Cabletron Systems LANVIEWsecure User guide

Generic SNMP
User Guide
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iii
iv
Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction
Using the Generic SNMP User’s Guide..................................................................... 1-1
Related Manuals............................................................................................................ 1-2
Useful Definitions ......................................................................................................... 1-2
Software Conventions .................................................................................................. 1-6
Using the Mouse .................................................................................................... 1-7
Common Generic SNMP Window Fields .......................................................... 1-8
Using Window Buttons......................................................................................... 1-8
Getting Help .................................................................................................................. 1 -9
Using On-line Help................................................................................................ 1-9
Accessing On-line Documentation...................................................................... 1-9
Getting Help from the Global Technical Assistance Center .......................... 1-10
Chapter 2
System Group
Modifying the System Group Administrative Fields .............................................. 2-2
Using the Other Groups Menu ............................................................................ 2-3
Chapter 3
Viewing the Interface Group
Viewing Statistics ................................................................................................... 3-3
Setting the Interface Admin Status ..................................................................... 3-4
Chapter 4
Using the Address Translation Table
Editing the Address Translation Table................................................................ 4-3
Modifying Entries in the Address Translation Table................................. 4-3
Adding Entries to the Address Translation Table...................................... 4-3
Chapter 5
Viewing IP Group Statistics
Setting the Time To Live Option .......................................................................... 5-5
Chapter 6
Viewing the IP Address Table
v
Contents
Chapter 7
Using the IP Routing Table Window
Modifying Entries in the IP Routing Table......................................................... 7-5
Chapter 8
Using the Net to Media Table
Editing the Net to Media Table ............................................................................ 8-2
Modifying Entries in the Net To Media Table ............................................ 8-2
Adding Entries to the Net to Media Table .................................................. 8-3
Chapter 9
Viewing ICMP Group Statistics
Chapter 10
Viewing TCP Group Information
Chapter 11
Viewing UDP Group Information
Chapter 12
Viewing EGP Group Information
Displaying the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail Window ................................ 12-3
Setting the Event Trigger..................................................................................... 12-5
Chapter 13
Viewing SNMP Group Information
Disabling/Enabling Authentication Failure Traps ......................................... 13-6
Index
vi
Chapter 1
Introduction
How to use this guide; related guides; useful definitions; software conventions; getting help
Welcome to the Generic SNMP User’s Guide. This guide is a reference for using
NetSight Element Manager to manage and control any SNMP-compliant devices
on your network.
Using the Generic SNMP User’s Guide
This guide contains information about software functions which are accessed
directly from the Generic SNMP icon or the System Group option available from
the Device menu. Each chapter in this guide describes one major group window
available for Generic SNMP management.
Chapter 1, Introduction, discusses the capabilities of Generic SNMP management
from NetSight Element Manager. This chapter includes a list of related guides,
recommended books, and SNMP definitions.
Chapter 2, System Group, describes the System Group window and its related
options. The System Group window is the initial window for Generic SNMP; it
displays summary and identification information about the SNMP device and
provides a menu for accessing other Generic SNMP windows.
Chapter 3, Viewing the Interface Group, discusses the Interface Group window,
which displays the number and types of packets received at and transmitted from
each interface on the monitored device.
Chapter 4, Using the Address Translation Table, allows you to view and modify
the mapping of IP Addresses and Physical Addresses via the Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP).
Chapter 5, Viewing IP Group Statistics, describes the Internet Protocol Group
window and its associated fields, including the Time To Live option.
Chapter 6, Viewing the IP Address Table, discusses the use of the Internet
Protocol Address Table.
1-1
Introduction
Chapter 7, Using the IP Routing Table Window, discusses the IP Routing Table
and how to route data through your network.
Chapter 8, Using the Net to Media Table, discusses the IP Address Translation
Table used for mapping IP addresses to physical addresses for IP datagrams.
Chapter 9, Viewing ICMP Group Statistics, discusses the Internet Control
Message Protocol Group window, which summarizes ICMP message traffic.
Chapter 10, Viewing TCP Group Information, describes the Transmission
Control Protocol Group window, which provides TCP statistics and displays
current TCP connections.
Chapter 11, Viewing UDP Group Information, discusses the User Datagram
Protocol Group window and UDP datagram statistics.
Chapter 12, Viewing EGP Group Information, discusses the Exterior Gateway
Protocol Group window, which provides information about router
communications on your network.
Chapter 13, Viewing SNMP Group Information, describes the SNMP Group
window, which displays SNMP message traffic statistics and lets you enable and
disable authentication-failure traps.
Related Manuals
The Generic SNMP User’s Guide is only part of a complete document set
designed to provide comprehensive information about the features available to
you through NetSight Element Manager. Other guides which include information
related to managing Generic SNMP devices include:
User’s Guide
Tools Guide
Remote Administration Tools User’s Guide
Remote Monitoring (RMON) User’s Guide
Alarm and Event Handling User’s Guide
Network Troubleshooting Guide
For more information about the capabilities of the SNMP device, consult the
appropriate hardware documentation.
Useful Definitions
To help you use Generic SNMP management, we are providing a list of basic
definitions that are applicable to TCP/IP networks and SNMP management. This
list should not be taken as all-inclusive.
1-2
Related Manuals
Introduction
Active open
A sequence of events occurring when an entity using an application protocol of
the Internet suite (such as SMTP—the E-mail protocol; FTP—File Transfer
Protocol; or Telnet—terminal service protocol) directs the Transmission Control
Protocol to establish a connection over the physical medium with another user(s)
of the application’s particular service. See Transmission Control Protocol (TCP),
page 1-6, for more information.
Address mask
A bit mask that is used to select bits from an IP address for subnet addressing. The
mask is 32 bits long and selects the network portion of the IP address and one or
more bits of the local portion. See Subnet mask, page 1-6, for more information.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
The Internet protocol that dynamically maps destination IP addresses to physical
media (Ethernet and other) addresses. This is needed so that a datagram
addressed to logical address can reach the correct physical media address.
If the addresses are already mapped in transmitting device’s ARP cache (address
matching tables), the datagram can be sent directly.
Broadcast address
A physical or IP address referring to all stations on the media.
Connection
A logical binding between two or more users of a service so that data can be
transferred.
Connection-less mode
A service that has a single phase which combines both transmission control
mechanisms (e.g., addressing) and data transfer.
Connection-oriented mode
A service that divides into three phases: establishment, in which two or more
users are bound to a connection; data transfer, in which the users exchange data;
and release, in which the connection is discarded.
Datagram
A self-contained unit of data, with an associated destination IP address and
upper-layer protocol number, that is used in series to transmit a whole body of
data from one device to another to the correct service layer protocol.
Device
A network element.
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
An older protocol used by gateways in a two-level internet (autonomous internet
sites are connected to the Internet through core gateways). All traffic received
from or transmitted between internet sites passes through the core gateway(s).
Useful Definitions
1-3
Introduction
Therefore, a site’s core gateway must have routing information on all networks
available within the autonomous site, and must be able to pass reachability (of
other Internet sites) information (using EGP) to each network gateway in that site.
Flags
The control bits indicating special functions for a TCP segment; for example, if the
datagram is allowed to be fragmented, and if so, whether other later fragments
exist.
Fragment
An IP datagram containing only a portion of the user-data from a larger IP
datagram. A datagram will be fragmented if its size is too large to be encapsulated
within the legal limits of a frame’s data field of the medium on which it is
transmitted (e.g., a datagram over 1500 bytes would be fragmented if it were to be
transmitted on an Ethernet network).
Fragmentation
The process of breaking an IP datagram into smaller parts, such that each
fragment can be transmitted in whole on a given physical medium.
Gateway
A router (for the purposes of this manual).
Internet
A large collection of connected networks, primarily in the United States, running
the Internet suite of protocols, also known as the DARPA Internet.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
A simple protocol that provides low-level feedback that informs the internet layer
about its operating status. Control messages supported by this protocol include
destination unreachable; datagram discards because of timer expirations; IP
header problems; discards at a destination because of a lack of resources; redirects
to a gateway closer than the device’s default one; IP address reachability tests and
results; delay times between transmission and reception of datagrams; and IP
network address and address mask requests.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The network protocol offering a connectionless mode network service in the
Internet Suite of protocols, in which address resolution and data transfer are
completed in a single phase.
Management Information Base (MIB)
A collection of objects (organized in accordance with the Structure of
Management Information) implemented in a network device, so that the device
can be accessed and managed by a network management protocol, such as SNMP.
Objects allow a device to be monitored (have information retrieved from it by a
management station); to be controlled (allow remote configuration of the device,
such as switching the operational state of a port); and to report abnormal events
to the management station (e.g., collision threshold exceeded).
1-4
Useful Definitions
Introduction
Maximum transmission unit (MTU)
The largest amount of user-data (e.g. the largest size of an IP datagram) that can
be sent in a single frame on a particular medium.
Passive open
A sequence of events occurring when an entity using an application protocol of
the Internet suite (e.g., SMTP, FTP, SNMP, or Telnet) informs the Transmission
Control Protocol that it is willing to accept a connection to another user of the
application’s particular service. See Transmission Control Protocol (TCP),
page 1-6, for more information.
Ports
Integer quantities which identify to a transport protocol (UDP or TCP) the
particular application entity (e.g., SMTP, FTP, SNMP, or Telnet) used in the
transmission/reception of the data (e.g., UDP uses a port value of 161 decimal to
identify SNMP data).
Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
A unit of information, which uses a protocol to offer a service, that is exchanged
by protocol machines, A PDU usually contains protocol control information (a
header identifying data to be transferred) and user data.
Reassembly
The process of recombining fragments, at the final destination, into the original
datagram.
Retransmission
The process of a source TCP entity resending a unit of data while waiting for an
acknowledgment of receipt by the destination TCP entity. Each time a source TCP
entity transmits a segment, it starts a retransmission timer. If this timer expires
before an acknowledgment from the destination, the segment will be transmitted
and the timer will be restarted. Retransmission can occur only a certain number of
times until the transmitting entity aborts the connection.
Segment
The unit used for data exchange between two entities using TCP.
Socket
A pairing of an IP address (destination or source) and a TCP port number. The
pairing of two internet sockets (destination and source IP addresses and TCP
ports) forms a connection.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The application protocol which offers network management services in the
Internet suite of protocols. SNMP provides four operations for network
management via a device’s MIB (its manageable objects): get (retrieval of specific
management information), get-next (retrieval of management information in
series by traversing the MIB), set (manipulation of management information), and
trap (reports on extraordinary events at the device).
Useful Definitions
1-5
Introduction
Subnet
A physical network within the IP network.
Subnet mask
A 32-bit quantity (four binary octets) that filters a destination IP address to
determine whether it exists on the source IP’s subnetwork and therefore can be
reached directly, or must be forwarded through a gateway or router.
In the mask, all bits in the source IP address that correspond to its network
portion (both site and subnet identifying bits) are set to 1, and all bits that
correspond to the host portion are set to 0. The destination IP address is logically
ANDed with the mask to determine its network portion. Its network portion is
then compared to the network portion of the source. If the network portions
match, the frame is transmitted directly; if they do not, the frame is routed.
Time to live
The upper bound, in seconds, that a datagram may be processed within the
internet. Each time the datagram passes through the internet layer on any
network device, the IP entity must decrement this field by at least one. If the field
reaches zero at an intermediary device before reaching its intended destination,
the datagram is discarded.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
The Internet suite protocol which transports IP datagrams via a
connection-oriented service. A connection oriented service requires that the
interface layer (that responsible for transmitting datagrams on a single physical
medium, e.g., Ethernet) perform connection management to find an underlying
connection on which to transmit the datagram.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
The protocol offering a connectionless-mode transport service in the Internet suite
of protocols. A UDP datagram contains source and destination ports, a length
field, a checksum, and user-data from the upper layer protocol.
Software Conventions
NetSight Element Manager’s device user interface contains a number of elements
which are common to most windows and which operate the same regardless of
the window in which they appear. A brief description of some of the most
common elements appears below.
NOTE
1-6
In accordance with Year 2000 compliance requirements, NetSight Element Manager
displays and allows you to set all dates with four-digit year values.
Software Conventions
Introduction
Using the Mouse
This document assumes you are using a Windows-compatible mouse with two
buttons; if you are using a three-button mouse, you should ignore the operation of
the middle button when following procedures in this document. Procedures
within the NetSight Element Manager document set refer to these buttons as
follows:
Left Mouse Button
Right Mouse Button
Figure 1-1. Mouse Buttons
For many mouse operations, this document assumes that the left (primary) mouse
button is to be used, and references to activating a menu or button will not
include instructions about which mouse button to use.
However, in instances in which right (secondary) mouse button functionality is
available, instructions will explicitly refer to right mouse button usage. Also, in
situations where you may be switching between mouse buttons in the same area
or window, instructions may also explicitly refer to both left and right mouse
buttons.
Instructions to perform a mouse operation include the following terms:
•
Pointing means to position the mouse cursor over an area without pressing
either mouse button.
•
Clicking means to position the mouse pointer over the indicated target, then
press and release the appropriate mouse button. This is most commonly used
to select or activate objects, such as menus or buttons.
•
Double-clicking means to position the mouse pointer over the indicated
target, then press and release the mouse button two times in rapid succession.
This is commonly used to activate an object’s default operation, such as
opening a window from an icon. Note that there is a distinction made between
“click twice” and “double-click,” since “click twice” implies a slower motion.
•
Pressing means to position the mouse pointer over the indicated target, then
press and hold the mouse button until the described action is completed. It is
often a pre-cursor to Drag operations.
Software Conventions
1-7
Introduction
•
Dragging means to move the mouse pointer across the screen while holding
the mouse button down. It is often used for drag-and-drop operations to copy
information from one window of the screen into another, and to highlight
editable text.
Common Generic SNMP Window Fields
Similar descriptive information is displayed in text boxes at the top of most
device-specific windows in NetSight Element Manager, as illustrated in
Figure 1-2.
System Description
MAC Address
IP Address
Figure 1-2. Sample Window Showing Informational Text Boxes
System Description
Displays a textual description of the device. This description usually includes the
full name of the device, the version number of the system’s hardware type, the
software operating-system, and networking software.
IP Address
Displays the device’s IP (Internet Protocol) Address; this will be the IP address
used to define the device icon. IP addresses are assigned via Local Management
for the SNMP device; they cannot be changed via NetSight Element Manager.
MAC Address
Displays the manufacturer-set MAC address associated with the IP address used
to define the device icon created via NetSight Element Manager. This address is
factory-set and cannot be altered.
Using Window Buttons
The Cancel button that appears at the bottom of most windows allows you to exit
a window and terminate any unsaved changes you have made. You may also
have to use this button to close a window after you have made any necessary
changes and set them by clicking on an OK, Set, or Apply button.
1-8
Software Conventions
Introduction
An OK, Set, or Apply button appears in windows that have configurable values;
it allows you to confirm and SET changes you have made to those values. In some
windows, you may have to use this button to confirm each individual set; in other
windows, you can set several values at once and confirm the sets with one click
on the button.
The Help button brings up a Help window with information specific to the
current window. For more information, see Getting Help, page 1-9.
The command buttons, for example Bridge, launch a menu listing the windows,
or commands available for that topic.
Any menu topic followed by … (three dots)—for example Statistics…— launches
a window associated with that selection.
Getting Help
This section describes different methods of getting help for questions or concerns
you may have while using NetSight Element Manager.
Using On-line Help
You can use the Generic SNMP window Help buttons to obtain information
specific to the device. When you click on a Help button, a window will appear
which contains context-sensitive on-screen documentation that will assist you in
the use of the windows and their associated command and menu options. Note
that if a Help button is grayed out, on-line help has not yet been implemented for
the associated window.
NOTE
All of the online help windows use the Microsoft Windows help facility. If you are
unfamiliar with this feature of Windows, you can select Help from the Windows Start
menu, or Help —> How to Use Help from the primary NetSight Element Manager
window.
Accessing On-line Documentation
The complete suite of documents available for NetSight Element Manager can be
accessed via a menu option from the primary window menu bar:
Help —> Online Documents. If you installed the documentation component,
selecting this option will launch Adobe’s Acrobat Reader and a menu file which
provides links to all other available documents.
TIP
Getting Help
If you have not yet installed the documentation, the Online Documents option will not
be able to access the menu file; in order to activate this option, you must run setup.exe
again to install the documentation component. See the Installation Guide for details.
1-9
Introduction
Getting Help from the Global Technical Assistance Center
If you need technical support related to NetSight Element Manager, contact the
Global Technical Assistance Center via one of the following methods:
By phone:
(603) 332-9400
24 hours a day, 365 days a year
By fax:
(603) 337-3075
By mail:
Enterasys
Technical Support
35 Industrial Way
Rochester, NH 03867
By e-mail:
support@enterasys.com
FTP:
ftp.ctron.com (134.141.197.25)
Login
Password
By BBS:
Modem Setting
anonymous
your email address
(603) 335-3358
8N1: 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, No parity
Send your questions, comments, and suggestions regarding NetSight
documentation to NetSight Technical Communications via the following e-mail
address:
Netsight_docs@enterasys.com
To locate product specific information, refer to the Enterasys Web site at the
following address:
http://www.enterasys.com
1-10
Getting Help
Chapter 2
System Group
The System Group window; using the Other Groups menu
The System Group window provides basic information about the type of device
currently being monitored, including the System Object ID and Uptime, as well as
administrative information, including the device’s name, location, contact person,
and the level of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) services. You can access all
other Generic SNMP windows from the System Group window.
To open the System Group window from the Device View or Chassis View
window of any SNMP-compliant device:
1. Select Device—>System Group in the Chassis View or Device View menu
bar. The System Group window as shown in, Figure 2-1, opens.
Figure 2-1. System Group Window
2-1
System Group
The System Group window displays the following fields:
Object ID
Displays the unique identifier of the device being managed. This value is
allocated within the SMI enterprises subtree (1.3.6.1.4.1).
Uptime
Displays the amount of time that the device has been running since the network
management portion of the system was last initialized. This is converted from
hundredths of a second (as stored in the device MIB) into a more useful days,
HH:MM:SS format.
Contact
Displays a text field which you can use to enter the name and/or telephone
number of the person responsible for the device.
Name
Displays a text field which you can use to assign a name for the device.
Location
Displays a text field which you can use to describe the node’s physical location.
Services
Displays the level of OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) services supported by
the device, examples of which are given in Figure 2-2.
Physical Layer……………………………….e.g. repeaters
Datalink/Subnetwork Layer………………e.g. bridges
Internet Layer…………………………..e.g. IP gateways
End-to-end Layer…………………………….e.g. IP hosts
Applications Layer……………………..e.g. mail relays
Figure 2-2. Examples of OSI Service Layers
Modifying the System Group Administrative Fields
If your device’s firmware supports MIB II, you can modify the Contact, Name,
and Location fields.
1. To modify the Contact field:
a. Click the I-bar cursor ( ) to the right of the Contact field. The Contact
text box opens, Figure 2-3.
2-2
Modifying the System Group Administrative Fields
System Group
Figure 2-3. Contact Text Box
b.
Type in the new contact information in the text box; then click on OK.
2. To modify the Name field:
a. Click the I-bar cursor ( ) to the right of the Name field. The Name text
box opens, Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-4. Name Text Box
b.
Type in the new name in the text box; then click on OK.
3. To modify the location field:
a. Click on the I-bar cursor ( ) to the right of the Location field. The
Location text box opens, Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5. Location Text Box
b.
Type in the new location in the text box; then click on OK.
Using the Other Groups Menu
The Other Groups button displays a menu (Figure 2-6), which lets you select
other Generic SNMP windows supported by the device.
Modifying the System Group Administrative Fields
2-3
System Group
Figure 2-6. Other Group Menu
To access the Other Groups drop-down menu via the System Group window:
1. Click on the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu
displays, as shown in Figure 2-6. Non-supported options will be grayed-out.
2. Click on the desired option. The appropriate window opens.
2-4
Modifying the System Group Administrative Fields
Chapter 3
Viewing the Interface Group
Viewing interface statistics; using the Admin/Status option and the Last Change field
The Interface Group window displays statistics for each interface on the device.
The port type is displayed for each interface along with the statistics associated
with that interface. Use the scroll bar to display the other available interfaces; the
interface number and the total number of interfaces on the device are displayed
above the scroll bar (e.g., 1 of 27).
Statistics are gathered for network activity levels occurring at the physical and
data-link layers. These statistics reflect the following types of packets being
transmitted and received:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Unicasts
Multicasts
Discarded Packets
Error Packets
Received Packets with unknown protocols
Packets waiting to be transmitted
Bytes
To open the Interface Group window from the System Group window:
1. Click on the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu
displays.
2. Click on Interface Group. The Interface Group window, Figure 3-1, opens.
3-1
Viewing the Interface Group
Figure 3-1. Interface Group Window
The following fields are non-statistical interface descriptions fields:
Address
The interface’s physical address (ifPhysAddr) at the protocol layer immediately
below the network layer in the protocol stack. For interfaces which do not have
such an address (e.g., a serial line), this object should contain an octet string of
zero length.
Interface Type
The type of interface (ifType), distinguished according to the physical/link
protocol(s) immediately below the network layer in the protocol stack. MIB-II
defines 32 different interface types, including ethernet-csmacd, fddi,
iso88025-tokenRing, and softwareLoopBack.
MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit)
The size of the largest datagram which can be transmitted or received on the
interface (specified in octets), according to the ifMtu. For interfaces that are used
for transmitting network datagrams, this is the size of the largest network
datagram that can be sent on the interface. Frames that exceed the MTU are
discarded.
Speed
An estimate of the interface’s current bandwidth in bits per second, according to
the ifSpeed. For interfaces which do not vary in bandwidth or for those where no
accurate estimation can be made, this object should contain the nominal
bandwidth.
3-2
Viewing the Interface Group
Last Change
The Last Change field (bottom of the window) displays the date and the time
since the system was last reinitialized.
NOTE
In accordance with Year 2000 compliance requirements, NetSight Element Manager
displays and allows you to set all dates with four-digit year values.
Viewing Statistics
The following statistics are collected from received and transmitted packets.
Unicast
The number of subnetwork unicast (sent to one station) packets received from a
higher-layer protocol, according to the ifInUcastPkts.
The number of subnetwork unicast (sent to one station) packets delivered to a
higher-layer protocol, according to the ifOutUcastPkts.
Multicast
The number of non-unicast (i.e., subnetwork-broadcast or subnetwork multi-cast)
packets received from a higher-layer protocol, according to the ifInNUcastPkts.
The number of non-unicast (i.e., subnetwork-broadcast or subnetwork multi-cast)
packets delivered to a higher-layer protocol, according to the ifOutNUcastPkts.
A multicast transmission is simultaneously sent to more than one station at a
time.
Discarded
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even though
no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted, according to the
ifInDiscards.
The number of inbound or outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded
even though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable,
according to the ifOutDiscards.
Discarding good packets indicates a very busy network (e.g. discarding packets to
free up buffer space). If a device routinely discards packets it usually indicates
that network traffic is overwhelming the device.
Error
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them from
being delivered to a higher-layer protocol, according to the ifInErrors.
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of errors,
according to the ifOutErrors
3-3
Viewing the Interface Group
Unknown Protocol (Received Packets only)
The number of packets received via the interface which were discarded because of
an unknown or unsupported protocol, according to the ifInUnknownProtos.
Transmit Queue Size (Transmitted Packets only)
The length of the output packet queue (in packets), according to the ifOutQLen.
The amount of device memory devoted to buffer space, and the traffic level on the
target network determine how large the output packet queue can grow before the
device begins to discard packets.
Bytes Received
Displays the total number of inbound bytes.
Bytes Transmitted
Displays the total number of bytes transmitted onto the network.
Specific MIB Def.
Displays a MIB definition of the media being used to realize that segment’s
interface. A MIB definition is only available for devices whose firmware supports
MIB-II.
Setting the Interface Admin Status
The Admin Status button lets you enable, disable, or test the current interface. The
operational states of these three options are:
Enable
The interface will be ready to pass packets.
Disable
The interface will be in a closed state.
Test
The interface will be in some test mode and no operational
packets can be passed.
To use the Admin Status button:
1. Click on the Admin Status button. The Administration Status drop-down
menu displays.
2. Click on the appropriate option: Enable, Disable, or Test. If you choose
Disable, a warning window opens to indicate that you may lose access to the
device.
3. Click OK to disable the interface, or Cancel to nullify the disable command.
The current interface will now begin operating in the state you have selected.
3-4
Chapter 4
Using the Address Translation Table
The Address Translation Table window; editing the Address Translation Table
The Address Translation Table utilizes ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) to
translate IP addresses into Physical addresses. ARP is used to achieve mapping
between IP addresses which are 32 bits in length and Physical addresses which
are 48 bits in length. The Address Translation Table window lets you view and
modify the translation of an interface’s IP address to its corresponding Physical
address. You may want to change the mapping if you have installed new
hardware in an SNMP device; the Physical address has changed, but the logical IP
address remains the same.
To open the Address Translation Table from the System Group window:
1. Click on the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu
displays.
2. Click on Address Translation. The Address Translation Table window,
Figure 4-1, opens.
4-1
Using the Address Translation Table
Figure 4-1. Address Translation Table Window
The display panel (upper section) of the Address Translation window lists the
addresses associated with the interface. The Values set for section lets you add
and modify entries in the panel.
Interface Index
The network interfaces on which this system can send and receive IP datagrams.
Physical Address
The media dependent MAC addresses that have been detected in datagrams
processed through the indicated Interface Index. Note that if datagrams had been
forwarded through a router interface before being received at the monitored
Interface Indices, more than one IP address will be mapped to the same physical
address (that of the router port forwarding datagrams).
IP Address
The logical network addresses that correspond to the physical addresses.
4-2
Using the Address Translation Table
Editing the Address Translation Table
You can modify existing entries in, or add new entries to the Address Translation
Table.
Modifying Entries in the Address Translation Table
By modifying an entry in the Address Translation Table you will change the
mapping that was discovered by the ARP process.
1. Click on an entry in the Address Translation Table. That entry’s corresponding
values for its Port Number, Physical Address, and IP address display in the
Values set for area.
2. Enter the desired changes in the Physical Address field within the Values
set for area.
3. Click on Set. Status information displays above the command buttons and a
confirmation window opens; if the set succeeded, the changes appear in the
display panel.
NOTE
When an entry is highlighted the interface description is displayed in the Values for Set
section of the window, (e.g., Ctron SEHI EnetPort).
Adding Entries to the Address Translation Table
1. Click on Clear. This allows you to enter values in the Values set for section.
2. Enter the Port Number, Physical Address, and IP Address in the
appropriate fields.
3. Click on Set. Status information displays above the command buttons and a
confirmation window opens; if the set succeeded, the new entry appears in
the display panel.
NOTE
If the Physical Address is entered in an incorrect format, an “Invalid Ethernet
Address” message displays. Enter the address in the correct XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX
hexadecimal format. If the IP Address is entered in an incorrect format, an “Invalid IP
Address” message displays. Enter the address in the correct XXX-XXX-XXX-XXX
format.
4-3
Using the Address Translation Table
4-4
Chapter 5
Viewing IP Group Statistics
The IP Group window; using the Time To Live option
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the protocol used in the Internet layer. Each IP
datagram contains identifying information such as the datagram’s originator, the
datagram’s length, the format used (version), and the quality of service.
Each medium has a maximum size data field used to encapsulate an IP datagram
(Maximum Transmit Unit or MTU). When a local IP entity (the device) wishes to
send a datagram larger than the allowable maximum size, it must first fragment
the datagram prior to transmission. The IP entity checks to see if the flags field in
the datagram permits fragmentation. (If it does not, the datagram is discarded.) It
then generates two or more fragments that contain a portion of the user-data from
the original datagram.
These fragments are reassembled at the destination IP address. If they arrive out
of order (since they may be routed over different paths), they are held (buffered)
until all fragments of the original datagram have arrived. Should the fragments
become lost or corrupted during transmission, then they are discarded.
The IP Group window provides a statistical breakdown of the number of
datagrams received by, and transmitted from the device. Also included are the
various types of fragmented and reassembled datagrams.
To open the IP Group window from the System Group window:
1. Click on the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu
displays.
2. Click on IP Group. The IP Group window, Figure 5-1, opens.
5-1
Viewing IP Group Statistics
Figure 5-1. IP Group Window
Forwarding State
Displays whether this entity is acting as an IP gateway in respect to the
forwarding of datagrams received by — but not addressed to — this entity,
according to the ipForwarding. IP gateways forward datagrams; IP hosts do not
(except those source-routed via the host). For some managed nodes, this object
may take on only a subset of the values possible. It is appropriate for an agent to
return a ‘badValue’ response if a management station attempts to change this
object to an inappropriate value.
The IP Group window displays the following statistics:
Received Datagrams
Total
The total number of input datagrams received from
interfaces, including those received in error, according to
ipInReceives.
5-2
Header Errors
The number of input datagrams discarded due to errors
in their IP headers, including bad checksums, version
number mismatch, other format errors, time-to-live
exceeded, errors discovered in processing their IP
options, etc. This field displays ipInHdrErrors.
Address Errors
The number of input datagrams discarded because the IP
address in their IP header’s destination field was not a
valid address to be received at this entity. This count
includes invalid addresses (e.g., 0.0.0.0) and addresses of
unsupported Classes (e.g., Class E). For entities which
are not IP Gateways and therefore do not forward
Viewing IP Group Statistics
datagrams, this counter includes datagrams discarded
because the destination address was not a local address.
This field displays the ipInAddrErrors.
Forwarded
The number of received datagrams for which this entity
was not their final IP destination, as a result of which an
attempt was made to find a route to forward them to that
final destination. In entities which do not act as IP
Gateways, this counter will include only those packets
which were Source-Routed successfully via this entity,
and the Source-Route option processing was successful.
This field displays the ipForwDatagrams.
Unknown Protocol
The number of locally-addressed datagrams received
successfully but discarded because of an unknown or
unsupported protocol. This field displays the
ipInUnknownProtos.
Discarded
The number of input IP datagrams for which no
problems were encountered to prevent their continued
processing, but which were discarded (e.g., for lack of
buffer space). This counter does not include any
datagrams discarded while awaiting reassembly. This
field displays the ipInDiscards.
Delivered
The total number of input IP datagrams successfully
delivered to IP user-protocols (including ICMP),
according to the ipInDelivers.
Transmitted Datagrams
Total
The total number of input datagrams successfully
delivered to IP user-protocols (including ICMP),
according to the ipOutRequests.
Discarded
The number of output IP datagrams for which no
problem was encountered to prevent their transmission
to their destination, but which were discarded (e.g., for
lack of buffer space). This counter would include
datagrams counted in ipForwDatagrams if any such
packets met this (discretionary) discard criterion. This
field displays the ipOutDiscards.
This counter indicates that the device is tossing away
valid datagrams, indicating that the destination network
is seriously overloaded, or that the device itself is
experiencing problems (evidenced by the failing
read-write buffer). If the device discards a datagram, it
occurs after the device increments the Fwd Datagrams
counter and passes the datagram to the transmit buffer.
5-3
Viewing IP Group Statistics
No Route
The number of IP datagrams discarded because no route
could be found to transmit them to their destination. This
counter includes packets counted in ipForwDatagrams
which meet this ‘no-route’ criterion, and any datagrams a
host cannot route because all of its default gateways are
down. This field displays the ipOutNoRoutes.
Datagram Fragmentation
Datagrams
The number of IP datagrams that have been successfully
Fragmented
fragmented at this entity, according to the ipFragOKs. A
station fragments a datagram if the datagram is too large
to fit within a physical frame.
Discarded
The number of IP datagrams that have been discarded
because they needed to be fragmented at this entity but
could not be (e.g., because their Don’t Fragment flag was
set). This field displays the ipFragFails.
Fragments Created
The number of IP datagram fragments that have been
generated as a result of fragmentation at this entity,
according to the ipFragCreate.
Datagram Reassembly
Fragments Recvd
The number of IP fragments received which needed to be
reassembled at this entity, according to the ipReasmReqds.
5-4
Datagrams
Reassembled
The number of IP datagrams successfully reassembled,
according to the ipReasmOKs. If a datagram is
fragmented for transmission, the receiving station is
responsible for reassembling the fragments. If the
receiving station receives all fragments within the time
period specified by the reassembly timer, it increments
the Reasm OKs timer.
Reassembly Failures
The number of failures detected by the IP reassembly
algorithm. Note that this is not necessarily a count of
discarded IP fragments since some algorithms (notably
the algorithm in RFC 815) can lose track of the number of
fragments by combining them as they are received. This
field displays the ipReasmFails.
Reassembly TimeOut
The maximum number of seconds which received
fragments are held while they are awaiting reassembly at
this entity, according to the ipReasmTimeout. IP attempts
to encapsulate each datagram in a single physical frame.
If it cannot do so, it fragments the datagram into multiple
physical frames, The receiving station starts a reassembly
timer when it receives the first fragment. If the timer
expires before all fragments arrive, the device discards
the fragments already received. The reassembly timer is a
read-only attribute.
Viewing IP Group Statistics
Setting the Time To Live Option
When a device transmits an IP datagram, it sets the amount of time, in seconds,
the datagram is allowed to exist, by setting the Time-To-Live (TTL) field located in
the datagram’s header. This eliminates the possibility that a datagram could
travel around a network forever. If the TTL timer expires before the datagram
reaches its destination, the datagram is discarded and an error message is
returned to the original sending device.
Each gateway along the datagram’s path from source to destination decrements
the TTL field by 1 when it processes the datagram’s header field. The gateway
also records the local time of datagram arrival and decrements the TTL timer by
the number of seconds the datagram remained in the gateway awaiting service.
To set the Time To Live Option:
1. Click on the I-bar cursor ( ) to the right of the Time To Live text box. The IP
Group Time To Live text box, Figure 5-2, opens.
Figure 5-2. Time To Live Text Box
2. Enter the new default Time To Live (in seconds) in the text box. The allowable
time values are 0 to 255.
3. Click OK.
The new default Time To Live displays in the text box. This indicates the number
of seconds a datagram can continue to exist on the network. Any datagram that
exceeds this limit will be discarded.
5-5
Viewing IP Group Statistics
5-6
Chapter 6
Viewing the IP Address Table
The IP Address Table window
The IP Address Table displays the IP Addresses and the subnet masks for each of
the device’s interfaces. In addition, you can see whether network broadcasts will
be sent with 1s or 0s in the host portion of the IP Address, and the maximum size
fragment that can be reassembled.
To open the IP Address Table window from the System Group window:
1. Click on the Other Groups window. The Other Groups drop-down menu
displays.
2. Click on IP Address Table. The IP Address Table window, Figure 6-1, opens.
Figure 6-1. IP Address Table Window
6-1
Viewing the IP Address Table
The display panel of the IP Address Table window contains address information
for each entry in the table. If there are more entries in the IP Address Table than
can fit in the display panel, scroll bars displays so that you can view the
remaining entries in the table.
Interface Index
The number of each interface on which this system can send and receive IP
datagrams.
IP Address
The addressing information for one of this entity’s IP addresses, according to the
ipAddrEntry. A device with multiple interfaces, such as a bridge, can have
multiple IP addresses.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask associated with the IP address of this entry, according to the
ipAdEntNetMask. The value of the mask is an IP address with all the network bits
set to 1 and all the hosts bits set to 0. A subnet mask identifies the network and
host portion of a device’s IP address. Octets in a dotted decimal notation subnet
mask set to 255 indicate a network identifier. You set a device’s subnet mask in the
IP Routing Table.
Broadcast Address
The value of the least-significant bit in the IP broadcast address used for sending
datagrams in the (logical) interface associated with the IP address of this entry,
according to the ipAdEntBcastAddr. For example, when the Internet standard
all-ones broadcast address is used, the value will be 1. This value applies to both
the subnet and network broadcast addresses used by the entity on this (logical)
interface.
A broadcast address has a hostid (the portion of the IP address that identifies the
host) with all bits set to 1 or 0. This field displays whether all 1s or 0s will be used
to address IP packets that are sent as network broadcasts. A broadcast reaches all
hosts on the network.
Reassemble Max Size
The size of the largest IP datagram which this entity can reassemble from
incoming IP fragmented datagrams received on this interface, according to the
ipAdEntReasmMaxSize. The maximum size of a complete IP datagram is 65,535
bits.
Fields in the lower left section display the following information:
Number of Table Items
The number of IP address entries in the IP Address Table.
Interface Description
The Interface Description (ifDescription) for the currently selected interface in the
IP address panel.
6-2
Chapter 7
Using the IP Routing Table Window
IP Routing Table window; modifying the routing information;
The IP Routing Table provides a way for devices to exchange data. Your local IP
device must determine the next “hop” or stop on the data route. If the destination
is on the same IP network, then the next hop is the destination IP address.
Otherwise, the next stop is a router (gateway) on the same IP network as the local
device. The router is determined to be “closer” to the destination device.
The IP Routing Table window lets you view and modify routing information for
each interface.
To open the IP Routing Table window from the System Group window:
1. Click the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu displays.
2. Click on IP Routing Table. The IP Routing Table window, Figure 7-1, opens.
7-1
Using the IP Routing Table Window
Figure 7-1. IP Routing Table Window
The IP Routing Table displays the following fields:
Destination
The destination IP address of this route, according to the ipRouteDest. An entry
with a value of 0.0.0.0 is considered a default route. Multiple routes to a single
destination can appear in the table, but access to such multiple entries is
dependent on the table-access mechanisms defined by the network management
protocol in use. A gateway determines the route in which to send an IP datagram
by checking its IP Routing Table. Each entry in the table represents a different
route to a gateway. The routing table points to gateways that can be reached
across a single network.
Next Hop
The IP address of the next hop of this route, according to the ipRouteNextHop. In
the case of a route bound to an interface which is realized via a broadcast media,
the value of this field is the agent’s IP address on that interface. If the datagram’s
ultimate destination is on a directly connected network, the next hop IP address is
the same as the datagram’s destination IP address. The next hop specifies a
gateway that can route the datagram closer to its final destination.
Route Age
The number of seconds since this route was last updated or otherwise determined
to be correct, according to the ipRouteAge. No semantics of ‘too old’ can be implied
except through knowledge of the routing protocol by which the route was
learned.
7-2
Using the IP Routing Table Window
Route Mask
Indicates the mask to be logical-ANDed with the destination address before being
compared to the value in the ipRouteDest field, according to the ipRouteMask. For
those systems that do not support arbitrary subnet masks, an agent constructs the
value of the ipRouteMask by determining whether the value of the corresponding
ipRouteDest field belongs to a class-A, B, or C network, and then uses one of the
following:
Mask
255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
Network
class-A
class-B
class-C
If the value of the ipRouteDest is 0.0.0.0 (a default route), then the mask value is
also 0.0.0.0. It should be noted that all IP routing subsystems implicitly use this
mechanism. When a host or gateway receives an IP datagram, it must determine
if the datagram’s final destination is on the local network or on another network.
The IP software does not need to examine the entire IP address to make this
local/remote network decision; it only needs to compare the network portion of
the received datagram’s IP address with the network mask. If the datagram is
destined for a host on the local net, the datagram is delivered directly; otherwise,
it is sent to the IP address specified in the “next hop” field of the routing table.
Route Interface
The index value (ipRouteIfIndex) which uniquely identifies the local interface
through which the next hop of this route should be reached. The interface
identified by a particular value of this index is the same interface as identified by
the same value of ifIndex.
Route Protocol
The routing mechanism via which this route was learned. Inclusion of values for
gateway routing protocols is not intended to imply that hosts should support
those protocols, according to the ipRouteProto.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
other (1)—none of the following
local (2)—non-protocol information, e.g., manually configured entries
netmgmt (3)—set via a network management protocol
icmp (4)—obtained via ICMP, e.g., Redirect
egp (5)
ggp (6)
hello (7)
rip (8)
is-is (9)
es-is (10)
ciscoIgrp (11)
bbnSpflgp (12)
ospf (13)
bgp (14)
7-3
Using the IP Routing Table Window
Route Info
A reference to MIB definitions specific to the particular routing protocol which is
responsible for this route, as determined by the value specified in the route’s
ipRouteProto value. If this information is not present, its value should be set to the
OBJECT IDENTIFIER {0,0}, which is a syntactically valid object identifier, and any
conformant implementation of ASN.1 and BER must be able to generate and
recognize this value. This field displays the ipRouteInfo.
Route Metrics
Displays the Routing Metrics for the route. Metrics may be Primary or Alternate
as explained below:
Route Metric 1
The primary routing metric for this route, according to
the ipRouteMetric1. The semantics of this metric are
determined by the routing-protocol type specified in the
route’s ipRouteProto value. If this metric is not used, its
value should be set to -1.
Route Metrics 2-5
An alternate routing metric for this route, according to
the ipRouteMetric2, ipRouteMetric3, ipRouteMetric4, and
ipRouteMetric5 (the fifth route metric is available only for
devices supporting MIB-II). The semantics of this metric
are determined by the routing-protocol type specified in
the route’s ipRouteProto value. If this metric is not used,
the value should be set to -1.
Route Type
The type of route, according to the ipRouteType. To change the Route Type, click on
the appropriate option button:
•
•
•
•
Other (1)None of the following.
Invalid (2)An invalidated route.
Direct (3)Route to directly connected (sub)network.
Indirect (4)Route to a non-local host/network/subnetwork.
The values direct (3) and indirect (4) refer to the notion of direct and indirect
routing in the IP architecture. Setting this object to the value of invalid (2) has
the effect of invalidating the corresponding entry in the ipRouteTable object. It
effectively disassociates the destination identified with said entry from the route
identified with said entry. It is an implementation-specific matter as to whether
the agent removes an invalidated entry from the table. Accordingly, management
stations must be prepared to receive tabular information from agents that
correspond to entries not currently in use. Proper interpretation of such entries
requires examination of the relevant ipRouteType object.
Fields not supported by the device’s firmware will display a value of “Not avail in device”.
NOTE
7-4
Using the IP Routing Table Window
Modifying Entries in the IP Routing Table
1. Click in the Destination field, enter the desired destination IP address.
2. Click in the Next Hop field, enter the IP address that you want to specify as
the next hop of the route.
3. Click in the Route Metrics field(s), enter the desired metric value(s).
4. Click the desired option in the Route Type section.
5. Click Apply to accept the changes, or Cancel to exit the IP Routing Table
window without saving changes.
NOTE
The IP Routing Table window allows you to scroll through each entry in the table by
using the Prev and Next buttons at the bottom of the window. As you click on Prev and
Next to view each entry of the routing table, you can view the interface number associated
with that route entry in the Route Interface list box in the middle of the window. When
you get to the first or last entry, the Prev or Next button will be grayed-out, respectively.
If you have made a change to a route entry, and then click on Prev, Next, a message will
appear asking if you want to set the device with those changes. Click Yes to effect the
changes or No to disallow any changes that have been made.
7-5
Using the IP Routing Table Window
7-6
Chapter 8
Using the Net to Media Table
The Net To Media Table window; modifying an entry
The Net to Media Table is used by MIB-II devices to map IP addresses to physical
addresses when transmitting an IP datagram for devices on each network
segment directly connected to the monitored device. The table includes the media
type for each port interface, as well as the map type through which the table entry
is obtained. MIB-I devices do not support the Net to Media Table.
To open the Net to Media Table window from the System Group window:
1. Click on the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu
displays.
2. Click NetToMedia Table. The Net to Media Table window, Figure 8-1, opens.
Figure 8-1. Net to Media Table Window
8-1
Using the Net to Media Table
The display panel (top section) of the Net to Media Table displays address
information for the associated interface. The Values set for section lets you
modify entries in the display panel and make static entries to the ARP cache.
Interface Index
The interface on which this entry’s equivalence is effective, according to the
ipNetToMediaIfIndex. The interface identified by a particular value of this index is
the same interface as identified by the same value of ifIndex.
Physical Address
The physical address, according to the ipNetToMediaPhysAddress. You can edit the
physical address; however, changing a physical address in the Net to Media table
does not change the device’s physical address. It lets you edit the monitored
device’s knowledge of the relationship between a physical and an IP address.
IP Address
IP Address corresponding to the media-‘physical’ address, according to the
ipNetToMediaNetAddress.
Mapping Type
The type of mapping, according to the ipNetToMediaType.
other (1)
invalid (2)
dynamic (3)
static (4)
none of the following.
invalidated mapping; the address is present but the entry cannot
be used.
address mapping is learned through ARP broadcasts.
an entry has been manually added to the permanent database.
Setting this object to the value of invalid (2) has the effect of invalidating
the corresponding entry in the ipNetToMediaTable. It effectively disassociates
the interface identified with an entry from the mapping identified with that entry.
It is an implementation-specific matter as to whether the agent removes an
invalidated entry from the table. Management stations must be prepared to
receive tabular information from agents that correspond to entries not currently in
use. Proper interpretation of such entries requires examination of the relevant
ipNetToMediaType object.
Editing the Net to Media Table
You can add new entries to and modify existing entries in the Net to Media Table.
Modifying Entries in the Net To Media Table
1. Click on an entry in the Net To Media Table. That entry’s corresponding values
for its Port Number, Physical Address, IP address, and Mapping Type,
displays in the Values set for area.
8-2
Using the Net to Media Table
2. Enter the desired changes in the Physical Addr field within the Values set
for area.
3. Click on the option button corresponding to the way you want that entry
mapped into the database (other, invalid, dynamic, or static). Selecting
invalid as the mapping type disables the selected translation entry.
4. Click Set. Status information displays above the command buttons and a
confirmation window opens; if the set succeeded, the changes displays in the
list.
NOTE
When an entry is highlighted the interface description is displayed in the Values set for
section of the window, (e.g., Ctron SEHI EnetPort).
Adding Entries to the Net to Media Table
You can make static entries to the ARP cache; static entries remain in the ARP
cache until you remove them.
1. Click Clear. This allows you to enter values in the Values set for section.
2. Enter the port number, physical address, and IP address in the appropriate
fields.
3. Click on the option button corresponding to the way you want that entry
mapped into the database (other, invalid, dynamic, or static).
4. Click Set. Status information displays above the command buttons and a
confirmation window opens; if the set succeeded, the new entry displays in
the list.
NOTE
If the Physical Address is entered in an incorrect format, an “Invalid Ethernet
Address” message opens. Enter the address in the correct XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX
hexadecimal format. If the IP Address is entered in an incorrect format, an “Invalid IP
Address” message opens. Enter the address in the correct XXX-XXX-XXX-XXX
format.
8-3
Using the Net to Media Table
8-4
Chapter 9
Viewing ICMP Group Statistics
The ICMP Group window
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is the Internet Protocol mechanism
used by network devices to determine if a destination is reachable and to notify
other devices about delivery problems. Using PING (Packet Internet Groper), an
ICMP echo request packet is sent to an IP address and awaits a reply. This
provides a means to test the availability of devices and routes on the network
(from the local network device to a remote network device).
The ICMP Group window displays statistics for the ICMP datagram traffic
transmitted and received by the device, which provides information on how your
device is performing at the Internet layer.
To open the ICMP Group window from the System Group window:
1. Click on the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu
displays.
2. Click on ICMP Group. The ICMP Group window, Figure 9-1, opens.
9-1
Viewing ICMP Group Statistics
Figure 9-1. ICMP Group Window
The ICMP Group window displays the following message statistics:
ICMP Received Message Statistics
Total Messages
The total number of ICMP messages which the entity received, according to the
icmpInMsgs. This counter includes all those counted by icmpInErrors.
Errors
The number of ICMP messages which the entity received but determined as
having ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad length, etc.), according to
the icmpInErrors.
Destination Unreachable
The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages received, according to
the icmpInDestUnreachs. A gateway issues a destination unreachable message
when it cannot deliver a datagram due to one of the following causes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
9-2
network, host, protocol, or port was unreachable
fragmentation was necessary but disallowed by the “don’t fragment” bit
source route failed
destination network or host unknown
source host isolated
communication with destination network or host administratively prohibited
network or host unreachable for type of service
Viewing ICMP Group Statistics
Time Exceeded
The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received, according to the
icmpInTimeExcds. When a device discards a datagram because the time-to-live
counter (hop count) reached zero, or because the reassembly counter expired
while waiting for fragments, a router sends a time exceeded message to the
station that transmitted the original datagram. A time exceeded message can
indicate an excessively long route from source to destination, or it could indicate a
circular route due to errors in the routing tables. For fragmented packets, the
receiving station starts its reassembly timer when it receives the first fragment of a
fragmented datagram. If the timer expires before all fragments are received, the
station discards the fragments it has already received, and transmits a time
exceeded message.
Parameter Problem
The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received, according to the
icmpInParmProbs. A parameter problem message indicates that a datagram was
discarded due to a problem not covered by any of the previous messages.
Source Quench
The number of ICMP Source Quench messages received, according to the
icmpInSrcQuenchs. A router issues a source quench message when network traffic
overwhelms the router’s buffering capability. A source quench message instructs
a host to slow its current rate of datagram transmission.
Redirect
The number of ICMP Redirect messages received, according to the
icmpInRedirects. When a host transmits, it uses minimal routing information and it
learns new routes from routers. A router that detects a host using an inefficient
route sends a redirect message that contains new routing information.
Echo Request
The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received, according to the
icmpInEchos. An echo request tests connectivity between two network devices.
Echo Reply
The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received, according to the
icmpInEchoReps. When a device receives an echo request, it responds by issuing an
echo reply.
Timestamp Request
The number of ICMP Timestamp Request messages received, according to the
icmpInTimeStamps.
Timestamp Reply
The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages received, according to the
icmpInTimeStampReps. To synchronize system clocks, a machine can issue a
timestamp request to another machine. The destination machine then issues a
timestamp reply message that includes the system time.
9-3
Viewing ICMP Group Statistics
Address Mask Request
The number of ICMP Address Mask Request Messages received, according to the
icmpInAddrMasks.
Address Mask Reply
The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages received, according to the
icmpInAddrMaskReps. To determine the network subnet mask, a machine can issue
an address mask request, either targeted to a specific address or a broadcast to the
entire network. A responding machine includes the network subnet mask in an
address mask reply.
ICMP Transmitted Message Statistics
Total Messages
The total number of ICMP messages which this entity attempted to send,
including all those counted by icmpOutErrors. This field displays icmpOutMsgs.
Errors
The number of ICMP messages which this entity did not send due to problems
discovered within ICMP such as lack of buffers, according to the icmpOutErrors.
OutErrors indicates the number of ICMP messages that were queued for
transmission and then not transmitted due to problems discovered by ICMP.
This value should not include errors discovered outside the ICMP layer such as
the inability of IP to route the resultant datagram. In some implementations there
may be no types of error which contribute to this counter’s value.
Destination Unreachable
The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent, according to the
icmpOutDestUnreachs. A gateway issues a destination unreachable message when
it cannot deliver a datagram due to one of the following causes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
network, host, protocol, or port was unreachable
fragmentation was necessary but disallowed by the “don’t fragment” bit
source route failed
destination network or host unknown
source host isolated
communication with destination network or host administratively prohibited
network or host unreachable for type of service
Time Exceeded
The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent, according to the
icmpOutTimeExcds. When a device discards a datagram because the time-to-live
counter (hop count) reached zero, or because the reassembly counter expired
while waiting for fragments, a router sends a time exceeded message to the
station that transmitted the original datagram. A time exceeded message can
indicate an excessively long route from source to destination, or a circular route
due to errors in the routing tables. For fragmented packets, the receiving station
starts its reassembly timer when it receives the first fragment of a fragmented
9-4
Viewing ICMP Group Statistics
datagram. If the timer expires before all fragments are received, the station
discards the fragments it has already received, and transmits a time exceeded
message.
Parameter Problem
The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent, according to the
icmpOutParmProbs. A parameter problem message indicates that a datagram was
discarded due to a problem not covered by any of the previous messages.
Source Quench
The number of ICMP Source Quench messages sent, according to the
icmpOutSrcQuenchs. A router issues a source quench message when network
traffic overwhelms the router’s buffering capability. A source quench message
instructs a host to slow its current rate of datagram transmission.
Redirect
The number of ICMP Redirect messages sent, according to the icmpOutRedirects.
When a host transmits, it uses minimal routing information and it learns new
routes from routers. A router that detects a host using an inefficient route sends a
redirect message that contains new routing information.
Echo Request
The number of times an ICMP Echo (request) messages is sent, according to the
icmpOutEchos. An echo request tests the connectivity between two network
devices.
Echo Reply
The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent, according to the
icmpOutEchoReps. When a device receives an echo request, it responds by issuing
an echo reply.
Timestamp Request
The number of ICMP Timestamp Request messages sent, according to the
icmpOutTimeStamps.
Timestamp Reply
The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages sent, according to the
icmpOutTimeStampReps. To synchronize system clocks, a machine can issue a
timestamp request to another machine. The destination machine then issues a
timestamp reply message that includes the system time.
Address Mask Request
The number of ICMP Address Mask Request Messages sent, according to the
icmpOutAddrMasks.
9-5
Viewing ICMP Group Statistics
Address Mask Reply
The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages sent, according to the
icmpOutAddrMaskReps. To determine the network subnet mask, a device can issue
an address mask request, either targeted to a specific address or a broadcast to the
entire network. A responding device includes the network subnet mask in an
address mask reply.
9-6
Chapter 10
Viewing TCP Group Information
The TCP Group window
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is often called reliable stream transport
service because it is based on a connection between two nodes. Like IP, TCP’s
purpose is to transfer data between applications. TCP segments, the basic unit of
data transfer within TCP, are carried within IP datagrams; usually, each TCP
segment travels across the internet within a single IP datagram. Unlike IP, TCP
ensures that the data arrives at its destination. If a delivery problem occurs, the
sending application receives notification and can take appropriate action. This
reliability is possible because TCP creates a two-way communication stream
between the sending and receiving station. The connection is full-duplex—data
flows both directions simultaneously.
To open the TCP Group window:
1. Click the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu displays.
2. Click TCP Group. The TCP Group window, Figure 10-1, opens.
10-1
Viewing TCP Group Information
Figure 10-1. TCP Group Window
The left portion of the TCP Group window displays statistics about TCP circuits.
The right portion shows the current active connections.
TCP Statistics
Retransmit Algorithm
The algorithm used to determine the timeout value for retransmitting
unacknowledged octets, according to the tcpRtoAlgorithm.
•
•
•
•
other (1)—none of the following
constant (2)—a constant rto
rsre (3)—MIL-STD-1778, Appendix B
vanj—Van Jacobson’s algorithm
Every time TCP sends a segment, it starts a timer and waits for an
acknowledgement that the receiving station received the segment. If the timer
expires before the acknowledgment arrives, the sending station assumes that the
segment was lost or corrupted and retransmits the segment. To function in an
internet environment, TCP retransmission algorithms are adaptive, that is, each
segment received and acknowledged adds to TCP’s understanding of the time
required for a datagram to travel between the two nodes.
Rto. Min. (Retransmit time out Minimum)
The minimum value permitted by a TCP implementation for the retransmission
timeout (measured in milliseconds) according to the tcpRtoMin. More refined
semantics for objects of this type depend upon the algorithm used to determine
the retransmission timeout. In particular, when the timeout algorithm is rsre (3),
an object of this type has the semantics of the LBOUND quantity described in
RFC 793.
10-2
Viewing TCP Group Information
Rto. Max. (Retransmit time out Maximum)
The maximum value permitted by a TCP implementation for the retransmission
timeout (measured in milliseconds) according to the tcpRtoMax. More refined
semantics for objects of this type depend upon the algorithm used to determine
the retransmission timeout. In particular, when the timeout algorithm is rsre (3),
an object of this type has the semantics of the UBOUND quantity described in
RFC 793.
Maximum Connections
The limit on the total number of TCP connections the entity can support,
according to the tcpMaxConn. In devices where the maximum number of
connections is dynamic, this object should contain the value -1.
Active Opens
The number of times the TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
SYN-SENT state from the CLOSED state, according to the tcpActiveOpens. Before
TCP can begin transmitting data, applications at both the sending and receiving
applications must agree to form a connection. To form the connection, the sending
application asks TCP for a passive open, which means that it will accept incoming
connections. TCP assigns a port number. The application at the other end then
must contact its operating system (TCP) and request for an active open, which
specifies the IP addresses and port number of the passive open. Once the two
machines agree to set up communication, the first segment sent by the TCP
protocol is the SYNchronizing segment, which synchronizes the two ends of the
connection.
Passive Opens
The number of times the TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
SYN-RCVD state from the LISTEN state, according to the tcpPassiveOpens. Before
TCP can begin transmitting data, applications at both the sending and receiving
applications must agree to form a connection. To form the connection, the sending
application asks TCP for a passive open, which means that it will accept incoming
connections. TCP assigns a port number. The application at the other end then
must contact its operating system (TCP) and request an active open, which
specifies the IP address and port number of the passive open. Once the two
machines agree to set up communication, the first segment sent by the TCP
protocol is the SYNchronizing segment, which synchronizes the two ends of the
connection. The station that receives the SYN-SENT message replies with a
SYN-RCVD message.
Connection Failures
The number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
CLOSED state from either the SYN-SENT state or the SYN-RCVD state and the
number of times the TCP connections have made a direct transition to the LISTEN
state from the SYN-RCVD state. This field displays the tcpAttemptFails.
10-3
Viewing TCP Group Information
Closed Connections
The number of times the TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
CLOSED state from either the ESTABLISHED state or the CLOSE-WAIT state,
according to the tcpEstabResets.
Open Connections
The number of TCP connections in which the current state is either
ESTABLISHED or CLOSE-WAIT, according to the tcpCurrEstab.
Segments Received
The total number of segments received, including those received in error,
according to the tcpInSegs. This count includes segments received on currently
established connections.
Segments Transmitted
The total number of segments sent, including those on current connections but
excluding those containing only retransmitted octets, according to the tcpOutSegs.
Segments Retransmitted
The total number of segments retransmitted—that is, the number of TCP
segments transmitted containing one or more previously transmitted octets,
according to the tcpRetransSegs.
NOTE
The Incoming Seg Errors and Resets fields are only supported by devices using MIB-II as
a management database.
Incoming Seg Errors
The total number of segments received in error (e.g., bad TCP checksums),
according to the tcpInErrors. If this counter shows a steady increase, it may
indicate that received segments have been encapsulated incorrectly.
Resets
The number of TCP segments sent containing the RST flag, according to the
tcpOutRsts. The number of times TCP tried to reset a connection due to a faulty
connection, a user request, or a lack of resources.
10-4
Viewing TCP Group Information
Active Connections Table
The following information is displayed for each Active Connection in the TCP
Group window. If there is no TCP connection at the device, “No Connection”
displays in the connection State field.
State
The state of this TCP connection, according to the tcpConnState. Possible states are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
closed (1)
listen (2)
synSent (3)
synReceived (4)
established (5)
finWait1 (6)
finWait2 (7)
closeWait (8)
lastAck (9)
closing (10)
timeWait (11)
deleteTCB (12)
The only value which may be set by a management station is deleteTCB (12).
Accordingly, it is appropriate for an agent to return a ‘badValue’ response if a
management station attempts to set this object to any other value. If a
management station sets this object to the value deleteTCB (12), then this has the
effect of deleting the TCB (as defined in RFC 793) of the corresponding connection
on the managed node, resulting in immediate termination of the connection. As
an implementation-specific option, a RST segment may be sent from the managed
node to the other TCP endpoint (note however that RST segments are not sent
reliably). During the course of a TCP communication session, the connection’s
State will change depending on the current activity. From a management station,
a manager can set the state to deleteTCB, which severs the connection.
Local Address
The local IP address for this TCP connection, according to the
tcpConnLocalAddress. In the case of a connection in the listen state which is willing
to accept connections for any IP interface associated with the node, the value
0.0.0.0 is used.
Local Port
The local port number for this TCP connection, according to the tcpConnLocalPort.
Remote Address
The remote IP Address for this TCP connection, according to the
tcpConnRemAddress.
10-5
Viewing TCP Group Information
Remote Port
The remote port number for this TCP connection, according to the
tcpConnRemPort. Most TCP applications use a set of well-known ports.
Well-known ports are always 256 or lower. A few examples of well-known port
numbers are 21 for FTP, 23 for Telnet, and 53 for domain name server. Other port
numbers are available for assignment as needed.
TIP
10-6
The Prev and Next buttons let you scroll through the connections on your device, and
review their state. As you scroll through the connection information, the chart’s field
values change in relation to the port you have selected. If either the Prev and Next button
is grayed out, you are at the beginning or end of the connection table.
Chapter 11
Viewing UDP Group Information
The UDP Group window
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is the piece of the TCP/IP protocol suite that
deals with getting a datagram from an application running on one host to an
application running on a different host. UDP is able to choose the correct process
on a host by delivering the datagram to a specific port. A port is nothing more
than a queue, assigned by the operating system and used by a specific process to
send and receive datagrams.
UDP uses IP as the underlying transport mechanism; as such, UDP provides
unreliable connectionless delivery service. Since the protocol does not employ
any type of acknowledgment mechanism, the sending application is not notified
of delivery problems (datagrams getting lost, duplicated, or arriving out of
order).
To open the UDP Group window from the System Group window:
1. Click the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu displays.
2. Click on UDP Group. The UDP Group window, Figure 11-1, opens.
11-1
Viewing UDP Group Information
Figure 11-1. UDP Group Window—MIB I and MIB II
The UDP Group window displays statistics about UDP connections. The Listener
Table (bottom portion) displays the current UDP connections (MIB II only).
UDP Group Statistics
Receive Datagrams
The total number of UDP datagrams delivered to UDP users, according to the
udpInDatagrams. A UDP user is the protocol port assigned by the operating
system to a particular application.
Transmitted Datagrams
The total number of UDP datagrams sent from this entity, according to the
udpOutDatagrams.
Receive Errors
The number of receive UDP datagrams that could not be delivered for reasons
other than the lack of an application at the destination port, according to the
udpInErrors. One possible cause of Receive Errors is a full buffer. A protocol port is
a buffered queue; if messages arrive faster than the application can process, the
buffer fills up, which causes messages to be discarded and logged as Receive
Errors. Other errors, such as bad checksum, indicate that the datagram was
damaged in transit.
Received—No Port
The number of received UDP datagrams that could not be delivered for reasons
other than the lack of an application at the destination port, according to the
udpNoPorts.
11-2
Viewing UDP Group Information
UDP Listener Table
The UDP Listener Table, available for MIB-II devices, displays a list of the active
UDP ports on the device.
Local IP Address
In the case of a UDP listener which is willing to accept datagrams for any IP
interface associated with the node, the value 0.0.0.0 is used. This field displays the
udpLocalAddress.
Port #
The local port number for this UDP listener, according to the udpLocalPort
11-3
Viewing UDP Group Information
11-4
Chapter 12
Viewing EGP Group Information
The EGP Group window; displaying the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail window; using the Event
Trigger button
The Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) controls how gateways on neighboring
autonomous systems exchange routing information; it tells an IP network device
about the reachability of other IP networks. It does not provide the entire route;
but merely indicates the route a datagram would need to follow to reach a given
network.
To open the EGP Group window from the System Group window:
1. Click the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu displays.
2. Click EGP Group. The EGP Group window, Figure 12-1, opens.
12-1
Viewing EGP Group Information
Figure 12-1. EGP Group Window—MIB II
The EGP Group window displays the following statistics:
Receive Messages
The number of EGP messages received without errors, according to egpInMsgs.
Receive Errors
The number of EGP messages received that proved to be in error, according to
egpInErrors.
Transmit Messages
The total number of locally generated EGP messages, according to egpOutMsgs.
Transmit Errors
The number of locally generated EGP messages not sent due to resource
limitations within an EGP entity, according to egpOutErrors.
AS Number
The autonomous system number of this EGP entity, according to egpAs. Each
autonomous system known to this device has a unique index number.
EGP Neighbor Table
The EGP Neighbor Table displays information about this device’s relationship
with a particular EGP neighbor(s). An EGP neighbor is a gateway on a
neighboring autonomous system.
Address
The IP address of the entry’s EGP neighbor, according to egpNeighAddr.
12-2
Viewing EGP Group Information
State
The EGP state of the local system with respect to this entry’s EGP neighbor,
according to egpNeighState. Each EGP state is represented by a value that is one
greater than the numerical value associated with the EGP peer. Possible EGP
states are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
idle
acquisition
down
up
cease
no neighbor
The following two fields are displayed for devices that firmware supports MIB-II:
InErrs
The number of EGP messages received from this EGP peer that proved to be in
error (e.g., bad EGP checksum), according to egpNeighInErrs.
OutErrs
The number of locally generated EGP messages not sent to this EGP peer due to
resource limitations within an EGP entity, according to egpNeighOutErrs.
Displaying the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail
Window
The EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail window, Figure 12-2, allows you to get
more detailed EGP information for devices that support SNMP MIB II.
There are two ways to access the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail window:
1. Double-click on an entry in the Neighbor Table of the EGP Group window.
or
1. Click to highlight an entry and click the Detail button.
The EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail window, as shown in Figure 12-2,
opens.
Figure 12-2. EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail Window
Displaying the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail Window
12-3
Viewing EGP Group Information
The EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail window displays the following statistics:
Address
The IP address of the entry’s EGP neighbor, according to egpNeighAddr.
State
The EGP state of the local system with respect to this entry’s EGP neighbor,
according to the egpNeighState. Each EGP state is represented by a value that is
one greater than the numerical value associated with the EGP peer. Possible EGP
states are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
idle (1)
acquisition (2)
down (3)
up (4)
cease (5)
no neighbor (6)
InErrs
The number of EGP messages received from this EGP peer that proved to be in
error (e.g., bad EGP checksum), according to egpNeighInErrs.
OutErrs
The number of locally generated EGP messages not sent to this EGP peer due to
resource limitations within an EGP entity, according to egpNeighOutErrs.
AS
The autonomous system of this EGP peer, according to egpNeighAs. Each
autonomous system known to this entity has a unique index number. Zero should
be specified if the autonomous system number of the neighbor is not yet known.
InMsgs
The number of EGP messages received from this EGP peer, according to
egpNeighInMsgs.
OutMsgs
The number of locally generated EGP messages to this EGP peer, according to
egpNeighOutMsgs.
Ups
The number of EGP state transitions to the UP state with this EGP peer, according
to egpNeighStateUps.
Dns
The number of EGP state transitions from the UP state to any other state with this
EGP peer, egpNeighStateDowns.
12-4
Displaying the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail Window
Viewing EGP Group Information
Hello
The interval between EGP Hello command retransmissions (in hundredths of a
second), according to egpNeighIntervalHello. This represents the t1 timer as defined
in RFC 904. The t1 timer controls Request (initiate communications with a
neighbor), Hello (periodic reachability updates), and Cease (sever
communications with a neighbor) transmissions.
Poll
The interval between EGP poll command retransmissions (in hundredths of a
second), according to egpNeighIntervalPoll. This represents the t3 timer as defined
in RFC 904. The t3 timer is an abort timer. It runs during all states except Idle. If
the t3 timer reaches 0, a Stop event is declared and the EGP entity returns to the
Idle state.
Mode
The polling mode of this EGP entity, according to egpNeighMode, either passive or
active. Mode indicates the Hello Polling Mode. In the Active mode, the device
acquires reachability information by transmitting Hello and Poll commands to
neighbors. In the Passive mode, the device doesn’t transmit; it reads the status
field of received Poll or Hello commands or Update responses.
Event Trigger
A control variable used to trigger operator-initiated Start and Stop events,
according to egpNeighEventTrigger. When read, this variable always returns the
most recent value that egpNeighEventTrigger was set to. If it has not been set
since the last initialization of the network management subsystem on the node, it
returns a value of ‘stop’. When set, this variable causes a Start or Stop event on the
specified neighbor, as specified on pages 8-10 of RFC 904. Briefly, a Start event
causes an Idle peer to begin neighbor acquisition and a non-Idle peer to reinitiate
neighbor acquisition. A stop event causes a non-Idle peer to return to the Idle
state until a Start event occurs, either via egpNeighEventTrigger or otherwise.
Setting the Event Trigger
The Event Trigger can start or stop communication with an EGP Neighbor. For
example, if you have primary and secondary connections to an autonomous
system, you could stop the process to one device and start the process to the other
device, which would change the path of communications with that neighboring
autonomous system.
To start and stop communication with an EGP Neighbor:
1. In the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail window, highlight an entry in the
table.
2. Click on the Start/Stop button.
This button always reflects the most recent command received. If this trigger has
not been set since the last initialization of the network management subsystem on
the node, the button will default to Stop.
Displaying the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail Window
12-5
Viewing EGP Group Information
12-6
Displaying the EGP Group Neighbor Table Detail Window
Chapter 13
Viewing SNMP Group Information
The SNMP Group window; disabling and enabling authentication failure traps
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) facilitates communication
between a management application, like NetSight Element Manager, and a
network device, through the use of Protocol Data Units (PDUs). A network
manager requests data by issuing a Get-Request or Get-Next Request PDU, or
writes a new value into the device’s MIB by issuing a Set-Request PDU. The agent
responds to Gets by issuing a Get-Response PDU or sends asynchronous
notification of unusual events to the manager by issuing a Trap PDU.
To open the SNMP Group window from the System Group window:
1. Click the Other Groups button. The Other Groups drop-down menu displays.
2. Click SNMP Group. The SNMP Group window, Figure 13-1, opens.
NOTE
NOTE
This window displays only if your device’s firmware supports MIB-II for Network
Management of TCP/IP-based internets.
In order for your device to issue any traps—and in order for your management
workstation to receive those traps—your SNMP device’s trap table must have been
properly configured via Local Management or the Remote Administration Tools
application; refer to the hardware documentation or the Remote Administration Tools
User’s Guide for more information. In addition, refer to the Alarm and Event
Handling User’s Guide for more information on the alarm logging facility.
13-1
Viewing SNMP Group Information
Figure 13-1. SNMP Group Window
The SNMP Group Window displays a summary of PDU activity, and lets you
enable or disable the device’s ability to issue authentication failure traps.
SNMP Received Statistics
The fields described below represent counters which record various categories of
received SNMP messages.
Messages
The total number of messages delivered to the SNMP entity from the transport
service. If the device is a hub device, such as a repeater or a bridge, this number
indicates the number of SNMP data requests (Get and Set operations). If the
device is a management station, Packets Received (level of management traffic)
also includes trap messages. This field displays smnpInPkts.
Bad Versions
The total number of SNMP messages which were delivered to the SNMP protocol
entity and were for an unsupported SNMP version, according to the
snmpInBadVersions. SNMP messages include a version number but, SNMP, unlike
most protocols, does not try to resolve version differences. If an SNMP entity
receives a message with an unknown version number, SNMP discards the
message and increments the InBadVersions counter.
13-2
Viewing SNMP Group Information
Bad Community Names
The total number of messages delivered to the SNMP protocol entity which used
a SNMP community name not known to the entity, according to the
snmpInBadCommunityNames. An SNMP Get or Set request must be accompanied
by a valid community name.
Bad Community Operations
The total number of SNMP messages delivered to the SNMP protocol entity
which represented an SNMP operation which was not allowed by the SNMP
community named in the message, according to the snmpInBadCommunityUses.
The community name specified in the SNMP message did not have the necessary
privileges to complete the operation. For example, you issued a Set-Request, but
specified a community name that only granted read access.
Parse Errors
The total number of ASN.1 or BER errors encountered by the SNMP protocol
entity when decoding received SNMP messages, according to the
snmpInBadCommunityUses. ASN.1 is Abstract Syntax Notation One, the
International Standards Organization (ISO) MIB object identification and naming
convention. BER is Basic Encoding Rules, an algorithm that encodes an ASN.1
value into a form suitable for transmission. A parse error indicates that the
received BER value, or the ASN.1 value encoded in the received BER, does not
conform to the syntax rules. In other words, you got a good SNMP packet, but the
data it contained was useless.
tooBig Errors
The total number of valid SNMP PDUs which were delivered to the SNMP
protocol entity and for which the value of the error status field is ‘tooBig’,
according to the snmpInTooBigs. A too Big error is often due to a Get-Next
operation because the Get-Next operation can retrieve a large amount of data. It
occurs when the SNMP agent could not fit the results of an operation into a single
SNMP message.
noSuchName Errors
The total number of SNMP PDUs which were delivered to the SNMP protocol
entity and for which the value of the error-status field is noSuchName, according
to the snmpInNoSuchNames. A Set operation returned an error; the variable name
specified in the Set did not exist according to the community profile (the
combination of a community name’s access mode — read only or read/write —
with the subset of MIB objects defined for the community name).
badValue Errors
The total number of SNMP PDUs which were delivered to the SNMP protocol
entity and for which the value of the error-status field is badValue, according to
the snmpInBadValues. An incoming Set operation specified an incorrect syntax or
value.
13-3
Viewing SNMP Group Information
readOnly Errors
The total number of valid SNMP PDUs which were delivered to the SNMP
protocol entity and for which the value of the error-status field is ‘readOnly’. It
should be noted that it is a protocol error to generate a SNMP PDU which
contains the value ‘readOnly’ in the error-status field, as such this object is
provided as a means of detecting incorrect implementation of the SNMP. This
field displays the snmpInReadOnlys. A set operation tried to modify a variable
that is not included in the SNMP community profile (the combination of a
community name’s access mode — read only or read/write — with the subset of
MIB objects (view) defined for the community name.
genErr Errors
The total number of SNMP PDUs which were delivered to the SNMP protocol
entity and for which the value of the error-status field is genErr, according to the
snmpInGenErrs. A genErr is a general or generic error — one that does not fit any
of the four specific error types: tooBig, noSuchName, badValue, and readOnly.
Total Gets
The total number of MIB objects which have been retrieved successfully by the
SNMP protocol entity as the result of receiving valid SNMP Get-Requests and
Get-Next PDUs, according to snmpInTotalReqVars.
Total Set PDUs
The total number of MIB objects which have been altered successfully by the
SNMP protocol entity as the result of receiving valid SNMP Set-Requests PDUs,
according to snmpInTotalSetVars. This counter also includes valid Sets that fail. For
example, if you tried to Set a new device Name, but included a non-ASCII
character in the name, the Set would fail, and both the InSetRequests and
OutBadValues counters would increment.
Total Get-Request PDUs
The total number of SNMP Get-Request PDUs which have been accepted and
processed by the SNMP protocol entity, according to snmpInGetRequests. This
counter includes successful Get operations and valid Get operations that fail.
Total Get-Next PDUs
The total number of SNMP Get-Next PDUs which have been accepted and
processed by the SNMP protocol entity, according to snmpInGetNexts.
Total Set-Request PDUs
The total number of SNMP Set-Request PDUs which have been accepted and
processed by the SNMP protocol entity, according to snmpInSetRequests. This
counter includes successful Set operations and valid Set operations that fail.
Total Get-Response PDUs
The total number of SNMP Get-Response PDUs which have been accepted and
processed by the SNMP protocol entity, according to snmpInGetResponses.
13-4
Viewing SNMP Group Information
Total Trap PDUs
The total number of SNMP Trap PDUs which have been accepted and processed
by the SNMP protocol entity, according to snmpInTraps. This counter represents
traps received by a device. A device can not receive traps unless the sending
device’s community names table is set up so that traps are enabled and pointed
toward the receiving station’s IP address.
SNMP Transmit Statistics
The following SNMP group variables are counters which record various
categories of transmitted SNMP messages.
Messages
The total number of SNMP messages which were passed from the SNMP protocol
entity to the transport service, according to snmpOutPkts.
tooBig Errors
The total number of SNMP PDUs which were generated by the SNMP protocol
entity and for which the value of the error-status field is tooBig, according to
snmpOutTooBigs. A tooBig error is often due to a Get-Next operation because the
Get-Next can retrieve a large amount of data. It occurs when the SNMP agent
could not fit the results of an operation into a single SNMP message.
noSuchName Errors
The total number of SNMP PDUs which were generated by the SNMP protocol
entity and for which the value of the error-status is noSuchName, according to the
snmpOutNoSuchNames. The variable name specified in the Set did not exist
according to the community profile. A community profile is the combination of a
community name’s access mode (read-only or read-write) with the subset of MIB
objects (view) defined for the community name.
badValue Errors
The total number of SNMP PDUs which were generated by the SNMP protocol
entity and for which the value of the error-status field is badValue, according to
the snmpOutNoSuchNames. When an incoming Set operation specifies an incorrect
syntax or value, the resulting Get-Response message contains the ‘badValue’ error
status.
genErr Errors
The total number of SNMP PDUs which were generated by the SNMP protocol
entity and for which the value of the error-status is genErr, according to the
snmpOutGenErrs. SNMP tracks messages sent with an error that does not fit any
of the four specific error types: tooBig, noSuchName, badValue, and readOnly.
Total Get-Request PDUs
The total number of SNMP Get-Request PDUs which have been generated by the
SNMP protocol entity, according to the snmpOutGetRequests.
13-5
Viewing SNMP Group Information
Total Get-Next PDUs
The total number of SNMP Get-Next PDUs which have been generated by the
SNMP protocol entity, according to the snmpOutGetNexts.
Total Set-Request PDUs
The total number of SNMP Set-Request PDUs which have been generated by the
SNMP protocol entity, according to the snmpOutSetRequests.
Total Get-Response PDUs
The total number of SNMP Get-Response PDUs which have been generated by
the SNMP protocol entity, according to the snmpOutGetResponses. A Get-Response
is the SNMP message transmitted by an SNMP agent in response to a manager’s
Get-Request or Get-Next-Request.
Total Trap PDUs
The total number of SNMP Trap PDUs which have been generated by the SNMP
protocol entity, according to the snmpOutTraps.
Disabling/Enabling Authentication Failure Traps
An SNMP entity has the ability to issue an Authentication Failure Trap when
another SNMP entity attempts to perform an administrative action without the
proper community name authorization—for example, when an SNMP network
manager attempts a SET without a valid community name. The Authentication
Failure Traps Enabled/Disabled button indicates whether the device is currently
configured to issue these traps, and will let you change the device’s configuration
with respect to issuing these traps. If you toggle this button, your new selection
will override the current configuration for the device, and it will remain in the
device’s nonvolatile memory so that the setting remains constant between
reinitializations of network management systems.
The current trap setting at the device is displayed on the button as follows:
Enabled indicates traps are currently being issued at authentication failure;
Disabled indicates they are not being issued.
To toggle the authentication-failure traps between an Enabled and Disabled state:
1. Click on the Enabled/Disabled command button. A window opens requiring
you to confirm the action. Click OK; a message displays notifying you of the
success of the set action.
NOTE
13-6
In order for your device to issue any traps—and in order for your management
workstation to receive those traps—your SNMP device’s trap table must have been
properly configured via Local Management or the Remote Administration Tools
application; refer to the hardware documentation or the Remote Administration Tools
User’s Guide for more information. In addition, refer to the Alarm and Event
Handling User’s Guide for more information on the alarm logging facility.
Index
A
Active open 1-3
Active Opens 10-3
Address 3-2, 12-2, 12-4
Address Errors 5-2
Address mask 1-3
Address Mask Reply 9-4, 9-6
Address Mask Request 9-4, 9-5
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 1-3
Address Translation Table 4-1
adding entries 4-3
editing 4-3
Admin Status 3-4
setting the Admin Status 3-4
AS 12-4
AS Number 12-2
Authentication Failure Traps 13-6
Datagrams Reassembled 5-4
Delivered 5-3
Destination 7-2
Destination Unreachable 9-2, 9-4
Device View window 2-1
Discarded 3-3, 5-3, 5-4
Dns 12-4
E
Echo Reply 9-3, 9-5
Echo Request 9-3, 9-5
EGP 12-1
EGP Event Trigger 12-5
EGP Neighbor Table 12-2
Error 3-3
Errors 9-2, 9-4
Event Trigger 12-5
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) 1-3
B
Bad Community Names 13-3
Bad Community Operations 13-3
Bad Versions 13-2
badValue Errors 13-3, 13-5
Broadcast Address 6-2
Broadcast address 1-3
Bytes Received 3-4
Bytes Transmitted 3-4
F
C
G
Cancel button 1-8
Closed Connections 10-4
Command buttons 1-9
Connection 1-3
Connection Failures 10-3
Contact 2-2
Gateway 1-4
genErr Errors 13-4, 13-5
Getting Help 1-9
Global Technical Assistance Center 1-10
D
Datagram 1-3
Datagram Fragmentation 5-4
Datagram Reassembly 5-4
Datagrams Fragmented 5-4
Flags 1-4
Forwarded 5-3
Forwarding State 5-2
Fragment 1-4
Fragmentation 1-4
Fragments Created 5-4
Fragments Recvd 5-4
H
Header Errors 5-2
Hello 12-5
Help button 1-9
Index-1
Index
I
ICMP Group window 9-1
Incoming Seg Errors 10-4
InErrs 12-3, 12-4
InMsgs 12-4
Interface Group window 3-1
statistics 3-3
Interface Index 4-2, 6-2, 8-2
Interface Type 3-2
Internet 1-4
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 1-4
Internet Protocol (IP) 1-4, 5-1
IP Address 1-1, 1-8, 4-2, 6-2, 8-2
IP Address Table window 6-1
IP Group window 5-1
IP Routing Table 7-1
window 7-1
L
Last Change 3-3
Local Address 10-5
Local IP Address 11-3
Local Port 10-5
Location 2-2
M
MAC address 1-8
Management Information Base (MIB) 1-4
Mapping Type 8-2
Maximum Connections 10-3
Maximum transmission unit 1-5
Messages 13-2, 13-5
Mode 12-5
Mouse usage 1-7
MTU 3-2
Multicast 3-3
N
Name 2-2
Net to Media Table 8-1
editing the table 8-2
Next Hop 7-2
No Route 5-4
noSuchName Errors 13-3, 13-5
O
Object ID 2-2
OK button 1-9
Index-2
Open Connections 10-4
Other Groups button 2-3
OutErrs 12-3, 12-4
OutMsgs 12-4
P
Parameter Problem 9-3, 9-5
Parse Errors 13-3
Passive open 1-5
Passive Opens 10-3
Physical Address 4-2, 8-2
Poll 12-5
Port # 11-3
R
readOnly Errors 13-4
Reassemble Max Size 6-2
Reassembly 1-5
Reassembly Failures 5-4
Reassembly TimeOut 5-4
Receive Datagrams 11-2
Receive Errors 11-2, 12-2
Receive Messages 12-2
Received – No Port 11-2
Received Datagrams 5-2
Redirect 9-3, 9-5
Remote Address 10-5
Remote Port 10-6
Resets 10-4
Retransmission 1-5
Retransmit Algorithm 10-2
Route Age 7-2
Route Info 7-4
Route Interface 7-3
Route Mask 7-3
Route Metrics 7-4
Route Protocol 7-3
Route Type 7-4
Rto. Max. 10-3
Rto. Min. 10-2
S
Segment 1-5
Segments Received 10-4
Segments Retransmitted 10-4
Segments Transmitted 10-4
Services 2-2
Set button 1-9
Index
SNMP 1-5, 13-1
Socket 1-5
Source Quench 9-3, 9-5
Specific Mib Def. 3-4
Speed 3-2
State 10-5, 12-3, 12-4
Subnet 1-6
Subnet Mask 1-6, 6-2
System Description 1-8
System Group window 2-1
T
TCP 10-1
Technical support 1-10
Time Exceeded 9-3, 9-4
Time to live 1-6, 5-5
Timestamp Reply 9-3, 9-5
Timestamp Request 9-3, 9-5
tooBig Errors 13-3, 13-5
Total Get-Next PDUs 13-4, 13-6
Total Get-Request PDUs 13-4, 13-5
Total Get-Response PDUs 13-4, 13-6
Total Gets 13-4
Total Set PDUs 13-4
Total Set-Request PDUs 13-4, 13-6
Total Trap PDUs 13-5, 13-6
Transmission Control Protocol 1-6
Transmit Errors 12-2
Transmit Messages 12-2
Transmit Queue Size 3-4
Transmitted Datagrams 5-3, 11-2
U
UDP 11-1
UDP Group Window 11-1
UDP Listener Table 11-3
Unicast 3-3
Unknown Protocol 3-4, 5-3
Ups 12-4
Uptime 2-2
User Datagram Protocol 1-6
Index-3
Index
Index-4