F ire S

F ire S
Guide
Main use
Offices and shops
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 815 0
Factories and warehouses
Offices and retail premises (including individual units within larger premises,
e.g. shopping centres).
Factories and warehouse storage premises.
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 816 7
Sleeping accommodation
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 817 4
Residential care premises
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 818 1
Educational premises
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 819 8
Small and medium places
of assembly
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 820 4
All premises where the main use is to provide sleeping accommodation, e.g. hotels,
guest houses, B&Bs, hostels, residential training centres, holiday accommodation
and the common areas of flats, maisonettes, HMOs and sheltered housing (other
than those providing care – see Residential care premises), but excluding hospitals,
residential care premises, places of custody and single private dwellings.
Residential care and nursing homes, common areas of sheltered housing
(where care is provided) and similar premises, which are permanently staffed
and where the primary use is the provision of care rather than healthcare (see
Healthcare premises).
Teaching establishments ranging from pre-school through to universities, except
the residential parts (see Sleeping accommodation).
Smaller public houses, clubs, restaurants and cafés, village halls, community
centres, libraries, marquees, churches and other places of worship or study
accommodating up to 300 people.
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 821 1
Larger premises where more than 300 people could gather, e.g. shopping centres
(not the individual shops), large nightclubs and pubs, exhibition and conference
centres, sports stadia, marquees, museums, libraries, churches, cathedrals and
other places of worship or study.
Theatres, cinemas and
similar premises
Theatres, cinemas, concert halls and similar premises used primarily for
this purpose.
Large places of assembly
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 822 8
Open air events and venues
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 823 5
Healthcare premises
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 824 2
Transport premises
and facilities
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 825 9
Open air events, e.g. theme parks, zoos, music concerts, sporting events
(not stadia – see Large places of assembly), fairgrounds and county fairs.
Premises where the primary use is the provision of healthcare (including private),
e.g. hospitals, doctors’ surgeries, dentists and other similar healthcare premises.
Transportation terminals and interchanges, e.g. airports, railway stations
(including sub-surface), transport tunnels, ports, bus and coach stations and
similar premises but excluding the means of transport (e.g. trains, buses, planes
and ships).
Price: £12
HM Government
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 823 5
open air events and venues
The guides in this series:
Fire Safety Risk Assessment – Open air events and venues
This guide is for employers, managers, occupiers and owners
of open air events and venues. It tells you what you have to do
to comply with fire safety law, helps you to carry out a fire risk
assessment and identify the general fire precautions you need
to have in place.
Copyright in the contents, the cover, the design and the typographical arrangement rests with the Crown.
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© Crown Copyright 2007.
Printed on material containing 100% post-consumer waste (text), 75% post-consumer waste and 25% ECF pulp (cover).
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 823 5
Contents
How to use this guide
2
Preface
3
Introduction
4
Part 1 Fire risk assessment
10
Step 1 Identify fire hazards
14
Step 2 Identify people at risk
16
Step 3 Evaluate, remove, reduce and protect from risk
17
Step 4 Record, plan, inform, instruct and train
34
Step 5 Review
40
Part 2 Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
43
Section 1 Further guidance on fire risks and preventative measures
44
Section 2 Further guidance on fire-detection and warning systems
55
Section 3 Further guidance on firefighting equipment and facilities
58
Section 4 Further guidance on escape routes and strategies
63
Section 5 Further guidance on emergency escape lighting
78
Section 6 Further guidance on signs and notices
80
Section 7 Further guidance on recording, planning, informing,
instructing and training
83
Section 8 Quality assurance of fire protection equipment and installation
93
Appendix A Example fire safety maintenance checklist
94
Appendix B Example form for recording significant findings
97
Appendix C Technical information on fire-resisting separation,
fire doors and door fastenings
98
Appendix D Glossary
103
References
107
Further reading
111
Index
113
1
How to use this guide
This guide is divided into two parts:
• Part 1 Explains what a fire risk assessment is and how you might go about it.
Fire risk assessments should be the foundation for all the fire precautions in your
premises.
• Part 2 Provides further guidance on fire precautions. The information is provided
for you and others to dip into during your fire risk assessment or when you are
reviewing your precautions.
This guide is one from a series of guides listed on the back cover.
The appendices provide example checklists, some detailed technical information
on fire resisting elements, case studies definitions, glossary and references.
The rest of this introduction explains how the law applies.
Technical terms are explained in the glossary and references to other publications
listed at the end of the publication are identified by a superscript number in the text.
In this guide reference is made to British Standards and standards provided by
other bodies. The standards referred to are intended for guidance only and other
standards could be used. Reference to any particular standard is not intended to
confer a presumption of conformity with the requirements of the Regulatory Reform
(Fire Safety) Order 20051 (the Order).
The level of necessary safety (or service) must be dictated by the findings of your
risk assessment so you may need to do more or less than that specified in any
particular standard referred to. You must be prepared to show that what you have
done complies with any requirements or prohibitions of the Order1 irrespective of
whether you have relied on a particular standard.
A full list of references, e.g. 1, can be found at the back of this book.
2
Preface
This guidance gives advice on how to avoid fires and how to ensure people’s
safety if a fire does start. Why should you read it? Because:
• Fire kills. In 2004, (England and Wales) fire and rescue services attended over
33,400 fires in non domestic buildings. These fires killed 38 people and injured
over 1,300.
• Fire costs money. The costs of a serious fire can be high and afterwards many
businesses do not reopen. In 2004, the costs as a consequence of fire, including
property losses, human casualties and lost business, were estimated at £2.5bn.
This guide applies to England and Wales only. It does not set prescriptive
standards, but provides recommendations and guidance for use when assessing
the adequacy of fire precautions for open air events and venues. Other fire risk
assessment methods may be equally valid to comply with fire safety law. The guide
also provides recommendations for the fire safety management of the premises.
Your existing fire safety arrangements may not be the same as the
recommendations used in this guide but, as long as you can demonstrate that they
meet an equivalent standard of fire safety, they are likely to be acceptable. If you
decide that, your existing arrangements are not satisfactory there may be other
ways to comply with fire safety law. This means there is no obligation to adopt any
particular solution in this guide if you prefer to meet the relevant requirement in
some other way.
Where buildings have been recently constructed or significantly altered, the fire
detection and warning arrangements, escape routes and facilities for the fire and
rescue service may have been designed, constructed and installed in accordance
with current building regulations.2 In such cases, it is likely that these measures will
be satisfactory as long as they are being properly maintained and no significant
increase in risk has been introduced.
This guide should not be used to design fire safety for new buildings. Where
alterations are proposed to existing buildings, as they may be subject to building
regulations2. However, it can be used to develop the fire safety strategy for
your premises.
3
Introduction
WHO SHOULD USE THIS GUIDE?
This guide is for all employers, managers, organisers of events, occupiers, and
owners of open air events and venues. It tells you what you have to do to comply
with fire safety law, helps you to carry out a fire risk assessment and identify the
general fire precautions you need to have in place.
This guide is intended for open air events, and venues, such as
• theme parks,
• zoos,
• music concerts and festivals,
• sporting events,
• race meetings,
• fairgrounds,
• street festivals,
• religious festivals,
• balloon festivals,
• car-boot sales,
• county fairs, and
• other similar events.
This guide does not cover sports stadia, permanent buildings or structures, large
temporary structures and air-supported structures. Where your event or venue
includes the use of these, reference should be made to the appropriate guides in
this series (see back cover for other guides in this series).
The guide has been written to provide guidance for a responsible person to help
them to carry out a fire risk assessment of less complex open air events or venues.
If you read the guide and decide that you are unable to apply the guidance, then
you should seek advice from a competent person.
More complex premises will probably need to be assessed by a person who has
comprehensive training or experience in fire risk assessment. However this guide
can be used at a large event to address fire safety issues within a specific area
such as a marquee.
It may also be useful for:
• employees;
• volunteers and volunteer organisations;
4
• employee-elected representatives;
• trade union-appointed health and safety representatives;
• enforcing authorities;
• all other people who have a role in ensuring fire safety in open air events and
similar venues.
Where you handle and store flammable materials and substances, this guide will
help you take account of these in your risk assessment and help you determine
the necessary precautions required to minimise the likelihood of them being
involved in a fire.
Fire safety is just one of many safety issues management must address to minimise
the risk of injury or death to staff and the public unlike most of the other safety
concerns, fire has the potential to injure or kill large numbers of people very quickly.
This guidance is concerned with fire safety only, but many of the measures
discussed here will impact upon other safety issues and therefore it is recognised
that these differing safety demands can sometimes affect one another and
management should consult other interested agencies (e.g. Health and Safety
Executive (HSE)), where necessary, to confirm that they are not contravening other
legislation/guidance.
You can get advice about minimising fire losses from your insurer.
THE FIRE SAFETY ORDER
Previous general fire safety legislation
The Order1 replaces previous fire safety legislation. Any fire certificate issued under
the Fire Precautions Act 19713 will cease to have any effect. If a fire certificate has
been issued in respect of your premises or buildings on the premises were built to
recent building regulations2, as long as you have made no material alterations and
all the physical fire precautions have been properly maintained, then it is unlikely
you will need to make any significant improvements to your existing physical fire
protection arrangements to comply with the Order.1 However, you must still carry
out a fire risk assessment and keep it up to date to ensure that all the fire
precautions in your premises remain current and adequate.
If you have previously carried out a fire risk assessment under the Fire Precautions
(Workplace) Regulations 1997,4 as amended 1999,5 and this assessment has been
regularly reviewed, then all you will need to do now is revise that assessment taking
account of the wider scope of the Order1 as described in this guide.
Your premises may also be subject to the provisions of a licence or registration
(e.g. under the Licensing Act 20036), and the fire authority may wish to review your
risk assessment as part of the licensing approval process. Fire safety conditions
within your premises licence should not be set by a licensing authority where the
Order1 applies.
5
If your venue is used for sporting events you need to be aware of safety at sports
grounds legislation (e.g. The Safety of Sports Grounds Act 1975)90 which might
apply (see The Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds).11
Background
The Order1 applies in England and Wales. It covers ‘general fire precautions’ and
other fire safety duties which are needed to protect ‘relevant persons’ in case of fire
in and around most ‘premises’. The Order1 requires fire precautions to be put in
place ‘where necessary’ and to the extent that it is reasonable and practicable in
the circumstances of the case.
Responsibility for complying with the Order1 rests with the ‘responsible person’. In
a workplace, this is the employer and any other person who may have control of
any part of the premises, e.g. occupier or owner, manager. In all other premises the
person or people in control of the premises will be responsible. If there is more than
one responsible person in any type of premises, all must take all reasonable steps
to co-operate and co-ordinate with each other.
If you are the responsible person, you must carry out a fire risk assessment, which
must focus on the safety in case of fire of all ‘relevant persons’. It should pay
particular attention to those at special risk, such as disabled people, those who
you know have special needs and children, and must include consideration of any
dangerous substance liable to be on the premises. Your fire risk assessment will
help you identify the risks that can be removed or reduced, and to decide the
nature and extent of the general fire precautions you need to take.
If your organisation employs five or more people, your premises are licensed or an
alterations notice is in force, you must record the significant findings of the
assessment. It is good practice to record your significant findings in any case.
There are other fire safety duties you need to comply with:
• You must appoint one or more ‘competent persons’, depending on the size
and use of your premises, to carry out any of the preventative and protective
measures required by the Order1 (you can nominate yourself for this purpose).
A competent person is someone with enough training and experience or
knowledge and other qualities to be able to implement these measures properly.
• You must provide your employees / volunteers with clear and relevant
information on the risks to them identified by the fire risk assessment, about the
measures you have taken to prevent fires, and how these measures will protect
them if a fire breaks out.
• You must consult your employees (or their elected representatives) about
nominating people to carry out particular roles in connection with fire safety and
about proposals for improving the fire precautions.
6
• You must, before you employ a child, provide a parent with clear and relevant
information on the risks to that child identified by the risk assessment, the
measures you have put in place to prevent/protect them from fire and inform any
other responsible person of any risks to that child arising from their undertaking.
• You must inform non-employees, such as residents, temporary or contract
workers, of the relevant risks to them, and provide them with information about
who are the nominated ‘competent persons’ and about the fire safety procedures
for the premises.
• You must co-operate and co-ordinate with other responsible persons who also
have premises in the open air event or venue, inform them of any significant risks
you find and how you will seek to reduce/control those risks, which might affect
the safety of their employees.
• You must provide the employer of any person from an outside organisation who
is working in your premises (e.g. agency providing temporary staff) with clear and
relevant information on the risks to those employees and the preventative and
protective measures taken. You must also provide those employees with
appropriate instructions and relevant information about the risks to them.
• If you are not the employer but have any control of premises which contain more
than one workplace, you are also responsible for ensuring that the requirements
of the Order1 are complied with in those parts over which you have control.
• You must consider the presence of any dangerous substances and the risk this
presents to relevant persons from fire.
• You must establish a suitable means of contacting the emergency services and
provide them with any relevant information about dangerous substances.
• You must provide appropriate information, instruction and training to your
employees, during their normal working hours, about the fire precautions in your
workplace, when they start working for you, and from time to time throughout the
period they work for you.
• You must ensure that the premises and any equipment provided in connection
with fire-fighting, fire detection and warning, or emergency routes and exits are
covered by a suitable system of maintenance and are maintained by a
component person in an effective manner, in efficient working order and in good
repair.
• Your employees must co-operate with you to ensure the workplace is safe
from fire and its effects, and must not do anything that will place themselves or
other people at risk.
The above examples outline some of the main requirements of the Order1. The rest
of this guide will explain how you might meet these requirements.
7
Responsibilities for short term hiring or leasing and for shared use
Some premises or parts of premises may be leased as an empty and unsupervised
facility (e.g. temporary structures and marquees). The fire safety responsibilities of
those leasing the premises (and, therefore, in charge of the activities conducted
within the premises), and those of the owner/lessee, need to be established as part
of the contract of hire.
In some premises (e.g. race meetings), part of the premises may be hired out to
another organisation for a separate function (e.g. a catering facility or hospitality
area). The fire safety responsibilities of those leasing that part of the premises (and,
therefore in charge of the activities conducted there) and those of the owner/
leasee, need to be established as part of the contract of hire.
The responsible person for each individual unique, occasional or separate event
or function will need to be clearly established and documented, and their legal
duties made clear to them: In particular, and where necessary, the responsible
person will need to take account of their own lack of familiarity with the layout of
the premises, the fire safety provisions and the duties of other responsible persons
within the premises.
Who enforces the Fire Safety Order?
The local fire and rescue authority (the fire and rescue service) will enforce the
Order1 in most premises. The exceptions are:
• Crown-occupied/owned premises where Crown fire inspectors will enforce;
• premises within armed forces establishments where the defence fire and rescue
service will enforce;
• certain specialist premises including construction sites, ships (under repair or
construction) and nuclear installations, where the Health and Safety Executive
(HSE) will enforce, and
• sports grounds and stands designated as needing a safety certificate by the local
authority, where the local authority will enforce.
The enforcing authority will have the power to inspect your premises to check that
you are complying with your duties under the Order1. They will look for evidence
that you have carried out a suitable fire risk assessment and acted upon the
significant findings of that assessment. If you are required to record the outcome of
the assessment and they will expect to see a copy.
If the enforcing authority is dissatisfied with the outcome of your fire risk assessment
or the action you have taken, they may issue an enforcement notice that requires
you to make certain improvements or, in extreme cases, a prohibition notice that
restricts the use of all or part of your premises until improvements are made.
8
If having read this guide you are in any doubt about how fire safety law applies to
you, contact the fire safety office at your local fire and rescue service.
Fire risk assessment
Failure to comply with any duty imposed by the Order1 or any notice issued by the
enforcing authority is an offence. You have a right of appeal to a magistrate’s court
against any notice issued. Where you agree that there is a need for improvements
to your fire precautions but disagree with the enforcing authority on the technical
solution to be used (e.g. what type of fire alarm system is needed) you may agree
to refer this for an independent determination.
Part 1 •
If your premises are considered by the enforcing authority to be, or have the potential
to be, high risk, they may issue an alterations notice that requires you to inform them
before you make any changes to your premises or the way they are used.
If your premises were in use before 2006, then they may have been subject to the
Fire Precautions Act3 and the Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations.4,5 Where
the layout (means of escape) and other fire precautions have been assessed by the
fire and rescue service to satisfy the guidance that was then current, it is likely that
your premises already conform to many of the recommendations here, providing
you have undertaken a fire risk assessment (and kept it up to date as required by
the Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations.4,5,
New buildings or significant building alterations should be designed to satisfy
current building regulations2 which address fire precautions. However, you will still
need to carry out a fire risk assessment, or review your existing one (and act on
your findings), to comply with the Order.1
9
Part 1 Fire risk assessment
MANAGING FIRE SAFETY
Good management of fire safety is essential to ensure that fires are unlikely to
occur; that if they do occur they are likely to be controlled quickly, effectively and
safely or that if a fire does occur and grow, to ensure that everyone in your
premises are able to escape to a place of total safety easily and quickly.
Good management of fire safety at a temporary or permanent open air event or
venue will help to ensure that any fire safety matters that arise will always be addressed
effectively. Therefore identification of the ‘responsible person’ is imperative.
Planning
It is of fundamental importance to appreciate that planning for effective fire safety
for an open air event, site or venue should start at the same time as the planning
for all other aspects of the proposed event.
The planning issues for an event, site or venue can be considered in a number of stages:
• venue design, selection of workers, selection of contractors and subcontractors,
construction of the stages, marquees, fencing, (the ‘build up’);
• safe delivery and installation of equipment and services which will be used at the
event, e.g. stage equipment used by the performers, lighting, and the protection
of crew, (the ‘load in’);
• effective fire safety during the event (‘the event’);
• safe removal of equipment and services, (the ‘load down’);
• control fire risks once the event is over and the infrastructure is being dismantled,
(the ‘breakdown’);
The risk assessment that you must carry out will help you to ensure that your fire
safety procedures, fire prevention measures, and fire precautions (plans, systems,
and equipment) are all in place and working properly, and the risk assessment
should identify any issues that need attention. Further information on managing fire
safety is available in Part 2 on page 43.
EXAMPLES OF FIRE AT OPEN AIR EVENTS
Prior to stepping through the risk assessment process, it is worth noting some
examples of fires at open air events. There have been a number of cases of severe
fires over the last 50 years, many of which have resulted in a significant loss of life.
Table 1 below provides examples of a small number of these fires, covering fatal
and non-fatal fires from different countries.
10
Ignition
Fuel
Additional comments
Religious
camp, Mecca
Camp
Gas stove
Tents
Dry conditions, closely
placed tents, 400 deaths
Hartford,
Circus
Unknown
Main circus
Gasoline and
tent
paraffin waterproofing of
tent canvas caused fast
flame spread, 163 deaths
Connecticut
Thorpe Park,
UK
Fairground
Unknown
Timber
structures
& fair rides
Evacuation strategy and
fire service intervention
resulted in no deaths
Movieworld,
Australia
Theme park
Unknown
Gas and
chemical
mix
Unexplained explosion in
the pyrotechnics compound,
3 injuries, no deaths
Niteroi Circus,
Brazil
Circus
Arson
Tent &
circus
materials
Fire started by disgruntled
employee, 323 deaths
Edgewater
Park, Detroit
Theme park
Lightning
Wooden
structures
400 people escaped from
the wooden structure when
the fire started, 2 deaths
Kenilworth, SA
Racecourse
Unknown
Dry
neighbouring
field and
vehicles
Fire spread from
field to car park, where
131 vehicles completely
burnt out, no deaths
Fire risk assessment
Venue type
Part 1 •
Description
Table 1: Examples of fires at open air events
WHAT IS A FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT?
A fire risk assessment is an organised and methodical look at your premises and/or
event, the activities carried on there and the likelihood that a fire could start and
cause harm to those in and around the premises.
The aims of the fire risk assessment are:
• To identify the fire hazards.
• To reduce the risk of those hazards causing harm to as low as reasonably practicable.
• To decide what physical fire precautions and management arrangements policies
are necessary to ensure the safety of people in your premises if a fire does start.
The term ‘where necessary’ (see Glossary) is used in the Order1, therefore when
deciding what fire precautions and management arrangements are necessary, you
will need to take account of this definition.
The terms ‘hazard’ and ‘risk’ are used throughout this guide and it is important that
you have a clear understanding of how these should be used.
• Hazard: Anything that has the potential to cause harm.
• Risk: The chance of that harm occurring.
11
If your organisation employs five or more people, or your premises are licensed or an
alterations notice requiring it is in force, then the significant findings of the fire risk
assessment, the actions to be taken as a result of the assessment and details of
anyone especially at risk must be recorded. You will probably find it helpful to keep a
record of the significant findings of your fire risk assessment even if you are not
required to do so.
HOW DO YOU CARRY OUT A FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT?
A fire risk assessment will help you determine the chances of a fire starting and the
dangers from fire that your premises present for the people who use them and any
person in the immediate vicinity. The assessment method suggested in this guide
shares the same approach as that used in general health and safety legislation and
can be carried out either as part of a more general risk assessment or as a separate
exercise. As you move through the steps there are checklists to help you.
Before you start your fire risk assessment, take time to prepare, and read through the
rest of Part 1 of this guide.
Much of the information for your fire risk assessment will come from the knowledge
that your employees, colleagues, volunteers and representatives have of the premises,
including experience gained from previous events, as well as information given to you
by people who have responsibility for other parts of the premises. A tour of your site
will probably be needed to confirm, amend or add details to your initial views.
It is important that you carry out your fire risk assessment in a practical and systematic
way and that you allocate enough time to do a proper job. It must take the whole
of your premises into account, including areas that may be infrequently used. If your
premises are small you may be able to assess them as a whole. In some premises
you may find it helpful to divide them into a series of assessment areas using natural
boundaries, e.g. staging areas, sports fields, spectator areas marquees and concessions.
If your premises are in a multi-use venue then the information on hazard and risk
reduction will still be applicable to you. However, any alterations to your individual part
of the premises will need to take account of the overall fire safety arrangements in the
complex, venue or event.
Your premises may be simple, with few people present or with a limited degree of
entertainment activity. However, if your site stages an event, which will have a range
of different occupiers (e.g. concessions) then the measures provided by the other
occupiers may have a direct effect on the fire safety measure of the overall site.
Under health and safety law (enforced by the HSE or local authority) you are required
to carry out a risk assessment in respect of any work processes in your workplace and
to take or observe appropriate special, technical or organisational measures. If your
health and safety risk assessment identifies that these processes are likely to involve the
risk of fire or the spread of fire then you will need to take this into account during your
fire risk assessment under the Order1, and prioritise actions based on the level of risk.
12
You need to appoint one or more ‘competent persons’ (this could be you) to carry out
any of the preventive and protective measures needed to comply with the Order1. This
Figure 1 shows the five steps you need to take to carry out a fire risk assessment.
FIRE SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT
1
Identify fire hazards
2
Identify people at risk
3
Evaluate, remove, reduce and protect from risk
4
Record, plan, inform, instruct and train
5
Review
Fire risk assessment
Your fire risk assessment should demonstrate that, as far as is reasonable, you
have considered the needs of all relevant people including disabled people.
Part 1 •
person could be you, or an appropriately trained employee, or where appropriate, a
third party.
Identify:
Sources of ignition
Sources of fuel
Sources of oxygen
Identify:
People in and around the premises
People especially at risk
Evaluate the risk of a fire occurring
Evaluate the risk to people from fire
Remove or reduce fire hazards
Remove or reduce the risks to people
• Detection and warning
• Fire-fighting
• Escape routes
• Lighting
• Signs and notices
• Maintenance
Record significant finding and action taken
Prepare an emergency plan
Inform and instruct relevant people; co-operate and co-ordinate with others
Provide training
Keep assessment under review
Revise where necessary
Remember to keep to your fire risk assessment under review.
Figure 1: The five steps of a fire risk assessment
13
STEP 1 IDENTIFYING FIRE HAZARDS
For a fire to start, three things are
needed:
FUEL
Flammable gases
Flammable liquids
Flammable solids
• a source of ignition;
• fuel; and
• oxygen.
If any one of these is missing, a fire
cannot start. Taking measures to avoid
the three coming together will, therefore,
reduce the chances of a fire occurring.
The remainder of this step will advise
on how to identify potential ignition
sources, the materials that might fuel a
fire and the oxygen supplies that will
help it to burn.
1.1
OXYGEN
Always present in the air
Additional sources from
oxidising substances
IGNITION SOURCE
Hot surfaces
Electrical equipment
Static electricity
Smoking/naked lights
Figure 2: The fire triangle
Identify sources of ignition
You can identify the potential ignition sources at your event or venue by looking for
possible sources of heat, which could get hot enough to ignite material found in
your premises. These sources could include:
• cooking and catering appliances and equipment, including barbecues;
• smokers materials, e.g. cigarettes, matches and lighters;
• camp fires/bonfires;
• electrical, gas or oil-fired heaters (fixed or portable);
• hot processes, e.g. welding by contractors, blacksmiths;
• faulty or misused electrical equipment;
• light fittings and lighting equipment, e.g. halogen lamps or display lighting;
• hot surfaces and obstruction of equipment ventilation, e.g. generators;
• naked flames, e.g. candles or gas or liquid-fuelled open-flame equipment;
• flares, fireworks and pyrotechnics;
• deliberate ignition (e.g. arson, vandalism);
• refuelling;
• natural phenomena (e.g. lightning);
14
Hot surface
Mechanically generated sparks
Electrically generated sparks
• vehicle catalytic converters.
Indications of ‘near-misses’ (e.g.
scorch marks on tents / marquees,
discoloured or charred electrical
plugs and sockets, cigarette burns,
etc) can help you identify hazards
which you may not otherwise notice.
Fire risk assessment
Naked flame
Part 1 •
• mechanical friction (e.g. fairground
rides)
Figure 3: Sources of ignition
1.2
Identify sources of fuel
Anything that burns is fuel for a fire. You need to look for the things that will burn
reasonably easily and are in enough quantity to provide fuel for a fire or cause it to
spread to another fuel source. Some of the most common ‘fuels’ found at open air
events or venues are:
• flammable liquids and solvents, e.g. cleaning products. alcohol (spirits), white
spirit, methylated spirit, cooking oils, disposable cigarette lighters, fuel for
generators (whether petrol or diesel), paints, varnishes, thinners and adhesives;
• flammable gases e.g. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) propane and acetylene;
• displays and stands,
• tents and marquees;
• plastics and rubber, e.g. polyurethane foam-filled furniture and polystyrene-based
display materials;
• upholstered seating and cushions, textiles and soft furnishings, such as hanging
curtains and clothing displays, costumes, drapes and hangings, scenery and
banners;
• packaging materials, litter and waste products, particularly finely divided items
e.g. stationery, advertising material, decorations, shredded paper and wood
shavings, timber off cuts, and dust;
• fireworks and pyrotechnics;
• animal feed, animal bedding; vegetation (e.g. long grass);
• temporary floor coverings;
• pallets used to transport goods;
• vehicles in the venue or at car parks.
15
You should also carefully consider brought in materials that might introduce an
unanticipated source of fuel and how they might contribute to the spread of fire.
Further information is available in Part 2 Section 1
1.3
Identify sources of oxygen
The main source of oxygen for a fire is in the air around us. In an enclosed building
this is provided by the ventilation system in use. This generally falls into one of
two categories: natural airflow through doors, windows and other openings; or
mechanical air conditioning systems and air handling systems. In many buildings
there will be a combination of systems, which will be capable of introducing/
extracting air to and from the building. Events and venues open to the air have
no such restrictions and additionally are more likely to be affected by high winds
that may increase the fire growth rate and fire spread. Sources of oxygen can
sometimes be found in materials used
or stored on the site such as:
• Some chemicals (oxidising materials)
which can provide a fire with additional
oxygen and so help it burn. These
chemicals should be identified on their
container (and control of substances
hazardous to health data sheet, see
Figure 4) by the manufacturer or
supplier who can advise as to their
safe use and storage;
• Oxygen supplies from cylinder
storage.
• Pyrotechnics and fireworks which
contain oxidising materials and need
to be treated with great care.
Figure 4: Label on oxidising materials
Checklist
• Have you identified all potential ignition sources?
• Have you identified all potential fuel sources?
• Have you identified all potential sources of oxygen?
• Have you recorded your findings?
STEP 2 IDENTIFYING PEOPLE AT RISK
As part of your fire risk assessment, you need to identify those people at risk if
there is a fire. To do this, you need to identify who will be present at your premises,
where people are working, either at permanent locations (e.g. ticket desks, catering
facilities, hospitality areas, fairground rides, music stages) or at occasional locations
around the site and consider who else may be at risk, (e.g. spectators, customers,
visiting performance companies, visiting contractors) and where these people are
likely to be found.
16
• employees and volunteers who work alone, e.g. security staff;
• people with a disability* (including mobility, hearing or vision impairment) or those
who may have some other reason for not being able to leave the site quickly. e.g.
people in a state of undress (stage performers), or parents with children;
• unaccompanied children and young persons;
• people with a language difficulty or who’s first language is not English;
• people with sensor impairment due to alcohol, drugs or medication;
Fire risk assessment
• people who are unfamiliar with the site, e.g. visitors and customers, new employees;
Part 1 •
You must consider all the people who use the site or venue but you should pay
particular attention to people who may be especially at risk. These include:
• those responsible for animal safety and evacuation during a fire;
• other people in the vicinity of your event or venue
• In evaluation the risk to people with disabilities you may need to discuss their
individual needs with them. For larger events and venues used extensively by the
public you may need to seek professional advice.
Further guidance on people with special needs is given in Part 2, Section 1.11.
Checklist
• Have you identified who is at risk?
• Have you identified why they are at risk?
• Have you recorded your findings?
STEP 3 EVALUATE, REMOVE, REDUCE AND PROTECT FROM RISK
The management of the premises and the way people use it will have an effect on
your evaluation of risk. Management may be your responsibility alone or there may
be others, such as the owners of the site or organisers of the events, who also
have responsibilities. At multi-occupancy sites or events all those with some control
must co-operate: you need to consider the risk generated by others on the site.
3.1
Evaluate the risk of a fire occurring
The likelihood of a fire starting may be low if there are few ignition sources and
combustible materials are kept away from them.
In general, fires start in one of three ways:
• accidentally, such as when smoking materials are not properly extinguished or
when display lights are knocked over;
• by act or omission, such as when electrical equipment is not properly maintained
or disposable barbecues are placed into waste bins containing combustibles.
* Visit the Disability Rights Commission website on www.drc-gb.org for more information.
17
• deliberately, such as an arson attack involving setting fire to rubbish bins placed
too close to temporary structures such as tents or marquees;
Look critically at your event or venue and try to identify any ‘accidents waiting to
happen’ and any acts or omissions which might allow a fire to start. You should
also look for any situation that may present an opportunity for an arsonist.
Further information on evaluating the risk of fire starting is available in Part 2, Section 1.
3.2
Evaluate the risk to people
In Step 2 you identified the people likely to be at risk should a fire start anywhere at
your event or venue and earlier in step 3 you identified the chances of a fire occurring.
It is unlikely that you will have concluded that there is no chance of a fire occurring
anywhere at your premises so you now need to evaluate the actual risk to those
people present should a fire start and spread from the various locations that you
have identified.
When considering the possible incidents that might occur, you should also
consider the likelihood of any particular incident occurring, but be aware that some
very unlikely incidents can put many people at risk.
To evaluate the risk to people at your premises, you will need to understand the
way fire can spread. Fire is spread by three methods:
• convection;
• conduction; and
• radiation.
Convection
Fire spread by convection is the most dangerous and causes the largest number
of injuries and deaths. When fires start in enclosed spaces, such as temporary
buildings, the smoke rising from the fire gets trapped by the ceiling and then
spreads in all directions to form an ever-deepening layer over the entire room or
space. The smoke will pass through any holes or gaps in the walls, ceiling and
floors into other parts of the building. The heat from the fire gets trapped in the
enclosures and the temperature rises.
In open air the risk of fire spread due to convection will be mainly confined to the
movement of hot embers.
Conduction
Some materials, such as metal, can absorb heat and transmit it to an adjoining
space, where it can set fire to combustible items that are in contact with the
heated material.
18
Smoke produced by a fire also contains toxic gases which are harmful to people.
In most cases, the greatest contributor to the risk to people is whether they are in
the open air or in an enclosure where smoke can spread quickly, block exits, and
affect people’s ability to escape.
It is essential that the means of escape and other fire precautions are adequate to
ensure that everyone can make their escape to a place of total safety before the
fire and its effects can trap them.
Fire risk assessment
Radiation heats the air in the same way as an electric bar heater heats a room.
Any material close to a fire will absorb the heat until the item starts to smoulder
and then burn.
Part 1 •
Radiation
In evaluating the risk to people, you will also need to consider situations such as:
• the evacuation of large numbers of people, e.g. a music concert or festival;
• fire and smoke spread from fires external to your event/venue, such as grass fires
affecting occupant means of escape;
• a fire developing in an unoccupied space, such as a storage area in a hospitality
unit, that people have to pass to escape;
• fire spreading rapidly between concession stands due to there close proximity
with each other and presence of combustible materials;
• rapid fire spread in areas with highly combustible piled storage, e.g. bails of hay;
• fire and smoke spreading due to poor installation of fire precautions, e.g.
incorrectly installed fire doors or incorrectly installed services penetrating fire walls;
• the impacts of fences or corralling on the movement of people;
• hazardous materials present.
Further guidance on fire risks is given in Part 2 Section 1.
3.3
Remove or reduce the hazards
Having identified the fire hazards in Step 1, you now need to remove those hazards
if is it reasonably practicable to do so. If you cannot remove the hazards, you need
to take reasonable steps to reduce them If you can. This is an essential part of the
fire risk assessment and as a priority, this must take place before any other actions.
Ensure that any actions you take to remove or reduce fire hazards are not
substituted by other hazards or risks. For example, if you replace a flammable
substance with a toxic or corrosive one, you must consider whether this might
cause harm to people in other ways.
19
Remove or reduce sources of ignition
There are various ways that you can reduce the risk caused by potential sources
of ignition, for example:
• ensure that flares and fireworks are not brought into the event or venue by
members of the public;
• ensure that all pyrotechnics, fireworks, flares and other hazardous equipment
are installed, used, maintained, protected and stored in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions;
• wherever possible replace a potential ignition source by a safer alternative;
• replace naked flame and radiant heaters with fixed convector heaters. Restrict
the movement of and guard portable heating appliances;
• restrict/control the use of naked flames e.g. campfires, barbecues, candles;
• operate a safe smoking policy;
• ensure electrical, mechanical and gas equipment is installed, used, maintained,
and protected in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions;
• ensure cooking and catering equipment is installed, used, maintained, and
protected in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions;
• control areas where vehicles are parked;
• take precautions to avoid arson.
Remove or reduce sources of fuel
There are various ways that you can remove or reduce the risks caused by
materials and substances, which burn, for example:
• ensure that display materials (including artificial and dried foliage), props, scenery
and stands, are fire retardant, or have been treated to give some fire retardancy;
• reduce stocks of flammable materials, liquids and gases on display in public
areas to a minimum. Keep remaining stock in dedicated storerooms or storage
areas where the public are not allowed to go, and keep the minimum amount
required for the operation of the business;
• ensure that all upholstered furniture, curtains, drapes, tents and marquees, are
fire retardant, or have been treated to give some fire retardancy;
• ensure safe practice with respect to refuelling generators. Use of petrol generators
should be discouraged, wherever possible, in favour of diesel generators;
• develop a formal system for the control of combustible waste by ensuring that
waste materials and rubbish are not allowed to build up and are carefully stored
until properly disposed of, particularly at the end of the day;
• ensure adjacent marquees, temporary structures and other fire hazards are sited
an adequate distance apart;
• ensure scenery and props not in current use on an open stage are stored away
in an approved scenery or prop store.
20
Part 1 •
• ensure that the quantity of all
pyrotechnics, fireworks and other
hazardous equipment are kept to a
minimum. Additionally ensure that
they are stored safely and securely
until they are used;
Fire risk assessment
• take action to avoid any parts of the
event or venue, being vulnerable to
arson or vandalism;
• reduce the risk of grass/moorland
fires by providing fire breaks and
keeping grass short.
Further guidance on removing and
reducing hazards is given in Part 2,
Section 1.
Remove or reduce sources of
oxygen
Figure 5: Storage of flammables
You can reduce the potential source
of oxygen supplied to a fire by:
• not storing oxidising materials near any heat source or flammable materials;
• controlling the use and storage of oxygen cylinders, ensuring that they are
not leaking;
• controlling the use and storage of pyrotechnics and fireworks.
3.4
Remove or reduce the risks to people
Having evaluated and addressed the risk of fire occurring and the risks to people
(preventative measures) it is unlikely that you will have concluded that no risk
remains of fire starting and presenting a risk to people at your premises.
You now need to reduce any remaining fire risk to people to as low as reasonably
practicable by ensuring that adequate fire precautions are in place to warn people
in the event of a fire and allow them to safely escape.
The rest of this step describes the fire protection measures you may wish to adopt
to reduce the remaining fire risk to people (see steps 3.4.1 to 3.4.6).
The level of fire protection you need to provide will depend on the level of risk that
remains in the premises after you have removed or reduced the hazards and risks.
Part 2, Section 4 can help you decide the level of risk that you may still have.
21
Flexibility of fire protection measures
Flexibility will be required when considering this guidance; the level of fire protection
should be proportional to the risk posed to the safety of the people at your premises.
Therefore, the objective should be to reduce the remaining risk to a level that is as
low as reasonably practicable. The higher the risk of fire and risk to life, the higher
the standards of fire protection will need to be.
Your fire precautions may not exactly fit the solutions suggested in this guide and
they may need to be applied in a flexible manner without compromising the safety
of people.
For example, if the travel distance in a marquee is in excess of the norm (see Part
2, Table 5 on page 70) it may be necessary to do any one or a combination of the
following to compensate:
• Provide earlier warning of fire using automatic fire detection
• Revise the layout to reduce travel distances
• Reduce the fire risk by removing of reducing combustible materials and/or
ignition sources
• Control the number of people in the marquee
• limit the area to trained staff/volunteers only (no public)
• Increase staff/volunteer training and awareness
Note: The above list is not exhaustive and is only used to illustrate some examples
of trade-offs to provide a safer event or venue.
If you decide to significantly, vary away from the benchmarks in this
guidance you should seek expert advice before doing so.
3.4.1
Fire detection and warning systems
The means of giving a warning of fire should be suitable for the particular event or
venue, taking account of its size, layout, number of people likely to be present and
the nature of the event.
In some small events/venues the only practicable solution for people to raise an
alarm upon the discovery of a fire could be a simple shout of ‘fire’ or a simple
manually operated device, such as a gong or air horn that can be heard by
everybody. At larger or more complex sites a public address system is likely to
be the most effective means of providing a warning and directing the evacuation.
Organisers/staff will need a managed fire evacuation plan to facilitate this.
For permanent buildings or temporary tents/marquees where a simple warning is
not sufficient, an electrical warning system may be required incorporating sounders
and manually operated call points (break – glass boxes).
22
Where the provision of a system connected by cables may not be appropriate, a
radio signal based system should be considered.
You may need to consider special arrangements for times when people are
working alone are disabled, or when your normal occupancy patterns are different,
e.g. when maintenance staff or other contractors are working at the weekend /
night or people are attending to horses at night during a county show.
Fire risk assessment
At complex events/venues, particularly those accommodating people in different
areas, (e.g. a zoo), it is likely that a more sophisticated form of warning and
evacuation, possibly phased may be required.
Part 1 •
Where there are areas where a fire could develop to the extent that escape routes
could be affected before the fire is discovered, an automatic fire detection system
may be necessary.
It is important to consider the means of communication between staff and
volunteers implementing the emergency plan.
Large campsites should normally be provided with fire watchtowers and campers
should be provided with fire safety advice.
If you are not sure whether your current arrangements are adequate, see the
additional guidance on fire warning systems in Part 2, Section 2.
Checklist
• Can the means of detection ensure a fire is discovered quickly enough for
the alarm to be raised in time for all the occupants to escape to a place of
total safety?
• Can appropriate means of warning be clearly heard, and/or seen, and
understood by everyone throughout the whole site, event, or venue?
• If the fire-detection and warning system is powered electrically, does it
have a back-up power supply?
• Have the public address systems been checked before the event?
3.4.2
Fire-fighting equipment and facilities
Fire-fighting equipment can reduce the risk of a small fire, e.g. a fire in a wastepaper bin, developing into a large one. The safe use of an appropriate fire
extinguisher to control a fire in its early stages can also significantly reduce the
risk to other people in the event or venue by allowing people to assist others
who are at risk.
The provision of fire-fighting equipment for outdoor events will vary according to
the local conditions and what is brought on to the site. You should consider the
need for equipment for tackling fires in vegetation, vehicles, and marquees.
23
Arrangements may need to be made to protect fire-fighting equipment located
outdoors from the effects of frost, vandalism, and theft.
Main types of portable extinguishers, their uses and colour coding
WATER
POWDER
FOAM
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2 )
For wood, paper, textile
and solid material fires
For liquid and electrical fires
For use on liquid fires
For liquid and electrical fires
DO NOT USE on liquid,
electrical or metal fires
DO NOT USE
on metal fires
DO NOT USE on
electrical or metal fires
DO NOT USE on
metal fires
The contents of an extinguisher is indicated by a zone of colour on the red body.
Halon extinguishers are not shown since no new Halon production is permitted in the UK
Figure 6: Types of fire extinguishers
At small sites or venues, having one or two portable extinguishers of the
appropriate type, readily available for use, may be all that is necessary.
At complex sites or venues where a number of portable extinguishers are required
they should be sited in suitable locations. Extinguishers should also be sited
adjacent to, but not near to, fire hazards. It may also be necessary to indicate
the location of extinguishers by suitable signs.
Fire blankets may also be appropriate for use on your site and their installation
should be considered for higher risk areas, e.g. catering facilities.
Some sites or venues may have permanently installed fire-fighting equipment.
Other fixed installations and facilities to assist fire fighters, such as ‘fire’ water
mains may also have been provided.
People with no training should not be expected to attempt to extinguish a fire.
However, all staff and where appropriate volunteers, should be familiar with the
location and basic operating procedures for the equipment provided. If your fire
strategy requires that certain people, e.g. fire marshals, will be expected to take a
more active role, then, they should be provided with more comprehensive training.
At some events an independent specialist fire team may be employed. Where this
is the case the use of an all terrain vehicle may be necessary to enable them to
reach all areas, especially where camping areas are provided. A protocol should
be agreed between the event organisers, fire and rescue service and fire team to
define responsibilities, actions and reporting procedures.
24
Checklist
• Are the portable fire extinguishers or any fixed firefighting equipment provided
suitable for controlling the risks identified?
Fire risk assessment
For more guidance on portable fire extinguishers see Part 2, Section 3.1, for fixed
fire points, Part 2, Section 3.2 and other facilities (including those for firefighters)
see Part 2 Section 3.3.
Part 1 •
Facilities for fire fighting also include the access routes for fire and rescue service
and other emergency service vehicles. At all outdoor venues you must ensure that
you have provided adequate and appropriate vehicle access to all parts of the
venue. You should also consider how these routes would be affected by the people
at your site or event.
• Are there enough extinguishers sited throughout the premises at appropriate
locations?
• Are the right types of extinguishers located close to the fire hazards and can
users get to them without exposing themselves to risk?
• Are the extinguishers visible or does their position need indicating?
• Do you regularly check equipment provided to help maintain the
escape routes?
• Do you carry out daily checks to ensure that there is clear access for
fire engines?
• Are those who test and maintain the equipment competent to do so?
• Do you have the necessary procedures in place to maintain any facilities that
have been provided for the safety of people in the building (or for the use of
firefighters, such as access for fire engines and firefighting lifts)?
3.4.3
Escape Routes
Once a fire has started, been detected and a warning given, everyone at your
venue or event should be able to escape to a place of total safety unaided and
without the help of the fire and rescue service. However, some people with
disabilities & others with special needs may need assistance from other people.
Escape routes should be designed to ensure, as far as possible, that any person
confronted by fire, is able to turn away from it and escape to a place of reasonable
safety, e.g. outside of a marquee. From here, they will be able to go directly to a
place of total safety.
The level of fire protection that should be given to escape routes will vary depending
on the level of risk of fire within the premises and other related factors. Generally
simple enclosures found at open air events & venues will require fairly simple
measures to protect escape routes compared to more complex (permanent buildings).
25
When determining whether your event or venue has adequate escape routes, you
need to consider a number of factors, including;
• the type & number of people present at the event or venue and their distribution
around the site
• the number and size of exits from marquees and other enclosures and from
outdoor areas, e.g. in any fences, hedges or other barriers around the site.
• exits and gateways are unlocked and staffed by stewards throughout the event;
• all exits and gateways are clearly indicated by suitable signs which are illuminated
if necessary;
• the occupants are directed to all available exits so that their evacuation is
without delay;
• identify an area/field as a designated place of total safety, which may be within
the site boundaries, to which people are evacuated;
• the designated place of safety does not place people at undue risk from other
sources, e.g. vehicles on a busy road.
At the planning stage, consult the local fire and rescue service about the proposals
for means of escape.
The type and number of people using the event or venue
The people present at your event or venue will sometimes be entirely employees
(outside of opening hours), but will most of the time be a mixture of employees,
volunteers and members of the public. Employees can reasonably be expected to
have an understanding of the layout of the site or venue while members of the
public, particularly in more complex sites, will be unlikely to have knowledge of any
escape routes.
The number of people present will influence your assessment of the requirements
for escape routes. You must ensure that your escape routes are sufficient to enable
the maximum number of people likely to use your event or venue at any time to
escape safely. If necessary, you may need to increase the size and/or number of
the escape routes or restrict the number of people on site, as appropriate.
In considering the numbers of people present, you need to take account of the
type of event. If it is a ticketed event you will be able to determine the maximum
number of people attending the event and provide adequate escape routes. If your
event is ‘free’ admission, determining the maximum number will be more difficult
and it may be influenced by factors such as the weather. In this case, you may
have to consider monitoring the number of people entering the site, control entry
numbers, control the numbers within specific areas, and/or preventing migration
and overcrowding. You may also need to take account of the possible effects of
intoxicants (e.g. alcohol, drugs) on people and other behavioural issues such as
parents seeking their children and people reluctant to abandon property.
26
• the location of the fire (indoor/outdoor);
• how quickly the fire is detected and the alarm raised;
• the number of people present;
• the type of people present;
• the number and location & width of exits/gateways;
• the presence of features that restrict the flow of people;
Fire risk assessment
In the event of fire it is important to evacuate people as quickly as possible from
the locality of the fire. The time available to do this will depend on a number of
factors, including:
Part 1 •
Escape time
• the speed of fire growth;
• the size of your site, event or venue; and
• topographical features such as sloping ground and conditions underfoot.
The escape time for open air areas will have a range of values and the time for your
site or venue will be unique. Guidance on the range of values relative to the risk to
the people present is provided in Part 2, Section 4. Reference should also be made
to The Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds11 and The Event Safety Guide10 for
further guidance on escape times.
Escape times in indoor situations, e.g. marquees and other enclosed structures,
are more critical and are controlled by restricting the travel distances to exits. For
simplicity, time factors are taken into account in the travel distances suggested in
Part 2, Table 5.
Number and suitability of escape routes
Every venue should be provided with exits that are sufficient for the number of
people present with respect to their width, number and siting.
From a marquee of other enclosures there should usually be at least two
escape routes available but a single escape route may be acceptable in some
circumstances (e.g. part of you premises accommodating less that 60 people or
where travel distances are limited). Where two escape routes are necessary and
to further minimise the risk of people becoming trapped, you should ensure that
the exit routes are completely independent of each other. This will prevent a fire
affecting more than one exit route at the same time.
When evaluating escape and exit routes, you will normally need to build in a safety
factor by discounting the largest exit from your escape plan then determine whether
the remaining exits or escape routes will be sufficient to evacuate all the occupants
within a reasonable time. Exits and escape routes that provide escape in a single
direction only may need additional fire precautions to be regarded as adequate.
27
Exit doors or gates on escape routes should normally open in the direction of
travel, and be quickly and easily openable without the need for a key.
Management of escape routes
It is essential that escape routes, and the means provided to ensure they are
used safely, are managed and maintained to ensure that they remain usable and
available at all times when the public are present on the site
Inform staff and volunteers, in training sessions about the escape routes within the
site. Escape routes should be kept clear and hazard free at all times. Arrangements
should be made to prevent external escape routes from becoming obstructed by
vehicles, stalls etc. Items that may be a source of fuel or pose an ignition risk
should never be located close to an escape route (e.g. from a tent or marquee).
Emergency evacuation of persons with mobility impairment
The means of escape you provide must be suitable for the evacuation of everyone
likely to be at your event or venue. People with a disability are often not able to
leave the site or venue quickly. This may be the result of mobility, hearing, vision or
other impairment. Similarly, those who may have some other reason for not being
able to leave the site quickly, e.g. people in a state of undress (stage performers),
elderly customers, or parents with children should be considered separately. This
may require additional planning and allocation of staff roles – with appropriate training.
Use of these facilities will need to be linked to effective management arrangements
as part of your emergency plan. The plan should not rely on fire and rescue service
involvement for it to be effective.
Further guidance on escape routes is available in Part 2, Section 4.
28
• Are the exits in the right place and do the escape routes lead as directly
as possible to a place of total safety?
• Are the escape routes adequate for the numbers and type of people that may
need to use them? e.g. members of the public, including disabled people.
• If there is a fire, could all available exits be affected or will at least one route from
any part of the site or venue remain available?
• Where appropriate, have you identified the assembly areas and are they in the
appropriate location?
Fire risk assessment
• Can all the occupants escape to a place of reasonable or total safety in a
reasonable time?
Part 1 •
Checklist
• Will everybody be able to safely use the escape routes?
• Can all exit doors and gates be opened easily and immediately if there is
an emergency?
• Have restrictions to the flow of people been considered and where necessary,
removed?
• Are arrangements in place to keep all escape routes & exit clear?
3.4.4
Emergency Escape Lighting
People at your event or venue must be able to find their way to a place of total
safety if there is a fire by using escape routes that have enough lighting. If some of
your escape routes are internal and without windows, or your venue is used during
periods of darkness, then, some form of back-up to the normal escape route
lighting (emergency escape lighting) should be provided.
For simple venues or events with very small numbers of people, suitably placed
torches for use by trained staff or volunteers may be acceptable.
At larger sites or venues it is likely that a more comprehensive system of automatic
emergency escape lighting will be needed to illuminate the escape routes and
you should consult with a suitably qualified person for the type and specification
of installation required.
Where your event or venue is entirely in the open and it is attended during the
hours of darkness, you need to consider the provision of emergency escape
lighting throughout the site to illuminate all areas where people are accommodated
and the escape routes to places of reasonable and total safety.
Further guidance on emergency escape lighting is given in Part 2, Section 5.
29
Checklist
• Will your event take place or your venue be used during the hours of
darkness.
• Are all the escape routes sufficiently illuminated for use at all times people
are present.
• Have you provided emergency escape lighting by means of either an
independent back-up power supply to the normal lighting or by means of
separate lighting with an independent source of power.
3.4.5
Signs and notices
Signs
Signs must be used, where necessary, to help people identify escape routes/exits,
find fire-fighting equipment and emergency fire telephones. These signs are
required under the Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 19967,8
and must comply with the provisions of those Regulations.
For a sign to comply with the Regulations, it must be in pictogram form (see Figure 7).
Text and directional arrows can supplement the pictogram if this is considered
necessary to make the sign easily understood, but you must not have a safety sign
that uses text only.
A fire risk assessment that determines that no escape signs are required (because,
for example, trained staff will always be available to help direct members of the
public to escape routes) is unlikely to be acceptable to an enforcing authority
other than in the smallest and simplest of premises e.g. a small marquee with a
single entrance.
The extent of escape signage provided will depend on the size of your event and
the ease with which people can locate the exits. If the location of exits is obvious
from any point, signs located above the exits are likely to be sufficient. If exits are
not apparent, additional signs, which direct the people present to the exits, will be
required. You must also consider the size of the signage provided.
Where the locations of escape routes and fire-fighting equipment are readily apparent
and the fire-fighting equipment is visible at all times, e.g. within a temporary or
permanent building, then signs are not necessary. In all other situations it is likely
that the fire risk assessment will indicate that signs will be necessary.
Figure 7: Typical fire exit sign
30
Part 1 •
Notices
Notices must be used, where
necessary, to provide the following:
Fire risk assessment
• Instructions on how to use any fire
safety equipment
• The actions to be taken in the event
of fire
• To help the fire and rescue service
(e.g. to show the location of fire
water mains?)
Where your site or venue is used
during periods of darkness all signs
and notices should be illuminated by
a suitable lighting installation.
Figure 8: Simple fire action notice
All signs and notices should be positioned so that they can be easily seen
and understood.
Further guidance on signs and notices is given in Part 2, Section 6.
Checklist
• When necessary are escape routes, exits, the locations of fire-fighting
equipment and emergency fire telephones indicated by appropriate signs?
• Are you maintaining all the necessary signs and notices so that they continue
to be correct, legible and understood?
• Are you maintaining signs that you have provided for the information of the
fire and rescue service?
3.4.6
Installation testing and maintenance
New fire precautions should be installed by a competent person.
You must keep any equipment, devices or facilities that are provided at your site,
event or venue for the safety of people, (e.g. fire alarms, fire extinguishers, lighting,
signs, fire exits), in effective working order.
You must ensure that regular checks, periodic servicing and maintenance are
carried out whatever the size of your site or venue and that any defects are put
right as quickly as possible.
Checks should be undertaken before, during and after the event.
You, or a person you have nominated, can carry out certain checks and maintenance
work. Further maintenance may need to be performed by a competent service
engineer. Where contractors are used, third party certification is one method where
a reasonable assurance of quality of work and competence can be achieved. (See
Part 2, Section 8.)
31
The following are examples of checks and tests that should be considered. The
examples of testing and maintenance given are not intended to be prescriptive
and other testing regimes may be appropriate.
Daily checks (and/or checks before an event)
Remove any bolts, padlocks and security devices from fire exits (including perimeter
fences) and check escape routes to ensure they are clear from obstructions. Check
that all safety signs and notices are legible. Where practicable, check all emergency
lighting units are in place and in working order. Check the provision of fire
extinguishers and that they are present. Check the operation of communications
systems such as public address system and radios. Check that staff, volunteers
and stewards with designated responsibilities are available.
Weekly tests (and/or before an event)
Test fire-detection (where provided), fire warning systems, and manually-operated
warning devices by following the manufacturers or installers instructions. Check
the batteries of safety torches. Check that fire extinguishers and hose reels are
correctly located and in apparent working order. Fire pumps and standby
generators should be tested for 30 minutes each week.
Monthly tests (and/or before an event)
Test all emergency escape lighting systems and safety torches to make sure they
have enough charge and illumination according to the manufacturers or suppliers
instructions.
Monthly tests should be at an appropriate time when, following the test, they will
not be immediately required, e.g. when no events are scheduled.
Six-monthly tests (and/or before an event)
A competent person should test and maintain the fire-detection and warning system
and emergency escape lighting.
Annual tests and/or before an event)
The emergency escape lighting and all fire-fighting equipment, fire alarms and other
installed systems should be tested and maintained by a competent person.
Where your event has only a short duration (e.g. 3 days) you may need to carry out
all of the above plan checks to ensure that your site or event is adequately protected.
Appendix A provides an example of a fire safety maintenance checklist. You will
find it of benefit to keep a log book of all maintenance and testing.
Further guidance on maintenance and testing on individual types of equipment and
facilities can be found in the relevant section in Part 2.
32
• Do you regularly check all escape routes and associated lighting and signs?
• Do you regularly check your fire-detection and alarm equipment?
• Are those who test and maintain the equipment properly trained to do so?
• Do you have records of your testing?
Step 3 Checklist
• Have you considered the risk of fire starting?
Fire risk assessment
• Do you regularly check all your fire-fighting equipment?
Part 1 •
Checklist
• Have you evaluated the risk to people at your site or venue if a fire starts?
• Have you removed or reduced the hazards that might cause a fire?
• Have you removed or reduced sources of ignition?
• Have you removed or reduced sources of fuel?
• Have you removed or reduced sources of air or oxygen?
• Have you removed or reduced the risks to people if a fire occurs?
• Have you determined whether your escapes routes and exits are adequate?
• Do you have adequate signs and notices?
• Have you determined whether your emergency escape lighting
is adequate?
• Have you considered the need for fire detection and for warning?
• Have you considered the need for fire-fighting equipment?
• Is the fire fighting equipment suitable for the purpose and in the right place?
• Have you considered whether you need any other equipment or facilities?
• Do you regularly test and maintain fire safety equipment?
• Have you considered how the emergency services will get to, in and
around your site or venue?
33
STEP 4 RECORD, PLAN, INFORM, INSTRUCT AND TRAIN
In Step 4 there are four further elements of the risk assessment you should focus
on to address the management of fire safety at your event or venue. At smaller
sites this could be done as part of the day-to-day management. However, as the
venue or the organisation grows it may be necessary for a formal structure and
written policy to be developed. Further guidance on managing fire safety is given
in Part 2 on page 43.
4.1
Record the significant findings and action taken
If you employ five or more people, your venue or event is licensed, or an alterations
notice is in force, you must record the significant findings of your fire risk
assessment and the actions you have taken.
Significant findings should include details of:
• the fire hazards you have identified (you don’t need to include trivial things like a
small tin of solvent-based glue);
• the actions you have taken, or will take, to remove or reduce the chance of a fire
occurring (preventive measures);
• persons who may be at risk, particularly those especially at risk;
• the actions you have taken or will take to reduce the risk to people from the
spread of fire and smoke (protective measures);
• the actions people need to take in case of fire, including details of any persons
nominated to carry out a particular function (your emergency plan);
• the information, instruction and training you have identified that people need and
how it will be given.
You may also wish to record discussions you have had with staff or staff
representatives (including trade unions). Even where you are not required to record
the significant findings, it is good practice to do so.
At small/simple sites or venues (e.g. village fete) record keeping may be no more
than a few sheets of paper (possibly forming part of a health and safety folder),
containing details of significant findings, any action taken and a copy of the
emergency plan.
At larger/complex venues or events, it is best to keep a dedicated record including
details of significant findings, any action taken, a copy of the emergency plan,
maintenance of fire – protection equipment and training. There is no one ‘correct’
format specified for this.
34
Main Entrance
Catering
Catering
Fire risk assessment
You must be able to satisfy the enforcing authority, if called upon to do so, that you
have carried out a suitable and sufficient fire risk assessment. Keeping records will
help you do this and will also form the basis of your subsequent reviews. If you
keep records, you do not need to record all the details, only those that are
significant and the action you have taken.
Part 1 •
It might be helpful to include a simple line drawing to illustrate your precautions
(figure 9). This can also help you check your fire precautions as part of your
ongoing review.
H
H
J
H
H
Side
Stalls
H
H
Adult
Ride
(Waltzer)
H
H
H
H
H
H
Rock-oPlane
Entry/Exit
Entry/Exit
Adult
Ride
(Twist)
H
H
H
H
H
Side
Stalls
H
Dogems
Car
Park
H
H
H
Entry/Exit
• Fire applicance
access
H
H
Side
Stalls
Side
Stalls
H
J
Stalls
Stalls
Entry/
Exit
Car Park
Assembly Area
Living
Van
Generator
Truck/
Lorry
J
Juvenile
Ride
H
Hoopla
Tree
Boundary
Key
Emergency lighting
Fire exit sign
Fire extinguisher
Figure 9: A site layout plan
35
The findings of your fire risk assessment will help you to develop your emergency
plan, the instruction, information and training you need to provide, the co-operation
and co-ordination arangements you may need to have with other responsible
people and the arrangements for maintenance and testing of the fire precautions.
If you are required to record the significant findings of your risk assessment then
these arrangements must also be recorded.
Further guidance about fire safety records with an example is given in Part 2,
Section 7.1.
Checklist
• Have you recorded the significant findings of your assessment?
• Have you recorded what you have done to remove or reduce the risk?
• Are your records available for inspection by the enforcing authority?
4.2
Emergency Plan
You need to have an emergency plan for dealing with any fire situation. The
purpose of an emergency plan is to ensure that the people on the site or venue
know what to do if there is a fire and that the site can safely be evacuated allowing
people to move to a place of safety.
If you or your organisation employ five or more people, or your event or venue are
licensed or an alterations notice requiring it is in force, then details of your
emergency plan must be recorded. Even if it is not required, it is good practice to
keep a record.
Your emergency plan should be based on the outcome of your fire risk assessment
and be available for your employees, their representatives (where appointed) and
the enforcing authority.
At a small simple site the emergency plan may be no more than a fire action notice.
In multi-occupied, larger and more complex events or venues, the emergency plan
will need to be more detailed and compiled only after consultation with other
occupiers and other responsible people, e.g. owners who have control over the
site and those in charge of various activities. In most cases this means that an
emergency plan covering the whole site will be necessary. It will help if you can
agree on one person to co-ordinate this task.
Provisions for events involving animals
Animals are liable to panic in fire and in view of this there should be additional
safeguards to ensure that the public are able to use the means of escape to
reach a place of total safety without being endangered by frightened animals.
You therefore need to ensure that the presence of animals does not increase the
risk of fire occuring and that they are securely kept away from escape routes used
by the public.
36
Checklist
• Do you have an emergency plan and, where necessary, have you recorded
the details?
• Does your plan take account of other responsible people on the site?
• Is the plan readily available for staff, contractors, visitors, to read?
• Is the emergency plan available to the enforcing authority?
4.3
Fire risk assessment
Further guidance on emergency plans is given in Part 2, Section 7.2.
Part 1 •
Your emergency plan may also need to take account of any obligations you may
have in respect of the protection of any animals present in the premises.
Inform, instruct, co-operate and co-ordinate
You must give clear and relevant information and appropriate instructions to your
staff and the employers of other people working on your site, such as contractors,
about how to prevent fires and what they should do if there is a fire.
If you intend to employ a child, you must inform the parents of the significant risks
you have identified and the precautions you have taken. You must also co-operate
and co-ordinate with other responsible people who use any part of the site or
venue. It is unlikely that your emergency plan will work without this.
Information and instruction
All staff and volunteers should be given information and instruction as soon as they
arrive on site and prior to starting work and regularly after that. Make sure you
include people who work outside normal working hours, such as cleaners or
maintenance staff.
The information and instructions you give must be in a form that can be used and
understood. They should take account of those with a disability such as hearing or
sight impairment, those with learning difficulties and those who do not use English
as their first language.
The information and instruction you give should be based on your emergency plan
and must include:
• the significant findings from your fire risk assessment;
• the measures that you have put in place to reduce the risk;
• what staff/volunteers should do if there is a fire;
• the identity of people you have nominated with responsibilities for fire safety; and
• any special arrangements for serious and imminent danger to persons from fire.
In a small/simple site or venue, where no significant risks have been identified and
there are limited numbers of staff/volunteers, information and instruction may
37
simply involve an explanation of the fire procedures and how they are to be applied.
This should include :
• showing staff/volunteers the fire-protection arrangements, including the designated
escape routes;
• the location and operation of the fire-warning system;
• any other fire-safety equipment provided, such as fire extinguishers.
For a complex site or venue particularly those with multiple occupiers (e.g. a county
show), you should ensure that written instructions are given to people who have been
nominated to carry out a designated safety task, such as calling the fire and rescue
service or checking that exit routes are available for use at the start of each working day.
Fire action notices can complement this information and where used, should be
posted in prominent locations.
Further guidance on information and instruction to staff, and on working with
dangerous substances is given in Part 2, Section 7.3.
Co-operation and co-ordination
At some venues you may be the responsible person. However, sites or venues
owned by someone else, or where there is more than one occupier and others are
responsible for different parts of the site (e.g. motor racing circuit), it is important that
you liaise with them and inform them of any significant risks that you have identified.
By liaising you can co-ordinate your resources to ensure that your actions and
working practices do not place others at risk if there is a fire, and a co-ordinated
emergency plan operates effectively.
Where two or more responsible persons share a site or venue the person with overall
responsibility for the site or venue must co-ordinate any measures necessary to
protect everyone from any risk that may arise. Employees also have a responsibility to
co-operate with their employer so far as it is necessary to help the employer comply
with any legal duty.
Further guidance on co-operation and co-ordination is given in Part 2, Section 7.3.
Checklist
• Have you told your staff about the emergency plan, including the identity of
people you have nominated to perform a particular task?
• Have you given staff information about any dangerous substances?
• Do you have arrangements for informing temporary or agency staff?
• Do you have arrangements for informing other employers whose staff are
guest workers on your site, such as maintenance contractors and cleaners?
• Have you co-ordinated your fire safety arrangements with other responsible
people of the event?
• Have you recorded details of any information or instructions you have given and
the details of any arrangements for co-operation and co-ordination with others?
38
Fire safety training
The type of training should be based on the size, type, location and other features
of your event or venue and should:
• take account of the findings of the fire risk assessment;
• explain your emergency procedures;
Fire risk assessment
A key role is played by those responsible for keeping people safe at your site,
event or venue. Your safety may include actions and responsibilities by people
who are not members of your staff (e.g. volunteers). You must therefore provide
adequate fire safety training for staff and other people with responsibilities at your
event or venue.
Part 1 •
4.4
• take account of the work activity and explain the duties and responsibilities of
staff (and others);
• take place during working hours and be repeated periodically where appropriate;
• address the roles of staff;
• where appropriate, be tested by fire drills; and
• be understandable by your staff and other people who may be present.
At simple sites this may be no more than showing staff/volunteers the fire exits and
giving basic training on what to do if there is a fire. At sites or venues with a high
staff turnover the organisation of fire safety training will need to be planned.
Your training should include the following:
• what to do on discovering a fire;
• how to raise the alarm;
• what to do upon hearing the fire alarm;
• the procedures for alerting members of the public and visitors including, where
appropriate, directing them to exits;
• the arrangements for calling the fire and rescue service;
• the evacuation procedures for everyone to reach an assembly point at a place of
total safety;
• the location and, when appropriate, the use of fire-fighting equipment;
• the location of escape routes, especially those not in regular use;
• where appropriate, how to stop machines and processes and isolate power
supplies in the event of a fire;
• the safe use of, and risks from, storing or working with highly flammable and
explosive substances; and
• the importance of general fire safety, which includes good housekeeping.
39
All people identified in your emergency plan that have a supervising role in a fire
emergency should be given details of your fire risk assessment and receive
appropriate training.
It is imperative that the person responsible for training is adequately trained to
undertake the role of informing, training and instructing others.
Further guidance on fire safety training is given in Part 2, Section 7.4.
Checklist
• Have your staff/volunteers received any fire safety training?
• Have you carried out a practice evacuation recently (if practical)?
• Are people employees aware of specific tasks if there is a fire?
• Are you maintaining a record of training sessions?
• If you use or store hazardous or explosive substances, have your staff
received appropriate training?
STEP 5 REVIEW
You should constantly monitor what you are doing to implement the fire risk
assessment, to assess how effectively the risk is being controlled.
If you have any reason to suspect that your fire risk assessment is no longer valid
or there has been a significant change in your site or venue that has affected your
fire precautions, you will need to review your assessment and, if necessary, revise
it. Reasons for this could include:
• significant changes to the event, for example a last-minute introduction of
fairground attractions new acts, performances and activities;
• alterations to the degree of enclosure or reconfiguration of a site venue or exhibit,
e.g. additional temporary structures/marquees.
• an increase in the number of, or changes to the type of people, or the presence
of people with a disability;
• changes to the staffing structure;
• the introduction, change of use or increase in the storage of hazardous
substances;
• failure of fire precautions, e.g. fire detection systems and warning systems;
• altering locations of exits or fixed/mobile seating;
• your past experience;
• incidents at other venues which did, or could have, injured people and from
which lessons can be learned and preventative action taken.
40
If a fire or ‘near miss’ occurs, this could indicate that your existing assessment may
be inadequate and you should carry out a re-assessment. It is good practice to
identify the cause of any incident and, then, review and/or revise your fire risk
assessment in the light of this.
Fire risk assessment
Do not amend your assessment for every trivial change, but, if a change introduces
new hazards you should consider them and, if significant, do whatever you need to
do to keep the risks under control. In any case you should keep your assessment
under review to make sure that the precautions are still working effectively. You
may want to re-examine the fire prevention and protection measures at the same
time as your health and safety assessment.
Part 1 •
You should consider the potential risk of any significant change before it is
introduced. It is usually more effective to minimise a risk before introducing it to
your site. During the event you should remain vigilant for any unplanned changes
that introduce new hazards or increase the risk from an existing hazard.
A post event review is good practice for events that occur periodically to help
ensure that fire safety arrangements are relevant to and appropriate for the next
event or to the changing needs of your venue and its visitors. The review will help
to identify areas where changes are needed and/or introduce suggested
improvements. Review your event as soon as possible after it has finished, in order
to ensure that any problems are still relatively fresh in people’s memories. If many of
the staff are likely to disperse, you may wish to carry out a rapid debriefing as soon
as practicable and use the report of this in the full review. In general,
representatives of all parties involved in the event should take part in the review.
Where possible, select representatives who can give you the fullest picture of all
aspects of the event. Specific training for your own staff involved in the review
process can help to improve its effectiveness.
5.1
Alterations notices
If you have been served with an ‘alterations notice’ check it to see whether you
need to notify the enforcing authority about any changes you propose to make as
a result of your review. If these changes include building work, you should also
consult the building control body.
END OF PART 1
You should now have completed the five-step fire risk assessment process, using
the additional information in Part 2 where necessary. In any review you may need
to revisit Steps 1 to 4.
41
Good management of fire safety will help to
ensure that any fire safety matters that arise are
always effectively addressed. At small venues
or events this can be achieved by the manager
or owner planning and maintaining fire safety
in conjunction with general health and safety.
You will need to prioritise these actions to
ensure that any findings which identify people
in immediate danger are dealt with straight
away, In other cases, at permanent outdoor
sites or venues, where people are not in
immediate danger but action is still necessary,
it may be acceptable to plan this over a
period of time.
At larger events or venues it is good
practice for a senior manager to have overall
responsibility for fire safety. It may be appropriate
for this responsibility to be placed with the
manager designated with overall responsibility
for health and safety.
You or a designated responsible person should
be in charge of and be present on the site
during the whole time the site is open to the
public and kept free from work, which would
prevent the individual from being available
immediately in the event of an alarm of fire.
An organisation’s safety policy should
incorporate fire safety and should be flexible
enough to allow modification. The policy
should be set out in writing and may cover
such things as:
You need to be aware that certain events e.g.
music festivals, can present additional dangers
for the audience, largely from the effects of
over excitement and irrational behaviour as
well as the noise level and flashing lights. In
such circumstances, and particularly where
there is a mainly younger audience, you
should ensure that there are a sufficient
number of competent and adequately trained
stewards to cover an emergency situation.
• who will hold the responsibility for fire safety
at the most senior level;
• who will be the responsible person for each
part of the site (this will be the person who
has overall control, usually the manager, but
may be part-time or shift managers);
• the arrangement whereby managers will,
where necessary, nominate in writing specific
people to carry out particular tasks if there
is a fire;
• the arrangement whereby the overall
responsible person should monitor and
check that individual managers are meeting
the requirements of fire safety law.
You should have a plan of action to bring
together all the features you have evaluated
and noted from your fire risk assessment so
that you can logically plan what needs to be
done. It should not be confused with the
emergency plan, which is a statement of what
you will do if there is a fire.
The plan of action should include what you
intend to do to reduce the hazards and risks
you have identified and to implement the
necessary protection measures.
Before admitting the public to your site you
need to ensure that all of your fire safety
provisions are in place and in working order,
or, if not, that alternative arrangements are in
place. Constant checks are needed while the
public are present, and again after they have
left. Detailed recommendations are given in
British Standard Fire Precautions in the design,
construction and use of buildings – Part 12:
Managing fire safety, BS5588-12:200439, The
Event Safety Guide10 and The Guide to Safety
at Sports Grounds11.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Managing fire safety
Part 2 •
Part 2 Further guidance on fire risk
assessment and fire precautions
The guidance in Part 2 provides additional
information to:
• ensure good fire safety management by
helping you establish your fire prevention
measures, fire precautions and fire safety
procedures (systems equipment and plans); and
• assist you to carry out your fire safety risk
assessment and identify any issues that need
attention.
43
Section 1 Further guidance on fire risks
and preventative measures
This section provides further information on
evaluating the risk of a fire and its prevention
at your event or venue. You should spend time
developing long-term workable and effective
strategies to reduce hazards and the risk of a
fire starting. At its simplest this means separating
flammable materials from ignition sources.
You should consider:
• housekeeping;
• storage;
• dangerous substances; storage, display
and use;
• equipment and machinery;
• electrical safety;
• smoking;
• managing construction, assembly and
alterations;
Good housekeeping reduces the chances of
escape routes being blocked or obstructed
or potentially hazardous source of fuel from
developing. The level of responsibility of an
event organiser and concessionaire with
regards to housekeeping must be defined.
All parts of the site or venue should be
inspected before, during and after each
event or period open to the public and any
accumulation of waste or litter should be
removed without delay.
Combustible waste and packaging
Some events involve large quantities of
combustible waste and packaging, which may
have been used to protect goods or exhibits in
transit. The sighting, use and removal of these
materials needs to be carefully managed to
ensure that they can not come into contact
with potential ignition sources, and do not
cause obstructions.
• restricting the spread of fire and smoke;
• arson;
• vehicles; and
Figure 10: Example of poor housekeeping
at open air events
• help for people with special needs.
1.1 Housekeeping
For most sites, good housekeeping will lower
the chance of a fire starting, so the accumulation
of combustible materials should be monitored
carefully.
Keep waste material in suitable containers
before it is removed from the site. If bins,
particularly wheeled bins, are used, secure
them in a compound to prevent them being
moved to a position next to an enclosure
and set on fire. Never place skips near an
enclosure (tent or vehicle, see Figure 10) –
they should normally be a minimum of 6 m
away from any structure on the site.
If you generate a considerable quantity
of combustible waste material then you may
need to develop a formal plan to manage
this effectively.
44
1.2 Storage
Many of the materials found at your event
or venue will be combustible. If you have
inadequate or poorly managed storage areas
then the risk of fire is likely to be increased.
At outdoor events and venues great care
will often be taken to present an efficient and
attractive image in the public areas, while
storage areas are neglected and allowed to
become dumping areas for unused material.
To reduce the risk, store excess materials in
a dedicated storage area. Do not store excess
materials in areas where the public would
normally have access.
As well as considering the materials used at
your site or event you should also consider
their form. For example, wood in solid baulks
of timber is not readily ignitable, but chopped
wood or kindling is. Cardboard stored flat
would not present a high fire risk, but rolls
of cardboard stored vertically present a vertical
surface for fire to spread rapidly upwards;
corrugated cardboard presents an even
greater risk.
The fire risk assessment should also consider
any additional risk generated by seasonal
products such as Christmas decorations and
by products such as fireworks.
Consider the following to reduce these risks:
• Ensure you have sufficient suitable storage
areas for your needs;
• ensure storage areas are adequately
controlled and monitored;
• use fire-resisting display materials wherever
possible (suppliers should be able to provide
evidence of this); and
• ensure electrical lighting used as part of the
display does not become a potential source
of ignition.
Outdoor storage
The main risks associated with outdoor storage
are outdoor fires spreading to the buildings,
structures or enclosures. Fires are most likely
to start in waste material or dry undergrowth.
Tarpaulin, jute and plastic sacks can readily
burn too.
• goods, materials, pallets and vehicles are
sited in designated storage areas away from
a temporary building, stage area or arena
fire exits, boundary fences; and
• outdoor areas are kept tidy, by clearing
waste and vegetation.
1.3 Dangerous substances;
storage, display and use
Specific precautions are required when
handling and storing dangerous substances to
minimise the possibility of an incident. Your
supplier should be able to provide detailed
advice on safe storage and handling, however,
the following principles will help you reduce
the risk from fire:
• substitute highly flammable substances and
materials with less flammable ones;
• reduce the quantity of dangerous substances
to the smallest reasonable amount necessary
for running the business or organisation;
• correctly store dangerous substances, e.g.
in a fire-resisting enclosure. All flammable
liquids, and gases substances should ideally
be locked away, especially when the events
or venues are unoccupied, to reduce the
chance of them being used in an arson
attack. This may include storage of materials
such as fireworks or pyrotechnics; and
• ensure that you and your employees are
aware of the fire risk the dangerous
substances present and the precautions
necessary to avoid danger.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Stacks of combustible materials (e.g. food
stuffs, packaging), can increase the fire hazard.
Such readily available combustible materials
makes the potential effect of arson more serious.
Sparks, cigarettes and arson are the likely
ignition sources. To reduce these risks,
ensure that:
Part 2 •
Combustible materials are not just those
generally regarded as highly combustible,
such as polystyrene, but all materials that
will readily catch fire e.g. displays or artificial
flowers. Even non-combustible materials
may present a fire hazard when packed in
combustible materials. However, by carefully
considering the type of material, the quantities
kept and the storage arrangements, the risks
can be significantly reduced.
Additional general fire precautions may be
needed to take account of the additional risks
that may be posed by the storage and use of
these substances.
Certain substances and materials are by their
nature, highly flammable, oxidising or
potentially explosive. These substances are
controlled by other legislation in addition to
fire safety law, in particular the Dangerous
Substances and Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations 200213 (also see HSE’s Approved
Code of Practice and guidance14).
45
Flammable Liquids
Highly flammable liquids present a particularly
high fire risk. For example, a leak from a
container of flammable fuel, such as petrol,
may produce large quantities of heavier-than
air flammable vapours. These can travel large
distances, increasing the likelihood of their
reaching a source of ignition well away from
the original leak, such as a catering facility or
equipment on automatic timers.
Flammable liquids stored in plastic containers
can be a particular problem if involved in fire
because they readily melt spilling their contents
and fuelling rapid fire growth.
Locate the LPG cylinders and cartridges in a
safe secure and well ventilated place, where
they cannot be interfered with, can be kept
upright (with valve protection fitted), are
away from sources of ignition and /or readily
ignitable materials, and are away from any
corrosive toxic or oxidant materials.
(See figure 12.)
Further guidance on the safe storage of LPG is
available from your supplier or the Liquefied
Petroleum Gas Association’s Code of Practice.15
Figure 12: Example of poor storage –
LPG cylinders with other combustibles
The risk is reduced by ensuring the storage
and use of highly flammable liquids is carefully
managed, that materials contaminated with
solvent are properly disposed of and when not
in use, they are safely stored. Up to 50 litres
may be stored in a fire-resisting cabinet or bin
that will contain any leaks. (See Figure 11.)
Quantities greater that 50 litres should be
stored in a dedicated highly flammable liquids
store. Further guidance on the storage of
highly flammable liquids in containers is
available from the HSE.
Figure 11: A 50 litre storage bin for flammables
Half-hour
fire-resistant exterior
Non-combustible,
high melting point hinges
Bonded/fire stopped junction
Maximum 50 litres total
There should be no potential ignition sources
in areas where flammable liquids are used
or stored and flammable concentrations of
vapours may be present. Any electrical
equipment used in these areas, including
emergency escape lighting systems, needs to
be suitable for use in flammable atmospheres.
In such situations, you should seek advice
from a competent person.
LPG use, storage and disposal
Where LPG in cylinders or cartridges is present,
you need to take particular care to minimise
the possibility of their involvement in a fire.
The total stock of LPG should be kept to the
minimum necessary to meet your needs.
46
Piping
Piping conveying gas or flammable liquid
should be as far as practicable, of rigid material.
Any necessary piping should consist of material
suitable for the gas or liquid being conveyed,
adequately reinforced to resist crushing and
withstand the maximum internal pressure to
which it may be subjected. Any connections to
the flexible piping should be of an approved
pattern (i.e. screwed or otherwise secured to
prevent accidental disconnection).
If in doubt you should seek advice from a
competent person.
Storage and use of cylinders
Only those compressed gas cylinders or gas vessels
containing flammable liquids or gas under
pressure required for immediate use should be
kept within the premises. Any spare cylinders
should be stored in a safe and secure location
outside the building.
Hazardous materials
Where it is necessary to use hazardous
materials, such as fuels (whether in containers
or within fuel tanks and machinery), fertilisers,
weed killers, paints or gas cylinders used for
medical purposes, they should be stored in a
Fireworks and explosives
Pyrotechnics are used in many productions
from a small show to major rock concerts and
the dangers inherent in the types used for the
entertainment industry should be understood.
The Explosives Act 187523, as modified by
the Control of Explosives Regulations 199124
requires that explosives are kept in a legal
place of keeping. For further information
contact the local authority or HSE.
Fireworks, pyrotechnics and explosives can
cause fires and explosions. They have the
potential for a violent release of pressure and
heat that can cause severe harm to people and
damage to structures. These materials can be
ignited or detonated by contact with ignition
sources or by contamination, where other
chemicals or water cause the material to
become unstable.
Smoke and vapour effects
Smoke/vapour outlets should not be sited
where their output can be discharged or drift
into exits, exit routes, stairways, means of
escape routes. Actual operation of the machine
should take account of public safety and
should be limited to the minimum amount
of time required to achieve the necessary
level of density.
Preventative measures include:
Fans should be used, where necessary, to
direct the smoke/vapour into the desired area,
in order to prevent clouding at the point of
discharge and possible overspill into other
parts of the event or venue. Before the use of
a smoke or vapour effect is approved consideration
should be given to any automatic fire detection
or fire sensor system installed in the premises.
• excluding ignition sources;
• appropriate storage containers;
• training in the handling of fireworks and
explosives; and
• establishing separation distances between
buildings containing explosives.
One of the most common problems with the
use of pyrotechnics is lack of pre-planning.
Pyrotechnics are often required but decisions
are made very late with the result of trying to
incorporate them into a show after everything
else, With early planning many of the problems
can be overcome and unnecessary risks reduced.
Particular care should be taken with certain
types of pyrotechnics that produce:
• sparks / fall-out which can remain hot for
some time even after returning to ground
level (e.g. star effects, gerbs, stage mines,
saxons, airbursts);
• fall-out over a wide area (e.g. waterfall effect,
saxons, airbursts);
• considerable heat (e.g. coloured fire);
• considerable amount of smoke (e.g. smoke
puffs, coloured smoke, waterfall effect);
• naked flame (e.g. flame effects).
You should adopt and enforce a clear policy
prohibiting people from bringing flares or
fireworks into the event or venue.
Such equipment should be operated safely and
in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
However, such devices can create an illusion
of the presence of fire (and/or smoke) and
consequently some additional measures may
need to be taken to avoid unnecessary alarm
and also to ensure that the use of such devices
does not disguise the presence of a real fire.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
The primary control on the supply and
acquisition of fireworks are the Fireworks
Regulations 2004 (as amended 22). The
minimum age for the acquisition of fireworks
is 18 years.
Part 2 •
secure and safe location, for example a properly
ventilated fire-resistant storeroom. Care should
also be taken to ensure that incompatible
materials are not stored together. If in any doubt
you should seek the advice of your supplier.
Detailed recommendations on the use
and storage of explosives and flammable
substances are given in the HSE Entertainment
Sheet No. 326, Association of British Theatre
Technicians Code of Practice27 and HSG 195 –
The Event Safety Guide10. For Firework displays
refer to HSG 123 ‘Working together on
fireworks displays’25.
1.4 Equipment and machinery
Common causes of fire in equipment are:
• allowing ventilation points to become
clogged or blocked, causing overheating;
• Inadequate cleaning of equipment, such
as fryers.
47
• allowing extraction equipment in catering
environments to build up excessive grease
deposits;
• misuse or lack of maintenance of cooking
equipment and appliances;
• overheating cooking equipment such as deep
fat fryers;
• disabling or interfering with automatic or
manual safety features and cut-outs;
• leaking valves, glands or joints allowing oils
and other flammable liquids to contaminate
adjacent goods;
• loose drive belts or lack of lubrication
leading to increased friction;
• refuelling without interrupting operation
(particularly petrol generators); or
• overheating electrical extension reels because
they have not been unwound.
All machinery, equipment and plant should be
properly maintained by a competent person.
Appropriate signs and instructions on safe use
may be necessary.
Heating
Individual heating appliances require particular
care if they are to be used safely. The greatest
risks arise from lack of maintenance and
unfamiliarity. Heaters should be secured in
position on hard standing when in use and
fitted with a fireguard if appropriate.
The main causes of fire are ignition of cooking
oil, combustion of crumbs and sediment deposits,
and, where fitted, duct work fires from a build
up of fat and grease. The siting of cooking
processes close to combustible materials can
lead to rapid fire growth and spread to other
parts of the site. This practice should therefore
be avoided where possible.
The following should be considered, as
appropriate to the size and location of the
installation, to reduce the fire risk from
cooking processes:
• regular cleaning to prevent build-up of
crumbs and other combustible material;
• fire resisting containers for waste product;
The following rules should be observed:
• a fire suppression system capable of
controlling an outbreak of fire (these could
be fitted within a mobile catering vehicle);
• all heaters should be kept well clear of
combustible materials and placed where they
do not cause an obstruction, particularly to
escape routes.
• monitored heat/oil levels, even after the
cooking process is complete, and installation
of temperature control/cut-off/ shut-off
devices as appropriate;
• portable fuel burning heaters (including LPG)
should only be used in public areas in
exceptional circumstances and if shown to be
acceptable in your risk assessment, and
• duct, joints and supports able to withstand
high cooking temperatures;
• unless specifically designed for use in the
open air such heaters should be sited away
from draughts.
All gas heating appliances should be used only
in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions
and should be serviced annually by a
competent person. You should check that all
such equipment to be used on your site is
provided with a maintenance record.
48
Cooking processes
Catering facilities at open air events are based
on equipment that is designed to be highly
mobile. They may be fixed within a vehicle or
placed within a tent, marquee or other similar
temporary structure. Typical installations used
in cooking processes include: deep fat fryers,
surface fryers, ovens, grills and surface
cookers, with flues, filters, hoods, extract and,
in some cases, ventilation ducts. These cooking
processes can operate at high temperatures,
involve large quantities of oil and combustible
foodstuffs. Heat sources used for cooking
processes are mainly LP gas but also include
electricity.
• insulation of ducts to prevent heating/
igniting nearby combustible materials and
wall/ceiling panels;
• a regular programme for inspection and
cleaning;
• a programme of electrical and mechanical
maintenance; and
• annual service of all gas heating appliances
by a competent person.
Issues to consider include:
• insulation earthing and electrical isolation
requirements;
• correct fuse ratings;
• PAT testing and testing of the fixed
installation;
• protection against overloading of installation;
• use of residual current devices (RCDs)
• protection against short circuit;
• frequency of electrical inspection;
• temperature rating and mechanical strength
of flexible cables;
1.5 Electrical safety
Electrical equipment is a significant cause of
accidental fires. The main causes are:
• overheating cables and equipment, e.g. due
to overloading circuits, bunched or coiled
cables or impaired cooling fans;
• incorrect installation or use of equipment;
• lack of maintenance or testing;
• damaged or inadequate insulation on cables
or wiring;
• combustible materials being placed too close
to electrical equipment, which may give off
heat even when operating normally, or may
become hot due to a fault;
• arcing or sparking by electrical equipment;
• embrittlement and cracking of cable
sheathing in cold environments;
• bunched cables passing through insulation
which can generate excessive heat; and
• impaired cooling fans.
All electrical equipment should be installed and
maintained in a safe manner by a competent
person. If portable electrical equipment is used,
then your fire risk assessment should ensure
that it is visually inspected and undergoes
portable appliance testing (‘PAT’) at suitable
intervals (refer to HSE guidance HSG 10716).
If you have any doubt about the safety of your
electrical installation then you should consult
a competent electrician.
• portable electrical equipment, including
lanterns;
• physical environment in which the
equipment is used (e.g. wet or dusty
atmospheres);
• use and maintenance of suitable personal
protective equipment; and
• voltage of the electrical equipment,
(e.g. 110v or lower).
All lamps, lanterns, lighting appliances and
any other apparatus liable to become heated
whether under normal or abnormal conditions
and liable to come into contact with combustible
materials may need to be fitted with suitable
guards. Such guards should be of wire mesh
or of such other type as will afford ventilation,
should be rigidly fixed and, where practicable,
should be at a distance of at least 300mm
vertically above and 75mm horizontally from
the casing of the lamp or holder.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
• cable routing and fixing;
Part 2 •
Figure 13: Mobile deep fat fryers too close
to combustibles
All electrical installations should be regularly
maintained by a competent person, appointed
by you, or on your behalf, in accordance with
the Electricity at Work Regulations 198928
(EAW Regulations). The use of low voltage
equipment should conform to the requirements
of the Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations
199429, including the requirement to be
CE marked.
For further guidance refer to the HSG 195.10
49
1.6 Smoking
Carelessly discarded cigarette and other
smoking materials are a major cause of fire.
You may consider prohibiting smoking at your
event or venue but at an open air site this may
be impractical or impossible to enforce. If you
consider that a part of your event is susceptible
to the risks from unauthorised smoking you
should put appropriate measures in place to
prevent fires.
safety as part of the Construction (Design and
Management) Regulations 1994 (The CDM
Regulations)71.
You should continuously monitor the impact of
any changes on the general fire safety precautions,
such as the increased risk from quantities of
combustible materials and accumulated waste.
You should only allow the minimum materials
necessary for the work in hand within or
adjacent to your event or venue.
Prohibition of smoking in marquees or temporary
buildings is likely to be more practical to achieve.
In those enclosed areas where smoking is
permitted, provide deep and substantial ashtrays
to help prevent unsuitable containers being
used. Empty all ashtrays regularly into a metal
waste bin and take it to a suitable disposal
area outside. It is dangerous to empty ashtrays
into plastic waste sacks, which are then left for
disposal later. Keep the area clear of combustibles
and maintain any furniture in good repair.
Activities such as welding, flame cutting, use
of blow lamps or portable grinding equipment
can pose a serious fire hazard and need to be
strictly controlled when carried out in areas
near flammable materials. This can be done by
having a written permit to work for the people
involved (whether they are your employees or
those of the contractor).
Also consider the ground upon which smokers
are standing and ensure that discarded smoking
materials will not start grass or other similar
fires in vegetation.
• ensure that there is a formal check
confirming that a safe system of work is
being followed;
A permit to work is appropriate in situations of
high hazard/risk and, for example, where there
is a need to:
• co-ordinate with other people or activities;
1.7 Managing building work and
alterations
Many outdoor events and venues (particularly
permanent sites) will include buildings and
other structures (temporary/permanent). You
should ensure that, before any work starts on
the creation of your event or the alteration of
an existing attraction, that you have evaluated
the fire risks or reviewed the fire risk
assessment, as appropriate, and considered
what dangers are likely to be introduced.
You will need to evaluate the risks to people,
particularly in those areas that continue to be
occupied while alterations take place. Lack
of pre-planning can lead to haphazard coordination of fire safety measures.
You should liaise and exchange information
with contractors who will also have a duty
under the Construction (Health, Safety and
Welfare) Regulations 199617,18 to carry out a risk
assessment and inform you of their significant
findings and the preventative measures they
may employ. This may be supported by the
contractors’ agreed work method statement.
The designer should also have considered fire
50
• provide time-limits on when it is safe to carry
out the work; and
• provide specialised personal protective
equipment or methods of communication.
Additional risks during construction work
include:
• hot work including paint stripping;
• temporary electrical equipment;
• blocking of escape routes;
• loss of normal storage facilities;
• fire safety equipment, such as automatic fire
detection systems being affected; and
• additional personnel who may be unfamiliar
with the event or venue.
You must notify the Fire and Rescue Service
about alterations in your premises if an
Alterations notice is in force.
Further guidance on fire safety during construction
work is given by the HSE 18, 19, 73, 74) and the Fire
Protection Association.75)
Catering facilities
Wherever possible any extensive all catering
facilities, particularly these with deep fat fryers,
should be located in areas dedicated to catering.
If located within or adjacent to other activities
or structures they should be separated from
those activities or structures by either a suitable
distance or by fire resisting construction and
provided with adequate ventilation. Where
flues pass through any part of the structure,
(e.g. temporary building) the structure should
be protected by fire-resisting construction and
the flue should terminate at a point where
emissions can disperse in the open air.
In permanent buildings where fire shutters are
used to separate the risk from other areas these
should be capable of operating both manually
and by fusible link. Where a fire detection and
warning system is installed, the fire shutter
should also be designed to close on the
activation of the system.
Decorations and display materials
You should evaluate what material could ignite
first and what would cause the fire to develop
and spread, and assess how materials used in
displays would interact with surface linings or
the fabric of any enclosure and position them
accordingly. In particular, displays such as
paper, textiles or other flimsy materials should
not be located in escape routes or adjacent to
exits. However, such materials may be
acceptable in other locations if treated with
an appropriate fire-retardant product.
Fire-resisting structures
There may be limited instances at your site
event or venue where temporary buildings are
divided into different areas by fire doors and
walls. These may be designed to keep a fire
within one area, giving people more time to
escape. You will need to identify which doors
and walls are fire resisting.
Normally if there are fire doors in a wall, then
the wall itself will also need to be fire resisting
(see Appendix C1 for more technical information
about fire – resisting walls and doors). If a wall
is required to be fire-resisting then you should
not make any holes in it, e.g. for extra
doors or pipe ducts, without consulting a
competent person.
The passing of services such as heating pipes
or electrical cables through fire-resisting walls
or partitions may leave gaps through which
fire and smoke may spread. These should be
rectified by suitable fire stopping and there are
many proprietary products available for this
purpose to suit particular types of construction.
Tents and Marquees
Marquees and large tents are prominent in
open-air events. The following information is
provided to assist you to manage the fire risk.
Modern fabric materials are generally fire
retardant. However, special criteria may apply
to tents or marquees, particularly where high
occupancy levels are expected. All fabric
should meet an appropriate fire performance.
Further guidance can be found in BS 783731.
Materials which are durably or non-durably
flame-retarded may be adversely affected by
weathering, so fabric which has achieved the
required level of flame retardancy by chemical
treatment will need to be periodically retreated.
If the tent or marquee is in constant use
throughout the summer season (e.g. from April
to October), such retreating should be carried
out when the fabric is showing signs of
obvious wear or ageing or not later than 5
years after the date the panel was made up.
Thereafter, testing should be at two-yearly
intervals. Such test results should be suitably
certificated.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
To reduce the risk to people if there is a fire,
you need to consider how to control or restrict
the spread of fire and smoke.
To ensure effective protection against fire any
openings such as doors, ventilation ducts, or
pipe passages providing fire separation must
form a complete fire-resisting barrier.
Part 2 •
1.8 Restricting the spread of fire
and smoke
Some marquees and large framed tents
comprise a complete single unit and are used
only occasionally (three or four times a year).
Such marquees should have supporting
documentation including test certificates which
confirm their composition and standard flame
retardancy, together with diagrams and/or
photographs of the structure. When they are
used, a record should be kept of each event
and retesting will only need to be carried
out when the fabric shows signs of wear or
ageing. All new structures should have an
accompanying log book from the date of
manufacture.
Linings for marquees and large tents may
be suspended using ropes constructed from
manmade or natural fibres and may be laced
together using the same materials. Linings
should only be used if constructed from an
51
appropriately and preferably inherently flameretardant material. If materials requiring flameretardancy pre-treatment are used, e.g. cotton
or wool, this process should be carried out
according to manufactures instructions and
a record kept accordingly.
Some floor coverings may react in fire to
produce large amounts of heat and smoke,
although the rate of surface spread of flame
may be relatively slow. The environment may
also have a significant effect on the burning
behaviour of materials, as wind can cause a
fire to spread more rapidly. It can also blow
smoke into escape routes and so adversely
affect the means of escape. A similar situation
may occur where a lack of adequate ventilation
causes smoke to be concentrated in a particular
area. Floor coverings may be re-usable or
disposable and should have low flame spread
characteristics.
For further information about tents and marquees
contact The Performance Textiles Association
(PTA); and/or consult chapter 12 of the
Institution of Structural Engineers document,
Temporary demountable structures30 and/or the
Event Safety Guide.10
Air supported structures
An Air supported structure is a structure that
has a space-enclosing single skin membrane
anchored to the ground and kept in tension
by internal air pressure so that it can support
applied loading. The membrane may or may
not be restrained by trans-surface ropes or cables.
Guidance on the materials used in the
construction of pneumatic structures can be
found in BS6661.32
Pneumatic structures
A risk peculiar to pneumatic structures is that
their stability is dependent upon a supply of
air under pressure, which is provided and
maintained by mechanical fans. Additionally
such structures comprise extensive areas of
flexible membrane material, which, like those
used for tents, requires particular care in
selection.
For these reasons, safety measures peculiar to
pneumatic structures include reliability of air
supply systems supplemented by secondary
support systems to maintain clear exit routes in
case of collapse together with the selection of
suitable (flame-retarded) membrane materials.
52
The membrane of an air supported structure
should not readily support combustion.
Experience has shown that PVC coated
polyesters and polyamides and unreinforced
polythene generally perform satisfactorily
under fire conditions. A small number of fire
tests on air supported structures of various
sizes have shown that if the flames in a fire
reach and damage the membranes at a high
level (above 2.5m), the internal pressure will
be reduced and, depending on the size of the
hole, the fan capacity and the number of
doors opened, the structure may collapse.
Combustible contents
Most enclosures (marquees, temporary building
etc.) at your event or venue will contain a
range of combustible contents. All materials
used in finishing and furnishing should, as far
as reasonably practicable, be difficult to ignite
and provide a low surface spread of flame and
low rates of heat release and smoke emission.
Combustible contents are likely to include:
• furnishings, upholstered seating, furniture
and cushions;
• curtains, drapes and other textile hangings;
• artificial and dried foliage;
• decorative textile fabrics (e.g. within stands);
• sports and play area furnishings, such as
cellular foam gym mats; and
• scenery or properties used for stage
presentations.
The use of furnishings and other materials
which are easily ignited or have rapid spread
of flame characteristics should be avoided.
All fabrics, curtains, drapes and similar features
should either be non-combustible or be of
durably or inherently flame retardant fabric.
Upholstered seating, carpets and other textile
floor coverings should be resistant to ignition.
Foam for props and similar equipment should
ideally contain only combustion modified high
resilience foam.
Scenery used for stage presentations often
comprise combustible materials, so you need
to take particular care with their use. In
particular, when they are on an open stage
area within an enclosure, when you should
seek to use only materials which you know
are not combustible.
Arson at open air events is not a recorded
statistic. However, recent studies indicate that,
across all other premises types, over 2,100
deliberately set fires, resulting in two deaths,
and 55 injuries occur every week. All premises
can be targeted either deliberately or just
because they offer easy access.
Fires started deliberately can be particularly
dangerous because they generally develop
much faster and may be started in escape
routes or other sensitive locations. Of all the
risk-reduction measures, the most benefit
may come from efforts to reduce the threat
from arson.
Be aware of small, deliberately set fires in the
locality, which may indicate an increased risk
to your site, event or venue. Be suspicious of
any small ‘accidental’ fires and investigate
them fully.
Measures to reduce arson may include the
following:
• ensure that the site is well lit and, if practical,
secure the perimeter of the event or venue;
• but make sure that any people working late
or alone still have adequate escape routes;
• do not place rubbish skips adjacent to
occupied areas and secure waste bins in a
compound separated from occupied areas;
• make sure you regularly remove all
combustible rubbish;
• do not place vehicles, caravans or other
portable structures adjacent to occupied areas;
• encourage staff to challenge people acting
suspiciously;
• secure flammable liquids so that intruders
cannot use them;
• ensure that your security, alarm/fire-detection
system is monitored and acted on.
Further guidance on the reducing the risk of
arson has been published by the Arson
Prevention Bureau.*
1.10 Vehicles
During dry conditions additional precautions
may be necessary, to prevent the spread of fire
to permanent or temporary structures through
the ignition of vegetation by vehicles, e.g.
ensure vegetation is ‘maintained’ in order to
reduce the probability of contact with any
vehicles and care taken not to use stubble fields.
Whenever possible vehicle parking should be
separate from the event. Vehicle movements
must be controlled before, during and after
the event. Catering operations located within
vehicles and trailers present additional risks
and should be assessed in detail. Further
guidance on the measures to be taken can
be found in The Event Safety Guide10.
1.11 Help for people with special
needs
Of all the people who may be especially at
risk you will need to pay particular attention
to people who have special needs including
those with a disability. The Disability Rights
Commission estimates that 11 million people
in this country have some form of disability,
which may mean that they find it more difficult
to leave an event or venue if there is a fire.
Under The Disability Discrimination Act,37 if
disabled people could realistically expect to
use the service (or premises) you provide, then
you must anticipate any provisions that would
make it easier for that right to be exercised.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
1.9 Arson
• remove automatic entry rights from staff who
have been dismissed; and
Part 2 •
Ad-hoc flame tests
Ad-hoc flame tests can be used on a small
sample to screen out some materials. Simple
match tests, or using a cigarette lighter on a
small sample, can be used to assess ease of
ignition, provided that the test is carried out in
the open air, away from combustible materials
and with a fire extinguisher to hand.
The Disability Discrimination Act37 includes the
concept of ‘reasonable’ provisions and this can
be carried over into fire safety law. It can mean
different things in different circumstances. For
a small event it may be considered reasonable
to provide ramps to assist wheelchair users.
However, it might be unreasonable to expect
that same event to install an expensive public
*Visit www.arsonpreventionbureau.org.uk for more information.
53
address system. Appropriate ‘reasonable’
provisions for a large event or venue or
organisation may be much more significant.
If disabled people are going to be at your
event or venue then you must also provide
a safe means for them to leave if there is a
fire. You and your staff should be aware that
disabled people may not react, or can react
differently, to a fire warning or a fire. You
should give similar consideration to others
with special needs such as parents with
young children or the elderly.
At sites with a simple layout, a common sense
approach, such as offering to help lead a blind
person or helping an elderly person across
rough terrain may be enough. At more
complex events, more elaborate plans and
procedures will be needed, with trained staff
assigned to specified duties. At a complex
event, you may also wish to contact a
professional consultant or take advice from
disability organisations.
Consider the needs of people with mental
disabilities or spatial recognition problems.
The range of disabilities encountered can be
considerable, extending from mild epilepsy
to complete disorientation in an emergency
situation. Many of these can be addressed by
properly trained staff, discreet and empathetic
use of the ‘buddy system’ or by careful
planning of colour and texture to identify
escape routes.
Where people with special needs use or work
at an event or venue, their needs should, so
far as is practicable be discussed with them.
These will often be modest and may require
only changes or modifications to proposed or
existing procedures.
54
As part of your consultation exercise you will
need to consider the matter of personal dignity.
If members of the public use your event or
venue then you may need to develop a range
of standard Personal Emergency Evacuation
Plans (PEEPs) which can be provided on
request to a disabled person or others with
special needs. You should also consider the
particular needs of children and the elderly
who may be using your premises. Additional
attendants or staff may be needed. Similarly,
special consideration may be needed if members
of the public are likely to be intoxicated.
Guidance on removing barriers to the everyday
needs of disabled people is in BS 830038. Much
of this advice will also help disabled people
during an evacuation. Further advice can be
obtained from the Disability Rights Commission
at www.drc-gb.org.
Fire detection and warning at open-air events
and similar venues needs to be considered for
both open air and inside locations and should
include:
• how fire will be detected;
• the means for warning people and the
actions you require people to take.
Open air fires will generally be detected
by the people present so the primary
consideration is the means of fire warning.
Where shouted warnings are insufficient to
direct people, then alternative provisions such
as a P.A. system should be considered.
For inside areas where a simple shouted warning
or manual device such as a gong, whistle or
horn, is insufficient to warn everyone when
operated from a single point, it is likely that an
electrical fire warning system may be required.
This will typically include the following:
• manual call points (break-glass call points);
next to exits with at least one call point on
each floor;
• electronic sirens, bells or a public address
facility; and
covered), may be acceptable for a short period,
pending system repairs.
The fire warning sound levels should be loud
enough to alert everyone, taking into account
background noise. Any sound systems should
be muted (automatically or manually) when the
fire alarm sounds. In areas with uncontrollable
high background noise, or where people may
be wearing hearing protectors (such as plant
rooms, music concert), the audible warning
should be supplemented e.g. with visual alarms.
People with Hearing Difficulties
Where people have hearing difficulties,
particularly those who are profoundly deaf,
then simply hearing the fire warning is likely
to be the major difficulty. If these persons are
never alone while on the site then this may
not be a serious problem, as it would be
reasonable for other people to let them know
that they should evacuate. If a person with
hearing difficulties is likely to be alone, then
consider other means of raising the alarm, e.g.
visual beacons and vibrating pagers linked to
the existing fire alarm.
2.1 Manual Call Points
Manual call points, often known as ‘break-glass’
call points, enable a person who discovers a
fire to immediately raise the alarm and warn
other people of the danger.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
The primary purpose of a fire detection and
warning system is to alert people to enable
them to move away from a fire to a place of
total safety while the escape routes are still
clear of smoke.
Part 2 •
Section 2 Further guidance on
fire detection and warning systems
• a control and indicator panel.
If your event or venue has areas where a fire
could develop undetected or where people
work alone and might not see a fire, then it
may be necessary to upgrade your fire-warning
system to incorporate automatic fire detection.
If, for any reason, your system fails you must
still ensure that people at your event or venue
can be warned and escape safely. A temporary
arrangement, such as whistles or air horns,
combined with suitably trained staff located in
key positions (to ensure the whole site is
People leaving a temporary building because
of fire will normally leave by the way they
entered. Consequently, manual call points are
positioned at exits that people may reasonably
be expected to use in case of fire, not just
those designated as fire exits. However, it is
not necessary in every case to provide call
points at every exit.
Manual call points should normally be positioned
so that, after all fixtures and fittings, machinery
and stock are in place, no one should have
to travel more than 45m to the nearest alarm
point. They should be conspicuous (red) and
fitted at a height of about 1.4m and not in an
area likely to be obstructed.
55
Areas that are well stewarded or regularly
checked and patrolled may have less need
for a manual call point.
In some cases such as a large beer tent,
manual call points may need to be avoided
in public areas because of the high risk of
malicious activations.
Detailed guidance on manual call points is
given in BS EN 54-11.41
2.2 Automatic Fire Detection
Automatic fire detection may be needed for
a number of reasons. These can include:
• if you have areas where people are isolated
or remote and could become trapped by
a fire because they are unaware of its
development, such as lone workers;
• if you have areas where a fire can develop
unobserved (e.g. storerooms and plant
room); and,
• as a compensating feature, e.g. for inadequate
structural fire protection, combustible
materials forming the enclosure of the space,
in dead-ends or where there are extended
travel distances;
New automatic fire detection systems should
be designed and installed by a competent
person in accordance with the advice given
in British Standard 5839-1.42
2.3 Staff Alarms, Voice Evacuation
and Public Address Systems
Research has shown that some people and,
in particular, members of the public do not
always react quickly to a conventional fire
alarm at large events or when they are in the
open air. Public Address (PA) and Voice Evacuation
Systems are therefore very important at openair events as they can give staff and the public
explicit information about the emergency or
any other actions that they are required to
undertake. A message or messages can be
relayed to many people at the same time but
you must consider carefully the message
content. You should consider what information
to provide, and how to communicate it succinctly.
56
The PA announcer should have a good view
over as much of the venue as possible and
effective communication links with all control
points. The PA system may also be vehicle
mounted which increases its flexibility.
It is important to establish the required levels
of audibility and speech clarity for the system.
It is therefore essential to ensure that public
address voice-alarm systems are designed and
installed by a person with specialist knowledge
of these installations.
Staff alarms allow staff to be aware of an
incident in advance of the public and be
prepared for an evacuation. You may wish to
use code words to warn of an evacuation, or
of some other actions required. It is important,
however, that such communications should
not result in a significant reduction in the time
available for the public to escape. You should
seek advice from a competent person before
using a staff alarm system in a marquee
or other tented structure because the time
allowed for escape is generally less than for
permanent structures.
You may wish to provide information to other
users of the site, regarding warning signals,
escape routes, muster points or other pertinent
information, e.g. during induction of new
concessions stalls or staff.
Guidance on voice alarm systems can be found
in British Standard 5839 Part 843. Guidance on
sound systems used for emergency purposes
can be found in BS EN 6084944.
2.4 Staged fire alarms
Depending on the size of your event, activating
the fire warning system to trigger the immediate
and total evacuation of the entire site may be
appropriate. However, at large or complex
events this may not be appropriate or possible
and alternative arrangements may need to
be in place.
These alternative arrangements broadly fall into
two groups. Firstly, those people potentially
most at risk from a fire, usually those closest
to where the alarm was activated, will be
immediately evacuated, while others are
provided with information relevant to their
risk from the fire and will only evacuate if it
becomes necessary. This is generally called a
staged evacuation and the initial movement,
Figure 14: Using a test key
These arrangements require a fire-warning system
activated by a site fire safety management team
and should only be considered after consultation
with the relevant enforcing authority. Such
systems also require a high degree of
management input to ensure that staff and others
are familiar with the system and action required.
2.5 Testing and Maintenance
A named responsible person, given enough
authority and training to manage all aspects of
the routine testing and scrutiny of the system,
should supervise your fire-warning and/or
detection system.
All types of fire-warning systems should be
tested at a frequency appropriate to your event
duration but at least on a weekly basis and
before the event of venue opens to the public.
Testing and servicing of the system should be
carried out by a competent person on a six
monthly basis.
Further guidance on testing and maintenance
of fire warning systems can be found in British
Standards 5839 Part 1. 42
It is good practice to record all tests, false
alarms and any maintenance carried out.
2.6 Guaranteed Power Supply
The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and
Signals) Regulations 19967 requires that
electrical fire warning systems have a back up
power supply.
Whatever back up system is used, it should
normally be capable of operating the firewarning and detection system for a minimum
period of 24 hours and sounding the alarm
signal for 30 minutes.
2.7 New and altered systems
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
The second alternative is for the initial alert
signal to be given to certain staff, who then
carry out pre-arranged actions to help others
to evacuate more easily. It requires able, fully
trained staff to be available at all times and
should not be seen as a simple means of
reducing disruption to the event or venue.
Part 2 •
depending on the layout and configuration of
the site, will be progressively away from the fire.
Guidance on the design and installation of
new systems and those undergoing substantial
alterations is given in BS 5839 – 1.42 If you are
unsure that your existing system is adequate
you will need to consult a competent person.
57
Section 3 Further guidance on
firefighting equipment and facilities
All open aire events and venues should
be provided with appropriate firefighting
equipment. For the majority of premises,
first aid firefighting equipment (portable
extinguishers) should be sufficient. However,
at larger and more complex events or venues,
particularly permanent venues, you need to
consider provinding some form of fixed fire
fighting equipment, such as hose reels or
water supplies for firefighting, in the form of
water mains and hydrants
You have responsibility for the provision of
appropriate fire fighting equipment. It is also
your responsibility to check that all fire fighting
equipment is in the correct position and in
satisfactory order before the event or venue
is used.
Appropriate staff should be trained
in the use of all equipment.
3.1 Portable fire fighting
equipment
Fire extinguishers provided should be
appropriate to the specific risks found at your
event or venue in accordance with Table 2.
This table also shows the different classes
of fire, according to what is burning.
Table 2: Class of fire
Class of fire
Description
Class A
Fires involving solid materials such as wood, paper or textiles.
Class B
Fires involving flammable liquids such as petrol, diesel or oils.
Class C
Fires involving gases.
Class D
Fires involving metals.
Class F
Fires involving cooking oils such as deep-fat fryers.
Note: If there is a possibility of a fire in your premises involving material in the shaded boxes then you should
seek advice from a competent person.
58
They should be placed on a dedicated stand
or hung at a convenient height so that people
can easily lift them off (at about 1m for larger
extinguishers, 1.5m for smaller ones, to the
level of the handle). Ideally no one should
have to travel more than 30m to reach a fire
extinguisher. If there is a risk of malicious use
you may need to use alternative, and more
secure locations.
Consider the implications of the Manual
Handling Operations Regulations 199246 when
selecting and siting fire-fighting equipment.
Extinguishers manufactured to current
standards (BS EN 3-748) are predominately red
but may have a colour-coded area, sited above
or within the instructions, denoting the type of
extinguisher.
Most older extinguishers, manufactured to
previous standards, have bodies painted
entirely in a single colour which denotes the
type of extinguisher. These older extinguishers
remain acceptable until they are no longer
serviceable. However, it is good practice to
ensure that old and new style extinguishers
are not mixed.
The following paragraphs describe different
types of extinguisher. The colour referred to
is the colour of the extinguisher or the colour
coded area.
Water extinguishers (red)
This type of extinguisher can only be used
on Class A fires. They allow the user to direct
water onto a fire from a considerable distance.
Water extinguishers with additives (red)
This type of extinguisher is suitable for Class A
fires. They can also be suitable for use on
Class B fires and where appropriate, this will
be indicated on the extinguisher. They are
generally more efficient than conventional
water extinguishers.
Foam extinguishers (cream)
This type of extinguisher can be used on
Class A or B fires and is particularly suited
to extinguishing liquid fires such as petrol
and diesel. They should not be used on free
flowing liquid fires unless the operator has
been specially trained, as these have the
potential to rapidly spread the fire to adjacent
material. This type of extinguisher is not
suitable for deep-fat fryers, chip pans or
electrical equipment.
Powder extinguishers (blue)
This type of extinguisher can be used on
most classes of fire and achieve a good ‘knock
down’ of the fire. They can be used on fires
involving electrical equipment but will almost
certainly render that equipment useless.
Because they do not cool the fire appreciably
it can re-ignite. Powder extinguishers can
create a loss of visibility and may affect people
who have breathing problems and are not
generally suitable for confined spaces.
Carbon dioxide extinguishers (black)
This type of extinguisher is particularly suitable
for fires involving electrical equipment as they
will extinguish a fire without causing any
further damage (except in the case of some
electronic equipment e.g. computers). As with
all fires involving electrical equipment, the
power should be disconnected if possible.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Where it is determined that there are
additionally other classes of fire risk, the
appropriate type, number and size of
extinguisher should be provided. Further
information is available in BS 5306-8.45
A 9-litre water extinguisher can be quite heavy
and some water extinguishers with additives
can achieve the same rating, although they are
smaller and therefore considerably lighter. This
type of extinguisher is not suitable for use on
live electrical equipment.
Part 2 •
Number and type of extinguishers in
enclosures (temporary buildings, tents
and marquees etc.)
Typically for the Class A fire risk, the
provision of one water-based extinguisher
for approximately every 200m2 of floor space,
(with a minimum of two extinguishers), will
normally be adequate. Depending on the
outcome of your fire risk assessment, it may
be possible to reduce this to one extinguisher
in areas with a floor space of less than 90m2.
Extinguishers provided for general cover
should be positioned near exits.
Class ‘F’ extinguishers
This type of extinguisher is particularly suitable
for commercial catering establishments with
deep-fat fryers.
Selection, installation and maintenance
of portable fire extinguishers
All portable fire extinguishers will require
periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.
Depending on local conditions such as the
59
likelihood of vandalism or the environment
where extinguishers are located, carry out brief
checks to ensure that they remain serviceable.
In normal conditions a monthly check should
be enough. Maintenance by a competent
person should be carried out annually.
New fire extinguishers should comply with
BS EN 3-7.48 Guidance on the selection and
installation of fire extinguishers is given in
BS 5306-8;49 for maintenance in BS 5306-3;47
and for colour coding in BS 7863.50
Fire blankets
Fire blankets should be located in the vicinity
of the fire hazard they are to be used on, but
in a position that can be safely accessed in
the event of a fire. They are classified as either
light-duty or heavy-duty. Light-duty fire blankets
are suitable for dealing with small fires in
containers of cooking oils or fats and fires
involving clothing. Heavy-duty fire blankets are
for industrial use where there is a need for the
blankets to resist penetration by molten materials.
3.2 Fixed firefighting installations
and fire points
Hose reels
Permanent hose reels installed in accordance
with the relevant British Standard (BS EN 671387) provide an effective firefighting facility.
They may offer an alternative, or be in addition
to, portable firefighting equipment. A concern
is that untrained people will stay and fight a
fire when escape is the safest option. Where
hose reels are installed, and your fire risk
assessment expects relevant staff to use them
in the initial stages of a fire, they should
receive appropriate training.
Maintenance of hose reels includes visual
checks for leaks and obvious damage, which
should be carried out regularly, and more
formal maintenance checks should be carried
out at least annually by a competent person.
Fire points
A fire point is a highly visible location easily
recognisable by the people present, that
contains equipment to fight fires.
The type of fire fighting equipment will
vary according to the local conditions, what
is brought on to the site and the risks to be
covered. For example, there may need to
60
be firefighting equipment for tackling fires in
vegetation, parking areas, catering facilities and
temporary structures. An effective arrangement
is to provide well indicated fire points as
detailed below:
• where water standpipes are provided on
site and there is a water supply of sufficient
pressure and flow to project a jet of water
approximately 5m from the nozzle, fire
points consisting of a standpipe together
with a reel of small diameter hose of no
less than 30m in length should be provided.
The hose should be provided with means of
connection to the water standpipe (preferably
a screw thread). The hose should end in a
small hand-control nozzle. Keep hoses in a
box painted red and marked ‘FIRE HOSE REEL’
• where standpipes are not provided or the
water pressure or flow is not sufficient,
provide each fire point with either a water
tank at least 250L in capacity fitted with a
hinged cover, two buckets and one hand
pump or bucket pump;
• alternatively a suitable number of water-type
fire extinguishers; and
• in addition, suitable fire extinguishers
should be sited adjacent to special risks, e.g.
electrical generators powered by diesel.
The number of fire points provided will
depend on the equipment provided. Where
standpipes and hose reels are provided, they
should be located so that they are no greater
than 35m from the areas to be covered. Where
water tanks and pumps are relied upon they
should be located no greater than 25m from
the areas to be covered.
3.3 Other Facilities (including
those for fire fighters)
At permanent sites Building Regulations2 and
other Acts, including local Acts, may have
required fire fighting equipment and other
facilities to be provided for the safety of
people in any permanent buildings and to
help fire fighters. These may include:
• access roads;
• information and communication
arrangements, e.g. fire telephones and
wireless systems and information to brief the
fire and rescue service when they arrive; and
The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
Regulations 199251 also require that systems
provided for safety within a workplace are
maintained.
Access for fire engines and fire fighters
Access routes to and within the site, sometimes
know as fire lanes, should be provided where
necessary, and checked to make sure that they
can take the maximum weight and wheelbase
of fire and rescue service vehicles. Routes will
not be adequate for emergency access if:
• they are not of adequate width to allow
vehicles to circulate on your site;
• they are fitted with gates that are locked and
/or are too narrow;
• bridges or other features over-hanging the
access routes which make them impassable
by fire and rescue service vehicles;
• road surfaces that deteriorate due to bad
weather conditions; and
• manhole covers are not designed for heavy
vehicles.
Routes for fire engines should have a:
Ideally, fire and rescue service access routes
should not be inter-connected with the public
car parks. It may be advisable to define
emergency vehicle rendezvous points around
the perimeter to where they initially arrive at
the site.
Any below ground hydrants and other water
supplies should be clearly visible and easily
accessible.
You should always liaise with the local fire
and rescue service to ensure that your access
routes are suitable for the appliances used by
that service.
Information and communication
arrangements
The effectiveness of the fire and rescue service
will be greatly assisted if they are provided with
information about your site and its communication
systems and control point. The provision of plans
indicating the layout of the site, fire service
access routes, on site fire fighting equipment
and fire hydrants should be considered. Where
provided these should be made available to
the fire service when they arrive.
• road width of not less than 3.7m;
• clear width at gates not less than 3.1m;
• clear height of not less than 3.7m;
• surface that can carry a vehicle weighing
12.5 tonnes; and
• suitable area to allow vehicle to turn around.
If a turning circle is provided, have a
diameter not less than 16.8m.
Where your site is provided with a communication
system which enables messages to be relayed
to the people present or staff/stewards, e.g. via
public address or radios, you should ensure
that the fire service are aware of the presence
of these facilities so that they can be used
when they arrive on site.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Fire safety law places a duty on you to
maintain such facilities in good working order
and at all times.
On-site emergency vehicle routes need to be
clearly marked and kept free from obstruction.
Parking should not be allowed on these
internal routes. They should be connected to
the primary access points to the site from the
public highways.
Part 2 •
• firefighters switches.
Figure 15: Campsite fire lanes
Routes likely to be used by emergency vehicles
should be kept free of parked vehicles. This
should be discussed with the police at the
planning stage. Your routes should be located
so that no parts of the event where firefighting
may be required is greater than 50m from a
fire lane or adjacent existing suitable
thoroughfare.
Aluminium track way can be useful on soft
ground, providing it can take the maximum
weight and width of fire service vehicles,
especially at changes in direction.
61
Firefighters’ switches
Safety switches are often needed to isolate highvoltage luminous signs or to cut off electrical
power. In the case of existing installations, if
they have been provided in accordance with
previous legislation (e.g. the Local Government
(Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1982), then it
is likely that they will comply with the Order.
If this is not the case, then you may need to
consult the enforcing authority regarding the
suitability of its location and marking. Testing
should be carried out in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. If you have no
such instructions then an initial test should
be carried out by a competent electrician.
Other fire fighting facilities
As well as those already mentioned, other
facilities to assist firefighters may have been
installed in your premises and should be
properly maintained by a competent person.
Your maintenance audit (see Appendix A.1 for
an example checklist) should include these.
Such facilities may include:
• information signs for firefighters;
• Static water supplies, private hydrants, meter
bypass valves and underground tanks; and
• Standby fire pumps and electrical generators.
62
Refer to the glossary (Appendix D) for the
definitions of any terms you may not be
familiar with.
Open-air venues provide facilities whereby
people can enjoy activities ranging from small
village fêtes or car boot sales with relatively
low numbers of people to large international
motor racing events or music concerts
accommodating very large numbers of people.
At any venue there may be many different
activities taking place, either entirely in the
open air (with or without enclosed or fencedoff areas) or in combination with facilities that
are inside, such as temporary enclosures,
marquees, temporary structures or permanent
buildings. Each of these activities may have
a different level of risk, requiring a different
approach to the design for means of escape.
In order to apply the guidance in this section,
you need to understand that in any fire situation
the time that people have to escape before
they could become affected by the fire is
limited. Providing them with sufficient time
therefore means that as well as having
appropriate means of detection and warning,
any designated escape route needs to have
sufficient capacity to discharge the maximum
number of people present within a safe time.
Additionally, the distance that people have to
travel to make their escape might need to be
restricted, particularly where the escape route
is inside.
The criteria used in this guide to assess the
adequacy of escape routes is based on three
principles. These are:
• escape time;
• escape route capacity; and
Escape time is the time within which people
must be able to reach a place of reasonable
or total safety before they are in danger from a
fire. This principle applies in all cases, indoors
or outdoors, and the maximum escape time
that is appropriate will vary depending on the
level of risk (see levels of risk below). Where
escape time is used to assess the adequacy of
escape routes in the open air, the time allowed
includes the time it takes to move people away
from the fire, if necessary along any defined
escape routes, and includes passing through
any restrictions such as gates and barriers. This
does not necessarily include the time taken to
negotiate the entire exit route beyond the site,
because a place somewhere on the site well
away from the source of fire may often
be adequate.
Escape route capacity is the ability of
the escape route to discharge the number of
people present to a place of safety within the
escape time. Assessment of the escape route
capacity is necessary where there are any
restrictions on the escape route, such as doors,
fences and gates, corridors and passageways,
regardless of whether the route is indoors
or outdoors.
Travel distance (see Glossary) is the distance
that people have to travel to reach an exit in
‘indoor’ situations. Because of the higher risk
of being cut off by a fire indoors, the escape
time is more limited and has to include the
time it takes to travel to an exit. Restricting the
travel distance according to the level of risk
is therefore used to ensure that sufficient time
is available for escape in indoor situations.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Introduction
This section provides further guidance on the
general principles that apply to escape routes
and provides examples of escape route
solutions. You are not obliged to adopt any
particular solution for escape routes in this
section but you must ensure that your solution
is safe and meets the relevant requirements.
Part 2 •
Section 4 Further guidance on
escape routes
Where a venue or event has a combination of
outdoor and indoor activities, an assessment of
the escape routes will need to be based on all
three of the above criteria as appropriate. More
detailed guidance on these matters is provided
later in this section.
Levels of risk
To check that your escape routes are adequate
(after you have taken other risk reduction
measures), you will first need to form a
• travel distance.
63
judgement about the level of risk from fire
that people may be at in any part of your
event or venue.
predominantly in the open air, with very few
sources of ignition and combustible materials
and with unrestricted egress from the site.
Outdoors
The risk to people from fire outdoors may
generally be viewed as lower than that in an
indoor situation, simply because people are
less likely to be affected by smoke and heat
and their escape routes are much less likely
to be cut off.
In practice, your venue or event is likely to
comprise a number of different areas of risk,
ranging from lower to higher, in which case
you will need to assess these separately and
plan your fire precautions accordingly. For
example, where people can move away from
a hazard with ease, the risk level might be
regarded as lower than if movement away
from the same hazard is restricted by fences,
site layout or other obstructions.
The chance of a fire starting is increased
where significant sources of ignition are likely
to be present, e.g. hot food concessions, petrol
generators or extensive electrical equipment,
therefore the likelihood of people being at risk
from fire is greater, particularly where a high
density of structures and other installations
could promote the spread of fire, or highly
flammable or explosive materials are present.
Even where the chance of a fire starting is
initially low, any fire starting in certain areas
might cause a significant risk to people, e.g.
from hazards such as gas cylinders that can
explode and fragment into projectiles when
heated. Where significant additional facilities
such as marquees/tents, temporary structures
and static or mobile concessions are likely to
be found on-site, you need to consider the
risk to people from radiated heat from a fire
in one of these. You also need to consider the
time required to move people away from the
vicinity of these facilities to enable the occupants
to escape from a fire inside, as crowded or
poorly designed circulation spaces around such
facilities can cause a significant delay to those
escaping. In all these examples, fast dispersal
of people to a safe distance from the fire will
be necessary; the risk level in these areas
might therefore be regarded as ‘higher’.
Typical examples might include certain areas
of larger venues and events such as music
concerts and sporting events with large
numbers of people and extensive facilities,
where the site is enclosed and movement is
restricted for security reasons.
In areas where there is little chance of a
fire, or, if a fire does start, it will be detected
quickly so that people can escape safely and
it is unlikely to spread quickly, e.g. because
the density of structures and installations is
low and no additional hazards are likely to
become involved, the risk might be regarded
as ‘lower’. Typical examples might include
small village fêtes and other similar events
accommodating limited numbers of people
64
In the majority of outdoor areas of typical
venues or events, other than those meeting the
type of criteria described above, it is likely that
the risk level can be regarded as ‘normal’.
Indoors
Inside a tent, marquee or other temporary
structure where there is a likelihood of a fire
starting and spreading quickly (or a fire could
start and grow without being quickly detected
and a warning given) and affecting the escape
routes before people are able to use them,
then the risk should normally be regarded
as ‘higher’. Such areas could include those
where significant quantities of flammable
materials are used or stored; ready sources of
ignition are present (e.g. catering equipment);
significant numbers of people are present (e.g.
a beer tent) or are likely to move slowly or
be unable to move without assistance; and the
construction provides hidden voids through
which a fire could spread quickly (e.g. stage
seating in a circus big top). In such
circumstances you should consider reducing
the travel distances as suggested in Table 5
on page 70.
Where there is a low occupancy level and all
the occupants are able-bodied and capable of
using the means of escape without assistance;
very little chance of a fire; few, if any, highly
combustible or flammable materials or other
fuels for a fire; fire cannot spread quickly and
will be detected quickly so people will quickly
know that a fire has occurred and can make
their escape, then the risk can usually be
regarded as ‘lower’.
In most cases, however, the risk will usually
be ‘normal’.
The travel distances suggested are not hard and
fast rules and should be applied with a degree
• available for access by the emergency services.
Gates and doors that are final exits, and all
gates or doors leading to such exits, should
be checked before an event starts to ensure
that they:
• are unlocked and, in those circumstances
where security devices are provided, can
be opened easily and immediately using a
suitable means from within without the
use of a key;
• are free from obstructions; and
• open outwards in the direction of escape.
If you are not sure about the level of risk in
any area of your event or venue, you should
seek advice from a competent person.
Where ramps are used they should have a:
4.1 General principles
• gradient appropriate to the number and type
of persons using them;
Escape routes
Escape routes, whether internal or external,
need to be designed so that people can
escape quickly enough to ensure that they
are not placed in any danger from fire. The
time available will depend on a number of
factors, including the number of escape routes
available, the nature of the occupants, the
number of exits and the rate of fire spread.
Smooth, unimpeded flow through an escape
route is best achieved by ensuring that the
route does not narrow along the length.
• guard rail and a handrail; and
Suitability of escape routes
You should ensure that your exits and escape
routes, whether outdoors or indoors, are:
• suitable;
• easily, safely and immediately usable at all
relevant times;
• adequate for the number of people likely
to use them and that you have considered
‘discounting’ those routes or exits that may
be affected by fire;
• free from any obstructions, slip or trip
hazards (consider adverse weather
conditions);
• sited away from marquees to avoid trip
hazards from guy ropes and stakes. Where
necessary, barriers should be provided;
• constant slope not broken by steps;
• non-slip surface.
When considering assembly areas you should
ensure that:
• you have defined assembly areas outside the
event boundary, where this is appropriate;
• the location does not obstruct or interfere
with emergency services access routes; and
• they are of sufficient size and are clearly
identifiable by appropriate signage.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Equally, where the risk category would
otherwise be ‘lower’ but for the fact that a
small number of occupants may move slowly
or need assistance, it may be appropriate to
categorise the risk as ‘normal’ in these
circumstances.
• clearly indicated and, if they consist of
wall flaps, are of a quick release design,
clearly defined at the edges and so arranged
as to be easily and immediately opened
from the inside; and
Part 2 •
of flexibility according to the circumstances.
For example, where the risk might otherwise
be considered ‘normal’ but where there are a
significant number of people who move slowly
or may need assistance to evacuate, it would
usually be appropriate to consider this a
‘higher’ risk. However, where other measures
are in place to mitigate this, such as the
availability of extra assistance, and this has
been planned for in your emergency plan,
it may be that the risk level can be regarded
as ‘normal to higher’.
When open, no door should obstruct any
gangway, passage or stairway. More detailed
recommendations are given in the Guide to
Safety at Sports Grounds.11 If in doubt consult
a competent person.
Fire-resisting construction
Where your event or venue involves
accommodating people in enclosed temporary
structures (e.g. Portakabins that have been
joined together to provide accommodation),
you need to ensure that the occupants are safe,
where necessary, by protecting the internal
escape routes from the effects of a fire. Where
an escape route needs to be separated from the
rest of the premises by fire-resisting construction,
e.g. a dead-end corridor in a Portakabin, then
you should ensure the following:
65
• Doors (including access hatches to cupboards
and ducts), walls and ceilings protecting
escape routes should be capable of resisting
the passage of smoke and fire for long
enough so that people can escape from
the building.
Number of people attending the event
As your escape routes need to be adequate for
the number of people likely to use them, you
will first need to consider how many people,
including staff, public and others such as
contractors, may be present at any one time.
• Where suspended or false ceilings are
provided, the fire resistance should extend
up to the floor/roof slab level above. For
means of escape purposes a 30-minute
fire-resisting rating is usually enough.
For some events the maximum numbers of
people likely to be present will be known,
e.g. where the event is ticketed or limited
by seating.
• Cavity barriers, fire stopping and dampers
in ducts are appropriately installed.
If there is any doubt about the nature of the
construction of your premises, ask for advice
from a competent person.
If occupant numbers are not known (e.g. at
non-ticketed or non-seating events), a simple
calculation can be performed in order to
determine the maximum operating capacity
using the formula below (see Table 3 for
appropriate occupant density).
Number of people =
Occupied area (m2)/Occupant density
Table 3: Occupant densities
66
Occupied area type
Typical occupant density m2/person
Standing spectator/audience area or bar
(unseated)
0.3
Assembly area, dance floor or hall
0.5
Dining area, seated bar or restaurant
1.0
Skating rink or sports area
2.0
Display gallery or workshop
5.0
Camping area
6.0
Sales area
2.0
Car park
two persons per parking space
If in doubt about calculating the capacity of
your event or venue, you should consult a
competent person.
Mobility impairment
The responsible person for outdoor events
needs to consider how people with disabilities
can best be accommodated. Provisions should
include easy access and adequate means of
escape for use in an emergency. The number
who can be admitted will need to be agreed
by the enforcing authority and will be
dependent upon a number of factors, such
as structural and internal layout of the site or
venue. The provision of wheelchair spaces in
different parts of seating areas, such as pop
concerts and the like, helps wheelchair users
to have a choice of location. At such an event,
you will need to make provision for when a
disable person transfers from a wheelchair to
a seat; provision also needs to be made for the
wheelchair to be readily accessible without it
causing an obstruction in a gangway or exit
route. However, should a person wish to
remain in their wheelchair, ensure that the
position will not obstruct others in the event
of an emergency.
In addition, the following points should be
considered:
• Where refuges are provided, they should
be enclosed in a fire-resisting structure which
creates a protected escape route which leads
directly to a place of total safety and should
only be used in conjunction with effective
management rescue arrangements. Your fire
safety strategy should not rely on the fire
and rescue service rescuing people waiting
in these refuges. Sufficient escape routes
should always be available for use by
disabled people. Staff should be aware of
routes suitable for disabled people so that
they can direct and help people accordingly.
• Where ramps are necessary for the emergency
evacuation of people in wheelchairs, they
should be as gentle as possible.
Further guidance is available in BS 5588-876 and
BS 5588-1239 and Approved Document M.86
Childcare facilities/crèches
The location of childcare facilities/crèches is
important since parents or guardians will often
seek to return to the facility when the alarm
sounds. It is therefore important that the facility
is located so as to avoid parents travelling
against the normal direction of escape.
Places of safety
Your choice of a place of safety should be
based on people’s exposure to the fire hazard.
If a fire involves an outside barbeque and a
small number of people, the place of safety
may be a few metres away. If a fire involves
gas cylinders or aerosols and there are a large
number of people, the place of safety may
need to be a few hundred metres away.
Where people have escaped from an inside
space, such as a marquee, to a place of
reasonable safety in the open air, you need
to consider the impacts of the activities around
the marquee to ensure that they do not impede
people’s movement away from the hazard. For
example, if a marquee’s exits discharge to an
area with food concessions which is congested,
this could prevent the free flow of people out
of the marquee even when its exits are sized
according to the number of people inside. In
this case you should consider how to manage
the crowd in the open air so that they move
away from the unseen hazard or ensure that
your place of relative safety is free from any
obstructions.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
When calculating capacity, ensure that
allowance is made for areas taken up by
facilities such as food or merchandising stalls
and temporary structures, as people cannot
use these areas. Whatever the results of the
calculation, the permitted capacity should
never exceed the capacity of the available
escape routes (see width and capacity of
escape routes below).
• Emergency plans should allow for the
assistance of or careful carrying of disabled
people without their wheelchairs, should the
wheelchair be too large or heavy, particularly
where the terrain may be uneven, rough, or
soft due to rain. You will need to take into
account health and safety manual handling
procedures in addition to the dignity and
confidence of the disabled person.
Part 2 •
In practice, you will need to perform this
calculation for each separate area.
Width and capacity of escape routes
It is important to provide enough exits of
sufficient width that are capable of safely
accommodating the passage of people
within an acceptable period of time, to
avoid congestion and psychological stress.
67
Exit systems may comprise gangways,
stairways, passageways, gates, openings,
ramps and other means of passage.
the terms to describe escape or evacuation
times and to what part of your event or venue
they apply.
Once you have established the maximum
number of people likely to be in any part of
the event or venue, the next step is to establish
that the capacity of the escape routes is adequate
for people to escape safely and in sufficient
time to ensure their safety in case of fire.
The information in this section is provided
to demonstrate the range of escape times
available to you in the assessment of your event
and is derived from the guidance provided in
the Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds.11
The capacity of a route is determined by a
number of factors including the width of the
route, the time available for escape, the rate
of passage of people through the route per
minute and the ability of the people using them.
To establish the capacity of the route, it is first
necessary to measure the width of the route at
the narrowest point. The effective usable width
of an escape route through which people can
pass is the narrowest clear unobstructed width
at any point, normally a door, gate, route
between concessions, aisle or other restriction,
such as marquee guy ropes.
When calculating the overall available escape
route capacity for an event or venue that has
more than one way out, you should normally
assume that the widest is not available because
it has been compromised by fire. If doors or
other exits leading to escape routes are too
close to one another you should consider
whether the fire could affect both at the same
time. If that is the case, it may be necessary
to discount them both from your calculation.
Escape routes – outdoors
At open-air sites or venues it is normally
necessary to assess the adequacy of escape
routes by considering the appropriate escape
time and the capacity of the escape routes.
However, for some low risk areas where there
is unrestricted access for people to move to
a place of reasonable safety, it may not be
necessary to apply all the guidelines in
this section.
Escape times
Escape times may be only a proportion of the
total evacuation time for your event as people
move progressively away from the fire. The
escape time will most likely be the time taken
to move to a place of relative safety within the
event boundaries, while the evacuation time is
most likely the time taken to empty the event.
Care should therefore be taken in the use of
68
The maximum escape time for open-air events
can vary between 5 and 10 minutes. The times
suggested (see Table 4) depend largely on the
level of fire risk present (see levels of risk on
p 63). Where the open-air event has a higher
risk, escape routes should be based on an
escape time of not more than 5 minutes.
Where the open-air event has a lower fire risk,
escape routes may be based on an escape time
of up to 10 minutes.
Table 4: Open-air escape times
Risk
Time
Higher
< 5 minutes
Normal
> 5 < 10 minutes
Lower
< 10 minutes
Escape route capacities
The capacity of an escape route is determined
by the rate at which people pass along the route
during each minute of the defined escape time.
The following are suggested rates of passage
for open-air parts of venues:
• on all routes within seated accommodation
(including gangways and ramps) and
stairways – 73 people/metre/minute; and
• on all routes in other parts of the event
or venue (including within standing
accommodation) – 109 people/metre/minute.
The width and capacity of the escape routes
required for the number of people present can
be calculated by using the formula:
number of people
Total exit width =
flow rate x escape time
For the open-air displays, you consider that the risk is low and a 10-minute escape time is appropriate.
What is the exit width requirement for the event?
Step 1 Determine risk level
In this case the risk is considered low
Step 2 Determine escape time
Low risk = 10 minutes (This is the escape time for outside. The escape routes from within
marquees and other temporary structures should be assessed by using travel distances, see
Escape routes – indoors.)
Step 3 Determine exit flow rate
On the flat area = 109 persons/metre width/minute
Step 4 Determine occupancy
Ticketed event, therefore 4,000 people plus 200 exhibitors = 4,200 maximum
Step 5 Determine total exit width required
Total exit width required = 4,200/109/10 = 3.85m
Step 6 Determine minimum number and size of exits required
Minimum width of an exit is normally required to be at least 1.05m, therefore the minimum number
of exits required (1.05m wide) is 3.85m/1.05m = 4 exits
However, assuming one exit is compromised by fire, the minimum number of exits (of minimum width
1.05m) = 4+1 = 5 exits
Note: The minimum number of exits can be reduced by increasing the individual exit widths, provided that
the number of exits available (after discounting the largest) is at least two, and their aggregate width is at
least 3.85m.
You should complete the exercise for different
possible locations of a fire around your
venue/event to make sure that the number of
available escape routes and the width of exits
are sufficient for all potential fire scenarios.
The assessment should also take into account
the availability and location of places of safety,
and the proximity to structures and installations.
Further guidance on assessing the escape
routes at open-air events and venues is
available in the Event Safety Guide10 or the
Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds.11
Escape routes – indoors
The time available for escape in an indoor
situation depends on several factors, including
the distance that has to be travelled to reach
a place of safety and the risk rating of the
premises. Established reasonable escape times
are 2 minutes for higher risk premises,
2.5 minutes for normal risk premises and
3 minutes for lower risk premises. For
calculation purposes these times are allowed
for in the travel distances suggested in Table 5.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Example calculation
There are 4,000 ticketed people at a horticultural show and 200 exhibitors. Marquees are provided, which
contain very low fire risks in the form of flower and vegetable displays. The outdoor area is arranged as a
series of display gardens through which people can walk freely along pre-arranged access routes. There is
one main entrance point and four other emergency exits are available. One exit is located too near the
temporary storage area; the others are a considerable distance from any fire risk.
Part 2 •
An example calculation is shown below:
The following guide can be used to determine
the general capacities of escape routes:
• From any marquee or temporary structure,
the minimum width of any exit should be
not less than 1.05m.
• A single exit is suitable for a maximum of
60 people.
• Where more than 60 people are accommodated,
there should be not less than two exits,
separated by a distance which limits the
possibility that both will be affected by a
fire at the same time.
69
• The aggregate width of all the available
escape routes (assuming the largest one is
unavailable due to fire (except in the case
of a single exit)) must be capable of
accommodating the maximum number
of people likely to use them.
An exit width of at least 1.05m can
accommodate up to:
• 160 people in higher risk premises;
• 200 people in normal risk premises; or
• 240 people in lower risk premises.
An additional 75mm should be allowed for
each additional 15 persons (or part of 15).
Travel distance
Having established the number and location of
people and the exit capacity required to evacuate
them safely, you now need to confirm the
number and location of exits required. This is
normally determined by the distance people
have to travel to reach them.
When assessing travel distances you need to
consider the distance to be travelled by people
when escaping, allowing for walking around
tables, chairs, stalls, equipment, etc. The
distance should be measured from all parts
of the premises to the nearest place of
reasonable safety.
The suggested travel distances may be increased
by the addition of further fire protection
measures, e.g. structural fire protection or
automatic fire detection. In these circumstances
you should consult a competent fire safety expert.
Where your route leads to more than one final
exit, but only allows initial travel in a single
direction (e.g. from a room or dead end, see
Figures 19 and 20), then this initial travel
distance should be limited to that for a ‘single
escape route’ in Table 5. However, your total
travel distance should not exceed that for
‘more than one escape route’.
Table 5 gives guidance on travel distances.
However, it should be understood that these
distances are flexible and may be increased or
decreased depending on the level of risk after
you have put in place the appropriate fireprevention measures (Part 1, Step 3.3).
Table 5: Suggested travel distances
Type of structure
Escape route
Suggested travel distance
Marquee or tent
Where more than one escape route
is provided
18m
Where only a single escape route
is provided
6.5m
Where more than one escape route
is provided
12m
Where only a single escape route
is provided
not applicable
Where more than one escape route
is provided
25m in higher fire risk areas
45m in normal fire risk areas
60m in low fire risk areas
Where only a single escape route
is provided
12m in higher fire risk areas
18m in normal fire risk areas
25m in low fire risk areas
Pneumatic structure
Other temporary enclosure
70
Measuring travel distance
The figures that follow are schematic only.
The route taken through a room or space will
be determined by the layout of the contents
(Figure 16). It is good practice to ensure that
routes to the exits are kept as direct and short
as possible. In a small room there may be only
one exit, but in a larger room or area there
may be many exits. In some cases, where the
contents are moved around or the space is
liable to frequent change, you should ensure
that the exits and the routes to them do not
become blocked and that the length of the
route is not significantly extended.
Figure 16: Measuring travel distance
Storeroom
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Note: For assessing the escape routes in more
complex temporary structures, including those
on more than one level with stairways, etc. and
in any permanent structures, you should refer
to the appropriate guide in this series (see
back cover).
Part 2 •
Further guidance on travel distances is given in
the Event Safety Guide.10
Exit
71
Inner rooms
Where the only way out of a room is through
another room (Figure 17), an unnoticed fire in
the outer room could trap people in the inner
room. This layout should be avoided where
possible. If, however, this cannot be achieved
then adequate warning of a fire should be
provided by any one of the following means:
In addition, the following points should also
be considered:
• Restrict the number of people using an inner
room to 60.
• Access rooms should be under the control
of the same person as the inner room.
• a vision panel between the two rooms
providing adequate vision to give an
indication of the conditions in the outer
room and the means of escape;
• The travel distance from any point in the
inner room to the exit from the access
room should be restricted to escape in one
direction only, unless there are alternative
exits from the access room.
• a large enough gap between the dividing
wall and the ceiling, e.g. 500mm, so that
smoke will be seen; or
• No one should have to pass through
more than one access room while making
their escape.
• an automatic smoke detector in the outer
room that will sound a warning in the
inner room.
• The outer room should not be an area of
high fire risk.
Figure 17: Inner rooms
Automatic fire
detection
Outer room
Vision panel
Inner room
72
At least 500mm
gap between partition
wall and ceiling
Part 2 •
Alternative exits
Where alternative exits from a space or room
are necessary, they should, wherever possible,
be located at least 45° apart (see Figure 18).
If in doubt consult a competent person.
45º+
Final Exit
Final Exit
45º+
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Figure 18: Alternative exits
73
Measuring travel distances for initial deadend travel
Where the initial direction of travel in an open
area (see Figure 19) is in one direction only or
within an inner room (see Figure 20), the travel
distance (A–B) should be limited to that for
a ‘single escape route’ in Table 5. This may
be the case where you have a number of
temporary structures or buildings.
Any alternative exits should be positioned to
ensure that a fire will not compromise both
exits. The maximum total travel distance
recommended in Table 5 should apply to
the nearest exit (Figures 19 and 20, distance
A–C). However, since their are two exits, the
total travel distance should not exceed that
for ‘more than one escape route’ in Table 5.
Figure 19: Measuring travel distance from initial
dead end (open plan)
C Exit
C Exit
45º+
B
A
C Exit
C Exit
45º+
B
A
74
A–B
Travel in single direction only
A–C
Total travel distance (to nearest exit)
Part 2 •
Figure 20: Measuring travel distance from initial
dead end (inner room)
45º+
C Exit
B
A
C Exit
45º+
C Exit
B
A
A–B
Travel in single direction only
A–C
Total travel distance (to nearest exit)
Note: Additional measures are necessary to give warning of fire for inner rooms (see Figure 17).
Revolving doors, wicket doors, sliding
doors and roller shutters
Revolving doors should not normally be
considered as escape doors unless the leaves
fold outward to form a clear opening upon
pressure from within, or standard doors of the
required exit width are provided next to the
revolving door.
Ideally, wicket doors or gates should have a
minimum opening height of 1.5m. The bottom
of the door should not be more than 250mm
above the floor and the width should be
preferably more than 500mm but not less than
450mm. Normally, wicket doors will only be
suitable for up to 15 members of staff;
however, in areas of a higher fire risk, this
should be reduced to a maximum of three.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
C Exit
Shutters (roller, folding or sliding), up-and-over
doors and similar openings are not normally
suitable for use as a final exit. However, they
may be suitable for escape from areas of
normal risk by small numbers of staff as long
as they are not likely to be obstructed and can
be easily and immediately opened manually,
even if normally power-operated), and the
staff are familiar with the escape routes.
Sliding doors are not normally suitable on
escape routes unless they are for the sole use
of members of staff. Where provided, a notice
with the words ‘slide to open’, with an arrow
pointing in the direction of opening, should be
permanently displayed at about eye level on
the face of doors.
75
Final exit doors and escape away from
temporary structures
Good escape routes to a final exit will be
of little benefit if the occupants are not able
to get out of the temporary structure (e.g.
tent/marquee) and quickly disperse from
the area to a place of total safety. It is also
important to consider where people will go
once they have evacuated the structure.
The matters that you should consider include
the following:
• Final exit doors should open in the direction
of escape and be quickly and easily
openable without a key or code in the event
of a fire. Where possible, there should be
only one fastening. See Appendix C for more
information on security fastenings.
• Final exit doors should not lead people into
an enclosed area from which there is no
further escape.
• Where a final exit discharges into an enclosed
area, further access to a place of total safety
should be available by means of further
doors or gates that can be easily opened in a
manner similar to the final exit.
You should ensure that exit routes are planned
and managed safely, to provide people with a
smooth, unimpeded passage through an exit
system until they reach a place of safety.
Smooth, unimpeded flow through an exit
route is best achieved by ensuring that the exit
system does not narrow along its length. If, at
any point along the route, there are elements
narrower than those preceding, constriction
can occur, causing people to converge in the
narrower points. In addition, controlling the
flow of people at the beginning of the exit
routes, e.g. in spectator areas, is vital to ensure
that people enter the exit system at an
acceptable rate.
You are responsible for ensuring that
emergency evacuation routes are capable of
being safely and effectively used at all times
when the event or venue is occupied. This
requires such routes to be maintained as sterile
areas, free from any blockages, temporary
fittings or stored equipment.
Exit routes from marquees, tents and temporary
structures may be over uneven ground or
temporary flooring, duckboards or ramps.
These factors should be taken into account
76
to ensure that there are safe egress routes.
They may also slow down the speed at which
people move and you should consider this
effect when assessing travel distances or exit
width requirements, e.g. you may wish to
reduce the travel distances or increase the
exit width. If in doubt, seek advice from a
competent person.
Provision of gates or openings in an arena
perimeter barrier
Where a perimeter barrier is in place and the
arena is used as part of the escape route, it
should be fitted with gates or openings
allowing egress in an emergency from the
area of activity.
If a viewing area is divided by structural
means, each division should have sufficient
gates or openings to evacuate all the spectators
in that division. When open, no door or gate
should obstruct any gangway, passage
or stairway.
Further guidance on gates and openings is
available in the Guide to Safety at Sports
Grounds.11
Seating and gangways
The type of seating arrangements adopted will
vary with the use to which the event or venue
is put. Venues should only be used for closelyseated audiences if your risk assessment shows
that it is safe to do so.
Where your event or venue is licensed, there
may be additional conditions in the licence
concerning how seating may be set out.
Audiences seated in rows will first have to
make their way to the end of the row before
being able to use the escape routes provided.
Seating and gangways in an assembly space
should therefore be so arranged as to allow
free and ready access direct to the exits.
In fixed seats, there should be a clear space
of at least 305mm between the back of one
seat and the front of the seat behind it (or
the nearest point of the seat behind it, for
automatic tip-up seats, see Figure 21). Gangways
should be adequate for the number of seats
served and at least 1.05m wide. There should
be no projections that diminish these widths.
In general, no seat should be more than seven
seats away from a gangway. If temporary
seating is provided, it should be secured in
Fixed seats
lengths of not fewer than four seats (and not
more than 12). Each length should be fixed to
the floor.
Standing and sitting in gangways, or in front of
any exit, should not be permitted.
If booster seats are provided for small children
that will prevent seats returning to an upright
position, you need to consider the implications
on means of escape.
For sports grounds, you should consult the
Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds.11 Detailed
information of seating layout is given in
BS 5588-6.72
Temporary stands
Temporary stands should be constructed to
include a minimum of two readily accessible
alternative exit routes, which should be
adequately indicated by exit and directional
exit signs. If an entertainment extends beyond
daylight hours, temporary stands should
be provided with normal and emergency
escape lighting.
The structure of temporary stands should have
adequate resistance to the rapid spread of fire,
heat and smoke, as should any fixtures and
fittings. Litter and combustible refuse should
not be stored or allowed to accumulate
beneath a temporary stand.
Clear seatway
Tip-up seats
Concessions and sanitary conveniences should
not normally be situated on or attached to
temporary stands. If this is unavoidable, any
concessions, etc. should be separated from the
viewing area and exit routes by fire-resisting
construction, and located so as not to obstruct
the escape routes.
Note: You must seek specialist advice before
assembling a temporary stand.
Use of the central area of activity for
emergency evacuation
In certain cases, forward evacuation into the
central area of activity may form part of the
emergency evacuation route, provided that it
leads directly to an exit which itself leads to
a place of total safety. Similar considerations
should be applied regarding the means of
escape from the central area of activity when
it is used to accommodate members of the
public (e.g. spectators).
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Clear seatway
Part 2 •
Figure 21: Clear space between seating
Any perimeter barrier in front of public
accommodation should be fitted with a
sufficient number of suitably designed gates
or openings.
Where the surface is made of synthetic
materials, advice from the supplier should first
be sought to establish whether it can be safely
considered as an emergency exit route in the
event of a fire. This is because some forms of
surface (e.g. artificial turf) might constitute a
hazard in the event of a fire.
77
Section 5 Further guidance on
emergency escape lighting
The primary purpose of emergency escape
lighting is to illuminate escape routes, but it
also illuminates safety equipment.
The size and type of your event, venue or site
and the risk to the occupants will determine
the complexity of emergency escape lighting
required.
In all cases, where the event or venue is used
in hours of darkness, it will be necessary to
provide suffieient primary illumination for
general safe movement and in particular to
illuminate all escape routes and exits. In some
exceptional cases, ambient light from adjacent
areas, e.g. street lighting, might be sufficient
but in most cases a separate source of
electrically powered lighting will be necessary.
Where mains power is not available, power
will need to be provided from another source,
e.g. central generator or individual generator
powered lighting units.
Whatever the primary source of power, a
back-up power supply will also be necessary
in case of primary power failure. Any back-up
power supply should be capable of automatic
operation in the event of a failure to the
primary supply.
level of general illumination should not be
significantly reduced by the sign. In larger,
more complex events or venues a more
comprehensive system of fixed automatic
emergency escape lighting is likely to be
needed. This will be particularly true for sites
where there are significant numbers of staff
and members of the public.
In some open areas an efficient and effective
method of illuminating escape routes in an
emergency is by using spotlights. These are
normally self contained units consisting of a
battery, switching mechanism and spotlights
(see Figure 23) fitted to operate automatically
on a circuit or mains failure. However, this
type of unit will need a primary power supply.
These self-contained units can be suspended
from roofs, structural steelwork such as columns
or beams and are capable of illuminating
escape routes easily. They should be located
at high level and point downward.
Figure 23: Self-contained flood lights
Figure 22: Luminaires
Alternatively, mains or generator powered
floodlights, with a suitable back-up power
supply, may be acceptable.
You will have identified the escape routes
when carrying out your fire risk assessment
and need to ensure that they are all adequately
lit. If there are escape routes that are not
permanently illuminated, then a switch, clearly
marked ‘Emergency escape lighting’, or some
other means of switching on the lighting
should be provided at the entry to that area.
78
Single ‘stand-alone’ emergency escape
lighting units (luminaires) may be sufficient in
a marquee or other temporary structure and
these can sometimes be combined with exit
or directional signs (see Figure 22). The
An emergency escape lighting system in a
marquee, tent or other temporary structure
should normally cover the following:
• each exit door;
• assembly areas;
• intersections of escape routes;
• stairways and steps so that each flight
receives adequate light;
• changes in level;
• windowless rooms and toilet accommodation
exceeding 8m2;
• fire fighting equipment;
• fire alarm call points;
• equipment that would need to be shut down
in an emergency; and
• areas greater than 60m2.
It is not necessary to provide individual lights
(luminaires) for each item above, but there
should be a sufficient overall level of light to
allow them to be visible and usable.
Emergency escape lighting can be both
‘maintained’, i.e. on all the time, or ‘nonmaintained’ which only operates when the
normal lighting fails. Systems of individual
luminaires are designed to operate for
durations of between one and three hours.
In practice, the three-hour design is the most
popular and can help with maintaining limited
continued use of your event during a power
failure (other than in an emergency situation).
Emergency escape lighting (luminaires) can
be stand-alone dedicated units or incorporated
into normal light fittings. There are highly
decorative versions of these for those areas that
demand aesthetically pleasing fixtures. Back-up
power supplies can be rechargeable batteries
integral to each unit, a central battery bank or
an automatic start generator.
Emergency escape lighting by gas or
other means not using electricity
In premises where escape lighting by gas or
other means not using electricity is already
installed, the escape lighting should be
equivalent to that powered by electricity.
Appropriate safety measures should be
provided, for example with regards to fixing,
location of combustible materials, protection
from draughts and emergency shut-off.
Maintenance and testing of emergency
escape lighting
All permanently installed emergency escape
lighting systems should be regularly tested
and properly maintained to an appropriate
standard. Most existing systems will need to
be manually tested. However, some modern
systems have self-testing facilities that reduce
routine checks to a minimum.
Depending on your type of installation you
should be able to carry out most of the routine
tests yourself. The test method will vary. If you
are not sure how to carry out these tests you
should contact your supplier or other
competent person.
Test facilities often take the form of a ‘fishtail’ key
inserted in a special switch either near the main
fuse board or adjacent to relevant light switches
(see Figure 24).
Typically, testing would include:
• a daily visual check of any central controls;
• a monthly function test by operating the test
facility for a period sufficient to ensure that
each emergency lamp illuminates; and
• an annual full discharge test.
Particular care needs to be taken following a full
discharge test. Batteries typically take 24 hours
to re-charge and the event or venue should
not be re-occupied until the emergency lighting
system is fully functioning unless alternative
arrangements have been made It is good
practice to keep a record of tests.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
• emergency escape signs;
Lighting conditions for stair treads
Where lighting conditions render it desirable
the nosings of all stair treads should be made
conspicuous by painting or other effective
means. Guidance is available in BS 8300.38
Part 2 •
• escape routes;
Further guidance on maintenance and
emergency escape lighting is given in
BS 5266-852 and BS 5266-1.53
Figure 24: A test key
Lighting for special effects
Lasers, strobes or other form of high intensity
lighting are not suitable for emergency use.
79
Section 6 Further guidance on signs
and notices
Escape Signs
On simple sites, a few signs indicating the
alternative exits might be all that is required.
At more complex events or venues, a series of
signs directing people along the escape routes
towards the final exit may be needed.
Many people with poor vision retain some
sight and are able to recognise changing or
contrasting colour to provide them with visual
clues when moving around a building or
structure.* It may be sufficient to paint or cover
any columns in a contrasting colour (see BS
8300)38 and to highlight changes in level by,
for example, making the nosing to step and
stair treads a contrasting colour.
For people with no sight, a well managed
‘buddy system’, continuous handrails, a sound
localisation system (which helps people to move
towards an alert sound) or the installation of
more tactile aids may be appropriate.
People will usually attempt to leave the event
or venue by the same way that they entered.
For this reason all available exits should be
clearly indicated so that the public are aware
that there are ways to leave the site, event or
venue other than by the routes which they
used to gain admission. In addition, the
provision of well sign-posted exits in full view
of an audience can give a feeling of security
in an emergency situation.
Exit signs should be clearly visible whenever
the public, staff and contractors are present.
Positioning of Escape Route Signs
The presence of other signs at the event
or venue (such as advertising) can distract
attention from, or obscure the visibility of
escape signs. This could affect people’s
ability to see and understand escape signs,
particularly if there is a fire evacuation. Always
ensure that escape signs are not overwhelmed.
* The Royal National Institute of the Blind estimates that only
about 4% of visually impaired people are totally blind.
80
Escape signs should meet the following criteria:
• they should provide clear, unambiguous
information to enable people to safely leave
a building or structure in an emergency;
• every escape route sign should, where
necessary, incorporate, or be accompanied
by, a directional arrow. Arrows should not be
used on their own;
• if the escape route to the nearest exit is not
obvious then it should be indicated by a
sign(s); and
• signs should be positioned so that a person
escaping will always have the next escape
route sign in sight.
Escape Sign Design
For a sign to comply with signs and signals
regulations it must be pictographic (see figures
25 & 26). The pictogram can be supplemented
by text if this is considered necessary to make
the sign easily understood (BS type sign see
figure 25), but you must not have a fire safety
sign that uses only text. Either type of sign
can be used but different types should not
be mixed. Appropriate signs should take into
account the needs of those who may need
to use them.
The legibility of escape signs is determined by
the size of the sign, its level of illumination
and the distance over which it is viewed. The
use of signs within the same event or venue
should follow a consistent design pattern or
scheme. You should not rely on a few outsized
signs which may encourage people to travel
to a particular escape route when other more
appropriate routes should be used.
At multi-occupied events, co-operation
between the respective ‘responsible persons’
including, if necessary, the managing agent or
landlord should be sought to ensure that, as far
as possible, all signs on the site conform to a
single pattern or scheme.
Signs should indicate non-automatic fire safety
equipment if there is any doubt about its
location, e.g. fire extinguishers that are kept
in cabinets or in recesses.
Figure 26: Euro sign
Note: Either type will be acceptable but
different types should not be mixed.
Other Safety Signs and Notices
A number of other mandatory signs such as
‘Fire action’ notices may also be necessary.
Fire doors that have been fitted with selfclosing devices should be labelled ‘Fire door –
keep shut’ on both sides. Fire resisting doors
to cupboards, stores and service ducts that are
not self-closing because they are plainly kept
locked should be labelled ‘Fire door – keep
locked’ on the outside.
A notice with the words ‘Fire escape – Keep
clear’ should be permanently displayed at
about eye level on the external face of all
doors which are provided solely as a means
of escape in case of fire and which, because
they are not normally used, may become
obstructed.
Staff Notices
On simple sites where there is a limited
number of escape routes, it may be reasonable
to provide staff with reminders of what
they need to do if there is a fire. You could
consider providing this in a short written
statement that can be delivered with staff
pay slips every six months.
Where there is a high turnover of staff, a
more considered approach for staff notices
and instructions will be necessary. As well
as positioning the fire instructions notice on
escape routes adjacent to fire break-glass call
points, (see Figure 28) put them where staff
frequently assemble, e.g. the canteen and
locker rooms.
Figure 28: A typical staff action notice
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
A notice with the words ‘Push bar to open’
should be permanently displayed immediately
above the push-bar on all doors fitted with
a panic bolt or panic latch.
Part 2 •
Figure 25: BS-type sign
Figure 27: ‘Fire door keep shut’ notice
81
In some events or venues, such as a music
festival, consider whether it is suitable for fire
instruction notices to be available in public
areas or whether they should only be in areas
to which staff have access.
If your events or venues routinely or expected
to accommodate large numbers of people
whose first language is not English you may
need to consider providing instruction in more
than one language. The interpretation should
always convey an identical message.
Illumination
All signs and notices will need illumination to
ensure they are conspicuous and legible. There
are a number of options available to achieve
this, such as:
• external illumination;
• internal illumination; and
• self-luminescence.
The supplier or other competent person can
give you further advice.
All exit and directional signs indicating the
exits from any part of the event or venue to
which the public are admitted should (unless
they are self-luminous fire safety signs) be
illuminated by means of the normal lighting
and the emergency escape lighting at all times
when the public are at the event or venue.
Signs or notices of the photo-luminescent type,
e.g. where the active material making up the
luminous parts of such signs or notices needs a
period of exposure to light before they become
visible in darkness (but get fainter with time)
are not a substitute for appropriate emergency
lighting and should only be used where other
forms of illumination are present.
Further guidance
Further guidance on fire safety signs can be
found in BS 5499-556 and BS 5499-477 Published
guidance7,8 on compliance with health and
safety legislation on signs is also available.
Guidance about the use of photo-luminescent
fire safety signs and notices can be found in
BS 5266-65.78
82
• training of relevant people and fire
evacuation drills;
Keeping up-to-date records of your fire risk
assessment can help you effectively manage
the fire strategy for your site and demonstrate
how you are complying with fire safety law.
• planning, organising, policy and
implementation, monitoring, audit and
review;
Even if you do not have to record the fire
risk assessment, it can be helpful to keep a
record of any co-operation and exchange of
information made between employers and
other responsible people for future reference.
At complex sites, it is best to keep a dedicated
record of all maintenance of fire protection
equipment and training. There is no single
‘correct’ format specified for this. Suitable record
books are available from trade associations and
may also be available from your local
enforcing authority.
In all cases the quality of records may also be
regarded as a good indicator of the overall
quality of the fire safety management structure.
Fire safety records could include:
• a record of the sites use, means of escape,
fire fighting equipment, fire alarms, and high
risk areas;
• details of any significant findings from the
fire risk assessment and any action taken;
• maintenance and audit of any systems that
are provided to help the fire and rescue
service; and
• the arrangements in a multi-occupied sites
for a co-ordinated emergency plan or overall
control of the actions you or your staff
should take if there is a fire.
Other issues that you may wish to record
include:
• the competence, qualifications and status of
the persons responsible for carrying out
inspections and tests;
• the results of periodic safety audits, reviews,
inspections and tests, and any remedial
action taken;
• all incidents and circumstances which had
the potential to cause accidents and monitor
subsequent remedial actions; and
• a record of the building or structure use, the
fire prevention and protection measures in
place and high-risk areas.
• testing and checking of escape routes,
including final exit locking mechanisms,
such as panic bars, push pads and any
electromagnetic devices;
The range and type of records necessary will
become more detailed as the site and its use
becomes more complex and so the level of
competence of the person carrying out the
assessment will need to be higher.
• testing of fire-warning systems, including
weekly alarm tests and periodic maintenance
by a competent person;
Your documentation should be available for
inspection by representatives of the enforcing
authority.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
7.1 Fire safety records
Part 2 •
Section 7 Further guidance on
recording, planning, informing, instructing
and training
• recording of false alarms;
• testing and maintenance of emergency
escape lighting systems;
• testing and maintenance of fire extinguishers,
hose reels and fire blankets etc.;
Figure 29 shows an example record of the
significant findings of a fire risk assessment.
A blank version of this form is provided in
Appendix B.
• if appropriate, testing and maintenance of
other fire safety equipment such as fire
suppression systems;
83
Figure 29: Example record of significant findings
Risk Assessment – Record of significant findings
Risk assessment for
Venue/event
Location
Assessment undertaken by
Rick’s music festival
Dark Forest
Old Village
EF34 6WX
Date
Completed by
Signature
17 June 2006
R Brown
R Brown
Sheet number
Floor/area
Use
1
A. Main camping area
B. Catering area
A. Sleeping area
B. Food concessions
Sources of ignition
Sources of fuel
Sources of oxygen
A. Direct and radiating heat from
camp fires
Fuel from camp fire, tents, caravans
and vehicles, camping equipment (inc
LPG), waste material, personal
clothing and vegetation.
Air
Step 1 – Identify fire hazards
B. Hot exhaust of petrol generators
Fuel in or stored near to generator,
Air
tents, caravans and vehicles, camping
equipment (inc LPG), waste material;
clothing and vegetation.
Step 2 – People at risk
A&B. 20 employees; 100 casual workers; 1000+ visitors
People specially at risk
A. People in the vicinity who are disabled with mobility, hearing, and visual problems; tourists (no English); mothers
with young children and those asleep in tents, caravans and vehicles.
B. People in mobile catering outlets and the immediate vicinity, particularly those with disabilities, eg. mobility,
visual and hearing impaired visually impaired and mothers with young children.
Step 3 – Evaluate, remove, reduce and protect from risk
(3.1) Evaluate the risk
of the fire occuring
(3.2) Evaluate the risk to
people from a fire
starting in the
premises
(3.3) Remove and reduce
the hazards that
may cause a fire
(3.4) Remove and reduce
the risks to people
from a fire
A. Medium/high: cannot control all unauthorised camp fires.
B. High: If generator sited too close to fuel and catering tent.
A. Potential for fire spread to neighbouring tents, caravans and vehicles where
people are sleeping.
B. Potential fire spread to remainder of catering tent and contents including
cooking oils, LPG cylinders and nearby vegetation (weather conditions may
increase the risk).
A. Provide safe areas for camp fires, restrict the size of fires; ensure separation
distances between camp fires, tents, vehicles and caravans
B. Encourage the use of alternative power; resite generators to safe distance from
tent and vegetation; store spare fuel in safe area and prohibit smoking nearby.
A. Ensure clear ‘fire routes’ through tented area; introduce regular patrols to
ensure all camp fires are in designated areas or kept small and separation
distances are being adhered to.
B. Increase fire extinguishers in catering area; provide written guidance to
concession operators; regularly patrol to ensure guidelines are being followed.
A&B. Provide site wide fire warning system and communication between all
stewards, with extra training to ensure early warning of fire is given. Introduce
regular fire patrols to monitor hazardous activities.
Assessment review
Assessment review date
Completed by
Signature
Review outcome (where substantial changes have occurred a new record sheet should be used)
84
Notes:
(1) The risk assessment record of significant findings should refer to other plans, records or other documents as necessary.
(2) The information in this record should assist you to develop an emergency plan; coordinate measures with other ‘responsible persons’
at the same site or venue; and to inform and train staff and inform other relevant persons.
• essential structural features such as the layout
of function rooms, escape doors, wall
partitions, corridors, etc. (including any fireresisting structure and self-closing fire doors
provided to protect the escape routes);
• location of refuges that have been designated
suitable for use by disabled people and
others who may need assistance to escape
in case of a fire;
• methods for fighting fire (details of the
number, type and location of the fire fighting
equipment);
Your emergency should be appropriate to your
event or venue. It should be kept on site and
available for inspection and could include:
• how people will be warned if there is a fire;
• where people should assemble after they
have left the premises and procedures for
checking whether the premises have been
evacuated;
• identification of key escape routes, how
people can gain access to them and escape
from them to a place of total safety;
• how the evacuation to a place of safety
should be carried out;
• assessing the adequacy of the number of
staff to supervise the evacuation;
• what training staff require and the
arrangements for ensuring that this training
is given;
• how the fire and rescue service, and any
other necessary services, will be called and
who will be responsible for doing this;
• arrangements for fighting the fire;
• information on post incident plans;
• the action to be taken by staff in the event
of fire, including those who have specific
fire safety functions (e.g. nominated deputies,
fire marshals, etc.);
• location of control rooms and steward’s posts;
• the arrangements for any people at particular
risk, for example, contractors, maintenance
workers, members of the public, people with
a disability;
• location of any emergency escape lighting
equipment and the exit route signs;
• any specific arrangements for parts with high
fire risk;
• location of any high-risk areas, equipment or
process that must be immediately shut down
by staff on hearing the fire alarm;
• evacuation procedures for everyone on the
site, including details of escape routes;
• location of manually-operated fire alarm call
points and control equipment for fire alarms;
• location of the main electrical supply switch,
the main water shut-off valve and, where
appropriate, the main gas or oil shut-off
valves; and
• plans and specifications relating to all recent
constructions.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Plans and specifications
Plans and specifications can be used to assist
understanding of a fire risk assessment or
emergency plan. Even where not needed for
this purpose they can help you and your staff
keep your fire risk assessment and emergency
plan under review and help the fire and rescue
service in the event of fire. Any symbols used
should be shown on a key. Plans and
specifications could include the following:
7.2 Emergency Plans
Part 2 •
Fire safety audit
A fire safety audit can be used alongside your
fire risk assessment to identify what fire safety
provisions exist in your site, where you have a
permanent open air event. When carrying out
a review of your fire safety risk assessment, a
pre-planned audit can quickly identify if there
have been any significant changes which may
affect the fire safety systems and highlight
whether a full fire risk assessment is necessary.
• arrangements for calling the fire and rescue
service and informing them of any special
hazards.
You should include a sketch showing, where
relevant:
• essential features such as the layout of the
site, escape routes (including those from any
structures such as a park ride or exhibit);
• the number, type and location of fire-fighting
equipment available, for example
extinguishers, hose reels, fire blankets;
85
• the location of:
– manually-operated fire alarm call points
and control equipment for the fire alarm;
• the availability of main services (particularly
water for fire fighting);
• the slope or unevenness of the ground;
– any automatic fire-fighting system and
control valve;
• impact of adverse weather conditions (such
as heavy rain); and
– the main electrical supply point, the main
water shut-off valve and (where
appropriate) the main gas or oil shut-off
valves; and
• the availability of car parking (so that it can
be properly arranged to avoid obstructing
emergency access).
– any special hazards or highly flammable
substances.
For larger venues and events it is likely that
the local authority and emergency services will
prepare their own plan for response to a major
incident at the event or venue. In these cases
you will need to co-ordinate your plan with
the local authority response plan so they are
compatible – for example making sure that
your arrangements for evacuation will not
prevent the emergency services from gaining
entry to the site by blocking the access route.
After the emergency plan has been prepared,
prominent notices should be displayed on site
giving clear instructions about what to do in
case of fire. They should describe how to raise
the alarm and give the location of the assembly
points to which people escaping from the site
should report.
On small sites, the plan can take the form of
a simple fire action notice which should be
posted where staff can read it and become
familiar with it.
Your emergency plan should not be a stand
alone schedule of actions to be undertaken in
the event of an emergency. It should form part
of your contingency planning arrangements
for the variety of occurrences that may require
the responsible person’s attention and action
during your event, which may include post fire
actions. Examples of such occurrences include:
• lost children;
• animals on the loose;
• responding to crowd behaviour due to
alcohol consumption;
• people with a disability;
• inclement weather;
• first aid;
• failure of sanitary arrangements;
• power failure;
• people with personal belongings (especially
valuables) still in the site;
• people in a state of undress (e.g. stage
performers);
• people wishing to rejoin friends; and
In multi-occupancy, larger and more complex
events or venues, the emergency plan will
need to be more detailed. It should be
compiled only after consultation with other
occupiers and other responsible people, e.g.
owners who have control over different events
within the site. In most cases this will require
that an emergency plan covering the whole
site/event/venue will be necessary. It will help
if you can agree on one person to co-ordinate
this task.
When planning an event you should consult
the local fire and rescue service and consider
the following issues:
• safe access in and out of the site for fire and
rescue service vehicles;
• means of calling the emergency services;
86
• getting people away from the event or venue
(e.g. to transport);
Children
The particular needs of children should be
considered. Parts of site used solely by
children (e.g. play grounds) or where children
are present require special precautions.
Children should be supervised at all times. If
a child care facility is provided, consideration
needs to be taken of the behaviour of the
parents in a fire situation, e.g. the parents first
action will be locate and ensure the safety of
their children. Therefore, evacuation planning
should consider the parents needs to ensure
the safety of the child.
Crowd behaviour
Research has highlighted several important
factors, which influence the way crowds
behave. Although some of these factors are not
directly related to fire safety, crowd behaviour
may affect the types of precautions you put
in place to ensure fire safety and need to be
considered during your event planning.
People who are unfamiliar with the event or
venue generally require more assistance and
direction. Their tendencies are to follow the
crowds, use main routes and gather at the
same accommodation areas, which can lead
to an uneven distribution of people. Control
the entry numbers or number of people within
specific areas and try to prevent migration or
overcrowding which may create a greater risk
to their safety than a fire.
They may be unaware of the location of
emergency exits causing them to use those
routes or exits with which they are familiar
or which are the most obvious, rather than
those, which are closest or give the quickest
evacuation time. You can improve site
familiarity by the use of high visibility signage
and printing site details on the back of tickets.
In addition, consider the use screens in the
You should also consider how to communicate
this information with multiple nationalities and
people with a disability (e.g. visually impaired
persons).
Prior expectations are likely to have a
significant impact upon people’s reactions
under certain circumstances:
• Visitors might regard some routes and entry
points as the ‘formal’ or main access to the
event. Perhaps such a route is the most
direct between the parking area and the part
of the venue that they want to visit. It might
be wider and resemble the main route with
adjacent facilities such as toilets and stalls.
• Where smoke or similar effects are part of
an event (e.g. a fireworks display, dry ice
effects at a pop concert), people are likely
to respond more slowly to the presence
of smoke generated by a fire hazard.
The behaviour of individuals in a crowd can
be influenced by the things they see others
doing. The unauthorised actions of a few
people can result in larger numbers following
their example. Individuals within a crowd may
carry out actions, which they would not
perform if they were on their own. For
example, the frustration of excessive crowding,
queuing or delays may result in incidents such
as climbing of barriers, which could lead to
overcrowding in another area.
In general, people look for clear, unambiguous
information and indicators on expected rules of
behaviour to help them decide how to act, e.g.
to find out if a particular route is an entrance,
an exit, or both, or whether they can drink or
smoke. If such information and instructions are
not provided, people will form their own rules
based on past experience joining a queue,
parking on access routes or taking short cuts.
Good use of signs and public address systems
is therefore extremely important. People are
more likely to be in a relaxed and contented
frame of mind if they are effectively managed
and the event is comfortable and pleasant.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
You should develop an action plan that considers
the welfare of the animals. The necessary
means for safe evacuation and the provision
of holding areas, appropriate to the size and
number of animals to be handled must be
clearly identified. Consideration should also
be given to the physical impacts and dangers
of animals on the escape of the occupants.
Bedding materials are a considerable fire risk.
Any potential ignition sources such as heating
or lighting should be controlled and the
location/storage of such materials must be
assessed to ensure that adequate animal and
people safety is achieved. You should organise
this in advance.
arena (where provided) for safety announcements
and indicating the positions of exit routes.
Part 2 •
Animals
People with pets, and those who have the
responsibility for animal care, at venues such
as a zoo, circus, and equestrian events, will
have additional burdens. Special needs and
legal responsibilities they may have should be
accommodated prior to the open air event, so
that in the event of a fire, they are clear as to
the course of action they should take to ensure
not only their safety, but, so far as possible,
that of the animals within their care.
Guidance on developing health and safety
management policy has been published by
the HSE.57
87
7.3 Information, instruction,
co-operation and co-ordination
Supplying information
You must provide easily understandable
information for employees and others working
at the venue or event about the measures in
place to ensure a safe escape from the site and
how they will operate, for example:
• any significant risks to staff and others that
have been identified in your fire risk
assessment or any similar assessment carried
out by another user and responsible person
on the site;
• the fire prevention and protection measures
and procedures on your site and where they
impact on staff and others on the site;
• the procedures for fighting a fire on the
site; and
• identify any legislative provisions that may
be associated with the substance;
• allow employees access to the hazardous
substances safety data sheet; and
• inform the local fire and rescue service
where dangerous substances are present on
the site.
Information to the emergency services
In the case where the assessment identifies a
risk and it is not possible to reduce it enough,
then you should communicate the findings to
the emergency services to enable them to
prepare their own response procedures.
• the identity of people who have been
nominated with specific responsibilities on
your site.
It will also be helpful to provide information
to the emergency services, for instance, on
the temporary loss of a fire-fighting facility.
Even if you do not have to record the fire
risk assessment, it would be helpful to keep
a record of any co-operation and exchange
of information made between employers and
other responsible people for future reference.
Procedures should also include meeting and
briefing the Fire and Rescue Service when
they arrive.
You need to ensure that all staff and, where
necessary, others who work at the event or
venue, receive written information given in a
way that can be easily understood. This might
include any special instructions to particular
people who have been allocated a specific
task, such as shutting down equipment or
guiding people to the nearest safe exit.
Duties of employees to give information
Employees also have a duty to take reasonable
care for their own safety and that of other
people who may be affected by their activities.
This includes the need for them to inform their
employer of any activity that they consider
would present a serious and immediate danger
to their own safety and that of others.
Dangerous substances
HSE publishes guidance14 about specific
substances where appropriate information
may need to be provided. If any of these, or
any other substance that is not included but
nevertheless presents more than a slight risk,
is present on site then you must provide such
information to staff and others, specifically
you must:
88
• provide the name of the substance and the
risks associated with it, e.g. how to safely
use or store the product to avoid creating
highly flammable vapours or explosive
atmospheres;
Instruction
The responsible person for each individual
unique, occasional or separate event or function
will need to be clearly established and
documented. It is crucial that the responsible
person understands their duties for the
duration of the event or function. The
responsible person will need to take account
of the layout of the event and the fire safety
provisions within the site.
As the responsible person for the
event/function, you have legal duties with
regards to the safety of those persons assisting
or attending the event. You will need to
carefully consider the type of instructions to
staff and other people working at your event
or venue. Written instructions must be concise,
comprehensible and relevant and therefore
must be reviewed and updated as new
working practices and hazardous substances
are introduced.
Inclusive access and employment policies
mean that people with learning difficulties may
now be present in a range of events at your
venue and your fire risk assessment should
consider whether further instruction or
guidance is necessary to ensure that your
• removing additional security, bolts, bars or
chains on final exit before the start of the
event / opening for business to ensure that
escape routes are accessible;
• daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly
checks on the range of fire safety measures
(at some events or venues the work may be
contracted out to a specialist company);
• safety considerations when closing down the
event or venue at the end of the day, e.g.
removing rubbish, ensuring enough exits are
available for people that remain;
• leaving hazardous substances in a safe
condition when evacuating the event or venue;
• safe storage of hazardous substances at all
material times.
Specific instructions may be needed about:
• how a fire will be detected and people
warned;
• your arrangements for fighting fire;
• your arrangements for the safe evacuation
of people, including those identified as
being especially at risk, such as those with
disabilities, children, those caring for animals;
• sweeping’ of the event or venue by staff to
guide people to the nearest safe exit when
the fire alarm sounds;
• designating particular areas of your event or
venue to check that no one remains inside;
• who will meet the fire and rescue service
and other emergency services on their arrival
and notifying them of any special risks, e.g.
the location of highly flammable materials;
• where people should assemble after they
have left an event and procedures for
checking whether the event or venue has
been evacuated; and
• your plans to deal with people once they
have left the site, especially children.
Co-operation and co-ordination
Where you share an event or venue with
others (this includes people who are selfemployed or in partnership), each responsible
person, e.g. each employer, owner or other
person who has control over any part of the
event or venue, will need to co-operate and
co-ordinate the findings of their separate fire
risk assessments to ensure the fire precautions
and protection measures are effective
throughout the event or venue.
This could include:
• co-ordinating an emergency plan (see Part 1
Step 4.2 and Part 2 Section 7.2 for the
features of an emergency plan);
• identifying the nature of any risks and how
they may affect others in or about the event
or venue;
• identifying any fire prevention and protection
measures;
• identifying any measures to mitigate the
effects of a fire;
• who will be responsible for calling the fire
and rescue service and any other necessary
services;
• arranging any necessary contacts with
external emergency services; and
• taking charge at the assembly area;
• arrangement for calling the emergency
services if an emergency occurs.
• meeting and directing fire and rescue service
vehicles and appliances;
• cover arrangements when nominated people
are not present, on leave or sick;
• who will stop any technical equipment/
power supplies that need to be stopped or
isolated if there is a fire;
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Instructions will need to be given to people
delegated to carry out particular tasks, for
example:
• how you will proceed if the life safety
systems you have and are out of order,
e.g. fire detection, emergency lighting and
alarm systems;
Part 2 •
evacuation strategy is appropriate and
understood by everyone.
Responsibilities for short term leasing
Premises or other facilities may be leased
or hired from their owner (e.g. temporary
structures and marquees). The fire safety
responsibilities of those leasing parts of the
event or venue (and, hence, in charge of the
activities conducted within the building or
structure), and those of the owner/lessee, need
to be established as part of the contract of hire.
89
At some events or venues (e.g. music concerts),
part of the event may be hired out to another
organisation for a separate function (e.g.
product launch). The fire safety responsibilities
of those organising the separate function, and
those of the remainder of the building, need to
be established as part of the contract of hire.
7.4 Fire safety training
Staff training
The actions of staff in the event of a fire are
likely to be crucial to their safety and that of
other people at the event or venue. All staff
should receive basic fire safety induction
training and attend refresher sessions at predetermined intervals.
Training is necessary:
• when staff start employment or are
transferred to the event or venue;
• when changes have been made to the
emergency plan and the preventative and
protective measures;
• where working practices and processes or
people’s responsibilities change;
• to take account of any changed risks to the
safety of staff or other relavant persons;
• to ensure that staff know what they have to
do to safeguard themselves and others at the
event or venue;
• if the member of staff may take on the role
of “duty manager”.
You should ensure that all staff and contractors
are told about the emergency plan and are
shown the escape routes.
Training should be repeated as often as
necessary and should take place during
working hours.
The training should take account of the findings
of the fire risk assessment and be easily
understood by all those attending. It should
include the role that those members of staff
will be expected to carry out if a fire occurs.
Whatever training you decide is necessary to
support your fire safety strategy and emergency
plan, it should be verifiable and supported by
management.
In addition to the guidance given in Part 1,
Step 4.4, as a minimum all staff should receive
instruction on:
• the items listed in your emergency plan,
including the correct action to be taken
when a fire is discovered and the
evacuations and escape arrangements –
especially assisting disabled persons and
others with special needs;
• the importance of basic fire-prevention
measures;
• where relevant, the appropriate use of firefighting equipment;
• the importance of reporting to the assembly
area;
• exit routes and the operation of exit devices,
including physically walking these routes; and
• general matters such as permitted smoking
areas or restrictions on cooking other than
in designated areas.
Enforcing authorities may want to examine
records as evidence that adequate training has
been given.
Where safety personnel from an outside
agency are on duty, it is your responsibility to
ensure that such personnel have been trained
to carry out the duties and responsibilities
assigned to them.
Individuals who do not form a recognised part
of the safety management structure (such as
some security guards, hospitality staff, ground
staff and commissionaires) should not be
counted among the safety staff. You should
ensure that such staff are given a general safety
briefing on the means of escape, evacuations
procedures and safety equipment.
Fire marshals
Staff expected to undertake the role of fire
marshals (often called fire wardens), will
require more comprehensive training. Their
role may include:
• helping members of the public or visitors
leave the event or venue;
• checking designated areas to ensure
everyone has left;
90
• liaising with the fire service on arrival;
• performing a supervisory/managing role in
any fire situation.
Training for this role may include:
• detailed knowledge of the fire safety strategy
of the event or venue;
• a basic understanding of human behaviour
in fires;
• how to encourage others to use the most
appropriate escape route;
• how to search safely and recognise areas that
are unsafe to enter;
• the difficulties that some people, particularly
people with a disability, may have in
escaping and any special evacuation
arrangements that have been pre-planned;
• additional training in the use of fire-fighting
equipment;
• reporting of faults, incidents and near misses.
For licensed events or venues, entry
supervisors may have a fire safety function and
appropriate training should be provided.
Volunteers
It is not uncommon for a considerable number
of people, including the responsible person
undertaking the majority of tasks at an open
air event, to be volunteers. Even though they
are to carry out duties or services for which
they are receiving no remuneration, for the
purposes of the Order1 they are employees
and hence people at risk.
If you are the responsible person for safety
you should ensure that all volunteers receive
the appropriate training, instruction and
direction on actions to be taken in the event
of an emergency.
If your event is conducted over a number of
consecutive days and you have a high turnover
of volunteers, you must ensure that you give
new volunteers the appropriate training and
instruction.
Fire Drills
Once the emergency plan has been developed
and training given, you will need to evaluate
its effectiveness. The best way to do this at
permanent venues is to perform a practice fire
evacuation. This should be carried out at least
annually or as determined by your fire risk
assessment. If your venue contains large numbers
of people, you should carefully consider the
risk of practice evacuations, due to slips, trips
and falls or crushing. If you have a high staff
turnover, you may need to carry them out
more often. At temporary events the fire
emergency plan may need to be audited, so
that where a practice evacuation is impractical,
the effectiveness of the plan is ascertained.
A well-planned and executed fire evacuation
will confirm understanding of the training and
provide helpful information for future training.
The responsible person should determine the
possible objectives of the practice evacuation
such as to:
• identify any weaknesses in the evacuation
strategy;
• test the procedure following any recent
alteration or changes to working practices;
• familiarise new members of staff/volunteers
with procedures;
• test the arrangements for disabled people; and
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
• shutting down vital or dangerous equipment;
and
Any people who work at the venue should
be aware of any evacuation procedures,
fire-fighting equipment, and associated
management procedures to adopt in the event
of a fire. This should be outlined to them by
their direct employer and/or supervisor.
Part 2 •
• using fire-fighting equipment if safe to do so;
• ‘spot check’ staff knowledge with appropriate
questions on procedures.
Who should take part?
Within each venue the evacuation should
include all occupants except those who may
need to ensure the security of the venue,
or people who, on a risk-assessed basis, are
required to remain with particular equipment
or processes that cannot be closed down.
However, it is not expected that you will carry
out a practice evacuation of the public during
a short term, or one off, event such as a fete
or music festival.
91
Carrying out the practice evacuation
For venues that have more than one escape
route, the escape plan should be designed
to evacuate all people on the assumption that
one escape route is unavailable because of
the fire. Applying this scenario to different
escape routes at each practice evacuation will
encourage individuals to use alternative escape
routes which they may not normally use.
When carrying out the practice evacuation you
might find it helpful to:
• circulate details concerning the evacuation
and inform all staff of their duty to
participate. It may not be beneficial to have
‘surprise evacuations’ as the health and safety
risks introduced may outweigh the benefits;
• ensure that equipment can be safely left;
Monitoring and debrief
Throughout the drill the responsible person
and nominated observers should pay particular
attention to:
• any communication difficulties when
establishing that the event or venue has been
evacuated and that everyone is accounted for;
• the use of the nearest available escape routes
as opposed to common circulation routes;
• difficulties experienced by people with
a disability or others with special needs
(including difficulties in evacuating or the
time taken to evacuate);
• the roles of specified people, e.g. fire
wardens; and
• inappropriate actions, e.g. stopping to collect
personal items.
• nominate observers;
• inform the alarm receiving centre if the firewarning system is monitored. (If the fire
and rescue service is normally called directly
from your venue, ensure that this does
not happen);
• inform members of the public if they are
present;
• ask a member of staff at random to set off
the alarm by operating the nearest alarm call
point using the test key. This will indicate
the level of knowledge regarding the location
of the nearest call point; and
• block an exit, preferably the main site entry,
to ensure that you test staff responses and
procedures effectively.
More detailed information on practice
evacuations and test evacuations are given
in BS5588-1239, The Event Safety Guide10 and
The Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds.11
92
On-the-spot debriefs are useful to discuss the
practice evacuation, encouraging feedback
from everybody. Later, reports from fire
wardens and observations from people should
be collated and reviewed. Any conclusions and
remedial actions should be recorded and
implemented.
Third-party certification schemes for fire
protection products and related services are
an effective means of providing the fullest
possible assurances, offering a level of quality,
reliability and safety that non-certificated
products may lack. This does not mean goods
and services that are not third-party approved
are less reliable, but there is no obvious way
in which this can be demonstrated.
Third-party quality assurance can offer comfort,
both as a means of satisfying you that the
goods and services you have purchased are fit
for purpose, and as a means of demonstrating
that you have complied with the law.
However, to ensure the level of assurance
offered by third party schemes, you should
always check whether the company you
employ sub-contracts work to others. If they
do, you will want to check that the subcontractors are subject to the level of checks
of quality and competence as the company
you are employing.
Your local fire and rescue service, fire trade
associations or your own trade association may
be able to provide further details about third
party quality assurance schemes and the
various organisations that administer them.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Fire protection products and related services
should be fit for their purpose and properly
installed and maintained in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions or a relevant
standard.
Part 2 •
Section 8 Quality assurance of fire
protection equipment and installation
93
Appendix A
Example fire safety maintenance
checklist
As a starting point in formulating your fire
safety policy, this sample fire safety checklist
can be used for any event or venue that does
not have complex fire safety measures. It
should not be used as a substitute for carrying
out a full fire risk assessment.
You can modify the example where necessary
to fit your venue/event and may need to
incorporate the recommendations of manufacturers
and installers of the fire safety equipment/
systems that you may have installed at your
event or venue.
Any ticks in the grey boxes should result in
further investigation and appropriate action as
necessary. At complex events and venues you
may need to seek the assistance of a competent
person to carry out some of the checks.
You must tailor the checklist to suit your
individual event and expand or reduce the
conditions and provisions as appropriate.
Yes No N/A
Pre Event Checks – Summary
Escape routes
Escape routes and Emergency lighting
Signs and Notices
Fire detection installation
Means of warning
Back up power supplies
Firefighting equipment
Emergency vehicles access routes
Assembly points
Communication system
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Comments
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Note: This pre event checks should only be a summary record of the checks detailed in the following pages,
undertaken as relevant to the type and duration of the event (e.g. for short events, monthly and three monthly
checks may all be relevant)
General
Is there an identified testing/maintenance system?
Is there a recording system?
94
n
n
n
n
n
n
Daily checks (not normally recorded)
Escape routes
Are escape routes clear?
Fire warning systems
Do you have systems for warning persons in the event of fire?
Are whistles, gongs or air horns in place?
Is the indicator panel showing ‘normal’?
Have you taken action to minimise false alarms?
Escape lighting
Are luminaires and exit signs in good condition and undamaged?
Firefighting equipment
Are all fire extinguishers in place?
Are fire extinguishers clearly visible?
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Weekly checks
Escape routes
Do all emergency fastening devices to fire exits (push bars and
pads, etc.) work correctly?
Are external routes clear and safe?
Fire warning systems
Did the alarm system work correctly when tested?
Did staff and other people hear the fire alarm?
Did any linked fire protection systems operate correctly?
(e.g. gas supply shutdown)
Do all visual alarms and/or vibrating alarms and pagers
(as applicable) work?
Do voice alarm systems work correctly?
Was the message understood?
Escape lighting
Are charging indicators (if fitted) visible?
Does generator start correctly?
Firefighting equipment
Is all equipment in good condition?
Additional items from manufacturer’s recommendations.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Can all fire exits be opened immediately and easily?
Comments
Part 2 •
Yes No N/A
Monthly checks
General
Have all your emergency generators been tested?
(Normally run for one hour)
Escape routes
Do all electronic release mechanisms on escape doors work
correctly? Do they ‘fail safe’ in the open position?
95
Yes No N/A
Monthly checks (continued)
Emerency escape lighting
Do all luminaires and exit signs function correctly when tested?
Firefighting equipment
Is the pressure in ‘stored pressure’ fire extinguishers correct?
Additional items from manufacturer’s recommendations.
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Three-monthly checks
General
Are any emergency water tanks/ponds at their normal capacity?
Are vehicles blocking fire hydrants or access to them?
Additional items from manufacturer’s recommendations.
Six-monthly checks
General
Has staff training been carried out?
Has a fire evacuation drill been carried out preferably every six
months, but at least annually?
Has any sprinkler system been tested by a competent person?
Have the release and closing mechanisms of any fire-resisting
compartment doors and shutters been tested?
Fire warning system
Has the system been checked by a competent person?
Escape lighting
Do all luminaires operate on test for one third of their rated value?
Additional items from manufacturer’s recommendations.
Annual checks
General
Has staff training been carried out?
Escape routes
Have escape routes been suitably maintained?
Emergency escape lighting
Do all luminaires operate on test for their full rated duration?
Has the system been thoroughly checked by a competent person?
Firefighting equipment
Has all firefighting equipment been checked by a competent person?
Miscellaneous
Has external access for the fire and rescue service been checked?
Have any firefighters’ switches been tested?
Are fire engine direction signs in place?
96
Comments
Example record of significant findings
Risk Assessment – Record of significant findings
Risk assessment for
Assessment undertaken by
Venue/event
Date
Location
Completed by
Signature
Sheet number
Floor/area
Use
Sources of fuel
Sources of oxygen
Step 1 – Identify fire hazards
Sources of ignition
Step 2 – People at risk
Step 3 – Evaluate, remove, reduce and protect from risk
(3.1) Evaluate the risk
of the fire occuring
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Figure 30: Example record of significant findings
Part 2 •
Appendix B
(3.2) Evaluate the risk to
people from a fire
starting in the
premises
(3.3) Remove and reduce
the hazards that
may cause a fire
(3.4) Remove and reduce
the risks to people
from a fire
Assessment review
Assessment review date
Completed by
Signature
Review outcome (where substantial changes have occurred a new record sheet should be used)
Notes:
(1) The risk assessment record of significant findings should refer to other plans, records or other documents as necessary.
(2) The information in this record should assist you to develop an emergency plan; coordinate measures with other ‘responsible persons’
at the event or venue; and to inform and train staff and inform other relevant persons.
97
Appendix C
Technical information on fire-resisting
separation, fire doors and door fastenings
C1 Fire-resisting separation
General
The majority of temporary buildings are
constructed from materials that are thin, light
weight, flexible in use, easy to erect have little
or no fire resistance. In these cases it would
be unusual to provide fire resisting separation
inside such structures. However, there are
instances however where more rigid building
forms, such as portakabins, will be used. In
these instances, there may be a requirement
to provide some formal fire separation in the
building. The following guidance on fire
separation is intended for this building type
as they are likely to contain a higher hazard
than a marquee but it could be used
elsewhere if required.
The materials from which this type of structure
is constructed may determine the speed with
which a fire may spread, affecting the escape
routes that people will use. A fire starting in
a building constructed mainly from readily
combustible material will spread faster than
one where modern fire-resisting construction
materials have been used. Where noncombustible materials are used and the internal
partitions are made from fire-resisting materials,
the fire will be contained for a longer period,
allowing more time for the occupants to escape.
You will need to consider whether the
standard of fire resistance and surface finishing
in the escape routes is satisfactory, has been
affected by wear and tear or alterations and
whether any improvements are necessary.
The following paragraphs give basic information
on how fire-resisting construction can provide
up to 30 minutes protection to escape routes. This
is the standard recommended for most situations.
If you are still unsure of the level of fire resistance
which is necessary after reading this information,
you should consult a fire safety expert.
Fire-resisting construction
The fire resistance of a wall or floor is dependent
on the quality of construction and materials used.
Common examples of types of construction
that provide 30 minute fire resistance to escape
routes if constructed to the above standards are:
• internal framed construction wall, non-load
bearing, consisting of 72mm x 37mm timber
studs at 600mm centres and faced with
12.5mm of plasterboard with all joints taped
and filled (see Figure 35); and
• internal framed construction, non-load
bearing, consisting of channel section steel
studs at 600mm centres faced with 12.5mm
of plasterboard with all joints taped and filled.
Figure 31: Fire-resisting construction
1st floor
Fire-resisting floor construction to protect route above
Cavity fire barrier
Efficient smoke seal
False ceiling
Fire-resisting partition constructed
up to underside of floor overhead
Protected route
Fire-resisting floor construction
98
A typical example of a 30-minute fire-resisting
timber floor is tongue and groove softwood
of not less than 15mm finished thickness on
37mm timber joists, with a ceiling below of
one layer of plasterboard to a thickness
of 12.5mm with joints taped and filled and
backed by supporting timber.
There are other, equally valid, methods and
products available for upgrading floors. If you
are in any doubt you should ask the advice
of a competent person and ensure that the
product is installed in accordance with
instructions from the manufacturer or supplier.
Fire-resisting glazing
The most common type of fire-resisting glazing
is 6mm Georgian wired glazing, which is easily
identifiable. Clear fire-resisting glazing is available
and can quickly be identified by a mark etched
into the glass, usually in the corner of the glazed
panel, to confirm its fire-resisting standard.
Although this is not compulsory, the marking
of glass is supported by the Glass and Glazing
Federation; you should check whether the
glazing will be marked accordingly before
purchase. The glazing should have been
installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions and to the appropriate standard,
to ensure that its fire-resisting properties are
maintained.
The performance of glazed systems in terms
of fire resistance and external fire exposure
should, wherever possible, be confirmed by
test evidence. Alternatively, where there is a
lack of test information, ask for an assessment
of the proposed construction from suitably
qualified people.
Fire separation of voids
A common problem encountered with fire
separation is fire-resisting partitions which do
not extend above false ceilings to true ceiling
height. This may result in unseen fire spread
Breaching fire separation
To ensure effective protection against fire,
walls and floors providing fire separation must
form a complete barrier, with an equivalent
level of fire resistance provided to any
openings such as doors, ventilation ducts,
or pipe passages.
The passing of services such as heating pipes
or electrical cables through fire-resisting
partitions leaves gaps through which fire and
smoke may spread. This should be rectified
by suitable fire stopping and there are many
proprietary products available to suit particular
types of construction. Such products should
be installed by competent contractors.
Décor and surface finishes of walls,
ceilings and escape routes
The materials used to line walls and ceilings
can contribute significantly to the spread of
flame across their surface. Most materials that
are used as surface linings will fall into one
of three classes of surface spread of flame.
The following are common examples of
acceptable materials for various situations:
Class 0: Materials suitable for circulation
spaces and escape routes
Such materials include ceramic tiles, plaster
finishes (including rendering), wood-wool
cement slabs and mineral fibre tiles or sheets
with cement or resin binding.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Fire-resisting floors
The fire resistance of floors will depend on
the existing floor construction as well as the
type of ceiling finish beneath.
and a loss of vital protection to the escape
routes. It is important therefore to carefully
check all such partitions have been installed
correctly.
Part 2 •
There are other methods and products available
which will achieve the required standard of fire
resistance and may be more appropriate for
the existing construction in premises. If there
is any doubt about how your building is
constructed, then ask for further advice from
a competent person.
Note: Additional finishes to these surfaces may
be detrimental to the fire performance of the
surface and if there is any doubt about this
then consult the manufacturer of the finish.
Class 1: Materials suitable for use in all
rooms but not on escape routes
Such materials include all the Class 0 materials
referred to above. Additionally, timber,
hardboard, blockboard, particle board, heavy
flock wallpapers and thermosetting plastics will
be suitable if flame-retardant treated to achieve
a Class 1 standard.
Class 3: Materials suitable for use in rooms
of less than 30m2
Such materials include all those referred to in
Class 1, including those that have not been
99
flame-retardant treated and certain dense
timber or plywood and standard glassreinforced polyesters.
The intumescent seal expands in the early
stages of a fire and enhances the protection
given by the door.
The equivalent European classification standard
will also be acceptable. Further details about
internal linings and classifications are available
in Approved Document B.88 Appropriate testing
procedures are detailed in BS 476-758 and
where appropriate BS EN 13501-1.59
Additional smoke seals either incorporated
in the instumescent seal or fitted separately
will restrict the spread of smoke at ambient
temperatures. Doors fitted with smoke seals,
either incorporated in the intumescent seal or
fitted separately, have their classification code
suffixed with a ‘S’.
Further guidance on types of fire-resisting
construction has been published by the
Building Research Establishment.60
C2 Fire-resisting doors
Requirements of a fire-resisting door
Effective fire-resisting doors are vital to ensure
that the occupants can evacuate to a place of
safety. Correctly specified and well-fitted doors
will hold back fire and smoke, preventing
escape routes becoming unusable, as well as
preventing the fire spreading from one area
to another.
Fire-resisting doors are necessary in any
doorway located in a fire-resisting structure.
Most internal doors are constructed of timber.
These will give some limited protection against
fire spread, but only a purpose-built fireresisting door that has been tested to an
approved standard will provide the necessary
protection.
All fire-resisting doors are rated by their
performance when tested to an appropriate
standard. The level of protection provided by
the door is measured, primarily by determining
the time taken for a fire to breach the integrity
(E), of the door assembly, together with its
resistance to the passage of hot gases and flame.
The principal fire-resisting door categories are:
• E20 fire-resisting door providing 20 minutes
fire resistance (or equivalent FD 20S). (Note:
Many suppliers no longer provide an E20
type fire-resisting door.)
• E30 fire-resisting door providing 30 minutes
fire resistance (or equivalent FD 30S).
• E60 fire-resisting door providing 60 minutes
fire resistance (or equivalent FD 60S).
Timber fire-resisting doors are available that
will provide up to 120 minutes fire resistance
but their use is limited to more specialised
conditions that are beyond the scope of this
guidance.
Glazing in fire-resisting doors
Although glazing provides additional safety in
everyday use and can enhance the appearance
of fire-resisting doors, it should never reduce
the fire resistance of the door. The opening
provided in the door for the fire-resisting
glazing unit(s) and the fitting of the beading
are critical, and should only be entrusted to a
competent person. In nearly all cases the door
and glazing should be purchased from a reputable
supplier who can provide documentary
evidence that the door continues to achieve
the required rating.
Fire-resisting door furniture
Timber fire-resisting doors require a gap of
2-4mm between the door leaf and the frame.
However larger gaps may be necessary to
ensure that the door closes flush into its
frame when smoke seals are fitted. Further
information is available in BS 4787-1.61 For
fire-resisting purposes the gap is normally
protected by installing an intumescent seal,
in either the door or, preferably, the frame.
100
Hinges
To ensure compliance with their rated fire
performance, fire-resisting doors must to
be hung with the correct number, size and
quality of hinges. Normally a minimum of three
hinges are needed, however the manufacturer’s
instructions should be closely followed.
BS EN 193583 including Annex B, is the
appropriate standard.
Floor mounted controlled door closing
devices are the most common method regularly
found with timber, glass and steel doors while
transom mounted devices are commonly
used with aluminium sections. In each case
reference should be made to the fire test
report for details as to compliance with the
composition of the door assembly including
the door mounting conditions.
Rising butt hinges are not suitable for use as
a self-closing device due to their inability to
close and latch the door from any angle.
Self-closing devices
All fire-resisting doors, other than those to
locked cupboards and service ducts, should
be fitted with an appropriately controlled self
closing device that will effectively close the
door from any angle. In certain circumstances,
Installation and workmanship
The reliability and performance of correctly
specified fire-resisting doors can be
undermined by inadequate installation. It is
important that installers with the necessary
level of skill and knowledge are used.
Accreditation schemes for installers of fireresisting doors are available.
Fire-resisting doors and shutters will require
routine maintenance, particularly to closing
mechanisms.
Figure 32: A fire door with smoke seals and infumescent strips
Ideally the frame should be to the
same standard as the door,
purchased together as a door set.
Door closer – see BS EN 115463
for further information.
Hinges – see EN193583 annex B. Hinges
should be tested as part of the door set
– see BS EN 1634-1.62
Securing device –
lock, emergency
exit device
or panic
exit device
to be EN 12209,80
BS EN 17968
or BS EN 112566
respectively.
Vision panel should be fire-resisting glazing.
Door handles and locks – see
BS EN 190682 annex C and BS EN 1220980
annex A respectively for further information.
Door handles and locks should be tested
as part of door set see BS EN 1634-162
for further information.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
concealed, jamb-mounted closing devices
may be specified and in these cases should
be capable of closing the door from any angle
and against any latch fitted to the door; spring
hinges are unlikely to be suitable. Further
information is available in BS EN 1154.63
Part 2 •
Alternative door mountings
Although the most common method of hanging
a door is to use single axis hinges, alternative
methods are employed where the door is
required to be double swing or mounted on
pivots for other reasons.
Intumescent strip and cold smoke seal to
resist the passage of smoke and fire.
101
Further information on fire-resisting doors is
available in BS 8214 64. If you are unsure about
the quality, the effectiveness or the fitting of
your fire-resisting doors consult a fire safety
expert. For further guidance on the selection
and maintenance of door furniture suitable for
use on timber fire resisting and escape doors
refer to Building Hardware Industry Federation
(BHIF) Code of Practice – Hardware for Timber
Fire and Escape Doors 67.
C3 Door-fastening devices
The relationship between the securing of
doors against unwanted entry and the ability to
escape through them easily in an emergency
has often proved problematical. Careful
planning and the use of quality materials
remain the most effective means of satisfying
both of these objectives.
Any device that impedes people making good
their escape, either by being unnecessarily
complicated to manipulate or not being readily
openable, will not be acceptable.
Guidance on fire exits starts from the position
that doors on escape routes should not be
fitted with any locking devices However, it
is accepted that in many cases the need for
security will require some form of device that
prevents unlimited access, but still enables the
occupants of a building or area to open the
door easily if there is a fire. These devices can
take many forms but, in the majority of cases,
premises where there are members of the
public present or others who are not familiar
with the building should use panic exit bar
devices, (i.e. push bars or touch bars). See
BS EN 112566 for further information.
102
Premises that have limited numbers of staff or
others who are familiar with the building and
where panic is not likely may use alternative
devices, (i.e. push pads or lever handles). See
BS EN 179 68 for further information.
When only staff are on the premises and there
is a security issue, it may be acceptable to restrict
the number of emergency exits immediately
available, e.g. when only security staff are
present at night or prior to opening to the
public in the morning. Staff should be made
fully aware of any restrictions and the number
of exits not immediately available should
be limited.
Part 2 •
Appendix D
These definitions are provided to assist the
responsible person in understanding some of
the technical terms used in this guide. They are
not exhaustive and more precise definitions
may be available in other guidance.
Term
Definition
Alterations notice
If your site, event or venue are considered by the enforcing
authority to be high risk, they may issue an alterations notice that
requires you to inform them before making any material alterations
to your site, event or venue.
Alternative escape route
Escape routes sufficiently separated by either direction and space,
or by fire-resisting construction to ensure that one is still available
irrespective of the location of a fire.
As low as reasonably practicable
Is a concept where risks should continue to be reduced until you
reach a point where the cost and effort to reduce the risk further
would be grossly disproportionate to the benefit achieved.
Automatic fire-detection system
A means of automatically detecting the products of a fire and
sending a signal to a fire warning system. The design and
installation should conform to BS 5839.1889 See ‘Fire warning’.
Automatic fire-suppression system
A means of automatically suppressing or extinguishing a fire.
Child
Anyone who is not over compulsory school age, e.g. before or just
after their 16th birthday.
Competent person
A person with enough training and experience or knowledge and
other qualities to enable them properly to assist in undertaking the
preventative and protective measures.
Dangerous substance
1. A substance which because of its physico-chemical or
chemical properties and the way it is used or is present at the
workplace creates a risk.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Glossary
2. A substance subject to the Dangerous Substances and
Explosive Atmosphere Regulations 2002 (DSEAR).13
Dead end
Area from which escape is possible in one direction only.
Emergency escape lighting
Lighting provided to illuminate escape routes that will function if
the normal lighting fails.
Enforcing authority
The Fire and Rescue Authority or any other Authority specified in
Article 25 of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.1
103
Term
Definition
Escape route
Route forming that part of the means of escape from any point in
a site, event or venue to a final exit.
False alarm
Is a concept where risks should continue to be reduced until you
reach a point where the cost and effort to reduce the risk further
would be grossly disproportionate to the benefit achieved.
Final exit
An exit from a site, event or venue where people can continue to
disperse in safety and where they are no longer at danger from
fire and/or smoke.
Fire Emergency Plan
A written operation methodology, forming part of the overall
Emergency Plan, to be implemented as applicable in the event of
a fire.
Fire door
A door or shutter, together with its frame and furniture, provided
for the passage of people, air or goods which, when closed is
intended to restrict the passage of fire and/or smoke to a
predictable level of performance.
Fire resistance
The ability of a component or construction of a building to satisfy,
for a stated period of time, some or all of the appropriate criteria
of BS EN 1363-1,20 BS 476-758 and associated standards.
(Generally described as 30 minutes fire resisting or 60 minutes
fire resisting.)
Fire safety manager
A nominated person with responsibility for carrying out day-to-day
management of fire safety. (This may or may not be the same as
the ‘responsible person’.)
Fire safety strategy
A number of planned and co-ordinated arrangements designed to
reduce the risk of fire and to ensure the safety of people if there
is a fire.
Fire stopping
A seal provided to close an imperfection of fit or design tolerance
between elements or components, to restrict the passage of fire
and smoke.
Fire-warning system
A means of alerting people to the existence of a fire. (See
automatic fire detection system.)
Hazardous substance
1. See Dangerous substance.
2. A substance subject to the Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH).
104
Highly flammable
Generally liquids with a flashpoint of below 21°C.
(The Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply
Regulations 200270 (CHIP) give more detailed guidance.)
Licensed premises
Any site, event or venue that require a license under any statute to
undertake trade or conduct business activities.
Maintained lighting
Emergency lighting that is kept illuminated at all relevant times.
Material change
An alteration to a building, process or service which significantly
affects the level of risk in that building.
Means of escape
Route(s) provided to ensure safe egress from a site, event or
venue or other locations to a place of total safety.
Phased evacuation
A system of evacuation in which different parts of the site, event
or venue are evacuated in a controlled sequence of phases, those
parts of the site, event or venue expected to be at greatest risk
being evacuated first.
Place of reasonable safety
A place within a site, event or venue where, for a limited period of
time, people will have some protection from the effects of fire and
smoke. This place must allow people to continue their escape to a
place of total safety.
Place of total safety
A place, away from the site, event or venue, in which people are
at no immediate danger from the effects of a fire.
Premises
Any place (including the open air), such as a building and the
immediate land bounded by any enclosure of it, any tent,
moveable or temporary structure or any installation or workplace.
Refuge
An area of reasonable safety in which a disabled person may rest
before reaching a place of total safety. It should lead directly to a
fire-resisting escape route.
Responsible person
The person ultimately responsible for fire safety as defined in the
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.
Significant finding
A feature of the site, event or venue, from which the fire hazards
and persons at risk are identified.
The actions you have taken or will take to remove or reduce the
chance of a fire occurring or the spread of fire and smoke.
The actions people need to take in case of fire.
The necessary information, instruction and training needed and
how it will be given.
Smoke alarm
Device containing within one housing all the components, except
possibly the energy source, for detecting smoke and giving an
audible alarm.
Staged fire alarms
A fire warning which can be given in two or more stages for
different purposes within a given area (i.e. notifying staff, stand by
to evacuate, full evacuation).
Travel distance
The actual distance to be travelled by a person from any point
within the floor area to the nearest storey exit or final exit, having
regard to the layout of wall, partitions and fixings.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Definition
Part 2 •
Term
105
Term
Definition
Where necessary
The Order requires that fire precautions (such as firefighting
equipment, fire detection and warning, and emergency routes
and exits) should be provided (and maintained) ‘where necessary’.
What this means is that the fire precautions you must provide
(and maintain) are those which are needed to reasonably protect
relevant person from risks to them in case of fire. This will be
determined by the finding of your risk assessment including the
preventative measures you have or will have taken. In practice,
it is very unlikely, that a properly conducted fire risk assessment,
which takes into account all the matters relevant for the safety of
persons in case of fire, will conclude that no fire precautions
(including maintenance) are necessary.
Young persons
(a) A person aged 16 years, from the date on which he attains that
age until and including the 31st August which next follows that date.
(b) A person aged 16 years and over who is undertaking a
course of full-time education at a school or college which is not
advanced education.
(c) A person aged 16 years and over who is undertaking approved
training that is not provided through a contract of employment.
For the purposes of paragraphs (b) and (c) the person:
(a) shall have commenced the course of full-time education or
approved training before attaining the age of 19 years: and
(b) shall not have attained the age of 20 years.
106
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 SI 2005/1541. The Stationery Office, 2005.
ISBN 0 11 072945 5.
The Building Regulations 2000 SI 2000/2531. ISBN 0 11 099897 9.
Fire Precautions Act 1971 (c 40). The Stationery Office, 1971. ISBN 0 10 544071 X.
Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997 SI 1997/1840. The Stationery Office, 1997.
ISBN 0 11 064738 6.
Fire Precautions (Workplace) (Amendment) Regulations 1999 SI 1999/1877. The Stationery Office
1999. ISBN 0 11 082882 8.
Licensing Act 2003, The Stationary Office. ISBN 0 10 541703 3.
Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 SI 1996/341. The Stationery Office,
1996. ISBN 0 11 054093 X.
Safety signs and signals. The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996.
Guidance on regulations, L64. HSE Books, 1996. ISBN 0 7176 0870 0.
Office of the Deputy Prime Minister – Fire Statistics, United Kingdom 2003, ODPM Publications,
ISBN 1 85112 775 5.
HSG 195 – The Event Safety Guide: Health and Safety Commission / Home office / The Scottish
Office 1993.
Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds. Department of National Heritage/The Scottish OfficeFourth
Edition 1997. ISBN 0 11 300095 2.
Guide to Health Safety and Welfare at Pop Concerts and Similar Events. Health and Safety
Commission/ Home Office/ The Scottish Office, 1993 (now renamed as The Event Safety Guide
– see ref. 10)
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 SI 2002/2776.
The Stationery Office, 2002. ISBN 0 11 042957 5.
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres. Dangerous Substances and Explosive
Atmospheres Regulations 2002. Approved Code of Practice and guidance L138. HSE Books, 2003.
ISBN 0 7176 2203 7.
Storage of full and empty LPG cylinders and cartridges. Code of practice 7. LP Gas Association,
2000. Available from LP Gas Association, Pavilion 16, Headlands Business Park, Salisbury Road,
Ringwood, Hampshire BH24 3PB.
Maintaining portable electrical equipment in offices and other low-risk environments Leaflet
INDG236 HSE Books 1996 (single copy free or priced packs of 10 ISBN 0 7176 1272 4).
Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 SI 1996/1592.
The Stationery Office, 1996. ISBN 0 11 035904 6.
A guide to the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 Leaflet INDG220.
HSE Books, 1996. (Single copy free or priced packs of 10 ISBN 0 7176 1161 2).
Health and safety in construction HSG 150 (Second edition). HSE Books, 2001. ISBN 0 7176 2106 5.
BS EN 1363-1: Fire resistance tests. General requirements. British Standards Institution Chemicals
(Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply Regulations 2002 SI 2002/1689. The Stationery
Office, 2002. ISBN 0 11 042419 0.
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. The Stationery Office.
The Fireworks Regulations 2004 (SI 2004 No. 1836) amended by SI2004 No. 3262.
Explosives Act 1875.
Control of Explosions Regulations 1991. Statutory Instrument 1991. No. 1531.
HSG 123 – Working together on firework displays.
HSE Information sheet “Smoke and vapour effects used in entertainment; Entertainment Sheet
No. 3. Health and Safety Executive. HSE Books.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
1
Part 2 •
References
107
27 Code of practice for pyrotechnics and smoke effects, Association of British Theatre Technicians.
28 The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. The Stationery Office. Statutory Instrument 1989 No. 635.
29 The Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994. The Stationery Office. Statutory Instrument
1994 No. 3260.
30 Temporary demountable structures: Guidance on design, procurement and use.
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31 BS 7837: Specification for the flammability performance for textiles used in the construction of
marquees and similar textile structures. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 24953 0.
32 BS 6661: 1986 Guide for the design, construction and maintenance of single-skin air supported
structures. British Standards Institution.
33 The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988. The Stationery Office,
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34 The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations 1989. The Stationery
Office. ISBN 0110983580.
35 BS 5867:2 Specification for fabrics for curtains and drapes. Flammability requirements.
British Standards Institution.
36 BS 1892: Part 3 :2003 Gymnasium equipment. Sports mats. Specification for fire safety
requirements for mats, mattresses and landing areas. British Standards Institution.
37 Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (c 50) The Stationery Office 1995 ISBN 0 10 545095 2
38 BS 8300: The design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people.
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39 BS5588-12: Fire Precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings – Part 12:
Managing fire safety. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 44586 0.
40 ODPM/CACFOA/BFPSA Guidance on reducing false alarms.
41 BS 5839: Fire Detection and alarm systems for buildings Part 2: Specification for manual
call points.
42 BS 5839-1: Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings. Code of practice for system design,
installation, commissioning and maintenance. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 40376 9.
43 BS 5839: Fire Detection and alarm systems for buildings Part 8: Code of practice for the design,
installation and servicing of voice alarms. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 40376 9.
44 BS EN 60849:1998 Sound systems for emergency purposes. British Standards Institution.
45 BS 5306-8: 2000 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. Selection and
installation of portable fire extinguishers. Code of practice. British Standards Institution.
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46 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 SI 1992/2793. The Stationery Office, 1992.
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47 BS 5306-3: Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. Code of practice for the
inspection and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers. British Standards Institution.
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48 BS EN 3-7: Portable fire extinguishers. Characteristics, performance requirements and testing.
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49 BS 5306-8: 2000 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. Selection and
installation of portable fire extinguishers. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 33203 9.
50 BS 7863: 1996 Recommendations for colour coding to indicate the extinguishing media
contained in portable fire extinguishers. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 25845 9.
51 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 SI 1992/3004. The Stationery Office,
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52 BS 5266-8: Emergency lighting. Code of practice for Emergency Escape lighting systems.
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108
Part 2 •
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
53 BS 5266-1: Emergency lighting. Code of practice for the emergency lighting of premises other than
cinemas and certain other specified premises used for entertainment. British Standards Institution.
54 BS EN 1838: Lighting applications. Emergency lighting. British Standards Institution.
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55 BS 5499: Part 1: Graphical symbols and signs specification for geometric shapes, colours and
layouts. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 38258 3.
56 BS 5499-5: Graphical symbols and signs. Safety signs, including fire safety signs. Signs with
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60 Guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements. Building Research
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68 BS EN 179: Building hardware. Emergency exit devices operated by a lever handle or push pad.
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71 The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994. CONDAM/CDM Regs.
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72 BS 5588 Part 6: Fire precautions in the design construction and use of buildings. Code of
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74 HSG 168: Fire safety in construction work (ISBN 0-7176-1332-1). Health and Safety Executive.
75 ‘Fire prevention on construction sites – The joint code of practice on the protection from fire of
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76 BS 5588-8: Fire precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings. Code of practice for
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77 BS 5499-4: Safety signs, including fire safety signs. Code of practice for escape route signing.
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78 BS 5266-6: Emergency lighting. Code of practice for non-electrical mounted way guidance
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109
79 BS 5588-12: Fire precautions in the design, construction and use of buildings – Part 12:
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80 BS EN 12209: Building hardware, locks and latches. Mechanically operated locks, latches and
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81 BS EN 1155: Building hardware. Electrically powered hold open devices for swing doors.
Requirements and test methods. British Standards Institution.
82 BS EN 1906: Building hardware. Lever handles and knob furniture. Requirements and test
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88 The Building Regulations 2000: Approved Document B Fire Safety. The Stationery Office.
ISBN 0 11753911 2.
89 BS 5839-3: Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings. Specification for automatic release
mechanisms for certain fire protection equipment. British Standards Institution. ISBN 0 580 15787 3.
90 Safety of Sports Ground Act 1975, HMSO
110
Any views expressed in these documents are
not necessarily those of the Communities and
Local Government.
BS 4422
Fire. Vocabulary. British Standards Institution.
BS PD 6512-3
Use of elements of structural fire protection with particular reference
to the recommendations given in BS 5588 Fire precautions in the
design and construction of buildings. Guide to the fire performance
of glass. British Standards Institution.
BS EN 81
Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts.
British Standards Institution.
BS EN 81-70
Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts.
Particular applications for passenger and goods passenger lifts.
Accessibility to lifts for persons including persons with disability.
British Standards Institution.
BS 5041-1
Fire hydrant systems equipment. Specification for landing valves
for wet risers. British Standards Institution.
BS 5041-2
Fire hydrant systems equipment. Specification for landing valves
for dry risers. British Standards Institution.
BS 5041-3
Fire hydrant systems equipment. Specification for inlet breechings
for dry riser inlets. British Standards Institution.
BS 5041-4
Fire hydrant systems equipment. Specification for boxes for
landing valves for dry risers. British Standards Institution.
BS 5041-5
Fire hydrant systems equipment. Specification for boxes for foam
inlets and dry riser inlets. British Standards Institution.
BS 9990
Code of practice for non-automatic firefighting systems in
buildings. British Standards Institution.
BS 7944
Type 1 heavy duty fire blankets and type 2 heavy duty heat
protective blankets. British Standards Institution.
BS EN 1869
Fire blankets. British Standards Institution.
BS ISO 14520-1
Gaseous fire-extinguishing systems. Physical properties and
system design. General requirements. British Standards Institution.
BS 5266-2
Emergency lighting. Code of practice for electrical low mounted way
guidance systems for emergency use. British Standards Institution.
BS EN 60598-1
Luminaires. General requirements and tests. British Standards
Institution.
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
The latest versions of all documents listed in
this section should be used, including any
amendments.
Part 2 •
Further reading
111
BS 5499-1
Graphical symbols and signs. Safety signs, including fire safety
signs. Specification for geometric shapes, colours and layout.
British Standards Institution.
BS EN 1634-3
Fire resistance tests for door and shutter assemblies. Smoke
control doors and shutters. British Standards Institution.
Draft BS EN 14637
Building hardware. Electrically controlled hold-open systems
for fire/smoke door assemblies. Requirements, test methods,
application and maintenance. (Consultation document.)
British Standards Institution.
BS EN 45020
Standardisation and related activities. General vocabulary.
British Standards Institution.
ISO 13784-2
Reaction to fire tests for sandwich panel building systems. Part 2:
test method for large rooms. British Standards Institution.
BS 6661
Guide for design, construction and maintenance of single-skin air
supported structures.
BS 5268-4.2
Structural use of timber. Fire resistance of timber structures.
Recommendations for calculating fire resistance of timber stud
walls and joisted floor constructions. British Standards Institution.
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, SI 1999/3242.
Design principles of fire safety. The Stationery Office, 1996. ISBN 0 11 753045 X.
Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002, SI 2002/1689. The Stationery
Office, 2002. ISBN 0 11 042419 0. Supporting guides: The idiot’s guide to CHIP 3: Chemicals (Hazard
Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations, 2002, INDG350. HSE Books, 2002. ISBN 0 7176 2333 5
(single copy free or priced packs of 5),; CHIP for everyone, HSG228. HSE Books, 2002. ISBN 0 7176 2370 X.
Guidance on the acceptance of electronic locks to doors required for means of escape. Published by
The Chief and Assistant Chief Fire Officers’ Association.
Ensuring best practice for passive fire protection in buildings. Building Research Establishment, 2003.
ISBN 1 870409 19 1.
Smoke shafts protecting fire shafts: their performance and design, BRE Project Report 79204.
Building Research Establishment, 2002.
Fire safety of PTFE-based material used in building, BRE Report 274. Building Research Establishment,
1994. ISBN 0 851256 53 8.
Fires and human behaviour. David Fulton Publishers, 2000. ISBN 1 85346 105 9.
Management of health and safety at work. Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.
Approved code of practice and guidance, L21 (second edition). HSE Books, 2000. ISBN 0 7176 2488 9.
112
A
access for firefighters 24, 25, 33, 60, 61, 65, 86,
94, 96
aerosols 67
air-supported structures 4, 52
alarms see fire detection and warning systems
alterations 9, 12, 40, 50, 57, 105
alterations notices 6, 9, 12, 34, 41, 50, 103
animals 15, 17, 23, 36–7, 86, 87, 89
arenas 45, 76, 87
arson 14, 18, 20, 21, 44, 45, 53
assembly points 26, 29, 39, 56, 65, 85, 86, 89,
90, 94
automatic fire detection systems 22, 23, 47, 50,
55, 56, 70, 103
B
barbecues 14, 17, 20, 67
building work 9, 41, 50
C
camp fires 14, 20, 84
camping areas 11, 23, 24, 61, 66, 84
candles 14, 20
catering facilities 8, 14, 16, 20, 24, 46, 48, 51,
53, 60, 64, 84
escape routes 67
cavity barriers 66, 98
ceilings
fire-resisting 66, 98, 99
lining materials 99–100
children 6, 7, 17, 37, 77, 84, 86, 103, 106
evacuating 26, 54, 67, 89
circuses 11, 64, 87
close down procedures 39, 85, 89
co-operation and co-ordination 6, 7, 37, 38, 83,
86, 89
competent persons 4, 6, 7, 12–13, 83, 103
dangerous substances 46
electrical safety 49
emergency escape lighting 82, 96
equipment and machinery 48
escape routes 66, 73
fire detection and warning systems 56, 57, 96
fire-resisting separation 99
firefighting equipment and facilities 31, 32,
60, 62, 96
concessions 12, 19, 64, 67, 77, 84
conduction, fire spreading by 18
construction, fire-resisting 45, 51, 65–6, 67, 70,
77, 85, 98–100, 104
contingency plans 86
contractors
certifying 31, 33, 93
fire safety training 7, 37, 38, 90
managing 50
permit to work 50
risk to 16, 23, 85
source of ignition 50
convection, fire spreading by 18
cooking 14, 20, 48, 49, 59, 64, 90
crowd control 26, 67, 86, 87
D
dangerous substances 20, 21, 45–7, 89
dead ends
escape routes 65–6, 70, 74, 75, 103
fire alarms 56
decorations 15, 45, 51
disability see people with special needs
Disability Discrimination Act 1995 53
display materials 14, 15, 20, 45, 51
doors
door-fastenings 65, 83, 89, 95, 96, 101, 102
door furniture 100–1
final exit 65, 76, 83
fire-resisting 51, 66, 81, 85, 96, 100–2, 104
glazing 100
maintenance 31, 32, 96, 101
metal 101
notices 81
revolving 75
self-closing 81, 85, 101
shutters 51, 75, 96, 101, 104
sliding 75
vision panels 100, 101
wicket 75
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
Page numbers in italics refer to information in Figures or Tables.
Part 2 •
Index
E
electrical safety 14, 15, 17, 20, 45, 46, 49, 64, 85
emergency escape lighting 29–30, 33, 46, 78–9,
82, 85, 89, 103, 104
auxiliary power supply 30, 78, 79, 95
non-electric 79
self-contained 78
tests, checks and maintenance 7, 31, 32, 79,
83, 94, 95, 96
torches 29, 32
113
emergency plans 23, 34, 36–7, 40, 43, 65, 67,
83, 85–7, 89, 90, 104
equipment and machinery 14, 17, 20, 32, 33,
39, 47–8, 64, 85, 89, 92
escape routes 25–8
alternative exits 73, 74, 75, 80, 103
corridors 85
dead ends 65–6, 70, 74, 75, 103
emergency lighting 29–30, 33, 46, 78–9, 82,
85, 89, 103, 104
escape time 27, 29, 63, 64, 68–70
final exits 65, 76, 83, 104
gangways 65, 67, 68, 76–7
gates 26, 27, 28, 29, 63, 65, 68, 76, 77
inner rooms 70, 72
layouts 22, 25, 29, 85
levels of risk 63–5, 68–70
maintenance 7, 25, 31, 32, 96
managing 28
number required 26, 27–8, 29, 33, 65, 67
obstructions 19, 28, 32, 44, 48, 65, 67, 76, 95
people with special needs 25, 53–4, 67, 80
ramps 65, 67, 68
signs and notices 26, 30, 31, 33, 65, 78,
80–2, 85, 87
suitability 65
tests and checks 32, 33, 38, 83, 94, 95
training 38, 39, 90, 91–2
travel distance 22, 27, 56, 63, 64–5, 70–1, 72,
74, 75, 105
type and number of people using premises
22, 26, 27, 29, 40, 54, 64, 66–7, 68–70, 72,
75, 87
widths and capacity of 26, 27, 29, 63, 65, 67–70
see also doors; gangways
evacuation
to central area of activity 77
fire drills 39, 40, 83, 91–2, 96
managed 28, 56–7
phased 23, 56–7, 105
strategy 22, 39, 53–4, 63–5, 67, 85–6, 89
The Event Safety Guide 27, 43, 47, 52, 53, 69,
71, 92
explosives 47
extinguishers 24, 25, 31, 32, 38, 58–60, 81, 83,
84, 85, 95, 96
F
fairgrounds 4, 11, 15, 16, 40
false alarms 56, 57, 83, 95, 104
fences 10, 19, 26, 32, 45
festivals 4, 19, 43, 82, 84
fêtes 34, 63, 64, 91
fire
classes of 24, 58–9
examples of fires 10, 11
spread of 12, 18–19, 34, 51–3, 64, 77, 99
114
fire blankets 24, 60, 83, 85
fire certificates 5, 8
fire dampers 66
fire detection and warning systems 22–3, 33,
55–7, 84, 85, 89, 104
alarm receiving centre 92
automatic fire detection systems 22, 23, 47,
50, 55, 56, 70, 103
auxiliary power supply 57, 94
false alarms 56, 57, 83, 95, 104
manual call points 22, 55–6, 79, 86, 92
monitoring 53, 55, 85, 92, 95
phased evacuation 23, 56–7
quality assurance 93
record-keeping 32, 34, 57, 83
smoke detectors 72, 105
sound levels 55, 95
staff alarms 56
staged alarms 56–7, 105
tests and checks 7, 31, 32, 33, 34, 57, 83, 92,
94, 95
visual alarms 55, 95
voice alarms 56, 95
fire drills 39, 40, 83, 91–2, 96
fire marshals 24, 85, 90–1, 92
fire points 60
fire-resisting separation 51, 98–100
fire risk assessment
aims 11
co-operation and co-ordination 6, 7, 37, 38,
83, 86, 89
emergency plans 23, 34, 36–7, 40, 43, 65, 67,
83, 85–7, 89, 90, 104
evaluating risk 11, 12, 13, 17–19, 33, 50,
63–5, 68–70, 84
Fire Safety Order and 5–9, 11, 12, 62, 91,
103, 105, 106
flexibility 22, 65
identifying fire hazards 11, 13, 15, 34, 84, 97
identifying people at risk 13, 16–17, 34,
63–5, 68–70, 84, 85, 97
information and instruction 6, 7, 26, 28, 30–1,
34, 37–8, 56, 60, 61, 80–2, 84, 86, 87, 88–9
method 12–13
plan of action 43, 53–4, 83, 87
record-keeping 6, 8, 12, 13, 16, 32, 34–6, 38,
83, 84, 97
removing or reducing fire hazards 11, 19–21,
33, 34, 41, 43, 53, 84, 97
removing or reducing risk to people 34, 43,
53, 97
reviewing 9, 13, 40–1, 50, 83, 84, 85, 97
sources of fuel 11, 14, 15–16, 20–1, 28, 33,
44–7, 51–3, 64, 84
sources of ignition 11, 14–15, 16, 17–18, 20,
28, 33, 44, 46, 47–50, 53, 64, 84
sources of oxygen 14, 16, 21, 33, 45, 84
I
ignition, sources of 11, 14–15, 16, 17–18, 20,
28, 33, 44, 46, 47–50, 53, 64, 84
information and instruction 6, 7, 26, 28, 30–1,
34, 37–8, 56, 60, 61, 80–2, 84, 86, 87, 88–9
L
leased premises 8, 89–90
licensed premises 6, 12, 34, 36, 76, 91, 104
lifts, firefighting 25
lighting 14, 17, 45, 46, 49, 79, 82, 87
lightning 11, 14
LPG 15, 46, 48, 84
luminaires 78, 79, 95, 96
M
maintenance
checklist 32, 94–6
emergency escape lighting 7, 31, 32, 79, 83, 96
equipment and machinery 17, 20, 32, 47–8
escape routes 7, 25, 31, 32, 33, 96
fire detection and warning systems 7, 31, 32,
34, 57, 83
fire doors 31, 32, 96, 101
firefighting equipment and facilities 7, 25, 31,
32, 34, 59–60, 62, 83, 96
marquees 4, 8, 10, 15, 20, 40
emergency escape lighting 78–9
escape routes 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 63, 64, 67, 70
fire detection and warning systems 56
firefighting equipment 23, 59
flame-retardant materials 51–2
smoking 50
multi-use venues
co-operation and co-ordination 38, 83, 86, 89
escape routes 38, 80
fire risk assessment 12, 83
information and instruction 38, 56, 80, 84, 86
music concerts 4, 19, 43, 55, 64, 82
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
G
gangways 65, 67, 68, 76–7
gas cylinders 16, 21, 46, 64, 67
see also LPG
gates 26, 27, 28, 29, 63, 65, 68, 76, 77
generators 14, 15, 20, 32, 48, 60, 62, 64, 78, 79,
84, 95
glass, fire-resisting 99, 100
grass fires 15, 19, 21, 50
The Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds 6, 27, 43,
65, 68, 69, 76, 77, 92
H
hazard
definition 11
identifying fire hazards 11, 13, 15, 34, 64,
84, 97
removing or reducing 11, 19–21, 33, 34, 41,
43, 53, 84, 97
hazardous materials 5, 19, 20, 40, 46–7, 88, 89, 104
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 5, 8, 12, 47,
49, 50, 87, 88
heating 14, 20, 48, 87
hose reels 32, 60, 83, 85
hospitality areas 8, 16, 19
housekeeping 39, 44
Part 2 •
fire safety audit 83, 85, 91
fire safety management 10, 28, 43, 57, 104
Fire Safety Order 5–9, 11, 12, 62, 91, 103, 105, 106
fire safety planning 10, 83
fire safety strategy 39, 67, 104
fire stopping 51, 66, 99, 104
fire suppression systems 83
automatic 86, 96, 103
firefighters’ switches 61, 62, 96
firefighting equipment and facilities 23–5, 33, 85
access for firefighters 24, 25, 33, 60, 61, 65,
86, 94, 96
extinguishers 24, 25, 31, 32, 38, 58–60, 81,
83, 84, 85, 95, 96
fire blankets 24, 60, 83, 85
fire points 60
fire pumps 32, 62
firefighters’ switches 61, 62, 96
firefighting lifts and shafts 25
hose reels 32, 60, 83, 85
hydrants 24, 31, 58, 62, 96
information to emergency services 88, 89, 91
maintenance 7, 25, 31, 32, 34, 59–60, 62, 83, 96
outdoor protection for 24
quality assurance 93
record-keeping 32, 34, 83
signs 24, 25, 30, 31, 62, 81, 96
standpipes 60
tests and checks 25, 32, 33, 59–60, 94, 95, 96
training 24, 38, 39, 58, 90, 91
see also fire suppression systems
fireworks 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 45, 47
flame-retardant materials 20, 45, 51–2, 98, 99–100
flame tests 53
flammable liquids 15, 20, 45, 46, 53, 58, 59, 104
flares 14, 20, 47
floors
covering materials 15, 52, 77
fire-resisting 52, 98, 99
foam, fire risk of 15, 52
fuel, sources of 11, 14, 15–16, 20–1, 28, 33,
44–7, 51–3, 64, 84
furniture and furnishings 15, 20, 52
see also seating
115
N
naked flame 14, 20
non-English speakers 17, 37, 82, 84
O
oxygen, sources of 14, 16, 21, 33, 45, 84
P
partitions, fire-resisting 98, 99
see also walls
people at risk
crowd control 26, 67, 86, 87
evaluating 12, 18–19, 33, 50, 63–5, 68–70, 84
identifying 13, 16–17, 34, 84, 85, 97
removing or reducing risk 21–33, 34, 43, 53,
84, 97
restricting the spread of fire and smoke 34, 51–3
type and number using premises 22, 26, 27,
29, 40, 54, 64, 66–7, 68–70, 72, 75, 87
people with special needs
evacuating 23, 25, 28, 29, 53–4, 67, 80, 85,
89, 91, 92
fire risk assessment 6, 13, 17, 53–4, 84
fire warning systems 55
information and instruction 37, 80, 87, 88–9
risk to 17
personal emergency evacuation plans (PEEPs)
54, 91
phased evacuation 23, 56–7, 105
piping 46, 51, 99
plans and specifications 35, 85
pneumatic structures 52, 70
portable appliance testing (PAT) 49
portakabins 65, 98
public address systems 32, 53–4, 55, 56, 61, 87
pyrotechnics 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 45, 47
R
race meetings 4, 8, 11
radiation, fire spreading by 19, 64, 84
ramps 65, 67, 68
record-keeping
emergency escape lighting 32, 79
fire detection and warning systems 32, 34,
57, 83
fire risk assessment 6, 8, 12, 13, 16, 32,
34–6, 38, 83, 84, 97
fire safety training 83, 92
firefighting equipment and facilities 32, 34, 83
refuges 67, 85, 105
risk
definition 11
evaluating 12, 13, 17–19, 33, 50, 63–5,
68–70, 84
people at risk 13, 16–17, 33, 34, 63–5,
68–70, 84, 85, 97
reducing 11, 13, 21–33, 34, 43, 84
116
S
scenery 15, 20, 52
seating 15, 40, 52, 64, 66, 76–7
security 53, 64, 89, 102
shared use see multi-use venues
short-term hiring or leasing 8, 89–90
shutters 51, 75, 96, 101, 104
signs and notices 26, 30–1, 33, 65, 80–2, 85, 94, 96
information and instruction 24, 25, 62, 78,
86, 87
smoke
control of 34, 51–3, 66, 98, 100, 101
dangers of 19
smoke and vapour effects 47, 87
spread of 18, 19, 34, 77, 99
smoke detectors 72, 105
smoking 14, 15, 17, 20, 45, 50, 90
sporting events 4, 6, 64
sports grounds 4, 6, 8, 12, 66
sprinklers 96
staff
fire drills 39, 40, 83, 91–2, 96
fire safety training 7, 22, 28, 29, 37–8, 39–40,
54, 57, 85, 90–2, 96
firefighting training 24, 38, 39, 58, 90, 91
information and instruction 6, 7, 26, 28,
30–1, 34, 37–8, 56, 81, 84, 86, 88–9
roles in emergency 23, 85, 88, 89, 90
staff alarms 56
staff numbers 32, 40, 54, 85
temporary staff 7, 38
see also contractors
stages 10, 16, 20, 45, 52, 64
storage 19, 20, 21, 44–7, 89
T
telephones 30, 31, 60
temporary staff 7, 38
temporary structures 8, 10, 16, 18, 20, 40, 45
emergency escape lighting 78–9
escape routes 22, 70, 74, 77
fire detection and warning systems 22
fire-resisting separation 98
firefighting equipment 59
smoking 50
see also marquees
tents 11, 15, 20, 28, 51–2, 59, 64, 70, 84
theme parks 4, 11
torches 29, 32
training
fire safety 7, 22, 28, 29, 34, 37–8, 39–40, 54,
57, 85, 90–2, 96
firefighting equipment 24, 38, 39, 58, 90, 91
record-keeping 83, 92
Z
zoos 4, 23, 87
Further guidance on fire risk assessment and fire precautions
W
walls
fire-resisting 51
lining materials 99–100
see also partitions
waste and packaging, combustible 15, 17–18,
20, 44, 45, 50, 53, 77, 84, 89
windows, fire-resisting 99, 100
vision panels 72, 100, 101
Part 2 •
V
vandalism 14, 21, 24, 60
vegetation, fire risk of 15, 23, 45, 50, 53, 60, 84
vehicles 15, 20, 23, 26, 53, 84
vision panels 72, 100, 101
voids 64, 99
volunteers 4
escape routes 26, 28
fire drills 39, 40, 91
fire risk assessment 12, 17
fire safety training 22, 28, 29, 37–8, 39–40, 91
firefighting training 24, 39
information and instruction 6, 28, 37–8, 84
numbers 32
117
Guide
Main use
Offices and shops
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 815 0
Factories and warehouses
Offices and retail premises (including individual units within larger premises,
e.g. shopping centres).
Factories and warehouse storage premises.
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 816 7
Sleeping accommodation
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 817 4
Residential care premises
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 818 1
Educational premises
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 819 8
Small and medium places
of assembly
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 820 4
All premises where the main use is to provide sleeping accommodation, e.g. hotels,
guest houses, B&Bs, hostels, residential training centres, holiday accommodation
and the common areas of flats, maisonettes, HMOs and sheltered housing (other
than those providing care – see Residential care premises), but excluding hospitals,
residential care premises, places of custody and single private dwellings.
Residential care and nursing homes, common areas of sheltered housing
(where care is provided) and similar premises, which are permanently staffed
and where the primary use is the provision of care rather than healthcare (see
Healthcare premises).
Teaching establishments ranging from pre-school through to universities, except
the residential parts (see Sleeping accommodation).
Smaller public houses, clubs, restaurants and cafés, village halls, community
centres, libraries, marquees, churches and other places of worship or study
accommodating up to 300 people.
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 821 1
Larger premises where more than 300 people could gather, e.g. shopping centres
(not the individual shops), large nightclubs and pubs, exhibition and conference
centres, sports stadia, marquees, museums, libraries, churches, cathedrals and
other places of worship or study.
Theatres, cinemas and
similar premises
Theatres, cinemas, concert halls and similar premises used primarily for
this purpose.
Large places of assembly
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 822 8
Open air events and venues
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 823 5
Healthcare premises
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 824 2
Transport premises
and facilities
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 825 9
Open air events, e.g. theme parks, zoos, music concerts, sporting events
(not stadia – see Large places of assembly), fairgrounds and county fairs.
Premises where the primary use is the provision of healthcare (including private),
e.g. hospitals, doctors’ surgeries, dentists and other similar healthcare premises.
Transportation terminals and interchanges, e.g. airports, railway stations
(including sub-surface), transport tunnels, ports, bus and coach stations and
similar premises but excluding the means of transport (e.g. trains, buses, planes
and ships).
Price: £12
HM Government
ISBN-13: 978 1 85112 823 5
open air events and venues
The guides in this series:
Fire Safety Risk Assessment – Open air events and venues
This guide is for employers, managers, occupiers and owners
of open air events and venues. It tells you what you have to do
to comply with fire safety law, helps you to carry out a fire risk
assessment and identify the general fire precautions you need
to have in place.
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