GFI MailEssentials and GFI MailEssentials Online GFI MailEssentials and GFI MailEssentials Online are leading email security solutions for small to mid-sized businesses. They make managing business email easy and efficient by protecting your network against email-borne junk, viruses, spyware, phishing and other malware. For more information about these products please visit the web pages for GFI MailEssentials and GFI MailEssentials Online. For more information about GFI’s network and security solutions, visit our website: www.gfi.com Email security and anti-spam software for SMBs Download your FREE 30-day trial Cloud-based email security and spam filtering service Download your FREE 30-day trial GFIOS apr14 www.gfi.com GFI Software, 4309 Emperor Blvd, Suite 400, Durham, NC 27703, USA Tel: +1 (888) 243-4329 | Fax: +1 (919) 379-3402 | [email protected] For a full list of GFI offices/contact details worldwide, please visit: www.gfi.com/contact-us Disclaimer. © 2014. GFI Software. All rights reserved. All product and company names herein may be trademarks of their respective owners. The information and content in this document is provided for informational purposes only and is provided “as is” with no warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. GFI Software is not liable for any damages, including any consequential damages, of any kind that may result from the use of this document. The information is obtained from publicly available sources. Though reasonable effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the data provided, GFI makes no claim, promise or guarantee about the completeness, accuracy, recency or adequacy of information and is not responsible for misprints, out-of-date information, or errors. GFI makes no warranty, express or implied, and assumes no legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of any information contained in this document. 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