Senior Cycle TEACHER HANDBOOK Senior Cycle Higher Level DRAFT Based on the 2015 Syllabus 1 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Contents Page Introduction 3 Section 1 Strand 3 Number systems 12 Section 2 Strand 5 Functions 16 Section 3 Strand 4 Algebra 18 Section 4 Strand 3 Area and Volume 21 Section 5 Strand 2 Trigonometry 22 Section 6 Strand 2 Co-ordinate Geometry (Line) 25 Section 7 Strand 2 Synthetic Geometry 1 31 Section 8 Strand 1 Probability and Statistics 1 42 Section 9 Strand 5 Functions & Calculus 47 Section 10 Strand 1 Probability & Statistics 2 53 Section 11 Strand 2 Synthetic Geometry 2 58 Section 12 Strand 2 Co-ordinate Geometry (Circle) 61 Section 13 Strand 3 Financial Maths 62 Section 14 Strand 3 Proof by induction 63 Section 15 Strand 3&4 Complex numbers 64 Appendix A Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels: The Van Hiele Theory Appendix B Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions at all Levels Appendix C Investigations of quadrilaterals and triangles Appendix D How to use CensusAtSchool Appendix E Trigonometric formulae Appendix F Sample derivations of some trigonometric formulae The strand structure of the syllabus should not be taken to imply that topics are to be studied in isolation.Where appropriate, connections should be made within and across the strands and with other areas of learning.(NCCA JC syllabus page 10 and LC syllabus page 8) 2 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Resources which will allow teachers plan lessons, easily access specific learning outcomes in the syllabus and relevant support material such as “Teaching & Learning Plans” and suggested activities to support learning and teaching are available on the Project Maths website www.projectmaths.ie 3 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Introduction: Student Learning While this is a handbook for teachers, it must be emphasised that student learning and the process of mathematical thinking and building understanding are the main focus of this document. Information and Communications Technologies are used whenever and wherever appropriate to help to support student learning. It is also envisaged that, at all levels, learners will engage with a dynamic geometry software package. Students with mild general learning disabilities Teachers are reminded that the NCCA Guidelines on mathematics for students with mild general learning disabilities can be accessed at http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/PP_Maths.pdf This document includes Approaches and Methodologies (from Page 4) Exemplars (from page 20) Note: Synthesis and problem solving listed below must be incorporated into all of the Strands. The list of skills below is taken from Strand 1of the syllabus but an identical list is given at the beginning of each strand in the syllabus. Useful websites 4 SeniorCycleHigherLevel http://www.projectmaths.ie/ http://ncca.ie/en/Curriculum_and_Assessment/PostPrimary_Education/Project_Maths/ http://www.examinations.ie/ Literacy and Numeracy Strategy The National Strategy to Improve Literacy and Numeracy among Children and Young People 2011-2020 Numeracy encompasses the ability to use mathematical understanding and skills to solve problems and meet the demands of day-to-day living in complex social settings. To have this ability, a young person needs to be able to think and communicate quantitatively, to make sense of data, to have a spatial awareness, to understand patterns and sequences, and to recognise situations where mathematical reasoning can be applied to solve problems. Literacy includes the capacity to read, understand and critically appreciate various forms of communication including spoken language, printed text, broadcast media, and digital media. Colour coding used in the suggested sequence below: Strand 1 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Statistics and probability Geometry & Trigonometry Number Algebra Functions * Indicates proof of this theorem is required for JCHL ** Indicates proof of this theorem is required for LCHL 5 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Suggested Sequence of topics Section number Section 1 Strand (Syllabus section) 3.1 Page number Number systems 12 3.2 LCHL.2 Rules for indices and scientific notation 12 3.2 LCHL.3 Logarithms 13 LCHL.4 Relations approach to algebra revision and extension of JC material 14 LCHL.5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences and series 15 5.1 LCHL.6 Functionsinterpreting and representing linear, quadratic and exponential functions in graphical form 16 5.1 LCHL.7 Composition of functions 17 LCHL.8 Revision of JC algebraic expressions and extension to LCHL 18 3.1 4.1 Section 3 4.1 Title of lesson idea LCHL.1 3,4&5 Section 2 Corresponding Lesson Number LCHL.9 Rearranging formulae 6 18 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section number Strand (Syllabus section) Title of lesson idea Page number 4.2 LCHL.10 Solving equations and the Factor Theorem 4.3 LCHL.11 Inequalities - linear, quadratic, rational 20 4.3 LCHL.12 Modulus inequalities 20 Section 4 3.4 LCHL.13 Nets, length, area and volume 21 Section 5 2.3 LCHL.14 Revision of JC trigonometry and radian measure 22 LCHL.15 The unit circle and graphs of trigonometric functions 22 2.3 LCHL.16 Area of a triangle, sine rule and cosine rule 23 2.3 LCHL.17 3D trigonometry 24 2.3 LCHL.18 Trigonometry formulae and proofs 24 2.2 LCHL.19 Revision of JC coordinate geometry 25 LCHL.20 Area of a triangle given the coordinates of the vertices 26 2.2 LCHL.21 Divide a line segment internally in the ratio m:n 26 2.2 LCHL.22 The perpendicular distance from a point to a line 26 2.3 Section 6 2.2 Corresponding Lesson Number 7 19 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section number Section 7 Strand (Syllabus section) Corresponding Lesson Number 2.2 LCHL.23 Angle between two lines 27 LCHL.24 Revision - Plane and points, Axioms 1,2, 3,&5, Theorem 1, Constructions 8,9,5, 31 LCHL.25 Revision Constructions 6,7,10,11,12 Axiom 4, Theorem 2 32 2.1 LCHL.26 Revision: Theorems 3, *4,5,*6, 7 & 8 32 2.1 LCHL.27 Revision: Constructions 1,2, 3& 4 33 LCHL.28 Revision: JC Transformation geometry 34 2.1 LCHL.29 Revision: quadrilaterals, parallelograms, Theorems *9 & 10, Corollary 1, Construction 20 35 2.1 LCHL.30 Revision: More on quadrilaterals 37 2.1 LCHL.31 2.1 LCHL.32 Theorem **12 and Theorem **13 39 2.1 LCHL.33 Constructions 13,14,& 15, Theorems *14 & 39 2.1 2.1 2.1 Title of lesson idea **Theorem 11 8 Page number 38 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section number Strand (Syllabus section) Corresponding Lesson Number Title of lesson idea Page number 15: Pythagoras’ Theorem & converse, Proposition 9 Section 8 2.1 LCHL.34 Introduction to area, Theorem 16,Definition 38, Theorems 17&18 2.4 LCHL.35 Enlargements 41 1.1 LCHL.36 Fundamental Principle of Counting, arrangements, combinations 42 1.2&1.3 LCHL.37 Concepts of Probability 42 1.2&1.3 LCHL.38 Rules of probability 42 1.2&1.3 LCHL.39 Use of tree diagrams, set theory and counting method in probability 45 1.4 &1.5 LCHL.40 Data handling cycle 43 LCHL.41 Analysing data graphically and numerically, interpreting and drawing inferences from data 45 1.6 & 1.7 40 Proposed beginning of 6th year programme Section 9 5.1 and JC 4.5 LCHL.42 Revision of functions from 5th year and relations without formulae 9 47 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section number Strand (Syllabus section) Corresponding Lesson Number Title of lesson idea Page number ( listed on JC syllabus 4.5) Section 10 5.2 LCHL.43 Concept of a limit, Limits as n , recurring decimals, sum to infinity 5.2 LCHL.44 Differential Calculus 48 5.2 LCHL.45 Integral Calculus 50 1.1 LCHL.46 Revision of counting and probability concepts from 5th year 53 1.2 LCHL.47 Conditional probability 53 1.3 LCHL.48 Bernoulli trials 54 1.2 LCHL.49 Expected value 54 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 LCHL.50 Overview of probability concepts 55 LCHL.51 Revision of statistics concepts from 5th year 55 1.6 LCHL.52 Bivariate data, scatter plots and correlation 56 1.3 LCHL.53 Normal distribution and standard normal 56 LCHL.54 Drawing inferences from data 57 1.4 &1.5 1.7 10 47 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Page number 2.1 Theorem *19, Corollaries 2,3,4,&5 58 2.1 LCHL.56 Theorem 20, Corollary 6 & Construction 19 58 2.1 LCHL.57 Theorem 21 and Construction 18 59 2.1 LCHL.58 Constructions 16 & 17 59 2.1 LCHL.59 Construction 21&22 60 2.2 LCHL.60 Coordinate geometry of the circle 61 Section 13 3.1 LCHL.61 Financial Maths 62 Section 14 3.1 LCHL.62 Proof by Induction 63 3.1 LCHL.63 Complex numbers 1 64 4.4 LCHL.64 Section 11 Section 12 Section 15 Strand (Syllabus section) Title of lesson idea Section number Corresponding Lesson Number LCHL.55 Complex numbers 2 64 11 SeniorCycleHigherLevel The Lesson Ideas Section 1: Number Lesson Idea LCHL.1 Title Number systems Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: N, Z, Q and representing these numbers on a number line Factors, multiples and prime numbers in N How to express numbers in terms of their prime factors Highest Common Factor and Lowest Common Multiple How to make and justify estimates and approximations of calculations Make estimates of measures in the physical world around them How to calculate percentage error and tolerance How to calculate accumulated error (due to addition or subtraction only) How to calculate costing: materials, labour and wastage Metric system; change of units; everyday imperial units (conversion factors provided for imperial units) Terminating and non-terminating decimals Irrational numbers R \ Q The number system R , appreciating that R \ Q and representing R on a number line How to geometrically construct Proof (by contradiction) that 2 is an irrational number 2 and 3 Lesson Idea LCHL.2 Title Rules for indices and scientific notation Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: 12 SeniorCycleHigherLevel The rules for indices (where a, b R, p, q Q; a p , a q Q ) a p a q a pq ap a p q q a a0 1 a a pq a p 1 ap ab a pb p p q p p ap a bp b 1 q q p q q a a, a ap q Z, q 0, a 0 a q p , p, q Z, q 0, a 0 How to express non - zero positive rational numbers in the form a 10n , where n Z and 1 a 10 How to perform arithmetic operations on numbers in scientific notation Lesson Idea LCHL.3 Title Logarithms Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to solve problems using the rules of logarithms: 13 SeniorCycleHigherLevel log a xy log a x log a y x log a log a x log a y y log a x q q log a x log a a 1 log a 1 0 log a x log b x log b a Lesson Idea LCHL.4 Title Relations approach to algebra- revision and extension of Junior Cycle material Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: That processes can generate sequences of numbers or objects How to investigate and discover patterns among these sequences How to use patterns to continue the sequence How to develop generalising strategies and ideas, present and interpret solutions, in the following: o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and analysing linear patterns and relations Discuss rate of change and the y - intercept. Consider how these relate to the context from which the relationship is derived and identify how they can appear in a table, in a graph and in a formula Decide if two linear relations have a common value. (Decide if two lines intersect and where the intersection occurs.) Recognise that the distinguishing feature of a linear relationship is a constant rate of change Recognise discrete linear relationships as arithmetic sequences o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and analysing quadratic patterns and relations 14 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Recognise that a distinguishing feature of quadratic relations is that the rate of change of the rate of change is constant o The concept of a function as a relationship between a set of inputs and a set of outputs where each input is related uniquely to just one output o Exponential relations Recognise that a distinguishing feature of exponential relations is a constant ratio between successive outputs Recognise discrete exponential relationships as geometric sequences Lesson Idea LCHL.5 Title Arithmetic and geometric sequences and series Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The link between linear relations and the formula for the general term (Tn) of an arithmetic sequence How to find the sum (Sn) of n terms of an arithmetic series How to apply the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence and the formula for the sum to n terms of an arithmetic series to different contexts. Geometric sequences and series Recognise discrete exponential relationships as geometric sequences Recognise whether a sequence is arithmetic, geometric or neither 15 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 2: Functions Lesson Idea LCHL.6 Title Functions - interpreting and representing linear, quadratic and exponential functions in graphical form Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: That a function assigns a unique output to a given input Make use of function notation f ( x) , Domain, co-domain and range How to graph functions of the form: o ax b where a, b Q, x R f : x , and y o ax 2 bx c, where a, b, c Q, x R o ax3 bx 2 cx d , where a, b, c, d Z, x R o ab x where a, b R o Logarithmic o Exponential How to find the inverse of a function How to sketch the graph of the inverse of a function given the graph of the function How to recognise surjective, injective, and bijective functions That the inverse of a bijective function is a function The concept of the limit of a function where it arises How to interpret equations of the form f ( x) g ( x ) as a comparison of the above functions Use graphical methods to find approximate solutions to o f ( x) 0 o f ( x) k 16 SeniorCycleHigherLevel o f ( x) g ( x) where f ( x ) and g ( x) are of the above form or where graphs of f ( x) and g ( x) are provided. Express quadratic functions in complete square form The relationship between x 2 , ax 2 , x 2 c , ( x h) 2 k , and a ( x h) 2 k How to use the complete square form of a quadratic function to find the roots and turning points How to use the complete square form of a quadratic function to sketch the function Lesson Idea LCHL.7 Title Composition of functions Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to form composite functions (including notation used) Composite functions in context 17 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 3: Functions Lesson Idea LCHL.8 Title Revision of JC algebraic expressions and extension to HL LC Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Factorising as listed on the JCHL syllabus The addition of expressions such as: ax b dx e ... where a, b, c, d , e, f Z c f a q where a, b, c, p, q, r Z bx c px r How to perform the arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on polynomials and rational algebraic expressions paying attention to the use of brackets and surds The binomial theorem and how to apply the binomial theorem Lesson Idea LCHL.9 Title Rearranging formulae Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to rearrange formulae 18 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.10 Title Solving equations and the Factor Theorem Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The selection and use of suitable strategies (graphic, numerical, algebraic and mental) for finding solutions to equations of the form: o f x g x , with f x ax b, g x cx d and where a, b, c, d Q o f x g x with f x a p e , g x bx c qx r f where a, b, c, e, f , p, q, r Z o f x g x with f x ax b cx d , g x k ex f qx r where a, b, c, d , e, f , q, r Z o f ( x) k with f x ax 2 bx c (and not necessarily factorisable), a, b, c Q and interpret the results o Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns and interpret the results o One linear and one equation of order two with two unknowns and interpret the results o Simultaneous linear equations with three unknowns and interpret the results How to use the Factor Theorem for polynomials The selection and use of suitable strategies (graphic, numerical, algebraic and mental) for finding solutions to cubic equations with at least one integer root and interpret the results How to form polynomial equations given the roots How to sketch polynomials given the polynomial in the form of factors - some of which may be repeated 19 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.11 Title Inequalities - linear, quadratic and rational Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Selecting and using of suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic, mental) for finding solutions to inequalities of the form: g x k, g x k g x k , g x k where g x ax b or g x ax 2 bx c or g x ax b , a, b, c, d , k Q, x R cx d Lesson Idea LCHL.12 Title Modulus inequalities Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Use notation x How to select and use suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic, mental) for finding solutions to inequalities of the form: x a b, x a b and combinations of these, where a, b Q, x R 20 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 4: Nets, Length, Area and Volume Lesson Idea LCHL.13 Title Nets, length, area and volume Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to solve problems involving the length of the perimeter and the area of a disc, triangle, rectangle, square, parallelogram, trapezium, sectors of discs and figures made from combinations of these The nets of prisms (polygonal bases), cylinders and cones How to solve problems involving the surface area and volume of the following solid figures: rectangular block, cylinder, right cone, triangular based prism (right angle, isosceles and equilateral), sphere, hemisphere and solids made from combinations of these How to use the trapezoidal rule to approximate area How to calculate percentage error involved in using trapezoidal rule for area in, for example, the circle 21 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 5: Trigonometry Lesson Idea LCHL.14 Title Revision of JC Trigonometry with extension to LC HL (radian measure) Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Clinometers (can be home- made) Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The use of Pythagoras’ Theorem to solve problems Trigonometric ratios in a right-angled triangle The use of the ratios to solve problems involving right angled triangles The use of similar triangles to find unknowns in right-angled triangles The use of the clinometer How to work with trigonometric ratios in surd form and solve problems involving surds How to manipulate measure of angles in both decimal and DMS forms The use of radians as a unit of measurement of angles The area of sectors and arc length using degrees and radians Lesson Idea LCHL.15 Title The unit circle and graphs of trigonometric functions Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The properties and uses of the unit circle Radian and degree metrics of the unit circle The trigonometric ratios for angles in each of the four quadrants 22 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Graphs of the trigonometric functions : sin x, cos x, tan x The period and range of these trigonometric functions That the inverse of these trigonometric functions is not a function for all values of x Graphs of trigonometric functions of the type f ( ) a b sin c , g a b cos c for a, b, c R Given the graph of a trigonometric function, sketch the graph of its inverse The period and range of the above trigonometric functions and the effect of changing the values of a, and 1 Solutions of equations of the form sin 0 and cos giving all solutions for 2 specified values of 1 Solutions to trigonometric equations such as sin n 0 and cos n giving all 2 solutions for specified values of 1 1 Solutions of equations of the type a sin bx , a cos bx for the domain used in 2 2 the graph Solve equations for example of the form 15cos 2 x = 13 + sin x for all values of x where 0° ≤ x ≤ 360°. Lesson Idea LCHL.16 Title Area of triangle, sine rule & cosine rule Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The area of a triangle using Area = ½ ab sin C and use of this formula The connection between this formula and the geometric approach to the area of a triangle How to derive the sine rule Uses of the sine rule to solve real life problems How to derive the cosine rule 23 SeniorCycleHigherLevel The uses of the cosine rule to solve real life problems Use of the clinometer Lesson Idea LCHL.17 Title 3D trigonometry Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package A mathematical instruments set Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Problems involving 3D diagrams using trigonometry Lesson Idea LCHL.18 Title Trigonometric formulae and proofs Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The derivation of the trigonometric formulae 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7,9 (Appendix in syllabus) (Derivations of formulae 2 & 3 in the previous lesson) How to apply the trigonometric formulae 1 - 24 (Appendix in syllabus) 24 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 6: Coordinate Geometry Lesson Idea LCHL.19 Title Review of Junior Cycle co-ordinate geometry Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The coordination of the plane The distance formula The midpoint formula Rise The idea of slope as Run The slope formula The meaning of positive, negative, zero and undefined slope The use of slopes to investigate if two lines are parallel The use of slopes to investigate if two lines are perpendicular or not That 3 points on the coordinate plane are collinear if and only if the slope between any two of them is the same The equation of a line in the forms : y y1 m x x1 y mx c ax by c 0 (The significance of the variables m and c) Whether or not a point is on a line Where a line intersects the axes and why these points might be of interest to someone trying to interpret or plot a graph The interpretation of the intercepts in context How to find the slope of a line given its equation How to solve problems involving slopes of lines How to solve problems involving the intersection of two lines 25 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.20 Title Area of a triangle given the coordinates of the vertices Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content This lesson will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to calculate the area of a triangle using coordinates The connection between this formula ,the geometric approach to the area of a triangle and the formula used in trigonometry for finding the area of a triangle Lesson Idea LCHL.21 Title Divide a line segment internally in the ratio m : n Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to divide a line segment internally in the ratio m : n (link to similar triangles) Lesson Idea LCHL.22 Title The perpendicular distance from a point to a line Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to solve problems involving the perpendicular distance from a point to a line 26 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.23 Title The angle between two lines Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to solve problems involving the angle between two lines 27 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 7: Synthetic Geometry Concepts: Set, plane, point, line, ray, angle, real number, length, degree, triangle, right-angle, congruent triangles, similar triangles, parallel lines, parallelogram, area, tangent to a circle, subset, segment, collinear points, distance, midpoint of a line segment, reflex angle, ordinary angle, straight angle, null angle, full angle, supplementary angles, vertically-opposite angles , acute angle, obtuse angle, angle bisector, perpendicular lines, perpendicular bisector of a line segment, ratio, isosceles triangle, equilateral triangle, scalene triangle, right-angled triangle, exterior angles of a triangle, interior opposite angles, hypotenuse, alternate angles, corresponding angles, polygon, quadrilateral, convex quadrilateral, rectangle, square, rhombus, base and corresponding apex and height of triangle or parallelogram, transversal line, circle, radius, diameter, chord, arc, sector, circumference of a circle, disc, area of a disc, point of contact of a tangent, concurrent lines. Vertex, vertices (of angle, triangle, triangle, polygon), endpoints of segment, arms of an angle, equal segments, equal angles, adjacent sides, angles, or vertices of triangles or quadrilaterals, the side opposite an angle of a triangle, opposite sides or angles of a quadrilateral, centre of a circle. The following is a suggested sequence for teaching the Leaving Cert. Course. In teaching these lessons, teachers and students can draw from the Teaching and learning Plans and student activities on the website at www.projectmaths.ie As outlined at the workshops, the use of learning materials such as “geostrips”, “anglegs”, geo-boards etc. can make the learning so much more enjoyable for students of all perceived abilities. While proofs are not the issue as regards informal introduction, it is important that students are kept aware that the theorems build logically. The lesson divisions which follow are for guidance only. The initial lesson ideas give the students a chance to revisit the material they met in the Junior Cycle. This can be done at a pace that is appropriate to the student’s needs. It is recommended that new activities and challenges be introduced during this revision so that students do not see it as too much repetition and that they can see new ways of investigating familiar situations. Useful websites www.projectmaths.ie http://ncca.ie/en/Curriculum_and_Assessment/PostPrimary_Education/Project_Maths/ http://www.examinations.ie/ Note on experimentation and experimental results: 28 SeniorCycleHigherLevel With experimentation, involving measurement, the results are only approximations and won’t agree exactly. It is important for students to report faithfully what they find e.g. for a triangle they could find the sum of the angles to be 1790 or 1810 etc. The conclusion is that the angles appear to add up to 1800 .This is a plausible working assumption. There is a distinction between what you can discover and what you can prove. See below Section 8.2 (From Discovery to Proof) of Geometry for Post-primary School Mathematics” 29 SeniorCycleHigherLevel 30 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.24 Title Revision of preliminary concepts - Plane and points, Axioms 1, 2 , 3 & 5 , Theorem 1, Constructions 8,9 & 5 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Plane, points, lines, rays, line segments, , collinear points, length of a line segment Terms: theorem, proof, axiom, implies, is equivalent to, if and only if Axiom 1: [Two Points Axiom] There is exactly one line through any two given points. Axiom 2: [Ruler Axiom]: The properties of the distance between points Angle as a rotation, angles in different orientations Terms: Perpendicular, parallel, vertical, horizontal Axiom 3: [Protractor Axiom] That a straight angle has 1800 Supplementary angles Vertically opposite angles Theorem 1: Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure. Construction 8: Line segment of a given length on a given ray Construction 9: Angle of a given number of degrees with a given ray as one arm Axiom 5: Given any line l and a point P, there is exactly one line through P that is parallel to l. Construction 5: Line parallel to a given line, through a given point 31 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.25 Title Revision of JC synthetic geometry - Constructions 6,7,10,11,12, Axiom 4, Theorem 2 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 6: measuring it Construction 7: Division of a line segment into any number of equal segments, without measuring it Triangles: scalene, isosceles, equilateral, right-angled Construction 10: Triangle given SSS data (Axiom 4 -Congruent triangles) Construction 11: Triangle given SAS data (Axiom 4 -Congruent triangles) Construction 12: Triangle given ASA data (Axiom 4 -Congruent triangles) More constructions of triangles with SSS, SAS and ASA By construction, show that AAA and ASS are not sufficient conditions for Division of a line segment into 2, 3 equal segments without congruence. Theorem 2: (i) In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal. What is meant by the term “converse” (ii) Conversely, if two angles are equal, then the triangle is isosceles Lesson Idea LCHL.26 Title Revision of JC synthetic geometry - Theorems 3, *4, 5, *6, 7 & 8 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: 32 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Theorem 3: (i) If a transversal makes equal alternate angles on two lines, then the lines are parallel (and converse) *Theorem 4: The angles in any triangle add to 1800. Theorem 5: Two lines are parallel, if and only if, for any transversal, the corresponding angles are equal. *Theorem 6: Each exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. Theorem 7: In a triangle, the angle opposite the greater of two sides is greater than the angle opposite the lesser. Conversely, the side opposite the greater of two angles is greater than the side opposite the lesser angle. (Students might engage with proof by contradiction in proving the converse of Theorem 7) Theorem 8: Two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third. Lesson Idea LCHL.27 Title Revision - Constructions 1, 2, 3 & 4 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 1: Bisector of a given angle, using only compass and straight edge Construction 2: Perpendicular bisector of a line segment, using only compass and straight edge Construction 3: Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point not on l. Construction 4: Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point on l 33 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.28 Title Revision: Junior Certificate transformation geometry Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Translations Axial symmetry Central symmetry Rotations Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following investigations: Does a translation preserve length? Does a translation preserve angle size? Does a translation map a line onto a parallel line? Does a translation map a triangle onto a congruent triangle? Does an axial symmetry preserve length? Does an axial symmetry preserve angle size? Does an axial symmetry maps a line onto a parallel line? Does an axial symmetry map a triangle onto a congruent triangle? How many axes of symmetry does an isosceles triangle have? How many axes of symmetry does an equilateral triangle have? How many axes of symmetry does a circle have? (Draw examples of the above.) Does a central symmetry preserve length? Does a central symmetry preserve angle size? Does a central symmetry map a line onto a parallel line? Does a central symmetry map a triangle onto a congruent triangle? Does an isosceles triangle have a centre of symmetry? Does an equilateral triangle have a centre of symmetry? Which types of triangle have a centre of symmetry? Does a circle have a centre of symmetry? Note: quadrilaterals are investigated in the lessons following. 34 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.29 Title Revision of quadrilaterals, parallelograms, Theorems *9 & 10, Corollary 1 and Construction 20 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Properties of parallelograms *Theorem 9: In a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal, and opposite angles are equal Conversely, (1) if the opposite angles of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram; (2) if the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram. Remark 1 of Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics: Sometimes it happens that the converse of a true statement is false. For example, it is true that if a quadrilateral is a rhombus, then its diagonals are perpendicular. But it is not true that a quadrilateral whose diagonals are perpendicular is always a rhombus. Remark 2: The converse of Corollary 1 is false: it may happen that a diagonal divides a convex quadrilateral into two congruent triangles, even though the quadrilateral is not a parallelogram. Further properties of parallelograms Use of the term “corollary” Corollary 1: A diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles Theorem 10: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect one another. Conversely, if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect one another, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Construction 20: Parallelogram, given the length of the sides and the measure of the angles. 35 SeniorCycleHigherLevel The properties of different quadrilaterals Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities which lead to an informal proof of theorem 9: Draw a parallelogram ABCD which is not a rectangle or a rhombus Draw in one diagonal BD Mark in all the alternate angles – they should find 2 pairs Establish that triangles ABD and BCD are congruent and explain their reasoning Establish what this means about the opposite sides of parallelogram ABCD Make a deduction about the opposite angles of parallelogram ABCD The students can determine: If the diagonal bisects the angles at the vertex The sum of the four angles of parallelogram ABCD The result if two adjacent angles of the parallelogram are added together Students might engage in the following activities which lead to an informal proof of theorem 10 (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning): Draw a parallelogram ABCD which is not a rectangle or a rhombus Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E Determine if the two diagonals equal in length. (Measure) Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC Explain why triangles ADE and BEC are congruent (Give a reason.) Possible further investigations: The students can determine: If the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent If the diagonals perpendicular If the parallelogram contains 4 two pairs of congruent triangles If the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the parallelogram The number of axes of symmetry the parallelogram has If the parallelogram has a centre of symmetry and its location if it does exist Students might engage in the following activities about a square, rhombus, parallelogram and rectangle: (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.) 36 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Describe each of them in words. Draw three examples of each in different orientations. Determine which sides are equal in length. Determine the sum of the angles in each case. Determine which angles are equal. Determine the sum of two adjacent angles in each case. Establish whether or not a diagonal bisects the angles it passes through. Establish whether or not the diagonals are perpendicular. Determine whether or not a diagonal divides it into two congruent triangles. Calculate the length of a diagonal given the length of its sides, where possible. Establish whether or not the two diagonals are equal in length. Determine whether or not the diagonals divide the different shapes into 4 congruent triangles. Establish if the diagonals bisect each other. The students should determine the number of axes of symmetry each of the shapes has and which ones have a centre of symmetry. An interesting option would be to conduct the activities above on a KITE. Lesson Idea LCHL.30 Title Revision: More on quadrilaterals – investigating a Square Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content Students might engage in the following activities relating to a square: (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.) Draw a square ABCD. Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E. Determine whether or not the two diagonals are equal in length. Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC. Establish that triangles ADE and BEC are congruent. Determine if the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent. Determine if there are two pairs of congruent triangles in the square. Show that the diagonals perpendicular. Give a reason. Establish whether or not the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the square. Find how many axes of symmetry the square has. 37 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Determine whether or not the square has a centre of symmetry and if it does, what is its location. Students might engage in the following activities about a rectangle: (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.) Draw a rectangle ABCD which is not a square Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E and establish if the two diagonals are equal in length Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC. Establish that triangles ADE and BEC are congruent. Determine whether or not the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent. Determine whether or not there are two pairs of congruent triangles in the rectangle. Show that the diagonals are perpendicular. Determine whether or not the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the rectangle. Find how many axes of symmetry the rectangle has. Determine whether or not the rectangle has a centre of symmetry and if it does, find its location. Possible extra activity: Repeat these activities for the rhombus ABCD Lesson Idea LCHL.31 Title **Theorem 11 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: **Theorem 11:If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some transversal line, then they will cut off equal segments on any other transversal. Proof of this theorem 38 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.32 Title **Theorem 12 and **Theorem 13 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 12: Let ∆ABC be a triangle. If a line is parallel to BC and cuts [AB] in the ratio : , then it also cuts [AC] in the same ratio. Converse to Theorem 12: Let ∆ABC be a triangle. If a line cuts the sides AB and AC in the same ratio, then it is parallel to BC. Proof of Theorem 12 The meaning of similar triangles and the difference between similar and congruent triangles. Theorem 13: If two triangles ∆ABC and ∆ ′ ′ ′’ are similar, then their sides are proportional, in order: | | | | | | | | | ′| | ′ | Converse to Theorem 13: If | | | | | | | | | | | | ,then the two triangles ∆ABC and ∆ ′ ′ ′’ are similar . . Proof of Theorem 13 Lesson Idea LCHL.33 Title Constructions 13, 14, 15, *Pythagoras’ Theorem (*Theorem 14), converse of Pythagoras’ Theorem (Theorem 15) Proposition 9 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document 39 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 13: Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other side. Construction 14: Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute angles (several cases) Construction 15: Rectangle given side lengths *Theorem 14: [Theorem of Pythagoras] Theorem 15: [Converse to Pythagoras’ Theorem ] If the square of one side of a triangle is the sum of the squares of the other two, then the angle opposite the first side is a right angle. Proposition 9: (RHS) If two right-angled triangles each have hypotenuse and another side equal in length respectively, then they are congruent. Lesson Idea LCHL.34 Title Introduction to area, Theorem 16, Definition 38, Theorem 17 and Theorem 18 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 16: For a triangle, base times height does not depend on the choice of base. Definition 38: The area of a triangle is half the base by the height. Theorem 17: A diagonal of a parallelogram bisects the area. Theorem 18: The area of a parallelogram is the base by the height. Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities: 40 SeniorCycleHigherLevel In the case of each of these types of triangles: equilateral, isosceles, right-angled and obtuseangled: draw three diagrams for each type of triangle showing each side as a base and the corresponding perpendicular height. Students investigate the validity of the following statement and its converse: “Congruent triangles have equal areas”. Lesson Idea LCHL.35 Title Enlargements Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Enlargements, paying attention to o Centre of enlargement o Scale factor k, 0 k 1, k 1 ,k Q o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre of enlargement is outside the figure to be enlarged o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre of enlargement is inside the figure to be enlarged o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre of enlargement is a vertex of the figure to be enlarged or is a point on the figure o How to find the scale factor That when a figure is enlarged by a scale factor k , the area of the image figure is increased by a factor k 2 How to solve problems involving enlargements 41 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 8: Probability and Statistics 1 Lesson Idea LCHL.36 Title Fundamental Principle of Counting, arrangements and combinations Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The Fundamental Principle of Counting How to count the arrangements of n distinct objects (n!) How to count the arrangements of n distinct object taking r at a time How to count the number of ways of selecting r objects from n distinct objects (combinations of r objects from n distinct objects) How to compute binomial coefficients Lesson Idea LCHL.37 Title Concepts of probability Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: JC learning outcomes for probability Lesson Idea LCHL.38 Title Rules of probability Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package 42 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The use of set theory to discuss experiments, outcomes, sample spaces The basic rules of probability (AND/OR), mutually exclusive events, through the use of Venn diagrams The use of the formulae: 1. Addition Rule (for mutually exclusive events only): P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) 2. Addition Rule: P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) P ( A B ) 3. Multiplication Rule( for independent events): P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) The use of tree diagrams Lesson Idea LCHL.39 Title Use of the counting method to evaluate probabilities Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The use of the counting method (combinations) to evaluate probabilities Lesson Idea LCHL.40 Title The purpose of Statistics and the Data Handling Cycle Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The purpose and uses of statistics and possible misconceptions and misuses of Statistics How to design a plan and collect data on the basis of the above knowledge 43 SeniorCycleHigherLevel The data handling cycle (Pose a question, collect data, analyse data, interpret the result and refine the original question if necessary) The Census at School (CAS) questionnaire as a means of collecting data Questionnaire designs Populations and samples That sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements about the population The importance of representativeness so as to avoid biased samples Sample selection (Simple Random Sample, stratified, cluster, quota - no formulae required, just definitions of these) The extent to which conclusions can be generalised Primary sources of data ( observational (including sample surveys) and experimental studies) and secondary sources of data o The importance of randomisation (random assignment of subjects) and the role of the control group in studies o Biases, limitations and ethical issues of each type of study The different ways of collecting data How to summarise data in diagrammatic form The students will also engage in analysing spreadsheets of data for example the spreadsheet of class data returned from the Census at School questionnaire to include: o Recognising different types of data – category (nominal /ordinal), numerical (discrete/ continuous) o Recognising univariate/bivariate data o Discussing possible questions which might be answered with the data 44 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.41 Title Analysing data graphically and numerically, interpreting and drawing inferences from data Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The concept of a distribution of data and frequency distribution tables The selection and use of appropriate graphical and numerical methods to describe the sample (univariate data only)taking account of data type: bar charts, pie charts, line plots, histograms(equal class intervals), stem and leaf plots (including back to back) The distribution of numerical data in terms of shape (concepts of symmetry, clustering, gaps, skewness) The selection and use of appropriate numerical methods to describe the sample o The distribution of data in terms of centre (mean, median, mode and the advantages and disadvantages of each) o The relative positions of mean and median in symmetric and skewed data o The distribution of numerical data in terms of spread (range, inter-quartile range) The concept of inter-quartile range as a measure of spread around the median o The distribution of data in terms of spread (standard deviation) The concept of standard deviation as a measure of spread around the mean The use of the calculator to calculator to calculate standard deviation Analyse plots of data to explain differences in measures of centre and spread How to interpret a histogram in terms of distribution of data and make decisions based on the empirical rule (based on a normal distribution) Outliers and their effect on measures of centre and spread Use percentiles to assign relative standing 45 SeniorCycleHigherLevel The effect on the mean of adding or subtracting a constant to each of the data points and of multiplying or dividing the data points by a constant 46 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 9: Functions (Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus) Lesson Idea LCHL.42 Title Revision of function concepts and relations without formulae (listed in 4.5 Junior cycle syllabus) Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Motion sensor Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Revision of function concepts Graphs of motion Quantitative graphs and drawing conclusions from them The connections between the shape of a graph and the story of a phenomenon Quantity and change of quantity on a graph Lesson Idea LCHL.43 Title Limits Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The concept of a limit 47 SeniorCycleHigherLevel n 1 An approach to the introduction of the number e using e lim 1 n n (Proof of the existence of this limit is not required.) How to apply the rules for sums, products and quotients of limits (see 3.1) Find by inspection the limits of sequences such as n lim ; lim r n , r 1 n n 1 n Limits and continuity of functions through informal exploration Derive the formula for the sum to infinity of geometric series by considering the limit of a sequence of partial sums Solve problems involving infinite geometric series such as recurring decimals Lesson Idea LCHL.44 Title Differential Calculus Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Rate of change, average rate of change, instantaneous rate of change, the derivative This will include: Calculus as the study of mathematically defined change, (but not necessarily change with respect to time alone -velocity can change with height, temperature can change with energy, force can change with mass, pressure can change with depth etc.) How to use graphs and real life examples to analyse rates of change for: o Functions of the form f x k ,where k is a constant o Linear functions - links should be established to the slope of a line from coordinate geometry o Functions where the rate of change varies - these will include the quadratic as well as other functions where the rate of change varies Instantaneous rate of change (what shows on a speedometer) as opposed to average rate of change for example over the whole course of a journey Equality of the instantaneous and average rates of change for linear functions 48 SeniorCycleHigherLevel How to find the rate of change in situations where it is not constant - need to define it at every point o The idea of average rate of change between two points on, for example, the graph of f ( x)= x2 and its calculation as the slope of the line connecting the two endpoints of the interval under consideration o That the instantaneous rate of change is not the same as the average rate of change between two points on, for example, f ( x)= x2 o That the average rate of change approaches the instantaneous rate as the interval under consideration approaches zero (the concept of a limit) o That the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent line at the point The meaning of the first derivative as the instantaneous rate of change of one quantity relative to another and the use and meaning of the terms “differentiation” and dy notation such as and f ' x dx How to find the first derivatives of linear functions using the equation y mx c and observing the slope as the first derivative How to differentiate linear and quadratic functions from first principles Differentiation by rule of the following function types Polynomial Exponential Trigonometric Rational powers Inverse functions Logarithms How to find the derivatives of sums, differences, products, quotients and composition of functions of the form of the above functions How to use differentiation to find the slope of a tangent to a circle How to apply the differentiation of the above functions to solve problems What it means when a function is increasing/decreasing/constant in terms of the rate of change dy How to apply an understanding of the change in from positive to zero to negative dx around a local maximum in order to identify a local maximum (concave downwards) dy How to apply an understanding of the change in from negative to zero to positive dx around a local minimum in order to identify a local minimum (concave upwards) Stationary points as points on a curve at which the tangent line has a slope of zero 49 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Turning points as points on a curve where the function changes from increasing to decreasing or vice versa. (Turning points are also stationary points but the converse may not be true.) The meaning of the second derivative as the rate of change of a rate of change at an instant The second derivative as being positive (first derivative is increasing) in a region where the graph of a function is concave upwards and negative (first derivative is decreasing) in a region where the graph of the function is concave downwards A point of inflection as a point on a curve at which the second derivative equals zero and changes sign (curve changes from concave upwards to concave downwards and the first derivative has a maximum or minimum point) Real life examples of the rate of change of a rate of change as in acceleration as a rate of change of velocity How to sketch a “slope- graph ”of a function given the graph of the function How to match a function with graphs of its first and second derivatives How to find second derivatives of linear, quadratic and cubic functions by rule The application of the second derivative to identify local maxima and local minima (Students might also associate the points on a normal curve which are one standard deviation away from the mean with points of inflection referred to above.) Lesson Idea LCHL.45 Title Integration Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: That anti-differentiation is the reverse process of differentiation. How to find the anti-derivative of function That the indefinite anti-derivative is the set of all possible antiderivatives of a function That a distinct anti-derivative is one element of this set which satisfies some initial condition That the process of finding the area between a curve and the - axis (or –axis) over an interval on the axis, is known as integration 50 SeniorCycleHigherLevel That the area between a function and the -axis over an interval may be calculated using the limit of the sum of the areas of rectangles, as the number of rectangles tends to infinity and the width of each rectangle tends to zero. That the area between the graph of interval from , is : lim → and the axis over the ∆ The area beneath a function from a to b is given by b f ( x)dx F (b) F (a) a The antiderivative is usually called the indefinite integral The indefinite integral, written as, , of is a set of functions equal to the set of all the antiderivatives of . They differ by a constant C. The definite integral area between the graph of and the interval [ , ] That integration is the reverse process of differentiation (anti differentiation) , is a number equal to the net signed How to integrate sums, differences and constant multiples of functions of the form x a , where a Q a x , where a R, a 0 Sin ax, where a R Cos ax, where a R How to determine areas of plane regions bounded by polynomial and exponential functions 51 SeniorCycleHigherLevel How to use integration to find the average value of a function over an interval b a f ( x)dx Average value of f ( x) over [a, b] ba 52 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 10: Probability and Statistics 2 Lesson Idea LCHL.46 Title Revision of counting and probability concepts from fifth year (Section 1.1 to 1.3 JC syllabus) Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Fundamental principle of counting, arrangements and combinations Concepts of probability Rules of probability Use of tree diagrams, set theory and binary/counting method in probability Lesson Idea LCHL.47 Title Probability Rules Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Report on the Trialling State Exams Commission (SEC) 2010 Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Discuss basic rules of probability (AND/OR, mutually exclusive) through the use of Venn diagrams Extend their understanding of the basic rules of probability (AND/OR, mutually exclusive) through the use of formulae Addition Rule: ∩ Multiplication Rule(Independent Events): P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B ) Multiplication Rule (General Case): P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( B | A) Solve problems involving sampling, with or without replacement 53 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Formal definition of independent events: A and B are independent if P( B | A) P ( B) Appreciate that in general P ( A | B ) P ( B | A) Examine the implications of P ( A | B ) P ( B | A) in context Lesson Idea LCHL.48 Title Bernoulli Trials Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Apply an understanding of Bernoulli trials A Bernoulli trial is an experiment whose outcome is random and can be either of two possibilities: “success” or “failure” Solve problems involving Bernoulli trials as follows: 1. calculating the probability that the 1st success occurs on the nth Bernoulli trial where n is specified 2. calculating the probability of k successes in n repeated Bernoulli trials (normal approximation not required) 3. Calculating the probability that the kth success occurs on the nth Bernoulli trial Lesson Idea LCHL.49 Title Random variables and expected value Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Random variables, discrete and continuous, which lead to discrete and continuous probability distributions Expected value E(X )of probability distributions 54 SeniorCycleHigherLevel The calculation of expected value and the fact that this does not need to be one of the outcomes Standard deviation of probability distributions The role of expected value in decision making and the issue of fair games Lesson Idea LCHL.50 Title Consolidation of probability concepts Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Report on the Trialling SEC 2010 Content These lessons will involve the students in participating in investigating and understanding: All probability rules and methods to date Lesson Idea LCHL.51 Title Revision of statistics concepts from 5th year Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Report on the Trialling SEC 2010 Content These lessons will involve the students in participating in investigating and understanding: Revision of lessons 40 and 41 55 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.52 Title Bivariate data, scatter plots, correlation Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Bivariate data versus univariate data Different types of bivariate data The use of scatter plots to determine the relationship between numeric variables That correlation always has a value from -1 to +1 inclusive, and that it measures the extent of the linear relationship between two variables How to match correlation coefficients values to appropriate scatter plots That correlation does not imply causality How to draw the line of best fit by eye How to make predictions based on the line of best fit How to calculate the correlation coefficient by calculator Lesson Idea LCHL.53 Title Normal Distribution and Standard Normal Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Continuous probability distributions – the normal distribution and the standard normal distribution The solution of problems involving reading probabilities from the normal distribution tables 56 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Lesson Idea LCHL.54 Title Drawing inferences from data, confidence intervals, margin of error, the concept of a hypothesis test, Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements about the population How to use appropriate tools to describe variability drawing inferences about the population from the sample How to interpret the analysis and relate the interpretation to the original question How to interpret a histogram in terms of the distribution of data The use of the empirical rule The use of simulations to explore the variability of large sample proportions from a known population to construct the sampling distribution of the proportion and to draw conclusions about the sampling distribution of the proportion The use of the sampling distribution of the proportion as the basis for informal inference How to construct 95% confidence intervals for the population proportion from a large sample using z tables How to build on the concept of margin of error and understand that increased confidence level implies wider intervals 1 How to calculate the margin of error for a population proportion ( ) n The concept of a hypothesis test The distinction between a null and an alternative hypothesis How to conduct a hypothesis test on a population proportion using the margin of error How to use simulations to explore the variability of sample means from a known population to construct the sampling distribution of the mean and to draw conclusions about the sampling distribution of the mean The use of the sampling distribution of the mean as the basis for informal inference How to Construct 95% confidence intervals for the population mean from a large sample using z tables How to perform univariate large sample tests of the population mean ( two – tailed z- test only) How to use and interpret p - values Note: The margin of error referred to here is the maximum value of the 95% confidence interval. 57 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 11: Synthetic Geometry 2 Lesson Idea LCHL.55 Title Theorem *19, Corollaries 2, 3, 4 and 5 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document A mathematical instruments set Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Higher Level only: *Theorem 19: The angle at the centre of a circle standing on a given arc is twice the angle at any point of the circle standing on the same arc. Corollary 2: All angles at points of a circle, standing on the same arc, are equal (and the converse) Corollary 3: Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle. Corollary 4: If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at some point of the circle is a right-angle, then [BC] is a diameter. Corollary 5: If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then opposite angles sum to 180⁰. Lesson Idea LCHL.56 Title Theorem 20, Corollary 6 and Construction 19 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document A mathematical instruments set Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 20: (i) Each tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius that goes to the point of contact. 58 SeniorCycleHigherLevel (ii) If P lies on the circle , and a line l through is perpendicular to the radius to P, then l is a tangent to s. Corollary 6: If two circles share a common tangent line at one point, then the two centres and that point are collinear. Construction 19: Tangent to a given circle at a given point on it. Lesson Idea LCHL.57 Title Theorem 21 &Construction 18 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document A mathematical instruments set Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Theorem 21: (i) The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. (ii) The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre of a circle. Construction 18: Angle of 600 , without using a protractor or set square Lesson Idea LCHL.58 Title Constructions 16 and 17 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document A mathematical instruments set Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Construction 16: Circumcentre and circumcircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. Definition 43: circumcircle, circumcentre, circumradius (Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics ) Construction 17: Incentre and incircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. 59 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Definition 44: incircle, incentre, inradius (Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics ) Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities: Draw the circumcentre and incentre for an acute-angled triangle, a right-angled triangle, an obtuse-angled triangle. In which instances is the circumcentre inside the triangle? In which instances is the incentre inside the triangle? Lesson Idea LCHL.59 Title Construction 21 and 22 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document A mathematical instruments set Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Definition 45: Medians and centroid (Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics ) Construction 21: Definition 46: Orthocentre Construction 22: Orthocentre of a triangle Centroid of a triangle Suggested class activities Students might engage in the following activities: Draw the centroid and orthocentre for an acute-angled triangle, a right-angled triangle, an obtuse-angled triangle. In which instances is the centroid inside the triangle? In which instances is the orthocentre inside the triangle? OPTIONAL: Higher Level students might consider the concept of “Euler’s Line”. The orthocentre, centroid and circumcentre in any triangle are always in line and this is called Euler’s Line. The incentre is on Euler’s Line only in the case of an isosceles triangle. In the case of an equilateral triangle, the orthocentre, centroid, circumcentre and incentre coincide. 60 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 12: Coordinate Geometry of the Circle Lesson Idea LCHL.60 Title Co-ordinate geometry of the circle Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document A mathematical instruments set, Graph paper Dynamic geometry software package, set of board drawing instruments Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: That x 2 y 2 r 2 represents the equation of a circle centre (0,0) and radius of length r (Link to Pythagoras’ Theorem - distance from any point p x, y on the circle to the centre of the circle is equal to the length of the radius of the circle.) That x h y k 2 2 r 2 represents the relationship between the and co-ordinates of points on a circle wit centre (h, k) and radius r (Link to Pythagoras’ Theorem - distance from any point p x, y on the circle to the centre of the circle is equal to the length of the radius of the circle.) Recognise that x 2 y 2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 represents the relationship between the x and y coordinates of points on a circle centre (-g,-h) and radius r where r g 2 f 2 c How to solve problems involving a line and a circle 61 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 13: Application of geometric series -Financial Maths Lesson Idea LCHL.61 Title Financial Maths Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to solve problems involving o Mark up (profit as a % of cost price) o Margin (profit as a % of selling price) o Income tax and net pay including other deductions o Compound interest investigated using multi-representations i.e. table, graph and formula (link to exponential functions and geometric sequences) o Compound interest rate terminology such as AER, EAR and CAR o How to , given an AER, covert to a different period interest rate e.g. a monthly rate and vice versa o Depreciation (reducing balance method) investigated using multi-representations i.e. table, graph and formula (link to exponential functions and geometric sequences ) o Currency transactions o Present value o How to solve problems involving finite geometric series in financial applications e.g. future value of regular investments over a definite period of time deriving a formula for a mortgage repayment o How to use present value when solving problems involving loan repayments and investments 62 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 14: Proof by Induction Lesson Idea LCHL.62 Title Proof by Induction Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: Proof by induction for the following: Simple identities such as the sum of the first n natural numbers and the sum of a finite geometric series. Simple inequalities such as: n ! 2n 2n n 2 (n 4) 1 x n 1 nx (x > -1) Factorisation results such as 3 is a factor of 4n 1 63 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Section 15: Complex Numbers Lesson Idea LCHL.63 Title Complex numbers 1 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: The origin and need for complex numbers The use of complex numbers to model two dimensional systems as in computer games, alternating current and voltage etc. How to interpret multiplication by i as a rotation of 900 anticlockwise How to express complex numbers in rectangular form a ib and illustrate them on the Argand diagram How to investigate the operations of addition and subtraction of complex numbers in the rectangular form a ib using the Argand diagram How to interpret the modulus as distance from the origin on an Argand diagram How to interpret multiplication by a complex number as a “multiplication of” the modulus by a real number combined with a rotation How to interpret the complex conjugate as a reflection in the real axis Division of complex numbers in the rectangular form a ib Calculate conjugates of sums and products of complex numbers How to solve quadratic equations having complex roots and how to interpret the solutions Lesson Idea LCHL.64 Title Complex numbers 2 Resources Online Resources Leaving Certificate document Dynamic software package Content These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding: How to use the Conjugate Root Theorem to find the roots of polynomials How to express complex numbers in polar form 64 SeniorCycleHigherLevel How to work with complex number in rectangular and polar form to solve quadratic and other equations including those in the form , where ∈ and How to use De Moivre’s Theorem How to prove De Moivre’s Theorem by induction for n N How to use applications such as the nth roots of unity, n N ,and identities such as cos3 4 cos3 3cos 65 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Appendix A Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels The Van Hiele Theory The Van Hiele model describes how students learn geometry. Pierre van Hiele and Dina van Hiele-Geldof, mathematics teachers from the Netherlands, observed their geometry students in the 1950's.The following is a brief summary of the Van Hiele theory. According to this theory, students’ progress through 5 levels of thinking starting from merely recognising a shape to being able to write a formal proof. The levels are as follows: *Visualisation (Level 0) The objects of thought are shapes and what they look like. Students have an overall impression of a shape. The appearance of a shape is what is important. They may think that a rotated square is a “diamond” and not a square because it is different from their visual image of a square. They will be able to distinguish shapes like triangles, squares, rectangles etc but will not be able to explain, for example, what makes a rectangle a rectangle. Vocabulary: Students use visual words like “pointy”, “curvy”, “corner” as well as correct language like angle, rectangle and parallelogram. *Analysis (Level 1) The objects of thought are “classes” of shapes rather than individual shapes. Students think about what makes a rectangle a rectangle and can separate the defining characteristics of a rectangle from irrelevant information like size and orientation. They recognize its parts (sides, diagonals and angles) and compare their properties (similar, congruent) They understand that if a shape belongs to a class like “rectangle”, then it has all the properties of that class (2 pairs of equal sides, right angles, 2 equal diagonals, 2 axes of symmetry). Vocabulary: words like parallel, perpendicular and congruent relating to properties within a figure and the words all, always, sometimes, never, alike, different. A concise definition of a figure, using a sufficient rather than an exhaustive list of properties is not possible at this level. They do not deal with questions like “Is a square a parallelogram?” but just look at the properties of each class of shape, without comparing the classes. *Some visualisation and analysis is covered in Primary School. Relational/ Ordering/Informal Deduction (Level 2) The objects of thought are the properties of shapes. Students are ready to understand interrelationships of properties within figures and between figures. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and opposite angles are equal. A rectangle is a parallelogram since it has all the properties of a parallelogram as well as all 900 angles. Students can recognise the difference between a statement and its converse. All squares are rectangles (true) is different from all rectangles are squares (not true). 66 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Capable of “if –then” thinking – if a shape is a rectangle then all the angles in it are right angles. If |<A |= |<B |and |<B| = |<C| then |< A| =|<C| They can select one or two properties to define a figure rather than an exhaustive list. If a quadrilateral has 4 equal sides and one right angle it must be a square. Students can discover new properties by simple deduction. The 2 acute angles in a right angled triangle add to 900 because all the angles in a triangle add up to 1800. They can explain logically without having to measure everything. Formal deduction (Level 3) Students learn how to use an axiomatic system to establish geometric theory. This is the level at which proof of Theorems is learned. The sequence of theorems given in the appendix is arranged in such a manner that each theorem builds on the previous theorem(s). Rigor (Level 4) Comparing different axiomatic systems – not done at secondary level Characteristics of these levels: Students cannot function at any particular level unless they are competent at all previous levels. The teacher’s role is crucial in structuring activities to bring students from one level to the next. How does the teacher bring students from any one level to the next? 5 phases of learning: 1. In an informal discussion of the topic, students are asked to give their initial observations. 2. The teacher provides structured activities such as drawing, making and measuring. 3. The students then verbalise and write down what they have learned and report back in groups to the class, which leads to a class discussion. 4. The teacher then provides an activity which will require students to apply what they have discovered 5. In the last stage students are required to summarise all they have learned and should be able to remember it as they have discovered it through guidance. A PowerPoint presentation of the Van Hiele theory can be got at www.projectmaths.ie 2 examples are given on the PowerPoint slides (1) Using similar triangles to show advancement between levels and (2) Using an investigation of the rhombus to show how to progress from level 0 to level 1 with this figure using the 5 teaching phases. A mind map of Van Hiele can be found at http://agutie.homestead.com/files/mindmap/van_hiele_geometry_level.html 67 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Appendix B Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions at all Levels This is intended as a quick guide to the various axioms, theorems and constructions as set out in the Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics. You can get this from the project maths website: www.projectmaths.ie It is not intended as a replacement for this document, merely as an aid to reading at a glance which material is required to be studied at various levels. The sequence of theorems as given must be followed. As stated in the heading, these theorems and constructions are underpinned by 46 definitions and 20 propositions which are all set out in the Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics, along with many undefined terms and definable terms used without explicit definition. *An axiom is a statement accepted without proof, as a basis for argument *A theorem is a statement deduced from the axioms by logical argument. Theorems can also be deduced from previously established theorems. * A proposition is a useful or interesting statement that could be proved at this point, but whose proof is not stipulated as an essential part of the programme. Teachers are free to deal with them as they see fit, but they should be mentioned, at least (Appendix p. 20, footnote). *The instruments that may be used for constructions are listed and described on page 38 of the Appendix and are a straight edge, compass, ruler, protractor and set-square. Terms Students at Junior Certificate Higher level and Leaving Certificate Ordinary level will be expected to understand the meanings of the following terms related to logic and deductive reasoning: Theorem, proof, axiom, corollary, converse, implies. In addition, students at Leaving Certificate Higher level will be expected to understand the meanings of the following terms related to logic and deductive reasoning: Is equivalent to, if and only if, proof by contradiction. 68 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Synthetic Geometry Guide to Axioms, Theorems and Constructions for all Levels Interactive files are available in the Student Area on the Project Maths website. Axioms and Theorems (supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions) *proof required for JCHL only ** proof required for LCHL only These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry. Axiom 1: There is exactly one line through any two given points Axiom 2: [Ruler Axiom]: The properties of the distance between points. Axiom 3: Protractor Axiom (The properties of the degree measure of an angle). 1 2 3 4* 5 6* 7 8 9* 10 Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure. Axiom 4: Congruent triangles conditions (SSS, SAS, ASA) In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal. Conversely, if two angles are equal, then the triangle is isosceles. Axiom 5: Given any line l and a point P, there is exactly one line through P that is parallel to l. If a transversal makes equal alternate angles on two lines then the lines are parallel. Conversely, if two lines are parallel, then any transversal will make equal alternate angles with them. The angles in any triangle add to 180⁰. Two lines are parallel if, and only if, for any transversal, the corresponding angles are equal. Each exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles. The angle opposite the greater of two sides is greater than the angles opposite the lesser. Conversely, the side opposite the greater of two angles is greater than the side opposite the lesser angle. CMN Introd. Course JC ORD JC HR LC ORD LC HR Two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third. In a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal, and opposite angles are equal. Conversely, (1) if the opposite angles of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram; (2) if the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram. Corollary 1. A diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Conversely, if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect one another, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. 69 LC FDN SeniorCycleHigherLevel 11** 12** 13** 14* 15 16 Axioms and Theorems (supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions) *proof required for JCHL only ** proof required for LCHL only These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry. If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some transversal line, then they will cut off equal segments on any other transversal. Let ABC be a triangle. If a line l is parallel to BC and cuts [AB] in the ratio m:n, then it also cuts [AC] in the same ratio. Conversely, if the sides of two triangles are in proportion, then the two triangles are similar. If two triangles are similar, then their sides are proportional, in order (and converse) [Theorem of Pythagoras]In a right-angled triangle the square of the hypotenuse is the sum of the squares of the other two sides. [Converse to Pythagoras]. If the square of one side of a triangle is the sum of the squares of the other two, then the angle opposite the first side is a right angle. Proposition 9: (RHS). If two right-angled triangles have hypotenuse and another side equal in length respectively, then they are congruent. For a triangle, base x height does not depend on the choice of base. Definition 38: The area of a triangle is half the base by the height. CMN Introd. Course JC ORD JC HR LC FDN LC ORD LC HR 17 A diagonal of a parallelogram bisects the area. 18 The area of a parallelogram is the base x height. 19* The angle at the centre of a circle standing on a given arc is twice the angle at any point of the circle standing on the same arc. Corollary 2†: All angles at points of a circle, standing on the same arc are equal (and converse). Corollary 3: Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle. 20 21 Corollary 4: If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at some point of the circle is a right-angle, then [BC] is a diameter. Corollary 5: If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then opposite angles sum to 180⁰(and converse). (i) Each tangent is perpendicular to the radius that goes to the point of contact. (ii) If P lies on the circle S, and a line l is perpendicular to the radius to P, then l is a tangent to S. Corollary 6: If two circles intersect at one point only, then the two centres and the point of contact are collinear. (i) The perpendicular from the centre to a chord bisects the chord. (ii) The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre. † The corollaries are numbered as in the Geometry for Post-primary School Mathematics; corollary 2 is the first one relating to theorem 19 ♦ These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry 70 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Constructions (Supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions, 5 axioms and 21 theorems) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bisector of an angle, using only compass and straight edge. Perpendicular bisector of a segment, using only compass and straight edge. Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point not on l. Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point on l. Line parallel to given line, through a given point. Division of a line segment into 2 or 3 equal segments without measuring it. Division of a line segment into any number of equal segments, without measuring it. CMN Introd. Course JC ORD JC HR LC FN LC ORD LC HR Angle of a given number of degrees with a given ray as one arm. 10 Triangle, given lengths of 3 sides. 11 Triangle, given SAS data. 12 Triangle, given ASA data 13 Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other side 14 Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute angles. 15 Rectangle given side lengths. 8 Line segment of a given length on a given ray. 9 16 17 Circumcentre and circumcircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. Incentre and incircle of a triangle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass. 18 Angle of 60⁰ without using a protractor or set square. 19 Tangent to a given circle at a given point on it. 20 Parallelogram, given the length of the sides and the measure of the angles. 21 Centroid of a triangle. 22 Orthocentre of a triangle. 71 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Appendix C Investigations of quadrilaterals and triangles Investigating Quadrilaterals Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a square) (not a parallelogram) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Describe it in words. Draw three examples in different orientations. How many axes of symmetry does it have? Show on a diagram. Does it have a centre of symmetry? Show on a diagram. Which sides are equal? What is the sum of all the angles? Are all angles equal? 72 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a square) (not a parallelogram) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Which angles are equal? What is the sum of two adjacent angles? Does a diagonal bisect the angles it passes through? Does a diagonal divide it into two congruent triangles? Given the length of its sides, can you calculate the length of a diagonal? Are the two diagonal s equal in length? Do the diagonals divide it into four congruent triangles? 73 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a square) (not a parallelogram) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Do the diagonals divide it into four triangles of equal area? Are the diagonals perpendicular? Do the two diagonals bisect each other? What information do you need to calculate its area? How do you calculate it? Does a diagonal bisect its area? 74 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Investigating triangles Triangles Equilateral Isosceles Describe it in words. Draw three examples in different orientations. How many axes of symmetry does it have? Show on a diagram. Does it have a centre of symmetry? Show on a diagram. What is the sum of the three angles? Are all angles equal? Are there any equal angles? Where? Can you say for certain what size the angles are? Apart from the isosceles triangles themselves which of the others could also be isosceles? 75 Right angled Obtuse Angled SeniorCycleHigherLevel Triangles Equilateral Isosceles What information do you need to calculate its area? How do you calculate it? Draw 3 diagrams for each type of triangle showing each side as a base and the corresponding perpendicular height? How do you calculate the area? Is the centroid inside the triangle always? Is the circumcentre inside the triangle always? Is the incentre inside the triangle always? 76 Right angled Obtuse Angled SeniorCycleHigherLevel Suggested solutions Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a square) (not a parallelogram) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Describe it in words. A square is a quadrilateral in which all sides are equal in length and all angles are 900. (need only say that one angle is 900) A rhombus is a quadrilateral with all sides equal and opposite angles equal. (a parallelogram with all sides equal in length.) A rectangle is a quadrilateral with opposite sides equal and parallel and all interior angles equal to 900. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides equal and parallel and opposite angles equal. A trapezium is a quadrilateral which has 1 pair of parallel sides. Draw three examples in different orientations. How many axes of symmetry does it have? Show on a diagram. 4 2 2 None None if the non parallel sides are not equal in length. Does it have a centre of symmetry? Show on a diagram. No Which sides are equal? All All Opposite Opposite none What is the sum of all the angles? 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 Are all angles equal? x x x 77 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a square) (not a parallelogram) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Which angles are equal? What is the sum of two adjacent angles? All angles Opposite angles All angles Opposite angles 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 Does a diagonal bisect the angles it passes through? x x x Does a diagonal divide it into two congruent triangles? x No. Need to know an angle. Need to know the lengths of two adjacent sides and the angle between them. No. Need to know an angle. Investigate using geostrips. Given the length of its sides, can you calculate the length of a diagonal? Are the two diagonal s equal in length? x x x Do the diagonals divide it into four congruent triangles? x x x 78 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Quadrilaterals Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium (not a square) (not a rectangle or a rhombus) (not a square) (not a parallelogram) and not an isosceles trapezium which has the non parallel sides equal in length) Do the diagonals divide it into four triangles of equal area? x Are the diagonals perpendicular? x x x Do the two diagonals bisect each other? x Base ( b) and perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Lengths of 2 adjacent sides l and b. Area = l x b. Base ( b) and perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Area = b x h (Base ( b) and Area = b x h The lengths of its parallel sides ( a and b)and the perpendicular distance between them. What information do you need to calculate its area? How do you calculate it? One side length x. Area = x2 (Base ( b) and perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Area = b x h) Does a diagonal bisect its area? If you know the lengths of the diagonals x and y Area = ½ x y. perpendicular height (h)from a vertex to that base Area = ½ (a+b) h Area = b x h) 79 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Appendix D How to register for CensusAtSchool, complete the online questionnaire and retrieve class data for analysis and interpretation Part 1: Registration www.CensusAtSchool.ie Click “Teacher Registration” under “Take Part” in the main menu This is the Irish CensusAtSchool homepage. Click “Take Part” under the main menu. 1 2 Fill out and click on “Submit” Click “ONLINE REGISTRATION FORM” Once your registration form has been received and approved an email with a personal username and password will be dispatched to you. Check your email spam folder if you do not See “Forgotten Log In Details” Queries: [email protected] receive these details within 48 hours. 3 80 4 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Part 2: Accessing the questionnaire Click “Take Part”, “Questionnaires” and then click on the latest questionnaire which will be at the top of the list. Click “Take the CensusAtSchool* online questionnaire” 6 5 Part 3: Filling out the questionnaire Each student must fill in accurately; the school roll number and the teacher’s username (sent by email) Click on “Next” When the questionnaire is completed, the student clicks “Submit”. 7 81 8 SeniorCycleHigherLevel Logging in to retrieve data Part 4 Now that my students have filled in the data – what next? Fill in your username and password. (If you have forgotten them, click on the “forgot your password or username” link.) Under “Get Data” click on “Request your class data” Click “Login”. 9 10 Your data will look similar to the spreadsheet below. Once logged in you will be asked for your school roll number and username. Select whichever questionnaire (phase) your students have completed. Click on “Submit” and your data will be returned to you in spreadsheet form. 12 11 82 Appendix E: Trigonometric Formulae 1.* cos 2 A sin 2 A 1 2.* sine rule: 3.* cosine rule: 4.* cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B 5.* cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B 6.* cos 2 A cos 2 A sin 2 A 7.* sin( A B ) sin A cos B cos A sin B 8. sin( A B ) sin A cos B cos A sin B 9.* tan( A B) tan A tan B 1 tan A tan B 10. tan( A B ) tan A tan B 1 tan A tan B 11. sin 2 A 2sin A cos A 12. sin 2 A 2 tan A 1 tan 2 A 13. cos 2 A 1 tan 2 A 1 tan 2 A 14. tan 2 A 2 tan A 1 tan 2 A 15. cos 2 A 1 1 cos 2 A 2 16. sin 2 A 1 1 cos 2 A 2 17. 2cos A cos B cos( A B ) cos( A B) 18. 2sin A cos B sin( A B ) sin( A B) 19. 2sin A sin B cos( A B) cos( A B) 20. 2cos A cos B sin( A B ) sin( A B ) 21. cos A cos B 2cos 22. cos A cos B 2sin 23. sin A sin B 2sin A B A B cos 2 2 24. sin A sin B 2cos A B A B sin 2 2 a b c sin A sin B sin C a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A A B A B cos 2 2 A B A B sin 2 2 83 * Proof required for higher level SeniorCycleHigherLevel Appendix F: Sample Derivations of the formulae 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 1.* cos2 A sin2 A 1 [Pg. 13, Trigonometry] Distance from (0, 0) to ( cos A, sin A) is 1 ( cos A 0) 2 sin( A 0) 2 1 cos 2 A sin 2 A 1 2.* sine formula: sin A sin B sin C a b c [ Pg. 16, Trigonometry of the triangle Need to examine two cases – acute angled triangles such as ABC and obtuse angled triangles such as BCD h h Case 1: ABC (acute angled) sin A Case 2: ABC (obtuse angled) h h b sin A b sin A 84 h h b sin A b SeniorCycleHigherLevel sin B h h a sin B a sin(180 B ) h a h [as sin(180 B ) sin B ] a h a sin B sin B In both cases: h= bsinA and h = asinB Equating h 's a b sin A sin B Similarly if the perpendicular height was dropped from A it would yield: a sin B b sin A b c sin B sin C a b c sin A sin B sin C 3.* cosine formula:a2 b2 c2 2bccosA [Pg. 16, Trigonometry of the triangle a (c cos A b) 2 (c sin A 0) 2 using the distance formula a 2 c 2 cos 2 A 2bc cos A b 2 c 2 sin 2 A a 2 b 2 c 2 (cos 2 A sin 2 A) 2bc cos A a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A as cos A sin A 1 2 85 2 SeniorCycleHigherLevel cos(A B) cos A cosB sinA sinB 4.* [Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae] Find the distance between p and q in two different ways and equate the answers 2 pq 12 12 2(1)(1) cos( A B) using cos ine formula, a b c 2bc cos A 2 2 2 2 pq 2 2 cos( A B) pq (cos A cos B) 2 (sin A sin B) 2 using distance formula 2 pq cos 2 A 2 cos A cos B cos 2 B sin 2 A 2sin A sin B sin 2 B 2 pq 2 2 cos A cos B 2sin A sin B Equating both: 2 2 cos( A B) 2 2 cos A cos B 2sin A sin B 2 cos( A B) 2 cos A cos B 2sin A sin B cos( A B ) cos A cos B sin A sin B 5.* 6.* cos( A B ) cos A cos B sin A sin B [Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae] cos( A B ) cos A cos B sin A sin B using formula 4 cos( A ( B )) cos A cos( B ) sin A sin( B ) changing B to B cos( A B ) cos A cos B sin A sin B as cos( B ) cos B and sin( B ) sin B cos2 A cos2 A sin 2 A [Pg. 14, Double angle formulae] 86 SeniorCycleHigherLevel cos( A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B using formula 5 cos( A A) cos A cos A sin A sin A changing B to A cos 2 A cos 2 A sin 2 A 7.* sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B [Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae] sin( A B ) cos[90o ( A B )] using complementary angles, sin cos(90 ) o cos[90o A B ] cos[(90o A) B ] cos(90o A) cos B sin(90o A)sin B using formula 4, cos( A B ) cos A cos B sin A cos B cos A sin B 9.* tan( A B) tan A tan B 1 tan A tan B tan( A B ) sin( A B ) cos( A B ) tan sin cos sin A cos B cos A sin B cos A cos B sin A sin B cos A sin B sin A cos B cos A cos B cos A cos B sin A sin B 1 cos A cos B [ Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae] dividing everywhere by cos A cos B tan A tan B 1 tan A tan B 87

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