Smoke Candle Literature

Smoke Candle Literature
Smoke Testing Technique
For Sewer Inflow Analysis, Maintenance,
Trouble Shooting and New Construction
High readings on treatment plant flow gauges immediately following rainfall is a positive indication
of storm/surface water inflow. Smoke testing is the fastest, most economical and positive means of
locating sources of inflow in sewer collection systems. Elimination of these sources as required by
law, will improve treatment plant operations – and correct problems of overloading which are a major
contributor to pollution of water resources.
The Superior Smoke Testing technique is
a fast and easy way to quickly identify...
Leaks permitting storm/surface water intrusion (inflow)
Connected roof and cellar drains
Cross connected sanitary and storm sewers
All connected lines, including abandoned and
supposedly unconnected lines
Leaking manholes
Yard and foundation drains
Sump pumps
Industry Experts!
The Superior Smoke Testing Technique was developed in 1961 as a way to locate sewer faults at a low
cost. It has proven to be an extremely effective method of pin-pointing sources of inflow and other sewer
line problems in both existing and new collection systems. When you use Superior Smoke products you can
be confident in your choice of suppliers. All products meet recommendations of NASSCO, EPA & WEF.
Our products have identified inflow problems in millions of feet of sewer line in thousands of municipalities!
Recommended Equipment
Each test consists of two sections of line, generally 600-800 feet
of 8-12” pipe, and require 5 to 6 minutes of smoke to walk the test
A portable air blower with a capacity of between 1500 and 2000
cfm is required. A blower of lesser capacity will not generate
sufficient pressure to disclose all faults in a line. Recommended
Blowers are the Superior Models 20-S or 10-S.
Other items required include line plugs and bags (partly filled with 1/4 round stones with an attached rope for
easy positioning) and canvas or rubber flaps for confining the smoke in specific sections of line.
Materials for sketching location of faults to complete engineering reports, and a Polaroid camera or equivalent
are also needed.
For information on advance notice – see specific heading.
Personnel and Cost
The smoke testing technique is uncomplicated and can be performed by regular maintenance crew members
(2 or 3) who quickly master the fundamentals. A crew can easily test 10,000 linear feet of sewer line in an
eight-hour period. The cost is only a few cents per foot for labor, blower, and smoke product. A fraction of
the cost of other inspection methods.
As illustrated on the previous page, usually two sections of line (600-800 ft.) are tested simultaneously,
with the smoke being introduced through a centrally located manhole. Blocking the far side of the
upstream and downstream manholes is only necessary when isolating a section of line. The smoke
under pressure will quickly fill the main plus all connected lines, and follow the path of least resistance.
It will flow through all openings to the surface, revealing the location of the faults. Invariably, the
fault will be found at the site or within a few feet of it. Only enough pressure to sufficiently overcome
atmospheric pressure is required.
Smoke tests are effective regardless of surface, type of soil, or depth, provided openings exist for
the smoke to follow. For example, it is not uncommon to see smoke exiting from cracks in paved
surfaces, showing points of surface water entry.
Best results are obtained on dry days when water is not leaking into the line. (Other methods may
overlook many sources of inflow, unless the passing camera picks up water actually leaking into the
The blower should not be started over the manhole because of the possibility of igniting flammable
vapors in the line. The blower should be started first and then placed over the manhole. In less than
a minute, smoke will be issuing from the roof vents of buildings connected to the line. If plugs are
being used, do not tighten them before the smoke has fully penetrated the line, otherwise trapped air
may prevent complete penetration.
The crew should check building, grounds and streets for telltale signs of smoke. Smoke immediately
backing up into the blower indicates a line blockage. If this should occur, testing should be
discontinued until the line has been cleared. Smoke issuing from the ground, pavement, yards, roof
drains, etc., shows sources of inflow. Record for future repair.
Advance Notice
Press releases to the news media (newspapers, radio and TV)
will generate much public good will and support for a program
that will improve the local sewerage system, and assure
compliance with EPA regulations. Such releases should outline
the place, as well as the problems that will be solved by having
the smoke testing done.
Local fire and police departments should be advised daily of the
areas being tested, on a street to street basis. Personnel handling
telephone inquiries should be acquainted with the purposes of
the smoke testing program, and be prepared to advise against
unnecessary exposure to the smoke.
To Whom It May Concern:
Please be informed that the Sewer Operating
Committee will be testing lines in this area on (insert
date) by the use of smoke. The smoke should not
enter the premises unless a leak is present.
The presence of smoke in your house should be
reported immediately to the personnel conducting the
tests, or by calling (insert telephone number).
Avoid unnecessary exposure to the smoke. The smoke
is relatively harmless but may be irritating to nasal
passages. Any smoke irritation will be temporary and
should quickly disappear after exposure has ceased.
Persons with heart and respiratory ailments should
leave the house during the test. House pets will react
in a manner similar to a prudent person and leave the
smokey area. If an exit is not available, be sure pets
are provided with proper ventilation.
Proper advance notices are necessary and the responsibility of
the agency or contractor performing the tests. Door to door To minimize the chance of smoke entering your house,
notification within 24 hours before the tests is recommended. please pour water into all drains including floor drains
This prevents unethical occupants from covering up illegal drains, prior to the date of the test.
Signed ______________________
sump pumps, etc. before the tests. While giving advance notice
discrete neighborhood inquiries can identify persons suffering
from heart and/or lung diseases, such as emphysema, who should never be exposed to any smoke, including
Superior. Individuals with respiratory problems should be removed from the premises prior to the tests.
Others, such as house confined invalids, sleeping shift workers and locked in animals should be identified
and evacuated before the test.
Classic Superior Smoke Candles quickly produce clean efficient smoke which varies in color from
white to gray depending upon density and lighting. Superior Smoke items contain no explosive
materials and offer a T.O.P. (total obscuring power) of 2100. T.O.P. is the scientific method of
determining the quantity of smoke generated by a given unit of smoke composition. By comparison
crude oil has a T.O.P. of 200.
Smoke is created by a chemical reaction where the visible portion is mostly atmospheric moisture.
Due to its high visibility, classic smoke simply provides the best results when testing sewers.
Capable of being blown and seen 1000’s of feet away.
Most Visible
Optical density (obscuration) 10 times that of
burning oil.
Most consistent smoke; Same quality from
beginning of test to end.
Field adjustable cfm/static pressure option.
Doesn’t contain engine exhaust, and won’t get wet.
Works with most any blower.
Meets recommendations of WEF, EPA, and
Sealpac Containers
Superior Smoke #’s 1A, 2B, 3C, and W3C can also be packaged in these unique
resealable containers which protect them from exceptionally hot and humid climates.
Versatile! Combine different items for a variety of test section lengths.
Connect two #W3C’s in tandem for a 6 minute burn time, or one #W3C and one #2B for four minutes. Choose the
item, or combination that’s just right for the job at hand. As a guideline use two consecutive #3C for each test lasting
5 to 6 minutes; generally two sections line, 600 to 800 feet of 8” to 12” pipe.
1 Year Warranty; Gauranteed to Work!
All Superior classic smoke candles are warranted for 1 year, and are guaranteed to work within this time period. If an
item should fail, simply return for free replacement. Items have been known to work several years after date of
manufacture when stored cool and dry.
All classic Superior Smoke generators are packaged and sold per dozen.
30 Seconds
4000 cubic feet
1 1/2” x 1 1/2”
2 lbs. / doz.
60 Seconds
8000 cubic feet
1 1/2” x 2”
2 lbs. / doz.
3 Minutes
40,000 cubic feet
1 1/2” x 6”
6 lbs. / doz.
3 Minutes*
40,000 cubic feet
1 1/2” x 6”
6 lbs. / doz.
*Note: Item #W3C is double wicked, furnished with quick clips for extending smoke generating time.
CAUTION: All smoke including Superior can irritate breathing passages without respiratory protection.
The most common problem associated with liquid based smoke systems has been thin / wet smoke.
As cool liquid is introduced into the heating chamber it has a natural tendency to lower the temperature
of the system to where efficient smoke production is impossible. Superior Signal Company, world
leaders in sewer smoke testing products, has developed a fluid based smoke system engineered to
minimize this effect, thus maximizing performance!
Engineered to optimize DRY smoke output!
Model 10-L
Superior Smoke fluid is injected through a custom-machined
precision orifice designed to minimize the chances of
“overloading” the heating chamber.
The unique heating chamber is much larger than standard
muffler type smokers, thus extending the time available for fluid
to convert to smoke.
The heating chamber is insulated to retain heat and maximize
smoke production.
Precision valve provides maximum control.
Reduces Fluid
Field adjustable cfm/static pressure option.
Meets recommendations of WEF, EPA, and NASSCO.
Only from Superior Signal; your partner in Smoke
Testing for over 40 years!
Custom Fluid Injector
The Fluid
Superior Smoke Fluid is inexpensive, easy to use, and is as
safe and clean as it gets. Available in single 1 gallon containers,
a 5 gal. container, or in 55 gallon drums. Also works in competitive
propeller driven systems.
“Micro” Control Valve
All Blowers are single unit sturdy metal construction with carrying handles and
27 1/2 in. custom fiberglass base.
Carrying Weight
Standard Capacity
Briggs & Stratton 3.5 hp Gasoline
75 lbs.
1800 CFM @ 1.7 static pressure*
Briggs & Stratton 3.5 hp Gasoline
75 lbs.
1800 CFM @ 1.7 static pressure*
*Also available as 4200 CFM @ 3.0 static pressure, or 4000 CFM @ 4.0 static pressure.
Model 20-L includes auxiliary outlet with removeable cover, 8’ x 8” vinyl duct with draw strings to attach to outlet, and
adjustable damper to direct air/smoke through base or auxiliary outlet.
Sewer Smoke Fluid
#SL-1 (1 gallon)
#SL-5 (5 gal. container)
#SL-55 (55 gal. drum)
Fluid Conversion Chamber Kit
#519 Includes conversion chamber, fluid tank, injector, control valve and tubing. Fits all Superior 10-S
and 20-S blowers.
WARRANTY: Superior Blowers are warranted to be free of defects in material and workmanship in normal use or service for a
period of one year from date of purchase by the original purchaser and will be repaired without cost, if received at Superior Signal
Company, 178 West Greystone Road, Spotswood, NJ 08884. Gasoline engines are covered by separate Briggs & Stratton warranty.
Superior Model
30-S/L Blowers
For powerful smoke testing, the 30-S/L offers the high quality and
performance you’ve come to expect from Superior Signal.
Model 30-S; Uses Classic Smoke Candles Only
Model 30-L; Uses Classic or Liquid Smoke
Powerful 5.0 hp
Briggs & Stratton Engine
Liquid smoking chamber is
engineered & insulated to
optimize dry smoke output.
Holder for
smoke candles
(optional on 30-L)
Fluid injector with
precision orifice,
reduces chance of wet
handle for
ease in
Cast aluminum base and
blower wheel housing for
10 Blade fan
performance by 35%
Model: 30-S / 30-L (Shown)
Power: 5 hp Briggs & Stratton Gasoline Engine
Output: 4,300 cfm
Carrying Weight: 65 lbs.
Construction: Low profile design, Cast Aluminum
Fan Type: 10 blade propeller
Base diameter: 30 inches
Additional Uses: Line Stringing, Ventilation
Thick neoprene
gasket reduces
vibration, and helps
seal on manhole
valve regulates
fluid flow, reduces
chance of wet
Liquid Conversion Kit #520; Quickly
converts Superior model 30-S or similar
blower to fluid smoker.
Kit contains...
Fluid conversion chamber
Custom injector
Fluid tank
Control valve
All necessary hardware
Superior Signal Company, Inc. 1-800-945-TEST
Printed in USA, 30S/002500
Superior air/smoke blowers are engineered for efficient and economical smoke testing of sewer
lines to detect sources of inflow and leaks. Also for fast ventilation of sewerage collection systems
and closed areas.
Model 20-S
Manufactured in two models powered by dependable
3.5hp Briggs & Stratton gasoline engines. Both are
single unit sturdy metal construction complete with
carrying handles for easy handling, beltguard and 27
1/2” custom fiberglass base, eliminating need for
separate manhole cover.
Model 10-S Standard equipment as detailed above.
Model 20-S Standard equipment plus:
Auxiliary outlet with removable cover.
8’ x 8” vinyl duct with draw strings to attach to outlet.
Adjustable damper to direct air/smoke through base into manhole or auxiliary outlet.
Carrying Weight
Standard Capacity
Briggs & Stratton 3.5 hp Gasoline
65 lbs.
1800 CFM @ 1.7 static pressure*
Briggs & Stratton 3.5 hp Gasoline
65 lbs.
1800 CFM @ 1.7 static pressure*
*Also available as 4200 CFM @ 3.0 static pressure, or 4000 CFM @ 4.0 static pressure.
12v or 110v Electric
15 lbs.
180 CFM @ 1.3 static pressure
Pulley Kits provide a variety of CFM and Static Pressure Options
Superior Signal’s Alternate Pulley Kit, is available for all new and existing 10-S/L and 20-S/L smoke blowers.
Simple installation of matched sets of pulleys and belts can be easily interchanged to provide a variety of
performance options.
Pulley kit (order part # 518) includes...
Ours: #518-1,
Static Pressure
Ours: #518-1,
• Pulley # 518-1; Provides 4000cfm at 4.0 inches static pressure.
• Pulley # 518-2; Provides 4200cfm at 3.0 inches static pressure.
• Belts, carrying case and installation instructions.
Many inspectors and contractors prefer to test with smoke rather than use time-consuming water
or air pressure tests. Consequently, smoke tests before acceptance are specified in many state
and local plumbing codes. Smoke tests will reveal:
1. Leaks that permit surface water inflow
2. Drains of all types, including roof, cellar and yard drains that are connected to house
lines and discharging into collection systems.
3. Poorly soldered or fitted joints and leaky seals, which may allow water damage or noxious gases to leak indoors.
4. Rodent passages into line.
Required Equipment
1. 2-3 Superior Smoke No. 2B (one minute)
2. Superior Electric Blower Model 5-E/12-Volt D.C. battery powered or 110-Volt A.C.
3. Pneumatic sewer plug or rubber balloon for sealing off house connections from main
lines (optional)
4. Vent cap with open center hole to restrict the flow of air and smoke (optional)
It is not absolutely necessary to have the house line blocked off from
the main, but doing so will increase test efficiency. In most cases
there is a clean-out opening through which a plug or balloon can be
inserted between the opening and main, and then inflated. A length
of windshield hose or similar type tubing can be attached to the balloon
to facilitate inflation. Vents can be partially blocked allowing the air/
smoke mixture to flow throughout the plumbing system.
Model 5-E
Electric Powered
Electric blower with flexible 8’
x 4”hose. 180 CFM capacity.
Available 12 volt or 110V.
For testing house lines.
When you are sure the building is unoccupied, connect the blower to
the line and start introducing the smoke through the intake side of the
Check the interior of the house for smoke. Any smoke should be quickly ventilated by opening doors and
windows. Notations should be made of leak locations. Next the yard should be checked for smoke and the
location of any smoke marked for later correction of faults.
All buildings connected to the lines being tested should be checked for smoke. Points of entry for the smoke
should be located. If entry to the buildings is not possible once smoke is discovered, it is advisable to return
later to determine the point of entry.
Superior Signal Company, Inc.
Over 56 years combined membership...
Distributed By...
Superior warrants that these products conform to the Product Description contained in this literature. Superior makes no other warranty, whether
expressed or implied, including warranties of merchantability or of fitness for a particular purpose or application. No statements or recommendations contained herein are to be construed as inducements to infringe any relevant patent, now or hereafter in existence. Superior neither
assumes nor authorizes any representatives or other person to assume for it any obligation of liability other than such as is expressly set forth
herein. Under no circumstances shall Superior be liable for incidental, consequential or other damages from any alleged negligence, breach of
warranty, strict liability or any other theory, arising out of the use or handling of this product.
Printed in USA, sew2/002500
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