# Teacher Handbook LC HL

```Senior Cycle
TEACHER HANDBOOK Senior Cycle Higher Level DRAFT Based on the 2015 Syllabus 1 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Contents
Page
Introduction
3
Section 1
Strand 3
Number systems
12
Section 2
Strand 5
Functions
16
Section 3
Strand 4
Algebra
18
Section 4
Strand 3
Area and Volume
21
Section 5
Strand 2
Trigonometry
22
Section 6
Strand 2
Co-ordinate Geometry (Line)
25
Section 7
Strand 2
Synthetic Geometry 1
31
Section 8
Strand 1
Probability and Statistics 1
42
Section 9
Strand 5
Functions & Calculus
47
Section 10
Strand 1
Probability & Statistics 2
53
Section 11
Strand 2
Synthetic Geometry 2
58
Section 12
Strand 2
Co-ordinate Geometry (Circle)
61
Section 13
Strand 3
Financial Maths
62
Section 14
Strand 3
Proof by induction
63
Section 15
Strand 3&4
Complex numbers
64
Appendix A
Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels: The Van Hiele Theory
Appendix B
Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions at all Levels
Appendix C
Appendix D
How to use CensusAtSchool
Appendix E
Trigonometric formulae
Appendix F
Sample derivations of some trigonometric formulae
The strand structure of the syllabus should not be taken to imply that topics are to be studied
in isolation.Where appropriate, connections should be made within and across the strands and
with other areas of learning.(NCCA JC syllabus page 10 and LC syllabus page 8)
2 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Resources which will allow teachers plan lessons, easily access specific learning outcomes in
the syllabus and relevant support material such as “Teaching & Learning Plans” and
suggested activities to support learning and teaching are available on the Project Maths
website www.projectmaths.ie
3 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Introduction: Student Learning
While this is a handbook for teachers, it must be emphasised that student learning and the
process of mathematical thinking and building understanding are the main focus of this
document.
Information and Communications Technologies are used whenever and wherever
appropriate to help to support student learning. It is also envisaged that, at all levels,
learners will engage with a dynamic geometry software package.
Students with mild general learning disabilities
Teachers are reminded that the NCCA Guidelines on mathematics for students with mild
general learning disabilities can be accessed at
This document includes
 Approaches and Methodologies (from Page 4)
 Exemplars (from page 20)
Note: Synthesis and problem solving listed below must be incorporated into all of the
Strands.
The list of skills below is taken from Strand 1of the syllabus but an identical list is given at
the beginning of each strand in the syllabus.
Useful websites
4 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
http://www.projectmaths.ie/
http://ncca.ie/en/Curriculum_and_Assessment/PostPrimary_Education/Project_Maths/
http://www.examinations.ie/
Literacy and Numeracy Strategy
The National Strategy to Improve Literacy and Numeracy among Children and Young
People 2011-2020
Numeracy encompasses the ability to use mathematical understanding and skills to solve
problems and meet the demands of day-to-day living in complex social settings. To have this
ability, a young person needs to be able to think and communicate quantitatively, to make
sense of data, to have a spatial awareness, to understand patterns and sequences, and to
recognise situations where mathematical reasoning can be applied to solve problems.
Literacy includes the capacity to read, understand and critically appreciate various forms of
communication including spoken language, printed text, broadcast media, and digital media.
Colour coding used in the suggested sequence below:
Strand 1
Strand 2
Strand 3
Strand 4
Strand 5
Statistics and
probability
Geometry &
Trigonometry
Number
Algebra
Functions
* Indicates proof of this theorem is required for JCHL
** Indicates proof of this theorem is required for LCHL
5 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Suggested Sequence of topics Section
number
Section
1
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
3.1
Page
number
Number systems
12
3.2
LCHL.2
Rules for indices
and scientific
notation
12
3.2
LCHL.3
Logarithms
13
LCHL.4
Relations approach
to algebra revision and
extension of JC
material
14
LCHL.5
Arithmetic and
geometric
sequences and
series
15
5.1
LCHL.6
Functionsinterpreting and
representing linear,
exponential
functions in
graphical form
16
5.1
LCHL.7
Composition of
functions
17
LCHL.8
Revision of JC
algebraic
expressions and
extension to LCHL
18
3.1
4.1
Section
3
4.1
Title of lesson
idea
LCHL.1
3,4&5
Section
2
Corresponding
Lesson Number
LCHL.9
Rearranging
formulae
6 18
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section
number
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
Title of lesson
idea
Page
number
4.2
LCHL.10
Solving equations
and the Factor
Theorem
4.3
LCHL.11
Inequalities - linear,
20
4.3
LCHL.12
Modulus inequalities
20
Section
4
3.4
LCHL.13
Nets, length, area
and volume
21
Section
5
2.3
LCHL.14
Revision of JC
trigonometry and
22
LCHL.15
The unit circle and
graphs of
trigonometric
functions
22
2.3
LCHL.16
Area of a triangle,
sine rule and cosine
rule
23
2.3
LCHL.17
3D trigonometry
24
2.3
LCHL.18
Trigonometry
formulae and proofs
24
2.2
LCHL.19
Revision of JC
coordinate geometry
25
LCHL.20
Area of a triangle
given the
coordinates of the
vertices
26
2.2
LCHL.21
Divide a line
segment internally
in the ratio m:n
26
2.2
LCHL.22
The perpendicular
distance from a
point to a line
26
2.3
Section
6
2.2
Corresponding
Lesson Number
7 19
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section
number
Section
7
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
Corresponding
Lesson Number
2.2
LCHL.23
Angle between two
lines
27
LCHL.24
Revision - Plane and
points, Axioms 1,2,
3,&5, Theorem 1,
Constructions 8,9,5,
31
LCHL.25
Revision Constructions
6,7,10,11,12 Axiom
4, Theorem 2
32
2.1
LCHL.26
Revision:
Theorems 3,
*4,5,*6, 7 & 8
32
2.1
LCHL.27
Revision:
Constructions 1,2,
3& 4
33
LCHL.28
Revision: JC
Transformation
geometry
34
2.1
LCHL.29
Revision:
parallelograms,
Theorems *9 &
10, Corollary 1,
Construction 20
35
2.1
LCHL.30
Revision: More on
37
2.1
LCHL.31
2.1
LCHL.32
Theorem **12 and
Theorem **13
39
2.1
LCHL.33
Constructions
13,14,& 15,
Theorems *14 &
39
2.1
2.1
2.1
Title of lesson
idea
**Theorem 11
8 Page
number
38
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section
number
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
Corresponding
Lesson Number
Title of lesson
idea
Page
number
15: Pythagoras’
Theorem &
converse,
Proposition 9
Section
8
2.1
LCHL.34
Introduction to area,
Theorem
16,Definition 38,
Theorems 17&18
2.4
LCHL.35
Enlargements
41
1.1
LCHL.36
Fundamental
Principle of
Counting,
arrangements,
combinations
42
1.2&1.3
LCHL.37
Concepts of
Probability
42
1.2&1.3
LCHL.38
Rules of probability
42
1.2&1.3
LCHL.39
Use of tree
diagrams, set theory
and counting
method in
probability
45
1.4 &1.5
LCHL.40
Data handling cycle
43
LCHL.41
Analysing data
graphically and
numerically,
interpreting and
drawing inferences
from data
45
1.6 & 1.7
40
Proposed beginning of 6th year programme
Section
9
5.1 and
JC 4.5
LCHL.42
Revision of
functions from 5th
year and relations
without formulae
9 47
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section
number
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
Corresponding
Lesson Number
Title of lesson
idea
Page
number
( listed on JC
syllabus 4.5)
Section
10
5.2
LCHL.43
Concept of a limit,
Limits as n   ,
recurring decimals,
sum to infinity
5.2
LCHL.44
Differential Calculus
48
5.2
LCHL.45
Integral Calculus
50
1.1
LCHL.46
Revision of
counting and
probability
concepts from 5th
year
53
1.2
LCHL.47
Conditional
probability
53
1.3
LCHL.48
Bernoulli trials
54
1.2
LCHL.49
Expected value
54
1.1, 1.2,
1.3
LCHL.50
Overview of
probability concepts
55
LCHL.51
Revision of statistics
concepts from 5th
year
55
1.6
LCHL.52
Bivariate data,
scatter plots and
correlation
56
1.3
LCHL.53
Normal
distribution and
standard normal
56
LCHL.54
Drawing
inferences from
data
57
1.4 &1.5
1.7
10 47
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Page
number
2.1
Theorem *19,
Corollaries 2,3,4,&5
58
2.1
LCHL.56
Theorem 20,
Corollary 6 &
Construction 19
58
2.1
LCHL.57
Theorem 21 and
Construction 18
59
2.1
LCHL.58
Constructions 16 &
17
59
2.1
LCHL.59
Construction 21&22
60
2.2
LCHL.60
Coordinate
geometry of the
circle
61
Section
13
3.1
LCHL.61
Financial Maths
62
Section
14
3.1
LCHL.62
Proof by Induction
63
3.1
LCHL.63
Complex numbers 1
64
4.4
LCHL.64
Section
11
Section
12
Section
15
Strand
(Syllabus
section)
Title of lesson
idea
Section
number
Corresponding
Lesson Number
LCHL.55
Complex numbers 2
64
11 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
The Lesson Ideas
Section 1: Number
Lesson Idea LCHL.1
Title
Number systems
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

N, Z, Q and representing these numbers on a number line











Factors, multiples and prime numbers in N
How to express numbers in terms of their prime factors
Highest Common Factor and Lowest Common Multiple
How to make and justify estimates and approximations of calculations
Make estimates of measures in the physical world around them
How to calculate percentage error and tolerance
How to calculate accumulated error (due to addition or subtraction only)
How to calculate costing: materials, labour and wastage
Metric system; change of units; everyday imperial units (conversion factors provided
for imperial units)
Terminating and non-terminating decimals
Irrational numbers R \ Q

The number system R , appreciating that R \ Q and representing R on a number line

How to geometrically construct

Proof (by contradiction) that 2 is an irrational number
2 and 3
Lesson Idea LCHL.2
Title
Rules for indices and scientific notation
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
12 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

The rules for indices (where a, b  R, p, q  Q; a p , a q  Q )
a p a q  a pq
ap
 a p q
q
a
a0  1
a 
 a pq
a p 
1
ap
 ab 
 a pb p
p q
p
p
ap
a

 
bp
b
1
q
q
p
q
q
a  a,
a  ap 


q  Z, q  0, a  0
 a
q
p
, p, q  Z, q  0, a  0
How to express non - zero positive rational numbers in the form a  10n , where
n Z and 1  a  10
How to perform arithmetic operations on numbers in scientific notation
Lesson Idea LCHL.3
Title
Logarithms
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to solve problems using the rules of logarithms:
13 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
log a  xy   log a x  log a y
x
log a    log a x  log a y
 y
log a x q  q log a x
log a a  1
log a 1  0
log a x 
log b x
log b a
Lesson Idea LCHL.4
Title
Relations approach to algebra- revision and extension of Junior Cycle material
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:



That processes can generate sequences of numbers or objects
How to investigate and discover patterns among these sequences
How to use patterns to continue the sequence

How to develop generalising strategies and ideas, present and interpret solutions, in
the following:
o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and
analysing linear patterns and relations

Discuss rate of change and the y - intercept. Consider how these relate
to the context from which the relationship is derived and identify how
they can appear in a table, in a graph and in a formula

Decide if two linear relations have a common value. (Decide if two
lines intersect and where the intersection occurs.)

Recognise that the distinguishing feature of a linear relationship is a
constant rate of change

Recognise discrete linear relationships as arithmetic sequences
o The use of tables, diagrams, graphs and formulae as tools for representing and
14 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

Recognise that a distinguishing feature of quadratic relations is that the
rate of change of the rate of change is constant
o The concept of a function as a relationship between a set of inputs and a set of
outputs where each input is related uniquely to just one output
o Exponential relations

Recognise that a distinguishing feature of exponential relations is a
constant ratio between successive outputs

Recognise discrete exponential relationships as geometric sequences
Lesson Idea LCHL.5
Title
Arithmetic and geometric sequences and series
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:






The link between linear relations and the formula for the general term (Tn) of an
arithmetic sequence
How to find the sum (Sn) of n terms of an arithmetic series
How to apply the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence and the formula
for the sum to n terms of an arithmetic series to different contexts.
Geometric sequences and series
Recognise discrete exponential relationships as geometric sequences
Recognise whether a sequence is arithmetic, geometric or neither
15 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 2: Functions
Lesson Idea LCHL.6
Title
Functions - interpreting and representing linear, quadratic and exponential functions in
graphical form
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

That a function assigns a unique output to a given input

Make use of function notation f ( x)  ,


Domain, co-domain and range
How to graph functions of the form:
o ax  b where a, b  Q, x  R
f : x , and y 
o
ax 2  bx  c, where a, b, c  Q, x  R
o
ax3  bx 2  cx  d , where a, b, c, d  Z, x  R
o
ab x where a, b  R
o Logarithmic
o Exponential

How to find the inverse of a function

How to sketch the graph of the inverse of a function given the graph of the function


How to recognise surjective, injective, and bijective functions
That the inverse of a bijective function is a function

The concept of the limit of a function where it arises

How to interpret equations of the form f ( x)  g ( x ) as a comparison of the above
functions

Use graphical methods to find approximate solutions to
o
f ( x)  0
o
f ( x)  k
16 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
o
f ( x)  g ( x)
where f ( x ) and g ( x) are of the above form
or where graphs of f ( x) and g ( x) are provided.

Express quadratic functions in complete square form

The relationship between x 2 , ax 2 , x 2  c , ( x  h) 2  k , and a ( x  h) 2  k

How to use the complete square form of a quadratic function to find the roots and
turning points

How to use the complete square form of a quadratic function to sketch the function
Lesson Idea LCHL.7
Title
Composition of functions
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


How to form composite functions (including notation used)
Composite functions in context
17 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 3: Functions
Lesson Idea LCHL.8
Title
Revision of JC algebraic expressions and extension to HL LC
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


Factorising as listed on the JCHL syllabus
The addition of expressions such as:
ax  b
dx  e
 ... 
where a, b, c, d , e, f  Z
c
f
a
q

where a, b, c, p, q, r  Z
bx  c px  r

How to perform the arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division on polynomials and rational algebraic expressions paying attention to the use
of brackets and surds

The binomial theorem and how to apply the binomial theorem
Lesson Idea LCHL.9
Title
Rearranging formulae
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
 How to rearrange formulae
18 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.10
Title
Solving equations and the Factor Theorem
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The selection and use of suitable strategies (graphic, numerical, algebraic and mental)
for finding solutions to equations of the form:
o f  x   g  x  , with f  x   ax  b, g  x   cx  d and where a, b, c, d Q
o
f  x   g  x  with
f  x 
a
p
e

, g  x 
bx  c qx  r
f
where a, b, c, e, f , p, q, r  Z
o
f  x   g  x  with
f  x 
ax  b cx  d

, g  x  k
ex  f qx  r
where a, b, c, d , e, f , q, r  Z
o




f ( x)  k with f  x   ax 2  bx  c (and not necessarily factorisable), a, b, c Q
and interpret the results
o Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns and interpret the results
o One linear and one equation of order two with two unknowns and interpret
the results
o Simultaneous linear equations with three unknowns and interpret the results
How to use the Factor Theorem for polynomials
The selection and use of suitable strategies (graphic, numerical, algebraic and mental)
for finding solutions to cubic equations with at least one integer root and interpret the
results
How to form polynomial equations given the roots
How to sketch polynomials given the polynomial in the form of factors - some of
which may be repeated
19 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.11
Title
Inequalities - linear, quadratic and rational
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
Selecting and using of suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic, mental) for finding
solutions to inequalities of the form:
g  x  k, g  x  k
g  x   k , g  x   k where
g  x   ax  b or
g  x   ax 2  bx  c or
g  x 
ax  b
, a, b, c, d , k  Q, x  R
cx  d
Lesson Idea LCHL.12
Title
Modulus inequalities
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Use notation x

How to select and use suitable strategies (graphic, numeric, algebraic, mental) for
finding solutions to inequalities of the form: x  a  b, x  a  b and combinations of
these, where a, b  Q, x  R
20 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 4: Nets, Length, Area and Volume
Lesson Idea LCHL.13
Title
Nets, length, area and volume
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
A mathematical instruments set
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to solve problems involving the length of the perimeter and the area of a disc,
triangle, rectangle, square, parallelogram, trapezium, sectors of discs and figures

The nets of prisms (polygonal bases), cylinders and cones

How to solve problems involving the surface area and volume of the following solid
figures: rectangular block, cylinder, right cone, triangular based prism (right angle,
isosceles and equilateral), sphere, hemisphere and solids made from combinations of
these


How to use the trapezoidal rule to approximate area
How to calculate percentage error involved in using trapezoidal rule for area in, for
example, the circle
21 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 5: Trigonometry
Lesson Idea LCHL.14
Title
Revision of JC Trigonometry with extension to LC HL (radian measure)
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
A mathematical instruments set
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:






The use of Pythagoras’ Theorem to solve problems
Trigonometric ratios in a right-angled triangle
The use of the ratios to solve problems involving right angled triangles
The use of similar triangles to find unknowns in right-angled triangles
The use of the clinometer
How to work with trigonometric ratios in surd form and solve problems involving
surds
 How to manipulate measure of angles in both decimal and DMS forms
 The use of radians as a unit of measurement of angles
 The area of sectors and arc length using degrees and radians
Lesson Idea LCHL.15
Title
The unit circle and graphs of trigonometric functions
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
A mathematical instruments set
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:



The properties and uses of the unit circle
Radian and degree metrics of the unit circle
The trigonometric ratios for angles in each of the four quadrants
22 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

Graphs of the trigonometric functions : sin x, cos x, tan x


The period and range of these trigonometric functions
That the inverse of these trigonometric functions is not a function for all values of x
Graphs of trigonometric functions of the type f ( )  a  b sin  c  ,

g    a  b cos  c  for a, b, c  R






Given the graph of a trigonometric function, sketch the graph of its inverse
The period and range of the above trigonometric functions and the effect of changing
the values of a, and
1
Solutions of equations of the form sin   0 and cos    giving all solutions for
2
specified values of 
1
Solutions to trigonometric equations such as sin n  0 and cos n   giving all
2
solutions for specified values of 
1
1
Solutions of equations of the type a sin  bx   , a cos  bx   for the domain used in
2
2
the graph
Solve equations for example of the form 15cos 2 x = 13 + sin x for all values of x
where
0° ≤ x ≤ 360°.
Lesson Idea LCHL.16
Title
Area of triangle, sine rule & cosine rule
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
A mathematical instruments set
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:





The area of a triangle using Area = ½ ab sin C and use of this formula
The connection between this formula and the geometric approach to the area of a
triangle
How to derive the sine rule
Uses of the sine rule to solve real life problems
How to derive the cosine rule
23 SeniorCycleHigherLevel


The uses of the cosine rule to solve real life problems
Use of the clinometer
Lesson Idea LCHL.17
Title
3D trigonometry
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
A mathematical instruments set
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Problems involving 3D diagrams using trigonometry
Lesson Idea LCHL.18
Title
Trigonometric formulae and proofs
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


The derivation of the trigonometric formulae 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7,9 (Appendix in
syllabus)
(Derivations of formulae 2 & 3 in the previous lesson)
How to apply the trigonometric formulae 1 - 24 (Appendix in syllabus)
24 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 6: Coordinate Geometry
Lesson Idea LCHL.19
Title
Review of Junior Cycle co-ordinate geometry
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:







The coordination of the plane
The distance formula
The midpoint formula
Rise
The idea of slope as
Run
The slope formula
The meaning of positive, negative, zero and undefined slope
The use of slopes to investigate if two lines are parallel
The use of slopes to investigate if two lines are perpendicular or not

That 3 points on the coordinate plane are collinear if and only if the slope between

any two of them is the same

The equation of a line in the forms :
y  y1  m  x  x1 
y  mx  c
ax  by  c  0






(The significance of the variables m and c)
Whether or not a point is on a line
Where a line intersects the axes and why these points might be of interest to someone
trying to interpret or plot a graph
The interpretation of the intercepts in context
How to find the slope of a line given its equation
How to solve problems involving slopes of lines
How to solve problems involving the intersection of two lines
25 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.20
Title
Area of a triangle given the coordinates of the vertices
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
This lesson will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


How to calculate the area of a triangle using coordinates
The connection between this formula ,the geometric approach to the area of a triangle
and the formula used in trigonometry for finding the area of a triangle
Lesson Idea LCHL.21
Title
Divide a line segment internally in the ratio m : n
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to divide a line segment internally in the ratio m : n (link to similar
triangles)
Lesson Idea LCHL.22
Title
The perpendicular distance from a point to a line
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to solve problems involving the perpendicular distance from a point to a
line
26 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.23
Title
The angle between two lines
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to solve problems involving the angle between two lines
27 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 7: Synthetic Geometry
Concepts:
Set, plane, point, line, ray, angle, real number, length, degree, triangle, right-angle, congruent
triangles, similar triangles, parallel lines, parallelogram, area, tangent to a circle, subset,
segment, collinear points, distance, midpoint of a line segment, reflex angle, ordinary angle,
straight angle, null angle, full angle, supplementary angles, vertically-opposite angles , acute
angle, obtuse angle, angle bisector, perpendicular lines, perpendicular bisector of a line
segment, ratio, isosceles triangle, equilateral triangle, scalene triangle, right-angled triangle,
exterior angles of a triangle, interior opposite angles, hypotenuse, alternate angles,
rhombus, base and corresponding apex and height of triangle or parallelogram, transversal
line, circle, radius, diameter, chord, arc, sector, circumference of a circle, disc, area of a disc,
point of contact of a tangent, concurrent lines. Vertex, vertices (of angle, triangle, triangle,
polygon), endpoints of segment, arms of an angle, equal segments, equal angles, adjacent
sides, angles, or vertices of triangles or quadrilaterals, the side opposite an angle of a triangle,
opposite sides or angles of a quadrilateral, centre of a circle.
The following is a suggested sequence for teaching the Leaving Cert. Course. In teaching
these lessons, teachers and students can draw from the Teaching and learning Plans and
student activities on the website at www.projectmaths.ie
As outlined at the workshops, the use of learning materials such as “geostrips”, “anglegs”,
geo-boards etc. can make the learning so much more enjoyable for students of all perceived
abilities.
While proofs are not the issue as regards informal introduction, it is important that
students are kept aware that the theorems build logically.
The lesson divisions which follow are for guidance only. The initial lesson ideas give the
students a chance to revisit the material they met in the Junior Cycle. This can be done at a
pace that is appropriate to the student’s needs. It is recommended that new activities and
challenges be introduced during this revision so that students do not see it as too much
repetition and that they can see new ways of investigating familiar situations.
Useful websites
www.projectmaths.ie
http://ncca.ie/en/Curriculum_and_Assessment/PostPrimary_Education/Project_Maths/
http://www.examinations.ie/
Note on experimentation and experimental results:
28 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
With experimentation, involving measurement, the results are only approximations and won’t
agree exactly. It is important for students to report faithfully what they find e.g. for a triangle
they could find the sum of the angles to be 1790 or 1810 etc. The conclusion is that the angles
appear to add up to 1800 .This is a plausible working assumption. There is a distinction
between what you can discover and what you can prove.
See below Section 8.2 (From Discovery to Proof) of Geometry for Post-primary School
Mathematics”
29 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
30 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.24
Title
Revision of preliminary concepts - Plane and points, Axioms 1, 2 , 3 & 5 , Theorem 1,
Constructions 8,9 & 5
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Plane, points, lines, rays, line segments, , collinear points, length of a line segment

Terms: theorem, proof, axiom, implies, is equivalent to, if and only if

Axiom 1: [Two Points Axiom] There is exactly one line through any two given
points.

Axiom 2: [Ruler Axiom]: The properties of the distance between points

Angle as a rotation, angles in different orientations

Terms: Perpendicular, parallel, vertical, horizontal

Axiom 3: [Protractor Axiom]

That a straight angle has 1800

Supplementary angles

Vertically opposite angles

Theorem 1: Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure.

Construction 8: Line segment of a given length on a given ray

Construction 9: Angle of a given number of degrees with a given ray as one arm

Axiom 5: Given any line l and a point P, there is exactly one line through P that is
parallel to l.

Construction 5: Line parallel to a given line, through a given point
31 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.25
Title
Revision of JC synthetic geometry - Constructions 6,7,10,11,12, Axiom 4, Theorem 2
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Construction 6:
measuring it

Construction 7:
Division of a line segment into any number of equal segments,
without measuring it

Triangles: scalene, isosceles, equilateral, right-angled

Construction 10:
Triangle given SSS data (Axiom 4 -Congruent triangles)

Construction 11:
Triangle given SAS data (Axiom 4 -Congruent triangles)

Construction 12:
Triangle given ASA data (Axiom 4 -Congruent triangles)

More constructions of triangles with SSS, SAS and ASA

By construction, show that AAA and ASS are not sufficient conditions for
Division of a line segment into 2, 3 equal segments without
congruence.

Theorem 2: (i) In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal.

What is meant by the term “converse”

(ii) Conversely, if two angles are equal, then the triangle is isosceles
Lesson Idea LCHL.26
Title
Revision of JC synthetic geometry - Theorems 3, *4, 5, *6, 7 & 8
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
32 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

Theorem 3:
(i) If a transversal makes equal alternate angles on two lines, then the
lines are parallel (and converse)

*Theorem 4: The angles in any triangle add to 1800.

Theorem 5:
Two lines are parallel, if and only if, for any transversal, the
corresponding angles are equal.

*Theorem 6: Each exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior
opposite angles.

Theorem 7: In a triangle, the angle opposite the greater of two sides is greater than the
angle opposite the lesser. Conversely, the side opposite the greater of two angles is
greater than the side opposite the lesser angle.
(Students might engage with proof by contradiction in proving the converse of
Theorem 7)

Theorem 8:
Two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third.
Lesson Idea LCHL.27
Title
Revision - Constructions 1, 2, 3 & 4
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Construction 1: Bisector of a given angle, using only compass and straight edge

Construction 2:
Perpendicular bisector of a line segment, using only compass and
straight edge

Construction 3: Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point
not on l.

Construction 4: Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point
on l
33 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.28
Title
Revision: Junior Certificate transformation geometry
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Translations

Axial symmetry

Central symmetry

Rotations
Suggested class activities
Students might engage in the following investigations:
Does a translation preserve length?
Does a translation preserve angle size?
Does a translation map a line onto a parallel line?
Does a translation map a triangle onto a congruent triangle?
Does an axial symmetry preserve length?
Does an axial symmetry preserve angle size?
Does an axial symmetry maps a line onto a parallel line?
Does an axial symmetry map a triangle onto a congruent triangle?
How many axes of symmetry does an isosceles triangle have?
How many axes of symmetry does an equilateral triangle have?
How many axes of symmetry does a circle have?
(Draw examples of the above.)
Does a central symmetry preserve length?
Does a central symmetry preserve angle size?
Does a central symmetry map a line onto a parallel line?
Does a central symmetry map a triangle onto a congruent triangle?
Does an isosceles triangle have a centre of symmetry?
Does an equilateral triangle have a centre of symmetry?
Which types of triangle have a centre of symmetry?
Does a circle have a centre of symmetry?
Note: quadrilaterals are investigated in the lessons following.
34 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.29
Title
Revision of quadrilaterals, parallelograms, Theorems *9 & 10, Corollary 1 and Construction
20
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Properties of parallelograms

*Theorem 9: In a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal, and opposite angles are
equal
Conversely, (1) if the opposite angles of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a
parallelogram; (2) if the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a
parallelogram.
 Remark 1 of Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics: Sometimes it
happens that the converse of a true statement is false. For example, it is true that if a
quadrilateral is a rhombus, then its diagonals are perpendicular. But it is not true that
a quadrilateral whose diagonals are perpendicular is always a rhombus.
 Remark 2: The converse of Corollary 1 is false: it may happen that a diagonal divides
a convex quadrilateral into two congruent triangles, even though the quadrilateral is
not a parallelogram.

Further properties of parallelograms

Use of the term “corollary”

Corollary 1: A diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles

Theorem 10: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect one another.
Conversely, if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect one another, then the quadrilateral is a
parallelogram.

Construction 20: Parallelogram, given the length of the sides and the measure of the angles.
35 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

Suggested class activities
Students might engage in the following activities which lead to an informal proof of
theorem 9:
Draw a parallelogram ABCD which is not a rectangle or a rhombus
Draw in one diagonal BD
Mark in all the alternate angles – they should find 2 pairs
Establish that triangles ABD and BCD are congruent and explain their reasoning
Establish what this means about the opposite sides of parallelogram ABCD
Make a deduction about the opposite angles of parallelogram ABCD
The students can determine:
If the diagonal bisects the angles at the vertex
The sum of the four angles of parallelogram ABCD
The result if two adjacent angles of the parallelogram are added together
Students might engage in the following activities which lead to an informal proof of
theorem 10 (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning):
Draw a parallelogram ABCD which is not a rectangle or a rhombus
Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E
Determine if the two diagonals equal in length. (Measure)
Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC
Explain why triangles ADE and BEC are congruent (Give a reason.)
Possible further investigations:
The students can determine:
If the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent
If the diagonals perpendicular
If the parallelogram contains 4 two pairs of congruent triangles
If the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the parallelogram
The number of axes of symmetry the parallelogram has
If the parallelogram has a centre of symmetry and its location if it does exist
Students might engage in the following activities about a square, rhombus,
parallelogram and rectangle: (In all instances they should be encouraged to explain
their reasoning.)
36 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Describe each of them in words.
Draw three examples of each in different orientations.
Determine which sides are equal in length.
Determine the sum of the angles in each case.
Determine which angles are equal.
Determine the sum of two adjacent angles in each case.
Establish whether or not a diagonal bisects the angles it passes through.
Establish whether or not the diagonals are perpendicular.
Determine whether or not a diagonal divides it into two congruent triangles.
Calculate the length of a diagonal given the length of its sides, where possible.
Establish whether or not the two diagonals are equal in length.
Determine whether or not the diagonals divide the different shapes into 4 congruent
triangles.
Establish if the diagonals bisect each other.
The students should determine the number of axes of symmetry each of the shapes has and
which ones have a centre of symmetry.
An interesting option would be to conduct the activities above on a KITE.
Lesson Idea LCHL.30
Title
Revision: More on quadrilaterals – investigating a Square
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
Students might engage in the following activities relating to a square: (In all instances
they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.)
Draw a square ABCD.
Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E.
Determine whether or not the two diagonals are equal in length.
Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC.
Establish that triangles ADE and BEC are congruent.
Determine if the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent.
Determine if there are two pairs of congruent triangles in the square.
Show that the diagonals perpendicular. Give a reason.
Establish whether or not the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the square.
Find how many axes of symmetry the square has.
37 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Determine whether or not the square has a centre of symmetry and if it does, what is its
location.
Students might engage in the following activities about a rectangle:
(In all instances they should be encouraged to explain their reasoning.)
Draw a rectangle ABCD which is not a square
Draw in the two diagonals AC and BD intersecting at E and establish if the two diagonals are
equal in length
Mark in all the equal sides and angles in the triangles AED and BEC.
Establish that triangles ADE and BEC are congruent.
Determine whether or not the triangles AEB and DEC are congruent.
Determine whether or not there are two pairs of congruent triangles in the rectangle.
Show that the diagonals are perpendicular.
Determine whether or not the diagonals bisect the vertex angles of the rectangle.
Find how many axes of symmetry the rectangle has.
Determine whether or not the rectangle has a centre of symmetry and if it does, find its
location.
Possible extra activity:
Repeat these activities for the rhombus ABCD
Lesson Idea LCHL.31
Title
**Theorem 11
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


**Theorem 11:If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some transversal line,
then they will cut off equal segments on any other transversal.
Proof of this theorem
38 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.32
Title
**Theorem 12 and **Theorem 13
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:






Theorem 12: Let ∆ABC be a triangle. If a line is parallel to BC and cuts [AB] in
the ratio
: , then it also cuts [AC] in the same ratio.
Converse to Theorem 12: Let ∆ABC be a triangle. If a line cuts the sides AB and
AC in the same ratio, then it is parallel to BC.
Proof of Theorem 12
The meaning of similar triangles and the difference between similar and congruent
triangles.
Theorem 13: If two triangles ∆ABC and ∆ ′ ′ ′’ are similar, then their sides are
proportional, in order:
| |
| |
| |
|
| |
′| | ′ |
Converse to Theorem 13: If
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
,then the two triangles ∆ABC and ∆ ′ ′ ′’ are similar .
.

Proof of Theorem 13
Lesson Idea LCHL.33
Title
Constructions 13, 14, 15, *Pythagoras’ Theorem (*Theorem 14), converse of Pythagoras’
Theorem (Theorem 15)
Proposition 9
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
39 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


Construction 13:
Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other
side.
Construction 14:
Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute
angles (several cases)

Construction 15:
Rectangle given side lengths

*Theorem 14:
[Theorem of Pythagoras]

Theorem 15: [Converse to Pythagoras’ Theorem ] If the square of one side of a
triangle is the sum of the squares of the other two, then the angle opposite the first
side is a right angle.

Proposition 9: (RHS) If two right-angled triangles each have hypotenuse and
another side equal in length respectively, then they are congruent.
Lesson Idea LCHL.34
Title
Introduction to area, Theorem 16, Definition 38, Theorem 17 and Theorem 18
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Theorem 16: For a triangle, base times height does not depend on the choice of
base.

Definition 38: The area of a triangle is half the base by the height.

Theorem 17: A diagonal of a parallelogram bisects the area.

Theorem 18: The area of a parallelogram is the base by the height.
Suggested class activities
Students might engage in the following activities:
40 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
In the case of each of these types of triangles: equilateral, isosceles, right-angled and obtuseangled:
draw three diagrams for each type of triangle showing each side as a base and the
corresponding perpendicular height.
Students investigate the validity of the following statement and its converse: “Congruent
triangles have equal areas”.
Lesson Idea LCHL.35
Title
Enlargements
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Enlargements, paying attention to
o Centre of enlargement
o Scale factor k, 0  k  1, k  1 ,k  Q
o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre
of enlargement is outside the figure to be enlarged
o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre
of enlargement is inside the figure to be enlarged
o How to draw an enlargement of a figure given a scale factor when the centre
of enlargement is a vertex of the figure to be enlarged or is a point on the
figure
o How to find the scale factor

That when a figure is enlarged by a scale factor k , the area of the image figure is
increased by a factor k 2

How to solve problems involving enlargements
41 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 8: Probability and Statistics 1
Lesson Idea LCHL.36
Title
Fundamental Principle of Counting, arrangements and combinations
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:





The Fundamental Principle of Counting
How to count the arrangements of n distinct objects (n!)
How to count the arrangements of n distinct object taking r at a time
How to count the number of ways of selecting r objects from n distinct objects
(combinations of r objects from n distinct objects)
How to compute binomial coefficients
Lesson Idea LCHL.37
Title
Concepts of probability
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


JC learning outcomes for probability
Lesson Idea LCHL.38
Title
Rules of probability Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
42 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:



The use of set theory to discuss experiments, outcomes, sample spaces
The basic rules of probability (AND/OR), mutually exclusive events, through the use
of Venn diagrams
The use of the formulae:
1. Addition Rule (for mutually exclusive events only): P ( A  B )  P ( A)  P ( B )
2. Addition Rule: P ( A  B )  P ( A)  P ( B )  P ( A  B )
3. Multiplication Rule( for independent events): P ( A  B )  P ( A)  P ( B )

The use of tree diagrams
Lesson Idea LCHL.39
Title
Use of the counting method to evaluate probabilities
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The use of the counting method (combinations) to evaluate probabilities
Lesson Idea LCHL.40
Title
The purpose of Statistics and the Data Handling Cycle
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The purpose and uses of statistics and possible misconceptions and misuses of
Statistics

How to design a plan and collect data on the basis of the above knowledge
43 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

The data handling cycle (Pose a question, collect data, analyse data, interpret the
result and refine the original question if necessary)

The Census at School (CAS) questionnaire as a means of collecting data

Questionnaire designs

Populations and samples

That sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements

The importance of representativeness so as to avoid biased samples

Sample selection (Simple Random Sample, stratified, cluster, quota - no formulae
required, just definitions of these)

The extent to which conclusions can be generalised

Primary sources of data ( observational (including sample surveys) and experimental
studies) and secondary sources of data
o The importance of randomisation (random assignment of subjects) and the role
of the control group in studies
o Biases, limitations and ethical issues of each type of study

The different ways of collecting data

How to summarise data in diagrammatic form
The students will also engage in analysing spreadsheets of data for example the
spreadsheet of class data returned from the Census at School questionnaire to include:
o Recognising different types of data – category (nominal /ordinal),
numerical (discrete/ continuous)
o Recognising univariate/bivariate data
o Discussing possible questions which might be answered with the data
44 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.41
Title
Analysing data graphically and numerically, interpreting and drawing inferences from data
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The concept of a distribution of data and frequency distribution tables

The selection and use of appropriate graphical and numerical methods to describe the
sample (univariate data only)taking account of data type: bar charts, pie charts, line
plots, histograms(equal class intervals), stem and leaf plots (including back to back)

The distribution of numerical data in terms of shape (concepts of symmetry,
clustering, gaps, skewness)

The selection and use of appropriate numerical methods to describe the sample
o The distribution of data in terms of centre (mean, median, mode and the
o The relative positions of mean and median in symmetric and skewed data
o The distribution of numerical data in terms of spread (range, inter-quartile
range)
 The concept of inter-quartile range as a measure of spread around the
median
o The distribution of data in terms of spread (standard deviation)
 The concept of standard deviation as a measure of spread around the
mean
 The use of the calculator to calculator to calculate standard deviation

Analyse plots of data to explain differences in measures of centre and spread

How to interpret a histogram in terms of distribution of data and make decisions based
on the empirical rule (based on a normal distribution)

Outliers and their effect on measures of centre and spread

Use percentiles to assign relative standing
45 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

The effect on the mean of adding or subtracting a constant to each of the data points
and of multiplying or dividing the data points by a constant
46 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 9: Functions (Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus)
Lesson Idea LCHL.42
Title
Revision of function concepts and relations without formulae (listed in 4.5 Junior cycle
syllabus)
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Motion sensor
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Revision of function concepts

Graphs of motion

Quantitative graphs and drawing conclusions from them

The connections between the shape of a graph and the story of a phenomenon

Quantity and change of quantity on a graph
Lesson Idea LCHL.43
Title
Limits
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

The concept of a limit
47 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
n






 1
An approach to the introduction of the number e using e  lim 1  
n 
 n
(Proof of the existence of this limit is not required.)
How to apply the rules for sums, products and quotients of limits (see 3.1)
Find by inspection the limits of sequences such as
n
lim
; lim r n , r  1
n  n  1
n 
Limits and continuity of functions through informal exploration
Derive the formula for the sum to infinity of geometric series by considering
the limit of a sequence of partial sums
Solve problems involving infinite geometric series such as recurring decimals
Lesson Idea LCHL.44
Title
Differential Calculus
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
Rate of change, average rate of change, instantaneous rate of change, the derivative
This will include:




Calculus as the study of mathematically defined change, (but not necessarily change
with respect to time alone -velocity can change with height, temperature can change
with energy, force can change with mass, pressure can change with depth etc.)
How to use graphs and real life examples to analyse rates of change for:
o Functions of the form f  x   k ,where k is a constant
o Linear functions - links should be established to the slope of a line from
coordinate geometry
o Functions where the rate of change varies - these will include the quadratic as
well as other functions where the rate of change varies
Instantaneous rate of change (what shows on a speedometer) as opposed to average
rate of change for example over the whole course of a journey
Equality of the instantaneous and average rates of change for linear functions
48 SeniorCycleHigherLevel












How to find the rate of change in situations where it is not constant - need to define it
at every point
o The idea of average rate of change between two points on, for example, the
graph of f ( x)= x2 and its calculation as the slope of the line connecting the
two endpoints of the interval under consideration
o That the instantaneous rate of change is not the same as the average rate of
change between two points on, for example, f ( x)= x2
o That the average rate of change approaches the instantaneous rate as the
interval under consideration approaches zero (the concept of a limit)
o That the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent line at the
point
The meaning of the first derivative as the instantaneous rate of change of one quantity
relative to another and the use and meaning of the terms “differentiation” and
dy
notation such as
and f '  x 
dx
How to find the first derivatives of linear functions using the equation y  mx  c and
observing the slope as the first derivative
How to differentiate linear and quadratic functions from first principles
Differentiation by rule of the following function types
 Polynomial
 Exponential
 Trigonometric
 Rational powers
 Inverse functions
 Logarithms
How to find the derivatives of sums, differences, products, quotients and composition
of functions of the form of the above functions
How to use differentiation to find the slope of a tangent to a circle
How to apply the differentiation of the above functions to solve problems
What it means when a function is increasing/decreasing/constant in terms of the rate
of change
dy
How to apply an understanding of the change in
from positive to zero to negative
dx
around a local maximum in order to identify a local maximum (concave downwards)
dy
How to apply an understanding of the change in
from negative to zero to positive
dx
around a local minimum in order to identify a local minimum (concave upwards)
Stationary points as points on a curve at which the tangent line has a slope of zero
49 SeniorCycleHigherLevel









Turning points as points on a curve where the function changes from increasing to
decreasing or vice versa. (Turning points are also stationary points but the converse
may not be true.)
The meaning of the second derivative as the rate of change of a rate of change at an
instant
The second derivative as being positive (first derivative is increasing) in a region
where the graph of a function is concave upwards and negative (first derivative is
decreasing) in a region where the graph of the function is concave downwards
A point of inflection as a point on a curve at which the second derivative equals zero
and changes sign (curve changes from concave upwards to concave downwards and
the first derivative has a maximum or minimum point)
Real life examples of the rate of change of a rate of change as in acceleration as a rate
of change of velocity
How to sketch a “slope- graph ”of a function given the graph of the function
How to match a function with graphs of its first and second derivatives
How to find second derivatives of linear, quadratic and cubic functions by rule
The application of the second derivative to identify local maxima and local minima
(Students might also associate the points on a normal curve which are one standard
deviation away from the mean with points of inflection referred to above.)
Lesson Idea LCHL.45
Title
Integration
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:





That anti-differentiation is the reverse process of differentiation.
How to find the anti-derivative
of function
That the indefinite anti-derivative is the set of all possible antiderivatives of a function
That a distinct anti-derivative is one element of this set which satisfies
some initial condition
That the process of finding the area between a curve and the - axis (or
–axis) over an interval on the axis, is known as integration
50 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

That the area between a function and the -axis over an interval may
be calculated using the limit of the sum of the areas of rectangles, as
the number of rectangles tends to infinity and the width of each
rectangle tends to zero.

That the area between the graph of
interval from , is :
lim
→

and the
axis over the
∆
The area beneath a function
from a to b is given by
b
 f ( x)dx  F (b)  F (a)
a

The antiderivative is usually called the indefinite integral

The indefinite integral, written as,
,
of
is a set of functions equal to the set of all the antiderivatives of
. They differ by a constant C.

The definite integral

area between the graph of
and the interval [ , ]
That integration is the reverse process of differentiation (anti differentiation)

,
is a number equal to the net signed
How to integrate sums, differences and constant multiples of functions
of the form

x a , where a  Q
a x , where a  R, a  0
 Sin ax, where a  R
 Cos ax, where a  R


How to determine areas of plane regions bounded by polynomial and
exponential functions
51 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

How to use integration to find the average value of a function over an
interval
b
a f ( x)dx
Average value of f ( x) over [a, b] 
ba
52 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 10: Probability and Statistics 2
Lesson Idea LCHL.46
Title
Revision of counting and probability concepts from fifth year (Section 1.1 to 1.3 JC syllabus)
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:




Fundamental principle of counting, arrangements and combinations
Concepts of probability
Rules of probability
Use of tree diagrams, set theory and binary/counting method in
probability
Lesson Idea LCHL.47
Title
Probability Rules
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Report on the Trialling State Exams Commission (SEC) 2010
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


Discuss basic rules of probability (AND/OR, mutually exclusive) through the use of
Venn diagrams
Extend their understanding of the basic rules of probability (AND/OR, mutually
exclusive) through the use of formulae
∩

Multiplication Rule(Independent Events): P ( A  B )  P ( A)  P ( B )

Multiplication Rule (General Case): P ( A  B )  P ( A)  P ( B | A)
Solve problems involving sampling, with or without replacement


53 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

Formal definition of independent events: A and B are independent if P( B | A)  P ( B)

Appreciate that in general P ( A | B )  P ( B | A)

Examine the implications of P ( A | B )  P ( B | A) in context
Lesson Idea LCHL.48
Title
Bernoulli Trials
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Apply an understanding of Bernoulli trials
A Bernoulli trial is an experiment whose outcome is random and can be either of two
possibilities: “success” or “failure”

Solve problems involving Bernoulli trials as follows:
1. calculating the probability that the 1st success occurs on the nth Bernoulli trial
where n is specified
2. calculating the probability of k successes in n repeated Bernoulli trials (normal
approximation not required)
3. Calculating the probability that the kth success occurs on the nth Bernoulli
trial
Lesson Idea LCHL.49
Title
Random variables and expected value
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


Random variables, discrete and continuous, which lead to discrete and continuous
probability distributions
Expected value E(X )of probability distributions
54 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

The calculation of expected value and the fact that this does not need to be one of the
outcomes
Standard deviation of probability distributions
The role of expected value in decision making and the issue of fair games


Lesson Idea LCHL.50
Title
Consolidation of probability concepts
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Report on the Trialling SEC 2010
Content
These lessons will involve the students in participating in investigating and understanding:
 All probability rules and methods to date
Lesson Idea LCHL.51
Title
Revision of statistics concepts from 5th year
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Report on the Trialling SEC 2010
Content
These lessons will involve the students in participating in investigating and understanding:

Revision of lessons 40 and 41
55 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.52
Title
Bivariate data, scatter plots, correlation
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Bivariate data versus univariate data

Different types of bivariate data

The use of scatter plots to determine the relationship between numeric variables

That correlation always has a value from -1 to +1 inclusive, and that it measures the extent of the
linear relationship between two variables

How to match correlation coefficients values to appropriate scatter plots

That correlation does not imply causality

How to draw the line of best fit by eye

How to make predictions based on the line of best fit

How to calculate the correlation coefficient by calculator
Lesson Idea LCHL.53
Title
Normal Distribution and Standard Normal
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


Continuous probability distributions – the normal distribution and the standard normal distribution
The solution of problems involving reading probabilities from the normal distribution tables
56 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Lesson Idea LCHL.54
Title
Drawing inferences from data, confidence intervals, margin of error, the concept of a hypothesis test,
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:



How sampling variability influences the use of sample information to make statements about the
population
How to use appropriate tools to describe variability drawing inferences about the population from the
sample
How to interpret the analysis and relate the interpretation to the original question
How to interpret a histogram in terms of the distribution of data
The use of the empirical rule
The use of simulations to explore the variability of large sample proportions from a known
population to construct the sampling distribution of the proportion and to draw conclusions about the
sampling distribution of the proportion
The use of the sampling distribution of the proportion as the basis for informal inference
How to construct 95% confidence intervals for the population proportion from a large sample using z
tables
How to build on the concept of margin of error and understand that increased confidence level
implies wider intervals
1
How to calculate the margin of error for a population proportion (
)
n
The concept of a hypothesis test
The distinction between a null and an alternative hypothesis

How to conduct a hypothesis test on a population proportion using the margin of error

How to use simulations to explore the variability of sample means from a known population to
construct the sampling distribution of the mean and to draw conclusions about the sampling
distribution of the mean


The use of the sampling distribution of the mean as the basis for informal inference
How to Construct 95% confidence intervals for the population mean from a large sample using z
tables
How to perform univariate large sample tests of the population mean ( two – tailed z- test only)
How to use and interpret p - values











Note: The margin of error referred to here is the maximum value of the 95% confidence interval.
57 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 11: Synthetic Geometry 2
Lesson Idea LCHL.55
Title
Theorem *19, Corollaries 2, 3, 4 and 5
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
Higher Level only:

*Theorem 19: The angle at the centre of a circle standing on a given arc is twice the angle at any
point of the circle standing on the same arc.

Corollary 2:
All angles at points of a circle, standing on the same arc, are equal (and the
converse)

Corollary 3:
Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.

Corollary 4:
If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at some point of the circle is a right-angle,
then [BC] is a diameter.

Corollary 5:
If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then opposite angles sum to 180⁰.
Lesson Idea LCHL.56
Title
Theorem 20, Corollary 6 and Construction 19
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Theorem 20: (i) Each tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius that goes to the point of
contact.
58 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
(ii) If P lies on the circle , and a line l through is perpendicular to the radius to P,
then l is a tangent to s.
 Corollary 6: If two circles share a common tangent line at one point, then the two centres and that
point are collinear.
 Construction 19: Tangent to a given circle at a given point on it.
Lesson Idea LCHL.57
Title
Theorem 21 &Construction 18
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Theorem 21: (i) The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.
(ii) The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre of a circle.

Construction 18: Angle of 600 , without using a protractor or set square
Lesson Idea LCHL.58
Title
Constructions 16 and 17
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Construction 16: Circumcentre and circumcircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and
compass.

(Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics )

Construction 17: Incentre and incircle of a given triangle, using only straight edge and compass.
59 SeniorCycleHigherLevel

(Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics )
Suggested class activities
Students might engage in the following activities:
Draw the circumcentre and incentre for an acute-angled triangle, a right-angled triangle, an obtuse-angled
triangle.
In which instances is the circumcentre inside the triangle?
In which instances is the incentre inside the triangle?
Lesson Idea LCHL.59
Title
Construction 21 and 22
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
A mathematical instruments set
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

Definition 45:
Medians and centroid
(Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics )

Construction 21:

Definition 46: Orthocentre

Construction 22: Orthocentre of a triangle
Centroid of a triangle
Suggested class activities
Students might engage in the following activities:
Draw the centroid and orthocentre for an acute-angled triangle, a right-angled triangle, an obtuse-angled
triangle.
In which instances is the centroid inside the triangle?
In which instances is the orthocentre inside the triangle?
OPTIONAL:
Higher Level students might consider the concept of “Euler’s Line”.
The orthocentre, centroid and circumcentre in any triangle are always in line and this is called
Euler’s Line.
The incentre is on Euler’s Line only in the case of an isosceles triangle.
In the case of an equilateral triangle, the orthocentre, centroid, circumcentre and incentre
coincide.
60 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 12: Coordinate Geometry of the Circle
Lesson Idea LCHL.60
Title
Co-ordinate geometry of the circle
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
A mathematical instruments set, Graph paper
Dynamic geometry software package, set of board drawing instruments
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

That x 2  y 2  r 2 represents the equation of a circle centre (0,0) and radius of length r (Link to
Pythagoras’ Theorem - distance from any point p  x, y  on the circle to the centre of the circle is
equal to the length of the radius of the circle.)

That
 x  h   y  k 
2
2
 r 2 represents the relationship between the and
co-ordinates of points
on a circle wit centre (h, k) and radius r
(Link to Pythagoras’ Theorem - distance from any point p  x, y  on the circle to the centre of the
circle is equal to the length of the radius of the circle.)

Recognise that x 2  y 2  2 gx  2 fy  c  0 represents the relationship between the x and y
coordinates of points on a circle centre (-g,-h) and radius r where r  g 2  f 2  c

How to solve problems involving a line and a circle
61 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 13: Application of geometric series -Financial Maths
Lesson Idea LCHL.61
Title
Financial Maths
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:

How to solve problems involving
o Mark up (profit as a % of cost price)
o Margin (profit as a % of selling price)
o Income tax and net pay including other deductions
o Compound interest investigated using multi-representations i.e. table, graph and formula (link
to exponential functions and geometric sequences)
o Compound interest rate terminology such as AER, EAR and CAR
o How to , given an AER, covert to a different period interest rate e.g. a monthly rate and vice
versa
o Depreciation (reducing balance method) investigated using multi-representations i.e. table,
graph and formula (link to exponential functions and geometric sequences )
o Currency transactions
o Present value
o How to solve problems involving finite geometric series in financial applications e.g.
 future value of regular investments over a definite period of time
 deriving a formula for a mortgage repayment
o How to use present value when solving problems involving loan repayments and investments
62 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 14: Proof by Induction
Lesson Idea LCHL.62
Title
Proof by Induction
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:
Proof by induction for the following:
 Simple identities such as the sum of the first n natural numbers and the sum of a finite
geometric series.
 Simple inequalities such as:
n !  2n
2n  n 2 (n  4)
1  x 

n
 1  nx (x > -1)
Factorisation results such as 3 is a factor of 4n  1
63 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Section 15: Complex Numbers
Lesson Idea LCHL.63
Title
Complex numbers 1
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:





The origin and need for complex numbers
The use of complex numbers to model two dimensional systems as in computer games,
alternating current and voltage etc.
How to interpret multiplication by i as a rotation of 900 anticlockwise
How to express complex numbers in rectangular form a  ib and illustrate them on the
Argand diagram
How to investigate the operations of addition and subtraction of complex numbers in the
rectangular form  a  ib  using the Argand diagram



How to interpret the modulus as distance from the origin on an Argand diagram
How to interpret multiplication by a complex number as a “multiplication of” the modulus
by a real number combined with a rotation
How to interpret the complex conjugate as a reflection in the real axis

Division of complex numbers in the rectangular form  a  ib 


Calculate conjugates of sums and products of complex numbers
How to solve quadratic equations having complex roots and how to interpret the solutions
Lesson Idea LCHL.64
Title
Complex numbers 2
Resources
Online Resources Leaving Certificate document
Dynamic software package
Content
These lessons will involve the students in investigating and understanding:


How to use the Conjugate Root Theorem to find the roots of polynomials
How to express complex numbers in polar form
64 SeniorCycleHigherLevel




How to work with complex number in rectangular and polar form to solve quadratic and other
equations including those in the form
,
where ∈ and
How to use De Moivre’s Theorem
How to prove De Moivre’s Theorem by induction for n  N
How to use applications such as the nth roots of unity, n  N ,and identities such as
cos3  4 cos3   3cos 
65 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Appendix A
Geometry: Thinking at Different Levels
The Van Hiele Theory
The Van Hiele model describes how students learn geometry. Pierre van Hiele and Dina van Hiele-Geldof,
mathematics teachers from the Netherlands, observed their geometry students in the 1950's.The following is
a brief summary of the Van Hiele theory. According to this theory, students’ progress through 5 levels of
thinking starting from merely recognising a shape to being able to write a formal proof. The levels are as
follows:
*Visualisation (Level 0)
The objects of thought are shapes and what they look like.
Students have an overall impression of a shape. The appearance of a shape is what is important. They may
think that a rotated square is a “diamond” and not a square because it is different from their visual image of
a square. They will be able to distinguish shapes like triangles, squares, rectangles etc but will not be able to
explain, for example, what makes a rectangle a rectangle. Vocabulary: Students use visual words like
“pointy”, “curvy”, “corner” as well as correct language like angle, rectangle and parallelogram.
*Analysis (Level 1)
The objects of thought are “classes” of shapes rather than individual shapes.





Students think about what makes a rectangle a rectangle and can separate the defining characteristics
of a rectangle from irrelevant information like size and orientation. They recognize its parts (sides,
diagonals and angles) and compare their properties (similar, congruent)
They understand that if a shape belongs to a class like “rectangle”, then it has all the properties of
that class (2 pairs of equal sides, right angles, 2 equal diagonals, 2 axes of symmetry).
Vocabulary: words like parallel, perpendicular and congruent relating to properties within a figure
and the words all, always, sometimes, never, alike, different.
A concise definition of a figure, using a sufficient rather than an exhaustive list of properties is not
possible at this level.
They do not deal with questions like “Is a square a parallelogram?” but just look at the properties of
each class of shape, without comparing the classes.
*Some visualisation and analysis is covered in Primary School.
Relational/ Ordering/Informal Deduction (Level 2)
The objects of thought are the properties of shapes.



Students are ready to understand interrelationships of properties within figures and between figures.
Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and opposite angles are equal.
A rectangle is a parallelogram since it has all the properties of a parallelogram as well as all 900
angles.
Students can recognise the difference between a statement and its converse. All squares are
rectangles (true) is different from all rectangles are squares (not true).
66 SeniorCycleHigherLevel



Capable of “if –then” thinking – if a shape is a rectangle then all the angles in it are right angles. If
|<A |= |<B |and |<B| = |<C| then |< A| =|<C|
They can select one or two properties to define a figure rather than an exhaustive list. If a
quadrilateral has 4 equal sides and one right angle it must be a square.
Students can discover new properties by simple deduction. The 2 acute angles in a right angled
triangle add to 900 because all the angles in a triangle add up to 1800. They can explain logically
without having to measure everything.
Formal deduction (Level 3)
Students learn how to use an axiomatic system to establish geometric theory. This is the level at which proof
of Theorems is learned. The sequence of theorems given in the appendix is arranged in such a manner that
each theorem builds on the previous theorem(s).
Rigor (Level 4)
Comparing different axiomatic systems – not done at secondary level
Characteristics of these levels: Students cannot function at any particular level unless they are competent at
all previous levels. The teacher’s role is crucial in structuring activities to bring students from one level to
the next.
How does the teacher bring students from any one level to the next?
5 phases of learning:
1. In an informal discussion of the topic, students are asked to give their initial observations.
2. The teacher provides structured activities such as drawing, making and measuring.
3. The students then verbalise and write down what they have learned and report back in groups to the
class, which leads to a class discussion.
4. The teacher then provides an activity which will require students to apply what they have discovered
5. In the last stage students are required to summarise all they have learned and should be able to
remember it as they have discovered it through guidance.
A PowerPoint presentation of the Van Hiele theory can be got at www.projectmaths.ie
2 examples are given on the PowerPoint slides
(1) Using similar triangles to show advancement between levels and
(2) Using an investigation of the rhombus to show how to progress from level 0 to level 1 with this figure
using the 5 teaching phases.
A mind map of Van Hiele can be found at
67 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Appendix B
Guide to Theorems, Axioms and Constructions at all Levels
This is intended as a quick guide to the various axioms, theorems and constructions as set out in the
Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics. You can get this from the project maths website:
www.projectmaths.ie
It is not intended as a replacement for this document, merely as an aid to reading at a glance which material
is required to be studied at various levels. The sequence of theorems as given must be followed.
As stated in the heading, these theorems and constructions are underpinned by 46 definitions and 20
propositions which are all set out in the Geometry Course for Post-Primary School Mathematics, along
with many undefined terms and definable terms used without explicit definition.
*An axiom is a statement accepted without proof, as a basis for argument
*A theorem is a statement deduced from the axioms by logical argument. Theorems can also be deduced
from previously established theorems.
* A proposition is a useful or interesting statement that could be proved at this point, but whose proof is not
stipulated as an essential part of the programme. Teachers are free to deal with them as they see fit, but they
should be mentioned, at least (Appendix p. 20, footnote).
*The instruments that may be used for constructions are listed and described on page 38 of the Appendix
and are a straight edge, compass, ruler, protractor and set-square.
Terms
Students at Junior Certificate Higher level and Leaving Certificate Ordinary level will be
expected to understand the meanings of the following terms related to logic and deductive
reasoning:
Theorem, proof, axiom, corollary, converse, implies.
In addition, students at Leaving Certificate Higher level will be expected to understand the
meanings of the following terms related to logic and deductive reasoning:
Is equivalent to, if and only if, proof by contradiction.
68 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Synthetic Geometry
Guide to Axioms, Theorems and Constructions for all Levels
Interactive files are available in the Student Area on the Project Maths website.
Axioms and Theorems
(supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions)
*proof required for JCHL only
** proof required for LCHL only
 These results are required as background knowledge for
constructions and/or applications of trigonometry.
Axiom 1: There is exactly one line through any two given
points
Axiom 2: [Ruler Axiom]: The properties of the distance
between points.
Axiom 3: Protractor Axiom (The properties of the degree
measure of an angle).
1
2
3
4*
5
6*
7
8
9*
10
Vertically opposite angles are equal in measure.
Axiom 4: Congruent triangles conditions (SSS, SAS,
ASA)
In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides
are equal. Conversely, if two angles are equal, then the
triangle is isosceles.
Axiom 5: Given any line l and a point P, there is exactly
one line through P that is parallel to l.
If a transversal makes equal alternate angles on two lines
then the lines are parallel. Conversely, if two lines are
parallel, then any transversal will make equal alternate
angles with them.
The angles in any triangle add to 180⁰.
Two lines are parallel if, and only if, for any transversal, the
corresponding angles are equal.
Each exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the
interior opposite angles.
The angle opposite the greater of two sides is greater than
the angles opposite the lesser. Conversely, the side
opposite the greater of two angles is greater than the side
opposite the lesser angle.
CMN
Introd.
Course
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ORD
JC
HR
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Two sides of a triangle are together greater than the third.
In a parallelogram, opposite sides are equal, and opposite
angles are equal. Conversely, (1) if the opposite angles of a
convex quadrilateral are equal, then it is a parallelogram;
(2) if the opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral are equal,
then it is a parallelogram.
Corollary 1. A diagonal divides a parallelogram into two
congruent triangles.
The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.
Conversely, if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect one
another, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
69 
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FDN
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SeniorCycleHigherLevel
11**
12**
13**
14*
15
16
Axioms and Theorems
(supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions)
*proof required for JCHL only
** proof required for LCHL only
 These results are required as background knowledge for
constructions and/or applications of trigonometry.
If three parallel lines cut off equal segments on some
transversal line, then they will cut off equal segments on
any other transversal.
Let ABC be a triangle. If a line l is parallel to BC and cuts
[AB] in the ratio m:n, then it also cuts [AC] in the same
ratio.
Conversely, if the sides of two triangles are in proportion,
then the two triangles are similar.
If two triangles are similar, then their sides are
proportional, in order (and converse)
[Theorem of Pythagoras]In a right-angled triangle the
square of the hypotenuse is the sum of the squares of the
other two sides.
[Converse to Pythagoras]. If the square of one side of a
triangle is the sum of the squares of the other two, then the
angle opposite the first side is a right angle.
Proposition 9: (RHS). If two right-angled triangles have
hypotenuse and another side equal in length respectively,
then they are congruent.
For a triangle, base x height does not depend on the choice
of base.
Definition 38: The area of a triangle is half the base by
the height.
CMN
Introd.
Course
JC
ORD
JC
HR
LC
FDN
LC
ORD
LC
HR
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17
A diagonal of a parallelogram bisects the area.

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18
The area of a parallelogram is the base x height.

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19*
The angle at the centre of a circle standing on a given arc
is twice the angle at any point of the circle standing on the
same arc.
Corollary 2†: All angles at points of a circle, standing on
the same arc are equal (and converse).
Corollary 3: Each angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.
20
21
Corollary 4: If the angle standing on a chord [BC] at
some point of the circle is a right-angle, then [BC] is a
diameter.
Corollary 5: If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then
opposite angles sum to 180⁰(and converse).
(i)
Each tangent is perpendicular to the radius that
goes to the point of contact.
(ii)
If P lies on the circle S, and a line l is
perpendicular to the radius to P, then l is a
tangent to S.
Corollary 6: If two circles intersect at one point only,
then the two centres and the point of contact are collinear.
(i)
The perpendicular from the centre to a chord
bisects the chord.
(ii)
The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes
through the centre.
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† The corollaries are numbered as in the Geometry for Post-primary School Mathematics; corollary 2 is the first one relating to
theorem 19
♦ These results are required as background knowledge for constructions and/or applications of trigonometry
70 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Constructions
(Supported by 46 definitions, 20 propositions, 5 axioms and 21
theorems)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Bisector of an angle, using only compass and straight edge.
Perpendicular bisector of a segment, using only compass and
straight edge.
Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point
not on l.
Line perpendicular to a given line l, passing through a given point
on l.
Line parallel to given line, through a given point.
Division of a line segment into 2 or 3 equal segments without
measuring it.
Division of a line segment into any number of equal segments,
without measuring it.
CMN
Introd.
Course
JC
ORD
JC
HR
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LC
FN
LC
ORD
LC
HR
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Angle of a given number of degrees with a given ray as one arm.
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10
Triangle, given lengths of 3 sides.
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Triangle, given SAS data.
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Triangle, given ASA data
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Right-angled triangle, given length of hypotenuse and one other side
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Right-angled triangle, given one side and one of the acute angles.
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Rectangle given side lengths.
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8
Line segment of a given length on a given ray.
9
16
17
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Circumcentre and circumcircle of a given triangle, using only
straight edge and compass.
Incentre and incircle of a triangle of a given triangle, using only
straight edge and compass.
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18
Angle of 60⁰ without using a protractor or set square.
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19
Tangent to a given circle at a given point on it.
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20
Parallelogram, given the length of the sides and the measure of the
angles.
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21
Centroid of a triangle.
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22
Orthocentre of a triangle.
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71 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Appendix C
Square
Rhombus
Rectangle
Parallelogram Trapezium
(not a square)
(not a rectangle
or a rhombus)
(not a square)
(not a
parallelogram)
and not an isosceles
trapezium which has the
non parallel sides equal in
length)
Describe it in
words.
Draw three
examples in
different
orientations.
How many
axes of
symmetry does
it have? Show
on a diagram.
Does it have a
centre of
symmetry?
Show on a
diagram.
Which sides
are equal?
What is the
sum of all the
angles?
Are all angles
equal?
72 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Square
Rhombus
Rectangle
Parallelogram Trapezium
(not a square)
(not a rectangle
or a rhombus)
(not a square)
(not a
parallelogram)
and not an isosceles
trapezium which has the
non parallel sides equal in
length)
Which angles
are equal?
What is the
sum of two
angles?
Does a
diagonal bisect
the angles it
passes
through?
Does a
diagonal divide
it into two
congruent
triangles?
Given the
length of its
sides, can you
calculate the
length of a
diagonal?
Are the two
diagonal s
equal in
length?
Do the
diagonals
divide it into
four congruent
triangles?
73 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Square
Rhombus
Rectangle
Parallelogram Trapezium
(not a square)
(not a rectangle
or a rhombus)
(not a square)
(not a
parallelogram)
and not an isosceles
trapezium which has the
non parallel sides equal in
length)
Do the
diagonals
divide it into
four triangles
of equal area?
Are the
diagonals
perpendicular?
Do the two
diagonals
bisect each
other?
What
information do
you need to
calculate its
area?
How do you
calculate it?
Does a
diagonal bisect
its area?
74 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Investigating triangles
Triangles
Equilateral
Isosceles
Describe it in
words.
Draw three
examples in
different
orientations.
How many axes of
symmetry does it
have? Show on a
diagram.
Does it have a
centre of
symmetry? Show
on a diagram.
What is the sum of
the three angles?
Are all angles
equal?
Are there any
equal angles?
Where?
Can you say for
certain what size
the angles are?
Apart from the
isosceles triangles
themselves which
of the others could
also be isosceles?
75 Right angled
Obtuse Angled
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Triangles
Equilateral
Isosceles
What information
do you need to
calculate its area?
How do you
calculate it?
Draw 3 diagrams
for each type of
triangle showing
each side as a base
and the
corresponding
perpendicular
height?
How do you
calculate the area?
Is the centroid
inside the triangle
always?
Is the
circumcentre
inside the triangle
always?
Is the incentre
inside the triangle
always?
76 Right angled
Obtuse Angled
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Suggested solutions
Square
Rhombus
Rectangle
Parallelogram Trapezium
(not a square)
(not a rectangle
or a rhombus)
(not a square)
(not a
parallelogram)
and not an isosceles
trapezium which has the
non parallel sides equal in
length)
Describe it in
words.
A square is a
in which all
sides are
equal in
length and all
angles are
900. (need
only say that
one angle is
900)
A rhombus is
with all sides
equal and
opposite
angles equal.
(a
parallelogram
with all sides
equal in
length.)
A rectangle is
a
with opposite
sides equal
and parallel
and all
interior
angles equal
to 900.
A
parallelogram
is a
with opposite
sides equal and
parallel and
opposite
angles equal.
A trapezium is
which has 1
pair of parallel
sides.
Draw three
examples in
different
orientations.
How many
axes of
symmetry does
it have? Show
on a diagram.
4
2
2
None
None if the
non parallel
sides are not
equal in
length.
Does it have a
centre of
symmetry?
Show on a
diagram.

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No
Which sides
are equal?
All
All
Opposite
Opposite
none
What is the
sum of all the
angles?
3600
3600
3600
3600
3600
Are all angles
equal?

x

x
x
77 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Square
Rhombus
Rectangle
Parallelogram Trapezium
(not a square)
(not a rectangle
or a rhombus)
(not a square)
(not a
parallelogram)
and not an isosceles
trapezium which has the
non parallel sides equal in
length)
Which angles
are equal?
What is the
sum of two
angles?
All angles
Opposite
angles
All angles
Opposite
angles
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
Does a
diagonal bisect
the angles it
passes
through?


x
x
x
Does a
diagonal divide
it into two
congruent
triangles?




x

No. Need to
know an angle.
Need to know
the lengths of
sides and the
angle between
them.
No. Need to
know an
angle.
Investigate
using
geostrips.
Given the
length of its
sides, can you
calculate the
length of a
diagonal?

Are the two
diagonal s
equal in
length?

x

x
x
Do the
diagonals
divide it into
four congruent
triangles?


x
x
x
78 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Square
Rhombus
Rectangle
Parallelogram Trapezium
(not a square)
(not a rectangle
or a rhombus)
(not a square)
(not a
parallelogram)
and not an isosceles
trapezium which has the
non parallel sides equal in
length)
Do the
diagonals
divide it into
four triangles
of equal area?




x
Are the
diagonals
perpendicular?


x
x
x
Do the two
diagonals
bisect each
other?




x
Base ( b) and
perpendicular
height (h)from
a vertex to that
base
Lengths of 2
l and b.
Area = l x b.
Base ( b) and
perpendicular
height (h)from
a vertex to that
base
Area = b x h
(Base ( b) and
Area = b x h
The lengths of
its parallel
sides ( a and
b)and the
perpendicular
distance
between them.
What
information do
you need to
calculate its
area?
How do you
calculate it?
One side
length x.
Area = x2
(Base ( b) and
perpendicular
height (h)from
a vertex to that
base
Area = b x h)
Does a
diagonal bisect
its area?

If you know
the lengths of
the diagonals x
and y
Area = ½ x y.
perpendicular
height (h)from
a vertex to that
base
Area =
½ (a+b) h
Area = b x h)


79 
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Appendix D
How to register for CensusAtSchool, complete the online questionnaire and retrieve class data for analysis and interpretation
Part 1: Registration
www.CensusAtSchool.ie Click “Teacher Registration” under “Take Part” in the main menu This is the Irish CensusAtSchool homepage. Click “Take Part” under the main menu. 1 2 Fill out and click on “Submit” Click “ONLINE REGISTRATION FORM” Once your registration form has been
received and approved an email with
will be dispatched to you. Check your
email spam folder if you do not
Details”
Queries:
[email protected]
within 48 hours.
3 80 4 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Part 2: Accessing the questionnaire
Click “Take Part”, “Questionnaires” and then click on the latest questionnaire which will be at the top of the list. Click “Take the CensusAtSchool* online questionnaire” 6 5 Part 3: Filling out the questionnaire
Each student must fill in accurately; the school roll number and the teacher’s username (sent by email) Click on “Next”
When the questionnaire is completed, the student clicks “Submit”.
7 81 8 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Logging in to retrieve data
Part 4 Now that my students have filled in the data – what next?
Once logged in you will be asked for your school roll number and username. Select whichever questionnaire (phase) your students have completed. Click on “Submit” and your data will be returned to you in spreadsheet form. 12 11 82 Appendix E: Trigonometric Formulae
1.*
cos 2 A  sin 2 A  1
2.*
sine rule:
3.*
cosine rule:
4.*
cos( A  B)  cos A cos B  sin A sin B
5.*
cos( A  B)  cos A cos B  sin A sin B
6.*
cos 2 A  cos 2 A  sin 2 A
7.*
sin( A  B )  sin A cos B  cos A sin B
8.
sin( A  B )  sin A cos B  cos A sin B
9.*
tan( A  B) 
tan A  tan B
1  tan A tan B
10.
tan( A  B ) 
tan A  tan B
1  tan A tan B
11.
sin 2 A  2sin A cos A
12.
sin 2 A 
2 tan A
1  tan 2 A
13.
cos 2 A 
1  tan 2 A
1  tan 2 A
14.
tan 2 A 
2 tan A
1  tan 2 A
15.
cos 2 A 
1
1  cos 2 A
2
16.
sin 2 A 
1
1  cos 2 A
2
17.
2cos A cos B  cos( A  B )  cos( A  B)
18.
2sin A cos B  sin( A  B )  sin( A  B)
19.
2sin A sin B  cos( A  B)  cos( A  B)
20.
2cos A cos B  sin( A  B )  sin( A  B )
21.
cos A  cos B  2cos
22.
cos A  cos B  2sin
23.
sin A  sin B  2sin
A B
A B
cos
2
2
24.
sin A  sin B  2cos
A B
A B
sin
2
2
a
b
c


sin A sin B sin C
a 2  b 2  c 2  2bc cos A
A B
A B
cos
2
2
A B
A B
sin
2
2
83 * Proof required for higher level
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
Appendix F: Sample Derivations of the formulae 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
9
1.*
cos2 A  sin2 A  1
[Pg. 13, Trigonometry]
Distance from (0, 0) to ( cos A, sin A) is 1
 ( cos A  0) 2  sin( A  0) 2  1
 cos 2 A  sin 2 A  1
2.*
sine formula:
sin A sin B sin C


a
b
c
[ Pg. 16, Trigonometry of the triangle
Need to examine two cases – acute angled triangles such as ABC and obtuse angled triangles such
as BCD
h h Case 1: ABC (acute angled)
sin A 
Case 2: ABC (obtuse angled)
h
 h  b sin A
b
sin A 
84 h
 h  b sin A
b
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
sin B 
h
 h  a sin B
a
sin(180  B ) 
h
a
h
[as sin(180  B )  sin B ]
a
 h  a sin B
sin B 
In both cases:
h= bsinA and h = asinB
Equating h 's
a
b

sin A sin B
Similarly if the perpendicular height was dropped from A it would yield:
a sin B  b sin A 
b
c

sin B sin C
a
b
c


sin A sin B sin C
3.*
cosine formula:a2  b2  c2  2bccosA
[Pg. 16, Trigonometry of the triangle
a  (c cos A  b) 2  (c sin A  0) 2
using the distance formula
a 2  c 2 cos 2 A  2bc cos A  b 2  c 2 sin 2 A
a 2  b 2  c 2 (cos 2 A  sin 2 A)  2bc cos A
a 2  b 2  c 2  2bc cos A
as cos A  sin A  1
2
85 2
SeniorCycleHigherLevel
cos(A  B)  cos A cosB  sinA sinB
4.*
[Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae]
Find the distance between p and q in two different ways and equate the answers
2
pq  12  12  2(1)(1) cos( A  B)
using cos ine formula, a  b  c  2bc cos A
2
2
2
2
pq  2  2 cos( A  B)
pq  (cos A  cos B) 2  (sin A  sin B) 2
using distance formula
2
pq  cos 2 A  2 cos A cos B  cos 2 B  sin 2 A  2sin A sin B  sin 2 B
2
pq  2  2 cos A cos B  2sin A sin B
Equating both:
2  2 cos( A  B)  2  2 cos A cos B  2sin A sin B
2 cos( A  B)  2 cos A cos B  2sin A sin B
cos( A  B )  cos A cos B  sin A sin B
5.*
6.*
cos( A  B )  cos A cos B  sin A sin B
[Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae]
cos( A  B )  cos A cos B  sin A sin B
using formula 4
cos( A  ( B ))  cos A cos( B )  sin A sin(  B )
changing B to  B
cos( A  B )  cos A cos B  sin A sin B
as cos(  B )  cos B and sin(  B )   sin B
cos2 A  cos2 A  sin 2 A
[Pg. 14, Double angle formulae]
86 SeniorCycleHigherLevel
cos( A  B)  cos A cos B  sin A sin B
using formula 5
cos( A  A)  cos A cos A  sin A sin A
changing B to A
cos 2 A  cos 2 A  sin 2 A
7.*
sin( A  B)  sin A cos B  cos A sin B
[Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae]
sin( A  B )  cos[90o  ( A  B )]
using complementary angles, sin   cos(90  )
o
 cos[90o  A  B ]
 cos[(90o  A)  B ]
 cos(90o  A) cos B  sin(90o  A)sin B
using formula 4, cos( A  B )  cos A cos B 
 sin A cos B  cos A sin B
9.*
tan( A  B) 
tan A  tan B
1  tan A tan B
tan( A  B ) 
sin( A  B )
cos( A  B )

tan  
sin 
cos 
sin A cos B  cos A sin B
cos A cos B  sin A sin B
cos A sin B
sin A cos B

cos A cos B cos A cos B

sin A sin B
1
cos A cos B

[ Pg. 14, Compound angle formulae]
dividing everywhere by cos A cos B
tan A  tan B
1  tan A tan B
87 ```