FM 6-02.74
HF-ALE
MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS,
TECHNIQUES, AND
PROCEDURES FOR THE
HIGH FREQUENCY—
AUTOMATIC LINK
ESTABLISHMENT
(HF-ALE) RADIOS
FM 6-02.74
MCRP 3-40.3E
NTTP 6-02.6
AFTTP (I) 3-2.48
COMDTINST M2000.7
SEPTEMBER 2003
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release;
distribution is unlimited.
FOREWORD
This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective
commands and other commands as appropriate.
DAVID A. FASTABEND
Brigadier General, U.S. Army
Deputy Chief of Staff for
Doctrine, Concepts and Strategy
U.S. Army Training and Doctrine
Command
EDWARD HANLON, JR.
Lieutenant General, USMC
Commanding General
Marine Corps Combat Development
Command
R. A. ROUTE
Rear Admiral, USN
Commander
Navy Warfare Development
Command
DAVID F. MacGHEE, JR.
Major General, USAF
Commander
Headquarters Air Force Doctrine
Center
This publication is available at Army
Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil)
and at the General Dennis J. Reimer
Training and Doctrine Digital Library
(www.adtdl.army.mil)
Preface
1. Purpose
This consolidated reference will assist joint forces in utilizing high frequency radios
as a supplement/alternative to overburdened satellite communications systems for overthe-horizon communications.
2. Scope
This publication describes multi-Service tactics, techniques, and procedures for basic
high frequency-automatic link establishment (HF-ALE) radio operations. The contents
of this publication are directed at the operator level. It does not delve into technical
aspects of HF-ALE operations beyond that necessary for effective tactical use of the
equipment.
3. Application
a. This publication provides commanders and their staffs unclassified guidance to
simplify planning of HF-ALE radio procedures. It provides access to information on
multi-Service communication systems to commanders and staffs conducting home
station training or preparing for interoperability training.
b. The United States (US) Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard
approved this multi-Service publication for use.
4. Implementation Plan
Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility will review this
publication, validate the information and references, and incorporate it in Service
manuals, regulations, and curricula as follows:
Army. Upon approval and authentication, this publication incorporates the
procedures contained herein into the US Army Doctrine and Training Literature
Program as directed by the Commander, US Army Training and Doctrine Command.
Distribution is in accordance with (IAW) applicable directives and the Initial
Distribution Number listed on the authentication page.
Marine Corps. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this
publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the
Commanding General, US Marine Corps Combat Development Command. Distribution
of this publication is IAW Marine Corps Doctrinal Publications System.
Navy. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy training and
doctrinal publications as directed by the Commander, Navy Warfare Development
Command. Distribution of this publication is IAW Military Standard Requisitioning
and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication
409.
MARINE CORPS PCN: 144 000139 00
i
Air Force. The Air Force will incorporate the procedures in this publication IAW
applicable governing directives. Distribution is IAW Air Force Instruction 33-360.
Coast Guard. The Coast Guard will incorporate the procedures in this publication
in US Coast Guard (USCG) doctrinal and training publications as directed by the
Assistant Commandant for Operations, Director of Operations Policy, USCG.
Distribution of this publication is IAW USCG standing operating procedures.
5. User Information
a. US Army Training and Doctrine Command, Marine Corps Combat Development
Command, Navy Warfare Development Command, Air Force Doctrine Center, USCG,
and the Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the
joint participation of the approving Service commands. ALSA will review and update
this publication as necessary.
b. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine, command and control
organizations, facilities, personnel, responsibilities, and procedures. Changes in Service
protocol, appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications, will likewise be
incorporated in revisions to this document.
c. ALSA encourages recommended changes for improving this publication. Key any
comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each
recommendation. Send comments and recommendation directly to—
ii
Army
Commander
US Army Training and Doctrine Command
ATTN: ATFC-RD
Fort Monroe, VA 23651-5000
DSN 680-3951 COMM (757) 788-3951
E-mail: [email protected]
Marine Corps
Commanding General
US Marine Corps Combat Development Command
ATTN: C42
3300 Russell Road, Suite 318A
Quantico, VA 22134-5021
DSN 278-6233/6234 COMM (703) 784-6233/6234
E-mail: [email protected]
Navy
Commander
Navy Warfare Development Command
ATTN: Code N5
686 Cushing Road
Newport, RI 02841-1207
DSN 948-1164/4189 COMM (401) 841-1164/4189
E-mail: [email protected]
Air Force
HQ AFDC/DJ
204 Dodd Blvd, Suite 301
Langley AFB, VA 23665-2788
DSN 574-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091
E-mail: [email protected]
Coast Guard
Commandant (G-OPL)
US Coast Guard
2100 2nd Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20593-0001
Comm: (202) 267-1178
E-mail: [email protected]
ALSA
ALSA Center
ATTN: Director
114 Andrews Street
Langley AFB, VA 23665-2785
DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902
E-mail: [email protected]
iii
FM 6-02.74
MCRP 3-40.3E
NTTP 6-02.6
AFTTP (I) 3-2.48
COMDINST M2000.7
FM 6-02.74
MCRP 3-40.3E
NTTP 6-02.6
AFTTP (I) 3-2.48
US Army Training and Doctrine Command
Fort Monroe, Virginia
US Marine Corps Combat Development Command
Quantico, Virginia
US Navy Warfare Development Command
Newport, Rhode Island
Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
COMDINST M2000.7
US Coast Guard
Washington, D.C.
1 September 2003
HF-ALE
Multi-Service Procedures for High Frequency—Automatic Link
Establishment (HF-ALE) Radios
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..........................................................................................................II
CHAPTER I
HIGH FREQUENCY OVERVIEW....................................................... I-2
Propagation ....................................................................................... I-2
Earth’s Atmosphere .......................................................................... I-2
Types of Propagation......................................................................... I-2
Ionosphere: Nature’s Satellite ......................................................... I-2
Layers of the Ionosphere................................................................... I-2
Factors Affecting Atmospheric Ionization ....................................... I-2
Frequency and Path Optimization ................................................... I-2
Propagation Prediction Techniques ................................................. I-2
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
iv
CHAPTER II
AUTOMATIC LINK ESTABLISHMENT OVERVIEW ........................ II-2
ALE Linking Sequence .................................................................... II-2
Generations of ALE.......................................................................... II-2
Frequency Selection ......................................................................... II-2
Limitations ....................................................................................... II-2
CHAPTER III
ALE PARAMETERS OVERVIEW .................................................... III-2
ALE Parameters.............................................................................. III-2
Channel Parameters ....................................................................... III-2
Communications Security............................................................... III-2
System Specific Parameters ........................................................... III-2
Electronic Counter-Counter Measures .......................................... III-2
Linking Protection........................................................................... III-2
CHAPTER IV
MULTI-SERVICE ALE NETWORK OVERVIEW..............................IV-2
Functions and Responsibilities.......................................................IV-2
Planning...........................................................................................IV-2
HF-ALE Data Distribution .............................................................IV-2
HF-ALE Addressing ........................................................................IV-2
CHAPTER V
INDIVIDUAL SERVICE COMMUNICATIONS STAFF
OFFICE AND RADIO OPERATOR GUIDANCE...............................V-2
General Description .........................................................................V-2
Actions Required ..............................................................................V-2
Implementation Considerations ......................................................V-2
APPENDIX A
HIGH FREQUENCY GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEM ............................................................................................A-2
APPENDIX B
ESTABLISHED AND PROPOSED ALE NETWORKS .....................B-2
APPENDIX C
EXCLUSION BAND ..........................................................................C-2
APPENDIX D
JOINT INTEROPERABILITY TEST COMMAND
CERTIFIED ALE RADIOS AND CAPABILITY MATRIX...................D-2
APPENDIX E
EXAMPLE COMMUNICATIONS PLAN ............................................E-2
APPENDIX F
EXAMPLE RADIO PROGRAMMING APPLICATION ...................... F-2
APPENDIX G
EXAMPLE HF COMMUNICATIONS PLANNING
SYSTEM ........................................................................................... G-2
APPENDIX H
PROPAGATION SOFTWARE PROGRAMS ....................................H-2
APPENDIX I
J6 HF-ALE CHECKLIST .................................................................... I-2
REFERENCES
..........................................................................................References-2
GLOSSARY
..............................................................................................Glossary-2
INDEX
....................................................................................................Index-1
v
FIGURES
Figure I-1. Propagation Paths for HF ....................................................... I-2
Figure I-2. Incident Angle.......................................................................... I-2
Figure I-3. Layers of the Ionosphere ......................................................... I-2
Figure I-4. 11-Year Sunspot Cycle ............................................................ I-2
Figure II-1. ALE Linking Sequence ......................................................... II-2
Figure IV-1. Standard Frequency Action Format Example................... IV-2
Figure IV-2. Standard Frequency Action Format Example for
HF-ALE ............................................................................................. IV-2
Figure IV-3. Echelons Capable of Generating HF-ALE Network
Plan Data .......................................................................................... IV-2
Figure IV-4. Channel Plan Data Distribution within Army Units........ IV-2
Figure IV-5. Channel Plan Data Distribution within Marine
Corps Units ....................................................................................... IV-2
Figure IV-6. Channel Plan Distribution within Naval Forces............... IV-2
Figure IV-7. Channel Plan Data Distribution within Air Force
Units.................................................................................................. IV-2
Figure V-1. Theater Network Architecture.............................................. V-2
Figure A-1. Interstation Connectivity Architecture ................................A-2
Figure E-1. Network Diagram .................................................................. E-2
TABLES
Table II-1 Link Quality Analysis Matrix .................................................. II-2
Table IV-1. HF-ALE Self Addressing ...................................................... IV-2
Table A-1. Recommended Joint ALE Configuration Parameters ...........A-2
Table A-2. Recommended Joint ALE System Parameters ......................A-2
Table A-3. Recommended Joint ALE Channel Parameters ....................A-2
Table D-1 Joint Interoperability Test Command Certified ALE
Radios and Capability Matrix...........................................................D-2
Table E-1. Channel Matrix ....................................................................... E-2
Table E-2. Address Matrix ........................................................................ E-2
Table E-3. ALE Parameters...................................................................... E-2
Table F-1. Channel Report........................................................................ F-2
vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
HF-ALE
Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the
High Frequency—Automatic Link Establishment Radios
The military standard HF-ALE radio is widely deployed throughout the US military
and provides a viable alternative to overburdened satellite communication systems.
Automatic link establishment (ALE) is an improvement to high frequency (HF) radio
that allows establishment of considerably clearer over-the-horizon voice
communications and robust data transmissions. This publication establishes common
tactics, techniques, and procedures to allow HF-ALE users to maximize use of HF-ALE
radios in the inventory, as well as new HF-ALE radios currently being acquired.
Chapter I provides an overview of HF radio operations, discussing propagation of
radio waves in the atmosphere to include factors affecting atmospheric ionization,
frequency and path optimization, and propagation prediction techniques.
Chapter II provides an overview of ALE, a communication system that permits HF
radio stations to call and link on the best HF channel automatically without operator
assistance. This chapter describes how ALE systems select the best frequency by
making use of recently measured radio channel characteristics stored in a memory
matrix and by constantly scanning through assigned frequencies to listen for calls.
System limitations are also discussed.
Chapter III discusses common parameters required for all radios in the network, the
contrast between settings required for different vendor equipment, and factors such as
type and number of radios in the network. Communications security, electronic
counter-counter measures, and linking protection are also covered.
Chapter IV considers multi-Service ALE network operations. This chapter
highlights the detailed planning and coordination required at multiple echelons within
a joint force to achieve effective communications among joint users of HF-ALE
compatible radios. The functions and responsibilities of joint forces, Services, and key
personnel, with respect to HF-ALE operations are described, to include HF-ALE
addressing and data distribution.
Chapter V provides guidance to each Service’s radio operators and HF radio network
coordinator on how to create and operate in a joint HF-ALE voice network. This chapter
describes the network details provided by the joint task force J6, what should be done
with this information, and key points to consider when implementing the network into a
previously established HF communications architecture. These guidelines are also
applicable to operating in civil nets.
vii
PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS
The following commands and agencies participated in developing and reviewing this
publication:
Joint
US Joint Forces Command, Suffolk, VA
Army
US Army Training and Doctrine Command, Futures Center (AFTC-RD),
Fort Monroe, VA
519th Military Intelligence Battalion, Fort Bragg, NC
US Army Armor Center, Directorate of Training, Doctrine and Combat
Development, Cavalry Branch, Fort Knox, KY
US Army Signal School, Battle Command Battle Lab (G), ATZH-BL,
Fort Gordon, GA 30905
Marine Corps
Marine Corps Development Command, Quantico, VA
7th Communications Battalion, III MEF
Navy
USN SPAWAR Systems Center-Charleston Det, St. Juliens Creek,
Portsmouth, VA
USN SPAWAR Systems, Norfolk, VA
Commander, Navy Warfare Development Command, Newport, RI
Chief of Naval Operations (N611), Washington, DC
Naval Construction Battalion Center (Code N63), Port Hueneme, CA
Air Force
Headquarters, ACC/SCWI, Langley Air Force Base, VA
Headquarters, Air Force Doctrine Center, Det 1, Langley Air Force Base, VA
23665
Headquarters, AMC/SCP, Scott Air Force Base, IL
Air Force Frequency Management Agency, Alexandria, VA
Coast Guard
Commandant, US Coast Guard (G-SCT-1), Washington, D.C. 20593
viii
Chapter I
High Frequency Overview
High frequency (HF) is a term used to describe the 1.6 to 30 megahertz (MHz)
portion of the radio spectrum. This frequency range can provide both short-range and
long-haul communications. However, it is also greatly influenced by the earth’s
atmosphere. To communicate effectively in the HF spectrum, it is necessary to
understand radio propagation and how the earth’s atmosphere affects this frequency
range.
1. Propagation
Propagation describes how radio signals radiate outward from a transmitting
source. A radio transmitter’s antenna emits radio waves much like the wave motion
formed by dropping a stone in a pool of water. This action is simple to imagine for radio
waves that travel in a straight line in free space. The true path radio waves take, and
how the earth’s atmosphere affects these waves, is more complex.
2. Earth’s Atmosphere
The earth’s atmosphere is divided into three separate regions. The layers are the
troposphere, the stratosphere, and the ionosphere. Most of the earth’s weather takes
place in the troposphere, which extends from the earth’s surface to about 10 miles up.
The weather variations in temperature, density, and pressure have a great effect on the
propagation of radio waves. The stratosphere, which extends from roughly 10 to 30
miles up, has little effect on radio wave propagation. The ionosphere, which extends
from 30 to approximately 375 miles up, contains up to four cloud-like layers of
electrically charged ions. It is this region and its ionized layers that enable radio waves
to be propagated great distances. The ionosphere, and how it effects radio wave
propagation, is discussed on page I-2.
3. Types of Propagation
There are two basic modes of propagation: ground waves and sky waves. Ground
waves travel along the surface of the earth and are used primarily for short-range
communications. Sky waves, reflected by the ionosphere, are “bounced” or reflected
back to earth and provide a long-haul communications path, as well as short-range
(0 to 180 miles or 300 kilometers [km]) communication in mountainous terrain.
a. Ground Waves. Ground waves consist of three components: surface waves,
direct waves, and ground-reflected waves.
(1) Surface Waves. Surface waves travel along the surface of the earth, reaching
beyond the horizon. Eventually, surface wave energy is absorbed by the earth. The
effective range of surface waves is largely determined by the frequency and conductivity
of the surface over which the waves travel. Bodies of water and flat land have the least
amount of absorption, while desert and jungle areas have the greatest. For a given
complement of equipment, the range may extend from 200 to 250 miles over a
conductive, all-sea-water path. Over arid, rocky, nonconductive terrain, however, the
I-1
range may drop to less than 20 miles, even with the same equipment. If terrain is
mountainous, the radio frequency signal will be reflected rather than continuing along
the earth’s surface, thus significantly reducing range. Absorption also increases with an
increase in frequency. When trying to communicate using surface wave energy, use the
lowest possible frequency.
(2) Direct Waves. Direct waves, also known as (AKA) line-of-sight (LOS) waves,
travel in a straight line, becoming weaker as distance increases. They may be bent, or
refracted, by the atmosphere; this extends their useful range slightly beyond the
horizon. Transmitting and receiving antennas must be able to “see” each other for LOS
communications to take place; therefore, antenna height is critical in determining
range. Any obstructions (such as mountains or buildings) between the two antennas
can block or reduce the signal using LOS communications. At higher frequencies,
reception is optimized by matching the polarization/antenna position of the radios.
(3) Ground-Reflected Waves. Ground-reflected waves are the portion of the
propagated wave that is reflected from the surface of the earth between the transmitter
and receiver.
b. Sky Waves. Sky waves are radiated upward, making beyond LOS
communications possible. At certain frequencies, radio waves are refracted (or bent),
returning to earth hundreds or thousands of miles away. Depending on frequency, time
of day (TOD), and atmospheric conditions, a signal can bounce several times before
reaching a receiver. Near vertical incident sky waves (NVIS) are useful for short-range
non-LOS communication at distances up to 200 miles. NVIS are reflected off the
ionosphere at steep take-off angles. At such steep take-off angles, however, some of the
HF energy penetrates the ionosphere and is lost. Usually, the HF band is used for sky
wave propagation. Radio communications that use sky wave propagation depend on the
ionosphere to provide the signal path between the transmitting and receiving antennas.
Understanding sky wave propagation requires a knowledge of the effects of the
ionosphere and solar activity on HF radio propagation and a familiarization with the
techniques used to predict propagation and select the best frequencies for a particular
link at a given time. Using sky waves can be tricky, since the ionosphere is constantly
changing. Several different computer programs are available to aid in the prediction of
frequencies for the best propagation. Figure I-1 shows the different propagation paths
for HF radio waves.
I-2
Figure I-1. Propagation Paths for HF
4. Ionosphere: Nature’s Satellite
a. The ionosphere is a region of electrically charged particles or gases in the earth’s
atmosphere, extending from approximately 50 to 600 km (30 to 375 miles) above the
earth’s surface. Ionization—the process in which electrons are stripped from atoms and
produce electrically charged particles—results from solar radiation. When the
ionosphere becomes heavily ionized, the gases may even glow and be visible. This
phenomenon is known as Northern and Southern Lights.
b. Why is the ionosphere important in HF radio? This blanket of gases is like
nature’s satellite, making most beyond LOS radio communications possible. When
radio waves strike these ionized layers, depending on frequency, some are completely
absorbed, others are refracted so they return to the earth, and still others pass through
the ionosphere into outer space. Absorption tends to be greater at lower frequencies,
and increases as the degree of ionization increases. Figure I-2 shows the angle at which
sky waves enter the ionosphere, AKA the incident angle.
I-3
Figure I-2. Incident Angle
c. Incident angle is determined by wavelength (such as frequency) and the type and
orientation of the transmitting antenna. Like a billiard ball bouncing off a rail, a radio
wave reflects from the ionosphere at the same angle at which it hits the ionosphere.
Thus, the incident angle is an important factor in determining communications range.
Communications with a distant station requires a greater incident angle, while
communications with a nearby station requires a lesser incident angle.
d. The incident angle of a radio wave is critical. If the incident angle is too nearly
vertical and the electro-motive force of the transmitted signal is relatively small in that
direction, the radio waves will pass through the ionosphere without being refracted back
to earth. If the incident angle is too great, the radio waves will be absorbed by the lower
layers before reaching the more densely ionized upper layers. In turn, the incident
angle must be sufficient to bring the radio wave back to earth, yet not so great that it
will lead to absorption.
5. Layers of the Ionosphere
a. Within the ionosphere, there are four layers of varying ionization (as illustrated
in figure I-3). Since ionization is caused by solar radiation, the higher layers of the
ionosphere tend to be more electrically dense, while the lower layers (protected by the
outer layers) experience less ionization. Of these layers, the first, discovered in the
early 1920s by Sir Edward Victor Appleton, was designated “E” for electric waves.
Later, “D” and “F” were discovered and noted by these letters. Additional ionospheric
phenomena were discovered through the 1930s and 1940s, such as sporadic E and
aurora. The letters A, B, and C will be used to designate future discoveries.
I-4
Figure I-3. Layers of the Ionosphere
b. The D layer is the lowest region affecting HF radio waves. Ionized only during
the day, the D layer reaches maximum ionization when the sun is at its zenith, but
dissipates quickly toward sunset.
c. The E layer reaches maximum ionization at noon. It begins dissipating toward
sunset and reaches minimum activity at midnight. Irregular cloud-like formations of
ionized gases occasionally occur in the E layer. These regions, known as sporadic E, can
support propagation of sky waves at the upper end of the HF band and beyond.
Sporadic E regions appear and disappear quickly and at irregular intervals. Therefore,
they are difficult to predict. For this reason, sporadic E communications cannot be
depended upon to support mission essential communications.
I-5
d. The F layer is the most heavily ionized region of the ionosphere and, therefore,
the most important for long-haul communications. At this altitude, the air is thin
enough so the ions and electrons recombine very slowly and this layer retains its ionized
properties even after sunset.
e. In the daytime, the F layer consists of two distinct layers: F1 and F2. The F1
layer, which exists only in the daytime and is negligible in winter, is not important to
HF communications.
f. The F2 layer reaches maximum ionization at noon and remains charged at night,
gradually decreasing to a minimum just before sunrise.
g. During the day, sky wave reflection from the F2 layer requires wavelengths
short enough to penetrate the ionized D and E layers, but not so short as to pass
through the F layer. Generally, frequencies from 8 to 20 MHz will be reflected back to
earth during daytime hours and frequencies between 2 and 8 MHz will be reflected at
nighttime hours. For NVIS nighttime communications, the most effective frequencies
normally range between 2 and 5 MHz.
6. Factors Affecting Atmospheric Ionization
a. The intensity of solar radiation varies periodically, thereby affecting ionization.
Solar radiation intensity can be predicted based on the TOD and season, and equipment
adjustments made to limit or optimize ionization effects.
b. Ionization is higher during spring and summer because the hours of daylight are
longer. Sky waves are absorbed or weakened as they pass through the highly charged D
and E layers, in effect, reducing the communication range of most HF bands.
c. Because there are fewer hours of daylight during autumn and winter, less
radiation reaches the D and E layers. Lower frequencies pass easily through these
weakly ionized layers. Therefore, signals arriving at the F layer are stronger and
reflected over greater distances.
d. Another longer term periodic variation results from the 11-year sunspot cycle,
shown in figure I-4. Sunspots generate bursts of radiation that cause higher levels of
ionization—the more sunspots, the greater the ionization. During periods of low
sunspot activity, frequencies above 20 MHz tend to be unusable because the E and F
layers are too weakly ionized to reflect signals back to earth. At the peak of the sunspot
cycle, however, it is not unusual to have worldwide propagation on frequencies above 30
MHz.
I-6
Figure I-4. 11-Year Sunspot Cycle
e. In addition to these regular variations, there is a class of unpredictable
phenomena known as sudden ionospheric disturbances that can affect HF
communications as well. Sudden ionospheric disturbances—random events due to solar
flares—can disrupt sky wave communication for hours, or days, at a time. Solar flares
produce intense ionization of the D layer, causing it to absorb most HF signals on the
side of the earth facing the sun.
f. Magnetic storms often follow the eruption of solar flares within 20 to 40 hours.
Charged particles from the storms have a scattering effect on the F layer, temporarily
neutralizing its reflective properties.
7. Frequency and Path Optimization
a. Because ionospheric conditions affect radio wave propagation, communicators
must determine the best way to optimize radio frequencies at a particular time. The
highest possible frequency that can be used to transmit over a particular path under
given ionospheric conditions is the maximum usable frequency (MUF). Frequencies
higher than the MUF penetrate the ionosphere and continue into space. Frequencies
lower than the MUF tend to refract back to earth.
b. As frequency is reduced, the amount of absorption of the signal by the D layer
increases. Eventually, the signal is completely absorbed by the ionosphere. The
frequency at which this occurs is called the lowest usable frequency. The “window” of
usable frequencies, therefore, lies between the MUF and lowest usable frequency.
c. The frequency of optimum transmission (FOT) is nominally 85 percent of the
MUF. Generally, the FOT is lower at night and higher during the day.
d. In addition to frequency, the route the radio signal travels must also be
considered in optimizing communications. A received signal may be comprised of
components arriving via several routes, including one or more sky wave paths and a
I-7
ground wave path. The arrival times of these components differ because of differences
in path length; the range of time differences is the multipath spread. The effects of
multipath spread can be minimized by selecting a frequency as close as possible to the
MUF. Higher frequencies are generally less susceptible to atmospheric noise so
communications can also be improved by choosing frequencies as close as possible to the
MUF.
8. Propagation Prediction Techniques
a. Since many of the variables affecting propagation follow repetitive cycles and can
be predicted, techniques for effectively determining FOT have been developed.
b. A number of propagation prediction computer programs are available (see
appendix H). One widely used and effective program is Voice of America Coverage
Analysis Program (VOACAP), which predicts system performance at given times of day
as a function of frequency for a given HF path and a specified complement of equipment.
c. Of course, since computerized prediction methods are based on physical
calculations and historic data, they cannot account for present conditions affecting
communications, such as ionospheric changes caused by random phenomena
(interference and noise).
I-8
Chapter II
Automatic Link Establishment Overview
Automatic link establishment (ALE) is a communication system that permits HF
radio stations to call and link on the best HF channel automatically without operator
assistance. Typically, ALE systems make use of recently measured radio channel
characteristics stored in a memory matrix to select the best frequency. The system
works much like a telephone in that each radio in a network is assigned an address
(similar to a call sign). When not in use, each radio receiver constantly scans through
its assigned frequencies, listening for calls addressed to it.
1. ALE Linking Sequence
a. To reach a specific station, the radio operator simply enters an address, just like
dialing a telephone number. The radio consults its memory matrix and selects the best
available assigned frequency. It then sends out a brief digital message containing the
identification (ID) of the destination. When the receiving station hears its address, it
stops scanning and stays on that frequency. The two stations automatically conduct a
“handshake” to confirm that a link is established, and they are ready to communicate
(see figure II-I).
Figure II-1. ALE Linking Sequence
b. The receiving station, which has been squelched, will emit an audible alert
and/or a visual indication of the ALE address of the station that called to alert the
operator of an incoming call. At the conclusion of the call, either operator can “hang-up”
or terminate the link; a disconnect signal is sent to the other station and they each
return to the scanning mode.
II-1
c. ALE can also be used for a group of stations using the ALE net call at the same
time. In this situation, each receiving station answers back to the calling station in a
certain sequence, which is set up during the ALE programming. Net calls must be used
somewhat judiciously, as all called stations need to be in the same propagating region
as the calling station.
d. An HF communications network usually has a number of channels assigned.
The ALE system has a link quality analysis (LQA) process that allows the radio to
evaluate each of these channels to determine the best channel to place a call.
e. At prescribed intervals, a station can be programmed to measure the signal
quality on each assigned frequency (by listening to the sounding signals from the other
stations in the network). The quality scores are stored in a matrix, listed by the other
stations as ID versus channel. When a call to a certain station is initiated, the radio
checks the matrix to determine the best quality frequency for the call to that particular
station. It then attempts to link on that frequency. If the link cannot be established on
that frequency, it will try again on the next best frequency, and so on until a link is
established. If a link is not established after trying all the assigned frequencies, the
radio will prompt the operator that a link could not be established. Sometimes when
using the HF spectrum, communications between any two points may not be possible.
In these cases, it is important to be persistent in attempts to communicate and consider
using another station as a relay to get a message across.
f. In the sample LQA matrix for the station headquarters (HQ) (table II-I), the
channel numbers represent programmed frequencies; the numbers in the matrix are the
most recent channel quality scores. In this example, scores range from 0 for the worst
to 100 for the best. Actual LQA scoring varies between different vendors’ equipment. A
blank (“___”) means the two radios could not use that channel to communicate.
Table II-1 Link Quality Analysis Matrix
Address
ALPHA 1
ALPHA 2
ALPHA 3
01
60
10
--
02
33
---
Channels
03
12
48
29
04
81
86
52
05
23
21
63
g. Thus, if the operator from HQ wanted to call ALPHA 3, the radio would attempt
to call on channel 05, which has the highest LQA score. If not successful, it would
attempt to call on the channel with the next highest score (channel 04), and so on.
h. When making multistation calls or a net call, the radio selects the channel with
the best average score among the addresses in the net call. Thus, for a net call to all the
addresses in the matrix, channel 04 would be used.
II-2
2. Generations of ALE
a. Currently two generations of ALE are being used; these are commonly referred
to as second generation (2G) and third generation (3G). This document primarily covers
the 2G version of ALE. Military Standard (MIL-STD)-188-141A, appendix A and MILSTD-188-141B, appendix A (updated) covers 2G ALE.
b. The newest ALE technology (3G) is immature and not yet widely fielded. This
technology provides the following advantages over the 2G of ALE:
• Faster link setup time.
• Linking at lower signal-to-noise ratios.
• Improved network channel efficiency.
• ALE, 3G, and data traffic use the same family of high-performance serial
waveforms.
• Higher throughput for short and long data messages.
c. These advantages incorporate synchronous scanning, a burst phase shift keying
waveform, and a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance channel access
procedure. MIL-STD-188-141B, appendix C, and STANAG 4538 are the applicable
standards that cover the 3G of ALE.
3. Frequency Selection
a. For ALE to function properly, frequency selection is important. When selecting
frequencies to use in a network, take into consideration the times of operation and
distances to be communicated, power level used, type of antenna(s) used and so forth.
b. When using the above parameters, a good propagation program should also be
used to determine which frequencies will propagate. Appendix H lists some of the
available propagation software programs and contact information.
c. Consulting with the frequency manager early on in this process may save you a
lot of work, since the manager may already have lists of approved frequencies that can
be used for particular functions in given areas.
4. Limitations
a. ALE is a tool that automates HF linking and frequency selection. It does not
replace a properly trained HF operator. Knowledge of the specific radio equipment
being used, propagation, antennas, and so forth is still essential to use ALE effectively.
b. ALE will not improve propagation. If poor propagating frequencies are used,
ALE will not make them work better. ALE only works as well as the frequencies you
put into it; therefore, proper frequency management is essential.
c. ALE makes the linking process more automatic, allowing a novice HF user to use
the radio effectively. However, ALE in some cases takes more time than it takes two
highly trained HF operators to establish a link.
d. ALE determines only the best channel to pass traffic and tries to establish a link
between radios. The ALE function, in itself, does not provide data capability other than
a simple automatic message display (AMD) in the ALE header signal or other
equipment specific features.
II-3
e. Depending on the specific equipment used, ALE may not determine if the
channel is busy with voice or data traffic before it transmits. An operator has no
indication if two other stations are currently linked.
II-4
Chapter III
ALE Parameters Overview
Creating a network in ALE requires that a number of parameters be set the same
across all radios in the network. These settings are determined by considerations such
as type of radios in the network and the number of radios in the network. Due to the
number of different data devices and types of data, this document does not cover the use
of data in an ALE network. To show contrast between vendor equipment, a sample ALE
communications plan for an AN/PRC-150(c) radio is included in appendix F (Example
Radio Programming Application), and a sample communications plan for an AN/ARC220 radio is included in Appendix G (Example HF Communications Planning System
(HF-CPS)).
1. ALE Parameters
a. The following lists of some of the ALE parameters provided to users. Different
equipment may contain more or fewer parameters.
(1) Address. This parameter assigns a unique call sign or address to each radio.
The self address is the address assigned to the radio you are programming. The format
is three to fifteen alphanumeric characters. Individual addresses are assigned to all
other radios in the network.
(2) ALL Call. This parameter determines if the radio will respond to an “ALL”
call. An ALL Call attempts to link with all the ALE stations using a broadcast format.
An ALL Call does not expect a response and does not designate a specific address. The
letters A-L-L should not be used as a self or individual address.
(3) AMD Allowed. This parameter enables (or disables) the ability of the radio to
receive AMD messages. If this is turned off, your radio will not receive and store AMD
messages sent to it. (This parameter does not exist in all vendors’ equipment.)
(4) ANY Call. This parameter determines if the radio will respond to an “ANY”
Call. An ANY Call attempts to link with all ALE stations in the same manner as with
the ALL Call, except the individual stations are expected to respond at one of 16
random intervals for linking purposes. The letters A-N-Y should not be used as a self or
individual address.
(5) Auto Display AMD. This parameter enables (or disables) the ability of the
radio to display a received AMD message on its front panel. If this is turned off, your
radio will not display AMD messages sent to it, but will store them in memory. For this
feature to work, the AMD allowed parameter must be enabled.
(6) Scan Set (AKA Channel Group or Scan List). This parameter groups
individual channels together for use in an ALE network. The number of scan sets that
can be created is dependent on the equipment used.
(7) Key to Call. This parameter enables or disables a feature that allows the
operator to simply key the microphone to place an ALE call to the last address called.
This is like last number redial on a telephone.
III-1
(8) Activity Timeout (AKA Link Timeout or Return to Scan Timeout). This
parameter returns the radio from a linked state to scan if the radio has not been keyed
or has not received an ALE signal for a specified period of time.
(9) Listen Before Transmit. This parameter forces the radio to monitor the
channel for existing traffic before attempting an ALE call. Depending on the equipment
used, the existing traffic can be an ALE handshake, voice, or data.
(10) LQA in Call. This parameter enables (or disables) a feature that forces the
radio to do an LQA before attempting an ALE call.
(11) Maximum Scan Channels (AKA Call Duration). This parameter is used in
ALE to determine the link call time to stations within the net. The calling station’s call
needs to last long enough so the receiving station(s) have time to complete their scan
cycle. This parameter must be set for the worst case radio in the network. For example,
all radios scan five channels except one which scans 10, all radios in the network must
set Max Scan Channels to 10.
(12) Maximum Tune Time. This parameter sets the length of time the calling
station waits for the target station to tune its antenna coupler and power amplifier and
respond to the call. This parameter must be set for the slowest radio tune time in the
network. If all radios in the network tune in four seconds except one, which takes six
seconds, all radios in the network must set this parameter to 6 seconds.
(13) Net Address. This is a list of the addresses in a network. The net address
requires all radios to be programmed identically. The order of all addresses in the
network (including your self address) must be the same in all radios.
(14) Scan Rate (AKA Scan Minimum Dwell, 1/Scan Rate). This parameter sets
the rate that the frequencies will be scanned. All radios in the network must be set at
the same scan rate.
2. Channel Parameters
In addition to the ALE parameters, the radios have to be programmed with channel
parameters. Depending on the equipment used, these parameters may include—
• Channel number.
• Frequency (both receive and transmit).
• Power emission.
• Modulation type (AKA emission mode).
• Automatic gain control (AGC).
• Channel bandwidth.
• Receive (RX) only (if set to YES, this channel is used just for receive only).
• Sound enable/disable.
• Sounding interval.
3. Communications Security
Communications security (COMSEC) must be programmed in all radios in the
network. The planner must ensure that all stations are using compatible COMSEC
devices and that the same keying material (KEYMAT) is used.
III-2
4. System Specific Parameters
Each system has specific parameters that must be programmed (such as modem
settings, pre/post selector settings). This document does not cover all these settings due
to the variety of different systems and different parameters.
5. Electronic Counter-Counter Measures
When required, electronic counter-counter measures (ECCM) must be programmed
in all radios in the network. The planner must ensure that all stations are using the
same transmission security key material.
6. Linking Protection
When required, linking protection (LP) must be programmed in ALE operation for
all radios in the network. The planner must ensure that all stations are using the same
level of LP and LP key material.
III-3
Chapter IV
Multi-Service ALE Network Overview
Achieving effective communications among all users of HF-ALE compatible radios
on the modern battlefield requires detailed planning and coordination at multiple
echelons within a joint force. This chapter describes the respective functions and
responsibilities of the joint forces, Services, and key personnel, with respect to HF-ALE
operations.
1. Functions and Responsibilities
a. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The JCS provides overall guidance on joint US
military frequency engineering and management. The JCS have delegated certain
authority to carry out this responsibility to the Chairman of the Military
Communications-Electronics Board. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS)
reserves the authority to resolve disputes.
b. Joint Force Commander (JFC). The JFC is responsible for all facets of
communications in the area of operations (AO). The JFC delegates the authority for
communications coordination to the communications or signal special staff office of the
Command, Control, Communications, and Computer Systems Directorate (J6).
c. Command, Control, Communications, and Computers Systems Directorate.
(1) The JFC's J6 is a functionally organized staff that controls and coordinates
joint signal services for all elements in the joint operation or exercise. Normally when a
joint force is using HF-ALE compatible radios, the J6 is responsible for the following:
(a) Designating and distributing joint HF-ALE operating parameters
including LP.
(b) Publishing standing operating procedures (SOP) for communications.
(c) Providing frequency management for joint HF-ALE nets.
(d) Coordinating with host government for frequencies.
(e) Controlling COMSEC assignment and use.
(f) Establishing and assigning hierarchy for joint nets.
(g) Establishing and assigning user addresses for joint forces.
(h) Controlling ECCM assignment and use.
(2) The J6 publishes procedures for the following actions in the operation plan
(OPLAN) and operation order:
(a) Operating in fixed (single-channel) or ALE modes.
(b) Using channel plans.
(c) Assigning and using traffic encryption key (TEK).
(d) Determining applicable dates for net configurations.
IV-1
(e) Assigning hierarchy for joint nets.
(f) Establishing common network time.
(g) Developing key management plans.
(h) Developing emergency destruction plans.
(3) In joint operations, all Services in the same tactical operating area will use
HF-ALE compatible radios. Frequency management must occur at the highest multiService command level. For effective operations, a communications coordination
committee should be composed of assigned J6 personnel and necessary augmentation
personnel. The communications coordination committee should include—
(a) Lead Service HF-ALE network coordinator.
(b) The COMSEC custodian and/or communications-electronics operating
instruction (CEOI) manager from the appropriate staff section.
(c) The special plans officer from the operations directorate of a joint staff
(J3) plans section.
(d) The host-country frequency coordinator.
(e) Frequency managers from the joint and Service frequency management
offices.
(f) The J3 aviation officer.
(g) The J3 maritime officer.
(h) A representative from each Service/functional component command J6,
C6, or Army or Marine Corps component command, control, communications, and
computer systems staff officer (G6) capable of accurately representing the component
requirements, capabilities, and limitations.
(4) The communications coordination committee must be identified and available
prior to the execution of the OPLAN. They must be knowledgeable on Service-unique
communications requirements and the operation and management of HF-ALE
computer-based data management systems (such as the Joint Automated CEOI System
or Revised Battlefield Electronics CEOI System, Automated Communications
Engineering Software, and the Air Force Key Data Management System).
(5) The communications coordination committee works with the intelligence
directorate of a joint staff (J2) and the J3 section for planning electronic warfare (EW).
The J3 establishes the joint commander’s electronic warfare staff (JCEWS) for planning
EW operations. JCEWS normally consists of the J2, J3, EW officer, J6, and
representatives from component Services.
(6) The JCEWS coordinates all EW emissions in the joint arena. After
coordination is complete, the J6 publishes a joint restricted frequency list (JRFL). It
specifies the frequency allocations for communication and jamming missions restricted
from use by anyone except those performing the jamming mission. The JFC has final
approval of the JRFL, which must be continually updated to maximize effectiveness of
EW assets and communications systems. The JRFL should contain only those
frequencies that, when jammed, would jeopardize the mission and endanger personnel.
A JFRL that contains too many frequencies defeats the purpose of the JRFL.
IV-2
(7) Working with host-nation authorities, the communications coordination
committee also builds the frequency list for the channel plans. In building the list, the
committee should use HF propagation tools (such as systems planning, engineering, and
evaluation device [SPEED], VOACAP, Rockwell Collins propagation software
[PROPMAN]).
2. Planning
a. Frequency and Network Management Responsibilities.
(1) Frequency and Network Management. Joint force operations require
frequency and network management at theater levels for interoperability. Combined
operations will also require frequency and network management if allies use HF-ALE
compatible radios. Inside the borders, airspace, or territorial waters of foreign
countries, US forces have no independent authority to use radio frequencies. They are
subject to existing international agreements. The US Department of State and theater
commander coordinates these agreements with allied governments.
(2) Frequency Allocations Assignments. Frequency assignments are area
dependent; thus when units change their AO, frequency planning must be addressed
early to minimize disruptions in the operation. Users must approach the spectrum
management process in a manner consistent with the combatant commander’s policy for
spectrum management. The J6 usually develops the commander’s policy, which
includes documents such as the OPLAN and joint communications-electronics operating
instruction (JCEOI). At each level, users must identify and submit spectrum
requirements to the Joint Frequency Management Office (JFMO) or Joint Spectrum
Management Element (JSME) as appropriate. Users are also responsible for operating
their electromagnetic radiating equipment in accordance with parameters authorized by
the frequency assignment process. Due to the long lead time required to coordinate
spectrum assignments, users should submit their requests for frequencies early in their
planning cycle. After receiving assignments, the JFMO/JSME will generate editions to
the JCEOI/signal operating instructions, print out a hard copy for issue and usage, and
create frequency lists needed for operations.
(3) Network Allocations. Network allocations are mission dependent; thus when
units change their AO, net planning must address and implement timely updates to
minimize disruptions in the operation. The lead Service HF-ALE network manager
must contact the JFMO/JSME for frequencies. The HF-ALE network manager will then
validate the master address list and net assignments prior to generation. After
receiving frequency assignments, the network manager will generate the required
channel plan, print out both paper and electronic copy for issue and usage, and create
channel plans needed for operations. (See figures IV-I and IV-II.)
IV-3
005.
010.
102.
110.
113.
114.
115.
116.
130.
131.
140.
141.
144.
147.
200.
204.
205.
207.
300.
301.
303.
340.
343.
354.
356.
357.
358.
359.
362.
363.
400.
401.
403.
407.
440.
443.
454.
455.
457.
458.
459.
462.
463.
502.
511.
512.
513.
702.
704.
716.
803.
804.
805.
806.
910.
Minimum Format Items
(Check w/ Frequency Manager)
Security Classification (UB)
Type of Action (N) = New
Serial Number
Frequencies - K2000-M30
Station Class (ML) Mobile Land
Emission Designator (2K80J3E)
Transmitter Power (in watts) (W400)
Power Type (P)
Usage Hours Per Day (1H24)
Percentage of Use
Required Date (YYYYMMDD)
Expiration Date (YYYYMMDD)
O
Joint Service (AF, AR)
Agency (USA, USN, USAF, or NSA)
Command (Unit)
SubCommand
Operating Unit
Transmitter Location, State, or Country
Transmitter Antenna Location
World Geodetic System 1948 (WGS 84) DATUM (Latitude and Longitude in Deg. Min, Sec)
Transmitter Equipment Nomenclature (G,AN/URC-121)
Transmitter Equipment Allocation Status (JF-12 number from DD 1494) (J/F 12/0XXXX)
Antenna Name
Antenna Structure Height (In Meters)
Antenna gain
Antenna Elevation
Antenna Feed Point Height (In Meters)
Antenna Orientation
Antenna Polarization
Receiver Location, State or Country
Receiver Antenna Location
World Geodetic System 1948 (WGS 84) DATUM (Latitude and Longitude in Deg. Min, Sec)
Path Length (In Kilometers)
Receiver Equipment Nomenclature (G, AN/URC-121)
Receiver Equipment Allocation Status (JF-12 number from DD 1494) (J/F 12/0XXXX)
Antenna Name
Antenna Structure Height (In Meters)
Antenna Gain
Antenna Elevation
Antenna Feed Point Height (In Meters)
Antenna Orientation
Antenna Polarization
Description of Requirement
Major Function Identifier
Intermediate Function Identifier
Detailed Function Identifier
MAJCOM Tracking Number
Type Service (S-Simplex, D-Duplex)
Usage Code (3)
Requester Data (Rank, Name, Telephone Number)
Tuning Range/Increments
Date Required (YYYYMMDD)
Host nation Nominations Acceptable (Yes or No)
Exercise, Mission or Project Name
Figure IV-1. Standard Frequency Action Format Example
IV-4
005. UB
010. N
110. K2000-M30
113. ML
114. 2K80J3E
115. W35
140. 20010430
141. 20010530
144. O
147. AR, AF
200. USA
204. UNIT INFORMATION (SMD) COMMAND
207. UNIT INFORMATION (RS) Operating Unit
300. CA
301. FT IRWIN
303. 351500N1164000W
340. G, AN/PRC-150C
343. J/F 12/04167/6
354. WHIP
356. 6
357.0
358. 2283
359. 6
362. ND
363. V
400. DE
401. DOVER AFB
403. 390736N0752754W
407.
440. G, AN/PRC-150C
443. J/F 12/04167/6
454. LOGPERIODIC
456. 15
457. 20
458. 30
459.15
462. R
463. V
502. REQUIRED FOR COMMAND AND CONTROL DURING ROTATION
511. GROUND OPERATIONS
512. INFANTRY
513. COMMAND AND CONTROL
520. REQUEST 3 IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BANDS
520/2. 2-3K, 4-5K, 6-12K, 12-15K, 15-17K, 17-18K,
520/3. 19-20K, 20-23K, 23-25K, 25-30K
702. 1-10SFG2003-0012
704. 3510
716.3
803. SGT Jon Doe, 123-4567/4568
804. K2000-K3000/100K
805. 20010422
806. YES
910. Joint Enterprise
Figure IV-2. Standard Frequency Action Format Example for HF-ALE
IV-5
b. Compatibility and Interoperability. To support HF-ALE compatibility and
interoperability between all Service components, planners must coordinate with J6 and
their subordinate organizations. This coordination ensures that all combat and combat
support elements have the following:
(1) Equipment.
(a) Interoperability. Equipment interoperability is a major issue in network
planning for HF-ALE systems. While many US forces use HF-ALE-compatible radios,
the radios of allied nations may not be interoperable with MIL STD 188-141 HF-ALE.
Therefore, plans should address interfaces between HF and HF-ALE capable radios or
lateral placement of interoperable radios in non-ALE command posts.
(b) Cryptographic (Crypto) Management. The J6 should manage the use of
crypto materials (key lists and devices) to ensure security and crypto interoperability at
all levels. US forces may need to augment allied forces with US equipment and
personnel for crypto interoperability as appropriate. Prior coordination is essential for
mission accomplishment.
(2) HF-ALE Channel Plan Data.
(a) The J6 network manager is responsible for managing and generating
multi-Service HF-ALE channel plan data (see figure IV-3).
Figure IV-3. Echelons Capable of Generating HF-ALE Network Plan Data
IV-6
(b) The larger the number of frequencies and wider the distribution across
the HF range, the better HF-ALE will perform. The minimum size for an effective
channel plan is mission-dependent. Typically, the optimal channel plan of 10 to 12
frequencies, spread across the frequency range, will adequately support both voice and
data HF-ALE operations. As the number of frequencies in the channel plan decreases,
the choices of LQA become limited, and may become zero. In addition, as the number of
frequencies in the channel plan increases beyond the optimal number (10 to 12
frequencies), the time required to conduct LQA and establish links increases.
Aggressively scrutinizing frequency selections and using the optimal number of
frequencies per channel plan ensures the best possible HF-ALE performance.
(c) The use of global positioning system (GPS) Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) provides a common time reference that simplifies ALE LP operation and ECCM
net synchronization. Use of GPS GMT with a common ALE database LP TEK and
ECCM TEK enables operators to link quickly and frequency hop.
• Use of the GPS. Maintaining accurate time is best accomplished
using the GPS. TOD server will update time in HF-ALE-compatible radios using GPS
GMT time from the precise lightweight GPS receiver or other time sources.
• TOD Server. As required, J6 will establish a TOD server for joint
HF-ALE nets. The J6 must coordinate this TOD server with all theater Services and
echelons of command.
(d) All HF-ALE radios, whether operating in fixed, ALE, ALE with LP, or
ECCM, will operate in the cipher text (CT) mode whenever possible. HF-ALE radios
have either embedded COMSEC or an external COMSEC device. Either the National
Security Agency or the JFC designates the controlling authority (CONAUTH),
depending on the circumstances, for all crypto-net operations. The CONAUTH J6
provides overall staff supervision. COMSEC data includes TEK and key encryption key
(KEK).
• TEK. The normal effective period for the TEK is 30 days; however,
the CONAUTH may specify a shorter period or extend the period under emergency
conditions.
• KEK. KEKs have an effective period of 90 days; however, the
CONAUTH may authorize deviations as dictated by operations. Unit SOPs will
describe routine loading of KEKs in all radios or the storing of the KEK in a fill device
until needed.
• Keying Material Compromise. When substantial evidence exists of a
compromise of COMSEC keying material for HF-ALE radios, the CONAUTH will take
immediate action. There is a range of options including immediate implementation of
new keys and, if necessary, continued use of compromised key(s) until an uncompromised key can be implemented. CONAUTH will consider the tactical situation,
the time needed to distribute reserve data, and the time required to reestablish
communications after COMSEC key(s) are superseded.
3. HF-ALE Data Distribution
a. General. The J6 will manage the overall distribution of the joint HF-ALE
channel plan and COMSEC data throughout the AO. The channel plan will be
IV-7
distributed using paper, or electronically via secure means. Subordinate
communications staff offices are responsible for forwarding their net requirements to
their higher HQ. Staffs at each echelon must distribute data appropriately packaged for
their users, whether routine or under emergency conditions, to ensure that critical
communications are not disrupted. Staffs can distribute the data physically,
electronically, or using a combination of both.
b. Distribution within a Joint Force Command.
(1) Responsibilities. In joint force operations, the J6 has responsibility for
generating or importing the joint HF-ALE channel plans and COMSEC keys. The J6
distributes this data directly to the component communications staffs. If appropriate,
the J6 can delegate the generation and distribution of the joint HF-ALE channel plans
and COMSEC keys to the Service/functional components.
(2) Liaison. The J6 staff is responsible for providing the joint frequencies, HF
data, HF-ALE channel plan, and any other CEOI information to the Service liaison
personnel. Liaison personnel include ground liaison officers at air units, air liaison
officers to ground units, and battlefield coordination elements. These individuals and
units are important links to the Service or HQ they support. After receiving the
HF-ALE channel plan and COMSEC data from their Service or functional component,
liaison personnel can distribute the data to the unit they support.
(3) Intratheater. HF-ALE channel plans are mission dictated and cannot be
prepackaged by the warfighting commanders supporting joint force operations. They
are mission-specific for a wide range of standing OPLANs and contingency plans. In the
mission planning stage, HF-ALE channel plans should be generated and included with
the COMSEC material.
IV-8
c. Distribution within Services and/Components.
(1) Army Forces (ARFOR) (see figure IV-4). The Army component CONAUTH
receives and disseminates the HF-ALE channel plan, including LP, ECCM, and
COMSEC data to subordinate echelons. Depending on the situation, the CONAUTH
may be at the field Army, corps, or division level. Most often, the CONAUTH will be at
the corps level.
Figure IV-4. Channel Plan Data Distribution within Army Units
IV-9
(2) Marine Corps Forces (MARFOR) (see figure IV-5). The Marine Corps
component CONAUTH receives and disseminates the HF-ALE channel plan and
COMSEC data to subordinate echelons. Depending on the situation, the CONAUTH
may be at the Marine expeditionary force (MEF), Marine expeditionary brigade, or
Marine expeditionary unit. Most often, the CONAUTH will be at the MEF level.
Figure IV-5. Channel Plan Data Distribution within Marine Corps Units
IV-10
(3) Navy Forces (NAVFOR) (see figure IV-6). The Naval component CONAUTH
receives and disseminates the HF-ALE channel plan and COMSEC data to subordinate
echelons. Most often, the CONAUTH will be at the numbered fleet, task force
commander, amphibious task force commander, task group commander, carrier group
commander, or task unit commander level.
Figure IV-6. Channel Plan Distribution within Naval Forces
IV-11
(4) Air Force Forces (AFFOR) (see figure IV-7). The Air Force component
CONAUTH receives and disseminates the HF-ALE channel plan and COMSEC data to
subordinate echelons. Depending on the situation, the CONAUTH may be at the Air
expeditionary task force, major command, wing, or unit. Most often, the CONAUTH
will be at the air expeditionary task force level.
Figure IV-7. Channel Plan Data Distribution within Air Force Units
IV-12
4. HF-ALE Addressing
The HF-ALE network administrator will coordinate HF-ALE addressing in a joint
environment. Three to 15 characters can be used as the HF-ALE self address depending
on the system parameters. Using fewer characters in the address will optimize the
speed of HF-ALE operations. However, due to operational considerations on some
networks, it may be practical to use other forms of addressing techniques. In a joint
HF-ALE network, an effective technique is to use the letter identifiers for the respective
Service, as per table IV-1. No governing body has been identified in this document for
issues or deconfliction of HF-ALE addresses. There is a potential of more than one
agency/Service to have the same HF-ALE radio address (frequency deconfliction and
HF-ALE radio address deconfliction are separate issues).
Note: In accordance with Department of Defense (DOD) HF-ALE concepts of
operations, AF0005 through AF0009 are reserved for Mystic Star and
Presidential aircraft.
Table IV-1. HF-ALE Self Addressing
Self Address
Example
Self Address
Example
Air Force
Army
AFxxxx
AF0001
Rxxxxx
R00197
Coast
Guard
CGxxxx
CG1034
FEMA
NATO
SOF
FExxxx
FE101
NTxxxx
NT0297
SFxxxx
SF4
Marine Corps
Navy
MCxxxx
MC10
Homeland
Security
HSxxxx
HS1210
NAxxxx
NA987
Other
XXxxxx
XX7345
IV-13
Chapter V
Individual Service Communications Staff Office
and Radio Operator Guidance
This chapter provides guidance to each Service’s HF radio network coordinator and
radio operator on how to implement and operate in a joint HF-ALE voice network. This
chapter describes the network details provided by the JFC’s J6, how to use this
information, and key points to consider when incorporating the network into a
previously established HF communications architecture. These guidelines are also
applicable to operating in civil nets.
1. General Description
The technical details are the actual HF radio settings and network architecture.
The operational details are the rules for operating within the network. This
information is broken into three sections: (1) overall plan information, (2) technical
details, and (3) network SOPs. If any of the information is not provided or is incomplete
or unclear, the network manager or operator should ask for complete details or
clarification from the source that provided the original information. A graphical
representation of the network architecture is shown in figure V-1. The following
information amplifies ALE parameters discussed in chapter III.
a. Overall Plan Information. The overall plan includes information such as how the
entire HF-ALE network is set up, purpose of network, architecture, and type of network.
Information to be included in the overall plan includes, but is not limited to—
(1) Joint HF-ALE network users.
(2) Fixed station locations (if applicable).
(3) Voice, data, or both.
(4) Operational windows.
(5) Encryption standard.
(6) Any unique instructions (such as North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO]
net SOPs).
V-1
Theater Planning
Identify Nets that are to be used
NET 1. Define:
• Assigned stations
• Call signs
• Modems assigned to net presets
• Encryption type and key
• ALE Parameters (tune time, number scan channels,
NET 2
NET…….
NET N
Channels
and
Stations
Channels
and
Stations
Channels
and
Stations
etc.)
Scan sets/channel groups
Select channels assigned to
each scan set
Identify stations in net station
name
ALE same/address
Channel Definitions
Channel 1
Freq (TX & Rcv)
Modulation type
• AGC
• Bandwidth
Channel 2
Freq (TX & Rcv)
Modulation type
• AGC
• Bandwidth
Channel………..
Channel X
Freq (TX and Rcv)
Modulation type
• AGC
• Bandwidth
Figure V-1. Theater Network Architecture
b. Technical Details. This is a brief description of the technical parameters
required to operate within the network. For many of these parameters, entering a
wrong setting will mean your HF radio will not be able to link with another HF radio in
the network. An example of the required information is shown in appendix F.
(1) Channel Definitions. This defines the transmit-receive parameters of each
channel. The following information will be provided for each channel:
(a) Channel frequency.
(b) Channel modulation type (AKA emission mode).
(c) AGC.
(d) Bandwidth.
(e) Sound enable/disable.
(f) Sounding interval.
(2) Scan Sets (AKA channel groups, nets, or scan list). This defines how the
channels are grouped together and assigns each group a name.
(3) Participating Station Identification. This section assigns ALE addresses to
all expected network members and their group associations, including self addresses.
Some HF-ALE radio systems require this information to be pre-loaded before it will
recognize another participant. Other systems will automatically load the station’s ALE
address when it is heard broadcasting on the net.
V-2
(4) ALE Parameter Configuration. This is the list of ALE parameters that
govern how every HF-ALE system in the network operates. A list identifying and
defining the minimum parameters is provided in chapter III.
c. Network SOP. This section identifies the general rules for participating in the
net. These procedures are the same as the operational procedures required for typical
communications circuits. It should include items such as—
(1) Check-in/check-out procedures.
(2) Designated operating times.
(3) Type/priority of traffic.
(4) How/when network settings will be changed.
(5) Instructions for operating with non US military participants (allied/coalition
forces, civilian agencies).
2. Actions Required
This paragraph describes the actions to be taken after the general, technical, and
operational details are identified. First, the Service coordination staff should ensure
that the available equipment is compatible with the technical and operational
requirements and that all equipment is interoperable. Interoperability should include
verification of COMSEC and key management.
a. Once compatibility is confirmed, the Service coordination staff should determine
how the network operational requirements are to be distributed to each user. For
example, if all net participants are using the same type of radio, the Service
coordination staff may e-mail configuration files with all settings preloaded. If different
types of equipment are used, text documents or messages listing all the settings may be
required.
b. Operators must refer to their SOPs or individual equipment manuals to set the
required network configurations for their specific radios.
3. Implementation Considerations
This paragraph offers insight into potential implementation issues that should be
considered by the Service coordination staff or operator.
a. Impact to Current Mission Equipment Requirements. Service coordination staff
and operators need to determine how to implement a joint HF-ALE network with their
current inventory of equipment. This may mean adding the joint HF-ALE network into
a HF system along with pre-existing ALE networks, or dedicating an HF system solely
to the joint network. When making this decision, Service coordination staff and
operators should consider how the joint HF-ALE network parameters might affect the
pre-existing HF-ALE networks.
b. KEYMAT Management. If the joint network is added to an HF system that will
be used in other HF-ALE networks, the Service coordination staff and operator should
note any differences in COMSEC (such as different KEYMAT, or different KEYMAT
shift times) between the networks, and develop an implementation plan that will
minimize network interruption due to these differences.
V-3
Appendix A
High Frequency Global Communications System
The high frequency global communications system (HFGCS) is a 24-hour/7-day
nonsecure network used by the President and Secretary of Defense, the DOD, and other
federal departments, and allied users equipped with HF-ALE radio technology in
support of command and control between aircraft/ships and associated ground stations.
The system consists of fifteen communication stations. Fourteen stations are remotely
controlled from the Central Network Control Station (CNCS) at Andrews Air Force
Base, Maryland. Radio operators at the CNCS use position consoles to control
individually each remote HF global station. Figure A-1 depicts system architecture and
interstation connectivity. When authorized by the HFGCS ALE network manager, joint
ALE users can use the HFGCS ALE network (see appendix B).
Figure A-1. Interstation Connectivity Architecture
A-1
ALE Parameters
DOD HF-ALE subject matter experts recommend the following parameters be used
for interoperability and operation in the HFGCS ALE Network (see table A-1). All ALE
systems configurations may not require the parameters and/or settings listed for
HFGCS ALE network operation.
Table A-1. Recommended Joint ALE Configuration Parameters
Configuration Parameters
Adaptive Sounding
Allow all calls
Allow any calls
AMD in acknowledgment
Call alert
Call duration
Call reject duration
Command LQA
Data monitor duration
Data monitor hang time
Delay power-on sounding
Initiate call with push-to-talk
Keep-alive transmission
Listen before call time
LQA degrade interval
LQA degrade method
LQA maximum age
LQA reject threshold
LQA sounding interval
Maximum address characters
Maximum call attempts
Network tune time
Power-on in initial automatic reset
Rank order
Receive LQA process method
RCU programming
Scan minimum dwell time
Scanning between sounds
Sound duration
Sounding retry time
Terminate link transmission
A-2
Settings
Disable
Enable
Disable
Disable
Enable
11 seconds
30 seconds
Disable
60 seconds
10 seconds
Disable
Enable
100 seconds (if equipped)
Enable
3 minutes
1 linear
120 minutes
1 (minimum)
45 minutes
9
5
12 seconds
Enable
3
3
Enable
500 milliseconds
(2 channels/second)
Enable
11 seconds
4 minutes
Enable
Table A-2. Recommended Joint ALE System Parameters
System Parameters
Automatic sounding
Call alert bells
Default verbose level
Default waveform
LQA output
Priority override
Return-to-scan time
Voice monitor duration
Settings
Enable
3 seconds
7 (MIL STD ALE)
MIL STD ALE
Enable
Disable
120 seconds
60 seconds
Table A-3. Recommended Joint ALE Channel Parameters
Channel Parameters
Antenna direction
Antenna number
Channel number
Frequency designator
Link protection
Receive audio mode
Receive emission mode
Receive frequency
Receive only
Sound
Sound duration
Sound interval
Transmit audio mode
Transmit emission mode
Transmit frequency
Transmitter power level
Voice monitor
Settings
0
0
Channel number in ascending
order for each channel in the scan
list
Applicable designator from the
frequency list
Disabled
Voice
USB
Enter in kHz
Disable
Enable
11 seconds
45 minutes
Voice
USB
Enter in kHz
Enter HIGH
Disabled
A-3
Appendix B
Established and Proposed ALE Networks
Established Networks
I. High Frequency Global Communications System (HFGCS)
Managing Agency: HFGCS, Andrews AFB, MD
DSN: 858-5333
Commercial: (301) 981-5333
Web Address:
Purpose/Use: Global communications.
Voice: Yes
Data: Yes, HF Messenger
Users: DOD and others as authorized
Area of Coverage: Worldwide
Special Capabilities: Automatic phone patching
COMSEC: NSA Type 1 via KIV-7
II. Customs Over the Horizon Enforcement Network
Managing Agency: US Customs Service (USCS)
DSN:
Commercial: (800) 829-6336
Web Address:
Purpose/Use: Law enforcement operations coordination
Voice: Yes
Data: No
Users: USCS mobile units and other government agency assets, as allowed
Area of Coverage: CONUS, Alaska, Hawaii, Caribbean, South America
Special Capabilities: Asset tracking via tracking and communication system (TRACS); protected
phone patching via telephone to radio interface communications system (TRICS)
COMSEC: Type III Data Encryption Standard (DES) protected using VP-110 and VP-116
III. Shared Resources
Managing Agency: National Communications System (NCS)
DSN:
Commercial:
Web Address: http://www.ncs.gov/n3/shares/shares.htm
Purpose/Use: Supporting national security and emergency preparedness
Voice: Yes
Data: HF e-mail
Users: Open to all (contact NCS for participation)
Area of Coverage: CONUS, Alaska, Hawaii
Special Capabilities:
COMSEC:
B-1
IV. National Guard Bureau HF E-mail
Managing Agency: National Guard Bureau
DSN:
Commercial:
Web Address:
Purpose/Use: Linking states/regions by e-mail
Voice: Yes
Data: Yes, HF E-mail
Users: State emergency operation centers
Area of Coverage: CONUS, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands
Special Capabilities: No
COMSEC: No
Proposed Networks (Networks Under Development)
I. National Emergency Response Net
Managing Agency: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
DSN:
Commercial: (940) 898-5321
Web Address: www.FEMA.gov
Purpose/Use: National emergency coordination
Voice: Yes
Data:
Users: As assigned by FEMA
Area of Coverage: CONUS, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands
Special Capabilities:
COMSEC: None
II. US Coast Guard Coordination Network
Managing Agency: US Coast Guard
DSN: None
Commercial: (202) 267-1225
Web Address:
Purpose/Use: General operations asset coordination
Voice: Yes
Data: No
Users: US Coast Guard assets and other government agencies as allowed
Area of Coverage: CONUS and 200+ nautical miles (nm) offshore, North and South Pacific
Ocean, Caribbean, and Central America
Special Capabilities: Automatic phone patching
COMSEC: Type I – ANDVT
B-2
III. US Coast Guard HF Data Exchange Network
Managing Agency: US Coast Guard
DSN: None
Commercial: (202) 267-1225
Web Address:
Purpose/Use: Record message traffic and e-mail exchange
Voice: No
Data: Yes, HF Messenger
Users: US Coast Guard assets and other government agencies as allowed.
Area of Coverage: CONUS and 200+nm offshore, North and South Pacific Ocean, Caribbean,
and Central America
Special Capabilities: No
COMSEC: Type I via KIV-7
B-3
Appendix C
Exclusion Band
The following frequencies are reserved for specific purposes, and should never be
used in an ALE network.
Any frequency not assigned
2,182 kHz - international distress standard voice
2,187.5 kHz - international distress digital selective calling
4,207.5 kHz - international distress digital selective calling
6,312 kHz - international distress digital selective calling
8,414.5 kHz - international distress digital selective calling
12,577 kHz - international distress digital selective calling
16,804.5 kHz - international distress digital selective calling
2,500 kHz - worldwide time signal (WWV)
5,000 kHz - worldwide time signal (WWV)
10,000 kHz - worldwide time signal (WWV)
15,000 kHz - worldwide time signal (WWV)
20,000 kHz - worldwide time signal (WWV)
C-1
Appendix D
Joint Interoperability Test Command Certified ALE
Radios and Capability Matrix
Joint Interoperability Test Command is located at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. A
complete, updated list of all radios certified for compliance with 2G ALE (either
MIL STD 188-141A or MIL STD 188-141B, appendix A, Interoperability and
Performance Standards for Medium and High Frequency Radio Systems) and 3G ALE
(MIL-STD-188-141B, appendix C) can be found at http://jitc.fhu.disa.mil/it/cert.htm.
The following is a list of the radios that have been certified for compliance as of 12
December 2002 (see table D-1).
Table D-1 Joint Interoperability Test Command Certified ALE Radios and Capability Matrix
Nomenclature
AN/ARC-220
AVRC-100
AN/PRC-137C
AN/PRC-137F/G
AN/PRC-138
AN/PRC-150(C)
(RT-1694D(P)(C)/U)
RT-1446/RF 7210
RT-2200
XK-2100L
XK2900L
188-141A
Appendix A
Certification Date
07/26/02
188-141B
Appendix B
Certification Date
188-141B
Appendix C
Certification Date
07/26/02
03/20/95
11/25/98
03/20/00
06/03/02
11/09/96
02/12/02
05/25/00
Pending
Pending
D-1
Appendix E
Example Communications Plan
Table E-1. Channel Matrix
Channel
Channel
Group
Frequency
Mode
Agc
Comsec
Bandwidth
Power
Rx Only
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
03545
03729
04580
06100
09580
101180
125000
164900
169970
183950
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
MED
MED
MED
MED
MED
MED
MED
MED
MED
MED
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
KY-99
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
20 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
Table E-2. Address Matrix
Station name
JFC
NAVFOR
ARFOR
MARFOR
AFFOR
SOF
USCG
NET
Address
JFC001
NA0987
R00197
MC0100
AF0001
SOF054
CG1034
JTF NET
Table E-3. ALE Parameters
Parameter
All calls
AMD allowed
Any calls
AUTO display AMDs
Key to call
Link timeout
Listen before transmit
LQA in call
Maximum scan channels
Maximum tune time
Scan Rate
Setting
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
15 (minutes)
ON
OFF
10
2 (seconds)
5
E-1
Figure E-1. Network Diagram
E-2
Appendix F
Example Radio Programming Application
This radio programming application example was created using a Harris AN/PRC150(C) and Harris RF-6550H radio programming application and the example
communications plan from appendix E.
Plan Name: JTF
Author: KAISER
Description: JTF COMMUNICATIONS PLAN
Date Generated: 12/12/2002 10:29 AM
Station Report:
Station: JTF
Description:
Radio Type: AN/PRC-150C
Modem Type: RF-5800H-MP Internal
Call Sign: JTF
Crypto: None
Radio ID: 2
Configuration:
Radio Silence: No
Audio Compression: Enabled
RX Noise Blanking: Disabled
Bypass Coupler: No
Squelch Level: High
FM Squelch Type: Tone
FM Deviation: 8000 Hz
Analog Squelch: Disabled
TX Power: High
Data Port Configuration:
Baud Rate: 2400
Parity: None
Bits Per Char: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Port Echo: No
Flow Control: XONXOFF
F-1
ALE Configuration:
All Calls: No
Any Calls: No
Key to Call: No
AMD Allowed: Yes
Auto Display AMDs: Yes
Listen Before TX: Yes
Max Scan Channels: 10
Link Timeout: 15 minute(s)
Tune Time: 2 second(s)
Scan Rate: 5 chan/sec
Prepost Configuration:
Scan Rate: Force Slow Scan
Filter: PRE/POST ENABLED
RX Antenna Enabled: No
Message Transfer Configuration:
ARQ Baud Rate: 2400
ARQ Mode: ACK
ARQ Interleave: LONG
ARQ Data Destination: RDP
Modem Data Destination: RDP
RPD Prebuffer: 425
ARQ Configuration:
Threshold: 1000
Type 1 Configuration:
ANDVT-BD Preamble: STAND
ANDVT-BD Trnseq: 6
Station: NAVFOR
Description:
Radio Type: AN/PRC-150C
Modem Type: RF-5800H-MP Internal
Call Sign: NAVFOR
Crypto: None
Radio ID: 3
Configuration:
Radio Silence: No
Audio Compression: Enabled
RX Noise Blanking: Disabled
Bypass Coupler: No
Squelch Level: High
FM Squelch Type: Tone
FM Deviation: 8000 Hz
Analog Squelch: Disabled
TX Power: High
F-2
Data Port Configuration:
Baud Rate: 2400
Parity: None
Bits Per Char: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Port Echo: No
Flow Control: XONXOFF
ALE Configuration:
All Calls: No
Any Calls: No
Key to Call: No
AMD Allowed: Yes
Auto Display AMDs: Yes
Listen Before TX: Yes
Max Scan Channels: 10
Link Timeout: 15 minute(s)
Tune Time: 2 second(s)
Scan Rate: 5 chan/sec
Prepost Configuration:
Scan Rate: Force Slow Scan
Filter: Pre/Post Enabled
RX Antenna Enabled: No
Message Transfer Configuration:
ARQ Baud Rate: 2400
ARQ Mode: ACK
ARQ Interleave: LONG
ARQ Data Destination: RDP
Modem Data Destination: RDP
RPD Prebuffer: 425
ARQ Configuration:
Threshold: 1000
Type 1 Configuration:
ANDVT-BD Preamble: Stand
ANDVT-BD Trnseq: 6
Station: ARFOR
Description:
Radio Type: AN/PRC-150C
Modem Type: RF-5800H-MP Internal
Call Sign: ARFOR
Crypto: None
Radio ID: 4
F-3
Configuration:
Radio Silence: No
Audio Compression: Enabled
RX Noise Blanking: Disabled
Bypass Coupler: No
Squelch Level: High
FM Squelch Type: Tone
FM Deviation: 8000 Hz
Analog Squelch: Disabled
TX Power: High
Data Port Configuration:
Baud Rate: 2400
Parity: None
Bits Per Char: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Port Echo: No
Flow Control: XONXOFF
ALE Configuration:
All Calls: No
Any Calls: No
Key To Call: No
AMD Allowed: Yes
Auto Display AMDs: Yes
Listen Before TX: Yes
Max Scan Channels: 10
Link Timeout: 15 minute(s)
Tune Time: 2 second(s)
Scan Rate: 5 chan/sec
Prepost Configuration:
Scan Rate: Force Slow Scan
Filter: Pre/Post Enabled
RX Antenna Enabled: No
Message Transfer Configuration:
ARQ Baud Rate: 2400
ARQ Mode: ACK
ARQ Interleave: LONG
ARQ Data Destination: RDP
Modem Data Destination: RDP
RPD Prebuffer: 425
F-4
ARQ Configuration:
Threshold: 1000
Type 1 Configuration:
ANDVT-BD Preamble: STAND
ANDVT-BD Trnseq: 6
Station: MARFOR
Description:
Radio Type: AN/PRC-150C
Modem Type: RF-5800 H-MP Internal
Call Sign: MARFOR
Crypto: None
Radio ID: 5
Configuration:
Radio Silence: No
Audio Compression: Enabled
RX Noise Blanking: Disabled
Bypass Coupler: No
Squelch Level: High
FM Squelch Type: Tone
FM Deviation: 8000 Hz
Analog Squelch: Disabled
TX Power: High
Data Port Configuration:
Baud Rate: 2400
Parity: None
Bits Per Char: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Port Echo: No
Flow Control: XONXOFF
ALE Configuration:
All Calls: No
Any Calls: No
Key to Call: No
AMD Allowed: Yes
Auto Display AMDs: Yes
Listen Before TX: Yes
Max Scan Channels: 10
Link Timeout: 15 minute(s)
Tune Time: 2 second(s)
Scan Rate: 5 chan/sec
F-5
Prepost Configuration:
Scan Rate: Force Slow Scan
Filter: Pre/Post Enabled
RX Antenna Enabled: No
Message Transfer Configuration:
ARQ Baud Rate: 2400
ARQ Mode: ACK
ARQ Interleave: LONG
ARQ Data Destination: RDP
Modem Data Destination: RDP
RPD Prebuffer: 425
ARQ Configuration:
Threshold: 1000
Type 1 Configuration:
ANDVT-BD Preamble: STAND
ANDVT-BD Trnseq: 6
Station: AFFOR
Description:
Radio Type: AN/PRC-150C
Modem Type: RF-5800 H-MP Internal
Call Sign: AFFOR
Crypto: None
Radio ID: 6
Configuration:
Radio Silence: No
Audio Compression: Enabled
RX Noise Blanking: Disabled
Bypass Coupler: No
Squelch Level: High
FM Squelch Type: Tone
FM Deviation: 8000 Hz
Analog Squelch: Disabled
TX Power: High
Data Port Configuration:
Baud Rate: 2400
Parity: None
Bits Per Char: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Port Echo: No
Flow Control: XONXOFF
F-6
ALE Configuration:
All Calls: No
Any Calls: No
Key To Call: No
AMD Allowed: Yes
Auto Display AMDs: Yes
Listen Before TX: Yes
Max Scan Channels: 10
Link Timeout: 15 minute(s)
Tune Time: 2 second(s)
Scan Rate: 5 chan/sec
Prepost Configuration:
Scan Rate: Force Slow Scan
Filter: Pre/Post Enabled
RX Antenna Enabled: No
Message Transfer Configuration:
ARQ Baud Rate: 2400
ARQ Mode: ACK
ARQ Interleave: LONG
ARQ Data Destination: RDP
Modem Data Destination: RDP
RPD Prebuffer: 425
ARQ Configuration:
Threshold: 1000
Type 1 Configuration:
ANDVT-BD Preamble: STAND
ANDVT-BD Trnseq: 6
Station: SOF
Description:
Radio Type: AN/PRC-150C
Modem Type: RF-5800 H-MP Internal
Call Sign: SOF
Crypto: None
Radio ID: 7
Configuration:
Radio Silence: No
Audio Compression: Enabled
RX Noise Blanking: Disabled
Bypass Coupler: No
Squelch Level: High
FM Squelch Type: Tone
FM Deviation: 8000 Hz
Analog Squelch: Disabled
TX Power: High
F-7
Data Port Configuration:
Baud Rate: 2400
Parity: None
Bits Per Char: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Port Echo: No
Flow Control: XONXOFF
ALE Configuration:
All Calls: No
Any Calls: No
Key to Call: No
AMD Allowed: Yes
Auto Display AMDs: Yes
Listen Before TX: Yes
Max Scan Channels: 10
Link Timeout: 15 minute(s)
Tune Time: 2 second(s)
Scan Rate: 5 chan/sec
Prepost Configuration:
Scan Rate: Force Slow Scan
Filter: Pre/Post Enabled
RX Antenna Enabled: No
Message Transfer Configuration:
ARQ Baud Rate: 2400
ARQ Mode: ACK
ARQ Interleave: LONG
ARQ Data Destination: RDP
Modem Data Destination: RDP
RPD Prebuffer: 425
ARQ Configuration:
Threshold: 1000
Type 1 Configuration:
ANDVT-BD Preamble: STAND
ANDVT-BD Trnseq: 6
Station: USCG
Description:
Radio Type: AN/PRC-150C
Modem Type: RF-5800 H-MP Internal
Call Sign: USCG
Crypto: None
Radio ID: 8
F-8
Configuration:
Radio Silence: No
Audio Compression: Enabled
RX Noise Blanking: Disabled
Bypass Coupler: No
Squelch Level: High
FM Squelch Type: Tone
FM Deviation: 8000 Hz
Analog Squelch: Disabled
TX Power: High
Data Port Configuration:
Baud Rate: 2400
Parity: None
Bits Per Char: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Port Echo: No
Flow Control: XONXOFF
ALE Configuration:
All Calls: No
Any Calls: No
Key to Call: No
AMD Allowed: Yes
Auto Display AMDs: Yes
Listen Before TX: Yes
Max Scan Channels: 10
Link Timeout: 15 minute(s)
Tune Time: 2 second(s)
Scan Rate: 5 chan/sec
Prepost Configuration:
Scan Rate: Force Slow Scan
Filter: Pre/Post Enabled
RX Antenna Enabled: No
Message Transfer Configuration:
ARQ Baud Rate: 2400
ARQ Mode: ACK
ARQ Interleave: LONG
ARQ Data Destination: RDP
Modem Data Destination: RDP
RPD Prebuffer: 425
ARQ Configuration:
Threshold: 1000
F-9
Type 1 Configuration:
ANDVT-BD Preamble: STAND
ANDVT-BD Trnseq: 6
Table F-1. Channel Report
Channel
RX Freq
TX Freq
RX Only
Modulation
AGC
Bandwidth
Hail Key
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
3.5450
3.7290
4.5800
6.1000
9.5800
10.1180
12.5000
16.4900
16.9970
18.3950
3.5450
3.7290
4.5800
6.1000
9.5800
10.1180
12.5000
16.4900
16.9970
18.3950
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
3000 Hz
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Channel Group Report:
Group
01
Mode
ALE
Member Channels
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
Modem Preset Report:
No Modem Presets Defined
Comsec Key Report:
No Comsec Keys Defined
Network Report:
Net JTF NET:
AFFOR
ARFOR
JTF
MARFOR
NAVFOR
SOF
USCG
Station
AF0001
R00197
JTF001
MC0100
NA0987
SOF054
USCG1034
ALE Self Addresses:
Net Name Mode Preset Name CH/HN CT Mode PT Mode CryptoMode COMSEC Mdm Preset
JTF NET
ALE
{N/A}
{N/A}
DV24
CLR
ANDVT-HF
TEK01 00
OFF
F-10
Appendix G
Example HF Communications Planning System
This example was created using the Rockwell Collins HF Communications Planning
System (HF-CPS) Software for an ARC-220 Radio System. ALE Net 2 is based on the
example communications plan from Appendix E.
Datafill = ..My Documents\R00197.
Version = MISSIONALPHA
User Id = Admin
Date = 3/13/2003 10:45:50 AM
User database
System database
Master database
Operations database
= C:\Hf-Cps_4.1a\Network\Network.hfu
= C:\Hf-Cps_4.1a\Network\Network.hfs
= C:\Hf-Cps_4.1a\Master\sample.hfm
= C:\Hf-Cps_4.1a\Master\Opern\sample.hfo
Radio Name = RT-1749 S2 (AN/ARC-220)
Interface Version
Equip Interface
ID
13001
ID
2
System Parameters
Parm Name
Parm Value
All_Call
Amd_In_Ack
Any_Call
Automatic_Sounding
Call_Reject_Duration
Command_LQA
Delay_Power_On_Sounding
Keep_Alive_Transmission_Interval
LBT_Enable
Link_Protection
Listen_Before_Call_Time
LQA_Channel_Select
LQA_Degrade_Interval
EN
EN
DI
EN
20
DI
EN
30
DI
EN
1000
Highest LQA Value
2
G-1
LQA_Go_Data_Threshold
LQA_Reject_Threshold_Level
Max_Address_Characters
Max_Call_Attempts
Network_Tune_Time
Noise_Reduction
Power_On_In_Iart
LBC_Enable
Rank_Order
Received_LQA_Process_Method
Return_To_Scan_Time (Sec)
Rx_Only_Antenna
Scan_Min_Dwell_Time
Terminate_Link_Transmission
Time_Server_Capable
LQA_Output_Enable
23
10
6
12
2
0
DI
EN
Center, Alt Lower/Higher
Lowest, 5-minute Period
60
DI
200
EN
DI
DI
Installation Parameters
Parm Name
Aircraft_Identifier
Antenna_Port_Output
ARC-199_1553_Cmd_Enable
AXID_Fixed_ID
AXID_Station_ID
Coupler_Bypass
DS101_Terminal_Address
GPS_Posn_Config
GPS_Time_Config
Power_On_PA_Level
Power_On_Squelch_Level
Power_On_Volume_Level
Rx_Only_Antenna_Available
Operator_Alert_Advisory
Long_Holdoff_Advisory
Short_Holdoff_Advisory
G-2
Parm Value
R00197
DI
DI
127
AN/ARC-220
DI
255
RCVR UH
HAVE QUICK
HI (100 W)
Level 3 (SQ3)
Level 3 (Vol 3)
DI
EN
EN
EN
Channels
chn xmt
xmt
num freq
mod
xmt
no
rcv
rcv
pwr
snd
xmt freq
1 02.1234 US
HI
EN
2 03.1234 US
HI
3 04.1234 US
snd voice audio
mod
int
mon
mode
DI 02.1234 US
60
DI
VO
EN
DI 03.1234 US
60
DI
VO
HI
EN
DI 04.1234 US
60
DI
VO
4 05.1234 US
HI
EN
DI 05.1234 US
60
DI
VO
5 06.1234 US
HI
EN
DI 06.1234 US
60
DI
VO
6 07.1234 US
HI
EN
DI 07.1234 US
60
DI
VO
7 08.1234 US
HI
EN
DI 08.1234 US
60
DI
VO
8 09.1234 US
HI
EN
DI 09.1234 US
60
DI
VO
9 02.7890 US
HI
DI
DI 02.7890 US
30
DI
VO
10 03.7890
US
HI
DI
DI 03.7890 US
30
DI
VO
11 05.7890
US
HI
DI
DI 05.7890 US
30
DI
VO
30 03.5450
US
HI
DI
DI 03.5450 US
30
DI
VO
31 03.7290
US
HI
DI
DI 03.7290 US
30
DI
VO
32 04.5800
US
HI
DI
DI 04.5800 US
30
DI
VO
33 06.1000
US
HI
DI
DI 06.1000 US
30
DI
VO
34 09.5800
US
HI
DI
DI 09.5800 US
30
DI
VO
35 10.1180
US
HI
DI
DI 10.1180 US
30
DI
VO
36 12.5000
US
HI
DI
DI 12.5000 US
30
DI
VO
37 16.4900
US
HI
EN
DI 16.4900 US
30
DI
VO
38 16.9970
US
HI
EN
DI 16.9970 US
30
DI
VO
39 18.3950
US
HI
EN
DI 18.3950 US
30
DI
VO
101 06.3456
US
HI
DI
DI 06.3456 US
30
DI
VO
102 02.2345
US
HI
DI
DI 02.2345 US
30
DI
VO
103 03.2345
US
HI
DI
DI 03.2345 US
30
DI
VO
121 02.7890
US
HI
DI
DI 02.7890 US
30
DI
VO
122 03.7890
US
HI
DI
DI 03.7890 US
30
DI
VO
123 04.7890
US
HI
DI
DI 04.7890 US
30
DI
VO
G-3
Scan Lists
Scan
Default Default
list Call Default Othr Call
Self
LP Num List of
idx drtn Protocol Prot Address Address LP Idx Chn channels
1
0 MS-ALE
EN 123TOCS R00197 EN 1 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
2
0 MS-ALE
DI JTF
R00197 DI 0 10 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
Other Addresses
G-4
Othr
Rmt
adr
Scan sta
idx Other
list tune Call
# address
# time Protocol Region
1 BDE123
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 3
2 M21
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 2
3 M22
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 2
4 M23
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 2
5 R12345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
6 R22345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
7 R32345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
8 R42345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
9 R52345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
10 R62345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
11 R72345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
12 R82345
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 1
13 TAC123
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 3
14 TOC123
0
2
MS-ALE
Zone 3
15 JTF001
0
2
MS-ALE
N/A
16 NA0987
0
2
MS-ALE
N/A
17 R00197
0
2
MS-ALE
N/A
18 MC0100
0
2
MS-ALE
N/A
19 AF0001
0
2
MS-ALE
N/A
20 SOF054
0
2
MS-ALE
N/A
21 CG1034
0
2
MS-ALE
N/A
Net Addresses
No
Net
Scan rsp Fix Max
adr Net
list net len slot
idx address
idx call adr used
1 JTFNET
2 EN DI 8
Slot Respondent
num address
2 AF0001
3 R00197
4 JTF001
5 MC0100
6 NA0987
7 SOF054
8 USCG1034
Auto Addresses
Auto
Num
Num
adr
Call
Sta
idx Auto Address
1 123TOCS
Atmp Address Mode Adr Station Addresses
3 Priority
3 TOC123 TAC123 BDE123
Group Addresses
None
G-5
Self Addresses
Self Scan Indv
Net No
adr List self
adr Rsp
idx Idx address
idx
Net
1
0 R12345
0
DI
2 -1 R22345
0
DI
3 -1 R32345
0
DI
4 -1 R42345
0
DI
5 -1 R52345
0
DI
6 -1 R62345
0
DI
7 -1 R72345
0
DI
8 -1 R82345
0
DI
8 -1 R00197
0
DI
Modems
---------Rx----- --------Tx-Mdm
Intlv Adap
Idx Modem Name
Modem Mode
1 300 148 110S
148A/110 Single Tone
Rate
Length Rate Length tive
Bps 300 Short Bps 300
Short DI
Short DI
2 300 110 SHORT 110A
Single Tone
Bps 300 Short Bps 300
3 2400 110 SHORT 110A
Single Tone
Bps 2400 Short Bps 2400 Short DI
4 1200 110 SHORT 110A
Single Tone
Bps 1200 Short Bps 1200 Short DI
LQA
None
AMD Messages
G-6
Data Intlv Data
None
User Messages
Msg Message
idx text
1 CROSSING PHASE LINE RED
2 CROSSING PHASE LINE BLUE
3 MISSION COMPLETE, RETURNING TO BASE
4 AIRCRAFT DOWN, POSITION REPORT TO FOLLOW
Dictionary
Idx Word
1 ADVANCING
2 AIRCRAFT
3 ATTACK
4 BRIDGE
5 CARGO
6 RECON
7 REPORT
8 RESTRICTED
9 RETREAT
10 ROAD
Linking Protection
LP12 LP3
LP LP
Time Auto
Key Key
Idx Level Idx Idx NTS Role
Time Brdc App
Brdc Intv Link
1 Level 3 0 1 User Time Station DI
60 EN
G-7
MSLP
None
ECCM Frequency Lists
Frq
Lst Frequencies in MHz
1 02.5100 02.5150 02.6100 02.6150 02.6200 02.6250 02.7200 02.7250 02.7300
02.7350 02.8000 02.8050 02.8100 02.8150 02.8200 02.8250 02.8300 02.8350 02.8400
02.8450 02.8500 02.8550 02.8600 02.8650 02.8700 02.8750 02.8800 02.8850 02.9000
2 04.0500 04.0550 04.0600 04.0650 04.0700 04.1000 04.1050 04.1100 04.1150
04.1200 04.1230 04.1260 04.1290 04.1320 04.1350 04.1380 04.1410 04.1440 04.1470
04.1500 04.1540 04.1580 04.1620 04.1660 04.1700 04.1750 04.1760 04.1800 04.1820
04.1860 04.1900 04.2000 04.2050 04.2100 04.2150 04.2200 04.2240 04.2280 04.2320
04.2360 04.2400 04.2450 04.2500 04.2550 04.2600 04.2650 04.2700 04.2750 04.2800
04.2840 04.2850 04.2880 04.2900 04.2920 04.2950 04.2960 04.3000
ECCM Channels
Chn Frq Lst Protocol
1 1
148A
2 2
148A
ECCM Scansets
Scan ALE
KGV Num
set ECCM
-10 Freq
idx net NTS Role
G-8
idx List ECCM Channels
1 DI User Time Station
1
1 1
2 DI User Time Station
1
1 2
System Nets
Net
Rec
Modem Context
Idx Net Type
Idx
Net Name
Idx
ID
1 Basic Manual 121 MAN
01 ORG1
2
0
2 Basic Manual 122 MAN
02 ORG1
2
0
3 Basic Manual 123 EMGR
VOICE MA
2
0
1 Basic Preset
101 PRE
01 ORG1
2
0
2 Basic Preset
102 PRE
02 ORG1
2
0
3 Basic Preset
103 PRE
03 ORG1
2
0
1 ALE Scan
1 ALE01
R AVN
2
0
2 ALE Scan
2 ALE02
JTF NET
2
0
1 ECCM
1 ECCM01
2MEG
1
0
2 ECCM
2 ECCM02
4MEG
1
0
Emergency Net
Net
Net Type
Idx
ALE Scan
1
Datafill Version
Version
Date
MISSIONALPHA 3/13/2003 10:45:50 AM
G-9
Appendix H
Propagation Software Programs
VOACAP (Voice Of America Coverage Analysis Program)
US Department of Commerce
NTIA/ITS.S1
325 Broadway
Boulder, Colorado 80303
Phone: (303) 497-3375
FAX: (303) 497-3680
E-mail: [email protected]
Home page: http://elbert.its.bldrdoc.gov/GregHand.html
HF web page: http://elbert.its.bldrdoc.gov/hf.html
SPEED (Systems Planning, Engineering, and Evaluation Device)
Commanding Officer
MCTSSA (SPEED Project Officer)
Box 555171
Camp Pendleton, California 92055-5171
MARCORSYSCOM C4I Help Desk
Phone 1-800-808-7634 or 1-760-725-0553
DSN 365-0533
NIPRNET: [email protected]
SIPRNET: [email protected]
PROPMAN 2000
Rockwell Collins
Government Systems
400 Collins Road NE
H-1
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52498
Phone: (800) 321-2223 or (319) 295-5100
FAX: (319) 295-4777
E-mail: [email protected]
Home page: http://www.rockwellcollins.com/contacts/
HF communications web page: http://rockwellcollins.com/gs/commsys/
H-2
Appendix I
J6 HF-ALE Checklist
1. Receive Mission.
2. Assign lead Service ALE network controller.
3. Determine threat.
4. Establish and assign hierarchy for joint nets.
5. Establish and assign user addresses for joint forces.
6. Determine interoperability among forces.
7. Provide frequency management for joint HF-ALE nets.
8. Coordinate with host governments for HF frequencies.
9. Develop key management plans for COMSEC assignment and use.
10. Develop SOPs for communications.
11. Develop joint HF-ALE operating parameters.
a.
Channel Matrix
(1) Frequency assignment
(2) Mode
(3) AGC speed
(4) COMSEC assignment
(5) Bandwidth
(6) Power
(7) Sound enable/disable
(8) Sounding interval
b.
Station Name and Addresses
(1) ALE Parameter Settings as appropriate
(2) All call
Yes/No
(3) AMD
Yes/No
(4) Any call
Yes/No
(5) Link timeout duration
(6) Max scan channels (AKA call duration)
(7) Max tune time
(8) Scan rate (AKA scan minimum dwell)
12. Develop emergency destruction plans
13. Distribute SOPs to all participants.
14. Develop plan to operationally check the network.
I-1
References
Army
FM 24-24, Signal Data References: Signal Equipment, 29 December 1994
Coast Guard
COMDTINST M2000.3C, Telecommunications Manual (TCM)
SEP 7, 1999
COMDTINST M2000.4A, Telecommunications Plan (TCP) APR 20, 1988
COMDTINST M2400.1F, USCG Radio Frequency Plan
MAY 5, 1991
References-1
Glossary
SECTION I—ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
Numbers
2G
3G
second generation
third generation
A
ACC
ACE
ack
ADA
AEW
AFB
AFFMA
AFFOR
AFTTP (I)
AGC
AKA
ALE
ALSA
AMC
AMD
AN/ARC
ANDVT
AN/PRC
AO
AOC
AR
ARFOR
ARQ
ASOC
ASW
AWACS
air combat command
airborne control element ((USAF); air combat element (NATO);
aviation combat element (MAGTF)
acknowledgement
air defense artillery
airborne early warning; air expeditionary wing
Air Force base
Air Force Frequency Management Agency
Air Force forces
Air Force tactics, techniques, and procedures
(inter-Service)
automatic gain control
also known as
automatic link establishment
Air Land Sea Application Center
Air Mobility Command
automatic message display
Army/Navy airborne radio communications
advanced narrowband digital voice terminal
Army/Navy portable radio communications
area of operation
air and space operations center (USAF); Army Operations Center
Army
Army forces
automatic request-repeat
air support operations center
antisubmarine warfare
Airborne Warning and Control System
Glossary-1
B
BCE
BD
BDE
BN
battlefield coordination element
black digital
brigade
battalion
C
C4I
C6
CAC
CATF
CEOI
CG
chan
char
CJCS
clr
cmdr
CNCS
co
COMSEC
CONAUTH
CONUS
CRE
crypto
CSSE
CT
CVBG
command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence
communications and signals staff
current actions center
commander, amphibious task force
communication-electronics operating instructions
guided missile cruiser
channel
character
Chief Joint Chiefs of Staff
clear
commander
central network control station
company
communications security
controlling authority
continental United States
control reporting element
cryptographic
combat service support element (MAGTF)
cipher text
carrier battle group
D
DASC
DASC (A)
DES
det
div
DOD
DSN
direct air support center
direct air support center (airborne)
data encryption standard
detachment
division
Department of Defense
Defense Switched Network
E
E
Glossary-2
electric wave
ECCM
e.g.
etc
EW
electronic counter-counter measure
for example
etcetera (and so forth)
electronic warfare
F
FAC
FEMA
FLD
FM
FOT
freq
ft
forward air controller
Federal Emergency Management Agency
field
field manual; frequency modulation
frequency of optimum transmission
frequency
fort
G
G6
GCE
GLO
GMT
GPS
Assistant Chief of Staff for Information Management
ground combat element (MAGTF)
ground liaison officer
Greenwich mean time
global positioning system
H
helo
HF
HF-ALE
HFCGS
HF-CPS
HQ
Hz
helicopter
high frequency
high frequency-automatic link establishment
High Frequency Global Communications System
high frequency communication planning system
headquarters
hertz
I
IAW
ID
IDN
i.e.
in accordance with
identification
initial distribution number
that is
J
J2
J3
intelligence directorate of a joint staff
operations directorate of a joint staff
Glossary-3
J6
JCEOI
JCEWS
JCS
JFC
JRFL
JSME
JSTARS
JTF
command, control, communications, and computer systems
directorate of a joint staff
joint communication-electronics operating instructions
joint commander’s electronic warfare staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
joint force commander
joint restricted frequency list
Joint Spectrum Management Element
Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System
joint task force
K
KEK
KEYMAT
kHz
km
key encryption key
keying material
kilohertz
kilometer
L
LAAD
LAMPS
LCO
LHA
LHD
LOS
LP
LPD
LQA
LSO
low altitude air defense
light airborne multipurpose system (helicopter)
lighterage control officer
amphibious assault ship (general purpose)
amphibious assault ship (multipurpose)
line-of-sight
linking protection
amphibious transport dock
link quality analysis
landing safety officer; landing signal officer
M
MAGTF
Marine air-ground task force
MAJCOM
major command
MARFOR
Marine forces
MARFORSYSCOM Marine Corps Systems Command
MATCS
Marine air traffic control squadron
MCRP
Marine Corps reference publication
MCTSSA
Marine Corps tactical systems support activity
med
medium
MEF
Marine expeditionary force
MHz
megahertz
Glossary-4
mil
MIL STD
MILSTRIP
MP
MUF
military
military standard
Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures
manpack
maximum usable frequency
N
N/A
NAF
NATO
NAVFOR
NAVSOP
NCS
NIPRNET
nm
NSA
NTIA
NTTP
NVIS
not applicable
numbered air force
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Navy forces
Navy standing operating procedures
National Communications System
Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network
nautical mile
National Security Agency
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
Navy tactics, techniques, and procedures
near vertical incident sky wave
O
OPLAN
op
operation plan
operation
P
POC
PROPMAN
PT
pub
point of contact
Rockwell Collins Propagation Software ©
plain text (nonsecure)
publication
R
RCU
rcv
RDP
RECCE
RF
rgt
RPD
RT
RX
remote control unit
receive
radio data port
reconnaissance
radio frequency
regiment
radio programming data
remote terminal
receive; receiver
Glossary-5
S
SATCOM
SEAL
sec
SGT
SIPRNET
SOF
SOP
sqdn
SPEED
SSN
STANAG
satellite communications
sea-air-land team
second
Sergeant
Secret Internet Protocol Router Network
special operations forces
standing operating procedure
squadron
systems planning, engineering, and evaluation device
attack submarine, nuclear
standardization agreement (NATO)
T
TAC-A
TACC
TACP
TADC
TEK
TOD
TRACS
TRICS
trnseq
TX
tactical air coordinator (airborne)
tactical air command center (USMC); tactical air control center
(USN); tanker/airlift control center (USAF)
tactical air control party
tactical air direction center
traffic encryption key
time of day
tracking and communication system
telephone to radio interface communication system
training sequence
transmit
U
US
USA
USAF
USB
USCG
USCS
USMC
USN
UTM
United States
United States Army
United States Air Force
upper side band
United States Coast Guard
United States Customs Service
United States Marine Corps
United States Navy
universal transverse Mercator
V
VOACAP
VP
Glossary-6
Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program
voice privacy
W
WOC
WWV
wing operations center (USAF)
name of National Institute of Standards and Technology radio
station at Fort Collins, Colorado. WWV broadcasts time and
frequency information 24-hours a day, seven day a week to
millions of listeners worldwide. See
http://www.boulder.nist.gov/timefreq/stations/wwv.html
SECTION II—TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
air and space expeditionary task force -- A deployed numbered air force (NAF) or
command echelon immediately subordinate to a NAF provided as
the US Air Force component command committed to a joint
operation. Also called AETF. (JP 1-02)
airborne early warning – The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or
other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the
transmitting of a warning to friendly units. Also called AEW. (JP
1-02)
air expeditionary wing – A wing or wing slice placed under the administrative
control of an air and space expeditionary task force or air and
space task force by Department of the Air Force orders for a joint
operation. Also called AEW. (JP 1-02)
Air Mobility Command – The Air Force component command of the US
Transportation Command. Also called AMC. (JP 1-02)
air support operations center – An agency of a tactical air control system collocated
with a corps headquarters or an appropriate land force
headquarters that coordinates and directs close air support and
other tactical air support. Also called ASOC. (JP 1-02)
amphibious transport dock – A ship designed to transport and land troops,
equipment, and supplies by means of embarked landing craft,
amphibious vehicles, and helicopters. Designated As LPD.
antisubmarine warfare – Operations conducted with the intention of denying the
enemy the effective use of submarines. Also called ASW. (JP 1-02)
area of operation – An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land
and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass
the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but
should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish
their missions and protect their forces. Also called AO. (JP 1-02)
brigade – A unit, usually smaller than a division, to which groups and/or battalions
and smaller units tailored to meet anticipated requirements are
attached. Also called BDE. (JP 1-02)
carrier battle group – A standing naval task group consisting of a carrier, surface
combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct support,
operating in mutual support with the task of destroying hostile
submarine, surface, and air forces within the group's assigned
Glossary-7
operational area and striking at targets along hostile shore lines or
projecting firepower inland. Also called CVBG. (JP 1-02)
combat service support element – Those elements whose primary missions are to
provide service support to combat forces and which are parts, or
prepared to become parts of, a theater, command, or task force
formed for combat operations. Also called CSSE. (JP 1-02)
command, control, communications, and computers – Integrated systems of
doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel,
equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a
commander's exercise of command and control across the range of
military operations. Also called C4 systems. (JP 1-02)
commander, amphibious task force – The Navy officer designated in the order
initiating the amphibious operation as the commander of the
amphibious task force. Also called CATF. (JP 1-02)
communications security – The protection resulting from all measures designed to
deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be
derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to
mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results
of such possession and study. Also called COMSEC,
Communications security includes: cryptosecurity, transmission
security, emission security, and physical security of
communications security materials and information.
cryptosecurity – The component of communications security that
results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and
their proper use. transmission security – The component of
communications security that results from all measures designed
to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by
means other than cryptanalysis.
emission security – The component of communications security
that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons
information of value that might be derived from intercept and
analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and
telecommunications systems.
physical security – The component of communications security that
results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard
classified equipment, material, and documents from access thereto
or observation thereof by unauthorized persons. (JP 1-02)
corps – A tactical unit larger than a division and smaller than a field army. A corps
usually consists of two or more divisions together with auxiliary
arms and services.
cryptology – The science that deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted
communications. It includes communications security and
communications intelligence. (JP 1-02)
Defense Switched Network – Component of the Defense Communications System
that handles Department of Defense voice, data, and video
communications. Also called DSN. (JP 1-02)
Glossary-8
detachment –
1. A part of a unit separated from its main organization for duty
elsewhere.
2. A temporary military or naval unit formed from other units or
parts of units. Also called DET. (JP 1-02)
direct air support center – The principal air control agency of the US Marine air
command and control system responsible for the direction and
control of air operations directly supporting the ground combat
element. It processes and coordinates requests for immediate air
support and coordinates air missions requiring integration with
ground forces and other supporting arms. It normally collocates
with the senior fire support coordination center within the ground
combat element and is subordinate to the tactical air command
center. Also called DASC. (JP 1-02)
division –
1. A tactical unit/formation as follows:
A major administrative and tactical unit/formation which
combines in itself the necessary arms and services required for
sustained combat, larger than a regiment/brigade and smaller
than a corps.
A number of naval vessels of similar type grouped together for
operational and administrative command, or a tactical unit of a
naval aircraft squadron, consisting of two or more sections.
An air division is an air combat organization normally consisting
of two or more wings with appropriate service units. The combat
wings of an air division will normally contain similar type units.
2. An organizational part of a headquarters that handles military
matters of a particular nature, such as personnel, intelligence,
plans, and training, or supply and evacuation.
3. (DOD only) A number of personnel of a ship's complement
grouped together for tactical and administrative control. (JP 1-02)
electronic warfare – Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and
directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to
attack the enemy. Also called EW. The three major subdivisions
within electronic warfare are: electronic attack, electronic
protection, and electronic warfare support.
a. electronic attack. That division of electronic warfare involving
the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or
antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment
with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy
combat capability—considered a form of fires. Also called EA. EA
includes:
1) actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use
of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as jamming and
electromagnetic deception.
2) employment of weapons that use either electromagnetic or
directed energy as their primary destructive mechanism
(lasers, radio frequency weapons, particle beams).
Glossary-9
b. electronic protection. That division of electronic warfare
involving passive and active means taken to protect personnel,
facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy
employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or
destroy friendly combat capability. Also called EP.
c. electronic warfare support. That division of electronic warfare
involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an
operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and
locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated
electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat
recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations.
Thus, electronic warfare support provides information required for
decisions involving electronic warfare operations and other tactical
actions such as threat avoidance, targeting, and homing. Also
called ES. Electronic warfare support data can be used to produce
signals intelligence, provide targeting for electronic or destructive
attack, and produce measurement and signature intelligence. Also
called EW. (JP 1-02)
forward air controller – An officer (aviator/pilot) and member of the tactical air
control party who, from a forward ground or airborne position,
controls aircraft in close air support of ground troops. Also called
FAC. (JP 1-02)
global positioning system – A satellite constellation that provides highly accurate
position, velocity, and time navigation information to users. Also
called GPS. (JP 1-02)
ground combat element – The core element of a Marine air-ground task force
(MAGTF) that is task-organized to conduct ground operations. It
is usually constructed around an infantry organization but can
vary in size from a small ground unit of any type, to one or more
Marine divisions that can be independently maneuvered under the
direction of the MAGTF commander. The ground combat element
itself is not a formal command. Also called GCE. (JP 1-02)
ground liaison officer – An officer trained in offensive air support activities. Ground
liaison officers are normally organized into parties under the
control of the appropriate Army commander to provide liaison to
Air Force and naval units engaged in training and combat
operations. Also called GLO. (JP 1-02)
joint force commander – A general term applied to a combatant commander,
subunified commander, or joint task force commander authorized
to exercise combatant command (command authority) or
operational control over a joint force. Also called JFC. (JP 1-02)
joint task force – A joint force that is constituted and so designated by the Secretary of
Defense, a combatant commander, a subunified commander, or an
existing joint task force commander. Also called JTF. (JP 1-02)
landing signal officer – Officer responsible for the visual control of aircraft in the
terminal phase of the approach immediately prior to landing. Also
called LSO. (JP 1-02)
Glossary-10
Marine expeditionary brigade – A Marine air-ground task force that is constructed
around a reinforced infantry regiment, a composite Marine aircraft
group, and a brigade service support group. The Marine
expeditionary brigade (MEB), commanded by a general officer, is
task-organized to meet the requirements of a specific situation. It
can function as part of a joint task force, as the lead echelon of the
Marine expeditionary force (MEF), or alone. It varies in size and
composition, and is larger than a Marine expeditionary unit but
smaller than a MEF. The MEB is capable of conducting missions
across the full range of military operations. Also called MEB. See
also brigade; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary
force.
Marine expeditionary force – The largest Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF)
and the Marine Corps’ principal warfighting organization,
particularly for larger crisis or contingencies. It is task-organized
around a permanent command element and normally contains one
or more Marine divisions, Marine aircraft wings, and Marine force
service support groups. The Marine expeditionary force is capable
of missions across the range of military operations, including
amphibious assault and sustained operations ashore in any
environment. It can operate from a sea base, a land base, or both.
Also called MEF. (JP 1-02)
Marine expeditionary unit – A Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is
constructed around an infantry battalion reinforced, a helicopter
squadron reinforced, and a task-organized combat service support
element. It normally fulfills Marine Corps forward sea-based
deployment requirements. The Marine expeditionary unit
provides an immediate reaction capability for crisis response and
is capable of limited combat operations. Also called MEU. (JP 102)
military standard requisitioning and issue procedures – A uniform procedure
established by the Department of Defense for use within the
Department of Defense to govern requisition and issue of materiel
within standardized priorities. Also called MILSTRIP. (JP 1-02)
Mystic Star – High-frequency single-side-band communications system that provides
high frequency communications for the President, Vice President,
Cabinet members, and other senior government and military
officials while aboard special mission aircraft.
operation order – A directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for
the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation.
Also called OPORD. (JP 1-02)
operation plan – Any plan, except for the single integrated operational plan, for the
conduct of military operations. Plans are prepared by combatant
commanders in response to requirements established by the
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and by commanders of
subordinate commands in response to requirements tasked by the
establishing unified commander. Operation plans are prepared in
Glossary-11
either a complete format (OPLAN) or as a concept plan
(CONPLAN). The CONPLAN can be published with or without a
time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) file.
a. OPLAN—An operation plan for the conduct of joint operations
that can be used as a basis for development of an operation order
(OPORD). An OPLAN identifies the forces and supplies required
to execute the CINC's Strategic Concept and a movement schedule
of these resources to the theater of operations. The forces and
supplies are identified in TPFDD files. OPLANs will include all
phases of the tasked operation. The plan is prepared with the
appropriate annexes, appendixes, and TPFDD files as described in
the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System manuals
containing planning policies, procedures, and formats. Also called
OPLAN.
b. CONPLAN—An operation plan in an abbreviated format that
would require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it
into an OPLAN or OPORD. A CONPLAN contains the CINC's
strategic concept and those annexes and appendixes deemed
necessary by the combatant commander to complete planning.
Generally, detailed support requirements are not calculated and
TPFDD files are not prepared.
c. CONPLAN with TPFDD—A CONPLAN with TPFDD is the
same as a CONPLAN except that it requires more detailed
planning for phased deployment of forces. Also called CONPLAN.
(JP 1-02)
precise lightweight global positioning receiver – US Army standard handheld
GPS receiver, which provides advanced P/Y code positioning
accuracy. Also called PLGR.
reconnaissance – A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other
detection methods, information about the activities and resources
of an enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the
meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a
particular area. Also called RECON. (JP 1-02)
sea-air-land team – A naval force specially organized, trained, and equipped to
conduct special operations in maritime, littoral, and riverine
environments. Also called SEAL team. (JP 1-02)
Secret Internet Protocol Router Network – Worldwide SECRET level packet
switch network that uses high-speed internet protocol routers and
high-capacity Defense Information Systems Network circuitry.
Also called SIPRNET. (JP 1-02)
signal operation instructions – A series of orders issued for technical control and
coordination of the signal communication activities of a command.
In Marine Corps usage, these instructions are designated
communication operation instructions. (JP 1-02)
special operations forces – Those active and Reserve Component forces of the
Military Services designated by the Secretary of Defense and
Glossary-12
specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and
support special operations. Also called SOF. (JP 1-02)
standing operating procedure – A set of instructions covering those features of
operations that lend themselves to a definite or standardized
procedures without loss of effectiveness. These procedures are
applicable unless ordered otherwise. Also called SOP. (JP 1-02)
tactical air control center – The principal air operations installation (ship based)
from which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air
operations are controlled. Also called TACC. (JP 1-02)
tactical air coordinator (airborne) – An officer who coordinates, from an aircraft,
the actions of other aircraft engaged in air support of ground or sea
forces. Also called TAC(A). (JP 1-02)
tactical air direction center – An air operations installation under the overall control
of the tactical air control center (afloat) or tactical air command
center, from which aircraft and air warning service functions of
tactical air operations in an area of concern are directed. Also
called TADC. (JP 1-02)
universal transverse Mercator grid – A grid coordinate system based on the
transverse Mercator projection, applied to maps of the earth's
surface extending to 84 degrees N and 80 degrees S latitudes. Also
called UTM grid. (JP 1-02)
wing–
1. An Air Force unit composed normally of one primary mission
group and the necessary supporting organizations, i.e.,
organizations designed to render supply, maintenance,
hospitalization, and other services required by the primary
mission groups. Primary mission groups may be functional, such
as combat, training, transport, or service.
2. A fleet air wing is the basic organizational and administrative
unit for naval-, land-, and tender-based aviation. Such wings are
mobile units to which are assigned aircraft squadrons and tenders
for administrative organization control.
3. A balanced Marine Corps task organization of aircraft groups
and squadrons, together with appropriate command, air control,
administrative, service, and maintenance units. A standard
Marine Corps aircraft wing contains the aviation elements
normally required for the air support of a Marine division.
4. A flank unit; that part of a military force to the right or left of
the main body. (JP 1-02)
Glossary-13
INDEX
2
2G, II-3, D-1
3
3G, II-3, D-1
A
AFFOR, IV-12, E-1, F-6, F-10
AGC, III-2, V-2, F-10, I-1
Air Force forces. See AFFOR
Air Mobility Command. See AMC
ALE, i, vi, vii, II-1, II-2, II-3, II-4, III-1, III-2, III-3, IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10, IV11, IV-12, IV-13, V-1, V-2, V-3, A-1, A-2, A-3, B-1, C-1, D-1, E-1, F-2, F-3, F-4, F-5,
F-7, F-8, F-9, F-10, G-1, G-4, G-8, G-9, I-1
ALSA, ii, iii
AMD, II-3, III-1, A-2, E-1, F-2, F-3, F-4, F-5, F-7, F-8, F-9, G-6, I-1
AN/ARC, III-1, D-1, G-1, G-2
AN/PRC, III-1, IV-5, D-1, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8, See AN/PRC
ANDVT, B-2, F-2, F-3, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-10
AO, IV-1, IV-3, IV-7
AR, IV-4, IV-5
area of operation. See AO
Army. See AR
Army/Navy airborne radio communications. See AN/ARC
ARQ, F-2, F-3, F-4, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-9
Assistant Chief of Staff for Information Management. See G6
atmosphere
regions, I-1
automatic gain control. See ACG
automatic link establishment. See ALE
automatic message display. See AMD
automatic request-repeat. See ARQ
B
BD, F-2, F-3, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-10
black digital. See BD
C
C4I, H-1
C6, IV-2
central network control station. See CNCS
CEOI, IV-2, IV-8
Chief Joint Chiefs of Staff. See CJCS
cipher text. See CT
CJCS, IV-1
CNCS, A-1
command, control, communications, and computer systems directorate of a joint staff. See J6
command, control, communications, computers, and. See C4I
communication-electronics operating instructions. See CEOI
Index-1
communications and signals staff. See C6
communications plan, E-1
communications security, III-2, See COMSEC
compatibility and interoperability, IV-6
channel plan data, IV-6
cryptographic management, IV-6
equipment, IV-6
COMSEC, III-2, IV-1, IV-2, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10, IV-11, IV-12, V-3, B-1, B-2, B-3, F-10, I-1
CONAUTH, IV-7, IV-9, IV-10, IV-11, IV-12
continental United States. See CONUS
controlling authority. See CONAUTH
CONUS, B-1, B-2, B-3
crypto, IV-6, IV-7
cryptographic. See crypto
CT, IV-7, F-10
D
Defense Switched Network. See DSN
Department of Defense. See DOD
DOD, IV-13, A-1, A-2, B-1
E
E, I-4, I-5, I-6
ECCM, III-3, IV-1, IV-7, IV-9, G-8, G-9
electric wave. See E
electronic counter-counter measure. See ECCM
electronic warfare. See EW
established networks, B-1
EW, IV-2
exclusion band, C-1
F
Federal Emergency Management Agency. See FEMA
FEMA, IV-13, B-2
field manual. See FM
FM, F-1, F-2, F-4, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-9
FOT, I-7, I-8
frequency and network management responsibilities, IV-3
frequency assignments, IV-3
frequency engineering and management
JCS guidance, IV-1
frequency global communications system (HFGCS), A-1
frequency modulation. See FM
frequency of optimum transmission, I-7, See FOT
G
G6, IV-2
generations of ALE, II-3
global positioning system. See GPS
global positioning system (GPS), IV-7
GMT, IV-7
GPS, IV-7, G-2
Greenwich mean time. See GMT
Index-2
H
HF, i, vii, I-1, I-2, I-3, I-5, I-6, I-7, I-8, II-1, II-2, II-3, III-1, IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV10, IV-11, IV-12, IV-13, V-1, V-2, V-3, A-1, A-2, B-1, B-2, B-3, F-10, G-1, H-1, H-2, I-1
HF-ALE, i, vii, IV-1, IV-3, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-13, V-3
HF-ALE data distribution
Air Force, IV-12
Army, IV-9
joint force, IV-8
Marine Corps, IV-10
Navy, IV-11
within Services, IV-9
HF-CPS, III-1, G-1
high frequency. See HF
high frequency communication planning system. See HF-CPS
high frequency-automatic link establishment. See HF-ALE
I
incident angle
radio waves, I-4
wavelength, I-4
intelligence directorate of a joint staff. See J2
ionization
factors affecting, I-6
ionosphere
layers, I-4
line-of-sight radio communications, I-3
nature’s satellite, I-3
ionospheric disturbances, I-7
J
J2, IV-2
J3, IV-2
J6, vii, IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, V-1, I-1
J6 HF-ALE checklist, I-1
JCEOI, IV-3
JCEWS, IV-2
joint commander’s electronic warfare staff. See JCEWS
joint communication-electronics operating instructions. See JCEOI
Joint Interoperability Test Command, D-1
joint restricted frequency list. See JRFL
Joint Spectrum Management Element. See JSME
JRFL, IV-2
JSME, IV-3
K
KEK, IV-7
key encryption key. See KEK
keying material. See KEYMAT
keying material compromise, IV-7
KEYMAT, III-2, V-3
L
limitations of ALE, II-3
line-of-sight. See LOS
Index-3
link quality analysis. See LQA
link quality analysis (LQA), II-2
linking
automatic, II-3
groups of stations, II-2
protection, III-3
receiving station, II-1
sequence, II-1
LOS, I-2
LP, III-3, IV-1, IV-7, IV-9, G-4, G-7
LQA, II-2, III-2, IV-7, A-2, A-3, E-1, G-1, G-2, G-6
M
magnetic storms, I-7
MAJCOM, IV-4
major command. See MAJCOM
MARFOR, IV-10, E-1, F-5, F-10
Marine Corps reference publication. See MCRP
Marine Corps tactical systems support activity. See MCTSSA
Marine expeditionary force. See MEF
Marine forces. See MARFOR
maximum usable frequency. See MUF
MCTSSA, H-1
MEF, IV-10
mission equipment requirements, V-3
MP, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8
MUF, I-7, I-8
N
National Communications System. See NCS
National Institute of Standards and Technology radio station. See WWV
National Security Agency. See NSA
National Telecommunications and Information Administration. See NTIA
NATO, IV-13, V-1
NCS, B-1
near vertical incident sky wave. See NVIS
network administrator, IV-13
network allocations, IV-3
network coordinator, V-1
NIPRNET, H-1
Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network. See NIPRNET
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. See NATO
NSA, IV-4, B-1
NTIA, H-1
NVIS, I-2, I-6
O
operations directorate of a joint staff. See J3
P
parameter
activity timeout, III-2
address, III-1
auto display, III-1
Index-4
channel, III-2
creating network, III-1
joint configuration, A-2
key to call, III-1
listen before transmit, III-2
LQA, III-2
maximum scan channels, III-2
maximum tune time, III-2
net address, III-2
scan rate, III-2
scan set, III-1
system specific, III-3
propagation
definition, I-1
direct waves, I-2
ground reflected waves, I-2
ground waves, I-1
prediction, I-8
radio frequency, I-7
sky waves, I-2
surface waves, I-1
types of, I-1
propagation software, H-1
PROPMAN, IV-3, H-1
proposed networks, B-2
R
radio data port. See RDP
radio programming application, F-1
radio programming data. See RPD
radio settings and network architecture, V-1
channel definitions, V-2
overall plan, V-1
parameter configuration, V-3
scan sets, V-2
standing operating procedure, V-3
station identification, V-2
technical details, V-2
RCU, A-2
RDP, F-2, F-3, F-4, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-9
receive; receiver. See RX
remote control unit. See RCU
remote terminal. See RT
RF, D-1, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8
Rockwell Collins HF Communications Planning System (HF-CPS), G-1
Rockwell Collins Propagation Software ©. See PROPMAN
RPD, F-2, F-3, F-4, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-9
RT, D-1, G-1
RX, III-2, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4, F-5, F-6, F-7, F-8, F-9, F-10
S
second generation. See 2G
Secret Internet Protocol Router Network. See SIPRNET
SIPRNET, H-1
SOF, IV-13, E-1, F-7, F-10
special operations forces. See SOF
SPEED, IV-3, H-1
Index-5
STANAG, II-3
standardization agreement (NATO). See STANAG
sunspot cycle, I-6
systems planning, engineering, and evaluation device. See SPEED
T
TEK, IV-1, IV-7
telephone to radio interface communication system. See TRICS
third generation. See 3G
time of day. See TOD
TOD, I-2, IV-7
tracking and communication system. See TRACS
TRACS, B-1
traffic encryption key. See TEK
TRICS, B-1
U
upper side band. See USB
USB, A-3, E-1, F-10
V
VOACAP, I-8, IV-3, H-1
Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program. See VOACAP
W
WWV, C-1
Index-6
FM 6-02.74
MCRP 3-40.3E
NTTP 6-02.6
AFTTP (I) 3-2.48
COMDINST M2000.7
1 SEPTEMBER 2003
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
PETER J. SCHOOMAKER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0402001
DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army, Army National Guard, and US Army Reserve: Distribute in accordance with
the initial distribution number 115918, requirements for FM 6-02.74.
By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force:
DAVID F. MacGHEE, JR.
Major General, USAF
Commander
Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center
Air Force Distribution: F
MARINE CORPS PCN: 144 000139 00
PIN: 081222-000
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