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Agilent E5505A
Phase Noise
Measurement System
User’s Guide
Agilent Technologies
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© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2004-2014
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Safety Notices
C AU T I O N
A CAUTION notice denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or the like
that, if not correctly performed or
adhered to, could result in damage
to the product or loss of important
data. Do not proceed beyond a
CAUTION notice until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and
met.
WA R N I N G
A WARNING notice denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to an
operating procedure, practice, or
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Contents
1
Getting Started
Introduction
26
Documentation Map
27
Table 1. E5505A user’s guide map
27
Additional Documentation 28
Figure 1. Navigate to system documentation
28
System Overview
29
Figure 2. E5505A benchtop system, typical configuration
30
Table 2. Equivalent system/instrument model numbers
30
2
Introduction and Measurement
Introducing the GUI
32
Figure 3. E5500 graphical user interface (GUI)
Designing to Meet Your Needs
Beginning
34
E5505A Operation: A Guided Tour
Required equipment
35
How to begin
35
33
34
35
Powering the System On
36
To power on a racked system
36
To power on a benchtop system
36
Starting the Measurement Software 37
Figure 4. Navigation to the E5500 user interface
37
Figure 5. Phase noise measurement subsystem main screen
38
Performing a Confidence Test
39
Figure 6. Opening the file containing pre-stored parameters
39
Figure 7. Navigating to the Define Measurement window
40
Beginning a measurement
40
Figure 8. Navigating to the New Measurement window
40
Figure 9. Confirm new measurement
41
Figure 10. Setup diagram displayed during the confidence test.
41
Making a measurement
42
Figure 11. Typical phase noise curve for test set confidence test
42
Sweep segments
42
Congratulations
43
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
3
Learning more
43
Table 3. Parameter data for the N5500A confidence test example
43
Powering the System Off
45
To power off a racked system 45
To power off a benchtop system 45
Using the E5500 Shutdown Utility 45
Figure 12. Shutdown utility icon
45
3
Phase Noise Basics
What is Phase Noise? 48
Figure 13. RF sideband spectrum
49
Phase terms 49
Figure 14. CW signal sidebands viewed in the frequency domain
50
Figure 15. Deriving L(f) from a RF analyzer display
51
Figure 16. L(f) Described Logarithmically as a Function of Offset Frequency
Figure 17. Region of validity of L(f) 52
4
51
Expanding Your Measurement Experience
Starting the Measurement Software 54
Figure 18. Navigate to E5500 user interface
54
Using the Asset Manager
55
Configuring an asset 55
Figure 19. Navigate to Asset Manager
55
Figure 20. Navigate to Add in Asset Manager
56
Figure 21. Select source as asset type 56
Figure 22. Choose source
57
Figure 23. Select I/O library
57
Figure 24. Enter asset and serial number
58
Figure 25. Enter comment 58
Figure 26. Click check-mark button
59
Figure 27. Confirmation message
59
Using the Server Hardware Connections to Specify the Source
Figure 28. Navigate to server hardware connections
60
Figure 29. Select Sources tab
60
Figure 30. Successful I/O check 61
Figure 31. Failed I/O check 61
Setting GPIB Addresses
63
Table 4. Default GPIB addresses
63
Figure 32. Asset Manager on System menu
4
60
64
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Figure 33. Asset Manager window
Figure 34. GPIB address dialog box
64
65
Testing the 8663A Internal/External 10 MHz 66
Required equipment
66
Defining the measurement
66
Figure 35. Select the parameters definition file
66
Figure 36. Enter Source Information
67
Table 5. Tuning characteristics for various sources
68
Selecting a reference source
68
Figure 37. Selecting a reference source
68
Selecting loop suppression verification
69
Figure 38. Selecting loop suppression verification
69
Setting up for the 8663A 10 MHz measurement
69
Figure 39. Noise floor for the 8663 10 MHz measurement 70
Figure 40. Noise floor example
70
Beginning the measurement
71
Figure 41. Selecting new measurement
71
Figure 42. Confirm new measurement
71
Figure 43. Connection diagram
72
Table 6. Test set signal input limits and characteristics 73
Sweep segments
75
Figure 44. Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set monitor port
76
Making the measurement 76
Figure 45. Selecting suppression
77
Figure 46. Typical phase noise curve for an 8663A 10 MHz measurement 78
Table 7. Parameter data for the 8663A 10 MHz measurement 79
Testing the 8644B Internal/External 10 MHz 81
Required equipment
81
Defining the measurement
81
Figure 47. Select the parameters definition file
81
Figure 48. Sources tab in define measurement window
82
Table 8. Tuning characteristics for various sources
83
Selecting a reference source
83
Figure 49. Selecting a reference source
84
Selecting loop suppression verification
84
Figure 50. Selecting loop suppression verification
85
Setting up the 8663A 10 MHz measurement 85
Figure 51. Noise floor for the 8644B 10 MHz measurement
85
Figure 52. Noise floor example
86
Beginning the measurement
87
Figure 53. Selecting a new measurement
87
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5
Figure 54. Confirm measurement dialog box
87
Figure 55. Connect diagram dialog box 88
Table 9. Test set signal input limits and characteristics 89
Figure 56. Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set monitor port
91
Making the measurement 92
Figure 57. Suppression selections
92
Figure 58. Typical phase noise curve for an 8644B 10 MHz measurement.
93
Table 10. Parameter data for the 8644B 10 MHz measurement
94
Viewing Markers 96
Figure 59. Navigate to markers 96
Figure 60. Adding and deleting markers
Omitting Spurs
97
Figure 61. Navigate to display preferences
Figure 62. Uncheck spurs
97
Figure 63. Graph displayed without spurs
Displaying the Parameter Summary
99
Figure 64. Navigate to parameter summary
Figure 65. Parameter summary 100
96
97
98
99
Exporting Measurement Results
101
Figure 66. Export results choices
101
Exporting Trace Data
102
Figure 67. Trace data results
102
Exporting spur data
103
Figure 68. Spur data results
103
Exporting X-Y data 104
Figure 69. X-Y data results
104
5
Absolute Measurement Fundamentals
The Phase-Lock-Loop Technique
106
Understanding the Phase-Lock-Loop Technique
106
Figure 70. Simplified block diagram of the phase lock loop configuration
106
The Phase-Lock-Loop Circuit
106
Figure 71. Capture and drift-tracking range with tuning range of VCO
107
Figure 72. Capture and drift-tracking ranges and beatnote frequency
108
What Sets the Measurement Noise Floor?
110
The System Noise Floor
110
Table 11. Amplitude ranges for L and R ports 110
Figure 73. Relationship between the R input level and system noise floor
The Noise Level of the Reference Source
111
6
110
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Figure 74. Reference source noise approaches DUT noise
111
Selecting a Reference 112
Figure 75. DUT noise approaches reference noise
112
Using a Similar Device
112
Using a Signal Generator
113
Tuning Requirements
113
Table 12. Tuning Characteristics of Various VCO Source Options
113
Figure 76. Voltage tuning range limits relative to center voltage of the VCO tuning
curve 114
Estimating the Tuning Constant
115
Table 13. VCO tuning constant calibration method
115
Tracking Frequency Drift
116
Evaluating beatnote drift
116
Changing the PTR 118
Figure 77. Peak tuning range
118
The Tuning Qualifications
118
Minimizing Injection Locking
120
Adding Isolation
120
Increasing the PLL Bandwidth 120
Figure 78. Peak tuning range (PTR) Required by injection locking.
121
Inserting a Device 122
An attenuator
122
Figure 79. Measurement noise floor relative to R-Port signal level
122
An amplifier 123
Figure 80. Measurement noise floor as a result of an added attenuator
123
Evaluating Noise Above the Small Angle Line
124
Determining the Phase-Lock-Loop bandwidth 124
Figure 81. Phase lock loop bandwidth provided by the peak tuning range
Figure 82. Graph of small angle line and spur limit
126
Figure 83. Requirements for noise exceeding small angle limit
127
6
125
Absolute Measurement Examples
Stable RF Oscillator
130
Required equipment
130
Defining the measurement
130
Figure 84. Select the parameters definition file
130
Figure 85. Enter source information 131
Table 14. Tuning characteristics for various sources
132
Selecting a reference source
132
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7
Figure 86. Selecting a reference source
133
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
133
Figure 87. Selecting loop suppression verification
134
Setup considerations for stable RF oscillator measurement
134
Figure 88. Noise floor for the stable RF oscillator measurement
135
Figure 89. Noise floor calculation example 135
Beginning the measurement
136
Figure 90. Selecting a new measurement
136
Figure 91. Confirm new measurement
136
Figure 92. Connect diagram for the stable RF oscillator measurement
137
Table 15. Test set signal input limits and characteristics
138
Checking the beatnote
139
Figure 93. Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set Monitor port
140
Making the measurement 140
Figure 94. Selecting suppressions
141
Figure 95. Typical phase noise curve for a stable RF oscillator
142
Table 16. Parameter data for the stable RF oscillator measurement
143
Free-Running RF Oscillator
145
Required equipment
145
Defining the measurement
145
Figure 96. Select the parameters definition file
146
Figure 97. Enter source information 147
Table 17. Tuning characteristics for various sources
147
Selecting a reference source
148
Figure 98. Selecting a reference source
148
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
148
Figure 99. Selecting loop suppression verification
149
Setup considerations for the free-running RF oscillator measurement
149
Figure 100. Noise floor for the free-running RF oscillator measurement
150
Figure 101. Noise floor calculation example 150
Beginning the measurement
151
Figure 102. Selecting a new measurement
151
Figure 103. Confirm measurement dialog box
151
Figure 104. Connect diagram for the free-running RF oscillator measurement 152
Table 18. Test set signal input limits and characteristics
152
Checking the beatnote
153
Figure 105. Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set Monitor port 154
Making the measurement 155
Figure 106. Selecting suppressions
156
Figure 107. Typical phase noise curve for a free-running RF oscillator
157
Table 19. Parameter data for the free-running RF oscillator measurement
158
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Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
RF Synthesizer Using DCFM
160
Required equipment
160
Defining the measurement
160
Figure 108. Select the parameters definition file
160
Figure 109. Enter source information 161
Table 20. Tuning characteristics for various sources
162
Selecting a reference source
162
Figure 110. Selecting a reference source
162
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
164
Figure 111. Selecting loop suppression verification
164
Setup considerations for the RF synthesizer using DCFM measurement
164
Figure 112. Noise floor for the RF synthesizer (DCFM) measurement
165
Figure 113. Noise floor calculation example 165
Beginning the measurement
166
Figure 114. Selecting a new measurement
166
Figure 115. Confirm measurement dialog box
166
Figure 116. Connect diagram for the RF synthesizer (DCFM) measurement
167
Table 21. Test set signal input limits and characteristics
167
Checking the beatnote
168
Figure 117. Oscilloscope display of beatnote from the test set Monitor port 169
Making the measurement 170
Figure 118. Selecting suppressions
170
Figure 119. Typical phase noise curve for an RF synthesizer using DCFM
171
Table 22. Parameter Data for the RF Synthesizer (DCFM) Measurement
172
RF Synthesizer Using EFC
174
Required equipment
174
Defining the measurement
174
Figure 120. Select the parameters definition file
174
Figure 121. Enter Source Information 176
Table 23. Tuning Characteristics for Various Sources 176
Selecting a reference source
177
Figure 122. Selecting a reference source
177
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
177
Figure 123. Selecting Loop suppression verification 178
Setup considerations for the RF synthesizer using EFC measurement
178
Figure 124. Noise floor for the RF synthesizer (EFC) measurement 179
Figure 125. Noise floor calculation example 179
Beginning the measurement
180
Figure 126. Selecting a new measurement
180
Figure 127. Confirm measurement dialog box
180
Figure 128. Connect diagram for the RF synthesizer (EFC) measurement
181
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
9
Table 24. Test set signal Input Limits and Characteristics
182
Checking the beatnote
182
Figure 129. Oscilloscope display of a beatnote from the test set Monitor port
Making the measurement 183
Figure 130. Selecting suppressions
184
Figure 131. Typical phase noise curve for an RF synthesizer using EFC 185
Table 25. Parameter data for the RF synthesizer (EFC) measurement
186
Microwave Source
188
Required equipment
188
Defining the measurement
188
Figure 132. Select the parameters definition file
188
Figure 133. Enter source information 190
Table 26. Tuning characteristics for various sources
190
Selecting a reference source
191
Figure 134. Selecting a reference source
191
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
191
Figure 135. Selecting loop suppression verification
192
Setup considerations for the microwave source measurement
192
Figure 136. Noise characteristics for the microwave measurement
192
Beginning the measurement
193
Figure 137. Selecting a new measurement
193
Figure 138. Confirm measurement dialog box
193
Figure 139. Connect diagram for the microwave source measurement 194
Table 27. Test set signal input limits and characteristics
195
Checking the beatnote
195
Figure 140. Oscilloscope display of a beatnote from the test set Monitor port
Making the measurement 197
Figure 141. Selecting suppressions
198
Figure 142. Typical phase noise curve for a microwave source
199
Table 28. Parameter data for the microwave source measurement
200
7
183
196
Residual Measurement Fundamentals
What is Residual Noise? 204
The noise mechanisms
204
Figure 143. Additive noise components 204
Figure 144. Multiplicative noise components
205
Assumptions about Residual Phase Noise Measurements
206
Figure 145. Setup for typical residual phase noise measurement
Frequency translation devices
207
Figure 146. Measurement setup for two similar DUTs 207
10
206
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Calibrating the Measurement
208
Figure 147. General equipment setup for making residual phase noise
measurements 208
Calibration and measurement guidelines
209
Calibration options 210
User entry of phase detector constant 211
Figure 148. Measuring power at phase detector signal input port
212
Table 29. Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors.
212
Figure 149. Phase detector sensitivity 213
Figure 150. Adjust for quadrature 214
Figure 151. Measuring power at phase detector reference input port
214
Measured ± DC peak voltage 215
Figure 152. Connection to optional oscilloscope for determining voltage peaks
Table 30. Acceptable Amplitude Ranges for the Phase Detectors
216
Measured beatnote 217
Table 31. Frequency ranges
217
Procedure
218
Figure 153. Measuring power from splitter
218
Table 32. Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors
218
Figure 154. Calibration source beatnote injection
219
Synthesized residual measurement using beatnote cal
219
Table 33. Frequency Ranges
219
Procedure
220
Figure 155. Synthesized residual measurement using beatnote cal 220
Measured beatnote/automatic calibration 220
Figure 156. Automatic Calibration Connection Diagram 221
Double-Sided spur
221
Figure 157. Calibration setup
222
Table 34. Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors
223
Figure 158. Measuring carrier-to-sideband ratio of the modulated port
223
Single-Sided spur
224
Figure 159. Calibration setup for single-sided spur 225
Table 35. Acceptable Amplitude Ranges for the Phase Detectors
226
Figure 160. Carrier-to-spur ratio of modulated signal
226
Figure 161. Carrier-to-spur ratio of non-modulated signal 227
216
Measurement Difficulties
228
System connections
228
8
Residual Measurement Examples
Amplifier Measurement Example
Required equipment
230
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
230
11
Figure 162. Setup for residual phase noise measurement
231
Defining the measurement
231
Figure 163. Select the parameters definition file
231
Figure 164. Navigate to residual phase noise 232
Figure 165. Enter frequencies into source tab 232
Figure 166. Select constant in the cal tab 233
Figure 167. Select parameters in the block diagram tab 234
Figure 168. Select graph description on graph tab
234
Setup considerations for amplifier measurement
235
Beginning the measurement
235
Figure 169. Select meter from view menu 235
Figure 170. Selecting New Measurement
236
Figure 171. Confirm new measurement 237
Figure 172. Setup diagram for the 8349A amplifier measurement example
237
Table 36. Test set signal input limits and characteristics
238
Making the measurement 239
Table 37. Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors
239
Figure 173. Residual connect diagram example
240
Figure 174. Connection to optional oscilloscope for determining voltage peaks 240
Figure 175. Adjust phase difference at phase detector 241
Figure 176. Adjust phase shifter until meter indicates 0 volts
242
When the measurement is complete
242
Figure 177. Typical phase noise curve for a residual measurement
243
Table 38. Parameter data for the amplifier measurement example
243
9
FM Discriminator Fundamentals
The Frequency Discriminator Method 246
Figure 178. Basic delay line/mixer frequency discriminator method
Basic theory
246
The discriminator transfer response
247
Figure 179. Nulls in sensitivity of delay line discriminator 248
Table 39. Choosing a delay line
250
10
246
FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
Introduction 252
Figure 180. FM Discriminator measurement setup
252
FM Discriminator Measurement using Double-Sided Spur Calibration
253
Required Equipment
253
Table 40. Required Equipment for the FM Discriminator Measurement Example
Determining the discriminator (delay line) length 253
Figure 181. Discriminator noise floor as a function of delay time
254
12
253
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Defining the measurement
254
Figure 182. Select the parameters definition file
254
Figure 183. Select measurement type
255
Figure 184. Enter frequencies in source tab
256
Figure 185. Enter parameters into the call tab
257
Figure 186. Select parameters in the block diagram tab 257
Figure 187. Select Graph Description on Graph Tab 258
Setup considerations
258
Beginning the measurement
259
Figure 188. Select meter from view menu 259
Figure 189. Selecting New Measurement
259
Figure 190. Confirm new measurement 260
Figure 191. Setup diagram for the FM discrimination measurement example 260
Table 41. Test Set Signal Input Limits and Characteristics
261
Figure 192. Connect diagram example
262
Making the measurement 262
Figure 193. Calibration measurement (1 of 5) 263
Figure 194. Calibration measurement (2 of 5) 263
Figure 195. Calibration measurement (3 of 5) 264
Figure 196. Calibration measurement (4 of 5) 264
Figure 197. Calibration measurement (5 of 5) 264
When the measurement is complete
265
Figure 198. Typical phase noise curve using double-sided spur calibration
265
Table 42. Parameter data for the double-sided spur calibration example
266
Discriminator Measurement using FM Rate and Deviation Calibration
268
Required equipment
268
Table 43. Required equipment for the FM discriminator measurement example
Determining the discriminator (delay line) length 269
Figure 199. Discriminator noise floor as a function of delay time
269
Defining the measurement
269
Figure 200. Select the parameters definition file
270
Figure 201. Select measurement type
270
Figure 202. Enter frequencies in Source tab 271
Figure 203. Enter parameters into the Cal tab 272
Figure 204. Enter parameters in the Block Diagram tab
273
Figure 205. Select graph description on Graph tab 273
Setup considerations
274
Beginning the measurement
275
Figure 206. Select meter from the View menu
275
Figure 207. Selecting New Measurement
275
Figure 208. Confirm new measurement 276
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
268
13
Figure 209. Setup diagram for the FM Discrimination measurement example
276
Table 44. Test set signal input limits and characteristics
277
Figure 210. System connect diagram example 278
Making the measurement 278
Figure 211. Calibration measurement (1 of 5) 279
Figure 212. Calibration measurement (2 of 5) 279
Figure 213. Calibration measurement (3 of 5) 280
Figure 214. Calibration measurement (4 of 5) 280
Figure 215. Calibration measurement (5 of 5) 280
When the measurement is complete
280
Figure 216. Typical phase noise curve using rate and deviation calibration
281
Table 45. Parameter data for the rate and deviation calibration example
282
11
AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
AM-Noise Measurement Theory of Operation
Basic noise measurement 286
Phase noise measurement 286
286
Amplitude Noise Measurement
287
AM noise measurement block diagrams
287
Figure 217. AM noise system with N5500A opt 001 287
Figure 218. AM noise system with external detector 287
Figure 219. AM Noise system with 70429A Opt K21 AM detector 288
Figure 220. AM noise system with N5507A downconverter 288
AM detector
288
Figure 221. AM detector schematic 288
Table 46. Maximum carrier offset frequency
289
Calibration and Measurement General Guidelines
291
Method 1: User Entry of Phase Detector Constant
292
Method 1, example 1 292
Figure 222. Phase detector constant AM noise setup (method1, example 1)
Figure 223. AM noise calibration setup 293
Figure 224. AM detector sensitivity graph 293
Method 1, example 2 294
Figure 225. Phase detector constant AM noise setup (method 1, example 2)
Figure 226. Modulation sideband calibration setup 295
Method 2: Double-Sided Spur 296
Method 2, example 1 296
Figure 227. Double-Sided spur AM noise setup (method 2, example 1)
Figure 228. Measuring the carrier-to-sideband ratio
297
Figure 229. Measuring the calibration constant
297
14
292
294
296
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Method 2, example 2 298
Figure 230. Double-sided spur AM noise setup (method 2, example 2)
Figure 231. Measuring power at the am detector 298
Figure 232. Measuring carrier-to-sideband ratio 299
Figure 233. Measuring the calibration constant
299
Method 3: Single-Sided Spur 301
Figure 234. AM noise measurement setup using single-sided spur
Figure 235. Measuring relative spur level
302
Figure 236. Measuring detector sensitivity
302
12
298
301
AM Noise Measurement Examples
AM Noise with N5500A Option 001 304
Required equipment
304
Figure 237. AM noise measurement configuration 304
Defining the measurement
304
Figure 238. Select the parameters definition file
305
Figure 239. Navigate to AM noise 306
Figure 240. Enter Frequencies in Source Tab
306
Figure 241. Enter parameters into the cal tab 307
Figure 242. Select parameters in the block diagram tab 307
Figure 243. Select graph description on graph tab
308
Beginning the measurement
308
Figure 244. Selecting a new measurement
308
Figure 245. Confirm measurement dialog box
309
Figure 246. Connect diagram for the AM noise measurement
309
Table 47. Test set signal input limits and characteristics
311
Figure 247. Connect diagram example
311
Making the measurement 312
When the measurement is complete
312
Figure 248. Typical AM noise curve 312
Table 48. Parameter data for the AM noise using an N5500A Option 001
13
313
Baseband Noise Measurement Examples
Baseband Noise with Test Set Measurement Example
316
Defining the measurement
316
Figure 249. Select the parameters definition file
316
Beginning the measurement
317
Figure 250. Selecting a new measurement
317
Figure 251. Confirm measurement dialog box
317
Figure 252. Connect diagram dialog box 318
Making the measurement 318
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
15
Figure 253. Typical phase noise curve for a baseband using a test set
measurement.
318
Table 49. Parameter data for the baseband using a test set measurement
319
Baseband Noise without Test Set Measurement Example
320
Defining the measurement
320
Figure 254. Select the parameters definition file
320
Beginning the measurement
321
Figure 255. Selecting a new measurement
321
Figure 256. Confirm measurement dialog box
321
Figure 257. Connect diagram for baseband without test set measurement
321
Figure 258. Instrument connection dialog box 322
Making the measurement 322
Figure 259. Typical curve for a baseband without test set measurement.
322
Table 50. Parameter data for the baseband without using a test set
measurement 323
14
Evaluating Your Measurement Results
Evaluating the Results
326
Looking for obvious problems
326
Figure 260. Noise plot showing obvious problems 327
Comparing against expected data
327
Figure 261. Compensation for added reference source noise 328
Figure 262. Measurement results and reference source noise 329
Gathering More Data 330
Repeating the measurement
330
Figure 263. Repeating a measurement
Doing more research 330
330
Outputting the Results 331
Using a printer
331
Graph of Results
332
Marker 332
Figure 264. Navigate to marker 332
Figure 265. Add and delete markers
333
Omit Spurs 334
Figure 266. Select display preferences
334
Figure 267. Uncheck spurs
334
Figure 268. Graph without spurs
335
Parameter summary
335
Figure 269. Navigate to parameter summary 335
Figure 270. Parameter summary notepad 336
16
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Problem Solving
337
Table 51. List of topics that discuss problem solving in this chapter
337
Discontinuity in the graph 337
Table 52. Potential causes of discontinuity in the graph
337
Higher noise level
338
Spurs on the graph
338
Table 53. Spurs on the graph
339
Table 54. Actions to eliminate spurs
339
Small angle line 340
Figure 271. L(f) Is only valid for noise levels below the small angle line
341
15
Advanced Software Features
Introduction
344
Phase-Lock-Loop Suppression
345
Figure 272. PLL suppression verification graph
PLL suppression parameters
345
Ignore-Out-Of-Lock Mode
345
348
PLL Suppression Verification Process
349
PLL suppression information
349
Figure 273. Default PLL suppression verification graph
349
Figure 274. Measured loop suppression curve
350
Figure 275. Smoothed loop suppression curve 351
Figure 276. Theoretical loop suppression curve
351
Figure 277. Smoothed vs. theoretical loop suppression curve 352
Figure 278. Smoothed vs. Adjusted theoretical loop suppression curve
Figure 279. Adjusted theoretical vs. theoretical loop suppression curve
PLL gain change
354
Maximum error
354
Accuracy degradation
354
352
353
Blanking Frequency and Amplitude Information on the Phase Noise Graph 355
Security level procedure
355
Figure 280. Navigate to security level 355
Figure 281. Choosing levels of security 356
Figure 282. Unsecured: all data is viewable 356
Figure 283. Choosing levels of security 357
Figure 284. Secured: frequencies cannot be found-1
357
Figure 285. Secured: frequencies cannot be found-2
358
Figure 286. Choosing levels of security 358
Figure 287. Secured: frequencies and amplitudes cannot be viewed
359
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
17
16
Reference Graphs and Tables
Approximate System Noise Floor vs. R Port Signal Level
Figure 288. Noise floor for R input port
362
Phase Noise Floor and Region of Validity
Figure 289. Region of validity
363
362
363
Phase Noise Level of Various Agilent Sources
364
Figure 290. Noise level for various reference sources
364
Increase in Measured Noise as Ref Source Approaches DUT Noise
Figure 291. Reference source and DUT noise levels 365
365
Approximate Sensitivity of Delay Line Discriminator 366
Figure 292. Delay line discriminator sensitivity
366
AM Calibration 367
Figure 293. AM detector sensitivity
367
Voltage Controlled Source Tuning Requirements
368
Figure 294. Tuning voltage required for phase lock 368
Tune Range of VCO for Center Voltage
369
Figure 295. Tune range of VCO for center voltage
369
Peak Tuning Range Required by Noise Level
370
Figure 296. Typical source noise level vs. minimum tuning range
Phase Lock Loop Bandwidth vs. Peak Tuning Range
Figure 297. PLL BW vs. peak tuning range
371
370
371
Noise Floor Limits Due to Peak Tuning Range
372
Figure 298. Noise at source’s peak tuning range
372
Tuning Characteristics of Various VCO Source Options 373
Table 55. Tuning parameters for several VCO options 373
8643A Frequency Limits 374
Table 56. 8643A frequency limits
374
8643A mode keys 374
Table 57. Operating characteristics for 8643A modes 1, 2, and 3
How to access special functions
375
Figure 299. 8643A special function keys
375
Description of special functions 120 and 125 375
8644B Frequency Limits
377
Table 58. 8644B frequency limits
377
8644B mode keys 377
Table 59. Operating characteristics for 8644B modes 1, 2, and 3
18
375
378
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
How to access special functions
378
Figure 300. 8644B special functions keys 378
Description of special function 120
379
17
8664A Frequency Limits 380
Table 60. 8664A frequency limits
380
8664A mode keys 380
Table 61. Operating characteristics for 8664A modes 2 and 3
How to access special functions
381
Figure 301. Special functions keys
381
Description of special functions 120 381
380
8665A Frequency Limits 382
Table 62. 8665A frequency limits
382
8665A mode keys 382
Table 63. Operating characteristics for 8665A modes 2 and 3
How to access special functions
383
Figure 302. 8665A special functions keys
383
Description of Special Functions 120 and 124
383
383
8665B Frequency Limits
385
Table 64. 8665B frequency limits
385
8665B mode keys 385
Table 65. Operating characteristics for 8665B modes 2 and 3
How to access special functions
386
Figure 303. 8665B Special functions keys 386
Description of special functions 120 and 124 387
386
System Specifications
Specifications
390
Table 66. Mechanical and environmental specifications
Table 67. Operating characteristics
390
Reliable accuracy 391
Table 68. Phase noise measurement accuracy
391
Table 69. AM noise measurement accuracy
391
Measurement qualifications
391
Tuning
392
Computer
392
Power Requirements 393
Table 70. E5505A maximum AC power requirements
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
390
393
19
18
System Interconnections
Making Connections
396
System Connectors
397
Table 71. E5505A connectors and adapters
System Cables
398
Table 72. E5505A cables and connections
397
398
Connecting Instruments
399
Figure 304. Connect adapter to PC digitizer card 399
Figure 305. PC to test set connection, standard model 400
Figure 306. PC to test set (options 001 and 201) and downconverter connection
Figure 307. E5505A system connections with standard test set
403
Figure 308. E5505A system connections with test set option 001 404
Figure 309. E5505A system connections with test set option 201 405
19
401
PC Components Installation
Overview 408
Step 1:Uninstall the current version of Agilent Technologies IO libraries
Step 2:Uninstall all National Instruments products.
408
Step 3:Install the National Instruments VXI software. 408
Step 4:Install the National Instruments VISA runtime.
408
Step 5:Install software for the NI Data Acquisition Software. 408
408
To install the PC digitizer software 409
Step 6:Hardware Installation
409
Figure 310. Remove screws from side of CPU 410
Figure 311. Slide cover off 411
Figure 312. Remove hold-down bar
411
Figure 313. Vertically-Mounted expansion slots 412
Figure 314. PC digitizer card
413
Figure 315. Insert PC digitizer card 413
Figure 316. Secure card with screw 414
Figure 317. Connect adapter to PC digitizer card 414
Figure 318. GPIB interface card
415
Figure 319. Insert GPIB card 416
Figure 320. Secure card with screw 416
Figure 321. Replace cover 417
Step 7. Finalize National Instruments Software Installation.
417
Step 8: System Interconnections
417
Table 73. E5505A connectors and adapters
418
Figure 322. Test set connection, standard model 419
Figure 323. Test set (options 001 and 201) and downconverter connection
20
420
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Step 9: Install Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable Package use default
settings
420
Step 10: Install the Agilent I/O Libraries
420
To install the Agilent I/O libraries 421
Step 11: Install the E5500 Phase Noise Measurement software.
To install the E5500 software 427
Step 12: Asset Configuration
To set up Asset Manager 429
427
429
Figure 324. Add assets
435
Figure 325. Choose asset type 435
Figure 326. Select supporting ACM 436
Figure 327. Choose the interface and address for the PC digitizer
437
Table 74. Default GPIB addresses
438
Figure 328. Choose model and serial number 439
Figure 329. Select (internal) in baseband source
439
Figure 330. Enter a comment about the configured asset
440
Figure 331. Asset manager screen showing configured PC Digitizer
440
Step 13: License Key for the Phase Noise Test Set
441
Figure 332. Navigate to E5500 asset manager
441
Figure 333. Navigate to license keys 442
Figure 334. License_key.txt 443
Figure 335. Copy keyword into license key field
443
Figure 336. Licensing confirmation
444
Figure 337. Licensing error
444
20
PC Digitizer Performance Verification
Verifying PC Digitizer Card Output Performance
Required equipment
446
446
To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance 446
PC Digitizer Card Input Performance Verification
Required equipment
451
451
To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance 451
21
Preventive Maintenance
Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors
Repeatability
456
RF Cable and Connector Care 456
Proper Connector Torque 457
Table 75. Proper Connector Torque 457
Connector Wear and Damage 457
SMA Connector Precautions
458
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
456
21
Cleaning Procedure
458
Table 76. Cleaning Supplies Available from Agilent
459
General Procedures and Techniques
460
Figure 338. GPIB, 3.5 mm, Type-N, power sensor, and BNC connectors
Connector Removal
461
460
Instrument Removal
463
Standard instrument
463
To remove an instrument from a rack 463
Half-Rack-Width Instrument
464
To remove a half-width instrument from a system rack 464
Figure 339. Instrument lock links, front and rear
Benchtop Instrument
465
465
To remove an instrument from a benchtop system 465
Instrument Installation
466
Standard rack instrument 466
To install an instrument 466
Half-Rack-Width instrument
467
To install the instrument in a rack 467
Benchtop instrument
467
To install an instrument in a benchtop system 467
A
Service, Support, and Safety Information
Safety and Regulatory Information 470
Safety summary
470
Equipment Installation 470
Environmental conditions
471
Before applying power
471
Ground the instrument or system 472
Fuses and Circuit Breakers
472
Maintenance
473
Safety symbols and instrument markings
473
Table 77. Safety symbols and instrument markings
473
Regulatory Compliance
475
Declaration of Conformity
475
Compliance with German noise requirements
475
Table 78. German noise requirements summary
475
Compliance with Canadian EMC requirements
475
Service and Support
476
Agilent on the Web
476
Return Procedure
22
477
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Determining your instrument’s serial number
Figure 340. Serial number location 477
Shipping the instrument
478
477
To package the instrument for shipping 478
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
23
24
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
1
Getting Started
Introduction 26
Documentation Map 27
Additional Documentation 28
System Overview 29
Agilent Technologies
25
1
Getting Started
Introduction
This guide introduces you to the Agilent E5505A Phase Noise Measurement
System software and hardware. It provides procedures for configuring the
E5500 Phase Noise Measurement software, executing measurements,
evaluating results, and using the advanced software features. It also covers
phase noise basics and measurement fundamentals to get you started.
Use Table 1 on page 27 as a guide to:
• Learning about the E5505A phase noise measurement system
• Learning about phase noise basics and measurement fundamentals
• Using the E5505A system to make specific phase noise measurements.
In this guide you’ll also find information on system connections and
specifications, and procedures for re-installing phase-noise-specific hardware
and software in the system PC.
NOTE
26
Installation information for your system is provided in the Agilent E5505A Phase Noise
Measurement System Installation Guide.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Getting Started
1
Documentation Map
Table 1
E5505A user’s guide map
Learning about the E5505A System
Learning Phase Noise Basics &
Measurement Fundamentals
Using the E5505A for Specific Phase
Noise Measurements
Chapter 1, “Getting Started”
Chapter 2, “Introduction and
Measurement”
Chapter 3, “Phase Noise Basics”
Chapter 4, “Expanding Your
Measurement Experience”
Chapter 5, “Absolute Measurement
Fundamentals”
Chapter 6, “Absolute Measurement
Examples”
Chapter 7, “Residual Measurement
Fundamentals”
Chapter 8, “Residual Measurement
Examples”
Chapter 9, “FM Discriminator
Fundamentals”
Chapter 10, “FM Discriminator
Measurement Examples”
Chapter 11, “AM Noise Measurement
Fundamentals”
Chapter 12, “AM Noise Measurement
Examples”
Chapter 13, “Baseband Noise
Measurement Examples”
Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results”
Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features”
Chapter 16, “Reference Graphs and
Tables”
Chapter 17, “System Specifications”
Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections”
Chapter 19, “PC Components
Installation”
Chapter 20, “PC Digitizer Performance
Verification”
Chapter 21, “Preventive
Maintenance”
Chapter A, “Service, Support, and
Safety Information”
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
27
1
Getting Started
Additional Documentation
You can access the complete set of PDF documents that support the E5505A
system through the system GUI. (Adobe® Acrobat Reader® is supplied.)
Navigate the menu as shown in Figure 1. The files are stored on the system PC
hard drive and on the E5500A software CD. Be sure to explore the E5500 Help
menu for additional information.
The E5505A system documentation includes:
• Agilent E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System Installation Guide
• Agilent E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System User's Guide
• Agilent N5501A/N5502A Phase Noise Downconverter User's Guide
• Agilent N5507A Phase Noise Downconverter User's Guide
• Agilent N5500A Phase Noise Test Set User's Guide
• Agilent E5500 Series Phase Noise Measurement Systems SCPI Command
Reference
• Agilent E5500 Phase Noise Measurement System Online Help
.
Figure 1
28
Navigate to system documentation
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Getting Started
1
System Overview
The E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System provides flexible sets of
measurements on one-port devices such as voltage controlled oscillators
(VCOs), dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs), crystal oscillators, and
synthesizers, and on two-port devices such as amplifiers and converters. The
E5505A system measures absolute and residual phase noise, AM noise, and
low-level spurious signals, as well as CW and pulsed signals. It operates in the
frequency range of 50 KHz to 26.5 GHz.
The E5505A phase noise measurement system combines standard
instruments, phase noise components, and PC software for maximum
flexibility and re-use of assets. The system PC operates under Windows® XP
Professional® and controls the system through the E5500 measurement
software. The E5500 software enables many stand-alone instruments to work
in the system. This standalone-instrument architecture easily configures for
various measurement techniques, including the phase-lock-loop
(PLL)/reference-source technique, and delay-line and FM-discriminator
methods.
The E5505A system is available as a one-bay wide, System II rack and as a
benchtop model. Due to the system’s flexibility, the hardware in the system
varies greatly with the options selected. You may be installing instruments you
already own in the system as well. A typical system includes these
components:
• Advantech or Kontron custom PC with digitizer card assembly
• 15-inch display (flat-panel or standard), keyboard, and mouse
• Windows® XP Professional® operating system
• Agilent E5500 Phase Noise Measurement software
• Phase noise test set
• Downconverter
• RF source
Additional instruments may include a spectrum analyzer, oscilloscope,
RF counter, power meter, and power splitter.
NOTE
For detailed information on the instruments in your E5505A phase noise measurement
system, refer to the individual instrument user guides (provided on DVD-R).
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
29
1
Getting Started
Figure 2 shows a typical configuration of an E5505A benchtop system.
Figure 2
E5505A benchtop system, typical configuration
The E5505A replaces earlier Agilent E5500A/B series phase noise systems,
which are based on MMS technology. The E5505A system uses GPIB
communication and certain instruments have been redesigned with GPIB
functionality. However, the E5505A system and E5500 software are backwards
compatible with earlier systems and instruments, including the MMS
mainframe. You may easily integrate existing assets into your E5505A system.
Table 2 shows the E5505A instruments and earlier-model equivalents.
Table 2
30
Equivalent system/instrument model numbers
System or Instrument
New Number
Old Number
Phase noise measurement
system
E5505A
E5501A, E5501B, E5502B,
E5503A, E5503B, E5504A, E5504B
Test set
N5500A
70420A
6.6 GHz downconverter
N5501A
70421A
18 GHz downconverter
N5502A
70422A
26.5 GHz downconverter
N5507A
70427A, 71707A
Microwave source
N5508A
70428A, 71708A
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
2
Introduction and Measurement
Introducing the GUI 32
Designing to Meet Your Needs 34
E5505A Operation: A Guided Tour 35
Powering the System On 36
Performing a Confidence Test 39
Powering the System Off 45
Agilent Technologies
31
2
Introduction and Measurement
Introducing the GUI
The graphical user interface (GUI) gives the user instant access to all
measurement functions, making it easy to configure a system and define or
initiate measurements. The most frequently used functions are displayed as
icons on a toolbar, allowing quick and easy access to the measurement
information.
The forms-based graphical interaction helps you define your measurement
quickly and easily. Each form tab is labeled with its content, preventing you
from getting lost in the defining process.
The system provides three default segment tables. To obtain a quick look at
your data, select the “fast” quality level. If it is important to have more
frequency resolution to separate spurious signals, use the “normal” and “high
resolution” quality levels. If you need to customize the offset range beyond the
defaults provided, tailor the measurement segment tables to meet your needs
and save them as a custom selection.
You can place up to nine markers on the data trace that can be plotted with the
measured data.
Other features include:
• Plotting data without spurs
• Tabular listing of spurs
• Plotting in alternate bandwidths
• Parameter summary
• Color printouts to any supported color printer
Figure 3 on page 33 shows an example of the GUI.
32
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Introduction and Measurement
2
System Requirements
E5500_main_screen
24 Jun 04 rev 2
Figure 3
E5500 graphical user interface (GUI)
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
33
2
Introduction and Measurement
Designing to Meet Your Needs
The E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System is a high performance
measurement tool that enables you to fully evaluate the noise characteristics
of your electronic instruments and components with unprecedented speed and
ease. The phase noise measurement system provides you with the flexibility
needed to meet today’s broad range of noise measurement requirements.
In order to use the phase noise system effectively, it is important that you have
a good understanding of the noise measurement you are making. This manual
is designed to help you gain that understanding and quickly progress from a
beginning user of the phase noise system to a proficient user of the system’s
basic measurement capabilities.
NOTE
If you have just received your system or need help with connecting the hardware or
loading software, refer to your Agilent E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
Installation Guide now. Once you have completed the installation procedures, return to
“E5505A Operation: A Guided Tour" on page 35 to begin learning how to make noise
measurements with the system.
Beginning
The section “E5505A Operation: A Guided Tour" on page 35 contains a
step-by-step procedure for completing a phase noise measurement. This
measurement demonstration introduces system operating fundamentals for
whatever type of device you plan to measure.
Once you are familiar with the information in this chapter, you should be
prepared to start Chapter 4, “Expanding Your Measurement Experience. After
you have completed that chapter, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help in analyzing and verifying your test results.
34
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Introduction and Measurement
2
E5505A Operation: A Guided Tour
This measurement demonstration introduces you to the system’s operation by
guiding you through an actual phase noise measurement.
You will be measuring the phase noise of the Agilent N5500A Phase Noise Test
Set’s low noise amplifier. (The measurement made in this demonstration is the
same measurement that is made to verify the system’s operation.)
As you step through the measurement procedures, you will soon discover that
the phase noise measurement system offers enormous flexibility for
measuring the noise characteristics of your signal sources and two-port
devices.
Required equipment
The equipment shipped with this system is all that is required to complete this
demonstration. (Refer to the E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
Installation Guide if you need information about setting up the hardware or
installing the software.)
How to begin
Follow the setup procedures beginning on the next page. The phase noise
measurement system displays a setup diagram that shows you the front panel
cable connections to make for this measurement.
NOTE
If you need additional information about connecting instruments, refer to Chapter 18,
“System Interconnections.”
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
35
2
Introduction and Measurement
Powering the System On
This section provides procedures for powering on a racked or benchtop
system. First connect your system to an appropriate AC power source, then
follow the steps below.
WA R N I N G
NOTE
Before applying power, make sure the AC power input and the location of the
system meet the requirements given in Chapter 17, “System Specifications.”
Failure to do so may result in damage to the system or personal injury.
Warm-up Time: The downconverter and RF source instruments contain ovenized
oscillators which must warm up for 30 minutes to produce accurate measurements.
Standby Mode: The RF source uses a standby mode to keep the ovenized oscillator warm
when the instrument is connected (plugged in) to AC power, even when the power switch
is in the off position. To completely shut down the instrument, you must disconnect it from
the AC power supply.
To power on a racked system
1 Press the system power switch (front, top right of the rack) to the on
position.
2 Verify that all instrument power switches are on.
3 Allow the system to warm up for 30 minutes.
To power on a benchtop system
1 Press the power switch on each instrument to the on position.
2 If you have the system connected to a safety power strip, turn the strip’s
power switch to the on position.
3 Allow the system to warm up for 30 minutes.
36
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Introduction and Measurement
2
Starting the Measurement Software
1 Place the E5500 phase noise measurement software disk in the DVD-R
drive.
2 Using Windows® Start menu as in Figure 4, navigate to the E5500 User
Interface.
Figure 4
Navigation to the E5500 user interface
3 The phase noise measurement subsystem main screen appears (Figure 5 on
page 38).
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
37
2
Introduction and Measurement
E5500_main_screen
24 Jun 04 rev 2
Figure 5
NOTE
38
Phase noise measurement subsystem main screen
The default background for the screen is gray. You can change the background color by
selecting View/Display Preferences and clicking on the Background Color button.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Introduction and Measurement
2
Performing a Confidence Test
This first measurement is a confidence test that functionally checks the
N5500A test set’s filters and low-noise amplifiers using the test set’s low noise
amplifier. The phase detectors are not tested. This confidence test also
confirms that the test set, PC, and analyzers are communicating with each
other. To conduct the test, use a file with pre-stored parameters named
Confidence.pnm.
1 On the E5500 GUI main menu, select File\Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, select Confidence.pnm (Figure 6).
4 Click the Open button.
Figure 6
Opening the file containing pre-stored parameters
The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example have
been pre-stored in this file. Table 3 on page 43 lists the parameter data that
has been entered for the N5500A confidence test example.
5 To view the parameter data in the software, navigate to the Define
Measurement window. Use Figure 7 on page 40 as a navigation guide. The
parameter data is entered using the tabbed windows. Select various tabs to
see the type of information entered behind each tab.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
39
2
Introduction and Measurement
Figure 7
Navigating to the Define Measurement window
6 Click the Close button.
Beginning a measurement
1 From the Measure menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 8.
Figure 8
40
Navigating to the New Measurement window
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Introduction and Measurement
2
2 When the Do you want to Perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
dialog box appears, click Yes. See Figure 9.
Figure 9
Confirm new measurement
3 Connect the equipment per Figure 10 and ensure the signal output is
turned off.
Figure 10 Setup diagram displayed during the confidence test.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
41
2
Introduction and Measurement
Making a measurement
1 Press the Continue button.
• Because you selected New Measurement to begin this measurement, the
system starts by running the routines required to calibrate the current
measurement setup.
• Figure 11 on page 42 shows a typical baseband phase noise plot for an
phase noise test set.
Figure 11 Typical phase noise curve for test set confidence test
Sweep segments
When the system begins measuring noise, it places the noise graph on its
display. As you watch the graph, you see the system plot its measurement
results in frequency segments.
The system measures the noise level across its frequency offset range by
averaging the noise within smaller frequency segments. This technique enables
the system to optimize measurement speed while providing you with the
measurement resolution needed for most test applications.
42
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Introduction and Measurement
2
Congratulations
You have completed a phase noise measurement. This measurement of the test
set’s low noise amplifier provides a convenient way to verify that the system
hardware and software are properly configured for making noise
measurements. If your graph looks like that in Figure 11, you can be confident
that your system is operating normally.
Learning more
Continue with this demonstration by turning to Chapter 4, “Expanding Your
Measurement Experience to” learn more about performing phase noise
measurements.
Table 3
Parameter data for the N5500A confidence test example
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
Swept Quality
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
Cal Tab
Gain preceding noise input
0 dB
3
Block Diagram Tab
Noise Source
Test Set Noise Input
4
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
LNA Gain
DC Block
PLL Integrator Attenuation
•
•
•
•
•
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Baseband Noise (using a test set)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz1
4
Fast
Fast
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
43
2
Introduction and Measurement
Table 3
Parameter data for the N5500A confidence test example
Step
Parameters
Data
5
Graph Tab
Title
• Confidence Test, N5500A low noise amplifier.
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to
Scale trace data to a new carrier
frequency of:
Shift trace data DOWN by
Trace Smoothing Amount
Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
Base band noise (dBv/Hz)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
0 dBv/Hz
–200 dBv/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
1 The Stop Frequency depends on the analyzers configured in your phase noise system.
44
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Introduction and Measurement
2
Powering the System Off
To power off a racked system
1 On the E5500 software menu, select File\Exit. Always shut down the E5500
software before powering off the E5505A system.
2 Press the system power switch (front, top right of the rack) to the off
position.
C AU T I O N
Always shut down the E5500 software before powering off the E5505A system.
Failure to do so may produce errors in the stem, and result in an inoperable system
or inaccurate measurements. If you do receive errors during shutdown, startup, or
operation, use the E5500 Shutdown utility to restore functionality to the system.
To power off a benchtop system
1 On the E5500 software menu, select File\Exit.
2 Press the power switch on each instrument to the off position.
Using the E5500 Shutdown Utility
If you receive error messages during the power on or off procedures, or during
operation, use the E5500 Shutdown utility to shut down the system. This
utility automatically fixes most errors and restores functionality to the system.
If you still receive errors after running the E5500 Shutdown utility, call your
local Agilent Technologies Service Center.
To run the E5500 Shutdown utility
1 Double-Click on the E5500 Shutdown utility shortcut on the PC desktop
and follow the onscreen instructions. (You can also navigate to it using the
menu path Start/Agilent Subsystems/E5500 Phase Noise/Shutdown.)
Figure 12 Shutdown utility icon
2 When the shutdown utility has finished, use the Start menu to shut down
the PC. Then power the system off.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
45
2
46
Introduction and Measurement
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
3
Phase Noise Basics
What is Phase Noise?
Phase terms 49
48
Agilent Technologies
47
3
Phase Noise Basics
What is Phase Noise?
Frequency stability can be defined as the degree to which an oscillating source
produces the same frequency throughout a specified period of time. Every RF
and microwave source exhibits some amount of frequency instability. This
stability can be broken down into two components:
• long-term stability
• short-term stability
Long-term stability describes the frequency variations that occur over long
time periods, expressed in parts per million per hour, day, month, or year.
Short-term stability contains all elements causing frequency changes about the
nominal frequency of less than a few seconds duration. The chapter deals with
short-term stability.
Mathematically, an ideal sinewave can be described by
V ( t ) = V o sin 2 π f o t
Where V o = nominal amplitude,
V o sin 2 π f o t = linearly growing phase component,
and f o = nominal frequency
But an actual signal is better modeled by
V ( t ) = Vo + ε ( t ) sin 2 π f o t + Δφ ( t )
Where ε ( t ) = amplitude fluctuations,
and Δφ ( t ) = randomly fluctuating phase term or phase noise.
This randomly fluctuating phase term could be observed on an ideal RF
analyzer (one which has no sideband noise of its own) as in Figure 13 on
page 49.
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e5505a_user_RF_sideband.ai
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Figure 13 RF sideband spectrum
Phase terms
There are two types of fluctuating phase terms:
• spurious signals
• phase noise
Spurious signals
The first are discrete signals appearing as distinct components in the spectral
density plot. These signals, commonly called spurious, can be related to known
phenomena in the signal source such as power line frequency, vibration
frequencies, or mixer products.
Phase noise
The second type of phase instability is random in nature, and is commonly
called phase noise. The sources of random sideband noise in an oscillator
include thermal noise, shot noise, and flicker noise.
Many terms exist to quantify the characteristic randomness of phase noise.
Essentially, all methods measure the frequency or phase deviation of the
source under test in the frequency or time domain. Since frequency and phase
are related to each other, all of these terms are also related.
Spectral density One fundamental description of phase instability or phase
noise is spectral density of phase fluctuations on a per-Hertz basis. The term
spectral density describes the energy distribution as a continuous function,
expressed in units of variance per unit bandwidth. Thus S φ ( f ) (Figure 14 on
page 50) may be considered as:
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2
Δφ 2 rms ( f )
- = rad
-----------S φ ( f ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------Hz
BW used to measure Δφ rms
Where BW (bandwidth is negligible with respect to any changes in S φ versus
the fourier frequency or offset frequency (f).
L(f) Another useful measure of noise energy is L(f), which is then directly
related to S φ ( f ) by a simple approximation which has generally negligible error
if the modulation sidebands are such that the total phase deviation are much
less than 1 radian (Δφpk<< radian).
1
L ( f ) = --- S Δφ ( f )
2
e5505a_user_CW_sidebands_freq.ai
rev2 10/20/03
Figure 14 CW signal sidebands viewed in the frequency domain
L(f) is an indirect measurement of noise energy easily related to the RF power
spectrum observed on an RF analyzer. Figure 15 shows that the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines L(f) as the ratio of the
power--at an offset (f) Hertz away from the carrier. The phase modulation
sideband is based on a per Hertz of bandwidth spectral density and or offset
frequency in one phase modulation sideband, on a per Hertz of bandwidth
spectral density and (f) equals the Fourier frequency or offset frequency.
power density ( in one phase modulation sideband )
P ssbL ( f ) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = ----------total signal power
Ps
= single sideband (SSB) phase noise to carrier ration (per Hertz)
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Figure 15 Deriving L(f) from a RF analyzer display
L ( f ) is usually presented logarithmically as a spectral density plot of the
phase modulation sidebands in the frequency domain, expressed in dB relative
to the carrier per Hz (dBc/Hz) as shown in Figure 16. This chapter, except
where noted otherwise, uses the logarithmic form of L ( f ) as follows:
S Δ f ( f ) = 2f 2 L ( f ) .
Figure 16 L(f) Described Logarithmically as a Function of Offset Frequency
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Caution must be exercised when L ( f ) is calculated from the spectral density of
the phase fluctuations S φ ( f ) because the calculation of L ( f ) is dependent on
the small angle criterion. Figure 17, the measured phase noise of a free
running VCO described in units of L ( f ) , illustrates the erroneous results that
can occur if the instantaneous phase modulation exceeds a small angle line.
Approaching the carrier L ( f ) obviously increases in error as it indicates a
relative level of +45 dBc/Hz at a 1 Hz offset (45 dB more noise power at a 1 Hz
offset in a 1 Hz bandwidth than in the total power of the signal); which is of
course invalid.
Figure 17 shows a 10 dB/decade line drawn over the plot, indicating a peak
phase deviation of 0.2 radians integrated over any one decade of offset
frequency. At approximately 0.2 radians the power in the higher order
sidebands of the phase modulation is still insignificant compared to the power
in the first order sideband which insures that the calculation of L ( f ) remains
valid. Above the line the plot of L ( f ) becomes increasingly invalid, and S φ ( f )
must be used to represent the phase noise of the signal.
Figure 17 Region of validity of L(f)
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Starting the Measurement Software 54
Using the Asset Manager 55
Using the Server Hardware Connections to Specify the Source
Testing the 8663A Internal/External 10 MHz 66
Testing the 8644B Internal/External 10 MHz 81
Viewing Markers 96
Omitting Spurs 97
Displaying the Parameter Summary 99
Exporting Measurement Results 101
Agilent Technologies
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Starting the Measurement Software
1 Make sure your computer and monitor are turned on.
2 Place the E5500 Phase Noise Measurement System software disk in the disc
holder and insert in the DVD-R drive.
3 Using Figure 18 as a guide, navigate to the E5500 User Interface.
Figure 18 Navigate to E5500 user interface
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Using the Asset Manager
Use the Asset Manager to add assets to your E5505A system. The process is
essentially the same for any asset, including reference sources. In fact, the
procedure in this section uses an Agilent 8663 source as an example. (The
procedure applies to all Agilent sources, including the 8257x series.)
Adding an asset involves two steps once the hardware connections have been
made:
• Configuring the asset
• Verifying the server hardware connections.
WA R N I N G
Be sure to power off the system before making all hardware connections other than GPIB.
Connecting assets with the power applied can result in personal injury and damage to the
hardware. (For more information on connecting assets, see Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections)
Configuring an asset
This procedure demonstrates how to add an asset to the E5505A system.
1 Using Figure 19 as a guide, navigate to Asset Manager. For this example we
invoke the Asset Manager Wizard from the E5500 main screen. This is the
most common way to add assets.
Figure 19 Navigate to Asset Manager
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2 Select Add in the Asset Manager window. See Figure 20.
Figure 20 Navigate to Add in Asset Manager
3 From the Asset Type pull-down list in Choose Asset Role dialog box, select
Source, then click Next. See Figure 21.
.
Figure 21 Select source as asset type
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4 Click on the source to be added, then click the Next button (see Figure 22).
Figure 22 Choose source
5 From the Interface pull-down list, select GPIB0. See Figure 23.
6 In the Address box, type 19.
NOTE
19 is the default address for a source. Table 4 on page 63 shows the default GPIB address
for all system instruments.
7 In the Library pull-down list, select the Agilent Technologies VISA. Click
the Next button.
Figure 23 Select I/O library
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8 In the Set Model & Serial Numbers dialog box, type in your source name
and its corresponding serial number. Click the Next button. See Figure 24.
Figure 24 Enter asset and serial number
9 In the Enter A Comment dialog box, you may type a comment that
associates itself with the asset you have just configured. Click Finish. See
Figure 25.
Figure 25 Enter comment
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10 In the Asset Manager window, select the source in the left window pane.
Click the check-mark button on the toolbar to verify connectivity. See
Figure 26.
Figure 26 Click check-mark button
• The Asset Manager displays a message verifying the connection to your
asset. This indicates that you have successfully configured a source. (See
Figure 27.)
Figure 27 Confirmation message
11 To exit the Asset Manager, on the menu select Server/Exit.
12 Perform the procedure “Using the Server Hardware Connections to Specify
the Source" on page 60.
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Using the Server Hardware Connections to Specify the Source
1 From the System menu, choose Server Hardware Connections. See
Figure 28.
Figure 28 Navigate to server hardware connections
2 Select the Sources tab shown in Figure 29.
Figure 29 Select Sources tab
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3 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select Agilent 8663A.
a A green check-mark appears after an automatic I/O check has been
successfully performed by the software. If nothing happens, click the
Check I/O button to manually initiate the check.
Figure 30 Successful I/O check
b A red circle with a slash appears if the I/O check is unsuccessful.
Figure 31 Failed I/O check
c If the I/O check fails, click the Asset Manager button to return to the
Asset Manager (see Figure 31).
d In the Asset Manager, verify that the 8663A is configured correctly. Do
the following:
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• Check your system hardware connections.
• Click the green check-mark button on the Asset Manager’s toolbar to
verify connectivity.
• Return to Server Hardware Connections and click the Check I/O
button to re-check it.
NOTE
62
Use the same process to add additional assets to your E5505A system.
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Setting GPIB Addresses
Table 4 shows the default GPIB addresses for the E5505A system instruments.
If you need to change a GPIB address to prevent a conflict between assets, use
the Asset Manager as shown in the easy procedure starting on page 64.
Table 4
Default GPIB addresses
Instrument
Address
Test set
20
Downconverter
28
Microwave downconverter
28
RF analyzer
17
FFT analyzer (PC digitizer card)
1
FFT analyzer (89410A)
18
Source # 1
19
Source # 2
23
Counter
3
Agilent E1430 VXI digitizer1
129
Agilent E1437 VXI digitizer1
192
Agilent E1420B VXI counter1
48
1
80
Agilent GPIB slave Port
22
Agilent E1441 VXI ARB
1 The E5500 software supports this instrument although it is not part of the standard E5505A system.
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To change the GPIB address
1 On the E5500 main menu, select System/Asset Manager. See Figure 32.
Figure 32 Asset Manager on System menu
2 Double-Click on the desired instrument in the Asset Manager list (left
pane). See Figure 33.
Figure 33 Asset Manager window
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3 Type the desired address in the dialog box. See Figure 34.
Figure 34 GPIB address dialog box
4 Click OK.
5 To exit the Asset Manager, on the menu select Server/Exit.
Next proceed to one of the following absolute measurements using either an
Agilent 8257x or an Agilent 8644B source:
• “Testing the 8663A Internal/External 10 MHz" on page 66.
• “Testing the 8644B Internal/External 10 MHz" on page 81.
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Testing the 8663A Internal/External 10 MHz
This measurement example helps you measure the absolute phase noise of an
RF synthesizer.
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly
set for the desired configuration, as shown in Table 6 on page 73. Apply the input
signal when the connection diagram appears.
Required equipment
This measurement requires an Agilent 8663A in addition to the phase noise
test system and your device under test (DUT). You also need the coaxial cables
and adapters necessary to connect the DUT and reference source to the test
set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu in the E5500 User Interface, choose Open. If necessary,
choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
2 In the File Name box, choose “Conf_SigGen_10MHz.pnm.” See Figure 35.
.
Figure 35 Select the parameters definition file
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3 Click the Open button.
The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example have
been pre-stored in this file. Table 7 on page 79 lists the parameter data that
has been entered for this measurement example.)
NOTE
Note that the source parameters entered for step 2 in Table 7 on page 79 may not be
appropriate for the reference source you are using. To change these values, refer to Table 5
on page 68, then continue with step 4 below. Otherwise, go to “Beginning the
measurement" on page 71.
4 Using Figure 36 as a guide, navigate to the Sources tab.
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to 1.6 GHz).
Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
b Enter the VCO (Nominal) Tuning Constant (see Table 5 on page 68).
c Enter the Tune Range of VCO (see Table 5).
d Enter the Center Voltage of VCO (see Table 5).
e Enter the Input Resistance of VCO (see Table 5).
e5505a_user_enter_source_info
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 36 Enter Source Information
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Table 5
Tuning characteristics for various sources
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage
Tuning Range
(± V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 K (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Compute
Compute
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Other Signal Generator
DCFM Calibrated for ±1V
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Compute
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to
+10
1E+6
Measure
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
Other User VCO Source
Selecting a reference source
1 Using Figure 37 as a guide, navigate to the Block Diagram tab.
2 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select Agilent-8663.
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Agilent-8257
e5505a_user_select_ref_source
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Figure 37 Selecting a reference source
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Selecting loop suppression verification
1 Using Figure 38 as a guide, navigate to the Cal tab.
2 Check Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression and Always Show
Suppression Graph. Select If limit is exceeded: Show Loop Suppression
Graph.
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
e5505a_user_select_loop
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 38 Selecting loop suppression verification
Setting up for the 8663A 10 MHz measurement
The signal amplitude at the test set’s R input (Signal Input) port sets the
measurement noise floor level. Use Figure 39 on page 70 and Figure 40 on
page 70 to help determine the amplitude required to provide a noise floor level
that is below the expected noise floor of your DUT. For more information
about this graph, refer to “Reference Graphs and Tables" on page 361.
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L Port level
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
+15dBm
+5
-5
-15
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
Expected phase noise floor of system (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
n5505a_exp_phase_noise
25 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 39 Noise floor for the 8663 10 MHz measurement
Figure 40 Noise floor example
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If the output amplitude of your DUT is not sufficient to provide an adequate
measurement noise floor, it is necessary to insert a low-noise amplifier
between the DUT and the test set. Refer to “Inserting a Device" on page 122 for
details on determining the effect the amplifiers noise will have on the
measured noise floor.
Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 41.
Figure 41 Selecting new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 42 Confirm new measurement
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
pull-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 43 on page 72.
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Figure 43 Connection diagram
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time and
confirm your connections as shown in the appropriate connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured
based on your measurement definition.
C AU T I O N
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics contained in
Table 6 on page 73.
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which occurs at the connection
diagram.
5 Press Continue.
• As the system performs the calibration routines, various status messages
appear on the display. When the last message—Measuring PLL
suppression—appears, you can choose to continue the routine or stop it.
6 Press Continue using Adjusted Loop Suppression to continue making the
noise measurement, or press Abort to stop the measurement. (For
descriptions of the messages, see “Status messages" on page 74. You have
time to read through the descriptions while the system completes the
routines.)
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:
Table 6
4
Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Frequency
50 kHz to 26.5 GHz
Maximum Signal Input Power
+30 dBm (with Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
• Microwave Phase Detectors
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +23 dBm
0 to +5 dBm
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• N5502A/70422A
• N5507A/70427A
+5 to +15 dBm
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
NOTE
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
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Status messages
This section describes the status messages that appear on the display as the
system performs its calibration routines.
Determining Presence of Beat Note... An initial check is made to verify that a
beatnote is present within the system’s detection range.
Verifying Zero-Beat... The frequency of the beatnote is measured to see if it is
within 5% of the estimated Peak Tuning Range of the system. The system’s
Peak Tuning Range is the portion of the voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO)
source’s tuning range being used for the measurement.
When the system measures the phase noise of a signal source using the Phase
Lock Loop technique (the technique being used in this example) it requires
that one of the two sources used in the setup is a VCO. As you will see later in
this demonstration, you are required to estimate the tuning range of the VCO
source you are using when you set up your own Phase Lock Loop
measurements.
Zero beating sources... The center frequencies of the sources are now
adjusted, if necessary, to position the beatnote within the 5% range. The
adjustment is made with the tune voltage applied to the VCO source set at its
nominal or center position.
Measuring the VCO Tuning Constant... The tuning sensitivity (Hz/V) of the VCO
source is now precisely determined by measuring the beatnote frequency at
four tune voltage settings across the tuning range of the VCO source. Linearity
across the tuning range is also verified
Measuring the Phase Detector Constant... The transfer characteristics (V/rad)
of the test set’s phase detector are now determined for the specific center
frequency and power level of the sources being measured.
Measuring PLL suppression... The required correction data is created to
compensate for the phase noise suppression which occurs within the
bandwidth of the phase lock loop created for this measurement. The computer
displays the PLL suppression curve and associated measurement values.
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Sweep segments
When the system begins measuring noise, it places the noise graph on its
display. As you watch the graph, you see the system plot its measurement
results in frequency segments.
The system measures the noise level across its frequency offset range by
averaging the noise within smaller frequency segments. This technique enables
the system to optimize measurement speed while providing you with the
measurement resolution needed for most test applications.
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help in evaluating your measurement results. (If the
test system has problems completing the measurement, it informs you by
placing a message on the computer display.
Checking the beatnote
While the Connect Diagram is still displayed, Agilent recommends that you use
an oscilloscope (connected to the Monitor port on the test set) or a counter to
check the beatnote being created between the reference source and your DUT.
The objective of checking the beatnote is to ensure that the center frequencies
of the two sources are close enough in frequency to create a beatnote that is
within the Capture Range of the system.
The phase lock loop (PLL) Capture Range is 5% of the peak tuning range of the
VCO source you are using. (The peak tuning range for your VCO can be
estimated by multiplying the VCO tuning constant by the tune range of VCO.
Refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results” if you are not
familiar with the relationship between the PLL capture range and the peak
tuning range of the VCO.)
NOTE
If the center frequencies of the sources are not close enough to create a beatnote within
the capture range, the system is not able to complete its measurement.
The beatnote frequency is set by the relative frequency difference between the
two sources. If you have two very accurate sources set at the same frequency,
the resulting beatnote is very close to 0 Hz.
Searching for the beatnote requires that you adjust the center frequency of one
of the sources above and below the frequency of the other source until the
beatnote appears on the oscilloscope’s display. See Figure 44 on page 76.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote, you need to verify the presence of an output signal from each source
before proceeding.
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0V
E5505a_oscillo_disp_beatnote
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-1V/div
Figure 44 Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set monitor port
Making the measurement
1 Click the Continue button when you have completed the beatnote check
and are ready to make the measurement.
2 When the PLL Suppression Curve dialog box appears, check View Measured
Loop Suppression, View Smoothed Loop Suppression, and View Adjusted
Loop Suppression in the lower right of the dialog box.
See Figure 45 on page 77.
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Figure 45 Selecting suppression
There are four different curves for the this graph. (For more information about
loop suppression verification, refer to Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features”).
• “Measured” loop suppression curve—this is the result of the loop
suppression measurement performed by the E5505A system.
• “Smoothed” measured suppression curve—this is a curve-fit representation
of the measured results, it is used to compare with the “theoretical” loop
suppression.
• “Theoretical” suppression curve—this is the predicted loop suppression
based on the initial loop parameters defined/selected for this particular
measurement (kphi, kvco, loop bandwidth, filters, gain, and others).
• “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve—this is the new “adjusted”
theoretical value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on
changing loop parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the
“smoothed” measured curve as closely as possible.
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help in evaluating your measurement results.
Figure 46 on page 78 shows a typical phase noise curve for an RF Synthesizer.
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Figure 46 Typical phase noise curve for an 8663A 10 MHz measurement
Table 7 on page 79 contains the data stored in the parameter definitions file.
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Table 7
Parameter data for the 8663A 10 MHz measurement
Step Parameters
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
4
5
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Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source Output connected to
• Detector Input Frequency
• Reference Source Frequency
• Reference Source Power
• VCO Tuning Parameters:
• Nominal Tune Constant
• Tune Range ±
• Center Voltage
• Input Resistance
Cal Tab
• Phase Detector Constant
• VCO Tune Constant
• Phase Lock Loop Suppression
• If Limit is exceeded
Data
• Absolute Phase Noise (with phase locked
•
•
•
•
loop)
10 Hz
2 E + 6 Hz1
4
Fast
•
•
•
•
•
•
10 E + 6 Hz
7 dBm
Test Set
10 E +6 Hz
10 E +6 Hz (same as Carrier Source Frequency)
16 dBm
•
•
•
•
1 E +3 Hz/V
± 10 Volts
0 Volts
600 ohms
• Measure Phase Detector Constant
• Calculate from expected VCO Tune Constant
• Verify calculated phase locked loop
suppression
• Show Suppression Graph
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Downconverter
Reference Source
Timebase
Phase Detector
Test Set Tune Voltage Destination
VCO Tune Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Manual
None
Agilent 8663A
None
Automatic Detector Selection
Reference Source
DCFM
•
•
•
•
•
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
LNA Gain
DC Block
PLL Integrator Attenuation
•
•
•
•
•
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
Dowconverter Tab
The downconverter parameters do not apply to
this measurement example.
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Table 7
Parameter data for the 8663A 10 MHz measurement (continued)
Step Parameters
7
Graph Tab
Data
• Title
• Confidence Test using Agilent 8663A Int vs Ext
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new carrier
frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
10 MHz
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
–170 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 The Stop Frequency depends on the analyzers configured in your phase noise system.
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Testing the 8644B Internal/External 10 MHz
This measurement example helps you measure the absolute phase noise of an
RF synthesizer.
C AU T I O N
NOTE
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the desired
configuration, as shown in Table 8 on page 83. Apply the input signal when the connection
diagram appears.
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Required equipment
This measurement requires an Agilent 8644B in addition to the phase noise
test system and your DUT. You also need the coaxial cables and adapters
necessary to connect the DUT and reference source to the test set.
Defining the measurement
1 From the file menu of the E5505A User Interface, choose Open. If
necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
2 In the File Name box, choose “Conf_8644B_10MHz.pnm.” See Figure 41.
Figure 47 Select the parameters definition file
3 Click the Open button.
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• The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example
have been pre-stored in this file. Table 10 on page 94 lists the parameter
data that has been entered for the RF Synthesizer using a DCFM
measurement example.
NOTE
The source parameters shown in Table 10 on page 94 may not be appropriate for the
reference source you are using. To change these values, refer toTable 8, “Tuning
characteristics for various sources,” on page 83, then continue with step 4 below.
Otherwise, go to “Beginning the measurement" on page 87.
4 Using Figure 48 on page 82 as a guide, navigate to the Sources tab
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to 1.6 GHz);
enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
b Enter the VCO (Nominal) Tuning Constant (see Table 8 on page 83).
c Enter the Tune Range of VCO (see Table 8 on page 83).
d Enter the Center Voltage of VCO (see Table 8 on page 83).
e Enter the Input Resistance of VCO (see Table 8 on page 83)
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Figure 48 Sources tab in define measurement window
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Table 8
4
Tuning characteristics for various sources
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage
Tuning
Input
Tuning Range Resistance (Ω) Calibration
(± V)
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 K (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Compute
Compute
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Other Signal Generator
DCFM Calibrated for
±1V
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Compute
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to
+10
1E+6
Measure
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
Other User VCO Source
Selecting a reference source
1 From the Define menu, choose Measurement; then choose the Block
Diagram tab from the Define Measurement window. See Figure 49.
2 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select 8644.
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Agilent-8644
e5505_user_select_ref_source8644
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Figure 49 Selecting a reference source
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Selecting loop suppression verification
1 From the Define menu, choose Measurement; then choose the Cal tab from
the Define Measurement window.
2 In the Cal dialog box, check Verify calculated phase locked loop
suppression and Always Show Suppression Graph. Select If limit is
exceeded: Show Loop Suppression Graph. See Figure 50 on page 85.
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
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Figure 50 Selecting loop suppression verification
Setting up the 8663A 10 MHz measurement
The signal amplitude at the R input (Signal Input) port on the test set sets the
measurement noise floor level. Use the graph in Figure 51 and the example in
Figure 52 on page 86 to determine the amplitude. For more information, refer
to Chapter 16, “Reference Graphs and Tables.”
L Port level
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
+15dBm
+5
-5
-15
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
Expected phase noise floor of system (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
n5505a_exp_phase_noise
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Figure 51 Noise floor for the 8644B 10 MHz measurement
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Figure 52 Noise floor example
If the output amplitude of your DUT is not sufficient to provide an adequate
measurement noise floor, it is necessary to insert a low-noise amplifier
between the DUT and the test set. Refer to the section “Inserting a Device" on
page 122 for details on determining the effect the amplifier’s noise will have on
the measured noise floor.
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Beginning the measurement
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly
set for the desired configuration, as shown in Table 9 on page 89. Apply the input
signals when the connection diagram appears, as in step 3 below.
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 53.
.
Figure 53 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 54 Confirm measurement dialog box
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
drop-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 55 on page 88.
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Figure 55 Connect diagram dialog box
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the Connect Diagram (Figure 55).
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) has now been correctly
configured based on your measurement definition.
C AU T I O N
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics in Table 9 on
page 89.
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which occurs when the connection
diagram appears.
5 Press Continue.
• As the system performs the calibration routines, various status messages
appear on the display. When the last message—Measuring PLL
suppression—appears, you can choose to continue the routine or stop it.
6 Press Continue using Adjusted Loop Suppression to continue making the
noise measurement, or press Abort to stop the measurement. (For
descriptions of the messages, see “Status messages" on page 74. You have
time to read through the descriptions while the system completes the
routines.)
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Table 9
4
Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Frequency
50 kHz to 26.5 GHz
Maximum Signal Input Power
+30 dBm (with Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
• Microwave Phase Detectors
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +23 dBm
0 to +5 dBm
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
+5 to +15 dBm
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
NOTE
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections,” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
Status messages
This section describes the status messages that appear on the display as the
system performs the calibration routines.
Determining Presence of Beat Note... An initial check is made to verify that a
beatnote is present within the system’s detection range.
Verifying zero-beat... The frequency of the beatnote is measured to see if it is
within 5% of the estimated Peak Tuning Range of the system. The system’s
Peak Tuning Range is the portion of the voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO)
source’s tuning range being used for the measurement.
When the system measures the phase noise of a signal source using the Phase
Lock Loop technique (the technique being used in this example) it requires
that one of the two sources used in the setup is a VCO. As you see later in this
demonstration, you are required to estimate the tuning range of the VCO
source you are using when you set up your own Phase Lock Loop
measurements.
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Zero beating sources... The center frequencies of the sources are now
adjusted, if necessary, to position the beatnote within the 5% range. The
adjustment is made with the tune voltage applied to the VCO source set at its
nominal or center position.
Measuring the VCO Tuning Constant... The tuning sensitivity (Hz/V) of the VCO
source is now precisely determined by measuring the beatnote frequency at
four tune voltage settings across the tuning range of the VCO source. Linearity
across the tuning range is also verified
Measuring the Phase Detector Constant... The transfer characteristics (V/rad)
of the test set’s phase detector are now determined for the specific center
frequency and power level of the sources being measured.
Measuring PLL suppression... The required correction data is created to
compensate for the phase noise suppression which occurs within the
bandwidth of the phase lock loop created for this measurement. The computer
displays the PLL suppression curve and associated measurement values.
Sweep segments
When the system begins measuring noise, it places the noise graph on its
display. As you watch the graph, you see the system plot its measurement
results in frequency segments.
The system measures the noise level across its frequency offset range by
averaging the noise within smaller frequency segments. This technique enables
the system to optimize measurement speed while providing you with the
measurement resolution needed for most test applications.
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results” for help in evaluating your measurement results. (If the
test system has problems completing the measurement, it informs you by a
message on the computer display.
Checking the beatnote
While the Connect Diagram is still displayed, Agilent recommends that you use
an oscilloscope (connected to the Monitor port on the test set) or a counter to
check the beatnote being created between the reference source and your DUT.
The objective of checking the beatnote is to ensure that the center frequencies
of the two sources are close enough in frequency to create a beatnote that is
within the Capture Range of the system.
The phase lock loop (PLL) Capture Range is 5% of the peak tuning range of the
VCO source you are using. (The peak tuning range for your VCO can be
estimated by multiplying the VCO tuning constant by the tune range of VCO.
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Refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results” if you are not
familiar with the relationship between the PLL capture range and the peak
tuning range of the VCO.)
NOTE
If the center frequencies of the sources are not close enough to create a beatnote within
the capture range, the system is not able to complete its measurement.
The beatnote frequency is set by the relative frequency difference between the
two sources. If you have two very accurate sources set at the same frequency,
the resulting beatnote is very close to 0 Hz.
Searching for the beatnote requires that you adjust the center frequency of one
of the sources above and below the frequency of the other source until the
beatnote appears on the oscilloscope’s display. See Figure 56.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote, you need to verify the presence of an output signal from each source
before proceeding.
0V
E5505a oscillo disp beatnote
-1V/div
Figure 56 Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set monitor port
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Making the measurement
1 Click the Continue button when you have completed the beatnote check
and are ready to make the measurement.
2 When the PLL Suppression Curve dialog box appears, select View
Measured Loop Suppression, View Smoothed Loop Suppression, and
View Adjusted Loop Suppression. See Figure 57 on page 92.
Figure 57 Suppression selections
• There are four different curves for this graph. (For more information about
loop suppression verification, refer to Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features.”)
a “Measured” loop suppression curve—this is the result of the loop
suppression measurement performed by the E5505A system.
b “Smoothed” measured suppression curve—this is a curve-fit
representation of the measured results, it is used to compare with the
“theoretical” loop suppression.
c “Theoretical” suppression curve—this is the predicted loop suppression
based on the initial loop parameters defined/selected for this particular
measurement (kphi, kvco, loop bandwidth, filters, gain, and others).
d “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve—this is the new “adjusted”
theoretical value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on
changing loop parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the
“smoothed” measured curve as closely as possible.
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When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results” for help in evaluating your measurement results.
Figure 58 on page 93 shows a typical phase noise curve for an RF Synthesizer.
Figure 58 Typical phase noise curve for an 8644B 10 MHz measurement.
Table 10 on page 94 contains the data stored in the parameter definitions file.
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Table 10 Parameter data for the 8644B 10 MHz measurement
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
• Measurement Type
• Start Frequency
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages
• FFT Quality
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
4
5
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source Output is connected to:
Detector Input
• Frequency
Reference Source
• Frequency
• Reference Source Power
VCO Tuning Parameters
• Nominal Tune Constant
• Tune Range ±
• Center Voltage
• Input Resistance
• 10 E + 6 Hz
• 7 dBm
• Test Set
• 10 E +6 Hz
• 10 E +6 Hz (same as Carrier Source Frequency)
• 16 dBm
•
•
•
•
1 E +3 Hz/V
± 10 Volts
0 Volts
600 ohms
•
•
•
•
Cal Tab
Phase Detector Constant
VCO Tune Constant
Phase Lock Loop Suppression
If Limit is exceeded
•
•
•
•
Measure Phase Detector Constant
Calculate from expected VCO Tune Constant
Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression
Show Suppression Graph
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Downconverter
Reference Source
Timebase
Phase Detector
Test Set Tune Voltage Destination
VCO Tune Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Manual
None
Agilent 8644B
None
Automatic Detector Selection
Reference Source
DCFM
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
LNA Gain
DC Block
PLL Integrator Attenuation
•
•
•
•
•
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
•
•
•
•
•
94
Absolute Phase Noise (using a phase locked loop)
10 Hz
2 E + 6 Hz1
4
Fast
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Table 10 Parameter data for the 8644B 10 MHz measurement (continued)
Step
Parameters
Data
6
Dowconverter Tab
The downconverter parameters do not apply to this
measurement example.
7
Graph Tab
• Title
• Graph Type
• X Scale Minimum
• X Scale Maximum
• Y Scale Minimum
• Y Scale Maximum
• Normalize trace data to a:
• Scale trace data to a new carrier frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Confidence Test using Agilent 8644B Int vs Ext 10 MHz
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
- 170 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
1 The stop frequency depends on the analyzers configured in your phase noise system.
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Viewing Markers
The marker function allows you to display the exact frequency and amplitude
of any point on the results graph.
• To access the marker function, on the View menu, click Markers. See
Figure 59. In the dialog box containing Marker buttons, up to nine markers
may be added. To remove a highlighted marker, click the Delete button. See
Figure 60
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Figure 59 Navigate to markers
Figure 60 Adding and deleting markers
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Omitting Spurs
The Omit Spurs function plots the currently loaded results without displaying
any spurs that may be present.
1 On the View menu, click Display Preferences. See Figure 61.
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Figure 61 Navigate to display preferences
2 In the Display Preferences dialog box, uncheck Spurs and click OK. See
Figure 62.
• The graph is displayed without spurs. See Figure 63 on page 98.
Figure 62 Uncheck spurs
3 To re-display the spurs, check Spurs in the Display Preferences dialog box.
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Figure 63 Graph displayed without spurs
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Displaying the Parameter Summary
The Parameter Summary function allows you to quickly review the
measurement parameter entries that were used for this measurement. The
parameter summary data is included when you print the graph.
1 On the View menu, click Parameter Summary. See Figure 64.
e5505a_user_nav_param_sum
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Figure 64 Navigate to parameter summary
2 The Parameter Summary Notepad dialog box appears. The data can be
printed or changed using standard Notepad functionality. See Figure 65 on
page 100.
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Agilent 8644B Int vs Ext 10 MHz
Agilent 8644B; VCO tuned using DCFM.
Agilent N5502A
Figure 65 Parameter summary
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Exporting Measurement Results
The Export Measurement Results function exports data in one of three types:
• Exporting Trace Data
• Exporting Spur Data
• Exporting X-Y Data
1 To export measurement results, on the File menu, point to Export Results,
then click on either Trace Data, Spur Data, or X-Y Data. See Figure 66.
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Figure 66 Export results choices
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Exporting Trace Data
1 On the File menu, point to Export Results, then click on Trace Data. See
Figure 67 on page 102.
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Figure 67 Trace data results
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Exporting spur data
1 On the File menu, point to Export Results, then click on Spur Data. See
Figure 68.
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Figure 68 Spur data results
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Exporting X-Y data
1 On the File menu, point to Export Results, then click on X-Y Data. See
Figure 69.
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Figure 69 X-Y data results
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The Phase-Lock-Loop Technique 106
What Sets the Measurement Noise Floor? 110
Selecting a Reference 112
Estimating the Tuning Constant 115
Tracking Frequency Drift 116
Changing the PTR 118
Minimizing Injection Locking 120
Inserting a Device 122
Evaluating Noise Above the Small Angle Line 124
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The Phase-Lock-Loop Technique
The phase lock loop measurement technique requires two signal sources; the
source-under-test and a reference source. This measurement type requires that
one of the two sources is a voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO).
You will most likely use the phase lock loop technique since it is the
measurement type most commonly used for measuring signal source devices.
This chapter focuses on this measurement type for signal source
measurements.
Understanding the Phase-Lock-Loop Technique
This measurement technique requires two signal sources set up in a phase
locked loop (PLL) configuration. One of the sources is the DUT. The second
source serves as the reference against which the DUT is measured. (One of the
two sources must be a VCO source capable of being frequency tuned by the
System.) Figure 70 shows a simplified diagram of the PLL configuration used
for the measurement.
Untuned
source
Phase
detector
inputs
Phase
detector
Low-pass
filter
Low-noise
amplifier
VCO
source
Phase
detector
output
Phase lock
loop control
Tune voltage
output
E5505a_phase_lock_loop
25 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 70 Simplified block diagram of the phase lock loop configuration
The Phase-Lock-Loop Circuit
The Capture and Drift tracking ranges
Like other PLL circuits, the phase lock loop created for the measurement has a
Capture Range and a drift tracking range. The Capture Range is equal to 5% of
the system’s peak tuning range, and the drift tracking range is equal to 24% of
the system’s peak tuning range.
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The system’s peak tuning range is derived from the tuning characteristics of
the VCO source you are using for the measurement. Figure 71 illustrates the
relationship that typically exists between the VCO’s peak-to-peak tuning range
and the tuning range of the system.
The system’s drift tracking range is limited to a small portion of the peak
tuning range to minimize the possibility of measurement accuracy degradation
caused by non-linearity across the VCO’s tuning range.
Peak tune range (PTR)
PTR is determined using two parameters:
• VCO tuning sensitivity (Hz/Volt)
• Total voltage tuning range (Volts)
PTR = (VCO Tuning Sensitivity) X (Total Voltage Tuning Range)
PTR = (100 Hz/V) X (10 V) = 1000 Hz
Total peak-to-peak tuning range of VCO
System
peak tuning range
Drift
tracking range
Capture
range
24%
5% 5% 24%
VCO Source center frequency
E5505a_capt_drift_trk_range
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Figure 71 Capture and drift-tracking range with tuning range of VCO
As an Example:
A Peak Tuning Range of 1000 Hz provides the following ranges:
Capture Range = 0.05 X 1000 Hz = 50 Hz
Drift Tracking Range = 0.24 X 1000 Hz = 240 Hz
Tuning requirements
The peak tuning range required for your measurement depends on the
frequency stability of the two sources you are using. The signals from the two
sources are mixed in the system’s phase detector to create a beatnote. In order
for the loop to acquire lock, the center frequencies of the sources must be close
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enough together to create a beatnote that is within the system’s Capture
Range. Once the loop is locked, the frequency of the beatnote must remain
within the drift tracking range for the duration of the measurement. In
Figure 72, the ranges calculated in the previous example are marked to show
their relationship to the beatnote frequency.
Drift tracking range
Capture
range
5% of the PTR
Beatnote
24% of the PTR
0 Hz
50 Hz
240 Hz
1000 Hz
Figure 72 Capture and drift-tracking ranges and beatnote frequency
If the beatnote does not remain within the drift tracking range during the
measurement, the out of lock detector is set and the System stops the
measurement. If this happens, you need to increase the system’s drift tracking
range by increasing the system’s peak tuning range (if possible) or by selecting
a VCO source with a greater tuning range.
Selecting the VCO source
Although you must select a VCO source that provides a sufficient tuning range
to permit the system to track the beatnote, keep in mind that a wide tuning
range typically means a higher noise level on the VCO source signal. When the
VCO source for your measurement is also the reference source, this trade-off
can make reference source selection the most critical aspect of your
measurement setup.
Specifying your VCO source
When you set up your PLL measurement, you need to know four things about
the tuning characteristics of the VCO source you are using. The System
determines the VCO source’s peak tuning range from these four parameters.
• Tuning Constant, estimated tuning sensitivity (Hz/V)
• Center Voltage of Tuning Range, (V)
• Tune Range of VCO, (±V)
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• Input Resistance of Tuning Port, (ohms) if the tuning constant is not to be
measured.
The measurement examples in the next chapter that recommend a specific
VCO source provides you with the tuning parameters for the specified source.
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What Sets the Measurement Noise Floor?
The noise floor for your measurement is set by two things:
• The noise floor of the phase detector and low-noise amplifier (LNA)
• The noise level of the reference source you are using
The System Noise Floor
The noise floor of the system is directly related to the amplitude of the input
signal at the R input port of the system’s phase detector. Table 11 shows the
amplitude ranges for the L and R ports.
Table 11 Amplitude ranges for L and R ports
Phase Detector
1.2 to 26.5 GHz1
50 kHz to 1.6 GHz
50 kHz to 26.5 GHz2
Ref Input
(L Port)
Signal Input
(R Port)
Ref Input
(L Port)
Signal Input
(R Port)
AM Noise
+ 15 dBm
to
+ 23 dBM
0 dBm
to
+ 23 dBM
+ 7 dBm
to
+ 10 dBM
0 dBm
to
+ 5 dBM
0 dBm
to
20 dBM
1 Phase noise test set Options 001 and 201 with no attenuation.
2 Phase noise test set Option 001 with no attenuation.
If the L port (Reference Input) signal is within the amplitude range shown in
Table 11, the signal level at the R (Signal Input) port sets the noise floor for the
system.
Figure 73 shows the relationship between the R (signal) input level and the
system noise floor.
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L Port level
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
5
+15dBm
+5
-5
-15
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
Expected phase noise floor of phase detector and LNA (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
E5505a_r_input_sys_noise
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Figure 73 Relationship between the R input level and system noise floor
The Noise Level of the Reference Source
Unless it is below the system’s noise floor, the noise level of the source you are
using as the reference source sets the noise floor for the measurement. When
you set up your measurement, you want to use a reference source with a noise
level that is at or below the level of the source you are going to measure.
Increase in measured noise due
to reference noise (dB)
Figure 74 demonstrates that as the noise level of the reference source
approaches the noise level of the DUT, the level measured by the System
(which is the sum of all noise sources affecting the system) is increased above
the actual noise level of the DUT.
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
1 2 3 4 5
10
15
Amount expected DUT noise exceeds reference noise (dB)
Figure 74 Reference source noise approaches DUT noise
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Selecting a Reference
Selecting an appropriate reference source is critical when you are making a
phase noise measurement using the phase lock loop technique. The key to
selecting a reference source is to compare the noise level of the reference with
the expected noise level of the DUT. In general, the lower the reference
source’s noise level is below the expected noise level of the DUT the better.
(Keep in mind that you only need to be concerned about the reference source’s
noise level within the frequency offset range over which you plan to measure
the DUT.)
Increase in measured
noise due
to reference noise (dB)
As shown by the graph in Figure 75, the further the reference source’s noise
level is below the noise level of the DUT, the less the reference source’s noise
contributes to the measurement results.
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Difference between DUT and reference noise levels (dB)
Figure 75 DUT noise approaches reference noise
Using a Similar Device
The test system performs best when you are able to use a device similar to the
DUT as the reference source for your PLL measurement. Of course one of the
devices must be capable of being voltage tuned by the system to do this.
To select a similar device for use as the reference source, you must establish
that the noise level of the reference source device is adequate to measure your
DUT. The Three Source Comparison technique enables you to establish the
actual noise levels of three comparable devices when two devices are available
in addition to the DUT.
If only one device is available in addition to the DUT, you can perform the
Phase Noise Using a Phase Locked Loop Measurement using these two devices
and know that the noise level of each of the devices is at least as good as the
measured results. (The measured results represent the sum of the noise of
both devices.)
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Using a Signal Generator
When using a signal generator as a reference source, it is important that the
generator’s noise characteristics are adequate for measuring your device.
Tuning Requirements
Often the reference source you select also serves as the VCO source for the PLL
measurement. (The VCO source can be either the DUT or the reference source.)
To configure a PLL measurement, you need to know the following tuning
information about the VCO source you are using.
• Tuning Constant (Hz/V) (within a factor of 2)
• Tuning Voltage Range (V)
• Center Voltage of Tuning Range (V)
• Input Resistance of Tuning Port (Ω)
The primary consideration when evaluating a potential VCO source for your
measurement is whether it provides the test system with sufficient capture
and drift tracking ranges to maintain lock throughout the measurement. To
make this determination, you must estimate what the drift range of the
sources you are using will be over the measurement period (thirty minutes
maximum). (Details on the relationship between the capture and drift tracking
ranges and the tuning range of the VCO source are provided in Table 12. This
information helps you evaluate your VCO source based on the estimated drift
of your sources.)
Table 12 lists the tuning parameters for several VCO options.
Table 12 Tuning Characteristics of Various VCO Source Options
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage Tuning
Range (± V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 k (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Calculate
Calculate
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Calculate
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Calculate
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
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Table 12 Tuning Characteristics of Various VCO Source Options (continued)
VCO Source
Other Signal
Generator
DCFM Calibrated for
±1V
Other User VCO
Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage Tuning
Range (± V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Calculate
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to
+10
See Figure 76
1E+6
Measure
e5505a_user_tune_range_VCO.ai
rev2 10/24/03
Figure 76 Voltage tuning range limits relative to center voltage of the VCO tuning curve
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Estimating the Tuning Constant
The VCO tuning constant is the tuning sensitivity of the VCO source in Hz/V.
The required accuracy of the entered tuning constant value depends on the
VCO tuning constant calibration method specified for the measurement. The
calibration method is selected in the Calibration Process menu. Table 13 lists
the calibration method choices and the tuning constant accuracy required for
each.
Table 13 VCO tuning constant calibration method
VCO Tuning Constant Calibration Method (selected in
calibration screen)
Required Tuning Constant Accuracy
(entered in parameter screen)
Use the current tuning constant
(must be accurate from a previous measurement of the
same source).
Within a factor of 2 of actual value.
(Enter 1 E + 6 for Input Resistance.)
Measure the VCO tuning constant
Within a factor of 2 of actual value.
(Enter 1 E + 6 for Input Resistance.)
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Absolute Measurement Fundamentals
Tracking Frequency Drift
The system’s frequency drift tracking capability for the phase lock loop
measurement is directly related to the tuning range of the VCO source being
used. The system’s drift tracking range is approximately 24% of the peak
tuning range (PTR) of the VCO.
PTR= VCO Tuning Constant X Voltage Tuning Range
This is the frequency range within which the beatnote signal created by the
test set’s phase detector must remain throughout the measurement period. In
addition, the beatnote signal must remain within the system’s Capture Range
(5% of the PTR) during the time it takes the system to calibrate and lock the
phase lock loop.
The stability of the beatnote is a function of the combined frequency stability
of the sources being used for the measurement. If beatnote drift prevents the
beatnote from remaining within the Capture Range long enough for the system
to attain phase lock, the computer informs you by displaying a message. If the
beatnote drifts beyond the drift tracking range during the measurement, the
computer stops the measurement and inform you that the system has lost lock.
Evaluating beatnote drift
The Checking the Beatnote section included in each phase lock loop
measurement example in this chapter provides a procedure for adjusting the
beatnote to within the Capture Range set for the measurement. If you have not
done so already, verify that the beatnote signal can be tuned to within the
Capture Range and that it will remain within the range.
Continue to observe the beatnote and verify that it will not drift beyond the
drift tracking range (24% of the PTR) during the measurement period. The
length of the measurement period is primarily a function of the frequency
offset range specified for the measurement (Start to Stop Frequency).
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Action
If beatnote drift exceeds the limits of the Capture or drift tracking ranges set
for your measurement, the system is not able to complete the measurement.
You have two possible alternatives.
1 Minimize beatnote drift.
• By Allowing sources to warm-up sufficiently.
• By Selecting a different reference source with less drift.
2 Increase the capture and drift tracking Ranges.
• By Selecting a measurement example in this chapter that specifies a drift
rate compatible with the beatnote drift rate you have observed.
• By Increasing the peak tuning range for the measurement. (Further
information about increasing the PTR is provided in Changing the PTR.)
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Absolute Measurement Fundamentals
Changing the PTR
The peak tuning range (PTR) for the phase lock loop measurement is set by the
tune range entered for the VCO and the VCO’s tuning constant. (If the
calibration technique is set to measure the VCO tuning constant, the measured
value is used to determine the system’s PTR.)
PTR= VCO Tuning Constant X Voltage Tuning Range
From the PTR, the phase noise software derives the capture and drift tracking
Ranges for the measurement. These ranges set the frequency stability
requirements for the sources being used.
The PTR also determines the phase lock loop (PLL) bandwidth for the
measurement. An important attribute of the PLL bandwidth is that it
suppresses the close-in noise which would otherwise prevent the system from
locking the loop.
Total peak-to-peak tuning range of VCO
System
peak tuning range
Drift
tracking range
Capture
range
24%
5% 5% 24%
VCO Source center frequency
E5505a_capt_drift_trk_range
26 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 77 Peak tuning range
The Tuning Qualifications
Changing the PTR is accomplished by changing the tune range of VCO value or
the VCO tuning constant value or both. There are several ways this can be
done. However, when considering these or any other options for changing the
PTR, it is important to remember that the VCO source must always meet the
following tuning qualifications.
• The tuning response of the VCO source must always remain monotonic.
• The VCO source’s output level must remain constant across its tuning
range.
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As long as these qualifications are met, and the software does not indicate any
difficulty in establishing its calibration criteria, an increase in PTR will not
degrade the system’s measurement accuracy.
The following methods may be considered for increasing or decreasing the
PTR.
Voltage controlled oscillators
1 Select a different VCO source that has the tuning capabilities needed for the
measurement.
2 Increase the tune range of the VCO source.
C AU T I O N
NOTE
Be careful not to exceed the input voltage limitations of the Tune Port on the VCO
source
Increasing the tune range of the VCO is only valid as long as the VCO source is able to
continuously meet the previously mentioned tuning qualifications.
Signal generators
1 If you are using a signal generator with a calibrated 1 Vpk DC FM Input
(such as the Agilent 8640B, 8642A/B, 8656B, or 8662/3), the Voltage tuning
Range can be increased to 10 V as long as you select Computed from the
expected T. Constant in the Calibration Process display. These signal
generators continue to meet all of the previously mentioned tuning
qualifications across a 10 V tuning range.
2 Increase the signal generator’s frequency deviation setting and set the
software to measure the new tuning constant or enter the increased
deviation if it is known. (Note that increasing the deviation setting often
increases the source’s noise level as well.)
3 If you are using a synthesizer with Electronic-Frequency-Control (EFC)
capability such as the Agilent 8662A or Agilent 8663A, it is possible to
increase the tuning range of these sources using a VCO as an external time
base. When a compatible VCO source is connected to the EXT INPUT on the
8662/3, the tuning capability of the VCO source is transferred to the
synthesizer.
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Minimizing Injection Locking
Injection locking occurs when a signal feeds back into an oscillator through its
output path. This can cause the oscillator to become locked to the injected
signal rather than to the reference signal for the phase locked loop.
Injection locking is possible whenever the buffering at the output of an
oscillator is not sufficient to prevent a signal from entering. If the injection
locking occurs at an offset frequency that is not well within the PLL
bandwidth set for the measurement, it can cause the system to lose phase lock.
Adding Isolation
The best way to prevent injection locking is to isolate the output of the source
being injection locked (typically the DUT) by increasing the buffering at its
output. This can be accomplished by inserting a low noise amplifier and/or an
attenuator between the output of the source being injection locked and the test
set. (For information on determining the effect that the amplifier noise will
have on the measurement noise floor, refer to Inserting a Device in this
section.)
Increasing the PLL Bandwidth
If the injection locking bandwidth is less or equal to the PLL bandwidth, it may
be possible to increase the PLL bandwidth sufficiently to complete the
measurement. The PLL bandwidth is increased by increasing the peak tuning
range (PTR) for the measurement.
NOTE
The PTR for the measurement is set by the tuning characteristics of the VCO source you
are using. Figure 78 on page 121 shows that increasing the PLL bandwidth can require a
substantially larger increase in the PTR. For information on the limitations of increasing
the PTR, refer to Changing the PTR in this section.
To estimate the PTR needed to prevent injection locking from causing the
system to lose lock:
1 Determine the injection locking bandwidth. Tune the beatnote toward 0 Hz
using the procedure described in the Checking the Beatnote section of each
phase lock loop measurement example in this chapter. When the injection
locking occurs, the beatnote disappears. The injection locking bandwidth is
the frequency of the beatnote just prior to where the injection locking
occurs as the beatnote is tuned toward 0 Hz.
2 Multiply the injection locking bandwidth by 2 to determine the minimum
PLL bandwidth required to prevent the injection locking from causing the
system to lose lock. (To prevent accuracy degradation, it may be necessary
to increase the PLL bandwidth to 4 X the injection locking bandwidth. The
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computer informs you during the measurement if the possibility of
accuracy degradation exists.)
3 Locate the required PLL bandwidth in Figure 78 to determine the PTR
required for the measurement. (For details on increasing the PTR, refer to
Changing the PTR in this section.
Required PPL bandwidth (Hz)
1M
100k
10k
1k
100
10
1
.1
E5505a_PTR_reqd_inj_lock
25 Mar 04 rev 1
1
10
100
1k
10k 100k
1M
10M 100M 1G
Peak tuning range (Hz)
Figure 78 Peak tuning range (PTR) Required by injection locking.
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Inserting a Device
An attenuator
You may find that some of your measurement setups require an in-line device
such as an attenuator in one of the signal source paths. (For example, you may
find it necessary to insert an attenuator at the output of a DUT to prevent it
from being injection-locked to the reference source.) The primary
consideration when inserting an attenuator is that the signal source has
sufficient output amplitude to maintain the required signal level at the test
set’s phase detector input port. The signal level required for the measurement
depends on the noise floor level needed to measure the DUT.
Figure 79 shows the relationship between the signal level at the R port and the
measurement noise floor.
Required PPL bandwidth (Hz)
1M
100k
10k
1k
100
10
1
.1
E5505a_PTR_reqd_inj_lock
25 Mar 04 rev 1
1
10
100
1k
10k 100k
1M
10M 100M 1G
Peak tuning range (Hz)
Figure 79 Measurement noise floor relative to R-Port signal level
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An amplifier
If a source is not able to provide a sufficient output level, or if additional
isolation is needed at the output, it may be necessary to insert a low
phase-noise RF amplifier at the output of the source.
Note, however, that the noise of the inserted amplifier is also summed into the
measured noise level along with the noise of the source.
The Agilent N5507A Option K22 dual RF amplifier was designed specifically
for this purpose. This instrument is the preferred solution for tests requiring
an external amplifier.
Use the following equation to estimate what the measurement noise floor is as
a result of the added noise of an inserted amplifier: Figure 80 shows an
example.
L(f) out = –174 dB + Amplifier Noise Figure – Power into Amplifier – 3dB
Amplifier
PIN = +7 dBm
Noise figure = 7.5 dB
L ( f ) = -174 dBm + 7.5dB - (+7 dBm) - 3 dB
L ( f ) = -176.5 dBc/Hz
Figure 80 Measurement noise floor as a result of an added attenuator
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Absolute Measurement Fundamentals
Evaluating Noise Above the Small Angle Line
If the average noise level on the input signals exceeds approximately 0.1
radians RMS integrated outside of the Phase Lock Loop (PLL) bandwidth, it
can prevent the system from attaining phase lock.
The following procedure allows you to evaluate the beatnote created between
the two sources being measured. The intent is to verify that the PLL
bandwidth is adequate to prevent the noise on the two sources from causing
the system to lose lock.
If the computer is displaying the hardware Connect Diagram you are ready to
begin this procedure. (If it is not, begin a New Measurement and proceed until
the hardware Connect Diagram appears on the display.)
Determining the Phase-Lock-Loop bandwidth
1 Determine the Peak Tuning Range (PTR) of your VCO by multiplying the
VCO Tuning Constant by the Tune Range of VCO value entered. (If the
phase noise software has measured the VCO Tuning Constant, use the
measured value.)
PTR = VCO Tuning Constant X Voltage Tuning
For Example:
PTR = 100
Hz
X 10V = 1 kHz
V
2 Estimate the Phase Lock Loop (PLL) bandwidth for the measurement using
the PTR of your VCO and the graph in Figure 81.
Observing the beatnote
If the beatnote frequency is below 100 kHz it appears on the Agilent E4411A
RF analyzer’s display in both the frequency domain and the time domain. If
the beatnote does not appear on the RF analyzer, then the beatnote is either
greater than 100 kHz or it does not exist.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote within 100 kHz, you need to verify the presence of an output signal
from each source before proceeding.
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Required PPL bandwidth (Hz)
1M
100k
10k
1k
100
10
1
.1
E5505a_PTR_reqd_inj_lock
25 Mar 04 rev 1
1
10
100
1k
10k 100k
1M
10M 100M 1G
Peak tuning range (Hz)
Figure 81 Phase lock loop bandwidth provided by the peak tuning range
1 Once the beatnote is displayed;
a press the press [[RANGE]]
b press [[AUTO RANGE OFF]]
c and press [[SINGLE AUTO RANGE]] on the RF analyzer
2 Set the span width on the RF analyzer to approximately 4 x PLL bandwidth.
Adjust the BITNET to position it near the center of the display.
NOTE
If you are not able to tune the beatnote to 2 X PLL bandwidth (center of display) due to
frequency drift, refer to Tracking Frequency Drift in this section for information about
measuring drifting signals. If you are able to locate the beatnote, but it distorts and then
disappears as you adjust it towards 0 Hz, then your sources are injection locking to each
other. Set the beatnote to the lowest frequency possible before injection locking occurs
and then refer to“Minimizing Injection Locking" on page 120 for recommended actions.
a Press the [[AVG]] key, and then the RMS key.
Wait for the trace to return and then press;
b [[MKR]] and MKR to Peak.
3 Press [[REL MKR]], and MKR REF.
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4 Press the [[DEFINE TRACE]]
a press the [[and the MATH FUNCTION keys.
Using the --> key on the RF analyzer, offset the marker by the PLL
bandwidth. Read the offset frequency and noise level indicated at the
bottom of the display. (If the noise level falls below the bottom of the
display, the marker reading is still correct.)
5 To increase the vertical scale
a press [[VERT SCALE]]
b press [[, DEFINE DB/DIV]], and enter 20 dB.
6 Compare the average noise level at the PLL bandwidth offset to the small
angle criterion level shown on the graph in Figure 82. The average noise
level of the signal must remain below the small angle line at all offset
frequencies beyond the PLL bandwidth. (The small angle line applies only
to the level of the average noise. Spur levels that exceed the small angle line
do not degrade measurement accuracy provided they do not exceed
—⋅40 dBc.)
Figure 82 Graph of small angle line and spur limit
7 Continue moving the marker to the right to verify that the average noise
level remains below the small angle line.
8 Increase the span by a factor of ten by selecting FREQ and DEFINE SPAN.
Continue comparing the noise level to the graph.
9 Continue to increase the span width and compare the noise level out to
100 kHz. (If the noise level exceeds the small angle line at any offset
frequency beyond the PLL bandwidth, note the offset frequency and level of
the noise. Use the graph in Figure 83 on page 127 to determine the Peak
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Tuning Range (PTR) necessary to provide a sufficient PLL bandwidth to
make the measurement.
e5505a_user_peak_tune_range.ai
rev2 10/24/03
Figure 83 Requirements for noise exceeding small angle limit
Measurement options
If the observed level exceeded the small angle line at any point beyond the PLL
bandwidth set for the measurement, you need to consider one of the following
measurement options.
1 Evaluate your source using the noise data provided by the RF analyzer in
the procedure you just performed.
2 Increase the PTR if possible, to provide a sufficient PLL bandwidth to
suppress the noise. (For information on increasing the PTR, refer to
Changing the PTR in this section.)
3 Reduce the noise level of the signal sources.
4 Use the Discriminator technique to measure the phase noise level of your
source.
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Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
6
Absolute Measurement Examples
Stable RF Oscillator 130
Free-Running RF Oscillator 145
RF Synthesizer Using DCFM 160
RF Synthesizer Using EFC 174
Microwave Source 188
Agilent Technologies
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6
Stable RF Oscillator
This measurement example will help you measure the phase noise of a stable
RF oscillator with frequency drift of <20 ppm over a period of thirty minutes.
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the
desired configuration, as shown in Table 15 on page 138. Apply the input signal
when the connection diagram appears.
Required equipment
This measurement requires a VCO reference source, in addition to the phase
noise test system and your DUT. (For more information, see “Selecting a
reference source" on page 132.) You also need the coaxial cables and adapters
necessary to connect the DUT and reference source to the test set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu of the E5500 User Interface, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the file name box, choose “StableRF.pnm”. See Figure 84.
Figure 84 Select the parameters definition file
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4 Click the Open button.
The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example have
been pre-stored in this file. Table 16 on page 143 lists the parameter data
that has been entered for the Stable RF Source measurement example.
NOTE
Note that the source parameters entered for step 2 in Table 16 on page 143 may not be
appropriate for the reference source you are using. To change these values, refer to
Table 14, “Tuning characteristics for various sources,” on page 132, then continue with
step 5 below. Otherwise, go to “Beginning the measurement" on page 136:
5 Using Figure 85 on page 131 as a guide, navigate to the Sources tab.
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to 1.6 GHz).
Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
b Enter the VCO (nominal) Tuning Constant. (For values, see Table 14 on
page 132).
c Enter the Tune Range of VCO (see Table 14).
d Enter the Center Voltage of VCO (see Table 14).
e Enter the Input Resistance of VCO (see Table 14).
.
Figure 85 Enter source information
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Table 14 Tuning characteristics for various sources
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage Tuning
Range (±V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 K (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Compute
Compute
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Compute
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to
+10
1E+6
Measure
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
Other Signal
Generator
DCFM Calibrated for
±1V
Other User VCO
Source
Selecting a reference source
1 Using Figure 86 on page 133 as a guide, navigate to the Block Diagram tab.
2 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select your source.
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Agilent-8257
e5505a_user_select_ref_source
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 86 Selecting a reference source
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
1 Using Figure 87 on page 134 as a guide, navigate to the Cal tab.
2 In the Cal dialog box, check Verify calculated phase locked loop
suppression and Always Show Suppression Graph. Select If limit is
exceeded: Show Loop Suppression Graph.
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e5505a_user_select_loop
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 87 Selecting loop suppression verification
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Setup considerations for stable RF oscillator measurement
Measurement noise floor
The signal amplitude at the test set’s R input (Signal Input) port sets the
measurement noise floor level. Use Figure 88 on page 135 and Figure 89 on
page 135 to determine the amplitude required to provide a noise floor level
that is below the expected noise floor of your DUT. (The Checking the Beatnote
procedure in this section will provide you with an opportunity to estimate the
measurement noise floor that your DUT will provide.)
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L Port level
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
6
+15dBm
+5
-5
-15
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
Expected phase noise floor of system (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
n5505a_exp_phase_noise
25 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 88 Noise floor for the stable RF oscillator measurement
Figure 89 Noise floor calculation example
If the output amplitude of your DUT is not sufficient to provide an adequate
measurement noise floor, it is necessary to insert a low-noise amplifier
between the DUT and the test set. Refer to “Inserting a Device" on page 122 for
details on determining the amplifier noise effect on the measured noise floor.
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VCO reference source
This setup calls for a second signal source that is similar in type to the DUT.
The second source is used as the reference source. In order for the noise
measurement results to accurately represent the noise of the DUT, the noise
level of the reference source should be below the expected noise level of the
DUT. (For additional help in selecting an appropriate reference source, refer to
Chapter 6, “Absolute Measurement Examples.)
Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 90.
Figure 90 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to Perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
dialog box appears, click Yes. See Figure 91.
Figure 91 Confirm new measurement
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
pull-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list.
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Figure 92 Connect diagram for the stable RF oscillator measurement
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured
based on your measurement definition.
C AU T I O N
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics in Table 15 on
page 138.
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Table 15 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power
shall not exceed +23 dBm (+30 dBm with
Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
+5 to +15 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
C AU T I O N
NOTE
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which occurs at the connection
diagram.
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
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Checking the beatnote
While the connect diagram is still displayed, use an oscilloscope (connected to
the Monitor port on the test set) or a counter to check the beatnote being
created between the reference source and your DUT. The objective of checking
the beatnote is to ensure that the center frequencies of the two sources are
close enough in frequency to create a beatnote that is within the capture range
of the system.
The phase lock loop (PLL) capture range is 5% of the peak tuning range of the
VCO source you are using. (The peak tuning range for your VCO can be
estimated by multiplying the VCO tuning constant by the tune range of VCO.
Refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results” if you are not
familiar with the relationship between the PLL capture range and the peak
tuning range of the VCO.
NOTE
If the center frequencies of the sources are not close enough to create a beatnote within
the capture range, the system will not be able to complete its measurement.
The beatnote frequency is set by the relative frequency difference between the
two sources. If you have two very accurate sources set at the same frequency,
the resulting beatnote will be very close to 0 Hz.
Searching for the beatnote will require that you adjust the center frequency of
one of the sources above and below the frequency of the other source until the
beatnote appears on the oscilloscope’s display.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote, you will need to verify the presence of an output signal from each
source before proceeding.
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0V
E5505a_oscillo_disp_beatnote
25 Feb 04 rev 1
-1V/div
Figure 93 Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set Monitor port
Making the measurement
1 Click the Continue button when you have completed the beatnote check
and are ready to make the measurement.
2 When the PLL Suppression Curve dialog box appears, select View Measured
Loop Suppression, View Smoothed Loop Suppression, and View Adjusted
Loop Suppression See Figure 94 on page 141.
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Figure 94 Selecting suppressions
Four different curves are available for this graph. (For more information about
loop suppression verification, refer to Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features.)
a “Measured” loop suppression curve—this is the result of the loop
suppression measurement performed by the E5505A system.
b “Smoothed” measured suppression curve—this is a curve-fit
representation of the measured results, it is used to compare with the
“theoretical” loop suppression.
c “Theoretical” suppression curve—this is the predicted loop suppression
based on the initial loop parameters defined/selected for this particular
measurement (kphi, kvco, loop bandwidth, filters, gain, etc).
d “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve—this is the new “adjusted”
theoretical value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on
changing loop parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the
“smoothed” measured curve as closely as possible.
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help in evaluating your measurement results.
Figure 95 on page 142 shows a typical phase noise curve for a stable RF
Oscillator.
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Figure 95 Typical phase noise curve for a stable RF oscillator
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Table 16 Parameter data for the stable RF oscillator measurement
Step Parameters
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Averages
Quality
FFT Analyzer Measurement
Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
Data
• Absolute Phase Noise (using a phase locked
•
•
•
•
•
Sources Tab
• Carrier Source Frequency
• Carrier Source Power
•
•
Carrier Source Output connected to: •
• Detector Input Frequency
•
• Reference Source Frequency
•
• Reference Source Power
•
• Nominal Tune Constant
•
• Tune Range ±
•
• Center Voltage
•
• Input Resistance
•
3
4
Cal Tab
100 E + 6 Hz
8 dBm
Test Set
100 E +6 Hz
100 E +6 Hz (same as Carrier Source Frequency)
16 dBm
40 E +3 Hz/V
± 10 Volts
0 Volts
1 E + 6 Ω 1 Volts
• Phase Detector Constant
• VCO Tune Constant
• Phase Lock Loop Suppression
• Measure Phase Detector Constant
• Calculate VCO Tune Constant
• Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Downconverter
Reference Source
Timebase
Phase Detector
Test Set Tune Voltage Output
Test Set Tune Voltage
Destination
• VCO Tune Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
loop)
1 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
4
Normal
Use Multiple Time Segments
None
None
Agilent 8662A
None
Automatic Detector Selection
Front Panel
Reference Source
DCFM
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Table 16 Parameter data for the stable RF oscillator measurement (continued)
Step Parameters
5
6
7
Test Set Tab
• Input Attenuation
• LNA Low Pass Filter
• LNA Gain
Detector Maximum Input Levels
• Microwave Phase Detector
• RF Phase Detector
• AM Detector
• Ignore out-of-lock conditions
• Pulsed Carrier
• DC Block
• Analyzer View
• PLL Integrator Attenuation
Downconverter Tab
Graph Tab
Title
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new carrier
frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
144
Data
• Auto checked
• Auto checked
• Auto Gain
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0 dBm
0 dBm
0 dBm
Not checked
Not checked
Not checked
Baseband
0 dBm
The downconverter parameters do not apply to this
measurement example.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stable RF Oscillator vs Similar Reference Source
Single-sideband Noise
1 Hz
10 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
–170 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Absolute Measurement Examples
6
Free-Running RF Oscillator
This measurement example will help you measure the phase noise of a
free-running RF oscillator with frequency drift >20 ppm over a period of thirty
minutes.
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the
desired configuration, as shown in Table 18 on page 152. Apply the input signal
when the connection diagram appears.
Required equipment
This measurement requires an 8644B reference source in addition to the
E5505A system and your DUT. (For more information, see the section
“Selecting a reference source" on page 132.) You also need the coaxial cables
and adapters necessary to connect the DUT and reference source to the test
set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu of the E5500 User Interface, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “FreeRF.pnm”. See Figure 96.
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5505
l
d f fil
f
h
Figure 96 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button.
The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example have
been pre-stored in this file. Table 16 on page 143 lists the parameter data
that has been entered for the Free-Running RF Source measurement
example.)
NOTE
Note that the source parameters entered for step 2 in Table 16 on page 143 may not be
appropriate for the reference source you are using. To change these values, refer to
Table 17 on page 147, then continue with step 5 below. Otherwise, go to “Beginning the
measurement" on page 151.
5 Using Figure 84 as a guide, navigate to the Sources tab.
e Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT(5 MHz to
1.6 GHz). Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
f
Enter the VCO (Nominal) Tuning Constant (see Table 17 on page 147).
g Enter the Tune Range of VCO (see Table 17).
h Enter the Center Voltage of VCO (see Table 17).
i
146
Enter the Input Resistance of VCO (see Table 17).
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e5505a_user_enter_source_info
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 97 Enter source information
Table 17 Tuning characteristics for various sources
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage Tuning
Range (±V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 K (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Compute
Compute
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Other Signal Generator
DCFM Calibrated for
±1V
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Compute
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to
+10
1E+6
Measure
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
Other User VCO Source
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Selecting a reference source
1 Using Figure 98 as a guide, navigate to the Block Diagram tab.
2 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select your source.
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Agilent-8257
e5505a_user_select_ref_source
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 98 Selecting a reference source
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
1 Using Figure 99 on page 149 as a guide, navigate to the Cal tab.
2 In the Cal dialog box, check Verify calculated phase locked loop
suppression and Always Show Suppression Graph. Select If limit is
exceeded: Show Loop Suppression Graph.
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6
e5505a_user_select_loop
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 99 Selecting loop suppression verification
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Setup considerations for the free-running RF oscillator measurement
Measurement noise floor
The signal amplitude at the test set’s R input (Signal Input) port sets the
measurement noise floor level. Use Figure 100 on page 150 and Figure 101 on
page 150 to determine the amplitude required to provide a noise floor level
that is below the expected noise floor of your DUT. (The Checking the Beatnote
procedure in this section will provide you with an opportunity to estimate the
measurement noise floor that your DUT will provide.)
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L Port level
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
+15dBm
+5
-5
-15
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
Expected phase noise floor of system (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
n5505a_exp_phase_noise
25 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 100 Noise floor for the free-running RF oscillator measurement
Figure 101 Noise floor calculation example
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If the output amplitude of your DUT is not sufficient to provide an adequate
measurement noise floor, it will be necessary to insert a low-noise amplifier
between the DUT and the test set. Refer to “Inserting an Device” in Chapter 5,
“Absolute Measurement Fundamentals for details on determining the effect
the amplifiers noise will have on the measured noise floor.
VCO reference
In order for the noise measurement results to accurately represent the noise of
the DUT, the noise level of the reference source should be below the expected
noise level of the DUT.
Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 102.
.
Figure 102 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 103 Confirm measurement dialog box
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6
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
drop-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 104.
TEST SET
N5500A
DOWNCONVERTER
N5502A
Figure 104 Connect diagram for the free-running RF oscillator measurement
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured
based on your measurement definition.
C AU T I O N
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics in Table 18 on
page 152.
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option 001) has
been set by the phase noise software, which will occur when the connection
diagram appears.
Table 18 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
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6
Table 18 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power shall
not exceed +23 dBm (+30 dBm with Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level
Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
+5 to +15 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
NOTE
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections,” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
Checking the beatnote
While the connect diagram is still displayed, Agilent recommends that you use
an oscilloscope (connected to the Monitor port on the test set) or a counter to
check the beatnote being created between the reference source and your
device-under-test. The objective of checking the beatnote is to ensure that the
center frequencies of the two sources are close enough in frequency to create a
beatnote that is within the capture range of the system.
The phase lock loop (PLL) capture range is 5% of the peak tuning range of the
VCO source you are using. (The peak tuning range for your VCO can be
estimated by multiplying the VCO tuning constant by the tune range of VCO.
Refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results if you are not
familiar with the relationship between the PLL capture range and the peak
tuning range of the VCO.)
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NOTE
If the center frequencies of the sources are not close enough to create a beatnote within
the capture range, the system will not be able to complete its measurement.
The beatnote frequency is set by the relative frequency difference between the
two sources. If you have two very accurate sources set at the same frequency,
the resulting beatnote is very close to 0 Hz.
Searching for the beatnote requires you to adjust the center frequency of one
of the sources above and below the frequency of the other source until the
beatnote appears on the oscilloscope’s display.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote, you need to verify the presence of an output signal from each source
before proceeding.
0V
E5505a_oscillo_disp_beatnote
25 Feb 04 rev 1
-1V/div
Figure 105 Oscilloscope display of beatnote from test set Monitor port
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6
1 Estimate the system’s capture range (using the VCO source parameters
entered for this measurement). The estimated VCO tuning constant must be
accurate within a factor of 2. A procedure for Estimating the Tuning
Constant is located in this chapter.
NOTE
NOTE
If you are able to locate the beatnote, but it distorts and then disappears as you adjust it
towards 0 Hz, your sources are injection locking to each other. Set the beatnote to the
lowest frequency possible before injection locking occurs and then refer to Minimizing
Injection Locking in the Problem Solving section of this chapter for recommended actions.
If you are not able to tune the beatnote to within the capture range due to frequency drift,
refer to Tracking Frequency Drift in the Problem Solving section of this chapter for
information about measuring drifting signals.
Making the measurement
1 Click the Continue button when you have completed the beatnote check
and are ready to make the measurement.
2 When the PLL Suppression Curve dialog box appears, select View
Measured Loop Suppression, View Smoothed Loop Suppression, and
View Adjusted Loop Suppression. See Figure 106 on page 156.
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Absolute Measurement Examples
.
Figure 106 Selecting suppressions
• There are four different curves for this graph. (For more information about
loop suppression verification, refer to Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features.)
a “Measured” loop suppression curve—this is the result of the loop
suppression measurement performed by the E5505A system.
b “Smoothed” measured suppression curve—this is a curve-fit
representation of the measured results, it is used to compare with the
“theoretical” loop suppression.
c “Theoretical” suppression curve—this is the predicted loop suppression
based on the initial loop parameters defined/selected for this particular
measurement (kphi, kvco, loop bandwidth, filters, gain, etc).
d “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve—this is the new “adjusted”
theoretical value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on
changing loop parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the
“smoothed” measured curve as closely as possible.
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help with using the results.
Figure 107 on page 157 shows a typical phase noise curve for a free-running
RF Oscillator.
156
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Figure 107 Typical phase noise curve for a free-running RF oscillator
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Table 19 Parameter data for the free-running RF oscillator measurement
Step Parameters
1
2
3
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
• Start Frequency
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source Output is
connected to:
Detector Input
• Frequency
Reference Source
• Frequency
• Reference Source Power
VCO Tuning Parameters
• Nominal Tune Constant
• Tune Range ±
• Center Voltage
• Input Resistance
Cal Tab
Phase Detector Constant
VCO Tune Constant
Phase Lock Loop Suppression
If Limit is exceeded
•
•
•
•
4
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Downconverter
Reference Source
Timebase
Phase Detector
Test Set Tune Voltage
Destination:
• VCO Tune Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
158
Data
• Absolute Phase Noise (using a phase locked
•
•
•
•
loop)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
4
Fast
• 10.044 E + 9 Hz
• – 4 dBm
• Test Set
• 444 E +6 Hz
• 444 E +6 Hz (same as Carrier Source Frequency)
• 16 dBm
•
•
•
•
40 E +3 Hz/V
± 10 Volts
0 Volts
600 ohms
•
•
•
•
Measure Phase Detector Constant
Calculate from expected VCO Tune Constant
Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression
Show Suppression Graph
•
•
•
•
•
Manual
Agilent N5502A/70422A
Agilent 8644B (System Control)
None
Automatic Detector Selection
• Reference Source
• DCFM
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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6
Table 19 Parameter data for the free-running RF oscillator measurement (continued)
5
6
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
• LNA Gain
• DC Block
• PLL Integrator Attenuation
Downconverter Tab
Input Frequency
L.O. Frequency
I.F. Frequency
Millimeter Frequency
L.O. Power
Maximum AM Detector Level
Input Attenuation
I.F. Gain
• Auto
Microwave/Millimeter Band
Millimeter Band Mixer Bias
• Enable
• Current
Reference Chain
• Reference
• External Tune Enable
Tuning Sensitivity
• Nominal
• 100 MHz PLL Bandwidth
• 600 MHz PLL Bandwidth
•
•
•
•
•
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10.044 E + 9
Auto
444 E +6
0
20 dBM
0 dBm
0 dB
0 dB
Checked
Microwave (0 to 26.5 GHz)
• Unchecked
• 0 mA
•
•
•
•
•
•
10 MHz
Unchecked
0 ppm/v
0 ppm/V
126 Hz
10000 Hz
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Absolute Measurement Examples
6
RF Synthesizer Using DCFM
This measurement example will help you measure the absolute phase noise of
an RF synthesizer using DCFM.
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the
desired configuration, as shown in Table 21 on page 167. Apply the input signal
when the connection diagram appears.
Required equipment
This measurement requires an Agilent 8257x with a DCFM Input port, in
addition to the phase noise test system and your DUT. (For more information,
see “Selecting a reference source" on page 132.) You also need the coaxial
cables and adapters necessary to connect the DUT and reference source to the
test set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “RFSynth_DCFM.pnm”. See Figure 108.
Figure 108 Select the parameters definition file
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4 Click the Open button.
The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example have
been pre-stored in this file. Table 25 on page 186 lists the parameter data
that has been entered for the RF Synthesizer using DCFM measurement
example.
NOTE
Note that the source parameters entered for step 2 in Table 22 on page 172 may not be
appropriate for the reference source you are using. To change these values, refer to
Table 20 on page 162, then continue with step 5 below. Otherwise, go to “Beginning the
measurement" on page 166
5 Using Figure 92 as a guide, navigate to the Sources tab.
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to 1.6 GHz).
Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
b Enter the VCO (Nominal) Tuning Constant (see Table 20 on page 162).
c Enter the Tune Range of VCO (see Table 20).
d Enter the Center Voltage of VCO (see Table 20).
e Enter the Input Resistance of VCO (see Table 20).
e5505a_user_enter_source_info
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 109 Enter source information
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Table 20 Tuning characteristics for various sources
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
Voltage (V) Tuning
Range (±V)
Input
Calibration
Resistance (Ω) Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 K (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Compute
Compute
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Other Signal Generator
DCFM Calibrated for ±1V
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Compute
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to +10
1E+6
Measure
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
Other User VCO Source
Selecting a reference source
1 Using Figure 110 as a guide, navigate to the Block Diagram tab.
2 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select your source.
Agilent-8257
e5505a_user_select_ref_source
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 110 Selecting a reference source
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3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
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Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
1 Using Figure 111 as a guide, navigate to the Cal tab.
2 In the Cal dialog box, check Verify calculated phase locked loop
suppression and Always Show Suppression Graph. Select If limit is
exceeded: Show Loop Suppression Graph.
e5505a_user_select_loop
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 111 Selecting loop suppression verification
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Setup considerations for the RF synthesizer using DCFM measurement
Measurement noise floor
The signal amplitude at the test set’s R input (Signal Input) port sets the
measurement noise floor level. Use Figure 112 and Figure 113 on page 165 to
determine the amplitude required to provide a noise floor level that is below
the expected noise floor of your DUT.
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L Port level
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
6
+15dBm
+5
-5
-15
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
Expected phase noise floor of system (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
n5505a_exp_phase_noise
25 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 112 Noise floor for the RF synthesizer (DCFM) measurement
Figure 113 Noise floor calculation example
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If the output amplitude of your DUT is not sufficient to provide an adequate
measurement noise floor, it will be necessary to insert a low noise amplifier
between the DUT and the test set input. (Refer to the section “Inserting a
Device" on page 122 for details on determining the effect that the amplifier’s
noise will have on the measured noise floor.)
Agilent 8663A VCO reference
This setup uses the 8663A as the VCO reference source. In order for the noise
measurement results to accurately represent the noise of the DUT, the noise
level of the reference source should be below the expected noise level of the
DUT.
Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 102.
.
Figure 114 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 115 Confirm measurement dialog box
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3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
drop-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 116.
N5500A
Figure 116 Connect diagram for the RF synthesizer (DCFM) measurement
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured
based on your measurement definition.
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics in Table 21 on
page 167.
A
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which will occur when the
connection diagram appears.
Table 21 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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Absolute Measurement Examples
Table 21 Test set signal input limits and characteristics (continued)
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power
shall not exceed +23 dBm (+30 with Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
+5 to +15 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
NOTE
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections,” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
Checking the beatnote
While the connect diagram is still displayed, use an oscilloscope (connected to
the Monitor port on the test set) or a counter to check the beatnote being
created between the reference source and your device-under-test. The
objective of checking the beatnote is to ensure that the center frequencies of
the two sources are close enough in frequency to create a beatnote that is
within the capture range of the system.
The phase-lock-loop (PLL) capture range is 5% of the peak tuning range of the
VCO source you are using. (The peak tuning range for your VCO can be
estimated by multiplying the VCO tuning constant by the tune range of VCO.
Refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results” if you are not
familiar with the relationship between the PLL capture range and the peak
tuning range of the VCO.)
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NOTE
6
If the center frequencies of the sources are not close enough to create a beatnote within
the capture range, the system will not be able to complete its measurement.
The beatnote frequency is set by the relative frequency difference between the
two sources. If you have two very accurate sources set at the same frequency,
the resulting beatnote will be very close to 0 Hz.
Searching for the beatnote will require that you adjust the center frequency of
one of the sources above and below the frequency of the other source until the
beatnote appears on the oscilloscope’s display.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote, you will need to verify the presence of an output signal from each
source before proceeding.
0V
E5505a_oscillo_disp_beatnote
25 Feb 04 rev 1
-1V/div
Figure 117 Oscilloscope display of beatnote from the test set Monitor port
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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Absolute Measurement Examples
Making the measurement
1 Click the Continue button when you have completed the beatnote check
and are ready to make the measurement.
2 When the PLL Suppression Curve dialog box appears, select View
Measured Loop Suppression, View Smoothed Loop Suppression, and
View Adjusted Loop Suppression. See Figure 118.
Figure 118 Selecting suppressions
There are four different curves for this graph. (For more information about
loop suppression verification, refer to Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features.”)
a “Measured” loop suppression curve—this is the result of the loop
suppression measurement performed by the E5505A system.
b “Smoothed” measured suppression curve—this is a curve-fit
representation of the measured results, it is used to compare with the
“theoretical” loop suppression.
c “Theoretical” suppression curve—this is the predicted loop suppression
based on the initial loop parameters defined/selected for this particular
measurement (kphi, kvco, loop bandwidth, filters, gain, etc).
d “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve—this is the new “adjusted”
theoretical value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on
changing loop parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the
“smoothed” measured curve as closely as possible.
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6
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results” for help with using the results.
Figure 119 shows a typical phase noise curve for an RF synthesizer using
DCFM.
Figure 119 Typical phase noise curve for an RF synthesizer using DCFM
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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6
Absolute Measurement Examples
Table 22 Parameter Data for the RF Synthesizer (DCFM) Measurement
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
• Start Frequency
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
4
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source Output is
connected to:
Detector Input
• Frequency
Reference Source
• Frequency
• Reference Source Power
VCO Tuning Parameters
• Nominal Tune Constant
• Tune Range ±
• Center Voltage
• Input Resistance
Cal Tab
Phase Detector Constant
VCO Tune Constant
Phase Lock Loop Suppression
If Limit is exceeded
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Downconverter
Reference Source
Timebase
Phase Detector
Test Set Tune Voltage
Destination:
• VCO Tune Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
172
Absolute Phase Noise (using a phase locked loop)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
4
Fast
• 600 E + 6 Hz
• 20 dBm
• Test Set
• 600 E +6 Hz
• 600 E +6 Hz (same as Carrier Source Frequency)
• 16 dBm
•
•
•
•
40 E +3 Hz/V
± 10 Volts
0 Volts
600 Ω
Measure Phase Detector Constant
Calculate from expected VCO Tune Constant
Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression
Show Suppression Graph
•
•
•
•
•
Manual
None
Agilent 8663A
None
Automatic Detector Selection
• Reference Source
• DCFM
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Absolute Measurement Examples
6
Table 22 Parameter Data for the RF Synthesizer (DCFM) Measurement (continued)
Step
5
6
7
Parameters
Data
•
•
•
•
•
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
LNA Gain
DC Block
PLL Integrator Attenuation
•
•
•
•
•
Downconverter Tab
• The downconverter parameters do not apply to this
Graph Tab
Title
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new
carrier frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
measurement example.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RF Synthesizer vs Agilent 8663A using DCFM
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
–170 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
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6
RF Synthesizer Using EFC
This measurement example will help you measure the absolute phase noise of
an RF synthesizer using EFC.
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, the input signal do not apply the
signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the
desired configuration, as shown in Table 31. Apply the input signal when the
connection diagram appears
Required equipment
This measurement requires an Agilent 8257x with an EFC Input port, in
addition to the phase noise test system and your DUT. (For more information,
refer to the section “Selecting a reference source" on page 132.) You also need
the coaxial cables and adapters necessary to connect the DUT and reference
source to the test set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “RFSynth_EFC.pnm”. See Figure 120.
Figure 120 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button.
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6
• The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example
have been pre-stored in this file. Table 28 on page 200 lists the
parameter data that has been entered for the RF Synthesizer using EFC
measurement example.)
NOTE
Note that the source parameters in Table 28 may not be appropriate for the reference
source you are using. To change these values, refer to Table 26 on page 190, then continue
with step step 5. Otherwise, go to “Beginning the measurement" on page 180.
5 Using Figure 121 on page 176 as a guide, navigate to the Sources tab.
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to 1.6 GHz).
Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
b Enter the VCO Tuning Constant (see Table 26 on page 190).
c If you are going to use EFC tuning to tune the 8663A, use the following
equation to calculate the appropriate VCO Tuning Constant to enter for
the measurement.
• VCO Tuning Constant = T x Carrier Frequency
• Where T= 5E-9 for EFC
For example, to calculate the Tuning Constant value to enter for EFC tuning
when the center frequency is 300 MHz:
• (5 E – 9) X (300 E + 6) = (1500 E – 3) = 1.5
d Enter the Tune Range of VCO (Table 26).
e Enter the Center Voltage of VCO (Table 26).
f
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Enter the Input Resistance of VCO (Table 26)
175
6
Absolute Measurement Examples
.
e5505a_user_enter_source_info
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 121 Enter Source Information
Table 23 Tuning Characteristics for Various Sources
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage Tuning
Range (±V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0 FM
Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 K (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Compute
Compute
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Compute
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to
+10
1E+6
Measure
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
Other Signal
Generator
DCFM Calibrated for
±1V
Other User VCO
Source
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6
Selecting a reference source
1 Using Figure 122 as a guide, navigate to the Block Diagram tab.
2 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select your source.
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Agilent-8257
e5505a_user_select_ref_source
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 122 Selecting a reference source
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
1 Using Figure 123 on page 178 as a guide, navigate to the Cal tab.
2 In the Cal dialog box, check Verify calculated phase locked loop
suppression and Always Show Suppression Graph. Select If limit is
exceeded: Show Loop Suppression Graph.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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6
Absolute Measurement Examples
e5505a_user_select_loop
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 123 Selecting Loop suppression verification
Setup considerations for the RF synthesizer using EFC measurement
Measurement noise floor
The signal amplitude at the test set’s R input (Signal Input) port sets the
measurement noise floor level. Use Figure 124 and Figure 125 on page 179 to
determine the amplitude required to provide a noise floor level that is below
the expected noise floor of your DUT.
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Absolute Measurement Examples
L Port level
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
6
+15dBm
+5
-5
-15
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
Expected phase noise floor of system (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
n5505a_exp_phase_noise
25 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 124 Noise floor for the RF synthesizer (EFC) measurement
f
Figure 125 Noise floor calculation example
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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6
Absolute Measurement Examples
If the output amplitude of your DUT is not sufficient to provide an adequate
measurement noise floor, it will be necessary to insert a low noise amplifier
between the DUT and the test set input. (Refer to the section “Inserting a
Device" on page 122 for details on determining the effect that the amplifier’s
noise will have on the measured noise floor.)
Agilent 8663A VCO reference
This setup uses the 8663A as the VCO reference source. In order for the noise
measurement results to accurately represent the noise of the DUT, the noise
level of the reference source should be below the expected noise level of the
DUT.
Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 126.
.
Figure 126 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 127 Confirm measurement dialog box
180
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6
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
drop-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 128.
N5500A
Figure 128 Connect diagram for the RF synthesizer (EFC) measurement
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured based
on your measurement definition.
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics in Table 24 on
page 182.
A
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which will occur when the
connection diagram appears.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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Absolute Measurement Examples
Table 24 Test set signal Input Limits and Characteristics
Limits
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power
shall not exceed +23 dBm(+30 with Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
+5 to +15 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
NOTE
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections,” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
Checking the beatnote
While the connect diagram is still displayed, Agilent recommends that you use
an oscilloscope (connected to the Monitor port on the test set) or a counter to
check the beatnote being created between the reference source and your
device-under-test. The objective of checking the beatnote is to ensure that the
center frequencies of the two sources are close enough in frequency to create a
beatnote that is within the capture range of the system.
The phase lock loop (PLL) capture range is 5% of the peak tuning range of the
VCO source you are using. (The peak tuning range for your VCO can be
estimated by multiplying the VCO tuning constant by the tune range of VCO.
182
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6
Refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results if you are not
familiar with the relationship between the PLL capture range and the peak
tuning range of the VCO.)
NOTE
If the center frequencies of the sources are not close enough to create a beatnote within
the capture range, the system will not be able to complete its measurement.
The beatnote frequency is set by the relative frequency difference between the
two sources. If you have two very accurate sources set at the same frequency,
the resulting beatnote will be very close to 0 Hz.
Searching for the beatnote will require that you adjust the center frequency of
one of the sources above and below the frequency of the other source until the
beatnote appears on the oscilloscope’s display.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote, you will need to verify the presence of an output signal from each
source before proceeding.
0V
E5505a_oscillo_disp_beatnote
25 Feb 04 rev 1
-1V/div
Figure 129 Oscilloscope display of a beatnote from the test set Monitor port
Making the measurement
1 Click the Continue button when you have completed the beatnote check
and are ready to make the measurement.
2 When the PLL Suppression Curve dialog box appears, select View
Measured Loop Suppression, View Smoothed Loop Suppression, and
View Adjusted Loop Suppression. See Figure 130 on page 184.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
183
6
Absolute Measurement Examples
Figure 130 Selecting suppressions
There are four different curves for this graph. (For more information about
loop suppression verification, refer to Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features.”)
a “Measured” loop suppression curve—this is the result of the loop
suppression measurement performed by the E5505A system.
b “Smoothed” measured suppression curve—this is a curve-fit
representation of the measured results, it is used to compare with the
“theoretical” loop suppression.
c “Theoretical” suppression curve—this is the predicted loop suppression
based on the initial loop parameters defined/selected for this particular
measurement (kphi, kvco, loop bandwidth, filters, gain, etc).
d “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve—this is the new “adjusted”
theoretical value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on
changing loop parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the
“smoothed” measured curve as closely as possible.
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results” for help with using the results.
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6
Figure 131 shows a typical phase noise curve for a RF synthesizer using EFC.
Figure 131 Typical phase noise curve for an RF synthesizer using EFC
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
185
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Absolute Measurement Examples
Table 25 Parameter data for the RF synthesizer (EFC) measurement
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
• Start Frequency
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source Output is
connected to:
Detector Input
• Frequency
Reference Source
• Frequency
• Reference Source Power
VCO Tuning Parameters
• Nominal Tune Constant
• Tune Range ±
• Center Voltage
• Input Resistance
Cal Tab
Phase Detector Constant
VCO Tune Constant
Phase Lock Loop Suppression
If Limit is exceeded
•
•
•
•
4
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Downconverter
Reference Source
Timebase
Phase Detector
Test Set Tune Voltage
Destination
• VCO Tune Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
5
186
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
• LNA Gain
• DC Block
• PLL Integrator Attenuation
Absolute Phase Noise (using a phase locked loop)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
4
Fast
• 500 E + 6 Hz
• 10 dBm
• Test Set
• 500 E +6 Hz
• 500 E +6 Hz (same as Carrier Source Frequency)
• 16 dBm
•
•
•
•
2.5 Hz/V
± 10 Volts
0 Volts
1 E +6 ohms
•
•
•
•
Measure Phase Detector Constant
Measure from expected VCO Tune Constant
Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression
Show Suppression Graph
•
•
•
•
•
Manual
None
Agilent 8663A
None
Automatic Detector Selection
• Reference Source
• EFC
•
•
•
•
•
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Absolute Measurement Examples
6
Table 25 Parameter data for the RF synthesizer (EFC) measurement (continued)
Step
Parameters
Data
6
Downconverter Tab
• The downconverter parameters do not apply to this
7
Graph Tab
Title
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new
carrier frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
measurement example.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RF Synthesizer vs Agilent 8663A using EFC
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
–170 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
• 1 times the current carrier frequency
• 0 dB
• 0
• 0 dB
187
Absolute Measurement Examples
6
Microwave Source
This measurement example will help you measure the absolute phase noise of
a microwave source (2.5 to 18 GHz) with frequency drift of ≤10E – 9 X Carrier
Frequency over a period of thirty minutes.
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the
desired configuration, as shown in Table 27 on page 195. Apply the input signal
when the connection diagram appears
Required equipment
This measurement requires an Agilent 8644A with a DCFM Input port, in
addition to the phase noise test system and your DUT. (For more information,
see the section “Selecting a reference source" on page 132.) You also need the
coaxial cables and adapters necessary to connect the DUT and reference
source to the test set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “MicroSRC.pnm”. See Figure 132.
.
Figure 132 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button.
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6
• The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example
have been pre-stored in this file. Table 28 on page 200 lists the
parameter data that has been entered for the Microwave Source
measurement example.)
NOTE
Note that the source parameters in Table 28 on page 200 may not be appropriate for the
reference source you are using. To change these values, refer to Table 26 on page 190,
then continue with step 5 below. Otherwise, go to the section “Beginning the
measurement" on page 193.
5 Using Figure 133 on page 190 as a guide, navigate to the Sources tab.
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to 1.6 GHz).
Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
b Enter the VCO Tuning Constant (see Table 26 on page 190). Use the
following equation to calculate the appropriate VCO Tuning Constant to
enter for the measurement.
• VCO Tuning Constant = T x Carrier Frequency, where T= 5E-9
For example, to calculate the Tuning Constant value to enter for EFC tuning
when the center frequency is 18 GHz:
• (5 E – 9) X (18 E + 9) = 90
c Enter the Tune Range of VCO (see Table 26 on page 190).
d Enter the Center Voltage of VCO (see Table 26).
e Enter the Input Resistance of VCO (see Table 26).
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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Absolute Measurement Examples
e5505a_user_enter_source_info
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 133 Enter source information
Table 26 Tuning characteristics for various sources
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage
(V)
Voltage Tuning
Range (±V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 K (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Compute
Compute
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
Agilent 8644B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Compute
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Compute
Estimated within a
factor of 2
–10 to
+10
1E+6
Measure
VCO Source
Agilent 8662/3A
EFC
DCFM
Other Signal
Generator
DCFM Calibrated for
±1V
Other User VCO
Source
190
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6
Selecting a reference source
1 Using Figure 134 on page 191, navigate to the Block Diagram tab.
2 From the Reference Source pull-down list, select your source.
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button
.
Agilent-8257
e5505a_user_select_ref_source
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 134 Selecting a reference source
Selecting Loop Suppression Verification
1 Using Figure 135 on page 192 as a guide, navigate to the Cal tab.
2 In the Cal dialog box, check Verify calculated phase locked loop
suppression and Always Show Suppression Graph. Select If limit is
exceeded: Show Loop Suppression Graph.
3 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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Absolute Measurement Examples
e5505a_user_select_loop
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 135 Selecting loop suppression verification
Setup considerations for the microwave source measurement
Measurement noise floor
Phase noise ( (f) dBc/Hz)
Figure 136 shows a typical noise level for the N5502A/70422A downconverter
when used with the 8644B. Use it to help you estimate if the measurement
noise floor is below the expected noise level of your DUT.
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
Specification
Typical
1
10
E5505a_noise_charac_microwave
26 Feb 04 rev 1
100 1k 10k 100k
Offset frequency (Hz)
Fc = 10 GHz
1M
10M
Figure 136 Noise characteristics for the microwave measurement
192
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6
If the output amplitude of your DUT is not sufficient to provide an adequate
measurement noise floor, it will be necessary to insert a low noise amplifier
between the DUT and the downconverter input. (Refer to “Inserting a
Device" on page 122 for details on determining the effect that the
amplifier’s noise will have on the measured noise floor.)
Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 137.
.
Figure 137 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 138 Confirm measurement dialog box
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
drop-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 139 on page 194.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
193
Absolute Measurement Examples
6
TEST SET
N5500A
DOWNCONVERTER
N5502A
Figure 139 Connect diagram for the microwave source measurement
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured
based on your measurement definition.
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics in Table 27.
A
C AU T I O N
194
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which will occur when the
connection diagram appears.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Absolute Measurement Examples
6
Table 27 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power shall not
exceed +23 dBm (+30 dBm with Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level
Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
+5 to +15 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
NOTE
Input Impedance
50 Ω Nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections,” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
Checking the beatnote
While the connect diagram is still displayed, Agilent recommends that you use
an oscilloscope (connected to the Monitor port on the test set) or a counter to
check the beatnote being created between the reference source and your DUT.
The objective of checking the beatnote is to ensure that the center frequencies
of the two sources are close enough in frequency to create a beatnote that is
within the capture range of the system.
The phase lock loop (PLL) capture range is 5% of the peak tuning range of the
VCO source you are using. (The peak tuning range for your VCO can be
estimated by multiplying the VCO tuning constant by the tune range of VCO.
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Refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results” if you are not
familiar with the relationship between the PLL capture range and the peak
tuning range of the VCO.)
NOTE
If the center frequencies of the sources are not close enough to create a beatnote within
the capture range, the system will not be able to complete its measurement.
The beatnote frequency is set by the relative frequency difference between the
two sources. If you have two very accurate sources set at the same frequency,
the resulting beatnote will be very close to 0 Hz.
Searching for the beatnote will require that you adjust the center frequency of
one of the sources above and below the frequency of the other source until the
beatnote appears on the oscilloscope’s display.
If incrementing the frequency of one of the sources does not produce a
beatnote, you will need to verify the presence of an output signal from each
source before proceeding. See Figure 140.
0V
E5505a_oscillo_disp_beatnote
25 Feb 04 rev 1
-1V/div
Figure 140 Oscilloscope display of a beatnote from the test set Monitor port
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Estimate the system’s capture range (using the VCO source parameters
entered for this measurement) using the equation below. The estimated VCO
tuning constant must be accurate within a factor of 2.
Capture Range ( Hz ) =
VCO Tuning Constant (Hz/V) X Tuning Range (V)
5
Capture Range ( Hz ) =
(Hz/V) X
5
NOTE
NOTE
(V)
= ________( Hz )
If you are able to locate the beatnote, but it distorts and then disappears as you adjust it
towards 0 Hz, your sources are injection locking to each other. Set the beatnote to the
lowest frequency possible before injection locking occurs and then refer to Minimizing
Injection Locking in the Problem Solving section of this chapter for recommended actions.
If you are not able to tune the beatnote to within the capture range due to frequency drift,
refer to Tracking Frequency Drift in the Problem Solving section of this chapter for
information about measuring drifting signals.
Making the measurement
1 Click the Continue button when you have completed the beatnote check
and are ready to make the measurement.
2 When the PLL Suppression Curve dialog box appears, select View
Measured Loop Suppression, View Smoothed Loop Suppression, and
View Adjusted Loop Suppression. See Figure 141 on page 198.
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Figure 141 Selecting suppressions
• There are four different curves for this graph. (For more information about
loop suppression verification, refer to Chapter 15, “Advanced Software
Features.”)
a “Measured” loop suppression curve—this is the result of the loop
suppression measurement performed by the E5505A system.
b “Smoothed” measured suppression curve—this is a curve-fit
representation of the measured results, it is used to compare with the
“theoretical” loop suppression.
c “Theoretical” suppression curve—this is the predicted loop suppression
based on the initial loop parameters defined/selected for this particular
measurement (kphi, kvco, loop bandwidth, filters, gain, etc).
d “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve—this is the new “adjusted”
theoretical value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on
changing loop parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the
“smoothed” measured curve as closely as possible.
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results” for help with using the results.
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Figure 142 shows a typical phase noise curve for a microwave source.
Figure 142 Typical phase noise curve for a microwave source
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Table 28 Parameter data for the microwave source measurement
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
• Start Frequency
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source Output is
connected to:
Detector Input
• Frequency
Reference Source
• Frequency
• Reference Source Power
VCO Tuning Parameters
• Nominal Tune Constant
• Tune Range ± Center Voltage
• Input Resistance
Cal Tab
Phase Detector Constant
VCO Tune Constant
Phase Lock Loop Suppression
If Limit is exceeded
•
•
•
•
4
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Downconverter
Reference Source
Timebase
Phase Detector
Test Set Tune Voltage
Destination
• VCO Tune Mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
5
200
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
• LNA Gain
• DC Block
• PLL Integrator Attenuation
Absolute Phase Noise (using a phase locked loop)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
4
Fast
• 12 E + 9 Hz
• 10 dBm
• Test Set
• 600 E +6 Hz
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
600 E +6 Hz (same as Carrier Source Frequency)
16 dBm
•
•
•
•
Measure Phase Detector Constant
Calculate from expected VCO Tune Constant
Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression
Show Suppression Graph
•
•
•
•
•
Manual
Agilent N5502A/70422A
Agilent 8644B (System Control)
None
Automatic Detector Selection
40 E +3 Hz/V
± 10 Volts
0 Volts
600 Ω
• Reference Source
• DCFM
•
•
•
•
•
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
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6
Table 28 Parameter data for the microwave source measurement (continued)
Step
Parameters
6
Downconverter Tab
Input Frequency
L.O. Frequency
I.F. Frequency
Millimeter Frequency
L.O. Power
Maximum AM Detector Level
Input Attenuation
I.F. Gain
• Auto
Microwave/Millimeter Band
Millimeter Band Mixer Bias
• Enable
• Current
Reference Chain
• Reference
• External Tune Enable
Tuning Sensitivity
• Nominal
• 100 MHz PLL Bandwidth
• 600 MHz PLL Bandwidth
7
Graph Tab
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12 E + 9
Auto
(Calculated by software)
0
20 dBM
0 dBm
0 dB
0 dB
Checked
Microwave (0 to 26.5 GHz)
• Unchecked
• 0 mA
•
•
•
•
•
•
10 MHz
Unchecked
0 ppm/v
0 ppm/V
126 Hz
10000 Hz
• Title
• Microwave Source (12 GHz) vs. Agilent 8644B
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new
carrier frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
using EFC
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
4 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
–170 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
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What is Residual Noise? 204
Assumptions about Residual Phase Noise Measurements
Calibrating the Measurement 208
Measurement Difficulties 228
Agilent Technologies
206
203
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What is Residual Noise?
Residual or two-port noise is the noise added to a signal when the signal is
processed by a two-port device. Such devices include amplifiers, dividers,
filters, mixers, multipliers, phase-locked loop synthesizers or any other
two-port electronic networks. Residual noise is composed of both AM and FM
components.
The noise mechanisms
Residual noise is the sum of two basic noise mechanisms:
• additive noise
• multiplicative noise
Additive noise
Additive noise is the noise generated by the two-port device at or near the
signal frequency which adds in a linear fashion to the signal. See Figure 143.
Source
Device under
test
RF noise added
to the signal
Noiseless
source
E5505a_add_noise_comp
27 Feb 04 rev 1
RF noise around
the signal frequency
Figure 143 Additive noise components
Multiplicative noise
This noise has two known causes. The first, is an intrinsic, direct, phase
modulation with a 1/f spectral density and the exact origin of this noise
component is unknown. The second, in the case of amplifiers or multipliers, is
noise which may modulate an RF signal by the multiplication of baseband
noise with the signal. This mixing is due to any non-linearities in the two-port
network. The baseband noise may be produced by the active device(s) of the
internal network, or may come from low-frequency noise on the signal or
power supply. See Figure 144.
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Source
7
Device under
test
Base band noise
mixed around
the signal
Noiseless
source
Base band noise
Figure 144 Multiplicative noise components
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Assumptions about Residual Phase Noise Measurements
The following are some basic assumptions regarding Residual Phase Noise
measurements. If these assumptions are not valid they will affect the
measured results.
• The source noise in each of the two phase detector paths is correlated at the
phase detector for the frequency offset range of interest. When the source
noise is correlated at the phase detector, the source phase noise cancels,
leaving only the residual phase noise of the DUT.
• Source AM noise is comparatively small. A typical mixer-type phase
detector only has about 20 to 30 dB of AM noise rejection. If the AM
component of the signal is greater than 20 to 30 dB above the residual
phase noise, it will contribute to the residual phase noise measurement and
show the residual phase noise as being greater than it really is.
• The DUT does not exhibit a bandpass filter function. A bandpass filter type
response will cause the source noise to be decorrelated at the edge of the
filter. This decorrelation of the noise causes the system to measure the
source noise level directly at offsets beyond the filter bandwidth.
Given these assumptions, when the DUT is connected to either of the two
inputs of the phase detector, all of the source noise cancels and only the
residual noise of the DUT is measured. See Figure 145.
Device
under
test
Source
Phase
detector
Power
splitter
Base band
analysis
E5505a_typ_res_phase_noise
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 145 Setup for typical residual phase noise measurement
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Frequency translation devices
If the DUT is a frequency translating device (such as a divider, multiplier, or
mixer), then one DUT must be put in each path. The result is the sum of the
noise from each DUT. In other words, each DUT is at least as quiet as the
measured result.
If the DUTs are identical, a possible (but not recommended) assumption is that
the noise of each DUT is half the measured result, or 3 dB less. All that really
can be concluded is that the noise level of one of the DUTs is at least 3 dB
lower than the measured result at any particular offset frequency.
If a more precise determination is required at any particular offset frequency,
a third DUT must also be measured against the other two DUTs. The data from
each of the three measurements can then be processed by the phase noise
software to give the noise of each of the individual DUTs. See Figure 146.
Device
under
test
Source
Phase
detector
Power
splitter
E5505a_meas_setup_two
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Base band
analysis
Device
under
test
Figure 146 Measurement setup for two similar DUTs
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Calibrating the Measurement
In the E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System, residual phase noise
measurements are made by selecting Residual Phase Noise (without using a
phase locked loop).
There are six calibration methods available for use when making residual
phase noise measurements. They are:
• User Entry of Phase Detector Constant
• Measured ±DC Peak
• Measured beatnote
• Measured beatnote/automatic cal
• Double-Sided ΦM Spur
• Single-Sided Spur
The method used will mainly be determined by the sources and equipment
available to you.
When calibrating the system for measurements, remember that the calibration
is only as accurate as the data input to the system software. See Figure 147.
R
Phase
detector
Source
Power
splitter
L
E5505a_genl_equip_setup
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 147 General equipment setup for making residual phase noise measurements
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Calibration and measurement guidelines
The following general guidelines should be considered when setting up and
making a residual two-port phase noise measurement.
1 For residual phase noise measurements, the source noise must be
correlated.
a The phase delay difference in the paths between the power splitter and
the phase detector must be kept to a minimum when making residual
noise measurements. In other words, by keeping the cables between the
phase detector and power splitter short, τ will be small. The attenuation
of the source noise is a function of the carrier offset frequency, and the
delay time (τ) and is equal to:
b The source should also have a good broadband phase noise floor because
at sufficiently large carrier offsets it will tend to decorrelate when
1
measuring components with large delays. At f = --- , source noise is
τ
rejected completely. the first null in noise can be used to determine the
1
delay difference. At f = ---------- , source noise shows up unattenuated. At
2πτ
lower offsets, source noise is attenuated at 20 dB per decade rate at 0.1
1
of ---------- , source noise is attenuated 20 dB. Examples of sources which best
2πτ
meet these requirements are the 8644B and 8642A/B.
The source used for making residual phase noise measurements must be low in
AM noise because source AM noise can cause AM to ΦM conversion in the DUT.
Mixer-type phase detectors only provide about 20 to 30 dB of rejection to AM
noise in a ΦM noise measurement so the AM noise can appear in the phase
noise plot.
2 It is very important that all components in the test setup be well shielded
from RFI. Unwanted RF coupling between components will make a
measurement setup very vulnerable to external electric fields around it.
The result may well be a setup going out of quadrature simply by people
moving around in the test setup area and altering surrounding electric
fields. A loss of quadrature stops the measurement.
3 When making low-level measurements, the best results will be obtained
from uncluttered setups. Soft foam rubber is very useful for isolating the
DUT and other phase-sensitive components from mechanically-induced
phase noise. The mechanical shock of bumping the test set or kicking the
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Residual Measurement Fundamentals
table will often knock a sensitive residual phase noise measurement out of
quadrature.
4 When making an extremely sensitive measurement it is essential to use
semi-rigid cable between the components. The bending of a flexible cable
from vibrations and temperature variations in the room can cause enough
phase noise in flexible connecting cables to destroy the accuracy of a
sensitive measurement. The connectors also must be tight; a torque wrench
is the best tool.
5 When measuring a low-noise device, it is important that the source and any
amplification, required to achieve the proper power at the phase detector,
be placed before the splitter so it will be correlated out of the measurement.
In cases where this is not possible; remember that any noise source, such as
an amplifier, placed after the splitter in either phase detector path, will
contribute to the measured noise.
6 An amplifier must be used in cases where the signal level out of the DUT is
too small to drive the phase detector, or the drive level is inadequate to
provide a low enough system noise floor. In this case the amplifier should
have the following characteristics:
• It should have the lowest possible noise figure, and the greatest possible
dynamic range.
• The signal level must be kept as high as possible at all points in the setup
to minimize degradation from the thermal noise floor.
• It should have only enough gain to provide the required signal levels.
Excess gain leads to amplifiers operating in gain compression, making
them very vulnerable to multiplicative noise problems. The non-linearity
of the active device produces mixing which multiplies the baseband
noise of the active device and power supply noise around the carrier.
• The amplifier’s sensitivity to power supply noise and the power supply
noise itself must both be minimized.
Calibration options
There are six calibration methods that to choose from for calibrating a
two-port measurement. The procedure for each method is provided on the
following pages. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are also
provided to help you select the best method for your application. The primary
considerations for selecting a calibration method are:
• Measurement accuracy
• Equipment availability
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User entry of phase detector constant
This calibration option requires that you know the phase detector constant for
the specific measurement to be made. The phase detector constant can be
estimated from the source power levels (or a monitor oscilloscope) or it can be
determined using one of the other calibration methods.
Once determined, the phase detector constant can be entered directly into the
system software without going through a calibration sequence. Remember,
however, that the phase detector constant is unique to a particular set of
sources, the RF level into the phase detector and the test configuration.
Advantages
• Easy method for calibrating the measurement system.
• Requires little additional equipment: only an RF power meter to manually
measure the drive levels into the phase detector or monitor oscilloscope.
• Fastest method of calibration. If the same power levels are always at the
phase detector, (as in the case of leveled outputs), the phase detector
sensitivity will always be essentially the same (within a dB or two). If this
accuracy is adequate, it is not necessary to recalibrate.
• Only one RF source is required.
• Super-quick method of estimating the phase detector constant and noise
floor to verify other calibration methods and check available dynamic
range.
Disadvantages
• The user entry of the phase detector constant is the least accurate of all the
calibration methods.
• It does not take into account the amount of power at harmonics of the
signal.
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Procedure
1 Connect circuit as per Figure 148, and tighten all connections.
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Power meter
or
spectrum
analyzer
Power
splitter
Test set
Signal
input
Phase
detector
Ref input
E5505a_phase_det_signal
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 148 Measuring power at phase detector signal input port
2 Measure the power level that will be applied to the signal input of the test
set’s phase detector. Table 29 shows the acceptable amplitude ranges for
the E5505A phase detectors.
Table 29 Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors.
Phase Detector
1.2 to 26.5 GHz1
50 kHz to 1.6 GHz
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
+15 dBm to +23 dBm
0 dBm to +23 dBm
+7 dBm to +10 dBm
0 dBm to +5 dBm
1 Phase noise test set Options 001 and 201.
3 Locate the power level you measured on the left side of the Phase Detector
Sensitivity Graph (Figure 154 on page 219). Now move across the graph at
the measured level and find the corresponding Phase Detector constant
along the right edge of the graph. This is the value you will enter as the
Current Detector Constant when you define your measurement. (Note that
the approximate measurement noise floor provided by the Signal Input port
level is shown across the bottom of the graph.).
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.6
.35
.2
+5
.11
.06
-5
.035
-15
-140
E5505a_phase_det_sensitivity
27 Feb 04 rev 1
-150
-160
-170
Approximate phase noise floor (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
-180
Detector constant
Kφ (V/rad)
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
7
.02
Figure 149 Phase detector sensitivity
4 Remove the power meter and reconnect the cable from the splitter to the
Signal Input port.
5 If you are not certain that the power level at the Reference Input port is
within the range shown in the preceding graph, measure the level using the
setup shown in Figure 151, “Measuring power at phase detector reference
input port,” on page 214.
6 Remove the power meter and reconnect the cable from the splitter to the
Signal Input port.
7 After you complete the measurement set up procedures and begin running
the measurement, the computer will prompt you to adjust for quadrature
(Figure 150 on page 214). Adjust the phase difference at the phase detector
to 90 degrees (quadrature) by either adjusting the test frequency or by
adjusting an optional variable phase shifter or line stretcher. Quadrature is
attained when the meter is set to center scale, zero.
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e5505a_user_adjust_quad
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 150 Adjust for quadrature
NOTE
For the system to accept the adjustment to quadrature, the meter must be within ±2 mV to
±4 mV.
8 Once you have attained quadrature, you are ready to proceed with the
measurement.
Test set
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Signal
input
Power
splitter
E5505a_pwr_phase_det_ref
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Power meter or
spectrum
analyzer
Phase
detector
Ref input
Figure 151 Measuring power at phase detector reference input port
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Measured ± DC peak voltage
Advantages
• Easy method for calibrating the measurement system.
• This calibration technique can be performed using the baseband analyzer.
• Fastest method of calibration. If, for example, the same power levels are
always at the phase detector, as in the case of leveled, or limited outputs,
the phase detector sensitivity will always be essentially equivalent (within
one or two dB). Recalibration becomes unnecessary if this accuracy is
adequate.
• Only one RF source is required.
• Measures the phase detector gain in the actual measurement configuration.
This technique requires you to adjust off of quadrature to both the positive
and the negative peak output of the Phase Detector. This is done by either
adjusting the phase shifter or the frequency of the source. An oscilloscope
or voltmeter can optionally be used for setting the positive and negative
peaks.
Disadvantages
• Has only moderate accuracy compared to the other calibration methods.
• Does not take into account the amount of phase detector harmonic
distortion relative to the measured phase detector gain, hence the phase
detector must operate in its linear region.
• Requires manual adjustments to the source and/or phase shifter to find the
phase detector’s positive and negative output peaks. The system will read
the value of the positive and negative peak and automatically calculate the
mean of the peak voltages which is the phase detector constant used by the
system.
Procedure
1 Connect circuit as per Figure 152 on page 216, and tighten all connections.
2 Measure the power level that will be applied to the Signal Input port of the
test set’s phase detector. Table 30 on page 216 shows the acceptable
amplitude ranges for the E5505A system phase detectors.
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Test set
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Signal
input Phase
detector
Power
splitter
Ref input
Oscilloscope
Low-pass
filter
Connect scope to monitor output
E5505a_connect_opt_oscillo
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 152 Connection to optional oscilloscope for determining voltage peaks
Table 30 Acceptable Amplitude Ranges for the Phase Detectors
Phase Detector
1.2 to 26.5 GHz1
50 kHz to 1.6 GHz
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
+ 15 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
to
+ 7 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 5 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
+ 10 dBm
1 Phase noise test Options 001 and 201.
3 Adjust the phase difference at the phase detector as prompted by the phase
noise software.
4 The system will measure the positive and negative peak voltage of the phase
detector using an internal voltmeter. The quadrature meter digital display
can be used to find the peak. The phase may be adjusted either by varying
the frequency of the source or by adjusting a variable phase shifter or line
stretcher.
NOTE
Connecting an oscilloscope to the MONITOR port is recommended because the signal can
then be viewed to give visual confidence in the signal being measured. As an example,
noise could affect a voltmeter reading, whereas, on the oscilloscope any noise can be
viewed and the signal corrected to minimize the noise before making the reading.
5 The system software will then calculate the phase detector constant
automatically using the following algorithm:
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6 The system software will then prompt you to set the phase noise software’s
meter to quadrature.
7 The system will now measure the noise data.
Measured beatnote
This calibration option requires that one of the input frequency sources be
tunable such that a beatnote can be acquired from the two sources. For the
system to calibrate, the beatnote frequency must be within the following
ranges shown in Table 31.
Table 31 Frequency ranges
Carrier Frequency
Beatnote Frequency Range
<500 kHz
10 Hz to 10 kHz
<5 MHz
10 Hz to 100 kHz
<50 MHz
10 Hz to 1 MHz
<250 MHz
10 Hz to 10 MHz
>250 MHz
10 Hz to 50 MHz
or 1/2 the frequency range of the configured analyzer, or whichever is lower.
Advantages
• Simple method of calibration.
Disadvantages
• It requires two RF sources, separated by 0.1 Hz to 50 MHz at the phase
detector. The calibration source output power must be manually adjusted to
the same level as the power splitter output it replaces (requires a power
meter).
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Procedure
1 Connect circuit as per Figure 153, and tighten all connections.
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Signal
input
Power
splitter
Power meter or
spectrum
analyzer
Phase
detector
Ref input
E5505a_pwr_phase_det_ref
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 153 Measuring power from splitter
2 Measure the power level that will be applied to the Signal Input port of the
test set’s phase detector. Table 32 on page 218 shows the acceptable
amplitude ranges for the test set phase detectors.
Table 32 Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors
Phase Detector
1.2 to 26.5 GHz1
50 kHz to 1.6 GHz
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
+ 15 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
+ 7 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 5 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
to
+ 10 dBm
1 Phase noise test set options 001 and 201
3 Measure the output power at the side of the power splitter where the
calibration source will be substituted, then terminate in 50 ohms. See
Figure 154 on page 219.
4 Adjust the calibration source to the same output power as the measured
output power of the power splitter.
5 Adjust the output frequency such that the beatnote frequency is within the
range of the analyzers being used.
6 The system can now measure the calibration constant.
7 Disconnect the calibration source and reconnect the power splitter.
8 Adjust the phase difference at the phase detector to 90 degrees
(quadrature) either by adjusting the test frequency or by adjusting an
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optional variable phase shifter or line stretcher. Quadrature is achieved
when the meter on the front panel of the phase noise interface is set to zero.
NOTE
For the system to accept the adjustment to quadrature, the meter must be within ±2 mV to
±4 mV.
9 Reset quadrature and measure phase noise data.
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Signal
input
Power
splitter
E5505a_cali_source_beatnote
27 Feb 04 rev 1
RF
calibration
source
50Ω
load
Phase
detector
Ref input
Figure 154 Calibration source beatnote injection
Synthesized residual measurement using beatnote cal
10 This calibration option requires two synthesizers of which one must be
tunable such that a beatnote can be acquired. For the system to calibrate,
the beatnote frequency must be within the following ranges shown in
Table 33.
Table 33 Frequency Ranges
Carrier Frequency
Beatnote Frequency Range
<500 kHz
10 Hz to 10 kHz
<5 MHz
10 Hz to 100 kHz
<50 MHz
10 Hz to 1 MHz
<250 MHz
10 Hz to 10 MHz
>250 MHz
10 Hz to 50 MHz
or 1/2 the frequency range of the configured analyzer, or whichever is lower.
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Residual Measurement Fundamentals
Procedure
1 Connect circuit as per Figure 155 and tighten all connections.
Test set
Synthesizer 1
o
Source
O power
splitter
Ref input
Synthesizer 2
Phase
detector
Optional line
stretcher
Signal input
E5505a_syn_residual_measure
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 155 Synthesized residual measurement using beatnote cal
2 Offset the carrier frequency of one synthesizer to produce a beatnote for
cal.
3 After the phase noise system reads the beatnote, set the software to the
same carrier frequency.
4 Adjust the phase difference at the phase detector to 90 degrees
(quadrature) either by adjusting the synthesizer or by adjusting an optional
variable phase shifter or line stretcher. Quadrature is achieved when the
meter on the front panel of the phase noise interface is set to zero.
Measured beatnote/automatic calibration
This calibration option requires the reference source to be a PSG (E8257D,
E8267D, or E8663D) which has the functionality to adjust the phase remotely.
Advantages
• Simple method of calibration.
• Eliminates the need for a line stretcher or phase shifter.
Disadvantages
• Requires the reference source to be a PSG-D.
Procedure
1 Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 156.
2 The reference source must be either an E8257D, E8267D, or E8663D.
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3 The Device Under Test (DUT) and the reference source should be locked by
the same 10MHz reference. The 10MHz reference is split and provided to the
DUT and reference source.
4 The frequencies of the DUT and reference source equal each other.
Figure 156 Automatic Calibration Connection Diagram
Auto Cal Process
When a user selects measured beatnote / auto cal, the system does the
following process.
1 Offsets frequency of a reference source to produce a beatnote for cal.
2 Reads a beatnote and calculates the phase detector constant, then turns the
frequency of the reference source back to be equal to that of the DUT.
3 Adjust phase of reference source’s output so that the 70420A/N5500A
Signal Input and the REF Input are in quadrature. Quadrature is achieved
when the output of the phase detector equals 0 V (precisely, less than
0.002V).
Double-Sided spur
This calibration option has the following requirements:
• One of the input frequency sources must be capable of being phase
modulated.
• The resultant sideband spurs from the phase modulation must have
amplitudes that are –100 dB and –20 dB relative to the carrier amplitude.
• The offset frequency or modulation frequency must be between 10 Hz and
maximum (See the“Measured beatnote" on page 217).
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Advantages
• Requires only one RF source.
• Calibration is done under actual measurement conditions so all
non-linearities and harmonics of the phase detector are calibrated out.
NOTE
Because the calibration is performed under actual measurement conditions, the
Double-sided Spur Method and the Single-sided Spur Method are the two most accurate
calibration methods.
Disadvantages
• Requires a phase modulator which operates at the desired carrier
frequency.
• Requires audio calibration source.
• Requires RF spectrum analyzer for manual measurement of ΦM sidebands
or preferably a modulation analyzer.
Most phase modulators are typically narrow-band devices; therefore, a wide range of test
frequencies may require multiple phase modulator.
PPPP
NOTE
Procedure
1 Connect circuit as per Figure 157 and tighten all connections.
Test set
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Power
splitter
Signal
input
Phase
detector
Phase
modulator
-10 dB
attenuator
50Ω
load
Ref input
E5505a_calibration_setup
27 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 157 Calibration setup
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2 Measure the power level that will be applied to the signal input port of the
test set’s phase detector. Table 34 shows the acceptable amplitude ranges
for the E5505A system phase detectors.
Table 34 Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors
Phase Detector
1.2 to 26.5 GHz1
50 kHz to 1.6 GHz
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
+ 15 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
to
+ 7 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 5 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
+ 10 dBm
1 Phase noise test set options 001 and 201
3 Using the RF spectrum analyzer or modulation analyzer, measure the
carrier-to-sideband ratio of the phase modulation at the phase detector’s
modulated port and the modulation frequency. The audio calibration
source should be adjusted such that the sidebands are between –30 and
–60 dB below the carrier and the audio frequency is between 50 Hz and 50
MHz. See Figure 158.
} - 40 dBc
10 kHz
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Power
splitter
RF spectrum
analyzer
Test set
Signal
input
Phase
detector
Phase
modulator
Audio
calibration
source
-10 dB
attenuator
Ref input
E5505a_meas_ratio_mod_port
01 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 158 Measuring carrier-to-sideband ratio of the modulated port
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4 Measure the carrier-to-sideband ratio of the non-modulated side of the
phase detector. It must be at least 20 dB less than the modulation level of
the modulated port. This level is necessary to prevent cancellation of the
modulation in the phase detector. Cancellation would result in a smaller
phase detector constant, or a measured noise level that is worse than the
actual performance. The modulation level is set by the port-to-port isolation
of the power splitter and the isolation of the phase modulator. This
isolation can be improved at the expense of signal level by adding an
attenuator between the phase modulator and the power splitter.
5 Connect the phase detector.
6 Adjust the phase difference at the phase detector to 90 degrees
(quadrature) either by adjusting the test frequency or by adjusting an
optional variable phase shifter or line stretcher. Quadrature is achieved
when the meter in the phase noise software is set to center scale
(±2 mV).
NOTE
For the system to accept the adjustment to quadrature, the meter must be within ±2 mV to
±4 mV.
7 Set the Type of Measurement to Phase Noise Without Using a PLL.
8 Set the Calibration Technique to Derive From Double-sided Spur and enter
the sideband amplitude and offset frequency.
9 Select New Measurement.
10 Check quadrature and measure the phase detector constant by pressing Y
to proceed.
11 Remove audio source.
12 Reset quadrature and measure phase noise data.
Single-Sided spur
This calibration option has the following requirements:
• A third source to generate a single sided spur
• An external power combiner (or directional coupler) to add the calibration
spur to the frequency carrier under test. The calibration spur must have an
amplitude –100 dB and –20 dB relative to the carrier amplitude. The offset
frequency of the spur must be 20 Hz and 20 MHz.
• A spectrum analyzer or other means to measure the single sided spur
relative to the carrier signal
You will find that the equipment setup for this calibration option is similar to
the others except that an additional source and a power splitter have been
added so that the spur can be summed with the input carrier frequency.
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Advantages
Calibration is done under actual measurement conditions so all non-linearities
and harmonics of the phase detector are calibrated out.
NOTE
The Single-sided Spur Method and the Double-sided Spur Method (Option 4) are the two
most accurate methods.
Broadband couplers with good directivity are available, at reasonable cost, to
couple in the calibration spur.
Disadvantages
Requires a second RF sources that can be set between 10 Hz and up to 50 MHz
(depending on the baseband analyzer used) from the carrier source frequency.
Requires an RF spectrum analyzer for manual measurement of the
signal-to-spur ratio and the spur offset frequency.
Procedure
1 Connect circuit as per Figure 159, and tighten all connections. Note that the
input signal into the directional coupler is being supplied to the coupler’s
output port.
Test set
Optional line
stretcher
Source
output
Calibration
source
Signal
input
Power
splitter
-20 dB
coupler
input
RF spectrum
analyzer
Phase
detector
Ref input
-10 dB
attenuator
} - 40 dBc
Coupler
port
100 kHz
E5505a_cal_setup_single_sided
01 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 159 Calibration setup for single-sided spur
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2 Measure the power level that will be applied to the Signal Input port of the
test set’s phase detector. Table 35 on page 226 shows the acceptable
amplitude ranges for the E5505A system phase detectors.
Table 35 Acceptable Amplitude Ranges for the Phase Detectors
Phase Detector
1.2 to 26.5 GHz1
50 kHz to 1.6 GHz
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
+ 15 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
to
+ 7 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 5 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
+ 10 dBm
1 Phase noise test set options 001 and 201
3 Measure the carrier-to-single-sided-spur ratio out of the coupler at the
phase detector’s modulated port and the offset frequency with the RF
spectrum analyzer (Figure 160). The RF calibration source should be
adjusted such that the sidebands are between –30 and –60 dB below the
carrier and the frequency offset of the spur between 10 Hz and 50 MHz.
Test set
Optional line
stretcher
Source
output
Calibration
source
Signal
input
Power
splitter
-20 dB
coupler
Phase
detector
input
Ref input
-10 dB
attenuator
Coupler
port
E5505a_carrier_spur_ratio
01 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 160 Carrier-to-spur ratio of modulated signal
4 Measure the carrier-to-spur ratio of the non-modulated side of the phase
detector (Figure 161 on page 227). It must be at least 20 dB less than the
spur ratio of the modulated port. This level is necessary to prevent
cancellation of the modulation in the phase detector. Cancellation would
result in a smaller phase detector constant, or a measured noise level that is
worse than the actual performance. The isolation level is set by the
port-to-port isolation of the power splitter and the isolation of the –20 dB
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coupler. This isolation can be improved at the expense of signal level by
adding an attenuator between the coupler and the power splitter.
} <- 60 dBc
Test set
Optional line
stretcher
Source
Power
splitter
output
Calibration
source
RF spectrum
analyzer
-20 dB
coupler
Signal
input
Phase
detector
input
Ref input
-10 dB
attenuator
Coupler
port
E5505a_carrier_spur_ratio_non_mod
01 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 161 Carrier-to-spur ratio of non-modulated signal
5 Connect the phase detector.
6 Adjust the phase difference at the phase detector to 90 degrees
(quadrature) either by adjusting the test frequency or by adjusting an
optional variable phase shifter or line stretcher. Quadrature is achieved
when the meter on the front panel of the test set is set to center scale.
NOTE
For the system to accept the adjustment to quadrature, the meter must be within ±2 mV to
±4 mV.
7 Enter sideband level and offset.
8 Check quadrature and measure the phase detector constant.
9 Remove audio source.
10 Reset quadrature and measure phase noise data.
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Measurement Difficulties
Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your Measurement Results” contains troubleshooting
information to be used after the measurement has been made, and a plot has
been obtained.
When making phase noise measurements it is important to keep your
equipment connected until the measurements have been made, all problems
corrected, and the results have been evaluated to make sure that the
measurement is valid. If the equipment is disconnected before the results have
been fully evaluated, it may be difficult to troubleshoot the measurement.
System connections
The first thing to check if problems occur is the instrument connections and
settings as this is the most common error. It is also important to make sure the
levels are correct into the test set phase detector inputs.
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Residual Measurement Examples
Amplifier Measurement Example 230
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Amplifier Measurement Example
This example contains information about measuring the residual noise of
two-port devices. It demonstrates a residual phase noise measurement for an
RF Amplifier. Refer to Chapter 7, “Residual Measurement Fundamentals for
more information about residual phase noise measurements.
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the
desired configuration, as show in Table 36 on page 238. Apply the input signal
when the connection diagram appears.
Required equipment
This measurement requires the following equipment:
• RF amplifier
• Stimulus source (frequency of amplitude under test)
• Power splitter (NARDA 30183)
• Coaxial cables and adapters necessary to connect the DUT and reference
source to the test set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
The setup for a residual phase noise measurement uses a phase shifter to set
quadrature at the phase detector. See Figure 162 on page 231.
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Test set
DUT
Power
splitter
Source
Signal
input Phase
detector
Optional line
stretcher
Ref input
Oscilloscope
Low-pass
filter
Connect scope to monitor port
E5505a_user_connect_osc_vol_peak
16 Mar 04 rev 3
Figure 162 Setup for residual phase noise measurement
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “res_noise_1ghz_demoamp.pnm” See
Figure 163.
.
5505
l
t
i
Figure 163 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button.
The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example have
been pre-stored in this file. Table 38 on page 243 lists the parameter data
that has been entered for this residual phase noise measurement example.
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5 From the Define menu, choose Measurement; then choose the Type and
Range tab from the Define Measurement window.
6 From the Measurement Type pull-down, select Residual Phase Noise
(without using phase lock loop). See Figure 164.
e5505a_user_nav_residual
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 164 Navigate to residual phase noise
7 Choose the Sources tab from the Define Measurement window.
8 Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT. Enter the same frequency
for the detector input frequency. See Figure 165 on page 232.
.
Figure 165 Enter frequencies into source tab
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9 Choose the Cal tab from the Define Measurement window.
10 Select Derive detector constant from measured ± DC peak voltage as the
calibration method. See Figure 166.
Figure 166 Select constant in the cal tab
11 Choose the Block Diagram tab from the Define Measurement window. Refer
to Figure 167.
a From the Phase Shifter pull-down, select Manual.
b From the Phase Detector pull-down, select Automatic Detector
Selection.
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Figure 167 Select parameters in the block diagram tab
12 Choose the Graph tab from the Define Measurement window.
13 Enter a graph description of your choice (E5500 Residual Phase Noise
Measurement @ 1 GHz, for example). See Figure 168 on page 234.
Figure 168 Select graph description on graph tab
14 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
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Setup considerations for amplifier measurement
Connecting cables
The best results will be obtained if semi-rigid coaxial cables are used to
connect the components used in the measurement; however, BNC cables have
been specified because they are more widely available. Using BNC cables may
degrade the close-in phase noise results and, while adequate for this example,
should not be used for an actual measurement on an unknown device unless
absolutely necessary.
Measurement environment
The low noise floors typical of these devices may require that special attention
be given to the measurement environment. The following precautions will help
ensure reliable test results:
• Filtering on power supply lines
• Protection from microphonics
• Shielding from air currents may be necessary.
Beginning the measurement
1 From the View menu, choose Meter to select the quadrature meter. See
Figure 169.
Figure 169 Select meter from view menu
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1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 170.
Figure 170 Selecting New Measurement
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2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 171 Confirm new measurement
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the pull-down
list. Refer to Figure 172.
Figure 172 Setup diagram for the 8349A amplifier measurement example
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the appropriate connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured
based on your measurement definition.
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C AU T I O N
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics contained in
Table 36.
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which occurs at the connection
diagram.
Table 36 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power shall not
exceed +23 dBm (+30 dBm for
Option 001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level
Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
Characteristics
Input Impedance
NOTE
50 Ω nominal
Refer to the following system connect diagram examples in Chapter 18, “System
Interconnections” for more information about system interconnections.
• Figure 307, “E5505A system connections with standard test set,” on page 403
• Figure 308, “E5505A system connections with test set option 001,” on page 404
• Figure 309, “E5505A system connections with test set option 201,” on page 405
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Making the measurement
Calibrate the measurement using measured ± DC peak voltage
Refer to Chapter 7, “Residual Measurement Fundamentals for more
information about residual phase noise measurements calibration types.
Procedure
1 Using Figure 173 and Figure 174 on page 240 as guides, connect the circuit
and tighten all connections.
2 Measure the power level that will be applied to the Signal Input port of the
test set phase detector. Table 37 shows the acceptable amplitude ranges for
the test set phase detectors.
Table 37 Acceptable amplitude ranges for the phase detectors
Phase Detector
50 kHz to 1.6 GHz
1.2 to 26.5 GHz1
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
Ref Input (L Port)
Signal Input (R Port)
+ 15 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
+ 7 dBm
0 dBm
to
+ 5 dBm
to
+ 23 dBm
to
+ 10 dBm
1 Phase Noise Test Set Options 001 and 201
NOTE
Connecting an oscilloscope to the monitor port is recommended because the signal can
then be viewed to give visual confidence in the signal being measured. See Figure 173 and
Figure 174 on page 240.
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Phase
shifter
Power
splitter
Calibration
source
DUT
Delay line
To test set rear panel
CHIRP input
Test set
N5500A
Test Set
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
STATUS
ACT ERR
INPUT
SIGNAL INPUT
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz -1600 MHz
0.01 Hz -100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
SIGNAL
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz -1600 MHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
Digitizer
output
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
PC
Digitizer
input
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
Display
e5505a_user_residual_connect_ex
25 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 173 Residual connect diagram example
Test set
DUT
Source
Power
splitter
Signal
input Phase
detector
Optional line
stretcher
Oscilloscope
Ref input
Low-pass
filter
Connect scope to monitor port
E5505a_user_connect_osc_vol_peak
16 Mar 04 rev 3
Figure 174 Connection to optional oscilloscope for determining voltage peaks
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3 Press the Continue button when ready to calibrate the measurement.
4 Adjust the phase difference at the phase detector as prompted by the phase
noise software. See Figure 175.
.
Figure 175 Adjust phase difference at phase detector
5 The system will measure the positive and negative peak voltage of the phase
detector using an internal voltmeter. The quadrature meter’s digital display
can be used to find the peak. The phase may be adjusted either by varying
the frequency of the source or by adjusting a variable phase shifter or line
stretcher.
6 The system software will then prompt you to set the phase noise software’s
meter to quadrature by adjusting the phase shifter until the meter indicates
0 volts, then press Continue. See Figure 176 on page 242.
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e5505a_user_adjust_phase_shift
25 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 176 Adjust phase shifter until meter indicates 0 volts
7 The system will now measure the noise data.
The system can now run the measurement. The segment data will be displayed
on the computer screen as the data is taken until all segments have been taken
over the entire range you specified in the Measurement definition’s Type and
Range.
When the measurement is complete
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help in evaluating your measurement results.
Figure 177 on page 243 shows a typical phase noise curve for an RF Amplifier.
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Figure 177 Typical phase noise curve for a residual measurement
Table 38 Parameter data for the amplifier measurement example
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
• Residual Phase Noise (without using a phase
locked loop)
• 10 Hz
• Start Frequency
• 100 E + 6 Hz
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages • 4
• Normal
FFT Quality
• Fast
Swept Quality
2
3
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
Detector Input
• Frequency
Cal Tab
• Phase Detector Constant
• Current Phase Detector
• 1 E + 9 Hz
• 10 dBm
• 1 E + 9 Hz
• Derive detector constant from measured ± DC peak
• 410.8 E-3
Constant
• Know Spur Parameters
• Amplitude
• Offset Frequency
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• 0 Hz
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Table 38 Parameter data for the amplifier measurement example (continued)
Step
4
5
6
7
Parameters
Data
•
•
•
•
•
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Phase Shifter
DUT in Path
Phase Detector
Adjust the Quadrature by
adjusting the
•
•
•
•
•
Manual
Manual
checked
Automatic Detector Selection
phase shifter
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
• LNA Gain
• DC Block
• PLL Integrator Attenuation
•
•
•
•
•
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
• Dowconverter Tab
• The downconverter parameters do not apply to this
Graph Tab
• Title
• E5505A Residual Phase Noise Measurement
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new
carrier frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
@ 1 GHz.
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
- 180 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
244
measurement example.
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FM Discriminator Fundamentals
The Frequency Discriminator Method 246
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FM Discriminator Fundamentals
The Frequency Discriminator Method
Unlike the phase detector method, the frequency discriminator method does
not require a second reference source phase locked to the source under test.
See Figure 178.
.
Figure 178 Basic delay line/mixer frequency discriminator method
This makes the frequency discriminator method extremely useful for
measuring sources that are difficult to phase lock, including sources that are
microphonic or drift quickly. It can also be used to measure sources with
high-level, low-rate phase noise, or high close-in spurious sidebands,
conditions with can pose serious problems for the phase detector method. A
wide-band delay line frequency discriminator is easy to implement using the
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System and common coaxial cable.
Basic theory
The delay line implementation of the frequency discriminator (Figure 178)
converts short-term frequency fluctuations of a source into voltage
fluctuations that can be measured by a baseband analyzer. The conversion is a
two part process, first converting the frequency fluctuations into phase
fluctuations, and then converting the phase fluctuations to voltage
fluctuations.
The frequency fluctuation to phase fluctuation transformation Δf
( → Δφ) takes
place in the delay line. The nominal frequency arrives at the double-balanced
mixer at a particular phase. As the frequency changes slightly, the phase shift
incurred in the fixed delay time will change proportionally. The delay line
converts the frequency change at the line input to a phase change a the line
output when compared to the undelayed signal arriving at the mixer in the
second path.
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9
The double-balanced mixer, acting as a phase detector, transforms the
instantaneous phase fluctuations into voltage fluctuations Δφ
( → ΔV). With the
two input signals 90° out of phase (phase quadrature), the voltage out is
proportional to the input phase fluctuations. The voltage fluctuations can then
be measured by the baseband analyzer and converted to phase noise units.
The discriminator transfer response
The important equation is the final magnitude of the transfer response.
sin ( πf m τ d )
ΔV ( f m ) = K φ 2πτ d Δf ( f m ) ---------------------------( πf m τ d )
WhereΔV ( f m ) represents the voltage fluctuations out of the discriminator and
Δf ( fm ) represents the frequency fluctuations of the DUT. Kφ is the phase
detector constant (phase to voltage translation). τd is the amount of delay
provided by the delay line and f m is the frequency offset from the carrier that
the phase noise measurement is made.
System sensitivity
A frequency discriminator’s system sensitivity is determined by the transfer
response. As shown below, it is desirable to make both the phase detector
constant Kφ and the amount of delay τd large so that the voltage fluctuations
ΔV out of a frequency discriminator will be measurable for even small
fluctuations Δf .
sin ( πf m τ d )
- ( Δf ( fm ) )
ΔV ( f m ) = K φ 2πτ d ---------------------------( πf m τ d )
NOTE
The system sensitivity is independent of carrier frequency f o .
The magnitude of the sinusoidal output term or the frequency discriminator is
proportional ton ( πf m τ d ) ⁄ ( πf m τ. This implies that the output response will have
peaks and nulls, with the first null occurring at m = 1 ⁄ τd. Increasing the rate of
a modulation signal applied to the system will cause nulls to appear at
frequency multiples of 1 ⁄ τd (Figure 179).
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Figure 179 Nulls in sensitivity of delay line discriminator
To avoid having to compensate for sin (x)/x response, measurements are
typically made at offset frequencies (f m ) much less 1 ⁄ 2τd . It is possible to
measure at offset frequencies out to and beyond the null by scaling the
measured results using the transfer equation. However, the sensitivity of the
system get very poor results near the nulls.
The transfer function shows that increasing the delay τd increases the
sensitivity of the system. However, increasing τd also decreases the offset
frequencies (f m ) that can be measured without compensating for the sin(x)/x
response. For example, a 200 ns delay line will have better sensitivity close to
carrier than a 50 ns delay line., but will not be usable beyond 2.5 MHz offsets
without compensating for the sin(x)/x response; the 50 ns line is usable to
offsets of 10 MHz.
Increasing the delay τd , also increases the attenuation of the line. While this
has no direct effect on the sensitivity provided by the delay line, it does reduce
the signal into the phase detector and can result in decreased K φ and
decreased system sensitivity.
The phase detector constant K φ equals the slope of the mixer sine wave output
at the zero crossings. When the mixer is not in compression, K φ equals K L V R
where K L is the mixer efficiency and V R is the voltage into the Signal Input
port (R port) of the mixer. V R is also the voltage available at the output of the
delay line.
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9
Optimum sensitivity
If measurements are made such that the offset frequency of interest (f m ) is
<1/2πτ d the sin(x)/x term can be ignored and the transfer response can be
reduced toΔV ( f m ) = K d Δf ( f m ) = K φ πτ d Δf ( f m
where K d is the discriminator constant.
The reduced transfer equation implies that a frequency discriminator’s system
sensitivity can be increased simply by increasing the delay τ d or by increasing
the phase detector constant K φ. This assumption is not completely correct. K φ
is dependent on the signal level provided by the delay line and cannot exceed a
device dependent maximum. This maximum is achieved when the phase
detector is operating in compression1. Increasing the delay τ d will reduce the
signal level out of the delay line often reducing the sensitivity of the phase
detector. Optimum system sensitivity is obtained in a trade-off between delay
and attenuation.
Sensitivity = KLVinLX(10)−LZ/20
Where KL is the phase detector efficiency, Vin is the signal voltage into the
delay line, LX (dB) is the sensitivity provided by the delay line and LZ is the
attenuation of the delay line. Taking the derivative with respect to the length L
to find the maximum of this equation results in
LZ = 8.7 dB of attenuation
The optimum sensitivity of a system with the phase detector operating out of
results from using a length of coaxial line that has 8.7 dB of attenuation.
One way to increase the sensitivity of the discriminator when the phase
detector is out of compression is to increase the signal into the delay line. This
can be accomplished with an RF amplifier before the signal splitter. The noise
of the RF amplifier will not degrade the measurement if the two-port noise of
the amplifier is much less than the noise of the DUT. However, some
attenuation may be needed in the signal path to the reference input to the
double-balanced mixer (phase detector) to protect it from excessive power
levels.
If the amplifier signal puts the phase detector into compression, K φ is at its
maximum and system sensitivity is now dependent on the length of the delay
τ d . For maximum sensitivity more delay can be added until the signal level out
of the delay line is 8.7 dB below the phase detector compression point.
The following example illustrates how to choose a delay line that provided the
optimum sensitivity given certain system parameters. (See Table 39 on
page 250).
1 Compression: The level of the output signal at which the gain of a device is reduced by a specific amount,
usually expressed in decibels (dB), as in the 1 dB compression point.
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Table 39 Choosing a delay line
.
Parameters
Source signal level
+7dBm
Mixer compression point
+3 dBm
Delay line attenuation at source carrier frequency
30 dB per 100 ns of Delay
Highest offset frequency of interest
5 MHz
1 To avoid having to correct for the sin(x)/x response choose the delay such
that:
A delay τ d of 32 ns or less can be used for offset frequencies out to 5 MHz.
2 The attenuation for 32 ns of delay is 30 dB x 32 ns/100 ns or 9.6 dB. The
total signal attenuation through the splitter and the delay line is 15.6 dB.
The signal level out of the delay line is –8.6 dBm which is 11.6 dB below the
phase detector compression point. Improved sensitivity can be achieved by
reducing the length of the delay or by using a more efficient line so that the
signal level out is –5.7 dBm or 8.7 dB below the mixer compression point.
Careful delay line selection is crucial for good system sensitivity. In cases
where the phase detector is operating out of compression, sensitivity can be
increased by using a low loss delay line, or by amplifying the signal from the
DUT. Because attenuation in coaxial lines is frequency dependent, optimum
system sensitivity will be achieved with different lengths of line for different
carrier frequencies.
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User’s Guide
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FM Discriminator Measurement
Examples
Introduction 252
FM Discriminator Measurement using Double-Sided Spur
Calibration 253
Discriminator Measurement using FM Rate and Deviation
Calibration 268
Agilent Technologies
251
10 FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
Introduction
These two measurement examples demonstrates the FM Discriminator
measurement technique for measuring the phase noise of a signal source using
two different calibration methods.
These measurement techniques work well for measuring free-running
oscillators that drift over a range that exceeds the tuning range limits of the
phase-locked-loop measurement technique. The Discriminator measurement is
also useful for measuring sources when a VCO reference source is not available
to provide adequate drift tracking.
The setup for a discriminator measurement uses a delay line to convert
frequency fluctuations to phase fluctuations and a phase shifter to set
quadrature at the phase detector.
Figure 180 FM Discriminator measurement setup
In the Discriminator measurement, the source is placed ahead of the power
splitter. One output of the splitter feeds a delay line with enough delay to
decorrelate the source noise. The delay line generates a phase shift
proportional to the frequency. The phase shift is measured in the phase
detector by comparing the delay output with the other output from the splitter.
The output of the phase detector is a voltage proportional to the frequency
fluctuations of the source.
For more information about FM Discrimination basics, refer to Chapter 9, “FM
Discriminator Fundamentals.
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FM Discriminator Measurement using Double-Sided Spur Calibration
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator (N5500A Option 001) has been
correctly set for the desired configuration, as shown in Table 41. Apply the input
signal when the connection diagram appears.
Required Equipment
Table 40 shows equipment required for this example in addition to the phase
noise test system and your DUT.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Table 40 Required Equipment for the FM Discriminator Measurement Example
Equipment
Quantity
Comments
Signal Generator
1
+19 dBm output level at tested carrier frequency.
Calibrated FM at a 20 kHz rate with 10 kHz Peak
Deviation.
Power Splitter
1
NARDA 30183
Delay Line
Phase Shifter
Delay (or length) adequate to decorrelate source
noise.
1
±180° phase shifter at lowest carrier frequency
tested.
Determining the discriminator (delay line) length
Perform the following steps to determine the minimum delay line length (τ)
Possible to provide an adequate noise to measure the source.
1 Determine the delay necessary to provide a discriminator noise floor that is
below the expected noise level of the DUT. Figure 181 on page 254 shows
the noise floor of the discriminator for given delay times (τ).
2 Determine the length of coax required to provide the necessary delay (τ).
(Eight feet of BNC cable will provide 12 ns of delay for this example.)
3 Determine the loss in the delay line. Verify that the signal source will be
able to provide a power level at the output of the delay line of between +5
and +17 ICBM. Be sure to take into account an additional 4 to 6 dB of loss in
the power splitter. (The loss across 8 feet of BNC cable specified in this
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example is negligible.) The test set Signal and Reference inputs requires +15
ICBM.
40
20
0
-20
-40
10
-60
10
-80
nS
0n
S
1μ
S
-100
-120
-140
-160
-180
.01
.1
1
E5505a_disc_noise_floor
01 Mar 04 rev 1
10
100
1K
10K
100K
L ( f ) = -[dBc/Hz] vs. f [Hz]
1M
10M 100M
Figure 181 Discriminator noise floor as a function of delay time
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “vco_dss.pnm.” See Figure 182.
.
Figure 182 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button.
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The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example have
been pre-stored in this file. Table 42 on page 266 lists the parameter data
that has been entered for the FM discriminator measurement example.
5 From the Define menu, navigate to the Measurement window. Using
Figure 183 as a guide:
a Choose the Type and Range tab from the Define Measurement window.
b From the Measurement Type pull-down in Type and Range tab, select
Absolute Phase Noise (using an FM discriminator).
Figure 183 Select measurement type
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6 Choose the Sources tab from the Define Measurement window.
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to
1.6 Gaze). Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency.
See Figure 184.
Figure 184 Enter frequencies in source tab
7 Choose the Cal tab from the Define Measurement window.
a Select Derive constant from double-sided spur as the calibration
method.
b Feed the output from a modulated calibration source into a spectrum
analyzer and measure the 1st modulation sideband frequency and power
relative to the carrier’s frequency and power. Enter the parameters in
the following step.
c Set the Know Spur Parameters Offset Frequency and Amplitude for
the spur you plan to use for calibration purposes.This calibration
method requires that you enter the offset and amplitude for a known
spur. See Figure 185 on page 257.
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Figure 185 Enter parameters into the call tab
8 Choose the Block Diagram tab from the Define Measurement window.
a From the Reference Source pull-down, select Manual.
b From the Phase Detector pull-down, select Automatic Detector
Selection. See Figure 186 on page 257.
Figure 186 Select parameters in the block diagram tab
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9 Choose the Graph tab from the Define Measurement window.
10 Enter a graph description of your choice. See Figure 187.
Figure 187 Select Graph Description on Graph Tab
11 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Setup considerations
Connecting cables
The best results will be obtained if semi-rigid coaxial cables are used to
connect the components used in the measurement; however, BNC cables have
been specified because they are more widely available. Using BNC cables may
degrade the close-in phase noise results and, while adequate for this example,
should not be used for an actual measurement on an unknown device unless
absolutely necessary.
Measurement environment
The low noise floors typical of these devices may require that special attention
be given to the measurement environment. The following precautions will help
ensure reliable test results:
• Filtering on power supply lines
• Protection from microphonics
• Shielding from air currents may be necessary.
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10
Beginning the measurement
From the View menu, choose Meter to select the quadrature meter. See
Figure 188.
e5505a_user_select_meter_view_menu2
25 Jun 04 rev 2
Figure 188 Select meter from view menu
12 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 189.
Figure 189 Selecting New Measurement
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10 FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
13 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 190 Confirm new measurement
14 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
pull-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 191.
TEST SET
N5500A
Figure 191 Setup diagram for the FM discrimination measurement example
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C AU T I O N
10
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics contained in
Table 41.
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which occurs at the connection
diagram.
Table 41 Test Set Signal Input Limits and Characteristics
Limits
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std.)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power
shall not exceed +23 dBm (+30 with Option
001)
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
+5 to +15 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to Figure 192 on page 262 for more information about system
interconnections:.
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Power
splitter
Phase
shifter
Calibration
source
DUT
Delay line
To test set rear panel
CHIRP input
Test set
N5500A
Test Set
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
STATUS
ACT ERR
INPUT
SIGNAL INPUT
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz -1600 MHz
0.01 Hz -100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
SIGNAL
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz -1600 MHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
Digitizer
output
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
PC
Digitizer
input
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
Display
e5505a_user_connect_diag_ex
25 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 192 Connect diagram example
Making the measurement
1 Press the Continue button when you are ready to make the measurement.
Calibrating the measurement
The calibration procedure determines the discriminator constant to use in the
transfer response by measuring the system response to a known FM signal.
Refer to Figure 193 on page 263 through Figure 197 on page 264.
NOTE
262
Note that the system must be operating in quadrature during calibration.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
10
2 Establish quadrature by adjusting the phase shifter until the meter
indicates 0 volts, then press Continue.
Figure 193 Calibration measurement (1 of 5)
e5505a_user cal_measure2
25 Jun 04 rev 2
Figure 194 Calibration measurement (2 of 5)
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3 Apply modulation to the carrier signal, then press Continue.
Figure 195 Calibration measurement (3 of 5)
4 Remove the modulation from the carrier and connect your DUT.
.
Figure 196 Calibration measurement (4 of 5)
5 The system can now run the measurement. At the appropriate point,
re-establish quadrature and continue the measurement.
.
Figure 197 Calibration measurement (5 of 5)
The segment data will be displayed on the computer screen as the data is taken
until all segments have been taken over the entire range you specified in the
Measurement definition’s Type and Range.
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When the measurement is complete
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help in evaluating your measurement results. (If the
test system has problems completing the measurement, it will inform you by
placing a message on the computer display.
Figure 198 shows a typical absolute measurement using FM discrimination.
Figure 198 Typical phase noise curve using double-sided spur calibration
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Table 42 Parameter data for the double-sided spur calibration example
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
• Absolute Phase Noise (using an FM
• Start Frequency
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
Swept Quality
2
3
4
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source is Connected to:
Detector Input
• Frequency
Cal Tab
FM Discriminator Constant
• Current Phase Detector
Constant
Know Spur Parameters
• Offset Frequency
• Amplitude
Calibration Source
• Frequency
• Power
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Phase Shifter
DUT in Path
Phase Detector
Adjust the Quadrature by
adjusting the
•
•
•
•
•
5
266
Test Set Tab
•
•
•
•
•
Discriminator)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
4
Normal
Fast
• 1.027 E + 9 Hz
• 19 dBm
• Test Set
• 1.027 E + 9 Hz
• Derive Constant from Double-Sided Spur
• 82.25 E-9
• 20 E3
• -12 dBc
• 1.027 E + 9 Hz
• 16 dBm
•
•
•
•
Manual
Manual
checked
Automatic Detector Selection
• phase shifter
The test set parameters do not apply to this
measurement example.
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FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
10
Table 42 Parameter data for the double-sided spur calibration example (continued)
Step
Parameters
Data
6
Downconverter Tab
The downconverter parameters do not apply to this
measurement example.
7
Graph Tab
• Title
• Graph Type
• X Scale Minimum
• X Scale Maximum
• Y Scale Minimum
• Y Scale Maximum
• Normalize trace data to a:
• Scale trace data to a new
carrier frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
• FM Discrim – 50 ns dly – 1.027GHz, +19 dBm out,
•
•
•
•
•
•
VCO,DSS
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
10 dBc/Hz
- 190 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
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Discriminator Measurement using FM Rate and Deviation Calibration
C AU T I O N
NOTE
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the input signal to
the signal input connector until the input attenuator (N5500A Option 001) has been
correctly set for the desired configuration, as show in Table 44 on page 277. Apply
the input signal when the connection diagram appears.
In order to use the FM rate and deviation calibration method you must have a signal source
that is calibrated for FM modulation rate and FM deviation parameters. All Agilent
Technologies signal generators meet this requirement.
Required equipment
Table 43 shows equipment is required for this example in addition the phase
noise test system and your DUT.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Table 43 Required equipment for the FM discriminator measurement example
Equipment
Quantity
Comments
Signal Generator
1
+19 dBm output level at tested carrier frequency.
Calibrated FM at a 20 kHz rate with 10 kHz Peak
Deviation.
Power Splitter
1
NARDA 30183
Delay Line
Phase Shifter
268
Delay (or length) adequate to decorrelate source
noise.
1
±180° phase shifter at lowest carrier frequency
tested.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
10
Determining the discriminator (delay line) length
Perform the following steps to determine the minimum delay line length (τ)
Possible to provide an adequate noise to measure the source.
1 Determine the delay necessary to provide a discriminator noise floor that is
below the expected noise level of the DUT. Figure 199 shows the noise floor
of the discriminator for given delay times (τ).
2 Determine the length of coax required to provide the necessary delay (τ).
(Eight feet of BNC cable will provide 12 ns of delay for this example.)
3 Determine the loss in the delay line. Verify that the signal source will be
able to provide a power level at the output of the delay line of between +5
and +17 ICBM. Be sure to take into account an additional 4 to 6 dB of loss in
the power splitter. (The loss across 8 feet of BNC cable specified in this
example is negligible.) The test set Signal and Reference inputs requires +15
ICBM.
.
40
20
0
-20
-40
10
-60
10
-80
nS
0n
S
1μ
S
-100
-120
-140
-160
-180
.01
.1
E5505a_disc_noise_floor
01 Mar 04 rev 1
1
10
100
1K
10K
100K
L ( f ) = -[dBc/Hz] vs. f [Hz]
1M
10M 100M
Figure 199 Discriminator noise floor as a function of delay time
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “vco_r&d.pnm.” See Figure 200.
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Figure 200 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button.
• The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example
have been pre-stored in this file. Table 45 on page 282 lists the
parameter data that has been entered for the FM discriminator
measurement example.
5 From the Define menu, choose Measurement; then choose the Type and
Range tab from the Define Measurement window.
6 From the Measurement Type pull-down, select Absolute Phase Noise
(using an FM discriminator). See Figure 201.
e5505a_user select_meas_type_absolute
25 Jun 04 rev 2
Figure 201 Select measurement type
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7 Choose the Sources tab from the Define Measurement window.
a Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT (5 MHz to 1.6 GHz).
Enter the same frequency for the detector input frequency. See
Figure 202.
.
Figure 202 Enter frequencies in Source tab
8 Choose the Cal tab from the Define Measurement window.
9 Select Derive constant from FM rate and deviation as the calibration
method.
10 Set the FM Rate to 20 kHz and FM Deviation to 10 kHz, which are the
recommended FM rate and deviation. See Figure 203 on page 272.
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.
Figure 203 Enter parameters into the Cal tab
11 Choose the Block Diagram tab from the Define Measurement window. See
Figure 204 on page 273.
a From the Reference Source pull-down, select Manual.
b From the Phase Detector pull-down, select Automatic Detector
Selection.
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Figure 204 Enter parameters in the Block Diagram tab
12 Choose the Graph tab from the Define Measurement window.
13 Enter a graph description of your choice. See Figure 205 on page 273.
Figure 205 Select graph description on Graph tab
14 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
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Setup considerations
Connecting cables
The best results will be obtained if semi-rigid coaxial cables are used to
connect the components used in the measurement; however, BNC cables have
been specified because they are more widely available. Using BNC cables may
degrade the close-in phase noise results and, while adequate for this example,
should not be used for an actual measurement on an unknown device unless
absolutely necessary.
Measurement environment
The low noise floors typical of these devices may require that special attention
be given to the measurement environment. The following precautions will help
ensure reliable test results:
• Filtering on power supply lines
• Protection from microphonics
• Shielding from air currents may be necessary.
274
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10
Beginning the measurement
1 From the View menu, choose Meter to select the quadrature meter. See
Figure 206.
e5505a_user_select_meter_view_menu2
25 Jun 04 rev 2
Figure 206 Select meter from the View menu
2 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement. See Figure 207.
Figure 207 Selecting New Measurement
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3 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 208 Confirm new measurement
4 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
pull-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 209.
TEST SET
N5500A
Figure 209 Setup diagram for the FM Discrimination measurement example
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C AU T I O N
10
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics contained in
Table 44 on page 277.
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which occurs at the connection
diagram.
Table 44 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std.)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power
shall not exceed +23 dBm
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
+15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
+7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
0 to +30 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
+5 to +15 dBm
Characteristics
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Refer to Figure 210 on page 278 for more information about system
interconnections.
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Power
splitter
Phase
shifter
Calibration
source
DUT
Delay line
To test set rear panel
CHIRP input
Test set
N5500A
Test Set
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
STATUS
ACT ERR
INPUT
SIGNAL INPUT
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz -1600 MHz
0.01 Hz -100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
SIGNAL
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz -1600 MHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
Digitizer
output
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
PC
Digitizer
input
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
Display
e5505a_user_connect_diag_ex
25 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 210 System connect diagram example
Making the measurement
1 Press the Continue button when you are ready to make the measurement.
Calibrating the measurement
• The calibration procedure determines the discriminator constant to use in
the transfer response by measuring the system response to a known FM
signal. Refer to Figure 211 on page 279 through Figure 215 on page 280.
NOTE
278
Note that the system must be operating in quadrature during calibration.
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FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
10
2 Establish quadrature by adjusting the phase shifter until the meter
indicates 0 volts, then press Continue.
Figure 211 Calibration measurement (1 of 5)
e5505a_user cal_measure2
25 Jun 04 rev 2
Figure 212 Calibration measurement (2 of 5)
3 Apply modulation to the carrier signal then press Continue.
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Figure 213 Calibration measurement (3 of 5)
4 Remove the modulation from the carrier and connect your DUT.
Figure 214 Calibration measurement (4 of 5)
5 The system can now run the measurement. At the appropriate point,
re-establish quadrature and continue the measurement.
.
Figure 215 Calibration measurement (5 of 5)
The segment data will be displayed on the computer screen as the data is taken
until all segments have been taken over the entire range you specified in the
Measurement definition’s Type and Range.
When the measurement is complete
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results for help in evaluating your measurement results. (If the
test system has problems completing the measurement, it will inform you by
placing a message on the computer display.
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Figure 216 on page 281 shows a typical absolute measurement using FM
discrimination.
Figure 216 Typical phase noise curve using rate and deviation calibration
Table 45 on page 282 contains the data stored in the parameter definition file.
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Table 45 Parameter data for the rate and deviation calibration example
Step
Parameters
Data
1
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
• Start Frequency
• Stop Frequency
• Minimum Number of Averages
FFT Quality
Swept Quality
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
4
282
Sources Tab
Carrier Source
• Frequency
• Power
• Carrier Source is Connected to:
Detector Input
• Frequency
Cal Tab
FM Discriminator Constant
• Current Phase Detector
Constant
Know Spur Parameters
• Offset Frequency
• Amplitude
Calibration Source
• Frequency
• Power
Frequency Modulation
• FM Rate
• FM Deviation
Block Diagram Tab
Carrier Source
Phase Shifter
DUT in Path
Phase Detector
Adjust the Quadrature by
adjusting the
Absolute Phase Noise (using an FM Discriminator)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
4
Normal
Fast
• 1.027 E + 9 Hz
• 19 dBm
• Test Set
• 1.027 E + 9 Hz
• Derive Constant from FM rate and deviation
• 82.25 E-9
• 1 E3
• -6 dBc
• 1.027 E + 9 Hz
• 16 dBm
• 20 E +3 Hz
• 10 E +3 Hz
Manual
Manual
checked
Automatic Detector Selection
phase shifter
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
5
Test Set Tab
The test set parameters do not apply to this
measurement example.
6
Downconverter Tab
The downconverter parameters do not apply to this
measurement example.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
10
Table 45 Parameter data for the rate and deviation calibration example (continued)
Step
Parameters
7
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Graph Tab
Title
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new
carrier frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
Data
• FM Discrim – 50 ns dly – 1.027GHz, +19 ICBM out,
•
•
•
•
•
•
VCO,R&D
Single-sideband Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
10 dBc/Hz
- 190 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
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10 FM Discriminator Measurement Examples
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E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
11
AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
AM-Noise Measurement Theory of Operation 286
Amplitude Noise Measurement 287
Calibration and Measurement General Guidelines 291
Method 1: User Entry of Phase Detector Constant 292
Method 2: Double-Sided Spur 296
Method 3: Single-Sided Spur 301
Agilent Technologies
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
AM-Noise Measurement Theory of Operation
Basic noise measurement
The E5500A phase noise measurement software uses the following process to
measure carrier noise by:
• Calibrating the noise detector sensitivity.
• Measuring the recovered baseband noise out of the detector.
• Calculating the noise around the signal by correcting the measured data by
the detector sensitivity.
• Displaying the measured noise data in the required format.
Given a detector calibration, the system looks at the signal out of the detector
as just a noise voltage which must be measured over a band of frequencies
regardless of the signal’s origin.
The detector calibration is accomplished by applying a known signal to the
detector. The known signal is then measured at baseband. Finally, the transfer
function between the known signal and the measured baseband signal is
calculated.
Phase noise measurement
In the case of small angle phase modulation (<0.1 rad), the modulation
sideband amplitude is constant with increasing modulation frequency. The
phase detector gain can thus be measured at a single offset frequency, and the
same constant will apply at all offset frequencies.
• In the case of calibrating with phase modulation sidebands, the system
requires the carrier-to-sideband ratio and the frequency offset of the
sidebands. The offset frequency is equal to the baseband modulation
frequency. The ratio of the baseband signal voltage to the
carrier-to-sideband ratio is the sensitivity of the detector.
• In the case of calibrating with a single-sided spur, it can be shown that a
single-sided spur is equal to a PM signal plus an AM signal. The modulation
sidebands for both are 6 dB below the original single-sided spur. Since the
phase detector attenuates the AM by more than 30 dB, the calibration
constant can be measured as in the previous case, but with an additional
6 dB correction factor.
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Amplitude Noise Measurement
The level of amplitude modulation sidebands is also constant with increasing
modulation frequency. The AM detector gain can thus be measured at a single
offset frequency and the same constant will apply at all offset frequencies.
Replacing the phase detector with an AM detector, the AM noise measurement
can be calibrated in the same way as PM noise measurement, except the phase
modulation must be replaced with amplitude modulation.
The AM noise measurement is a characterization of a source. The residual AM
noise of a DUT can only be made by using a source with lower AM noise, then
subtracting that AM noise from the measured output noise of the DUT. The
noise floor of this technique is the noise floor of the source.
AM noise measurement block diagrams
Test set
DUT
Signal
input
Figure 217 AM noise system with N5500A opt 001
Test set
DUT
AM detector
Noise
input
Figure 218 AM noise system with external detector
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
Test set
DUT
AM detector
Option K21
Noise
input
Figure 219 AM Noise system with 70429A Opt K21 AM detector
Microwave
downconverter
DUT
Signal
input
Test set
AM noise
output
Noise
input
Figure 220 AM noise system with N5507A downconverter
AM detector
K21
polarity
switch
RF
input
Diode
detector
E5505a_am_detector_schemo
01 Mar 04 rev 1
10n
511
AM
detector
output
2600 μF
at 25V
Figure 221 AM detector schematic
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AM detector specifications
Detector type low barrier Schottky diode
Carrier frequency range 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
Maximum input power +23 dBm
Minimum input power 0 dBm
Output bandwidth 1 Hz to 40 MHz
AM detector considerations
C AU T I O N
The phase noise test set must be DC blocked when using its Noise Input or
internal AM detector. The test set will not tolerate more than ± 2 mV DC Input
without overloading the LNA. A DC block must be connected in series after the AM
Detector to remove the DC component. The 70429A Option K21 is designed
specifically for this purpose or the internal DC blocking filter in either the N5500A
or N5507A may be used.
• The AM detector consists of an Agilent 33330C Low-Barrier Schottky Diode
Detector and an AM detector filter (Agilent 70429A K21).
• The detector, for example, is an 33330C Low-Barrier Schottky-Diode
Detector. The Schottky detectors will handle more power than the point
contact detectors, and are equally as sensitive and quiet.
• The AM detector output blocking capacitor in the 70429A Option K21,
N5500A Option 001, or N5507A prevents the DC voltage component of the
demodulated signal from saturating the system’s low noise amplifier (LNA).
The value of this capacitor sets the lower frequency limit of the
demodulated output.
• Carrier feedthrough in the detector may be excessive for frequencies below
a few hundred megahertz. The LNA is protected from saturation by the
internal filters used to absorb phase detector feedthrough and unwanted
mixer products. Table 46 shows carrier frequencies with corresponding
offset frequencies.
Table 46 Maximum carrier offset frequency
Carrier Frequency
Offset Frequency
≥250 κΗz
100 MHz
≥50 MHz
20 MHz
≥5 MHz
2 MHz
≥500 kHz
200 kHz
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
Table 46 Maximum carrier offset frequency
Carrier Frequency
Offset Frequency
≥50 kHz
20 kHz
• The AC load on the detector is 50 Ω, set by the input impedance of the LNA
in the test system. The 50 ohm load increases the detector bandwidth up to
than 100 MHz.
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Calibration and Measurement General Guidelines
NOTE
Read This The following general guidelines should be considered when setting up and
making an AM-noise measurement
• The AM detector must be well shielded from external noise especially 60 Hz
noise. The components between the diode detector and the test system
should be packaged in a metal box to prevent RFI interference.
NOTE
The internal detectors in the N5500A Option 001 and N5507A, along with the 70429A
Option K21 provide this level of protection.
Also, the AM detector should be connected directly to the test system if
possible, to minimize ground loops. If the AM detector and test system must
be separated, semi-rigid cable should be used to keep the shield resistance
to a minimum.
• Although AM noise measurements are less vulnerable than residual
phase-noise measurements to noise induced by vibration and temperature
fluctuation, care should be taken to ensure that all connections are tight
and that all cables are electrically sound.
• The output voltage monitor on the AM detector must be disconnected from
digital voltmeters or other noisy monitoring equipment before noise
measurement data is taken.
1
• The --- noise floor of the detector may degrade as power increases above +15
f
1
dBm. Noise in the --- region of the detector is best measured with about +10
f
dBm of drive level. The noise floor is best measured with about +20 dBm of
drive level.
• An amplifier must be used in cases where the signal level out of the DUT is
too small to drive the AM detector or is inadequate to produce a low enough
measurement noise floor. In this case the amplifier should have the
following characteristics.
• It should have the lowest possible noise figure, and the greatest possible
dynamic range.
• The signal level must be kept as high as possible at all points in the test
setup to avoid noise floor degradation.
• It should have only enough gain to get the required signal levels. Excess gain
leads to amplifiers operating in gain compression, increasing their
likelihood of suppressing the AM noise to be measured.
• The amplifier’s sensitivity to power supply noise and the supply noise itself
must both be minimized.
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
Method 1: User Entry of Phase Detector Constant
Method 1, example 1
Advantages
• Easy method of calibrating the measurement system
• Will measure DUT without modulation capability.
• Requires only an RF power meter to measure drive levels into the AM
detector.
• Fastest method of calibration. If the same power levels are always at the AM
detector, as in the case of leveled outputs, the AM detector sensitivity will
always be essentially the same.
• Super-quick method of estimating the equivalent phase detector constant.
Disadvantages
• It is the least accurate of the calibration methods.
• It does not take into account the amount of power at harmonics of the
signal.
Procedure
1 Using information shown in Figure 222 and Figure 223 on page 293,
Connect the circuit and tighten all connections. If the N5500A Option 001
or N5507A is available, use one of the connection diagrams described in
Figure 217 on page 287.
Test set
DUT
AM detector
Noise
input
Figure 222 Phase detector constant AM noise setup (method1, example 1)
2 Measure the power which will be applied to the AM detector (see Figure 223
on page 293). It must be between 0 and +23 dBm.
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DUT
11
Power meter
or spectrum
analyzer
Figure 223 AM noise calibration setup
3 Locate the drive level on the AM sensitivity graph (Figure 224), and enter
the data.
4 Measure the noise data and interpret the results. The measured data will be
plotted as single-sideband AM noise in dBc/Hz.
NOTE
The quadrature meter should be at zero volts due to the blocking capacitor at the AM
detector’s output.
e5505a_user_AM_cal.ai
rev2 10/24/03
Figure 224 AM detector sensitivity graph
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
Method 1, example 2
Advantages
• Easy method of calibrating the measurement system.
• Will measure DUT without modulation capability.
• Requires little additional equipment: only a voltmeter or an oscilloscope.
• Fastest method of calibration. If the same power levels are always at the AM
detector, as in the case of leveled outputs, the AM detector sensitivity will
always be essentially the same.
• Measures the AM detector gain in the actual measurement configuration.
Super-quick method of estimating the equivalent phase detector constant.
Disadvantages
• Has only moderate accuracy compared to the other calibration methods.
Procedure
1 Using Figure 225 and Figure 226, connect circuit and tighten all
connections. If the N5500A Option 001 or N5507A is available, use one of
the connection diagrams described in “AM noise measurement block
diagrams" on page 287.
2 Measure the power which will be applied to the AM detector. It must be
between 0 and +23 dBm.
Test set
DUT
AM detector
Noise
input
Figure 225 Phase detector constant AM noise setup (method 1, example 2)
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Test set
DUT
AM detector
Noise
input
Diode voltage
monitor output
E5505a_mod_sideband_cal
02 Mar 04 rev 1
DVM or
oscilloscope
Figure 226 Modulation sideband calibration setup
3 Measure the monitor output voltage on the AM detector with an
oscilloscope or voltmeter. Locate the diode detector’s DC voltage along the
bottom of the AM sensitivity graph (Figure 224). Moving up to the diagonal
calibration line and over, the equivalent phase detector constant can then
be read from the left side of the graph. The measured data will be plotted as
single-sideband AM noise in dBc/Hz.
4 Measure noise data and interpret the results.
NOTE
The quadrature meter should be at zero volts due to the blocking capacitor at the AM
detector’s output.
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
Method 2: Double-Sided Spur
Method 2, example 1
Advantages
• Requires only one RF source (DUT)
• Calibration is done under actual measurement conditions so all
non-linearities and harmonics of the AM detector are calibrated out. The
double-sided spur method and the single-sided-spur method are the two
most accurate methods for this reason.
Disadvantages
• Required that the DUT have adjustable AM which may also be turned off.
• Requires the AM of the DUT to be extremely accurate; otherwise a
modulation analyzer, for manual measurement of AM sidebands is required.
Procedure
1 Connect circuit as shown in Figure 227, and tighten all connections. If the
N5500A Option 001 or N5507A is available, use one of the connection
diagrams described in “AM noise measurement block diagrams" on
page 287.
Test set
DUT
AM detector
Noise
input
Figure 227 Double-Sided spur AM noise setup (method 2, example 1)
2 Measure the power which will be applied to the AM detector. It must be
between 0 and +23 dBm.
3 Measure the carrier-to-sideband ratio of the AM at the AM detector’s input
with an RF spectrum analyzer or modulation analyzer (Figure 228 on
page 297). The source should be adjusted such that the sidebands are
between –30 and –60 dB below the carrier with a modulation rate between
10 Hz and 20 MHz.
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NOTE
11
C for AM is:
The carrier-to-sideband ratio ---sb
C
percentAM
----- = 20 log  ----------------------------- = 6dB


100
sb
Modulation
analyzer
Source
E5505a_meas_car_side_ratio
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 228 Measuring the carrier-to-sideband ratio
4 Reconnect the AM detector and enter the carrier-to-sideband ratio and
modulation frequency.
5 Measure the AM detector calibration constant (Figure 229).
.
Test set
DUT with AM
AM detector
Noise
input
E5505a_meas_cal_constant
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 229 Measuring the calibration constant
6 Turn off AM.
7 Measure noise data and interpret the results.
NOTE
The quadrature meter should be at zero volts due to the blocking capacitor at the AM
detector’s output.
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
Method 2, example 2
Advantages
• Will measure source without modulation capability
• Calibration is done under actual measurement conditions so all
non-linearities and harmonics of the AM detector are calibrated out. The
double-sided spur method and the single-sided-spur method are the two
most accurate methods for this reason.
Disadvantages
• Requires a second RF source with very accurate AM modulation and output
power sufficient to match the DUT. If the AM modulation is not very
accurate, a modulation analyzer must be used to make manual
measurement of the AM sidebands.
Procedure
1 Connect circuit as shown in Figure 230, and tighten all connections. If the
N5500A Option 001 or N5507A is available, use one of the connection
diagrams described in “AM noise measurement block diagrams" on
page 287.
Test set
DUT
AM detector
Noise
input
Figure 230 Double-sided spur AM noise setup (method 2, example 2)
2 Measure the power which will be applied to the AM detector (Figure 231). It
must be between 0 and +23 dBm.
DUT
Power meter
or RF spectrum
analyzer
Figure 231 Measuring power at the am detector
3 Using a source with AM, set its output power equal to the power measured
in step 2. The source should be adjusted such that the sidebands are
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11
between –30 and –60 dB below the carrier with a modulation rate between
10 Hz and 20 MHz.
NOTE
C for AM is:
The carrier-to-sideband ratio ---sb
C
percentAM
---- = 20 log  ----------------------------- = 6dB


100
b
To check the AM performance of the source, measure the carrier-to-sideband
ratio of the AM at the source output with a modulation analyzer. See
Figure 232.
Modulation
analyzer
Source
E5505a_meas_car_side_ratio
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 232 Measuring carrier-to-sideband ratio
4 Enter the carrier-to-sideband ratio and offset frequency, then measure the
calibration constant. See Figure 233.
Test set
DUT with AM
AM detector
Noise
input
E5505a_meas_cal_constant
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 233 Measuring the calibration constant
5 Remove the AM source and reconnect the DUT.
6 Measure noise data and interpret the results.
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
NOTE
300
The quadrature meter should be at zero volts due to the blocking capacitor at the AM
detector’s output.
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AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
11
Method 3: Single-Sided Spur
Advantages
• Will measure source without modulation capability.
• Calibration is done under actual measurement conditions so all
non-linearities and harmonics of the AM detector are calibrated out. The
double-sided spur method and the single-sided-spur method are the two
most accurate methods for this reason.
Disadvantages
• Requires 2 RF sources, which must be between 10 Hz and 40 MHz apart in
frequency.
• Requires an RF spectrum analyzer for manual measurement of the
signal-to-spur ratio and spur offset.
Procedure
1 Connect circuit as shown in Figure 234, and tighten all connections. If the
N5500A Option 001 or N5507A is available, use one of the connection
diagrams described in “AM noise measurement block diagrams" on
page 287.
Test set
DUT
-20 dB
coupler
AM detector
Noise
input
-10 dB
attenuator
50Ω
E5505a_am_noise_meas_single
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 234 AM noise measurement setup using single-sided spur
2 Measure the power which will be applied to the AM detector. It must be
between 0 and +23 dBm.
3 Measure the carrier-to-single-sided-spur ratio and the spur offset at the
input to the AM detector with an RF spectrum analyzer. See Figure 235 on
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11 AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals
page 302. The spur should be adjusted such that it is between –30 and –60
dBc, with a carrier offset of 10 Hz to 20 MHz.
-20 dB coupler
DUT
RF spectrum
analyzer
-10 dB
atten
Calibration
source
E5505a_meas_relative_spur
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 235 Measuring relative spur level
4 Reconnect the AM detector and measure the detector sensitivity. See
Figure 236.
Test set
-20 dB
coupler
DUT
Calibration
source
AM detector
Noise
input
-10 dB
attenuator
E5505a_meas_detector_sen
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 236 Measuring detector sensitivity
5 Turn off the spur source output.
6 Measure noise data and interpret the results.
NOTE
302
The quadrature meter should be at zero volts due to the blocking capacitor at the AM
detector’s output.
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E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
12
AM Noise Measurement Examples
AM Noise with N5500A Option 001 304
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303
12 AM Noise Measurement Examples
AM Noise with N5500A Option 001
This example demonstrates the AM noise measurement of an 8662A signal
generator using the AM detector in the N5500A Option 001 phase noise test
set. For more information about various calibration techniques, refer to
Chapter 11, “AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals.
This measurement uses the double sided spur calibration method.
The measurement of a source with amplitude modulation capability is among
the simplest of the AM noise measurements. The modulation sidebands used to
calibrate the AM detector are generated by the DUT. Required Equipment
C AU T I O N
To prevent damage to the test set’s components, do not apply the signal input
connector until the input attenuator has been correctly set for the desired
configuration, as show in Table 47 on page 311. Apply the input signal when the
connection diagram appears
Required equipment
This measurement requires an 8644B in addition to the phase noise test
system and your DUT. You also need the coaxial cables and adapters necessary
to connect the DUT and reference source to the test set.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Figure 237 shows the configuration used for an AM noise measurement.
Test set
DUT
Signal
input
Figure 237 AM noise measurement configuration
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
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12
3 In the File Name box, choose “AM_noise_1ghz_8644b.pnm.” See
Figure 238.
Figure 238 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button.
• The appropriate measurement definition parameters for this example
have been pre-stored in this file. Table 48 on page 313 lists the
parameter data that has been entered for this measurement example.
NOTE
The amplitude of a source under system control, for an AM noise measurement, will
automatically be set to +10 dBm. If any other amplitude is desired, the source should be
placed under manual control. All other measurements set the source to +16 dBm
automatically.
5 From the Define menu, choose Measurement; then choose the Type and
Range tab from the Define Measurement window.
6 From the Measurement Type pull-down, select AM Noise. See Figure 239 on
page 306
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12 AM Noise Measurement Examples
.
e5505a_user_nav_AM_noise
27 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 239 Navigate to AM noise
7 Choose the Sources tab from the Define Measurement window.
8 Enter the carrier (center) frequency of your DUT. Enter the same frequency
for the detector input frequency. See Figure 240 on page 306.
Figure 240 Enter Frequencies in Source Tab
9 Choose the Cal tab from the Define Measurement window.
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10 Select Use automatic internal self-calibration as the calibration method.
See Figure 241. For more information about various calibration techniques,
refer to Chapter 11, “AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals.
Figure 241 Enter parameters into the cal tab
11 Choose the Block Diagram tab from the Define Measurement window.
12 From the Phase Detector pull-down, select AM Detector. See Figure 242.
5505
l
blk d
Figure 242 Select parameters in the block diagram tab
13 Choose the Graph tab from the Define Measurement window.
14 Enter a graph description of your choice. See Figure 243.
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12 AM Noise Measurement Examples
Figure 243 Select graph description on graph tab
15 When you have completed these operations, click the Close button.
Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement See Figure 244.
.
Figure 244 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
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Figure 245 Confirm measurement dialog box
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
drop-down arrow and select your hardware configuration from the list. See
Figure 246 on page 309.
0
di
AM
i
Figure 246 Connect diagram for the AM noise measurement
4 Connect your DUT and reference sources to the test set at this time.
Confirm your connections as shown in the connect diagram.
• The input attenuator (Option 001 only) is now correctly configured based
on your measurement definition.
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12 AM Noise Measurement Examples
C AU T I O N
The test set’s signal input is subject to the limits and characteristics in Table 47 on
page 311.
To prevent damage to the test set’s hardware components, do not apply the input
signal to the test set’s signal input connector until the input attenuator (Option
001) has been set by the phase noise software, which will occur when the
connection diagram appears.
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Table 47 Test set signal input limits and characteristics
Limits
Frequency
• 50 kHz to 1.6 GHz (Std.)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 001)
• 50 kHz to 26.5 GHz (Option 201)
Maximum Signal Input Power
Sum of the reference and signal input power
shall not exceed +23 dBm
At Attenuator Output, Operating Level Range:
• RF Phase Detectors
• 0 to +23 dBm (Signal Input)
• +15 to +23 dBm (Reference Input)
• Microwave Phase Detectors
• 0 to +5 dBm (Signal Input)
• +7 to +10 dBm (Reference Input)
• Internal AM Detector
0 to +20 dBm
Downconverters:
• Agilent N5502A/70422A
+5 to +15 dBm
• Agilent N5507A/70427A
0 to +30 dBm
Characteristics
Input Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AM Noise
DC coupled to 50 Ω load
Figure 247 shows the system interconnections.
DUT
To test set rear panel
CHIRP input
Test set
Opt. 001
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm + ATTEN
1.2 GHz-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm + ATTEN
+30 dBm MAX WITH
ATTENUATOR
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
INPUT
NOISE
Downconverter
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
50 kHz - 1600 MHz
1.2 - 26.5 GHz
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
1.2-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz - 26.5 GHz
Downconverter
N5502A
N5500A Opt 001
Test Set
0.01 Hz - 100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
5 MHz-1 GHz
+10 dBm
1 GHz-18 GHz
+15 dBm
Digitizer
output
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
FROM TEST SET
FROM
DOWNCONVERTER
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
STATUS
ACT ERR
INPUT
OUTPUT
RF ANALYZER
+5 +15 dBm
5 MHz -18 GHz
+7 dBm MIN
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
SIGNAL
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
10 VOLTS MAX
IF
AUX LO
5 -1500 MHz
1.8-18 GHz
TO
DOWNCONVERTER
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
<100 kHz
POWER
<100 MHz
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
PC
Digitizer
input
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
Display
e5505a_user_sys_interconnect_dia
27 Jun 04 rev 1
Figure 247 Connect diagram example
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12 AM Noise Measurement Examples
Making the measurement
5 Press the Continue button when you are ready to make the measurement.
• The system is now ready to make the measurement. The measurement
results are updated on the computer screen after each frequency segment
has been measured.
For more information about various calibration techniques, refer to
Chapter 11, “AM Noise Measurement Fundamentals.
When the measurement is complete
When the measurement is complete, refer to Chapter 14, “Evaluating Your
Measurement Results”for help with the results. Figure 248 shows a typical AM
noise curve.
Figure 248 Typical AM noise curve
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Table 48 Parameter data for the AM noise using an N5500A Option 001
Step
1
Parameters
Data
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Averages
FFT Quality
Swept Quality
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
Sources Tab
• Carrier Source Frequency
• Carrier Source Power
• Carrier Source Output is
connected to:
• Detector Input Frequency
3
Cal Tab
Detector Constant
Known Spur Parameters
Offset Frequency
Amplitude
•
•
•
•
4
5
Block Diagram Tab
• Source
• AM Detector
• Down Converter
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
LNA Gain
Detector Maximum Input Levels
Microwave Phase Detector
RF Phase Detector
AM Detector
• Ignore out-of-lock conditions
• Pulsed Carrier
• DC Block
• Analyzer View
• PLL Integrator Attenuation
•
•
•
•
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Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Downconverter Tab
AM Noise
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
4
Fast
Fast
• 600 E + 6 Hz
• 20 dBm
• Test Set
• 600 E +6 Hz
• Use internal automatic self-calibration
• 1 Hz
• -130 dBc
• Manual
• Test Set AM Detector
• None
• Auto checked
• Auto checked
• Auto Gain
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0 dBm
0 dBm
0 dBm
Not checked
Not checked
Not checked
Baseband
0.00 dBm
Does not apply to this measurement example.
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12 AM Noise Measurement Examples
Table 48 Parameter data for the AM noise using an N5500A Option 001 (continued)
Step
7
Parameters
Data
Graph Tab
Title
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new carrier
frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
AM Noise Measurement of an RF Signal
AM Noise (dBc/Hz)
10 Hz
100E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
- 180 dBc/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Baseband Noise Measurement
Examples
Baseband Noise with Test Set Measurement Example 316
Baseband Noise without Test Set Measurement Example 320
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13 Baseband Noise Measurement Examples
Baseband Noise with Test Set Measurement Example
This measurement example will help you measure the noise voltage of a
source.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, select Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “BBnoise_with_testset.pnm.” See Figure 249
Figure 249 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button. The appropriate measurement definition
parameters for this example have been pre-stored in this file. (Table 49 on
page 319) lists the parameter data that has been entered for this
measurement example.
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Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement See Figure 250.
.
Figure 250 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 251 Confirm measurement dialog box
3 When the Connect Diagram dialog box appears, click on the hardware
drop-down arrow and select “N5500A option 001 test set only”
configuration from the list. See Figure 252 on page 318.
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13 Baseband Noise Measurement Examples
Figure 252 Connect diagram dialog box
Making the measurement
1 Press Continue.
• Figure 253 shows a typical phase noise curve for a baseband noise
measurement using a test set.
Figure 253 Typical phase noise curve for a baseband using a test set measurement.
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Table 49 lists the parameter data used for this measurement example.
Table 49 Parameter data for the baseband using a test set measurement
Step
1
Parameters
Data
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Averages
Quality
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
4
Cal Tab
• Gain preceding noise input
Block Diagram Tab
• Test Set Noise Input
Test Set Tab
Input Attenuation
LNA Low Pass Filter
LNA Gain
DC Block
PLL Integrator Attenuation
•
•
•
•
•
0 dB
20 MHz (Auto checked)
Auto Gain (Minimum Auto Gain –14 dB)
Not checked
0 dBm
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Baseband using the N5500A test set
Baseband Noise (dBV)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
–200 dBV/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
Graph Tab
Title
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to
Scale trace data to a new carrier
frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
• 0 dB
• Noise Source
•
•
•
•
•
5
Baseband Noise (using a test set)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
4
Fast
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13 Baseband Noise Measurement Examples
Baseband Noise without Test Set Measurement Example
This measurement example will help you measure the noise voltage of a
source.
NOTE
To ensure accurate measurements allow the DUT and measurement equipment to warm
up at least 30 minutes before making the noise measurement.
Defining the measurement
1 From the File menu, choose Open.
2 If necessary, choose the drive or directory where the file you want is stored.
3 In the File Name box, choose “BBnoise_without_testset_89410.pnm.”
Figure 254 Select the parameters definition file
4 Click the Open button. The appropriate measurement definition
parameters for this example have been pre-stored in this file. Table 50 on
page 323 lists the parameter data in this file.
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Beginning the measurement
1 From the Measurement menu, choose New Measurement See Figure 255.
.
Figure 255 Selecting a new measurement
2 When the Do you want to perform a New Calibration and Measurement?
prompt appears, click Yes.
Figure 256 Confirm measurement dialog box
3 The Instrument Connection dialog box appears. (See Figure 258 on
page 322.) At this time, connect your DUT and an FFT analyzer with the
system as shown in Figure 257 on page 321.
Figure 257 Connect diagram for baseband without test set measurement
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13 Baseband Noise Measurement Examples
Figure 258 Instrument connection dialog box
Making the measurement
4 Press the Continue button. (There is no need to select a connection
diagram from the drop-down list. The instrument connections for a
baseband-noise-without-test-set measurement is not represented in the
diagrams.)
• Figure 259 on page 322 shows a typical phase noise curve for a baseband
noise measurement without using a test set.
• Table 50 on page 323 lists the parameter data for this measurement
example.
Figure 259 Typical curve for a baseband without test set measurement.
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Table 50 Parameter data for the baseband without using a test set measurement
Step
1
Parameters
Data
Type and Range Tab
Measurement Type
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Averages
Quality
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
3
5
Cal Tab
• Gain preceding noise input
Block Diagram Tab
• Noise Source
Graph Tab
Title
Graph Type
X Scale Minimum
X Scale Maximum
Y Scale Minimum
Y Scale Maximum
Normalize trace data to a:
Scale trace data to a new carrier
frequency of:
• Shift trace data DOWN by:
• Trace Smoothing Amount
• Power present at input of DUT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Baseband Noise (without using a test set)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
4
Normal
• 0 dB
• Test Set Noise Input
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Baseband Noise without using a Test Set
Baseband (dBV)
10 Hz
100 E + 6 Hz
0 dBc/Hz
–200 dBV/Hz
1 Hz bandwidth
•
•
•
•
1 times the current carrier frequency
0 dB
0
0 dB
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Evaluating Your Measurement Results
Evaluating the Results 326
Gathering More Data 330
Outputting the Results 331
Graph of Results 332
Omit Spurs 334
Problem Solving 337
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14 Evaluating Your Measurement Results
Evaluating the Results
This chapter contains information to help you evaluate and output the results
of your noise measurements. The purpose of the evaluation is to verify that the
noise graph accurately represents the noise characteristics of your DUT. To
use the information in this chapter, you should have completed your noise
measurement, and the computer should be displaying a graph of its
measurement results. Storing the measurement results in the Result File is
recommended for each measurement.
These steps provide an overview of the evaluation process.
• Look for obvious problems on the graph such as discontinuity (breaks).
• Compare the graph against known or expected data.
• If necessary, gather additional data about the noise characteristics of the
DUT.
Looking for obvious problems
Some obvious problems on a graph are as follows:
• Discontinuities or breaks in the graph.
• A higher than expected noise level.
• Spurs that you cannot account for.
• Noise that exceeds the small angle criterion line on a L(f) graph).
Figure 260 provides a graphical example of these problems. If one or more of
these problems appear on your graph, refer to the Problem Solving section for
recommended actions.
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40
14
High small
angle noise
20
0
Spurs
-20
-40
-60
High noise
level
-80
-100
Breaks
-120
-140
-160
1
10
100
E5505a_noise_curve_problems
02 Mar 04 rev 1
1K
10K
100K
L ( f ) = -[dBc/Hz] vs. f [Hz]
1M
10M 40M
Figure 260 Noise plot showing obvious problems
Comparing against expected data
If none of the problems listed appears on your graph, there still may be
problems or uncertainties that are not obvious at first glance. These
uncertainties can be evaluated by comparing your measurement results
against the following data:
• The noise characteristics expected for your DUT.
• The noise floor and accuracy specifications of the phase noise test system.
• The noise characteristics of the signal source used as the reference source.
The device under test
If you are testing a product for which published specifications exist, compare
the measurement results against the noise and spur characteristics specified
for the product. If the product is operating correctly, the noise graph provided
by the phase noise system should be within the noise limits specified for the
product.
If the device is a prototype or breadboard circuit, it may be possible to
estimate its general noise characteristics using the characteristics of a similar
type of circuit operating in a similar manner.
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The reference source
It is important that you know the noise and spur characteristics of your
reference source when you are making phase noise measurements. (The noise
measurement results provided when using this technique reflect the sum of all
contributing noise sources in the system.)
The best way to determine the noise characteristics of the reference source is
to measure them. If three comparable sources are available, the Three Source
Comparison technique can be used to determine the absolute noise level of
each of the three sources. If you are using as your reference source, a source
for which published specifications exist, compare your measurement results
against the noise and spur characteristics specified for that source.
Increase due to
reference noise (dB)
If you have obtained an actual (measured) noise curve for the reference source
you are using, you can use it to determine if your measurement results have
been increased by the noise of the reference source. To do this, determine the
difference (in dB) between the level of the results graph and that of the
reference source. Then use the graph shown in Figure 261 to determine if the
measurement results need to be decreased to reflect the actual noise level of
the DUT.
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Amount measured level exceeds reference level (dB)
Figure 261 Compensation for added reference source noise
For example, applying to the graph the 7 dB difference in noise levels at
10 kHz, reveals that the measured results should be decreased by about 1 dB at
10 kHz to reflect the actual noise of the DUT. See Figure 262 on page 329.
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14
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
7 dB difference
Measured reference
at 10 kHz
source noise
Measurement
results
-140
-160
10
E5505a_meas_results_ref_source
02 Mar 04 rev 1
100
1K
L ( f ) = -[dBc/Hz] vs. f [Hz]
10K
100K
Figure 262 Measurement results and reference source noise
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Gathering More Data
Repeating the measurement
Making phase noise measurements is often an iterative process. The
information derived from the first measurement will sometimes indicate that
changes to the measurement setup are necessary for measuring a particular
device. When you make changes to the measurement setup (such as trying a
different signal source, shortening cables, or any other action recommended in
“Problem Solving" on page 337), repeating the measurement after each change
allows you to check the effect that the change has had on the total noise graph.
To repeat a measurement, on the Measurement menu, click Repeat
Measurement. See Figure 263.
Figure 263 Repeating a measurement
Doing more research
If you are still uncertain about the validity of the measurement results, it may
be necessary to do further research to find other validating data for your
measurement. Additional information (such as typical noise curves for devices
similar to the DUT or data sheets for components used in the device) can often
provide insights into the expected performance of the DUT.
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Outputting the Results
To generate a printed hardcopy of your test results, you must have a printer
connected to the computer.
Using a printer
To print the phase noise graph along with the parameter summary data, select
File/Print on the menu.
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Graph of Results
Use the Graph of Results to display and evaluate your measurement results.
The Graph of Results screen is automatically displayed as a measurement is
being made. However, you can also access the Graph of Results functions from
the main graph menu. You can load a result file using the File/System
functions, and then display the results.
The following functions are available to help you evaluate your results:
• “Marker" on page 332
• “Omit Spurs" on page 334
• “Parameter summary" on page 335
Marker
The marker function allows you to display the exact frequency and amplitude
of any point on the results graph. To access the marker function:
1 On the View menu, click Markers. See Figure 264.
e5505a_user_nav_markers
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 264 Navigate to marker
2 To remove the highlighted marker, click the Delete button. You may add as
many as nine markers. See Figure 265 on page 333.
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Figure 265 Add and delete markers
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14 Evaluating Your Measurement Results
Omit Spurs
Omit Spurs plots the currently loaded results without displaying any spurs
that may be present.
1 On the View menu, click Display Preferences. See Figure 266.
e5505a_user_nav_display_pref
24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 266 Select display preferences
2 In the Display Preferences dialog box, uncheck Spurs. See Figure 267.
Click OK.
Figure 267 Uncheck spurs
3 The Graph will be displayed without spurs (Figure 268 on page 335). To
re-display the spurs, check Spurs in the Display Preferences dialog box.
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Figure 268 Graph without spurs
Parameter summary
The Parameter Summary function allows you to quickly review the
measurement parameter entries that were used for this measurement. The
parameter summary data is included when you print the graph.
1 On the View menu, click Parameter Summary (Figure 269).
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24 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 269 Navigate to parameter summary
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14 Evaluating Your Measurement Results
2 The Parameter Summary Notepad dialog box appears (Figure 270). The
data can be printed or changed using standard Notepad functionality.
Figure 270 Parameter summary notepad
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Problem Solving
Table 51 List of topics that discuss problem solving in this chapter
If you need to know:
Refer to:
What to do about breaks in the noise graph
Discontinuity in the Graph
How to verify a noise level that is higher than expected
High Noise Level
How to verify unexpected spurs on the graph
Spurs on the Graph
How to interpret noise above the small angle line
Small Angle Line
Discontinuity in the graph
Because noise distribution is continuous, a break in the graph is evidence of a
measurement problem. Discontinuity in the graph will normally appear at the
sweep-segment connections.
Table 52 identifies the circumstances that can cause discontinuity in the
graph.
Table 52 Potential causes of discontinuity in the graph
Circumstance
Description
Recommended Action
Break between segments where
closely spaced spurs are resolved in
one segment but not in the next.
Closely spaced spurs that are
resolved in one sweep-segment but
not in the next can cause an
apparent jump in the noise where
they are not resolved.
Use the Real-time Monitor to evaluate the
noise spectrum at the break frequency on
the graph. To eliminate the break in the
graph, you may find it necessary to change
the Sweep-Segment Ranges so that the
measurement resolution remains constant
over the frequency range where the spurs
are located.
Erratic Noise: One or more
segments out of line with the rest of
the graph.
This occurs when the noise level of
the source being used is
inconsistent over time. The
time-varying noise level causes the
overall noise present when one
segment is being measured to differ
from the level present during the
period when the next segment is
measured.
Repeat the noise measurement several
times for the segment that does not match
the rest of the graph, and check for a
change in its overall noise level.
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Table 52 Potential causes of discontinuity in the graph (continued) (continued)
Circumstance
Description
Recommended Action
Break at the upper edge of the
segment below PLL Bandwidth ³ 4.
Accuracy degradation of more than
1 or 2 dB can result in a break in the
graph at the internal changeover
frequency between the phase
detector portion of the
measurement and the voltage
controlled oscillator tune line
measurement. The accuracy
degradation can be caused by:
An inaccurate Tuning or Phase
Detector Constant
Injection locking, or
Noise near or above the small angle
line at an offset equal to the PLL
Bandwidth for the measurement.
Check the Parameter Summary list provided
for your results graph to see if any accuracy
degradation was noted. If the Tuning
constant and Phase Detector constant
were not measured by the phase detector
system, verify their accuracy by selecting
the Measured calibration method and then
initiating a New Measurement. If you
suspect injection locking or noise above the
small angle line, refer to the Problem
Solving section of Chapter 3 for specific
actions.
Small Break at 100 kHz,
10 kHz, or 1 kHz
Higher noise level
The noise level measured by the test system reflects the sum of all of the noise
sources affecting the system. This includes noise sources within the system as
well as external noise sources. If the general noise level measured for your
device is much higher than you expected, begin evaluating each of the
potential noise sources. The following table will help you identify and evaluate
many of the potential causes of a high noise floor.
Spurs on the graph
Except for marked spurs, all data on the graph is normalized to a 1 Hz
bandwidth. This bandwidth correction factor makes the measurement appear
more sensitive than it really is. Marked spurs are plotted without bandwidth
correction however, to present their true level as measured.
Refer to Table 53. The spur marking criterion is a detected upward change of
more than X dB (where X is the value shown below) within 4 data points (a
single data point noise peak will not be marked as a spur). Note that the
effective noise floor for detecting spurs is above the plotted 1 Hz bandwidth
noise by the bandwidth correction factor.
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Table 53 Spurs on the graph
.
Offset Frequency
< 100 kHz
>100 kHz
Number of Averages
Upward Change for Marking Spurs (dB)
<4
30
≥4
17
≥8
12
≥30
6
Any
4
To list the marked spurs
A list of spurs can be displayed by accessing the Spurs List function in the
View menu.
Forest of spurs
A so called forest of spurs is a group of closely spaced spurs on the phase noise
plot. A forest of spurs is often caused by improper shielding that allows stray
RF energy to be picked up by the DUT wiring, etc. A breadboarded or
prototype circuit should be well shielded from external RF fields when phase
noise measurements are being made.
Table 54 shows actions to take to eliminate spurs.
Table 54 Actions to eliminate spurs
Spur Sources
Description
Recommended Action
Internal
Potential spur sources within the
measurement system include the phase noise
system, the DUT, and the reference source.
Typical system spurs are –120 dBc, and they
occur at the power line and system vibration
frequencies in the range of from 25 Hz to 1
kHz, and above 10 MHz.
If you do not have a plot of the system’s noise and spur
characteristics, perform the system Noise Floor Test. If
you suspect that the DUT or the reference source may
be the spur source, check each source using a
spectrum analyzer or measuring receiver (such as an
Agilent 8902A). Also, if additional sources are available,
try exchanging each of the sources and repeating the
measurement.
External
Spur sources external to the system may be
either mechanical or electrical. When using
the Phase Lock Loop measurement technique,
the system’s susceptibility to external spur
sources increases with increases in the Peak
Tuning Range set by the VCO source.
Shorten coaxial cables as much as possible
(particularly the Tune Voltage Output cable). Make sure
all cable connections are tight. It may be possible to
identify an external spur source using a spectrum
analyzer with a pick-up coil or an antenna connected to
it.
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Table 54 Actions to eliminate spurs (continued)
Spur Sources
Description
Recommended Action
Electrical
Electrically generated spurs can be caused by
electrical oscillation, either internal or
external to the measurement system. The list
of potential spur sources is long and varied.
Many times the spur will not be at the
fundamental frequency of the source, but may
be a harmonic of the source signal. Some
typical causes of electrical spurs are power
lines, radio broadcasting stations, computers
and computer peripherals (any device that
generates high frequency square waves), and
sum and difference products of oscillators
that are not isolated from one another in an
instrument such as a signal generator.
The frequency of the spur and patterns of multiple
spurs are the most useful parameters for determining
the source of spurs. The spur frequency can be
estimated from the graph, or pinpointed using either
the Marker graphic function which provides a
resolution of from 0.1% to 0.2% or by using the spur
listing function.
Mechanical
Mechanically generated spurs are usually at
frequencies below 1 kHz. The source of a
mechanically generated spur is typically
external to the measurement system.
Try turning off or moving fans, motors, or other
mechanical devices that oscillate at a specific
frequency. (Temporarily blocking the airflow through a
fan may alter its speed enough to discern a frequency
shift in a spur that is being caused by the fan.)
Small angle line
Caution must be exercised where L(f) is calculated from the spectral density
of the phase modulation Sφ(f)/2 because of the small angle criterion. Refer to
Figure 271. Below the line, the plot of L(f) is correct; above the line, L(f) is
increasingly invalid and Sf(f) must be used to accurately represent the phase
noise of the signal. To accurately plot noise that exceeds the small angle line,
select the Spectral Density of Phase Modulation (dB/Hz) graph type (Sφ(f)).
L(f) raises the noise floor by 3 dB.
The –10 dB per decade line is drawn on the plot for an instantaneous phase
deviation of 0.2 radians integrated over any one decade of offset frequency. At
approximately 0.2 radians, the power in the higher order sideband of the
phase modulation is still insignificant compared to the power in the first order
sideband. This ensures that the calculation of cal L(f) is still valid.
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Evaluating Your Measurement Results
14
40
20
0
-20
Small angle
phase noise limit
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
-160
1
10
E5505a_valid_noise_levels
02 Mar 04 rev 1
Figure 271
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
100
1K
10K
100K
L ( f ) = -[dBc/Hz] vs. f [Hz]
1M
10M 40M
L(f) Is only valid for noise levels below the small angle line
341
14 Evaluating Your Measurement Results
342
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E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
15
Advanced Software Features
Introduction 344
Phase-Lock-Loop Suppression 345
Ignore-Out-Of-Lock Mode 348
PLL Suppression Verification Process 349
Blanking Frequency and Amplitude Information on the Phase Noise
Graph 355
Agilent Technologies
343
15 Advanced Software Features
Introduction
The E5500 Phase Noise Measurement System software feature Advanced
Functions allows you to manipulate the test system or to customize a
measurement using the extended capabilities of the E5500 software. This
chapter describes each of these advanced functions. Agilent recommends that
only users who understand how the measurement and the test system are
affected by each function use the Advanced Functions feature.
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Advanced Software Features
15
Phase-Lock-Loop Suppression
Selecting “PLL Suppression Graph” on the View menu causes the software to
display the PLL Suppression Curve plot, as shown in Figure 272, when it is
verified during measurement calibration. The plot appears whether or not an
accuracy degradation occurs.
Figure 272 PLL suppression verification graph
PLL suppression parameters
The following measurement parameters are displayed along with the PLL
Suppression Curve.
PLL gain change
This is the amount of gain change required to fit the Theoretical Loop
Suppression curve to the measured loop suppression. A PLL Gain Change of
greater than 1 dB creates an accuracy degradation (ACCY. DEGRADED) error.
If an accuracy degradation is detected, the amount of error is determined from
either the PLL Gain Change or the Maximum Error, which ever is larger. The
degradation itself is 1 dB less than the greater of these.
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15 Advanced Software Features
Max error
This is the measured error that still exists between the measured Loop
Suppression and the Adjusted Theoretical Loop Suppression. The four points
on the Loop Suppression graph marked with arrows (ranging from the peak
down to approximately ––8 dB) are the points over which the Maximum Error
is determined. An error of greater than 1 dB results in an accuracy
degradation.
Closed PLL bandwidth
This is the predicted Phase Lock Loop Bandwidth for the measurement. The
predicted PLL BW is based on the predicted PTR. The Closed PLL BW will not
be adjusted as a result of an accuracy degradation. If an accuracy degradation
is detected, the amount of error is determined from either the PLL Gain
Change or the Maximum Error, which ever is larger. The degradation itself is
1 dB less than the greater of these.
Peak tune range
This is the Peak Tuning Range (PTR) for the measurement determined from
the VCO Tune Constant and the Tune Range of VCO. This is the key parameter
in determining the PLL properties, the Drift Tracking Range, and the ability to
phase lock sources with high close in noise.
The PTR displayed should be approximately equal to the product of the VCO
Tune Constant times the Tune Range of VCO. This is not the case when a
significant accuracy degradation is detected (4 dB) by the Loop Suppression
Verification. In this case, the PTR and Assumed Pole are adjusted when fitting
the Theoretical Loop Suppression to the smoothed measured Loop
Suppression, and the test system will display the adjusted PTR. If the PTR
must be adjusted by more than 1 dB, as indicated by an accuracy degradation
of greater than 0 dB, the Phase Detector Constant or the VCO Tune Constant is
in error at frequency offsets near the PLL BW, or the PLL BW is being affected
by some other problem such as injection locking.
Assumed pole
This is the frequency of the Assumed Pole required to adjust the Theoretical
Loop suppression to match the smoothed measured Loop suppression. The
Assumed Pole frequency is normally much greater than the Closed PLL BW.
An Assumed Pole frequency of less than 10 X PLL BW is an indication of
peaking on the PLL Suppression curve. For PLL BWs less than 20 kHz, an
Assumed Pole of less than 10 X PLL BW indicates a delay or phase shift in the
VCO Tune Port. For PLL BWs greater than 20 kHz, the Assumed Pole may be
adjusted to less than 10 X PLL BW to account for phase shifts in the test set.
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Advanced Software Features
15
Detector constant
This is the phase Detector Constant (sensitivity of the phase detector) used for
the measurement. The accuracy of the Phase Detector Constant is verified if
the PLL suppression is verified. The accuracy of the phase Detector Constant
determines the accuracy of the noise measurement.
The phase Detector Constant value, along with the LNA In/Out parameter,
determines the Agilent E5505A system noise floor, exclusive of the reference
source. “VCO CONSTANT” is the VCO Tune Constant used for the
measurement. The accuracy of the VCO Tune Constant determines the
accuracy of the PLL noise measurement for offset frequencies in segments
where the entire plotted frequency range is less than the PLL BW / 4. The
accuracy of the VCO Tune Constant is verified if the PLL Suppression is
verified. The VCO Tune Constant times the Tune Range of VCO determines the
Peak Tune Range (PTR) value for the measurement. The PTR sets the drift
tracking and close-in noise suppression capabilities of the test system.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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15 Advanced Software Features
Ignore-Out-Of-Lock Mode
The Ignore Out Of Lock test mode enables all of the troubleshooting mode
functions, plus it causes the software to not check for an out-of-lock condition
before or during a measurement. This allows you to measure sources with high
close-in noise that normally would cause an out-of-lock condition and stop the
measurement. When Ignore Out Of Lock is selected, the user is responsible for
monitoring phase lock. This can be accomplished using an oscilloscope
connected to the test set Aux. Monitor port to verify the absence of a beatnote
and monitor the dc output level.
• When Ignore Out Of Lock is selected, the test system does not verify the
phase lock of the measurement. The user must ensure that the
measurement maintains phase lock during the measurement.
348
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Advanced Software Features
15
PLL Suppression Verification Process
When “Verify calculated phase locked loop suppression” is selected, it is
recommended that “Always Show Suppression Graph” also be selected.
Verifying phase locked loop suppression is a function which is very useful in
detecting errors in the phase detector constant or tune constant, the tune
constant linearity, limited VCO tune port bandwidth conditions, and injection
locking conditions. If the DUT is well behaved (injection locking issues do not
exist or have been eliminated) and the reference source is well behaved (well
known tuning characteristics or a system controlled RF signal generator) then
the need to select PLL suppression verification is minimal.
To verify PLL suppression, a stimulus source is required for the FFT analyzer.
This stimulus signal is connected to the CHIRP INPUT port on the rear panel
of the test set. The PC digitizer, when used as the FFT analyzer, provides a
companion D/A output for this purpose. When an Agilent 89410A vector signal
analyzer is the system FFT analyzer, the 89410A’s companion source output is
used.
PLL suppression information
The PLL Suppression View graph has been updated to allow measured,
calculated (adjusted), and theoretical information to be examined more
closely. When the “Always Show Suppression Graph” is selected, the following
graph (Figure 273) is provided.
Figure 273 Default PLL suppression verification graph
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15 Advanced Software Features
There are four different curves available for this graph:
a “Measured” loop suppression curve (Figure 274 on page 350)—this is the
result of the loop suppression measurement performed by the E5505A
system.
b “Smoothed” measured suppression curve (Figure 275 on page 351)—this
is a curve-fit representation of the measured results, it is used to
compare with the “theoretical” loop suppression.
c “Theoretical” suppression curve (Figure 276 on page 351)—this is the
predicted loop suppression based on the initial loop parameters
defined/selected for this particular measurement (kphi, kvco, loop
bandwidth, filters, gain, etc.).
d “Adjusted” theoretical suppression curve (Figure 277 on page 352
through Figure 279 on page 353) —this is the new “adjusted” theoretical
value of suppression for this measurement. It is based on changing loop
parameters (in the theoretical response) to match the “smoothed”
measured curve as closely as possible.
.
Figure 274 Measured loop suppression curve
350
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Advanced Software Features
15
Figure 275 Smoothed loop suppression curve
Figure 276 Theoretical loop suppression curve
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
351
15 Advanced Software Features
Figure 277 Smoothed vs. theoretical loop suppression curve
Figure 278 Smoothed vs. Adjusted theoretical loop suppression curve
352
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Advanced Software Features
15
Figure 279 Adjusted theoretical vs. theoretical loop suppression curve
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
353
15 Advanced Software Features
PLL gain change
PLL gain change is the amount in dB by which the theoretical gain of the PLL
must be adjusted to best match the smoothed measured loop suppression. The
parameters of the theoretical loop suppression that are modified are Peak
Tune Range (basically open loop gain) and Assumed Pole (for example a pole
on the VCO tune port that may cause peaking).
Maximum error
Maximum Error is the largest difference between the smoothed measured loop
suppression and the adjusted theoretical loop suppression in the frequency
range plotted for the smoothed measured loop suppression.
The frequency of the assumed pole is normally much greater than the Closed
PLL BW and there is no loop peaking. If the smoothed measured PLL
suppression shows peaking, the assumed pole is shifted down in frequency to
simulate the extra phase shift that caused the peaking. If the peaking is really
due to a single pole at a frequency near the Closed PLL BW, the adjusted
theoretical loop suppression and smoothed measured loop suppression will
show a good match and the maximum error will be small.
Accuracy degradation
Accuracy specification degradation is determined by taking the larger of
Maximum Error and magnitude of PLL Gain Change and then subtracting
1 dB.
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Advanced Software Features
15
Blanking Frequency and Amplitude Information on the Phase Noise Graph
C AU T I O N
NOTE
Implementing either of the “secured” levels described in this section is not
reversible. Once the frequency or frequency/amplitude data has been blanked, it
can not be recovered. If you need a permanent copy of the data, you can print out
the graph and parameter summary before you secure the data and store the printed
data to a secured location
An alternate method of storing classified data is to save the measurement test file (*.pnm),
including the real frequency/amplitude data onto a floppy diskette and securing the
diskette. It can then be recalled at a later data
Security level procedure
1 From the Define Menu, choose Security Level. See Figure 280.
Figure 280 Navigate to security level
2 Choose one of the security options provided:
• Unsecured: all data is viewable
• Secured: Frequencies cannot be viewed
• Secured: Frequencies and amplitudes cannot be viewed
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355
15 Advanced Software Features
Unsecured: all data is viewable
When “Unsecured all data is viewable” is selected, all frequency and amplitude
information is displayed on the phase noise graph. See Figure 281 and
Figure 282.
5505
h
it
Figure 281 Choosing levels of security
Figure 282 Unsecured: all data is viewable
356
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Advanced Software Features
15
Secured: Frequencies Cannot be Viewed
When “Secured: Frequencies cannot be viewed” is selected, all frequency
information is blanked on the phase noise graph. See Figure 283 through
Figure 285.
5505
h
i 2
Figure 283 Choosing levels of security
Figure 284 Secured: frequencies cannot be found-1
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357
15 Advanced Software Features
e5505a_user_secured_not_found2
27 Jun 04 rev 3
Figure 285 Secured: frequencies cannot be found-2
Secured: Frequencies and Amplitudes cannot be viewed
When “Secured: Frequencies and Amplitudes cannot be viewed” is selected, all
frequency and amplitude information is blanked on the phase noise graph. See
Figure 286 and Figure 287.
Figure 286 Choosing levels of security
358
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Advanced Software Features
5505
d f
t
i
15
d
Figure 287 Secured: frequencies and amplitudes cannot be viewed
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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15 Advanced Software Features
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E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
16
Reference Graphs and Tables
Approximate System Noise Floor vs. R Port Signal Level 362
Phase Noise Floor and Region of Validity 363
Phase Noise Level of Various Agilent Sources 364
Increase in Measured Noise as Ref Source Approaches DUT Noise
Approximate Sensitivity of Delay Line Discriminator 366
AM Calibration 367
Voltage Controlled Source Tuning Requirements 368
Tune Range of VCO for Center Voltage 369
Phase Lock Loop Bandwidth vs. Peak Tuning Range 371
Noise Floor Limits Due to Peak Tuning Range 372
8643A Frequency Limits 374
8644B Frequency Limits 377
8664A Frequency Limits 380
8665A Frequency Limits 382
8665B Frequency Limits 385
Agilent Technologies
365
361
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Approximate System Noise Floor vs. R Port Signal Level
The sensitivity of the phase noise measurement system can be improved by
increasing the signal power at the R input port (Signal Input) of the phase
detector in the test set. Figure 288 illustrates the approximate noise floor of
the N5500A test set for a range of R input port signal levels from –15 dBm to
+15 dBm. These estimates of sensitivity assume the signal level at the L port is
appropriate for either the microwave or the RF mixer that is used (+7 dBm or
+15 dBm, respectively). The approximate phase detector calibration constant
that results from the input signal level at the R port is shown on the right side
of the graph.
.6
.35
.2
+5
.11
.06
-5
.035
-15
-140
E5505a_phase_det_sensitivity
27 Feb 04 rev 1
-150
-160
-170
Approximate phase noise floor (dBc/Hz)
f 10kHz
-180
Detector constant
Kφ (V/rad)
R Port signal level (dBm)
+15
.02
Figure 288 Noise floor for R input port
362
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Phase Noise Floor and Region of Validity
Caution must be exercised when L(f) is calculated from the spectral density of
the phase fluctuations, Sφ(f) because of the small angle criterion. The
–10 dB/decade line is drawn on the plot for an instantaneous phase deviation
of 0.2 radians integrated over any one decade of offset frequency. At
approximately 0.2 radians, the power in the higher order sidebands of the
phase modulation is still insignificant compared to the power in the first order
sideband which ensures the calculation of L(f) is still valid. As shown in
Figure 289, the line plot of L(f) is correct; above the line, L(f) is increasingly
invalid and Sφ(f) must be used to represent the phase noise of the signal.
(Sφ(f) is valid both above and below the line. When using the L(f) graph to
compute Sφ(f), add 3 dB to the Level.
Sφ(f) = 2 (L(f)) or Sφ(f)dB = L(f)dBc + 3 dB
8664A/65A/65B Opt 004
ESG with Opt 1E5
8657A/B
8644B
E5505a_user_phase_noise_levels
17 Mar 04 rev 3
Figure 289 Region of validity
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
363
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Phase Noise Level of Various Agilent Sources
The graph in Figure 290 indicates the level of phase noise that has been
measured for several potential reference sources at specific frequencies.
Depending on the sensitivity that is required at the offset to be measured, a
single reference source may suffice or several different references may be
needed to achieve the necessary sensitivity at different offsets.
8664A/65A/65B Opt 004
ESG with Opt 1E5
8657A/B
8644B
E5505a_user_phase_noise_levels
17 Mar 04 rev 3
Figure 290 Noise level for various reference sources
364
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Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Increase in Measured Noise as Ref Source Approaches DUT Noise
Increase in measured noise due
to reference noise (dB)
The graph shown in Figure 291 demonstrates that as the noise level of the
reference source approaches the noise level of the DUT, the level measured by
the software (which is the sum of all sources affecting the test system) is
increased above the actual noise level of the DUT.
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
E5505a_inc_meas_noise
26 Feb 04 rev 1
1 2 3 4 5
10
15
Amount expected DUT noise exceeds reference noise (dB)
Figure 291 Reference source and DUT noise levels
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Approximate Sensitivity of Delay Line Discriminator
The dependence of a frequency discriminator's sensitivity on the offset
frequency is obvious in the graph in Figure 292. By comparing the sensitivity
specified for the phase detector to the delay line sensitivity, it is apparent the
delay line sensitivity is “tipped up” by 20 dB/decade beginning at an offset of
1/2πτ. The sensitivity graphs indicate the delay line frequency discriminator
can be used to measure some types of sources with useful sensitivity. Longer
delay lines improve sensitivity, but eventually the loss in the delay line will
exceed the available power of the source and cancel any further improvement.
Also, longer delay lines limit the maximum offset frequency that can be
measured.
nS
0n
S
S
1μ
20
10
10
40
0
YI
-20
G
MH
-80
DR
AL
XT
EC
B
Hz
TA
L
SP
42
M
-60
86
0
zX
10
10
-40
-100
O
sig
ge
n
Ty
p
-120
ica
l
-140
-160
-180
.01
E5505a_delay_line_discr
02 Mar 04 rev 1
.1
1
10
100
1K
10K
L ( f ) = -[dBc/Hz] vs. f [Hz]
100K
1M
10M100M
Figure 292 Delay line discriminator sensitivity
366
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Reference Graphs and Tables
16
AM Calibration
The AM detector sensitivity graph in Figure 293 is used to determine the
equivalent phase Detector Constant from the measured AM Detector input
level or from the diode detector's DC voltage. The equivalent phase detector
constant (phase slope) is read from the left side of the graph while the
approximate detector input power is read from the right side of the graph.
.
e5505a_user_AM_cal.ai
rev2 10/24/03
Figure 293 AM detector sensitivity
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Voltage Controlled Source Tuning Requirements
Peak Tuning Range (PTR) ≈ Tune Range of VCO x VCO Tune Constant.
Min. PTR = 0.1 Hz
Max. PTR = Up to 200 MHz, depending on analyzer and phase detector LPF.
Drift Tracking Range = Allowable Drift During Measurement
The tuning range that the software actually uses to maintain quadrature is
limited to a fraction of the peak tuning range (PTR) to ensure that the tuning
slope is well behaved and the VCO Tune Constant remains accurate. After
phase lock is established, the test system monitors the tuning voltage required
to maintain lock. If the tuning voltage exceeds 5% of the PTR during the
measurement, the test system again informs the user and requests the
oscillator be retuned or the problem be otherwise corrected before proceeding
with the measurement. These limits have been found to guarantee good
results. Refer to Figure 294.
.
Total peak-to-peak tuning range of VCO
System
peak tuning range
Drift
tracking range
Capture
range
24%
5% 5% 24%
VCO Source center frequency
E5505a_capt_drift_trk_range
26 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 294 Tuning voltage required for phase lock
368
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Tune Range of VCO for Center Voltage
The graph in Figure 295 outlines the minimum to maximum Tune Range of
VCO that the software provides for a given center voltage. The Tune range of
VCO decreases as the absolute value of the center voltage increases due to
hardware limitations of the test system.
e5505a_user_tune_range_VCO.ai
rev2 10/24/03
Figure 295 Tune range of VCO for center voltage
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16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Peak Tuning Range Required by Noise Level
The graph in Figure 296 provides a comparison between the typical phase
noise level of a variety of sources and the minimum tuning range that is
necessary for the test system to create a phase lock loop of sufficient
bandwidth to make the measurement. Sources with higher phase noise require
a wider Peak Tuning Range.
e5505a_user_peak_tune_range.ai
rev2 10/24/03
Figure 296 Typical source noise level vs. minimum tuning range
370
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Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Phase Lock Loop Bandwidth vs. Peak Tuning Range
The graph in Figure 297 illustrates the closed Phase Lock Loop Bandwidth
(PLL BW) chosen by the test system as a function of the Peak Tuning Range of
the source. Knowing the approximate closed PLL BW allows you to verify that
there is sufficient bandwidth on the tuning port and that sufficient source
isolation is present to prevent injection locking.
e5505a_user_phase_band_peak_tune_range.ai
rev2 10/24/03
Figure 297 PLL BW vs. peak tuning range
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16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Noise Floor Limits Due to Peak Tuning Range
The graph in Figure 298 illustrates the equivalent phase noise at the Peak
Tuning Range entered for the source due to the inherent noise at the test set
Tune Voltage Output port. (A Tune Range of VCO ±10 V and phase Detector
Constant of 0.2V/Rad is assumed.)
e5505a_user_noise_floor_peak.ai
rev2 10/28/03
Figure 298 Noise at source’s peak tuning range
372
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Tuning Characteristics of Various VCO Source Options
Table 55 Tuning parameters for several VCO options
VCO Source
Carrier
Freq.
Tuning Constant
(Hz/V)
Center
Voltage (V)
Voltage Tuning
Range (± V)
Input
Resistance
(Ω)
Tuning
Calibration
Method
υ0
5 E – 9 x υ0
FM Deviation
0
0
10
10
1E + 6
1 k (8662)
600 (8663)
Measure
Calculate
Calculate
Agilent 8642A/B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Calculate
Agilent 8643A/44B
FM Deviation
0
10
600
Calculate
Agilent 8664A
Agilent 8665A/B
FM Deviation
0
5 (See Caution
Below)
600
Calculate
FM Deviation
0
10
Rin
Calculate
Estimated
within a factor
of 2
–10 to +10
See “Tune Range of
VCO for Center
Voltage" on
page 369
1E+6
Measure
Agilent 8662/3A
• EFC
• DCFM
Other Signal Generator
DCFM Calibrated for
±1V
Other User VCO Source
C AU T I O N
Exceeding 5 volts maximum voltage tuning range for the 8664A and 8665A/B may
damage equipment.
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16 Reference Graphs and Tables
8643A Frequency Limits
Table 56 8643A frequency limits
Note: Special Function 120 must be enabled for DCFM
Minimum Recommended PTR (Peak Tune Range)
PTR =FM Deviation x VTR1
Model
Number
Option
Band Minimum
(MHz)
Band Maximum (MHz) Mode 22
Mode 13
8643A
002
1030
2060
2000000
20000000
8643A
002
515
1029.99999999
1000000
10000000
8643A
Standard
515
1030
1000000
10000000
8643A
Both
257.5
514.99999999
500000
5000000
8643A
Both
128.75
257.49999999
250000
2500000
8643A
Both
64.375
128.74999999
125000
1250000
8643A
Both
32.1875
64.37499999
62500
625000
8643A
Both
16.09375
32.18749999
31200
312000
8643A
Both
8.046875
16.09374999
15600
156000
8643A
Both
4.0234375
8.04687499
7810
78100
8643A
Both
2.01171875
4.02343749
3900
39000
8643A
Both
1.005859375
2.01171874
1950
19500
8643A
Both
0.5029296875
1.005859365
976
9760
8643A
Both
0.25146484375
0.5029296775
488
4880
1 Takes into account limited tuning resolution available in linear FM (Special Function 120, refer to “How to access special functions" on
page 375.
2 The 8643A defaults to Mode 2 operation.
3 Wideband FM: Use Special Function 125 (refer to “How to access special functions" on page 375.
8643A mode keys
• The [Mode 1] key provides the maximum FM deviation and minimum RF
output switching time. Noise level is highest in this mode, as shown in
Table 57 on page 375.
• The [Mode 2] key provides a median range of FM deviation and RF output
switching time, as shown in Table 57 on page 375. The 8643A defaults to
Mode 2 operation.
374
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Table 57 Operating characteristics for 8643A modes 1, 2, and 3
Characteristic
Synthesis Mode
Mode 1
Mode 2
RF Frequency Switching Time
90 ms
200 ms
FM Deviation at 1 GHz
10 MHz
1 MHz
Phase Noise (20 kHz offset at 1 GHz)
–120 dBc
–130 dBc
How to access special functions
Press the Special key and enter the special function number of your choice.
Access the special function key by pressing the Enter key. Press the [ON]
(ENTER) key to terminate data entries that do not require specific units (kHz,
mV, rad, for example)
Example:
[Special], [1], [2], [0], [ON] (Enter).
e5505a_8643A
rev1 24 jun 04
Figure 299 8643A special function keys
Description of special functions 120 and 125
120: FM synthesis
This special function allows you to have the instrument synthesize the FM
signal in a digitized or linear manner. Digitized FM is best for signal-tone
modulation and provides very accurate center frequency at low deviation
rates. Linear FM is best for multi-tone modulation and provides a more
constant group delay than the Digitized FM.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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16 Reference Graphs and Tables
125: Wide FM deviation (8643A only)
Mode 1 operation can be selected using this special function, which allows you
to turn on wide FM deviation. The 8643 defaults to Mode 2 operation. Wide FM
deviation provides the maximum FM deviation and minimum RF output
switching time. In this mode, the maximum deviation is increased, by a factor
of 10, to 10 MHz (for a 1 GHz carrier). The noise level of the generator is also
increased in this mode, however.
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Reference Graphs and Tables
16
8644B Frequency Limits
Table 58 8644B frequency limits
Note: Special Function 120 must be enabled for
DCFM
Minimum Recommended PTR (Peak Tune Range)
PTR =FM Deviation x VTR1
Model
Number
Option
Band Minimum
(MHz)
Band Maximum
(MHz)
Mode 3
Mode 2
Mode 1
8644B
002
1030
2060
200000
2000000
20000000
8644B
002
515
1029.99999999
100000
1000000
10000000
8644B
Standard 515
1030
100000
1000000
10000000
8644B
Both
257.5
514.99999999
50000
500000
5000000
8644B
Both
128.75
257.49999999
25000
250000
2500000
8644B
Both
64.375
128.74999999
12500
125000
1250000
8644B
Both
32.1875
64.37499999
6250
62500
625000
8644B
Both
16.09375
32.18749999
3120
31200
312000
8644B
Both
8.046875
16.09374999
1560
15600
156000
8644B
Both
4.0234375
8.04687499
781
7810
78100
8644B
Both
2.01171875
4.02343749
390
3900
39000
8644B
Both
1.005859375
2.01171874
195
1950
19500
8644B
Both
0.5029296875
1.005859365
97.6
976
9760
8644B
Both
0.25146484375
0.5029296775
48.8
488
4880
1 Takes into account limited tuning resolution available in linear FM (Special Function 120, refer to “How to access special
functions" on page 375.
8644B mode keys
• The [Mode 1] key provides the maximum FM deviation and minimum RF
output switching time. Noise level is highest in this mode, as shown in the
following table.
• The [Mode 2] key provides a median range of FM deviation and RF output
switching time, as shown in Table 59 on page 378.
• The [Mode 3] key provides the lowest noise level at the RF output, FM
deviation bandwidth is narrower, and the RF switching time is slower than
in either Modes 1 or 2.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
377
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Table 59 Operating characteristics for 8644B modes 1, 2, and 3
Characteristic
Synthesis Mode
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
RF Frequency Switching Time
90 ms
200 ms
350 ms
FM Deviation at 1 GHz
10 MHz
1 MHz
100 kHz
Phase Noise (20 kHz offset at 1 GHz)
-120 dBc
-130 dBc
-136 dBc
How to access special functions
Press the Special key and enter the special function number of your choice.
Access the special function key by pressing the Enter key. Press the [ON]
(ENTER) key to terminate data entries that do not require specific units (kHz,
mV, rad, for example)
Example:
[Special], [1], [2], [0], [ON] (Enter).
e5505a_8644B
rev 1 24 jun 04
Figure 300 8644B special functions keys
378
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Description of special function 120
120: FM synthesis
This special function allows you to have the instrument synthesize the FM
signal in a digitized or linear manner. Digitized FM is best for signal-tone
modulation and provides very accurate center frequency at low deviation
rates. Linear FM is best for multi-tone modulation and provides a more
constant group delay than the Digitized FM.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
379
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
8664A Frequency Limits
Table 60 8664A frequency limits
Note: Special Function 120 must be enabled for the
DCFM
1
Model
Number
Option
Minimum Recommended PTR (Peak Tune Range)
PTR =FM Deviation x VTR
Band Minimum
(MHz)
Band Maximum
(MHz)
Mode 3
Mode 2
8664A
2060
3000
400000
10000000
8664A
1500
2059.99999999
200000
10000000
8664A
1030
1499.99999999
200000
5000000
8664A
750
1029.99999999
100000
5000000
8664A
515
749.99999999
100000
2500000
8664A
375
514.99999999
50000
2500000
8664A
257.5
374.99999999
50000
1250000
8664A
187.5
257.49999999
25000
1250000
8664A
30
187.49999999
200000
5000000
8664A
5
29.99999999
100000
5000000
8664A
0.05
4.99999999
Max FM = MIN (Above, Carrier frequency –9 kHz)
1 Takes into account limited tuning resolution available in linear FM (Special Function 120, refer to “How to access special
functions" on page 375).
8664A mode keys
• The [Mode 2] key provides a median range of FM deviation and RF output
switching time, as shown in Table 61.
• The [Mode 3] key provides the lowest noise level at the RF output, FM
deviation bandwidth is narrower, and the RF switching time is slower than
in either Modes 1 or 2.
Table 61 Operating characteristics for 8664A modes 2 and 3
Characteristic
380
Synthesis Mode
Mode 2
Mode 3
RF Frequency Switching Time
200 ms
350 ms
FM Deviation at 1 GHz
1 MHz
100 kHz
Phase Noise (20 kHz offset at 1 GHz)
-130 dBc
-136 dBc
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
How to access special functions
Press the Special key and enter the special function number of your choice.
Access the special function key by pressing the Enter key. Press the [ON]
(ENTER) key to terminate data entries that do not require specific units (kHz,
mV, rad, for example)
Example:
[Special], [1], [2], [0], [ON] (Enter)
e5505a_8664A
rev1 24 jun 04
Figure 301 Special functions keys
Description of special functions 120
120: FM synthesis
This special function allows you to have the instrument synthesize the FM
signal in a digitized or linear manner. Digitized FM is best for signal-tone
modulation and provides very accurate center frequency at low deviation
rates. Linear FM is best for multi-tone modulation and provides a more
constant group delay than the Digitized FM.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
381
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
8665A Frequency Limits
Table 62 8665A frequency limits
Note: Special Function 120 must be enabled for DCFM
Minimum Recommended PTR (Peak Tune Range)
PTR =FM Deviation x VTR1
Model
Number
Option
Band Minimum
(MHz)
Band Maximum (MHz)
Mode 3
Mode 2
8665A
4120
4200
800000
20000000
8665A
3000
4119.99999999
400000
20000000
8665A
2060
2999.99999999
400000
10000000
8665A
1500
2059.99999999
200000
10000000
8665A
1030
1499.99999999
200000
5000000
8665A
750
1029.99999999
100000
5000000
8665A
515
749.99999999
100000
2500000
8665A
375
514.99999999
50000
2500000
8665A
257.5
374.99999999
50000
1250000
8665A
187.5
257.49999999
25000
1250000
8665A
30
187.49999999
200000
5000000
8665A
5
29.99999999
100000
5000000
8665A
0.05
4.99999999
Max FM = MIN (Above, Carrier frequency –9 kHz)
1 Takes into account limited tuning resolution available in linear FM (Special Function 120, refer to “How to access special functions" on
page 375.
8665A mode keys
• The [Mode 2] key provides a median range of FM deviation and RF output
switching time, as shown in Table 63 on page 383.
• The [Mode 3] key provides the lowest noise level at the RF output, FM
deviation bandwidth is narrower, and the RF switching time is slower than
in either Modes 1 or 2.
382
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Table 63 Operating characteristics for 8665A modes 2 and 3
Characteristic
Synthesis Mode
Mode 2
Mode 3
RF Frequency Switching Time
200 ms
350 ms
FM Deviation at 1 GHz
1 MHz
100 kHz
Phase Noise (20 kHz offset at 1 GHz)
-130 dBc
-136 dBc
How to access special functions
Press the Special key and enter the special function number of your choice.
Access the special function key by pressing the Enter key. Press the [ON]
(ENTER) key to terminate data entries that do not require specific units (kHz,
mV, rad, for example)
Example:
[Special], [1], [2], [0], [ON] (ENTER).
e5505a_8665A
rev1 24 jun 04
Figure 302 8665A special functions keys
Description of Special Functions 120 and 124
120: FM synthesis
This special function allows you to have the instrument synthesize the FM
signal in a digitized or linear manner. Digitized FM is best for signal-tone
modulation and provides very accurate center frequency at low deviation
rates. Linear FM is best for multi-tone modulation and provides a more
constant group delay than the Digitized FM. The preset condition is FM
Digitized.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
383
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
124: FM Dly equalizer
This special function allows you to turn off FM delay equalizer circuitry. When
[ON] (The preset condition), 30 μsec of group delay is added to the FM
modulated signal to get better FM frequency response.
You may want to turn [OFF] the FM Delay Equalizer circuitry when the signal
generator is used as the VCO in a phase-locked loop application to reduce
phase shift, of when you want to extend the FM bandwidth to
200 kHz. When [OFF], FM Indicator Accuracy is worse for rates of 1-5 kHz and
better beyond 30 kHz. Refer to the 8643A/8644B User’s Guide for specific
details.
384
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
8665B Frequency Limits
Table 64 8665B frequency limits
Note: Special Function 120 must be enabled for DCFM
Minimum Recommended PTR (Peak Tune
Range)
PTR =FM Deviation x VTR1
Model
Number
Option
Band Minimum
(MHz)
Band Maximum (MHz)
Mode 3
Mode 2
8665B
4120
6000
800000
20000000
8665B
3000
4119.99999999
400000
20000000
8665B
2060
2999.99999999
400000
10000000
8665B
1500
2059.99999999
200000
10000000
8665B
1030
1499.99999999
200000
5000000
8665B
750
1029.99999999
100000
5000000
8665B
515
749.99999999
100000
2500000
8665B
375
514.99999999
50000
2500000
8665B
257.5
374.99999999
50000
1250000
8665B
187.5
257.49999999
25000
1250000
8665B
30
187.49999999
200000
5000000
8665B
5
29.99999999
100000
5000000
8665B
0.05
4.99999999
Max FM = MIN (Above, Carrier frequency –9 kHz)
1 Takes into account limited tuning resolution available in linear FM (Special Function 120, refer to “How to access special
functions" on page 375).
8665B mode keys
• The [Mode 2] key provides a median range of FM deviation and RF output
switching time, as shown in Table 65.
• The [Mode 3] key provides the lowest noise level at the RF output, FM
deviation bandwidth is narrower, and the RF switching time is slower than
in either Modes 1 or 2.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
385
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
Table 65 Operating characteristics for 8665B modes 2 and 3
Characteristic
Synthesis Mode
Mode 2
Mode 3
RF Frequency Switching Time
200 ms
350 ms
FM Deviation at 1 GHz
1 MHz
100 kHz
Phase Noise (20 kHz offset at 1 GHz)
-130 dBc
-136 dBc
How to access special functions
Press the Special key and enter the special function number of your choice.
Access the special function key by pressing the Enter key. Press the [ON]
(ENTER) key to terminate data entries that do not require specific units (kHz,
mV, rad, for example)
Example:
[Special], [1], [2], [0], [ON] (Enter).
e5505a_8665B
rev1 24 jun 04
Figure 303 8665B Special functions keys
386
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Reference Graphs and Tables
16
Description of special functions 120 and 124
120: FM synthesis
This special function allows you to have the instrument synthesize the FM
signal in a digitized or linear manner. Digitized FM is best for signal-tone
modulation and provides very accurate center frequency at low deviation
rates. Linear FM is best for multi-tone modulation and provides a more
constant group delay than the Digitized FM.
124: FM Dly equalizer
This special function allows you to turn off FM delay equalizer circuitry. When
[ON] (The preset condition), 30 μsec of group delay is added to the FM
modulated signal to get better FM frequency response.
You may want to turn [OFF] the FM Delay Equalizer circuitry when the signal
generator is used as the VCO in a phase-locked loop application to reduce
phase shift, of when you want to extend the FM bandwidth to 200 kHz. When
[OFF], FM Indicator Accuracy is worse for rates of 1-5 kHz and better beyond
30 kHz. Refer to the 8665B User’s Guide for specific details.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
387
16 Reference Graphs and Tables
388
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
17
System Specifications
Specifications 390
Power Requirements
393
Agilent Technologies
389
17 System Specifications
Specifications
This section contains mechanical and environmental specifications, operating
characteristics, power requirements, and PC requirements for the system. It
also provides specifications for accuracy, measurement qualifications, and
tuning.
Table 66 contains the mechanical and environmental specifications for a
system. Table 67 shows the system’s operating characteristics.
Table 66 Mechanical and environmental specifications
Specifications
Values
Temperature:
Operating
Non-operating/storage
0 °C to 40 °C (32 °F to 131 °F)
-40 °C to 70 °C (-40 °F to 158 °F)
Altitude
type tested from 0 to 3000 m (9,842 ft) - operating
4600 m (15,000 ft) - non-operating
Relative humidity
type tested at 95%, +40°C (non-condensing)
Air flow space required
102 mm (4 in) on all sides
System weight:
Benchtop
1.6 Meter Rack
2 Meter Rack
210 lbs (95.5 kg)
431 lbs (195.5 kg)
465 lbs (211 kg)
711 to 915 mm (28 to 36
in)
432 mm (17 in)
n/a
1,016 mm (40 in)
711 mm (28 in)
1,620 mm (64 in)
600 mm (23.6 in)
1438 mm (56.7 in)
n/a
905 mm (35.7 in)
2,020 mm (79.5 in)
600 mm (23.6 in)
1438 mm (56.7 in)
n/a
905 mm (35.7 in)
Approximate, typical
System dimensions:
Height
Width
with rack-mounted flat-panel display
with benchtop PC and display
Depth
Table 67 Operating characteristics
390
Warm up time required
30 minutes
Carrier frequency ranges
50 KHz to 1.6 GHz
50 KHz to 6 GHz
50 KHz to 18 GHz
50 KHz to 26.5 GHz
Offset frequency ranges
0.01 Hz to 2 MHz
0.01 Hz to 100 MHz
System noise response
–180 dBc/Hz typically (>10 kHz offsets)
System spurious response
≤120 dBc typically
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
System Specifications
17
Table 67 Operating characteristics (continued)
Phase detector input power
(<1.6 GHz carrier frequency)
R input = 0 to +23 dBm
L input = +15 to +23 dBm
Downconverter input range
1 GHz to 6 GHz
1 GHz to 18 GHz
1.5 GHz to 26.5 GHz
External noise input port
0.01 Hz to 100 MHz
Measurement accuracy
±2 dB (<1.0 MHz offsets)
±4 dB (<100 MHz offsets)
Reliable accuracy
The E5505A phase noise system minimizes measurement uncertainty by
assuring you of accurate and repeatable measurement results.
Table 68 Phase noise measurement accuracy
RF Phase Detector Accuracy
Frequency Range
Offset from Carrier
.01 Hz to 1 MHz
± 2 dB
1 MHz to 100 MHz
± 4 dB
Table 69 AM noise measurement accuracy
AM Detector Accuracy
Frequency Range
Offset from Carrier
.01 Hz to 1 MHz
± 3 dB
1 MHz to 100 MHz
± 5 dB
Measurement qualifications
In order for the E5505A to meet its accuracy specifications for any
measurement‘, these qualifications must be met by the signal sources you are
using:
• Source Return Loss: 9.5 dB (<2:1 SWR)
• Source Harmonic Distortion <–20 dB (or a square wave)
• Nonharmonic spurious ≤ –26 dBc (except for phase modulation close to the
carrier.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
391
17 System Specifications
If either of these conditions are not met, system measurement accuracy may
be reduced.
NOTE
In addition, if you have a know source, the source’s uncertainties must bee added to the
system specifications.
Tuning
The tuning range of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) source must be
commensurate with the frequency stability of the sources being used. If the
tuning range is too narrow, the system will not properly phase lock, resulting
in an aborted measurement. If the tuning range of the VCO source is too large,
noise on the control line may increase the effective noise of the VCO source.
Computer
The minimum requirements for the E5505A phase noise measurement system
CPU are:
• Pentium® microprocessor (2.4 GHz or higher recommended)
• 1 GB of memory (RAM)
• 40 GB hard disk
• Microsoft® Windows® XP Pro
• Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA)
• Two GPIB Interface Cards
• At least three available PCI slots (for GPIB interface card and PC digitizer
card)
392
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
System Specifications
17
Power Requirements
The flexibility of the E5505A system configuration results in a significant
range of power requirements, depending on the type and number of
instruments in a system. Table 70 provides the maximum requirements for
individual instruments so that you can determine the requirements of your
specific system. It also provides the maximum current drawn by an E5505A
system that contains one of each type of instrument listed in the table.
Table 70 E5505A maximum AC power requirements
Component
115 VAC
230 VAC
System maximum
(one of each type of instrument below)
27 A
17 A
PC
9A
4.5 A
Display (LCD)
1.2 A
1.2 A
N5500A test set (Opt. 001)
3A
2A
Downconverter
3A
2A
Source
~6A
~4A
Spectrum analyzer
~ 2.5 A
~ 1.5 A
Frequency counter
1.5 A
~1A
Oscilloscope
~1A
~ 0.7 A
The E5505A system is shipped with AC power cords appropriate for your
location.
For information on an instrument’s power line module, see the instrument’s
separate user’s guide.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
393
17 System Specifications
394
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
18
System Interconnections
Making Connections 396
System Connectors 397
System Cables 398
Connecting Instruments 399
PC to test set connection, standard model 400
PC to test set (options 001 and 201) and downconverter connection 401
E5505A system connections with standard test set 403
E5505A system connections with test set option 001 404
E5505A system connections with test set option 201 405
This chapter contains information and diagrams for connecting the
instruments in a racked or benchtop E5505A system.
Agilent Technologies
395
18 System Interconnections
Making Connections
Use the information in this section to connect your system hardware. It
contains cable and connector tables, connection diagrams, and guidelines for
making connections.
C AU T I O N
Make all system hardware connections without AC power applied. Failure to do so may
result in damage to the hardware. GPIB connections are an exception; they may be
connected with power applied.
Make connections in a properly grounded environment. Agilent recommends wearing
grounding wrist or foot straps. Failure to do so may result in damage to the hardware.
C AU T I O N
396
Do not make a GPIB connection with an oscilloscope. Doing so causes the E5505A
system to malfunction and may result in damage.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
System Connectors
Table 71 contains the connectors and adapters for the main E5505A system instruments. It includes
the type and quantity for each instrument and option. (You receive the devices specific to the
instruments in your system with your shipment; you may not receive every device shown in the
table.)
Table 71 E5505A connectors and adapters
Part Number
Description
N5500A
Standard
N5500A
Opt. 001
N5500A
Opt. 201
0960-0053
Termination, coaxial SMA (male), 50 Ω
1250-0207
Termination, BNC, 50 Ω
1
1
1
1250-0780
Adapter, Type N (male) to BNC (female)
3
2
3
1250-0839
Termination, coaxial SMC (female), 50 Ω
1250-1200
Adapter, SMA (male) to BNC (female)
2
1250-1250
Adapter, N (male) to SMA (female)
1
1250-2015
Adapter, SMA (female) to BNC (male)
1250-2076
Termination, coaxial SMB (female), 50 Ω
5061-5311
Adapter/Connector saver, 3.5 mm (female)
to 3.5mm (female)
5813-0803
GPIB extension
1
E5505-60001
Digitizer adapter for PC
1 with E5505A system
N5501A
N5502A
N5507A
N5508A
N5508A
Opt. 002
4
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
System Interconnections
18
397
Table 72 shows the E5505A system cables and their connections. Some cables are used only with
specific system options; you may not receive all cables in the table. An additional GPIB cable is
shipped with each optional instrument ordered.
Table 72 E5505A cables and connections
Part Number
Description
Qty
From
To
8120-2582
BNC (male) to BNC (male), coaxial, 4 feet
3
Varies with configuration and function
8120-5370
BNC (male) to BNC (male), coaxial, 8 feet
2
Varies with configuration and function
8120-3445
GPIB, 10834A, 1 meter
1
Test set rear panel GPIB
Downconverter rear panel GPIB
8120-3446
GPIB, 10834B, 2 meter
1
PC rear panel GPIB
Test set rear panel GPIB
E5505-80001
RF, SMA (male) to BNC (male), yellow
1
PC digitizer card adapter IN
Test set front panel ANALYZER
<100 MHz OUT
E5505-80002
RF, SMA (male) to BNC (male), green
1
PC digitizer card adapter OUT
Test set rear panel CHIRP SOURCE IN
1
Test set front panel FROM
DOWNCONVERTER
Downconverter front panel IF OUTPUT
For Test Set, Opt 001
E5505-20001
RF, semi-rigid, N-Type (male) to N-Type
(male)
E5505-20002
RF, semi-rigid, N-Type (male) to SMA (male) 1
Test set front panel TO
DOWNCONVERTER
N5501A/2A Downconverter front panel
SIGNAL
E5505-20003
RF, semi-rigid, SMA (male) to SMA (male)
Test set front panel TO
DOWNCONVERTER
N5507A Downconverter front panel SIGNAL
1
18 System Interconnections
398
System Cables
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
System Interconnections
18
Connecting Instruments
This section provides guidelines for connecting your phase noise system
instruments. When reconnecting all system instruments, first connect the PC,
test set, and downconverter(s). Then connect the spectrum analyzer and
remaining system instruments. Add any additional asset next. Lastly, connect
power cords and apply power.
1 Without power applied, connect the digitizer adapter to the back of the PC
Digitizer adapter
digitizer card, as shown in Figure 304.
Figure 304 Connect adapter to PC digitizer card
2 Connect a GPIB extension to the GPIB connector on the PC to provide
adequate clearance for the cable.
3 Connect the following cables between the PC Digitizer card adapter and the
test set (see Figure 305 on page 400 and Figure 306 on page 401):
• SMA (male) to BNC (male) cable between the PC digitizer card adapter’s
IN connector and the test set’s front-panel connector
ANALYZER <100 MHz OUT.
• SMA (male) to BNC (male) cable between the PC digitizer card adapter’s
OUT connector and the test set’s rear-panel connector
CHIRP SOURCE IN.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
399
18 System Interconnections
Test set rear
panel connection
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
MULTIPLEXER
TRACK GEN
OUT
IN
ICES/NMB-001
ISM GRP.1 CLASS A
CHIRP SOURCE
SEE USERS MANUAL
N10149
154258
TUNE VOLTAGE
IN
OUT
SERIAL NUMBER
LABEL
LINE
115 V/3 A
230 V/2 A
50/60 Hz
FUSE: T 3.15 A 250 V
Standard test set
N5500A
50 Ω load
termination
Test Set
INPUT
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz -1600 MHz
0.01 Hz -100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz -1600 MHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
To test set
rear panel
CHIRP source
PC
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
SIGNAL INPUT
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
Digitizer
output
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
Digitizer
input
GPIB
Display
E5505a_test_set_con1
05 Apr 04 rev 1
Figure 305 PC to test set connection, standard model
400
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
System Interconnections
18
Test set rear
panel connection
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
MULTIPLEXER
TRACK GEN
OUT
IN
ICES/NMB-001
ISM GRP.1 CLASS A
CHIRP SOURCE
SEE USERS MANUAL
N10149
154258
TUNE VOLTAGE
IN
OUT
GPIB
SERIAL NUMBER
LABEL
LINE
115 V/3 A
230 V/2 A
50/60 Hz
FUSE: T 3.15 A 250 V
Test set
(all options)
50 Ω load
termination
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm + ATTEN
1.2 GHz-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm + ATTEN
+30 dBm MAX WITH
ATTENUATOR
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
INPUT
Downconverter
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz - 1600 MHz
1.2 - 26.5 GHz
0.01 Hz - 100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
+7 dBm MIN
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
1.2-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz - 26.5 GHz
Downconverter
N5502A
N5500A Opt 001
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
5 MHz-1 GHz
+10 dBm
1 GHz-18 GHz
+15 dBm
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
SIGNAL
ANALYZER
FROM TEST SET
To test set
rear panel
CHIRP source
PC
Digitizer
output
FROM
DOWNCONVERTER
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
STATUS
ACT ERR
INPUT
OUTPUT
RF ANALYZER
+5 +15 dBm
5 MHz -18 GHz
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
10 VOLTS MAX
IF
AUX LO
5 -1500 MHz
1.8-18 GHz
TO
DOWNCONVERTER
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
POWER
Digitizer
input
GPIB
Display
E5505a_test_set_con2
05 Apr 04 rev 1
Figure 306 PC to test set (options 001 and 201) and downconverter connection
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
401
18 System Interconnections
4 Connect cables to other instruments with the appropriate connectors and
adapters, using the tables and diagrams in this section. (Refer to Figure 307
on page 403 through Figure 309 on page 405.)
• Install a GPIB extension on these system instruments before connecting
the GPIB cable: N5500A/01A/02A/07A/08A.
C AU T I O N
NOTE
Do not make a GPIB connection with an oscilloscope. Doing so causes the E5505A
system to malfunction and may result in damage.
For easy re-installation, label each end of each cable with the corresponding instrument
connector names.
5 You may connect other assets (in addition to those supplied with the
system) either at this time or after running the confidence test.
6 Lastly, connect the power cord(s) to the AC power supply.
402
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
System Interconnections
18
Oscilloscope
(recommended)
GPIB
NOTE:
Optional frequency
counter
Standard test set
N5500A
Indicates optional cable
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
INPUT
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz -1600 MHz
0.01 Hz -100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz -1600 MHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
To test set
rear panel
CHIRP source
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
Optional reference
signal generator
Digitizer
input
PC
Digitizer
output
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
E5500 software
License key
PC-Digitizer card
Display
Standard test set
N5500A
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz -1600 MHz
0.01 Hz -100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
To oscilloscope or
counter monitor
(optional)
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
To reference
source (optional)
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz -1600 MHz
50 Ω load
spectrum
analyzer
INPUT
STATUS
ACT ERR
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
To PC digitizer
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
POWER
50
20 mA MAX
DC out
tune voltage
(optional)
E5505a_stand_conn_dia
15 Apr 04 rev 1
Figure 307 E5505A system connections with standard test set
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
403
18 System Interconnections
Oscilloscope
(recommended)
GPIB
NOTE:
Optional frequency
counter
Test set Opt. 001 Downconverter
N5502A
N5500A Opt 001
Indicates optional cable
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm + ATTEN
1.2 GHz-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm + ATTEN
+30 dBm MAX WITH
ATTENUATOR
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
INPUT
NOISE
Downconverter
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
50 kHz - 1600 MHz
1.2 - 26.5 GHz
50 kHz - 26.5 GHz
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
1.2-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
50
1 V Pk
0.01 Hz - 100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
5 MHz-1 GHz
+10 dBm
1 GHz-18 GHz
+15 dBm
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
SIGNAL
ANALYZER
FROM TEST SET
FROM
DOWNCONVERTER
STATUS
ACT ERR
OUTPUT
RF ANALYZER
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
10 VOLTS MAX
IF
AUX LO
5 -1500 MHz
1.8-18 GHz
TO
DOWNCONVERTER
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
To test set
rear panel
CHIRP source
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
POWER
Optional reference
signal generator
Digitizer
input
PC
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
INPUT
+5 +15 dBm
5 MHz -18 GHz
+7 dBm MIN
Digitizer
output
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
E5500 software
License key
PC-Digitizer card
Display
Downconverter
Test set Opt. 001
N5500A Opt 001
N5501A
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm + ATTEN
1.2 GHz-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm + ATTEN
+30 dBm MAX WITH
ATTENUATOR
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
INPUT
Downconverter
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz - 1600 MHz
1.2 - 26.5 GHz
0.01 Hz - 100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
+7 dBm MIN
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz - 26.5 GHz
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
1.2 -26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
5 MHz-1 GHz
+10 dBm
1 GHz-6.6 GHz
+15 dBm
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
SIGNAL
ANALYZER
FROM
DOWNCONVERTER
STATUS
ACT ERR
INPUT
OUTPUT
RF ANALYZER
+5 +15 dBm
5 MHz -6.6 GHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
FROM TEST SET
TO
DOWNCONVERTER
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
10 VOLTS MAX
IF
AUX LO
5 -1500 MHz
1.8-6.6 GHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
50 Ω load
To PC
To reference
source (optional) DC out
Spectrum digitizer
To oscilloscope or
analyzer
tune voltage
counter monitor
(optional)
(optional)
E5505a_opt001_conn_dia
POWER
Signal input
to be
downconverted
Downconverted
output to test set
signal input
14 Apr 04 rev 1
Figure 308 E5505A system connections with test set option 001
404
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
System Interconnections
18
Oscilloscope
(recommended)
Optional frequency
counter
GPIB
NOTE:
Test set Opt. 201 Downconverter
N5507A
N5500A Opt 201
Indicates optional cable
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
INPUT
5 MHz-26.5 GHz
Microwave Downconverter
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz - 1600 MHz
1.2 - 26.5 GHz
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50 kHz-1600 MHz
0.01 Hz - 100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
+10 dBm + ATTEN
+30 dBm MAX WITH
ATTENUATOR
+7 dBm MIN
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
1.2-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
50
1 V Pk
W SIGNAL
SIGNAL
STATUS
ACT ERR
AM NOISE
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
10 VOLTS MAX
1.2-26.5 GHz
IF
OUTPUT
RF ANALYZER
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
W LO
5 -1500 MHz
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+23 dBm
2.4 - 25.8 GHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
To test set
rear panel
CHIRP source
PC
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
INPUT
5 MHz - 26.5 GHz
MAXIMUM POWER
1.2-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
POWER
Optional reference
signal generator
Digitizer
input
Digitizer
output
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
E5500 software
License key
PC-Digitizer card
Display
Test set Opt. 201
Downconverter
N5507A
N5500A Opt 201
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
INPUT
5 MHz-26.5 GHz
Microwave Downconverter
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz - 1600 MHz
1.2 - 26.5 GHz
0.01 Hz - 100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
+7 dBm MIN
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz-1600 MHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
W SIGNAL
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
TUNE VOLTAGE
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
1.2 -26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
+10 dBm + ATTEN
+30 dBm MAX WITH
ATTENUATOR
SIGNAL
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
INPUT
STATUS
ACT ERR
AM NOISE
OUTPUT
RF ANALYZER
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
5 MHz - 26.5 GHz
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
MAXIMUM POWER
1.2-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
10 VOLTS MAX
1.2-26.5 GHz
IF
5 -1500 MHz
W LO
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+23 dBm
2.4 - 25.8 GHz
OUT OF LOCK
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
POWER
50 Ω load
Spectrum
analyzer
To PC
digitizer
E5505a_opt201_conn_dia
14 Apr 04 rev 1
To reference
source (optional) DC out
To oscilloscope or
tune voltage
counter monitor
(optional)
(optional)
Signal input
to be
downconverted
Downconverted
output to test set
signal input
Figure 309 E5505A system connections with test set option 201
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
405
18 System Interconnections
406
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System
User’s Guide
19
PC Components Installation
Overview 408
Step 1: Uninstall the current version of Agilent Technologies IO
libraries 408
Step 2: Uninstall all National Instruments products. 408
Step 3: Install the National Instruments VXI software. 408
Step 4: Install the National Instruments VISA runtime. 408
Step 5: Install software for the NI Data Acquisition Software. 408
Step 6: Hardware Installation 409
Step 7. Finalize National Instruments Software Installation. 417
Step 8: System Interconnections 417
Step 9: Install Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable Package use
default settings 420
Step 10: Install the Agilent I/O Libraries 420
Step 11: Install the E5500 Phase Noise Measurement software. 427
Step 12: Asset Configuration 429
Step 13: License Key for the Phase Noise Test Set 441
This chapter contains information and procedures for installing or
re-installing the necessary phase noise hardware and software in an E5505A
Phase Noise Measurement System PC.
Agilent Technologies
407
19 PC Components Installation
Overview
Your E5505A Phase Noise Measurement System system arrives with all
necessary phase noise components installed in the system PC. However, if you
need to re-install the phase noise hardware and/or software in your E5505A
system PC for any reason, use the procedures in this chapter. The chapter
leads you through the process step-by-step. To prevent errors in the
installation process, it is important to complete the tasks in the order
presented, and to complete each one before proceeding to the next.
Installing the required phase noise software and hardware in the system PC
involves the following tasks, in the order listed:
Step 1:
Uninstall the current version of Agilent Technologies IO libraries
Step 2:
Uninstall all National Instruments products.
Step 3:
Install the National Instruments VXI software.
• Instructions: as per "Install software for the NI Data Acquisition Software."
• Accept All default settings.
Step 4:
Install the National Instruments VISA runtime.
• Instructions: as per "Install software for the NI Data Acquisition Software."
• Accept All default settings.
Step 5:
NOTE
Install software for the NI Data Acquisition Software.
Install Windows® XP Professional® operating system, and all necessary PC-specific
software and drivers, before beginning the procedures in this section. See the PC and
software manufacturers’ documentation for their installation requirements and
procedures.
This procedure applies specifically to the PC digitizer card supplied with the
N5505A system. For this and any other PC digitizer card, always follow the
manufacturer’s instructions.
408
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
PC Components Installation
19
To install the PC digitizer software
Step
Action
1 Make sure your PC and display are on.
2 Place the manufacturer’s installation DVD-R in
the DVD-R drive of the PC.
• The installation wizard dialog box should
automatically appear after a few
seconds. If it doesn’t, start it this way:
• From the Start menu, select My
Computer and the DVD-R drive.
• Find and select the file setup.exe. Click
OK.
3 Follow the instructions in the installation wizard. • Accept the defaults.
4 Shutdown and power off the PC and its
peripherals. Proceed to the phase noise
hardware installation procedures.
NOTE
NOTE
Step 6:
WA R N I N G
C AU T I O N
• Leave the DVD-R in the drive. Once you
have installed the necessary hardware
and powered on the PC again, the
installation wizard will lead you through
completing the PC digitizer software
installation process.
If you’re re-installing any of the phase noise hardware and software components in the
list, be sure to uninstall all components, then reinstall them in the order shown above.
If you encounter any problems with the installation, contact your Agilent Technologies
Service Center. Contact information is in Appendix A, “Service, Support, and Safety
Information.”
Hardware Installation
Disconnect all power before removing the cover to your PC. Failure to disconnect
power could result in serious injury.
Refer to your computer’s documentation for installation safety instructions and
specific instructions for opening your computer. Be sure to perform these
procedures in a properly grounded environment. Agilent recommends wearing
grounding wrist or foot straps. Failure to do so may result in damage to the
computer.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
409
19 PC Components Installation
Step 6a: Taking ESD precautions
C AU T I O N
The PC Digitizer and GPIB interface cards are static-sensitive devices. Wear a
properly grounded wrist or foot strap while handling the cards and performing the
procedures in this section. Failure to do so can result in damage to the electronic
devices and assemblies involved.
While inserting the cards, be sure to hold them by the edges.
Step 6b: Preparing for Installation
You need a #1 POZIDRIV screwdriver to install hardware in the system PC.
1 Make sure that your PC and all its peripherals are powered off.
2 Disconnect the power cord from the PC.
3 Remove the cover from the PC to access the PC’s expansion slots. See the
PC manufacturer’s documentation for instructions.
To remove the cover of the N5505A system Advantech or Kontron PC:
a Remove the top two screws on the left and right sides of the PC.
1
2
Grounding
wrist strap
Figure 310 Remove screws from side of CPU
410
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
PC Components Installation
19
b Carefully slide the cover away from the front of the unit then lift it off.
Figure 311 Slide cover off
c Uninstall the internal hold-down bar by removing the two screws that
attach it and lift the bar out of the unit.
2
1
Figure 312 Remove hold-down bar
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
411
19 PC Components Installation
Step 6c: Accessing PC expansion slots
Figure 313 shows a view of the expansion slots vertically mounted; your
computer’s expansion slots may be horizontally mounted, but the process is
the same.
1 Look for suitable expansion slots for both the PC digitizer card and the
GPIB interface card. Choose slots that provide good external access to the
PC Digitizer and GPIB interface connectors. You may want to leave an
empty expansion slot between the cards for easier internal access.
2 Remove their cover plates by unscrewing the securing screw and lifting
them off the slot. (Save the blank cover plates for use if the cards are
removed later.)
Expansion slot(s)
Grounding
wrist strap
Figure 313 Vertically-Mounted expansion slots
Step 6d: Installing the PC digitizer card (PCB)
Perform this installation with the system PC disconnected from AC power.
Figure 314 shows a PC digitizer card.
412
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
PC Components Installation
19
Figure 314 PC digitizer card
1 Insert the PC digitizer card edge connector into the PCI connector. Gently
rock the card into place; do not force it. Make sure the card is fully seated by
pushing firmly on the edge of the card with the palm of your hand.
Figure 315 Insert PC digitizer card
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
413
19 PC Components Installation
2 Screw the mounting bracket to the PC back-rail panel to secure the card.
Figure 316 Secure card with screw
3 Connect the digitizer adapter to the back of the PC digitizer card, as shown
in Figure 317.
Figure 317 Connect adapter to PC digitizer card
While you have access to the expansion slots, also install the second piece of
phase noise system hardware, the GPIB interface card.
414
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
PC Components Installation
19
Step 6e: Installing the GPIB interface card (PCB)
NOTE
Only Agilent Technologies PCI GPIB cards, 82350, are supported.
Perform this installation with the PC disconnected from AC power. Figure 318
shows a GPIB interface card.
Figure 318 GPIB interface card
1 Insert the GPIB card in the PCI connector. Gently rock the card into place;
do not force it. Make sure the card is fully seated by pushing firmly on the
edge of the card with the palm of your hand.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
415
19 PC Components Installation
Figure 319 Insert GPIB card
NOTE
You may need a GPIB connector extender to provide adequate clearance between the GPIB
cable and the computer chassis.
2 Screw the mounting bracket to the PC back-rail panel to secure the card.
Figure 320 Secure card with screw
416
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
PC Components Installation
19
3 Replace the PC cover as described in the manufacturer’s documentation.
For the system’s Advantech or Kontron PC, re-install the hold-down bar
(with additional rubber bumpers if desired), then replace the cover.
Figure 321 Replace cover
Step 7. Finalize National Instruments Software Installation.
When you power on the PC again, the installation wizard leads you through a
few last steps of installing the National Instruments software.
To finish the National Instruments software installation:
1 Reconnect the power cord to the PC and the AC power supply.
2 Power on the PC and the display.
3 Follow the instructions in the installation wizard.
4 Do NOT restart the PC at this time.
Step 8: System Interconnections
Use the information in this section to make connections between the
system PC and the N5500A test set.
Connectors
Table 73 contains the connectors on the main N5505A system instruments.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
417
19 PC Components Installation
Table 73 E5505A connectors and adapters
Part
Number
Description
N5500A N5500A N5500A N5501A N5507A N5508A N5508A
Standard Opt. 001 Opt. 201 N5502A
Opt. 002
0960-0053
Termination, coaxial SMA
(male), 50 Ω
1250-0207
Termination, BNC, 50 Ω
1
1
1
1250-0780
Adapter, Type N (male) to BNC
(female)
3
2
3
1250-0839
Termination, coaxial SMC
(female), 50 Ω
1250-1200
Adapter, SMA (male) to BNC
(female)
2
1250-1250
Adapter, N (male) to SMA
(female)
1
1250-2015
Adapter, SMA (female) to BNC
(male)
1250-2076
Termination, coaxial SMB
(female), 50 Ω
5061-5311
Adapter/Connector saver, 3.5
mm (female) to 3.5mm (female)
5813-0803
GPIB extension
E5505-60001 Digitizer adapter for PC
4
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1 with E5505A System, or 2 for use with Agilent Technologies E5500 SCPI
Remote Interface GPIB slave Port
1 with E5505A system
Making Connections
1 Connect the following cables between the PC Digitizer card adapter and the
test set:
• SMA (male) to BNC (male) cable between the PC digitizer card adapter’s
IN connector and the test set’s front-panel connector
ANALYZER <100 MHz OUT.
• SMA (male) to BNC (male) cable between the PC digitizer card adapter’s
OUT connector and the test set’s rear-panel connector
CHIRP SOURCE IN.
2 Refer to Figure 322 below and Figure 323 on page 420 for examples of
system interconnections.
NOTE
418
For easy re-installation, label each end of the cables with the corresponding instrument
connectors.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
PC Components Installation
19
Test set rear
panel connection
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
MULTIPLEXER
OUT
ICES/NMB-001
ISM GRP.1 CLASS A
TRACK GEN
IN
CHIRP SOURCE
SEE USERS MANUAL
TUNE VOLTAGE
IN
OUT
SERIAL NUMBER
LABEL
N10149
154258
LINE
115 V/3 A
230 V/2 A
50/60 Hz
FUSE: T 3.15 A 250 V
Standard test set
N5500A
50 Ω load
termination
Test Set
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
SIGNAL INPUT
INPUT
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz -1600 MHz
0.01 Hz -100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz -1600 MHz
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
To test set
rear panel
CHIRP source
PC
Digitizer
output
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
Digitizer
input
GPIB
Display
E5505a_test_set_con1
05 Apr 04 rev 1
Figure 322 Test set connection, standard model
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
419
19 PC Components Installation
Test set rear
panel connection
Spectrum analyzer
GPIB
MULTIPLEXER
TRACK GEN
OUT
IN
ICES/NMB-001
ISM GRP.1 CLASS A
CHIRP SOURCE
SEE USERS MANUAL
N10149
154258
TUNE VOLTAGE
IN
OUT
GPIB
SERIAL NUMBER
LABEL
LINE
115 V/3 A
230 V/2 A
50/60 Hz
FUSE: T 3.15 A 250 V
Test set
(all options)
50 Ω load
termination
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm + ATTEN
1.2 GHz-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm + ATTEN
+30 dBm MAX WITH
ATTENUATOR
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
SIGNAL
INPUT
Downconverter
STATUS
ACT ERR
REF INPUT
NOISE
50 kHz - 1600 MHz
1.2 - 26.5 GHz
0.01 Hz - 100 MHz
+15 dBm MIN
+7 dBm MIN
MAXIMUM POWER
50 kHz -1600 MHz
+23 dBm
1.2-26.5 GHz
+10 dBm
50
1 V Pk
50 kHz - 26.5 GHz
Downconverter
N5502A
N5500A Opt 001
Test Set
SIGNAL INPUT
0 VDC MAX
MAXIMUM POWER
5 MHz-1 GHz
+10 dBm
1 GHz-18 GHz
+15 dBm
PHASE DET OUTPUT
POSSIBLE
OUTPUT POWER
+30 dBm
RF ANALYZER
MONITOR
ANALYZER
ANALYZER
SIGNAL
ANALYZER
FROM TEST SET
FROM
DOWNCONVERTER
To test set
rear panel
CHIRP source
PC
Digitizer
output
GPIB
RMT LSN TLK SRQ
STATUS
ACT ERR
INPUT
OUTPUT
RF ANALYZER
+5 +15 dBm
5 MHz -18 GHz
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
10 VOLTS MAX
IF
AUX LO
5 -1500 MHz
1.8-18 GHz
TO
DOWNCONVERTER
TUNE VOLTAGE
OUT OF LOCK
<100 kHz
<100 MHz
50
20 mA MAX
POWER
POWER
Digitizer
input
GPIB
Display
E5505a_test_set_con2
05 Apr 04 rev 1
Figure 323 Test set (options 001 and 201) and downconverter connection
Step 9: Install Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable Package use default
settings
Step 9a: Install Agilent IO Libs
Step 9b: Run Agilent Connection Expert
Step 10: Install the Agilent I/O Libraries
Step 10a: Install Agilent IO Libs
The Agilent I/O libraries are on the E5500 Phase Noise Measurement software
DVD-R. Use this procedure to install them on the PC.
420
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
PC Components Installation
NOTE
19
If you re-install or upgrade the Agilent I/O Libraries at a later date, you must also re-install
the E5500 Phase Noise Measurement Software after the I/O Library installation.
To install the Agilent I/O libraries
Step
Notes
1 Make sure your PC and display are on.
2 Place the E5500 Phase Noise Measurement
System software DVD-R in the PC’s DVD-R
drive.
• A window appears with the contents of the
CD. If the window doesn’t appear, navigate
to the folder using the menu selections
Start/Run/Browse.
3 Double-click on the folder IO_Libraries.
4 After double clicking the execute file, the
install wizard shield should appear.
a Read and review Agilent Terms and
conditions. If you accept them, then select
Accept, followed by Next
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To install the Agilent I/O libraries (continued)
Step
Notes
5 Select Custom Installation and follow the
instructions in the Setup.exe wizard.
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To install the Agilent I/O libraries (continued)
Step
Notes
6 Select Agilent VISA as the Primary VISA
7 Accept Default settings for the remainder of
the screens.
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19 PC Components Installation
To install the Agilent I/O libraries (continued)
Step
Notes
8 This will rename the current visa file in “C:\
WINDOWS\system32” to “visa32.dll.bak”
Continue with the installation.
9 If the PC has not gone through a reboot,
then reboot it.
10 Navigate to the “C:\WINDOWS\system32”
directory and rename the “visa32.dll.bak”
file to “nivisa32.dll”.
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Step 10b: Run the Agilent Connection Expert
Step
Notes
1 Select the second of the two GPIB Cards,
“GPIB1”. Click the “Change Properties”
button. The following screen will appear:
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19 PC Components Installation
Step
Notes
2 Change the GPIB address to “22”, and
unselect the “System Controller” tick box.
Then click the “OK” button. You may be
asked to re-boot the PC.
3 Right click the second of the two GPIB
Cards, “GPIB1”, and select the “Ignored”
state.
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Step
19
Notes
4 The ACE display should now look like…
Step 11: Install the E5500 Phase Noise Measurement software.
Use this procedure to re-install the E5500 software on your system PC.
To install the E5500 software
Step
Note
1 Make sure your PC and display are on and the
E5500 Phase Noise Measurement System
software DVD-R is in the PC’s DVD-R drive.
2 Navigate to the DVD-R contents folder using
the menu selections Start/Run/Browse, and
select the DVD-R drive.
• You can also open and close the DVD-R
drive to cause a window with the DVD-R
contents folder to appear.
3 Double-click on Setup.exe.
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19 PC Components Installation
To install the E5500 software (continued)
Step
Note
4 Follow the instructions in the installation
wizard.
• Accept the default settings.
5 When finished, double-click the E5500 Phase
Noise folder now on the PC desktop to open
it.
• The software places the E5500 Phase
6 Copy the E5500 User Interface (UI) shortcut
and the E5500 Shutdown shortcut to the PC
desktop.
• This provides easy access to the E5500
Noise folder on the desktop as part of the
installation process.
software and the Shutdown utility.
E5500_copy_icons
04 Apr 04 rev 1
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To install the E5500 software (continued)
Step
Note
7 Restart the PC.
Step 12: Asset Configuration
An asset is any piece of hardware that you want to configure for system use
(N5500A, for example). An asset role is the general category of the hardware
(test sets, downconverters, counters, and so on.) In the E5505A phase noise
system, the Asset Manager serves to configure the system instruments. This
section describes how to set up and use the Asset Manager.
Setting Up Asset Manager
Before you use the Asset Manager to configure your system instruments, you
may need to take it out of Demo Mode. (Asset Manager runs in Demo Mode on
initial installation or if it is installed on a PC to which no system instruments
are attached.) You must invoke the Asset Manager to determine if it is in Demo
Mode.
To set up Asset Manager
Step
Note
1 Navigate to the Asset Manager by selecting
Start/Programs/Agilent Subsystems/E5500
Phase Noise/E5500 Asset Manager.
• You can also invoke the Asset Manager
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
from the E5500 software main menu. From
the menu, select System/Asset Manager.
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19 PC Components Installation
To set up Asset Manager (continued)
Step
Note
2 From the menu, select Options and deselect
Demo Mode.
• If the Asset Manager is in Demo Mode,
the left pane shows a graphic with the
word DEMO. If it is not in Demo Mode, the
left pane shows a list of assets.
3 Close the Asset Manager.
NOTE
430
When Asset Manager is invoked from the E5500 main menu, you must restart the E5500
software for any configurations changes to take effect.
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Configuring the Phase Noise Test Set
Now that you have taken the Asset Manager out of Demo Mode, use it to
configure an instrument. This procedure shows you how to configure the
phase noise test set.
1 Double-click on the E5500 Phase Noise desktop
shortcut.
• This invokes the E5500 software and the
2 From the menu, select System/Asset Manger.
• This invokes the Auto Asset Wizard.
main phase-noise-graph screen appears.
3 Click on Asset Wizard on the Auto Asset
Wizard dialog box.
4 Select Test Set from the Asset Type drop down
list and click Next.
• In the Choose Asset Role box
5 Confirm that Agilent/HP 70420A/N5500A
appears in the pane, then click Next.
• In the Choose Supporting ACM box
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19 PC Components Installation
6 In the Interface field, select GPIBO from the
pull-down list.
• In the Select Interface and Address box
• Table 74 on page 438 shows the default
device addresses.
7 In the Address field, type 20, the default
address for the test set.
432
8 In the Library field, keep the default and click
Next.
• The Library field does not apply to this
9 Type Agilent N5500A or Agilent 70420A, in the
Asset Name field, depending on your model.
• In the Set Model & Serial Numbers box
10 Type the serial number in the Serial Number
field and click Next.
• The serial number of the N550A test set
example. It applies specifically to the
GPIB interface card.
is found on the rear panel. On the 70420A
it is found below the front panel.
• This entry is optional.
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11 Type a comment in the Comment field, if
desired.
• The comment associates itself with the
12 Click Finish.
• The Asset Manager window appears.
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19
asset you have just configured.
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19 PC Components Installation
13 View the test set information in the Asset
Manager window and confirm that it is correct.
• The left pane shows the list of asset
roles and assets. The right pane shows
the asset information. The right pane is
information only. The left pane is active.
14 To change information about an asset,
double-click on the asset in the left pane and
change the information in the box that appears.
You have just used the Asset Manager to configure the N5500A test set. The
process for configuring any asset is essentially the same. Repeat this
procedure for all of the assets that you wish to add to your N5505A system.
You must add the test set and the PC digitizer to perform the confidence test
(see “Performing a Confidence Test" on page 39). The PC digitizer
configuration procedure follows on page 435.
Table 74 on page 438 contains the default GPIB addresses for the instruments
in the system.
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Configuring the PC Digitizer
This procedure shows how to configure the PC Digitizer using Asset Manager
Wizard from within the Asset Manager. This is the most common way to add
assets.
1 From Asset Manager click Asset, then click Add. See Figure 324.
Figure 324 Add assets
2 From the Asset Type pull-down list (Figure 325 on page 435), select FFT
Analyzer, then select Next.
.
Figure 325 Choose asset type
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19 PC Components Installation
3 In the Choose Supporting ACM dialog, click on II PCI20428W-1, then click
the Next button. See Figure 326.
Figure 326 Select supporting ACM
4 In the Select Interface and Address dialog:
a Select PCI From the Interface pull-down list.
b Type 320, the default address for the II20428 PC Digitizer, in the
Address box. Table 74 on page 438 shows the default device addresses.
c The Library pull-down list does not apply to this example. It applies
specifically to either the Agilent GPIB or the National GPIB interface
cards.
436
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Figure 327 Choose the interface and address for the PC digitizer
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19 PC Components Installation
Default GPIB addresses
Table 74 shows the default GPIB address for each instrument in the system.
Table 74 Default GPIB addresses
Instrument
GPIB Address
Test set
20
Downconverter
28
Microwave downconverter
28
RF analyzer
17
FFT analyzer (PC digitizer card)
1
FFT analyzer (89410A)
18
Source # 1
19
Source # 2
23
Counter
3
1
129
Agilent E1437 VXI digitizer1
192
Agilent E1420B VXI counter1
48
Agilent E1441 VXI ARB1
80
Agilent GPIB slave Port
22
Agilent E1430 VXI digitizer
1 The E5500 software supports this instrument although it is not part of the standard E5505A system.
C AU T I O N
If an address is a single digit address, for example (3), do not add a leading zero
(03) to the address. The phase noise software treats these (3 and 03) as different
addresses.
5 Select Next.
6 In the Set Model & Serial Numbers box (Figure 328):
a Type II PCI20428W-1 in the Asset Name box.
b Type the serial number for your PC Digitizer in the Serial Number
(optional) box.
7 Select Next.
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Figure 328 Choose model and serial number
8 From the Baseband Source pull-down list in the Select FFT Analyzer
Options box, select (internal). See Figure 329. This designates the noise
source on the PC Digitizer board as the noise source to be used for
loopsuppression verification suppression verification.
Figure 329 Select (internal) in baseband source
9 Click the Next button.
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10 You can type a comment in the Enter a Comment box (Figure 330). The
comment associates itself with the asset you have just configured.
Figure 330 Enter a comment about the configured asset
11 Click the Finish button. The Asset manager window appears. See
Figure 331.
Figure 331 Asset manager screen showing configured PC Digitizer
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You have just used the Asset Manager to configure the PC digitizer. The
process for configuring the test set and PC digitizer is the same process you
use to add software-controlled assets to the phase noise measurement system.
Configuring the Agilent E4411A/B (ESA-L1500A) Swept Analyzer
1 To configure the E4411A/B Swept Analyzer, follow the same steps you used
to configure the test set. (Refer to “Configuring the Phase Noise Test Set" on
page 431.)
2 In the Select Interface and Address box, use 8, the default GPIB address for
the E4411A/B. (Table 74 on page 438 contains the default GPIB addresses
for the system instruments.)
3 Click Server, then click Exit to exit the Asset Manager.
Step 13: License Key for the Phase Noise Test Set
Use this procedure to enter the keyword for your phase noise test set.
NOTE
If you have ordered a preconfigured phase noise system from Agilent Technologies, skip
this step and proceed to “Powering the System On" on page 36.
1 Make sure your computer and display are on.
2 Referring to Figure 332, navigate to the E5500 Asset Manager.
Figure 332 Navigate to E5500 asset manager
3 Click Options, and then click License Keys. See Figure 333 on page 442.
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19 PC Components Installation
Figure 333 Navigate to license keys
NOTE
The license key for your system is unique and may only be used with a specific N5500A
test set serial number. The license key may be found both on your license-key document
and in the file “license_key.txt” on the License_key floppy disk provided with your system.
4 Enter the license key for your phase noise test set and click the Set button.
Use Licence_key.txt described in the next steps to facilitate entering your
license key into the licensing dialog box.
a Insert the E5500 License Key disk in the computer.
b Using Notepad, load License_key.txt. See Figure 334 on page 443.
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Figure 334 License_key.txt
c Highlight the keyword in the License_key.txt file and copy it to the dialog
box as shown in Figure 335.
.
Figure 335 Copy keyword into license key field
d Click the Set button.
• The dialog box displays a message confirming licensing or indicating that
there is a problem. See Figure 336 and Figure 337 on page 444.
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19 PC Components Installation
Figure 336 Licensing confirmation
Figure 337 Licensing error
5 Perform the PC Digitizer Performance Verification procedure in Chapter 20
to ensure that the digitizer and adapter are functioning properly.
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PC Digitizer Performance Verification
Verifying PC Digitizer Card Output Performance 446
PC Digitizer Card Input Performance Verification 451
This chapter contains information and procedures for verifying the
performance of the NI-DAQ PC digitizer card (PCI-6111) and PC digitizer card
adapter.
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20 PC Digitizer Performance Verification
Verifying PC Digitizer Card Output Performance
This procedure verifies the output performance of the PC digitizer card and
adapter. Perform this procedure periodically to ensure the proper functioning
of these two components, which affect measurement accuracy.
Required equipment
• Multimeter or oscilloscope (for reading output voltage)
To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance
Step
Notes
1 Turn off the phase noise software.
446
2 Connect the PC digitizer card adapter’s
output to the input of either a multimeter or
oscilloscope.
• See connection diagram below.
3 Open the NI-DAQ Measurement and
Automation Explorer application.
• Path: Start\Programs\National
Instruments\Measurement & Automation
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To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance (continued)
Step
Notes
E5505a_ni_daq1
11 Jun 04 rev 1
4 Double-click Devices and Interfaces in the
Configuration content frame.
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20 PC Digitizer Performance Verification
To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance (continued)
Step
Notes
5 Double-click on Traditional NI-DAQ Devices,
then select PCI-6111.
6 Click the Test Panels... button.
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To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance (continued)
Step
Notes
7 Select the Analog Output Tab.
8 Select DC Voltage output mode.
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20 PC Digitizer Performance Verification
To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance (continued)
Step
Notes
9 Enter +10 V in the DC Voltage window.
0
di
6
10 Click the Update Channel button.
11 Confirm that the multimeter or oscilloscope
reads +5 V (±10%).
• PC digitizer adapter output specification is
+5 V, ±10%.
12 Enter –10 V in the DC Voltage window.
13 Click the Update Channel button.
14 Confirm that the multimeter or oscilloscope
reads –5 V (±10%).
450
• PC digitizer adapter output specification is
–5 V, ±10%.
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PC Digitizer Card Input Performance Verification
This procedure verifies the Input performance of the PC digitizer card and
adapter. Perform this procedure periodically to ensure the proper functioning
of these two components, which affect measurement accuracy.
Required equipment
Function generator
• Frequency: 2 MHz
• Calibrated peak to peak
To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance
Step
Action
1 Connect the PC digitizer adapter’s
input connector to the output of the
function generator.
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To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance (continued) (continued)
Step
Action
2 Open the E5505A phase noise
software.
• Path: Start\Programs\Agilent Subsystems\E5500
3 Click FFT Analyzer Check I/O button
in Server Hardware Connections to
verify the PC digitizer’s connectivity.
• Path: System\Server Hardware Connections
• A green check-mark appears on the button to
4 Configure the function generator
using the appropriate keys on the
instrument.
• Frequency: 100 kHz
• Amplitude: 100 mV peak to peak
• For instructions, refer to the function generator’s
Phase Noise System\E5500 User Interface
confirm connectivity. If a red circle with a slash
appears, check hardware connections and try
again.
user’s guide.
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To verify the PC digitizer card input’s performance (continued) (continued)
Step
Action
5 Select the FFT Analyzer Asset
Control Panel.
• Path: System\Asset Control Panels\FFT Analyzer
6 Configure the FFT Analyzer’s Asset
Control Panel.
•
•
•
•
7 Connect the PC digitizer adapter’s
input connector to the output of the
function generator.
• See diagram in step 1 on page 451.
8 Click the Peak button.
• The Frequency screen should reflect the 100 kHz
9 Reconfigure the Function Generator.
• Frequency: 1.99 MHz
• Amplitude: 100 mV peak to peak
10 Click the Peak button.
• The Frequency screen should reflect the 1.99 MHz
11 Close the FFT Analyzer’s Asset
Control Panel.
• This concludes the procedure.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Span: 0 to 2 MHz
Window Type: Flattop
Sweep: Continuous
Marker: Enable
power specification: –29.00 dBv, ± 0.25 dBv
power specification: –29.00 dBv, ± 0.5 dBv
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Preventive Maintenance
Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors
General Procedures and Techniques 460
456
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21 Preventive Maintenance
Using, Inspecting, and Cleaning RF Connectors
Taking proper care of cables and connectors will protect your system’s ability
to make accurate measurements. One of the main sources of measurement
inaccuracy can be caused by improperly made connections or by dirty or
damaged connectors.
The condition of system connectors affects measurement accuracy and
repeatability. Worn, out-of-tolerance, or dirty connectors degrade these
measurement performance characteristics.
Repeatability
If you make two identical measurements with your system, the differences
should be so small that they will not affect the value of the measurement.
Repeatability (the amount of similarity from one measurement to another of
the same type) can be affected by:
• Dirty or damaged connectors
• Connections that have been made without using proper torque techniques
(this applies primarily when connectors in the system have been
disconnected, then reconnected).
C AU T I O N
Static-Sensitive Devices
This system contains instruments and devices that are static-sensitive. Always
take proper electrostatic precautions before touching the center conductor of any
connector, or the center conductor of any cable that is connected to any system
instrument. Handle instruments and devices only when wearing a grounded wrist
or foot strap. When handling devices on a work bench, make sure you are working
on an anti-static worksurface.
RF Cable and Connector Care
Connectors are the most critical link in a precision measurement system.
These devices are manufactured to extremely precise tolerances and must be
used and maintained with care to protect the measurement accuracy and
repeatability of your system.
To extend the life of your cables or connectors:
• Avoid repeated bending of cables—a single sharp bend can ruin a cable
instantly.
• Avoid repeated connection and disconnection of cable connectors.
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• Inspect the connectors before connection; look for dirt, nicks, and other
signs of damage or wear. A bad connector can ruin the good connector
instantly.
• Clean dirty connectors. Dirt and foreign matter can cause poor electrical
connections and may damage the connector.
• Minimize the number of times you bend cables.
• Never bend a cable at a sharp angle.
• Do not bend cables near the connectors.
• If any of the cables will be flexed repeatedly, buy a back-up cable. This will
allow immediate replacement and will minimize system down time.
Before connecting the cables to any device:
• Check all connectors for wear or dirt.
• When making the connection, torque the connector to the proper value.
Proper Connector Torque
• Provides more accurate measurements
• Keeps moisture out of the connectors
• Eliminates radio frequency interference (RFI) from affecting your
measurements
The torque required depends on the type of connector. Refer to Table 75.
Do not overtighten the connector.
Never exceed the recommended torque when attaching cables.
Table 75 Proper Connector Torque
Connector
Torque cm-kg
Torque N-cm
Torque in-lbs
Wrench P/N
Type-N
52
508
45
hand tighten
3.5 mm
9.2
90
8
8720-1765
SMA
5.7
56
5
8710-1582
Connector Wear and Damage
Look for metal particles from the connector threads and other signs of wear
(such as discoloration or roughness). Visible wear can affect measurement
accuracy and repeatability. Discard or repair any device with a damaged
connector. A bad connector can ruin a good connector on the first mating. A
magnifying glass or jeweler’s loupe is useful during inspection.
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SMA Connector Precautions
Use caution when mating SMA connectors to any precision 3.5 mm RF
connector. SMA connectors are not precision devices and are often out of
mechanical tolerances, even when new. An out-of-tolerance SMA connector
can ruin a 3.5 mm connector on the first mating. If in doubt, gauge the SMA
connector before connecting it. The SMA center conductor must never extend
beyond the mating plane.
Cleaning Procedure
1 Blow particulate matter from connectors using an environmentally-safe
aerosol such as Aero-Duster. (This product is recommended by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency and contains tetrafluoroethane.
You can order this aerosol from Agilent (see Table 76).)
2 Use alcohol and a lint-free cloth to wipe connector surfaces. Wet a small
swab with a small quantity of alcohol and clean the connector with the
swab.
3 Allow the alcohol to evaporate off of the connector before making
connections.
C AU T I O N
458
Do not allow excessive alcohol to run into the connector. Excessive alcohol
entering the connector collects in pockets in the connector’s internal parts. The
liquid will cause random changes in the connector’s electrical performance. If
excessive alcohol gets into a connector, lay it aside to allow the alcohol to
evaporate. This may take up to three days. If you attach that connector to another
device it can take much longer for trapped alcohol to evaporate.
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Table 76 Cleaning Supplies Available from Agilent
WA R N I N G
WA R N I N G
Product
Part Number
Aero-Duster
8500-6460
Isopropyl alcohol
8500-5344
Lint-Free cloths
9310-0039
Small polyurethane swabs
9301-1243
Cleaning connectors with alcohol should only be performed with the
instruments’ mains power cord disconnected, in a well ventilated area.
Connector cleaning should be accomplished with the minimum amount of
alcohol. Prior to connector reuse, be sure that all alcohol used has dried, and
that the area is free of fumes.
If flammable cleaning materials are used, the material should not be stored, or
left open in the area of the equipment. Adequate ventilation should be assured to
prevent the combustion of fumes, or vapors.
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General Procedures and Techniques
This section introduces you to the various cable and connector types used in
the system. Read this section before attempting to remove or install an
instrument! Each connector type may have unique considerations.
Always use care when working with system cables and instruments.
GPIB Type Connector
Figure 338 GPIB, 3.5 mm, Type-N, power sensor, and BNC connectors
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Connector Removal
GPIB Connectors
These are removed by two captured screw, one on each end of the connector;
these usually can be turned by hand. Use a flathead screwdriver if necessary.
GPIB connectors often are stacked two or three deep. When you are removing
multiple GPIB connectors, disconnect each connector one at a time. It is a
good practice to connect them back together even if you have not yet replaced
the instrument; this avoids confusion, especially if more than one instrument
has been removed.
When putting GPIB connectors back on, you must again detach them from one
another and put them on one at a time.
Precision 3.5 mm Connectors
These are precision connectors. Always use care when connecting or
disconnecting this type of connector. When reconnecting, make sure you align
the male connector properly. Carefully join the connectors, being careful not
to cross-thread them.
Loosen precision 3.5 mm connectors on flexible cables by turning the
connector nut counter-clockwise with a 5/16 inch wrench. Always reconnect
using an 8 inch-lb torque wrench (Agilent part number 8720-1765). Semirigid
cables are metal tubes, custom-formed for this system from semirigid coax
cable stock.
3.5 mm Connectors with a gold hex nut
The semirigid cables that go to the RF outputs of some devices have a gold
connector nut. These do not turn. Instead, the RF connector on the instrument
has a cylindrical connector body that turns. To disconnect this type of
connector, turn the connector body on the instrument clockwise. This action
pushes the cable’s connector out of the instrument connector.
To reconnect, align the cable with the connector on the instrument. Turn the
connector body counterclockwise. You may have to move the cable slightly
until alignment is correct for the connectors to mate. When the two connectors
are properly aligned, turning the instrument’s connector body will pull in the
semirigid cable’s connector. Tighten firmly by hand.
3.5 mm connectors with a silver hex nut
All other semirigid cable connectors use a silver-colored nut that can be
turned. To remove this type of connector, turn the silver nut counter-clockwise
with a 5/16 inch wrench.
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When reconnecting this type of cable:
• Carefully insert the male connector center pin into the female connector.
(Make sure the cable is aligned with the instrument connector properly
before joining them.)
• Turn the silver nut clockwise by hand until it is snug, then tighten with an 8
inch-lb torque wrench (part number 8720-1765).
Bent Semirigid Cables
Semirigid cables are not intended to be bent outside of the factory. An
accidental bend that is slight or gradual may be straightened carefully by hand.
Semirigid cables that are crimped will affect system performance and must be
replaced. Do not attempt to straighten a crimped semirigid cable.
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Instrument Removal
To remove an instrument from the system, use one of the following
procedures.
Required tools
• #2 Phillips screwdriver
• #2 POZIDRIV screwdriver
Standard instrument
To remove an instrument from a rack
Step
Notes
1 Turn off system power, but leave the system
computer turned on.
• If you do plan to turn computer power off
2 Read “General Procedures and Techniques”,
then disconnect all cables on the front and on
the rear panel.
• Most cables are fairly easy to remove and
for any reason, have the computer system
administrator:
• Shut down all running software.
• Shut down the computer.
reconnect, and have no special
considerations (besides making sure you
put the cables back in the right place).
• Semirigid cables require more care,
especially when reconnecting them.
Make sure all semirigid cables, on the
front and back of an instrument are fully
disconnected before removing the unit.
3 When all cables are disconnected (including
the power cord), remove the screws in the
instrument’s rack “ears” that hold it in the
rack.
4 Slide the instrument out.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
• If you feel any resistance when
attempting to pull the instrument out,
STOP! Look inside the cabinet and
carefully examine all surrounding cables.
Make sure all cables are fully
disconnected.
463
21 Preventive Maintenance
Half-Rack-Width Instrument
To remove a half-width instrument from a system rack
1 Power off the system.
2
• For details see the system installation
guide.
Remove the selected instrument’s power cord
from the power strip in the rack.
3 The instrument is attached to the half-rack width
instrument beside it; remove that instrument’s
power cord from the power strip also.
• The instruments are secured together
4 Remove the power cord and other cables from
the front and rear of both instruments.
• Note the location of cables for
5 Remove the four corner screws on the front of
the rack panel that secures the instruments in
place.
• The screws are located near the
by lock links at the front and rear. The
lock links at the rear attach with
screws. The lock links at the front hook
together.
re-installation.
corners of the face of the instrument.
• Use a #2 Phillips screwdriver.
6 Slide both instruments, as a single unit, out from
the front of the rack and set them on a secure,
flat surface.
7 Detach the lock links that secure the rear of the
instruments together by removing their screws.
• Use a #2 POZIDRIV screwdriver.
• See Figure 339 on page 465.
8 Carefully and at the same time, push one
instrument forward and pull the other back to
unhook the lock links that secure the front of the
instruments to each other.
9 Store the “partner” instrument and lock links
while the selected instrument is out of the rack.
464
• Only install the instruments as a pair;
individual installation is not secure.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Preventive Maintenance
21
Front links
Rear links
Inst_lock_links
24 Feb 04 rev 1
Figure 339 Instrument lock links, front and rear
Benchtop Instrument
To remove an instrument from a benchtop system
1 Power off each instrument in the system.
2
• For details, see “Powering the System Off" on
page 45.
Unplug the selected instrument’s power
cord from the AC power supply.
3 Remove the power cord and other cables
from the front and rear of the instrument.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
• Note the location of cables for re-installation.
465
21 Preventive Maintenance
Instrument Installation
To install or re-install an instrument in a system, use one of the following
procedures.
Required tools
• #2 Phillips screwdriver
• #2 POZIDRIV screwdriver
• system installation guide
Standard rack instrument
To install an instrument
Step
Notes
1 Slide the instrument gently into the rack.
2 Insert the screws in the rack ears.
• Most cables are fairly easy to remove and
3 To reconnect the semirigid cables, carefully
align them before you insert the male
connector.
• Do not insert the male pin in at an angle
reconnect and have no special
considerations (besides making sure you
put the cables back in the right place).
• Semirigid cables require more care,
especially when reconnecting them.
Make sure all semirigid cables, on the
front and back of an instrument are fully
disconnected before removing the unit.
or you will damage the female connector.
RF connector center pins are very
delicate, and if damaged must be
replaced. System performance may be
greatly impaired if there is a bad RF
connector.
4 Turn on system power and restart the system
computer if necessary.
466
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Preventive Maintenance
21
Half-Rack-Width instrument
To install the instrument in a rack
Step
Note
1 Make sure the system is powered off.
• For details, see “Powering the System
2 Re-attach the lock link that secures the front
of the returned instrument to it’s partner
half-rack-width instrument.
• Use a #2 POZIDRIV screwdriver.
• See Figure 339 on page 465.
3 Re-attach the lock link that secures the rear
of the instruments together.
• Use a #2 POZIDRIV screwdriver.
4 Insert the attached instruments in the same
slot from which you removed them, sliding
them along the support rails until they meet
the rack-mount ears.
• The rack-mount ears stop the instruments at
5 Replace the rack panel in front of the
instruments and secure the four corner
screws.
• The screws are located near the corners of
Off" on page 45.
the correct depth.
the face of the instrument.
• Use a #2 Phillips screwdriver.
6 Confirm that the instrument is turned off.
7 Connect the appropriate cables to the
instruments (front and rear), including the
power cords.
8 Power on the system.
• For details, see “Powering the System
On" on page 36.
Benchtop instrument
To install an instrument in a benchtop system
1 Make sure the system is powered off.
• For details, see “Powering the System
Off" on page 45.
2 Connect all cables to the instrument (front
and rear), including the power cord.
3
Connect the power cord to the AC power
source.
4 Power on the system.
• For details, see “Powering the System
On" on page 36.
5 Set the instrument GPIB address, if
necessary.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
467
21 Preventive Maintenance
468
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
A
Service, Support, and Safety
Information
Safety and Regulatory Information
Service and Support 476
Return Procedure 477
470
This appendix provides safety and regulatory information,
which you should review prior to working with your Agilent
system. The information contained in it applies to all
Agilent-supplied instruments in the system, and the system as a
whole.
It also contains information on servicing and obtaining support
for an Agilent system or instrument, including procedures for
removing an instrument from a system, returning it to Agilent,
and re-installing it.
Agilent Technologies
469
Service, Support, and Safety Information
A
Safety and Regulatory Information
Safety summary
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of
operation of this instrument or system. Failure to comply with these
precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety
standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of this instrument or
system. Agilent Technologies, Inc. assumes no liability for the customer’s
failure to comply with these requirements.
General
This product has been designed and tested in accordance with the standards
listed on the Manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformity, and has been supplied
in a safe condition. The documentation contains information and warnings
that must be followed by the user to ensure safe operation and to maintain the
product in a safe condition.
All light-emitting diodes (LEDs) used in this product are Class 1 LEDs per IEC
60825-1.
Equipment Installation
Install the instrument or system so that the detachable power cord is readily
identifiable and is easily reached by the operator. The detachable power cord
is the disconnecting device. It disconnects the mains circuits from the mains
supply before other parts of the instrument or system. The instrument front
panel switch is only a standby switch and is not a LINE switch. Alternatively,
an externally installed switch or circuit breaker (which is readily identifiable
and is easily reached by the operator) may be used as a disconnecting device.
WA R N I N G
WA R N I N G
470
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective earthing ground
incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall be inserted only in a
socket outlet provided with a protective earth contact. Any interruption of the
protective conductor inside or outside of the products is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited (IEC 348 clauses 17.3.3
c and 17.3.4).
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE.
Do not operate the instrument or system in the presence of flammable gases or
flames.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Service, Support, and Safety Information
WA R N I N G
A
DO NOT REMOVE AN INSTRUMENT COVER.
Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component
replacement and internal adjustments must be made only by qualified service
personnel.
Instruments that appear damaged or defective should be made inoperative and
secured against unintended operation until they can be repaired by qualified
service personnel.
Environmental conditions
WA R N I N G
C AU T I O N
C AU T I O N
If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided by the equipment
could be impaired. This product must be used only in a normal condition (in
which all means for protection are intact).
Unless otherwise noted in the specifications, this instrument or system is intended
for indoor use in an installation category II, pollution degree 2 environment.
Ventilation Requirements: When installing the product in a cabinet, the convection
into and out of the product must not be restricted. The ambient temperature
(outside the cabinet) must be less than the maximum operating temperature of the
product by 4 °C for every 100 watts, then forced convection must be used.
Before applying power
C AU T I O N
WA R N I N G
Verify that the product is set to match the available line voltage, the correct-rating
service breaker is installed, the correct fuse is installed, and all safety precautions
are taken. Note the instrument external markings described in Table 77, “Safety
symbols and instrument markings,” on page 473.
The mains wiring and connectors shall be compatible with the connector used in
the premise electrical system. Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not
using the correct components may cause product damage and serious injury.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
471
Service, Support, and Safety Information
A
Ground the instrument or system
WA R N I N G
WA R N I N G
C AU T I O N
C AU T I O N
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cover must be connected
to an electrical protective earth ground. The instrument and/or system must be
connected to the AC power mains through a grounded power cable, with the
ground wire firmly connected to an electrical ground (safety ground) at the
power outlet. Any interruption of the protective (grounding) conductor or
disconnection of the protective earth terminal will cause a potential shock
hazard that could result in personal injury.
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective earthing ground
incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall be inserted only in a
socket outlet provided with a protective earth contact. Any interruption of the
protective conductor inside or outside of the products is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited (IEC 348 clauses 17.3.3
c and 17.3.4).
Always use the three-prong AC power cord supplied with this product. Failure to
ensure adequate earth grounding by not using this cord may cause product
damage.
The detachable power cord is the disconnecting device. It disconnects the mains
circuit from the mains supply before other parts of the instrument or system. The
instrument front panel switch is only a standby switch and is not a line switch.
Fuses and Circuit Breakers
Refer to individual instrument manuals for detailed information on operator
accessible fuses.
WA R N I N G
WA R N I N G
WA R N I N G
472
Use only fuses with the required rated current, voltage, and specified type
(normal blow, time delay). Do not use repaired fuses or short-circuited fuse
holders. To do so could cause a shock or fire hazard.
For continued protection against fire hazard, replace fuses and circuit breakers
only with the same type and ratings. The use of other fuses or circuit breakers or
materials is prohibited (IEC 348 clause 17.3.5.d).
The premise wiring should have a system-dedicated circuit breaker in the mains
wiring for installation of the system.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Service, Support, and Safety Information
A
Agilent system cabinet power strips are equipped with a thermal circuit
breaker for each power phase. If one phase shorts or overloads, one or both of
the circuit breakers in the power strip trip. Unplug the power strip before
trying to locate and correct the electrical problem, then reset both circuit
breakers on the power strip to restore power to the cabinet.
Maintenance
WA R N I N G
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the instrument and/or system from
mains before cleaning. Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened with water to
clean the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean internally.
Safety symbols and instrument markings
Symbols and markings in manuals and on instruments alert you to potential
risks, provide information about conditions, and comply with international
regulations. Table 77 defines the symbols and markings you may find in a
manual or on an instrument.
Table 77 Safety symbols and instrument markings
Safety symbols
Definition
Warning: risk of electric shock.
Warning: hot surface.
Caution: refer to instrument documentation.
Laser radiation symbol: marked on products that have a laser
output.
Alternating current.
Both direct and alternating current.
Three-phase alternating current.
Earth (ground) terminal.
Protective earth (ground) terminal.
Frame or chassis terminal.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
473
A
Service, Support, and Safety Information
Table 77 Safety symbols and instrument markings (continued)
Safety symbols
Definition
Terminal is at earth potential. Used for measurement and
control circuits designed to be operated with one terminal at
earth potential.
Terminal for neutral conductor on permanently installed
equipment.
Terminal for line conductor on permanently installed
equipment.
Standby (supply); units with this symbol are not completely
disconnected from AC mains when this switch is in the
standby position. To completely disconnect the unit from AC
mains, either disconnect the power cord, or have a
qualified/licensed electrician install an external switch.
OFF (supply); a switch with this symbol opens the instrument’s
power supply circuit, disconnecting it with the mains supply.
ON (supply); a switch with this symbol closes the instrument’s
power supply circuit, connecting it with the mains supply.
Instrument markings
Definition
The CE mark is a registered trademark of the European
Community.
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the
CSA-International.
N10149
474
The C-tick mark is a registered trademark of the Spectrum
Management Agency of Australia. This signifies compliance
with the Australian EMC Framework regulations under the
terms of the Radio Communications Act of 1992.
1SM1-A
This text indicates that the instrument is an Industrial
Scientific and Medical Group 1 Class A product (CISPER 11,
Clause 4).
ICES/NMB-001
This text indicates product compliance with the Canadian
Interference-Causing Equipment Standard (ICES-001).
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Service, Support, and Safety Information
A
Regulatory Compliance
EMC
Complies with European EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
IEC/EN 61326-2-1:2005
CISPR Pub 11 Group 1, class A
AS/NZS CISPR11:2004
Safety
Complies with European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC
IEC/EN 61010-1 2nd edition
Canada: CSA C22.2 No. 61010-01-04
USA: UL std no. 61010-1 2nd edition
Declaration of Conformity
You may obtain a copy of the manufacturer's Declaration of Conformity at
http://www.agilent-pra.com/DoC/search.htm or through your local Agilent
Technologies Service Center. For contact information visit
http://www.agilent.com.
Compliance with German noise requirements
This is to declare that this instrument or system is in conformance with the
German Regulation on Noise Declaration for Machines (Laermangabe nach der
Maschinenlaermrerordnung –3.GSGV Deutschland).
Table 78 German noise requirements summary
Acoustic Noise Emission/Geraeuschemission
LpA <70 dB
LpA <70 dB
Operator position
am Arbeitsplatz
Normal position
normaler Betrieb
per ISO 7779
nach DIN 45635 t.19
Compliance with Canadian EMC requirements
This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES-001.
Cet appareil ISM est conforme a la norme NMB du Canada.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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Service, Support, and Safety Information
A
Service and Support
Any adjustment, maintenance, or repair of this product must be performed by
qualified personnel. Contact your Agilent Technologies Service Center for
assistance.
WA R N I N G
WA R N I N G
There are no user serviceable parts inside the system. Any servicing instructions
are for use by qualified personnel only. To avoid electrical shock, do not perform
any servicing unless you are qualified to do so.
The opening of covers or removal of parts is likely to expose dangerous voltages.
Disconnect the product from all voltage sources while it is being opened.
Agilent on the Web
You can find information about technical and professional services, product
support, and equipment repair and service on the Web:
http://www.agilent.com
Click on the Test & Measurement link then click on Select a Country. Click
on the Contact Us link for contact information.
476
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
Service, Support, and Safety Information
A
Return Procedure
In any correspondence or telephone conversations with Agilent Technologies,
please refer to the instrument by its model number (N5501A, for example) and
serial number. With this information, the customer engineer can determine
whether your instrument is still within its warranty period and provide
accurate shipping information.
Determining your instrument’s serial number
When Agilent Technologies manufactures an instrument, it is given a unique
serial number. This serial number appears on a label on the rear panel of the
instrument (see Figure 340). The serial number has two parts. The first part
makes up the prefix and consists of four digits and a letter. The second part
makes up the suffix and consists of the last five digits on the label. The serial
number prefix is the same for all identical instruments; it changes only if the
electrical or physical functionality differs between instruments. However, the
serial number suffix changes sequentially from instrument to instrument to
uniquely identify every one.
IF
LEVEL
10 MHz OVEN
OUT
TUNE SPAN
OUT
MULTIPLEXER
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
OUT
IN
ICES/NMB-001
ISM GRP.1 CLASS A
10 MHz IN
100 MHz OUT
+8 dBm
-2 dBm
BUFFERED
10 MHz OUT
600 MHz OUT
+20 dBm
0 dBm
GPIB
SEE USERS MANUAL
N10149
SERIAL NUMBER
LABEL
154258
LINE
115 V/3 A
230 V/2 A
50/60 Hz
FUSE: T 3.15 A 250 V
Figure 340 Serial number location
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
477
Service, Support, and Safety Information
A
Shipping the instrument
Use the following procedure to package and ship your instrument for service.
For instructions on removing an instrument from the system and re-installing
it, refer to the system user’s guide.
To package the instrument for shipping
Step
Notes
1 Place the instrument in its original packaging
materials.
• If the original packaging materials are
not available, use a professional
packaging service. Contact your Agilent
Service Center for more information.
2 Surround the instrument with at least 3 to 4
inches of its original packing material or
bubble-pack to prevent the instrument from
moving in its shipping container.
3 After wrapping it with packing material, place the
instrument in its original shipping container or a
strong shipping container that is made of
double-walled corrugated cardboard with 159 kg
(350 lb) bursting strength.
• The shipping container must be large
and strong enough to accommodate
your instrument and allow at least 3 to 4
inches on all sides for packing material.
4 Seal the shipping container securely with strong
nylon adhesive tape.
5 Mark the shipping container “FRAGILE, HANDLE
WITH CARE” to help ensure careful handling.
6 Use the address obtained from your Agilent
customer engineer.
7 Retain copies of all shipping papers.
C AU T I O N
478
Damage can result if the original packaging materials are not used. Packaging
materials should be anti-static and cushion the downconverter on all sides. NEVER
USE STYRENE PELLETS IN ANY SHAPE AS PACKAGING MATERIALS. They do not
adequately cushion the instrument or prevent it from moving in the shipping
container. Styrene pellets can also cause equipment damage by generating static
electricity or by lodging in fan motors.
Agilent E5505A User’s Guide
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