KDE Quick Start SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP4

KDE Quick Start SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP4
KDE Quick Start
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP4
July 14, 2015
www.suse.com
SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop provides the tools that Linux* users require in their daily activities.
It comes with an easy-to-use graphical environment, the KDE* desktop, that communicates with the
underlying Linux system to access and manage files, folders, and programs. SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop provides an integrated suite of applications that meet all professional requirements to perform
tasks in a business environment. The LibreOffice suite is also included, which allows you to edit and
save files in a number of formats. Because the office suite is available for several operating systems,
you can use the same data across different computing platforms.
sists of the following elements: a search function at
Getting Started
the top and several tabs at the bottom, providing
When you start your system, you are usually promptquick access to the key functions of the menu. Addied to enter your username and password. If you did
tionally, the menu displays your login name and the
not install the system yourself, check with the syshostname of your computer.
tem administrator for your username and password.
Starting Programs
After logging in to KDE for the first time, you see the
KDE desktop, which shows the following basic elements:
Start programs from the Main Menu or from the
command line, using a shell or the Run Command.
Additionally, you can start programs from the desktop or the panel by left-clicking the program icon
once.
Using the Main Menu
To open the Main Menu, click the Main Menu icon in
the panel or press Alt + F1.
Favorites shows a default selection of key programs
for quick access, whereas Applications shows all
applications installed on your system. To navigate
through the menu structure, click an entry and use
the arrow icons at the right or the left to switch back
and forth. Computer and Recently Used provide
quick access to some frequently used places, applications, or documents. Leave shows several options
for leaving the session such as logging out, locking the screen (access can only be regained with a
password), shutting down or restarting the computer. Some computers offer to suspend your session
to RAM or disc.
Desktop Folder: By default, the desktop folder shows the contents of its ~/Desktop directory.
Whenever you insert a file into this directory, it appears in this view too.
Desktop Context Menu: Right-click an empty
area on the desktop to access the context menu for
configuring the appearance of the desktop, adding
panels or widgets to the desktop, configuring desktop settings, locking the widgets in their current position, leaving the current session, or for locking the
screen.
Desktop Toolbox: Move your mouse pointer to
the icon in the upper right corner of the desktop to
access the menu that lets you add or lock widgets.
KDE Panel: By default, the panel of your KDE
desktop consists of the Main Menu icon on the left,
further widgets and program icons, and the panel
settings icon on the right. If you hover the mouse
pointer over an icon in the panel, a short description
is displayed.
Main Menu Click on the left side of the bottom
panel to open the main menu. The Main Menu con1
If you often need a program and do not want to dig
into the menu structure, you can integrate the icon
into the Favorites tab. Right-click the icon on any of
the other tabs and choose Add to Favorites.
a small window alerting you to this. It also proposes
possible actions, depending on the type of the device.
Using the Run Command Dialog
KRunner is a helper application that lets you quickly start programs. Apart from that, it offers a search
function for finding applications or locations.
Press Alt + F2 to open the Run Command dialog.
Type a command, for example, dolphin. While you
are typing, the dialog shows a list of applications or
actions that match your input. Select one of the results or press Enter to start the highlighted application or action. The command to start the application
is often (but not always) the application name written
in lowercase.
For example, if you plugged in a digital camera,
the actions allow you to download your photos with
Gwenview or digiKam. Click the device entry in the
widget to access the available actions. To safely remove the device from your computer, use the icon
on the right side of the device entry.
Customizing Your Desktop
You can change the way your KDE desktop looks
and behaves to suit your personal preferences.
Locking and Unlocking Desktop
Objects
Desktop elements can be locked in their current position to prevent them from being moved around on
the desktop. As long as the desktop elements are
locked you cannot add, move, or remove any objects to or from your desktop.
The Run Command dialog allows you also to use
different features. Click on the question mark icon
to see a list of active features. To configure or get a
list of all features, click on the wrench icon. You can
use so-called Web shortcuts defined in Konqueror
to send search requests directly to a search engine
without first opening the browser. Another interesting feature is to calculate a mathematical expression like =2+2^4-sin(2). Very useful is to convert units, for example, from miles per hour into kilometres per hour. Just insert the expression 60 mph
in km/h to get the converted value.
To lock or unlock the desktop elements, click the
cashew icon (desktop toolbox) at the upper right
corner of the desktop and select Lock Widgets or
Unlock Widgets.
Alternatively, right-click an empty patch on the desktop and select Lock Widgets or Unlock Widgets.
Changing Individual Desktop Elements
Searching for Programs
In the following, you can find some examples of how
to change individual desktops elements.
Both the Main Menu and the Run Command dialog
offer a search function that lets you quickly start programs even if you do not already know the exact application name or command. To search for an application, start typing a command or part of the application name in the Main Menu Search field or the input field in the Run Command dialog. Each character you enter narrows down the search.
Procedure 1: Adding Program Icons to the
Desktop
To create a link to an application and place it on the
desktop or the panel, proceed as follows:
1.
From the list below the input field, choose the application matching your query.
2.
Handling Media
If you insert a CD or DVD into your drive or plug in
a pluggable device (for example, a USB stick or removable hard disk), the device notifier widget opens
2
Click the Main Menu button and browse to the
desired application.
Right-click and select Add to Desktop from the
context menu that appears. If this menu item is
not available, your desktop elements are probably locked. Unlock them first as described
in Section “Locking and Unlocking Desktop
Objects” (page 2).
3.
To change the icon position on the desktop,
left-click the icon and drag it to the desired position.
To delete an icon from your desktop, right-click the
program icon and select Remove this Icon.
4.
Procedure 2: Adding Widgets to the Desktop or
to the Panel
1.
3.
4.
1.
If these menu items are not available, your
desktop elements are probably locked. In this
case, right-click and select Unlock Widgets
first.
2.
In the list that appears, select a widget. Use the
scrollbar to browse through the available widgets. To limit the selection of widgets, either enter a search term in the input field or choose a
Category.
3.
To make the selected widget appear on the
desktop or in the panel, double-click it and
close the dialog box.
To remove a widget from your desktop or panel,
right-click the widget and select the Remove...
entry.
2.
3.
If these menu items are not available, your
desktop objects are probably locked. In this
case, right-click and select Unlock Widgets
first.
Click the cashew icon at the end of the new
panel to access the configuration options and
customize the panel as described in Procedure 5, “Configuring Panels” (page 3).
To delete a panel, right-click a blank space in
the panel you want to delete and select Panel
Options → Remove this Panel. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop requires that at least one panel is left on the desktop.
You can customize all KDE panels according to
your preferences. Applications and widgets can be
added to the quick launch area or the system tray
in the main panel or to additional panels. Panel elements and additional panels can be moved to different places or be completely removed at any time.
Hover your mouse pointer over the widget until
a translucent frame appears around the widget,
showing a number of symbols:
1.
If the frame does not appear, your widgets are
probably locked. Unlock them first as described
in Section “Locking and Unlocking Desktop
Objects” (page 2).
To change the widget size, left-click the scale
symbol in the frame and keep the mouse button
pressed while slowly moving your cursor across
the desktop.
To rotate the widget in any direction, left-click
the arrow symbol in the frame and keep the
mouse button pressed while moving your cursor
in a circle across the desktop. There is a sticky
If you want multiple panels on the desktop,
right-click an empty area on the desktop, select
Add Panel and choose a panel type from the
list.
Procedure 5: Configuring Panels
Procedure 3: Configuring Desktop Widgets
1.
To change the contents, settings, or properties
of a widget, left-click the wrench symbol in the
frame. In the configuration dialog box that appears, set the options according to your wishes.
Procedure 4: Adding and Removing Panels
To add widgets to you desktop, right-click an
empty patch on your desktop and select Add
Widgets.
To add a widget to the panel, right-click an
empty patch on the panel, and select Panel Options → Add Widgets.
2.
boundary in the horizontal and vertical positions
where you can “clamp” the widget, if you like.
Of course, you can also arrange it in any tilted
position.
2.
3
To access any options for the current panel,
right-click an empty patch in the panel (or click
the cashew icon at the end of the panel) and select Panel Options → Panel Settings. The panel
changes view and shows its configurations options.
If the menu item and the icon are not available,
your desktop objects are probably locked. To
unlock, right-click and select Unlock Widgets
first.
To move panel objects to a different place within the panel, hover the mouse cursor over the
respective panel object (for example, program
icon, pager, task manager, system tray). The
mouse cursor turns into a crosslines-like form.
Click the object and move the cursor to the desired position in the panel. Click again to fix it at
this place.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
To enlarge the distance between two widgets,
use Add Spacer.... A spacer widget appears on
the right side. Drag and drop it to the preferred
place.
To change the panel width, click and drag the
small arrow icons at the left and right end of the
settings panel. Use the arrow on the left side to
set the panel's position and the arrows at the
right side to set the maximum and minimum
size.
To change the panel height, click the Height
button and move the mouse cursor to the desired end location.
To place the panel at different sides of the
screen use the Screen Edge button. Drag and
drop the panel to the preferred location.
If you need additional widgets on your panel,
add them with the Add Widgets... button as described in Procedure 2, “Adding Widgets to the
Desktop or to the Panel” (page 3).
To remove program icons or widgets from the
panel, right-click the unwanted object and select the menu item to remove the icon or widget.
d.
4.
To use a custom picture, click Open and
select an image file from the file system.
Set the other options in the configuration dialog
according to your wishes, and click OK to save
your changes and leave the configuration dialog.
Modifying Personal Settings
Apart from changing individual desktop elements,
KDE allows you to personalize your desktop to a
very high degree. Possibilities to adjust the overall
appearance and behavior of your desktop can be
found in the Personal Settings configuration dialog.
Start the Personal Settings from the Main Menu by
selecting Favorites → Configure Desktop.
The icons in the system tray usually belong to
applications running in the background. Therefore you can only remove those icons if you
close those applications (right-click the icon
and select Quit).
9. To prevent the panel and widgets from being
moved accidentally, use Lock Widgets.
10. For additional configurations options like alignment and functions (like auto hide), click More
Settings....
11. If all panel changes are according to your wishes, close the panel settings with the red close
button on the right side.
The settings are grouped into different categories.
Hover over an icon to see more details. Performing tasks in some areas of the personal settings requires system administrator (root) permissions.
Procedure 6: Changing the Desktop Background
You can change the desktop background to display
images, a slideshow, patterns or colors. It is even
possible to use a map of the globe or the weather report as desktop background.
1.
2.
3.
Change the settings as desired. No changes take effect until you click Apply. To discard changes in the
recent view that you have not yet applied, click Reset. To reset all items in the recent view to the default values, click Defaults.
Right-click an empty patch of the desktop and
select Desktop Settings. A configuration dialog
appears.
In the View section, choose a type from the
Wallpaper drop-down list. The further configuration options depend on the choice of the object to use as background.
For example, to use an image wallpaper:
a.
b.
c.
To get back to the start-up view (showing all categories) again, click Overview at the top left corner
of the dialog. You can also enter a search string at
the top of the window (for example, Screen Saver)
to find the category which holds options related to
the search string. Each character you enter in the
Search field further narrows the search.
Set Wallpaper to Image.
Define the Positioning of the image.
To use one of the available wallpapers,
either choose a wallpaper from the list or
click Get New Wallpapers to download additional wallpapers.
For easier overview of all categories, you can also
switch to a tree view by clicking Configure and selecting another View Style.
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Applying Desktop Effects
Procedure 8: Configuring Virtual Desktops
If your computer supports a 3D graphics card with
Xgl, you can use graphical effects like turning your
desktop into a rotating 3D cube, enabling translucent or transparent windows, and zooming in and
out of the desktop screen. You can also use other
window effects such as shadows, fading, and transformations. If you do not have a 3D graphics card,
some effects may be disabled or reduce the performance of your system. If the performance of your
system is too low, disable the effects for your current
session with Alt + Shift + F12.
You can increase the number of virtual desktops,
change the default names, assign activities, configure effect animations or assign keyboard shortcuts
for switching virtual desktops.
1.
2.
To add additional desktops, right-click the
pager in the panel and select Add Virtual Desktop. A new desktop is shown in the pager.
For any configuration options, right-click the
pager and select Pager Settings.
To configure effects on your desktop, proceed as
follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Start the System Settings as described in Section “Modifying Personal
Settings” (page 4).
Select Desktop Effects from the Workspace Appearance and Behavior category and choose
Enable Desktop Effects. If your graphic card
does not support 3D, you will be notified.
3.
Optionally, change some options below Common Settings.
4.
On the All Effects tab, select the effects you
want to activate. Click the information icon for a
short explanation of the respective effect. If an
effect is activated, the wrench icon on the right
gives access to further configuration options
like assigning keyboard shortcuts to the effect.
5.
Use Apply to enable the effects permanently.
Use the options on the General screen to configure the appearance of the pager in the panel.
Desktop names, keyboard shortcuts for switching desktops and the switching type can be
configured on the Virtual Desktops screen.
Set the options according to your wishes and
click OK to apply the changes and to close the
configuration dialog.
Managing Files and Folders
Using Virtual Desktops
With KDE 4, Dolphin has replaced Konqueror
as the default file manager. Konqueror remains
a Web browser (refer to Section “Browsing the
Internet” (page 7)). Start Dolphin, from the Main
Menu by selecting Favorites → File Manager or
press Alt + F2 and enter dolphin.
The desktop environment allows you to organize
your programs and tasks on several virtual desktops. If you often run a lot of programs simultaneously, this minimizes the number of windows to arrange
on your screen. You might, for example, use one
desktop for e-mailing and calendaring and another
for word processing and graphics applications.
Dolphin Main Window
The Dolphin main window consists of the following
elements:
Procedure 7: Moving an Application to Another
Virtual Desktop
You can display a running application on one or all
virtual desktops, or move it to other desktops.
1.
Open the application.
3.
Click To Desktop.
2.
4.
5.
Right-click the title bar of the application.
Select the desktop on which to place the application.
To switch to a certain desktop, click the desired
desktop in the pager in the panel. Switch to the
next or previous desktop by placing the mouse
cursor on an empty patch on the desktop and
move the mouse wheel.
Menu Bar: The menu bar holds menu items
for actions like copying, moving, or deleting files,
changing views, starting additional tools, defining
your settings, and getting help.
5
Toolbar: The toolbar provides quick access to
frequently used functions that can also be accessed
via the menu. If you hover the mouse pointer over an
icon, a short description is displayed.
5.
6.
Location Bar: The location bar displays the
path to the current directory. It is available in two
versions: one shows the path to the current directory with icons for every parent folder in a “bread
crumb” view. Click any icon in the bread crumb view
to change to that directory. The second version of
the location bar shows the path to the current directory as a string of text you can edit.
To quickly filter for certain filenames in the current
directory, press Ctrl + I to add the Filter input field
to the bottom of the Dolphin main window. Type any
part of the filename you are searching for to see all
files in the current directory containing the search
string. For more detailed and advanced searches,
press Ctrl + F to use the desktop search. For more
information, refer to Section “Using Strigi Desktop
Search” (page 11).
Panels: By default, Dolphin shows the Places
panel. It allows quick access to some often-used
places like your home directory, the root directory of
the file system (/), the trash bin, and removable media. There are several other panels you can add to
the main window by clicking View → Panels.
Configuring Dolphin
Display Field (Working Space): The display
field shows the contents of the selected directory or
file. By default, Dolphin displays the contents of your
home directory on start-up. By default, clicking a
folder or file in Dolphin directly starts an action: Dolphin loads the file into an application for further processing or opens the folder.
Dolphin offers many options for adjusting the view
and the overall settings according to your preferences.
Procedure 9: Changing the View
1.
Status Bar: Shows the file type and size of the
currently selected object and allows you to enlarge
or diminish the size of the icons or entries shown in
the display field.
To perform actions like copying, moving, creating or
deleting files, you need appropriate permissions to
the folders and files involved in your action.
To copy, move, or delete a file or folder, proceed as
follows:
2.
3.
4.
To switch from the bread crumb view to the
editable version of the location bar, press F6.
Enter a path to a directory by typing it in. After
typing an address, press Enter or click on the
background of the bread crumb view.
To delete the contents of the location bar click
the black X symbol on the left. To switch back
to bread crumb view, press Ctrl + L.
Managing Files and Folders with
Dolphin
1.
To insert the object you copied or cut in Step
2 (page 6), right-click the destination folder
in the main display field and select Paste. The
object is copied or moved there.
To delete a file or folder, right-click the object in
the main display field and select Move to Trash
from the context menu. The object is moved to
the trash bin. From there, you can restore it if
necessary or delete the object permanently.
2.
To change the view of the currently displayed
folder, either click Icons, Details, or Columns
in the toolbar. Dolphin remembers the selected view for each folder. Click Split or press F3
to view the contents of the current folder in two
separate columns. Now you can navigate to a
different directory in each column and easily
drag or drop objects or compare the contents
of directories. Press F3 again to leave the split
view.
3.
To make Dolphin also show hidden files, select
View → Show Hidden Files.
In order to select one or multiple files and folders in Dolphin, move your mouse pointer over
the file or folder but do not click. A green cross
appears on the upper-left edge. If you click it,
the object is selected. To deselect again, click
the red minus icon that appears if the object is
currently selected.
Alternatively, press Ctrl and click the objects
you want to select or deselect.
Right-click and select Copy or Cut from the
context menu.
Navigate to the destination folder in which to insert the object.
To create a new folder at the current location,
select File → Create New → Folder or press
F10. Enter a folder name in the new window
and press Enter.
6
4.
5.
6.
To view more details about the files (like access permissions or ownership) in the working
space, select View → Additional Information
and enable the corresponding options.
To add further directories to the Places panel, drag a folder from the working space to the
Places panel and drop it there. Right-click and
use the context menu to hide, edit or remove
entries from Places.
To add more panels to the main window, select View → Panels and select additional panels
such as Folders, or Terminal.
Detach the panels from the main Dolphin window by
clicking the left icon at the top of each panel. Click
the panel's title bar and drag it to another place on
the desktop. To reintegrate the panel into the Dolphin window, click the left symbol at the top of the
panel again.
Enter a URL in the location bar to start browsing.
To open a new, empty tab, press Ctrl + T. To open
a link in a new tab, click the link with your middle
mouse button. Right-click the tab itself to access
more tab options. You can create a new tab, reload
one or all existing tabs, or close them. You can also
change the sequence of the tabs by dragging and
dropping them to the desired position.
Procedure 10: Changing Dolphin's Overall
Behavior
Finding Information
If you want to change Dolphin's overall behavior or
view, select Settings → Configure Dolphin and explore the options offered in the Dolphin configuration
dialog.
Procedure 11: Searching the Web
1.
2.
3.
4.
Both browsers offer different kinds of search options: you can find information on the Web or you
can search the current Web page for keywords.
1.
To use the same view mode for all folders, click
General in the left sidebar and activate Use
Common View Properties for All Folders. Click
View Modes in the left sidebar and adjust the
options for the individual view modes. Click Apply to save the changes.
2.
3.
If you want Dolphin to show a different directory on start-up, or if you want to permanently use
the editable location bar instead of the bread
crumb view, click Startup in the left sidebar and
change the relevant options.
4.
To configure which entries and services to
show in the Dolphin context menu, click General. On the Context Menu tab, activate the entries to show. Click Services in the left sidebar
and activate or deactivate the respective services to appear in the context menu.
To start a search on the Web, click the left icon
in the search bar (located next to the location
bar) to open a list of search engines.
Select the desired engine and type your search
keywords into the input field.
Press Enter to start the search.
To search the current Web page with Firefox
or Konqueror, press Ctrl + F to open a find bar
at the bottom of the window. Enter your search
keyword there and use the buttons beneath the
bar to search in different directions or to configure search options such as Match Case.
Konqueror offers predefined Web shortcuts for
quickly searching the Web. For example, to search
the Web for yast using the Google search engine,
just type gg: yast into the Konqueror location bar
(or the Run Command dialog) and press Enter.
Click OK to save the changes and to close the
Dolphin configuration dialog.
You can also define individual Web shortcuts in
Konqueror and Firefox as described in Section
“Configuring Preferences” (page 8).
Browsing the Internet
Apart from Konqueror (KDE's default Web browser), SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop also includes
the default Firefox Web browser. To start Konqueror
or Firefox, press Alt + F2 and enter konqueror or
firefox.
Downloading Files from the Web
If you download a file with Firefox or Konqueror, a
dialog window appears asking you if you want to
save the file or to open it with a specific application.
Also choose if to remember the action you selected
for this type of file. By default, Firefox saves the file
to the folder configured in the Firefox Preferences
and shows your finished downloads in the Downloads dialog.
With features like tabbed browsing, pop-up window
blocking, and download and image management,
both browsers combine the latest Web technologies.
Their easy access to different search engines helps
you find the information you need.
7
To open the downloaded files directly from there,
right-click and select Open. To clean up the history
of downloaded files, click Clear List.
Configuring Preferences
Adjust preferences in Konqueror or Firefox. In Konqueror, access the configuration dialog with Settings
→ Configure Konqueror. To change the behavior of
Konqueror as Web browser, select one of the Web
Browsing sub categories in the left sidebar to show
the options for the relevant category. For example,
you can “hide” Konqueror's real identity and make
Konqueror identify as a different browser (for example, Internet Explorer*) for certain Web sites you visit. To do so, select Browser Identification, and click
New to add a new, site-specific identification.
To activate KWallet, select Basic Setup and click
Next. Select Yes, I wish to use the KDE wallet to
store my personal information and enter a password. This is your master password for the default
wallet (named kdewallet) that is created during
the next step.
WARNING: Protect Your KWallet
Password
If you forget your master password for any
wallet, it cannot be recovered. Furthermore,
anyone who knows your master password
can obtain all information contained in the
respective wallet.
Click Finish to close the wizard. If you started the
KWallet wizard initially from another application like
Konqueror or KMail, KWallet will prompt you to enter
the password once again in order to store the password for this application in the newly created wallet.
After initial configuration you can open your wallet at
any time to view, search, delete, or create entries.
Normally you do not need to insert an entry manually. KDE recognizes if a resource requires authentication and KWallet starts automatically, prompting you
for the KWallet password. However, you can add
additional data if you wish. To configure any KWallet options, press Alt + F2 and enter kwalletmanager. In the KDE Wallet Manager that opens select
Settings → Configure Wallet.
You might also want to configure the Web shortcuts
you can use with Konqueror (and the Run Command
dialog). In the Konqueror configuration dialog, click
Web Shortcuts to see which shortcuts are already
defined. Click New to define new shortcuts. Leave
the Konqueror configuration dialog with OK to apply
your changes.
In Firefox, select Edit → Preferences to open the
Firefox Preferences. Click the icons in the upper display field to access the options for the relevant category. For example, change the default download
folder on the General page, or adjust the pop-up
blocking feature on the Content page. Click OK to
apply the changes.
Whereas KWallet is designed to centrally manage
passwords for several KDE applications, Firefox also offers the ability to store data when you enter a
username and a password on a Web site. If you accept by clicking Remember, the password will be
stored on your hard disk in an encrypted format. The
next time you access this site, Firefox will automatically populate the login fields.
To configure a Web shortcut for a search in Firefox, browse to the Web page with the desired search
field. Right-click the search field and choose Add
a Keyword for this Search.... Enter a Keyword and
leave the dialog with OK.
To review or manage your passwords in Firefox,
click Edit → Preferences → Security → Saved Passwords....
Managing Passwords
When you enter a password in a KDE application
for the first time (in KMail or Konqueror, for example), you are asked if you want to store the password. If you click Yes, KWallet wizard starts by default. KWallet is a password management tool that
can collect all passwords and store them in one or
more encrypted files (called wallets).
E-Mailing and Calendaring
For reading and managing your mails and appointments, you can use Kontact as your personal information management tool (PIM). Kontact combines KDE applications like KMail, KOrganizer, and
KAddressBook into a single interface. This gives
8
you easy access to your e-mails, calendar, address
book, and other PIM functionality. Kontact can also
manage multiple e-mail accounts.
Wise® Messenger, ICQ, Jabber*, SMS, and Yahoo!*. To be able to use instant messaging (IM), you
must register with a provider offering IM services
and configure a Kopete account.
Starting Kontact for the First Time
To start Kopete, press Alt + F2 and enter kopete.
If started for the first time, click the wrench icon at
the bottom of the Kopete window to create an account. Kopete guides you through the setup steps
like selecting the messaging service, and entering
the respective account information like username or
ID, server name and port and any authentication details like passwords. If you have not registered with
the provider for the selected messaging service yet,
click Register New Account. In the browser window
that opens, enter your user data to register. Switch
back to Kopete and enter the data received on registration. Complete the configuration of your account
by clicking Finish.
To start Kontact, press Alt + F2 and enter kontact.
To access one of its components like KMail, click
the corresponding icon in the left sidebar.
If you decided to go online after configuring your account, you can now add contacts in the main Kopete
window. If the Kopete window shows offline ,
first click File → Set Status → Online and enter your
password if you are prompted for it. After connecting, click File → Add Contact and select the Kopete
account for which you want to add contacts. Enter
the contact data or search for a contact and click
OK.
Before you can send or receive mails, you must configure an e-mail identity and account:
1.
From the menu, select Settings → Configure
Kontact....
2.
In the left side pane under Mail, click Identities
and select the identity that KMail has automatically created for you. Modify it by entering your
full name and e-mail address and confirming
your changes.
3.
4.
To view all your contacts, even if they are offline at
the moment, select Settings → Show Offline Users.
Click Accounts in the left side pane under Mail
and Add at least one account on the tabs for
Receiving and Sending mails. (Optionally, you
can configure multiple mail accounts).
To start a chat with someone, click the desired contact and type your message in the lower part of the
chat window. Press Enter to send the message. The
upper part of the window displays the messages you
have sent and received.
Usually, the following information is required
for both incoming and outgoing mail: Account
Type, Server Name and Port. Depending on the
account, you may also need to set encryption or
authentication options. If you are not sure about
the settings or items to select, consult your Internet Service Provider or system administrator.
Confirm the setup and leave the configuration
dialog with OK.
To write a new mail, click the Mail icon in the Kontact main window and press Ctrl + N to open the
mail composer. After you have finished your mail,
click Send to send it immediately. In case you have
configured multiple e-mail accounts, keep the Send
button pressed, then select the account from which
you want to send the mail.
Starting LibreOffice
The office suite LibreOffice offers a complete set of
office tools, including word processor, spreadsheet,
presentation, vector drawing, and database components. Because LibreOffice is available for a number of operating systems, you can use the same data across different computing platforms.
Instant Messaging with Kopete
Kopete is an online messenger application that allows multiple partners connected to the Internet to
chat with each other. Kopete currently supports a
number of common messenger protocols, such as
AOL* Instant Messenger (AIM), Gadu-Gadu, Group-
To start LibreOffice press Alt + F2 and enter libreoffice. To create a new document, select File
→ New and choose the type of document to cre9
ate. To open an existing document, select Open and
choose the appropriate file from the file system.
2.
To create an annotation for a page, press F6
and select one of the annotation tools from the
toolbar that appears. The annotation is added
to the list of Reviews and is flagged with the login name of the user who created it. Use the
icons at the bottom of the sidebar to group the
annotations by page, by author or to show the
annotations for the current page only.
3.
To open a pop-up note and add text for an annotation (or to remove an annotation), right-click
the annotation entry in the Reviews list and select the corresponding menu item. The annotations or markers you added are automatically attached to the file, you do not need to save
them.
Find more information in the LibreOffice.org Quick
Start.
Viewing PDF Files and Other
Documents
Documents that need to be shared or printed across
multiple platforms can be saved as PDF (Portable
Document Format) files, for example, in the LibreOffice suite. View them with Okular, the default KDE
document viewer.
Using Okular Document Viewer
Apart from PDF files, Okular allows you to view a
great number of file formats, such as PostScript,
several image formats, OpenDocument format
(ODF), OpenDocument text (ODT), some eBook formats (ePub), and even Microsoft* Compiled HTML
Help (CHM). Okular also provides support for bookmarks, annotations, form fields and multimedia content, and the rotation of pages.
Start Okular from the Main Menu or press Alt + F2
and enter okular.
To open a document, select File → Open and
choose the desired file from the file system. Navigate through the document by using the navigation
icons at the top or bottom of the window. Depending on which icon you click on the navigation panel
on the left, the sidebar either shows a table of Contents, a Thumbnail view of each page, the Reviews,
or your Bookmarks for this file. To filter for any text
listed in the sidebar or the overall document, enter a
string into the input field at the top of the sidebar. If
you want to select and copy text or images from the
file in Okular, click the Selection icon in the toolbar
and select one of the options from the context menu.
Click the Browse icon to switch back to browsing the
document.
Searching for Data
KDE provides more than one application for finding
data on your computer or in the file system. One application is KFind, which is described below.
Using KFind
To perform basic and advanced searches, use
KFind. Start it from the Main Menu by clicking Applications → Find Files/Folders or press Alt + F2 and
enter kfind.
Procedure 13: Searching by Name
Procedure 12: Working with Bookmarks and
Annotations
To use a filename (or a part of it) as the search keyword, proceed as follows:
With Okular, you can review a document by highlighting certain text parts or adding annotations or
bookmarks that Okular then attaches to the file in
the form of metadata. Note that the annotations and
markers you add are not stored within the document, so you cannot print them or pass them on to
other users.
1.
1.
3.
2.
To add a bookmark for a page, click the page
in the sidebar or in the main display field and
press Ctrl + B. The page is added to the Bookmarks list on the left sidebar. Right-click the
bookmark entry to access a context menu for
going to this bookmark or renaming, or removing it.
4.
10
Enter the filename or a part of the filename in
the Named input field. Use wild cards, such as
an asterisk (*), to indicate missing characters
in the filename.
Specify the folder in which to search for the file.
Either enter a path to the folder in Look in or
click Browse to locate the folder.
To search subfolders, check Include Subfolders.
Click Find to start the search. The results are
displayed in the lower part of the dialog. To directly open the result, just click it. Right-click it
to choose one of the options from the context
menu.
Procedure 14: Searching by Contents or
Properties
For a more detailed search, you can also specify further options, such as a text the file must contain or
the creation or modification date of a file. To search
for content or properties, proceed as follows:
1.
2.
3.
On the Name/Location tab, specify at least
the path to search for the file. You can leave
Named empty.
To search for certain content in a file, click the
Contents tab. In Containing Text, enter the word
or phrase the file to find must contain. This option does not work for all types of files.
To search for properties such as creation or
modification date of the file, click the Properties
tab and choose the options you want.
4.
5.
6.
Insert a writable CD or DVD into the device then
click the Burn icon.
Check the settings on the Writing tab. Usually
the defaults should work well for almost all files.
If you wish, you can change more options (for
example the Volume Name) on the Filesystem
tab.
Click Burn.
Managing Your Digital Image
Collection
4.
With digiKam, it is easy to manage your digital images: download your images from the camera, edit and improve them, organize them in albums (or
flag them with tags for easy retrieval, independent of
folders or albums), archive them on CD or DVD, or
export them to a Web image gallery.
Click Find to start the search.
Using Strigi Desktop Search
Strigi Desktop Search offers advanced search capabilities by additionally searching for metadata such
as tags, ratings, and even source URLs for downloads. It requires the services nepomuk and strigi to run. To activate these services, press Alt + F2
and enter strigi. Choose Nepomuk/Strigi server
Configuration to start the configuration dialog. Enable the two services on the tab Basic Settings and
leave the dialog by clicking Apply and OK.
digiKam also contains a set of useful batch functions and plug-ins, allowing you to convert multiple
images to various different formats, rename multiple images, or automatically improve them with functions such as red eye reduction, speck removal, and
hot pixel removal. Various filter and effects plug-ins
help create works of art from your digital images.
To start digiKam, press Alt + F2 and enter
digikam. On initial start-up, the first-run wizard appears to guide you through the setup.
Once activated, you can use KRunner (Alt + F2) to
search for files by just typing a keyword. A more advanced search interface is available in the Dolphin
file manager. Press Ctrl + F in Dolphin to activate
the desktop search. You can filter the search results
for Filename, Content or location.
Creating a CD or DVD
If you possess a CD or DVD writer, you can burn
files to a CD or DVD with K3b. To create a data CD
or DVD, proceed as follows:
1.
2.
3.
digiKam's main window contains a tree view on the
left and shows thumbnails of the images on the right.
For quick access to your images, use the sidebar on
the left, which allows you to switch between different views, for example, sorting the images according to Albums, Dates, Tags or Searches. To enter
digiKam's viewing and editing mode, double-click an
image thumbnail.
Press Alt + F2 and enter k3b. K3b opens.
Select File → New Project → New Data Project
from the main menu.
Use the tree view in the top left part of the window to search for the files or folders to burn.
When they appear in the top right part of the
window, drag and drop them into the Current
Projects window.
11
Managing Your Music Collection
Restarting or Shutting Down the
Computer
KDE's Amarok music player allows you to play various audio formats, create playlists, listen to streaming audio broadcasts of radio stations on the Internet
and subscribe to podcasts. The file types supported
depend on the engine used for Amarok.
Click Leave, then select one of the following options:
Sleep
Only available if your computer provides power
management functionality. Pauses your computer
without logging you out. All your data and the session data is saved to RAM.
Hibernate
Only available if your computer provides power
management functionality. Pauses your computer without logging you out. All your data and the
session data is saved to disk before the system is
laid to rest. It is thus protected against data loss
should you lose power in the meantime.
Restart
Restarts your computer.
Shutdown
Logs you out of the current session, then turns off
the computer.
To start Amarok, press Alt + F2 and enter amarok.
On first start, Amarok asks for the folders where to
look for your music files.
For More Information
Amarok's main window shows a sidebar on the left
providing different views: your local music collection,
some addresses to listen to podcasts or streams
from the Internet, your playlists and a file browser.
The middle part, the context browser, displays information about the current track, the Wikipedia page
of the artist and the song's lyrics by default. The
right part of the window shows the current playlist.
To play music, just drag and drop items from any
of the sidebar browsers to the playlist area. Double-click an item in the playlist to start playback.
This guide gave you a short introduction to the KDE
desktop and some key applications running on it. To
discover more, refer to the KDE User Guide (↑KDE
User Guide), and the other manuals available
for SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop at http://
www.suse.com/doc/sled11/.
To learn more about KDE and KDE applications, also refer to http://www.kde.org/ and http://
www.kde-apps.org/.
Legal Notice
If your music files are properly tagged (containing
at least information about the artist and album), you
can make use of several nice Amarok features. To
automatically retrieve the album cover images from
Amazon, select Tools → Cover Manager and click
Fetch Missing Covers. The next time you play a
track from this album, the cover is displayed in the
context browser and on the on-screen display. To
learn more about the artist, click on the Wikipedia
button in the middle area to make Amarok search for
the appropriate Wikipedia article.
Copyright© 2006–2015 SUSE LLC and contributors. All rights reserved.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
modify this document under the terms of the GNU
Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or (at your
option) version 1.3; with the Invariant Section being this copyright notice and license. A copy of the license version 1.2 is included in the section entitled
“GNU Free Documentation License”.
For SUSE and Novell trademarks, see the Novell Trademark and Service Mark list http://
www.novell.com/company/legal/trademarks/tmlist.html. All other third party trademarks are the property of their respective owners. A
trademark symbol (®, ™ etc.) denotes a SUSE or
Novell trademark; an asterisk (*) denotes a third party trademark.
To configure the use of another engine (or various
other Amarok features), select Settings → Configure
Amarok.
Logging Out
Log out (and leave the system running), restart or
shut down the computer.
All information found in this book has been compiled
with utmost attention to detail. However, this does
not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SUSE
LLC, its affiliates, the authors, nor the translators
shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof.
Logging Out or Switching Users
Click the Main Menu button on your panel and select
Leave → Logout. This ends your session but leaves
the system running. To start a parallel session as a
different user, select Leave → Switch User instead.
12
GNU Free Documentation License
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly
display copies.
Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy
and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their
work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the
Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover
Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both
covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front
cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You
may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document
must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first
ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free
software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the
same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction
or reference.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you
must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option,
you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in
quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or
through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
0. PREAMBLE
1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License.
Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual
or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the
license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before
redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
4. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of
sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this
License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you
must do these things in the Modified Version:
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that
deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the
Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a
Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of
historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document,
and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the
original publisher of that version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless
they release you from this requirement.
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under
this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed
to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the
Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright
notices.
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or
Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25
words.
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the
Addendum below.
A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in
a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising
the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels)
generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is
suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose
markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for
any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts
given in the Document's license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at
least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the
title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an
item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document
for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You
may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the
Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup,
Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD,
and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors,
SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and
the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for
output purposes only.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the
section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages
as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page.
For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text
near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body
of the text.
M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the
Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with
any Invariant Section.
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a
section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list
of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct
from any other section titles.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included
by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of
this License.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review
or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
standard.
2. VERBATIM COPYING
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to
25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.
Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover
text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on
explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying
this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to
obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to
use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
1
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
agreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under
the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the
combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you
preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the
requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
9. TERMINATION
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections
with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that
section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the
Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their
licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS
LICENSE
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original
documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
"Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
Entitled "Endorsements".
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present
version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents
with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this
License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of
any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and
follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License
for your documents
7. AGGREGATION WITH
INDEPENDENT WORKS
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU
Free Documentation License”.
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the
compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document,
then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover
Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the
“with...Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the
Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of
some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document,
and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version
of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a dis-
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three,
merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing
these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU
General Public License, to permit their use in free software.
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