[ English]

[ English]
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Environment
Water
Information Technology
ECP
Nanotechnology
Math and Physics
Petrochemicals
Advanced Materials
Biotechnology
Energy
Space and Aeronautics
Oil and Gas
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Economy and Planning
http://www.mep.gov.sa
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Ministry of Economy and Planning
Contents
Executive Summary
4
Mission and Vision
4
Stakeholders
4
Strategy Components
5
Research Areas
5
Background on Nanotechnology
6
Nanotechnology Definition and History
6
The Nanotechnology Market
7
Nanotechnology Funding
7
Nanotechnology R&D Indicators
10
Key Applications of Nanotechnology
19
Nanotechnology Landscape in KSA
20
Research Activities
20
International Cooperation
21
Available Infrastructure
22
Knowledge, Education and Training
23
Program Strategy
24
Mission Statement
24
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Contents
Vision
24
Justification
24
Stakeholders
25
Strategy Components
26
Expected Outcome
31
Implementation Plan
32
Research Projects & Prioritization
32
Infrastructure Projects
36
International Cooperation Projects
38
Nanosafety & Regulation
38
Nanotechnology Education
39
Training and Workforce Recruitment/Retention Projects
40
Staffing Requirements
40
Commercialization Projects
42
IT Projects
44
Measurement and Benchmarking
45
Division of Roles among Nanotechnology Stakeholders
46
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
48
Appendix B: National Nanotechnology Center Equipment
56
Appendix C: Plan Development Process
58
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Executive Summary
The National Policy for Science and
been laid out and a significant number
is intended to ensure that efforts are
Technology, approved by the Council
of applications have been identified.
coordinated throughout the kingdom.
of Ministers in 1423 H (2002 G),
Advanced
quickly
It also is intended to provide a clear
defined 11 programs for localization
reacted to the rise of nanotechnology,
picture of how resources will be
and
strategic
committing considerable resources
deployed and used to maximize
technologies that are essential for the
to ensure that they benefit from this
return on investment.
Kingdom>s future development. This
technology. Saudi Arabia intends to
is the plan for one of these programs,
take part in this international effort.
the
Nanotechnology
To establish a position for itself among
Program.Nanotechnology has recently
the benefactors of this technology,
become a prominent area of research.
Saudi Arabia is coordinating its efforts
Outlines of fabrication methods have
at a national level. This strategic plan
development
National
of
nations
have
Mission and Vision
The Mission of the National Nanotechnology Program is to ensure that
the Kingdom is a major player within the international community in the
research and development of nanotechnologies. By taking a collaborative
and interdisciplinary approach to nanotechnology, the plan will foster
academic excellence and ensure that world-class research and development
facilities are available to all parts of the economy, from academic institutions
to industry, with a strong focus on supporting the future economic strategy
of the Kingdom and transferring technologies from the research community to
industry.
The Vision of the National Nanotechnology Program is to create a multidisciplinary
program leveraging all branches of science in order to build competence and
capability in nanotechnologies that will help to ensure the future competitiveness
of the Kingdom.
Stakeholders
The stakeholders in the National Nanotechnology Program are:
KACST.
Universities (existing and future).
Research Institutes (existing and future).
Centers of Excellence (existing and future).
Ministries and other government organizations.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Executive Summary
Local industry (and local operations of multinational companies).
Members of public.
Strategy Components
Several key initiatives are required to foster the growth of nanotechnology in the
Kingdom. These include:
Strengthening academic research.
Improving infrastructure.
Linking research with economic and industrial strategy.
Creating an international collaboration plan.
Creating a management plan.
Developing health, safety, and standards/processes plans.
Strengthening education and workforce plans.
Developing a commercialization plan.
Research Areas
There are three broad nanotechnology research areas in which the Kingdom
will need to develop competence:
Synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials.
Quantum structure and nanodevices.
Modeling and computations of nanostructure.
Areas that are strategically important to the Kingdom and are expected to
benefit from the National Nanotechnology Program include:
Improved desalination.
Enhanced catalysis.
Corrosion resistance.
Monitoring nanodevices.
Renewable energy such as solar cells.
Enhanced oil recovery.
Enhanced well productivity.
Developments for deep drilling.
Medical diagnosis & drug delivery.
Electronic, and Photonic nanodevices, and MEMS/NEMS.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background on Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology Definition and
History
Nanotechnology is a term that describes the
field of science that studies and manipulates
the properties of materials at a scale of less
than 100 nanometers. At this size particles
display unusual properties and products
can be fabricated and tailored to achieve
significantly better properties than can be
achieved by manipulating materials on a
larger scale.
Nanotechnology spans a significant number of scientific disciplines and
some of the most exciting findings are at the junctions of different scientific
disciplines, such as chemistry and biology.
Hence multi-disciplinary
approaches are often required to create innovative breakthroughs.
Nanotechnology is a relatively new discipline, with a popular following
since the early 1990s. However, scientists have been working in this area
for much longer, without actually labeling it as “nanotechnology”. But due
to the development of specialized tools in the 1980s such as atomic force
microscopy (AFM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scientists have a
much better understanding of how to manipulate materials to achieve the
desired effects.
This ability to manipulate materials on the nanoscale to create a host of different
properties (heat resistance, greater strength, improved electrical conductivity)
is being exploited in almost every industry. Although the discoveries in the
field are still at the very preliminary stage, it is thought that nanotechnology
has the power to revolutionize many aspects of current technology.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background on Nanotechnology
The Nanotechnology Market
After ten years of research and development, a highly developed supply chain
and stable commercially available nanomaterials are finally enabling higher
value-added applications. Recently the number of producers of nanomaterials
has decreased as consolidation has increased and multi-national chemical
companies now dominate the market. Today, most of the nanomaterials
heralded just a few years back as new high-value materials are quickly taking
on a bulk commodity stature.
While this commoditization and consolidation means that little money remains
to be made by producing nanomaterials, the ability of these nanomaterials to
enable higher-value products will lead to a US$1.5 trillion market by 2015.
The highest growth rates will be in the healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors,
but other many niche applications also have the potential to grow into very
significant markets.
It is against this backdrop that the strategic plan for the introduction of
nanotechnology research, development and commercialization in the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. As the field is still relatively new,
there is still ample opportunity for nanotechnology to contribute to the future
economy of the Kingdom. The key will be ensuring that resources are carefully
deployed and effectively used to maximize the return on investment. The aim
of this strategic plan is to provide the framework for this.
The Nanotechnology Market
Public Funding
Thirty five countries have announced the development of national
nanotechnology initiatives and have appropriated funding. It is estimated that
up to the year 2006, the combined amount of government granted funds
for supporting nanotechnology research worldwide is US$24 billion. Table 1
below shows government funding for nanotechnology by country.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background on Nanotechnology
Table 1: Global Government (Public) funding of nanotechnology 1997-2007
Global Government (Public) funding of nanotechnology 1997-2007
($m)
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
W.Europe
%chng yoy
126
151
20%
179
19%
200
12%
225
13%
400
78%
1150
188%
1495
30%
1794
20%
2099
17%
2414
15%
Japan
%chng yoy
120
135
13%
157
16%
245
56%
465
90%
720
55%
800
11%
960
20%
1152
20%
1325
15%
1524
15%
USA
%chng yoy
116
190
64%
255
34%
270
6%
465
72%
697
50%
1074
54%
1149
7%
1264
10%
1354
7%
1449
7%
ROW
%chng yoy
70
83
19%
96
16%
110
15%
144
31%
293
104%
454
55%
562
24%
730
30%
756
4%
806
7%
Total
432
560
688
826
1300
2112
3481
4166
4941
5535
6192
30%
23%
20%
57%
62%
65%
20%
19%
12%
12%
Government Spend
%chng yoy
In 2001, there was a dramatic increase in nanotechnology
the rest of the world (RoW) combined spent nearly
funding in the United States (US) and Japan, which
half of what the US and Japan spent individually on
represented the launching of these countries’ National
nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology Initiatives. In 2003, the EU’s funding
increased dramatically with the launching of their
Discussing government funding in absolute dollar terms
nanotechnology initiative in the form of the Sixth
only tells part of the story. One must look at the level
Framework.
of funding per capita to get a better picture of the level
of commitment taken by governments in developing
In absolute dollar terms, the 27 countries constituting
nanotechnology. Table 2 below shows nanotechnology
the European Union (EU) have allocated the most to
funding per capita for a selection of countries and
nanotechnology research and development (R&D). The
regions.
EU is followed closely by the US and Japan. In 2006,
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background on Nanotechnology
Table 2: Nanotechnology Funding Per Capita
Nanotechnology Funding Per Capita
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007E
Pop.04
W.Europe
456 million
2.5
3.3
3.9
4.6
5.3
Japan
128 million
6.3
7.5
9
10.4
11.9
USA
293 million
3.7
3.9
4.3
4.6
4.9
ROW
5519 million
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Global
6396 million
0.5
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Private Funding
public funding for nanotechnology, within a few years
The development of nanotechnology in any country
private funding is projected to far eclipse government
or region begins with a government supported
expenditures.
nanotechnology initiative. This lays the foundation
The US leads in private funding of nanotechnology due
for businesses and industry to support and fund the
in part to their highly developed venture capital market.
research, which leads to commercial products. As figure
However, both Europe and Japan are quickly catching
1 indicates, while private funding initially lagged behind
up.
Figure 1: Total Global Spending on Nanotechnology including both Private and Public Funds
Global Spend on Nanotechnology
30000
25000
$M
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007E
2008E
2009E
2010E
Year
Gvnmt spnd
Private spnd
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background on Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology R&D Indicators
Overview
represent the quality or scope of research. Nonetheless,
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that relies
publication and patent activity have long been used as
on new theoretical and technical developments in a
indicators for knowledge creation and research output.3
broad range of other disciplines, including: materials
Several indicators are presented below. These include
science, applied physics, physical chemistry, electrical
forward citations (the frequency at which publications
engineering, optics, and instrumentation. The overall
and patents are cited by others), which is a measure of
field, “nanotechnology”, as well as sub-topics, were
impact, and co-authoring relationships, which are an
defined in close consultation with KACST researchers
indicator of scientific collaboration.
and other KSA stakeholders. Keyword terms derived
from KACST strategic planning documents were used
Nanotechnology Publication Activity
to query publication and patent databases. The KSA
Between 2006 and 2007, there were 32,661 articles
nanotechnology program identifies three nanotechnology
published worldwide in nanotechnology fields related
subtopics: quantum structure & nano devices, nano
to KSA research priorities.4 The United States was the
materials & synthesis, and computational modeling &
world’s largest producer of related articles, generating
theoretical analysis of nano systems. Nanotechnology
8,657 articles over this time period. The People’s
is a fast moving field, so the scope of this study was
Republic of China was second, producing 6,124 articles
restricted to only recent publication (2006-2007) and
followed by Japan and Germany with 3,032 and 2,581
patent (2002-2006) activity in these three fields.
articles respectively. Saudi Arabia was tied for the 61st
2
in a ranking of the largest producers of nanotechnology
There is general agreement that publications and patents
publications, producing 14 articles. Figure 2 shows the
strongly correlate with scientific research capacity,
number of publications produced by select countries
although publication and patent counts alone do not fully
over this time period.5
2 ISI Web of Science and Delphion were queried for scientific publication and U.S. patent application data, respectively. The ISI Web of Science is a database of peerreviewed articles in major scientific journals from around the world. Delphion is a searchable database of global patent activity, including the U.S. Patent and Trademark
Office (USPTO). The USPTO is one of the world’s major granters of patents and it has been argued that the U.S. market is so large that most important inventions from
around the world are patented there.
3 Seminal research in the use of publications as a measure of scientific productivity includes A.J. Lotka, “The frequency distribution of scientific productivity,” Journal
of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol 16 (1926); D. Price, Little Science, Big Science, (New York: Columbia university Press, 1963); J.R. Cole and S Cole, Social
Stratification in Science, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1973); J. Gaston, The reward system in British and American science, (New York: John Wiley (1978);
and M.F. Fox, “Publication productivity among scientists: a critical review,” Social Studies of Science, vol 13, 1983.
4 Throughout this report, “nanotechnology” refers only to the subset of nanotechnology identified in the KSA nanotechnology program.
5 A publication is assigned to a country if any of the publication’s author’s affiliations are located in that country. Because publications often have multiple authors, a
single publication may be assigned to multiple countries. Aggregate figures, such as total global publication output, count each publication only once, but adding up
sub-totals may yield a result larger than the reported total due to multiple counting.
10
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background on Nanotechnology
Introduction
Figure 2: Nanotechnology publications by selected countries
Russia
South Korea
2140
Israel
USA
8657
France
1790
Germany
2581
Poland
Japan
3032
India
1,130
Spain
916
People R. China
Taiwan
1337
Canada
941
Australia
Italy
1053
Saudi
Arabia
UK
1611
Brazil
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
11
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic Context
As shown in table 3, quantum structure and nano devices accounts for the largest share of nanotechnology related
publications followed by nano materials and synthesis, and computational modeling and theoretical analysis of nano
systems.
Table 3: Nanotechnology Sub-Topics (2006-2007)
Sub-Topic
Publications
Quantum Structure and Nano Devices
16127
Nano Materials and Synthesis
15815
Computational Modeling and Theoretical Analysis of Nano Systems
3849
Benchmark Countries
Kingdom (2.09), Germany (2.00), and France (1.76).
Average publication impact is calculated as the number
The average publication impact for Saudi Arabia was
of citations of articles from a particular country divided
0.57 with 8 citations of 14 articles. By this measure,
by the total number of articles published by authors from
the nanotechnology articles that are published by
that country. For instance, a country that published 50
authors affiliated with KSA institutions appear to have a
articles that were cited 100 times would have an average
lower impact when compared with those from leading
publication impact of two. Between 2006 and 2007,
countries. Table 4 presents publication and citation
the United States had the highest average publication
counts for benchmark countries.6
impact of all countries at 2.40 followed by the United
6 Benchmark countries include global leaders in terms of total nanotechnology output in addition to a list of specific countries provided by KACST.
12
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic
Context
Table 4: Publication Impact (2006-2007)
Publications
Total Citations
Average Publication
Impact
USA
8657
20796
2.40
UK
1611
3363
2.09
Germany
2581
5174
2.00
France
1790
3156
1.76
Italy
1053
1654
1.57
Japan
3032
4504
1.49
58
76
1.31
Peoples R China
6124
7954
1.30
South Korea
2140
2741
1.28
India
1130
1302
1.15
Taiwan
1337
1517
1.13
Iran
220
236
1.07
Egypt
82
52
0.63
Saudi Arabia
14
8
0.57
Kuwait
4
1
0.25
United Arab Emirates
8
1
0.13
Country
South Africa
Of the two most cited articles with authors affiliated with
zinc,”7 and “Structure and mechanism of the deposition
KSA institutions (3 citations each): “Effect of nitrogen
of multilayers of polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles,”8
reactive gas on ZnO nanostructure development
the first is a collaboration with Algerian authors while
prepared by thermal oxidation of sputtered metallic
the second is solely by KSA-affiliated authors.
7 Toumiat, A., Achour, S., Harabi, A., Tabet, N., Boumaour, M., Maallemi, M. 2006. Effect of nitrogen reactive gas on ZnO nanostructure development prepared by
thermal oxidation of sputtered metallic zinc. Nanotechnology, 17 (3): 658-663.
8 Abu-Sharkh, B. 2006. Structure and mechanism of the deposition of multilayers of polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles. Langmuir, 22 (7): 3028-3024.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
13
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic Context
Nanotechnology Research Organizations
to nanotechnology R&D are the Chinese Academy
Several thousand research institutions in more than 110
of Sciences (1,300), Tsing Hua University (634), and
countries participated in nanotechnology research from
the Russian Academy of Sciences (393). The Chinese
2006 to 2007. As shown in table 5, the three institutions
Academy of Sciences is the leading producer of
producing the largest number of publications related
publications in all three sub-topic areas.
Table 5: Leading Nanotechnology R&D Organizations (2006-2007)
Total
Publications
Average Impact
Chinese Acad Sci
1300
1.66
620
695
102
Tsing Hua University
634
1.56
276
361
62
Russian Acad Sci
393
0.74
186
156
75
CNRS
378
2.22
198
173
35
Univ Sci & Technol
China
366
1.40
163
193
36
Univ Texas
349
2.48
188
141
57
Natl Univ Singapore
347
1.96
207
134
49
Univ Tokyo
339
1.55
201
120
37
Univ Illinois
302
2.85
162
125
55
Tohoku Univ
289
1.49
164
127
20
MIT
288
3.84
159
105
53
Seoul Natl Univ
285
1.72
155
138
28
Indian Inst Technol
279
1.08
102
166
36
Univ Florida
273
1.42
150
106
52
Beijing Univ Technol
268
0.95
89
170
28
Institution
14
Nano Materials
and Synthesis
Computational
Modeling and
Theoretical
Analysis of
Nano Systems
Quantum
Structure and
Nano Devices
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic
Context
International Collaboration and Publication Impact
Figure 3 below plots a country’s level of international
For countries with a similar level of publication activity,
collaboration (horizontal axis) against the average impact
those countries with a high level of international
of its publications (vertical axis). Countries such as the
collaboration also tend to produce publications with
United Kingdom and Germany which show significant
a high level of impact.
international collaborative activity also tend to produce
International collaboration
is calculated as the average number of countries
papers with a higher average impact.
represented per publication, based on authors’ addresses.
Figure 3: International Collaboration and Publication Impact (2006-2007)
3.00
2.50
USA
UK
Publication Impact
2.00
Germany
France
Italy
Japan
1.50
Peoples R. China
Taiwan
1.00
South Korea
South Africa
India
Iran
Egypt
0.50
Saudi Arabia
Kuwait
United Arab Emirates
0
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
Level of International Collaboration
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
15
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic Context
KSA Collaboration Activity
(2 publications). KSA authors also collaborated on single
As shown in table 6, authors affiliated with KSA institutions
publications with authors from: Egypt, Kuwait,
collaborated on more than one article with authors from:
Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
Algeria (4 publications), and the United States
Table 6: KSA Publication Collaborators (2005-2007)
Country
Number of Publications
Algeria
4
USA
2
Egypt
1
Kuwait
1
Switzerland
1
UK
1
Nanotechnology Journals
Table 7 presents journals with a significant level of publication activity related to KSA nanotechnology sub-fields from
2005-2007.
Table 7: Nanotechnology Patents (2002-2006)
Nano Materials and Synthesis
Journal
16
Publications
SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
477
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
463
NANOTECHNOLOGY
380
THIN SOLID FILMS
341
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
311
LANGMUIR
306
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C
267
APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE
256
MATERIALS LETTERS
247
CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS
244
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic
Context
Computational Modeling
Quantum Structure and Nano Devices
Journal
Publications
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
863
PHYSICAL REVIEW B
519
NANOTECHNOLOGY
499
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
334
NANO LETTERS
285
JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING
274
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C
234
SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL
232
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B
222
LANGMUIR
209
JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS
153
PHYSICAL REVIEW B
147
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
111
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B
98
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
97
NANOTECHNOLOGY
93
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C
67
LANGMUIR
62
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES
54
JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING
46
Nanotechnology Patent Activity
most cited nanotechnology related patent application
Between 2002 and 2006, there were 781 nanotechnology
(44 citations): “Articles comprising nanoscale patterns
related patent applications filed with the United States
with reduced edge roughness and methods of making
Patent Office (USPTO). As shown in table 8, the majority
same,”9 listed only inventors from the United States. No
of these (440) listed at least one inventor from the United
nanotechnology related patent applications listed an
States.Other countries with a significant number of
inventor from Saudi Arabia.
inventors include: South Korea (100 applications), Japan
While the majority of the nanotechnology related
(96 applications), and Taiwan (55 applications). The
patent applications are defined as individually owned
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
17
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic Context
Table 8: Nanotechnology Patents (2002-2006)
Nano Materials and
Synthesis
Quantum Structure
and Nano Devices
Computational Modeling
and Theoretical Analysis of
Nano Systems
Total
United States
204
362
2
440
South Korea
35
93
0
100
Japan
38
72
0
96
Taiwan
22
45
0
55
Germany
6
13
0
18
China
9
11
0
17
France
3
10
0
12
United Kingdom
7
8
0
10
India
2
9
0
9
Italy
1
4
0
4
Saudi Arabia
0
0
0
0
Country
patent applications (518 applications) by the United
As shown in table 8, Nano-Proprietary Inc. is listed
States Patent Office, institutions are designated as the
as the patent assignee on 21 nanotechnology patent
patent assignee on a significant number of applications.
applications followed by Nanotex (19 applications),
These institutions, which have a record of invention in
Industrial Technology Research Institute (17 applications),
information technology fields related to KSA strategic
and Samsung Electronics (15 applications).
priorities, could be future targets for collaborative efforts.
Table 9: Leading Nanotechnology Patent Assignees (2002-2006)
USTPO Assignee
No. of Patents Apps.
Individually Owned Patents
518
Nano-Proprietary Inc.
21
Nanotex
19
Industrial Technology Research Institute
17
Samsung Electronics
15
Headway Technologies Inc.
10
University of California
8
9 Chou, Stephen Y., Yu, Zhaoning, Wu, Wei, U.S. Patent Application # 20040156108, 2004.
18
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Background
on Nanotechnology
Strategic
Context
Key Applications of Nanotechnology
Nanomaterials and nanodevices have applications in the
Electronics & Photonics
fields listed below. These applications represent areas
Miniaturization of computer processors.
that both demonstrate the breadth of nanotechnology’s
Improved data storage.
impact on various industries, and also represent
Improved optical transmission and switching in
application areas that are attractive to the international
community.
telecommunications.
Improved display technologies.
Miniaturization of actuators.
Aerospace & Defence
Miniaturization of RF by means of MEMS-based
Lighter and stronger materials for aircraft.
devices.
Improved coatings for radiation protection of
electronics.
Miniaturization of sensors.
Improved detection of liquid and gas using
New materials for improved weaponry, i.e. armor
piecing shells.
Semiconductor laser.
Improved quality of lights using new version of LEDs.
Miniature surveillance devices and systems.
Improved optical components & sensors.
Chemicals & Advanced Materials
Medical & Pharmaceutical
Vastly improved catalysts.
Improved drug delivery to target diseases and ailments
Improved membranes and filtration.
directly.
Improved paints and coatings for corrosion resistance,
scratch resistance and electrical conductivity.
Improved detection, analysis and discovery of
diseases.
Improved abrasives for polishing, especially for
silicon wafer and magnetic disks.
Nanoengineered
prosthetics
with
better
biocompatibility.
Improved lubricants.
Improved real time Imaging.
Improved composites.
Improved real time monitoring using Bio MEMS
New material and nanostructure modelling.
devices.
Thermal insulation.
Water Purification
Energy
Improved
Improved materials for photovoltaics (solar cells) that
make them more efficient.
membranes
for
purification
and
desalination.
Use of nanocatalysts and magnetic nanoparticles to
Improving the catalysts for fuel cells.
enable cheaper desalination processes.
More efficient transmission of power.
Improved nanosensors for detecting contaminants in
Higher performing batteries.
water.
Controlling corrosion, friction and wear leading to
less energy loss and consumption.
Improving methods for fuel extraction.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
19
Nanotechnology
Strategic ContextLandscape in KSA
While the current nanotechnology
capability within the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia is low compared to
other countries that have launched
nanotechnology initiatives, recently
there has been an increase in
nanotechnology R&D at both the
academic and industrial level within
the Kingdom.
The efforts that are underway are in the early stages and have mainly been
the result of incidental work that began independently by individual research
groups around the Kingdom as part of other programs. These efforts lack a
unifying goal and lack the cohesion of purpose that would result from having
a national strategic plan.
Although it is believed that these projects are not far enough along to have
generated any tangible capability, they have laid the foundation on which
nanotechnology capability within the Kingdom can be built.
Research Activities
Government
Currently, much of the expertise and many of the facilities for conducting
nanotechnology research are located at the King Abdulaziz City for Science
and Technology (KACST) and the following universities:
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM).
King Abdul Aziz University (KAAU).
King Saud University (KSU).
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), which will
officially open its doors in 2009.
Other universities such as King Khalid University (KKU), King Faisal
University (KFU) & Taiba University).
It is estimated that approximately 30 research projects in the field of
20
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Nanotechnology
Strategic
Context Landscape in KSA
nanotechnology have been launched in the Kingdom
that they have more than 20 PhDs on staff with expertise
at the above universities and research institutes. KACST
applicable to nanotechnology research.
has funded a number of research projects related to
Nanotechnology including projects focusing on silicon
Industry research within the Kingdom has been aimed at
nanoparticles production, carbon nanotube production,
applying nanotechnologies to improving fuel extraction.
catalyst nanocoating, and other projects on composite
However, the research they have conducted has broad
materials.
applications, including:
Much of this research has been in materials and synthesis.
Biotechnology.
While the application of this research has often been
Catalysis and membranes.
aligned with the industrial and economic needs of the
Sensors and measurement.
Kingdom, for instance, looking at improving fossil fuel
Energy and the environment.
extraction with nanomaterials, some research has looked
International Cooperation
at other nanotechnology applications such as:
Structural materials and coatings.
KACST
Biotechnology.
KACST has already formed research and development
Catalysis and membranes.
partnerships and collaborative programs with some
Sensors and measurement.
leading international institutions such as:
Electronics and magnetics.
The KACST/IBM Nanotechnology Center of Excellence
Energy and environment.
to cover research in water desalination, catalysts for
petrochemical applications, and solar energy.
The state of nanotechnology academic research in the
Kingdom is expected to change dramatically when King
Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
University of Auckland, focusing on the development
of nano light emitting diodes (LEDs).
MIT/KACST/Al-Faisal University Projects:
in Rabigh opens its doors in 2009. KAUST plans to have a
- Nanopatterning of fuel cells electrodes.
lab dedicated to nanotechnology research and this should
- Enhancement
lead to a significant rise in the number of nanotechnology-
nanofluid.
related projects undertaken in the Kingdom.
- Photoacoustic detection system for the petrochemical
of
transport
phenomenon
using
industry.
Industry
- Mid-infrared laser for sensing applications.
Industry in the Kingdom is well aligned to take advantage
of nanotechnology research. Local companies such as
Saudi ARAMCO and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation
(SABIC)
have
devoted
resources
to
conducting
University of Minnesota /KACST:
- Formation of titanium oxide nanotube.
University of Illinois, Urban-Champain /KACST
- Development of electrochemical cell used for silicon
nanoparticles formation.
nanotechnology research.
It is estimated that these two companies alone have
University of Michigan, Ann Urbor/KACST (under review)
launched more than 20 research projects in the field of
- Using nanoimprint to develop inexpensive solar
nanotechnology. To support this research it is estimated
cells.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
21
Nanotechnology Landscape in KSA
National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus
for the conversion and hydrogen separation of oil-based
- Carbon nanotube production facilities.
liquid petroleum fuels in a membrane reactor system.
- Development, production and installation of a
Saudi ARAMCO also has a contract with Integran
scanning probe microscope.
Technologies Inc. (Toronto, Canada) for planning,
implementing, and carrying out a product development
Universities and Research Centers
program entitled «Application of Nanotechnology for
KSA universities have been steadily increasing the
In-Situ Structural Repair of Degraded Heat Exchangers,»
number of their international partnerships with the
to explore the feasibility of developing in-situ repair for
hope of broadening their research and expertise. These
conventional heat exchangers in the Oil & Gas Industry.
collaborations include:
In 2005, King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Available Infrastructure
Minerals (KFUPM) sent three faculty members to National
KACST
University of Singapore to explore and initiate research
KACST has successfully accomplished the following in
collaborations.
regards to nanotechnology infrastructure:
In 2007, KFUPM and Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT) announced preparations to inaugurate
Completely established and equipped the nanoscopic
laboratory.
a Scientific Collaboration Agreement in the field of
Prepared complete design, specifications and facility
education and scientific research between the Mechanical
requirements for the cleanroom and the National
Engineering Departments of both institutions.
Nanotechnology Center (NNC).
While still not officially launched, King Abdullah
University
of
Science
and
Technology
(KAUST)
announced a partnership between itself and the Indian
Identified all required equipment for nanoscale
processing
in
the
cleanroom
with
complete
specifications.
Institute of Technology, Bombay (IIT Bombay). This
partnership will involve collaborative research in many
Universities and Research Centers
areas related to nanotechnology.
Currently, the facilities and equipment for conducting
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
nanotechnology research are located at three Universities.
(KAUST) and American University in Cairo (AUC)
Plans have been made for a fourth university to have an
signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish
extensive laboratory that can be used for nanotechnology
collaborative research and academic programs. KAUST
research. These universities are:
and AUC agreed to collaborate in many research areas
including nanotechnology and advanced materials.
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
(KFUPM).
King Abdul Aziz University (KAAU).
Industry
King Saud University (KSU).
Saudi ARAMCO is funding and collaborating with the
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials
(KAUST).
in Australia on a four-year research project. The project
focuses on the development of catalytic materials suitable
22
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Nanotechnology
Strategic
Context Landscape in KSA
While some microscopy tools are currently located at
Knowledge, Education and Training
these universities, the numbers are not currently adequate
KACST
to have a significant impact on nanotechnology research.
KACST has undertaken initiatives to train their own
Most importantly, the absence of ISO-certified and well-
employees, members of other academic institutions, and
equipped cleanrooms (outside the one currently under
the general public about nanotechnology. Examples of
construction at KACST’s NNC) is a key obstacle to
KACST efforts in this area are listed below:
conducting further research in nanotechnology.
KACST organized the first national nanotechnology
workshop in January of 2006.
While there does not currently exist a fully-equipped
KACST offered full graduate scholarships for a number
cleanroom outside of the NNC facility, the three other
of engineers and scientists to pursue their masters and
universities capable of conducting nanotechnology
Ph.D. in nanotechnology.
research have some or all of the following equipment:
Microscopes:
transmission
electron
The National Nanotechnology Center at KACST
microscope
participated in the annual science and technology week.
(TEM), scanning electron microsope (SEM), atomic force
KACST published two special issues of Science and
microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD).
Technology Magazine on nanotechnology.
Process Equipment: chemical vapor deposition (CVD).
KACST has funded several summer training programs
Process Characterization: Surface Profiler.
in attempt to introduce members of higher educational
Wet Process: Electroplating, Acid Benches.
institutions to nanotechnology research activities.
KACST has also made progress in commercialization,
Industry
including:
Both SABIC and Saudi ARAMCO have some of the most
advanced R&D facilities in the Middle East. SABIC’s
KACST is in the final planning stage of establishing a
nanotechnology incubator.
Research and Technology centers in Riyadh and Jubail
KACST is approaching a number of leading
are the largest in the Middle East. Saudi ARAMCO also
international corporations to discuss product development
has a state-of-the-art research facility that was completed
and technology transfer.
in 2005. The equipment at these facilities is designed to
KACST
has
already
approached
the
major
support material science research, which is in line with
nanotechnology stakeholders in the Kingdom to identify
nanotechnology research. Although the exact type and
their needs.
quantity of equipment at these facilities was not obtained
for this plan, we know these facilities contain at least the
Universities and Research Centers
following equipment:
It was the view of the stakeholders of KFUPM, KAAU and
Microscopes: SEM, XRD.
KSU that there was so little targeted training and education at
Process Characterization: Surface Profiler.
their respective universities that it would best be considered
Wet Process: Electro plating.
zero. As a result, the knowledge base for embarking on a
A cleanroom is not part of the facilities at these companies,
nanotechnology initiative in the Kingdom is currently limited.
or any others within the Kingdom.
This is a critical part of the landscape for nanotechnology in
the Kingdom that must be strengthened.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
23
Program Strategy
This chapter outlines the elements
of the National Nanotechnology
Program. The following chapter
describes
how
these
elements
should be implemented.
Mission Statement
The Mission of the National Nanotechnology Program is to ensure that
the Kingdom is a major player within the international community in the
research and development of nanotechnologies. By taking a collaborative
and interdisciplinary approach to nanotechnology, the plan will foster
academic excellence, and ensure that world-class research and development
facilities are available to all parts of the economy, from academic institutions
to industry, with a strong focus on supporting the future economic strategy of
the Kingdom and transferring technologies from the research community to
Industry.
Vision
The Vision of the National Nanotechnology Program is to create a
multidisciplinary program leveraging all branches of science in order to build
competence and capability in nanotechnologies which will help to ensure
the future competitiveness of the Kingdom.
Justification
Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the world. Although the
field has a short history, it is growing exponentially. Nanotechnology brings
promise of an unprecedented sophistication in the development of new tools
and techniques that can benefit all other existing technologies. Fabrication
methods have been outlined and applications are being developed. Advanced
24
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Program Strategy
nations have reacted quickly to the rise of nanotechnology, committing
considerable resources to ensure that they benefit from this technology. Saudi
Arabia needs to take part in this international effort.
To establish a position for itself among the benefactors of this technology,
Saudi Arabia will coordinate its efforts at a national level. Establishing a
clear strategic plan will ensure that efforts are coordinated throughout the
Kingdom. It is important that this strategy provides a clear picture of how
resources will be carefully deployed and effectively used to maximize return
on investment.
The National Nanotechnology Program must take a multi-institutional
and multi-disciplinary approach. It will support and guide research and
development in the field of nanotechnology, will lead the development
of supporting infrastructure, promote and guide applicable education,
encourage knowledge diffusion, and help lay the groundwork for creating
new commercial ventures that will diversify the economy.
Stakeholders
The major stakeholders in the National Nanotechnology Program are:
KACST
Universities (existing and future)
Research Institutes (existing and future)
Centers of Excellence (existing and future)
Ministries and other government organizations
Local industry (and local operations of multinational companies)
Members of the public
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
25
Program Strategy
Technology
Areas
Strategy Components
the correct balance between these kinds of research
Strengthen Academic Research
enables a vibrant, innovative, and productive research
The nanotechnology research being conducted in the
environment.
Kingdom needs to be both expanded and focused in
order for the Kingdom to maximize the benefits from
Improve Infrastructure
nanotechnology.
In order for nanotechnology research to thrive, a
substantial investment must be made to expand the
Nanotechnology is a very large field and touches on
Kingdom’s infrastructure. The National Nanotechnology
most areas of science. It is essential that the National
Program will move toward the establishment of both a
Nanotechnology Program focuses and coordinates all
centralized and a regionally distributed nanotechnology
individual and team efforts in order to make progress.
R&D infrastructure within the Kingdom.
To support this focus and coordination, a detailed
One of the primary aims of the National Nanotechnology
technical strategy should be developed to strengthen
Program is to create a cutting-edge national infrastructure
academic research. This will include details of how
for nanotechnology. The proposed facilities will include
nanotechnology programs and projects will be initiated.
a characterization and testing service which will be
highly subsidized by the government. This will enable
Obviously, freedom must be given to researchers to follow
the technology to be accessible to both business and
research interests and interesting leads, but the selection
academia despite the high capital and maintenance costs
of research projects for funding should be based on a
associated with such high technology facilities.
set of criteria that are associated with successful, highimpact research.
The National Nanotechnology Center (NNC) will be
coordinated by KACST, located in Riyadh, and is intended
An internationally accepted set of criteria for evaluating
to be the core nanotechnology facility.
However, the
research projects, adopted by the European Union, takes
centralized labs at the NNC are just the beginning. The
into account the following three aspects:
National Nanotechnology Strategic Plan envisions that the
Science and technology quality.
nanotechnology infrastructure within the Kingdom will be
Implementation.
distributed so as to provide specialized facilities located around
Impact.
the country. This will allow easy access for all parties. Tools
should be distributed in large groups according to need.
The Program should also ensure that the Kingdom
As a general principal, large-scale equipment to be used by
maintains an adequate balance of research. It is
the entire nanotechnology community should be centrally
important to clearly define the different types of research
located. This allows the creation of a pool of skilled
such as: fundamental, platform, and applied. Ensuring
operators and technicians who are available to support
10
10 “Platform research” refers to research that provides the basis for a broad area of research and many potential applications, such as research in nanoparticles synthesis
that supports research to develop high efficiency solar cells or low cost fuel cells. Platform research is applied in the sense that the work is motivated by applications, but
the potential applications are very broad and there are additional steps required before developing these applications.
26
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Program Strategy
the entire community. Examples of this kind of equipment
include:
State-of-the-art TEM,
X-ray
photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS), E-Beam lithography, Molecular Beam
Corrosion resistance (Oil & Gas, Petrochemicals,
Defense, Water, Construction & Infrastructure, Mining
& Materials).
Monitoring nanodevices (Defense, Water, Medical).
Epitaxy (MBE), and CVD.
Renewable energy such as solar cells (Industry,
Equipment required on a daily or routine basis for specific
Water).
projects should be located at distributed facilities.
Enhanced oil recovery (Oil & Gas).
Examples of this kind of equipment include: Broad-based
Enhanced well productivity (Oil & Gas).
TEM, Research grade SEM, XRD, and AFM.
Developments for deep drilling (Oil & Gas).
Medical diagnosis & drug delivery (Health).
Linking
Research
with
Economic
and
Industrial
Electronic, and photonic nanodevices, and MEMS/
(Defense, Water, Oil, Industry, Medical, and
Strategy
NEMS
One of the key goals of the National Nanotechnology
Transportation).
Program is to ensure that nanotechnology research
is focused on improving the local economy. In order
The establishment of the National Nanotechnology
to accomplish this it must be linked to the Kingdom’s
Program will also help attract and retain the newly
overall industrial and economic strategies. The principal
identified industrial clusters to the Kingdom. The new
industrial sectors that stand to be beneficiaries of a mature
industries targeted for introduction to the Kingdom are:
nanotechnology research enterprise are the following:
industrial automation, construction materials, metals,
Oil & Gas
home appliances, and flexible packaging. Table 10
Defence & Security Systems
shows the nanotechnology applications in each of these
Petrochemical
industries.
Telecom Infrastructure
Construction
Mining and Materials
Water
Health
Transportation
Specific technical sub-fields within each of the major
industrial sectors are the following:
Improved desalination (Water)
Enhanced catalysis (Petrochemicals)
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
27
Program Strategy
Table 10: Nanotechnnology applications in industry
New Industrial Clusters for KSA
Industrial Automation
Nanosensors and
nanoelectromechanical
systems (NEMS) for
assembly measurement
and control
Construction Materials
Metals
Nanotechnology
in cement-based
Improved
characterization
materials: sustainable
and ultra-high strength
of metals
Home
Appliances
Flexible
Packaging
Antibacterial
Nanocomposites
nanocoatings
for home
for improved
Barrier Packaging
appliances
cements, nanostructure
characterization, new
functionalities
Nanoscale assembly
Applications
and manufacturing
techniques
Multi-functional
nanocoatings for: fire
protection, biocide
activity, self-cleaning,
Development
self-repairing
corrosion
resistance
of alloys for
increased
strength or
Embedded sensor
materials for
security and comfort
applications:
corrosion, fire, wind,
noise, impact energy
Nano-enabled
“smart
materials” for
Nanocoatings
for improved
transparency,
intelligent home
appliances
antifog, antimist
Nanomaterials
for removing
Protective
nanocoatings
for antimicrobial
odours
from home
appliances
capabilities and
UV filters
Nanocomposites for
Nanocoatings
Thin film
construction polymers:
for easy-toclean surfaces
electronics
for sensory
packaging
Nanomaterials
for improved
heat resistance
Nanobarcodes
fiber reinforced
polymeric elements
(FRP), agglomerated
marble, adhesives,
polymer mortars
Nanotech for energy
efficient buildings:
solar cells, isolation
materials, insulation
28
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
for track and
trace
Program Strategy
International Collaboration Plan
As discussed earlier in this report, there are 35 countries that have launched
nanotechnology initiatives. With this level of international activity in
nanotechnology research, there are many opportunities for the Kingdom
to collaborate with other countries. Not only is the environment ripe for
cooperation, in a globalized R&D environment, international cooperation is
necessary for academia and industry. International collaboration can lead to
more focused nanotechnology research and increase the rate at which the
Kingdom closes the knowledge gap with other more advanced countries.
The Kingdom must engage in international R&D collaboration. Facilitating
this collaboration can be accomplished through: student exchange programs,
support for international benchmarking activities, sponsorship of Saudi
researchers attending international nanotechnology conferences, and a
reduction of visa restrictions. International collaboration is a hallmark of the
U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative and the EU FP6 and FP7 Programmes,
and has been cited by these organizations as a critical component of their
success.
An emphasis on collaboration can be undertaken in Saudi Arabia by focusing
on three key areas:
Expanding the mobility of researchers.
Participating in internationally recognized nanotechnology initiatives,
such as the EU FP6 and FP7 Programmes, and standards bodies such as the
ISO Technical Committee on Nanotechnologies TC229.
One-to-one collaboration between research institutes.
Management Plan
The National Nanotechnology Program will be directed by a Program
Manager, who will be a KACST-NNC employee, and who will be responsible
for the overall execution of the plan, which will involve coordinating
activities of universities, industry, KACST institutes, the advisory committee,
and international consultants. The Nanotechnology Advisory Committee will
oversee the implementation of the plan and ensure that investments and outputs
are in line with the plans. It will provide advice to the Program Manager, and
will also report to the National S&T Plan Supervisory Committee, which will
oversee all of the Strategic Technology Programs.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
29
Program Strategy
The Nanotechnology Advisory Committee will also sponsor and oversee studies
of emerging areas of nanotechnology to serve as the basis for developing new
program areas. This plan is intended to be a dynamic document that will be
updated at least annually and more frequently if required. In addition to the
advisory committee input, it is expected that workshops with the research
community, users, and other stakeholders will also contribute to both a
continual evolution of the plan as well as a stronger nanotechnology R&D
network in the Kingdom.
Health, Safety and Regulations
International regulations are playing an increasing role in the international
business environment. Many regulations related to nanotechnology are just
starting to be developed. It is timely for the Kingdom to join the international
community in developing regulations so that the Kingdom can both influence
outcomes and form new relationships. The Kingdom will participate in the
development of international nanotechnology regulations and will also ensure
that the regulatory climate within the Kingdom is optimal for investment by
foreign industry and investors.
A national body overseeing nanotechnology would be ideally situated
to discuss and monitor the regulation of nanotechnology. In addition, this
central body could focus on matters of environmental improvement, such as
recycling technologies.
Strengthen Education and Workforce Plan
The National Nanotechnology Program will provide new ways to attract and
retain technically skilled workers, enhance training for industry, and increase
the number of PhD holders in the Kingdom. It is hoped that this initiative will
also generate new educational programs like materials science departments
in universities. There are already plans to create a graduate nanotechnology
program and a post-doctorate research position as found elsewhere in the
developed scientific nations.
This initiative will also enhance public awareness and knowledge of technical
subjects being debated and researched in other countries. Being a part of
exciting nanotechnology breakthroughs around the world will likely engage
people in the Kingdom and engender an interest and love of science within
30
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Program Strategy
the culture. The initiative will also educate the local
key factor in achieving this will be the optimization of
community within the Kingdom, engendering a science
the Kingdom’s patent process.
and technology culture and helping members of the
public to appreciate the research, development and
Expected Outcome
commercialization of nanotechnology. This is important
The launching of the National Nanotechnology Program
as it will help build a new generation of Saudi Arabian
in the Kingdom is expected to lead to substantial increases
scientists and foster support from the populace.
in scientific knowledge, publications, patents and new
jobs in the many areas of science and nanotechnology.
Traditional indicators of the success of the scientific
educational system, such as the number of science and
In five years the science and technology infrastructure
engineering graduates from local universities, do not
to support the development of nanotechnology will
go far enough to capture the outcomes of this initiative.
also be transformed. It is expected that approximately
Other measures should be generated and linked to a
1,800 more scientists, engineers and technicians will be
broader outreach strategy. However, a detailed strategy
needed to work on projects related to nanotechnology
needs to be developed before such metrics and measures
in the Kingdom. By 2012, it is expected there will be
are defined. For example, such a strategy could include:
200 nanotechnology-related research projects in varying
public education events in science, industry awareness
states of completion and 75 more launched that same
events, school awareness events, and initiatives such as
year.
a publication explaining nanotechnology to the general
population.
New measures would be linked to the
success of these outreach activities.
By 2012, many of the research projects begun in 20072008 will be at or approaching the stage of commercial
development that can begin to be used to support local
Commercialization Plan
industries, such as the oil and gas, energy, healthcare,
The ultimate aim of investing in nanotechnology research
defense, and infrastructure industries. In addition, these
and development is to increase the level of income and
technologies will help attract and launch new industries
volume of business within the Kingdom. The immediate
for the Kingdom.
commercial aim is to generate spin-off companies and
thus create new high technology industries to diversify
This transformation will support not only local industry
the current oil-gas economy and predominately trade
and diversify the economy but will also help to transform
and commerce industry.
the social conditions of the Kingdom, moving towards
a more knowledge-driven economy, and inspiring
To ensure the maximum benefits from the National
entrepreneurial aspirations.
It will make possible
Nanotechnology Program, an effective and active
leadership and resource development, research and
technology transfer policy and commercialization policy
technology transfer, workforce development, business
must be established. Once the National Nanotechnology
growth, stronger national security, and improved quality
Program has been established, it is hoped that it will
of life.
attract both industry and Venture Capital investment. A
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
31
Implementation Plan
This chapter describes how the
strategy discussed in the previous
chapter should be implemented. It
begins by proposing nanotechnology
research topics and priorities and
then discusses key implementation
issues.
Research Projects & Prioritization
Given the low amount of nanotechnology expertise currently existing in the
Kingdom, it is important that the Kingdom focuses on building expertise
in producing nanomaterials & structures, and modeling and fabricating
nanodevices. A fundamental understanding of basic materials and synthesis
science is an essential base for any serious nanotechnology research activity.
The nanotechnology research topics proposed in this chapter fall into three
broad categories:
1- Quantum structure and nanodevices.
2- Synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials.
3- Modeling and computations of nanostructure.
Within each category, specific research projects are recommended that will
allow the Kingdom to develop the core competence required to perform goal
oriented research.
The proposed list of research topics reflects both the need to establish baseline
capabilities and the understanding that the future of nanotechnology will not
be in establishing nanodevices or nanomaterial companies but in creating
technologies that can support industry both locally and internationally.
32
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Implementation Plan
R&D Priorities
2- Material & Synthesis
Nanotechnology is all about properties of materials at
Nanocatalyst. the nanoscale and then transferring those properties to
Fuel additives.
the macro-scale. As such, all nanotechnologies, whether
Fuel extraction.
biological, inorganic or semiconductors, begin at the level
Thin films and Coatings:
of materials. Below is a list of proposed nanotechnology
- Anti-corrosion.
research topics.
- Self cleaning.
- Radiation protection.
1- Quantum Structure & Nanodevices
Nanofiltration.
MEMS:
Composite material. - Sensors.
Thermal insulation.
- Actuators.
Nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs).
- RF MEMS.
Material enhancement using nanoparticles, NWs or
Nano-Bio:
NTs.
- Drug delivery.
Nanoparticles and quantum dots.
- Imaging.
Textile: fire/water resistant.
- Bio MEMS devices.
Adhesives.
Nano Photonics:
Energy harvesting.
Energy storage:
- Laser & detection.
- LEDs.
- Fuel cells.
- Integrated optics.
- High performance batteries.
- Optical components.
Lubrication. - Optical sensors.
Water purification, desalination, and
decontamination.
- Photovoltaic and solar cells.
Water quality monitoring.
- Photonic crystals.
Nano Electronics:
3- Modeling
- Spintronics.
- ASIC.
New material and nanostructure modelling.
- Nano fabrication and processing.
Nano devices modelling.
- Displays. - Nano sensors.
Figures 4-6 below are block representations of the
- Functionalization of nanotubes, nanowires and
nanotechnology research area priorities and time frames
nanoparticles.
by category.
Quantum Structure:
- Semiconductor laser and detectors.
- Quantum devices.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
33
Implementation Plan
Figure 4: Quantum Structure and Nanodevices Research Topic Priorities and Time Frame
Program
Research Topics
Priority
MEMS
MEMS Based Sensors
High
MEMS Based Actuators
High
RF MEMS
High
Nano-Bio
Drug Delivery
Meduim
Imaging
High
Bio MEMS Devices
High
Nana Devices & Qauntum Structure
Nano-Photoincs
Laser & Detection
High
LEDs
Meduim
Integrated Optics
Meduim
Optical Components
Low
Optical Sensors
High
Photovoltaic & Solar Cells
High
Photonic Crystal
Low
Nano-Electronics
Spintronics
Low
Application-Specific ICs
Meduim
Nano-Fabrication & Processing
High
Displays
Low
Nano-Sensors
High
Funtionalization of NTs & NWs
High
Quantum Structure
34
Qauntum Devices
Low
Semiconductor Laser
High
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Implementation Plan
Figure 5: Material and Synthesis Research Topics Priorities and Time Frame
Program
Research Topics
Priority
Nanocatalyst
High
Fuel Additives
High
Fuel Extraction
Meduim
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Material & Synthesis
Thin files & Coating
Anti-corrosion
High
Self Cleaning
Low
Radiation Protection
Meduim
Nanofiltration
High
Composite Material
Meduim
Thermal Insulation
Meduim
Nanotubes (NT) & Nanowires (NW)
Meduim
Nanoparticles (NP) & Quantum Dots
Meduim
Material Enchancement NP, NW or NT
High
Textile: Fire/Water Resist
Low
Adhesive
Meduim
Energy Harvesting
Meduim
Energy Storage
Fuel Cells
Meduim
High performance Batteries
Meduim
Lubrication
High
Water Purif, Desalen & Decont
High
Water Quality monitoring
High
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
35
Implementation Plan
Figure 6: Computations and Modeling Research Topics Priorities and Time Frame
Computation
& Modeling
Program
Research Topics
Priority
Nano-Devices Modeling
High
New Material & Nano-Structure Modeling
High
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Project Milestones & Timelines
Conferences and workshops to make industry aware
Each of the proposed research topics encapsulates a
of the work and potential of nanotechnology research
vast amount of research and development. Each topic
can be started as soon as the nanotechnology experts
will need to be thoroughly reviewed before a technical
are recruited to kick-start the initial projects. Such
strategy is decided upon. It is suggested that in each
experts will be well positioned to give regular briefings
technology area a project split of 30:40:30 for “basic :
to appropriate stakeholders and encourage interest and
platform : applied” research is aimed for.
involvement.
The specific timescales and milestones of the projects
Each of the research topics described above will be
will be developed as part of the detailed project plans.
run by a Technology Program Manager. Under each
At this time, the correct balance of fundamental/applied
program will be a number of individual projects each
research will be assessed for each program.
Some
led by a Principal Investigator (PI). This person should
projects will be primarily in the fundamental area—such
be experienced in the technology area, and have a
as those relating to the basic understanding of electrical
PhD together with many years of experience leading
properties. Other projects will be positioned more in the
research projects. Each Technology Program Manager
application area. The correct balance of fundamental vs.
will work with the PIs to develop the Program plan and
platform vs. applied research must be maintained overall
the individual project plans.
though not within each individual project.
There will be some areas of research where specific high-
Infrastructure Projects
end tools are required on a regular basis, such as NMR in
The National Nanotechnology Program will establish a
polymer synthesis. Planning to ensure that these projects
high technology research and development infrastructure
are undertaken in places near to an NMR facility will
within the Kingdom.
factor into the project plans. Such tools will need to be
identified during the detailed project-planning phase.
In addition to the need to commit a significant amount
of time and investment to this initiative, it is essential
36
It will also be essential to start each new project with
that the projects do not become over burdened with
some experts in the technology area. Subsequent project
bureaucracy. In addition to an initial lump sum injection
members can be recruited with a basic understanding of
for the setting up of facilities and infrastructure, funders
nanotechnology and be trained in the field on the job.
must realize that such facilities require significant
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Implementation Plan
specialist maintenance and this will require a significant
be provided. Specialist advice must be sought (usually
annual funding commitment.
available from equipment suppliers) about where to
place such equipment.
Facilities and Equipment
The National Nanotechnology Program will need to
A detailed Technical Strategy should be developed that
implement the following in regards to facilities and
sets out the focused areas of nanotechnology and breaks
equipment:
them down into capability groups. Staff can then be
A
project-based
procurement
plan
in
which
sourced by expertise in these areas. Recruitment plans
equipment is distributed around the Kingdom at
can be established to ensure “an heir and a spare” policy
appropriate universities and research centers based on
(two extra people) to back up each project leader in areas
project requirements.
requiring critical capabilities.
Major equipment in one, centralized center where
appropriate.
A detailed facility and equipment plan should be
By 2012, it is predicted there will be almost 2,000 highly
developed. This would be in parallel to development of
technical staff working on nanotechnology related
technical project plans and involve equipment purchase,
projects throughout the country. The infrastructure to
housing, operations, management and booking, and
support this will need to be significant. For example there
training. The plan would need to be extensive and involve
should be roughly one Scanning Electron Microscope
individuals with expertise in nanotechnology equipment
(SEM) for every 50-100 people in a facility. Thus, 2,000
operation and facility management.
people will require about 30 SEMs.
Maintenance and Facility Management
It is also recommended that there be one AFM for every
The laboratory technologists who run nanotechnology
200 hundred people and one TEM, XRD and XPS for
facilities must be highly trained and proficient in the use
every 500 people. These are extremely expensive pieces
of the equipment. Experienced consultants would be used
of equipment, but as other countries have discovered,
to carry out regular equipment maintenance. If there is
a good way to attract experienced people is to provide
a lack of such experienced personnel in the Kingdom, it
excellent, cutting edge facilities and equipment.
In
will likely make the maintenance even more expensive.
addition, there should be thermogravimetric analysis
This should be budgeted for on an annual basis as part of
(TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and Fourier
the cost of running a nanotechnology facility.
transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments for
every 200 people and one liquid and one solid nuclear
A nanotechnology facility also requires a significant
magnetic resonance (NMR) for every 500 people.
investment in consumables, such as gold for microscopy
and evaporation targets and specialist wafers for
It must be noted that several pieces of equipment are
nanofabrication. The high running cost of such a facility,
highly vibration and/or electromagnetic interference
which is considerably more than the initial upfront
sensitive and proper provisions for a vibration proof or
payment must be appreciated at the outset.
electromagnetic interference shielded building must
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
37
Implementation Plan
In order to manage the facility it is suggested that an
international concerns regarding the potential health
on-line equipment booking and management system be
and safety hazards associated with the production and
developed. This would allow staff to see the availability of
use of engineered nanomaterials. However, the state of
equipment and book it on line if they were an authorized
international standards related to nanotechnologies is
user of that equipment. It would also allow for timely
currently in a state of flux.
reminders about maintenance and calibration of the
equipment and would allow the capture of utilization
In the midst of these still developing standards, both
data.
national and international regulatory agencies and
standards organizations such as the US EPA, NIOSH,
International Cooperation Projects
ANSI, BSI, APPIE, DIN, EEC, and ISO12 are collaborating
Cooperation on an international level is essential to the
to develop a unified approach to standardization. In
success of the National Nanotechnology Program. This
addition, there are a variety of existing international
cooperation is required on a number of levels from the
standards that address the measurement of nanoscale
exchange of researchers to international standards. A few
materials and the quantification of exposure to some
ways to accomplish this are described below:
types of airborne nano or ultrafine materials.
Exchange of Ph.D. students and post docs between
the various institutes within the Kingdom and leading
The
centers in the rest of the world.
involved in development of nanotechnology standards
Set up a research cooperation program and a number
of positions designed to encourage researchers from
other regional universities (GCC
11
countries, Jordan,
Egypt, etc.) to cooperate with and eventually join the
current
international
standards
organizations
include:
American
Society
for
Testing
and
Materials
International (ASTM International).
International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Kingdom’s National Nanotechnology Program.
Participation in external research programs funded
While these organizations have not established definitive
by the European Commission, such as Framework 7,
standards, they are actively pursuing this goal. Both of
which allows and encourages the participation of non-
these organizations are seeking international partners
EU states.
both in the form of companies and countries.
Nanosafety & Regulation
The
It is the aim of the National Nanotechnology Program
participate with one or both of these organizations with
to include safety standards that are in compliance
the intention of adopting their final recommendations
with international standards. There are significant
and standards. It is important to participate in these
National
Nanotechnology
Program
should
11 Gulf Cooperation Council
12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), British
Standards Institution (BSI), Association of Powder Process Industry and Engineering (APPIE), Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), European Economic Community (EED,
and International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
38
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Implementation Plan
organizations to further international collaboration and
required because such expertise is essential to bring
to position Saudi Arabia as a country that is approaching
KSA technology in line with the global cutting-edge
nanotechnology in an environmentally responsible way.
technology, but the commercial financial incentives will
Also, by following all available standards from highly
not be viable until about ten years from now.
respected organizations such as the ASTM and ISO, any
Providing jobs outside academic environments. This
products that are produced through nanotechnology will
is essential for the understanding that nanotechnology is
be considered safe for international export.
not just an academic pursuit and to get industry to take
an interest and influence the project aims.
In addition to participating in these international
Promoting partnerships between industry, education
standards, the National Nanotechnology Program should
and training providers, and the government funded
develop a detailed Health, Safety and Environment Plan
workforce system. Industry will initially be reluctant to
and associated training based on the latest information.
take on a highly paid nanotechnology expert or engage
in training and will therefore need to be given incentives
Nanotechnology Education
to do so. However, once this has started and industry
A primary focus of the National Nanotechnology Program
recognizes a real benefit, the incentive schemes will no
is to provide enhanced education through the teaching
longer be needed.
of nanotechnology. A significant number of Saudis will
Providing hands-on-training for higher education
be trained in this growing area and will be available to
at universities and other government institutions. There
work on projects in nanotechnology. To advance this
will be a gap between the nanotechnology experience
training, the National Nanotechnology Strategic Plan
in universities and the nanotechnology practical projects
includes the following objectives:
required by industry. Such an initiative will enable the
Creating nanotechnology courses and certificate
program awards at major universities.
graduates to be significantly more efficient and productive
once starting work.
Encouraging and providing full support for graduate
students.
Supporting the development of technician training
programs. The availability of highly trained and relatively
Providing scholarships for students pursuing studies
in nanotechnology abroad.
highly educated technicians is essential to the success of
nanotechnology across the Kingdom. The maintenance
Partnering with existing educational programs to
create mutual benefits.
and operation of the equipment and cleanroom facilities
is extremely complex and requires a ready pool of
Making programs for introducing nanotechnology to
technicians.
students of all ages.
Developing public outreach programs.
As nanotechnology is an emerging technology, sustained
government support is required for long-term development
The following steps will be taken to improve the quality
of these skills within the Kingdom.
Education and
of the workforce:
training will be supported by an educational support
Providing financial incentives for nanotechnology
infrastructure. This infrastructure will provide centers of
practitioners for at least the next ten years. This is
excellence geographically distributed around the country
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
39
Implementation Plan
with a centralized facility at the KACST.
such cutting edge technology. It was noted that using
By using the nanotechnology knowledge being developed
the technology and equipment proposed in the National
within the Kingdom at its universities, research center
Nanotechnology Strategic Plan will need capable trained
and industries, a “Nanotechnology Newsletter” should
staff.
be published and distributed on a monthly or quarterly
basis. Plans for such a newsletter or journal have already
The elements that can make the Kingdom attractive
been discussed.
to foreign scientists is top-level facilities and high
investment into science and engineering so that top-level
In addition to the initiatives above, there should be
foreign scientists can afford to hire large teams, buy new
a wider initiative led by the various stakeholders in
equipment and have no problem buying consumables.
the National Nanotechnology Program to engage
This could be a key way for the Kingdom to attract foreign
school children through a series of short educational
talent – but it requires significant investment in terms of
presentations at the schools. While KACST has already
salaries, facilities, and infrastructure.
started planning initiatives like this, it should be the
responsibility of all the stakeholders to become involved
Staffing Requirements
in educational programs such as these. Eventually it is
The specialist technical staff to be recruited as part of
hoped that nanotechnology will be introduced as a topic
the National Nanotechnology Program can be split into
into the national school curriculum.
several groups:
Technical Director: One or two very experienced
Plans for training courses specifically designed for
scientists to direct the technical focus of the National
Industry are also being developed so that they may be
Nanotechnology Program. They would, in collaboration
offered by mid-2008. It should be the responsibility of all
with the other stakeholders, set the direction and review
the stakeholders to broaden and institute these training
proposed projects.
courses.
Technology Program Managers: These staff members
Training and Workforce Recruitment/Retention
Projects
would be equivalent to senior professors at KACST or in a
Manpower recruitment and retention was one of the
the technology they are focused on and management
primary issues to emerge from the nanotechnology
and communication skills. It is expected that most of
workshops and meetings. As the number of highly
these will initially be expatriates.
University. They must be extremely experienced in both
trained and capable staff within the Kingdom is limited,
much of the recruitment will have to be from overseas
Principal Investigators (PI): These people would
and this issue is critical to the success of the National
need to have a PhD and several years of post doctoral
Nanotechnology Program.
experience. They would manage research projects and
teams.
There is a concern that the students from the local
universities are currently not well-prepared to work with
40
Research Scientists and Engineers (RSEs): These
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Implementation Plan
people would have a relevant PhD and a few years postdoctoral experience.
Research Officers (ROs): Most of these staff would be new PhD holders or
experienced MSc staff.
Technical Officers (TOs): These staff would have a degree in engineering
or science and assist in the laboratory with practical work.
Recruitment Plan
Each project under the National Nanotechnology Program would require a
Principal Investigator to lead it. Depending on the size of the project it is
expected that between 3 and 15 staff will work on it. Thus, we can assume
each project has an average of 1 PI, 3 RSEs, 3 ROs and 2 TO.
It is particularly important that capacity is built up beyond an individual, to
give stability. This will involve building research teams focused on specific
areas, rather than hiring foreign talent and working in whatever area they
happen to be a specialist in.
During the nanotechnology workshop, an initial manpower recruitment plan
was discussed. The number of local and ex-pat personnel was computed
using the ratio of PI:RSE:RO:TO discussed above (1:3:3:2). It is expected that
by 2012, 1800 personnel will need to be recruited.
It will be significant challenge to recruit so many quality people. Government
support is sought up front to be exempt from the laws concerning the percentage
of Saudi citizens employed in the first few years. A sliding scale of conformance
can be agreed to in return for a training program for Saudi citizens.
Rewards, Incentives and Accountability
A series of rewards and incentives, in addition to a competitive salary, is
necessary to attract and retain the staff required. Rewards can be financial,
such as an end of year bonus linked to performance of the project. Rewards
can also be non-financial such as recognition as the “most innovative person”
of the year – or a meal at a restaurant with the advisory committee of the
National Science and Technology Strategic Plan for a team who achieved a
certain number of published papers.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
41
Implementation Plan
We hope to establish an effective reward system by 2008. By mid-2008,
there are plans to conduct individual “initiative reviews” with linked rewards.
It is important that thought be given to both individual rewards and team
rewards as such initiatives will drive behaviour. By 2009 there is a plan to
create “Work Cells” with associated team incentives.
In terms of accountability, it is recommended that a detailed quality plan be
created along with the management roles and responsibilities plan. In order
to minimize problems involved in large projects, it is important to have clear
roles, responsibilities, and processes.
Commercialization Projects
KACST has already taken initial steps addressing commercialization by
identifying the main stakeholders from industry that are expected to have a
significant role. KACST has undertaken initial negotiations with some of the
main stakeholders and hopes to build strong relationships with them so that
they can start to see the benefits of a nanotechnology initiative.
All the stakeholders in the Kingdom need to be encouraged to see the National
Nanotechnology Program as a beneficial long-term investment. To facilitate
this, the Program proposes the following:
Sponsoring a number of gifted individuals to develop their skills to become
business leaders of the future.
Identifying the nanotechnology related needs of agencies.
Establishing groups for exchanging nanotechnology information among
commercial sectors.
Encouraging cooperation between academia, government and industry.
Mandating partnership between each R&D institution and an industry
entity.
Using incubators to start up new business ventures.
Participating in the development of standards.
Understanding the reluctance of industry to become involved with high-cost
initiatives that make dubious promises about the future, the Program proposes
initiatives to encourage enthusiasm:
Encouraging industry entities to use the National Nanotechnology Strategic
Plan.
42
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Implementation Plan
Expanding industry liaison activities to cover sectors
not involved.
Technology Transfer Policy
To enable the commercialization and implementation
Funding multidisciplinary teams with researchers
from industry and academia.
of nanotechnology, it is important that prototypes
and testbed trials are set up to test and prove the new
Exchanging researchers between academic institutes
and industry.
technologies. These should ideally be carried out with
potential industrial partners to allow technology buy
Recommending government motivation for industries
to establish nanotechnology related manufacturing
in and adoption and also to ensure an easy transfer of
technology.
facilities.
Cooperating with world leading nanotechnology
industries.
The research topics that have been proposed are chosen
to enable optimum technology transfer. The research
topics: have clear areas of application, are topics which
Once the role of industry in nanotechnology has
industry is excited about, and are in areas where there is
advanced significantly, further steps will be undertaken
a strong need for advancement.
to ensure a smooth transition to full industrial output.
Manufacturing research is the key to achieving this and
NNC intends to start compiling the Center’s information
the following steps work to improve it:
database that will be used to record all knowledge in
Industrial sectors will be urged to build their own
research labs.
the area of nanotechnology. This will be performed in
collaboration with international universities, partnering
Direct research efforts will be focused towards issues
of nanotechnology manufacturing.
research centers, and the equipment suppliers of each of
the centers. This database may be used to introduce end
products and for industrial entities’ research use or end
Additional nanotechnology commercialization activities
product development.
that have been proposed include the following:
Setting up workshops and electronic means to
strengthen ties between regional and local initiatives.
Licensing of intellectual property from research
funded by National Nanotechnology Program.
Supporting
national
patent
and
Technology Incubators
Since the primary aim of commercialization is to spin
out companies, the technology incubator will be an
important aspect of the commercialization strategy.
trademark
registration.
Although spinning off companies is a major aim of
the National Nanotechnology Program, it is currently
Gauging the advancements made in nanotechnology
complex to set up (spin–out) a company. There is much
by taking part in international collaborations, workshops,
bureaucracy and the process is not clear. In addition, the
and conferences.
process of patenting and decision-making must be made
Offer annual excellence awards for supportive
more efficient if companies are to be able to spin out.
investors.
Including nanotechnology development in the
national five year plans.
Regional competition for VC funding does not seem to be
a current issue, as the surrounding countries have much
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
43
Implementation Plan
less technical infrastructure. However, countries such as
cover all aspects of business commonly not understood
UAE (Dubai, specifically) are seen as less bureaucratic.
by scientific entrepreneurs, such as accounting and
marketing, and assist the companies in sourcing KSA and
While the VC market is getting established, it is possible
regional government funding.
that the Kingdom may need to play a role in the short
term. It may be possible to create a separate entity that
As nanotechnology becomes increasingly important
would act as a VC and use business metrics and measures
to many international products, intellectual property
to judge the merit of investing in each potential spin-out
issues will grow in importance. It is vital that the Saudi
company. The investment would be in return for equity
Patent system is internationalized and intellectual capital
as with any normal VC deal, and if the company were to
developed in Saudi is maximized for economic return.
become a success this would create additional income
Moreover, as other countries explore nanotechnology and
to carry out the National Nanotechnology Program. A
generate patents, there is a danger that inactive countries
typical example of an agency which plays this role is
will be unable to take advantage of opportunities.
the UKs National Endowment for Science and the Arts
Therefore, a detailed plan for IP management should
(NESTA). NESTA uses public money to provide early
be developed including incubation and spin-off of
stage seed funding for technology start-ups in return for
companies.
an equity stake. NESTA and similar organizations address
concerns often faced by start ups that the investment is
Lastly, a small committee or organization should be set
either too risky or the investment required is too small for
up to oversee the assessment, funding, and incubation
traditional venture capital firms.
of spin out companies that are provided seed funding
initially by the government. It is recommended that
The creation of spin-out companies relies heavily on
industry pays to be involved in this and that international
individuals with an entrepreneurial spirit taking a risk
business experts be consulted. It will be crucial to build
and starting up a company. Scientists and engineers are
a spin-off savvy ecosystem of experienced technology-
more likely to try and spin out a company if: they see
focused entrepreneurs.
successful examples of other spin-out companies, they
know they will not be blamed if the company fails, they
IT Projects
will receive enough salary while they are starting up the
It is very important that the information and knowledge
company. In addition, it is important that the scientists
generated by the nanotechnology research projects
that spin out companies have some prior exposure
within the National Nanotechnology Program be stored
to commercial issues and have somewhere to turn for
in an appropriate way from the outset. This will enable
advice in business aspects.
effective knowledge mining and optimization of the
application of the knowledge at later stages.
The National Nanotechnology Program should create
44
a small organization staffed by experienced business
Within the next year, a full system of interconnected
people. They will work with the company incubator
software systems should be under development. These
to advise the incubating companies. This advice should
will aid the day-to-day operation of the Program by
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Implementation Plan
collecting and storing data at every step along the way.
to reflect the measurable aspects of performance and to
reflect the range of requirements a government research
Often the extra work of collecting data means that the
initiative is usually tasked with.
data is not collected in its entirety and the knowledge
storage system becomes ineffective. By incorporating
When choosing the KPIs for the National Nanotechnology
the data collection as part of the IT operations system this
Program, it is essential to focus on the following issues:
minimize the additional time spent on data collection.
They must be easy to measure.
They must be quantifiable.
The IT system proposed will be used to do all the
They must be objective.
following operations:
They must cover all the areas the National
Project management.
Nanotechnology Program is expected to perform.
Financial management.
Human resource management.
In order to allow benchmarking with international
Contact and relationship management.
organizations to be more easily achievable, it is suggested
Purchase order applications and approvals.
that KPIs in similar government organizations around the
Training applications.
world be assessed and, as far as possible, take similar
Equipment booking.
measures for the National Nanotechnology Program.
Facility management.
This will allow easier comparisons.
Calibration and maintenance management.
Suggested KPIs
Measurement and Benchmarking
Training
Standards & Processes
As
with
other
development
- Number of PhD students trained.
government-linked
organizations
in
the
research
and
- Number of Masters students trained.
world,
the
- Number of school visits.
measurement of success in initiatives such as this is
- Number of school students attached.
not simple.
- Number of conferences or seminars held.
Unlike a commercial company where
the success can be measured in financial terms, or a
University where success can be measured in terms
Intellectual Property and Academia
of academic papers published or students trained, a
- Number of papers published in high impact journals.
government-linked research organization has a complex
- Number of invited talks.
range of objectives. Often some of the most important
- Number of invention disclosures submitted.
success factors are interlinked with other factors and are
- Number of patents filed.
difficult to measure.
- Number of patents granted.
- Number and value of licenses.
The solution to the measurement problem used by most
- Number of research collaborations signed nationally.
research organizations is to have a selection of “Key
- Number
Performance Indicators (KPIs)”. These KPIs are chosen
internationally.
of
research
collaborations
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
signed
45
Implementation Plan
Industry
- Number of research collaborations signed with industry.
- Value of income from industry.
- Number of NDAs signed with industry.
- Number of researchers spun out to work in industry.
- Number of companies spun out of institutes involved in the program.
It is important to note that these KPI do not yet cover the all the key aspects of
the program, such as infrastructure development, and so other KPI may need
to be developed. It is also important use these KPIs carefully, because quality
is usually more important than quantity and there is a risk that a reliance on
KPIs can lead to an overemphasis on achieving numerical targets without the
necessary quality. The KPIs should be reviewed as one element of an annual
review by the program advisory committee, which should also consider
qualitative factors.
Benchmarking
It is important to find organizations which have similar interests when choosing
who to benchmark against. In the case of KACST National Nanotechnology
Center, similar government institutes are: A*STAR in Singapore, the
Nanofabrication Center at Cornell, and the relevant departments in UCLA,
etc. It is hoped that an external benchmarking system will be in place by
2009.
Division of Roles among Nanotechnology Stakeholders
Nanotechnology Stakeholders Duties and Responsibilities
The major stakeholders involved in the National Nanotechnology Program
are as follows:
KACST research institutes.
Local universities.
Local industry.
Government organizations.
KACST/NNC Responsibilities
The National Nanotechnology Center at KACST will serve as a centralized
laboratory for the Kingdom. Its research will be focused on the research
priorities discussed earlier in this chapter. It will promote and encourage
46
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Implementation Plan
collaboration with universities and industry in the field
of nanotechnology. In addition, KACST/NNC will:
both domestically and internationally.
Ensure
Serve as a monitoring and coordinating body for other
research institutes to ensure that the other stakeholders
that
all
required
information
for
the
nanotechnology database that is run by KACST is
delivered in complete and updated format.
have the resources they need to conduct their research
Establish new nanotechnology graduate programs
and serve as a checkpoint so that the research remains
to be added to the current engineering and science
focused on national nanotechnology research goals.
curriculum.
House
the
central
national
database
on
nanotechnology research and activities. However, it
Industry Responsibilities
will be the responsibility of all stakeholders to ensure
Local industry needs to promote and encourage
that the IT infrastructure required for this database is
the collaboration with local academia and other
maintained.
research institutions to develop products based on
Support universities to enhance the current university
nanotechnologies. This will involve seeking out local
curriculum with nanotechnology topics and work to
research partners in solving technological issues that
build a new graduate nanotechnology program.
can be addressed by nanotechnology, as well as sharing,
Conduct technology transfer to strengthen the base of
Nanotechnology in the Kingdom.
where appropriate, their expertise and facilities. Local
industries are also encouraged to deliver all required
Supervise stakeholder initiated projects to ensure
information for the nanotechnology database that is run
compatibility with national nanotechnology objectives.
by KACST.
Since KACST is considered the primary link between
Government Responsibilities
fundamental
The government, represented by the higher committee
in
research
universities
and
that
the
is
mainly
conducted
commercialization
and
of science and technology strategic plans, will serve
implementation of nanotechnology, KACST should also
as the primary funding body. It will review current
play a big role in establishing technology transfer and
status and milestones of the National Nanotechnology
product development policies.
Strategic Plan based on the input of all parties under the
coordination of the NNC at KACST.
Universities Responsibilities
The universities’ responsibilities include ensuring that
appropriate infrastructure, tools, and facilities are built
and installed in line with the goals of the National
Nanotechnology Program. They also will need to ensure
that current and future research projects in the field of
nanotechnology are in line with goals of the National
Nanotechnology Program. In addition, universities need to:
Promote and encourage collaboration with other
universities, national research institutes and industry
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
47
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
The
Strengths,
Weaknesses,
findings are then discussed below.
Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT)
Where the Weaknesses and Threats
analysis,
are discussed, suggested solutions are
initiated
during
the
nanotechnology workshop and then
recommended.
built upon by an international panel
of nanotechnology experts, can be
seen below. This shows in a tabular
form the result of the group’s assessment
of
the
Strengths,
Weaknesses,
Opportunities and Threats for the
National Nanotechnology Strategic
Plan
within
the
Kingdom. The
Table A: Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity, Threat (SWOT) Analysis Chart
Strengths
Weaknesses
Good government and political Support
Lack of nanotechnology infrastructure
Good economic situation (oil prices are high)
No advanced technology economy
Funding is already available
High level of bureaucracy
Highly educated population
Lack of knowledge and know-how in nanotechnology
Good general infrastructure (water, power, roads)
Lack of awareness of applications and benefits of
Good basic education resources from which to
build
nanotechnology
Lack of industrial culture within the Kingdom
Existing National Technical Initiative
Long-term R&D strategy
Some national centers of excellence already
established
Lack of incentives or motivation in human resource
management
Qualified manpower shortage
Lack of R&D performance indicators
Leveraging existing big industries (oil and water)
Right timing without history of setbacks
Motivation within government and academia
Not much commitment or funding from private
sector
Lack of focused education (training) in nanotechnology
Little collaboration within the Kingdom
Lack of professional planning
No clear vision and organization
Not much new technology within the Kingdom
48
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
Opportunities
Threats
Strong potential applications in Kingdom
Single source of economy/drop of oil price
International collaboration
Lack of support from the private sector
Existing research centers
Outside competition from advanced technology
Desalination of water
countries
To diversify economy
Small
improvements
Saudization:
in
desalination
or
Having
more
Saudis
in
the
workforce.
diversification of economy will have a large, positive
Technology is developing quickly: can we keep up?
effect
Competitive states around us
International
nanotechnology
trends
and
globalization of information
Losing our momentum through the years
Technology monopoly: fear that some countries
Industrial needs meet applications
will monopolize nanotechnology
Alliances with other centers
Funding shortage
Government support
Over-hyped? Tendency to focus on well established
High demand
technologies
Good timing
Health & safety issues
Build alliances and encourage sharing
Unknown Funding stability
Potential for regional dominance
We can choose which industry to get into
Available natural resources
Investment attraction
Strengths
The big industries of oil and water currently present
One of the strongest points of the National Nanotechnology
in the Kingdom can both benefit from a thriving
Program is the strong governmental support, recognized
nanotechnology capability. The presence of these two
by all stakeholders involved. The current economic
industries will enhance the initiative.
situation of extremely high oil prices, with likely increases,
suggests a positive economic situation in the Kingdom
Although the Kingdom’s population is not knowledgeable
for the foreseeable future. This, in turn indicates that a
in nanotechnology, there is a large population and
high level of funding for investment in nanotechnology
generally a high level of education that makes it easier to
and the necessary attraction of experts will be possible.
increase the technology capability still further. The good
In addition, the security of economy allows long term
and improving educational resources will enable this, as
research & development strategies to be developed and
will the high importance attributed to education in the
followed through.
Kingdom. The good IT being developed in the Kingdom
will also benefit the initiative.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
49
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
The Saudi Arabian culture values and ideas has generated
responsibility diagrams.
an expressive, thoughtful and inventive population which
will be good for developing unique nanotechnology
Lack of knowledge and know-how in nanotechnology
capability in future years. The stakeholders are also
is seen as a daunting issue for many of the stakeholders.
enthusiastic and motivated. Some national centers of
This is exacerbated by a general lack of awareness of
excellence have already started to be established.
applications and benefits nanotechnology throughout
the Kingdom.
Weaknesses
The current lack of nanotechnology infrastructure is
Recommendation: Develop a detailed training plan for
seen as a weakness and it will take time and significant
all different categories of staff and stakeholders, including
planned investment to overcome this. In addition, most
the on-going budget to sustain and grow this effort.
of the economy relies on relatively low technology
industries. It is considered a big task to engage such
Recommendation: Organize a series of forums on
industries in the nanotechnology program at the outset.
nanotechnology subjects for industry, and publish
informative articles in local newspapers.
Recommendation: Develop a detailed facility and
infrastructure plan. This would be in parallel to
There is currently a lack of technical business culture and
development of technical project plans and involve
expertise. Doing business in high technology is different
equipment purchase, housing, operations, management
than in the lower technology areas. Understanding of
& booking and training.
quality and expertise plays a large part in business decisions
and this is new to many business leaders in the Kingdom.
The high level of bureaucracy surrounding some past
government initiatives is seen as a significant weakness
Recommendation: Organize a series of forums on
in making progress on the National Nanotechnology
business matters in high technology industries and
Strategic Plan.
publish informative articles in local newspapers.
Recommendation: In order to minimize bureaucracy
There is currently a major difficulty in recruiting and
and, at the same time, ensure government investment
retaining good staff. There are not enough trained
can be properly accounted for, it is suggested that
people locally to fulfill the requirements of the National
detailed processes be developed in association with clear
Nanotechnology Program and so a significant number
and detailed organizational and management plans. In
of expatriates must be attracted to work in the Kingdom
this way the necessary bureaucracy can be seen and
to fulfill the Program’s mission. In addition there is a
reviewed before the rules are implemented.
concern that the students from the local universities are
currently not prepared to work with such cutting-edge
50
Recommendation: Implement an on-line approval system.
technology. It was noted that using the technology and
Once these processes are developed they can assist in
equipment proposed in the National Nanotechnology
the drawing up of clear and effective management and
Program will need capable trained staff - otherwise
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
technical aversion may occur. The shortage of suitable manpower combined
with a lack of incentives or motivation in human resource management means
that staffing the nanotechnology initiative in the numbers proposed will be
extremely challenging.
Recommendation: Develop a detailed manpower recruitment, management,
recognition, and retention plan. In addition to hiring the correct number and
level of staff, the plan would embody the management and reward aspects to
encourage retention of staff and maintain a high motivation and enthusiasm.
Recommendation: A staff handbook should be written which clarifies all
aspects of the National Nanotechnology Program that a staff member should
be aware of. This will extend from information about holiday allowance and
working hours to the management structure and health and safety policy.
A lack of R&D performance indicators means that the funding agencies cannot
see the specific progress they hope for and the initiatives in the Kingdom cannot
be benchmarked against other countries. In addition, the staff working on the
initiatives cannot, themselves, see the progress and therefore can be potentially
demoralized. There is a definite requirement to measure performance against
a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and benchmark the National
Nanotechnology Program against similar international organizations. This will
be very important to show performance to stakeholders, staff, and external
organizations. However, it is equally important that these measures are not
used to control the National Nanotechnology Program and stifle its growth
and innovation.
Recommendation: Develop a set of relevant and appropriate measures to
monitor on a regular basis. These can also be used to benchmark against
other organizations.
There is a perception that government funding schemes tend to be short
term in nature. This translates to a lack of enthusiasm among staff to start
new initiatives, such as the National Nanotechnology Program, when earlier
ones have failed or stalled due to bureaucracy or change of policy. The earlier
projects and outcomes need to be addressed to enable some stakeholders
to move on (e.g. solar village). In addition to a need to commit to such an
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
51
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
initiative for a significant amount of time and investment,
as a KPI. All projects will be monitored and progress
it is essential that the projects do not become over
assessed throughout the lifetime of the project, including
burdened with bureaucracy. In addition to initial lump
successful meeting of milestones and working within the
sum injection of resources for the setting up of facilities
budget. Also detailed management and responsibility
and infrastructure, it must be realized that such facilities
plans will be developed.
require significant specialized maintenance and this will
Concern was expressed about the ability to convey the
require significant annual funding.
complexity of nanotechnology to the government and
Recommendation: Develop a detailed facility and
senior fund holders. The ability to attract investors into
equipment investment plan.
nanotechnology in the Kingdom was also a concern.
Although the generally high level of education within
Recommendation:
the population was seen as a strength, the quality of
nanotechnology experts can give a regular a high level
aspects of the education and training is also viewed as
briefing session to key senior members of the government
a weakness.
to explain the issues and successes involved in the
A
group
of
international
National Nanotechnology Program.
Recommendation: Engage the education and training
institutes within the Kingdom with the experts brought
It was felt that the research must be of high quality and
in to lead nanotechnology projects. These experts are
be meaningful. This again emphasizes the importance
often highly experienced in the academic world and will
of the initial projects and the importance of making
be able to advise how to improve the education and
measurements and benchmarking of progress and value
training.
visible to everyone. As far as possible, a plan to gain
economic return from the more applied projects should
The lack of collaboration within the Kingdom, combined
be worked out from the start of the project and industrial
with the lack of professional planning, and unclear
partners sought to facilitate this. The large number of
organizational structures, responsibilities and visions is
research centers and also the autonomy of the universities
currently a weakness.
was also seen as a weakness.
project
Recommendation: Some specific technical areas have
management for all projects within the National
been recommended as potential focus areas for National
Nanotechnology Strategic Plan. All Principal Investigators
Nanotechnology Program, taking into account all the
will be trained in project management at the start of
information to date. If there is still some concern about
their contract. All projects will have a detailed project
the areas chosen however, it is recommended that an
plan before approval, incorporating budget, staff
international group of about 10 renowned experts be
requirements, commercial relevance, and collaborations.
brought together for a day’s workshop to debate the
Certain collaborative relationships can be encouraged
different areas of nanotechnology and to select those
through this and also through setting such collaborations
that are most beneficial, in their opinion, for KSA.
Recommendation:
52
Implement
professional
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
The background in this report will help establish the framework for their
discussion.
Recommendation: It is also recommended that some form of monitoring and
coordination of nanotechnology facilities be established across the Kingdom.
When the Universities are given funding under the program it should ideally
be attached to specific milestones and deliverables that are nanotechnology
related. The equipment purchased should be accessible to the rest of the
stakeholders of the National Nanotechnology Program and the research
direction and results coordinated as part of the National Program.
Recommendation: An on-line equipment booking system is recommended.
The benefits of such a system are that it collects data on utilization of equipment
and the identity of the primary users. It can also record the percentage
downtime of equipment and also their calibration and a maintenance status.
It is particularly useful for monitoring and controlling equipment which is not
co-located.
Procurement is currently an issue with “poor agents, poor buyer representation,
slow shipments and heat degradation”. Agency regulation for supplies/
chemicals is onerous and not practical.
Recommendation: Develop a detailed procurement plan.
Opportunities
The initiation of international collaborations in association with the existing
research centers is seen as a major opportunity for the Kingdom. Indeed, there
is also an opportunity to build partnerships and alliances between different
organizations within the Kingdom.
Some of the potential applications of nanotechnology in KSA are strong
and considered excellent opportunities, particularly in the area of water
desalination. These have a high economic potential as even just small
improvements in desalination or the diversification of the economy will have
a large, positive effect on the Kingdom.
The high international demand of nanotechnology solutions, globalization of
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
53
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
information and the growing realization by industry that
Recommendation: Engage industry through forums and
nanotechnology can advance their product or service
press articles.
mean that the timing for embarking on such an initiative
is good.
It is also an opportunity to bring external
investment into the Kingdom.
Due to the lack of experienced project leaders in
nanotechnology and also the issues associated with
manpower retention, there is a threat that a capability may
The Kingdom has a selection of natural resources, such as
rely on one individual and be lost when that individual
sand, which are not being exploited fully. The development
leaves the initiative.
of a nanotechnology capability may make it possible to
individual, to give stability is considered essential. This
exploit such resources to the benefit of the economy.
will involve building research teams in specific areas,
Building capacity beyond an
rather than hiring foreign talent and working in whatever
Threats
area they happen to be a specialist in.
Labour Laws involving “Saudization” which involve
requirements to hire a high percentage of local staff
Recommendation: Develop a detailed Technical Strategy
could prove to be a threat in the short term. Initially
which sets out the focused areas of nanotechnology and
the expert staff in nanotechnology will primarily be from
breaks them down into capability groups. Staff are then
overseas until the local population can be trained up to
sourced with expertise in these areas and recruitment
the necessary technical standards.
aims to ensure “an heir and a spare” policy (two extra
people) to back up each project leader in the critical
Recommendation: Government support is sought up
capability.
front to be exempt from these laws in the first few years.
A sliding scale of conformance can be agreed in return for
Spinning off companies is a major aim of the National
an agreed training program to allow a high employment
Nanotechnology Program, as there is not much relevant
rate of Saudi citizens in the later years.
industry in the Kingdom to license the nanotechnology IP
to at the moment. Thus the best form of commercialization
Reducing corruption & code of practice for quality
of this technology within the Kingdom is by spin out.
However, the VC market is immature (most cash goes to
Recommendation: A detailed quality plan is recommended,
commerce) and it seems to be non-trivial to set up (spin–
in associated with the management organization roles &
out) a company. There is much bureaucracy and the
responsibilities plan. In order to minimize the corruption
process is not clear. In addition, the process of patenting
involved in such large projects it is important to have clear
and decision-making must be optimized and sped up if
roles, responsibilities, and processes.
companies are to be able to spin out.
The potential that the private sector does not buy into
Recommendation: Develop a detailed plan for all
the nanotechnology initiative, even after the capability
IP management including incubation and spin-off of
has been established, is a threat to the long-term viability
companies.
of the initiative.
54
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Appendix A: Swot Analysis
Recommendation: Set up a small committee or
Recommendation: If necessary consult a group of
organization to oversee the assessment, funding, and
international experts.
incubation of spin out companies seed funded initially
by government money. It is recommended that industry
A concern about the long term funding and stability of
pay to be involved in this and that international business
funding is evident. This emanates both from an unlikely
experts be consulted. It will be crucial to build a spin-off
event that oil prices will significantly decrease and
savvy ecosystem of experienced (and that includes failed-
therefore bring about a drop in the economy, but also
first-time-round) technology focused entrepreneurs.
the concern that the government funding agencies may
switch the investment to a different project.
There are extremely competitive states located around
the Kingdom. However, regional competition does not
In the area of nanotechnology there are Health, Safety
seem to be a current issue, as the surrounding states have
and Environmental unknowns. Due to the new aspects
much less technical infrastructure. Specific countries,
of nanotechnology, the effect on certain aspects of the
such as Dubai, are seen as less bureaucratic (hence
technology, such as engineered nanoparticles, on the
attractive for making quick progress) and showing
human body and the environment is still largely unknown.
potential in technical niches (Qatar, for example).
There is therefore a potential risk to researchers and
Collaboration is unlikely in the short term.
associated environments exposed to such nanoparticles
and nanofibres.
Potential competition is also inevitable from advanced
technology countries as the Kingdom will initially be playing
Recommendation: Develop a detailed Health, Safety
catch-up in the technology. There is also a fear that some
and Environment Plan and associated training invoking
countries will monopolize nanotechnology.
However,
the latest understanding in the area. This plan would be
assuming the Kingdom remains focused, motivated and
associated with the management roles and responsibilities
investing in specific strategic areas of nanotechnology, it
plan and could be developed by consultants.
can expect to gain expert status relatively fast. The wide
range of technologies and their potential application will
ensure a major supply of both major market and niche
opportunities. This assumes no issues from other aspects,
such as recruitment and retention.
Identifying the correct research areas/projects is seen
as a big issue before the initiative can progress.
It
is important not to miss a line of research at the start
which may be important to the future of the Kingdom.
In addition, some researchers consider nanotechnology
to be over-hyped and feel the investment would be better
employed on well-established technologies.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
55
Appendix B: National Nanotechnology Center Equipment
The equipment that the National
Nanotechnology Center (NNC) will
eventually host is listed below. This
equipment will be purchased on a
staged basis according to capability
requirement and budget.
Cleanroom:
Lithography section (class 100):
- Mask aligner.
- E-beam lithography.
- Coaters.
- Coater bench.
- Bake oven / Soft bake oven.
- Developer wet bench.
- Inspection microscope.
Wet processing section (class 1,000):
- Electro plating bench.
- Electroless plating bench.
- Developer bench.
- Solvent benches.
- Acid benches.
- Various chemical wet benches.
Dry processing section (class 1000):
- E-Beam evaporator (mirrors).
- E-Beam evaporator (metals).
- Sputter.
- PECVD.
- RIE.
- LPCVD.
56
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Appendix B: National Nanotechnology Center Equipment
- MBE.
- RTP.
Characterization section (class 1000):
- XRD (X-ray Diffractometer).
- Ellipsometer.
- PL-Mapper.
- Optical surface profiler.
- Stylus surface profiler.
Equipment in the microscopy room (separate laboratory):
- TEM (Transmisson electonic microscope).
- SEM/FIB (Scanning electronic microscope with focused Ion beam).
- AFM (Atomic force microscope).
Epitaxial growth room.
MOCVD (Metal organic chemical vapor deposition).
Back end processing room.
Lapping & polishing.
Scribing & breaking.
Die attach.
Wire bonder.
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
57
Appendix C: Plan Development Process
The process of developing this plan
members represented themselves as
included a three-day stakeholder
individuals, and did not necessarily
workshop. Following the workshop,
represent their organizations.
KACST prepared a draft plan with
the assistance of Scientifica.
As
part of the planning process, an
advisory committee was formed,
and the committee met to review
and comment on the draft plan.
The advisory committee members
are
listed
below.
Workshop
participants and advisory committee
Table A-1: Advisory Committee Members
Name
Organization
Tim Harper
Cientifica Co., UK
Adrian Burden
Singular ID, Singapore
Dexter Johnson
Cientifica Co., UK
Abdulrahman A. Al-Muhanna
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Table A-2: Workshop Participants
58
Name
Affiliation
Qassim Fallata
Aramco
Mohammed Albagami
AEC
Abdulmajeed Almazroo
STC
Riyad Alrawase
STC
Muteb Alonezi
Yamama Cement Co.
Fawwaz Almutari
Qassem Cement Co.
Saleh Alfawzan
SWCC
Abdulrahman Alarifi
SWCC
Ahmad Aleid
Military Hospital
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
Appendix C: Plan Development Process
Name
Affiliation
Ibraheem Babilli
Government
Khalid Albaiz
Government
Homod Almodaini
Government
Abdulrazzag Alsofyani
Government
Fahad Alghobayni
Government
Abdullah Alsaif
Government
Faisal Alsaif
Government
Abdulmuhsen Algorayni
Government
Hani Alghamdi
Government
Abdullah Alsabti
KACST
Khondakar Idrees
KACST
Mohammad Abdulhadi
KACST
Abdullah Alahdal
KACST
Zain Yamani
KFUPM
Mahmood Sulyman
KSU
Maher Alodan
KSU
Sami Habeeb
KAU
Abdullah Alja’afri
KFU
The management team for the planning project from KACST are:
Table A-3: Planning Project Core Team
Name
Abdulrahman A. Almuhanna
Khalid A. Aldakkan
Hussain A. Alsalman
Yazeed A. Alaskar
Abdullah A. Alatawi
Strategic Priorities for Nanotechnology Program
59
www.kacst.edu.sa
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Doc. No. 15P0001-PLN-0001-ER01
DAKKIN 01 478 8584
Tel 488 3555 - 488 3444
Fax 488 3756
P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh 11442
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
www.kacst.edu.sa
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