^1 USER MANUAL
^2
Geo Brick
^3 Programmable Servo Amplifier
^4 5xx-603800-xUxx
^5 February 13, 2008
Single Source Machine Control
Power // Flexibility // Ease of Use
21314 Lassen Street Chatsworth, CA 91311 // Tel. (818) 998-2095 Fax. (818) 998-7807 // www.deltatau.com
Copyright Information
© 2008 Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
This document is furnished for the customers of Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. Other uses are
unauthorized without written permission of Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. Information contained in this
manual may be updated from time-to-time due to product improvements, etc., and may not conform in
every respect to former issues.
To report errors or inconsistencies, call or email:
Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. Technical Support
Phone: (818) 717-5656
Fax: (818) 998-7807
Email: support@deltatau.com
Website: http://www.deltatau.com
Operating Conditions
All Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. motion controller products, accessories, and amplifiers contain static
sensitive components that can be damaged by incorrect handling. When installing or handling Delta Tau
Data Systems, Inc. products, avoid contact with highly insulated materials. Only qualified personnel
should be allowed to handle this equipment.
In the case of industrial applications, we expect our products to be protected from hazardous or
conductive materials and/or environments that could cause harm to the controller by damaging
components or causing electrical shorts. When our products are used in an industrial environment, install
them into an industrial electrical cabinet or industrial PC to protect them from excessive or corrosive
moisture, abnormal ambient temperatures, and conductive materials. If Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc.
products are directly exposed to hazardous or conductive materials and/or environments, we cannot
guarantee their operation.
Safety Instructions
Qualified personnel must transport, assemble, install, and maintain this equipment. Properly qualified
personnel are persons who are familiar with the transport, assembly, installation, and operation of
equipment. The qualified personnel must know and observe the following standards and regulations:
IEC 364 resp. CENELEC HD 384 or DIN VDE 0100
IEC report 664 or DIN VDE 0110
National regulations for safety and accident prevention or VBG 4
Incorrect handling of products can result in injury and damage to persons and machinery. Strictly adhere
to the installation instructions. Electrical safety is provided through a low-resistance earth connection. It
is vital to ensure that all system components are connected to earth ground.
This product contains components that are sensitive to static electricity and can be damaged by incorrect
handling. Avoid contact with high insulating materials (artificial fabrics, plastic film, etc.). Place the
product on a conductive surface. Discharge any possible static electricity build-up by touching an
unpainted, metal, grounded surface before touching the equipment.
Keep all covers and cabinet doors shut during operation. Be aware that during operation, the product has
electrically charged components and hot surfaces. Control and power cables can carry a high voltage,
even when the motor is not rotating. Never disconnect or connect the product while the power source is
energized to avoid electric arcing.
After removing the power source from the equipment, wait at least 10 minutes before touching or
disconnecting sections of the equipment that normally carry electrical charges (e.g., capacitors, contacts,
screw connections). To be safe, measure the electrical contact points with a meter before touching the
equipment.
The following text formats are used in this manual to indicate a potential for personal injury or equipment
damage. Read the safety notices in this manual before attempting installation, operation, or maintenance
to avoid serious bodily injury, damage to the equipment, or operational difficulty.
WARNING:
A Warning identifies hazards that could result in personal injury or death. It
precedes the discussion of interest.
Caution:
A Caution identifies hazards that could result in equipment damage. It precedes
the discussion of interest
Note:
A Note identifies information critical to the user’s understanding or use of the
equipment. It follows the discussion of interest.
REVISION HISTORY
REV.
DESCRIPTION
DATE
CHG
APPVD
1
UPDATED ANALOG INPUT SECTION
09/07/06
CP
R. UNADKAT
2
UPDATED 6-AXIS REGEN RESISTOR INFO, P. 8
03/19/07
CP
D. GENTRY
3
UPDATED PART NUMBER DEFINITION TABLE, P. 7
04/27/07
CP
S. SATTARI
4
UPDATED TROUBLESHOOTING CHAPTER, P. 75
09/12/07
CP
R. NADDAF
5
UPDATED TROUBLESHOOTING CHAPTER, P. 75
02/13/08
CP
R. NADDAF
Geo Brick User Manual
Table of Contents
Copyright Information.............................................................................................................................................. ii
Operating Conditions ............................................................................................................................................... ii
Safety Instructions.................................................................................................................................................... ii
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................1
Geo Brick Features....................................................................................................................................................1
Amplifier Standard Features ................................................................................................................................2
Amplifier Ratings ..................................................................................................................................................2
Feedback Devices......................................................................................................................................................3
Compatible Motors....................................................................................................................................................3
Maximum Speed....................................................................................................................................................3
Torque...................................................................................................................................................................3
Motor Poles ..........................................................................................................................................................4
Motor Inductance..................................................................................................................................................4
Motor Resistance ..................................................................................................................................................4
Motor Back EMF ..................................................................................................................................................4
Motor Torque Constant ........................................................................................................................................4
Motor Inertia ........................................................................................................................................................5
Motor Cabling ......................................................................................................................................................5
SPECIFICATIONS .....................................................................................................................................................7
Part Number ..............................................................................................................................................................7
Geo Brick Options ................................................................................................................................................7
Environmental Specifications....................................................................................................................................8
Electrical Specifications ............................................................................................................................................8
4-axis Configuration.............................................................................................................................................8
6-axis Configuration.............................................................................................................................................9
8-axis Configuration.............................................................................................................................................9
Recommended Fusing and Wire Gauge ..................................................................................................................10
Wire Sizes ...........................................................................................................................................................10
Package Types.........................................................................................................................................................10
RECEIVING AND UNPACKING ...........................................................................................................................11
Use of Equipment....................................................................................................................................................11
MOUNTING ..............................................................................................................................................................13
4-axis Low/Medium Power Drive ...........................................................................................................................14
6-axis: 4-axis Low/Medium Power plus 2-axis High Power (15A/30A) Drive ......................................................15
8-axis Low/Medium Power Drive ...........................................................................................................................16
SYSTEM WIRING....................................................................................................................................................17
Fuse and Circuit Breaker Selection....................................................................................................................17
Use of GFI Breakers...........................................................................................................................................18
Transformer and Filter Sizing ............................................................................................................................18
Noise Problems...................................................................................................................................................18
Operating Temperature ......................................................................................................................................18
Single Phase Operation ......................................................................................................................................18
Wiring AC Input......................................................................................................................................................19
J1: AC Input Connector Pinout .........................................................................................................................19
Wiring Earth-Ground ..............................................................................................................................................19
Earth Grounding Paths.......................................................................................................................................19
Wiring 24 V Logic Control .....................................................................................................................................20
J2: 24VDC Input Logic Supply Connector ........................................................................................................20
Wiring the Motors ...................................................................................................................................................20
A1-8: Motor 1 to 8 Output Connector Pinout (Low/Medium Power Units) ......................................................21
A5-6: Motor 5 and 6 High Power Option Connector Pinout.............................................................................21
Regen (Shunt) Resistor Wiring ...............................................................................................................................21
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Geo Brick User Manual
J3: External Shunt Connector Pinout ................................................................................................................22
Shunt Regulation.................................................................................................................................................22
Minimum Resistance Value.................................................................................................................................23
Maximum Resistance Value ................................................................................................................................23
Energy Transfer Equations.................................................................................................................................23
Bonding ...................................................................................................................................................................26
Filtering ...................................................................................................................................................................26
CE Filtering........................................................................................................................................................26
Input Power Filtering .........................................................................................................................................26
Motor Line Filtering ...........................................................................................................................................27
I/O Filtering........................................................................................................................................................27
Connectors...............................................................................................................................................................28
X1-X8: Encoder Input (1 to 8) ............................................................................................................................28
X9-10: Analog I/O Ch5 (X9) and Ch6 (X10), (Optional) ..................................................................................29
X11-12: Analog I/O Ch7 (X11) and Ch8 (X12), (Optional) ..............................................................................29
X13: USB 2.0 Connector ...................................................................................................................................30
X14: RJ45, Ethernet Connector.........................................................................................................................30
X15: Watchdog & ABORT..................................................................................................................................31
RS-232: RS-232 Serial Communication Port......................................................................................................31
JPWR Power 4-Point Screw Terminal (Internal) ...............................................................................................33
Boot SW ..............................................................................................................................................................33
Reset SW .............................................................................................................................................................33
J4 Limit Inputs (1-4 Axis) ...................................................................................................................................34
J5 Limit Inputs (5-8 Axis) ...................................................................................................................................35
J6: General Purpose I/O....................................................................................................................................37
Suggested M-Variable Addressing for the General Purpose I/O (J6) ................................................................38
J7: Extra General Purpose I/O (Optional) .........................................................................................................39
Suggested M-Variable Addressing for the optional General Purpose I/O (J7) ..................................................40
Setting up Quadrature Encoders..............................................................................................................................42
Signal Format .....................................................................................................................................................42
Hardware Setup ..................................................................................................................................................42
Encoder Loss Setup.............................................................................................................................................43
Setting Up Digital Hall Sensors ..............................................................................................................................44
Signal Format .....................................................................................................................................................44
Hardware Setup ..................................................................................................................................................44
Using Hall Effect Sensors for Phase Reference..................................................................................................45
Determining the Commutation Phase Angle.......................................................................................................45
Finding the Hall Effect Transition Points...........................................................................................................45
Calculating the Hall Effect Zero Point (HEZ) ....................................................................................................46
Determining the Polarity of the Hall Effects – Standard or Reversed................................................................48
Software Settings for Hall Effect Phasing...........................................................................................................49
Optimizing the Hall Effect Phasing Routine for Maximum Performance...........................................................50
Using the Test Results.........................................................................................................................................51
Setting Up the Analog Inputs (optional) ....................................................................................54
Filtered DAC Outputs Configuration .................................................................................................................57
Setting up for Pulse and Direction Output...............................................................................................................58
Software Setup ....................................................................................................................................................58
DIRECT PWM COMMUTATION CONTROLLER SETUP ................................................................................62
Key Servo IC Variables...........................................................................................................................................62
Key Motor Variables ...............................................................................................................................................62
DC BRUSH MOTOR DRIVE SETUP WITH TURBO PMAC ............................................................................63
Commutation Phase Angle: Ixx72...........................................................................................................................63
Special Instructions for Direct-PWM Control of Brush Motors..............................................................................63
Testing PWM and Current Feedback Operation .....................................................................................................64
Purpose...............................................................................................................................................................65
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Geo Brick User Manual
Preparation.........................................................................................................................................................65
Position Feedback and Polarity Test..................................................................................................................66
PWM Output and ADC Input Connection ..............................................................................................................66
PWM/ADC Phase Match ....................................................................................................................................67
Synchronous Motor Stepper Action ....................................................................................................................67
Current Loop Polarity Check .............................................................................................................................67
Troubleshooting..................................................................................................................................................67
Setting I2T Protection ..............................................................................................................................................68
Calculating Minimum PWM Frequency .................................................................................................................69
Amplifier Only Special online commands ..............................................................................................................70
AMPVERSION....................................................................................................................................................70
AMPMOD...........................................................................................................................................................70
PWM DRIVE COMMAND STRUCTURE.............................................................................................................73
Default Mode...........................................................................................................................................................73
Enhanced Mode.......................................................................................................................................................73
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................................................75
Error Codes .............................................................................................................................................................75
D1: Geo Brick Drive Status Display Codes........................................................................................................76
Status LEDs ........................................................................................................................................................77
Actions on Watchdog Timer Trip........................................................................................................................77
Diagnosing Cause of Watchdog Timer Trip .......................................................................................................78
APPENDIX A.............................................................................................................................................................80
Mating Connector and Cable Kits ...........................................................................................................................80
CONKIT5A .........................................................................................................................................................81
CONKIT5B .........................................................................................................................................................81
CONKIT5C .........................................................................................................................................................81
PWM Cable Ordering Information..........................................................................................................................82
Cable Drawings .......................................................................................................................................................83
5A/10A and 8A/16A Motor Cable .......................................................................................................................83
15A/30A Motor Cable.........................................................................................................................................84
24V Logic Power Cable......................................................................................................................................85
3-Phase power cable...........................................................................................................................................86
Regenerative Resistor: GAR48/78 .....................................................................................................................86
Regenerative Resistor: GAR48/78 .....................................................................................................................87
DB- Connector Spacing Specifications ...................................................................................................................88
X1-8: DB-15 Connectors for encoder feedback..................................................................................................88
X9-12: DB-9 Connectors for Analog I/O............................................................................................................88
Screw Lock Size for all DB-connectors ..............................................................................................................88
Type of Cable for Encoder Wiring..........................................................................................................................89
APPENDIX B.............................................................................................................................................................91
Schematics...............................................................................................................................................................91
X15: Watchdog ..................................................................................................................................................91
J6 and J7: General Purpose I/O........................................................................................................................91
J4: Limit Inputs for Axis 1-4 ..............................................................................................................................93
J5: Limit Inputs for Axis 5-8 ..............................................................................................................................94
APPENDIX C.............................................................................................................................................................95
Board Jumpers.........................................................................................................................................................95
E10 – E12: Power-Up/Reset Load Source .............................................................................................................95
E13: Firmware Reload Enable................................................................................................................................95
E14: Watchdog Disable Jumper .............................................................................................................................95
E25-28: Select Encoder Index input or AENA output (channels 1-4)....................................................................96
E35-39: Select Encoder Index input or AENA output (channels 5-8)....................................................................96
E3: Re-Initialization on Reset Control ...................................................................................................................96
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Geo Brick User Manual
INTRODUCTION
The Geo Brick combines the intelligence and capability of the Turbo PMAC2
motion controller with the latest IGBT-based drive technology, resulting in a
compact, smart 4-, 6- or 8-axis servo drive package. The flexibility of the
Turbo PMAC2 enables the Geo Brick to drive Brush, Brushless or AC
induction motors with unsurpassed pure digital DSP performance. The absence
of analog signals – required for typical motion controller/drive interfacing –
enables higher gains, better overall performance and tighter integration, while
significantly driving down costs and setup time.
The Geo Brick’s embedded 32-axis Turbo PMAC2 motion controller is
programmable for virtually any kind of motion control application. The unit’s
PLC programming features allow for complete machine logic control.
The Geo Brick’s drive and motion controller are seamlessly integrated. All
diagnostic information (amplifier faults, bus voltage, axis currents, phase
current, heatsink temperature, etc.) is accessed by the PMAC and available to
user-written PMAC programs (due to be released soon).
The Geo Brick is a fully scaleable automation controller, especially for
applications requiring only I/O-driven smart servo control where motion is
coordinated by a machine controller (such as a PLC). With the ability to store
programs locally and execute based on inputs, Ethernet or high-speed USB 2.0based communication (RS-232 is optional), the Geo Brick is an ideal solution.
Geo Brick Drive
The Geo Brick’s functionality doesn’t stop there. For applications requiring a complete machine
controller with PLC functionality, motion control, extensible I/O via Modbus TCP master, an HMI
terminal via Modbus TCP slave or even a PC-based HMI package connected via USB 2.0 or Ethernet, the
Geo Brick is again the answer.
Geo Brick Features
The Geo Brick is capable of controlling up to eight axes with direct-PWM commands.
• Motorola DSP 56k digital signal processor
• Turbo PMAC2 CPU (for kinematics, open servo, NC applications)
• Fully Configurable via USB2.0 and/or Ethernet TCP/IP (100 Base-T)
• Operation from a PC
• Stand-alone operation
• Linear and circular interpolation
• 256 motion programs capacity
• 64 asynchronous PLC program capability
• Rotating buffer for large programs
• 36-bit position range (± 64 billion counts)
• Adjustable S-curve acceleration and deceleration
• Cubic trajectory calculations, splines
• Set and change parameters in real time
• Torque, Velocity and Position control standard
• Small footprint saves space
• Full rated temperature cooling standard (no need for additional fans)
• 16 inputs (expandable to 32 with option) fully-protected and isolated with separate commons for
two banks of eight
Introduction
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Geo Brick User Manual
•
Eight thermal-fuse protected outputs (expandable to 16 with option) rated for 0.5A @ 24VDC
each (Flexible outputs allow for sinking or sourcing of current depending on whether the common
emitter or common collector is used.)
• Primary encoder for each axis with TTL differential/single-ended inputs with A, B quadrature
channels and C index channel, 10 MHz cycle rate, and digital Hall-effect inputs
• Five flags per axis using DB-25: HOME, PLIM, MLIM and USER inputs; EQU compare outputs
for first four axes and five more flags per axis if the 6 or 8-axis system is ordered
• Optional analog inputs and outputs, ± 5VDC
• Optional two PWM outputs.
• Optional Dual Port RAM (Required for NC)
• Optional Modbus Protocol
• Optional Sinusoidal encoder feedback*
• Optional Resolver feedback*
• Optional EnDat, Hiperface interfaces.*
*availability expected in the third quarter of 2006
Amplifier Standard Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
4-, 6- or 8-channel direct PWM input from controller
Integral 4-, 6- or 8-axis servo amplifier delivering from 5A cont./10A peak to 15A cont./30A peak per
axis (limited to two axes per drive @ 15/30A)
Four pin locking connector contacts for motor outputs and 3-phase AC input power and earth ground
terminations
Complete protection: over voltage, under voltage, heatsink and IGBT over temperature, short circuit,
over current, input phase loss detection, shunt over-current detection
Two contacts for shunt regulator resistor termination. (Connector type is locking style.)
Integrated bus power supply including shunt regulator (GAR48 or GAR78 external resistor required)
Amplifier Ratings
•
•
•
•
2
Output Current:
5A Continuous, 10A Peak (two seconds), RMS.
8A Continuous, 16A Peak (two seconds), RMS**
15A Continuous, 30A Peak (two seconds), RMS**
**availability expected in the first quarter of 2006
Output Power:
• 5/10A unit is rated for 1247 watts per axis (based on modulation depth of 60% rms)
• 8/16A unit is rated for 1995 watts per axis (based on modulation depth of 60% rms)
• 15/30A unit is rated for 3741 watts per axis (based on modulation depth of 60% rms)
Input Current:
• 5/10A 4-axis unit 13 A(rms)/phase (3-phase) @ 240 VAC Input
• 8/16A 4-axis unit 21 A(rms)/phase (3-phase) @ 240 VAC Input
• 15/30A 2-axis unit 20 A(rms)/phase (3-phase) @ 240 VAC Input
Universal AC input 97-265 VAC, or DC operation from 12VDC to 340VDC.
Introduction
Geo Brick User Manual
Feedback Devices
Many motors incorporate a position feedback device. Devices are incremental encoders, resolvers, and
sine encoder systems. The Geo Brick is set up to accept incremental encoder feedback.
Historically, the choice of a feedback device has been guided largely by cost and robustness factors.
Today, feedbacks are relatively constant for the cost and picked by features such as size and feedback
data. More feedback data or resolution provides the opportunity to have higher gains in a servo system.
Geo Brick at its 4-axis version can be ordered with two (Opt-01) or four (Opt-02) secondary quadrature
encoders. The 8-axis version of the Geo Brick does not have the option for secondary encoders; it comes
standard with eight incremental digital encoders and flags for each axis.
Compatible Motors
The Geo Brick product line is capable of interfacing to a wide variety of motors. The Geo Brick can
control almost any type of three-phase brushless motor, including DC brushless rotary, AC brushless
rotary, induction, and brushless linear motors. Permanent magnet DC brush motors can also be controlled
using two of the amplifiers three phases. Motor selection for an application is a science in itself and
cannot be covered in this manual. However, some basic considerations and guidelines are offered. Motor
manufacturers include a host of parameters to describe their motor.
Some basic equations can help guide an applications engineer to mate a proper drive with a motor. A
typical application accelerates a load to a speed, running the speed for a while and then decelerating the
load back into position.
Maximum Speed
The motor’s maximum rated speed is given. This speed may or may not be achievable in a given system.
The speed could be achieved if enough voltage and enough current loop gain are available. Also,
consider the motor’s feedback adding limitations to achievable speeds. The load attached to the motor
also limits the maximum achievable speed. In addition, some manufacturers will provide motor data with
their drive controller, which is tweaked to extend the operation range that other controllers may be able to
provide. In general, the maximum speed can be determined by input voltage line-to-line divided by Kb
(the motor’s back EMF constant). It is wise to de-rate this a little for proper servo applications.
Torque
The torque required for the application can be viewed as both instantaneous and average. Typically, the
instantaneous or peak torque is calculated as a sum of machining forces or frictional forces plus the forces
required to accelerate the load inertia. The machining or frictional forces on a machine must be
determined by the actual application. The energy required to accelerate the inertia follows the equation:
T = JA, where T is the torque in Newton-meters or pound-feet required for the acceleration, J is the inertia
in kilogram-meters-squared or pound-feet-second-squared, and A is in radians per second per second.
The required torque can be calculated if the desired acceleration rate and the load inertia reflected back to
the motor are known. The T=JA equation requires that the motor’s inertia be considered as part of the
inertia-requiring torque to accelerate.
Once the torque is determined, the motors specification sheet can be reviewed for its torque constant
parameter (Kt). The torque required at the application divided by the Kt of the motor provides the peak
current required by the amplifier. A little extra room should be given to this parameter to allow for good
servo control.
Most applications have a duty cycle in which the acceleration profile occurs repetitively over time.
Calculating the average value of this profile gives the continuous rating required by the amplifier.
Applications also concern themselves with the ability to achieve a speed. The requirements can be
reviewed by either defining what the input voltage is to the drive, or defining what the voltage
requirements are at the motor. Typically, a system is designed at a 230 or 480V input line. The motor
Introduction
3
Geo Brick User Manual
must be able to achieve the desired speed with this voltage limitation. This can be determined by using
the voltage constant of the motor (Kb), usually specified in volts-per-thousand rpm. The application
speed is divided by 1000 and multiplied by the motor’s Kb. This is the required voltage to drive the
motor to the desired velocity. Headroom of 20% is suggested to allow for good servo control.
Peak Torque
The peak torque rating of a motor is the maximum achievable output torque. It requires that the amplifier
driving it be able to output enough current to achieve this. Many drive systems offer a 3:1 peak-tocontinuous rating on the motor, while the amplifier has a 2:1 rating. To achieve the peak torque, the drive
must be sized to be able to deliver the current to the motor. The required current is often stated on the
datasheet as the peak current through the motor. In some sense, it can also be determined by dividing the
peak amplifier's output rating by the motor’s torque constant (Kt).
Continuous Torque
The continuous torque rating of the motor is defined by a thermal limit. If more torque is consumed from
the motor than this on average, the motor overheats. Again, the continuous torque output of the motor is
subject to the drive amplifier’s ability to deliver that current. The current is determined by the
manufacturer’s datasheets stating the continuous RMS current rating of the motor and can also be
determined by using the motor’s Kt parameter, usually specified in torque output per amp of input current.
Motor Poles
Usually, the number of poles in the motor is not a concern to the actual application. However, it should
be noted that each pole-pair of the motor requires an electrical cycle. High-speed motors with high motor
pole counts can require high fundamental drive frequencies that a drive amplifier may or may not be able
to output. In general, drive manufacturers with PWM switching frequencies (16kHz or below) would like
to see commutation frequencies less than 400 Hz. The commutation frequency is directly related to the
number of poles in the motor.
Motor Inductance
PWM outputs require significant motor inductance to turn the on-off voltage signals into relatively
smooth current flow with small ripple. Typically, motor inductance of servomotors is 1 to 15 mH. The
Geo drive product series can drive this range easily. On lower-inductance motors (below 1mH), problems
occur due to PWM switching where large ripple currents flow through the motor, causing excessive
energy waste and heating. If an application requires a motor of less than 1mH, external inductors are
recommended to increase that inductance. Motors with inductance in excess of 15mH can still be driven,
but are slow to react and typically are out of the range of high performance servomotors.
Motor Resistance
Motor resistance is not really a factor in determining the drive performance, but rather, comes into play
more with the achievable torque or output horsepower from the motor. The basic resistance shows up in
the manufacturer’s motor horsepower curve.
Motor Back EMF
The back EMF of the motor is the voltage that it generates as it rotates. This voltage subtracts from the
bus voltage of the drive and reduces the ability to push current through the motor. Typical back EMF
ratings for servomotors are in the area of 8 to 200 volts-per-thousand rpm. The Geo drive product series
can drive any range of back EMF motor, but the back EMF is highly related to the other parameters of the
motor such as the motor inductance and the motor Kt. It is the back EMF of the motor that limits the
maximum achievable speed and the maximum horsepower capability of the motor.
Motor Torque Constant
Motor torque constant is referred to as Kt and usually it is specified in torque-per-amp. It is this number
that is most important for motor sizing. When the load that the motor will see and the motor’s torque
4
Introduction
Geo Brick User Manual
constant is known, the drive amplifier requirements can be calculated to effectively size a drive amplifier
for a given motor. Some motor designs allow Kt to be non-linear, in which Kt will actually produce less
torque per unit of current at higher output speeds. It is wise to de-rate the systems torque producing
capability by 20% to allow headroom for servo control.
Motor Inertia
Motor inertia comes into play with motor sizing because torque to accelerate the inertia of the motor is
effectively wasted energy. Low inertia motors allow for quicker acceleration. However, consider the
reflected inertia from the load back to the motor shaft when choosing the motor’s inertia. A high ratio of
load-to-motor inertia can limit the achievable gains in an application if there is compliance in the
transmission system such as belt-drive systems or rubber-based couplings to the systems. The closer the
rotor inertia matches the load’s reflected inertia to the motor shaft, the higher the achievable gains will be
for a given system. In general, the higher the motor inertia, the more stable the system will be inherently.
Mechanical gearing is often placed between the load and the motor simply to reduce the reflected inertia
back to the motor shaft.
Motor Cabling
Motor cables are an integral part of a motor drive system. Several factors should be considered when
selecting motor cables. First, the PWM frequency of the drive emits electrical noise. Motor cables must
have a good-quality shield around them. The motor frame must also have a separate conductor to bring
back to the drive amplifier to help quench current flows from the motor due to the PWM switching noise.
Both motor drain wire and the cable shield should be tied at both ends to the motor and to the drive
amplifier.
Another consideration in selecting motor cables is the conductor-to-conductor capacitance rating of the
cable. Small capacitance is desirable. Longer runs of motor cable can add motor capacitance loading to
the drive amplifier causing undesired spikes of current. It can also cause couplings of the PWM noise
into the earth grounds, causing excessive noise as well. Typical motor cable ratings would be 50 pf per
foot maximum cable capacitance.
Another factor in picking motor cables is the actual conductor cross-sectional area. This refers to the
conductors ability to carry the required current to and from the motor. When calculating the required
cable dimensions, consider agency requirements, safety requirements, maximum temperature that the
cable will be exposed to, the continuous current flow through the motor, and the peak current flow
through the motor. Typically, it is not suggested that any motor cable be less than 14 AWG.
The motor cable’s length must be considered as part of the application. Motor cable length affects the
system in two ways. First, additional length results in additional capacitive loading to the drive. The
drive’s capacitive loading should be kept to no more than 1000 pf. Additionally, the length sets up
standing waves in the cable, which can cause excessive voltage at the motor terminals. Typical motor
cable length runs of up to 60 meters (200 feet) for 230V systems and 15 meters (50 feet) for 480V
systems are acceptable. Exceeding these lengths may put other system requirements in place for either a
snubber at the motor end or a series inductor at the drive end. The series inductor at the drive end
provides capacitance loading isolation from the drive and slows the rise time of the PWM signal into the
cable, resulting in less voltage overshoot at the motor.
Introduction
5
Geo Brick User Manual
6
Introduction
Geo Brick User Manual
SPECIFICATIONS
Part Number
Geo Brick Drive
Part Number Definition
Communication Options
G B L 4 -C 0 - 5 0 0 - 0 0 0
Note: To use PMAC-NC software, DPRAM is required
0: No Options, Default
D: DPRAM option, size 32K x 16-bit wide (required for NC software)
M: ModBus Ethernet Communication Protocol (Software) option
R: RS232 port on 9-pin D-sub Connector
S: DPRAM and Modbus Options Combined
E: DPRAM & RS232 Options Combined
N: RS232 & ModBus Options Combined
T: Modbus, DPRAM & RS232 Combined
Number of Amplifier Axes
4 : Four Axes (Default)
6 : Six Axes
8 : Eight Axes
CPU Options - Turbo PMAC 2 Processor
C0: 80Mhz, 8Kx24 Internal, 256Kx24SRAM, 1MB Flash (Default)
F3: 240Mhz, 192Kx24 Internal, 1Mx24SRAM, 4MB Flash
Axes 1 to 4 Options
5: 5A/10A, with encoders and Flags for every axis (Default)
8: 8A/16A, with encoders and Flags for every axis
(Continuous / Peak)
Axes 5 to 8 Options
4
00 / 05: No options, 4-axis system, 12-24V flags (Default) / 5V flags
02 / 07: Four secondary encoders inputs (total of 8 encoder inputs), 12-24V Flag inputs / 5V flags
P2 /P7: PWM amplifier Interface for channels 7 and 8 with encoders for axes 5 to 8 ( 4 secondary encoders),
12-24V Flag inputs / 5V flags
6
F2 /F7: 5 and 6 axis, 15A/30A, with encoders for channels 5 to 8 (2 secondary encoders), 12-24V Flag inputs / 5V flags
W2 /W7: 5 and 6 axis, 15A/30A, plus PWM amplifier Interface for channels 7 & 8 with 2 secondary encoders on 7 & 8),
Analog I/O Options
00 / 05
01 / 06
02 / 07
0: No options (Default)
3: Two Analog Inputs (16-bit) & two analog outputs
4: Four Analog Inputs (16-bit) & four analog outputs
F1 / F6
F2 / F7
0: No options (Default)
3: Two Analog Inputs (16-bit) & two analog outputs
P1 / P6
P2 / P7
0: No options (Default)
7: Two Analog Inputs (16-bit) & two analog outputs
52 / 57
82 / 87
W2 / W7
0: No Analog Options available, for this configurations
Note: Analog outputs are 12-bit filtered PWM outputs
If the above Axes 5 to 8 options are selected, then only the
corresponding Analog I/O options are available
12-24V Flag inputs / 5V flags
8
52 /57: 5-8 axis, 5A/10A, with encoder inputs for all axes, 12-24V Flag inputs / 5V flags
82 /87: 5-8 axis, 8A/16A, with encoder inputs for all axes, 12-24V Flag inputs / 5V flags
If user wants to order 5V flag inputs then he needs to specify it at the Axes 5 to 8 options
For example:
“06" Two secondary encoder inputs (total of 6 encoder inputs), 5V Flag inputs
“W7” Combines Option P6 and F6 (Hi-Power 5 & 6 axes, plus PWM amplifier Interface for channels 7 and 8), 5V Flag inputs
Digital I/O Option
0: No Options (Default)
1: Expanded digital I/O, additional 16 inputs and 8 outputs
Outputs are rated: 0.5A@12-24VDC
If the above Number of Amplifier Axes are selected then only the
corresponding Axes 5 to 8 Options are available.
Geo Brick Options
CPU Options
• Option C0 – 80MHz Turbo CPU with 8Kx24 internal memory, 256Kx24 SRAM, 1MB flash memory
(Default)
• Option F3 – 240MHz Turbo CPU with 192Kx24 internal memory, 1Mx24 SRAM, 4M flash memory
Secondary Encoder Options
• Two secondary encoder inputs, and flags for all 8 channels
• Two additional secondary encoder inputs for a total of four.
Note: For six axis units, only two secondary encoders can be ordered. For the eight axes units, all
secondary encoders are used as primary encoders.
Input Output Options
• Additional 16 inputs and 8 outputs, 0.5A @ 24VDC.
• Analog I/O using two DB9 connectors will provide access to two analog inputs and two analog outputs.
The analog inputs are 12-bit resolution A/D. The analog outputs are 12-bit filtered PWM. Additionally,
two Amp Enable and two Amp Fault inputs are provided.
• Option to increase the analog inputs and outputs from two to four (12-bit).
• Option for Hi-Resolution analog inputs (16-bit). The Analog outputs remain 12-bit filtered PWM.
Specifications
7
Geo Brick User Manual
Communication Options
• Option D – small DPRAM 8K x 16-bit wide required for use with NC software
• Option M – Modbus Communication Protocol
• Option R – RS232 port on 9-pin D-sub Connector
• Option S – DPRAM and Modbus Options Combined
• Option E – DPRAM and RS232 Options Combined
• Option N – RS232 and Modbus Options Combined
• Option T – Modbus, DPRAM and RS232 Combined
Environmental Specifications
Description
Unit
Operating Temperature
°C
Rated Storage Temperature
Humidity
Shock
Vibration
Operating Altitude
°C
%
Air Flow Clearances
Feet
(Meters)
in (mm)
Specifications
+0 to 45°C. Above 45°C, derate the continuous peak output current
by 2.5% per °C above 45°C. Maximum Ambient is 55°C
-25 to +70
10% to 90% non-condensing
Call Factory
Call Factory
To 3300 feet (1000 meters). Derate the continuous and peak output
current by 1.1% for each 330 feet (100meters) above the 3300 feet
3" (76.2mm) above and below unit for air flow
Electrical Specifications
4-axis Configuration
8
Model
GBL4-xx-50x-xxx
GBL4-xx-80x-xxx
Output Continuous Current (rms/axis)
Output Peak Current for 2 seconds (rms/axis)
Rated Input Power (KVA) @ 240VAC
Output Power (Watts per axis)
(based on modulation depth of 60% RMS)
Total
Power Dissipation (Watts)
Recommended PWM Frequency Mean/Max (kHz)
AC Input Line Voltage (VAC rms)
DC Input Line Voltage (VDC)
Logic Power (VDC, A)
Continuous Regen Power rating (Watts)
Peak Regen Power rating (Watts)
Recommended Regen Resistor
5A
10A
13A (for all axes)
1247W/axis
8A
16A
21A (for all axes)
1995W/axis
4988W
7980W
498W
10/12
798W
Not released
97-265 VAC 3 phase
12VDC to 340VDC
24VDC, 2A
4800W
9600W
GAR 78
Specifications
Geo Brick User Manual
6-axis Configuration
GBL6-xx-5Fx-xxx
1-4 axis
5-6 axis
Model
Output Continuous Current (rms/axis)
Output Peak Current for 2 seconds (rms/axis)
Rated Input Power (KVA) @ 240VAC
Output Power (Watts per axis)
(based on modulation depth of 60% RMS)
Total
Power Dissipation (Watts)
Recommended PWM Frequency Mean/Max (kHz)
AC Input Line Voltage (VAC rms)
DC Input Line Voltage (VDC)
Logic Power (VDC, A)
Continuous Regen Power rating (Watts)
Peak Regen Power rating(Watts)
Recommended Regen Resistor
GBL6-xx-8Fx-xxx
1-4 axis
5-6 axis
5A
15A
8A
15A
10A
30A
16A
30A
33A (for all axes)
41A (for all axes)
1247
3741
1995
3741
W/axis
W/axis
W/axis
W/axis
12470W
15462W
1247W
1546W
Not released
Not released
97-265 VAC 3 phase
12VDC to 340VDC
24VDC, 3A
6000W
12000W
GAR 48-3
8-axis Configuration
GBL8-xx-552xxx
1-4
5-8
axis
axis
Model
Output Continuous Current
rms/axis)
Output Peak Current for 2 seconds
(rms/axis)
Rated Input Power (KVA) @
240VAC
Output Power (Watts per axis)
(based on modulation depth of 60%
RMS)
Total
Power Dissipation (Watts)
Recommended PWM Frequency
Mean/Max (kHz)
AC Input Line Voltage (VAC rms)
DC Input Line Voltage (VDC)
Logic Power (VDC, A)
Continuous Regen Power (Watts)
Peak Regen Power rating (Watts)
Recommended Regen Resistor
GBL8-xx-882xxx
1-4
5-8
axis
axis
GBL8-xx-582xxx
1-4
5-8
axis
axis
GBL8-xx-852xxx
1-4
5-8
axis
axis
5A
5A
8A
8A
5A
8A
8A
5A
10A
10A
16A
16A
10A
16A
16A
10A
26A (for all axes)
42A (for all axes)
1247 W/axis
1995 W/axis
9976W
998W
Not released
15960W
1596W
Not released
34A (for all axes)
34A (for all axes)
1247
W/axis
1995
W/axis
1995
W/axis
12968W
1297W
Not released
1247
W/axis
12968W
1297W
Not released
97-265 VAC 3 phase
12VDC to 340VDC
24VDC, 4A
4800W
9600W
GAR 48
Note:
For Single phase AC Input, de-rating applies. Call the factory for more
information.
Specifications
9
Geo Brick User Manual
Recommended Fusing and Wire Gauge
Model
Recommended Fuse
(FRN/LPN)
GBL4-xx-50x-xxx
15
GBL4-xx-80x-xxx
25
GBL6-xx-5Fx-xxx
35
GBL6-xx-8Fx-xxx
40
GBL8-xx-552-xxx
25
GBL8-xx-882-xxx
45
GBL8-xx-582-xxx
35
GBL8-xx-852-xxx
35
* See local and national code requirements
Recommended Wire Gauge*
12 AWG
10 AWG
8 AWG
8 AWG
10 AWG
8 AWG
8 AWG
8 AWG
Wire Sizes
Geo Drive electronics create a DC bus by rectifying the incoming AC electricity. The current flow into
the drive is not sinusoidal but rather a series of narrow, high-peak pulses. Keep the incoming impedance
small to not hinder these current pulses. Conductor size, transformer size, and fuse size recommendations
may seem larger than expected normally. All ground conductors should be 8AWG minimum using wires
constructed of many strands of small gauge wire. This provides the lowest impedance to high-frequency
noises.
Package Types
Geo package types provide various power levels (Low/Medium/High) and up to eight axes configurations
mainly with three different package types.
• 4-axes Low/Medium power Drive (5A/10A or 8A/16A):
GBL4-xx-50x-xxx and GBL4-xx-80x-xxx
4.5" wide (114 mm), Maximum Power Handling ~8000 watts
Package Dimensions: 4.5" W x 15.4" H x 7" D (114 mm W x 391 mm H x 178 mm D)
Weight: 4.4Kgs (9.6lbs)
• 6-axes : 4-axes Low/Medium power plus 2-axes High power Drive (15A/30A):
GBL6-xx-5Fx-xx and GBL6-xx-8Fx-xxx
8” wide (203mm), Maximum Power Handling ~16,000 watts
Package Dimensions: 8" W x 15.4" H x 7" D (203mm W x 391 mm H x 178 mm D)
Weight: Call factory
(Future Release)
• 8-axes Low/Medium power Drive (5A/10A or 8A/16A):
GBL8-xx-552-xxx, GBL8-xx-582-xxx, GBL8-xx-852-xxx and GBL8-xx-882-xxx
8" wide (203 mm), Maximum Power Handling ~16000 watts
Package Dimensions: 8" W x 15.4" H x 7" D (203 mm W x 391 mm H x 178 mm D)
Weight: 9.0Kgs (19.9lbs)
Note: All drives include fan and Heatsink, sized appropriately for the drive needs.
10
Specifications
Geo Brick User Manual
RECEIVING AND UNPACKING
Delta Tau products are thoroughly tested at the factory and carefully packaged for shipment. When the
Geo Brick Drive is received, there are several things to be done immediately:
1. Observe the condition of the shipping container and report any damage immediately to the
commercial carrier that delivered the drive.
2. Remove the control from the shipping container and remove all packing materials. Check all
shipping material for connector kits, documentation, diskettes, CD ROM, or other small pieces of
equipment. Be aware that some connector kits and other equipment pieces may be quite small and
can be accidentally discarded if care is not used when unpacking the equipment. The container and
packing materials may be retained for future shipment.
3. Verify that the part number of the drive received is the same as the part number listed on the purchase
order.
4. Inspect the drive for external physical damage that may have been sustained during shipment and
report any damage immediately to the commercial carrier that delivered the drive.
5. Electronic components in this amplifier are design-hardened to reduce static sensitivity. However,
use proper procedures when handling the equipment.
6. If the Geo Brick Drive is to be stored for several weeks before use, be sure that it is stored in a
location that conforms to published storage humidity and temperature specifications stated in this
manual.
Use of Equipment
The following restrictions will ensure the proper use of the Geo Brick Drive:
• The components built into electrical equipment or machines can be used only as integral components
of such equipment.
• The Geo Drives are to be used only on grounded three-phase industrial mains supply networks (TNsystem, TT-system with grounded neutral point).
• The Geo Drives must not be operated on power supply networks without a ground or with an
asymmetrical ground.
• If the Geo Drives are used in residential areas, or in business or commercial premises, implement
additional filter measures.
• The Geo Drives may be operated only in a closed switchgear cabinet, taking into account the ambient
conditions defined in the environmental specifications.
Delta Tau guarantees the conformance of the Geo Drives with the standards for industrial areas stated in
this manual, only if Delta Tau components (cables, controllers, etc.) are used.
Geo Brick drive is a combination of a Turbo PMAC2 controller and Geo Amplifier. So parallel with this
manual the user needs to use the Turbo Software reference manual and the Turbo USERS manual.
Note:
Always download the latest manual revision from the Delta Tau website:
www.deltatau.com
Receiving and Unpacking
11
Geo Brick User Manual
Note:
If Ethernet communications are used, Delta Tau Systems strongly recommends the
use of RJ45 CAT5e or better shielded cable.
Newer network cards have the Auto-MDIX feature that eliminates the need for
crossover cabling by performing an internal crossover when a straight cable is
detected during the auto-negotiation process.
For older network cards, one end of the link must perform media dependent
interface (MDI) crossover (MDIX), so that the transmitter on one end of the data
link is connected to the receiver on the other end of the data link (a crossover/patch
cable is typically used). If an RJ45 hub is used, then a regular straight cable should
be implemented.
Maximum length for Ethernet cable should not exceed 100m (330ft).
12
Receiving and Unpacking
Geo Brick User Manual
MOUNTING
The location of the drive is important. Installation should be in an area that is protected from direct
sunlight, corrosives, harmful gases or liquids, dust, metallic particles, and other contaminants. Exposure
to these can reduce the operating life and degrade performance of the drive.
Several other factors should be carefully evaluated when selecting a location for installation:
• For effective cooling and maintenance, the control should be mounted on a smooth, non-flammable
vertical surface.
• At least 76 mm (3 inches) top and bottom clearance must be provided for air flow. At least 10 mm
(0.4 inches) clearance is required between controls (each side).
• Temperature, humidity and Vibration specifications should also be taken in account.
The Geo Drives can be mounted with a traditional 4-hole panel mount, two U shape/notches on the
bottom and two pear shaped holes on top. This keeps the heat sink and fan inside the mounting enclosure.
If multiple Geo drives are used, they can be mounted side-by-side, leaving at least a 122 mm clearance
between drives. This means a 122 mm center-to-center distance (0.4 inches) with the 4-axis Drives. The
8-axis drive can be mounted side by side at 214 mm center-to-center distance (8.4 inches).
It is extremely important that the airflow is not obstructed by the placement of conduit tracks or other
devices in the enclosure.
The drive is mounted to a back panel. The back panel should be unpainted and electrically conductive to
allow for reduced electrical noise interference. The back panel should be machined to accept the
mounting bolt pattern of the drive. Make sure that all metal chips are cleaned up before the drive is
mounted so there is no risk of getting metal chips inside the drive.
The drive is mounted to the back panel with four M4 screws and internal-tooth lock washers. It is
important that the teeth break through any anodization on the drive’s mounting gears to provide a good
electrically conductive path in as many places as possible. Mount the drive on the back panel so there is
airflow at both the top and bottom areas of the drive (at least three inches).
Caution:
Units must be installed in an enclosure that meets the environmental IP rating of
the end product (ventilation or cooling may be necessary to prevent enclosure
ambient from exceeding 45° C [113° F ]).
The figures below show the mounting dimensions of the drives.
Note:
For more detail drawings (SolidWorks, eDrawings, DXF) visit our website under
the product that you are looking for.
Mounting
13
Geo Brick User Manual
4-axis Low/Medium Power Drive
GBL4-xx-50x-xxx and GBL4-xx-80x-xxx (x stands for the different options that can be ordered)
Mounting Dimensions
Width
Depth
Height
Weight
114mm / 4.50in.
178mm/ 7.00in.
391mm/ 15.40in.
4.4Kgs (9.6lbs)
Geo Brick amplifier 4-axis
24V D C I N P U T
( J2)
+24 VD C
24VD C
R ET
GENE RA LP URP OS EI / O J
( 7)
GENE RA LP URP OS EI / O J
( 6)
LI MIT I NPU TS 5-8( J5)
LI MIT I NPU TS 1-4( J4)
E X T SHUNT
( J3)
R EG EN R EG EN +
13 .375
3.00
EN CODER I NP UT 6( X6)
EN CODER I NP UT 2( X2)
V
U
4.50
7.00
MOTOR 2(A2)
E NC OD ER N
I PU T1 (X1)
MOTOR 1(A1)
E NC OD ER N
I PU T5 (X5)
W
W
V
U
US B X
( 1 3)
A MP S TATU S D
( 1)
ETH ER NET (X14)
WA TCH D OG (X15)
14.312
+5V
WD
15 .40
E NC OD ER N
I PU T8 (X8)
E NC OD ER N
I PU T4 (X4)
AN ALOG I O
/ C H6 X
( 10)
ANAL OG /I O CH 5( X9)
AN ALOGI O
/ C H8 (X1 2)
AN ALOGI O
/ C H7 (X1 1)
V
U
WA R N I N G!
Residual Volt age .
5 n
mgn
i pow
ut es
rWai
emt ovi
er af t er
bef or e ser vicn
i g unit.
BUSS
ENA8
ENA5
W
V
ENA6
U
MOTOR4 (A4)
EN CODE R N
I PUT 3 (X 3)
MOTOR 3(A3)
EN CODE R N
I PUT 7 (X 7)
W
ENA7
WARNING:
H I G H VO LTAG! E
L3
L2
L1
AC INPUT(J1)
14
Mounting
Geo Brick User Manual
6-axis: 4-axis Low/Medium Power plus 2-axis High Power (15A/30A)
Drive
GBL6-xx-5Fx-xxx and GBL6-xx-8Fx-xxx (x stands for the different options that can be ordered)
Mounting Dimensions
Width
Depth
Height
Weight
203mm / 8.00in.
178mm /7.00in.
391mm / 15.40in.
Call Factory
Geo Brick Amplifier 6-axis
24 V D C I N P U( T
J2)
+24VD C
24VD C
R ET
G ENE RAL PU RP OSE I O
/ ( J7)
G ENE RAL PU RP OSE I O
/ ( J6)
LI M T
I N
I PU TS 5-8 ( J5)
LI M T
I N
I PU TS 1-4 ( J4)
13 .375
C AP -
R EG EN -
R EG EN +
EXT SHUNT
( J3 )
6 .50
ENC OD ER I NPU T 2( X2)
U
W
V
W
V
U
MOTOR 5 (A5)
ENC OD ER I NPU T 6( X6)
V
MOTOR 2 (A2)
E NC ODE R IN PUT 1 ( X1)
MOTOR1 (A1)
E NC ODE R IN PUT 5 ( X5)
W
8 .00
7 .00
U
USB ( X13 )
A MP ST ATU S( D1 )
ETH ERN ET ( X14)
WAT CH DO G ( X15)
14.312
+5V
WD
15.40
E NCO DE R N
I PUT 4 ( X4)
AN ALOG I O
/ C H6( X10)
ANALO G /I O CH5 ( X9)
AN ALOG I O
/ C H8( X12)
AN ALOG I O
/ C H7( X11)
U
WA R N I N G
!
R
esid
Wai
t ual
5 mVol
n
i tutage
es .af t er
r em oving power
bef or e ser vic n
i g uni
.t
BUSS
ENA5
V
U
W
V
ENA6
W
MOTOR 6 (A6)
E NCO DE R N
I PUT 8 ( X8)
V
ENA8
U
MOTOR4 (A4)
EN CO DER I NP UT 3 X
( 3)
M OTOR 3 (A3)
EN CO DER I NP UT 7 X
( 7)
W
ENA7
WARNING:
H I G H VO LTAG !E
L3
L2
L1
AC INPUT(J1 )
Mounting
15
Geo Brick User Manual
8-axis Low/Medium Power Drive
GBL8-xx-552-xxx, GBL8-xx-582-xxx, GBL8-xx-852-xxx and GBL8-xx-882-xxx (x stands for the
different options that can be ordered)
Mounting Dimensions
Width
Depth
Height
Weight
203mm/ 8.00in.
178mm./ 7.00in.
392mm./ 15.40in.
9.0 kgs (19.9lbs)
Geo Brick Amplifier 8-axis
24 V D C I N P U( T
J2)
+24VD C
24VD C
R ET
G ENE RAL PU RP OSE I O
/ ( J6)
G ENE RAL PU RP OSE I O
/ ( J7)
E X T S H U N T(J 3)
R EG EN R EG EN +
LI M T
I N
I PU TS 1-4 ( J4)
LI M T
I N
I PU TS 5-8 ( J5)
13 .375
6 .50
U
MOTOR 7 (A7)
U
MOTOR8 (A8)
ENC OD ER I NPU T 6( X6)
ENC OD ER I NPU T 2( X2)
V
U
V
W
8 .00
MOTOR 2 (A2)
E NC ODE R IN PUT 1 ( X1)
MOTOR1 (A1)
E NC ODE R IN PUT 5 ( X5)
W
W
V
U
7 .00
V
W
USB ( X13 )
A MP ST ATU S( D1 )
ETH ERN ET ( X14)
WAT CH DO G ( X15)
14.312
+5V
WD
15.40
E NCO DE R N
I PUT 4 ( X4)
ANALO G /I O CH5 ( X9)
AN ALOG I O
/ C H8( X12)
AN ALOG I O
/ C H7( X11)
U
U
V
W
WA R N I N G
!
Resid
Wai
t ual
5 mVol
n
i tutage
es .af t er
r em oving power
bef or e ser vic n
i g uni
.t
ENA7
BUSS
ENA8
ENA5
W
V
ENA6
U
MOTOR4 (A4)
AN ALOG I O
/ C H6( X10)
U
MOTOR5 (A5)
E NCO DE R N
I PUT 8 ( X8)
V
M OTOR 6 (A6)
EN CO DER I NP UT 3 X
( 3)
M OTOR 3 (A3)
EN CO DER I NP UT 7 X
( 7)
W
V
W
WARNING:
H I G H VO LTAG !E
L3
L2
L1
AC INPUT(J1)
16
Mounting
Geo Brick User Manual
SYSTEM WIRING
OPTIONAL
EMI
FILTER
GARxx
SHUNT
RESISTOR
EARTH
BLOCK
WHT
Twisted Wires
J2
LOGIC
J3
SHUNT
MCR
EARTH
FRAME
Motor
A 1-8
BLK
24 V RET
RED
+24 V
24V
POWER
SUPPLY
+24 VDC
REGEN -
BLK
24 VDC RET
WHT
BLK
REGEN +
MAIN
POWER
t
e
x
t
GND
W
V
U
1
Motor n
t
e
x
t(Max. 8)
Encoder
X 1-8
Geo
Brick
J1
AC INPUT G
L L L N
1 2 3 D
t
e
xtt
e
xt
t
e
xtt
e
xt
Encoder n
(Max. 8)
8AWG
to Main
Earth
Block
Twisted Wires
OPTIONAL
EMI FILTER
Fusing
WARNING:
Installation of electrical control equipment is subject to many regulations including
national, state, local, and industry guidelines and rules. General recommendations
can be stated but it is important that the installation be carried out in accordance
with all regulations pertaining to the installation.
Fuse and Circuit Breaker Selection
In general, fusing must be designed to protect the weakest link from fire hazard. Each Geo drive is
designed to accept more than the recommended fuse ratings. External wiring to the drive may be the
weakest link as the routing is less controlled than the drive’s internal electronics. Therefore, external
circuit protection, be it fuses or circuit breakers, must be designed to protect the lesser of the drive or
external wiring.
High peak currents and high inrush currents demand the use of slow blow type fuses and hamper the use
of circuit breakers with magnetic trip mechanisms. Generally, fuses are recommended to be larger than
what the rms current ratings require. Remember that some drives allow three times the continuous rated
current on up to two axis of motion. Time delay and overload rating of protection devices must consider
this operation.
System Wiring
17
Geo Brick User Manual
Use of GFI Breakers
Ground Fault Interrupter circuit breakers are designed to break the power circuit in the event that
outgoing currents are not accompanied by equal and opposite returning currents. These breakers assume
that if outgoing currents are not returning then there is a ground path in the load. Most circuit breakers of
this type account for currents as low as 10mA PWM switching in servo drives coupled with parasitic
capacitance to ground in motor windings and long cables generate ground leakage current. Careful
installation practices must be followed. The use of inductor chokes in the output of the drive will help
keep these leakage currents below breaker threshold levels.
Transformer and Filter Sizing
Incoming power design considerations for use with Geo Drives require some over rating. In general, it is
recommended that all 3-phase systems using transformers and incoming filter chokes be allotted a 25%
over size to keep the impedances of these inserted devices from affecting stated system performance. In
general, it is recommended that all single-phase systems up to 1kW be designed for a 50% overload. All
single-phase systems over 1kW should be designed for a 200% overload capacity.
Noise Problems
When problems do occur often it points to electrical noise as the source of the problem. When this
occurs, turn to controlling high-frequency current paths. If the grounding instructions do not work, insert
chokes in the motor phases. These chokes can be as simple as several wraps of the individual motor leads
through a ferrite ring core (such as Micrometals T400-26D). This adds high-frequency impedance to the
outgoing motor cable thereby making it harder for high-frequency noise to leave the control cabinet area.
Care should be taken to be certain that the core’s temperature is in a reasonable range after installing such
devices.
Operating Temperature
It is important that the ambient operating temperature of the Geo Brick Drive be kept within
specifications. The Geo Drive should be installed in an enclosure such as a NEMA cabinet. The internal
temperature of the cabinet must be kept under the Geo Drive Ambient Temperature specifications. It is
sometimes desirable to roughly calculate the heat generated by the devices in the cabinet to determine if
some type of ventilation or air conditioning is required. For these calculations, the Geo Drive’s internal
heat losses must be known. Budget: 200W per axis for 5A drives, 375W per axis for 8A drives, and
500W per axis for 15A drives. From 0°C to 45°C ambient no de-rating required. Above 45°C, derate the
continuous and peak output current by 2.5% per °C above 45°C. Maximum ambient is 55°C.
Single Phase Operation
Due to the nature of power transfer physics, it is not recommended that any system design attempt to
consume more than 2kW from any single-phase mains supply. Even this level requires careful
considerations. The simple bridge rectifier front end of the Geo Drive, as with all other drives of this
type, require high peak currents. Attempting to transfer power from a single-phase system getting one
charging pulse each 8.3 milliseconds causes excessively high peak currents that can be limited by power
mains impedances. The Geo Drive output voltage sags, the input rectifiers are stressed, and these current
pulses cause power quality problems in other equipment connected to the same line. While it is possible
to operate drives on single-phase power, the actual power delivered to the motor must be considered.
Never design expecting more than 1.5 HP total from any 115V single-phase system and never more than
2.5 HP from any 230V single-phase system.
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System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Wiring AC Input
The main bus voltage supply is brought to the Geo drive through connector J1. It is acceptable to bring
the single-phase power into any two of the three input pins (L1/L2/L3) on connector J1. Higher-power
drive amplifiers require three-phase input power. It is extremely important to provide fuse protection or
overload protection to the input power to the Geo drive amplifier. Typically, this is provided with fuses
designed to be slow acting, such as FRN-type fuses. Due to the various regulations of local codes, NEC
codes, UL and CE requirements, it is very important to reference these requirements before making a
determination of how the input power is wired.
Additionally, many systems require that the power be turned on and off in the cabinet. It is typical that
the AC power is run through some kind of main control contact within the cabinet, through the fuses, and
then fed to a Geo drive. If multiple Geo drives are used, it is important that each drive has its own
separate fuse block.
Whether single- or three-phase, it is important that the AC input wires be twisted together to eliminate
noise radiation as much as possible. Additionally, some applications may have further agency noise
reduction requirements that require that these lines be fed from an input filtering network.
The AC connections from the fuse block to the Geo drive are made via a cable that is either purchased as
an option from Delta Tau (CABKITxx) or made with the appropriate connector kit (CONKITxx). (See
Appendix A.)
J1: AC Input Connector Pinout
Pin #
Symbol
Function
Description
Notes
1
GND
Common
2
L1
Input
Line Input Phase 1 (Not used for single Phase input)
3
L2
Input
Line Input Phase 2
4
L3
Input
Line Input Phase 3
If DC bus is used, use L3 for DC+ and L2 for DC return.
Connector is located at the bottom side of the unit.
DT Connector part number #014-H00F04-049 and pins part number #014-042815-031
Molex Crimper tool p/n#63811-1500
Wiring Earth-Ground
Panel wiring requires that a central earth-ground location be installed at one part of the panel. This
electrical ground connection allows for each device within the enclosure to have a separate wire brought
back to the central wire location. Usually, the ground connection is a copper plate directly bonded to the
back panel or a copper strip with multiple screw locations. The Geo Brick drive is brought to the earthground via the fourth pin on the J1 connector, located at the bottom of the unit through a heavy gauge,
multi-strand conductor to the central earth-ground location. This is done also on the motor output
connectors to provide a ground connection.
Earth Grounding Paths
High-frequency noises from the PWM controlled power stage will find a path back to the drive. It is best
that the path for the high-frequency noises be controlled by careful installation practices. The major
failure in problematic installations is the failure to recognize that wire conductors have impedances at
high frequencies. What reads 0 Ohms on a DVM may be hundreds of Ohms at 30MHz. Consider the
following during installation planning:
1. Star point all ground connections. Each device wired to earth ground should have its own conductor
brought directly back to the central earth ground plate.
2. Use unpainted back panels. This allows a wide area of contact for all metallic surfaces reducing high
frequency impedances.
System Wiring
19
Geo Brick User Manual
3. Conductors made up of many strands of fine conducts outperform solid or conductors with few
strands at high frequencies.
4. Motor cable shields should be bounded to the back panel using 360-degree clamps at the point they
enter or exit the panel.
5. Motor shields are best grounded at both ends of the cable. Again, connectors using 360-degree shield
clamps are superior to connector designs transporting the shield through a single pin. Always use
metal shells.
6. Running motor armature cables with any other cable in a tray or conduit should be avoided. These
cables can radiate high frequency noise and couple into other circuits.
Wiring 24 V Logic Control
An external 24Vdc power supply is required to power the logic portion of the Geo Brick drive. This
power can remain on, regardless of the main AC input power, allowing the signal electronics to be active
while the main motor power control is inactive. The 24V is wired into connector J2. The polarity of this
connection is extremely important. Carefully follow the instructions in the wiring diagram. This
connection can be made using 22 AWG wire directly from a protected power supply. In situations where
the power supply is shared with other devices, it may be desirable to insert a filter in this connection.
The power supply providing this 24V must be capable of providing an instantaneous current of at least
1.8A for the GBL4-, 2.7A for the GBL6-, and 3.8A for the GBL8- models, to be able to start the DC-toDC converter in the Geo drive. In the case where multiple drives are driven from the same 24V supply, it
is recommended that each drive be wired back to the power supply terminals independently. It is also
recommended that the power supply be sized to handle the instantaneous inrush current required to start
up the DC-to-DC converter in the Geo drive.
J2: 24VDC Input Logic Supply Connector
Pin #
1
Symbol
Function
Description
24VDC RET
Common
Control power return
2
+24VDC
Input
Control power input
Connector is located at the top side of the unit
DT Connector part number #014-043645-200 and pins part number #014-043030-008
Molex Crimper tool p/n#11-01-0185
Notes
Control power return
24V+/-10%
Wiring the Motors
The cable wiring must be shielded and have a separate conductor connecting the motor frame back to the
drive amplifier. The cables are available in cable kits (CABKITxx) from Delta Tau. (See Appendix A.)
Motor phases are conversed in one of three conventions. Motor manufacturers will call the motor phases
A, B, or C. Other motor manufacturers call them U, V, W. Induction motor manufacturers may call them
L1, L2, and L3. The drive’s inputs are called U, V, and W. Wire U, A, or L1 to the drive’s U terminal.
Wire V, B, or L2 to the drive’s V terminal. Wire W, C, or L3 to the drive’s W terminal.
The motor’s frame drain wire and the motor cable shield must be tied together and wired at the GND pin
of the motor connector (Pin 1).
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Geo Brick User Manual
A1-8: Motor 1 to 8 Output Connector Pinout (Low/Medium Power Units)
Pin #
Symbol
Function
Description
Notes
1
GND
Common
W Phase1
Output
Axis 1 to 8
2
3
V Phase2
Output
Axis 1 to 8
4
U Phase3
Output
Axis 1 to 8
DT Connector part number #014-000F04-HSG and pins part number #014-043375-001
Molex Crimper tool p/n#63811-0400
With the High Power option (15A/30A), the unit has total of six axes. The first four axes can be ordered
Low/Medium power (5A/10A or 8A/16A) and the other two axes would be High Power (15A/30A).
Therefore, the motor connectors for the first four axis (A1-4) are the same with the Low/medium Power
Units (see table above), but for axis 5 and 6, larger connectors are used that can handle the extra power
(A5 and A6).
A5-6: Motor 5 and 6 High Power Option Connector Pinout
Pin #
Symbol
Function
Description
Notes
1
U Phase3
Output
Axis 5 and 6
V Phase2
Output
Axis 5 and 6
2
3
W Phase1
Output
Axis 5 and 6
4
GND
Common
DT Connector part number #014-H00F04-049 and pins part number #014-042815-031
Molex Crimper tool p/n#63811-1500
Regen (Shunt) Resistor Wiring
The Geo Brick Drive family offers compatible regen resistors as optional equipment. The regen resistor
is used as a shunt regulator to dump excess power during demanding deceleration profiles. The GAR48
and GAR78 resistors are designed to dump the excess bus energy very quickly.
The regen circuit is also known as a shunt regulator. Its purpose is to dump power fed back into the drive
from a motor acting as a generator. Excessive energy can be dumped via an external load resistor. The
Geo Brick product series is designed for operation with external shunt resistors of 78 Ω. The 6-axis unit
needs 48Ω. Delta Tau has the GAR48 and GAR78 available for these applications. This resistor is
provided with pre-terminated cables that plug into connector J3.
Each resistor is the lowest ohm rating for its compatible drive and is limited for use to 200 watts RMS.
There are times the regen design might be analyzed to determine if an external Regen resistor is required
or what its ratings can be. The following data is provided for such purpose.
Caution:
The black wires are for the thermostat and the white wires are for the regen resistor
on the external regen resistor (pictured below). These resistors can reach
temperatures of up to 200 degrees C. These resistors must be mounted away from
other devices and near the top of the cabinet. Additionally, precautions must be
made to ensure the resistors are enclosed and cannot be touched during operation
or anytime they are hot. Sufficient warning labels should be placed prominently
near these resistors.
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Geo Brick User Manual
The regen resistors incorporate a thermal overload protection thermostat that opens when the core
temperature of the resistor exceeds 225 degrees °C. This thermostat is available through the two black
leads exiting the resistor. It is important that these two leads be wired in a safety circuit that stops the
system from operating should the thermostat open.
J3: External Shunt Connector Pinout
Pin #
Symbol
Function
1
RegenOutput
2
Regen+
Output
Connector is located at the top side of the unit
DT Connector part number #014-000F02-HSG and pins part number #014-043375-001
Molex Crimper tool p/n#63811-0400
For the 6-axis Geo Brick, GBL6-xx-xxx-xxx and GBL6-xx-8Fx-xxx, this connector is a 3 pin
Large Molex connector
1
CAPOutput
2
RegenOutput
3
Regen+
Output
Connector is located at the top side of the unit.
DT Connector part number #014-H00F03-049 and pins part number #014-042815-001.
Molex Crimper tool p/n#63811-1500
Shunt Regulation
When the motor is used to slow the moving load, this is called regenerative deceleration. Under this
operation, the motor is acting as a generator consuming energy from the load while passing the energy
into the DC Bus storage capacitors. Left unchecked, the DC Bus voltage can raise high enough to
damage the drive. For this reason there are protection mechanisms built into the Geo Drive product such
as shunt regulation and over-voltage protection.
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System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
The shunt regulator monitors the DC Bus voltage. If this voltage rises above a present threshold (Regen
Turn On Voltage), the Geo Drive will turn on a power device intended to place the externally mounted
regen resistor across the bus to dump the excessive energy. The power device keeps the regen resistor
connected across the bus until the bus voltage is sensed to be below the Regen Turn Off voltage, at which
time the power device removes the resistor connection.
Minimum Resistance Value
The regen resistor selection requires that the resistance value of the selected resistor will not allow more
current to flow through the Geo Drive’s power device than specified.
Maximum Resistance Value
The maximum resistor value that will be acceptable in an application is one that will not let the bus
voltage reach the drive’s stated over voltage specification during the deceleration ramp time. The
following equations defining energy transfer can be used to determine the maximum resistance value.
Energy Transfer Equations
Regen, or shunt, regulation analysis requires study of the energy transferred during the deceleration
profile. The basic philosophy can be described as follows:
• The motor and load have stored kinetic energy while in motion.
• The drive removes this energy during deceleration by transferring to the DC bus.
• There are losses during this transfer, both mechanical and electrical, which can be significant in some
systems.
• The DC bus capacitors can store some energy.
• The remaining energy, if any, is transferred to the regen resistor.
Kinetic Energy
The first step is to ascertain the amount of kinetic energy in the moving system, both the motor rotor and
the load it is driving. In metric (SI) units, the kinetic energy of a rotating mass is:
EK =
1
Jω 2
2
where:
EK is the kinetic energy in joules, or watt-seconds (J, W-s)
J is the rotary moment of inertia in kilogram-meter2 (kg-m2)
ω is the angular velocity of the inertia in radians per second (1/s)
If the values are not in these units, first convert them. For example, if the speed is in revolutions per
minute (rpm), multiply this value by 2π/60 to convert to radians per second.
When English mechanical units are used, there are additional conversion factors must be included to get
the energy result to come out in joules. For example, if the rotary moment of inertia J is expressed in lbft-sec2, the following equation should be used:
E K = 0.678 Jω 2
If the rotary moment of inertia J is expressed in lb-in-sec2, the following equation should be used:
E K = 0.0565 Jω 2
In standard metric (SI) units, the kinetic energy of a linearly moving mass is:
EK =
1
mv 2
2
where:
EK is the kinetic energy in joules (J)
m is the mass in kilograms (kg)
v is the linear velocity of the mass in meters/second (m/s)
System Wiring
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Geo Brick User Manual
Here also, to get energy in Joules from English mechanical units, additional conversion factors are
required. To calculate the kinetic energy of a mass having a weight of W pounds, the following equation
can be used:
E K = 0.678
W 2
v = 0.0211Wv 2
g
where:
EK is the kinetic energy in joules (J)
W is the weight of the moving mass in pounds (lb)
g is the acceleration of gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)
v is the linear velocity of the mass in feet per second (ft/sec)
Energy Lost in Transformation
Some energy will be lost in the transformation from mechanical kinetic energy to electrical energy. The
losses will be both mechanical due to friction and electrical due to resistance. In most cases, these losses
will comprise a small percentage of the transformed energy and can be safely ignored especially because
ignoring losses leads to a conservative design. However, if the losses are significant and the system
should not be over-designed, calculate these losses.
In metric (SI) units, the mechanical energy lost due to Coulomb (dry) friction in a constant deceleration to
stop of a rotary system can be expressed as:
E LM =
1
T ωt
2 f d
where:
ELM is the lost energy in joules (J)
Tf is the resistive torque due to Coulomb friction in newton-meters (N-m)
ω is the starting angular velocity of the inertia in radians per second (1/s)
td is the deceleration time in seconds (s)
If the frictional torque is expressed in the common English unit of pound-feet (lb-ft), the comparable
expression is:
E LM = 0.678T f ωt d
In metric (SI) units, the mechanical energy lost due to Coulomb (dry) friction in a constant deceleration to
stop of a linear system can be expressed as:
E LM =
1
F vt
2 f d
where:
ELM is the lost energy in joules (J)
Tf is the resistive force due to Coulomb friction in newtons (N)
v is the starting linear velocity in meters/second (m/s)
td is the deceleration time in seconds (s)
If the frictional force is expressed in the English unit of pounds (lb) and the velocity in feet per second
(ft/sec), the comparable expression is:
E LM = 0.678 F f vt d
The electrical resistive losses in a 3-phase motor in a constant deceleration to stop can be calculated as:
E LE =
24
3 2
i rms R pp t d
2
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
where:
ELE is the lost energy in joules (J)
irms is the current required for the deceleration in amperes (A), equal to the required deceleration torque
divided by the motor’s (rms) torque constant KT
Rpp is the phase-to-phase resistance of the motor, in ohms (Ω)
td is the deceleration time in seconds (s)
Capacitive Stored Energy in the Drive
The energy not lost during the transformation is initially stored as additional capacitive energy due to the
increased DC bus voltage. The energy storage capability of the drive can be expressed as:
EC =
(
1
2
2
C V regen
− V nom
2
)
where:
EC is the additional energy storage capacity in joules (J)
C is the total bus capacitance in Farads
Vregen is the DC bus voltage at which the regeneration circuit would have to activate, in volts (V)
Vnom is the normal DC bus voltage, in volts (V)
Evaluating the Need for a Regen Resistor
Any starting kinetic energy that is not lost in the transformation and cannot be stored as bus capacitive
energy must be dumped by the regeneration circuitry in to the regen (shunt) resistor. The following
equation can be used to determine whether this will be required:
E excess = E K − E LM − E LE − E C
If Eexcess in this equation is greater than 0, a regen resistor will be required.
Regen Resistor Power Capacity
A given regen resistor will have both a peak (instantaneous) and a continuous (average) power dissipation
limit. It is therefore necessary to compare the required peak and continuous regen power dissipation
requirements against the limits for the resistor.
The peak power dissipation that will occur in the regen resistor in the application will be:
P peak =
2
V regen
R
where:
Ppeak is peak power dissipation in watts (W)
Vregen is the DC bus voltage at which the regeneration circuit activates, in volts (V)
R is the resistance value of the regen resistor, in ohms (Ω)
However, this power dissipation will not be occurring all of the time, and in most applications, only for a
small percentage of the time. Usually, the regen will only be active during the final part of a lengthy
deceleration, after the DC bus has charged up to the point where it exceeds the regen activation voltage.
The average power dissipation value can be calculated as:
Pavg = P peak
%on − time
100
where:
Pavg is average power dissipation in watts (W)
%on-time is the percentage of time the regen circuit is active
Note:
The Turn-on voltage for the shunt circuitry for all Geo drives is 392V. There is a
Hysteresis of 20V, so if the regen turns on @ 392V it will not turn off until it drops
to 372V.
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Geo Brick User Manual
Bonding
The proper bonding of shielded cables is imperative for minimizing noise emissions and increasing
immunity levels. The bonding effect is to reduce the impedance between the cable shield and the back
panel.
Power input wiring does not require shielding (screening) if the power is fed to the enclosure via metal
conduit. If metal conduit is not used in the system, shielded cable is required on the power input wires
along with proper bonding techniques.
Filtering
CE Filtering
The Geo Drive meets the CE Mark standards stated in the front of this manual. Apply proper bonding
and grounding techniques, described earlier in this section, when incorporating EMC noise filtering
components to meet this standard.
Noise currents often occur in two ways. The first is conducted emissions passed through ground loops.
The quality of the system-grounding scheme inversely determines the noise amplitudes in the lines.
These conducted emissions are of a common-mode nature from line-to-neutral (ground). The second is
radiated high-frequency emissions that usually are capacitively coupled from line-to-line and are
differential in nature.
When mounting the filters, make sure the enclosure has an unpainted metallic surface. This allows more
surface area to be in contact with the filter housing and provides a lower impedance path between the
housing and the back plane. The back panel should have a high frequency ground strap connection to the
enclosure frame and earth ground.
Input Power Filtering
Caution:
To avoid electric shock, do not touch filters for at least ten seconds after removing
the power supply.
The Geo Drive electronic system components require EMI filtering in the input power leads to meet the
conducted emission requirements for the industrial environment. This filtering blocks conducted-type
emissions from exiting onto the power lines and provides a barrier for power line EMI.
Adequately size the system. The type of filter must be based on the voltage and current rating of the
system and whether the incoming line is single or three-phase. One input line filter may be used for
multi-axis control applications. These filters should be mounted as close to the incoming power as
possible so noise is not capacitively coupled into other signal leads and cables. Implement the EMI filter
according to the following guidelines:
• Mount the filter as close as possible to incoming cabinet power.
• When mounting the filter to the panel, remove any paint or material covering. Use an unpainted
metallic back panel, if possible.
• Filters are provided with a ground connection. All ground connections should be tied to ground.
• Filters can produce high leakage currents; they must be grounded before connecting the supply.
• Do not touch filters for a period of ten seconds after removing the power supply.
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System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Motor Line Filtering
Motor filtering may not be necessary for CE compliance of Geo Drives. However, this additional
filtering increases the reliability of the system. Poor non-metallic enclosure surfaces and lengthy,
unbonded (or unshielded) motor cables that couple noise line-to-line (differential) are some of the factors
that may lead to the necessity of motor lead filtering.
Motor lead noise is either common-mode or differential. The common-mode conducted currents occur
between each motor lead and ground (line-to-neutral). Differential radiated currents exist from one motor
lead to another (line-to-line). The filtering of the lines feeding the motor provides additional attenuation
of noise currents that may enter surrounding cables and equipment I/O ports in close proximity.
Differential mode currents commonly occur with lengthy motor cables. As the cable length increases, so
does its capacitance and ability to couple noise from line-to-line. While every final system is different
and every application of the product causes a slightly different emission profile, it may become necessary
to use differential mode chokes to provide additional noise attenuation to minimize the radiated
emissions. The use of a ferrite core placed at the Geo Drive end on each motor lead attenuates differential
mode noise and lowers frequency (30 to 60 MHz) broadband emissions to within specifications. Delta
Tau recommends a Fair-Rite P/N 263665702 (or equivalent) ferrite core.
Common mode currents occur from noise spikes created by the PWM switching frequency of the Geo
Drive. The use of a ferrite or iron-powder core toroid places common mode impedance in the line
between the motor and the Geo Drive. The use of a common mode choke on the motor leads may
increase signal integrity of encoder outputs and associated I/O signals.
I/O Filtering
I/O filtering may be desired, depending on system installation, application, and integration with other
equipment. It may be necessary to place ferrite cores on I/O lines to avoid unwanted signals entering and
disturbing the Geo.
System Wiring
27
Geo Brick User Manual
Connectors
X1-X8: Encoder Input (1 to 8)
The main encoder input channels for the Geo Brick Drive support only differential quadrature feedback.
5V supply to power the encoder is provided.
• 4-axis drives with no Option 01 or Option 02 have only X1 to X4, for a total of four encoders
•
Option 01 adds two extra S. encoders: X5 and X6, for a total of six encoders
•
Option 02 adds two more S. encoders on top of Option 01: X7 and X8 for a total of eight encoder
feedbacks.
• 6-axis drives with no Option 02 have only X1 to X6, for a total of six encoders
Option 02 adds two extra S. encoders: X7 and X8 for a total of eight encoder feedbacks.
• 8-axis drives have a default of eight encoders (X1 to X8) and there are no additional encoder options.
X1-X8 Encoder Input (1-8)
(Female DB-15 Connector)
8
7
15
6
14
5
13
4
12
3
11
2
10
1
9
Pin
#
Symbol
Function
Notes
1
CHAn+
Input
Axis n Encoder A+
2
CHBn+
Input
Axis n Encoder B+
3
CHCn+
Input
Axis n Encoder Index+
4
ENCPWRn
Output
Encoder Power 5V
5
CHUn+ / DIRn+
In/Out
Axis n U Commutation+ / If set for Steppers, axis #n Direction output +
6
CHWn+ / PULn+
In/Out
Axis n W Commutation+ / If set for Steppers, axis #n Pulse output +
7
2.5V
Output
2.5V Reference power *
8
Stepper Enable #n
Input
Short pin 8 to pin 4 (5V) to enable stepper output for channel #n*
9
CHAn-
Input
Axis n Encoder A-
10
CHBn-
Input
Axis n Encoder B-
11
CHCn-
Input
Axis n Encoder Index-
12
GND
Common
Common GND
13
CHVn+ / DIRn-
In/Out
Axis n V Commutation+ / If set for Steppers, axis #n Direction output -
14
CHTn+ / PULn-
In/Out
Axis n T Commutation+/ If set for Steppers, axis #n Pulse output -
15
ResOut#n
Output
Resolver excitation output for channel #n *
Because the same pinouts are used for all encoders, n stands for encoder number 1 to 8: n=1 / axis 1, n=2 / axis 2, etc.
*The signals 2.5V / Stepper input enable/ ResOut were implemented to all the Geo Brick Drives that have the Reset
button on the front plate. In older versions these signals were not connected.
Note: In the older revisions so as to set it up for Stepper outputs the user had to set internally jumpers.
•
Axis 1 to 4 Jumpers E21 to E24
•
Axis 5 to 8 Jumpers E31 to E34
For spacing specifications between the DB- connectors, see Appendix A of this manual.
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Geo Brick User Manual
X9-10: Analog I/O Ch5 (X9) and Ch6 (X10), (Optional)
X9/10 (Female DB-9 Connector)
Pin #
Symbol
Function
Notes
1
AGND
Common
2
ADC5/6+
Input
12-bit Analog Input, channel 5/6+ *
3
DAC5/6+
Output
12-bit filtered PWM analog output, channel 5/6+
4
AE-NC-5/6
Output
Amplifier Enable 5/6 Normally Closed**
5
AMPFLT5/6
Output
Amplifier 5/6 fault output***
6
ADC5/6Input
12-bit Analog Input, channel 5/6+ *
7
DAC5/6Output
12-bit filtered PWM analog output, channel 5/6+
8
AECOM5/6
Common
Amplifier Enable 5/6 Common
9
AE-NO-5/6
Output
Amplifier Enable 5/6 Normally Open**
*Analog I/O Option 3 replaces the 12-bit ADC inputs (ADS7861EB) with 16-bit ADCs (ADS8321) for both
connectors (X9 and X10)
** AENA5 - Y:$78800,8,1 . AENA6 - Y:$78801,8,1
*** AMPFLT5: M523-> X:$078100,15,1 . AMPFLT6: M623-> X:$078108,15,1
Note: Earlier revisions of the metal work showed these connectors as being Analog I/O Ch7 (X11) / Analog
I/O Ch8 (X12), but it was actually Ch5 and Ch6 at Turbo PMAC addressing.
For spacing specifications between the DB- connectors, see Appendix A of this manual.
X11-12: Analog I/O Ch7 (X11) and Ch8 (X12), (Optional)
X11/12 (Female DB-9 Connector)
Pin #
Symbol
Function
Notes
1
AGND
Common
2
ADC7/8+
Input
12-bit Analog Input, channel 7/8+ *
3
DAC7/8+
Output
12-bit filtered PWM analog output, channel 7/8+
4
AE-NC-7/8
Output
Amplifier Enable 7/8 Normally Closed**
5
AMPFLT7/8
Output
Amplifier 7/8 fault output***
6
ADC7/8Input
12-bit Analog Input, channel 7/8+ *
7
DAC7/8Output
12-bit filtered PWM analog output, channel 7/8+
8
AECOM7/8
Common
Amplifier Enable 7/8 Common
9
AE-NO-7/8
Output
Amplifier Enable 7/8 Normally Open**
*Analog I/O Option 4 replaces the 12-bit ADC inputs (ADS7861EB) with 16-bit ADCs (ADS8321) for both
connectors (X11 and X12)
** AENA7: M714->Y:$78803,8,1 . AENA8: M814->Y:$78804,8,1
*** AMPFLT7: M523-> X:$078110,15,1 . AMPFLT8: M623-> X:$078118,15,1
Note: Earlier revisions of the metal work showed these connectors as being Analog I/O Ch5 (X9)/ Analog I/O
Ch6 (10), but it was actually Ch7 and Ch8 at Turbo PMAC addressing.
For spacing specifications between the DB- connectors, see Appendix A of this manual.
System Wiring
29
Geo Brick User Manual
X13: USB 2.0 Connector
This connector is used in conjunction with USB A-B cable, which can be purchased from any local
computer store and is provided when Option 1A is ordered. The A connector is connected to a PC or Hub
device; the B connector plugs into the J9-USB port.
Pin #
Symbol
Function
1
2
3
4
5
6
VCC
DD+
GND
SHELL
SHELL
N.C.
DATADATA+
GND
SHIELD
SHIELD
X14: RJ45, Ethernet Connector
This connector is used for Ethernet communications from the Geo PMAC Drive to a PC.
Note:
Delta Tau Systems strongly recommends the use of RJ45 CAT5e or better shielded
cable.
Newer network cards have the Auto-MDIX feature that eliminates the need for
crossover cabling by performing an internal crossover when a straight cable is
detected during the auto-negotiation process.
For older network cards, one end of the link must perform media dependent interface
(MDI) crossover (MDIX), so that the transmitter on one end of the data link is
connected to the receiver on the other end of the data link (a crossover/patch cable is
typically used). If an RJ45 hub is used, then a regular straight cable must be
implemented.
Maximum length for Ethernet cable should not exceed 100m (330ft).
30
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
X15: Watchdog & ABORT
The X15 connector allows the user to send Ohm output from the Geo Brick Drive to the machine if a
watchdog condition has occurred at the Drive. This is an important safety feature because the Geo is
totally disabled when it is in watchdog condition and this output will allow the other machine’s
hardware/logic to bring the drive to a safe condition.
Along with the newer versions of the Geo Brick, there is a dedicated ABORT input @24VDC. When the
Abort input is asserted, then all enabled motors will be aborted. Motion cannot be resumed until 24V is
reapplied to the abort input and the user restarts the program (abort assertion is the absence of 24V).
Notes:
The assertion of the Abort input only affects motors that are enabled at the time the
Abort is asserted.
Abort input functionality differs from the Abort command (^A).
There are no software configurable parameters to enable/disable or otherwise
manipulate the Abort input functionality.
1
Watchdog (X15)
(Phoenix 5-pin Terminal Block)
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
Symbol
ABORTABORT+
N.O.
N.C.
COM
Function
Input
Input
Output
Output
Input
2
3
4
5
TB -5: 016-P L0F05-38P
Notes
ABORT Reference*
ABORT Input signal, 24VDC*
Normally open contact
Normally closed contact
Watchdog common
*In earlier revision of the Geo Brick X15 used to be only the first three pins, 3 pin Terminal
Block. You can recognize the newer version from older if your unit has the reset button and the
ABORT input memory addressed @ Y:$70801,5,1
5-pin terminal block connector at the front.
5-pin DT p/n:016-PL0F05-38P Part Type: FRONT-MC 1,5/ 5-ST-3,81 p/n: 1850699
(*3-pin Part Type: FRONT-MC 1, 5/3-ST-3.81 p/n: 1850673)
RS-232: RS-232 Serial Communication Port
Geo Brick can be ordered with an optional serial RS-232 communication port. This port can be used as a
primary means to communicate to the GEO Brick or, because the GEO Brick is based on Turbo PMAC2
architecture, it can also be employed as a secondary port that allows simultaneous communication.
Examples of how it can be utilized for simultaneous communications are, for both a host computer and an
operator pendant, or using one port for the applications communications and another for simultaneous
monitoring and debugging.
System Wiring
31
Geo Brick User Manual
RS-232 (Female DB-9 Connector)
PIN #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
SYMBOL
N.C.
TXD
RXD
DSR
GND
DTR
CTS
RTS
N.C
FUNCTION
OUTPUT
INPUT
BIDIRECT
COMMON
BIDIRECT
INPUT
OUTPUT
DESCRIPTION
NO CONNECT
RECEIVE DATA
SEND DATA
DATA SET RDY
PMAC COMMON
DATA TERM RDY
CLEAR TO SEND
REQ. TO SEND
NO CONNECT
NOTES
HOST TRANSMIT DATA
HOST RECEIVE DATA
TIED TO “DTR”
TIED TO “DSR”
HOST READY BIT
PMAC READY BIT
The baud rate for the RS-232 serial port is set by variable I54. At power-up reset, Turbo PMAC sets the
active baud-rate-control register based on the setting of I54 and the CPU speed as set by I52, as the baud
rate frequency is divided down from the CPU’s operational frequency. The factory default baud rate is
38400. This baud rate will be selected automatically on re-initialization of the Turbo PMAC2, either
through use of the re-initialization button or the $$$*** command. To change the baud rate, change the
setting of I54, copy this new setting to non-volatile memory with the SAVE command, then reset the
Turbo PMAC. Re-establish communications at the new baud rate. The values of I54 and the baud rates
they produce are:
I54
Baud Rate
I54
Baud Rate
I54
Baud Rate
I54
Baud Rate
0
600
4
2400
8
9600
12
38,400
1
900
5
3600
9
14,400
13
57,600
2
1200
6
4800
10
19,200
14
76,800
3
1800
7
7200
11
28,800
15
115,200
The baud rate produced by odd-number settings of I54 are only exact if the CPU frequency is an exact
multiple of 30 MHz (technically, of 29.4912 MHz). This is because the baud rates are created by dividing
the CPU frequency by (256 * N), where N is an integer taken from a lookup table. The frequency is not
an exact match for odd settings of I54 and CPU frequencies that are not multiples of 30 MHz. For lower
baud rates of this type, the error is not significant. However, serial communications at 115200 baud is
possible only if the CPU is running at an exact multiple of 30 MHz (actually an exact multiple of 29.4912
MHz). So to communicate at this rate, run an Option 5Cx 80MHz CPU at 60 MHz, an Option 5Dx 100
MHz CPU at 90 MHz, and an Option 5Ex 160 MHz CPU at 150 MHz by setting I52 to a lower value than
the CPU is capable of.
32
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
JPWR Power 4-Point Screw Terminal (Internal)
JPWR (Phoenix 4-pin Screw Terminal Connector)
Pin #
Symbol
Function
Notes
1
GND
Input
Common
2
5V
Input
5V Logic Power, current rating
3
+12V
Input
12Vdc Analog Power, current rating
4
-12V
Input
-12Vdc Analog Power, current rating
This internal connector is used to power up the logic part of the Geo Brick when the amplifier
part of the unit is not attached (for Troubleshooting purposes).
Boot SW
This switch is used to reload a new firmware. Power down the unit and power back up while the boot
switch is pressed. Released the boot switch after the +5 volt power LED turns on. During the establishing
communication, PMAC will appear in bootstrap mode and ask for the new firmware download.
Reset SW
This switch is the hardware re-initialization jumper. If the unit is powered up while pressing the reset
switch, PMAC copies the factory default values from the firmware PROM into active memory. This reinitialization procedure is typically only necessary if the unit has been “locked up” due to errant software
or parameter settings and communications are impossible to establish.
System Wiring
33
Geo Brick User Manual
J4 Limit Inputs (1-4 Axis)
The Geo Brick limit and flag circuits give the flexibility to wire in standard 12V to 24V limits and flags or
wire in 5V level limits and flags on a channel basis. The default is set for the standard 12V to 24V inputs,
but if the resistor pack is added to the circuit, the card can read 5V inputs.
J4 Limit Inputs
(Female DB-25
Connector)
Pin #
Symbol
13
12
25
Function
11
24
9
10
23
22
8
21
7
20
6
19
5
18
4
17
3
16
2
15
1
14
Description
1
USER1
Input
User Flag 1
2
MLIM1
Input
Negative Limit 1
3
FL_RT1
Input
Flag Return 1
4
USER2
Input
User Flag 2
5
MLIM2
Input
Negative Limit 2
6
FL_RT2
Input
Flag Return 2
7
USER3
Input
User Flag 3
8
MLIM3
Input
Negative Limit 3
9
FL_RT3
Input
Flag Return 3
10
USER4
Input
User Flag 4
11
MLIM4
Input
Negative Limit 4
12
FL_RT4
Input
Flag Return
13
GND
Common
14
PLIM1
Input
Positive Limit 1
15
HOME1
Input
Home Flag 1
16
BEQU1
Output
Compare Output, EQU 1, signal is TTL (5V) level
17
PLIM2
Input
Positive Limit 2
18
HOME2
Input
Home Flag 2
19
BEQU2
Output
Compare Output, EQU 2, signal is TTL (5V) level
20
PLIM3
Input
Positive Limit 3
21
HOME3
Input
Home Flag 3
22
BEQU3
Output
Compare Output, EQU 3, signal is TTL (5V) level
23
PLIM4
Input
Positive Limit 4
24
HOME4
Input
Home Flag 4
25
BEQU4
Output
Compare Output, EQU 4, signal is TTL (5V) level
If RP39 (limits 1), RP43 (limits 2), RP47 (limits 3) and RP51 (limits 4) are installed to the unit, the voltage
level of the flags can be lowered to 5V. User needs to specify these when ordering the unit.
RP39, RP43, RP47 and RP51 for 5V flags: 1Kohm Sip, 8-pin, four independent Resistors
RP39, RP43, RP47 and RP51 for 12-24Vflags: Empty bank (Default)
See Appendix B for Schematic
34
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
J5 Limit Inputs (5-8 Axis)
The Geo Brick limit and flag circuits give the flexibility to wire in standard 12V to 24V limits and flags
or wire in 5V level limits and flags on a channel basis. The default is set for the standard 12V to 24V
inputs, but if the resistor pack is added to the circuit, the card can read 5V inputs.
Note:
J5 comes only with the 6- and 8-axis configuration drives as well with the
Secondary Encoder options.
J5 Limit Inputs
(Female DB-25
Connector)
Pin #
Symbol
13
12
25
Function
11
24
9
10
23
22
8
21
7
20
6
19
5
18
4
17
3
16
2
15
1
14
Description
1
USER5
Input
User Flag 5
2
MLIM5
Input
Negative Limit 5
3
FL_RT5
Input
Flag Return 5
4
USER6
Input
User Flag 6
5
MLIM6
Input
Negative Limit 6
6
FL_RT6
Input
Flag Return 6
7
USER7
Input
User Flag 7
8
MLIM7
Input
Negative Limit 7
9
FL_RT7
Input
Flag Return 7
10
USER8
Input
User Flag 8
11
MLIM8
Input
Negative Limit 8
12
FL_RT8
Input
Flag Return 8
13
GND
Common
14
PLIM5
Input
Positive Limit 5
15
HOME5
Input
Home Flag 5
16
BEQU5
Output
Compare Output, EQU 5, signal is TTL (5V) level
17
PLIM6
Input
Positive Limit 6
18
HOME6
Input
Home Flag 6
19
BEQU6
Output
Compare Output, EQU 6, signal is TTL (5V) level
20
PLIM7
Input
Positive Limit 7
21
HOME7
Input
Home Flag 7
22
BEQU7
Output
Compare Output, EQU 7, signal is TTL (5V) level
23
PLIM8
Input
Positive Limit 8
24
HOME8
Input
Home Flag 8
25
BEQU8
Output
Compare Output, EQU 8, signal is TTL (5V) level
If J5 is present and RP89 (limits 5), RP93 (limits 6), RP97 (limits 7) and RP101 (limits 8) are installed to the
unit, the voltage level of the flags can be lowered to 5V. User needs to specify these when ordering the unit.
RP89, RP93, RP97 and RP101 for 5V flags: 1Kohm Sip, 8-pin, four independent Resistors
RP89, RP93, RP97 and RP101 for 12-24Vflags: Empty bank. (Default)
SSee Appendix B for Schematic
Limit and Flag Circuit Wiring
The Geo Brick allows the use of sinking or sourcing position limits and flags to the controller. The optoisolator IC used is a PS2705-4NEC-ND quad phototransistor output type. This IC allows the current to
flow from return to flag (sinking) or from flag to return (sourcing).
System Wiring
35
Geo Brick User Manual
A sample of the positive limit circuit is shown below. The 4.7K resistor packs used will allow 12-24V
flag inputs. If 0-5V flags are used, then a 1KΩ resistor pack (RP) can be placed in:
Flags 1-4: RP39 (channel 1), RP43 (channel 2), RP 47 (channel 3), RP51 (channel 4)
Flags 5-8: RP89 (channel 5), RP93 (channel 6), RP 97 (channel 7), and RP 101 (channel 8).
If these resistor packs are not added, all flags (±Limits, Home, and User) will be referenced from 12-24V.
Sample J4/J5, Flags Wiring Diagrams
24V
Flag Supply
12-24VDC
USER 1
Neg.Limit 1
2
15
Home 1
FLG_RTN1
USER 2
4
Pos.Limit 2
17
Neg.Limit 2
5
18
Home 2
FLG_RTN2
19
Neg.Limit 3
21
11
Home 3
FLG_RTN3
9
3
4
5
6
7
Pos.Limit 3
20
8
10
2
EQU 3
22
USER 4
Pos.Limit 4
23
8
9
Pos.Limit 1
14
Neg.Limit 1
15
Home 1
FLG_RTN1
16
13
24
Home 4
FLG_RTN4
25
EQU 4
GND
EQU 1
USER 2
Pos.Limit 2
17
Neg.Limit 2
18
Home 2
FLG_RTN2
19
EQU 2
USER 3
Pos.Limit 3
20
Neg.Limit 3
21
Home 3
FLG_RTN3
EQU 3
10 22
USER 4
Pos.Limit 4
11 23
Neg.Limit 4
12
24V Supply
0V 24V
USER 1
1
EQU 2
USER 3
7
Flag
GBL_Sinking Flags
EQU 1
16
6
24V Supply
0V 24V
Pos.Limit 1
14
Sinking
Separate
Supply
0V
Return
GBL_Sourcing Flags
3
Flag Supply
12-24VDC
Sourcing
Separate
Supply
0V
1
Return
24V
Flag
Neg.Limit 4
12
13
24
Home 4
FLG_RTN4
25
EQU 4
GND
J4 and J5 pinout is the same; J4 is for axis 1-4 and J5 for 5-8.
For the Flags, sinking and sourcing may be mixed depending on the FLG_RTNn input (n=1-8
depending on the channel).
36
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
J6: General Purpose I/O
J6 General Purpose I/O
(Female DB-37 Connector)
Pin #
Symbol
19
18
37
17
36
Function
16
35
15
34
14
33
13
32
12
31
10
11
30
29
9
28
8
27
7
26
5
6
25
24
4
23
3
22
2
21
1
General purpose I/O is available on the Geo Brick Drive. All I/O is electrically isolated from the drive.
Inputs can be configured for sinking or sourcing applications. All Inputs are 12-24VDC. All Outputs are
24V nominal operation, 0.5A maximum current. Outputs are robust against ESD and overload.
20
Description
1
GPIN01
Input
Input 1
2
GPIN03
Input
Input 3
3
GPIN05
Input
Input 5
4
GPIN07
Input
Input 7
5
GPIN09
Input
Input 9
6
GPIN11
Input
Input 11
7
GPIN13
Input
Input 13
8
GPIN15
Input
Input 15
9
IN_COM 01-08
Input
Input 01 to 08 Common
10
N.C
Not Connected
11
COM_EMT
Input
Common Emitter *
12
GP01Output
Sourcing Output 1 **
13
GP02Output
Sourcing Output 2 **
14
GP03Output
Sourcing Output 3 **
15
GP04Output
Sourcing Output 4 **
16
GP05Output
Sourcing Output 5 **
17
GP06Output
Sourcing Output 6 **
18
GP07Output
Sourcing Output 7 **
19
GP08Output
Sourcing Output 8 **
20
GPIN02
Input
Input 2
21
GPIN04
Input
Input 4
22
GPIN06
Input
Input 6
23
GPIN08
Input
Input 8
24
GPIN10
Input
Input 10
25
GPIN12
Input
Input 12
26
GPIN14
Input
Input 14
27
GPIN16
Input
Input 16
28
IN_COM_09-16
Input
Input 09 to 16 Common
29
COM_COL
Input
Common Collector **
30
GP01+
Output
Sinking Output 1 *
31
GP02+
Output
Sinking Output 2 *
32
GP03+
Output
Sinking Output 3 *
33
GP04+
Output
Sinking Output 4 *
34
GP05+
Output
Sinking Output 5 *
35
GP06+
Output
Sinking Output 6 *
36
GP07+
Output
Sinking Output 7 *
37
GP08+
Output
Sinking Output 8 *
*For sinking outputs, connect the COM_EMT (pin11) line to the Analog Ground of the Power supply and the
outputs to the individual plus output lines, e.g. GPO1+
**For sourcing outputs, connect the COM_COL (pin29) line to 12-24V and the outputs to the individual
minus output lines, e.g., GPO1Do not mix topologies, i.e., all sinking or all sourcing outputs. If the common emitter is used, the common
collector should be unconnected. Conversely, if the common collector is used, the common emitter should be
unconnected.
System Wiring
37
Geo Brick User Manual
Suggested M-Variable Addressing for the General Purpose I/O (J6)
Notes
38
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Sinking
Address
M0->
Y:$78800,0,1
Input 1 Data Line, J6 Pin 1
M1->
Y:$78800,1,1
Input 2 Data Line, J6 Pin 20
M2->
Y:$78800,2,1
Input 3 Data Line, J6 Pin 2
M3->
Y:$78800,3,1
Input 4 Data Line, J6 Pin 21
M4->
Y:$78800,4,1
Input 5 Data Line, J6 Pin 3
M5->
Y:$78800,5,1
Input 6 Data Line, J6 Pin 22
M6->
Y:$78800,6,1
Input 7 Data Line, J6 Pin 4
M7->
Y:$78800,7,1
Input 8 Data Line, J6 Pin 23
M8->
Y:$78801,0,1
Input 9 Data Line, J6 Pin 5
M9->
Y:$78801,1,1
Input 10 Data Line, J6 Pin 24
M10->
Y:$78801,2,1
Input 11 Data Line, J6 Pin 6
M11->
Y:$78801,3,1
Input 12 Data Line, J6 Pin 25
M12->
Y:$78801,4,1
Input 13 Data Line, J6 Pin 7
M13->
Y:$78801,5,1
Input 14 Data Line, J6 Pin 26
M14->
Y:$78801,6,1
Input 15 Data Line, J6 Pin 8
M15->
Y:$78801,7,1
Input 16 Data Line, J6 Pin 27
M32->
Y:$078802,0,1
Output 1 Data Line
M33->
Y:$078802,1,1
Output 1 Data Line
M34->
Y:$078802,2,1
Output 1 Data Line
M35->
Y:$078802,3,1
Output 1 Data Line
M36->
Y:$078802,4,1
Output 1 Data Line
M37->
Y:$078802,5,1
Output 1 Data Line
M38->
Y:$078802,6,1
Output 1 Data Line
M39->
Y:$078802,7,1
Output 1 Data Line
Do not mix topologies, i.e., all sinking or all sourcing outputs. If the common emitter is used, the
common collector should be unconnected. Conversely, if the common collector is used, the common
emitter should be unconnected.
Sourcing
Suggested M-var. #
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
J7: Extra General Purpose I/O (Optional)
J7 General Purpose I/O
(Female DB-37
Connector)
Pin #
Symbol
19
18
37
17
36
Function
16
35
15
34
14
33
13
32
12
31
10
11
30
29
9
28
8
27
7
26
5
6
25
24
4
23
3
22
2
21
1
General purpose I/O is available on the Geo Brick Drive. All I/O is electrically isolated from the drive.
Inputs can be configured for sinking or sourcing applications. All Inputs are 12-24VDC. All Outputs are
24V nominal operation, 0.5A maximum current. Outputs are robust against ESD and overload.
20
Description
1
GPIN17
Input
Input 17
2
GPIN19
Input
Input 19
3
GPIN21
Input
Input 21
4
GPIN23
Input
Input 23
5
GPIN25
Input
Input 25
6
GPIN27
Input
Input 27
7
GPIN29
Input
Input 29
8
GPIN31
Input
Input 31
9
IN_COM 17-24
Input
Input 17 to 24 Common
10
N.C
Not Connected
11
COM_EMT
Input
Common Emitter **
12
GPO9Output
Sourcing Output 9 **
13
GPO10Output
Sourcing Output 10 **
14
GPO11Output
Sourcing Output 11**
15
GPO12Output
Sourcing Output 12 **
16
GPO13Output
Sourcing Output 13 **
17
GPO14Output
Sourcing Output 14 **
18
GPO15Output
Sourcing Output 15 **
19
GPO16Output
Sourcing Output 16 **
20
GPIN18
Input
Input 18
21
GPIN20
Input
Input 20
22
GPIN22
Input
Input 22
23
GPIN24
Input
Input 24
24
GPIN26
Input
Input 26
25
GPIN28
Input
Input 28
26
GPIN30
Input
Input 30
27
GPIN32
Input
Input 32
28
IN_COM_25-32
Input
Input 25 to 32 Common
29
COM_COL
Input
Common Collector *
30
GPO9+
Output
Sinking Output 9 *
31
GPO10+
Output
Sinking Output 10 *
32
GPO11+
Output
Sinking Output 11 *
33
GPO12+
Output
Sinking Output 12 *
34
GPO13+
Output
Sinking Output 13 *
35
GPO14+
Output
Sinking Output 14 *
36
GPO15+
Output
Sinking Output 15 *
37
GPO16+
Output
Sinking Output 16 *
*For sinking outputs, connect the COM_EMT (pin11) line to the Analog GND of the Power supply and the
outputs to the individual plus output lines, e.g. GPO9+
**For sourcing outputs, connect the COM_COL (pin29) line to 12-24V and the outputs to the individual
minus output lines, e.g., GPO9Do not mix topologies, i.e., all sinking or all sourcing outputs. If the common emitter is used, the common
collector should be unconnected. Conversely, if the common collector is used, the common emitter should be
unconnected.
System Wiring
39
Geo Brick User Manual
Suggested M-Variable Addressing for the optional General Purpose I/O (J7)
Notes
40
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Sinking
Address
M16->
Y:$78803,0,1
Input 16 Data Line, J7 Pin 1
M17->
Y:$78803,1,1
Input 17 Data Line, J7 Pin 20
M18->
Y:$78803,2,1
Input 18 Data Line, J7 Pin 2
M19->
Y:$78803,3,1
Input 19 Data Line, J7 Pin 21
M20->
Y:$78803,4,1
Input 20 Data Line, J7 Pin 3
M21->
Y:$78803,5,1
Input 21 Data Line, J7 Pin 22
M22->
Y:$78803,6,1
Input 22 Data Line, J7 Pin 4
M23->
Y:$78803,7,1
Input 23 Data Line, J7 Pin 23
M24->
Y:$78804,0,1
Input 24 Data Line, J7 Pin 5
M25->
Y:$78804,1,1
Input 25 Data Line, J7 Pin 24
M26->
Y:$78804,2,1
Input 26 Data Line, J7 Pin 6
M27->
Y:$78804,3,1
Input 27 Data Line, J7 Pin 25
M28->
Y:$78804,4,1
Input 28 Data Line, J7 Pin 7
M29->
Y:$78804,5,1
Input 29 Data Line, J7 Pin 26
M30->
Y:$78804,6,1
Input 30 Data Line, J7 Pin 8
M31->
Y:$78804,7,1
Input 31 Data Line, J7 Pin 27
M40->
Y:$078805,0,1
Output 9 Data Line
M41->
Y:$078805,1,1
Output 10 Data Line
M42->
Y:$078805,2,1
Output 11 Data Line
M43->
Y:$078805,3,1
Output 12 Data Line
M44->
Y:$078805,4,1
Output 13 Data Line
M45->
Y:$078805,5,1
Output 14 Data Line
M46->
Y:$078805,6,1
Output 15 Data Line
M47->
Y:$078805,7,1
Output 16 Data Line
Do not mix topologies, i.e., all sinking or all sourcing outputs. If the common emitter is used, the
common collector should be unconnected. Conversely, if the common collector is used, the common
emitter should be unconnected.
Sourcing
Suggested M-var. #
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Sample J6/J7, I/O Wiring Diagrams
20
2
21
3
4
5
6
22
23
24
25
7
8
26
27
9
28
10
29
11
12
30
13
31
14
32
15
33
34
18
36
19
37
4
5
6
7
8
21
22
23
24
25
26
9
27
10
28
11
8
Output 02
GPO3-
Output 03
GPO4-
Output 04
Output 05
GPO6-
GPIN01
GPIN02
GPIN03
GPIN04
GPIN05
GPIN06
GPIN07
GPIN08
GPIN09
GPIN10
GPIN11
GPIN12
GPIN13
GPIN14
GPIN15
GPIN16
IN_COM_01-08
IN_COM_09-16
29
24
26
9
27
10
28
Output 08
Output 01
13
31
GPO2+
Output 02
14
32
GPO3+
Output 03
15
33
GPO4+
Output 04
16
34
GPO5+
Output 05
35
GPO6+
Output 06
36
GPO7+
Output 07
37
GPO8+
Output 08
GBL
Sinking 01-08 Inputs
Sourcing 09-16 Inputs
24V Supply
0V 24V
3
4
5
Inputs
09-16
2
6
21
22
23
24
7
25
8
26
9
27
10
28
11
12
30
13
31
14
32
14
32
15
33
15
33
13
16
17
18
19
30
34
35
36
37
16
17
GPIN01
GPIN02
GPIN03
GPIN04
GPIN05
GPIN06
GPIN07
GPIN08
GPIN09
GPIN10
GPIN11
GPIN12
GPIN13
GPIN14
GPIN15
GPIN16
IN_COM_01-08
IN_COM_09-16
24V Supply
0V 24V
Inputs
01-08
Inputs
09-16
29
31
12
Inputs
09-16
COM_EMT
GPO1+
20
Inputs
01-08
Inputs
01-08
30
19
24V Supply
0V 24V
29
18
Output 07
GPIN01
GPIN02
GPIN03
GPIN04
GPIN05
GPIN06
GPIN07
GPIN08
GPIN09
GPIN10
GPIN11
GPIN12
GPIN13
GPIN14
GPIN15
GPIN16
IN_COM_01-08
IN_COM_09-16
12
17
Output 06
GPO8-
23
11
Output 01
GPO1-
22
25
7
1
1
3
6
COM_COL
GPO7-
20
4
Inputs
09-16
GBL
Sourcing 01-08 Inputs
Sinking 09-16 Inputs
2
21
3
5
GPO535
20
2
Inputs
01-08
GPO2-
16
17
GPIN01
GPIN02
GPIN03
GPIN04
GPIN05
GPIN06
GPIN07
GPIN08
GPIN09
GPIN10
GPIN11
GPIN12
GPIN13
GPIN14
GPIN15
GPIN16
IN_COM_01-08
IN_COM_09-16
GBL
Sinking 01-16 Inputs
Sinking 01-08 Outputs
24V Supply
0V 24V
1
1
GBL
Sourcing 01-16 Inputs
Sourcing 01-08 Outputs
34
35
18
36
19
37
J6 and J7 pinout is the same, J6 is default I/O and J7 (Inputs 17-32 and Outputs 9-16) is installed only
when Digital I/O Option is ordered.
System Wiring
41
Geo Brick User Manual
Setting up Quadrature Encoders
Digital quadrature encoders are the most common position sensors used with Geo Drives. Interface
circuitry for these encoders comes standard on board-level Turbo PMAC controllers, UMAC axisinterface boards, Geo drives, and QMAC control boxes.
Signal Format
Quadrature encoders provide two digital signals that are a function of the position of the encoder, each
nominally with 50% duty cycle, and nominally one-quarter cycle apart. This format provides four distinct
states per cycle of the signal, or per line of the encoder. The phase difference of the two signals permits the
decoding electronics to discern the direction of travel, which would not be possible with a single signal.
Typically, these signals are at 5V TTL/CMOS levels, whether single-ended or differential. The input
circuits are powered by the main 5V supply for the controller, but they can accept up to +/-12V between
the signals of each differential pair, and +/-12V between a signal and the GND voltage reference.
Differential encoder signals can enhance noise immunity by providing common-mode noise rejection.
Modern design standards virtually mandate their use for industrial systems, especially in the presence of
PWM power amplifiers, which generate a great deal of electromagnetic interference.
Hardware Setup
The Geo Drive accepts inputs from up to eight digital encoders
and provides encoder position data to the motion processor. X1
is encoder 1 connector and X2 is encoder 2 and respectively up
to X8. The differential format provides a means of using
twisted pair wiring that allows for better noise immunity when
wired into machinery.
Geo Drives encoder interface circuitry employs differential line
receivers. The wiring diagram on the right shows an example
of how to connect the Geo drive to a quadrature encoder.
Function
Pin #
CHAn+
CHAnCHBn+
CHBnCHCn+
CHCnENCPWR
GND
1
9
2
10
3
11
4
12
Encoder Decode
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Value
9
10
11
12
13
CHAn+
CHAnCHBn+
CHBnCHCn+
CHCnENCPWRn
GND
Shield
14
15
Description
3
Clockwise decode
7
Counter clockwise decode
m = 0 for axis 1-4 (n = 1-4) and m = 1 for axis 5 – 8 (n = 1-4)
I7mn0
42
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Encoder Loss Setup
Geo Brick controller has encoder-loss detection circuitry for each encoder input. Designed for use with
encoders with differential line-driver outputs, the circuitry monitors each input pair with an exclusive-or
(XOR) gate. If the encoder is working properly and connected to the Geo Brick, the two inputs of the pair
should be in opposite logical states – one high and one low – yielding a true output from the XOR gate.
Note
A single-ended encoder cannot be used on the channel Encoder-Loss Errors
For the Geo Brick Controller Encoder-loss detection bits come in the locations shown in the table below.
Channel#
Address
Description
Encoder #1
Y:$78807,0,1
Encoder #1 Loss Input Signal
Encoder #2
Y:$78807,1,1
Encoder #2 Loss Input Signal
Encoder #3
Y:$78807,2,1
Encoder #3 Loss Input Signal
Encoder #4
Y:$78807,3,1
Encoder #4 Loss Input Signal
Encoder #5
Y:$78807,4,1
Encoder #5 Loss Input Signal
Encoder #6
Y:$78807,5,1
Encoder #6 Loss Input Signal
Encoder #7
Y:$78807,6,1
Encoder #7 Loss Input Signal
Encoder #8
Y:$78807,7,1
Encoder #8 Loss Input Signal
As of this writing, there is no automatic action taken on detection of encoder loss. Users who want to
take action on detecting encoder loss should write a PLC program to look for a change in the encoder loss
bit and take the appropriate action. Generally, the only appropriate response is to kill (open loop, zero
output, disabled) the motor with lost encoder feedback; other motors may be killed or aborted as well.
This next example program reacts to a detection of encoder loss. This is a more serious condition than a
count error, so a “kill” command is issued when the loss is detected. The example is for a single axis only,
but is easy to duplicate for multiple axes.
; Substitutions and definitions
#define Mtr1OpenLoop
M138 ; Motor status bit
Mtr1OpenLoop->Y:$0000B0,18,1
; Standard definition
#define Enc1LossIn
M180 ; Input loss-detection bit
Enc1LossIn->Y:$078807,0,1
; Geo Brick Ch1 loss bit
#define Mtr1EncLossStatus
P180 ; Internal latched status
#define Lost
0
; Low-true fault here
#define OK
1
; High is encoder present
; Program (PLC) to check for and react to encoder loss
OPEN PLC 18 CLEAR
; Logic to disable and set fault status
IF (Mtr1OpenLoop=0 AND Enc1LossIn=Lost)
; Closed loop, no enc
CMD^K
; Kill all motors
Mtr1EncLossStatus=1
; Indicate encoder loss
ENDIF
; Logic to clear fault status
IF (Mtr1OpenLoop=1 AND Enc1LossIn=OK AND Mtr1EncLossStatus=0)
Mtr1EncLossStatus=0
; Indicate valid encoder signal
ENDIF
CLOSE
For more details about Encoder Loss look into the Turbo USERs Manual chapter: Making Your
Application Safe.
System Wiring
43
Geo Brick User Manual
Setting Up Digital Hall Sensors
Many motor manufactures now give the consumer the option of placing both Hall effect sensors and
quadrature encoders on the end shaft of brushless motors. This will allow the controller to estimate the
rotor magnetic field orientation and adjusts the command among the motor phases properly without
rotating the motor at power-up. If this is not done properly, the motor or amplifier could be damaged.
Three-phase digital hall-effect position sensors (or their equivalent) are popular for commutation
feedback. They can also be used with any PMAC as low-resolution position/velocity sensors. As
commutation position sensors, typically, they are just used by PMAC for approximate power-up phase
position; ongoing phase position is derived from the same high-resolution encoder that is used for servo
feedback. (Many controllers and amplifiers use these hall sensors as their only commutation position
feedback, starting and ongoing, but that is a lower-performance technique.)
Many optical encoders have hall tracks. These commutation tracks provide signal outputs equivalent to
those of magnetic hall commutation sensors, but use optical means to create the signals.
Note:
These digital hall-effect position sensors should not be confused with analog halleffect current sensors used in many amplifiers to provide current feedback data for
the current loop.
Signal Format
Digital hall sensors provide three digital signals that are a function of the position of the motor, each
nominally with 50% duty cycle, and nominally one-third cycle apart. (This format is often called 120o
spacing. Geo Brick Drive has no automatic hardware or software features to work with 60o spacing.)
This format provides six distinct states per cycle of the signal. Typically, one cycle of the signal set
corresponds to one electrical cycle, or pole pair, of the motor. These sensors, then, can provide absolute
(if low resolution) information about where the motor is in its commutation cycle, and eliminate the need
to do a power-on phasing search operation.
Hardware Setup
If used for power-up commutation position feedback only, typically the hall sensors are wired into the U,
V, and W supplemental flags of X1 –X8 connectors of the Geo Brick Drive. These are single-ended 5V
digital inputs on all existing hardware implementations. They are not optically isolated inputs; if isolation
is desired from the sensor, this must be done externally.
The wiring diagram below shows an example of how to connect the Geo drive with the Hall Sensors.
44
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
GBL_Hall effect wiring X1-X8
1
Function
U
V
W
T
5V
GND
Pin #
2
5
13
6
14
4
12
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Shield
ENCPWRn
GND
CHUn+
CHVn+
CHWn+
CHTn+
15
Note:
In the case of magnetic hall sensors, the feedback signals often come back to the
controller in the same cable as the motor power leads. In this case, the possibility
of a short to motor power must be considered; safety considerations and industrial
design codes may make it impermissible to connect the signals directly to the Geo
Brick Drive TTL inputs without isolation.
If used for servo position and velocity feedback, the three hall sensors are connected to the A, B, and C
encoder inputs, so that the signal edges can be counted. As with quadrature encoders, these inputs can be
single-ended or differential. They are not optically isolated inputs; if isolation is desired from the sensor,
this must be done externally. There may be applications in which the signals are connected both to U, V,
and W inputs (for power-on commutation position) and to A, B, and C inputs (for servo feedback).
Using Hall Effect Sensors for Phase Reference
There are usually four things to be considered about the alignment of the Hall Effect Sensors in order to
properly set up Hall Effect phasing within the Geo Drive.
• Commutation Phase angle –based on Ixx72
• Hall Effect Transition Points
• Hall Effect Zero position with respect to PMAC’s electrical zero
• Polarity of the Hall Effects – standard or reversed
Determining the Commutation Phase Angle
The commutation phase angle most likely has been set up already and it can be checked by querying the
value of Ixx72. For details on how this is determined, see the Commutation Phase section of the Turbo
User Manual, for either Sinusoidal Commutation or Direct PWM Commutation.
Turbo Ixx72=683 Turbo Ixx72=1365
Commutation
Phase Angle
120 degrees
240 degrees
Finding the Hall Effect Transition Points
Usually, hall-effect sensors map out six zones of 60o elec each. In terms of PMAC2’s (non Turbo or
Turbo) commutation cycle, usually the boundaries will have one of two different combinations. If the
Hall effect sensors are placed at 30°, 150°, and 270°, then the boundaries will be located at 180°, -120°, o
60°, 0°, 60°, and 120°. Another common placement of Hall Effect Sensors has them located at 0 , 120°,
and 240°. In this case, the boundaries will be located at 30°, 90°, 150°, -150°, -90°, and -30°. Typically,
a motor manufacturer will align the sensors to within a few degrees of this, because these are the proper
System Wiring
45
Geo Brick User Manual
boundary points if all commutation is done from the commutation sensors. If mounting the hall-effect
sensors manually, take care to align the boundaries at these points. The simplest way is to force the motor
to the zero degree point with a current offset (as described below) and adjust the sensor while watching its
outputs to get a boundary as close as possible to this point.
In order to determine where the Hall effect transition points are located, there must be a method of
reading the status in software from the PMAC Executive Software or equivalent setup software. To do
this, define M-variables to the Hall-Effects or equivalent inputs. Suggested definitions for Channel 1 are:
Turbo
Description
M124->X:$078000,20
M125->X:$078000,21
M126->X:$078000,22
M127->X:$078000,23
M128->X:$078000,20,4
M171->X:$0000B4,0,24,S
Channel 1 W flag
Channel 1 V flag
Channel 1 U flag
Channel 1 T flag
Channel 1 TUVW as a 4-bit value
Channel 1 Phase Position Register (counts *I170)
Suggested definitions for Channel 2 are:
Turbo
Description
M224->X:$078008,20
M225->X:$078008,21
M226->X:$078008,22
M227->X:$078008,23
M228->X:$078008,20,4
M271->X:$000134,0,24,S
Channel 2 W flag
Channel 2 V flag
Channel 2 U flag
Channel 2 T flag
Channel 2 TUVW as a 4-bit value
Channel 2 Phase Position Register (counts *I270)
Refer to the Turbo PMAC Software Reference manual for the rest of the suggested M-variables.
Create these definitions and add the variables to the Watch window (delete other variables that no longer
need to be monitored). With the motor killed, move the motor slowly by hand to verify that the inputs
that should change do change.
To map the hall-effect sensors, use the current-loop six-step test, or a variant of it, to force the motor to
known positions in the commutation cycle and observe the states of the hall-effect signals.
Calculating the Hall Effect Zero Point (HEZ)
The first step in finding the Hall Effect Zero point is to create a chart of the Hall Sensor Values at
different points in the Electrical Cycle. Use the Current Loop 6-step method to do this. Perform the
Current Loop 6-step method as described below and record the U (M126), V (M125), and W (M124)
values at each step in the procedure.
Current Loop Six-Step Procedure
Commutation Phase Angle at 120 o –> Ixx72= 683
Hall Sensors at 30o, 150 o, and 270o
P179=I179
#1o0
P129=I129
Six Step Method
I179=3000
I179=1500
I179=-1500
I179=-3000
I179=-1500
I179=1500
I179=3000
I179=P179
46
; store previous offsets before test
; Open loop command of zero magnitude
I129=-1500 ; -30oelec.
I129=1500 ; 30oelec.
I129=3000 ; 90oelec.
I129=1500 ; 150oelec.
I129=-1500 ; -150oelec.
I129=-3000 ; -90oelec.
I129=-1500; -30oelec.
I129=P129
U (Mx26)
V(Mx25)
W(Mx24)
; restore previous offsets after test
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Hall Sensors at 0o, 120 o, and 240o
P179=I179
#1o0
P129=I129
; store previous offsets before test
; Open loop command of zero magnitude
Six Step Method
I129=0
; 0oelec.
I129=3000; 60oelec.
I129=3000; 120oelec.
I129=0
; 180oelec.
I129=-3000 ; -120oelec.
I129=-3000 ; -60oelec.
I129=0
; 0oelec.
I179=3000
I179=0
I179=-3000
I179=-3000
I179=0
I179=3000
I179=3000
U (Mx26)
V(Mx25)
W(Mx24)
I179=P179
I129=P129
; restore previous offsets after test
P179=I179
#1o0
P129=I129
; store previous offsets before test
; Open loop command of zero magnitude
Commutation Phase Angle at 240 o –> Ixx72=1365
Hall Sensors at 30o, 150 o, and 270o
Six Step Method
I179=1500
I179=3000
I179=1500
I179=-1500
I179=-3000
I179=-1500
I179=1500
I179=P179
I129=1500
I129=-1500
I129=-3000
I129=-1500
I129=1500
I129=3000
I129=1500
I129=P129
o
; -30oelec.
; 30oelec.
; 90oelec.
; 150oelec.
; -150oelec.
; -90oelec.
; -30oelec.
U (M126)
V(M125)
W(M124)
; restore previous offsets after test
Hall Sensors at 0 , 120 , and 240o
P179=I179
#1o0
o
P129=I129
Six Step Method
I179=3000
I179=3000
I179=0
I179=-3000
I179=-3000
I179=0
I179=3000
I179=P179
; store previous offsets before test
; Open loop command of zero magnitude
I129=0
; 0oelec.
I129= -3000 ; 60oelec.
I129= -3000 ; 120oelec.
I129=0
; 180oelec.
I129=3000 ; -120oelec.
I129=3000 ; -60oelec.
I129=0
; 0oelec.
I129=P129
U (Mx26)
V(Mx25)
W(Mx24)
; restore previous offsets after test
Now that the transitions have been mapped out for the sections of the electrical cycle, define and calculate
the Hall Effect Zero (HEZ).
Note:
Remember to clear the offsets when finished with this test.
Hall Effect Zero (HEZ) – The Hall Effect Zero is the location in the electrical cycle when U is low
(value of 0), W is high (value of 1), and V changes state either from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1.
Refer to the diagram below as an example:
System Wiring
47
Geo Brick User Manual
UVW Value:
U
V
W
1
3
2
6
4
5
-30
30
90
150
-150
-90
1
0
1
0
1
0
Cycle:
HEZ @ +60 degrees electrical
The offset can be computed using the mapping test shown above. In the example, the Hall Effect Zero
(HEZ) point was found to be between +30oe and +90oe, so it is called +60oe. The offset value can be
computed as:
Offset =
HEZ %360 o
* 64
360 o
The offset computed here should be rounded to the nearest integer.
In the example, this comes to:
Offset =
+ 60 o %360 o
60 o
∗ 64 =
∗ 64 = 10.667 ≈ 11 = $0B hex
o
360 o
360
Find the Hall Effect Zero and record it for use in setting up Ixx91 (Turbo).
Hall Effect Zero
Determining the Polarity of the Hall Effects – Standard or Reversed
The polarity of the Hall Effects can be determined from the chart recorded in the previous section in the
Current Loop 6-step procedure. The polarity depends on how the motor leads were connected with
respect to the encoder direction as well as how it was wired in the hall effects with respect to the electrical
cycle (in other words the U and V wires were swapped).
Standard Polarity – if the current loop 6-step is being executed in the positive direction of the electrical
cycle (from –30 to 30, 90, 150, -150, -90, -30 or 0 to 60, 120, 180, -120, -60,0), the system is considered
to have a standard Hall Effect polarity if the transition of V at the Hall Effect Zero is from 0 to 1.
Reversed Polarity - if the current loop 6-step is being executed in the positive direction of the electrical
cycle (from –30 to 30, 90, 150, -150, -90, -30 or 0 to 60, 120, 180, -120, -60,0), the system is considered
to have a reversed Hall Effect polarity if the transition of V at the Hall Effect Zero is from 1 to 0.
Refer to the chart below as an example:
An easy to determine if the hall effects are standard or reversed (setting bit 22 Ixx91) would be to look at
the data in columns.
48
Ixx79
Ixx29 Electrical
Cycle U V W
3000
1500
-1500
-3000
-1500
1500
3000
-1500
-3000
-1500
1500
3000
1500
-1500
-30
-90
-150
150
90
30
-30
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
Positive
The HEZ occurs at 60° electrical. If the
transition of V from 0 to 1 at the HEZ point
is in the negative direction (like this
example), then the hall effect sensing would
be considered reversed. If the transition of
V from 0 to 1 at the HEZ is in the positive
direction, then the hall effect sensing would
be considered standard.
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Record whether the Hall Effects are setup as standard or reversed and move on to the next step of setting
up the Controller setup parameters for Hall Effect Power on Phasing.
Software Settings for Hall Effect Phasing
The variables used for Hall Effect Phasing are Ixx81 & Ixx91. These variables are the Power on-phasing
setup registers. To enable a Hall Effect Phasing on power up you must configure Ixx81/Ixx91 properly
and then enable the power on feature by setting Ixx80=1. The default of Ixx80 is 0 and then a phasing
search will only be activated by the $ command. It is recommended that the phasing search is setup tested
with the aid of this document and verified through the $ command before enabling the power on phasing
routine with Ixx80.
Note:
If Ixx73 and Ixx74 have a value greater than zero, then the automatic hall phasing
routines will not work. Ixx73 and Ixx74 are used for the automatic step phase
method.
Software Setup
Turbo Software Setup
Hall Effect Phasing on Turbo PMACs is setup through Ixx81 and Ixx91. Ixx81 contains address
information for the Hall Effect Data and Ixx91 contains the power-on phasing mode as well HEZ and
polarity information necessary for Hall Effect Phasing.
Ixx81 Hall Effect Setup for Turbo
Hex ($)
0
7
8
0
0
0
Bit
23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Value
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Source Address ($78000)
The Ixx81 setting contains the location of the Hall Effect Data and is channel dependent. The above
setting is channel one on Turbo PMAC2 Geo Brick.
Ixx91 Hall Effect Setup for Turbo
Hex ($)
C
B
C
0
0
0
Bit
23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Value
1
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
Hall Effect Offset ($0B)
0
0
0
0
Reserved
Standard Hall Sense (0), Reversed Hall Sense (1)
Hall Effect Type Phase (1)
Bit 23
This bit is always set to 1 to tell PMAC to turn on Hall Effect Phasing
Bit 22
Hall Effect Polarity- 0 for standard and 1 for reversed (see section 6)
Bits 16-21
HEZ in Hexadecimal format, see section 5 above.
Bits 0-15
Reserved
Example:
For a Geo Brick on Axis 1 using Hall Effects with a HEZ of 60oe and reversed polarity the setting would
be:
Offset =
60 o
+ 60 o %360 o
∗ 64 =
∗ 64 = 10.667 ≈ 11 = $0B hex
360 o
360 o
I181= $078000
System Wiring
49
Geo Brick User Manual
I191= $800000 + $400000 + $0B0000 = $CB0000
Optimizing the Hall Effect Phasing Routine for Maximum Performance
Since typically there are only three Hall Sensors, the accuracy of phase referencing is good to +/-30o of the
commutation cycle, which is enough to get reasonable torque and reasonable smoothness without any
phasing search. However, it is recommended to more accurately update the phase position register during
the home routine for a particular axis. Since the index pulse is a fixed global reference to the electrical
cycle 0 and it is often used in homing routines, the home routine presents a perfect opportunity to
optimize the phasing of a motor.
An excellent (and recommended) method of phasing a motor is to use the Halls on power up and then
write a value into the phase position register after homing. We have already discussed how to set up the
Halls as a power on phasing routine. To execute a fine phasing routine as part of the home routine, follow
the procedure below.
Manually Step-phase the Motor
Exercise caution, as a manual step phasing routine will jerk the motor into electrical zero. The distance of
the jerk will depend on the number of poles on the motor as well any coupling that may be attached to the
motor.
To Manually step phase axis 1 execute the following routine:
P179=I179
#1o0
I179=3000
M171=0
I179=P179
P129=I129
I129=0
I129=P129
;store current offsets
;Enable the amplifier
;force motor into Electrical Zero
;zero the phase position register
;reset current offsets
After performing a step-phasing routine the motor will be phased as accurately as possible.
Perform a Home Search Move using the Index Pulse
Execute a home search move using the index pulse or move the motor to the index pulse using an
oscilloscope. Once the motor is at index pulse/home routine, record the phase position register value,
Mx71, after the motor has settled into position. The value recorded will be the phase position reference
whenever it is homed to an index pulse. Store this value in Ixx75. Ixx75 is not used when a Hall Effect
automatic phasing routine is enabled. To store this value into flash, make sure to issue a SAVE command.
Add Fine Phasing Value as Part of Home Routine
As long as the home routine includes the index pulse as part of the trigger, write the stored value of Ixx75
(from the previous step) to the phase position register after the routine is finished. So on power up the
Halls will provide the phasing to enable the motor move through homing routine. After the homing
routine is finished, then the phase position register should be updated with a more value than given from
the Halls.
Turbo PMAC2 Example:
;Homing PLC
open plc11 clear
I7212=3
I7213=0
cmd”#1hm”
while(m140!=0)
endwhile
M171=I175
close
50
;M140 is in-position bit- suggested m-var
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Other Cases
Not all applications will be using the index pulse as part of a homing routine. It is acceptable to use
another global fixed position as a fine phasing reference. As long as the position chosen is fixed with
respect to the motor’s position. Use the same procedure as described above to find the phase position
value at that fixed position. First step phase the motor, then move the motor to the desired home routine,
let the motor settle, record the phase position and store it into Ixx75. Then after homing, check to make
sure the motor is in-position and write the value into Mx71.
This document chose the index pulse to capitalize on the accuracy that PMAC’s Gate Array has with
respect to latching on the index pulse. Using the index pulse also allows a common value to stuffed into
Mx71 for different machines. Typically, motor manufacturers will mount the index in a repeatable
manner with respect to the electrical cycle, although this cannot be guaranteed by Delta Tau. If not
homing using the index pulse, then the value for Mx71 must be measured on every machine since it is
dependant on the mounting of the motor to a coupling or the location of a home/limit switch.
Example 1:
Geo Brick in Direct PWM Commutation mode with Ixx72=683 and Hall Sensors at 30o, 150 o, and 270o
Step
M179
M129
Cycle
Pos.
Physical
Position
M101
(counts)
M126
(U)
M125
(V)
M124
(W)
M128
(TUVW)
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
+3000
+1500
-1500
-3000
-1500
+1500
+3000
-1500
-3000
-1500
+1500
+3000
+1500
-1500
-30o
-90o
-150o
+150o
+90o
+30o
-30o
3:30
2:30
1:30
12:30
11:30
10:30
9:30
-9001
-9343
-9673
-10030
-10375
-10709
-11050
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
2
6
4
5
1
3
2
Note:
If the T flag input is 1, the values of Mx28 will be 8 greater than what is shown in
the table.
Using the Test Results
To execute a power-on phasing using the hall-effect sensors, use new modes of the Ixx81 power-on phase
position parameter, or write a simple PLC program that executes once on power-up/reset.
Setting bit 23 of Ixx81 to 1 specifies a hall-effect power-on phase reference. In this case, the address
portion of Ixx81 specifies a PMAC X-address, usually that of the flag register used for the motor, the
same address as in Ixx24.
PMAC expects to find the hall-effect inputs at bits 20, 21, and 22 of the specified register. In a flag
register, these bits match the CHWn, CHVn, and CHUn inputs, respectively. Hall-effect inputs are
traditionally labeled U, V, and W.
The hall-effect signals must each have a duty cycle of 50% (180oe). PMAC can use hall-effect
commutation sensors separated by 120oe. There is no industry standard with hall-effect sensors as to
direction sense or zero reference, so this must be handled with software settings of Ixx81.
Bit 22 controls the direction sense of the hall-effect sensors as shown in the following diagrams, where a
value of 0 for bit 22 is “standard” and a value of 1 is “reversed”:
System Wiring
51
Geo Brick User Manual
This diagram shows the hall-effect waveforms with zero offset, defined such that the V-signal transition
when the U-signal is low (defined as the zero point in the hall-effect cycle) represents the zero point in
PMAC’s commutation cycle.
If the hall-effect sensors do not have this orientation, bits 16 to 21 of Ixx81 can be used to specify the
offset between PMAC’s zero point and the hall-effect zero point. These bits can take a value of 0 to 63
with units of 1/64 of a commutation cycle (5.625oe). Below is the hall effect waveform diagram
constructed from the example.
UVW Value:
U
V
W
1
3
2
6
4
5
-30
30
90
150
-150
-90
1
0
1
0
1
0
Cycle:
HEZ @ +60 degrees electrical
The offset can be computed using the mapping test shown above. In the example, the hall effect zero
(HEZ) point was found to be between +30oe and +90oe, so we will call +60oe. The offset value can be
computed as:
Offset =
HEZ %360 o
* 64
360 o
The offset computed here should be rounded to the nearest integer.
In the example, this comes to:
Offset =
+ 60 o %360 o
60 o
∗ 64 =
∗ 64 = 10.667 ≈ 11 = $0B hex
360 o
360 o
The test showed that the hall-effect sensors were in the reversed direction, not standard, so bit 22 is set to
one. With bit 23 (a value of 8 in the first hex digit) set to 1 to specify hall effect sensing, the first two hex
digits of Ix81 become $CB. If Flag register 1 at address $C000 were used for the hall-effect inputs, Ix81
would be set to $CBC000.
An easy method to determine if the hall effects are standard or reversed (setting bit 22) would be to look
at the data in columns.
Ixx79
3000
1500
-1500
-3000
-1500
1500
3000
52
Ixx29 Electrical
Cycle
U
V
W
-1500
-3000
-1500
1500
3000
1500
-1500
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
-30
-90
-150
150
90
30
-30
Positive
The HEZ occurs at 60° electrical. If
the transition of V from 0 to 1 at the
HEZ point is in the negative direction
(like this example), then the hall
effect sensing would be considered
reversed. If the transition of V from 0
to 1 at the HEZ is in the positive
direction, then the hall effect sensing
would be considered standard.
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
The description of Ix81 in the Software Reference shows the common values of offsets used, for all the
cases where the zero point in the hall-effect cycle is at a 0o, 60o, 120o, 180o, -120o, or -60o point -- where
manufacturers generally align the sensors.
Example:
Turbo PMAC Hall Effect Example with Ixx72=683 Hall Sensors at 30o, 150 o, and 270o
For the Turbo PMAC, the Hall effect method of phasing uses two PMAC I-Variables, Ixx81 and Ixx91.
Ixx81 tells PMAC what address to read for absolute power-on phase-position information, if such
information is present. Ixx91 tells how the data at the address specified by Ixx81 is to be interpreted.
M124->X:$78000,20 ;W channel 1
M125->X:$78000,21 ;V channel 1
M126->X:$78000,22 ;U channel 1
M127->X:$78000,20,4
;T,U,V,W channel 1
Ix79
Ix29 Electrical
Cycle
U VW
3000
1500
-1500
-3000
-1500
1500
3000
-1500
-3000
-1500
1500
3000
1500
-1500
-30
-90
-150
150
90
30
-30
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
The HEZ occurs at 60° electrical. If the transition
of V from 0 to 1 at the HEZ point is in the
negative direction (like this example), then the
hall effect sensing would be considered reversed.
If the transition of V from 0 to 1 at the HEZ is in
the positive direction, then the hall effect sensing
would be considered standard.
Positive refers to the direction of the electrical
cycle
Positive
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
The description of Ixx91 in the Software Reference shows the common values of offsets used, for all the cases
where the zero point in the hall-effect cycle is at a 0o, 60o, 120o, 180o, -120o, or -60o point -- where manufacturers
generally align the sensors.
Ixx81 Hall Effect phase settings are described in the Turbo Software Reference manual.
Ixx91 Hall Effect Setup for Turbo PMAC2
Hex ($)
C
B
0
0
0
0
Bit
23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Value
1
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Hall Effect Offset ($0B)
Standard Hall Sense (0), Reversed Hall Sense (1)
Hall Effect Type Phase (1)
Ixx91 mask = $80 + $40 + $0B = $CB
For Turbo PMAC2 Geo Brick, axis #1, this would give us I191 = $CB0000
System Wiring
53
Geo Brick User Manual
Setting Up the Analog Inputs (optional)
The Geo Brick Drive can be ordered with up to four analog to digital converters on a 4-Axis Geo Brick
Drive and can be ordered with two analog to digital converters on a 6-Axis Geo Brick Drive. There are no
analog input options available for an 8-Axis Geo Brick Drive. These A to D converters can be ordered
with either the 12-bit low-resolution or 16-bit hi-resolution analog option. These options cannot be mixed;
for example, you cannot order 2 low-resolution analog inputs lo-resolution and the other two inputs as hiresolution, nor can you order one low-resolution analog input and one hi-resolution analog input. If four
analog inputs are needed, then all four need to be ordered low-resolution or all four hi-resolution. If two
analog inputs are needed, both need to be ordered low-resolution or hi-resolution
The Geo Brick uses the Burr Brown ADS7861 for the low-resolution option and ADS8361 for the Hiresolution option. See Appendix B for partial Schematics
When selected for bipolar mode, differential inputs allow the user to apply input voltages to ±5 volts
(10Vp-p).
For a 4-Axis Geo Brick Drive
To read the A/D data, the user needs to set the ADC strobe word for the second gate array to I7106 =
$1FFFFF for either 12-bit or 16-bit option . Also, the user needs to create M-variable definitions that
point to the ADC inputs (M-variables that are used are suggested ones) for channels 5 to 8.
If the Low-resolution option (12-bit) is ordered, then the ADC strobe word for channels 5 to 8 (I7106 or
X:$78114) needs to be set equal to $1FFFFF
Bipolar
The data received is a signed 12-bit number scaled from –5V to +5V (-2047cts to 2048cts).
M5061->Y:$78105,12,12,s ;ch5 A-D channel
M5062->Y:$7810D,12,12,s ;ch6 A-D channel
M5063->Y:$78115,12,12,s ;ch7 A-D channel
M5064->Y:$7811D,12,12,s ;ch8 A-D channel
If the High-resolution option is ordered, then the ADC strobe word for channels 5 to 8 (I7106 or
X:$78114) also needs to be set equal to $1FFFFF
Bipolar
The data received is a signed 16-bit number scaled from –5V to +5V (-32768cts to 32767cts).
M5061->Y:$78105,8,116,s ;ch5 A-D channel
M5062->Y:$7810D,8,16,s ;ch6 A-D channel
M5063->Y:$78115,8,16,s ;ch7 A-D channel
M5064->Y:$7811D,8,16,s ;ch8 A-D channel
54
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
For a 6-Axis Geo Brick Drive
On a 6-Axis unit, the analog inputs use channels 7 and 8 of the second gate-array and channels 5 and 6 are
used for the current loop feedback. The strobe word for the current loop feedback is I7106=$3FFFFF,
which will set the strobe word for all the channels on the second gate-array. This then creates a conflict in
reading the analog ADC inputs because it needs a strobe word value of I7106=$1FFFFF for 12-bit option
and 16-bit option. Therefore, to satisfy all of the conditions, we can use M-variable definitions and Pvariables (M and P-Variables are suggested variables) for calculations that will point to the ADC inputs
and setup the strobe word for 12-bit and 16-bit analog option. This can then be put into a PLC program to
run in the background.
The low-resolution (12-bit) option uses the second gate-array which controls the strobe word for
channels 5 to 8 and is set to I7106=$3FFFFF for the current loop feedback. We can then create an Mvariable (M5000) that will read all the unsigned 24-bits of analog data, which is then copied into a Pvariable (P5000). The copied data in P5000 is shifted one bit to the right, which is set to equal to P5001.
At the same time the first bit of the 24-bits in P5000 is moved to the front and set as P5003. The results of
P5001 and P5003 are added together and then copied into a temporary M-variable location, M5004. The
data in M5004 is 24-bits; therefore we can then set M5005 to point to the upper signed 12-bits of M5004,
which will be the ADC7 12-bit signed analog input. This can be done by using the PLC program below:
Bipolar
The data received is a signed 12-bit number scaled from -5V to +5V (-2048cts to 2047cts).
M5000->y:$78115,0,24,u ;ch7 M-vars for A-D 24-bit raw data.
M5004->x:$10f0,0,24,u ;ch7 Temp M-vars location 24-bits.
M5005->x:$10f0,12,12,s ;ADC7 12-bit analog input (signed).
M6000->y:$7811d,0,24,u
M6004->x:$10f1,0,24,u
M6005->x:$10f1,12,12,s
i5=2
open plc21 clear
P5000=M5000
P5002=P5000&1
P5003=P5002*8388608
P5001=P5000/2
M5004=P5001+P5003
P6000=M6000
P6002=P6000&1
P6003=P6002*8388608
P6001=P6000/2
M6004=P6001+P6003
;ch8 M-vars for A-D unsigned 24-bits.
;ch8 Temp M-vars location unsigned 24-bits.
;ADC8 12-bit analog input.
;Enables background PLCs.
;copy values from M5000 to P5000.
;mask bit 1 (LSB) of P5000.
;move bit 1 of P5000 23 bits forward.
;move 1 bit to the right of P5000.
;Assemble M-var unsigned 24-bits to temp
;location by adding P5001 and P5003.
;copy values from M6000 to P6000.
;mask bit 1 (LSB) of P6000.
;move bit 1 of P6000 23 bits forward.
;move 1 bit to the right of P6000.
;Assemble M-var unsigned 24-bits to temp
;location by adding P6001 and P6003.
close
After executing this PLC program, the end user can use M5005 and M6005 for ADC7 and ADC8
respectively to read the 12-bit analog input register.
The high-resolution (16-bit) option uses the second gate-array which controls the strobe word for
channels 5 to 8 and is set to I7106=$3FFFFF for the current loop feedback. We can then create an Mvariable (M5000) that will read all the unsigned 24-bits of analog data, which is then copied into a Pvariable (P5000). The copied data in P5000 is shifted one bit to the right, which is set to equal to P5001.
System Wiring
55
Geo Brick User Manual
At the same time, the first bit of the 24-bits in P5000 is moved to the front and set as P5003. The results
of P5001 and P5003 are added together and then copied into a temporary M-variable location, M5004.
The data in M5004 is 24-bits; therefore we can then set M5005 to point to the upper signed 16-bits of
M5004, which will be the ADC7 16-bit signed analog input. This can be done by using the PLC program
constructed below:
Bipolar
The data received is a signed 16-bit number scaled from -5V to +5V (-32768cts to 32767cts).
M5000->y:$78115,0,24,u ;ch7 M-vars for A-D 24-bit raw data.
M5004->x:$10f1,0,24,u
;ch7 Temp M-vars location 24-bits.
M5005->x:$10f1,8,16,s
;ADC7 16-bit analog input (signed).
M6000->y:$7811d,0,24,u
M6004->x:$10f1,0,24,u
M6005->x:$10f1,8,16,s
i5=2
open plc21 clear
P5000=M5000
P5002=P5000&1
P5003=P5002*8388608
P5001=P5000/2
M5004=P5001+P5003
P6000=M6000
P6002=P6000&1
P6003=P6002*8388608
P6001=P6000/2
M6004=P6001+P6003
;ch8 M-vars for A-D unsigned 24-bits.
;ch8 Temp M-vars location unsigned 24-bits.
;ADC8 16-bit analog input.
;Enables background PLCs.
;copy values from M5000 to P5000.
;mask bit 1 (LSB) of P5000.
;move bit 1 of P5000 23 bits forward.
;move 1 bit to the right of P5000.
;Assemble M-var unsigned 24-bits to temp
;location by adding P5001 and P5003.
;copy values from M6000 to P6000.
;mask bit 1 (LSB) of P6000.
;move bit 1 of P6000 23 bits forward.
;move 1 bit to the right of P6000.
;Assemble M-var unsigned 24-bits to temp
;location by adding P6001 and P6003.
close
After executing this PLC program, the end user can use M5005 and M6005 for ADC7 and ADC8
respectively to read the 16-bit analog input registers.
56
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
The Geo Brick analog +/-10V outputs are produced by filtering a PWM signal. This technique has been
used for some time now by some other DeltaTau products (PMAC2A-PC/104) and many of our
competitors. Although this technique does not contain the same levels of performance as a true Digital to
Analog converter (DAC), for most servo applications it is more than adequate. Passing the PWM signal
through a 10KHz low pass filter creates the +/-10V signal output. The duty cycle of the PWM signal is
what generates the magnitude the voltage output. The frequency of the PWM signal determines the
magnitude and frequency of ripple on that +/-10V signal. As you lower the PWM frequency and
subsequently increase your output resolution, you increase the magnitude of the ripple as well as slow
down the frequency of the ripple as well. Depending on the system, this ripple can effect performance at
different levels.
Both the resolution and the frequency of the Filtered PWM outputs are configured in software on the Geo
Brick through the variable I7m00. This I7m00 variable also effects the phase and servo interrupts.
Therefore as we change I7m00 we will also have to change I7m01 (phase clock divider), I7m02 (servo
clock divider), and I10 (servo interrupt time). These four variables are all related and must be understood
before adjusting parameters. I7mn6 (m=1, n=1-4) needs to be set for PWM output.
When the analog I/O option is ordered the Geo Brick comes with 2 or 4 analog (+/10VDC) output signals.
These analog output signals are filtered PWM signals, 12-bit analog outputs. These outputs can be either
single-ended or differential. For a single-ended analog output use the DACn+ (pin 3) side of the signal
and leave the DACn- (pin 7) floating; do not ground it. For a differential command output, connect the
positive side of the DACn+ (pin 3), and the negative side DAC- (pin 7).
To limit the range of each signal to ±5V, use parameter Ixx69. Any analog output not used for dedicated
servo purposes may be utilized as a general-purpose analog output. Usually this is done by defining an
M-variable to the digital-to-analog-converter register (suggested M-variable definitions M502, M602,
etc.), then writing values to the M-variable. The analog outputs are intended to drive high-impedance
inputs with no significant current draw. The 220Ω output resistors will keep the current draw lower than
50 mA in all cases and prevent damage to the output circuitry, but any current draw above 10 mA can
result in noticeable signal distortion.
Example:
Filtered DAC Outputs Configuration
The following I-variables must be set properly to use the digital-to-analog (filtered DAC) outputs:
n = channel number from 5 to 8 and x = motor number from 5 to 8
I7100= 810
; PWM frequency 30-35kHz, PWM 5-8
I7103 = 2770
; ADC clock frequency
I7104= 0
; Zero deadtime
Ixx69= 810
; DAC limit 10Vdc, anything over I7100 will just
;rail the DAC at 10V
M502->Y:$78102,8,16,s ;DAC5
M602->Y:$7810A,8,16,s ;DAC6
M702->Y:$78112,8,16,s ;DAC7
M802->Y:$7811A,8,16,s ;DAC8
So as to use M-variables to control the DAC outputs, the Ixx00 need to be set equal to 0
I500=0
; Axis #5 is not activated
I600=0
; Axis #6 is not activated
I700=0
; Axis #7 is not activated
I800=0
; Axis #8 is not activated
Else the user will have to use Open loop commands or servo at the channels.
System Wiring
57
Geo Brick User Manual
Setting up for Pulse and Direction Output
The following section shows how to quickly setup the key variables for a stepper motor (PFM) system.
The step and direction outputs are RS422 compatible and are capable of being connected in either
differential mode or single ended configurations for 5V input drivers.
Below are two examples for wiring the Geo Brick drive to the stepper Amplifier. The user needs to write
pin 8 to pin 4 so as to enable the Stepper output and the AENA.
GBL_Stepper output wiring X1-X8,
no encoder feedback
Amplifier Enable lines are used
GBL_Stepper output wiring X1-X8,
quadrature encoder feedback,
Amplifier Enable lines are used
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
CHAn+
CHAnCHBn+
CHBnENCPWR
2
3
AENAn+/index +
AENAn-/index -
4
GND
DIRn+
13
14
Stepper
Amplifier
DIRnPULn+
PULn-
5
6
7
Shield
15
8
9
10
AENAn+
11
12
13
14
Shield
AENAnGND
DIRn+
DIRnPULn+
PULn-
Stepper
Amplifier
15
Short pin 8 to pin 4 to enable Stepper Output
Short pin 8 to pin 4 to enable Stepper Output
(For Older version Geo Brick drives: Jumpers E21(E31) throughE24( E34) must be jumpered in the inside of the unit for PFM
outputs and E25(35) through E28(38) must be jumpered for amplifier enable outputs. Pin 8 was not connected to anything)
Software Setup
After having the hardware ready for steppers the user needs to set the software for Pulse and direction
output as well. There are several I-variables that must be set up properly for proper operation of the Pulse
and direction output in a Geo Brick system. It is recommended for the user to also look into the Turbo
Software reference and the Turbo Users manual. The most important ones are analyzed below and we
can separate them into two categories:
Multi-Channel Servo IC I-Variables
I7m00: Servo IC m MaxPhase/PWM Frequency Control
Typically, this will be set to the same value as the variable that controls the system clocks: I7000
(channels 1-4) I7100 (channels 5-8). If a different PWM frequency is desired, then the following
constraint should be observed in setting this variable:
2 * PWMFreq( kHz )
PhaseFreq
= { Integer }
I7m03: Servo IC m Hardware Clock Frequency Control
The hardware clock frequencies for the Servo IC should be set according to the devices attached to it.
There is no reason that these frequencies have to be the same between ICs. There is seldom a reason to
change this value from the default. At default this value will be 2258, which is to a PFM clock of
approximately 10 MHz, (which is about 10 times greater than normally needed). Therefore, this value is
not normally changed. Refer to the Turbo Software Reference manual for changing these variables.
58
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
I7m04: PFM Pulse Width Control
The pulse width is specified in PFM clock cycles and has a range of 1 to 255 cycles. The default value is
15. Since the default value of PFM clock is actually set to 9.8304 MHz, the default output pulse width
will be 15/9,830400 = 1.5258 µS. Note that when the PFM clock values are changed, the PFM pulse
width values must be evaluated for proper stepper drive operation.
The user of a typical stepper drive should not need to modify these control variables. However, PFM
pulse width should be increased if the stepper drive’s input cannot handle the speed of the pulse output.
This often occurs with slow opto-couplers used on stepper drive inputs.
Single-Channel I-Variables
Each Servo IC has four channels n, numbered 1 to 4. For the first (standard) Servo IC on the Geo Brick, the
channel numbers 1 – 4 on the Servo IC are the same as the channel numbers 1 – 4 on the board. For the
second (optional) Servo IC on the Geo Brick, the channel numbers 1 – 4 on the Servo IC correspond to
board channel numbers 5 – 8. The most important variables are:
I7mn0: Servo IC m Channel n Encoder Decode Control
Typically, I7mn0 is set to 3 or 7 for x4 quadrature decode, depending on which way is up. If the channel
is used for open-loop stepper drive, I7mn0 is set to 8 to accept internal pulse-and-direction.
Caution:
If I7mn0 and I7mn8 are not matched properly, motor runaway will occur.
I7mn6: Servo IC m Channel n Output Mode Select
I7mn6 determines whether the A and B outputs are DAC or PWM, and whether the C output is PFM
(pulse-and-direction) or PWM. Typically, it is set to 0, either for 3-phase PWM, or to 3 for DACs and
PFM.
Set the output mode for the Geo Brick for Pulse Frequency Modulation output (PFM), I7mn6 equal to 2.
I7mn8: Servo IC m Channel n PFM Direction Signal Invert Control
The polarity of the direction output is controlled by this I-variable. This output establishes an active low
or high output.
This I-variable works in conjunction with I7mn0. To operate correctly with the Geo Brick, if I7mn0 is set
to 0, then I7mn8 is set to 0. If I7mn0 is set to 4, then I7mn8 is set to 1.
Caution:
If I7mn0 and I7mn8 are not matched properly, motor runaway will occur.
The Geo Brick applies its gain formulas the same way it does for a classic servo system. The basic
difference with a stepper system is that most of the times, the typical encoder feedback interface is
handled using electronic circuitry rather than a physical encoder.
When the stepper output interface is selected, it allows the use of an electronic encoder feedback or a
physical encoder feedback. When used with an actual physical encoder, the axis should be tuned as if it
were a typical servomotor.
The process of tuning the simulated feedback loop is identical to tuning a servomotor with the exception
that some of the parameters become more predictable.
System Wiring
59
Geo Brick User Manual
Ixx30: Motor xx Proportional Gain
To create a closed loop position response with a natural frequency of approximately 25 Hz and a damping
ratio of 1, use the following calculation:
Ixx30 =
660 ,000
Ixx08 * PFMCLK ( MHz )
Example:
PFMCLK is set to default of 9.83 MHz, and Ixx08 is set to default of 96. Ixx30 = 660,000 / (96 * 9.83) =
700.
Ixx31 Motor x Derivative Gain
Derivative Gain is set to 0 because the motor system behaves like a velocity-loop servo drive. This
parameter sets the system damping which should be unnecessary.
Ixx32 Motor xx Velocity Feedforward Gain
Use the following equation to establish a value for Ixx32:
Ixx32 = 6660 * ServoFreq (kHz)
where ServoFreq (kHz) is the frequency of the servo interrupt as established by I7m00, I7m01, and
I7m02.
Example:
ServoFreq is set to default of 2.26 kHz (I7m00 = 6527, I7m01 = 0, I7m02 = 3). Ixx32 = 6660 * 2.26 =
15,050.
Note:
If Ixx30 were set differently from the above calculation, then Ixx32 would change
inversely. For instance, if Ixx30 were twice the above calculation, then Ixx32
would be half its calculation.
Ixx33 Motor xx Integral Gain
Typically, This I-variable should be set to 0. The digital electronic loop does not present offsets or
disturbances that need correction in the PMAC.
Ixx33 may be set to force zero steady-state errors, should they be present with electronic encoder
feedback.
Ixx34 Motor xx Integration Mode
The default value of 1 is sufficient for this, since usually Ixx33 is set to zero. When Ixx33 is set to 0, this
I-variable has no effect.
Ixx35 Motor xx Acceleration Feed-forward Gain
Start with this I-variable set to 0. Typically, this value does not need to be changed. However, Ixx35
might be adjusted to compensate for the small time delays created by the electronics when accelerating
the stepper. The effect of adjusting Ixx35 will be to reduce a slight following error during motor
acceleration.
Ixx36 - Ixx39 Motor xx Notch Filter Coefficients
These values should be set to their default value of 0. Since filter parameters adjust the way the gains
operate due to physical resonance of a system, there is no need to set these I-variables.
60
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
Example: User wants channels 5 to 8 to be used with stepper motors. First the user needs to wire the
Stepper drive, and so as to enable the Stepper output pin 8 needs to be shorted to pin 4 (+5V) for X5 to
X8. Assume for this example that all the stepper motors that will be used do not have encoders for
feedback.
For this example, the factory defaults for the other variables will allow the PFM outputs to be commanded
with a low true Amplifier Fault and ±Limits plugged in. If this is not the case, modify Ixx24.
For this type of system, make sure I7mn6 is set for PWM and PFM output mode.
I7116=2
I7126=2
I7136=2
I7146=2
I7110
I7120
I7130
I7140
=
=
=
=
;CH5A
;CH6A
;CH7A
;CH8A
8
8
8
8
I502=$078104
I602=$07810C
I702=$078114
I802=$07811C
System Wiring
and
and
and
and
CH5B
CH6B
CH7B
CH8B
outputs
outputs
outputs
outputs
;Simulated
;Simulated
;Simulated
;Simulated
will
will
will
will
feedback
feedback
feedback
feedback
;Command output
;Stepper
;Command output
;for Stepper
;Command output
;for Stepper
;Command output
;for Stepper
be
be
be
be
for
for
for
for
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
and
and
and
and
channel
channel
channel
channel
CH5C
CH6C
CH7C
CH8C
output
output
output
output
will
will
will
will
be
be
be
be
PFM
PFM
PFM
PFM
5
6
7
8
to CH1A address (default address + 2) for
to CH2A address (default address + 2)
to CH3C address (default address + 2)
to CH4C address (default address +2)
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Geo Brick User Manual
DIRECT PWM COMMUTATION CONTROLLER SETUP
The Geo Brick drive must have the proper controller setup to command the amplifier/motor system. This
section summarizes the key variables for Turbo PMAC2 controllers that would have to be modified for
use with the amplifier. The Delta Tau setup software such as Turbo Setup will help set these parameters
for the system automatically. For details about direct commutation of brushless and induction motors,
read the PMAC2 or Turbo PMAC2 User Manual. To find out the details about these variables, refer to
the PMAC2 or Turbo PMAC2 Software Reference Manual.
Key Servo IC Variables
Turbo
Type
Description
I7m00
Clock
Max phase clock setting
I7m01
Clock Divisor
Phase clock divisor
I7m02
Clock Divisor
Servo clock divisor
I7m03
Clock
Hardware clock settings
I7m04
Clock
PWM dead time
I7m05
Strobe
DAC strobe word
I7m06
Strobe
ADC strobe word (Must be set to $3FFFFF for Geo drives.)
I7mn0
Channel
Encoder decode for channel
I7mn6
Channel
Output mode for channel (Must be set to 0.)
* m: stands for servo IC number. Channels 1 to 4 are on servo IC#0 so set I7006. For channels 5 to 8 set I7106
For example: I7006=$3FFFFF.
Key Motor Variables
Caution:
The ADC Strobe Word, I7m06 (Turbo), must be set to $3FFFFF for proper
operation. Failure to set I7m06 equal to $3FFFFF could result in damage to the
amplifier.
62
Turbo
Type
Ixx00
Ixx01
Ixx24 Ixx25
Ixx70
Ixx71
Ixx72
Ixx77
Ixx78
Ixx83
Ix61
Ix62
Ix66
Ix76
Ix82
Ix84
Ixx57
Ixx58
General
General
General
Commutation
Commutation
Commutation
Commutation
Commutation
Commutation
Current Loop
Current Loop
Current Loop
Current Loop
Current Loop
Current Loop
I2T
I2T
Description
Motor enable
Commutation enable
Motor flag setup
Number of commutation cycles per Ix71
Counts per commutation cycle per Ix70
Commutation phase angle
Induction motor magnization current
Induction motor slip gain
On-going phase position
Current loop integrator gain
Current loop forward path proportional gain
PWM scale factor
Current loop back bath proportional gain
Current loop feedback address
Current loop feedback ADC mask word
Continuous limit for I2T
Integrated current limit
System Wiring
Geo Brick User Manual
DC BRUSH MOTOR DRIVE SETUP WITH TURBO PMAC
Commutation Phase Angle: Ixx72
Ixx72 controls the angular relationship between the phases of a multiphase motor. When Turbo PMAC is
closing the current loop digitally for Motor xx, the proper setting of this variable is dependent on the
polarity of the current measurements.
If the phase current sensors and ADCs in the amplifier are set up so that a positive PWM voltage
command for a phase yields a negative current measurement value, Ixx72 must be set to a value less than
1024: 683 for a 3-phase motor, or 512 for a DC brush motor. If these are set up so that a positive PWM
voltage command yields a positive current measurement value, Ixx72 must be set to a value greater than
1024: 1365 for a 3-phase motor, or 1536 for a DC brush motor. The testing described below shows how
to determine the proper polarity.
The direct-PWM algorithms in the Turbo PMAC are optimized for 3-phase motors and will cause
significant torque ripple when used with 2- or 4-phase motors. Delta Tau has created user-written phase
algorithms for these motors; contact the factory if interested in obtaining these.
Note:
It is important to set the value of Ixx72 properly for the system. Otherwise, the
current loop will have unstable positive feedback and want to saturate. This could
cause damage to the motor, the drive, or both, if overcurrent shutdown features do
not work properly. If unsure of the current measurement polarity in the drive,
consult the Testing PWM and Current Feedback Operation section of this manual.
For commutation with digital current loops, the proper setting of Ixx72 is unrelated to the polarity of the
encoder counter. This is different from commutation with an analog current loops (sine-wave control), in
which the polarity of Ixx72 (less than or greater than 1024) must match the encoder counter polarity.
With the digital current loop, the polarity of the encoder counter must be set for proper servo operation;
with the analog current loop, once the Ixx72 polarity match has been made for commutation, the servo
loop polarity match is guaranteed.
Special Instructions for Direct-PWM Control of Brush Motors
Special settings are needed to use the direct-PWM algorithms for DC brush motors. The basic idea is to
trick the commutation algorithm into thinking that the commutation angle is always stuck at 0 degrees, so
current into the A phase is always quadrature (torque-producing) current. These instructions assume:
• The brush motor’s rotor field comes from permanent magnets or a wound field excited by a separate
means; the field is not controlled by one of the phases of this channel.
• The two leads of the brush motor’s armature are connected to amplifier phases (half-bridges) that are
driven by the A and C-phase PWM commands from Turbo PMAC. The amplifier may have an
unused B-phase half-bridge, but this does not need to be present.
The following settings are the same as for permanent-magnet brushless servo motors with an absolute
phase reference:
• Ixx01 = 1 (commutation directly on Turbo PMAC) or Ixx01=3 (commutation over the MACRO ring)
• Ixx02 should contain the address of the PWM A register for the output channel used or the MACRO
Node register 0 (these are the defaults), just as for brushless motors.
• Ixx29 and Ixx79 phase offset parameters should be set to minimize measurement offsets from the A
and B-phase current feedback circuits, respectively.
• Ixx61, Ixx62, and Ixx76 current loop gains are set just as for brushless motors.
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
63
Geo Brick User Manual
•
Ixx73 = 0, Ixx74 = 0: These default settings ensure that Turbo PMAC will not try to do a phasing
search move for the motor. A failed search could keep Turbo PMAC from enabling this motor.
• Ixx77 = 0 to command zero direct (field) current.
• Ixx78 = 0 for zero slip in the commutation calculations.
• Ixx82 should contain the address of ADC B register for the feedback channel used (just as for
brushless motors) when the ADC A register is used for the rotor (armature) current feedback. The B
register itself should always contain a zero or near-zero value.
• Ixx81 > 0: Any non-zero setting here makes Turbo PMAC do a “phasing read” instead of a search
move for the motor. This is a dummy read, because whatever is read is forced to zero degrees by the
settings of Ixx70 and Ixx71, but Turbo PMAC demands that some sort of phase reference be done.
(Ixx81=1 is fine.)
• Ixx84 is set just as for brushless motors, specifying which bits the current ADC feedback uses.
Usually, this is $FFF000 to specify the high 12 bits.
Special settings for brush motor direct PWM control:
• Ixx70 = 0: This causes all values for the commutation cycle to be multiplied by 0 to defeat the
rotation of the commutation vector.
• Ixx72 = 512 (90oe) if voltage and current numerical polarities are opposite, 1536 (270oe) if they are
the same. If the amplifier would use 683 (120oe) for a 3-phase motor, use 512 here; if it would use
1365 (240oe) for a 3-phase motor, use 1536 here.
• Ixx96 = 1: This causes Turbo PMAC to clear the integrator periodically for the (non-existent) direct
current loop, which could slowly charge up due to noise or numerical errors and eventually interfere
with the real quadrature current loop.
Settings that do not matter:
• Ixx71 (commutation cycle size) does not matter because Ixx70 setting of 0 defeats the commutation
cycle
• Ixx75 (Offset in the power-on phase reference) does not matter because commutation cycle has been
defeated. Leaving this at the default of 0 is fine.
• Ixx83 (ongoing commutation position feedback address) doesn’t matter, since the commutation has
been defeated. Leaving this at the default value is fine.
• Ixx91 (power-on phase position format) does not matter, because whatever is read for the power-on
phase position is reduced to zero.
Testing PWM and Current Feedback Operation
WARNING:
On many motor and drive systems, potentially deadly voltage and current levels
are present. Do not attempt to work directly with these high voltage and current
levels unless fully trained on all necessary safety procedures. Low-level signals on
Turbo PMAC and interface boards can be accessed much more safely.
Most of the time in setting up a direct PWM interface, there is no need to execute all of the steps listed in
these sections (or the Turbo Setup program will do them automatically). However, the first time this type
of interface is setup, or there are problems, these steps will be of assistance.
For safety reasons, all of these tests should be done with the motor disconnected from any loads. All
settings made as a result of these tests are independent of load properties, so will still be valid when the
load is connected.
64
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
Geo Brick User Manual
Before testing any of Turbo PMAC’s software features for digital current loop and direct PWM interface,
it is important to know whether the hardware interface is working properly. PMAC’s M-Variables are
used to access the input and output registers directly. The examples shown here use the suggested MVariable definitions for Motor 1.
Purpose
The purpose of these tests is to confirm the basic operation of the hardware circuits on PMAC, in the
drive, and in the motor, and to check the proper interrelationships. Specifically:
• Confirm operation of encoder inputs and decode
• Confirm operation of PWM outputs
• Confirm operation of ADC inputs
• Confirm correlation between PWM outputs and ADC inputs
• Determine proper current loop polarity
• Confirm commutation cycle size
• Determine proper commutation polarity
Preparation
First, define the M-Variables for the encoder counter, the three PWM output registers, the amplifierenable output bit, and the two ADC input registers. Using the suggested definitions for Motor 1, utilizing
Servo IC 0, Channel 1:
M101->X:$078001,0,24,S
M102->Y:$078002,8,16,S
M104->Y:$078003,8,16,S
M107->Y:$078004,8,16,S
M105->Y:$078005,8,16,S
M106->Y:$078006,8,16,S
M114->X:$078005,14
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Encoder position register
PWM Phase A command value
PWM Phase B command value
PWM Phase C command value
Phase A ADC input value
Phase B ADC input value
Amp Enable command bit
Note:
The ADC values are declared as 16-bit variables even though typically, 12-bit
ADCs are used; this puts the scaling of the variable in the same units as Ixx69,
Ixx57, Ixx29, and Ixx79.
It is useful to monitor these values in the Watch window of the Executive program. Therefore, add the
variable names to the Watch window which causes the program to repeatedly query Turbo PMAC for the
values and display them. Then the hardware can be exercised with on-line commands issued through the
Terminal window.
To prepare Turbo PMAC for these tests:
1. Set I100 to 0 to deactivate the motor.
2. Set I101 to 0 to disable commutation (This allows for manual use of these registers.)
3. Make sure that I7000, I7004, I7016, and I7017 are set up properly to provide the PWM signals desired.
4. If the Amplifier Enable bit is 1, set it to zero with the command M114=0.
5. Set Ixx00 and Ixx01 for all other motors to zero.
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
65
Geo Brick User Manual
Position Feedback and Polarity Test
If the PWM command values observed in the Watch window are not zero, set them to zero with the
command:
M102=0 M104=0 M107=0
The motor can be turned (or pushed) freely by hand now. As the motor is turned, monitor the M101 value
in the Watch window. Look for the following:
• It should change as the motor is moved.
• It should count up in one direction, and count down in the other direction.
• It should provide the expected number of counts in one revolution or linear distance increment.
• As the motor is returned repeatedly to a reference position, it should report (approximately) the same
position value each time.
If these things do not happen, check the encoder/resolver operation, its connection to Turbo PMAC and
the Turbo PMAC decode variable I7mn0. Double-check that the sensor is powered. In addition, look at
the encoder waveforms with an oscilloscope.
If the direction of motion to be the positive direction is known, check this here. If the direction is
incorrect, invert it by changing I7mn0, usually from 7 to 3, or from 3 to 7. If the direction is not known,
change it later, but make another change at that time to maintain the proper commutation polarity match;
usually by exchanging two of the motor phase leads at the drive.
Note:
Because I100 has been set to 0, and I103 may not yet have been set properly, any
change of position will not be reflected in the motor position window.
PWM Output and ADC Input Connection
WARNING:
Make sure before applying any PWM commands to the drive and motor in this
fashion that the resulting current levels are within the continuous current rating of
both drive and motor.
First, enable the amp, then apply a very small positive command value to Phase A and a very small
negative command value to Phase B with the on-line commands:
M114=1
; Enable amplifier
M102=I7000/50 M104=-I7000/50 M107=0 ; A pos, B neg, C zero
This provides a command at 2% of full voltage into the motor; this should be well within the continuous
current rating of both drive and motor. It is a good idea to make the sum of these commands equal to zero
so as not to put a net DC voltage on the motor; putting all three commands on one line causes the changes
to happen virtually instantaneously.
With power applied to the drive and the amplifier enabled (M114=1), current readings should be received
in the ADC registers as shown by the M-Variables M105 and M106 in the Watch window.
Since the M-Variables are defined as +/-32,768 for full current range, which should correspond
approximately to the instantaneous current limit. Make sure that the value read does not exceed the
continuous current limit, usually which is about 1/3 of the instantaneous limit. If well below the
continuous current limit, increase the voltage command to 5% to 10% of maximum. For example:
M102=I7000/10 M104=-I7000/10 M107=0 ; 10% of maximum
66
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
Geo Brick User Manual
PWM/ADC Phase Match
Command values from Turbo PMAC’s Phase A PWM outputs should cause a roughly proportionate
response of one sign or the other on Turbo PMAC’s Phase A ADC input (whatever the phase is named in
the motor and drive). The same is true for Phase B.
If no response is received on either phase, re-check the entire setup, including:
• Is the drive properly wired to Turbo PMAC, either directly or through an interface board?
• Is the motor properly connected to the drive?
• Is the drive properly powered, both the power stage, and the input stage?
• Is the interface board properly powered?
• Is the amplifier enabled (M114=1 on Turbo PMAC and indicator ON at the drive)?
• Is the amplifier in fault condition? If so, why?
If only an ADC response is received on one phase, the phase outputs and inputs may not be matched
properly. For example, the Phase B ADC may be reading current from the phase commanded by the
Phase C PWM output. Confirm this by trying other combinations of commands and checking which
ADC responds to which phase command. If there is not a proper match, change the wiring between
Turbo PMAC and the drive. Changing the wiring between drive and motor will not help here.
Synchronous Motor Stepper Action
With a synchronous motor, this command should cause the motor to lock into a position, at least weakly,
like a stepper motor. This action may be received temporarily on an induction motor, due to temporary
eddy currents created in the rotor. However, an induction motor will not keep a holding torque
indefinitely at the new location.
Current Loop Polarity Check
Observe the signs of the ADC register values in M105 and M106. These two values should be of
approximately the same magnitude, and must be of the opposite sign from each other. (Again, remember
that these readings may appear noisy. Observe the base value underneath the noise.) If M105 is positive
and M106 is negative, the sign of the PWM commands matches the sign of the ADC feedback values. In
this case, the Turbo PMAC phase angle parameter I172 must be set to a value greater than 1024 (1365 for
a 3-phase motor).
If M105 is negative and M106 is positive, the sign of the PWM commands is opposite that of the ADC
feedback values. In this case, I172 must be set to a value less than 1024 (683 for a 3-phase motor).
Make sure your I172 value is set properly before attempting to close the digital current loops on Turbo
PMAC. Otherwise positive feedback will occur, creating unstable current loops which could damage the
amplifier and/or motor.
If M105 and M106 have the same sign, the polarities of the current sense circuitry for the two phases is
not properly matched. In this case, something has been miswired in the drive or between Turbo PMAC
and the drive to give the two phase-current readings opposite polarity. One of the phases will have to be
fixed.
Do not attempt to close the digital current loops on Turbo PMAC until the polarities of the current sense
circuitry for the two phases have been properly matched. This will involve a hardware change in the
current sense wiring, the ADC circuitry, or the connection between them. As an extra protection against
error, make sure that Ixx57 and Ixx58 are set properly for I2T protection that will shut down the axis
quickly if there is saturation due to improper feedback polarity.
Troubleshooting
If not getting the current readings expected, probe the motor phase currents on the motor cables with a
snap-on hall-effect current sensor. If the current is not seen when commanding voltages, check for phaseto-phase continuity and proper resistance when the motor is disconnected.
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
67
Geo Brick User Manual
Setting I2T Protection
It is important to set the I2T protection for the amplifier/motor system for Turbo PMAC2 direct PWM
commutation. Normally, an amplifier has internal I2T protection because it is closing the current loop.
When Turbo PMAC2 is closing the current loop, the amplifier cannot protect itself or the motor from over
heating. Either set up the I2T protection using one of the Setup Programs or set the Ixx69, Ixx57 and
Ixx58 variables manually based on the following specifications:
Parameter
Description
Notes
MAX ADC Value
Maximum Current output of
amplifier relative to a value of 32767
in Ixx69
The lower of the amplifier or motor
system
The lower of the amplifier or motor
system
Time at instantaneous limit
Ixx77 value for induction motors
5A/10A peak 2secs, axis: 16.26A
8A/16A peak 2secs, axis: 26.02A
15A/30A peak 2secs, axis: 48.8A
RMS or Peak*
Instantaneous
Current Limit
Continuous Current
Usually RMS
Limit
I2T protection time
Two seconds
Magnetization
Only for induction motors
Current
Servo Update
Default is 2258 Hz.
Frequency
* If specification given in RMS, multiply with x1.41 to obtain peak current for calculations.
Example Calculations for Direct PWM Commutated Motor:
MAX ADC = 26.02
Instantaneous Current Limit = 10A Peak
Continuous Current Limit = 5A RMS
I2T protection time = 2 seconds
Magnetization Current (Ixx77) = 0
Servo Update = 2.258 kHz
Ixx69 =
In s tan tan eous Limit ( Peak )
MAX ADC
x32767 xCos (30°)
if calculated Ixx69 >32767, then Ixx69 should be set equal to 32767
Ixx57 =
Ixx58 =
Continuous Limit
In s tan tan eous Limit
xIxx69
2
2
2
Ixx69 + Ixx77 − Ixx57
× ServoUpdateRate( Hz ) × PermittedTime(sec onds )
2
32768
Based on the above data and equations, the following results:
Ixx69 =10,906
Ixx57 =5,435
Ixx58 =376
For details about I2T protection, refer to the safety sections of the Turbo Users Manual. Details about the
variable setup can be found in the Software Reference manual.
68
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
Geo Brick User Manual
Calculating Minimum PWM Frequency
The minimum PWM frequency requirement for a system is based on the time constant of the motor.
Calculate the minimum PWM frequency to determine if the amplifier will properly close the current loop.
Systems with very low time constants need the addition of chokes or in-line inductive loads to allow the
PMAC to properly close the current loop of the system. In general, the lower the time constant of the
system, the higher the PWM frequency must be.
Calculate the motor time constant by dividing the motor inductance by the resistance of the phases.
τ motor =
Lmotor
R motor
The relationship used to determine the minimum PWM frequency is based on the following equation:
τ>
20
2π × PWM ( Hz )
∴ PWM ( Hz ) >
20
2πτ
Example:
Lmoto r = 5.80 mH
Rmotor = 11.50 Ω
τ motor =
5.80 mH
11.50 Ω
Therefore, PWM ( Hz ) =
= 0.504 m sec
20
2π × ( 0.504 m sec)
= 6316 Hz
Based on this calculation, set the PWM frequency to at least 6.32kHz.
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
69
Geo Brick User Manual
Amplifier Only Special online commands
With the Geo Brick Amplifiers a new version of firmware was created to help the user identify the unit
easier. If the user uses the “TYPE” on-line command and PMAC responds and there is a word AMP, then
your drive has the latest Amplifier firmware.
New TYPE and CID commands on detection of a TURBO2 type AMP
TYPE
TURBO2, AMP,Xn
CID
603793
All of the "AMP" commands, i.e., commands that begin with "AMP" are read only commands. These
commands automatically disable any axes that are enabled. The commands report such things as the
amplifier firmware version, number model and ID.
Note:
All “AMP” commands are working only with the Geo Brick drives that have the
1.942A and above firmware, and the amplifier CPU firmware version is B1.06 and
above.
AMPVERSION
Function:
Report Amplifier CPU firmware version number
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
AMPVERSION
AMPVER
This command causes the amplifier to report the firmware version it is using. The response is a hex value
$xxyyzz.
xx: stands for the Amplifier type
yy & zz stands for the firmware version. (yy: Major, zz: Minor)
Geo Brick Drives are Amp type 01.
Example:
AMPVER
; Ask the PMAC/amplifier for firmware version
$01B106
; PMAC/amplifier responds
AMPMOD
Function:
Report Amplifier Model Number
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
AMPMOD
This command causes the amplifier to report its model number. The response is an ASCII numeric.
Example:
AMPMOD
GBL4-C0-506-14S
70
; Ask the PMAC/amplifier for the Amplifier model number
; PMAC/amplifier responds with its factory set model number
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
Geo Brick User Manual
AMPSID
Function:
Report serial electronic identification number
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
AMPSID
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the electronic identification number from the ID-number
module. The identification number is reported as a hexadecimal 16-digit ASCII string, representing a 64bit value. The first two hex digits represent the 8-bit checksum value for the module; these should match
the checksum digits engraved on the case of the module. The last two hex digits represent the module
class; these should match the class digits engraved on the case of the module. The middle 12 hex digits
represent the unique number for each module and board.
If no ID-number module is present, Turbo PMAC will return a 0.
The electronic identification number has no relationship to the serial number that is engraved or barcoded
on the circuit board.
Example:
AMPSID
272F0000000800
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
71
Geo Brick User Manual
72
DC Brush Motor Drive Setup with Turbo PMAC
Geo Brick User Manual
PWM DRIVE COMMAND STRUCTURE
The amplifier functions in two modes: Default and Enhanced.
Default Mode
Default Mode is the mode the amplifier is in when it is first powered on or the power is re-cycled for any
reason. Default mode is compatible with the full series of Delta Tau amplifiers and the A/D converters
used on these amplifiers. In this mode, the amplifier returns not only the currents for phases A and B but
also the fault codes for the axes associated with those currents. The fault codes occupy the lower 12-bits
on each phase. For Default mode to work correctly, make sure that the A/D strobe word for the axis is set
to the correct value for the A/D on the amplifier. For instance, the current Delta Tau amplifiers use a 12bit Burr Brown part requiring a strobe word of $3FFFFF; this word is written to I7m06= $3FFFFF.
This value can be saved to PMAC memory and sent to the amplifier on boot automatically.
Enhanced Mode
Enhanced mode is available on the Geo series of Delta Tau amplifiers and offers many more options.
Like the Default mode, Enhanced mode requires that a special strobe word be written to the amplifier, and
like Default mode, this word may be saved to PMAC memory and issued each boot automatically.
Enhanced mode axes and Default mode axes may not be mixed on the same amplifier.
Enhanced mode not only offers the fault codes associated with any axis on the bits 11:4 of the current
feedback, but provides the means for reading both bus voltage and IGBT temperatures.
To enter Enhanced Mode, the Strobe Word must be set to
ADC Strobe Word
I7m06
Value
Description
$300FFF
$301FFF
$3FDFFF
$3FEFFF
$3FFFFF
IGBT Temperature reported on phase B for each axis at the IC
Bus Voltage reported on phase B for each axis at the IC
Firmware Major version number in 00.00 (major.minor) format
Firmware Minor version number in 00.00 (major.minor) format
Default mode
At present, the commands sent to axis one/five, are active on all axes of the specific IC of the amplifier,
that is, if bus voltage from axis one is requested, bus voltage from axes 1 to 4 on that IC of the amplifier
will be received.
IGBT temperature:
For every 2.13 degrees Celsius there is an additional count at the ADC register, +1h. The baseline
temperature is set at 25°C, which means the ADC has a value of 21h. The maximum IGBT temperature
for the Geo Brick drives is 125° Celsius, 5Bh.
Bus Voltage:
For every 5.875Volts there is an additional count at the ADC register, +1h. The maximum Bus Voltage
for the Geo Brick Drives is 420VDC, (296VAC) before over voltage fault, which means the ADC has a
value of 50h. The Shunt resistor turn on voltage is 388.5V, the value is 4Ah, and the turn off voltage is
367.5, a value of 46h.
PWM Drive Command Structure
73
Geo Brick User Manual
74
PWM Drive Command Structure
Geo Brick User Manual
TROUBLESHOOTING
The Geo Brick utilizes a scrolling single-digit 7-segment display. When control power is applied to the
drive, the 7-segment display will have a blinking “.” (period) indicating that the software and hardware
are running normally. This blinking period is running all of the time except if the PMAC CPU has
faulted, then it stays on. When any of the drive’s output sections are enabled, the display will include a
“0”. When all axes are not enabled and there is no Fault, the display will be blank with the blinking “.”
(period).
Important:
The purpose of the notice below is to make sure that the Geo Brick Drive is being configured properly at
power-up for normal mode operations
This note does not apply to Amplifier code version $010200 (returned by the AMPVER command), and
PMAC firmware version 1.944 (returned by the VER command) and higher. The AMPVER command or
startup PLC are not required for those latest firmware releases.
Important Note:
For Geo Brick PMAC firmware versions 1.943 and below, a delay of about 500
milliseconds and an AMPVER command are necessary at startup to ensure proper drive
setup. PLC example below.
OPEN PLC 1 CLEAR
DIS PLC 2..31
I5111=500*8388608/I10
WHILE(I5111>0)
END WHILE
CMD"AMPVER"
I5111=20*8388608/I10
WHILE(I5111>0)
END WHILE
ENAPLC 2..31
DISABLE PLC1
CLOSE
; 500 ms delay using C.S1 countdown timer
; 20 ms delay using C.S1 countdown timer.
; This provides enough time for the drive
; to process the ampver command.
Quick Test:
The TYPE command, issued from a terminal window, should then show AMP separating Turbo2 and the
CPU speed option (i.e., TURBO2, AMP, X4). This is the desired response. A response of TURBO2, X4
is not appropriate for the Geo Brick and it implies that the PLC has not executed properly (i.e., I5 setting)
and/or an AMPVER command has not been issued at power-up.
Error Codes
The drive will produce a 3-character scrolling display whenever a fault on any axis exists. The scrolling
display begins with a number indicating the axis that has faulted or A for global faults, followed by the F
character – indicating a fault exists, followed by the specific fault code. There is a blank pause between
the fault code and the beginning axis number of the scrolling display to distinguish between the beginning
and the end of the scrolling codes. The table below lists the fault codes.
Note:
The Geo Brick Drive disables automatically at the occurrence of a fault.
Troubleshooting
75
Geo Brick User Manual
D1: Geo Brick Drive Status Display Codes
The 7-segment display on the current model, 16 numeric codes plus two
decimal points, provides the following codes:
D1
14
3
6
11
2
7
8
10
13
1
VCC
VCC
DPR
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
5082-7730
Display Fault
code
ADC bits
Description
11:4 Fault
code
Axis faults : n stands for axis number (n=1-8)
01
Axis n Peak Current Fault – indicates the peak current was excessive
nF1
long enough to trip the peak current fault, but there was not enough
current to cause a nF3 fault (described below). Check for overshoots
in the current loop, make sure Ixx69 is less or equal to 24676
02
Axis
n RMS Current Fault – indicates the continuous or RMS current
nF2
rating of the drive has been exceeded. Check for binding in motor,
check if the motor is properly phased.
03
Axis n Short Circuit Fault – indicates high output current has been
nF3
detected (fast acting). Unplug the Motor lead connectors and, if the
fault persists, send the drive for RMA. Else check your motor and
cable. Do not reset until unplugging motor cable and checking out the
cause for the fault or permanent damage could result!
-Reserved
for future use
nF4
nF5
05
nF6-nFF
0
- --
Power Stage (IGBT) Over-Temperature Fault – indicates excessive
temperature has been detected. Check ambient temperature that it does
not exceed the limits. Power off the drive and let it cool down. If the
drive is cool and the fault persists, send the drive for RMA
Reserved for future use
FF
Axis Enabled, drive is functioning properly.
AF1
04
AF2
AF3
0B
0D
AF4
0E
AF5
AFb
0F
07
AFd
09
AFU
08
AFL
U
0C
PWM over frequency fault – indicates the PWM frequency detected
by the drive exceeds specified limits. Check your settings (I-vars)
Strobe Word Fault – not valid strobe word $3FFFFF
EEPROM Communication Fault – make sure the drive is properly
grounded. If problem persists, send the drive for RMA.
Shunt RMS Fault – The shunt will stay on continuously for only 2
seconds.
Soft Start Fault – Check the AC mains, if fault persists, send for RMA
Bus Over-Voltage Fault – indicates either that excessive bus voltage
has been detected, or no bus voltage at all has been detected, so check
your bus supply, regen resistors (GARxx).
Shunt Short Circuit Fault – check the shunt resistor leads for short. If
the connector is unplugged and the error persists, send the drive for
RMA.
Bus Under-Voltage Fault – indicates that not enough bus voltage has
been detected, check the DC bus to ensure that more than 10V exists.
AC Line monitor – check the AC mains for more than 97VAC.
EPROM got corrupted. Call factory for assistance
Global Faults
76
Troubleshooting
Geo Brick User Manual
Status LEDs
LED
Function
Color
Description
EN5
Enable Axis #5
Green
EN6
Enable Axis #6
Green
EN7
Enable Axis #7
Green
EN8
Enable Axis #8
Green
+5V
WD
BUS
Logic Power
WatchDog
DC Bus
Voltage
Green
Red
Red
Green when fifth axis enabled (analog output).
(Only when the analog I/O is ordered.)
(Unlit does not necessarily mean fault.)
Green when sixth axis enabled (analog output).
(Only when the analog I/O is ordered.)
(Unlit does not necessarily mean fault.)
Green when seventh axis enabled (analog output).
(Only when the analog I/O is ordered.)
(Unlit does not necessarily mean fault.)
Green when eighth axis enabled (analog output).
(Only when the analog I/O is ordered.)
(Unlit does not necessarily mean fault.)
Lit when 5V logic has power.
Lit when Watchdog is tripped.
Lit when bus is powered.
ABORT
Red
Lit when ABORT is True
ACTIVE
ABORT
Green
Lit when ABORT is not True
INACTIVE
In older versions of the Geo Brick, the ABORT LEDs and the inputs at X15 were not available.
Watchdog Timer
Geo Brick has an on-board watchdog timer. This subsystem provides a fail-safe shutdown to guard
against software and hardware malfunction. To keep it from tripping the hardware circuit for the
watchdog timer requires that two basic conditions be met. First, it must see a DC voltage greater than
approximately 4.75V. If the supply voltage is below this value, the circuit’s relay will trip and the card
will shut down, Geo Brick uses its own DC to DC converter to create 5V and +/-15V from the user
supplied 24VDC. This prevents corruption of registers due to insufficient voltage.
The second necessary condition is that the timer must see a square wave input (provided by the Turbo
PMAC software) of a frequency greater than approximately 25 Hz. In the foreground, the servo-interrupt
routine decrements a counter (as long as the counter is greater than zero), causing the least significant bit
of the timer to toggle. This bit is fed to the timer itself. At the end of each background cycle, the CPU
resets the counter value to a maximum value set by variable I40 (or to 4096 if I40 is set to the default of
0). If the card, for whatever reason, due either to hardware or software problems, cannot set and clear this
bit repeatedly at 25 Hz or greater, the timer will trip and the Turbo PMAC system will shut down.
Actions on Watchdog Timer Trip
When the timer trips due to either under-voltage or under-frequency, the system is latched into a reset
state, with a red LED indicating watchdog failure. The processor stops operating and will not
communicate. All Servo, MACRO, and I/O ICs are forced into their reset states, which force discrete
outputs off, and proportional outputs (DAC, PWM, PFM) to zero-level.
In Turbo PMAC2 systems there is a hard-contact relay with both normally open and normally closed
contacts. In a system, these outputs should be used to drop power to the amplifiers and other key circuitry
if the card fails.
Troubleshooting
77
Geo Brick User Manual
Once the watchdog timer has tripped, power to the Turbo PMAC must be cycled off and on, or the INIT/
hardware reset line must be taken low, then high, to restore normal functioning.
Diagnosing Cause of Watchdog Timer Trip
Because the watchdog timer is designed to trip on a variety of hardware and software failures, and the trip
makes it impossible to query the card, it can be difficult to determine the cause of the trip. The following
procedure is recommended to figure out the cause:
1. Reset the Turbo PMAC normally, just power cycle the cycle ower. If it does not trip again
immediately, there is an intermittent software or hardware problem. Check for the following:
• Software events that overload the processor at times (e.g. additional servo-interrupt tasks,
intensive lookahead) or possible erroneous instruction (look for firmware or program checksum).
Review the Evaluating the Turbo PMAC’s Computational Load section of the Turbo USERS manual.
• 5V power-supply disturbances
• Loose connections
2. If there is an immediate watchdog timer trip in Step 1, power up with the re-initialization switch
pressed and hold in. If it does not trip now, there is a problem in the servo/phase task loading for the
frequency, or an immediate software problem on the board. Check for the following:
• Phase and servo clock frequencies vs. the number of motors used by Turbo PMAC. These
frequencies may need to be reduced.
• A PLC 0 or PLCC 0 program running immediately on power-up (I5 saved at 1 or 3) and taking
too much time.
• User-written servo or phase program not returning properly.
3. If there is an immediate watchdog timer trip in Step 2, check for hardware issues:
• Disconnect any accessories and cables other than the logic power and repeat to see if they are
causing the problem
• Check for adequate 24V power supply levels (check at the Geo Brick connector side, not at the
supply)
• Inspect for hardware damage
5. If the watchdog insists after all the above, you should contact DeltaTau Inc. to get an RMA number,
and ship the drive for repairs.
78
Troubleshooting
Geo Brick User Manual
Troubleshooting
79
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
APPENDIX A
Mating Connector and Cable Kits
Cable sets can be purchased directly from Delta Tau to make the wiring of the system easier. Available
cable kits (CABKITxx) are listed below.
However, for those who wish to manufacture their own cable sets, the table below provides Connector
Kits to use with each drive. Connector Kits (CONKITxx) include the MOLEX connectors and pins for
the AC input, 24VDC power supply and the motor outputs.
Note:
Due to the variety and wide availability of D-type connectors and back shells,
CABKITs and CONKITs do not provide these connectors and back shells.
Cable kits have terminated cables on the drive end and flying leads on the other.
CONKIT5A
Mating Connector Kit for four axes drives up to 10-amp continuous rating. Includes
Molex Connectors kits for four motors, AC input connection, Regen Resistor connector
and 24V power connection.
Requires Molex Crimp Tools for proper installation.
CABKIT5A
Includes Molex mating connectors pre-crimped for four axes drives up to 10-amp
continuous rated
• 3 ft. AC Input Cable
• 3 ft. 24VDC Power Cable
• (x4) 10 ft. shielded Motor Cables
CONKIT5B
Mating Connector Kit for six axes drives. Four axes are up to 10-amp continuous rating
and two more axes up to 15A continuous. Includes Molex Connectors kits for six
motors, AC input connection, Regen Resistor connector and 24V power connection.
Requires Molex Crimp Tools for proper installation.
CABKIT5B
Includes Molex mating connectors pre-crimped for six axes drives. Four axes are up to
10-amp continuous rating and two more axes up to 15A continuous.
• 3 ft. AC Input Cable
• 3 ft. 24VDC Power Cable
• (x6) 10 ft. shielded Motor Cables
CONKIT5C
Mating Connector Kit for eight axes drives up to 10-amp continuous rating. Includes
Molex Connectors kits for eight motors, AC input connection, Regen Resistor connector
and 24V power connection.
Requires Molex Crimp Tools for proper installation.
CABKIT5C
Includes Molex mating connectors pre-crimped for eight axes drives up to 10-amp
continuous rated
• 3 ft. AC Input Cable
• 3 ft. 24VDC Power Cable
• (x8) 10 ft. shielded Motor Cables
Molex Tools Part numbers for all CONKIT’s:
63811-0400
63811-1500
11-01-0185
80
Appendix A
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
CONKIT5A
Connector
D/T part
number
D/T part number
individuals
24VDC
200-043645-200
Motor (x4)
200-000F04-HSG
AC Input
200-H00F04-049
Shunt Resistor
200-000F02-HSG
Molex part number
Housing: #014-043645-200
43645-0200
Pins: #014-043030-008
43030-0007/-0008/-0009
Housing: #014-000F04-HSG
44441-2004
Pins: #014-043375-001
43375-0001
Housing: 014-H00F04-049
42816-0412
Pins: 014-042815-031
42815-0031
Housing: 014-000F02-HSG
44441-2002
Pins: 014-043375-001
43375-0001
CONKIT5B
Connector
D/T part
number
24VDC
200-043645-200
Motor (x4)
200-000F04-HSG
Motor (x2)
200-H00F04-049
AC Input
200-H00F04-049
Shunt
Resistor
200-H00F03-049
D/T part number
individuals
Molex part number
Housing: #014-043645-200
43645-0200
Pins: #014-043030-008
43030-0007/-0008/-0009
Housing: #014-000F04-HSG
44441-2004
Pins: #014-043375-001
43375-0001
Housing: 014-H00F04-049
42816-0412
Pins: 014-042815-031
42815-0031
Housing: 014-H00F04-049
42816-0412
Pins: 014-042815-031
42815-0031
Housing: 014-H00F03-049
42816-0312
Pins: 014-042815-031
42815-0031
CONKIT5C
Connector
D/T part
number
24VDC
200-043645-200
Motor (x8)
200-000F04-HSG
AC Input
200-H00F04-049
Shunt
Resistor
200-000F02-HSG
Appendix A
D/T part number
individuals
Molex part number
Housing: #014-043645-200
43645-0200
Pins: #014-043030-008
43030-0007/-0008/-0009
Housing: #014-000F04-HSG
44441-2004
Pins: #014-043375-001
43375-0001
Housing: 014-H00F04-049
42816-0412
Pins: 014-042815-031
42815-0031
Housing: 014-000F02-HSG
44441-2002
Pins: 014-043375-001
43375-0001
81
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
PWM Cable Ordering Information
Cable
CABPWM-1
CABPWM-2
CABPWM-3
CABPWM-4
CABPWM-5
CABPWM-6
82
Length
600mm 900mm 1.5m 1.8m
(24")
(36") (60") (72")
2.1m
(84")
3.6m
(144")
√
√
√
√
√
√
Part Numbers
200-602739-024X
200-602739-036x
200-602739-060x
200-602739-072x
200-602739-084x
200-602739-144x
Appendix A
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
Cable Drawings
5A/10A and 8A/16A Motor Cable
Appendix A
83
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
B
DELTA TAU
DATA SYSTEMS,
15A/30A Motor Cable
84
Appendix A
Appendix A
3 F EE T
DE S CRI P TI ON
T AB ULA TIO N
TO CAB LE .
LAB E L T O B E P ERM A NENT LY A TTA CHE D
I NDELI B LE INK PRI NTE D O N LA BE L.
NUM BE R A ND REV IS I ON US I NG B LA CK
3. CAB LE T O BE I NDENT IF IE D W ITH P ART
NO .0-M 1982.
Z PF W2 A ND ME ET CS A S TA NDARD 22. 2
LA BE LE D UNDE R W IRI NG HA RNE SS P ROG RAM
WI TH UL RE COGNI ZE D CO MP ONE NTS A ND
2. CAB LE /HA RNE SS A S SE M BLI E S TO B E MA DE
CA BLE AND IS 2 4 FE E T LONG.
2C0-603845-0241 IS A REV I SI ON 1
O F T HE S UFFI X DE NOTE S RE VI S ION LE VE L.
A LL LE NGT HS A RE SP E CIF IE D I N I NCHES .
DE NOTE S LE NGT H A ND THE LAS T DIG IT
THE FIRS T 3 DIGI TS O F THE S UFFI X
1. PA RT NOS . A RE INT ERP RE TE D A S FO LLOWS :
NOT ES : UNLE SS OTHE RWIS E S P ECI FI ED
-0030
-X XX X
A BOV E AG REEM EN T.
P OSS ESSIO N O F T HIS DO CU ME NT IND IC ATES A CCE PTANC E OF TH E
IN VEN TIO NS ARE R ESER VED BY DEL TA TAU DATA S YSEM S INC .
O F DE LTA TAU DA TA SYSTE MS IN C. AL L RIGH TS TO D ESIG NS AN D
O NL Y P URS UANT TO WRITTE N L ICEN SE OR WRITTEN INSTR UCTIO NS
TR ANS FERR ED FO R AN Y REAS ON . TH IS DO CUM EN T IS TO BE USED
D EM AND . TIT L E TO THIS D OC UM ENT IS N EVER SOL D O R
D ATA SY STEM S INC . A ND IS L O ANED SUB JEC T TO R ETUR N UPO N
TH IS DO CU ME NT IS THE C ON FIDEN TIAL P RO PERTY OF DE LTA TAU
1-B LK (RE T)
2-RE D (+24 V)
X X FT
X X FT
30
40
FINISH
MATERIAL
±
PA RTS LI S T
.03
.01 0
± .
DO NO T SCAL E D RAW IN G
SEE B/M
SEE B/M
.XX= ±
.XXX= ±
ANGL ES
A PP RO V ALS
F IL E
A PP RO V ED
C H EC KE D
C0- 3845- 0.DWG
3-16-05
3-16-05
DA TE
MULT IPL E ASSY
G EO BRICK- DRI VES
NICK A. GO MEZ
D R AWN
N EX T LEV EL
P RO JE CT
WI RE, RE D 22 AWG, (ANIXTER P /N 1007-22/ 7-2)
WI RE, BLACK 22 AWG, (ANI XTER P/ N 1007-22/7-0)
REQ UI RE S MO LEX CRIM P TOO L
SCAL E
B
SIZE
NONE
DWG . N O.
2C0-603845
SH EET
1OF1
-XXX0
DASH NO .
APPLICABLE TO ALL BRICK DRIVES
--
RE V
BRAD L.
APPRO VED
DATA S YS TE MS , I NC.
N.G.
CHGD
CABLE ASSY, 24 VDC INPUT,
DELTA TAU
DE S CRIP TI ON
DATE
3-16 -05
UNTE RMI NAT ED
R EVISIO NS
TWI S TE D
40
30
DESCRIPTION
NEW DRAWING RELEASE
CRIM P TE RMI NA L (M OLE X P/ N 43 030-0008)
UNL ESS OTHERWISE SPECIF IED
DIMENSIONS AREIN INCHES
TOL ERANCESARE:
DECIMAL S
FRACTIONS
2
1
10
20
Q TY
S EQ
20
10
--
REV.
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
24V Logic Power Cable
85
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
3-Phase power cable
86
Appendix A
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
Regenerative Resistor: GAR48/78
Model
Description
GAR48
300W, 48 OHM regenerative resistor with Thermostat
protection. Includes 18-inch wire cable. Single or dual axis.
300W, 78 OHM regenerative resistor with Thermostat
protection. Includes 18-inch wire cable. Single or dual axis.
GAR78
Appendix A
87
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
DB- Connector Spacing Specifications
X1-8: DB-15 Connectors for encoder feedback
3.115±.05
1.541±.015
8
7
15
6
14
5
13
4
12
3
11
2
10
1
8
9
7
15
6
14
5
13
4
12
3
11
2
10
1
9
X9-12: DB-9 Connectors for Analog I/O
2.45±.05
1.213+.015
5
4
9
3
8
2
7
1
5
6
4
9
3
8
2
7
1
6
Screw Lock Size for all DB-connectors
.18
7
#4-40 FEMALE SCREWLOCK
QTY 2 per connector
Steel, Zinc Plated
88
.235
DIA
.126
DIA
LOCKWASHER
QTY 2 per connector
Clear Chromate
Appendix A
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
Type of Cable for Encoder Wiring
Low capacitance shielded twisted pair cable is ideal for wiring differential encoders. The better the shield
wires, the better the noise immunity to the external equipment wiring. Wiring practice for shielded cables
is not an exact science. Different applications will present different sources of noise, and experimentation
may be required to achieve the desired results. Therefore, the following recommendations are based upon
some experiences that we at Delta Tau Data Systems have acquired.
If possible, the best cabling to use is a double-shielded twisted pair cable. Typically, there are four pairs
used in a differential encoder’s wiring. The picture below shows how the wiring may be implemented for
a typical differential sinusoidal encoder using double shielded twisted pair cable.
SIN+
SINSHIELD
COS+
COSSHIELD
INDEX+
INDEXSHIELD
ENC PWR
GND
SHIELD
OUTER
SHIELD
EXAMPLE OF DOUBLE SHIELDED
4 TWISTED PAIR CABLE
The shield wires should be tied to ground (Vcc return) at the interpolator end. It is acceptable to tie the
shield wires together if there are not enough terminals available. Keep the exposed wire lengths as close
as possible to the terminals on the interpolator.
Note:
It has been observed that there is an inconsistency in the shielding styles that are
used by different encoder manufacturers.
Be sure to check pre-wired encoders to ensure that the shield wires are not
connected at the encoder’s side. Shield wires should be connected only on one
side of the cable.
If the encoder has shield wires that are connected to the case ground of the
encoder, ensure that the encoder and motor cases are sufficiently grounded. Do
not connect the shield at the interpolator end.
If the encoder has pre-wired double shielded cable that has only the outer shield
connected at the encoder, then connect only the inner shield wires to the
interpolator. Be sure not to mix the shield interconnections.
One possible cable type for encoders is Belden 8164 or ALPHA 6318. This is a 4-pair individually
shielded cable that has an overall shield. This double-shielded cable has a relatively low capacitance and
is a 100Ω impedance cable.
Appendix A
89
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
Cables for single-ended encoders should be shielded for the best noise immunity. Single-ended encoder
types cannot take advantage of the differential noise immunity that comes with twisted pair cables.
Note:
If noise is a problem in the application, careful attention must be given to the
method of grounding that is used in the system. Amplifier and motor grounding
can play a significant role in how noise is generated in a machine.
Noise may be reduced in a motor-based system by the use of inductors placed
between the motor and the amplifier.
90
Appendix A
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
APPENDIX B
Schematics
X15: Watchdog
DGND_PLANE
BWDO
3
4
5
3
2
4
D18
MMBD301LT1
(SOT23)
9
1
12
TB2
1
2
3
5
K5
NC7SZ08M5
(SOT23-5)
1
1
WDO
3
WDO
U29
(JWDO)
COM
N.C.
N.O.
TERMBLK 3
(.150 PITCH)
10
8
FBR12ND05
DGND_PLANE
GND
J6 and J7: General Purpose I/O
Inputs
MMBZ33VALT1
.1uf
C243
.1uf
U70
ACI1A
ACI1B
ACI2A
ACI2B
ACI3A
ACI3B
ACI4A
ACI4B
C1
E1
C2
E2
C3
E3
C4
E4
7
5
3
1
2
D57
1
2
D56
1
D55
D58
2
4
6
8
RP160
2.2KSIP8I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
U72
ACI1A
ACI1B
ACI2A
ACI2B
ACI3A
ACI3B
ACI4A
ACI4B
C1
E1
C2
E2
C3
E3
C4
E4
PS2705-4
Input Section
Appendix B
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
PS2705-4
7
5
3
1
MMBZ33VALT1
C240
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
3
MMBZ33VALT1
1
3
D35
2
3
MMBZ33VALT1
1
3
D37
2
2
MMBZ5V6ALT1 MMBZ5V6ALT1 MMBZ5V6ALT1 MMBZ5V6ALT1
1
D36
2
1
3
1 RP159
3
5
7
1.2KSIP8I
8
6
4
2
2
4
6
8
1
D38
2
8
6
4
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
D54
2
4
6
8
RP154
2.2KSIP8I
3
3
.1uf
D53
1 RP153
3
5
7
1.2KSIP8I
3
MMBZ33VALT1
C233
.1uf
D52
3
MMBZ33VALT1
C230
D51
3
MMBZ33VALT1
1
3
D31
2
1 RP158
3
5
7
MMBZ5V6ALT1 MMBZ5V6ALT1 MMBZ5V6ALT1 MMBZ5V6ALT1
1
D32
2
MMBZ33VALT1
1
3
D33
2
1.2KSIP8I
IN_COM_01--08
3
2
GPIN05
GPIN06
GPIN07
GPIN08
1
D34
2
1
3
Opto Gnd Plane
2
4
6
8
3
1 RP152
3
5
7
1.2KSIP8I
3
GPIN01
GPIN02
GPIN03
GPIN04
91
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
Outputs
D71
Opto Gnd Plane
2
2.2K
D74
D75
D76
2
2
2
2
2
D73
D77
D78
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
GPO1+
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
GPO1--
3
R80
Q5
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
D72
MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3
F1
1
2
2
2
COM_COL
5
6
7
8
ANO2
CAT2
C2
E2
ANO3
CAT3
C3
E3
ANO4
CAT4
C4
E4
16
15
14
13
1
R81
2.2K
GPO2-F3
12
11
10
9
1
R82
2.2K
Q7
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
GPO3+
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
GPO3-F4
2
PS2701-4
Q6
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
GPO2+
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
3
C1
E1
2
3
4
U78
ANO1
CAT1
3
1
2
2
F2
R83
2.2K
Q8
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
GPO4+
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
GPO4--
3
1
2
F5
R84
2.2K
Q9
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
GPO5--
3
1
GPO5+
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
10
9
1
R86
2.2K
Q11
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
GPO7+
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
GPO7-F8
2
2.2K
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
GPO8--
Opto Gnd Plane
D81
D82
D83
D84
D85
D86
2
R87
Q12
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
3
1
GPO8+
2
PS2701-4
GPO6-F7
12
11
2
C4
E4
Q10
NZT560A
(SOT-223)
2
ANO4
CAT4
2.2K
2
C3
E3
1
R85
2
ANO3
CAT3
14
13
3
C2
E2
GPO6+
RUE090
Raychem
30R090
Littelfuse
2
7
8
ANO2
CAT2
16
15
2
5
6
C1
E1
2
3
4
ANO1
CAT1
3
1
2
2
F6
U79
D87
D88
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3 MBRS140T3
COM_EMT
92
Appendix B
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
J4: Limit Inputs for Axis 1-4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U39
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
1
2
1
3
5
7
3
4
5
6
7
8
PS2705-4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U40
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
C160
C162
.1
.1
C161
C163
.1
.1
1
2
5
6
7
8
PS2705-4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U41
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
C164
C166
.1
.1
C165
C167
.1
.1
1
2
5
6
7
8
PS2705-4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U42
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
C168
C170
.1
.1
C169
C171
.1
.1
1
2
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP39
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
5
6
7
8
C172
C174
.1
.1
C173
C175
.1
.1
USER1
PLIM1
MLIM1
HOME1
FL_RT1
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP40
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
RP41
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP42
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP43
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
USER2
PLIM2
MLIM2
HOME2
FL_RT2
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP44
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
RP45
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP46
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP47
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
USER3
PLIM3
MLIM3
HOME3
FL_RT3
LIMITS 1,2,3,4
J10
USER1
PLIM1
MLIM1
HOME1
FL_RT1
BEQU1
USER2
PLIM2
MLIM2
HOME2
FL_RT2
BEQU2
USER3
PLIM3
MLIM3
HOME3
FL_RT3
BEQU3
USER4
PLIM4
MLIM4
HOME4
FL_RT4
BEQU4
GND
1
14
2
15
3
16
4
17
5
18
6
19
7
20
8
21
9
22
10
23
11
24
12
25
13
USER1
PLIM1
MLIM1
HOME1
FL_RT1
BEQU1
USER2
PLIM2
MLIM2
HOME2
FL_RT2
BEQU2
USER3
PLIM3
MLIM3
HOME3
FL_RT3
BEQU3
USER4
PLIM4
MLIM4
HOME4
FL_RT4
BEQU4
GND
DB25S
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP48
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
1
3
5
7
3
4
PS2705-4
Appendix B
1
3
5
7
1
3
5
7
3
4
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP38
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
3
4
RP37
RP49
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP50
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP51
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
USER4
PLIM4
MLIM4
HOME4
FL_RT4
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP52
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
93
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
J5: Limit Inputs for Axis 5-8
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U59
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
1
2
1
3
5
7
3
4
5
6
7
8
PS2705-4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U60
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
C200
C202
.1
.1
C201
C203
.1
.1
1
2
5
6
7
8
PS2705-4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U61
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
C204
C206
.1
.1
C205
C207
.1
.1
1
2
5
6
7
8
PS2705-4
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U62
C1
E1
AC1
AC1
C2
E2
AC2
AC2
C3
E3
AC3
AC3
C4
E4
AC4
AC4
C208
C210
.1
.1
C209
C211
.1
.1
1
2
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP89
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
5
6
7
8
C212
C214
.1
.1
C213
C215
.1
.1
USER5
PLIM5
MLIM5
HOME5
FL_RT5
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP90
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
RP91
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP92
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP93
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
USER6
PLIM6
MLIM6
HOME6
FL_RT6
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP94
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
RP95
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP96
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP97
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
USER7
PLIM7
MLIM7
HOME7
FL_RT7
LIMITS 5,6,7,8
J20
USER5
PLIM5
MLIM5
HOME5
FL_RT5
BEQU5
USER6
PLIM6
MLIM6
HOME6
FL_RT6
BEQU6
USER7
PLIM7
MLIM7
HOME7
FL_RT7
BEQU7
USER8
PLIM8
MLIM8
HOME8
FL_RT8
BEQU8
GND
1
14
2
15
3
16
4
17
5
18
6
19
7
20
8
21
9
22
10
23
11
24
12
25
13
USER5
PLIM5
MLIM5
HOME5
FL_RT5
BEQU5
USER6
PLIM6
MLIM6
HOME6
FL_RT6
BEQU6
USER7
PLIM7
MLIM7
HOME7
FL_RT7
BEQU7
USER8
PLIM8
MLIM8
HOME8
FL_RT8
BEQU8
GND
DB25S
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP98
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
1
3
5
7
3
4
PS2705-4
94
1
3
5
7
1
3
5
7
3
4
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP88
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
3
4
RP87
RP99
2
4
6
8
4.7KSIP8I
2 RP100
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
4.7KSIP8I
1 RP101
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
USER8
PLIM8
MLIM8
HOME8
FL_RT8
x1KSIP8I
(IN SOCKET)
1
3
5
7
RP102
2
4
6
8
1KSIP8I
Appendix B
Geo Brick User Manual – Preliminary Documentation
APPENDIX C
Board Jumpers
E10 – E12: Power-Up/Reset Load Source
E Point &
Physical Layout
Description
E10:
To load active memory from flash IC on power-up/reset/remove
jumper E10;
Jump E11 pin 1 to 2
Jump E12 pin 1 to 2.
E11:
Other combinations are for factory use only; the board will not
operate in any other configuration.
Default
No E10 jumper
installed
E11 and E12, jump
pin 1 to 2.
E12:
E13: Firmware Reload Enable
E Point and
Physical Layout
Description
Install jumper to reload firmware through the communications port.
Default
No jumper installed
Remove jumper for normal operations.
E14: Watchdog Disable Jumper
E Point and
Physical Layout
Description
Jump pin 1 to 2 to disable Watchdog timer (for test purposes only).
Default
No jumper installed
Remove jumper to enable Watchdog timer.
Appendix C
95
Geo Brick Hardware Reference Manual
E25-28: Select Encoder Index input or AENA output (channels 1-4)
E Point and
Physical Layout
Description
Default
E25:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch1 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA1 at Ch1 encoder connector
No jumper installed
E26:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch2 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA2 at Ch2 encoder connector
No jumper installed
E27:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch3 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA3 at Ch3 encoder connector
No jumper installed
E28:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch4 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA4 at Ch4 encoder connector
No jumper installed
E35-39: Select Encoder Index input or AENA output (channels 5-8)
E Point and
Physical Layout
Description
Default
E35:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch5 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA5 at Ch5 encoder connector
No jumper installed
E36:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch6 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA6 at Ch6 encoder connector
No jumper installed
E37:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch7 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA7 at Ch7 encoder connector
No jumper installed
E38:
No Jumper for TTL Level input for Ch8 Index signal (C)
Jumper 1-2 to output AENA8 at Ch8 encoder connector
No jumper installed
On the revisions of the Geo Brick that the S1- Reset button was not on the face plate
E3: Re-Initialization on Reset Control
E Point and
Physical Layout
Description
Remove jumper for normal reset mode (default).
Default
No jumper installed
Jump pins 1 to 2 for re-initialization on reset.
96
Appendix C