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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY
LOS ANGELES
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PROGRAM
MANUAL
JUNE 2008
PROGRAM APPROVAL AND AUTHORIZATION
James M. Rosser, President
Date
PREFACE
This document has been developed to provide a reference that will assist
in managing and complying with applicable health, safety, laws and
regulations. The information provided in the document list the
prescribed requirements for the Confined Space Entry Program.
It addresses issues from a safety standpoint and offers important
information that the campus administrators need to know about their
responsibilities. It outlines steps that must be taken to develop and
implement an effective Confined Space Entry Program that complies
with Cal/OSHA’s recommendations and guidelines for maintaining a
healthy workplace.
Prepared by
The California State University
Los Angeles
Environmental Health & Safety
5151 State University Drive.
Los Angeles, California 90032
June 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title
Section
PURPOSE
1.0
ORGANIZATIONS AFFECTED
2.0
DEFINITIONS
3.0
ENTRY STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP)
4.0
PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE ENTRY GENERAL RULES
5.0
TRAINING
6.0
CONFINED SPACE HAZARDS
7.0
RESCUE TEAM (Service)
8.0
SEWER SYSTEM ENTRY
9.0
Procedures for Atmospheric Testing
Appendix “A” Confined Space Training Outline
Appendix “B” Supervisor Safety Checklist – Confined Spaces
Appendix “C” Confined Space Entry Permit
Permit Required Confined Spaces decision Flow Chart
10.0
1.0 PURPOSE:
The Confined Space Entry Program provides guidance to authorized employees who
during the performance of their duties will enter confined spaces. The procedures are
designed to protect employees from health and safety hazards such as, exposure to
hazardous atmospheres, hazardous materials, or conditions which may trap or asphyxiate
the employee.
2.0 ORGANIZATIONS AFECTED:
This program governs the following organizational units of the University and outside
contractors.
 Facilities Services
 Electricians
 Plumbers
 Building Services Engineers
 Maintenance Technicians in academic areas.
 Facilities Planning and Construction
 Contractors
3.0 REFERENCE:
CCR Title 8, Subsection 7, Group 16. Control of Hazardous Substances, Article 108.
Confined Space.
3.0
DEFINITIONS:
“Confined space” means




Is large enough or so configured that an employee can enter and perform work.
Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (i.e. tanks, vessels, silos, storage
bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits or spaces that may have limited means of entry).
Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Permit required confined space (permit space) is a confined space that has one or
more of the following characteristics:
 Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.
 Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant.
 Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped of
asphyxiated by inwardly covering walls or by a floor, which slopes
downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section.
 Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
“Acceptable entry conditions” means the conditions that must exist in a permit space to
allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a permit-required confined space
entry can safely enter into and work within the space.
“Attendant” means an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who
monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant’s duties assigned in the
employer’s permit space program.
“Authorized entrant” means an employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a
permit space.
“Blanking or blinding” means the absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the
fastening of a solid plate (such as a spectacle blind or a skillet blind) that completely
covers the bore. The device must have the capable of withstanding the maximum pressure
of the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate.
“Double block and bleed” means the closure of a line, duct, or pipe by closing and
locking or tagging two in-line valves and by opening and locking or tagging a drain or
vent valve in the line between the two closed valves.
“Emergency” means any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or
monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit space that could
endanger entrants.
“Engulfment” means the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or
finely divided (flow able) solid substance. That can be aspirated to cause death by filling
or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause
death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing.
“Entry” means the action by which a person passes through an opening into a permitrequired confined space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in the space and is
considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant’s body brakes the plane of
an opening into the space.
“Entry permit” (permit) means the written of printed document that is provided by the
employer to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information
specified in subsection (f).
“Entry supervisor” means the person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief)
responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space
where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for
terminating entry as required by this section.
NOTE: An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as
long as that person is trained and equipped as required for each role he or she fills. Also,
the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the
course of an entry operation.
“Hazardous atmosphere” means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk
of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is escape unaided from
a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
1. Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable
limit (LFL)
2. Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL.
3. Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent
4. Atmospheric concentration of any substance that is higher then the dose or a
permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational Health and
Environmental Control, or in subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances.
5. Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.
NOTE: For air contaminants for which Cal/OSHA has not determined a dose or
permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data
Sheets can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
“Hot work permit” means the employer’s written authorization to perform operations
(for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a
source of ignition.
“Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDHL)” means any condition that poses an
immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects
or that would interfere with an individual‘s ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
“Rescue service” means the personnel designated to rescue employees from permit
spaces.
“Testing” means the process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit
space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the test that is to be
performed in the permit space.
RESPONSIBILITES
Management will:
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
Ensure, that training requirements for entry personnel/teams is current.
Provide required equipment for entry & rescue teams.
Ensure confined space assessments have been conducted.
Ensure permit required confined space is posted as such.
Evaluate Rescue Teams/Service to ensure they are adequately trained and
prepared.
2.1.6
2.1.7
2.2
Employees
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
Ensure, that access and or communication with rescue team are
established during entry into spaces with IDLH atmospheres.
Annually review this program and all Entry Permit requirements.
Following program requirements.
Report any previously unidentified hazards associated with confined
spaces.
Entry Supervisor
2.3.1
Entry supervisors are responsible for the overall permit space entry and
must coordinate all entry procedures, tests, permits, equipment and other
relevant activities. The following entry supervisor duties are required:
2.3.1.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.1.3
2.3.1.4
2.3.1.5
2.3.1.6
2.4
Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including
information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of
any exposure.
Verifies, by checking that the appropriate entries have been made on
the permit, that all test specified by the permit have been conducted
and that all procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in
place before endorsing the permit and allowing entry to begin.
Terminate the entry and cancel the permit when the entry is
completed and or if there is a need for terminating the permit prior to
job completion.
Verify that rescue services are available and that the means for
summoning them are in place and operational.
Remove unauthorized persons who enter or attempt to enter the
space during entry operations.
Determine whenever responsibility for a permit space entry
operation is transferred and at intervals dictated by the hazards and
operations performed within the space that entry operations remain
consistent with the permit terms and that acceptable entry conditions
are maintained.
Entry Attendants
2.4.1
At least one attendant is required outside the permit space into which entry
is authorized for the duration of the entry operation. Responsibilities
include:
2.4.1.1
To know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including
information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of
the exposure,
2.4.1.2
2.4.1.3
2.4.1.4
2.4.1.5
2.4.1.6
To be aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure on
entrants,
To continuously maintain an accurate count of entrants in the permit
space and ensures a means to accurately identify authorized entrants,
To remain outside the permit space entry operations until relived by
another attendant (once properly relieved, they may participate in
other permit space activities, including rescue if they are properly
trained and equipped).
To communicate with entrants as necessary to monitor entrants
status and alert entrants of the need to evacuate.
To monitor activities inside and outside the space to determine if it is
safe for entrants to remain in the space and orders the entrants to
immediately evacuate if:
2.4.1.6.1
2.4.1.6.2
2.4.1.6.3
2.4.1.6.4
The attendant detects a prohibited condition
Detects entrant behavioral effects of hazard exposure
Detects a situation outside the space that could endanger the
entrants; or
The attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all the
attendant duties.
2.4.1.7
To summon rescue and other emergency services as soon as the
attendant determines the entrant/s need assistance to leave the permit
space hazards.
2.4.1.8 To perform non-entry rescues as specified by the rescue procedure
and entry supervisor.
2.4.1.9 Not to perform duties that might interfere with the attendants’
primary duty to monitor and protect the entrants.
2.4.1.10 To take the following action when unauthorized persons approach or
enter a permit space while entry is under way:
2.4.1.10.1 Warn the unauthorized persons that they must stay away
from the permit space,
2.4.1.10.2 Advise unauthorized persons that they must exit immediately
if they have entered the space, and
2.4.1.10.3 Inform the authorized entrants and the entry supervisor if
unauthorized persons have entered the permit space.
2.5
Entrants
2.5.1
All entrants must be authorized by the entry supervisor to enter permit
spaces, have received the required training, use the proper equipment, and
observe the entry procedures and permit. The following entrant duties are
required:
2.5.1.1
Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including
information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of
the exposure,
2.5.1.2 Properly use the equipment required for safe entry,
2.5.1.3 Communicate with the attendant as necessary to enable the attendant
to monitor the status of the entrants and to enable the attendant to
alert the entrants of the need to evacuate the space if necessary,
2.5.1.4 Alert the attendant whenever the entrant recognizes any warning
signs or symptoms of exposure to a dangerous situation, or any
prohibited condition is detected and,
Exit the permit space as quickly as possible whenever the attendant or entry supervisor
gives an order to evacuate the permit space, the entrant recognizes any warning signs or
symptoms of exposure to a dangerous situation, the entrant detects a prohibited condition,
or an evacuation alarm activated.
4.0
ENTRY STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP)
4.1
The Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) has been developed to standardize
entry procedures. The SOP outlines the following:
4.2. Hazards - any of the following conditions:
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9
4.2.10
4.3
Hazard Control / Engineering Controls & Abatement - are procedures,
equipment or parts designed and installed to control or prevent hazards. For
example:
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.4
Explosive / Flammable Atmospheres
Toxic Atmospheres
Engulfed
Asphyxiation
Entrapment
Slips & falls
Chemical Exposure
Electric Shock
Thermal / Chemical Burns
Noise & Vibration
Locked entry points
Temporary ventilation
Temporary Lighting
Administrative Controls - are established requirements and procedures of
the Confined Space / entry permit space program. Including:
4.4.1
4.4.2
Signs
Employee training
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.5
Acceptable Entry Conditions – is when it has been established that a
confined space has been tested and confirmed free of atmospheric hazards
and conditions of causing death or serious physical harm.
4.6
Means of Entry - the requirements for entering a confined space have been
determined. Including:
4.6.1
4.6.2
5.0
Entry procedures
Atmospheric Monitoring
Rescue procedures
Use of prescribed PPE
Entry Equipment Requirement
Emergency Procedures
PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE ENTRY (GENERAL
RULES)
5.1
During all Confined Space Entries, the following Safety Rules must be
strictly enforced:
5.1.1
Only Authorized and Trained Employees may enter a Confined Space
or act as Safety Watchman.
5.1.2 No smoking is permitted in a Confined Space or near entrance/exit
area.
5.1.3 During Confined Space Entries, an Attendant must be present at all
times.
5.1.4 Constant visual or voice communication will be maintained between
the Safety Attendant and the Employee entering a Confined Space.
5.1.5 No bottom or side entry will be made or work conducted below any
hanging material or material which could engulf an employee.
5.1.6 Air and oxygen level monitoring is required before entering any
Permit- Required Confined Space. Oxygen levels in a confined space
must be between 19.5 and 23.5 percent. Levels above or below will
require the use of SCBA equipment, other approved air supplied
respirator or air blower equipment.
5.1.6.1 Additional ventilation and Oxygen Level Monitoring is required
when welding is performed. The monitoring will check Oxygen
Levels, Explosive Gas Levels and Carbon Monoxide Levels.
Entry will not be permitted if explosive gas is detected above
one-half the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
5.1.7 To prevent injuries to others, when covers are removed all openings to
Confined Spaces will be protected by a barricade.
5.2
Confined Space Entry Procedures
5.2.1
Each employee who enters or is involved in the entry must:
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2
5.2.1.3
5.2.1.4
5.3
Confined Space Entry Permits
5.3.1
Confined Space Entry Permits must be completed before any
Employee enters a Permit-Required Confined Space. The Permit must
be completed and signed by an Authorized Member of Management
before entry.
5.3.1.1
5.4
Permits will expire before the completion of the shift or if any
pre-entry conditions change. Permits will be maintained on file
for 12 months.
Contractor Entry
5.4.1
6.0
Understand, the procedures for confined Space Entry
Know, the Hazards of the specific space
Review the specific procedures for each entry
Understand, how to use entry and rescue equipment
All work by non-company employees that involves the entry into
confined spaces will follow the procedures of this program. The
information on the specific hazards of the confined spaces to be
entered will be provided to Contractor Management prior to
commencing entry or work.
Training
6.1
Training for confined Space Entry includes:
6.2
Duties of the Entry Supervisor, Entrant and Attendants
6.3
Confined Space Entry permits
6.4
Hazards of Confined Spaces
6.5
Use of Aid Monitoring Equipment
6.6
First Aid and CPR Training
6.7
Emergency Action & Rescue Procedures
6.8
Confined Space Entry & Rescue Equipment
6.9
Rescue training, including entry and removal from representative spaces
NOTE: See Appendix “A” “Confined Space Lesson Plan”
7.0
Confined Space Hazards
7.1
Flammable Atmospheres
A flammable atmosphere generally arises from enriched oxygen
atmospheres, vaporization of flammable liquids, byproducts of work,
chemical reactions, concentrations of combustible dusts, or disruption of
chemical from inner surfaces of the confined space.
An atmosphere becomes flammable when the ratio of oxygen to
combustible material in the air is neither too rich nor too lean for
combustion to occur. Combustible gases or vapors will accumulate when
there is inadequate ventilation in areas such as a confined space. Flammable
gases such as acetylene, butane, propane, hydrogen, methane, natural or
manufactured gases or vapors from liquid hydrocarbons can be trapped in
confined spaces, and since many gases are heavier than air, they will seek
lower levels such as in pits, sewers, and various types of storage tanks and
vessels.
The byproducts of work procedures can generate flammable or explosive
conditions within a confined space. Work such as spray painting can result
in the release of explosive gases or vapors. Welding in a confined space is a
major cause of explosions in areas that contain combustible gas.
Chemical reaction forming flammable atmospheres occur when surfaces are
initially exposed to the atmosphere, or when chemicals combine to form
flammable gases. The condition arises when dilute atmosphere, or when
chemicals combine to form flammable gases. This condition arises when
dilute sulfuric acid reacts with iron to form hydrogen or when calcium
carbide makes contact with water to form acetylene. Other examples of
spontaneous chemical reactions that may produce explosions from small
amounts of unstable compounds are acetylene-metal compounds, peroxides,
and nitrates. In a dry state, these compounds have the potential to explode
upon percussion or exposure to increased temperature. Another class of
chemical reactions that form flammable atmospheres arise from deposits of
carbon, ferrous oxide, ferrous sulfate, iron, etc… that can be found in tanks
used by chemical and petroleum industry. These tanks and their flammable
deposits will spontaneously ignite upon exposure to air.
Combustible dust concentrations are usually found during the process of
loading, unloading, and conveying grain products, nitrated fertilizers, finely
ground chemical products, and any other combustible material. High
changes of static electricity, which rapidly accumulate during periods of
relatively low humidity (below 50%), can cause certain substances to
accumulate electrostatic charges of sufficient energy to produce sparks and
ignite a flammable atmosphere. These sparks may also cause explosions
when the right air oxygen to dust or gas mixture is present.
7.2
Toxic Atmospheres
The substance to be regarded as toxic in a confined space can cover the
entire spectrum of gases, vapors, and finely-divide airborne dust. The
sources of toxic atmospheres encountered may arise from the following:
1. The products stored [removing decomposed organic material from a tank
can release toxic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S)].
2. The operation performed in the confined space such as welding or brazing
with metals capable of producing toxic fumes.
During loading, unloading, formulation, and production, mechanical and / or
human error may also produce toxic gases, which are not part of the planned
operation.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a hazardous gas that may build up in a confined
space. This odorless, colorless gas that has approximately the same density
as air is formed from incomplete combustion of organic materials such as
wood, coal, gas, oil, and gasoline; it can be formed from microbial
decomposition of organic matter in sewers, silos, and fermentation tanks.
Carbon monoxide is an insidious toxic gas because of its poor warning
properties. Early stages of CO intoxication are nausea and headache.
Carbon monoxide may be fatal at 1000 PPM in air, and is considered
dangerous at 200 PPM, because it forms carboxyhemoglobin in the blood.
This process prevents the distribution of oxygen in the body.
Therefore, any untested atmosphere must be suspect. It must also be noted
that a safe reading on a combustible gas indicator does not ensure that CO is
not present. Carbon monoxide must be tested for specifically.
In welding operations, oxides of nitrogen and ozone are gases of major
toxicological importance, and incomplete oxidation may occur and carbon
monoxide can form as a byproduct.
7.3
Asphyxiating Atmospheres
The normal atmosphere is composed approximately of 20.9% oxygen and
78.1% nitrogen, and 1-% argon with small amounts of various other gases.
Reduction of oxygen in a confined space may be the result of either
consumption or displacement.
Oxygen deprivation is one form of asphyxiation. While it is desirable to
maintain the atmospheric oxygen level at 21% by volume, the body can
tolerate deviation from this ideal. When the oxygen level falls to 17%, the
first sign of hypoxia is deterioration to night vision which is not noticeable
until a normal oxygen concentration is restored. Physiologic effects are
increased breathing volume and accelerated heartbeat, very poor muscular
coordination, rapid fatigue, and intermittent respiration. Between6-10% the
effects are nausea, vomiting, inability to perform, and unconsciousness.
Less than 6% creates spasmodic breathing, convulsive movements, and
death in minutes.
7.4
Mechanical Hazards
Electrical or mechanical equipment have the potential to cause an injury.
Therefore each item of equipment must be manually isolated to prevent
inadvertent activation before workers enter or while they work in a confined
space.
The hazards associated with a confined space, such as the potential of
flammable vapors or gas being present, and the build-up of static charge due
to mechanical cleaning, such as abrasive blasting, all influence the
precautions which must be taken to ensure safety.
To prevent leaks, flashbacks, and other hazards, workers will completely
isolate the space. To completely isolate a confined space, the closing of
valves is not sufficient. All pipes must be physically disconnected or
isolation blanks bolted in place. Other special precautions must be taken in
cases where flammable liquids or vapors may re-contaminate the confined
space. The pipes blanked or disconnected should be inspected and tested for
leakage to check the effectiveness of the procedure. Other areas of concern
are steam valves, and pressure lines. A less apparent hazard is the space
referred to as a void, such as double walled vessels, which must be given
special consideration in blanking off and rendering it inert
7.5
Thermal Effects
There are four factors influencing the interchange of heat between people
and their environment. They are: (1) air temperature, (2) air velocity, (3)
moisture contained in the air, and (4) radiant heat. Due to the design of
confined spaces moisture content and radiant heat are the most difficult to
control.
The most dangerous to personnel is radiant heat. As the body temperature
rises progressively, a worker may be able to continue to function until the
body temperature reaches approximately 102 degrees F. At this point heat
exhaustion, heat cramps or heat stroke may occur, therefore monitoring
employee and ambient temperatures is required when radiant heat conditions
exist.
7.6
Noise
Noise problems are usually intensified in confined spaces because the
interior tends to cause sound to reverberate and thus expose the worker to
higher sound levels than those found in an open environment. This
intensified noise increases the risk of hearing damage to workers, which
could result in temporary or permanent loss of hearing.
Noise in a confined space which may not be intense enough to cause hearing
damage may still disrupt verbal communication with the emergency standby
person on the exterior of the confined space. If the workers inside are not
able to hear commands or danger signals due to excessive noise, the
probability of sever accidents can increase.
7.8
Vibration
Whole body vibration may affect multiple body parts and organs depending
upon the vibration characteristics. Segmental vibration is more localized in
creating injuries to hands and fingers.
7.9
Other Hazards
Some physical hazards cannot be eliminated because of the nature of the
confined space or the work to be performed. These hazards include items as
scaffolding, surface residues, and structural hazards.
Scaffolding material depends upon the type of work to be performed, the
calculated weight to be supported, any surface on which the scaffolding is
placed, and the substance previously stored in the confined space if known
or detected during monitoring.
Surface residues in confined spaces can increase the already hazardous
conditions of electrical shock, reaction of incompatible materials, release of
toxic substances, and bodily injury due to slips and falls.
Structural hazards within a confined space will include but are not limited to
baffles in horizontal tanks, overhead structural members, or scaffolding
installed for maintenance constitutes physical hazards. Workers must
review and enforce safety precautions when confronted with structural
hazards.
8.0
Rescue Team (Service)
8.1
After a review of the rescue team criteria it has been determined that the off-site
Fire Department shall perform the function. To ensure compliance with
Cal/OSHA standards the fire department has developed a plan to coordinate
emergency requirements, for the University.
8.2
The Fire Department is familiar with the rescue needs of the campus, and
capable of meeting the requirements associated with any emergency including
Immediate Danger to Life or Health (IDLH) atmospheres, potential traffic
issues, and response time is 5 to 10 minutes.
9.0
Sewer System Entry
9.1
Sewer entry differs in three vital respects from other permit entries.
9.1.1 There rarely exists any way to completely isolate the space (a section of a
continuous system) to be entered.
9.1.2 Isolation is not complete the atmosphere may suddenly and unpredictably
become lethally hazardous (toxic, flammable or explosive) from causes
beyond the control of the entrant or employer.
9.1.3 Sewer workers are especially knowledgeable in entry and work in their
permit spaces because of their frequent entries.
9.2
Adherence to procedures; The University/employer shall designate as entrants
only employees who are thoroughly trained in sewer entry procedures and who
demonstrate that they follow the entry procedures exactly as prescribed when
performing sewer entries.
9.3
Atmospheric monitoring; Entrants shall be trained in the use of, and be
equipped with, atmospheric monitoring equipment which sounds an audible
alarm, in addition to its visual readout.
9.4
Areas of caution:
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3
9.4.4
9.4.5
9.4.6
9.4.7
Oxygen concentration less than 19.5 % percent
Flammable gas or vapor at 10 %percent or more of the lower flammable
limit (LFL)
Hydrogen sulfide or carbon monoxide at or above 10 ppm or 35 ppm,
respectively, measured as an 8-hour time-weighted average.
Insure that all atmospheric monitoring equipment is calibrated according to
the manufacturer’s instructions.
When ever possible or when feasible incorporate an oxygen sensor and
substance-specific device for monitoring. This method of using both type
units will provide the means to detect a sudden and unpredicted change in
atmospheric conditions and actual levels of specific substances.
The selected testing instrument/s shall be carried and used by the entrant in
sewer line work to monitor the atmosphere in the entrant’s environment,
and in advance of the entrant’s direction of movement
Surge flow and flooding. To protect entrants, sewer crews will maintain
liaison with local weather bureau and fire and emergency services. This
process will prompt notification of sudden flood conditions, fire
suppression activities or whenever flammable or other hazardous materials
are released into sewers during emergencies by industrial or transportation
accidents.
10.0 Procedures for Atmospheric Testing:
10.1 Atmospheric testing is required for two distinct purposes; evaluation of the
hazards of the permit apace and verification that acceptable entry conditions
for entry into that space exist.
10.1.1 Evaluation testing: The atmosphere of a confined space shall be analyzed
using equipment of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to identify and
evaluate any hazardous atmospheres that may exist or arise, so that
appropriate permit entry procedures can be developed and acceptable
entry conditions stipulated for that space. A technically qualified
professional should do evaluation and interpretation of this data, and
development of the entry procedure. (e.g., OSHA consultation services, or
certified industrial hygienist, registered safety engineer, certified safety
professional, etc.) based on evaluation of all serious hazards.
10.1.2 Verification testing: The atmosphere of a permit space that may contain a
hazardous atmosphere shall be tested for residues. A all contaminants
identified by evaluation testing using permit specified equipment to
determine that residual concentrations at the time of testing and entry are
within the range of acceptable entry conditions. The results will be
recorded on the permit.
10.1.3 Duration of testing: Measurement values for each atmospheric parameter
shall be continuous as long as the entrant is in the permit space.
10.1.4 Testing stratified atmospheres: When monitoring for entries involving a
descent into atmospheres that may be stratified, the atmospheric envelope
shall be tested at a distance of approximately four (4) feet in the direction
of travel and to each side. The entrant’s rate of travel shall be slowed to
accommodate the sampling speed and detector response.
10.1.5 Order of testing: A test for oxygen is performed first because most
combustible gas meters are oxygen dependent and will not provide reliable
readings in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Combustible gases are then
tested for in an effort to determine the threat of fire or explosion. If tests
for exposure to toxic gases and vapors are required this test will be
conducted last.
Each Permit-Required Confined Space would be marked “Confined Space – Entry
Permit Required”
Appendix “A”
Confined Space Training Outline
Confined Space Training Outline
Purpose
To identify the prescribe minimum standards for preventing employee exposure to
confined space hazards, within such spaces as silos, tanks, vats, vessels, boilers,
compartments, ducts, sewers, pipelines, vaults, bins, tubs and pits.
Objective
To provide a level of training sufficient so that all employees whose work is regulated
by this standard acquire the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for the
safe performance of their duties assigned under this section.
Definition of Confined Spaces
A. Confined Spaces
1. Is large enough or so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform
work.
2. Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (i.e. tanks, vessels, silos, storage
bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that have limited means of entry).
3. Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
B. Permit Required Confined Spaces
1. Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.
2. Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant.
3. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated
by inwardly covering walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a
smaller cross-section.
4. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
C. Confined Space Permit
Control document used to ensure compliance for / with confined space entry
procedures.
Typical Hazards in Confined Spaces
A. Atmospheric Hazards
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Oxygen Deficiency
Combustible
Flammable
Explosive
Toxic Gases / Vapors / Dust / Mists
B. Physical Hazards in Confined Spaces
1. Unguarded Machine Parts
2. Thermal Hazards
3. Exposed Electrical Circuits
4. Slip / Fall Hazards
5. Engulfment
6. Entrapment
7. Hazardous Chemicals
8. Biological Agents
9. Noise
10. Vibration
C. Other Possible Hazards in Confined Spaces
1.
2.
3.
4.
Rodents / Snakes / Spiders
Poor Lighting
Wind
Weather
Controlling Hazards of Confined Spaces
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Lockout – Tagout
Disconnecting Pipes
Ventilation
Cooling
Dumping
Rinsing – Flushing
Fall Arrest Gear
Air Sampling
Ventilation Requirements
A. Purge if Necessary
B. 20 air changes per hour
Acceptable Entry Conditions
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
University Confined Space Entry permit posted
Oxygen 19.5 – 23.5 %
Lower Explosive Level 10 %
Toxic fumes / vapors LESS than PEL
No engulfing material in space
No hazardous chemicals or material
Drained – Flushed
Rescue Team Available on Site
Attendant is present and equipment in place
Space Temperature <100 degrees F.
LOTO Electrical components in space
LOTO Mechanical components in space
LOTO ALL pipes to and from space
Ventilation Established & Maintained
Additional conditions required on permit
Additional conditions required by Entry Supervisor
Duties
A.
B.
C.
D.
Entry Supervisor
Attendant
Entrant
Rescue Team
Entry & Rescue Equipment
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Air Monitor
Fall Arrest System
Ventilation Equipment
Lighting System (EXPLOSION PROFF)
Communication Equipment
Body Harnesses & Life Lines
Working (man) Winch
Entry Procedures
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
Conduct Pre-Entry Briefing
Assemble and check equipment
Establish Acceptable Entry Permit
Conduct initial air
Execute & Complete Entry Permit
Station Entry Attendant
Establish Monitoring of Atmosphere
Establish Communication
Execute Hot Work Permit if applicable
Post Confined space Entry Permit
Enter Space
Post-entry debrief if problems encountered
Rescue Procedures
Rescue team required at access during entry to IDLH environments.
Equipment & Usage
HANDS ON TRAINING - TO BE PERFORMED BEFORE EACH NEW JOB
Appendix “B”
Supervisors’ Safety Checklist – Confined Spaces
Supervisor Safety Checklist – Confined Spaces
Supervisor:
Date:
Yes
Department / Area
No
Checklist Area
Access
Proper signs posted at entry points
“Permit Required” space entry points are locked
Employee Training – workers have been trained to
Know the hazards of confined spaces
Recognize types of confined spaces
Know the confined spaces in their work areas
Not to enter without specific need and authorization
Understand that placing any body part past an entrance is an “Entry”
Understand the need and use of the “Permit System”
Appendix ”C”
Confined Space Entry Permit
Confined Space Entry Permit
Date / Time Issued:
Date / Time Expires:
Job site / building #:
Equipment to be worked on:
Work to be performed:
Supervisor:
Stand by personnel:
Atmospheric Checks:
Time
Oxygen
Explosive
H2S
CO
%
% LFL
PPM
PPM
Tester’s Signature:
Source isolation (No Entry):
N/A
Yes
No
Pumps or lines blinded,
( )
( )
( )
Disconnected, or blocked
( )
( )
( )
Ventilation Modification:
N/A
Yes
No
Mechanical
( )
( )
( )
Natural Ventilation only
( )
( )
( )
Atmospheric check after isolation and ventilation:
Oxygen %
> 19.5 %
Explosive
% LEL < 10 %
H2S
PPM < 10 PPM H (2) S
CO
PPM < 10 PPM CO
Testers signature:
Communication procedures:
Rescue procedures:
Is training current for entry and standby personnel?
Equipment:
Direct reading gas monitor – tested
Safety harnesses/lifelines
Hoist equipment
Powered communications
PPE
All electric equipment listed
Class I, Division I, Group D
And non-sparking tools
N/A
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
Yes
( )
Yes
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
No
( )
No
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
)
)
)
I have reviewed the work authorized by this permit and the information contained here in. Written
instructions and safety procedures have and understood. Entry cannot be approved if any item is marked
“NO”. This permit is not valid unless all appropriate items are complete.
Permit Prepared By: (Supervisor)
Approved By: (Department Supervisor)
This permit to be kept at the job site. Return site copy to Safety Officer following job completion.
Periodic atmospheric test:
Oxygen
%
Time
Oxygen
%
Time
Oxygen
%
Time
Oxygen
%
Time
Explosive
%
Time
Explosive
%
Time
Explosive
%
Time
Explosive
%
Time
H2S
PPM
Time
H2S
PPM
Time
H2S
PPM
Time
H2S
PPM
Time
CO
PPM
Time
CO
PPM
Time
CO
PPM
Time
CO
PPM
Time
Note: (1) Spaces may have to be evacuated and re-evaluated if hazards arise during entry.
Permit Required Confined Space Decision Flow Chart
Confined Space as defined
Does the workplace contain
By section 5157 (b) ?
NO
YES
Does the workplace contain
permit-required Confined
spaces as defined by
NO
section 5157 (b) ?
YES
Consult other
applicable
Cal/OSHA standards
STOP
Information employees as
Required by Section
5157 (C) (2).
YES
Will permit space
be entered ?
NO
Prevent employees entry as
required by Section 5157 ( C ) (3).
Do task from outside of space
YES
Task will be done by contractors’
employees. Inform contractor as
Required by Section 5157 ( C ) (8), (ii)
and (iii) from host.
YES
Will contractors enter ?
NO
Both contractors and host
Employees will enter the space
YES
Will host employees
enter to perform
entry task ?
YES
NO
Coordinate entry operations as required
by Section 5157 ( C ) (8) (iv) and
( d ) (11). Prevent unauthorized entry
NO
Prevent unauthorized entry.
Does space have known or
or potential hazards ?
NO
STOP
Not a permit-required confined
space. 5157 does not apply.
Consult other Cal/OSHA standards.
YES
Can the hazards be
Eliminated?
YES
Employer may choose to reclassify
space to non-permit required confined STOP (1)
Space using Section 5157 ( C ) (7).
NO
Can the space be maintained
in a condition safe to enter
YES
by continuous forced air
ventilation only ?
Space may be entered
under 5157 ( C ) (5).
STOP (1)
NO
Prepare for entry via
permit procedures.
Verify acceptable entry conditions
( test results recorded, space isolated NO
if needed, rescuers/means to summon
available, entrants properly equipped,
etc. )
Permit not valid until
conditions meet permit
specifications.
YES
Permit issued by authorizing signature.
Acceptable entry conditions maintained NO
throughout entry.
YES
Entry task completed. Permit
returned and canceled.
Audit permit program and permit based
On evaluation of entry by entrants, attendants,
Testers and prepares, etc.
Emergency exits (prohibited condition). Entrants
evacuated entry aborts ( Call rescuers if needed).
Permit is void. Reevaluate program to correct or
prevent prohibited condition. Occurrence of
emergency ( usually ) is proof of deficient program.
No re-entry until program (and permit) is amended.
( May require new program )
CONTINUE
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