アプリケーション・ノート:AP

アプリケーション・ノート:AP
Design For EMI
Application Note AP-589
February 1999
Order Number: 243334-002
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Copyright © Intel Corporation, 1999
*Third-party brands and names are the property of their respective owners.
Application Note AP-589
Contents
1.0
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.0
Board/System EMI Design Considerations................................................................... 4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3.0
Spread Spectrum Clocking ..............................................................................4
Differential Clocking ......................................................................................... 5
Heatsink Effects ............................................................................................... 6
SDRAM Clock Buffer ....................................................................................... 7
Intel® Pentium® II Processor EMI Pins ............................................................ 7
Board EMI Design Recommendations.......................................................................... 8
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4.0
Terminology ..................................................................................................... 1
References....................................................................................................... 1
Brief EMI Theory .............................................................................................. 2
EMI Regulations and Certifications.................................................................. 2
Grounding Considerations ............................................................................... 8
Component Placement ....................................................................................9
Trace Routing .................................................................................................. 9
Power Decoupling..........................................................................................11
Minimizing Board Conducted Emissions........................................................13
System EMI Design Recommendations .....................................................................14
4.1
4.2
Chassis Construction .....................................................................................14
Cabling...........................................................................................................14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Typical Modulation Profile for SSC Clocks ...................................................... 4
Spread Spectrum Clocking (SSC) ................................................................... 4
Impact of a Spread Spectrum Clock ................................................................ 5
H-Field Cancellation......................................................................................... 6
Trace Geometry ............................................................................................... 9
Power/Ground Layer Stacking .......................................................................10
Trace Corners ................................................................................................11
100 pF in series with 3 nH .............................................................................12
1
2
FCC Part 15 Class B Limits ............................................................................. 3
CISPR 22 Class B Limits ................................................................................. 3
Figures
Tables
Application Note AP-589
iii
iv
Application Note AP-589
1.0
Introduction
As microprocessor speeds increase, reducing Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) becomes an
essential part of design considerations. This application note provides guidelines to aid the PC
desktop system and motherboard designer with low cost solutions on reducing EMI.
The document focuses on the efforts made by Intel to prevent systems utilizing Intel processors and
components from interfering with other electronic products.
There are generally two methods by which interference is measured:
• below 30 MHz EMI RF, noise is measured as conducted emissions
• above 30 MHz RF, noise is measured as radiated emissions.
As all of the frequencies generated for and by the P6 class of microprocessor
(e.g., Pentium® III processor, Pentium® II processor, Intel® Celeron™ processor, and
Pentium® Pro processor) exceed 66 MHz, this document concerns itself only with radiated
emissions above 66 MHz.
Topics discussed are:
• Board/System EMI Design Considerations (e.g., spread spectrum clocking, differential
clocking, heatsink effects, SDRAM clock buffers, and SC242 EMI pins)
• Board EMI Design Considerations (e.g., grounding, component placement, trace routing,
power decoupling, and minimizing board conducted emissions)
• System EMI Design Recommendations (e.g., chassis construction and cabling)
Note:
1.1
This application note is not intended to be a guaranteed, fool-proof method on passing FCC
regulations.
Terminology
• Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Electromagnetic radiation from an electrical source
interrupting the normal operation of an electronic device.
• Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). The successful operation of electronic equipment in
its intended electromagnetic environment. Encompasses energy generated within or external to
the system.
• Emissions. Energy emanating from an external source that may pose a threat to other
equipment. This energy may be conducted or radiated.
• SC242. The 242-contact slot connector that the Pentium® III processor, Pentium® II
processor, and Intel® Celeron™ processor (S.E.P. Package) plugs into.
1.2
References
• ABC's of EMI and RFI, Daryl Gerke and Bill Kimmel, Kimmel Gerke Associates, Ltd., St.
Paul, June 1994.
• EDN's Designer's Guide to Electromagnetic Compatibility, Daryl Gerke and Bill Kimmel,
Cahners Publishing Co., January 1994.
• An Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, Clayton R. Paul, John Wiley and Sons, New
York, 1992.
Application Note AP-589
1
Design For EMI
1.3
Brief EMI Theory
The simplest component of EMI is an electromagnetic wave, which consists of both electric
(E-field) and magnetic (H-field) waves running perpendicular to each other. Reducing either the
E-field or H-field can lower emissions and is the basis of suppression techniques.
Another key source of emissions is current flow. As processor speeds increase, the processor’s
current requirements increase. Current flowing through a loop generates a magnetic field, which is
proportional to the area of the loop. Loop area is defined as trace length times the distance to the
ground plane. As signals change logic states, an electric field is generated from the voltage
transition. Thus, radiation occurs as a result of this current loop. The following equation shows the
relationship of current, its loop area, and the frequency to EMI:
EMI (V/m) = kIAf2
Where:
k
=
I
=
Α
=
f
=
constant of proportionality
current (A)
loop area (m2)
frequency (MHz)
Since the distance to the ground plane is usually fixed due to board stackup requirements,
minimizing trace length on the board layout is key to decreasing emissions.
1.4
EMI Regulations and Certifications
Personal Computer Original Equipment Manufacturers (PC OEMs) ensure Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) by meeting EMI regulatory requirements. PC OEMs must ensure that their
computer systems do not exceed the emission limit standards set by applicable regulatory agencies.
The two standards that this document references are:
• United States Federal Communication Commission's (FCC) Part 15
• International Electrotechnical Commission's International Special Committee on Radio
Interference (CISPR) Publication 22 class B limits.
Table 1 and Table 2 list the frequency and associated radiation limits. The FCC requires any PC
OEM who sells an “on-the-shelf” motherboard to pass an open-chassis requirement. This
regulation ensures that system boards, which are key contributors to EMI, have reasonable
emission levels. The open-chassis requirement relaxes the FCC Part 15 class B limits by 6 dB, but
requires that the test be administered with the chassis cover off.
2
Application Note AP-589
Design For EMI
Table 1.
FCC Part 15 Class B Limits
Frequency (MHz)
Radiation (dB uV/m)
30 – 88
40.0
88 – 216
43.5
216 – 960
46.0
Above 960
54.0
NOTES:
1. Quasi-peak measured at 3 meters.
2. The upper test frequency is determined by the highest clock frequency utilized in the product. Clocks below
108 MHz require testing to 1 GHz. Clocks from 108 MHz to 500 MHz require testing to 2 GHz. Clocks from
500 MHz to 1 GHz require testing to 5 GHz. Clocks above 1 GHz require testing to the 5th harmonic or
40 GHz, whichever is lower.
Table 2.
CISPR 22 Class B Limits
Frequency (MHz)
Radiation (dB uV/m)
30 – 230 MHz
30.0
230 – 1000 MHz
37.0
NOTES:
1. Quasi-peak measured at 10 meters.
2. Limits above 1 GHz are under consideration.
Application Note AP-589
3
Design For EMI
2.0
Board/System EMI Design Considerations
The following sections discuss guidelines which may be applied to minimize EMI.
2.1
Spread Spectrum Clocking
Spread Spectrum Clocking (SSC) has been demonstrated to reduce peak radiation by
approximately 8 dB. The spread spectrum clock generator reduces radiated emissions by spreading
the emissions over a wider frequency band (Figure 2). This band can be broadened, with
subsequent reductions in the measured radiation levels, by slowly frequency modulating the
processor clock over a few hundred kHz. Thus, instead of maintaining a constant system frequency,
SSC modulates the clock frequency/period along a predetermined path (i.e., modulation profile)
with a predetermined modulation frequency. The modulation frequency is usually selected to be
larger than 30 KHz (above the audio band) while small enough not to upset the PC system’s
timings.
To conserve the minimum period requirement for bus timing, the SSC clock is modulated between
fnom and (1-δ)fnom where fnom is the nominal frequency for a constant-frequency clock (Figure 1);
δ specifies the total amount of spreading as a relative percentage of fnom.
Figure 1.
Typical Modulation Profile for SSC Clocks
fn o m
t
(1-δ)f n o m
1/f m
The frequency modulation in the time-domain results in a frequency-domain energy redistribution
of the constant-frequency clock harmonics. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the
SSC is determined by the time-domain modulation profile, while the energy distribution width is
determined be the modulation amount (δ). The two combined determine the amount of EMI
reduction (∆).
4
Application Note AP-589
Design For EMI
Figure 2.
Spread Spectrum Clocking (SSC)
∆
non-SCC
SCC
(1-δ)f n o m
fn o m
d
Radiated emissions are typically confined in a narrow band centered around clock frequency
harmonics. By uniformly distributing the radiation over a band of a few MHz, regulatory
measurement levels (in a 120 kHz bandwidth at frequencies below 1 GHz and in a 1 MHz
bandwidth at frequencies above 1 GHz) will be reduced. Figure 3 shows that as the modulation
amount (δ) increases, so does the amount of EMI reduction (∆).
Figure 3.
Impact of a Spread Spectrum Clock
∆ [dB]
0
-2
-4
-6
δ = 0.5%
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
100
δ = 1%
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Frequency [MHz]
2.2
Differential Clocking
Experiments have shown that a differential clocking scheme can potentially reduce emissions in the
order of 6 dB. Differential clocking requires that the clock generator supply both clock and clock
bar traces, where the board designer would route the two traces together in parallel. A clock bar has
equal and opposite current with the primary clock and is also 180° out of phase.
The EMI reduction due to differential clocking is caused by H-field cancellation (Figure 4). Since
H-fields travel with current flow according to the right-hand rule, two currents flowing in opposite
directions and 180° out of phase will have their H-fields cancelled. Reducing H-fields results in
lower emissions.
Application Note AP-589
5
Design For EMI
Differential clocking can also reduce the amount of noise coupled to I/O traces, which are EMIgenerating paths because they leave the system. A single-ended clock’s return path is usually a
reference plane, which is shared by other signals/traces. When noise is created on a single-ended
clock, the noise will appear on the reference plane and may be coupled to I/O traces. A differential
clock’s return path is the clock bar signal/trace, which is more isolated than the reference plane and
reduces I/O trace coupling.
For best results,
• The trace lengths and the 180° phase difference between the two clocks needs to be closely
matched.
• The real and parasitic terminations of each differential pair line should be the same.
The spacing between the two traces should be as small as possible. Placing ground traces on the
outside of the differential pair may further reduce emissions. Intermediate vias to ground may be
needed to reduce the opportunity for re-radiation from the ground traces themselves. Distance
between vias is related to the clock trace’s frequency. Since this is specific to the type of clock, see
specific design guidelines for implementation.
Figure 4.
H-Field Cancellation
H-field
caused by
Iclk
CLK - clock trace
CLK' - clock bar
trace
Iclk
Iclk'
H-field
caused by
Iclk'
2.3
Heatsink Effects
As the processor’s core frequency increases, so does the opportunity for its heatsink to act as a
radiating antenna. Studies have shown that its size, geometry, and orientation have an effect on the
amount of emissions generated. While Intel cannot recommend which heatsink to use and what
orientation is best, as it is system dependent, the designer should consider heatsink effects and
determine the best solution for their particular system.
Experiments have also suggested that grounding the processor’s heatsink may reduce emissions.
Creating a ground path from the heatsink to either the motherboard or chassis ground will return
some stray current to its source and reduce EMI. While this may have both positive and negative
effects on various frequencies, the decision is again left to the system designer on the
implementation and whether it has a positive effect on passing regulations.
6
Application Note AP-589
Design For EMI
Other items of note are the thermal interface material (between the processor and heatsink) and the
distance of the heatsink to the processor core. Experiments have shown that the distance of the
processor heatsink to its core can greatly have an effect on emissions. Since the heatsink acts as an
antenna, the amount of processor noise coupled to the heatsink is relative to the distance between
the two. A thermal interface material can reduce EMI by helping to prevent the heatsink from
getting too close to the processor.
2.4
SDRAM Clock Buffer
Intel has observed an increase in emission levels with system boards that use an individual
100 MHz SDRAM clock buffer. The affected frequencies are the 100 MHz harmonics (n x 100
MHz, where n is the integral harmonic number).
Experiments have shown that an integrated clock generator (one that integrates the 100 MHz
SDRAM clock buffer) has lower emissions than having a separate clock generator and clock buffer.
Also, isolating the clock buffer through dedicated power and ground planes also reduces emissions.
For more information on clock buffer isolation, a document is available on Intel’s developer
website at:
http://developer.intel.com/ial/sdt/
2.5
SC242 EMI Pins
There are five EMI pins on SC242-compatible processors which connect to the processor
substrate’s VSS (ground) plane. This allows the designer to determine whether grounding or
disconnecting these pins have any effect on emission levels. The recommendation is to ground the
EMI pins through 0 Ω resistors. A designer can, therefore, conduct EMI testing with the resistors
stuffed (grounding the pins) or unstuffed (leaving the pins disconnected). The approach with the
better results can be implemented without a motherboard layout change.
Application Note AP-589
7
Design For EMI
3.0
Board EMI Design Recommendations
3.1
Grounding Considerations
Good grounding requires taking precautions to minimize inductance levels in the interconnection.
To minimize the radiation levels, keep the ground return paths short, signal loop areas small, and
provide bypass at the power inputs. For the high-speed signal returns, the DC power and ground
planes may be considered equivalent. This is due to the capacitive coupling between the two
planes.
The following guidelines may help to reduce circuit inductance on the motherboard:
• Locate grounds to minimize the loop area between a signal path and its return path.
• Avoid splitting ground and power planes or creating cutouts and voids.
• To reduce ground noise coupling, separate noisy logic grounds from analog signal grounds to
reduce coupling.
• If the power planes are separated into high-speed, low-speed, analog, or digital for isolation,
do not route traces over these boundaries. If there are vacant areas on a ground or power plane,
do not allow signal conductors to cross the vacant area. These interruptions in the power plane
generally increase the return current path and emissions.
• Avoid changing layers with signal traces. Return current flows on the adjacent ground/power
plane and must find a path to the new plane when the signal trace changes layers, resulting in
increased loop area and emissions.
• Connect all ground vias to every ground plane, and similarly, connect every power via to all
power planes at equal potential.
• Connect all the high-speed and sensitive signal returns closest to the chassis ground.
• Provide multiple direct metal-to-metal contacts for circuit board grounds to the chassis
connections, unless the circuit ground must float. Unintended insulation formed by paint overspray, washers, or non-conductive coatings degrade the ground connection and increase
radiation levels.
• Between the connector pins, equally disperse the DC power and ground traces among the
digital signals. It is best to have every signal pin surrounded by ground pins in all four
directions. If this is not possible: 1) Use at least one ground for every signal, or, 2) Do not
allow for more than a 1/4" of space from the signal to its return pin. The spacing may need to
be less for high density connectors.
• Keep the power plane shorter than the ground plane by at least 5X the spacing between the
power and ground planes. This allows any AC difference in potential to be absorbed by the
ground plane.
8
Application Note AP-589
Design For EMI
3.2
Component Placement
Component placement can influence the amount of EMI generated. The guidelines below are
general approaches to minimize EMI.
• Keep leads on through hole components short. Mount the components as close to the PCB as
possible and trim leads if necessary.
• Place all components associated with one clock trace closely together. This reduces the trace
length and reduces radiation.
• Place high-current devices as closely as possible to the power sources.
• Minimize the use of sockets in high frequency portions of the board. Sockets introduce higher
inductance and mis-matched impedance.
• Keep crystal, oscillators, and clock generators away from I/O ports and board edges. EMI from
these devices can be coupled onto the I/O ports.
• Position crystals so that they lie flat against the PC board. This minimizes the distance to the
ground plane and provides better coupling of electromagnetic fields to the board.
• Connect the crystal retaining straps to the ground plane. These straps, if ungrounded, can
behave as an antenna and radiate.
• Provide a ground pad equal or larger than footprint under crystals and oscillators on the
component side of the board. This ground pad should be tied to the ground planes with
multiple vias.
3.3
Trace Routing
It is very critical to properly route traces for EMC testing, especially traces carrying high-speed
signals. It is recommended to manually route all the high-speed traces and not rely on the autorouters. The key factors in controlling the trace radiation are the trace length and the ratio of trace
width to trace height above the ground plane. To minimize trace inductance, keep clock and other
high-speed traces short, as wide as possible, and on signal layers that are adjacent to either ground
or power plane. As shown in Figure 5, this ratio is ideally somewhere between 1:1 and 3:1. The
radiation level or impedance is not appreciably reduced for ratios above 3:1. Above this length,
traces begin to act like antennas and increase radiation.
Figure 5.
Trace Geometry
:
7UDFH
*URXQG
+
:
+
7UDFH :LGWK
+HLJKW DERYH *URXQG 3ODQH
:+ Application Note AP-589
9
Design For EMI
The following guidelines will also help improve the radiation:
• For multi-layer boards, the power and ground planes can be distributed between various signal
layers to improve coupling between the signal and ground planes. The power and ground
planes may be considered equivalent, since they are both capacitively coupled together. For
platform specific board stackup and geometry, please refer to the Intel Design Guide
Recommendation Documents.
Figure 6.
Power/Ground Layer Stacking
7UDFH
*URXQG
3RZHU
/D\HUV
/D\HUV
/D\HUV
4-Layers: Route high-speed signals on bottom layer
6-Layers: Route high-speed signals on middle layers
8-Layers: Route high-speed signals on layers adjacent to
bottom ground plane.
For inner traces on multi-layer boards greater than 4, it is recommended to limit the trace
length on external layers. For traces that are not treated as transmission lines (i.e., clocks and
strobes), keep the length of the trace conductor to 1/20th of a wavelength of the highest
harmonic of interest. For example, if EMI is a concern on the 10th harmonic of a 32 MHz
signal, the maximum ground trace length is:
Max external trace length = [30000 (or 20000*) cm/sec] ÷ [20 X 320 MHz]
= 4.69 cm
* 20000 cm/sec assumes typical PCB material.
This applies to the external routing of clock and strobes.
Note that the above equation assumes a wave traveling through free space. In the PCB, the
wave velocity over a dielectric will differ from above and depends on PCB material (typically
in the range of 66% of the speed of light in free space). However, the above calculation still
applies with a high degree of confidence.
• For high-speed signals, keep the number of corners and vias to a minimum. When necessary to
turn 90 degree corners, use two 45 degree bends or arcs. A 90 degree corner causes a mismatch
in impedance by changing the trace capacitance coupling.
10
Application Note AP-589
Design For EMI
Figure 7.
Trace Corners
:
Extra trace area
forming extra
trace capacitance
:
• To improve isolation between traces, increase the spacing between adjacent traces or add guard
traces on either side of critical traces. Adding shield planes between adjacent trace layers also
helps.
• Do not route any traces or vias under crystals, oscillators or clock generators. Breaking into
this region reduces the coupling area, and provides a path for RF to couple from clock device
to the trace.
• To contain the field around traces near the edges of the board, keep traces away from the board
edges by a distance greater than the trace height above the ground plane. This allows the field
around the trace to couple more easily to the ground plane rather than to adjacent wires or
other boards.
• Keep traces from clocks and drivers away from apertures by a distance greater than the largest
aperture dimension.
• When changing from one layer to another layer, if the two layers are not equidistant from a
power/ground plane, it is necessary to change trace width and spacing to maintain the
impedance of the trace. Changing layers should be avoided if at all possible as the effect on
loop area invariably results in higher emissions.
3.4
Power Decoupling
Decoupling capacitors serve two purposes:
• First, they are sources of charge to devices that are sinking or sourcing high frequency
currents. The capacitors act like charge buckets, quickly supplying or accepting current, as
required by the devices located in the immediate vicinity. Decoupling capacitors reduce the
voltage sags and ground shifts.
• Secondly, the capacitors provide a path for the high frequency return currents on the power
plane to reach ground. If the capacitors are not available, these currents return to ground
through I/O signals or power connectors, creating large loops and increasing radiation.
Bypass capacitors self-resonate at a specific frequency and this phenomenon must be considered.
For noise signals a few decades above the self-resonant frequency, the bypass capacitor becomes
inductive and ineffective in filtering these signals. More capacitance is not always better. Leads on
components and in IC packages typically add about 8 nH of inductance per inch. This forms a
series LC circuit with the capacitor, causing it to appear as an inductor above the resonant
frequency. A typical SMT capacitor installation has about 3 nH of series inductance from all
sources.
Application Note AP-589
11
Design For EMI
Figure 8.
100 pF in series with 3 nH
Series LC Circuit Impedance
3
1 10
Impedance (Ohms)
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
1 10
7
8
1 10
1 10
9
1 10
10
Frequency (Hz)
1
____
1
f = ------- × LC
2Π
Thus, 100 pF capacitors typically are adequate for RF bypassing on many current products.
With a total inductance of 3 nH, these capacitors resonate at about 290 MHz. However, 500 pF
capacitors with a total inductance of 3 nH will resonate at about 130 MHz and must be used
with care in high-speed systems.
• Keep the trace lengths less than 0.2 inches. Bypass each active component beneath the
component or adjacent to its VCC pin.
• Adhere to the recommended bypass requirements specified by the component manufacturers.
• It is best to make provisions for bypass capacitor at each component. However, If it is not
possible to bypass every active component, skip the slower devices in the interest of the high
frequency devices.
• Once boards are assembled, based on EMI test results, board designers could decide to either
populate or leave-out the bypass capacitors.
• Alternate two values of bypass capacitors. Always be sure the values are different by at least 2
orders of magnitude. For example, 0.1 uF and 0.001 uF capacitors could be used.
• Distribute the bypass capacitors in a checkerboard pattern.
• Carefully match the type and value of capacitor to the range of frequencies it must bypass (i.e.,
tantalum capacitors are more effective at higher frequencies than aluminum electrolytic
capacitors, and capacitors of different values are effective at different frequencies).
• Use surface mount bypass capacitors. They are more effective than through-hole capacitors
because they eliminate inductive leads.
• Each bypass capacitor should have its own via to ground and power. The lead inductance
cannot be totally eliminated as there are leads inside the IC, but it can be minimized.
12
Application Note AP-589
Design For EMI
• Bypass all power leads with large capacitors (for example 22 uF) where the power first enters
the circuit board. Distribute the large capacitors in a 6 inch grid.
• Do not use feed through holes between the bypass capacitor and the circuitry it is intended to
decouple. This is especially applicable to high-speed digital circuitry such as Schottky or ECL,
or low level analog circuitry.
3.5
Minimizing Board Conducted Emissions
High frequency noise conducted through an I/O cable can cause the receiving device to radiate. The
following may lead to reduction in Conducted Emissions.
• I/O cables are a common source of radiation and proper filtering can greatly reduce the
emission levels. Provide each signal on an I/O connector with its own return line. This is the
optimum arrangement, but might not always be possible for predefined I/O connectors such as
printers and serial ports.
• Bypass every signal conductor in an I/O cable leaving the enclosure to chassis ground.
• If cost effective and functionally possible, use filtered connectors. They have feed through
bypass capacitors with high self-resonant frequencies, making them useful in filtering I/O
cables. The extra cost of the filtered connectors may be traded against the cost of alternate
filtering which requires board real estate.
• A solid bond is essential at the I/O connector to chassis and ground plane.
• Ferrite beads may be used to add high frequency loss to a circuit without introducing power
loss at DC and low frequencies. They are effective when used to damp out high frequency
oscillations from switching transients or parasitic resonances within a circuit. They may also
be used to prevent high frequency noise from being conducted into a circuit on power supply
or other leads. Ferrite beads are modeled as a series inductance and resistance. The magnitude
of their impedance is given by:
Z=
Where:
R
=
L
=
=
ƒ
=
π
2
R + ( 2ΠfL )
2
equivalent resistance of the bead in ohms
equivalent inductance of the bead in henries
frequency in hertz
3.1415926...
The impedance of a single bead is generally limited to about 100 ohms. They are, therefore,
most effective in low-impedance circuits such as power supplies, class C power amplifiers,
resonant circuits and SCR switching circuits. If a single bead does not provide enough
attenuation, multiple beads may be used. If two or three beads do not solve the problem,
additional beads are not normally effective and other techniques should be employed. Ferrite
beads are available either as loose beads which may be slipped over existing wires or installed
on wire leads and in rolls suitable for automatic insertion equipment.
• Common mode chokes are an effective alternative when case shielding is not available.
• As a last resort, pass cables one or more times through common mode ferrite toroids to raise
shield impedances and reduce shield currents.
• Position the processor connector on the motherboard so that it is at least two inches away from
the I/O connector pins. This should reduce coupling to manageable levels.
Application Note AP-589
13
Design For EMI
4.0
System EMI Design Recommendations
4.1
Chassis Construction
The system case reduces EMI by containing EMI radiation. The two main factors that impact the
effectiveness of the case in reducing EMI are the case material and discontinuities in the case. The
following points help mitigate case discrepancies.
• Keep chassis seams as far away from the processor as practical. The example below shows that
seams become leaky at 1/20 wavelength. Therefore, even seams 2 inches long leak 300 MHz
frequency EMI.
ƒ = c /λ
Where:
ƒ
=
c
=
λ
/20 =
λ
=
ƒ
=
frequency passed through the seam
speed of light = 3 × 108 m/s
length of the seam = 2” = 0.05m
40” = 1m
3 × 108/1m = 300 MHz
• Where possible, use round holes instead of slotted holes. Round holes provide the greatest
airflow volume for the least amount of EMI leakage.
• Thin material works fine for most high frequency I/O shielding. However, I/O shielding should
be grounded at as many points as possible. I/O shielding may need to be stiffened to prevent
system to system EMI variation.
4.2
Cabling
Cables make excellent antennas. The following suggestions reduce the impact of cables on EMI
radiation.
•
•
•
•
14
Provide adequate grounding for all cables.
Ground both ends of cables to chassis ground.
To prevent coupling, keep all cables away from chassis seams.
Use ferrite beads to attenuate common mode noise on I/O cables.
Application Note AP-589
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