Understanding Control Systems and Communications for Today s Automobiles

Understanding Control Systems and Communications for Today s Automobiles
automotive
Understanding Test Methods for Automobile
Control and Communications Systems
SENSOR TESTING
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
ENGINE CONTROL UNIT
SERIAL BUS
EMI / EMC
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Introduction
The tremendous increase of electronic functions and controls and and the need to communicate
vital information throughout the vehicle has increased the complexity of today’s vehicle
designs and the test processes needed to debug and verify these designs. This applications kit
specifically addresses these control and communication systems testing challenges for today’s
automobiles so you can learn how to resolve the challenges that are driving you.
R&D DC Characterization of Sensors.............................................................................................................................................. 3
Production Testing of Sensors.......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Testing MEMS Accelerometers for Cruise Control and Stability Control Systems.............................................................. 5
Testing Engine Control Units (ECUs)................................................................................................................................................ 6
Simulating Sensor Signals................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Signal Generators for Today’s Complex Signals........................................................................................................................... 8
Multipoint Measurements in Automotive Test Applications..................................................................................................... 9
The Role of Switching Systems for Testing Cables, Connectors, and Insulators................................................................ 10
Testing the Communication Buses in Automotive Designs.......................................................................................................11
Solutions for Testing Automotive Communication Protocols (Buses)................................................................................... 12
Controlling Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)........................................... 13
EMI/EMC Testing with Confidence................................................................................................................................................ 14
Mixed Domain Oscilloscope with a Built-In Spectrum Analyzer .......................................................................................... 15
Automotive Testing Solutions that Keep Pace with Emerging Technologies, Standards,
and Requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................. 16
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Sensor Development and Characterization
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
are vital components of automotive electronic
systems, as modern vehicles rely on these
electronic systems to make sure vehicles meet
efficiency and security standards as well as
environmental regulations.
New technologies for electrical/electronic sensors offer numerous advantages in the design of detection
systems to meet speed and ease of use criteria. With proper testing and calibration, sensors can meet these
criteria while providing reliable results that minimize false positive and negative indications.
Performance criteria for sensor systems include:
nSensitivity/resolution/accuracy/repeatability
n Dynamic range
n Environmentally robust – tolerance to temperature, electrical noise, physical shock, vibration, etc.
n Usable lifetime/adaptability/safety/integrity
n Speed and ease of use (testing/calibration/maintenance)
Automotive electronic control units require a wide variety of sensor applications. Automotive sensors are used
to measure temperature, pressure, flow, position, gas concentration, speed, brightness humidity, etc. Future
trends in the automotive sensor technology are making sensors miniaturized, multi-functional, integrated, and intelligent.
R&D DC Characterization of Sensors
Electrical characterization of sensors involves comprehensive current-voltage (I-V) testing,
requiring instruments such as digital multimeters (DMMs) and power sources. Quite often,
Keithley’s source measure unit (SMU) instruments can provide a fully integrated, fourquadrant, all-in-one solution for I-V testing for sensors.
n Source and measure voltage and current, with best-in-class low current resolution
n Precision current and voltage, sourcing and measurement
n Source and load functionality
n Faster test time with high accuracy and repeatability
n Avoid complex synchronization, interconnection, and programming issues caused by
using multiple instruments
Download the technical e-guide, Source Measure Units Instruments: The Tool
of Choice for Emerging R&D Applications
Basic SMU Topology
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Production Testing of Sensors
Automotive sensor production testing requires the use of economic and flexible test equipment that has a
high degree of automation, high speed, high performance, and high reliability. Sensor manufacturers need test
systems that can easily adapt to technologies in next-generation sensors, and they need test systems that can
maximize the effectiveness and life of their capital investment.
Keithley SMU instruments are very suitable for the production and automated sensor testing applications that
need high accuracy and sensitivity.
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Apply Source Measure Unit Instrument.
Download the New Materials and Devices e-guide.
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Testing MEMS Accelerometers for Cruise Control and Stability Control Systems
Testing MEMS wafers requires probing stations and test systems that are capable of making ultra-low level
measurements. Keithley is well known for more than 30 years of expertise in and commitment to parametric
test, and parametric test systems are designed to test new semiconductor wafers and MEMS devices that
will be the core of new automotive sensors. Our S530 Parametric Test Systems are readily adaptable to new
devices and test requirements and offer capabilities that:
n Minimize heat generation with low level sourcing and measurement
n
Measure resistive electrode elements
n Measure capacitance between vibrating elements
n Measure stray leakage currents
n Provide excitation signals for functional test
The Keithley S530 Parametric Test System features:
n Current measurements with 1fA resolution and current sourcing with 20fA resolution
n Voltage measurement with 1µV resolution and voltage sourcing with 5µV resolution
n Capacitance measurements down to 10pF
n Probe card testing for up to 64 pins
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S530 Semiconductor
Parametric Test Systems.
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Testing Engine Control Units (ECUs)
Automotive engines are electronically controlled by an onboard computer known as an ECU. An ECU computes information in
real time to determine optimum values for engine control parameters based on data relayed from sensors placed around the
vehicle. Multiple control systems are used in contemporary automotive electronics systems, with as many as a 100 built into
top-of-the-line luxury vehicles. These systems are required to function in an extremely challenging environment. Malfunctions
cannot be tolerated, as this could jeopardize passenger safety.
Numerous inputs are needed to stimulate and test the performance of an ECU. Sensor signals can be simulated with DC
voltage levels. Signals from the camshaft and other types of sensors require AC voltage waveforms. Also, the ability for the
ECU to drive outputs such as lighting, solenoids, and motorized components must be validated; and, the ECU’s communication
protocol performance must be verified.
Operational conditions and requirements for ECUs have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Similarly, demand for the
ability to analyze higher frequencies has escalated, particularly with regard to noise immunity and transient signals capture.
Noise spikes in the millisecond or microsecond, and, most recently, at the nanosecond level, need to be identified and acquired.
However, because of the presence of extremely
noisy waveforms, analysis of high-frequency noise
in the order of nanoseconds with conventional
oscilloscopes and probes had been problematic.
Tektronix DPO7000 Series Oscilloscopes and TDP
1000 High Voltage Differential Probes can be used
to successfully analyze nanosecond transient noise
spikes in ECUs for engine control.
Read the case study
Denso Selects Tektronix for Automotive Test Solution
Learn more about the DPO7000 Series Oscilloscopes
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Simulating Sensor Signals
To test automotive electronic control units, the units must receive simulated sensor signals.
Various automotive sensor signals, such as pressure, temperature, speed, angle of rotation
and displacement, simulation shaft, camshaft, wheels, locks, and other automotive engine
sensor signals need to be recreated for functional testing and optimization of control units
performance.
In its various configurations, the signal generator can provide stimulus signals in the form
of basic analog waveforms, custom analog waveforms, digital data patterns, modulated
signals, distorted signals, and noise. The signal generator can generate any waveform
encountered in the automotive environment.
Download the primer, XYZs of Signal Generators.
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The World’s Fastest and Most Versatile Signal Generators for Today’s Complex Signals
Tektronix signal generators cover a wide range of applications, from replicating sensor signals to creating RF
signals and the fastest high speed serial data signals. Each versatile signal generator can create a virtually
unlimited number of signals:
n Analog or digital
n Ideal or distorted
n Standard or custom
From the world’s only direct synthesis of high-speed serial
data waveforms for testing, to the world’s most versatile
arbitrary function generator for common stimulus signals,
Tektronix has a signal generator to overcome any automotive
test challenge.
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signal generators.
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Multipoint Measurements in Automotive Test Applications
There are many automotive systems tests that require only common instruments, such as load banks, high current power supplies, and
DMMs. However, more specialized tests of conductors and insulators require instruments designed specifically for the measurement
extremes involved in low resistance, high resistance, and low current testing. Complex devices, such as DC/DC converters, inverters,
airbag igniter systems, and other electronic controllers require more extensive testing and multifaceted test systems.
Automotive control units have a large number of inputs and outputs, and testing requires measurements at each of these inputs
and outputs. Therefore, test systems that employ signal switching are essential for accurate, efficient, and fast testing of control
units. In such a test system, the measuring instruments, signal switching, and other critical components should be selected for
ease of integration and optimum overall performance. Ideally, a fully-integrated data logging and switch system, such as Keithley’s
Series 2700 and Series 3706A Integrated Digital Multimeter/Switch/Data Logger Systems, eliminates the need to mix test system
components and is perfect for so many automotive applications:
n Monitoring temperature for air conditioning and heating elements of dashboards
n Automotive body control module testing for sensors
n Production/functional testing of signals from multiple sensors (MEMs) in ESPs and ABS systems
n Cable harness, wiring, connectors – low resistance testing
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High Performance DMMs for single- and multi-channel applications
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The Role of Switching Systems for Testing Cables, Connectors, and Insulators
Continuity Test System
Conductor 1
Continuity Testing
Continuity checks are performed on a variety of devices, including cable assemblies, printed circuit boards, and
connectors, to ensure that these components meet their specifications. When setting up a continuity test, the
maximum resistance at which the device is considered to be valid must be specified. For example, any measured
resistance of 1Ω or less indicates a good device. Continuity checks require measuring low resistance, so a
four-wire measurement technique used to eliminate lead and switch resistance errors and allow resistance
measurements down to microΩ levels.
Ch. 1
Ch. 21
Conductor 2
Ch. 2
Ch. 22
Testing IR from any one terminal of
a multipin connector to all others.
Conductor 20
Ch. 20
For testing multi-conductor devices, a switch system is useful for connecting the measurement instrument to each
conductor automatically.
7111-S 40-Channel Form C Switch Card
Ch. 40
1
HI Sense
Insulation Resistance Testing
An isolation resistance or insulation resistance test is often performed in addition to the continuity test. DC
insulation resistance (IR) is the ratio of the DC voltage applied between two conductors separated by an insulator
to the total current flowing between the two conductors. The test voltage is applied for a specified period of
time before the resulting current is measured. The measured current is usually quite small, so a picoammeter or
electrometer is often required to make the measurement.
LO Sense
HI Source
Ohmmeter
LO Source
Model 2700/7702 Multimeter/Data Acquisition System
Terminals 2
of Multi-pin
Connector
40
Ch. 1
Ch. 2
Ch. 40
HI Output LO
HI
6517B Electrometer/Source
pA
or
6487 Picoammeter/Source LO
The insulation resistance of a DUT is measured to determine that it’s greater than a specified
minimum value.
An example of insulation resistance measurement would be the resistance between conductors
in a multi-conductor cable. IR measurements often involve multiple conductors, so a switching
system is often required to switch the picoammeter and the source to all the conductors in
the test circuit. The design and type of switching cards used in an IR test system depend on
several factors, including the test voltage, magnitude of resistance, and accuracy.
Voltage
Source
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Switching Applications
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Testing the Communication Buses in Automotive Designs
The communication protocols that transmat and receive data between sensors, electronic control systems,
and actuation devices must be highly resistant to EMI, have fast data transfer rates, and be low cost. To
have a high noise tolerance, the communication protocols must have superior error detection algorithms.
An automobile may use a number of different protocols for different applications; thus the se protocols
must coexist in the harsh automotive environment. These protocols include CAN, LIN, MOST, and FlexRay.
Debugging and testing these communication links is challenging and time consuming. Tools are needed
to quickly and easily decode a transmission and time correlate the data with external events initiated by
sensor signals. Tektronix oscilloscopes and logic analyzers provide all the necessary capabilities to decode
automotive buses and provide protocol-level views of data sequences. Mixed signal oscilloscopes and logic
analyzers also provide innovative troubleshooting capabilities and comprehensive support for monitoring,
triggering, and decoding the various automotive buses. Tektronix instruments ensure measurement
confidence and support for the most efficient debugging and testing of automotive links.
Trace serial data flow between nodes through a network
n Simultaneously display messages at transmitter and receiver to
verify continuity and propagation delays
OMFORT I
ESP
Gear
Box
Left Door
CAN
Gateway
CAN
Seat
Control
NFO
TA
IN
Climate
Control
CAN
Mobile Phone
Air Bag
ABS
Car
Radio
Sensor
ABS
MOST
Multi Media
Module
Motor
LIN
CAN
DR
CAN,
Flexray
IVET
R
AIN
CE
E
GIN
EN
CAN
AN
SAF
ET Y
CAN
Right Door
T
EN
CAN,
LIN
Engine
Control
M
Trace serial data flow between network segments separated by a
gateway
n Simultaneously display messages from multiple buses, at different speeds, or even different bus standards
C
DY/
O
B
LIN
Diagnostic
T
IS
S
S
RA
DRIVE
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Superior Solutions for Testing Automotive Communication Protocols (Buses)
Tektronix oscilloscopes have power features for analyzing and verifying the
performance of automotive buses:
n Advanced triggering modes that allow triggering on a wide range of
signals and conditions
n Eye diagram and mask analysis
n Simultaneously display messages at transmitter and receiver to verify
continuity and propagation delays
n Multiple protocol analysis on one instrument
n Powerful search capabilities to isolate an anomaly
Triggering on specific identifier and
Data on a CAN bus and decoding all
messages in the acquisition.
Simultaneous capture and decode of
multiple automotive serial buses.
DPO4AUTOMAX Eye Diagram
analysis of a FlexRay signal.
Learn how to solve embedded system design issues with
exceptional efficiency. Download the application note
Debugging Serial Buses in Embedded System Designs.
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Controlling Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Complying with
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Standards
Meeting EMC standards and eliminating EMI in automotive systems requires designs that both minimize
emissions and can shield circuits from the increasing sources of noise in the automotive environment.
The increase in noise sources is resulting from both integrated electronics and electronics devices
brought into the automobile. Internal sources of intefering noise can originate from navigation systems,
engine control systems, and wireless communication systems. External sources of noise brought into
the automobile can include mobile phones, tablet computers, electronic gaming devices, and radar
detection devices.
Infotainment systems
Remote entry devices
Portable Electronic Devices
Back-up
radar / camera
Navigation, Bluetooth,
Car Audio and Radio
Adaptive Cruise Control
EMI/EMC test challenges include:
n Performing tests required by national and international EMC standards
n Identifying the sources of noise that are interfering with system performance
o RF interference
o Power transients
o Electrostatic discharge
o Changing electric and magnetic fields from drivetrain power electronics and motors
n Capturing random events
HV/EV Electronic
drive systems
Electronic
engine controls
Convertor/Inverter
Alternator
An infrequent transient is captured on a Tektronix
RSA series real time spectrum analyzer using
patented DPX™ spectrum display technology. The
red areas are frequently-occurring signals, and the
blue and green portions are transients.
View the webinar:
Practical Approach to EMI Diagnostics.
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EMI/EMC Testing with Confidence
Tektronix real time spectrum analyzers are unprecedented in their ability to identify the
source of EMI/EMC interference and to perform pre-compliance and compliance tests.
Diagnostics and Debug
• Lo feed thru
• Detecting low-level signals in broad sweeps with
narrow resolution bandwidths
• Detecting and characterizing impulse noise
• Finding signals-within-signals
• Determining clock stability and settling to tuning,
microphonics, and phase-hits
• Correlating transient emissions to hardware and
software states
Pre-Compliance and Compliance
• Testing to standards and compliance levels with
required filters and detectors
• Applying corrected measurements and limit lines
Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers
• Discover elusive transient, impulse, and signal-within-signal events with 100% probability
with over 292,000/s spectrum updates and swept DPX
• Trigger and isolate spectrum events with 100% probability using patented DPX DensityTM,
Frequency Mask, and Time-qualified Triggering, Frequency Edge, and cross-trigger
oscilloscopes or logic analyzers within the event record
• Capture long event records with up to 110 MHz of bandwidth
• Analyze signals with MIL-STD and CISPR compliant filters and detectors
• Quickly assess compliance with corrected data and limit lines displayed
• Speed spur testing with the fastest scanning technology for wide spans and narrow resolution
bandwidths
RSA5000/6000 Series Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers
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of real-time spectrum analyzers
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MDO4000B Mixed Domain Oscilloscope - The First and Only Oscilloscope with a Built-in Spectrum Analyzer
The award-winning MDO4000B provides features that enable you to quickly troubleshoot
EMI problems. Many EMI problems come from events rooted in the time domain, such as
clocks, power supplies, and serial data links. The MDO4000B combines a spectrum analyzer,
oscilloscope, and logic channels into a single instrument that enables you to measure the
relationship between time-domain events and spectral emissions.
Trigger on known EMI suspects (such as power
supplies, clocks, serial buses, etc.) to directly measure
and correlate frequency and time domain events.
Learn more about troubleshooting EMI issues.
Watch the video
or download the application overview
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Automotive Testing Solutions that Keep Pace with
Emerging Technologies, Standards, and Requirements
With the increased complexity of today’s vehicle designs and their intricate electronic functions and embedded controls,
it can be difficult to keep up with the standards and requirements for analyzing, debugging, and verifying these designs.
Tektronix and Keithley have a collection of instruments and systems to specifically overcome even your most challenging test
and measurement applications.
Oscilloscopes with Combined Time Domain and Frequency Domain Analysis and Protocol Analysis
Eight out of ten engineers around the world trust Tektronix to help them debug and test tomorrow’s designs faster. With
the broadest portfolio of digital oscilloscopes available, the richest set of product features, the most extensive analysis
capability, and our award-winning service and support, Tektronix has the right oscilloscope to meet your automotive system
test requirements. Learn more.
Switching Mainframes with up to 576 Channels and a High Speed 7.5-Digit DMM
The Model 3706A is a scalable, instrument grade switching and multi-channel measurement solution that is optimized for
automated testing of electronic systems. A mainframe can support up to 576 two-wire multiplexer channels for unrivaled
density and economical per channel costs; the high performance multimeter provides a tightly integrated switch and
measurement system. Learn more.
Multiple-channel Arbitrary Waveform Generators
Providing leading-edge performance with sample rates to 50GS/s or lower sample rate solutions on up to four channels,
Tektronix arbitrary waveform generators enable complex signal generation to seamlessly move from a simulation
environment to the real world. Learn more.
Specialized Power Sourcing for a Wide Range of DC and Battery-simulating Waveforms
Keithley DC power supplies and source measure unit (SMU) instruments can supply precision voltage levels and specific
waveforms to power control systems and simulate automotive test waveforms.
Learn more about Tektronix
AC instruments and systems.
Learn more about Keithley’s
DC instruments and systems.
Automated Component Test Systems
Test semiconductors and MEMS at the device or wafer level with flexible and customizable Keithley parametric test systems.
Unprecedented Real-Time Spectrum Analysis
Tektronix real time spectrum analyzers enable you to identify the EMI/EMC interference source and perform pre-compliance
and compliance testing with confidence.
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Tektronix and Keithley maintain a comprehensive, constantly-expanding collection of application notes, technical briefs, and other resources to help
engineers stay on the cutting edge of technology. For further information, please visit www.tektronix.com or www.keithley.com.
Copyright © Tektronix, Inc. All rights reserved. Tektronix and Keithley products are covered by U.S. and foreign patents, issued and pending.
Information in this publication supersedes that in all previously published material. Specification and price change privileges reserved. TEKTRONIX and TEK are registered trademarks of Tektronix,
Inc. All other trade names referenced are the service marks, trademarks, or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
17 March 2014 | Control and Communications Systems 3257
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