Cisco ONS 15530 Specifications

Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
Copyright © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
C O N T E N T S
Preface
ix
Purpose
Audience
ix
ix
Organization
x
Related Documentation
x
Obtaining Documentation xi
Cisco.com xi
Documentation DVD xi
Ordering Documentation xi
Documentation Feedback
xii
Cisco Product Security Overview xii
Reporting Security Problems in Cisco Products
Obtaining Technical Assistance xiii
Cisco Technical Support Website xiii
Submitting a Service Request xiii
Definitions of Service Request Severity
xiv
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
CHAPTER
1
System Overview
xii
xiv
1-1
Chassis Description 1-1
Chassis Configurations
System Functional Overview
1-2
1-3
System Components 1-4
Transponder Line Cards 1-4
Client Side Interfaces 1-5
Protocol Monitoring 1-8
ESCON Aggregation Cards 1-9
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
Protocol Monitoring 1-13
Support for FC Port Types 1-14
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards 1-14
Protocol Monitoring 1-16
Support for FC Port Types 1-17
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders 1-17
1-11
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Contents
Protocol Monitoring 1-20
2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards 1-20
10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards 1-22
10-Gbps ITU Tunable Trunk Cards 1-24
10-Gbps Uplink Cards 1-26
OSC Modules 1-27
OADM Modules 1-28
OADM Modules and Channel Bands 1-29
OADM Module Configurations 1-30
PSMs 1-30
CPU Switch Modules 1-31
Switch Fabric 1-32
CPU Switch Module Redundancy and Online Insertion and Removal
Security Features
1-33
System and Network Management 1-33
In-Band Message Channel 1-33
DCC 1-34
OSC 1-35
NME 1-35
Comparison of In-Band Message Channel, SONET, and OSC
CHAPTER
2
1-32
Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
2-1
About Protection Against Fiber and System Failures
2-1
Splitter Based Facility Protection 2-2
Transponder Line Cards 2-2
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders 2-3
2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Card 2-5
10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk Card
Y-Cable Based Line Card Protection
2-6
2-8
Client Based Line Card Protection 2-9
Transponder Line Cards 2-10
ESCON Aggregation Cards 2-10
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards 2-12
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection
Trunk Fiber Based Protection
1-35
2-11
2-13
2-16
Supported Topologies 2-17
Point-to-Point Topologies 2-17
Unprotected Point-to-Point Topology
2-17
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Contents
Protected Point-to-Point Topology 2-18
Ring Topologies 2-19
Hubbed Ring 2-19
Meshed Ring 2-20
Path Switching in Point-to-Point and Ring Topologies
CHAPTER
3
Shelf Configuration Rules
3-1
Shelf Rules for OADM Modules 3-1
Cabling OADM Modules 3-1
Rules for Protected Configurations
Shelf Rules for PSMs
3-2
3-2
Shelf Rules for 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
Shelf Rules for Transponder Line Cards
3-2
3-2
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
3-3
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable Trunk Cards
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps Uplink Cards
Shelf Rules for OSC Modules
4
Optical Loss Budgets
4-1
About dB and dBm
4-1
3-3
3-3
3-3
General Rules for Ring Topologies
CHAPTER
2-20
3-3
Overall Optical Loss Budget 4-2
Calculating Optical Loss Budgets
4-3
Optical Loss for Transponder Line Cards
4-4
Optical Loss for 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
Optical Loss for 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
4-5
4-5
Optical Loss for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk Cards
4-6
Optical Loss for OADM Modules 4-6
Loss for Data Channels 4-6
Loss for the OSC 4-7
Optical Loss for PSMs
4-7
Client Signal Latency on Aggregation Card 4-7
ESCON Aggregation Cards 4-7
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards 4-9
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders 4-9
Fiber Plant Testing
4-8
4-10
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Contents
Link Loss (Attenuation) 4-10
ORL 4-11
PMD 4-11
Chromatic Dispersion 4-11
Fiber Requirements for 10-Gbps Transmission
CHAPTER
5
Amplified Network Planning
4-11
5-1
Optical Amplification Overview 5-1
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers 5-1
About Variable Optical Attenuation
5-2
VOA Modules 5-2
PB-OE Modules 5-3
WB-VOA Modules 5-5
Amplified Network Planning Considerations
Optical Power Budget 5-6
OSNR 5-6
Chromatic Dispersion 5-7
5-6
Amplified Network Planning Guidelines 5-7
Receive Power Levels 5-7
Optical Component Gain or Loss 5-7
EDFA Input Power Limits 5-7
OSNR 5-7
Channel Power Equalization 5-8
Dispersion Limits 5-8
DCUs 5-8
Fiber Nonlinearity 5-9
OSC 5-9
CHAPTER
6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
6-1
Shelf Configurations 6-1
Unprotected Configurations 6-1
Splitter Protected Configurations 6-6
Line Card Protected Configurations 6-10
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection Configurations
Trunk Fiber Based Protection Configurations 6-18
Multiple Shelf Node Configurations 6-22
ITU Linked Configuration 6-22
DWDM Linked Configuration 6-23
10-GE Client Signal Uplink Configuration 6-24
6-15
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Contents
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies 6-25
Point-to-Point Topologies 6-26
Unprotected Point-to-Point Topology 6-26
Protected Point-to-Point Topology 6-26
Meshed Ring Topologies 6-27
Unprotected Meshed Ring Topology 6-28
Protected Meshed Ring Topology 6-29
Meshed Ring Topology Using Multiple Cisco ONS 15530 Shelf Nodes
Protected Meshed Ring Topology 6-31
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Mixed Topologies
6-32
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Collocated Topologies
APPENDIX
A
IBM Storage Protocol Support
IBM Storage Environment
Supported Protocols
6-30
6-33
A-1
A-1
A-2
Client Optical Power Budget and Attenuation Requirements
A-4
INDEX
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Preface
This preface describes the purpose, intended audience, organization, and conventions for the
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide.
The information contained in this document pertains to the entire range of hardware components and
software features supported on the Cisco ONS 15530 platform. As new hardware and Cisco IOS
software releases are made available for the Cisco ONS 15530 platform, verification of compatibility
becomes extremely important. To ensure that your hardware is supported by your release of Cisco IOS
software, see the “New and Changed Information” section in the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide
for your software release. Also refer to the “Hardware Supported” section and “Feature Set” section of
the latest release notes for the Cisco ONS 15530.
Purpose
This guide serves as a planning tool for implementing DWDM transport networks using the
Cisco ONS 15530 Optical Aggregation and Transport platform. This guide addresses important
considerations and provides guidelines for planning an optical network. These include an understanding
of the Cisco ONS 15530 basic system design, supported topologies and protection schemes, engineering
rules and restrictions, and optical power budget calculations. Typical example networks are described,
along with their associated chassis configurations.
Audience
This guide is intended for system designers, engineers, and others responsible for designing networks
based on DWDM transport using the Cisco ONS 15530.
Note
The design guidelines in this document are based on the best currently available knowledge about the
functionality and operation of the Cisco ONS 15530. The information in this document is subject to
change without notice.
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Preface
Organization
Organization
The chapters of this guide are as follows:
Chapter
Title
Description
Chapter 1
System Overview
Describes the Cisco ONS 15530 chassis,
components, and system architecture
Chapter 2
Protection Schemes and
Network Topologies
Describes the supported network topologies and
fault protection schemes
Chapter 3
Shelf Configuration Rules
Provides the rules for physical configuration of
the Cisco ONS 15530
Chapter 4
Optical Loss Budgets
Provides metrics for calculating optical link loss
budgets in Cisco ONS 15530 based networks
Chapter 5
Amplified Network Planning
Discusses the amplification and attenuation
features supported by the Cisco ONS 15530.
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations
and Topologies
Provides examples of shelf configurations for
the protection options and common topologies
Appendix A
IBM Storage Protocol Support
Provides design information for applications
that use IBM storage protocols
Related Documentation
This guide is part of a documentation set that supports the Cisco ONS 15530. The other documents in
the set are as follows:
•
Regulatory Compliance and Safety Information for the Cisco ONS 15500 Series
•
Cisco ONS 15530 Hardware Installation Guide
•
Cisco ONS 15530 Cleaning Procedures for Fiber Optic Connections
•
Cisco ONS 15530 Optical Turn-up and Test Guide
•
Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide and Command Reference
•
Quick Reference for the Cisco ONS 15530 TL1 Commands
•
Cisco ONS 15530 System Alarms and Error Messages
•
Cisco ONS 15530 Troubleshooting Guide
•
Network Management for the Cisco ONS 15530
•
Cisco ONS 15530 MIB Quick Reference
•
Cisco ONS 15530 Software Upgrade Guide
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Preface
Obtaining Documentation
Obtaining Documentation
Cisco documentation and additional literature are available on Cisco.com. Cisco also provides several
ways to obtain technical assistance and other technical resources. These sections explain how to obtain
technical information from Cisco Systems.
Cisco.com
You can access the most current Cisco documentation at this URL:
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You can access the Cisco website at this URL:
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Documentation DVD
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Preface
Documentation Feedback
Documentation Feedback
You can send comments about technical documentation to bug-doc@cisco.com.
You can submit comments by using the response card (if present) behind the front cover of your
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Cisco Systems
Attn: Customer Document Ordering
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We appreciate your comments.
Cisco Product Security Overview
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http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_security_vulnerability_policy.html
From this site, you can perform these tasks:
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Report security vulnerabilities in Cisco products.
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Obtain assistance with security incidents that involve Cisco products.
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Register to receive security information from Cisco.
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Reporting Security Problems in Cisco Products
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Tip
•
Emergencies — security-alert@cisco.com
•
Nonemergencies — psirt@cisco.com
We encourage you to use Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) or a compatible product to encrypt any sensitive
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Never use a revoked or an expired encryption key. The correct public key to use in your correspondence
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http://pgp.mit.edu:11371/pks/lookup?search=psirt%40cisco.com&op=index&exact=on
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Preface
Obtaining Technical Assistance
In an emergency, you can also reach PSIRT by telephone:
•
1 877 228-7302
•
1 408 525-6532
Obtaining Technical Assistance
For all customers, partners, resellers, and distributors who hold valid Cisco service contracts, Cisco
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Cisco Technical Support Website
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Use the Cisco Product Identification (CPI) tool to locate your product serial number before submitting
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For S1 or S2 service requests or if you do not have Internet access, contact the Cisco TAC by telephone.
(S1 or S2 service requests are those in which your production network is down or severely degraded.)
Cisco TAC engineers are assigned immediately to S1 and S2 service requests to help keep your business
operations running smoothly.
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Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
To open a service request by telephone, use one of the following numbers:
Asia-Pacific: +61 2 8446 7411 (Australia: 1 800 805 227)
EMEA: +32 2 704 55 55
USA: 1 800 553-2447
For a complete list of Cisco TAC contacts, go to this URL:
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Definitions of Service Request Severity
To ensure that all service requests are reported in a standard format, Cisco has established severity
definitions.
Severity 1 (S1)—Your network is “down,” or there is a critical impact to your business operations. You
and Cisco will commit all necessary resources around the clock to resolve the situation.
Severity 2 (S2)—Operation of an existing network is severely degraded, or significant aspects of your
business operation are negatively affected by inadequate performance of Cisco products. You and Cisco
will commit full-time resources during normal business hours to resolve the situation.
Severity 3 (S3)—Operational performance of your network is impaired, but most business operations
remain functional. You and Cisco will commit resources during normal business hours to restore service
to satisfactory levels.
Severity 4 (S4)—You require information or assistance with Cisco product capabilities, installation, or
configuration. There is little or no effect on your business operations.
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
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Preface
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
•
iQ Magazine is the quarterly publication from Cisco Systems designed to help growing companies
learn how they can use technology to increase revenue, streamline their business, and expand
services. The publication identifies the challenges facing these companies and the technologies to
help solve them, using real-world case studies and business strategies to help readers make sound
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Internet Protocol Journal is a quarterly journal published by Cisco Systems for engineering
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•
World-class networking training is available from Cisco. You can view current offerings at
this URL:
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Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
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C H A P T E R
1
System Overview
The Cisco ONS 15530 is an optical transport platform that employs DWDM (dense wavelength division
multiplexing) technology. With the Cisco ONS 15530, users can take advantage of the availability of
dark fiber to build a common infrastructure that supports data networking and storage networking.
This chapter contains the following major sections:
•
Chassis Description, page 1-1
•
System Functional Overview, page 1-3
•
System Components, page 1-4
•
Security Features, page 1-33
•
System and Network Management, page 1-33
Chassis Description
The Cisco ONS 15530 uses an 11-slot modular vertical chassis (see Figure 1-1). As you face the chassis,
the leftmost slot (slot 0) holds up to two OADM (optical add/drop multiplexer/demultiplexer) modules.
Slots 1 to 4 and 7 to 10 hold the line cards. Slots 5 and 6 hold the CPU switch modules. Air inlet, fan
tray, and cable management are located beneath the modular slots. The system has an electrical
backplane for system control and signal cross connection via the switch fabric.
The system receives power from two +12 volt redundant power supplies. Both 120V AC and –48V DC
power supply options are supported.
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Chapter 1
System Overview
Chassis Description
Figure 1-1
Cisco ONS 15530 Shelf Layout
US
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OPERATING GED PRIOR TO
THE POWE
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Chassis Configurations
There are two versions of the Cisco ONS 15530 chassis, each with different air flow and other
mechanical design characteristics. The NEBS (Network Equipment Building System) version of the
Cisco ONS 15530 chassis is designed for the North American and other markets. The mechanical design
characteristics include the following:
•
Handles located on the top of the chassis
•
Air flow through the chassis from front to back
The other chassis is designed for ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), a standards
organization for the European Union. The mechanical design characteristics include the following:
•
Handles located on the sides of the chassis.
•
Air flow through the chassis from bottom to top and equipped with baffles that bring the air from
the front to the back.
For detailed specifications information on the Cisco ONS 15530 chassis, refer to the
Cisco ONS 15530 Hardware Installation Guide.
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System Functional Overview
System Functional Overview
The Cisco ONS 15530 connects to client equipment, to the DWDM trunk (transport network), to other
Cisco ONS 15530 shelves, and to other DWDM equipment, such as the Cisco ONS 15540 ESP and
Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx. Simply described, the Cisco ONS 15530 takes a client signal and converts it to
an ITU-T G.692 compliant wavelength, then either optically multiplexes it with the other client signals
for transmission over an optical fiber link or sends it through an uplink connection to a
Cisco ONS 15540 ESP or Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports 1+1 path protection using both hardware mechanisms and software
based on the APS (Automatic Protection Switching) standard. In a single shelf configuration, a
Cisco ONS 15530 node can support up to four channels with facility (fiber) protection or with line card
protection, or eight unprotected channels. In a multiple shelf configuration, a node can support up to
32 channels. The Cisco ONS 15530 can be deployed in point-to-point, hubbed ring, and mesh
topologies.
The Cisco ONS 15530 is a duplex system with both light emitters and light detectors. For example, the
client side interfaces both transmit and receive light. The same is true of the DWDM interface. Also, the
OADM modules both multiplex the transmit signal and demultiplex the receive signal.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports the following two types of transmission modes:
•
Transparent mode using the transponder line cards
•
Switched mode using the switch fabric on the CPU switch modules to cross connect the ESCON
aggregation cards, 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card, or 8-port FC/GE aggregation line
cards and 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards, 10-Gbps ITU tunable and non tunable trunk cards, or 10-Gbps
uplink cards.
Figure 1-2 illustrates the principal functions involved in transparent transmission of the signal between
the client and trunk networks using the transponder line card. Optical cross connections from the front
panel of the transponder line card take the signal to the OADM module.
Figure 1-2
Simplified Data Flow Architecture For a Transponder Line Card
3R
Client ITU
optics optics
Transceiver
Client
Front panel cross
connection
O
E
Transport network
O
Transponder
OADM
85513
(ITU wavelength)
Figure 1-3 illustrates the principal functions involved in transmission of the signal between the client
and trunk networks using the ESCON aggregation card and the 10-Gbps ITU trunk card. Electrical cross
connections from the backplane side of the ESCON aggregation card take the signal through the switch
fabrics on the CPU switch modules to the 10-Gbps ITU trunk card. Optical cross connections from the
front panel of the 10-Gbps ITU trunk card take the signal to the OADM module.
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Figure 1-3
Simplified Data Flow Architecture For an ESCON Aggregation Card and a 10-Gbps ITU
Trunk Card
Encapsulation
engine
Transceiver
ITU
optics
Transport
network
Front panel cross
connection
E
E
Client
O
(ITU wavelength)
10-Gps ITU
trunk card
Switch
fabrics
OADM
85514
ESCON card
System Components
The Cisco ONS 15530 has a modular architecture that provides the flexibility to expand the system as
the network grows. The Cisco ONS 15530 components are described in the following sections.
Transponder Line Cards
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports two types of transponder line cards: SM (single-mode) and
MM (multimode). You can install the transponder line cards in any line card slot in the shelf (slots 1 to 4
and 7 to 10).
In the transponder line card, the client signal is regenerated, retimed, and retransmitted on an
ITU-compliant wavelength. The ITU laser on each transponder line card is capable of generating one of
two wavelengths on the trunk side. Thus, there are 16 different transponder line cards (for channels 1–2,
3–4,..., 31–32) to support the 32 channels; each module is available in SM and MM versions. The
wavelength generated is configurable from the CLI (command-line interface).
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Figure 1-4 shows the architecture of the transponder line card.
Figure 1-4
Transponder Line Card Architecture
ITU laser
OADM
Client
equipment
O-E
O-E
Performance
monitor
Optical
transceiver
To SRC
79290
LRC
A safety protocol, LSC (laser safety control), shuts the transmit laser down on the trunk side when a fiber
break or removed connector is detected. The transponder line cards are hot pluggable, permitting
in-service upgrades and replacement.
Client Side Interfaces
The client interfaces on the SM transponder line cards and MM transponder line cards are protocol
transparent and bit-rate transparent, and accept either single-mode or multimode client signals on the
1310-nm wavelength through SC connectors. The multimode transponder supports 62.5 µm MM,
50 µm MM, and 9 or 10 µm SM fiber; the single-mode transponder supports 50 µm MM fiber and
9 or 10 µm SM fiber.
The transponder interfaces support encapsulation of client signals in either 3R (reshape, retime,
retransmit) enhanced mode, which allows some client protocol monitoring (such as code violations and
data errors) or regular 3R mode, where the transponder is transparent to the client data stream. In either
case, the content of the client data stream remains unmodified. Configurable failure and degrade
thresholds for monitored protocols are also supported.
Table 1-1 shows the common client signal protocol encapsulations supported on the SM transponder line
cards and MM transponders modules.
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Table 1-1
Common Protocol Encapsulations Supported on SM Transponder Line Cards and
MM Transponder Line Cards
Wavelength (nm) Transponder Type Protocol
1310
850
SM
MM
Monitoring
Client Signal
Encapsulation
Fiber Type
Gigabit Ethernet
(1250 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
No
—
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
SONET STS-3/
SDH STM-1 (OC-3)
(155 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
SONET STS-12/SDH
STM-4 (OC-12)
(622 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
SONET STS-48/
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
SDH STM-16 (OC-48) MM 50/125 µm
Yes
(2488 Mbps)
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
—
ATM 155 (OC-3)
(155 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
No
—
SM 9 o r10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
No
—
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Fast Ethernet
(125 Mbps)
Fiber Channel
(1062 Mbps)
Fiber Channel
(2125 Mbps)
FDDI (125 Mbps)
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Table 1-2 shows the IBM storage protocols on the SM transponder line cards and MM transponders
modules.
Table 1-2
IBM Storage Protocols Supported on Single-Mode and Multimode Transponders
Wavelength (nm) Transponder Type Protocol
1310
850
SM
MM
Monitoring
Client Signal
Encapsulation
Fiber Type
ESCON (200 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
FICON (1062 Mbps)
MM 50/125 µm
MM 62.5/125 µm
FICON (2125 Mbps)
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
1
No
Yes
1
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
2
No
Yes
1
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Coupling Facility,
ISC-3 compatibility
mode (1062 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
1
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
MM 62.5/125 µm
No
No
—
—
—
Coupling Facility,
ISC-3 peer mode
(2125 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
No
No
—
—
—
MM 62.5/125 µm
No
No
—
—
—
Coupling Facility,
ISC-3 peer mode
(1062 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
MM 50/125 µm
No
No
—
—
—
MM 62.5/125 µm
No
No
—
—
—
Sysplex Timer (ETR
and CLO) (8 Mbps3)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm No
No
—
—
—
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
1. These protocols require the use of a special mode-conditioning patch cable (available from IBM) at each end of the
connection.
2. These protocols require the use of a special mode-conditioning patch cable (available from IBM) at each end of the
connection.
3. Sysplex Timer is the only protocol supported at a clock rate less than 16 Mbps.
Table 1-3 shows some other common protocols that are supported on the SM transponder line cards and
MM transponders modules without protocol monitoring.
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Table 1-3
Other Client Signal Encapsulations Supported on Single-Mode and Multimode
Transponders
Wavelength (nm) Transponder Type Protocol
1310
850
SM
MM
Monitoring
Client Signal
Encapsulation
Fiber Type
DS3 (45 Mbps)
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
SM 9 or 10/125 µm Yes
No
Yes
No
No
MM 50/125 µm
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
MM 62.5/125 µm
Yes
No
No
No
No
OC-1 (51.52 Mbps)
OC-24 (933.12 Mbps)
Additional discrete rates are also supported in regular 3R mode. For SM transponder line cards, these
rates fall between 16 Mbps and 2.5 Gbps; for MM transponder line cards, the rates are between
16 Mbps and 622 Mbps.
The system supports OFC (open fiber control) for Fibre Channel and ISC encapsulations. Alternatively,
FLC (forward laser control) can be enabled to shut down the laser on the client or trunk side if a Loss of
Light is detected on the other side.
The transponder line cards support autonegotiation for Gigabit Ethernet traffic.
Note
The Cisco ONS 15530 transponder line cards do not support autonegotiation for 2-Gbps Fibre Channel.
The transponder line cards only recognize the configured clock rate or protocol encapsulation.
For detailed information about client interface configuration, refer to the
Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
Protocol Monitoring
The transponder line cards can monitor protocol and signal performance. When monitoring is enabled,
the system maintains statistics that are used to determine the quality of the signal.
The following protocols can be monitored:
•
ESCON (Enterprise Systems Connection)
•
FC (Fibre Channel) (1 Gbps and 2 Gbps)
•
FICON (Fiber Connection) (1 Gbps and 2 Gbps)
•
GE (Gigabit Ethernet)
•
ISC-3 links compatibility mode
•
ISC-3 links peer mode (1-Gbps and 2-Gbps)
•
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) (STM-1, STM-4, STM-16)
•
SONET (OC-3, OC-12, OC-48)
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For GE, FC, and FICON traffic, the Cisco ONS 15530 monitors the following conditions:
•
CVRD (code violation running disparity) error counts
•
Loss of Sync
•
Loss of Lock
•
Loss of Light
For SONET errors, the Cisco ONS 15530 monitors the SONET section overhead only, not the SONET
line overhead. Specifically, the system monitors the B1 byte and the framing bytes. The system detects
the following defect conditions:
•
Loss of Light
•
Loss of Lock (when the clock cannot be recovered from the received data stream)
•
Severely errored frame
•
Loss of Frame
For SONET performance, the system monitors the B1 byte, which is used to compute the four SONET
section layer performance monitor parameters:
•
SEFS-S (second severely errored framing seconds)
•
CV-S (section code violations)
•
ES-S (section errored seconds)
•
SES-S (section severely errored seconds)
For ISC-3 traffic, the system monitors the following conditions:
•
CVRD error counts
•
Loss of CDR (clock data recovery) Lock
•
Loss of Light
ESCON Aggregation Cards
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports a line card specifically for ESCON traffic. The ESCON aggregation card
accepts up to 10 SFP (small form-factor pluggable) optics for client traffic. The ESCON aggregation
card converts the client signals from optical form to electrical and then aggregates them into a single
signal. This aggregated signal passes through the backplane and the switch fabric on the active CPU
switch module to a 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card, 10-Gbps ITU tunable or non tunable trunk card, or a
10-Gbps uplink card (see Figure 1-3). The cross connection between the two cards through the
backplane and switch fabrics is configured using the CLI. The ESCON aggregation card has redundant
connections over the backplane to the switch fabrics on the active and standby CPU switch modules.
Figure 1-5 shows the architecture of the ESCON aggregation card.
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Figure 1-5
ESCON Aggregation Card Architecture
ESCON transceiver 0
ESCON transceiver 1
Switch
fabric
side
ESCON transceiver 2
PHY
ESCON transceiver 3
Client
side
ESCON transceiver 4
ESCON transceiver 5
ESCON
encapsulation
engine
ESCON transceiver 6
ESCON transceiver 7
ESCON transceiver 8
79295
ESCON transceiver 9
The ESCON aggregation card uses pluggable transceivers with MT-RJ connectors for the client signals.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to six ESCON aggregation cards for a total of 60 ESCON signals.
Table 1-4 lists features for the SFP optics supported by the ESCON aggregation cards.
Table 1-4
ESCON Aggregation Card SFP Optics Features
Part Number
Note
Description
Fiber Type
Connector
Wavelength Type
15500-XVRA-01A2 Fixed rate
MM 50/125 µm
1310 nm
MM 62.5/125 µm
MT-RJ
15500-XVRA-10A1 Low-band variable rate
16 Mbps to 200 Mbps
MM 50/125 µm
1310 nm
MM 62.5/125 µm
LC
15500-XVRA-10B1 Low-band variable rate
16 Mbps to 200 Mbps
SM 9/125 µm
LC
1310 nm
The Cisco IOS software only supports Cisco-certified SFP optics on the ESCON aggregation card.
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4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports a line card specifically for 1-Gbps and 2-Gbps FC (Fibre Channel),
FICON (Fibre Connection), and ISC (InterSystem Channel) links traffic. The 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC
aggregation card has the following features:
•
Accepts up to four single-mode or multimode SFP (small form-factor pluggable) optics for client
traffic. Each SFP optic supports 1-Gbps or 2 Gbps FC, FICON, or ISC traffic, depending on how the
interface is configured in the CLI.
•
Does not restriction how you can populated the card with SFPs. For example, you can mix a
single-mode SFP optics with a multimode SFP optics in the same aggregated signal.
•
Converts up to four client signals from optical form to electrical and transmits them over up to four
2.5-Gbps electric signals. These signals pass through the backplane and the switch fabric on the
active CPU switch module to a 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card, a 10-Gbps ITU trunk card, or a 10-Gbps
uplink card. The cross connections between the two cards through the backplane and switch fabrics
are configured using the CLI.
•
Allows different traffic types on the same card and on the same aggregated signal.
•
Allows two 1-Gbps protocol client signals to be aggregated on one 2.5-Gbps signal sent over the
switch fabric. Only one 2-Gbps protocol client signal can be sent over a 2.5-Gbps signal over the
switch fabric.
•
Has redundant connections over the backplane to the switch fabrics on the active and standby CPU
switch modules.
•
Is compatible with the 8-port FC/GE aggregation card signals. Any 1-Gbps FC, FICON, or ISC
signal can be transmitted between a 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card and an 8-port FC/GE
aggregation card.
Note
•
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card does not support 1-Gbps ISC peer mode.
Provides buffer credit functionality for Fibre Channel.
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Figure 1-6 shows the architecture of the 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card.
Figure 1-6
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Card Architecture
Front panel
Backplane
SFP
Quad PHY
To active
switch
fabric
Quad PHY
To standby
switch
fabric
SFP
Preprocessor
Encapsulation
engine
SFP
113460
SFP
Table 1-5 lists features for the SFP optics supported by the 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation cards.
Table 1-5
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Card SFP Optics Features
Part Number
15500-XVRA-02C1
Protocols or Clock Rate Range
Supported
Fiber Type
Fibre Channel (1 Gbps)1,
FICON (1 Gbps)
MM 50/125 µm
850 nm
MM 62.5/125 µm
LC
MM 50/125 µm
850 nm
MM 62.5/125 µm
LC
15500-SFP-GEFC-SX Fibre Channel (1 Gbps and
2 Gbps)2, Gigabit Ethernet
Connector
Wavelength Type
15500-XVRA-03B1
Fibre Channel (1 Gbps)3,
FICON (1 Gbps), ISC links
compatibility mode (1 Gbps)
SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
15500-XVRA-03B2
Fibre Channel (1 Gbps4 and
2 Gbps5)
SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
15500-XVRA-11B1
Mid-band variable rate
200 Mbps to 1.25 Gbps
SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
15500-XVRA-12B1
High-band variable rate
1.062 Gbps to 2.488 Gbps
SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
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Table 1-5
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Card SFP Optics Features (continued)
Part Number
Protocols or Clock Rate Range
Supported
Fiber Type
Connector
Wavelength Type
15454E-SFP-GEFC-S Fibre Channel (1-Gbps and
2-Gbps)
MM 50/125 µm
850 nm
MM 62.5/125 µm
LC
15454-SFP-GEFC-SX Fibre Channel (1-Gbps and
2-Gbps)
MM 50/125 µm
850 nm
MM 62.5/125 µm
LC
1. FC-0-100-M5-SN-S and FC-0-100-M6-SN-S standards
2. FC-0-200-M5-SN-S and FC-0-200-M6-SN-S standards
3. FC-0-100-SM-LC-S standard
4. FC-0-100-SM-LC-S standard
5. FC-0-200-SM-LC-S standard
Note
The Cisco IOS software only supports Cisco-certified SFP optics on the 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC
aggregation card.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to five 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation cards for a total of
20 1-Gbps client signals.
Protocol Monitoring
For FC and FICON traffic, the system monitors the following conditions on the 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps
FC aggregation card:
•
8B/10B CVRD error counts
•
Tx/Rx frame counts
•
Tx/Rx byte counts
•
Tx/Rx CRC errors
•
Link failures
•
Sequence protocol errors
•
Invalid transmission words
•
5-minute input/output rates
•
Loss of Sync
•
Loss of Light
For ISC traffic, the system monitors the following conditions on the 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC
aggregation card:
•
8B/10B CVRD error counts
•
Loss of Light
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Support for FC Port Types
The 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card supports the following FC port types, with or without
the buffer credit distance extension feature enabled:
Note
•
B_port—bridge port
•
E_port—expansion port
•
F_port—fabric port
•
N_port—node port
•
TE_port—trunking E_port (Cisco MDS 9000 Family systems only)
All of the above port topologies, except for TE_port, are point-to-point in the FC specifications.
Examples of valid topologies where you can place a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf, which has an 4-port
1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card, in the middle to extend distance include the following:
•
E_Port <--> E_Port
•
F_Port <--> N_Port
•
N_Port <--> N_Port
•
B_Port <--> B_Port
•
TE_Port <--> TE_Port
The arbitrated loop topology is not supported by the 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card. The
arbitrated loop port types not supported include:
Note
•
NL_port—node loop port
•
FL_port—fabric loop port
•
EL_port—extension loop port
Any combination of these arbitrated port types are not supported.
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports a line card specifically for FC (Fibre Channel), FICON (Fibre
Connection), GE (Gigabit Ethernet), ISC-1 (InterSystem Channel) links compatibility mode, and 1-Gbps
ISC-3 peer mode traffic. The 8-port Fibre Channel/Gigabit Ethernet aggregation card accepts up to eight
SFP (small form-factor pluggable) optics for client traffic. Each SFP optic supports FC, FICON, GE, or
ISC, depending on how the interface is configured in the CLI.
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card converts client signals from two adjacent port pairs (0–1, 2–3, 4–5,
or 6–7) from optical form to electrical and then aggregates them into four 2.5-Gbps signals. These
aggregated signals pass through the backplane and the switch fabric on the active CPU switch module
to a 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card, a 10-Gbps ITU trunk card, or a 10-Gbps uplink card. The cross
connections between the two cards through the backplane and switch fabrics is configured using the CLI.
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card has redundant connections over the backplane to the switch fabrics
on the active and standby CPU switch modules.
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card provides buffer credit functionality for Fibre Channel traffic and
end-to-end autonegotiation for Gigabit Ethernet traffic.
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Note
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card supports end-to-end passthrough of the autonegotiation parameters
only for hardware versions earlier than 8.0 updated with functional image A.2-30 or later, or hardware
version 8.0, or later, updated with functional image B.2-30 or later. For information on updating
functional images, refer to the Cisco 15530 Software Upgrade Guide.
Note
We strongly recommend configuring port pairs as FC only or GE only. Mixing FC and GE in a port pair
increases the FC signal latency between nodes.
Figure 1-7 shows the architecture of the 8-port FC/GE aggregation card.
Figure 1-7
8-port FC/GE Aggregation Card Architecture
FC/GE transceiver 0
FC/GE transceiver 1
FC/GE transceiver 2
FC to GE
encapsulation
engine
GE signal
aggregator
FC/GE transceiver 3
Client
side
Switch
fabric
side
FC/GE transceiver 4
FC/GE transceiver 5
FC/GE transceiver 6
FC to GE
encapsulation
engine
GE
GE signal
signal
aggregator
aggregator
85845
FC/GE transceiver 7
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card uses single-mode and multimode SFP optics for the client signals.
There are no restrictions on populating the line card with SFPs. For example, you can mix a single-mode
SFP optic with a multimode SFP optic in the same port pair. Table 1-6 lists features for the SFP optics
supported by the 8-port FC/GE aggregation cards.
Table 1-6
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Card SFP Optics Features
Part Number
Protocols or Clock Rate Range
Supported
Fiber Type
Connector
Wavelength Type
850 nm
15500-XVRA-02C1 Gigabit Ethernet1, Fibre Channel MM 50/125 µm
MM 62.5/125 µm
(1 Gbps)2, FICON (1 Gbps),
ISC-3 links compatibility and
peer mode (1 Gbps)
LC
15500-XVRA-03B1 Gigabit Ethernet3, Fibre Channel SM 9/125 µm
(1 Gbps)4, FICON (1 Gbps),
ISC-3 links compatibility and
peer mode (1 Gbps)
LC
1310 nm
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Table 1-6
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Card SFP Optics Features (continued)
Fiber Type
Connector
Wavelength Type
15500-XVRA-11B1 Mid-band variable rate
200 Mbps to 1.25 Gbps
SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
15500-XVRA-12B1 High-band variable rate
1.062 Gbps to 2.488 Gbps
SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
Part Number
Protocols or Clock Rate Range
Supported
1. 1000BASE-SX
2. FC-0-100-M5-SN-S and FC-0-100-M6-SN-S standards
3. 1000BASE-LX
4. FC-0-100-SM-LC-S standard
Note
The Cisco IOS software only supports Cisco-certified SFP optics on the 8-port FC/GE aggregation card.
Note
The MTU (maximum transmission unit) size for GE on the 8-port FC/GE aggregation card is
10232 bytes.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to four 8-port FC/GE aggregation cards for a total of 32 client
signals.
Protocol Monitoring
For GE traffic, the Cisco ONS 15530 monitors the following conditions on the 8-port FC/GE
aggregation card:
•
CVRD error counts
•
Tx/Rx frame counts
•
Tx/Rx byte counts
•
Tx/Rx CRC errors
•
Giant packet counts
•
Runt packet counts
•
5 minute input/output rates
For FC and FICON traffic, the system monitors the following conditions on the 8-port FC/GE
aggregation card:
•
8B/10B CVRD error counts
•
Tx/Rx frame counts
•
Tx/Rx byte counts
•
Tx/Rx CRC errors
•
Link failures
•
Sequence protocol errors
•
Invalid transmission words
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•
5 minute input/output rates
•
Loss of Sync
•
Loss of Light
For ISC-3 links traffic, the system monitors the following conditions on the 8-port FC/GE aggregation
card:
•
8B/10B CVRD error counts
•
Loss of Light
Support for FC Port Types
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card supports the following FC port types, with or without the buffer
credit distance extension feature enabled:
Note
•
B_port—bridge port
•
E_port—expansion port
•
F_port—fabric port
•
N_port—node port
•
TE_port—trunking E_port (Cisco MDS 9000 Family systems only)
All of the above port topologies, except for TE_port, are point-to-point in the FC specifications.
Examples of valid topologies where you can place a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf, which has an 8-port FC/GE
aggregation card, in the middle to extend distance include the following:
•
E_Port <--> E_Port
•
F_Port <--> N_Port
•
N_Port <--> N_Port
•
B_Port <--> B_Port
•
TE_Port <--> TE_Port
The arbitrated loop topology is not supported by the 8-port FC/GE aggregation card. The arbitrated loop
port types not supported include:
Note
•
NL_port—node loop port
•
FL_port—fabric loop port
•
EL_port—extension loop port
Any combination of these arbitrated port types are not supported.
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
The 8-port multi-service muxponder accepts up to eight SFPs for client traffic. The eight client signals
are mapped into the right size STS-n payloads and multiplexed into a 2.5-Gbps ITU signal. The ITU
signal is then multiplexed onto the trunk by an OADM.
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Note
The 8-port multi-service muxponder does not use the switch fabric, an ITU trunk card, or an 10-Gbps
uplink card.
The 8-port multi-service muxponder supports the following protocols:
•
Gigabit Ethernet (1.25 Gbps), copper and optical
•
Fiber Channel (1.062 Gbps), optical
•
FICON (1.062 Gbps), optical
•
DVB-ASI (Digital Video Broadcast-Asynchronous Serial Interface) (270 Mbps), copper and optical
•
SDI (Serial Digital Interface) (270 Mbps)
•
ESCON (200 MHz), optical
•
SONET OC-3 (155 Mbps), optical
•
SDH STM-1 (155 Mbps), optical
•
ITS (Integrated Trading System) (196.608 Mbps), optical
•
Fast Ethernet (125 Mbps), copper and optical
•
T1 (1.544 Mbps), copper
•
E1 (2.048 Mbps), copper
Other features on the 8-port multi-service muxponder include:
•
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk signal that is tunable across two wavelengths
•
DCC (Data Communications Channel) for in-band management
•
Splitter protection
The following features are not supported on the 8-port multi-service muxponder:
Note
•
Oversubscription
•
Y-cable line card protection
•
FICON bridge
•
OFC safety protocol
Although the 8-port multi-service muxponder uses a SONET-like framing structure to aggregate
multiple client data streams, it is not SONET compliant on the optical trunk output. The muxponder ITU
compliant optical trunk output must be used in an end-to-end configuration and cannot be connected to
a SONET/SDH OADM.
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Figure 1-8 shows the architecture of the 8-port multi-service muxponder.
Figure 1-8
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponder Architecture
Client side
Trunk side
Client
funcitonal
image
T1/E1 ASIC
STS-48
STS-1
2.5-Gbps ITU
trunk signal
STS-48
framer
STS-48
113952
Client
functional
image
The 8-port multi-service muxponder uses optical single-mode, optical multimode, and copper SFPs for
the client signals. There are no restrictions on populating the line card with SFPs. For example, you can
mix a single-mode SFP, a multimode SFP, and a copper SFP in the same muxponder. Table 1-7 lists
features for the SFPs supported by the 8-port multi-service muxponders.
Table 1-7
8-port Multi-Service Muxponder SFP Features
Fiber Type
Connector
Wavelength Type
Part Number
Protocols Supported
15500-XVRA-10A2
Low band 8 Mbps to 200 Mbps MM 50/125 µm
1310 nm
MM 62.5/125 µm
LC
15500-XVRA-10B2
Low band 8 Mbps to 200 Mbps SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
15500-XVRA-11A2
Mid-band 200 Mbps to
622 Mbps
MM 62.5/125 µm 1310 nm
LC
15500-XVRA-11B2
Mid-band 200 Mbps to
1.25 Gbps
SM 9/125 µm
LC
1310 nm
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Table 1-7
Note
8-port Multi-Service Muxponder SFP Features (continued)
Part Number
Protocols Supported
Fiber Type
Connector
Wavelength Type
15500-XVRA-12B1
High-band 1.062 Gbps to
2.488 Gbps
SM 9/125 µm
1310 nm
LC
15500-XVRA-08D1
T1 1.544 Mbps
Copper T1
–
RJ-45
15500-XVRA-09D1
E1 2.044 Mbps
Copper E1
–
RJ-45
15500-XVRA-10E1
SDI and DVB-ASI Video
Copper Digital
Video
–
Mini SMB
Coax
15500-XVRA-11D1
GE 1.25 Gbps, FE 1.25 Mbps
Copper GE/FE
–
RJ-45
The Cisco IOS software only supports Cisco-certified SFP optics on the 8-port multi-service muxponder.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to four 8-port multi-service muxponders for a total of 32 client
signals in a protected configuration and up to eight 8-port multi-service muxponders for a total of
64 client signals in an unprotected configuration.
Protocol Monitoring
The 8-port multi-service muxponder only monitors 8B/10B CVRD errors for GE (optical only), FC,
FICON, ESCON, ITS, and ASI traffic.
2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
The 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card sends and receives the ITU grid wavelength signal to and from an OADM
module. This card accepts a 2.5-Gbps (3.125-Gbps line rate) electrical signal from an ESCON
aggregation card, an 8-port FC/GE aggregation card, or a 4-port FC aggregation card, which is converted
to the ITU grid wavelength, or channel. The 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card has redundant interfaces to the
backplane, connecting to the switch fabrics on the active and standby CPU switch modules.You can turn
the ITU laser to one of two channel frequencies. There are 16 different 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards (for
channels 1–2, 3–4,..., 31–32) to support the 32 channels.
Note
When designing your network, consider designs with 10-Gbps ITU tunable and non tunable trunk cards
as well as designs with 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards. The type of ITU trunk card used affects the design
parameters, such as dispersion compensation, amplification, and available wavelengths.
The 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card has two versions: nonsplitter and splitter. The nonsplitter version has only
one pair of optical connectors on the front panel, which connects to either the east or the west OADM
module, and can be used for unprotected, line card protected, or switch fabric protected applications (see
Figure 1-9).
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Figure 1-9
Nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Card Architecture
QuadPHY
Tx
64B/66B
Encoder
2.5-Gbps
ITU
transceiver
Rx
85842
LRC
The splitter version of the 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card has two pairs of optical connectors on the front panel,
which connect to the east and west OADM modules, and is designed for splitter protected applications
(see Figure 1-10).
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Figure 1-10 Splitter 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Card Architecture
QuadPHY
Tx
64B/66B
Encoder
Splitter
module
West Tx
East Tx
2x2
Switch
West Rx
East Rx
2.5-Gbps
ITU
transceiver
Rx
LRC
85843
PIN Diode
Controlled by
Rx demux FPGA
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to four 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards for a total of four channels.
10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
The 10-Gbps ITU trunk card sends and receives the ITU grid wavelength signal to and from an OADM
module. This card accepts up to four 2.5-Gbps (3.125-Gbps line rate) electrical signals from the ESCON
aggregation cards, 8-port FC/GE aggregation cards, or a 4-port FC aggregation card, and combines them
into one 10-Gbps signal, which is converted to the ITU grid wavelength, or channel. The 10-Gbps ITU
trunk card has four separate redundant interfaces to the backplane, each connecting to the switch fabrics
on the active and standby CPU switch modules.
Note
When designing your network, consider designs with 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards as well as designs with
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards. The type of ITU trunk card used affects the design parameters, such as
dispersion compensation, amplification, and available wavelengths.
The 10-Gbps ITU trunk card has two version: nonsplitter and splitter. The nonsplitter version has only
one pair of optical connectors on the front panel, which connects to either the east or the west OADM
module, and can be used for unprotected, line card protected, or switch fabric protected applications (see
Figure 1-11).
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Figure 1-11
Nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Card Architecture
QuadPHY
TX
QuadPHY
Tx mux /
Rx demux
FPGA
10-Gbps
ITU
transceiver
64/66
Encoder
RX
79297
LRC
The splitter version of the 10-Gbps ITU trunk card has two pairs of optical connectors on the front panel,
which connect to the east and west OADM modules, and is designed for splitter protected applications
(see Figure 1-12).
Figure 1-12
Splitter 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Card Architecture
QuadPHY
TX
West Tx
Splitter
module
East Tx
QuadPHY
Tx mux /
Rx demux
FPGA
64/66
Encoder
10-Gbps
ITU
transceiver
RX
West Rx
2x2
Switch
East Rx
PIN Diode
79296
LRC
Controlled by
Rx demux FPGA
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to four 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards for a total of four channels.
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10-Gbps ITU Tunable Trunk Cards
The 10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk card sends and receives the ITU grid wavelength signal to and from an
OADM module. This card accepts up to four 2.5-Gbps (3.125-Gbps line rate) electrical signals from the
ESCON aggregation cards, 8-port FC/GE aggregation cards, or a 4-port FC aggregation card, and
combines them into one 10-Gbps signal, which is converted to the ITU grid wavelength, or channel. The
10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk card has four separate redundant interfaces to the backplane, each connecting
to the switch fabrics on the active and standby CPU switch modules.
The 10-Gbps tunable trunk card is equipped with tunable lasers, and can be tuned to four different
channels belonging to one band. Table 1-8 shows the tunable frequencies and the corresponding
wavelengths. You must use the show optical wavelength mapping command to obtain this mapping.
Table 1-8
Tunable Frequencies and Wavelengths
Channel
Frequency (THz)
Wavelength (nm)
0
191.9
1562.23
1
192.
1560.61
2
192.2
1559.79
3
192.3
1558.98
4
192.4
1558.17
5
192.6
1556.55
6
192.7
1555.75
7
192.8
1554.94
8
192.9
1554.13
9
193.1
1552.52
10
193.2
1551.72
11
193.3
1550.92
12
193.4
1550.12
13
193.6
1548.51
14
193.7
1547.72
15
193.8
1546.92
16
193.9
1546.12
17
194.1
1544.53
18
194.2
1543.73
19
194.3
1542.94
20
194.4
1542.14
21
194.6
1540.56
22
194.7
1539.77
23
194.8
1538.98
24
194.9
1538.19
25
195.1
1536.61
26
195.2
1535.82
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Table 1-8
Note
Tunable Frequencies and Wavelengths (continued)
Channel
Frequency (THz)
Wavelength (nm)
27
195.3
1535.04
28
195.4
1534.25
29
195.6
1532.68
30
195.7
1531.90
31
195.8
1531.12
32
195.9
1530.33
When designing your network, consider designs with 10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk cards as well as designs
with 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards. The type of ITU trunk card used affects the design parameters, such as
dispersion compensation, amplification, and available wavelengths.
The 10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk card has two version: nonsplitter and splitter. The nonsplitter version
has only one pair of optical connectors on the front panel, which connects to either the east or the west
OADM module, and can be used for unprotected, line card protected, or switch fabric protected
applications (see Figure 1-11).
Figure 1-13
Nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU Tunable Trunk Card Architecture
QuadPHY
TX
QuadPHY
Tx mux /
Rx demux
FPGA
64/66
Encoder
10-Gbps
ITU
transceiver
RX
79297
LRC
The splitter version of the 10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk card has two pairs of optical connectors on the
front panel, which connect to the east and west OADM modules and is designed for splitter protected
applications (see Figure 1-12).
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Figure 1-14
Splitter 10-Gbps ITU Tunable Trunk Card Architecture
QuadPHY
TX
West Tx
Splitter
module
East Tx
QuadPHY
Tx mux /
Rx demux
FPGA
64/66
Encoder
10-Gbps
ITU
transceiver
RX
West Rx
2x2
Switch
East Rx
PIN Diode
79296
LRC
Controlled by
Rx demux FPGA
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to four 10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk cards for a total of 4 channels.
10-Gbps Uplink Cards
The 10-Gbps uplink card sends and receives a 10-Gbps 1310-nm signal to and from a 10-Gbps uplink
card on another Cisco ONS 15530, or to and from a 10-GE transponder module on a
Cisco ONS 15540 ESP or Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx. This card accepts up to four (3.125-Gbps line rate)
electrical signals from ESCON aggregation cards, 8-port FC/GE aggregation cards, or a 4-port FC
aggregation card, and combines them into one 10-Gbps signal (see Figure 1-15).
The 10-Gbps uplink card has four separate redundant interfaces to the backplane. Each interface
connects to the switch fabrics on the active and standby CPU switch modules.
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Figure 1-15
10-Gbps Uplink Card Architecture
QuadPHY
TX
QuadPHY
Tx mux /
Rx demux
FPGA
64/66
Encoder
10-Gbps
1310nm
transceiver
RX
79298
LRC
The 10-Gbps uplink card has only one pair of optical connectors on the front panel and can be used for
unprotected or line card protected applications. For splitter protected configurations, use the 10-Gbps
ITU trunk card.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports up to four 10-Gbps uplink cards for a total of four channels.
OSC Modules
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports the OSC on a separate module installed in a carrier motherboard. The
carrier motherboard accepts up to two OSC modules. Implemented as a 33rd wavelength (channel 0), the
OSC is a per-fiber duplex management channel for communicating between Cisco ONS 15530,
Cisco ONS 15540 ESP, and Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx systems. The OSC allows control and management
traffic to be carried without the necessity of a separate Ethernet connection to each Cisco ONS 15530,
Cisco ONS 15540 ESP, and Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx in the network.
The OSC is established over a point-to-point connection and is always terminated on a neighboring node.
By contrast, data channels may or may not be terminated on a given node, depending on whether the
channels are express (pass-through) or add/drop.
The OSC carries the following types of information:
•
CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) packets—Used to discover neighboring devices
•
IP packets—Used for SNMP and Telnet sessions between nodes
•
OSCP (OSC Protocol)—Used to determine whether the OSC link is up
•
APS protocol packets—Used for controlling signal path switching
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Note
A Cisco ONS 15530 system without the OSC and the in-band message channel is not known to other
systems in the network and cannot be managed by any NMS. Without the OSC and the in-band message
channel, a Cisco ONS 15530 system must be managed individually by separate Ethernet or serial
connections. Thus, it is important when adding a node to an existing network of Cisco ONS 15530
systems that the added node have appropriate OSC or the in-band message channel support.
OADM Modules
The OADM (optical add/drop multiplexer/demultiplexer) modules are passive devices that optically
multiplex and demultiplex a specific band of 16 ITU wavelengths. The OADM modules supported by
the Cisco ONS 15530 each add and drop a band of channels at a node and pass the other bands through.
To support the 32-channel spectrum, there are eight different 4-channel OADM modules, each
supporting a different band of channels.
In the transmit direction, the OADM modules multiplex signals transmitted by the line cards over optical
cross connections and provide the interfaces to connect the multiplexed signal to the DWDM trunk side.
In the receive direction, the OADM modules demultiplex the signals from the trunk side before passing
them over optical cross connections to the line cards.
Figure 1-16 shows the physical layout of the OADM module for the channels in band A (1–4) along with
a logical view of its multiplexing and demultiplexing functions. Optical signals received from the line
card, the Thru IN connector, and the OSC IN connector are multiplexed and sent through the Trunk OUT
connector. The optical signal received from the Trunk IN connector is demultiplexed and the OSC signal
is sent to the OSC OUT connector; the dropped channels are sent to the line card; and the passed
channels are sent to the Thru OUT connector.
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Figure 1-16
OADM Module Architecture
Trunk IN
Trunk OUT
Thru IN
Thru OUT
OSC IN
OSC OUT
Demux
Ch1 IN
Ch1 OUT
Trunk IN
Ch2 IN
Trunk OUT
Ch2 OUT
Thru IN
Ch3 IN
Thru OUT
OSC IN
Ch3 OUT
From transponder or
ITU trunk card
Ch4 IN
OSC OUT
OADM
Ch1 IN
Ch4 OUT
Logical View
Ch1 OUT
Trunk IN
Ch2 IN
Trunk OUT
Ch2 OUT
Thru IN
Ch3 IN
Thru OUT
Ch3 OUT
OSC IN
Ch4 IN
OSC OUT
Ch4 OUT
Mux
Ch1 IN
Ch1 OUT
Ch2 IN
Ch2 OUT
To transponder or
ITU trunk card
Ch3 IN
Ch4 IN
Ch4 OUT
79291
Ch3 OUT
OADM Modules and Channel Bands
Each OADM module supports a range of channels called a band. A band contains 4 channels.
Table 1-9 lists the OADM modules that support each channel band. All cards are available with or
without OSC support. For correspondence between channel numbers and wavelengths on the ITU grid,
refer to the Cisco ONS 15530 Hardware Installation Guide. See Table 1-8 for more information on the
tunable frequencies and the corresponding wavelengths.
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Table 1-9
OADM Modules and Supported Channel Bands
Cisco ONS 15530
Channels
OADM Module
1–4
Band A
5–8
Band B
9–12
Band C
13–16
Band D
17–20
Band E
21–24
Band F
25–28
Band G
29–32
Band H
OADM Module Configurations
In ring configurations, channels that are not supported by a node are passed through that node and sent
out on the ring. Figure 1-17 shows an example of how two OADM modules might be cabled in a
protected ring configuration.
OADM
Ch 1-4
OADM Modules in a Protected Ring Configuration
Wdm
Thru
OADM
Ch 1-4
Wdm
Thru
IN
OUT
OUT
IN
West
IN
OUT
OUT
IN
East
88515
Figure 1-17
PSMs
The PSM (protection switch module) provides trunk fiber protection for Cisco ONS 15530 systems
configured in point-to-point topologies. The PSM sends the signal from an OADM module, an ITU trunk
card, or a transponder line card to both the west and east directions. It receives both the west and east
signals and selects one to send to the OADM module, ITU trunk card, or transponder line card. Both
nodes in the network topology must have the same shelf configuration.When a trunk fiber cut occurs on
the active path, the PSM switches the received signal to the standby path. Since the PSM occupies one
of the OADM subslots in the shelf, it protects a maximum of four channels and the OSC in a single shelf
configuration (see Figure 1-18).
The PSM also has a optical monitor port for testing the west and east receive signals. This port samples
one percent of the receive signals that can be monitored with an optical power meter.
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System Overview
System Components
Figure 1-18
PSM Architecture
2x2
Splitter
module
85919
Optical
monitor
CPU Switch Modules
The Cisco ONS 15530 includes two CPU switch modules for redundancy. Each CPU switch module
consists of a number of subsystems, including a CPU, a system clock, Ethernet switch for
communicating between CPU switch modules and with the LRC (line card redundancy controller) on the
OADM modules, line cards, and carrier motherboards, and the SRC (switch redundancy controller). The
active CPU switch module controls the node, and all cards in the system make use of the system clock
and synchronization signals from the active CPU switch module.
The CPU switch module is equipped with a console port, a Fast Ethernet interface for Telnet access and
network management, and an auxiliary port. There is one slot for a compact Flash disk.
On the CPU switch module front panel are LEDs that display the status of critical, major, and minor
signals, as well as the status of alarm cutoff and history conditions.
The CPU switch modules run Cisco IOS software and support the following features:
•
Automatic configuration at startup
•
Automatic discovery of network neighbors
•
Online self-diagnostics and tests
•
Power-on diagnostics and tests
•
Arbitration of CPU switch module status (active/standby) and switchover in case of failure without
loss of connections
•
Automatic synchronization of startup and running configurations
•
In-service software upgrades
•
Per-channel APS (Automatic Protection Switching) in linear and ring topologies using redundant
subsystems that monitor link integrity and signal quality
•
Trunk fiber based DWDM signal protection using APS in point-to-point topologies
•
System configuration and management through the CLI and SNMP
•
Optical power monitoring on the trunk side, digital monitoring on the client side, and per-channel
transponder in-service and out-of-service loopback (client and trunk sides)
•
Optional out-of-band management of other Cisco ONS 15530, Cisco ONS 15540 ESP, and
Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx systems on the network through the OSC (optical supervisory channel)
•
Optional inband management of other Cisco ONS 15530 systems in the network through the in-band
message channel
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System Components
Switch Fabric
The Cisco ONS 15530 CPU switch module has a 32-port by 32-port, nonblocking switch fabric, which
can carry up to 3.125 Gbps of traffic per port (for data traffic and the remainder for control traffic). The
switch fabric connects signals from client side line cards, such as the ESCON aggregation card, to ITU
side line cards, such as the 10-Gbps ITU trunk card (see Figure 1-19). When a shelf is configured for
CPU switch module redundancy, the redundant switch fabric increases system availability by protecting
against switch fabric failures.
Figure 1-19
Redundant Switch Fabrics
2.5-Gbps
aggregated
signal
10-port ESCON card
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
LRC
10-Gbps ITU trunk card or
10-Gbps uplink card
LRC
Active signal
Standby switch
fabric
SRC
79312
Electrical backplane
connection
Note
Transponder line cards contain both client and ITU optics and do not interface with the switch fabric.
CPU Switch Module Redundancy and Online Insertion and Removal
When the Cisco ONS 15530 is powered up, the two CPU switch modules engage in an arbitration
process to determine which will be the active and which will be the standby. Previous power state
information is stored in the CPU non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM). The CPU that was
previously active reassumes the active role. During operation, the two CPU switch modules remain
synchronized (application states, running and startup configurations, system images). The operational
status of each CPU switch module is monitored by the CPU switch module redundancy controller of the
other CPU switch module through the backplane Ethernet. In the event of a failure or removal of an
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System Overview
Security Features
active CPU switch module, the standby CPU switch module immediately takes over and assumes the
active role. Once the problem on the faulty card has been resolved, it can be manually restored to the
active function.
In addition to providing protection against hardware or software failure, the redundant CPU switch
module arrangement also permits installing a new Cisco IOS system image without system downtime.
For more information about CPU switch module redundancy operation, as well as other software
features, refer to the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
Security Features
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports the following Cisco IOS software security features:
•
AAA (authentication, authorization, and accounting)
•
Kerberos
•
RADIUS
•
TACACS+
•
SSH (Secure Shell)
•
Traffic filters and firewalls
•
Passwords and privileges
For detailed information about the security features supported on the Cisco ONS 15530, refer to the
Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide.
System and Network Management
The Cisco ONS 15530 is fully manageable through any of the following four mechanisms: the in-band
message channel, the OSC, SONET SDCC, and a direct Ethernet connection to the NME (network
management Ethernet) on the CPU switch module. While all shelves will be equipped with at least one
CPU switch module, provisioning the OSC is optional. The in-band message channel is only available
on the 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards, 10-Gbps ITU tunable and non tunable trunk cards, and 10-Gbps uplink
cards. DCC is only available on the 8-port multi-service muxponder.
All four mechanisms can be deployed within a single network. Each mechanism is associated with an
interface that can be assigned an IP address. Management information will be routed between these
interfaces.
Different levels of availability exist for each of these management mechanisms. High availability for the
direct NME connection can be achieved with redundant CPU switch modules. The OSC becomes highly
available when it is provisioned on both the working and protection trunk fibers. The availability of a
particular in-band message channel or DCC will mirror the availability of the ITU wavelength with
which it is associated.
In-Band Message Channel
The in-band message channel establishes a method for providing in-band, per-wavelength OAM&P
(operations, administration, management, and provisioning) functions.
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System and Network Management
The in-band OAM&P messages carry the following types of information:
•
Internodal management traffic.
•
APS (Automatic Protection Switching) protocol messages.
•
Subport identifiers for signal aggregation.
•
Signal defect indications used by the system to identify line, segment, or path failures in the network
topology and to take appropriate recovery responses to such failures. These indications include the
following:
– BDI-E (end-to-end backward defect indication)
– FDI-E (end-to-end forward defect indication)
– BDI-H (hop-to-hop backward defect indication)
– FDI-H (hop-to-hop forward defect indication)
•
CRC (cyclic redundancy check) computations.
In-Band Message Channel Consideration
The following considerations apply for the in-band message channel:
•
The in-band message channel is carried along with the aggregated data signals and does not require
extra equipment or a slot in the shelf.
•
The in-band message channel is only supported on the 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards, 10-Gbps ITU
tunable and non tunable trunk cards, and 10-Gbps uplink cards. If a shelf only has transponder line
cards, the in-band message channel is not available.
•
The in-band message channel must be enabled on both nodes that support the wavelength.
DCC
DCC establishes a method for providing in-band, per-wavelength OAM&P (operations, administration,
management, and provisioning) functions on the 8-port multi-service muxponder.
The in-band OAM&P messages carry the following types of information:
•
Internodal management traffic.
•
APS (Automatic Protection Switching) protocol messages.
DCC Consideration
The following considerations apply for the DCC:
•
The DCC is carried along with aggregated data signals and does not require extra equipment or a
slot in the shelf.
•
The data rate is slower than the in-band message channel supported on the 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card,
the 10-Gbps ITU trunk card, and the 10-Gbps uplink card. This causes the 8-port multi-service
muxponder to initialize slower than those cards.
•
The DCC must be configured on both 8-port multi-service muxponders that support the wavelength.
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System and Network Management
OSC
The OSC is an out-of-band method for providing OAM&P functions on a 33rd wavelength. The OSC
supports a message channel that functions like the DCC for management and provisioning. Messages
transit the network hop-by-hop, and they can be forwarded or routed according to established routing
protocols. The OSC can be used to carry traffic to a network management system, or to carry other
internodal management traffic such as link management, fiber failure isolation, performance monitoring,
alarms, and APS protocol messages.
OSC Considerations
The following considerations apply for the OSC:
•
OSC requires a carrier motherboard, which occupies a slot in the shelf, and one or two OSC
modules.
•
When a node supports OSC, the neighboring nodes in the topology must also support OSC.
•
To manage the network topology, every node must support OSC.
NME
The NME is a 10/100 Ethernet port on the CPU switch module. You can connect this port to a router and
configure the interface to route messages using established routing protocols. The NME can be used to
carry traffic to a network management system.
Note
The NME provides little in the way of topology management or fault isolation. We recommend using the
in-band message channel, OSC, or both to manage and troubleshoot your network topology.
NME Considerations
The following considerations apply to the NME:
•
To remotely manage nodes in the network topology using the NME, each system must be accessible
through an IP network.
•
The NME port is present on every CPU switch module and does not require extra equipment or a
slot in the shelf.
Comparison of In-Band Message Channel, SONET, and OSC
Table 1-10 compares the features provided by the in-band message channel, SONET SDCC, and OSC.
Table 1-10
Comparison of the In-Band Message Channel, SONET, and OSC
Feature
OSC
In-Band Message
Channel
SONET 1
Management reach
Per fiber section
Per wavelength
Per wavelength
Fault isolation and
topology discovery
Hop-by-hop fiber
(physical topology)
End-to-end wavelength
(logical topology)
End-to-end wavelength
(logical topology)
Payload
Separate out-of-band
channel
10-GE, Fibre Channel,
FICON, GE, ESCON
SONET (OC-n)
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Table 1-10
Comparison of the In-Band Message Channel, SONET, and OSC (continued)
Feature
OSC
In-Band Message
Channel
SONET 1
Management channel
Per fibre via a 33rd
wavelength (channel 0)
Per wavelength via a
message byte
Per wavelength via
section DCC
Performance
monitoring
OSC protocol
8B/10B(GE), 64/66B
(10-GE), HEC2, frame
FCS
Section BIP3
1. SONET based management is not supported on the Cisco ONS 15530 and is included for comparison with the in-band
message channel only.
2. HEC = Header Error Control
3. BIP = bit interleaved parity
For the most comprehensive set of monitoring and management capabilities, use the in-band message
channel, SONET DCC, and OSC on your network. The in-band message channel and SONET DCC
provide fault isolation and monitoring at the wavelength level, and OSC provides that functionality for
the fiber.
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2
Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
This chapter describes how protection is implemented on the Cisco ONS 15530. It also describes the
supported network topologies and how protection works in these topologies. This chapter contains the
following major sections:
•
About Protection Against Fiber and System Failures, page 2-1
•
Splitter Based Facility Protection, page 2-2
•
Y-Cable Based Line Card Protection, page 2-8
•
Client Based Line Card Protection, page 2-9
•
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection, page 2-13
•
Trunk Fiber Based Protection, page 2-16
•
Supported Topologies, page 2-17
About Protection Against Fiber and System Failures
The design of the Cisco ONS 15530 provides the following levels of 1+1 protection:
•
Facility protection provides protection against failures because of fiber cuts or unacceptable signal
degradation on the trunk side.
•
Client based line card protection provides protection against failures on the fiber, the line cards,
(which contain the light emitting and light detecting devices), the 3R (reshape, retime, retransmit)
electronics, and the client equipment.
•
Y-cable based line card protection provides protection against failures both on the fiber, and in the
line cards (which contain the light emitting and light detecting devices), and the 3R electronics.
•
Switch fabric based line card protection provides protection against channel signal failures in switch
fabric cross connections, ITU and uplink cards, and the fiber.
•
Trunk fiber based protection provides protection against trunk fiber cuts.
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Splitter Based Facility Protection
Splitter Based Facility Protection
To survive a fiber failure, fiber optic networks are designed with both working and protection fibers. In
the event of a fiber cut or other facility failure, working traffic is switched to the protection fiber. The
Cisco ONS 15530 supports such facility protection using a splitter scheme (see Figure 2-1) to send the
output of the DWDM transmitter on two trunk side interfaces.
Transponder line cards, 8-port multi-service muxponders, 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards, 10-Gbps ITU
tunable and non tunable trunk cards, and 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards support splitter protection.
Transponder Line Cards
With splitter protection, a passive optical splitter module on the transponder line card duplicates the ITU
signal. The front panel of each splitter transponder line card has connectors for two fiber pairs for cabling
to the two OADM modules. One fiber pair serves as the active connection, while the other pair serves as
the standby. The signal is transmitted on both connections, but in the receive direction, an optical switch
selects one signal to be the active one. If a failure is detected on the active receive signal, a switchover
to the standby receiver signal occurs under control of the LRC (line card redundancy controller).
Assume, for example, that if the active signal in Figure 2-1 is on the east interface, a failure of the signal
on that fiber would result in a switchover, and the signal on the west interface would be selected for the
receive signal. You can configure preferred working and protection interfaces in the software for the
system to use for the active and standby signals, as the signal quality allows.
Figure 2-1
Splitter Protection with Transponder Line Cards
Performance
monitor
Client optics
ITU optics
OADM
modules
West
LRC
LRC
OSC
East
LRC
LRC
Electrical
backplane
connection
SRC
CPU
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
79305
Optical
fiber
connection
OSC
Transponder
line cards
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Splitter Based Facility Protection
A switchover is triggered in hardware by a loss of light on the receive signal. Switchovers for signal
degrade or signal failure are configurable in the software.
Splitter Protection Considerations When Using Transponder Line Cards
The following considerations apply when using splitter protection with transponder line cards:
•
Because the signal splitter module on splitter transponder line cards introduces 3.55 dB of loss in
the transmit direction, we recommend using nonsplitter transponder line cards for configurations
where splitter protection is not required.
•
The APS software that supports splitter protection can be configured as revertive or nonrevertive.
Unless a switchover request from the CLI (command-line interface) is in effect, the system uses the
working interface for the active signal. After a system-initiated switchover to the protection
interface occurs for signal quality reasons, the active traffic can be put back on the previously failed
working fiber after the fault has been remedied. The fault can be remedied either automatically
(revertive) or through manual intervention (nonrevertive).
•
Up to four channels can be splitter protected on a single shelf.
For rules on how to configure the shelf for splitter protection, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf
Configurations and Topologies.” For instructions on configuring the software for splitter protection,
refer to the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
With splitter protection, a passive optical splitter module on the 8-port multi-service muxponder
duplicates the ITU signal. The front panel of each splitter 8-port multi-service muxponder has
connectors for two fiber pairs for cabling to the two OADM modules. One fiber pair serves as the active
connection, while the other pair serves as the standby. The signal is transmitted on both connections, but
in the receive direction, an optical switch selects one signal to be the active one. If a failure is detected
on the active receive signal, a switchover to the standby receiver signal occurs under control of the LRC
(line card redundancy controller). Assume, for example, that if the active signal in Figure 2-1 is on the
east interface, a failure of the signal on that fiber would result in a switchover, and the signal on the west
interface would be selected for the receive signal. You can configure preferred working and protection
interfaces in the software for the system to use for the active and standby signals, as the signal quality
allows.
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Splitter Based Facility Protection
Figure 2-2
Splitter Protection with 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
OADM
modules
West
LRC
OSC
LRC
East
LRC
LRC
OSC
LRC
8-Port multi-service
muxponders
SRC
CPU
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
Electrical
backplane
connection
113953
Optical
fiber
connection
A switchover is triggered in hardware by a loss of light on the receive signal.
Splitter Protection Considerations When Using 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
The following considerations apply when using splitter protection with transponder line cards:
•
Because the signal splitter module on splitter 8-port multi-service muxponders introduces 3.55 dB
of loss in the transmit direction, we recommend using nonsplitter 8-port multi-service muxponders
for configurations where splitter protection is not required.
•
The APS software that supports splitter protection can be configured as revertive or nonrevertive.
Unless a switchover request from the CLI is in effect, the system uses the working interface for the
active signal. After a system-initiated switchover to the protection interface occurs for signal quality
reasons, the active traffic can be put back on the previously failed working fiber after the fault has
been remedied. The fault can be remedied either automatically (revertive) or through manual
intervention (nonrevertive).
•
Up to four channels can be splitter protected on a single shelf.
For rules on how to configure the shelf for splitter protection, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf
Configurations and Topologies.” For instructions on configuring the software for splitter protection,
refer to the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
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Splitter Based Facility Protection
2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Card
With splitter protection, a passive optical splitter module on the 2.5-Gbps ITU line card duplicates the
ITU signal. The front panel of each splitter 2.5-Gbps ITU line card has connectors for two fiber pairs for
cabling to the two OADM modules. One fiber pair serves as the active connection, while the other pair
serves as the standby. The signal is transmitted on both connections, but in the receive direction, an
optical switch selects one signal to be the active one. If a failure is detected on the active receive signal,
a switchover to the standby receiver signal occurs under control of the LRC (line card redundancy
controller). Assume, for example, that if the active signal in Figure 2-3 is on the east interface, a failure
of the signal on that fiber would result in a switchover, and the signal on the west interface would be
selected for the receive signal. You can configure preferred working and protection interfaces in the
software for the system to use for the active and standby signals, as the signal quality allows.
Figure 2-3
Splitter Protection with 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
10-port ESCON card
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
LRC
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards
LRC
2.5-Gbps
aggregated
signal
2.5-Gbps ITU
transceiver
Splitter module and
optical device
OADM
modules
West
Active signal
East
Active signal
Electrical backplane
connection
SRC
85844
Standby
switch fabric
Optical fiber
connection
A switchover is triggered in hardware by a loss of light on the receive signal. Switchovers for signal
degrade or signal failure are configurable in the software.
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Splitter Based Facility Protection
Splitter Protection Considerations When Using 2.5-Gbps ITU Line Cards
The following considerations apply when using splitter protection:
•
Because the signal splitter module on splitter 2.5-Gbps ITU line cards introduces 3.55 dB of loss in
the transmit direction, we recommend using nonsplitter line cards for configurations where splitter
protection is not required.
•
The APS software that supports splitter protection can be configured as revertive or nonrevertive.
Unless a switchover request from the CLI (command-line interface) is in effect, the system uses the
working interface for the active signal. After a system-initiated switchover to the protection
interface occurs for signal quality reasons, the active traffic can be put back on the previously failed
working fiber after the fault has been remedied. The fault can be remedied either automatically
(revertive) or through manual intervention (nonrevertive).
•
The OSC and the in-band message channel play a crucial role in splitter based protection by
allowing the protection fiber to be monitored for interruption of service.
•
Up to four channels can be splitter protected on a single shelf if the OSC is not supported; if the OSC
is supported, up to three channels can be splitter protected on a single shelf.
For example of how to configure the shelf for splitter protection, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf
Configurations and Topologies.” For instructions on configuring the software for splitter protection,
refer to the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk Card
With splitter protection, a passive optical splitter module on the 10-Gbps ITU line card duplicates the
ITU signal. The front panel of each splitter 10-Gbps ITU line card has connectors for two fiber pairs for
cabling to the two OADM modules. One fiber pair serves as the active connection, while the other pair
serves as the standby. The signal is transmitted on both connections, but in the receive direction, an
optical switch selects one signal to be the active one. If a failure is detected on the active receive signal,
a switchover to the standby receiver signal occurs under control of the LRC (line card redundancy
controller). Assume, for example, that if the active signal in Figure 2-4 is on the east interface, a failure
of the signal on that fiber would result in a switchover, and the signal on the west interface would be
selected for the receive signal. You can configure preferred working and protection interfaces in the
software for the system to use for the active and standby signals, as the signal quality allows.
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Splitter Based Facility Protection
Figure 2-4
Splitter Protection with 10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk Cards
2.5 Gbps
aggregated
signal
10-port ESCON card
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
LRC
10 -Gbps ITU trunk card
Splitter module and
optical switch
OADM
modules
LRC
10-GE ITU
transceiver
West
East
Active signal
Standby
signal
Standby
switch fabric
connection
SRC
79308
Optical fiber
connection
Electrical backplane
connection
A switchover is triggered in hardware by a loss of light on the receive signal. Switchovers for signal
degrade or signal failure are configurable in the software.
Splitter Protection Considerations When Using 10-Gbps ITU Line Cards
The following considerations apply when using splitter protection:
•
Because the signal splitter module on splitter 10-Gbps ITU line cards introduces 3.55 dB of loss in
the transmit direction, we recommend using nonsplitter line cards for configurations where splitter
protection is not required.
•
The APS software that supports splitter protection can be configured as revertive or nonrevertive.
Unless a switchover request from the CLI (command-line interface) is in effect, the system uses the
working interface for the active signal. After a system-initiated switchover to the protection
interface occurs for signal quality reasons, the active traffic can be put back on the previously failed
working fiber after the fault has been remedied. The fault can be remedied either automatically
(revertive) or through manual intervention (nonrevertive).
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Y-Cable Based Line Card Protection
•
The OSC and the in-band message channel play a crucial role in splitter based protection by
allowing the protection fiber to be monitored for interruption of service.
•
Up to four channels can be splitter protected on a single shelf if the OSC is not supported; if the OSC
is supported, up to three channels can be splitter protected on a single shelf.
For example of how to configure the shelf for splitter protection, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf
Configurations and Topologies.” For instructions on configuring the software for splitter protection,
refer to the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
Y-Cable Based Line Card Protection
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports line card protection for transponder line cards, 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps
FC aggregation cards, and 8-port Fibre Channel/Gigabit Ethernet aggregation cards, using a Y-cable
scheme. Y-cable protection protects against both facility failures and failure of the line cards. Using an
external 2:1 combiner cable (the Y-cable) between the client equipment and the line card interfaces, the
client signal is duplicated and sent to two line card interfaces. This arrangement is illustrated in
Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5
Example Y-Cable Protection Scheme Using Transponder Line Cards
OADM
modules
-
-
-
Performance
monitor
Client optics
ITU optics
West
LRC
LRC
OSC
East
LRC
LRC
Electrical
backplane
connection
SRC
CPU
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
79307
Optical
fiber
connection
OSC
Transponder
line cards
In Y-cable protected configurations, one of the line cards functions as the active and the other as the
standby. On the active line card, all the lasers and receivers are sending and receiving the client signal.
On the standby line card, however, the client side laser is turned off to avoid corrupting the signal
transmitted back to the client equipment. The performance monitor on the active line card optically
monitors the signal received from the trunk side. If loss of light, signal failure, or signal degrade is
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Client Based Line Card Protection
detected, and an acceptable standby signal is available, the system switches over to the standby signal.
The precise conditions that trigger a switchover based on signal failure or signal degrade are
configurable in the alarm threshold software.
Note
Y-cable protection is not supported for ESCON aggregation cards and for 8-port multi-service
muxponders.
Y-Cable Protection Considerations
The following considerations apply when using Y-cable protection:
•
Y-cable protection does not protect against failures of the client equipment. To protect against client
failures, protection should be implemented on the client equipment itself.
•
Due to their lower optical power loss, we recommend using nonsplitter line cards for configurations
with Y-cable protection.
•
Because of APS messaging conflicts, you cannot mix Y-cable protection and switch fabric based
protection on a 10-Gbps ITU tunable and non tunable trunk card or 10-Gbps uplink card.
•
The APS software that supports y-cable protection can be configured as revertive or nonrevertive.
After a switchover, the active traffic can be put back on the previously failed working fiber, once the
fault has been remedied, either automatically (revertive) or through manual intervention
(nonrevertive).
•
Y-cable protected configurations allow monitoring of the protection fiber without the OSC.
•
Up to four channels can be Y-cable protected on a single shelf when the OSC is not supported; if
the OSC is supported, up to three channels can be y-cable protected on a single shelf.
For rules on how to configure the shelf for Y-cable protection, see Chapter 3, “Shelf Configuration
Rules.” For instructions on configuring the software for y-cable protection, refer to the
Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
Client Based Line Card Protection
While y-cable protection protects against failures in the transponder line cards and the 8-port Fibre
Channel/Gigabit Ethernet aggregation cards or on the fiber, the client still remains vulnerable. For some
applications additional protection of the client equipment may be desirable for transponder line card,
ESCON aggregation card, and 8-port FC/GE aggregation card applications. The client equipment
transmits and receives two separate signals that it monitors. Switchovers are under control of the client
rather than the protection mechanisms on the Cisco ONS 15530.
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Client Based Line Card Protection
Transponder Line Cards
Figure 2-6 shows the architecture that supports client protection using transponder line cards.
Figure 2-6
Client Based Line Card Protection Scheme for Transponder Line Cards
OADM
modules
-
-
-
Performance
monitor
Client optics
ITU optics
Client
device
West
LRC
LRC
OSC
East
LRC
LRC
Electrical
backplane
connection
SRC
CPU
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
79306
Optical
fiber
connection
OSC
Transponder
line cards
Considerations for Client Protection with Transponder Line Cards
The following considerations apply when using client protection:
•
Due to their lower optical loss, we recommend using nonsplitter line cards for configurations with
client protection.
•
Client protected configurations allow monitoring of the protection fiber without the OSC.
•
Using transponder line cards, up to four channels can be client protected on a single shelf when the
OSC is not supported; if the OSC is supported, up to three channels can be client protected on a
single shelf.
ESCON Aggregation Cards
Figure 2-7 shows an example configuration that supports client protection using ESCON aggregation
cards and 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
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Client Based Line Card Protection
Figure 2-7
Client Based Line Card Protection Scheme for ESCON Aggregation Cards and 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
10-port ESCON cards
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
LRC
10-Gbps ITU trunk card
LRC
OADM
modules
ESCON
switch
West
10-Gbps ITU
transceiver
10-port ESCON cards
East
LRC
LRC
10-Gbps ITU trunk card
Active signal
SRC
Standby
switch fabric
connection
Optical fiber
connection
79310
Electrical backplane
connection
Considerations for Client Protection With 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards or 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
The following considerations apply when using client protection:
•
Due to their lower optical loss, we recommend using nonsplitter line cards for configurations with
client protection.
•
Client protected configurations allow monitoring of the protection fiber without the OSC.
•
Up to two channels can be client protected on a single shelf if the OSC is not supported; if the OSC
is supported, one channel can be client protected on a single shelf.
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
Figure 2-8 shows an example configuration that supports client protection using 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps
FC aggregation cards and 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Client Based Line Card Protection
Figure 2-8
Client Based Line Card Protection Scheme for 4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards and 2.5-Gbps ITU
Trunk Cards
4-port FC card
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
LRC
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
LRC
OADM
modules
Client
switch
West
4-port FC card
East
LRC
LRC
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
Active signal
Optical fiber
connection
Electrical backplane
connection
120757
SRC
Standby
switch fabric
connection
Considerations for Client Protection With 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards or 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
The following considerations apply when using client protection:
•
Due to their lower optical loss, we recommend using nonsplitter line cards for configurations with
client protection.
•
Client protected configurations allow monitoring of the protection fiber without the OSC.
•
Up to two channels can be client protected on a single shelf if the OSC is not supported; if the OSC
is supported, one channel can be client protected on a single shelf.
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards
Figure 2-9 shows an example configuration that supports client protection using 8-port Fibre
Channel/Gigabit Ethernet aggregation cards and 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection
Figure 2-9
Client Based Line Card Protection Scheme for 8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards and 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
8-port FC/GE card
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
LRC
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
LRC
OADM
modules
Client
switch
West
8-port FC/GE card
East
LRC
LRC
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
Active signal
SRC
Standby
switch fabric
connection
85855
Optical fiber
connection
Electrical backplane
connection
Considerations for Client Protection With 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards or 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
The following considerations apply when using client protection:
•
Due to their lower optical loss, we recommend using nonsplitter line cards for configurations with
client protection.
•
Client protected configurations allow monitoring of the protection fiber without the OSC.
•
Up to two channels can be client protected on a single shelf if the OSC is not supported; if the OSC
is supported, one channel can be client protected on a single shelf.
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection
The Cisco ONS 15530 provides facility and trunk or uplink card protection based on the switch fabric
connecting one aggregation card to two 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards, two 10-Gbps ITU tunable or non
tunable trunk cards, or two 10-Gbps uplink cards.
With switch fabric protection, when a signal failure occurs on the trunk fiber or on a trunk card or uplink
card, the system switches over to the standby signal. In the case of redundant switch fabrics, a failure in
the switch fabric itself causes a switchover to the standby switch fabric. The ESCON aggregation card,
4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card, or 8-port FC/GE aggregation card sends two 2.5-Gbps
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Chapter 2
Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection
signals through the active switch fabric to two 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards or two 10-Gbps ITU tunable
or non tunable trunk cards, one in the east direction and one in the west, or two 10-Gbps uplink cards.
The aggregation card only receives the 2.5-Gbps signal from the active switch fabric.
Figure 2-10 shows switch fabric based protection with a single switch fabrics.
Figure 2-10
Switch Fabric Based Protection Example With a Single Switch Fabric
2.5 -Gbps
aggregated
signal
10-port ESCON card
10-Gbps ITU trunk card
LRC
LRC
Optical
cross connect
OADM
card
West
10 -GE ITU
transceiver
East
CPU switch
modules
Active signal
LRC
Standby
signal
OADM
card
SRC
79303
Standby
switch fabric
connection
Electrical backplane
connection
10-Gbps ITU trunk card
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection
Figure 2-11 shows switch fabric based protection with redundant switch fabrics.
Figure 2-11
Switch Fabric Based Protection Example With Redundant Switch Fabrics
2.5-Gbps
aggregated
signal
10-port ESCON card
10-Gbps ITU trunk card
LRC
OADM
modules
LRC
Optical
cross connect
West
10-GE ITU
transceiver
Active signal
CPU
switch
module
Standby
signal
LRC
10-Gbps ITU trunk card
SRC
79304
Electrical backplane
connection
East
Switch Fabric Based Protection Considerations
The following considerations apply when using switch fabric based protection:
•
Switch fabric based protection does not protect against failures of the aggregation cards or the client
equipment. To protect against these failures, line card protection should be implemented on the
client equipment itself (see the “Client Based Line Card Protection” section on page 2-9).
•
Due to their lower optical power loss, we recommend using the nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards
and 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards for configurations with switch fabric protection.
•
Because of APS messaging conflicts, you cannot mix switch fabric based protected signals with
y-cable protected signals on a 10-Gbps ITU trunk card.
•
The APS software that supports switch fabric protection can be configured as revertive or
nonrevertive. After a switchover, the active traffic can be put back on the previously failed working
fiber, once the fault has been remedied, either automatically (revertive) or through manual
intervention (nonrevertive).
•
Switch fabric protected configurations allow monitoring of the protection fiber without the OSC.
•
Up to two channels on a single shelf can be protected with switch fabric protection.
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Chapter 2
Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Trunk Fiber Based Protection
Trunk Fiber Based Protection
The PSM (protection switch module) provides trunk fiber based protection on Cisco ONS 15530
systems configured in point-to-point topologies. This type of protection only provides protection against
trunk fiber cuts, not specific channel failure as provided by splitter and line card based schemes.
However, this protection scheme allows for much simpler shelf configurations in topologies where per
channel protection is not required.
Figure 2-12 shows trunk fiber based protection configured with a transponder line card and an OADM
module.
Figure 2-12
Trunk Fiber Based Protection With a Transponder Line Card
Performance
monitor
Client optics
ITU optics
OADM
module
Client
device
LRC OSC
LRC
2.5-Gbps transponder
line card
PSM
West
East
Active Signal
Standby Signal
Electrical
backplane
connection
SRC
CPU
Redundant
CPU switch
modules
85834
Optical fiber
connection
Trunk Fiber Based Protection Considerations
The following considerations apply when using trunk fiber based protection:
•
Trunk fiber based protection does not protect against failures on the shelf itself or the client
equipment. To protect against these failures, line card protection should be implemented on the
client equipment itself.
•
Due to the cumulative effect of the noise from the EDFAs (erbium-doped fiber amplifiers), the PSM
cannot support point-to-point topologies with more than two EDFAs on the trunk fiber. For
topologies with three or more EDFAs on the trunk fiber, use splitter based protection.
•
When EDFAs are present in the topology, the power of the data channels at the PSM receiver must
be greater than the cumulative noise of the EDFAs.
•
The APS software that supports trunk fiber based protection can be configured as revertive or
nonrevertive. After a switchover, the active traffic can be put back on the previously failed working
fiber, once the fault has been remedied, either automatically (revertive) or through manual
intervention (nonrevertive).
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
•
Use PSMs only in point-to-point topologies.
•
On a multiple shelf node, install the PSM on the shelf connected to the trunk fiber.
•
Up to four channels on a single shelf can be protected with trunk fiber based protection.
Supported Topologies
The Cisco ONS 15530 can be used in point-to-point and ring topologies. Point-to-point topologies can
be either protected and unprotected point-to-point. Ring topologies support add/drop nodes and can be
hubbed or meshed. The following sections give a brief overview of these topologies.
Point-to-Point Topologies
In a pure point-to-point topology all channels terminate on the Cisco ONS 15530 nodes at each end of
the trunk. Point-to-point topologies have many common applications, including extending the reach of
GE or SONET, and can be configured for unprotected or for protected operation.
Unprotected Point-to-Point Topology
Figure 2-13 shows a point-to-point topology without protection. In this configuration only one optical
OADM slot is used in each of the Cisco ONS 15530 nodes. The west or east trunk side interface (OADM
module in subslot 0/0 or 0/1) of node 1 connects to the corresponding OADM module on node 2.
Figure 2-13
Unprotected Point-to-Point Topology
Node 1
Trunk
Node 2
Client
equipment
Client
equipment
OADM
85462
OADM
For an example configuration of an unprotected point-to-point topology, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf
Configurations and Topologies.”
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
Protected Point-to-Point Topology
Figure 2-14 shows a protected point-to-point topology configured for splitter or line card per channel
protection. In either case, there are two trunk side interfaces, west and east, connected by two fiber pairs.
Figure 2-14
Splitter or Line Card Protected Point-to-Point Topology
Trunk
Node 1
Client
equipment
Working
Node 2
Client
equipment
Protection
OADM West
West OADM
OADM East
55345
East OADM
Figure 2-15 shows a protected point-to-point topology configured for trunk fiber protection. There are
two trunk side interfaces, west and east, connected by two fiber pairs.
Figure 2-15
Trunk Fiber Protected Point-to-Point Topology
Trunk
Node 1
Client
equipment
OADM
module
Working
Node 2
Client
equipment
Protection
PSM
PSM
OADM
module
East
85839
West
For an example configuration of a protected point-to-point topology, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf
Configurations and Topologies.”
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
Ring Topologies
In a ring topology, client equipment is attached to three or more Cisco ONS 15530 systems, which are
interconnected in a closed loop. Channels can be dropped and added at one or more nodes on a ring.
Rings have many common applications, including providing extended access to SANs (storage area
networks) and upgrading existing SONET rings. In the cases where SONET rings are at capacity, the
SONET equipment can be moved off the ring and connected to the Cisco ONS 15530 systems. Then the
SONET client signals are multiplexed and transported over the DWDM link, thus increasing the capacity
of existing fiber.
Hubbed Ring
A hubbed ring is composed of a hub node and two or more add/drop or satellite nodes. All channels on
the ring originate and terminate on the hub node, which is either a Cisco ONS 15540 ESP shelf, a
Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx shelf, or Cisco ONS 15530 shelves configured in a multiple shelf node. At
add/drop nodes certain channels are terminated (dropped and added back) while the channels that are not
being dropped (express channels) are passed through optically, without being electrically regenerated.
Channels are dropped and added in bands. Figure 2-16 shows a four-node hubbed ring in which
bands ABC terminate on node 1. Nodes 1 and 2 communicate using band A, nodes 1 and 3
communicate using band B, and nodes 1 and 4 communicate using band C.
Figure 2-16
Hubbed Ring Topology Example
Bands ABC
Node 1 (hub)
Node 4
Node 2
Band C
Band A
Band B
55346
Node 3
For example configurations of hubbed ring topologies, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf Configurations
and Topologies.”
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
Meshed Ring
A meshed ring is a physical ring that has the logical characteristics of a mesh. While traffic travels on a
physical ring, the logical connections between individual nodes are meshed. An example of this type of
configuration, which is sometimes called a logical mesh, is shown in Figure 2-17. Nodes 1 and 2
communicate using band A and nodes 1 and 3 communicate using band B.
Figure 2-17
Meshed Ring Topology Example
Cisco ONS 15540
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Cisco ONS 15530
Cisco ONS 15530
Standby path
79292
Active path
For example configurations of meshed ring topologies, see Chapter 6, “Example Shelf Configurations
and Topologies.”
Path Switching in Point-to-Point and Ring Topologies
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports per-channel unidirectional and bidirectional 1+1 path switching. When
a signal is protected and the signal fails, or in some cases degrades, on the active path, the system
automatically switches from the active network path to the standby network path.
Signal failures can be total loss of light caused by laser failures, by fiber cuts between the
Cisco ONS 15530 and the client equipment, or by other equipment failure. Loss of light failures cause
switchovers for both splitter protected and y-cable protected signals. Switchovers based on an alarm
threshold can also automatically occur when the signal error rate reaches an unacceptable level.
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
The Cisco ONS 15530 implements path switching using a SONET-compliant APS channel protocol over
the OSC (optical supervisory channel) or the in-band management channel on the protection path.
Note
Bidirectional path switching operates only on Cisco ONS 15530 networks that have the OSC or the
in-band management channel.
Figure 2-18 shows a protected hubbed ring configuration. The configured working path carries the active
signal, and the configured protection path carries the standby signal.
Figure 2-18
Active and Standby Path Configuration Example
Cisco ONS 15540
Node 1
Switchover
Node 2
Node 3
Cisco ONS 15530
Cisco ONS 15530
Standby path
79293
Active path
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
Figure 2-19 shows the behavior of unidirectional path switching when a loss of signal occurs. For the
example network, unidirectional path switching operates as follows:
•
Node 2 sends the channel signal over both the active and standby paths.
•
Node 1 receives both signals and selects the signal on the active path.
•
Node 1 detects a loss of signal light on its active path and switches over to the standby path.
•
Node 2 does not switch over and continues to use its original active path.
Now the nodes are communicating along different paths.
Figure 2-19
Unidirectional Path Switching Example
Cisco ONS 15540
Node 1
Switchover
Switchover
Node 2
Node 3
Cisco ONS 15530
Cisco ONS 15530
Standby path
79294
Active path
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
Figure 2-20 shows the behavior of bidirectional path switching when a loss of signal occurs. For the
example network, bidirectional path switching operates as follows:
•
Node 2 sends the channel signal over both the active and standby paths.
•
Node 1 receives both signals and selects the signal on the active path.
•
Node 1 detects a loss of signal light on its active path and switches over to the standby path.
•
Node 1 sends an APS switchover message to node 2 on the protection path.
•
Node 2 switches from the active path to the standby path.
Both node 1 and node 2 communicate on the same path.
Figure 2-20
Bidirectional Path Switching Overview
Cisco ONS 15540
Node 1
Switchover
Switchover
Node 2
Node 3
Cisco ONS 15530
Cisco ONS 15530
Standby path
79294
Active path
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Protection Schemes and Network Topologies
Supported Topologies
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3
Shelf Configuration Rules
The design of the Cisco ONS 15530 requires that a set of rules be followed during physical configuration
of the shelf. These rules, along with examples, are provided in this chapter. This chapter contains the
following major sections:
Note
•
Shelf Rules for OADM Modules, page 3-1
•
Shelf Rules for PSMs, page 3-2
•
Shelf Rules for 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards, page 3-2
•
Shelf Rules for Transponder Line Cards, page 3-2
•
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards, page 3-3
•
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable Trunk Cards, page 3-3
•
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps Uplink Cards, page 3-3
•
Shelf Rules for OSC Modules, page 3-3
•
General Rules for Ring Topologies, page 3-3
Applying the shelf configuration rules requires an understanding of the Cisco ONS 15530 system
components and protection schemes.
Shelf Rules for OADM Modules
This section describes the shelf rules for OADM (optical add/drop multiplexer) modules for different
types of protection.
Cabling OADM Modules
The following rules apply when cabling the trunk, thru, and OSC ports on the OADM modules:
•
Use fiber optical cables with MU connectors to cable an OADM module to other OADM modules,
to OSC modules, to transponder line cards, 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards, and to 10-Gbps ITU trunk
cards.
•
Connect the OSC IN on the OADM module to tx on the OSC module and connect the OSC OUT on
the OADM module to rx on the same OSC module. Perform the same process with the redundant
OADM module and OSC module.
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Shelf Configuration Rules
Shelf Rules for PSMs
•
Connect west to east, never west to west or east to east, between nodes in a ring.
•
Connect Thru OUT to Thru IN between the OADM modules for ring configurations.
For examples of OADM module cabling in a protected ring configuration, see Figure 1-17 on page 1-30.
Rules for Protected Configurations
The rules for OADM modules in protected configurations are as follows:
•
You must use two OADM modules that support the same channel band.
•
If the OSC is used for APS channel protocol messages, the OADM modules must both support the
OSC.
In trunk fiber protected configurations, only one OADM module can be used in single shelf
configurations because the PSM (protection switch module) occupies one of the subslots in slot 0.
Shelf Rules for PSMs
For trunk fiber protection to function when the PSM (protection switch module) is connected to an
OADM module, the OSC or the in-band message channel (or both) must be available on the shelf. If the
OSC is present, the PSM must connect to an OADM module that supports the OSC if it is a multiple
shelf node. If the PSM connects to an ITU trunk card, use the in-band message channel as the APS
message channel to support trunk fiber protection. If the PSM connects to a transponder line card, use
IP for the APS message channel.
Shelf Rules for 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
The rules for 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards are as follows:
•
The 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards must support channels in the same 4-channel band supported by the
OADM module.
•
Two OADM modules are required when configuring splitter protection.
Shelf Rules for Transponder Line Cards
The rules for transponder line cards are as follows:
•
When using y-cable protection, ensure that both transponder line cards are the same type
(single-mode or multimode) for a given client signal. For example, if client signal A connects by a
y-cable to transponders in slot 2 and slot 3, then both of those transponder line cards must either be
single-mode or multimode.
•
The transponder line cards must support channels in the same 4-channel band supported by the
OADM module.
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Shelf Configuration Rules
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
The rules for 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards are as follows:
•
The 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards must support channels in the same channel band supported by the
OADM module.
•
Two OADM modules are required when configuring splitter protection.
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable Trunk Cards
The rules for 10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk cards are as follows:
•
The 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards must support channels in the same channel band supported by the
OADM module.
•
Two OADM modules are required when configuring splitter protection.
Shelf Rules for 10-Gbps Uplink Cards
The rules for 10-Gbps uplink cards are as follows:
•
The 10-Gbps uplink cards must connect to 10-Gbps uplink cards on another Cisco ONS 15530, or
to a 10-GE client module on a Cisco ONS 15540 ESP or Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx.
•
If the Cisco ONS 15530 shelf has 10-Gbps uplink cards and no 2.5-Gbps transponder line cards,
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards, or 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards, no OADM modules or OSC modules are
required.
Shelf Rules for OSC Modules
The rules for OSC modules are as follows:
•
For unprotected and trunk fiber protected configurations, use one OSC module and one OADM
module with OSC support.
•
For splitter and line card protected configurations, use two OSC modules and two OADM modules
with OSC support.
General Rules for Ring Topologies
The following network rules apply to ring topologies:
•
A channel must be present on only two nodes in the ring when using splitter protection.
•
All channels added by a node on an east OADM module must be dropped on a west OADM module
of one or more other nodes on the ring. All channels added by a node on a west OADM module must
be dropped by an east OADM module of one or more other nodes on the ring. This rule may be
violated during migration.
•
A node cannot add a channel that is already present in the same direction until it has dropped that
channel.
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Shelf Configuration Rules
General Rules for Ring Topologies
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4
Optical Loss Budgets
The optical loss budget is an important aspect in designing networks with the Cisco ONS 15530. The
optical loss budget is the ultimate limiting factor in distances between nodes in a topology. This chapter
contains the following major sections:
•
About dB and dBm, page 4-1
•
Overall Optical Loss Budget, page 4-2
•
Optical Loss for Transponder Line Cards, page 4-4
•
Optical Loss for 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards, page 4-5
•
Optical Loss for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk Cards, page 4-6
•
Optical Loss for OADM Modules, page 4-6
•
Optical Loss for PSMs, page 4-7
•
Client Signal Latency on Aggregation Card, page 4-7
•
Fiber Plant Testing, page 4-10
Note
The optical specifications described in this chapter are only for the individual components and should
not be used to characterize the entire network performance.
Note
The information in this chapter applies only to nonamplified network design.
About dB and dBm
Signal power loss or gain is never a fixed amount of power, but a portion of power, such as one-half or
one-quarter. To calculate lost power along a signal path using fractional values, you cannot add 1/2 and
1/4 to arrive at a total loss. Instead, you must multiply 1/2 by 1/4. This makes calculations for large
networks time-consuming and difficult.
For this reason, the amount of signal loss or gain within a system, or the amount of loss or gain caused
by some component in a system, is expressed using the decibel (dB). Decibels are logarithmic and can
easily be used to calculate total loss or gain just by doing addition. Decibels also scale logarithmically.
For example, a signal gain of 3 dB means that the signal doubles in power; a signal loss of 3 dB means
that the signal halves in power.
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Optical Loss Budgets
Overall Optical Loss Budget
Keep in mind that the decibel expresses a ratio of signal powers. This requires a reference point when
expressing loss or gain in dB. For example, the statement “there is a 5 dB drop in power over the
connection” is meaningful, but the statement “the signal is 5 dB at the connection” is not meaningful.
When you use dB you are not expressing a measure of signal strength, but a measure of signal power
loss or gain.
It is important not to confuse decibel and decibel milliwatt (dBm). The latter is a measure of signal power
in relation to 1 mW. Thus a signal power of 0 dBm is 1 mW, a signal power of 3 dBm is 2 mW, 6 dBm
is 4 mW, and so on. Conversely, –3 dBm is 0.5 mW, –6 dBm is 0.25 mW, and so on. Thus the more
negative the dBm value, the closer the power level approaches zero.
Overall Optical Loss Budget
An optical signal degrades as it propagates through a network. Components such as OADM modules,
fiber, fiber connectors, splitters, and switches introduce attenuation. Ultimately, the maximum allowable
distance between the transmitting laser and the receiver is based upon the optical loss budget that
remains after subtracting the power losses experienced by the channels as they traverse the components
at each node.
Table 4-1 lists the laser transmitter power and receiver sensitivity range for the transponder line cards,
ITU trunk card, the OSC (Optical Supervisory Channel) module, and the PSM (protection switch
module).
Table 4-1
Trunk Side Transmitter Power and Receiver Ranges
Transmitter Power (dBm)
Receiver Sensitivity (dBm)
Card or Module Type
Minimum
Maximum
Minimum
Overload
Transponder line card
5
10
–28
–8
8-port multi-service muxponder 5
10
–28
–8
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
5
10
–28
–8
10-Gbps ITU trunk card
1
6
–22
–8
OSC module
5
10
–19
–1.5
–31
171
PSM
1. The receiver detector only reports up to 0 dBm in the CLI (command-line interface). To measure the actual input
power to the receiver, use an optical power meter on the optical monitoring port.
Note
Add the proper system-level penalty to the receive power based on your actual network topology
characteristics, such as dispersion.
The goal in calculating optical loss is to ensure that the total loss does not exceed the overall optical (or
span) budget. The optical budget is determined by subtracting the minimum receiver sensitivity from the
minimum laser launch power on the cards. The OSC has an optical budget of 24 dB, which is equal to
the minimum OSC receiver sensitivity (–19 dBm) subtracted from the minimum OSC laser launch power
(5 dBm) on the OSC module.
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Overall Optical Loss Budget
Calculating Optical Loss Budgets
Using the optical loss characteristics for the Cisco ONS 15530 components, you can calculate the optical
loss between the transmitting laser on one node and the receiver on another node. The general rules for
calculating the optical loss budget are as follows:
•
The maximum power loss between the nodes cannot exceed the minimum transmit power of the laser
minus the minimum sensitivity of the receiver and network-level penalty.
Note
•
Determine the proper network-level penalty to the receive power based on your actual
network topology characteristics, such as dispersion.
The minimum attenuation between the nodes must be greater than the maximum transmitter power
of the laser minus the receiver overload value.
The following example shows how to calculate the optical loss budget for 2.5-Gbps data channels using
the values in Table 4-1:
•
The power loss between the transmit laser and receiver must not exceed 33 (5 – (–28)) dB or the
signal will not be detected accurately.
•
At least 18 (10 – (–8)) dB of attenuation between neighboring nodes prevents receiver saturation.
To validate a network design, the optical loss must be calculated for each band of channels. This
calculation must be done for both directions if protection is implemented, and for the OSC between each
pair of nodes. The optical loss is calculated by summing the losses introduced by each component in the
signal path.
At a minimum, any data channel path calculation must include line card transmit loss, channel add loss,
fiber loss, channel drop loss, and line card receive loss (see Figure 4-1). In ring topologies, pass-through
losses must be considered. Losses due to external devices such as fixed attenuators and monitoring taps
also need to be included.
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Optical Loss for Transponder Line Cards
Figure 4-1
Elements of Optical Loss in a Minimal Configuration
OADM module
add loss
Fiber loss
Pass through loss
(if needed)
PSM loss
(if needed)
OADM module
drop loss
Tap monitor or
attenuator loss
(if needed)
Line card
receive loss
Total loss
77671
Line card
transmit loss
For examples of optical loss budget calculations, see the shelf configurations described in Chapter 6,
“Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies.”
Optical Loss for Transponder Line Cards
In both the receive and transmit directions, splitter transponder line cards attenuate the ITU signal
significantly more than the nonsplitter transponder line cards.
Table 4-2 shows the optical loss for the splitter and nonsplitter transponder line cards supported by the
Cisco ONS 15530 in the transmit and receive directions.
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Optical Loss for 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
Table 4-2
Optical Loss for Transponder Line Cards
Protection Type and Direction
Loss (dB)
Splitter Tx
4.05
Splitter Rx
1.35
Nonsplitter Tx
0.5
Nonsplitter Rx
0.5
Optical Loss for 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
In both the receive and transmit directions, splitter 8-port multi-service muxponders attenuate the ITU
signal significantly more than the nonsplitter transponder line cards.
Table 4-3 shows the optical loss for the splitter and nonsplitter 8-port multi-service muxponders
supported by the Cisco ONS 15530 in the transmit and receive directions.
Table 4-3
Optical Loss for 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
Protection Type and Direction
Loss (dB)
Splitter Tx
4.05
Splitter Rx
1.35
Nonsplitter Tx
0.5
Nonsplitter Rx
0.5
Optical Loss for 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
In both the transmit and receive directions, splitter 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards attenuate the ITU signal
significantly more than the nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Table 4-4 shows the optical loss for the splitter and nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards supported by
the Cisco ONS 15530 in the transmit and receive directions.
Table 4-4
Optical Loss for 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
Protection Type and Direction
Loss (dB)
Splitter Tx
4.05
Splitter Rx
1.35
Nonsplitter Tx
0.5
Nonsplitter Rx
0.5
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Optical Loss for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk Cards
Optical Loss for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk
Cards
In both the receive and transmit directions, splitter 10-Gbps ITU tunable and non tunable trunk cards
attenuate the ITU signal significantly more than the nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU tunable and non tunable
trunk cards.
Table 4-5 shows the optical loss for the splitter and nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU tunable and non tunable
trunk cards supported by the Cisco ONS 15530 in the transmit and receive directions.
Table 4-5
Optical Loss for 10-Gbps ITU Tunable and Non tunable Trunk Cards
Protection Type and Direction
Loss (dB)
Splitter Tx
4.05
Splitter Rx
1.35
Nonsplitter Tx
0.5
Nonsplitter Rx
0.5
Optical Loss for OADM Modules
OADM (optical add/drop multiplexer) modules attenuate the signals as they are multiplexed,
demultiplexed, and passed through. The amount of attenuation depends upon the path the optical signal
takes through the modules.
Loss for Data Channels
Table 4-6 shows the optical loss for the data channels between the 4-channel OADM modules and the
line cards, and between the pass-through add and drop connectors on the OADM modules.
Table 4-6
Optical Loss for Data Channels Through the OADM Modules
Type of OADM
Module
Trunk IN to Line Card
(Data Drop) in dB1
Line Card to
Trunk OUT (Data Add)
in dB
Trunk IN to Thru OUT
(Pass Through) in dB
Thru IN to
Trunk OUT (Pass
Through) in dB
4-channel with
OSC
4.1
4.1
1.5
1.5
4-channel without
OSC
4.1
4.1
1
1
1. The insertion loss is the worst case value so care should be taken when calculating minimum loss budget.
Note
The insertion losses listed in Table 4-6 are worst case values. Take this into consideration when
calculating the minimum loss budget.
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Optical Loss for PSMs
Loss for the OSC
Table 4-7 shows the optical loss for the OSC between the OSC module and the OADM modules.
Table 4-7
Optical Loss for the OSC Through the OADM Modules
Type of OADM Module
Trunk IN to OSC Transceiver
(dB)
OSC Transceiver to Trunk OUT
(dB)
4-channel OADM with OSC
2.8
2.8
Optical Loss for PSMs
The PSM attenuates the trunk signal as it passes between the trunk fiber and the OADM module, ITU
trunk card, or transponder line card. Table 4-8 shows the optical loss for the channels passing through a
PSM.
Table 4-8
Optical Loss for Channels Passing Through PSMs
Direction
Minimum Loss (dB)
Maximum Loss (dB)
Transmit
2.7
3.7
Receive
1.7
Client Signal Latency on Aggregation Card
The process of aggregating client signals on the ESCON aggregation card and the 8-port FC/GE
aggregation card adds latency between the client equipment in the network.
ESCON Aggregation Cards
The ESCON aggregation card adds latency to ESCON traffic. The amount of latency depends on how
traffic is configured on the node. Table 4-9 shows the ESCON latency values for different configurations
of the ESCON aggregation card.
Table 4-9
Latency for ESCON Aggregation Cards
Traffic Mix in the ITU Wavelength Latency (in microseconds)
ESCON only
8.5
ESCON and FC
8.5
ESCON and GE
17
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Client Signal Latency on Aggregation Card
4-Port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
The 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card adds latency to FC traffic. The amount of latency
depends on how traffic is configured on the node. Table 4-12 shows the FC latency values for different
configurations of the 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation card.
Table 4-10
1-Gbps FC and FICON Latency Values for 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
Maximum Added End-to-End Latency1 (Time and Distance)
Traffic Mix on Transmitting Node
No GE
1518-Byte
GE Packets
4470-Byte
GE Packets
10,232-Byte
GE Packets
One FC/FICON signal only on the
12.2 microseconds
2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried over a
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
Two FC/FICON signals only on the
12.7 microseconds
2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried over a
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
One FC/FICON signal only on the
2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried over
a10-Gbps ITU trunk card
11.6 microseconds
One FC/FICON signal only on the
2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried over
a10-Gbps ITU trunk card
12.8 microseconds 15.2 microseconds 23.9 microseconds
Two FC/FICON signals and GE on the
same 2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried
over a 10-Gbps ITU trunk card
13.5 microseconds 16.8 microseconds 26.2 microseconds
1. The latency values are based on configuration of correct transmit buffer sizes as described in the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
Table 4-11
2-Gbps FC and FICON Latency Values for 4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC Aggregation Cards
Maximum Added End-to-End Latency1 (Time and Distance)
Traffic Mix on Transmitting Node
No GE
1518-Byte
GE Packets
4470-Byte
GE Packets
10,232-Byte
GE Packets
One FC/FICON signal only on the
10.6 microseconds
2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried over a
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
One FC/FICON signal only on the
2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried over
a10-Gbps ITU trunk card
One FC/FICON signal only on the
2.5-Gbps aggregated signal carried over
a10-Gbps ITU trunk card
9.9 microseconds
12.1 microseconds 15.4 microseconds 25.1 microseconds
1. The latency values are based on configuration of correct transmit buffer sizes as described in the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
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Client Signal Latency on Aggregation Card
8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards
The 8-port FC/GE aggregation card adds latency to FC traffic. The amount of latency depends on how
traffic is configured on the node. Table 4-12 shows the FC latency values for different configurations of
the 8-port FC/GE aggregation card.
Table 4-12
FC and FICON Latency Values for 8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Cards
Maximum Added End-to-End Latency1 (Time and Distance)
Traffic Mix on Transmitting Node
No GE
1518-Byte
GE Packets
4470-Byte
GE Packets
10,232-Byte
GE Packets
FC/FICON only on the 2.5-Gbps
18.8 microseconds
aggregated signal carried over a 2.5-Gbps (3.8 km)
ITU trunk card
FC/FICON only on a 2.5-Gbps
19.9 microseconds
aggregated signal carried over a 10-Gbps (4.0 km)
ITU trunk card
FC/FICON only on a 2.5-Gbps
aggregated signal mixed with GE on the
same 10-Gbps ITU trunk card
22.2 microseconds 24.8 microseconds 36.3 microseconds
(4.4 km)
(5.0 km)
(7.3 km)
FC/FICON and GE on the same 2.5-Gbps
aggregated signal carried over a 2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk card
27.9 microseconds 47.1 microseconds 83.6 microseconds
(5.6 km)
(9.4 km)
(16.7 km)
FC/FICON and GE on the same 2.5-Gbps
aggregated signal carried over a 10-Gbps
ITU trunk card
39.2 microseconds 77.1 microseconds 151.1 microseconds
(7.8 km)
(15.4 km)
(30.2 km)
1. The latency values are based on configuration of correct transmit buffer sizes as described in the Cisco ONS 15530 Configuration Guide.
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
The 8-port multi-service muxponder adds latency to client traffic. Table 4-13 shows the client traffic
latency values for the 8-port multi-service muxponder.
Table 4-13
Latency Values for 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
Unidirectional End-to-End Latency for 0 km Fiber
Protocol
Typical Latency
(microseconds)
Maximum Latency
(microseconds)
ESCON
10
13
Fibre Channel
4
6
GE (optical)
8
10
FE (optical)
16
18
GE (copper)
9
11
FE (copper)
18
20
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Fiber Plant Testing
Table 4-13
Latency Values for 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders (continued)
Unidirectional End-to-End Latency for 0 km Fiber
Protocol
Typical Latency
(microseconds)
Maximum Latency
(microseconds)
SDI
17
20
DVB-ASI
9
11
Fiber Plant Testing
Verifying fiber characteristics to qualify the fiber in the network requires proper testing. This document
describes the test requirements but not the actual procedures. After finishing the test measurements,
compare the measurements with the specifications from the manufacturer, and determine whether the
fiber supports your system requirements or whether changes to the network are necessary.
This test measurement data can also be used to determine whether your network can support higher
bandwidth services such as 10 Gigabit Ethernet, and can help determine network requirements for
dispersion compensator modules or amplifiers.
The test measurement results must be documented and referred to during acceptance testing of a
network.
Fiber optic testing procedures must be performed to measure the following parameters:
•
Link loss (attenuation)
•
ORL (optical return loss)
•
PMD (polarization mode dispersion)
•
Chromatic dispersion
Link Loss (Attenuation)
Testing for link loss, or attenuation, verifies whether fiber spans meet loss budget requirements.
Attenuation includes intrinsic fiber loss, losses associated with connectors and splices, and bending
losses due to cabling and installation. An OTDR (optical time domain reflector/reflectometer) is used
when a comprehensive accounting of these losses is required. The OTDR sends a laser pulse through
each fiber; both directions of the fiber are tested at 1310 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths.
OTDRs also provide information about fiber uniformity, splice characteristics, and total link distance.
For the most accurate loss test measurements, an LTS (loss test set) that consists of a calibrated optical
source and detector is used. However, the LTS does not provide information about the various
contributions (including contributions related to splice and fiber) to the total link loss calculation.
A combination of OTDR and LTS tests is needed for accurate documentation of the fiber facilities being
tested. In cases where the fiber is very old, testing loss as a function of wavelength (also called spectral
attenuation) might be necessary. This is particularly important for qualifying the fiber for
multiwavelength operation. Portable chromatic dispersion measurement systems often include an
optional spectral attenuation measurement.
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Fiber Plant Testing
ORL
ORL is a measure of the total fraction of light reflected by the system. Splices, reflections created at
optical connectors, and components can adversely affect the behavior of laser transmitters, and they all
must be kept to a minimum of 24 dB or less. You can use either an OTDR or an LTS equipped with an
ORL meter for ORL measurements. However, an ORL meter yields more accurate results.
PMD
PMD has essentially the same effect on the system performance as chromatic dispersion, which causes
errors due to the “smearing” of the optical signal. However, PMD has a different origin from chromatic
dispersion. PMD occurs when different polarization states propagate through the fiber at slightly
different velocities.
PMD is defined as the time-averaged DGD (differential group delay) at the optical signal wavelength.
The causes are fiber core eccentricity, ellipticity, and stresses introduced during the manufacturing
process. PMD is a problem for higher bit rates (10 GE and above) and can become a limiting factor when
designing optical links.
The time-variant nature of dispersion makes it more difficult to compensate for PMD effects than for
chromatic dispersion. “Older” (deployed) fiber may have significant PMD—many times higher than the
0.5 ps/Ð km specification seen on most new fiber. Accurate measurements of PMD are very important
to guarantee operation at 10 Gbps. Portable PMD measuring instruments have recently become an
essential part of a comprehensive suite of tests for new and installed fiber. Because many fibers in a cable
are typically measured for PMD, instruments with fast measurement times are highly desirable.
Chromatic Dispersion
Chromatic dispersion testing is performed to verify that measurements meet your dispersion budget.
Chromatic dispersion is the most common form of dispersion found in single-mode fiber. Temporal in
nature, chromatic dispersion is related only to the wavelength of the optical signal. For a given fiber type
and wavelength, the spectral line width of the transmitter and its bit rate determine the chromatic
dispersion tolerance of a system. Dispersion management is of particular concern for high bit rates
(10 Gbps) using conventional single-mode fiber. Depending on the design of the 10-Gbps transceiver
module, dispersion compensation might be needed to accommodate an upgrade from GE to 10 GE in
order to keep the same targeted distances.
Portable chromatic dispersion measurement instruments are essential for testing the chromatic
dispersion characteristics of installed fiber.
Fiber Requirements for 10-Gbps Transmission
Do not deploy 10-Gbps wavelengths, or even 2.5-Gbps wavelengths, over G.653 fiber. This type of fiber
causes enormous amounts of nonlinear effects.
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C H A P T E R
5
Amplified Network Planning
The Cisco ONS 15530 topologies might require signal amplification because of the distance between
nodes and the optical loss of channels as they pass through nodes in the network. This chapter discusses
the amplification and attenuation features supported by the Cisco ONS 15530. This chapter contains the
following sections:
•
Optical Amplification Overview, page 5-1
•
About Variable Optical Attenuation, page 5-2
•
VOA Modules, page 5-2
•
Amplified Network Planning Considerations, page 5-6
•
Amplified Network Planning Guidelines, page 5-7
Optical Amplification Overview
Due to attenuation caused by the physical characteristics of the network topology, such as the distance
between nodes and the optical loss for channels passing through nodes, there are limits to how far a
signal can propagate with integrity before it has to be regenerated. The optical amplifier makes it
possible to amplify all the wavelengths at once without any optical-electrical-optical (O-E-O)
conversion. Besides being used on optical links, optical amplifiers also can be used to boost signal power
after multiplexing (post-amplification), or before demultiplexing (preamplification).
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
The EDFA (erbium-doped fiber amplifier) is a key enabling technology that extends the range of DWDM
networks. Erbium is a rare-earth element that, when excited, emits light around 1.54 micrometers—the
low-loss wavelength for optical fibers used in DWDM. Light at 980 nm or 1480 nm is injected into the
fiber using a pump laser. This injected light stimulates the erbium atoms to release their stored energy
as additional 1550-nm light. As this process continues down the fiber, the signal on the fiber grows
stronger. The spontaneous emissions in the EDFA also add noise to the signal, which is a limiting factor
for an EDFA. Figure 5-1 shows a simplified diagram of an EDFA.
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About Variable Optical Attenuation
Figure 5-1
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Design
Isolator
Coupler
Coupler
Isolator
Pump
laser
Pump
laser
48093
Erbium-doped
fiber (10-50 m)
The key performance parameters of optical amplifiers are gain, gain flatness, noise level, and output
power. EDFAs are typically capable of gains of 30 dB or more and output power of 17 dBm or more. The
target parameters for an EDFA, however, are low noise and flat gain. Gain should be flat because all
signals must be amplified uniformly. While the signal gain provided with EDFA technology is inherently
wavelength-dependent, it can be corrected with gain flattening filters. Such filters are often built into
modern EDFAs.
Low noise is a requirement because noise, along with signal, is amplified. Because this effect is
cumulative, and cannot be filtered out, the signal-to-noise ratio is a limiting factor in the number of
amplifiers that can be concatenated and, therefore, the end-to-end reach of optical signals. That is
because the optical amplifier merely amplifies the signals and does not perform the 3R functions
(reshape, retime, retransmit).
Note
The Cisco ONS 15530 interoperates with the Cisco ONS 15501 optical solutions amplifier. For
information about the Cisco ONS 15501 features, refer to the Cisco ONS 15501 User Guide.
About Variable Optical Attenuation
Optical attenuation is often needed to equalize all DWDM channel powers in an amplified ring network.
In a ring network, the pass through channels are typically weaker than the added channels. To equalize
the channel powers, the added channel powers are attenuated down to the power level of the pass through
channels. Power equalization is needed in an amplified network because of the input power limitation of
the EDFAs and to simplify network management.
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports two types of variable optical attenuation, per channel and per band. Per
channel attenuation equalizes the channel powers on a channel-by-channel basis, while the per band
attenuation achieves equalization by attenuating channels on a band-by-band basis.
VOA Modules
Variable optical attenuation on the Cisco ONS 15530 is provided by two types of VOA modules:
•
PB-OE (per-band optical equalizer) modules
•
WB-VOA (wide-band variable optical attenuator) modules
The VOA modules are half-height modules inserted into a carrier motherboard installed in a
Cisco ONS 15530 chassis slot.
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VOA Modules
PB-OE Modules
The PB-OE module selects and attenuates one or two specific four-channel bands and passes the
remaining bands to be attenuated by another PB-OE module, by a WB-VOA module, or not attenuated
at all. After the bands are attenuated, they are merged back together and sent out on the trunk fiber. The
Cisco ONS 15530 supports eight single band PB-OE modules (one for each four-channel band) and four
dual band PB-OE modules (for bands AB, CD, EF, and GE).
Table 5-1 lists the optical specifications for the PB-OE modules.
Table 5-1
PB-OE Optical Specifications
Specification
Single Band PB-OE
Dual Band PB-OE
Maximum attenuation
30 dB
30 dB
Minimum attenuation resolution
0.1 dB
0.1 dB
Minimum attenuation
3.4 dB
3.9 dB
Maximum pass through loss
2.6 dB
4.8 dB
A single band PB-OE module accepts an incoming signal containing more than one band. The band are
split by an optical band filter into two components. One component is attenuated and the other
component can be passed to an another module where it can be attenuated and passed back to the original
PB-OE module. The PB-OE module then recombines the two equalized components and sends it out on
the trunk fiber.
Figure 5-2 shows a logical view of a single band PB-OE module combined with a single WB-VOA
module for pass through band attenuation. You can also combine a PB-OE module with other PB-OE
modules in a cascaded fashion.
Figure 5-2
Single Band PB-OE Module and Single WB-VOA Module Example
Single WB-VOA module
Upgrade out
Upgrade in
In
Out
79199
In
Out
= Power monitor
If a band pair has to be attenuated, use a dual band PB-OE module. When more than two add bands are
to be attenuated, multiple PB-OE modules and WB-VOA modules can be cascaded. The dual band
PB-OE supports band pairs AB, CD, EF, and GH.
Figure 5-3 shows a logical view of a dual band PB-OE module and single WB-VOA module
combination. The single WB-VOA module attenuates the signal passed out from the dual PB-OE
module.
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VOA Modules
Figure 5-3
Dual Band PB-OE Module and Single WB-VOA Module Example
Single WB-VOA module
Upgrade out
Upgrade in
In
Out
77931
In
Out
= Power monitor
The PB-OE modules can also be use to provide an optical seam that terminates unused bands in a meshed
ring topology. Unlike a hubbed ring network, the unused and dark channels in a meshed ring topology
are not terminated by any OADM module anywhere in the network. If optical amplifiers are used in a
meshed ring network, the EDFA-generated noise corresponding to the unused channels or bands is
circulated in the ring and amplified by the EDFAs. If the loss around the ring is less than the gain around
the ring, then power oscillations can occur, leading to network instability. An optical seam terminates all
unused and dark channels and eliminates potential network instability due to power oscillations.
Figure 5-4 shows an example of an optical seam at network site with two pass through bands, band B
and band C. The optical seam consists of a band B PB-OE module cascaded with a band C PB-OE
module (to allow bands B and C to pass through) and with the attenuation set to a minimum level. The
upgrade ports of the band C PB-OE module are unconnected to terminate the unused bands.
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VOA Modules
Figure 5-4
Optical Seam Example
Unconnected upgrade ports
PB-OE (band C)
PB-OE (band B)
West
OADM
module
East
OADM
module
Trunk
Trunk
Upgrade
in
99552
Upgrade
out
WB-VOA Modules
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports two types of WB-VOA modules: single and dual. A single WB-VOA
module accepts an optical signal and attenuates all frequencies within that signal. The signal can contain
a single channel, such as the OSC, a band of channels, or the entire trunk signal.
A dual WB-VOA module consists of two WB-VOA units combined into a single module. Each WB-VOA
unit accepts an optical signal and attenuates all frequencies within that signal. The two WB-VOA units
function independently of each other. The dual WB-VOA module provides more attenuator ports when
space in a shelf is limited.
Table 5-2 lists the optical specifications for the WB-VOA modules.
Table 5-2
WB-VOA Optical Specifications
Specification
Single WB-VOA
Dual WB-VOA
Maximum attenuation
30 dB
30 dB
Minimum attenuation resolution
0.1 dB
0.1 dB
Minimum attenuation
1.7 dB
1.7 dB
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Amplified Network Planning Considerations
You can use WB-VOA modules for the following types of attenuation:
•
Per channel—attenuate only a single data channel or the OSC. Place the WB-VOA module between
the line card and the OADM.
•
Wide band—attenuate all channels on the trunk signal. Use this configuration to avoid saturating the
amplifiers.
•
Pass through band channels—attenuate the pass through bands by an OADM. Place the WB-VOA
on the upgrade, or thru, output port on the OADM.
Amplified Network Planning Considerations
When planning an amplified network topology, you need to consider the following:
•
Optical power budget
•
OSNR (optical signal-to-noise ratio)
•
Chromatic dispersion
Optical Power Budget
Optical power budgets, or link loss budgets, are a critical part of planning an optical network. In general,
there are many factors that can result in optical signal loss. The most obvious of these is the distance of
the fiber itself. Also, the number of nodes in a network topology is a significant contributor to optical
loss.
The key to precise optical power budget calculation is to get an accurate reading on the fiber using an
optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). Using an OTDR, you can obtain the following information
about a span:
•
Length of the fiber
•
Attenuation of the whole link, as well as the attenuation of separate sections of the fiber (if any)
•
Attenuation characteristics of the fiber itself
•
Locations of connectors, joints, and faults in the cable
The goal in calculating optical loss is to ensure that the total loss does not exceed the span budget. The
following are typical values for the main elements in a span:
•
Connector splice loss
•
Fiber loss
•
Fiber aging
It is also important to ensure that the client side or tributary equipment does not overload the local
receive laser of the DWDM equipment. This means that the client or tributary equipment must operate
within the specifications of the DWDM client interface.
OSNR
Besides the signal itself, optical amplifiers boost the entire input, including noise. The effect is
cumulative through the network. The OSNR (optical signal-to-noise ratio) can become so low that a clear
signal is not correctly decoded at the receiving end. At this point the signal must be regenerated.
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Chromatic Dispersion
Chromatic dispersion occurs because different wavelengths propagate at different speeds.It can result in
signal power spread and can reduce receiver sensitivity.
Amplified Network Planning Guidelines
This section describes the guidelines for planning a Cisco ONS 15530 amplified network.
Receive Power Levels
Receiver power levels for individual transponder line cards and ITU trunk cards should be within the
power range defined by minimum receiver sensitivity and maximum receiver overload for each card.
Depending on network configuration characteristics, such as dispersion and OSNR, apply the proper
penalties to the minimum receiver sensitivity.
Optical Component Gain or Loss
Use the statistical gain or loss, determined by mean and variance values, for optical components in the
network, such as OADM modules, connectors, and EDFAs. The loss for OADM modules should be
based on measured data, and the gain should be based on the gain flatness specification (+/- 0.75 dB) of
the Cisco ONS 15501 EDFA. The gain or loss of optical components should be accumulated in a
statistical manner, such that the mean and variance of the total gains and losses is the sum of individual
means and variances. The maximum gain or loss of an aggregate of optical components is equal to the
mean plus three times the standard deviation (sigma), and the minimum gain or loss is equal to the mean
minus three times the standard deviation.
EDFA Input Power Limits
The maximum total input power to a Cisco ONS 15501 EDFA is 0 dBm and the minimum total input
power is –29 dBm.
OSNR
Use the following equation to compute the OSNR:
OSNRout = –10*log(10 –OSNRin/10 + 6.33*10 –6 * 10 –Pin/10)
where OSNRin and Pin are the OSNR and input power, respectively, of the signal at the input of the
EDFA, and OSNRout is the OSNR of the signal at the output of the EDFA.
The signal OSNR at the receiver should be higher than the minimum OSNR required for the particular
card type and the data bit rate, with the proper penalties for dispersion depending on network
configuration.
The above OSNR calculations can be carried out manually to verify the OSNR of individual optical
channels. However, we recommend that a network design tool, such as Metro Planner, be used to validate
all amplified network designs.
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Channel Power Equalization
Amplified networks require that all channel powers be equalized in the network. There are two channel
equalization options for Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 networks: per-channel and per-band
equalization.
In the per-channel option, a WB-VOA module is placed between each transmitting ITU laser and the
OADM module. The WB-VOA module attenuation value is set individually so that all channels added
at the OADM module are equal in power on the outgoing trunk.
Alternatively, the added channels can be equalized on a per-band basis. The PB-OE modules and
WB-VOA modules can be used for this purpose. In this case, the added bands are demultiplexed,
separately attenuated, and multiplexed back together by PB-OE modules placed at the OADM module
out-going trunk. The pass through bands can also be attenuated by the WB-VOA modules connected to
the pass through path of the PB-OE modules.
For more information on the PB-OE modules and WB-VOA modules, see the “PB-OE Modules” section
on page 5-3 and the “WB-VOA Modules” section on page 5-5.
Dispersion Limits
Table 5-3 lists the dispersion limits, in the absence of DCUs (dispersion compensation units), of various
components on the Cisco ONS 15530 and the Cisco ONS 15540.
Table 5-3
Dispersion Limits
Card Type
Dispersion Limit (ps/nm)
Cisco ONS 15540 SM/MM transponder module
1800
Cisco ONS 15540 extended reach transponder
module
3200
Cisco ONS 15540 10-GE transponder module
1000
Cisco ONS 15530 transponder line card
3200
Cisco ONS 15530 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk card
3200
Cisco ONS 15530 10-Gbps ITU trunk card
1000
OSC module
3200
DCUs
DCUs (dispersion control units) can be used in networks that exceed the dispersion limit of the
transmitters. There are three types of Cisco ONS 15216 DCUs that are available: –350 ps/nm,
–750 ps/nm, and –1150 ps/nm. DCUs should be placed where total power is low, for example, at the
input to a preamplifier or just before an OADM module input trunk. DCUs should be placed such that
any span of half the dispersion limit or more should be compensated to a value close to zero, and that
the residual dispersion at the receiver is within the dispersion limit.
We recommend the use of a network design tool, such as Metro Planner, for the validation of DCUs in
amplified network designs for Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 networks.
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Fiber Nonlinearity
To avoid undesirable nonlinear effects, the maximum allowed channel power in ITU-652 compliant
fibers must be limited in the network.
Maximum per-channel power for 10 Gbps channels is 2 dBm when there are at most three
post-amplifiers, and 0 dBm when there are at most five post-amplifiers.
Maximum per-channel power for 2.5 Gbps channels is 5 dBm when there are at most five
post-amplifiers.
Other types of fibers, such as ZSDF, LEAF and Truewave are not supported by these rules and must be
treated separately as special cases.
OSC
The OSC (Optical Supervisory Channel) is a 1562-nm node-to-node communication channel. Because
it is within the C-band range, it is also amplified by the Cisco ONS 15501 EDFA. All the rules for data
channels, such as receiver power levels, OSNR, optical gains and losses, and dispersion, also apply to
the OSC.
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C H A P T E R
6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
The requirements of a particular topology determine what components must be used and how they are
interconnected. This chapter provides examples of shelf configurations and optical power budget
calculations specific to each of the main types of protection schemes supported by the Cisco ONS 15530,
and examples of supported topologies. This chapter contains the following major sections:
•
Shelf Configurations, page 6-1
•
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies, page 6-25
•
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Mixed Topologies, page 6-32
•
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Collocated Topologies, page 6-33
Shelf Configurations
This section describes how to populate a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf for different types of protection
configurations.
Unprotected Configurations
This section describes the configuration of the modules and unprotected line cards for unprotected
configurations.
Note
You can use splitter line cards for unprotected configurations but they have a higher optical loss.
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-1 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in an unprotected configuration using
nonpsplitter transponder line cards.
Unprotected Configuration Using Nonsplitter Transponder Line Cards
Power
supply 0
CPU switch
CPU switch
Transponder
Transponder
Transponder
Transponder
OSC
OADM
Figure 6-1
79286
Power
supply 1
Figure 6-2 shows the optical power budget for an unprotected configuration using nonsplitter
transponder line cards.
Figure 6-2
From client
Nonsplitter
transponder
line card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter
transponder
line card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79285
To client
Optical Power Budget for an Unprotected Configuration Using Nonsplitter
Transponder Line Cards
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-3 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in an unprotected configuration using ESCON
aggregation cards and nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Unprotected Configuration Using ESCON Aggregation Cards and a 2.5-Gbps ITU
Trunk Card
OSC
Power
supply 0
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
Power
supply 1
85849
2.5-GbpsITU trunk
ESCON
OSC 2.5-GbpsITU trunk
OSC
OADM
Figure 6-3
Figure 6-4 shows the optical power budget for an unprotected configuration when using nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Figure 6-4
From client
Splitter
2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
4.05 dB
4.1 dB
Splitter
2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
1.35 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
85850
To client
Optical Power Budget for an Unprotected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps
ITU Trunk Cards
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-5 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in an unprotected configuration using 8-port
FC/GE aggregation cards and a nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU trunk card.
Power
supply 0
8-port FC/GE
10-Gbps ITU trunk
8-port FC/GE OSC
ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
Unprotected Configuration Using ESCON Aggregation Cards, 8-Port FC/GE
Aggregation Card, and 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
ESCON
ESCON
10-Gbps ITU trunk
OADM
Figure 6-5
85857
Power
supply 1
Figure 6-6 shows the optical power budget for an unprotected configuration when using nonsplitter
10-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Figure 6-6
From client
Nonsplitter
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter
Noinsplitter
10-Gbps
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
ITU line card
card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79287
To client
Optical Power Budget for an Unprotected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 10-Gbps
ITU Trunk Cards
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Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-7 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in an unprotected configuration using ESCON
aggregation cards and a 10-Gbps uplink card.
Figure 6-7
Unprotected Configuration Using ESCON Aggregation Cards and a 10-Gbps Uplink
Card
ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
ESCON
ESCON
10-Gbps uplink
Power
supply 0
79279
Power
supply 1
Figure 6-1 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in an unprotected configuration using
nonpsplitter 8-port multi-service muxponders.
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
113956
OSC
CPU switch module
CPU switch module
8-Port multi-service muxponder
Unprotected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
8-Port multi-service muxponder
8-Port multi-service muxponder
8-Port multi-service muxponder
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-8
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-9 shows the optical power budget for an unprotected configuration using nonsplitter 8-port
multi-service muxponders.
From client
Optical Power Budget for an Unprotected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 8-Port
Multi-Service Muxponders
Splitter 8-port
multi-service
muxponder
4.05 dB
To client
Splitter 8-port
multi-service
muxponder
1.35 dB
OADM
module
To trunk
4.1 dB
OADM
module
4.1 dB
From trunk
113955
Figure 6-9
Splitter Protected Configurations
This section describes the configuration of the modules and line cards for splitter protected
configurations.
Figure 6-10 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a splitter protected configuration using
transponder line cards.
CPU switch
Power
supply 1
79282
CPU switch
OSC
OSC
Splitter Protected Configuration Using Transponder Line Cards
Power
supply 0
Transponder
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-10
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-11 shows the optical power budget for a splitter protected configuration.
Figure 6-11
Optical Power Budget for a Splitter Protected Configuration Using Transponder Line
Cards
From client
OADM
module
4.05 dB
4.1 dB
Splitter
transponder
line card
OADM
module
1.35 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79283
To client
Splitter
transponder
line card
Figure 6-12 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a splitter protected configuration using an
8-port FC/GE aggregation cards and 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
85864
2.5-Gbps trunk card
2.5-Gbps trunk card
CPU switch
CPU switch
2.5-Gbps trunk card
Splitter Protected Configuration Using an 8-Port FC/GE Aggregation Card and Splitter
2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
2.5-Gbps trunk card
OSC
OSC
8-port FC/GE
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-12
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-13 shows the optical power budget for a splitter protected configuration.
Figure 6-13
Optical Power Budget for a Splitter Protected Configuration Using Splitter 2.5-Gbps
ITU Trunk Cards
From client
OADM
module
4.05 dB
4.1 dB
Splitter
2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
1.35 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
85850
To client
Splitter
2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
Figure 6-14 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a splitter protected configuration using
ESCON aggregation cards and 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Splitter Protected Configuration Using ESCON Aggregation Cards and 10-Gbps ITU
Trunk Cards
ESCON
Power
supply 1
79281
ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
Power
supply 0
ESCON
OSC
OSC
10-Gbps ITU trunk
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-14
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-15 shows the optical power budget for a splitter protected configuration.
Figure 6-15
Optical Power Budget for a Splitter Protected Configuration Using 10-Gbps ITU Trunk
Cards
From client
OADM
module
4.05 dB
4.1 dB
Splitter
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
1.35 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79278
To client
Splitter
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
Figure 6-16 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a splitter protected configuration using
8-port multi-service muxponders.
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
113954
CPU switch module
CPU switch module
Splitter Protected Configuration Using 8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
8-Port multi-service muxponder
OSC
OSC
8-Port multi-service muxponder
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-16
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-17 shows the optical power budget for a splitter protected configuration using 8-port
multi-service muxponders.
Optical Power Budget for a Splitter Protected Configuration Using 8-Port
Multi-Service Muxponders
Splitter 8-port
multi-service
muxponder
From client
4.05 dB
Splitter 8-port
multi-service
muxponder
To client
1.35 dB
OADM
module
To trunk
4.1 dB
OADM
module
4.1 dB
From trunk
113955
Figure 6-17
Line Card Protected Configurations
This section describes the configuration of the modules and line cards for line card protected
configurations.
Figure 6-18 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a line card protected configuration using
transponder line cards.
CPU switch
Power
supply 1
79284
CPU switch
Transponder
OSC
OSC
Line Card Protected Configuration Using Transponder Line Cards
Power
supply 0
Transponder
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-18
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-19 shows the optical power budget for a line card protected configuration using nonsplitter
transponder line cards.
Figure 6-19
Optical Power Budget for a Line Card Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter
Transponder Line Cards
From client
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter
transponder
line card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79285
To client
Nonsplitter
transponder
line card
Figure 6-20 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a client based line card protected
configuration using ESCON aggregation cards and 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
OSC
Power
supply 0
OSC
Power
supply 1
85848
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
Client Based Line Card Protected Configuration Using ESCON Aggregation Cards and
Nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
ESCON trunk
2.5-GbpsITU
2.5-GbpsITU trunk
OSC 2.5-GbpsITU trunk
OSC
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-20
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-21 shows the optical power budget for a client based line card protected configuration using
nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Figure 6-21
Optical Power Budget for a Client Based Line Card Protected Configuration Using
Nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
From client
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter
transponder
line card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79285
To client
Nonsplitter
transponder
line card
Figure 6-22 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a client based line card protected
configuration using ESCON aggregation cards and 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
OSC
Power
supply 0
OSC
Power
supply 1
79276
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
Client Based Line Card Protected Configuration Using ESCON Aggregation Cards and
10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
ESCON
10-Gbps ITU trunk
OADM
OADM
10-Gbps ITU trunk
Figure 6-22
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-23 shows the optical power budget for a client based line card protected configuration using
nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Figure 6-23
From client
Nonsplitter
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter
Noinsplitter
10-Gbps
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
ITU line card
card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79287
To client
Optical Power Budget for a Client Based Line Card Protected Configuration Using
Nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-24 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a client based line card protected
configuration using ESCON aggregation cards and 10-Gbps uplink cards.
Figure 6-24
Client Based Line Card Protected Configuration Using ESCON Aggregation Cards and
10-Gbps Uplink Cards
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
ESCON
10-Gbps uplink
10-Gbps uplink
Power
supply 0
79280
Power
supply 1
Figure 6-25 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a line card protected configuration using
nonsplitter 8-port multi-service muxponders.
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
113956
OSC
CPU switch module
CPU switch module
8-Port multi-service muxponder
Line Card Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 8-Port Multi-Service
Muxponders
8-Port multi-service muxponder
8-Port multi-service muxponder
8-Port multi-service muxponder
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-25
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-26 shows the optical power budget for a line card protected configuration using nonsplitter
8-port multi-service muxponders.
Optical Power Budget for a Line Card Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
From client
To client
Nonsplitter 8-port
multi-service
muxponder
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter 8-port
multi-service
muxponder
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
113957
Figure 6-26
Switch Fabric Based Line Card Protection Configurations
This section describes the configuration of line cards for switch fabric protected configurations.
Figure 6-27 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a switch fabric protected configuration
with an ESCON aggregation card and two 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Switch Fabric Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
CPU switch
Power
supply 1
85846
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
ESCON
2.5-GbpsITU trunk
OSC
OSC
2.5-GbpsITU trunk
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-27
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-28 shows the optical power budget for a switch fabric based line card protected configuration.
Figure 6-28
Optical Power Budget for Switch Fabric Protected Configurations Using Nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
From client
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
85847
To client
Nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
Figure 6-29 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a switch fabric protected configuration
with an ESCON aggregation card and two 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Switch Fabric Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
CPU switch
Power
supply 1
76356
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
ESCON
10 Gbps ITU trunk
OSC
OSC
10 Gbps ITU trunk
OADM
OADM
Figure 6-29
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Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-30 shows the optical power budget for a switch fabric based line card protected configuration.
Figure 6-30
Optical Power Budget for Switch Fabric Protected Configurations Using Nonsplitter
10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
From client
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
Nonsplitter
10-Gbps
ITU line card
OADM
module
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
To trunk
From trunk
79275
To client
Nonsplitter
10-Gbps
ITU line card
Figure 6-31 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a switch fabric based line card protected
configuration with an ESCON aggregation card and two 10-Gbps uplink cards.
Switch Fabric Based Protected Configuration Using 10-Gbps Uplink Cards
CPU switch
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
ESCON
10-Gbps uplink
10-Gbps uplink
Figure 6-31
79274
Power
supply 1
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
Trunk Fiber Based Protection Configurations
This section describes the configuration of line cards for trunk fiber protected configurations.
Figure 6-32 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a trunk fiber protected configuration with
transponder line cards.
Trunk Fiber Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter Transponder Line Cards
CPU switch
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
2.5-Gbps transponder
Power
supply 1
85911
OSC
2.5-Gbps transponder
PSM
OADM
Figure 6-32
Figure 6-33 shows the optical power budget for a trunk fiber protected configuration with nonsplitter
transponder line cards.
Figure 6-33
From client
Nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps
transponder
line card
OADM
module
PSM
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
3.7 dB
Nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps
transponder
line card
OADM
module
PSM
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
1.7 dB
To trunk
From trunk
85908
To client
Optical Power Budget for Trunk Fiber Protected Configurations Using Nonsplitter
Transponder Line Cards
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-18
OL-7708-01
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-34 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a trunk fiber protected configuration with
8-port multi-service muxponders.
Trunk Fiber Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter 8-Port Multi-Service
Muxponders
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
CPU switch
Power
supply 1
120758
8-port multi-service muxponder
OSC
8-port multi-service muxponder
PSM
OADM
Figure 6-34
Figure 6-35 shows the optical power budget for a trunk fiber protected configuration with nonsplitter
8-port multi-service muxponders.
Figure 6-35
From client
Optical Power Budget for Trunk Fiber Protected Configurations Using Nonsplitter
8-Port Multi-Service Muxponders
Nonsplitter
8-port
multi-service
muxponder
OADM
module
PSM
4.1 dB
3.7 dB
8-port
multi-service
muxponder
OADM
module
PSM
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
1.7 dB
0.5 dB
To trunk
Nonsplitter
From trunk
120759
To client
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-36 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a trunk fiber protected configuration with
an ESCON aggregation card and two nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
OSC
Trunk Fiber Protected Configuration Using a Nonsplitter 2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Card
CPU switch
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
ESCON
Power
supply 1
85865
2.5-G[bs Ttrunk card
PSM
OADM
Figure 6-36
Figure 6-37 shows the optical power budget for a trunk fiber protected configuration.
Figure 6-37
From client
Nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
PSM
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
3.7 dB
Nonsplitter
Noinsplitter
2.5-Gbps
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
ITU line card
card
OADM
module
PSM
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
1.7 dB
To trunk
From trunk
85853
To client
Optical Power Budget for Trunk Fiber Protected Configurations Using Nonsplitter
2.5-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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OL-7708-01
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
Figure 6-38 shows an example of a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf in a trunk fiber protected configuration with
an ESCON aggregation card and two 10-Gbps ITU trunk cards.
Power
supply 0
ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
ESCON
OSC
Trunk Fiber Protected Configuration Using Nonsplitter a 10-Gbps ITU Trunk Card
Power
supply 1
85910
ESCON
ESCON
OADM
PSM
10-G[bs Ttrunk card
Figure 6-38
Figure 6-39 shows the optical power budget for a trunk fiber protected configuration.
Figure 6-39
From client
Nonsplitter
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
PSM
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
3.7 dB
Nonsplitter
10-Gbps
ITU trunk
card
OADM
module
PSM
0.5 dB
4.1 dB
1.7 dB
To trunk
From trunk
85909
To client
Optical Power Budget for Trunk Fiber Protected Configurations Using Nonsplitter
10-Gbps ITU Trunk Cards
Note
The PSM can also connect directly to a transponder line card or an ITU trunk card. That configuration
would not include the loss for the OADM modules.
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
Multiple Shelf Node Configurations
This section describes multiple shelf nodes consisting of only Cisco ONS 15530 shelves and multiple
shelf nodes consisting of Cisco ONS 15530, Cisco ONS 15540 ESP, and Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx
shelves.
ITU Linked Configuration
Figure 6-40 shows a multiple shelf node with three Cisco ONS 15530 shelves linked to the OADM
modules on a fourth Cisco ONS 15530 shelf.
Cisco ONS 15530 Multiple Shelf Node with ITU Uplinking
OADM
Figure 6-40
10Gps ITU
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
OADM
Power
supply 1
10Gps ITU
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
OADM
Power
supply 1
10Gps ITU
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
OADM
Power
supply 1
10Gps ITU
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
79314
Power
supply 1
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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OL-7708-01
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
DWDM Linked Configuration
Figure 6-41 shows an example of DWDM linking with two Cisco ONS 15530 shelves linked together
via the OADM modules to form a single logical node.
Figure 6-41
DWDM Linking With Two Cisco ONS 15530 Shelves
OADM
West
10 Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
10 Gbps ITU
CPU switch
10p ESCON
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10 Gbps ITU
10 Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 1
79300
OADM
10p ESCON
OADM
Power
supply 0
10p ESCON
Power
supply 1
OADM
10p ESCON
East
Power
supply 0
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Shelf Configurations
10-GE Client Signal Uplink Configuration
Figure 6-42 shows an example of an unprotected 10-GE client signal linking a Cisco ONS 15530 shelf
and a Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx or Cisco ONS 15540 ESP shelf.
Figure 6-42
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11
Power
supply 1
79302
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
10Gbps uplink
1
OADM
0
Unprotected 10-GE Client Signal Linking
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-24
OL-7708-01
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
Figure 6-43 shows an example of protected 10-GE client signal linking between a Cisco ONS 15530
shelf and a Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx or Cisco ONS 15540 ESP shelf.
Figure 6-43
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11
10Gbps uplink
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 1
79301
OADM
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
10Gbps uplink
1
OADM
0
Protected 10-GE Client Signal Linking
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
The section describes network topologies consisting only of Cisco ONS 15530 shelves. The
Cisco ONS 15530 can be configured in the following types of topologies:
•
Point-to-point
•
Meshed ring
•
Hubbed ring with a multiple shelf hub
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
Point-to-Point Topologies
The Cisco ONS 15530 supports point-to-point topologies, with or without signal protection. A single
shelf supports up to four protected channels and up to eight unprotected channels. To supports more
channels, multiple shelf nodes can be used.
Use following criteria to determine the equipment needed for a point-to-point topology:
•
Distance between nodes
•
Potential topology changes in the future (such as migration to a ring)
•
Presence of OSC
Unprotected Point-to-Point Topology
Figure 6-44 shows an example of an unprotected point-to-point topology between two Cisco ONS 15530
shelves.
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
CPU switch
OADM
Power
supply 1
CPU switch
Power
supply 1
79311
OADM
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
OADM
Unprotected Point-to-Point Topology
OADM
Figure 6-44
Protected Point-to-Point Topology
Figure 6-45 shows an example of a splitter protected point-to-point topology between two
Cisco ONS 15530 shelves.
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
79477
CPU switch
OADM
Power
supply 1
CPU switch
OADM
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
OADM
Protected Point-to-Point Topology
OADM
Figure 6-45
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-26
OL-7708-01
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
Figure 6-46 shows an example of a trunk fiber protected point-to-point topology between two
Cisco ONS 15530 shelves.
CPU switch
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
CPU switch
Power
supply 1
85920
PSM
Power
supply 1
PSM
CPU switch
Power
supply 0
OADM
Protected Point-to-Point Topology
OADM
Figure 6-46
Meshed Ring Topologies
Figure 6-47 shows a logical view of a meshed ring topology consisting of only Cisco ONS 15530
shelves.
Figure 6-47
Meshed Topology
79313
Band A
Wavelength
Connections
Band B
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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6-27
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
Unprotected Meshed Ring Topology
Figure 6-48 shows an example of an unprotected meshed ring topology consisting of only
Cisco ONS 15530 shelves and supporting on four channels.
Unprotected Meshed Ring Topology
OADM
Figure 6-48
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
CPU switch
10p ESCON
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
CPU switch
10p ESCON
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
Power
supply 0
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
CPU switch
10p ESCON
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
10p ESCON
OADM
Power
supply 1
Power
supply 1
OADM
Power
supply 1
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
79478
Power
supply 1
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-28
OL-7708-01
79289
OADM
OL-7708-01
10p ESCON
10 Gbps ITU
10 Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
Power
supply 1
10p ESCON
10 Gbps ITU
10 Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
10p ESCON
OADM
Power
supply 0
OADM
10p ESCON
10 Gbps ITU
10 Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
10p ESCON
10 Gbps ITU
10 Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
Figure 6-49
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
Protected Meshed Ring Topology
Figure 6-49 shows an example of a protected meshed ring topology consisting of only Cisco ONS 15530
shelves.
Protected Meshed Ring Topology
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-29
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
Meshed Ring Topology Using Multiple Cisco ONS 15530 Shelf Nodes
You can configure the Cisco ONS 15530 shelves in a meshed ring topology. The most common
application for this configuration is when multiple bands are supported on a node.
Figure 6-50 shows a logical view of a meshed ring topology consisting of Cisco ONS 15530 shelves with
multiple shelf nodes.
Figure 6-50
Meshed Ring Topology with Multiple Shelf Nodes
Site A
Site B
Site C
79315
Site D
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-30
OL-7708-01
79316
OADM
OL-7708-01
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 1
Power
supply 0
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
Power
supply 1
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
OADM
Power
supply 0
OADM
OADM
OADM
Power
supply 0
10p ESCON
Power
supply 0
OADM
10p ESCON
OADM
Power
supply 1
OADM
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
10p ESCON
10-Gbps ITU
10-Gbps ITU
10p ESCON
CPU switch
CPU switch
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
10p ESCON
OADM
Figure 6-51
OADM
OADM
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Topologies
Protected Meshed Ring Topology
Figure 6-51 shows a protected meshed ring topology consisting of Cisco ONS 15530 shelves with
multiple shelf nodes.
Protected Meshed Ring Topology with Multiple Shelf Nodes
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
Power
supply 0
Power
supply 1
Power
supply 1
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-31
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Mixed Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Mixed Topologies
The Cisco ONS 15530, Cisco ONS 15540 ESP, and Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx systems can be used in the
same network topology. The most common application is using a Cisco ONS 15540 ESP or
Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx as the hub node in a hubbed ring topology.
Figure 6-52 shows a logical view of an hubbed ring topology consisting of a Cisco ONS 15540 ESP as
the hub node and Cisco ONS 15530 shelves as the spoke nodes. The configuration supports transparent
services.
Figure 6-52
Hubbed Ring Topology With a Cisco ONS 15540 ESP Hub
ONS 15540 ESP
ONS 15530 ONS 15530
79299
ONS 15530
ONS 15530
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-32
OL-7708-01
Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Collocated Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Collocated Topologies
The Cisco ONS 15530 can be combine with a Cisco ONS 15540 ESP or Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx system
in the same network node. The most common application is using a Cisco ONS 15540 ESP or
Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx as the hub node in a hubbed ring topology where aggregated services are
required.
Figure 6-53 shows a logical view of an hubbed ring topology consisting of collocated
Cisco ONS 15540 ESPx and Cisco ONS 15530 shelves as the hub node and Cisco ONS 15530 shelves
as the spoke nodes. This configuration can support transparent and aggregated services.
Figure 6-53
Hubbed Ring Topology With Collocated Cisco ONS 15540 ESP and Cisco ONS 15530
Hub
ONS 15530
ONS 15530
ONS 15530
79317
ONS 15540 ESP
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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Chapter 6
Example Shelf Configurations and Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 and Cisco ONS 15540 Collocated Topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
6-34
OL-7708-01
A P P E N D I X
A
IBM Storage Protocol Support
This appendix provides descriptions and design considerations for protocols used in an IBM storage
environment. This appendix contains the following major sections:
•
IBM Storage Environment, page A-1
•
Supported Protocols, page A-2
•
Client Optical Power Budget and Attenuation Requirements, page A-4
IBM Storage Environment
Figure A-1 shows a an IBM storage environment application with GDPS (Geographically Dispersed
Parallel Sysplex). SANs (storage area networks) are attached to node 1 and node 2, and a LAN is
attached to node 3.
Figure A-1
IBM Storage Environment with GDPS and DWDM
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
OL-7708-01
A-1
Appendix A
IBM Storage Protocol Support
Supported Protocols
Supported Protocols
The Cisco ONS 15530 can provide the transport layer for the following IBM storage related protocols:
•
ESCON
•
FICON
•
Coupling Facility
•
Sysplex Timer links
The Cisco ONS 15530 can also be used to help implement the high availability features for the following
applications:
•
PPRC
•
XRC
•
GDPS
ESCON
ESCON (Enterprise System Connection) is a 200-Mbps unidirectional serial bit transmission protocol
used to dynamically connect mainframes with their various control units. ESCON provides nonblocking
access through either point-to-point connections or high speed switches, called ESCON Directors. In the
Parallel Sysplex or GDPS environment, ESCON performance is seriously affected if the distance
spanned is greater than approximately 8 km. For instance, measurements have shown that ESCON
performance at 20 km is roughly 50% of maximum performance. Performance degradation continues as
distance is further increased.
Figure A-2 shows an estimate of how the effective data rate decreases as the path length increases. At a
distance of 9 km, performance begins to decrease precipitously. This data point is referred to as the
distance data rate droop point.
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
A-2
OL-7708-01
Appendix A
IBM Storage Protocol Support
Supported Protocols
Figure A-2
ESCON Data Rate as a Function of Distance
Data Rate
MB/sec
20
17.6
10
9
8.5
9
23
60
km
58985
3.4
Distance
FICON
FICON (Fiber Connection) is the next generation bidirectional channel protocol used to connect
mainframes directly with control units or ESCON aggregation switches (ESCON Directors with a bridge
card). FICON runs over Fibre Channel at a data rate of 1.062 Gbps. One of the main advantages of
FICON is the lack of performance degradation over distance that is seen with ESCON. FICON can reach
a distance of 100 km before experiencing any significant drop in data throughput.
Coupling Facility
Coupling Facility (CF) links, also known as ISC (InterSystem Channel) links, are used to connect
mainframes to a CF. The CF is used by multiple mainframes to share data in a sysplex or Parallel Sysplex
environment. This data sharing capability is key to the high availability features of a GDPS. Coupling
links run over Fibre Channel at data rates of 1.0625 Gbps (called ISC1 or ISC compatibility) and
2.1 Gbps (called ISC peer).
Sysplex Timer
Sysplex Timer links are the links used to provide the clock synchronization between the mainframes in
a Parallel Sysplex. There are two types of links used. The first is the link between each mainframe and
the Sysplex Timer, known as the ETR (external throughout rate) links. The second is the link between
redundant Sysplex Timers, referred to as the CLO (control link oscillator) links. In a high availability
GDPS environment, redundant Sysplex Timers are connected to each mainframe over ETR links, while
the timers are connected to each other over the CLO links. This protocol operates at 16 Mbps.
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
OL-7708-01
A-3
Appendix A
IBM Storage Protocol Support
Client Optical Power Budget and Attenuation Requirements
PPRC
PPRC (peer-to-peer remote copy) is a facility used in certain IBM disk controllers that allows
synchronous mirroring of data.
XRC
XRC (extended remote copy) is a facility used with certain IBM disk controllers that allows
asynchronous mirroring of data.
GDPS
GDPS (Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex) is a multisite parallel sysplex with sites up to 40 km
apart. It uses custom automation to manage mirroring of critical data and to balance workload for regular
use or for disaster recovery.
Client Optical Power Budget and Attenuation Requirements
Table A-1 shows the client optical power budget and attenuation requirements for the IBM storage
protocols and IBM’s implementation of other common protocols with high-end IBM servers that support
ESCON, FICON, and Fibre Channel. For each protocol, the table shows the transmit power and receiver
sensitivity ranges on the IBM server interface, the transponder type that supports this protocol on the
Cisco ONS 15530, the resulting client loss budget, and what attenuation is required at 0 km. Refer to the
Cisco ONS 15530 Hardware Installation Guide for the transmit powers and receiver sensitive ranges of
the Cisco ONS 15530 transponder interfaces.
Table A-1
Optical Power Budget and Attenuation Requirements with High-End IBM Servers
Protocol
IBM Server
Transmit (dBm)
IBM Server
Receive (dBm)
Cisco ONS 15530 Cisco ONS 15530 Client
Transponder
Loss Budget/Minimum
Type
Attenuation at 0 km
ESCON, SM
–3 to –8
–3 to –28
SM
Rx: 11 to 16 dB/none
Tx: 23 to 28 dB/–3 dB
ESCON, MM
ETR/CLO, MM
–15 to –20.5
–14 to –29
MM
Rx: 4.5 to 10 dB/none
Tx: 24 to 29 dB/–14 dB
FICON, SM/LX –4 to –8.5
–3 to –22
SM
Rx: 11.5 to 15 dB/none
Tx: 17 to 22 dB/–3 dB
ATM 155, SM
–8 to –15
–8 to –32.5
SM
Rx: 4 to 11 dB/none
Tx: 27.5 to 32.5 dB/–8 dB
ATM 155, MM
–14 to –19
–14 to –30
MM
Rx: 6 to 11 dB/none
Tx: 25 to 30 dB/–14 dB
FDDI, MM
–14 to –19
–14 to –31.8
MM
Rx: 6 to 11 dB/none
Tx: 26.8 to 31.8 dB/–14 dB
ISC, 1Gbps
–3 to –11
–3 to –20
SM
Rx: 8 to 16 dB/none
Tx: 15 to 20 dB/–3 dB
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
A-4
OL-7708-01
I N D EX
shelf configuration rules
Numerics
3-3
10-Gbps uplink cards
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards
optical loss
architecture (figure)
4-5
description
shelf configuration rules
3-2
splitter protection support
1-27
1-26
shelf configuration rules
3-3
2-5 to 2-6
3R functions
support
A
1-5
4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation cards
description
amplification
1-11 to 1-14
description
Fibre Channel latency (table)
protocol latencies
protocol monitoring
4-8
APS
4-8
support for
1-13
description
1-15, 1-19
1-14 to 1-17
protocol monitoring
4-9
4-9
protocol monitoring
transponder line card support
1-6
ESCON and
1-16
OADM modules
types
1-20
4-3
4-6, 4-7
transponder line cards
4-9
4-5
A-4
minimum for data channels
1-17 to 1-20
protocol latencies
A-4
8-port multi-service muxponders
8-port multi-service muxponders
description
client equipment attenuation
attenuation
Fibre Channel latency (table)
protocol latencies
1-3
ATM
8-port FC/GE aggregation cards
architecture (figure)
5-1
4-4
5-6
Automatic Protection Switching. See APS
10-Gbps ITU trunk cards
client based line card support
data flow (figure)
description
2-10, 2-11, 2-12
B
1-4
1-20, 1-22, 1-24
bands
nonsplitter architecture (figure)
optical loss
1-21, 1-23, 1-25
4-6
shelf configuration rules
1-28, 1-29
OADM module support (table)
3-3
splitter architecture (figure)
splitter protection support
OADM modules and
1-30
bidirectional path switching
1-22, 1-23, 1-26
2-6 to 2-8
10-Gbps ITU tunable trunk cards
description
figure
2-23
2-23
bus topologies. See point-to-point topologies
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
OL-7708-01
IN-1
Index
C
D
cabling. See OADM cabling
data channels
carrier motherboards
description
maximum number supported
1-3
optical loss through OADM modules
1-27
channels. See bands; data channels; OSC
optical loss through PSMs
4-7
chassis
receiver sensitivity (table)
4-2
description
figure
transmit power (table)
1-1
4-2
dBms
1-2
chromatic dispersion
description
planning considerations
considerations
description
description
2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13
description
client interfaces
1-34
DCUs
transponder line cards
planning considerations
1-5
client protection
5-8
decibel milliwatts. See dBms
decibels. See dBs
2-10, 2-11, 2-12
implementation considerations
scheme (figure)
2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13
dense wavelength division multiplexing. See DWDM
dispersion
2-11, 2-12, 2-13
client side interfaces
limits
transponder line cards
documentation
related
6-33
example (figure)
5-8
dispersion compensation units. See DCUs
1-5
collocated shelf topologies
description
4-1
DCC
2-9
description
4-1
dBs
5-7
client based line card protection
x
DS3
6-33
components
transponder line card support
description
description
1-8
DWDM
1-4 to 1-33
interfaces
Coupling Facility links
1-3
A-3
transponder line card support
1-7
CPUs. See CPU switch modules
CPU switch modules
description
features
4-6
1-31
1-31
switch fabrics
EDFAs
description
5-1
input power limits
1-32
cross connect drawers
cabling rules
E
3-2
5-7
performance parameters
5-2
encapsulations. See protocol encapsulations
Enterprise Systems Connection. See ESCON
1-8
equalization
channel power
5-8
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IN-2
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Index
erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. See EDFAs
client equipment attenuation
ESCON
description
aggregation card support
client equipment attenuation
client side attenuation
transponder line card support
A-4
4-7
protocol monitoring support
transponder line card support
1-8
A-3
GDPS
1-7
description
data flow (figure)
description
A-4
environment (figure)
1-3
architecture (figure)
1-7
G
ESCON aggregation cards
architecture
1-8
A-4
data rate as function of distance (figure)
latency (table)
A-3
protocol monitoring support
1-9
A-4
A-1
Gigabit Ethernet
1-10
protocol monitoring support
1-4
transponder line card support
1-8
1-6
1-9
latency (table)
4-7
optical loss (table)
protocol latencies
H
4-7
4-7
hubbed ring topologies
extended remote copy. See XRC
description
2-19
example (figure)
2-19
F
I
Fast Ethernet
transponder line card support
1-6
FDDI
attenuation requirements
client equipment attenuation
A-4
transponder line card support
1-6
fiber
testing
IBM protocols
Coupling Facility links
FICON
PPRC
Fiber Connection. See FICON
1-8
fiber failure
2-2
fiber nonlinearity
A-2 to A-4
A-3
A-4
in-band network channel
planning considerations
5-9
description
Fibre Channel
1-33
interfaces
autonegotiation support
latency (table)
supported types
XRC
A-4
A-4
Sysplex Timer
protection against
A-3
A-3
optical power budget
4-10
A-4
1-8
CPU switch module
4-8, 4-9
protocol monitoring support
transponder line card support
1-31
ISC compatibility
1-8
1-6
client equipment attenuation
A-4
ISC compatibility mode
FICON
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
OL-7708-01
IN-3
Index
transponder line card support
configurations
1-7
ISC peer mode
6-22 to 6-25
meshed ring topology examples
transponder line card support
6-30 to 6-31
mux/demux modules. See OADM modules
1-7
ITU-T G.692
laser grid
1-3
N
network management
L
comparison (table)
linear topologies. See point-to-point topologies
DCC
line card protected configurations
description
10-Gbps ITU trunk card example (figure)
10-Gbps uplink card example (figure)
6-11, 6-12
1-34
1-33
in-band message channel
1-33
NME
6-14
ESCON aggregation card example (figure)
1-35
6-11, 6-12,
6-14
network management Ethernet
See NME
transponder line card example (figure)
6-10, 6-14
line card protection
client based
NME
description
1-35
2-9 to 2-13
y-cable based
2-8 to 2-9
O
link loss. See optical loss
link loss budgets. See optical power budgets
OADM cabling
logical mesh topologies. See meshed ring topologies
description
3-1
OADM modules
architecture (figure)
M
bands supported
meshed ring topologies
description
example (figure)
examples
configurations
2-20
description
2-20
1-28
ring configurations
1-30
1-30
shelf configuration rules
6-32
3-2
See also OADM cabling
mixed topologies
OC-1
configuration examples
6-32
transponder line card support
MM fiber. See multimode fiber
transponder line card support
1-6
1-8
OFC
other supported client signal encapsulations
supported IBM storage protocols
1-8
OC-24
multimode fiber
common protocols
1-30
protected ring configuration (figure)
6-32
example (figure)
1-29
optical loss
6-27 to 6-31
mixed shelf topologies
description
1-29
1-7
1-7
protocol encapsulations supported
1-8
open fiber control. See OFC
multiple shelf nodes
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
IN-4
OL-7708-01
Index
optical loss
Optical Supervisory Channels. See OSCs
2.5-Gbps ITU trunk cards
8-port multi-service muxponders
10-Gbps ITU trunk cards
calculating
data channels
description
OSC
OSC
4-5
description
4-5
information types
4-6
receiver sensitivity (table)
4-6
transmit power (table)
4-2
4-7
4-2
4-2
OSC modules
transponder line cards
description
4-4
See also optical power budgets
1-27
shelf configuration rules
3-3
OSCs
optical loss OADM modules
planning considerations
optical mux/demux modules. See OADM modules
5-9
OSNR
optical power budgets
planning considerations
5-6
calculating
1-27
optical loss through OADM modules
4-3
4-6
about
1-27, 1-35
planning guidelines
5-6
5-6
5-7
line card protected 10-Gbps ITU trunk card example
(figure) 6-12, 6-13
P
line card protected transponder line card example
(figure) 6-11, 6-15
overall
path switching
4-2
example (figure)
splitter protect 10-Gbps ITU trunk card example
(figure) 6-8, 6-9
PB-OE modules
description
splitter protected transponder line card example
(figure) 6-7, 6-10
5-3
Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy. See PPRC
switch fabric based protected 10-Gbps ITU trunk card
example (figure) 6-16, 6-17
point-to-point topologies
description
trunk fiber protected 2.5-Gbps transponder line card
example (figure) 6-18
trunk fiber protected 8-port multi-service muxponder
example (figure) 6-19
2-17
examples
6-26 to 6-27
protected
2-18
unprotected
trunk fiber protected 10-Gbps ITU trunk card example
(figure) 6-20, 6-21
power supplies
unprotected 10-Gbps ITU trunk card configuration
example (figure) 6-3, 6-4
PPRC
unprotected transponder line card example (figure)
6-6
optical power loss. See optical loss
optical seams
description
6-2,
description
2-17
1-1
client interface support
description
See also optical loss
2-21
A-2
A-4
processors. See CPU switch modules
protected topologies
meshed ring example (figure)
5-4
6-29
optical signal-to-noise ratio. See OSNR
meshed ring with multiple shelf nodes example
(figure) 6-31
optical supervisory channel. See OSC
point-to-point example (figure)
6-26
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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IN-5
Index
protection
security features
description
ring topologies
types
overview
1-3, 2-1
1-33
shelf configuration rules
2-20
OADM modules
2-2 to 2-17
See also APS; client protection; line card protection;
splitter protection; y-cable protection
protection switch modules. See PSMs
protocol encapsulations
ring topologies
3-1 to 3-2
3-3
shelf configurations
line card protected
1-6, 1-7
splitter protected
protocol monitoring
6-10 to 6-14
6-6 to 6-9
switch fabric based protection
4-port 1-Gbps/2-Gbps FC aggregation cards
8-port FC/GE aggregation cards
8-port multi-service muxponders
transponder line cards
1-13
1-16
1-20
1-8
trunk fiber based protection
unprotected
6-15 to 6-17
6-18 to 6-21
6-1 to 6-5
shelf linking
10-GE client uplink example (figure)
PSMs
DWDM linked example (figure)
description
1-30
optical loss
4-7
ITU linked example (figure)
6-24
6-23
6-22
single-mode fiber
receiver ranges
4-2
transmit power
4-2
common protocols
1-6
other supported client signal encapsulations
trunk fiber protection
2-16
supported IBM storage protocols
1-7
1-7
SM fiber. See single-mode fiber
SONET
R
protocol monitoring support
receive power
levels
1-8
transponder line card support
5-7
1-6
splitter protected configurations
redundancy
10-Gbps ITU trunk card example (figure)
CPU switch modules
1-32
ESCON aggregation card example (figure)
ring topologies
description
transponder line card example (figure)
2-19
protection in
6-7, 6-8
6-7, 6-8
6-6, 6-9
splitter protection
2-20 to 2-23
shelf configuration rules
10-Gbps ITU trunk cards (figure)
3-3
considerations
See also hubbed ring topologies; meshed ring topologies
description
2-3, 2-4, 2-6, 2-7
2-2 to 2-8
scheme (figure)
2-5, 2-7
transponder line cards (figure)
S
2-5, 2-7
2-2, 2-4
storage area networks. See SANs
SANs
switch fabric based protected configurations
IBM environment
A-1
10-Gbps uplink card example (figure)
SDH
6-17
ESCON aggregation card example (figure)
protocol monitoring support
transponder line card support
1-8
1-6
6-17
switch fabric based protection
considerations
2-15
Cisco ONS 15530 Planning Guide
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OL-7708-01
Index
description
shelf configuration rules
2-13 to 2-15
switch fabric based protection configurations
ESCON aggregation card example (figure)
splitter protection support
6-15, 6-16
switch fabric protection
considerations
2-2 to 2-3, 2-3 to 2-4
y-cable protection support (figure)
2-8
trunk fiber protected configurations
2.5-Gbps transponder line card example (figure)
2-15
switch fabrics
ESCON aggregation card example (figure)
1-32
redundant (figure)
considerations
Sysplex Timer
description
IBM storage environment and
transponder line card support
1-7
2-16
2-16
U
1-4 to 1-33
functional description
6-20, 6-21
A-3
system
components
6-19
trunk fiber protection
1-32
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. See SDH
unidirectional path switching
1-3
description
system management
2-22
example (figure)
1-27
2-22
unprotected configurations
10-Gbps ITU trunk card example (figure)
10-Gbps uplink card example (figure)
T
topologies
transponder line card example (figure)
6-3, 6-4
6-5
ESCON aggregation card example (figure)
types
6-18
8-port multi-service muxponder example (figure)
description
OSC and
3-2
6-3, 6-4, 6-5
6-2, 6-5
unprotected topologies
6-25 to 6-33
See also hubbed ring topologies; meshed ring topologies;
point-to-point topologies
meshed ring example (figure)
point-to-point example (figure)
6-28
6-26
transmitter laser power
data channels
OSC
4-2
V
4-2
transponder line cards
architecture
variable optical attenuation
1-3
description
client based line card protection support
client interface encapsulation types
client interfaces
operation
VOA modules
description
5-2
1-3
W
1-4
OFC support
5-2
1-5 to 1-8
data flow (figure)
description
1-5
2-10
1-8
WB-VOA modules
1-4
optical loss (table)
description
protocol encapsulations
protocol monitoring
5-5
4-5
1-5
1-8
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Index
X
XRC
client interface support
description
A-2
A-4
Y
y-cable protection
considerations
description
figure
2-9
2-8 to 2-9
2-8
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