Avid Technology PRO TOOLS MIX 51 User`s guide

Pro Tools
Reference Guide
Version 5.0.1 for Macintosh and Windows
Digidesign Inc.
3401-A Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA
tel: 650·842·7900
fax: 650·842·7999
Technical Support (USA)
650·842·6699
650·856·4275
Product Information (USA)
650·842·6602
800·333·2137
Fax on Demand (USA)
1-888-USE-DIGI (873-3444)
World Wide Web
www.digidesign.com
Digidesign FTP Site
ftp.digidesign.com
Copyright
This User’s Guide is copyrighted ©1999 by Digidesign, a
division of Avid Technology, Inc. (hereafter “Digidesign”), with
all rights reserved. Under copyright laws, this manual may not
be duplicated in whole or in part without the written consent of
Digidesign.
DIGIDESIGN, AVID and PRO TOOLS are trademarks or
registered trademarks of Digidesign and/or Avid Technology,
Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective
owners.
All features and specifications subject to change without
notice.
PN 932708002-00 REV A 05/00
contents
Part I
Introduction
Chapter 1. Welcome to Pro Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Pro Tools Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Compatibility Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Digidesign Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chapter 2. Pro Tools System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TDM-equipped systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TDM System Playback, Recording and Voice Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Audio Interfaces for TDM Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Pro Tools LE Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Pro Tools LE System Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Chapter 3. Pro Tools Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Hard Disk Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
The Digidesign Audio Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Elements of a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
MIDI Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Virtual Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Chapter 4. Pro Tools Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Mix Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Edit Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The Transport Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Keyboard Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Contents iii
Part II
Pro Tools Sessions
Chapter 5. Creating Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Starting Up Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Configuring Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Changing the Pro Tools Playback Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Changing DAE Playback Buffer Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Creating a New Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Opening a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Saving a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Creating Custom Session Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Closing a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Quitting a Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Sharing Sessions between Pro Tools TDM Systems and Pro Tools LE Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Chapter 6. Working with Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Creating Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Hiding Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Assigning Track Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Assigning Track Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Virtual Tracks, Voices, and Track Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Automatic Assignment of Ascending Voices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Assigning Voices and Track Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Setting MIDI Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Adjusting Track Volume and Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Soloing and Muting Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Adjusting Track Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Color Coding Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Grouping Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Using the Groups List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Enabling Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Creating a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
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Chapter 7. File Management and Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Locating Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
WAV File Compatibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Naming Files, Playlists and Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Part III
Recording
Chapter 8. Record Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Input Connections and Audio Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Record Enabling Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Monitoring Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Monitoring Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Low Latency Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Track Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Recording to Multiple Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Allocating Hard Drive Space for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Record Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Recording with the Click . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Chapter 9. Basic Audio Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Recording a Single Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Stereo and Multiple-Track Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Recording Additional Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Punch Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Loop Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Auditioning Record Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Setting Punch/Loop Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Contents v
Chapter 10. MIDI Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
MIDI Controller Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Enabling Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
MIDI Thru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
MIDI Input Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Input Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Wait for Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
MIDI Merge/Replace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Recording a MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Punch Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Loop Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Recording System Exclusive Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Chapter 11. Advanced Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Using QuickPunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Recording from a Digital Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Half-Speed Recording and Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Chapter 12. Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Importing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Importing Audio into a Session (Macintosh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Importing Audio into a Session (Windows) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Recalculating Waveform Overviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Loading Audio Files with Drag & Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Transferring Audio from CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Conversion Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Exporting Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Importing MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Exporting MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
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Part IV
Editing
Chapter 13. Editing Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Pro Tools Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Track Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Displaying Region Names and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Audio Regions and Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
MIDI Regions and MIDI Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Playlists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
The Audio and MIDI Regions Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Edit Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Rulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Time Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Tick-Based Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Chapter 14. Playing/Selecting Track Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Playing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Scrolling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
The Scrubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Separate Edit and Timeline Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Selecting Track Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Playing Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Timeline Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Playing Edit and Timeline Selections with the Playhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
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Chapter 15. Working with Regions and Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Creating New Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Healing a Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Placing Regions in Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
The Trimmer Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Moving Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Nudging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Shift Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Quantizing Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Locking Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Muting/Unmuting Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Edit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Duplicate Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Repeat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Merge Paste Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Consolidate Selection Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Managing Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Compacting an Audio File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Chapter 16. MIDI Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Inserting MIDI Notes with the Pencil Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Manually Editing MIDI Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Continuous Controller Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Program Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
System Exclusive Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
MIDI Operations Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Select Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Change Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Change Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Transpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Note/Controller Chasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
MIDI Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Stuck Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
viii Pro Tools Reference Guide
Chapter 17. Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Tempo Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Default Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Identify Beat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Meter Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Memory Locations and Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Memory Locations Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Chapter 18. Advanced Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Using Crossfades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Creating Fades at the Beginnings and Ends of Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Creating Fades and Crossfades in Batches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Stripping Silence From Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Inserting Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
The Time Trimmer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Compress/Expand Edit To Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Repeat Paste To Fill Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Replacing Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Processing Audio with AudioSuite Plug-Ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Waveform Repair with the Pencil Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Part V
Mixing
Chapter 19. Basic Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Creating Inserts and Sends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Sends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Auxiliary Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Master Faders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Contents ix
Chapter 20. Advanced Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Hardware I/O Inserts and Sends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Creating a Submix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Using an Auxiliary Input to Mix an External Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Creating a Master Send Level Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Printing Effects to Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Recording a Submix to Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
TDM Mixer Plug-Ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Chapter 21. Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Automation Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Automation Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Viewing Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Writing Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Enabling or Suspending Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Deleting Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Thinning Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Drawing Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Editing Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Writing Automation to the Start, End or All of a Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Trimming Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Creating Snapshot Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Setting the Automation Buffer Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Chapter 22. Mixdown and Mastering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Bouncing Tracks to Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Bounce Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Output Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Using Dither on an Output Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Creating a Submix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Final Mixdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Mastering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
x Pro Tools Reference Guide
Part VI
Synchronization
Chapter 23. Synchronization Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Your Sync Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Aspects of Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Syncing Pro Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
SMPTE Frame Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Working with Film-Originated Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Chapter 24. Time Code Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Pro Tools Sync Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
The Session Setup Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Preparing to Work with SMPTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Configuring Pro Tools for SMPTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Putting Pro Tools Online. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Generating Time Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Syncing a Sequencer to Pro Tools on the Macintosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Syncing a Sequencer to Pro Tools in Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Using MIDI Machine Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Remote Track Arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Syncing Pro Tools to an OMS-Compatible Sequencer using MMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
MIDI Beat Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Spotting Regions to SMPTE Frame Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Time Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Identifying a Sync Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Troubleshooting Sync. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Contents xi
Chapter 25. Working with QuickTime Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
About QuickTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
QuickTime Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Movie Playback Quality Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Importing a QuickTime Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Setting the Movie Start Time: Movie Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Spotting Audio to a QuickTime Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Importing QuickTime Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Bouncing to a new Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Appendix A. DSP-Induced Delays in Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Delay Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Compensating for Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Typical Delay Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Appendix B. TDM Mixing and DSP Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Pro Tools TDM Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
DSP Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
DSP Usage with TDM Mixers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
DSP Usage with TDM Plug-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
DSP Usage and I/O Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Appendix C. Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Global Key Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Commands Key Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Numeric Keypad Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Appendix D. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Backing up your work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Common Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Using DigiTest As a Diagnostic Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Performance Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Before You Call Digidesign Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
xii Pro Tools Reference Guide
Part I
Introduction
chapter 1
Welcome to Pro Tools
Welcome to Pro Tools®. Pro Tools integrates powerful multitrack digital audio
and MIDI sequencing features, giving you
everything you need to record, arrange,
edit, mix, and master professional-quality
audio.
Quick Reference Cards (TDM Systems only)
Separate cards for Macintosh and Windows
that list the many keyboard shortcuts not
shown in the Pro Tools menus.
✽ Online PDF versions of the Quick Reference
cards are included for Pro Tools LE systems.
The Pro Tools Guides
Your Pro Tools System includes the following guides:
Pro Tools Installation Guides Instructions
for installing Pro Tools software and hardware, and connecting your studio.
Pro Tools Reference Guide Instructions for
creating sessions, recording, editing, and
mixing with Pro Tools.
DigiRack™ Plug-Ins Guide Instructions for
using the DigiRack Plug-Ins for both realtime and file-based audio processing in
Pro Tools.
Pro Tools MIDI Controllers Guide Instructions for operating Pro Tools with various
MIDI control surfaces.
Conventions Used in These
Guides
The Pro Tools guides use the following
conventions to indicate menu choices and
key commands:
:
Convention
Action
File > Save Session
Choose Save Session
from the File menu
Control+N
Hold down the Control
key and press the N key
Option-click
Hold down the Option
key and click the mouse
button
Right-click (Windows)
Click with the right
mouse button
Chapter 1: Welcome to Pro Tools 3
The following symbols are used to highlight important information:
✽ User Tips are helpful hints for getting the
most from your Pro Tools system.
▲ Important Notices include information that
could affect your Pro Tools session data or the
performance of your Pro Tools system.
Compatibility Information
Digidesign can only assure compatibility
and provide support for devices it has
tested and approved. For a list of Digidesign-qualified computers, SCSI accelerator
cards, hard drives, diskette drives, and serial port adapters, refer to the latest compatibility information on the Digidesign
Web site (www.digidesign.com).
☞ Cross References point to related sections
in the Pro Tools Guides.
Digidesign Registration
Choose and Select
The words “choose” and “select” are often
interchangeable in conversational english.
In this guide, however, there is a distinction between the two terms.
Select When the guide instructs you to select something, it stays selected. This is the
case with dialog box options and menu
items that enable or disable an option.
Choose When the guide instructs you to
choose something, a one-time action is performed. This is the case with most menu
commands; they perform their chosen action only once.
4 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Make sure to complete and return the registration card included with Product Name.
Registered users are entitled to one year of
free technical support, and will receive periodic software updates and upgrade notices.
chapter 2
Pro Tools System Configurations
TDM-equipped systems
Pro Tools TDM-equipped systems are available in the following configurations:
Pro Tools 24 MIXplus
A core system includes:
• MIX Core card
• MIX Farm card
• Pro Tools software
• Digidesign Audio Interface
(sold separately)
Pro Tools III PCI (Macintosh only)
A core system includes:
• a Disk I/O Audio Card
• a DSP Farm Card
• Pro Tools software
• Digidesign Audio Interface
(sold separately)
Supported Audio Interfaces
You can use the following Audio Interfaces
with Pro Tools TDM systems:
The 888/24 I/O and 882/20 I/O (as well
as 888 I/O and 882 I/O) Audio Interfaces
work with Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus,
Pro Tools 24, or Pro Tools III PCI systems.
◆
Pro Tools 24 MIX
A core system includes:
• a MIX Core card
• Pro Tools software
• Digidesign Audio Interface
(sold separately)
Pro Tools 24
A core system includes:
• d24 Audio card
• DSP Farm card
• Pro Tools software
• Digidesign Audio Interface
(sold separately)
◆ The 1622 I/O Audio Interface works with
Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus and
Pro Tools 24 systems only.
◆ The ADAT Bridge I/O Interface works
with Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus,
Pro Tools 24, or Pro Tools III PCI systems.
▲ Pro Tools system performance depends on
factors such as computer processor speed,
amount of system memory, and hard drive performance. Contact your Digidesign dealer or
visit Digidesign’s Web site for the latest system requirements and compatibility information.
Chapter 2: Pro Tools System Configurations 5
TDM System Playback, Recording and Voice Limits
The following table lists the audio playback, recording, and voice limits of each type of
Pro Tools TDM system. The term virtual voice refers to the maximum number of audio
tracks that can share the available voices on your system. TDM-equipped Pro Tools systems
can open sessions with up to 128 audio tracks, but any audio tracks beyond that system’s
virtual voice limit will be automatically set to Voice Off.
All TDM-equipped Pro Tools systems provide a total of 32 internal mix busses. TDM systems also provide 5 Inserts and 5 Sends per track, up to the DSP capacity of your system.
Table 1. Pro Tools TDM System Audio Playback, Recording and Virtual Voice Limits
Core System Type
Voices
(Tracks of
Simultaneous
Playback)
Tracks of
Simultaneous
Recording
Virtual Voices
Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus
32 or 64
32 or 64
86
Pro Tools 24
32
32
43
Pro Tools III (PCI)
16
16
53
Audio Interfaces for TDM Systems
The following table lists the input and output capabilities of the various Audio Interfaces
for TDM-equipped Pro Tools systems. In expanded TDM systems, Audio Interfaces can be
combined for up to 72 audio inputs and outputs.
Table 2. Pro Tools Audio Interface Channel Capabilities
Interface Type
Number of I/O
Channels
A/D
Conversion
D/A
Conversion
Digital I/O
888/24 I/O
8 in/8 out
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
882/20 I/O
8 in/8 out
20-bit
20-bit
24-bit
888 I/O
8 in/8 out
18-bit
18-bit
24-bit
882 I/O
8 in/8 out
18-bit
18-bit
24-bit
1622 I/O
16 in/2 out
20-bit
20-bit
24-bit
ADAT Bridge I/O
16 in/16 out
20-bit
20-bit
24-bit
6 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pro Tools LE Systems
Pro Tools with Audiomedia III
Pro Tools LE-based systems are available in
the following configurations.
An Audiomedia III system includes:
• Audiomedia III card
• Pro Tools LE software
Digi 001
▲ The total track count and processing capac-
A Digi 001 system includes:
• Digi 001 PCI card
• Digi 001 I/O box
• Pro Tools LE software
ity of Pro Tools LE-based systems depend on
the processing power of your computer. Contact your Digidesign dealer or visit Digidesign’s
Web site for the latest system requirements
and compatibility information.
Pro Tools LE System Capabilities
The following table lists the playback, recording, and input/output capabilities of each
Pro Tools LE-based system. All Pro Tools LE systems are limited to 24 audio tracks. If you
open a Pro Tools session containing more than 24 audio tracks on an LE-based system,
only the first 24 audio tracks will open; if you save the session using Pro Tools LE, any
audio tracks beyond the first 24 will be lost.
All Pro Tools LE systems provide a total of 16 internal mix busses. Pro Tools LE also provides up to 5 Inserts and 5 Sends per track, depending on your computer’s processing capacity.
Table 3. Pro Tools LE System Audio Playback, Recording, and Channel Capabilities
System Type
Tracks of
Simultaneous
Playback
Number of
Recording/Playback
Channels
A/D
Conversion
D/A
Conversion
Digital
I/O
Digi 001
24
up to 18 in/18 out
24-bit
24-bit
24-bit
Audiomedia III
24
up to 4 in/4 out
18-bit
18-bit
24-bit
For details on transferring session material between Pro Tools LE and Pro Tools TDM systems, see “Sharing Sessions between Pro Tools TDM Systems and Pro Tools LE Systems” on
page 50.
Chapter 2: Pro Tools System Configurations 7
8 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 3
Pro Tools Concepts
This chapter is an overview of some essential concepts related to digital audio, MIDI,
and digital signal processing as they apply
to Pro Tools.
Hard Disk Recording
Tape-based recording is a linear medium—
you need to rewind or fast forward a tape to
hear a particular spot in a recording. To rearrange or repeat material in a linear system, you need to re-record it.
Hard disk recording is a non-linear (or random access) medium—you can go immediately to any spot in a recording without
having to rewind or fast forward.
Non-linear systems have several advantages. You can easily rearrange or repeat
parts of a recording by making the hard
disk read parts of the recording in a different order. In addition, this re-arrangement
is non-destructive, meaning that the original
recorded material is not altered.
The Digidesign Audio
Engine
When you start Pro Tools, an application
called DAE automatically launches in the
background. DAE, or the Digidesign Audio
Engine, is Digidesign’s real-time operating
system for digital recording systems. When
you install Pro Tools, DAE is automatically
installed on your system.
In the same way that a computer’s operating system provides the foundation for
programs that run on the computer, DAE
provides much of the hard disk recording,
digital signal processing, mix automation,
and MIDI functionality required by
Pro Tools and other products from Digidesign and its Development Partners.
Pro Tools is a non-linear recording system
that allows you to rearrange and mix recorded material non-destructively.
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts 9
Elements of a Session
Region
When you start a project in Pro Tools, you
create a session. Some basic elements of sessions are explained in this section.
Session File
Pro Tools session file icon
A session file is the document that Pro Tools
creates when you start a new project. The
session file contains maps of all elements
associated with a project, including audio
files, MIDI data, and all your edit and mix
information. You can make changes to a
session and save those changes in a new
session file. This allows you to create multiple versions of a project or back up your
editing and mixing work.
Audio File
Audio file icon
When you record audio into a Pro Tools
session, audio files are created and stored in
a folder named “Audio Files.” Audio files
can appear in a session as regions, in a track
or in the Audio Regions List.
10 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Audio region
A region is a piece of audio, MIDI, or automation data. An audio region could be a
guitar riff, a verse of a song, a sound effect,
a piece of dialog, or an entire sound file. In
Pro Tools, regions are created from audio
or MIDI files, and can be arranged in tracks.
Playlist
Playlist selector pop-up menu
A playlist is a group of regions arranged on
an Audio or MIDI track. You can place multiple edit playlists on a single track. This allows you to assemble different versions of a
track and choose among them with a popup menu on the track.
On Audio tracks, a playlist tells the hard
disk which audio files to read in what order. By using several copies of an audio region in a playlist, you can repeat a section
of a recording without using any additional disk space.
Track
Channel
Computer 1
Computer 2
7
8
5
3
ANALOG OUTPUT
6
4
1
7
2
8
5
3
ANALOG INPUT
6
4
1
2
5/6
1/2
AES/EBU OUTPUT
7/8
3/4
5/6
1/2
AES/EBU INPUT
7/8
3/4
8 CH Mode
2 x 4 CH Mode
S/PDIF S/PDIF
IN
OUT
Audio track in the Edit Window
A track is where audio or MIDI regions are
strung together in a playlist. A playlist can
be made up of a single region or many separate regions. It can be made up of similar
elements, such as regions from several different takes of a solo, or dissimilar elements, such as several sound effects.
SLAVE CLOCK SLAVE CLOCK
IN
OUT
Rear view of 888/24 I/O Interface
The term channel is used to describe several
related components of a Pro Tools system.
The first refers to a physical input or output
of your Pro Tools system. For example, an
888/24 I/O Audio Interface provides 8
channels of analog input and output to a
TDM-equipped system, and a Digi 001 system provides up to 18 channels of input
and output to a Pro Tools LE system.
Voice
(TDM Systems Only)
Choosing a voice for an Audio track
On TDM-equipped Pro Tools systems, voice
refers to the number of digital audio events
that Pro Tools can play back simultaneously. For example, a Pro Tools 24 core
system is a 32-voice system and can therefore playback 32 different audio events at
one time.
On TDM systems, you can have more
tracks in a session than your system has
voices; they just cannot all play back at the
same time. These tracks are referred to as
virtual tracks.
Channel strip from the Mix window
The second use of the term channel refers to
a mixer strip in the Pro Tools Mix window.
The term channel strip refers to the mixer
strip of any Audio track, MIDI track, Auxiliary Input track or Master Fader track in a
session.
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts 11
Audio and MIDI channel strips have similar controls, but those controls have
slightly different effects. For example, Audio and Auxiliary Input channel strip faders control the Pro Tools mixer, while MIDI
channel strip faders send MIDI volume
data (MIDI controller 7).
The term channel also describes an aspect of
MIDI operation. See “MIDI Concepts” on
page 12.
Playback Engine
All Pro Tools systems allow you choose the
Playback Engine for a session at any time.
MIDI Concepts
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a communication protocol for musical instruments. This industry standard
enables connections between a variety of
devices from different manufacturers. Examples of MIDI-compatible equipment include synthesizers, sound modules, drum
machines, patch bays, effects processors,
MIDI interfaces, and sequencers.
MIDI devices are equipped with 5-pin DIN
connectors, labeled as either IN, OUT, or
THRU.
MIDI Connectors
Playback Engine dialog for Pro Tools TDM system
The Playback Engine allows you to reconfigure Pro Tools to use different Digidesign
hardware.
The MIDI OUT port transmits messages;
the MIDI IN port receives messages; and,
MIDI THRU echoes whatever is received
from the IN port. MIDI devices are connected with MIDI cables that are available
at most music stores.
echoed from IN
For details on choosing a Playback Engine,
see “Configuring Your System” on page 39.
MIDI signal flow
▲ Not all devices will have all three MIDI ports
(IN, OUT and THRU).
12 Pro Tools Reference Guide
A single MIDI cable can transmit a separate
set of messages for each of 16 channels.
These 16 channels correspond to separate
MIDI devices or to multiple channels
within a single device (if the device is multitimbral). Each channel represents a discreet
instrument sound; for instance, bass on
channel 1, piano on channel 2 and drums
on channel 10. Similar to a multitrack tape
recorder, a MIDI sequencer can record
complex arrangements—even using a single multi-timbral keyboard.
MIDI Terms
The following are some basic MIDI terms:
MIDI Interface Hardware that allows computers to connect to and communicate
with MIDI devices.
MIDI Device Any keyboard, sound module,
effects device or other equipment that can
send or receive MIDI information.
MIDI Controller Any MIDI device that transmits MIDI performance data. These include
keyboards, MIDI guitar controllers, MIDI
wind instruments, and others. Controllers
transmit MIDI from their MIDI OUT ports.
MIDI Control Surface Any device, such as
the Mackie HUI, that uses a MIDI connection to send control messages to a software
program, but is not generally used to
record MIDI information.
MIDI Sound Source Any MIDI instrument
that plays back in your arrangements.
Sound sources receive MIDI from their
MIDI IN ports.
Multi-timbral The capability of playing several different instrument sounds (such as
piano, bass, and drums) simultaneously on
separate channels. This makes it possible
for a single MIDI sound source to play back
entire arrangements.
MIDI Channel Up to 16 channels of MIDI
performance data can be transmitted on a
single MIDI cable. The channel number
separates the different messages so your
sound sources can receive the right ones.
Program Change Event A MIDI command
that tells a sound source which sound
patch to use. The MIDI protocol lets you
choose from a range of 128 patches.
Bank Select Message A MIDI command
that specifies the bank of patches from
which to choose. Many devices have more
than 128 patches and Bank Select messages
provide a means of accessing them.
Local Control A controller setting found on
most MIDI keyboards that allows them to
play their own sound source. Disabling “local control” ensures that a device’s internal
sound source is only played by external
MIDI messages.
When using Pro Tools, “local control”
should usually be disabled. When “local
control” is off, your keyboard still transmits data to its MIDI OUT port.
Continuous Controller Events MIDI instructions that allow real-time changes to notes
that are currently sounding. These include
pitch bend, modulation, volume, pan, and
many others.
System Exclusive Data MIDI data commonly used for sending and retrieving
patch parameter information for storage
purposes.
Chapter 3: Pro Tools Concepts 13
Common Misconceptions about
MIDI
MIDI is not audio. The messages that travel
down a MIDI cable are only numbers that
translate to specific instructions. For instance, when you strike a key on your MIDI
keyboard it sends a message to its MIDI
OUT port telling another device (if connected and set to the same MIDI channel)
to play that particular note.
Signal paths for MIDI instruments
However, to actually hear that second device (sound source) you’ll need to connect
its audio outputs to a sound system. Your
MIDI instruments have two signal paths,
one for audio and another for MIDI.
MIDI does not allow you to use your devices beyond their capabilities. Particular
instruments have their own sound generation, polyphony, and multi-timbral limitations.
Virtual Tracks
(TDM Systems Only)
Tape decks record only physical tracks: they
are limited by the number of tracks on the
deck and on the tape itself. For example, a
16-track recorder can record and play back
a maximum of 16 tracks at a time.
14 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pro Tools TDM systems are not limited by
the number of physical inputs and outputs.
Pro Tools TDM systems provide up to 128
virtual audio tracks that can be recorded
upon and cued up for playback, but cannot
all be played back simultaneously.
Virtual tracks provide significant advantages: on Pro Tools TDM systems, you can
have many more tracks than voices in a session. You can then choose which of these
tracks you want to play, up to the total
number of available voices. You never need
to erase tracks to make room for other
tracks—provided that you have enough
space available on your hard disk to store
all of them. In addition, virtual tracks allow
you to create separate tracks for each audio
component of your mix, each with its own
volume, pan, EQ, effects sends, and automation.
Pro Tools voices are dynamically allocated.
When a hole opens up in one track, its
voice becomes temporarily available and
another track can pop through and begin
to play. If the first track reaches a point
where audio occurs again, the voice reverts
to the original track. You can determine
the order in which your tracks use available
voices. See “Assigning Voices and Track Priority” on page 56.
Virtual tracks use the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) capacity of your system. (See
“DSP Allocation” on page 383 for more information.) Another powerful Pro Tools
feature, multiple edit playlists, allows you to
create comps and alternate arrangements
of material, but does not use additional
DSP capacity. For details about multiple
edit playlists, see “Playlists” on page 141.
chapter 4
Pro Tools Windows
Pro Tools provides two complementary
ways of viewing a project: the Mix window
and the Edit window. Pro Tools also allows
you to control many functions from the
Transport window. The main elements of
these windows are explained in the following sections.
The Show/Hide Tracks List
The Mix Window
In the Mix window, tracks appear as mixer
modules, with controls for inserts, sends,
input/output assignments, volume, panning (in Stereo Mix mode), record-enable,
automation mode, and solo/mute. The following section explains each of these track
controls.
To display the Pro Tools input/output controls, inserts, sends, and comments, select
Display > Mix Window Shows > All.
✽ To toggle between the Mix and Edit win-
dows, press Command + = (Macintosh) or
Control + = (Windows).
Show/Hide Tracks List
This scrolling window lists all tracks in the
current session. It allows you to show or
hide a track by selecting or deselecting its
name in its list. You can also use this list to
reorder tracks on screen by dragging a track
name to a new position within the list. The
pop-up menu at the top of this list provides
commands that allow you to show or hide
all tracks, or only tracks currently selected
on screen.
About Groups and Show/Hide Tracks
Even if a track is hidden, if it is a member of
an enabled group, all Mix window operations performed on other members of the
group will also affect the hidden track—with
the exception of audio or MIDI record-enabling. If you solo, mute, or automation
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 15
write-enable a grouped track, any group
members that are hidden will be soloed,
muted, or automation write-enabled as
well. The only exception to this rule is
record enabling of Audio or MIDI tracks.
These functions are not applied to hidden
tracks in the Mix window.
name. The pop-up menu at the top of this
list provides commands to create, delete or
suspend groups. You can link groups in the
Mix Groups and Edit Groups lists. For more
information on grouping, see “Grouping
Tracks” on page 62.
In the Edit window, however, editing operations performed on members of an enabled group will not affect hidden tracks
that are also members of the enabled
group.
An Audio Track/Channel Strip
On TDM systems, even if a track is hidden
from view, its position relative to other
tracks still affects its virtual track playback
priority (see “Virtual Tracks, Voices, and
Track Priority” on page 54 for details).
Inserts
Sends
Input/Output
The Mix Groups List
Automation Mode
Record Enable/Solo/Mute/Voice
Pan Slider
Group ID
Volume Fader
Level Meter
Mix Groups List
The Mix Groups list shows all groups in the
session. It allows you to activate a group by
selecting its name in the list. A group is
only enabled (meaning that its members are
linked for mixing purposes), when its
name is highlighted in this list.
You can also use this list to select grouped
tracks on-screen by clicking to the left of
the dotted vertical line next to a group
16 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Track Name
Audio Channel Strip
Each Audio track has its own set of controls
for volume, pan, record-enable, automation mode, solo, mute, and on TDM systems, voice assignment.
Stereo Send
Real-Time Plug-In
Inserts
View
Show/Hide
Tracks List
Send Pan
Send
Volume
Sends
View
Send
Level Meter
I/O View
Automation
Mode
Selector
Record Enable,
Solo, Mute
buttons
Channel Pan
Group ID
Indicator
Channel
Volume
Track Level
Meter
Mix Groups
List
Track Name
Track
Comments
View
Audio
Channel Strip
Auxiliary Input
Channel Strip
AutoMatch
Indicator
MIDI
Channel Strip
Master Fader
Channel Strip
Figure 1. Pro Tools Mix Window
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 17
A MIDI Track/Channel Strip
Mix Window Track Controls
Record Enable button
MIDI Channel
Automation Mode Selector
Automation Mode
Voice Selector
Record Enable/Solo/Mute/Patch
Mute button
MIDI Pan
Solo button
MIDI Volume
Mix window track controls in channel strip
Record Enable Button
MIDI Velocity Meter
Track Name
MIDI Channel Strip
Each MIDI track has its own set of controls
for volume, pan, record enable, automation mode, solo, mute, MIDI patch assignment, and MIDI channel assignment. MIDI
tracks can be added to a session with the
New Track command. Tracks can be added
to a session with the New Track command.
You can display tracks in Narrow or Normal width by selecting Display > Narrow
Mix Window.
The Record Enable button puts the track
into record-ready mode. Once a track is
record-enabled, click the Record and Play
buttons in the Transport window to start
audio or MIDI recording.
When the Latch Record Enable Buttons option is selected, you can record enable
more than one track at the same time by
clicking the record enable button on each
track. If the Latch Record Enable Buttons
option is deselected, Shift-click to record
enable multiple tracks.
Record Safe Mode
Pro Tools provides a record safe mode
which allows you to disable recording capability on any track in a session. This prevents you from inadvertently record-enabling a track and then recording over
valuable material. To toggle Record Safe
mode, Command-click (Macintosh) or
Control-Click (Windows) the Record button on the track.
Solo Button
The Solo button mutes all other tracks so a
track can be auditioned alone.
18 Pro Tools Reference Guide
When the Latch Solo Buttons option is selected, you can solo more than one track at
the same time simply by clicking the solo
button on each of the desired tracks. If the
Latch Solo Buttons option is deselected,
Shift-click to solo multiple tracks.
Voice Selector
(TDM Systems Only)
Solo Safe Mode
Pro Tools also allows you to solo safe a
track. This prevents the track from being
muted even if you solo other tracks. This
feature is useful for tracks such as Auxiliary
Inputs that are being used as effects returns, allowing the effects track to remain
in a mix even when other tracks are soloed.
It is also useful to solo-safe MIDI tracks so
that their playback is not affected when
you solo audio tracks. To toggle Solo Safe
mode, Command-click (Macintosh) or
Control-Click (Windows) the Solo button
on the track.
Mute Button
The Mute button silences a track. More
than one track can be muted at one time.
On TDM systems, if the Mute Frees Voice
option is selected, muting a track will allocate its voice to the next highest priority
virtual track allocated to that voice in your
session.
Automation Mode Selector
The Automation Mode selector allows you
to choose a track’s automation mode. Once
a track is automation write-enabled, starting playback will start writing automation
(depending on the mode you have chosen). Any automation moves that you
make on the track can then be played back
exactly as you performed them.
Audio Track Voice Selector
On TDM systems, the Voice Selector is used
to assign a voice to an audio track for playback. Boldface type in this pop-up menu
indicates that the voice is currently in use
by one or more tracks.
More than one track can be assigned to the
same voice, but only one of the tracks can
be played back at the same time. Track priority is determined by a track’s position in
the Mix or Edit window. If multiple tracks
are assigned to the same voice, the one farthest to the left in the Mix window (or topmost in the Edit window) will be heard.
If there is an empty spot in a track that
shares a voice with another track, audio on
the track with the next-highest priority assigned to the same voice will “pop
through” during that time. You can also
disable playback of any muted track and
free its spot for the next virtual track assigned to that voice by selecting the Mute
Frees Voice option. For more information
on voices and track priority, see “Assigning
Voices and Track Priority” on page 56.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 19
Input/Output View
Output Selector
(Audio Tracks, Aux Inputs, Master Faders)
Input Selector
Output Selector
Level/Peak/Delay Indicator
Pan Indicator
Inputs/Outputs view in channel strip
Audio Track Output Selector
The I/O (Inputs/Output) view shows Input
and Output Selectors on Audio tracks, and
the Channel Selector on MIDI tracks. Both
types of tracks show volume and pan values in this view. To show the I/O View, select Display > Mix Window Shows (or Edit
Window Shows) > I/O View.
The Output Selector allows you to route a
track to any audio output or any of the
Pro Tools internal busses. In Stereo Mix
Outputs mode, the pop-up menu allows
you to route the track to a pair of outputs or
busses. In Direct Outputs mode, the popup menu allows you to route the track to a
single output.
Input Selector
In Stereo Mix Outputs mode, to send output to the odd-numbered channel, pan
left; to send output to the even-numbered
channel, pan right.
(Audio and Auxiliary Input Tracks)
‘
MIDI Device/Channel Selector
Audio Track Input Selector
The Input Selector allows you to route any
audio input or any of the Pro Tools internal
busses to an Audio track or an Auxiliary Input track.
MIDI Device/Channel Selector
The MIDI Device/Channel Selector allows
you to route the MIDI track to a device and
channel.
20 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Default Program Button
Pan Indicator
The Pan Indicator displays the current pan
setting of a track. Pan values range from
<100 (full left) to 100> (full right). Panning
controls are only available if you are using
Pro Tools in Stereo Mix mode.
Default Program button in channel strip
The Default Program button opens the Program Change window, where you can specify a default program for the track. The
track’s default program is transmitted each
time the track plays.
Level/Peak/Channel Delay Indicator
The Level Indicator on an Audio track has
three modes: Level Indicator, Peak Indicator, and Channel Delay Indicator. Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-Click
(Windows) this button to toggle between
these modes.
Level Indicator Shows the current volume/input level of a track as set by the
track level fader.
Peak Indicator Functions as a headroom indicator based on the last peak playback
level. To reset the peak counter, click the
indicator. Values range from +6 dB (highest
level signal), to ∞ (no signal).
Channel Delay Indicator Shows the delay, in
samples, incurred by any TDM Plug-Ins on
that channel.
Pan Slider
The Pan slider controls the balance of a
track between the assigned output pair. It
only appears if you are using Pro Tools in
Stereo Mix Outputs mode. The outputs
used as the stereo pair for the track’s image
are set with the Output Selector. The Pan
slider on a MIDI track is only effective if
you are controlling a sound module that
supports MIDI panning.
Track Level Fader
The track level fader controls the volume of
a track when it is in playback, and the
monitor level of the track when it is in
record.
The level fader on a MIDI track is only effective if you are controlling a sound module that supports MIDI volume.
Track Level Meter
On Audio tracks, level meters indicate the
level of the signal being recorded or played
back from the hard drive. Green indicates
nominal levels; Yellow indicates pre-clipping (–6 dB below full scale); and Red indicates clipping. When a track is record-enabled, these meters indicate record levels.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 21
You can globally set level meters to indicate pre-or post-fader levels by choosing
Operations > Pre-Fader Metering. When set
to pre-fader, the level meters show levels
independent of fader position. With postfader metering, the level meters respond to
fader position.
If clipping occurs, the topmost LED will
stay lit (red). In addition, Pro Tools meters
provide a peak hold feature with three options:
To choose a peak hold setting, choose Setups > Preferences and click Display, and select one of the Peak Hold options: 3 Second
Peak Hold, Infinite Peak Hold, or No Peak
Hold.
You can clear a meter’s clipping or peak
hold indicator by clicking anywhere on the
meter. To clear all meters, Option-click
(Macintosh) or Alt-Click (Windows) on any
meter.
On MIDI tracks, the level meter shows the
MIDI velocity of the most recent MIDI
event.
Insert Controls
Click to assign an insert
Click to open the
Inserts/Sends editor
Inserts view in channel strip
Pro Tools provides up to five pre-fader inserts per Audio track or Auxiliary Input.
The inserts can be either hardware inserts
or software Plug-Ins included with your
system. To assign an insert, click the Inserts
button on the inserts section of a track.
Send Controls
Click to assign a send
Click to open the
Inserts/Sends editor
Sends view in channel strip
Track Name
When new tracks are created with the New
Track command, they are given a default
name which can be changed at any time by
double-clicking the track name or choosing
File > Rename Selected Tracks.
22 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pro Tools provides up to 5 mono or stereo
sends per Audio track or Auxiliary Input,
for sending signals to external signal processors or any of the Pro Tools internal busses. Sends can be either pre- or post-fader.
To assign a send to a track, click the Sends
button on the sends section of the track.
Send level, pan and mute controls can be
adjusted from the Inserts and Sends Editor,
or directly from the sends area of a track by
showing individual send controls.
Edit Window Track Controls
Record Enable button
When you display the controls for an individual Send, you also have the option of
displaying Send level meters.
Track Name
Playlist Selector
Automation Mode Selector
Mute button
Send Level
Send Pan
Voice Selector
Pre/Post button
Send Level Meter
Track Height Selector
Send Mute
Track Display Format Selector
Sends view showing individual send controls
Solo button
Track Comments View
Edit window track controls (medium track height)
The Comments View shows any comments
entered in the Track Name/Comments dialog. You can also type directly in the Comments area for each track when it is displayed. To display the Comments View,
select Display > Mix Window Shows (or
Edit Window Shows) > Comments.
Record Enable Button
See “Record Enable Button” on page 18.
Solo Button
See “Solo Button” on page 18.
Mute Button
See “Mute Button” on page 19.
The Edit Window
The Edit window provides a time-line display of audio and MIDI for editing and arranging tracks. As in the Mix window, each
track has controls for record enable, solo,
mute and automation mode.
To display the Pro Tools input/output controls, inserts, sends, and comments, select
Display > Edit Window Shows > All.
Automation Mode Selector
See “Automation Mode Selector” on
page 19.
Voice Selector
(TDM Systems Only)
See “Voice Selector” on page 19.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 23
Edit Mode
Buttons
Grid/Nudge
Selector
Event Edit Area
Zoom Buttons
Editing Tools
Location Indicators
Link Selection,
Commands Focus
Buttons
Audio Regions
List
Rulers
Audio Waveform
View
Audio Track
Show/Hide
Tracks List
Volume
Automation View
MIDI Track
Edit Groups
List
MIDI Regions
List
Selected Region
MIDI Velocity View
Figure 2. Pro Tools Edit Window
24 Pro Tools Reference Guide
MIDI Notes View
Playlist Selector
Track Display Format Selector
Playlist Selector
Tracks have edit playlists and automation
playlists. You can create any number of edit
playlists for a track, and assign them by
clicking the Playlist Selector in the track
and choosing from the pop-up menu. Each
track has a single set of automation playlists, according to the type of track and any
Send or Plug-In assignments. You choose
the automation playlist to display with the
Track Display Format Selector.
Track Height Selector
Track Height Selector
Tracks can be viewed in the Edit window at
any of six heights: Mini, Small, Medium,
Large, Jumbo, and Extreme. The appearance
of track controls varies with track height.
You can adjust track height by clicking either the Track Height Selector or in the area
just to the right of the track controls.
Track Display Format Selector
The Display Format for each track determines which data is displayed and edited
in the track’s playlist area.
Audio tracks can be set to Blocks, Waveform,
Volume, Pan, Mute, Send Level, Send Mute,
Send Pan, or any Plug-In parameters that
have been automated. Except when editing
automation data, audio tracks are usually
set to Waveform view.
Auxiliary input tracks can be set to Volume,
Pan, Mute, or any Plug-In parameter that
has been automated. Master Fader tracks
can be set to Volume, or any Plug-In parameter that has been automated.
MIDI tracks can be set to Blocks, Regions,
Notes, Volume, Pan, Mute, Velocity, Pitch
Bend, After Touch, Program, Sys Ex, and any
continuous controller type. Except when
editing controller data, program changes,
or sysex events, MIDI tracks are usually set
to Notes or Regions.
Track Name
See “Track Name” on page 22.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 25
Edit Modes, Commands Key
Focus, and Linked Selections
Edit Mode
Linked Selections
✽ You can also press F4 to set the Edit mode
to Grid.
Commands Key Focus (TDM Systems only)
Enables the Commands Key Focus, which
provides a wide range of shortcuts from the
alpha keyboard for editing and playing.
Commands Key Focus
Edit mode buttons in Edit window
Shuffle Sets the Edit mode to Shuffle, which
restricts the placement of regions so that
they snap to each other and are placed end
to end.
✽ You can also press F1 to set the Edit mode
to Shuffle.
Spot Sets the Edit mode to Spot, which
causes the Spot dialog to open when moving or trimming regions and notes. The
Spot dialog lets you enter a precise start,
end, or length (in any time format) for the
event.
✽ You can also press Command+Option+1
(Macintosh) or Control+Alt+1 to enable the
Commands Key Focus.
Linked Selections Links the Edit and Timeline selections, allowing you to set play and
record ranges by selecting in a track’s playlist. When unlinked, you can make Edit selections without disturbing the Timeline
selection.
✽ You can also press Shift+slash to enable
and disable Linked Selections.
Zoom Buttons
✽ You can also press F2 to set the Edit mode
Vertical Zoom
In/Out (MIDI)
to Spot.
Slip Sets the Edit mode to Slip, which allows regions and notes to be moved and
trimmed freely. Regions can placed so that
there is space between them, or so that
they overlap.
Vertical Zoom
In/Out (Audio)
Horizontal
Zoom In
Horizontal
Zoom Out
Zoom Preset Buttons
✽ You can also press F3 to set the Edit mode
to Slip.
Grid Sets the Edit mode to Grid, which constrains edits and selections to the current
Grid value.
26 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Zoom buttons in Edit window
Horizontal Zoom In/Out Zooms in and out
horizontally for all tracks. Option-click
(Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows) either
of the Horizontal Zoom buttons to return
to the previous zoom level.
✽ While pressing Command (Macintosh) or
Edit Tools
Control (Windows), you can also use the
bracket keys to zoom in and out horizontally.
Vertical Zoom In/Out (Audio) Zooms in and
out vertically for audio tracks. Option-click
(Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows) either
of the Vertical Zoom buttons to return to
the previous zoom level.
Grabber
Trimmer
Selector
Scrubber
Zoomer
Smart Tool
Pencil
Edit tools in Edit window
✽ While pressing Command+Option (Mac-
intosh) or Control+Alt (Windows), you can also
use the bracket keys to zoom in and out vertically for all audio tracks.
Vertical Zoom In/Out (MIDI) Zooms in and
out vertically for MIDI tracks. Option-click
(Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows) either
of the Vertical Zoom buttons to return to
the previous zoom level.
✽ While pressing Command+Shift (Mac-
intosh) or Control+Shift (Windows), you can
also use the bracket keys to zoom in and out
vertically for all MIDI tracks.
Zoom Presets Recalls horizontal zoom values for audio and MIDI tracks. Commandclick (Macintosh) or Control-click (Windows) a Zoom Preset button to store the
current horizontal zoom values.
✽ While pressing Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows), you can also recall a
Zoom Preset by typing its number on the alpha
keyboard.
✽ On TDM systems, when the Commands Key
Zoomer Click or drag with the Zoomer tool
to zoom in horizontally for a track or Ruler.
Press Command (Macintosh) or Control
(Windows) while dragging to zoom horizontally and vertically.
To go back to the previous zoom level, Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows) with the Zoomer.
To zoom a selection, Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click (WIndows) the Zoomer
tool. To fill the Edit window with all regions, double-click the Zoomer tool.
✽ You can also press F5 to select the Zoomer
tool.
Standard Trimmer To resize regions or MIDI
notes, drag or click near their start/end
points with the Trimmer tool. To reverse
the direction of the Trim cursor, which determines whether the start or end point is
edited, press Option (Macintosh) or Alt
(Windows).
The Trimmer can also be used to scale the
values for note velocities, controller events,
and automation breakpoints.
Focus is enabled, you can also recall a Zoom
Preset by typing its number on the alpha keyboard.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 27
For TDM systems, choose from the Trimmer pop-up these other Trimmer tools:
Choose from the Grabber pop-up these
other Grabber tools:
Trimmer pop-up menu
Grabber pop-up menu
• Scrub Trimmer, scrubs audio material to
find the trim point before performing
the trim.
• TCE Trimmer, expands or compresses
audio material to fit within a time range.
• Separation Grabber, separates selections
into new regions.
• Object Grabber (TDM systems only), allows selection of discontiguous regions,
which can even be on different tracks.
✽ You can also press F6 to select and toggle
✽ You can also press F8 to select and toggle
through the three Trimmer tools: Standard,
Scrub, and TCE.
through the three Grabber tools: Time, Separation, and Object.
Selector Drag with the Selector in a track’s
playlist for an Edit selection, or in a Timebase Ruler for a Timeline selection.
To adjust the length of a selection, Shiftclick or Shift-drag with the Selector. To extend an Edit selection to other tracks, Shiftclick with the Selector in the desired tracks.
Scrubber Drag with the Scrubber to scrub
up to two audio tracks—right for forward,
left for reverse. The resolution for the
Scrubber is determined by the zoom level,
and the distance and speed dragged determine the speed and length for the scrubbed
audio.
To temporarily switch the Selector to the
Scrubber, press Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows).
For finer resolutions without zooming,
press Command (Macintosh) or Control
(Windows) while scrubbing.
✽ You can also press F7 to select the Selector
✽ You can also press F9 to select the Scrub-
tool.
ber tool.
Time Grabber Use the Grabber to select or
move regions, MIDI events, and Conductor
events. The Grabber can also be used to edit
and insert automation breakpoints.
Pencil Use the Pencil tool to insert MIDI
notes, edit velocities for a range of MIDI
notes, draw automation and controller
events, and repair audio waveforms (when
zoomed down to the sample level).
Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows) with the Grabber to delete tempo
and meter events, Markers, and automation breakpoints.
28 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Press Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows)
and the Pencil changes to an Eraser, which
can be used to delete notes, program
changes, and sysex events.
Choose from the Pencil pop-up any of the
five shapes, which can be used to affect a
range of note velocities, controller events,
or automation breakpoints.
Using the Smart Tool
With the Smart Tool you can instantly access the Selector, Grabber, and Trimmer,
and you can also perform fades and crossfades. The position of the cursor in relation
to a region or note, or within an automation playlist, determines how the Smart
Tool functions.
Smart Tool in Edit window
Pencil pop-up menu
✽ You can also press F10 to select and toggle
To select the Smart Tool, click its icon in
the upper left of the Edit window, or press
F6+F7 (or F7+F8).
The Smart Tool in Waveform View
through the five Pencil shapes: Freehand, Line,
Triangle, Square, and Random.
Smart Tool The Smart Tool lets you use the
Selector, Grabber, and Trimmer, as well as
create fades, without switching tools. Depending on where the cursor is placed in
relation to a region or note, the Smart Tool
automatically switches to the appropriate
tool. For details, see “Using the Smart Tool”
on page 29.
To temporarily switch the Smart Tool to
the Scrubber, press Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows).
✽ You can also press F6+F7 (or F7+F8) to se-
lect the Smart tool.
Fade-In
Selector
Trim
Start
Fade-Out
Trim
End
Grabber
Crossfade
Smart Tool in Waveform view
The following capabilities are available
with the Smart Tool when working with
Audio tracks in Waveform or Blocks view,
or MIDI tracks in Regions view:
◆ For the Selector, position the cursor over
the middle of the region, in the upper half.
◆ For the Grabber, position the cursor over
the middle of a region, in the lower half.
◆ For the Trimmer, position the cursor near
the region’s start or end point.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 29
◆ For a fade-in or fade-out, position the
cursor near an audio region’s start or end
point, near the top. Drag into the region to
set the fade length. The fade is created automatically with the settings last used in
the Fades dialog.
◆ For a crossfade, position the cursor between two adjacent audio regions, near the
bottom. Drag left or right to set the crossfade length. The fade is created automatically with the settings last used in the Fades
dialog.
✽ To temporarily switch the Smart Tool to the
Scrubber, press Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows).
The Smart Tool in Notes View
To get the Marquee so you can select a
group of notes, press Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows).
◆ For the Trimmer, position the cursor near
the note’s start or end point.
✽ To temporarily switch the Smart Tool to the
Pencil, press Control (Macintosh) or the Start
key (Windows), for the Eraser, press Control+Option (Macintosh) or Start+Alt (Windows).
The Smart Tool in Automation and
Controller Views
The following capabilities are available
with the Smart Tool when working in automation and controller views:
◆ For the Selector, move the cursor so it is
positioned anywhere in the bottom 75% of
the playlist.
Selector
Smart tool in Notes view
◆ For the Grabber, press Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows) to insert or
edit breakpoints. Continue pressing Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows)
after you begin editing for fine control,
otherwise release for coarse control.
The following capabilities are available
with the Smart Tool when working with
MIDI tracks in Notes view:
Press Command+Shift (Macintosh) or Control+Shift (Windows) to vertically constrain movement.
◆ For the Selector, position the cursor so it
doesn’t cover any notes.
For the Trimmer, position the cursor in
the top 25% of the playlist to trim breakpoints. Press Command (Macintosh) or
Control (Windows) after you begin trimming for fine control.
Trim
End
Trim
Start
Grabber
To get the Selector while positioning the
cursor over notes, press Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows).
◆ For the Grabber, position the cursor over
the note, near its middle.
30 Pro Tools Reference Guide
◆
Event Edit Area
Selection
Indicators
Location Indicators,
Grid/Nudge Values, Current
Cursor Display
Note
Attributes
Pitch
Location Indicators
Grid/Nudge Values
Attack Velocity
Release Velocity
Event Edit Area showing MIDI track information
Start Displays the start point for a selected
region or note, or for an Edit selection. To
move the start point, enter a new value in
this field.
End Displays the end point for a selected region or note, or for an Edit selection. To
move the end point, enter a new value in
this field.
Length Displays the length for a selected region or note, or for an Edit selection. To
change the length of the region, note, or
Edit selection, enter a new value in this
field.
Pitch Displays the pitch (including octave
number) for a selected note. To change the
pitch, enter a new value in this field, or select the field and play a note on your MIDI
controller.
Attack Displays the attack velocity for a selected note. To change the velocity, enter a
new value in this field, or select the field
and play a note on your MIDI controller.
Release Displays the release velocity for a
selected note. To change the velocity, enter
a new value in this field, or select the field
and play a note on your MIDI controller.
✽ Press slash (/) to automatically select the
Cursor Value
Cursor Location
Edit window display showing MIDI track information
Location Indicators Displays the current
play position in the Main and Sub Time
Scales. To move the Timeline insertion
point to a different location, click in either
field, type in the new location and press
Enter.
To change the time format for the Main or
Sub Time Scale, choose from the pop-up
menu to the right of the fields.
✽ To highlight the Main Location Indicator,
press Equal (=) on the numeric keypad. Press
period (.) to navigate the different time fields in
an indicator, press Enter to go to the new location.
Grid Value Defines the Grid boundaries
used in Grid mode, and when quantizing
regions. The Grid value, selected from the
pop-up menu to the right of this field, can
be based on the Main Time Scale or any of
the other time formats.
Nudge Value Defines the time value, which
can be based on the Main Time Scale or any
other time format, used when nudging. Se-
Start field, and to navigate from one field to
the next. Press Enter to accept a value.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 31
lect the Nudge value from the pop-up
menu to the right of this field, or type in
any value you want.
In addition to nudging regions and notes,
you can also nudge start/end points for regions and notes, start/end points for selections, and region contents.
Cursor Location Provides feedback on the
current cursor location. This location is displayed in the time format for the Main
Time Scale.
You can also use this list to select grouped
tracks on-screen by clicking to the left of
the dotted vertical line next to a group
name. The pop-up menu at the top of this
list provides commands to create, delete or
suspend groups. You can link groups in the
Edit Groups and Mix Groups lists. For more
information on grouping, see “Grouping
Tracks” on page 62.
Audio Regions List and Pop-up
Menu
Cursor Value Provides feedback on the current cursor value. The type of value displayed depends on the Track’s Display Format: for instance, note number for Notes
view, velocity value for Velocity view, and
dB value for Volume view.
The Edit Groups List
All audio regions that are recorded, imported, or created by editing appear in the
Audio Regions List. Regions can be dragged
from the list to tracks and arranged in any
order.
Edit Groups List
The Edit Groups list shows all groups in the
session. It allows you to activate or deactivate a group by selecting or deselecting its
name in the list. A group is only enabled
(meaning that its members are linked for
editing purposes), when its name is highlighted in this list.
32 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Using the Audio Regions List pop-up menu
(at the top of this list) you can sort this list
by a variety of attributes. You can also select, rename and clear regions from the session, as well as import and export audio
from this menu.
MIDI Regions List and Pop-up
Menu
Online Puts Pro Tools online so that playback and recording is triggered by an external SMPTE source.
Return to Zero Locates to the beginning of
the session.
✽ You can also press Return (Macintosh) or
Enter on the alpha keyboard (Windows) to locate to the beginning of the session.
All MIDI regions that are recorded, imported, or created by editing appear in the
MIDI Regions List. Regions can be dragged
from the list to tracks and arranged in any
order.
Using the MIDI Regions List pop-up menu
(at the top of this list), you can sort this list
by a variety of attributes. You can also rename and clear regions from the session, as
well as import MIDI from this menu.
The Transport Window
The Transport window can be set to show
basic transport controls, counters, and
MIDI controls. The counters in the Transport window mirror the Location Indicators at the top of the Edit window.
Return to Zero
Fast Forward
Rewind
Online
Stop
Play
Go to End
Record
Pre-Roll
Post-Roll
Transport Master
Start, End, and Length
for Timeline Selection
Rewind Rewinds from the current play location. You can also click repeatedly to rewind incrementally (by an amount based
on the Main Time Scale).
✽ With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Trans-
port, you can also rewind by pressing 1.
Stop Stops playback or recording.
You can also stop the Transport with the
following shortcuts:
• Press the Spacebar.
• With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 0.
Play Starts playback or (if the Record button was clicked first) recording from the
Timeline insertion point.
With the Transport stopped, Control-click
(Macintosh) or Right-click (Windows) Play
to toggle Loop Playback mode. When enabled, a loop symbol appears in the Play
button.
You can also initiate playback with the following shortcuts:
• Press the Spacebar.
• With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 0.
Transport window showing basic transport controls
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 33
✽ To play or record at half-speed, Command-
click (Macintosh) or Control-click (Windows)
the Play button.
Fast Forward Fast forwards from the Timeline insertion point. You can also click repeatedly to fast forward incrementally (by
an amount based on the Main Time Scale).
✽ With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Trans-
port, you can also fast forward by pressing 2.
Go to End Locates to the end of the session.
✽ You can also press Option+Return (Mac-
intosh) or Control+Enter on the alpha keyboard
(Windows) to locate to the end of the session.
Record Arms Pro Tools for recording (the
button flashes). Clicking Play then initiates
recording.
With the Transport stopped, Control-click
(Macintosh) or Right-click (Windows)
Record to cycle through the four record
modes. The Record button changes to indicate the currently selected mode: blank for
Nondestructive, “D” for Destructive, a loop
symbol for Loop Record, and “Q” for
QuickPunch.
You can also begin recording with the following shortcuts:
• Press F12.
• Press Command+Spacebar (Macintosh)
or Control+Spacebar (Windows).
• With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 3.
34 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Pre-Roll Specifies the amount that plays before the beginning of a play or record
range. Pre-roll is particularly useful in
punch recording since it provides you with
time to “catch the beat” before reaching
the punch-in point. To set the pre-roll
amount, enter a new value in this field, or
drag the Pre-Roll flag in the Main Timebase
Ruler.
To enable pre-roll, click the Pre-Roll button
to the left of the pre-roll field so it becomes
highlighted.
Post-Roll Specifies the amount that plays
after the end of a play or record range. Postroll is useful in punch recording since playback continues after the punch-out point
so you can check for a smooth transition to
previously recorded material. To set the
post-roll amount, enter a new value in this
field, or drag the Post-Roll flag in the Main
Timebase Ruler.
To enable post-roll, click the Post-Roll button to the left of the post-roll field so it becomes highlighted.
Start Specifies the beginning of the play or
record range. You can set the start point by
entering a location in this field, by dragging the corresponding Playback Marker in
the Main Timebase Ruler, or by selecting
End Specifies the end of the play or record
range. You can set the end point by entering a location in this field, or by dragging
the corresponding Playback Marker in the
Main Timebase Ruler.
Length Specifies the length for the play or
record range. You can set the length by entering a location in this field, or by selecting a range in any Timebase Ruler.
Transport Master Specifies the “master” for
transport functions. Click this button and
choose from the pop-up menu to select the
Transport Master, which can be set to
Pro Tools, Machine, ADAT, or MMC.
Countoff When selected, Pro Tools counts
off a specified number of measures (indicated in the button) before playback or recording begins.
Double-click the Countoff button, to open
the Click/Countoff Options dialog.
MIDI Controls
✽ With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Trans-
port, you can also press 8 to enable the Countoff.
Wait for Note
Countoff
Click
MIDI Merge
Tempo
Meter
Conductor
Transport window showing MIDI controls
Wait for Note When selected, recording
does not begin until a MIDI even is received. This ensures that you begin recording when you’re ready to play, and that the
first note, or other MIDI data, is recorded
precisely at the beginning of the record
range.
✽ You can also press F11 to turn on Wait for
Note, unless the Operation Preference for
“Disable F11 for Wait for Note” is selected.
Click When selected, a metronome sounds
during playback and recording (as specified
by the settings in the Click/Countoff Options dialog).
Double-click the Click button to open the
Click/Count Options dialog.
✽ With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Trans-
port, you can also press 7 to enable the Click.
MIDI Merge When selected (Merge mode),
recorded MIDI data is merged with exiting
track material. When deselected (Replace
mode), recorded MIDI data replaces existing track material.
✽ You can also press Option+A (Macintosh) or
Alt+A (Windows) to enable MIDI Merge, or with
the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Transport,
press 9.
Conductor When selected, Pro Tools uses
the tempo map defined in the Tempo
Ruler. When deselected, Pro Tools switches
to Manual Tempo mode and ignores the
Tempo Track.
In Manual Tempo mode, you can enter a
BPM value in the tempo field, or tap in the
tempo by clicking the Tap button.
Meter Displays the session’s current meter
based on the play location. Double-click
the Meter button to open the Change
Meter window.
Tempo Display’s the session’s current
tempo based on the play location. In Manual Tempo mode, you can enter a BPM
value into this field. In addition, when the
tempo field is selected, you can tap in a
tempo from a MIDI controller.
Chapter 4: Pro Tools Windows 35
Keyboard Focus
The Keyboard Focus in Pro Tools determines how the alpha keys function. Depending on which Keyboard Focus is enabled, you can use the keys on your alpha
keyboard to select regions in the Audio or
MIDI Regions List, enable or disable
groups, or perform an edit or play command (TDM systems only).
Audio Regions List
Key focus
Commands Key Focus (TDM Systems only)
When selected, provides a wide range of
shortcuts from the alpha keyboard for editing and playing.
With the Commands Key focus disabled,
you can still access any of its key shortcuts
by pressing Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows) along with the key.
Audio Regions List Key Focus When selected, audio regions can be located and selected in the Audio Regions List by typing
the first few letters of the region’s name.
MIDI Regions List Key Focus When selected, MIDI regions can be located and selected in the MIDI Regions List by typing
the first few letters of the region’s name.
Commands
Key focus
Groups List
Key focus
Groups List Key Focus When selected, Edit
and Mix Groups can be enabled or disabled
by typing the Group ID letter.
☞ Refer to the Quick Reference Card that
MIDI Regions List
Key focus
Keyboard Focus buttons
To set the Keyboard Focus:
■ Click the a-z button for the focus you
want to enable.
– or –
While pressing Command+Option (Macintosh) or Control+Alt (Windows), press
1 (Commands), 2 (Audio Regions List),
3 (MIDI Regions List), or 4 (Groups List).
You can only enable one Keyboard Focus at
a time. Enabling a Keyboard Focus will disable the one previously selected.
36 Pro Tools Reference Guide
came with your Pro Tools package (TDM systems only) for a complete list of keyboard
shortcuts. This card is also available in PDF
format in the Release Notes and Documentation folder.
Part II
Pro Tools Sessions
chapter 5
Creating Sessions
This chapter covers some of the basics of
starting a project in Pro Tools, including
how to set up and save a Pro Tools session.
Starting Up Your System
In order for the components of your
Pro Tools system to communicate properly
with each other, you need to start them up
in a specific order.
Start your Pro Tools System in this order:
1 Turn on your external hard drives. Wait
approximately ten seconds for them to
come up to speed.
2 If you plan to work with MIDI equip-
ment, turn on your MIDI interface and
other MIDI devices.
3 Turn on your Pro Tools Audio Interfaces.
Wait at least ten seconds for them to initialize.
4 Turn on your computer.
Shut down your Pro Tools System in this
order:
1 Turn off your Audio Interfaces.
2 Turn off your computer.
3 If you’re using MIDI equipment, turn off
your MIDI interface and controllers.
4 Turn off your external hard drives.
▲ If you launch Pro Tools without turning on
your Audio Interface, it will prompt you to turn
it on. Allow about ten seconds for your Audio
Interface to complete its power-up cycle before
clicking OK.
Configuring Your System
When you first use Pro Tools, or when you
change the input/output scheme for your
system, you need to choose Pro Tools
Hardware settings.
Pro Tools TDM Systems
To change the Hardware Setup:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware.
2 From the Card pop-up, select the Digidesign card type.
3 From the Interface port pop-up, choose
the port to which your Audio Interface is
connected (port A or port B).
Choose port A if only one Audio Interface
is connected to the card. If two Audio Interfaces are connected to your card, follow the
steps below for each port/interface.
Chapter 5: Creating Sessions 39
✽ The Interface port pop-up does not appear
for Pro Tools III systems.
Pro Tools LE Systems
To change the Hardware Setup:
4 From the Sample Rate pop-up, select a
1 Choose Setups > Hardware.
sample rate.
2 From the Sample Rate pop-up, select a
5 From the Sync Mode pop-up, select the
sample rate.
appropriate sync mode on the currently selected interface (Internal or Digital). In
most cases you will use Internal. Digital is
used primarily for inputting data from DAT
or other digital sources.
3 From the Sync Mode pop-up, select the
input format of Channels 1–2 of the currently selected interface.
appropriate sync mode on the currently selected interface. In most cases you will use
Internal. S/PDIF (RCA) is used primarily for
inputting material from a DAT or other digital sources. Optical (on Digi 001 systems
only) is used primarily for inputting material from an ADAT.
7 Click Other Options for additional con-
4 Select a Hardware Buffer Size.
figuration options specific to the Audio Interface. These include:
5 Click Other Options for additional con-
6 From the Ch 1–2 Input pop-up, select the
◆ Setting the input format (analog or digital) of each pair of input channels on a
888/24 I/O
◆ Configuring the level sensitivity and
peak hold settings for the output level
meters on the front panel of the 888/24 I/O
Enabling DAC Muting (mutes the
888/24 I/O digital-to-analog convertors
when its output level falls below a certain
threshold, to reduce noise)
◆
Setting the input and output levels on an
882/20 I/O or a 1622 I/O
◆
Selecting S/PDIF compatibility with Tascam DA30 DAT recorders
◆
8 Configure the Other Options parameters
and click Done.
9 Click OK to close the Hardware Setup di-
alog.
40 Pro Tools Reference Guide
figuration options specific to your system.
These include:
◆ Setting the input gain for a Digi 001 or
Audiomedia III
◆ Boosting the output gain for an
Audiomedia III
◆ Enabling the Mic/Line High-Pass Filter
for a Digi 001
◆ Selecting S/PDIF compatibility with Tascam DA30 DAT recorders
6 Configure the Other Options parameters
and click Done.
7 Click OK to close the Hardware Setup di-
alog.
Changing the Pro Tools
Playback Engine
Pro Tools allows you to select different
Playback Engines depending on your system configuration. The Playback Engine
determines which Pro Tools card is used to
for Pro Tools recording and playback features. Supported Digidesign cards include
the Pro Tools MIX card, d24 card, Disk I/O
card, Digi 001, or Audiomedia III card.
On TDM systems, the Playback Engine is
also used to change the Audio Interface assignments for each card.
Playback Engine dialog for Pro Tools 24 system
To change an Audio Interface assignment:
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
2 Select from the available Playback En-
gines.
3 Choose the card you want to configure
from the Card pop-up menu.
4 If available, choose the port to which
your Audio Interface is connected from the
Interface port pop-up.
5 Choose the Audio Interface connected to
the currently displayed card or port.
6 Set the Sample Rate, Sync Mode, and
Channel 1–2 format for the Audio Interface.
7 Click Other Options to configure addi-
tional options for the Audio Interface.
A Pro Tools session created on one
Pro Tools system configuration can be
opened and used on a different Pro Tools
system configuration. When you change
the Playback Engine while a session is
open, the session will be saved, closed and
reopened to enable your new Playback Engine choice.
If you change your Playback from a TDMbased engine (MIX 64 Voice, MIX 32 Voice,
d24, or Disk I/O) to a Pro Tools LE -based
engine (Digi 001 or Audiomedia III) you
will lose any tracks, busses, or I/O Assignments that exceed the limits of the
Pro Tools LE system. Any TDM Plug-Ins
that do not have Real-Time AudioSuite
(RTAS) equivalents will also be lost.
Changing DAE Playback
Buffer Size
The DAE Playback Buffer size determines
the amount of memory allocated within
DAE to manage disk buffers, which affects
system performance.
Though DAE automatically selects the optimal Playback Buffer for your system, you
may want to adjust this parameter to modify your system’s performance:
◆ Allocating a larger buffer can sometimes
allow for a higher density of edits. This can
be useful if you experience system performance problems in sessions with a large
number of edits in rapid succession.
Chapter 5: Creating Sessions 41
◆ Allocating a smaller buffer can sometimes improve playback/recording initiation speed. This can be useful if you are
experiencing a time lag when you initiate
playback/recording.
Windows NT
You should also note the following:
Choose Setups > DAE Buffer Size and adjust the Buffer Size. Restart your computer
for this change to take effect.
◆ Choosing a smaller buffer can make it
difficult for slower hard disks to play or
record tracks reliably.
◆ Choosing larger buffer can cause a time
lag to occur before playback or recording
begins. It can also cause a time lag to occur
when you are editing during playback.
In Windows NT, you can change the DAE
Buffer size from the Pro Tools application.
To change the DAE Buffer Size:
■
Creating a New Session
The first step in beginning a Pro Tools
project is creating a new session. When you
do this, Pro Tools automatically creates a
new folder named after your session.
Within this folder is the session file and
two other folders, an Audio Files folder,
and a Fade Files folder.
The Audio Files folder contains all audio recorded during the session. The Fade Files
folder contains any crossfaded audio data
generated by the session.
DAE Playback Buffer Size dialog
Macintosh
To change DAE’s Playback Buffer size:
1 If you are running Pro Tools, quit
Pro Tools.
2 Locate and open DAE by double-clicking
it. (It is inside the DAE folder within your
System Folder.)
3 From the DAE File menu, choose Set
Playback Buffer Size.
4 Adjust the buffer size and Click OK.
5 Quit DAE. The next time you open
Pro Tools, it will use the playback buffer
size you have selected.
42 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Typical session folder
When you record a new audio track, the
track is saved as a new audio file and automatically placed in the Audio Files folder.
You can also import other audio files into
the session, and work with them as well.
To create a new session:
1 Choose File > New Session.
New Session dialog
2 Choose the drive where you want to save
the session. On Pro Tools III systems, sessions can only be created on drives that are
connected to your Pro Tools Disk I/O SCSI
chain. All other systems allow you to create
your sessions on any SCSI drive attached
your computer.
3 On Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24
systems, choose the file type (on Windows
computers) and bit depth of your session
by doing one of the following:
◆ On Macintosh, select the bit depth
(24-bit or 16-bit) and click OK.
◆ In Windows, choose a file type from the
Save as Type pop-up menu.
Pro Tools 5 Session (PC) (.pt5)
Stores session file in Pro Tools 5.0 format,
and stores audio as WAV files, which are
readable by Pro Tools 24 and Pro Tools 24
MIX systems on the Windows platform.
You set the bit depth for Pro Tools 5.0 sessions by selecting 16-bit or 24-bit in the
area under the Save as Type pop-up menu.
Pro Tools 4 24-bit Session (PC) (.p24)
Stores session file in Pro Tools 4 format,
and stores audio as 24-bit WAV files, which
are readable by Pro Tools 24 and
Pro Tools 24 MIX systems on the Windows
platform.
Pro Tools 4 16-bit Session (PC) (.pt4)
Stores session file in Pro Tools 4 format,
and stores audio as 16-bit WAV files, which
are readable by Pro Tools 24 and
Pro Tools 24 MIX systems on the Windows
platform.
Pro Tools 5 Session (Mac) (*.*)
Stores session file in Pro Tools 5.0 format,
and stores audio as SoundDesigner II files,
which are readable by Pro Tools 24 and
Pro Tools 24 MIX systems on both Macintosh and Window platforms. You set the
bit depth for Pro Tools 5.0 sessions by selecting 16-bit or 24-bit in the area under
the Save as Type pop-up menu.
Pro Tools 4 24-bit session (Mac) (*.*)
Stores session file in Pro Tools 4 format,
and stores audio as 24-bit SoundDesigner II
files, which are readable by Pro Tools 24
and Pro Tools 24 MIX systems on both
Macintosh and Window platforms.
Selecting a File Type in Windows
Pro Tools 4 16-bit session (Mac) (*.*)
Stores session file in Pro Tools 4 format,
and stores audio as 16-bit SoundDesigner II
files, which are readable by Pro Tools III,
Chapter 5: Creating Sessions 43
Pro Tools 24 and Pro Tools 24 MIX systems
on both Macintosh and Window platforms.
the Track Name.
4 Enter a name for the session and click OK
2 In the Track Name/Comments dialog,
(Macintosh) or Save (Windows).
To rename a track:
1 In the Edit or Mix window, double-click
type a new track name.
3 Type comments for the track in the Com-
Choosing a Bit Depth
(Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 only)
ments text box. Click Previous or Next to
rename another track.
When choosing a bit depth for your session, consider the disk space and DSP mixing power your selection will require. 24bit sessions occupy about 50% more disk
space and power fewer mixer channels per
DSP chip. It is not possible to combine different bit depths within a single session.
Track Name/Comments dialog
Adding Tracks
✽ To switch tracks in the Track Name/Com-
To create new tracks:
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 In the New Track dialog, choose the type
of track to create from the pop-up menu.
3 Enter the number of new tracks you want
to create, and click Create. Pro Tools automatically names new tracks.
ments dialog, you can also press Command
(Macintosh) or Control (Windows) and use the
Up/Down Arrows.
4 When you are finished, click OK.
Displaying track controls
To conserve space on-screen, Pro Tools allows you to show or hide the controls for
input/outputs, inserts, sends, and comments on your tracks, in either the Mix or
Edit window.
Creating a new track
✽ To auto-scroll the Track Type pop-up in the
New Track dialog, press Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows) and use the
Up/Down Arrow keys.
44 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Displaying Inserts or Sends
To display track controls:
Choose Display > Mix Window Shows, or
Edit Window Shows, and select the controls you want to display from the submenu.
■
Comments View This view shows the comments you enter when creating the track,
or type directly into the comment area.
Opening a Session
When you open a session, Pro Tools looks
in the same directory for its associated
audio and fade files.
To open an existing session:
1 Choose File > Open Session.
I/O View Shows the standard input and
output controls for tracks.
Inserts View Shows the Inserts on a track.
Audio, Auxiliary Input and Master Fader
tracks can have up to five unity-gain, prefader, in-line Inserts. (Master Fader channels are post-fader only.)
Sends View Audio and Auxiliary Input
tracks can have up to five sends that allow
you to send that track’s signal to an external signal processor or any internal busses.
Sends can be wither mono or stereo and
can be either pre- or post-fade. You can
choose to show all the send assignments
for your tracks, or you can show the level,
mute, pre/post and (in the case of stereo
sends) pan controls for individual sends.
Open Session dialog
2 Locate the session you want to open and
click Open.
Recent Folders and Files
(Windows NT Only)
To show the controls for individual sends:
■ Choose Display > Sends View Shows and
choose the send you wish to display from
the submenu. To show all send assignments for your tracks, choose Assignments.
Displaying controls for a send
Open Session dialog (Windows)
In Windows, the Open Session Dialog has
two menus that allow you to navigate directly to recent directories (by choosing a
location from the Folders menu) or directly
open recent session files (by choosing a
filename from the Files menu).
See Chapter 19: Basic Mixing for more information on Inserts and Sends.
Chapter 5: Creating Sessions 45
Saving a Session
Save regularly while working on your session to ensure that your work is preserved
on your hard disk.
Speeding up Saves by Reducing the
Disk Cache Size
(Macintosh Only)
To speed up session saves and disk
bounces, it is recommended that you reduce the Cache Size (in the Memory Control panel) for your Macintosh to 512k.
Saving the Session File
The Save Session command saves the
changes you have made to your session
and writes them over the previously saved
version of the file. The Save Session command cannot be undone.
Saving the Session File with a
New Filename
The Pro Tools Save Session As command is
useful for saving a copy of the current session under a different name, or in a different hard disk location. Because the Save
Session As command closes the current session and lets you keep working on the renamed copy, it is particularly useful if you
are experimenting and want to save successive stages of the session.
By working this way, you can quickly retrace your steps should you want to go back
to an earlier version of your session. By using the Save Session As command you are
saving a new version of the session file
only—not duplicate versions of the audio
or Fade files.
To save a session under another name:
1 Choose File > Save Session As.
2 Choose the destination and type a new
To save a session:
■
Choose File > Save Session.
If you have made changes to a session since
you last saved it, you can discard the
changes and revert to its previously saved
state.
To revert to the last saved version of a
session:
■
Choose File > Revert to Saved.
name for your session. On Pro Tools III systems, sessions and their associated audio
files must be saved to a drive connected to
the Disk I/O.
3 Click Save to save the session.
The renamed session document is saved in
the session folder along with the original
session. Any new audio files that you
record in your renamed session will be
placed into the same Audio Files folder that
was created for your original session.
To keep audio files for different sessions in
separate folders, choose File > New to create a new session.
46 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To copy the track layout, signal routing
and Plug-In choices in your session, you
can create a Session Template of your original session. For details, see “Creating Custom Session Templates” on page 48.
Saving the Session File and its
Associated Files
The Pro Tools Save Session Copy In command is used to save a copy of the currently
selected session document under a different name, in a different hard disk location,
in a different session file format, or at a different bit-depth (such as saving a 16-bit
version of a 24-bit session).
Unlike the Save Session As command, Save
Session Copy In does not close the original
session, so subsequent edits are made to
the original session. The saved session
serves as a backup copy, and gives you the
option of reverting to the earlier version of
the session.
This command also gives you several options for copying a session along with its
associated files.
Copy Audio Files & Session Plug-In
Settings Folder
When this option is selected, all audio files
and the session’s Plug-In Settings Folder are
copied to the new location. The references
to these Plug-In settings in the session are
redirected to point to the copied files.
Copy Root Plug-In Settings Folder
tings Folder, indicating that these files will
need to be moved to the root level Plug-In
settings folder on the destination system
before you can use them. The references to
these settings files in the session are not redirected to point to the copied files.
Copy Movie/Video Files
When this option is selected, a session
movie files are copied to the new location,
and the references in the session to the
movies are redirected to point to the copied
movie files.
Format
Macintosh Provides the option of saving
the current session in 24-bit or 16-bit format, as well as in Pro Tools 4.3 format for
Pro Tools 3.2 format for compatibility with
older systems. By saving down to Pro Tools
4.3 format, you will lose any MIDI data,
marker information, and other data unique
to the Pro Tools 5. 0 session format.
By saving down to Pro Tools 3.2 format,
you will lose any Plug-In automation, as
well as mix and edit groups, and other data
(such as memory location attributes)
unique to the Pro Tools 5.0 or Pro Tools 4.3
session format.
Windows NT Provides the option of saving
the current session in Pro Tools 5.0 format
for Macintosh or Windows, Pro Tools 4 24bit (.p24) or Pro Tools 4 16-bit format (.pt4)
for Windows, and Pro Tools 4 24-bit or
Pro Tools 4 16-bit format for Macintosh.
When this option is selected, the contents
of the root-level Plug-In Settings Folder are
copied into a folder named Place in Root SetChapter 5: Creating Sessions 47
To save a session in a different location or in
a different format:
1 Choose File > Save Session Copy In.
Creating Macintosh Templates
You can create a session template on the
Macintosh by saving a session file as a Stationery pad document. Once a session is
saved as stationery, it acts as a template
that you can open and then resave as a normal session.
To create a custom session template:
1 Create a session and arrange the Mix,
3 Choose the format for the session copy
Edit, and Transport windows as you like.
You can choose which windows are open
and where they appear on the screen. You
can also define the parameters within these
windows, such as signal routings, inserts
and sends configurations, track views, ruler
settings, and Preference settings.
by selecting it from the Format pop-up.
2 Choose File > Save Session.
4 Select the bit depth for the session copy.
3 Name the session and click Save.
5 To copy the session along with all of its
4 Close the session.
associated files, select from the available
options.
5 Locate the session file that you just saved.
Save Session Copy In dialog (Macintosh)
2 Choose a destination and type a name
for the new session file.
6 Click Save to save the session in the new
location.
6 Click once on the file to select it.
7 Choose File > Get Info. A file information
window appears.
Creating Custom Session
Templates
You can create custom session documents
that are pre-configured to the track setups,
mixer setups, window arrangements, and
zoom level memory locations that you use
most frequently. Doing this will save you
the trouble of having to create your studio
setup from scratch every time you start a
new session.
48 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Saving a session as a Stationery pad (Macintosh)
8 Click the Stationery Pad check box to
save the file as a template, then close the
information window.
To use this template, double-click it or
open it with the Open Session command if
you are already running Pro Tools. You can
create several custom templates for studio
setups that you frequently use.
7 Click the General tab and select the Read
Only option.
When you open a session saved as a Stationery pad, Pro Tools gives you the option of
editing the template or starting a new session using the template settings. If you
choose New Session, Pro Tools will create a
new folder containing a copy of your session template and Audio and Fades folders.
Creating Windows Templates
In Windows, you can create a session template by making a session file a Read Only
document.
To create a custom session template in
Windows:
1 Create a session and arrange the Mix,
Edit, and Transport windows as you like.
You can choose which windows are open
and where they appear on the screen. You
can also define the parameters within these
windows, such as signal routings, inserts
and sends configurations, track views, ruler
settings, and Preference settings.
2 Choose File > Save Session.
Making a session a Read Only file (Windows)
8 Click OK.
To use this template, double-click it or
open it with the Open Session command.
When you first save the session, Pro Tools
will ask you to give the session a new name.
Your original session template will remain
unchanged.
To modify the session template, you will
need to reopen its Properties and deselect
the Read Only option, make your modifications, then change it back to a Read Only
file.
3 Name the session and click Save.
4 Close the session.
5 Locate the session file that you just saved.
6 Right-click the file and choose Properties.
Chapter 5: Creating Sessions 49
Closing a Session
Because Pro Tools allows you to work on
just one session at a time, you must close
the current session if you want to work on
another. The Close Session command
closes your current Pro Tools session but
leaves the Pro Tools application open. You
can save your work using the Save Session
or Save Session As command before closing
the current session.
To close a session:
■
Choose File > Close Session.
Quitting a Session
Although Pro Tools will warn you before
allowing you to quit without saving
changes, you should generally save your
work before quitting.
To Quit a Session:
■ Choose File > Quit (Macintosh) or File >
Exit (Windows).
Sharing Sessions between
Pro Tools TDM Systems and
Pro Tools LE Systems
Pro Tools makes it easy to share sessions
between Pro Tools LE and TDM-equipped
systems. There are some important differences between the two types of systems
that can affect how session material is
transferred.
50 Pro Tools Reference Guide
If you transfer a session from a TDMequipped Pro Tools system to a
Pro Tools LE-based system, any tracks, busses, or I/O Assignments that exceed the
limits of the Pro Tools LE system will be
lost. Any TDM Plug-Ins that do not have
Real-Time AudioSuite (RTAS) equivalents
will also be lost.
Differences between TDM and LE systems
Feature
TDM Systems
LE Systems
Number of
Tracks
up to 128
limited to 24
Number of
mix busses
32 busses
16 busses
Inserts per
Track
up to 5 inserts
up to 5 inserts
Sends per
Track
up to 5 sends
up to 5 sends
chapter 6
Working with Tracks
This chapter covers basic track management tasks such as creating and deleting
tracks, assigning voices and output channels, and grouping tracks.
To create a new audio or MIDI track:
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 Choose the type of track to create from
the pop-up menu.
3 Enter the number of new tracks and click
Create.
Creating Tracks
You can add tracks to your session at any
time by using the New Track command.
New tracks appear in both the Edit and Mix
windows.
Adding New Tracks
Creating a new track
You can choose where to insert new tracks
by selecting an existing track’s name.
4 To name a track, double-click the Track
Before you create new tracks:
◆ For new tracks to appear next to a specific track in a session, select that track by
clicking its name. The new tracks are added
immediately after the selected track.
Name button at the bottom of the Mix
window. Enter a name and any comments
for the track, and click OK.
The track name will be given to any audio
files that you record on the track.
◆ For new tracks to appear as the last tracks
in a session, make sure that no track names
are selected on-screen.
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 51
5 Choose which controls appear on the
track by choosing Display > Mix Window
Shows or Display > Edit Window Shows
and selecting the controls from the submenu.
Displaying track controls
Hiding Tracks
The Show/Hide Tracks List (at the left of
both the Mix and Edit windows) shows all
tracks in the session. It allows you to show
or hide a track by selecting or deselecting
its name. Even though a track is hidden,
the material on the track will still play as
part of the session.
To show a track, click to highlight its name.
To hide a track, deselect its name.
To rename existing tracks in your session:
1 Select the track to rename by clicking the
track name (Shift-click to select multiple
tracks).
2 Choose File > Rename Selected Tracks.
3 Type a new name and click OK for each
track you are renaming.
Deleting Tracks
When you delete tracks, your audio or
MIDI region data will remain in the Regions List, but your arrangement of the regions on the deleted track (the track’s playlist) will be lost. The Delete Selected Tracks
command cannot be undone.
To delete a track:
1 Click the name of the desired track to select it. If you wish to select multiple tracks,
hold down the Shift key and click additional track names to select them as well.
2 Choose File > Delete Selected Tracks.
3 Click OK to remove the selected tracks
from the session.
52 Pro Tools Reference Guide
The Show/Hide Tracks List
The pop-up menu at the top of Show/Hide
Tracks List provides commands that allow
you to show or hide all tracks, or only
tracks currently selected on screen.
When a track that is a member of an active
group is hidden from view, editing operations performed on other members of the
group in the Edit window will not affect
the hidden track. In the Mix window however, all operations other than record-enable will affect a hidden track that is a
member of an active group.
▲ On TDM systems, even if a track is hidden
from view, its position relative to other tracks
still affects virtual track playback priority.
To hide a track:
Click the highlighted name of a track in
the Show/Hide Tracks List.
■
To show a track that is currently hidden:
■ Click the unhighlighted name of a track
in the Show/Hide Tracks List.
To show all tracks:
1 Click the Show/Hide button at the top of
the Show/Hide Tracks List.
2 From the pop-up menu, choose Show All
Tracks.
To hide all tracks:
1 Click the Show/Hide button at the top of
the Show/Hide Tracks List.
2 From the pop-up menu, choose Hide All
Tracks.
✽ To reorder tracks on screen, drag the track
names to new positions within the Show/Hide
Tracks List.
Assigning Track Inputs
Your Pro Tools system has a certain number of hardware inputs, in the form of the
physical inputs on your Pro Tools Audio
Interface, your Digi 001, or your
Audiomedia III card. Pro Tools also provides internal mix busses that can be the
source of track inputs.
With Pro Tools 24 MIX, Pro Tools 24 and
Pro Tools III systems, if you have multiple
Audio Interfaces, their default I/O Labels
appear in order as input #1/1-8,
input #2/1-8, and so on.
To assign a track input:
1 If I/O controls are not currently visible
on your tracks, choose Display > Mix Window Shows (or Edit Windows Shows) > I/O
View.
2 Click the input selector button on the
track, and choose an available input source
from the pop-up menu.
Input selector
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 53
Assigning Track Outputs
Your Pro Tools system has a certain number of hardware outputs, in the form of the
physical outputs on your Pro Tools Audio
Interface, your Digi 001, or your
Audiomedia III card. Pro Tools also provides internal mix busses that can be the
destination of track outputs.
To assign a track to an output:
1 If I/O controls are not currently visible
on your tracks, choose Display > Mix Window Shows (or Edit Windows Shows) > I/O
View.
2 Click the output selector button on the
track and choose an available output destination from the pop-up menu.
Virtual Tracks, Voices, and
Track Priority
Output selector (Stereo Mix Outputs mode)
Pro Tools has two different operating
modes, Direct Outputs mode and Stereo
Mix Outputs mode. These modes allow you
to configure Pro Tools to match your particular studio setup.
Direct Outputs mode In this mode, each
track output is routed to a single Audio Interface output. Track panning controls are
not available in Direct Outputs mode. With
Pro Tools 24 MIX, Pro Tools 24 and
Pro Tools III systems, if you have multiple
Audio Interfaces, their default I/O Labels
appear in order as output #1/1-8, output
#2/1-8, and so on.
Stereo Mix Outputs mode In this mode,
track outputs are routed to a pair of Audio
Interface outputs or bus pairs, such as
output #1 1-2, output #1 3-4, and so on.
Each track contains controls for panning
between the two selected output pairs.
54 Pro Tools Reference Guide
(TDM Systems Only)
Voices and Virtual Tracks
Pro Tools 24 MIX core system hardware
provides up to 64 simultaneous voices of
audio playback. Pro Tools 24 core systems
provide up to 32 voices of audio playback.
A Pro Tools III system provides 16 voices.
While your Pro Tools hardware allows a
fixed number of voices, Pro Tools software
provides for up to 128 virtual tracks—tracks
which can be recorded upon and cued up
for playback but cannot all be played back
simultaneously.
In such an environment where there are
potentially more tracks than can play back
at one time, Pro Tools assigns priorities for
tracks that compete for the available
voices. Pro Tools provides two ways of assigning playback priority to audio tracks:
Voice Selector When you click a track’s
voice selector, a pop-up menu appears offering a choice of voice numbers, which refer to voice assignments.
The following example demonstrates the
concept of dynamic voice allocation:
The “Lead Guitar” region will pop through
Audio Track Voice selector
On-screen track placement The left-most
track in the Mix window (or the topmost
track in the Edit window) has priority over
other tracks with the same voice assignment.
It is possible to assign more than one track
to the same voice, but only one of the
tracks—the one with highest priority—will
play.
Choosing Options > Mute Frees Voice and
muting a track disables playback of that
track, and surrenders control of its voice to
the next highest priority track with the
same voice assignment.
Pro Tools features dynamic voice allocation,
so that when a hole opens up in a higherpriority track, its voice is temporarily available, and the track with the next highest
priority “pops through” and begins to play.
When the original track returns, the track
that had popped through relinquishes the
voice to the higher priority track.
In the above illustration, the two visible
tracks are assigned to the same voice. There
is an open area in the top track where no
region appears. At this point, the voice is
free since it is not being used, and the next
highest priority track on that voice (the
bottom track) will pop through the open
area and play. In order for a lower priority
region to pop through, it must be placed so
that its beginning occurs after a higher priority track’s region has ended.
Automatic Assignment of
Ascending Voices
(TDM Systems Only)
You can automatically assign all tracks or
all selected tracks to successive voices. For
example, you may want to select eight
audio tracks and reassign them to voices
9–16.
To assign all audio tracks to successive
voices:
■ While pressing Command+Option (Macintosh) or Control+Alt (Windows), click on
the Voice Selector for any track and choose
the starting voice number.
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 55
The track with the highest priority is assigned to the chosen voice, with all other
tracks assigned to successive voices.
To assign all selected audio tracks to
successive voices:
1 Select the desired audio tracks by Shift-
clicking their names.
2 While pressing Command+Shift (Mac-
intosh) or Control+Shift (Windows), click
on the Voice Selector for any of the selected
tracks and choose the starting voice number.
Of the tracks that are selected, the one with
the highest priority is assigned to the specified voice, with all other selected tracks assigned to successive voices.
Assigning Voices and Track
Priority
You can use track priority settings, voice assignment, and output assignments to get
the most out your system configuration.
To assign an audio track to a voice:
1 Click the track’s voice selector.
Changing a Track’s Playback
Priority
When more than one track is assigned to
the same voice, the track that occurs earliest (left-most in the Mix window or topmost in the Edit window) has priority over
others assigned to that voice. Moving another track of the same voice to a higher
position will then give that track priority.
You can drag a track to a new position in either the Mix or Edit windows to change its
playback priority.
To increase a track’s priority in the Edit
window:
■ Click the track’s Track Name button and
drag it above another track assigned to the
same voice.
– or –
■ In the Show/Hide Tracks List, drag the
track to a higher position in the list of
tracks. Tracks nearer the top of this list
have higher priority.
To increase a track’s priority in the Mix
window:
■ Click the track’s Track Name button and
drag it to the left of another track assigned
to the same voice.
– or –
In the Show/Hide Tracks List, drag the
track to a higher position in the list of
tracks. Tracks nearer the top of this list
have higher priority.
■
Assigning a voice
2 Select a voice from the pop-up menu.
Voices listed in boldface type are already in
use by other tracks in the session.
56 Pro Tools Reference Guide
By experimenting with track priority, voice
assignment, and arranging regions so that
they are positioned to “pop through” holes
in higher priority tracks, you will find
many useful ways to apply virtual tracks
and dynamic voice allocation.
Voice Management In Expanded
Systems
(Macintosh Pro Tools III systems only)
Voice Numbering
In expanded Pro Tools III systems, the first
16 voices of your system are numbered A-1
through A-16. The next Disk I/O’s voices
would be numbered B-1 through B-16, and
so on.
Managing Voices in Expanded
Systems
In expanded Pro Tools III systems each
Disk I/O card requires that a separate SCSI
hard drive be attached to it, with specific
audio files residing on specific drives. An
audio file or region that resides on one Disk
I/O’s hard drive cannot be moved to a track
routed to a different Disk I/O drive. If you
try to do this, Pro Tools will alert you and
allow you to automatically copy the sound
file to the destination voice’s drive.
The following scenarios will cause voice assignment conflicts which you will have to
resolve by either reassigning voices, copying sound files, or managing “Ghost regions”:
• If you attempt to put regions from Disk
I/O “A” voice track onto a Disk I/O “B”
voice track.
• If you attempt to drag a region that resides on Disk I/O “A” from the Audio Regions List onto a track which is assigned
to a Disk I/O “B” voice track.
• If you have a multiple Disk I/O system
and you assign a track to a voice which
does not correspond to the hard drive
that the track’s regions belong to.
• If you have a multiple Disk I/O system
and you’ve moved a drive which was
originally connected to a different Disk
I/O.
Pro Tools will copy the entire sound file
(not just the single region) to the appropriate Audio Files folder on the destination
drive.
The audio file will be copied to whatever
drive is specified in the Disk Allocation dialog box for that track. Before you begin
copying files, be sure the destination drive
has sufficient space. If the destination drive
doesn’t have enough space, the copy procedure will be cancelled and any material
that hasn’t been fully copied will be discarded.
Disk Allocation dialog
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 57
Ghost Regions
If you decide not to copy the file, Pro Tools
will display what are called Ghost regions.
Ghost regions occur in cases where Disk
I/O SCSI chain/voice combinations make
them invalid for playback. A Ghost region
appears “grayed out” (much like a muted
region does) and signifies that the audio is
not present on the drive to which the voice
refers, and is not available for audio playback as currently assigned.
If you have Ghost regions in a session, each
time you open the session it will ask you if
you wish to copy the Ghost regions onto
the appropriate drive so that you will be
able to use the regions as voiced.
Ghost regions can still be selected with the
Grabber tool and moved or deleted, or auditioned from the Regions List. They will
not play as currently assigned. They can become regular “active” regions again if you
place them on a track/voice that is valid for
the Disk I/O associated with the region.
If you open a session which has a region/voice/hard drive assignment conflict,
a warning dialog will appear, alerting you
of this condition and offering several solutions. The options in the dialog are as follows:
Look for Duplicated Files If this option is
enabled, before it begins copying files to
the necessary drive, Pro Tools will check if
the needed “parent” audio files or regions
have already been copied to the drive. This
helps prevent unnecessary duplication of
audio data.
58 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Look for Compatible Voices If this option is
enabled, Pro Tools will try to resolve the
problem by assigning conflicting voices
from the “swapped” drive to available valid
voices.
Copy Files to New Drives. If this option is
enabled, Pro Tools will copy the files to the
necessary drive (if there is enough space). If
the Look for Duplicated Files option is also
enabled, Pro Tools will check if the needed
“parent” audio files or regions already reside on the drive before it begins copying.
If the Look for Duplicated Files option is
not enabled, Pro Tools will copy the required files without checking first.
Alternatives to Copying an Entire
Audio File
If you wish to move a region without copying the entire sound file, you can place the
region on a track which is routed to a drive
where the audio actually resides. Alternatively, you can use the Duplicate Plug-In in
the AudioSuite menu, or you can bounce
the region to disk, thereby creating a new
audio file that consists of just the region.
Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide to learn
how to use the Duplicate Plug-In. For information on bouncing, refer to the Mixing
chapter in the Pro Tools Reference Guide.
Setting MIDI Channels
MIDI tracks can be assigned to one or more
MIDI channels with the Device/Channel
selector. When assigned to multiple channels, all material in the track is sent to all
assigned channels.
MIDI Tracks in Pro Tools can not contain
multiple channels of MIDI data.
To assign all regions on a MIDI track to a
specific MIDI channel:
1 Click on the track’s MIDI Device/Chan-
nel Selector and assign a device and channel from the pop-up menu. Channels
already assigned to another track appear
bold in this menu.
Adjusting Track Volume
and Pan
In the Mix window, each track has its own
Volume fader and Pan slider for adjusting
the track’s playback volume and stereo
placement. (Panning controls for audio
tracks are only available if your session is
set to Stereo Mix Outputs mode.) On audio
tracks, the volume selector controls the
output level of the track on your system’s
Audio Interface or system output jacks.
On MIDI tracks, it controls MIDI volume
(controller 7) on MIDI instruments that
support this feature. If a track has regions
with MIDI volume controller data (created
in the original sequence), its volume will be
controlled by that data.
MIDI Device/Channel selector
Track Level fader
To assign multiple destinations to a single
MIDI track, Shift-click the MIDI Device/Channel Selector and select additional
channels from any device.
To adjust the volume of a track:
■ Drag the slider to the desired level. It has
a range of ∞ (no output) to +6dB of gain.
For details on recording and importing
MIDI data, see Chapter 10: MIDI Recording.
The Pan Slider
To adjust the pan value of a track:
■ Drag the slider to the desired level. It has
a range of <100 (full left) to 100> (full
right).
Panning a track full right or full left sends it
to a single output channel.
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 59
Soloing and Muting Tracks
The Solo and Mute buttons can be engaged
at any time during playback.
The Solo and Mute buttons affect MIDI as
well as audio tracks. It is possible to have
more than one track soloed or muted at the
same time in a session.
Grouping affects mute and solo behavior as
well. Normally, muting or soloing a track
that is a member of an active mix group
will mute or solo all other tracks that are a
member of that active mix group as well.
However, by changing the Mute and Solo
settings in the Pro Tools Preferences dialog,
you can disable this behavior.
To disable group muting of tracks:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click
Automation.
2 Deselect the Mutes Follow Mix Groups
option, and click OK.
With this option deselected, muting a track
that is a member of an active group does
not affect other members of the group.
To disable group soloing of tracks:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click
Automation.
2 Deselect the Solos Follow Mix Groups option, and click OK.
With this option deselected, soloing a track
that is a member of an active group does
not affect other members of the group.
60 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Mute Frees Voice and Mute Lag
Time
If you select Operations > Mute Frees Voice,
a muted track’s voice will be allocated to
the next highest priority track assigned to
the same voice. With this option enabled,
there may be a delay (ranging in length
from one to several seconds depending on
the processing power of your system) between the time you mute or unmute a track
and when you hear the effect on playback.
To avoid this delay, make sure that the
Mute Frees Voice option is disabled. Another factor than can cause delays is your
DAE Playback Buffer Size setting. Playback
Buffer Size is set from DAE’s File menu
(Macintosh), or by choosing Setups > DAE
Buffer Size (Windows). The larger the playback buffer you choose, the longer the potential lag time between the time you click
the Mute button and the onset of muting.
Solo Button
The solo button mutes other tracks so that
the chosen track can be auditioned alone.
Normally solos are “latched,” that is, pressing subsequent solo buttons adds them to
the soloed mix of tracks. Pro Tools allows
you to “unlatch” solos, so that pressing a
solo will mute all tracks except the track
you have just soloed.
To solo a track:
Mute Button
1 Click the Solo button on the track. The
The mute button silences a chosen track.
More than one track can be muted at one
time. If Operations > Mute Frees Voice is
enabled, muting a track will allocate its
voice to the next highest priority virtual
track in your session.
button is highlighted and all other tracks
are muted.
2 Click the Solo button again to turn off
the solo function.
To unlatch solo buttons:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
To mute a track:
Operation.
■ Click the Mute button on the track. The
track will appear grayed-out and be muted.
2 Deselect the Latch Solo Buttons option
and click Done. With this option disabled,
pressing a Solo button mutes all tracks except the track you have just soloed.
Solo Safe Mode
Pro Tools also allows you to solo safe a
track. This prevents the track from being
muted even if you solo other tracks. This
feature is useful for tracks such as Auxiliary
Inputs that are being used as effects returns, allowing the effects track to remain
in a mix even when other tracks are soloed.
It is also useful to solo-safe MIDI tracks so
that their playback is not affected when
you solo audio tracks.
To solo safe a track:
■ Command-click (Macintosh) or Controlclick (Windows) the Solo button on the desired track. This prevents the track from being muted even if you solo other tracks.
To unmute a track:
■
Click the Mute button again.
For information on the relationship between muting and voice assignments, see
“Virtual Tracks, Voices, and Track Priority”
on page 54.
Adjusting Track Width
The Pro Tools Narrow Mix Window command allows you to view all tracks/channels in the Mix window at a reduced width
to conserve screen space in a large session.
To reduce the width of tracks in the Mix
window:
■
Select Display > Narrow Mix Window.
To display tracks at normal width:
■
Deselect Display > Narrow Mix Window.
To return a solo safe track to normal:
■ Command-click (Macintosh) or Controlclick (Windows) the Solo button on the
track again.
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 61
Color Coding Tracks
Grouping Tracks
The Pro Tools Color Code options in the
Preferences dialog allow you to quickly
identify tracks which are assigned to the
same voice or group. Color coding of voices
is particularly useful in sessions where you
wish to make efficient use of virtual tracks.
Since tracks assigned to the same voice
share the same color, you can easily identify and arrange regions so that they do not
overlap or conflict with other regions on
tracks assigned to the same voice.
Pro Tools provides a relative grouping
function for linking channels and their
controls. Groups can be applied to either
the Mix or Edit window, or both.
To color code tracks by voice assignment:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Display.
2 Select “Color Code Voices and MIDI
Channels in Edit Window,” and click
Done. This color codes tracks according to
voice assignment, giving each voice a different color.
To color code tracks by group:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Display.
2 Select “Color Code Groups in Edit Win-
dow,” and click Done. This color codes
tracks according to their group assignment.
To be color coded, the track must be part of
an active group.
To turn off color coding:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Display.
2 Select No Color Code in Edit Window,
and click Done.
62 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Groups are useful for editing several tracks
in exactly the same way, or for mixing several tracks (such as a pair of stereo tracks or
a submix) while keeping them at the same
relative volume level.
Pro Tools provides the following grouping
features:
• Up to 26 different groups
• Nested groups (subgroups within groups)
• Grouped faders/controllers preserve
their levels relative to each other
Grouping can affect the following track parameters:
• Volume levels
• Solos
• Mutes
• Automation modes
• Track display format
• Track height
• Editing functions
Grouping does not affect these parameters:
• Record enables
• Panning
• Send levels, panning and mutes
• Voice assignment
• Output assignment
• Creating Plug-In instances
Using the Groups List
The Pro Tools grouping functions are located at the left side of your screen in the
Groups List. This scrolling window contains the names of all the groups in your
session, as well as a pop-up menu for accessing grouping commands. From this
menu, you can select and enable groups.
By default, every session has a group
named All, which includes every track and
channel in the session. The All group cannot be edited or deleted.
The hollow circle symbol indicates that
only some members of the group are currently selected.
The circle with a dot symbol indicates that
all members of the group are currently selected, plus additional members outside the
group.
The Groups Pop-up Menu
Group pop-up menu
Click to
select a
group by
typing its
letter
Click to
select
group
members
on-screen
The Groups pop-up menu contains commands that allow you to create, delete and
suspend groups. These commands are as
follows:
Click to
activate a
group
The Group pop-up menu
Click to hide
Groups List
The Groups List
To the left of each name in the Groups List
is a letter denoting its Group ID (“a”
through “z”), and to the left of that, a symbol indicating whether that group is selected in the currently active window (either the Edit or Mix window). These
symbols indicate the following:
New Group This command allows you to
create a new group. You must first select
two or more tracks/channel strips on
screen to do this.
Display This command allows you to toggle
the Groups List display to either Mix
Groups or Edit Groups. If all of your groups
apply to both Editing and Mixing, the
Groups List will be the same for both.
Suspend All Groups This command allows
you to temporarily toggle all active groups
off.
The filled-in circle symbol indicates that all
members of the group are currently selected.
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 63
Delete Selected Groups This command allows you to permanently remove a group
from the Groups List. You must first select
a Group Name in the Groups List to do
this.
Enabling Grouping
Editing operations are not applied to members of a group that are hidden with the
Show/Hide Tracks List. Mix operations
(with the exception of Record-enable) are
applied to hidden tracks.
Pro Tools allows you to create separate
groups for editing and mixing. You set this
option when you use the New Group command. Groups that apply to both editing
and mixing can be decoupled.
Moving a fader of a group member will
cause all other group members to move relative to it. If a fader belongs to multiple
groups, and the groups conflict when faders are moved, the fader will follow the topmost or “parent” group that it belongs to.
To disable a group:
■ In the Groups List, click the name of the
group you want to disable. The group name
is unhighlighted to indicate that it is not
enabled.
Keyboard Selection of Groups
If the Groups List Key focus is enabled, you
can type a Group ID letter and Pro Tools
will automatically enable that group.
To enable and use the Groups List Key focus:
1 Click the a-z button in upper right of the
Groups List.
Displaying a track’s group membership
To enable a group:
Groups List Key focus enabled
■ In the Groups List, click the name of the
group you want to enable. The group name
is highlighted to indicate that it is enabled.
2 Type Group ID letter (a-z) of the region to
automatically enable it.
To enable additional groups, click their
names in the Groups List. It is not necessary to Shift-click to enable or disable multiple groups.
64 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Creating a Group
To create a group:
1 Hold down the Shift key and select the
tracks you wish to include in the group.
Changing the Members of a
Group
You can add or remove members from a
group at any time.
To change the members of a group:
1 Hold down the Shift key and select the
tracks to include in the group.
2 Choose New Group from the Group popup menu.
Selecting tracks to be grouped
3 In the dialog that appears, select the
2 Choose File > Group Selected Tracks.
Group ID that you want to update.
3 Enter a name for the group and choose a
Group ID (“a” - “z”).
4 Click OK. The new group definition over-
writes the original definition.
Renaming a Group
You can rename a group at any time.
To rename a group:
1 In the Groups List, double-click to the
The New Group dialog
4 Choose the type of group to create: Edit
Group, Mix Group, or Edit and Mix Group.
5 Click OK to add the new group to the
Groups List.
left of the group’s name (in the area with
the circular symbols).
2 In the dialog that appears, enter a new
name for the group. (If you wish to change
the group’s type, you can also do so here.)
3 Click OK. The group is renamed in the
Groups List.
Deleting a Group
You can delete a group at any time.
To delete a group:
1 In the Groups List, select the name of the
group (or groups) you wish to delete.
2 Click the Group pop-up menu and
choose Delete Selected Groups. You cannot
undo this action.
Chapter 6: Working with Tracks 65
Linking Mix and Edit Groupings
The “Link Mix and Edit Group Enables” option links group enabling between the Mix
and Edit windows.
Pro Tools allows you to create groups that
are both Mix and Edit groups. but in some
cases you may prefer not to link enabling
of Mix and Edit groups. For example, when
you are using the Mix window for mixing,
you may prefer to work with large, nested
groups. However, in the Edit window, you
may want to perform editing tasks within a
smaller group. You could disable the Link
Mix and Edit Group Enables preference.
This would allow you to work with different groups in the two windows.
To unlink mix and edit groups:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Operation.
2 Deselect the “Link Mix and Edit Group
Enables” option and click Done.
66 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 7
File Management and Compatibility
The various Pro Tools systems require that
you keep certain files on specific hard
drives in order for these systems to function properly. Observe the following file
management rules:
Macintosh
◆ On all Macintosh Pro Tools Systems, the
Pro Tools software should reside on your
Start-up drive (the drive that contains your
System folder and other System-related
files).
◆ On Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24
systems, data files (such as session files,
audio files and fade files) can be located on
any compatible drive connected to the internal SCSI bus or the external SCSI bus of
your computer, or to a SCSI accelerator
card in your computer.
On Pro Tools III systems, data files (such
as session files, audio files and fade files)
must be located on a compatible drive
which is connected to your Disk I/O SCSI
chain.
◆
Windows NT
◆ On all Windows NT Pro Tools Systems,
the Pro Tools software should reside on
your system boot drive (the drive that contains your System files).
◆ On all Windows NT Pro Tools Systems,
data files should be located on a compatible SCSI drive connected to the SCSI bus of
your computer, or to a SCSI accelerator
card in your computer.
Locating Audio Files
(Windows NT Systems Only)
When you open a session, if Pro Tools is
unable to locate audio files contained in
the session, it will post a Find File dialog.
Pro Tools for Windows NT tags each audio
file in a session with a unique identifier
that allows it to distinguish a particular file
even if its name or location have changed.
◆ On Pro Tools LE systems, data files can be
located on any compatible hard drive connected to your computer’s internal or external SCSI bus.
Chapter 7: File Management and Compatibility 67
In cases where the unique identifier is not
present (for example, with files imported
from a Macintosh session), Pro Tools can
identify an audio file using other file attributes, such as sample rate, bit depth, file
length, and creation or modification date.
Pro Tools will search for files with similar
attributes, and list potential matches in the
Candidate Files list.
4 If you determine that a file in the Candidate Files list is not the target file, click
Skip. To eliminate all files in the list, click
Skip All.
5 Click Down to move to the next file in
the list.
6 When you have located the target file,
click Open.
To locate an audio file:
1 In most cases, you can find files created
or modified by Pro Tools for Windows NT
by clicking Look in Current Folder or Look
on All Mounted Volumes. To search in all
subfolders of the current folder, select Include Subfolders.
Find File dialog
2 If Pro Tools is unable to find the target
file, use the Folder or Files menus or the
Navigation Toolbar in the upper left of the
Find File dialog to look in directories on
your audio drives. You can limit the search
to files of a certain type by selecting from
the Files of Type menu. Potential matches
will appear in the Candidate Files list on
the right.
3 Select a candidate file to view its at-
tributes in the File Info area. To audition a
selected audio file, click Play and adjust the
Play Position slider to choose the playback
location in the file.
68 Pro Tools Reference Guide
WAV File Compatibility
Convert all imported WAV files to
AES31/BroadcastWave
Pro Tools always creates AES31/Broadcast
compliant WAV files when the file originates in Pro Tools. This option, accessed by
choosing Setups > Preferences > Compatibility, applies to all imported WAV files,
making them compliant with the
AES31/EBU Broadcast standard.
AES31/BroadcastWave is a variant of the
standard audio WAV file type. The AES31
format contains additional information beyond the raw PCM audio data such as
SMPTE time stamps.
This variant complies with the new standards set down by the EBU (European
Broadcasters Union), and the AES (Audio
Engineering Society). Choose this option
to ensure compatibility with other workstations that recognize this new standard
file type.
Compatibility Preference Setting
Naming Files, Playlists and
Regions
To ensure portability of your Pro Tools sessions between Windows and Macintosh
platforms, you will want to name your session files, bounced audio files, regions and
playlists carefully.
“ (quotation marks)
< (less-than symbol)
> (greater-than symbol)
| (vertical line or pipe)
Filenames with non-ASCII characters, such
as those created on the Macintosh by typing combinations with the Option or Control keys (for example, letters with diacritical marks, like é, ü, or ç), are also illegal in
Windows.
If you open a Macintosh session which
contains playlists or regions with these
characters, any illegal characters will be
changed to “_” (underscore) when you perform an operation that uses that filename
(such as exporting a region or AudioSuite
processing).
The “:” (colon) is also an illegal character
on the Macintosh, since it is used as a separator in Mac OS pathnames.
While it is probably best to avoid using any
special characters or punctuation marks in
your filenames, the ones that can cause
problems are listed below.
Avoid using the following characters since
they cannot be used in Windows filenames:
/ (slash)
\ (backslash)
: (colon)
* (asterisk)
? (question mark)
Chapter 7: File Management and Compatibility 69
70 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Part III
Recording
chapter 8
Record Setup
Before you start recording, make sure your
your Pro Tools system is connected and
configured properly. For details on connecting Pro Tools to your studio, refer to
the Pro Tools Hardware Installation Guide
that came with your system.
While some of the information in this
chapter is relevant to recording MIDI, there
are more specific setup details for MIDI recording in Chapter 10: MIDI Recording.
Input Connections and
Audio Levels
Most Digidesign audio interfaces operate as
line-level devices and offer no pre-amplification. You must therefore adjust the level
of an input signal to line level before it
reaches Pro Tools. Low-level sources like
microphones and electric guitars need to
be pre-amplified. You can do this with a
quality mixing board or dedicated preamp.
✽ The Digi 001 is an exception to this rule. Its
I/O Box has two inputs with preamps, to which
you can connect low-level signals, and six additional inputs with “input gain.”
Volume and pan controls for tracks in
Pro Tools only affect monitoring levels—
not the recording input gain. The LED indicators on audio interfaces indicate both
full-code (highest level before clipping)
and true clipping of Pro Tools output signals. The on-screen meters in the Pro Tools
application indicate only true clipping.
Digital Clipping
Clipping occurs when you feed a signal to a
recorder or mixer that is louder or “hotter”
than the device allows. On many analog
tape decks, a little clipping adds a perceived
warmth to the sound due to tape compression. In digital recording, however, clipping causes digital distortion, which is undesirable and should always be avoided.
Set Input Levels High But Don’t Clip
When you feed a signal into any audio recording system, including Pro Tools, you
need to adjust the input level to optimize
the dynamic range. Adjust the input signal
to register as high as possible on your input
meter without triggering the clipping indicator. If the input level is too low, you will
not take full advantage of the dynamic
Chapter 8: Record Setup 73
range of your Pro Tools system. If the input
level is too high, however, it will be
clipped.
Calibration Mode
You can use the Calibration Mode in
Pro Tools to adjust the input and output
levels for your audio interface so they
match those of your mixing console and
other audio devices in your studio.
For more information on Calibration
Mode, see the TDM Hardware Installation
Guide.
Record Enabling Tracks
To record to a track you must first recordenable it. While you can have multiple
audio tracks record-enabled (for simultaneously recording more than one track),
there can only be one MIDI track recordenabled at a time. The record-enabled MIDI
track can, however, be switched on the fly
while recording.
To record enable all audio tracks:
Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click
(Windows) the Record button on any audio
track.
■
Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows) again to take all audio tracks out of
record-enabled mode.
To record enable all selected audio tracks:
■ Shift-Option-click (Macintosh) or ShiftAlt-click (Windows) the Record button on
any audio track.
Shift-Option-click (Macintosh) or Shift-Altclick (Windows) again to take all selected
audio tracks out of record-enabled mode.
✽ Multiple tracks are selected by Shift-clicking
their track names.
✽ While record enabling does not affect audio
tracks that are grouped, you can select all
tracks in a group by clicking directly to the left
of the group’s name in the Groups List. Then
you can Shift-Option-click (Macintosh) or ShiftAlt-click (Windows) to record enable all selected tracks.
To record enable a different MIDI track on the
fly:
Record-enabled audio track
To record enable an audio or MIDI track:
■ From either the Edit or Mix window,
click the track’s Record button.
Click again to take the track out of recordenabled mode.
74 Pro Tools Reference Guide
While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), press the Up/Down arrows
to record-enable the previous or next MIDI
track.
– or –
■
Click the Record button of the MIDI track
you want to record enable. The previous
record track is taken out of record-enabled
mode.
Latch Record Mode
When the option for Latch Record Enable
Buttons is selected (in the Operations Preferences), you can record enable (latch) additional audio tracks by clicking their
Record buttons. Previously record-enabled
tracks remain record-enabled.
When Latch Record Enable Buttons is deselected, record-enabling a subsequent audio
track takes the previously record-enabled
track out of record-enabled mode.
✽ When the option for Latch Record Enable
Buttons is deselected, you can still Shift-click
the Record buttons on multiple audio tracks to
record enable them.
Record Safe Mode
When tracks are in Record Safe mode, it is
not possible to record enable them, and
therefore not possible to record to them.
Use Record Safe mode to protect important
track recordings.
To put an audio or MIDI track in Record Safe
mode:
■ Command-click (Macintosh) or Controlclick (Windows) the track’s Record button.
Command-click (Macintosh) or Controlclick (Windows) again to take the track out
of Record Safe mode.
To put all tracks in Record Safe mode:
Command-Option-click (Macintosh) or
Control-Alt-click (Windows) the Record
button on any track.
■
Command-Option-click (Macintosh) or
Control-Alt-click (Windows) again to take
all tracks out of Record Safe mode.
To put all currently selected tracks into
Record Safe mode:
■ Command-Option-Shift-click (Macintosh) or Control-Alt-Shift-click (Windows) the Record button on any of the
selected tracks to toggle them in and out of
Record Safe mode.
Monitoring Modes
Pro Tools offers two modes of input monitoring, Auto Input Monitoring or Input Only
Monitoring (chosen from the Operations
menu), which determine how input signals
are monitored while recording audio.
Auto Input Monitoring
In this mode, when session playback is
stopped, Pro Tools monitors audio input.
When playback is started for a punch-in,
Pro Tools monitors existing track material
up until the punch point. While punched
in, the input signal is monitored. On
punch-out, monitoring switches back to
the existing track material. This is similar
to the auto-switching logic found on digital and analog multitrack tape machines.
▲ When using Auto Input Monitoring, the
switch back to monitoring track material on
punch-out is not instantaneous. To get instantaneous monitor switching on punch-out, use
QuickPunch (see “Using QuickPunch” on
page 113).
Chapter 8: Record Setup 75
Input Only Monitoring
In this mode, when a track is record-enabled, Pro Tools monitors audio input
only, regardless of any punch in/out selection.
Monitor Levels for Record and
Playback
Pro Tools allows you to set two different
fader levels for each audio track: one for
when the track is record-enabled, and one
for when it is not record-enabled. This lets
you adjust levels for playback and configure a different set of levels for monitoring
while recording.
Pro Tools remembers these two states for
fader levels automatically. If you adjust a
fader when a track is record-enabled and
then take the track out of record-enabled
mode, the fader updates accordingly.
When audio tracks are record-enabled,
their volume faders in the Mix window
turn red, indicating that the record monitor level is active.
Monitoring Latency
(Pro Tools LE Only)
Because Pro Tools LE uses the host processor in your computer for audio processing,
playback, and recording, there is a small
amount of audio delay, or latency, in the
system. This latency amount is related to
the Hardware Buffer Size—the larger the
buffer size, the larger the latency.
While there may be times when you want a
larger Buffer Size, for the sake of higher
track counts with more Plug-Ins, you’ll
generally want a smaller Buffer Size when
recording audio that is monitored through
your Digi 001 or Audiomedia III.
If you are monitoring the audio material
you’re recording with an external mixer,
you will not hear any latency.
To set the Hardware Buffer Size:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware.
2 Choose the number of samples from the
Hardware Buffer Size pop-up.
Hardware Buffer Size
3 Click OK.
▲ Computers with slower CPUs may not be
able to use the 128 Buffer Size without encountering performance errors.
76 Pro Tools Reference Guide
▲ If have a SampleCell II Plus card, a buffer
size of 128 should not be used when running
the SampleCell Editor at the same time as
Pro Tools LE. Use a larger buffer setting to
avoid performance errors.
The following table lists the amount of
monitoring latency (in ms) you can expect
from the four Buffer Sizes.
Sample
Buffer Latency Use for:
rate
Size
Amount
(kHz)
(samples) (ms)
128
2.9
recording drums and
other timing-critical
instruments
256
5.8
recording vocals and
instruments with
slower attacks
(bass, guitar, etc.)
44.1
Low Latency Monitoring
(Pro Tools LE Only)
You can reduce the amount of monitoring
latency for Pro Tools LE systems by reducing the Hardware Buffer Size. However,
even at the smallest Buffer Size, there is still
some latency. In addition, reducing the
Buffer Size limits the number of simultaneous audio tracks you can record without
encountering performance errors.
Digi 001 and Audiomedia III systems can
use the Low Latency Monitoring option to
record with an extremely small amount of
monitoring latency, to as many tracks as
each system supports.
To use Low Latency Monitoring:
1 Record enable the desired audio tracks
512
11.6
mixing with 24
tracks
1024
23.2
final mixdown or
many plug-ins
128
2.7
recording drums and
other timing-critical
instruments
256
5.3
48
recording vocals and
instruments with
slower attacks
(bass, guitar, etc.)
512
10.7
mixing with 24
tracks
1024
21.3
final mixdown or
many plug-ins
How Hardware Buffer settings affect latency
(or Auxiliary Inputs) by clicking their
Record buttons. Only tracks with inputs set
to an audio interface (not a bus) use Low
Latency Monitoring.
2 From the Output Selector, assign each
track to either Output 1 or Output 2. Only
tracks assigned to these outputs use Low
Latency Monitoring.
3 Select Operations > Low Latency Moni-
toring.
When Low Latency Monitoring is enabled,
any plug-ins and sends assigned to recordenabled tracks (routed to Outputs 1–2) are
automatically bypassed, and must remain
bypassed. Also, these tracks will not register
on meters for Master Faders.
Chapter 8: Record Setup 77
Low Latency Monitoring and Bounce
To Disk
With Low Latency Monitoring Enabled,
only audio tracks are included with the
Bounce To Disk command—Auxiliary Input tracks are ignored.
To record Auxiliary Inputs with Low Latency Monitoring enabled, you must
record the material in real time.
Track Names
When creating new audio and MIDI tracks,
Pro Tools names them as either “Audio” or
“MIDI” and numbers them consecutively.
For instance, when you create 2 new audio
tracks, their default names are “Audio 1”
and “Audio 2.” You can rename tracks and
also log comments for each track.
To rename a track:
1 In the Edit or Mix window, double-click
the Track Name.
2 In the Track Name/Comments dialog,
type a new track name.
Track Name/Comments dialog
3 If desired, type comments for the track in
the Comments text box. Click Previous or
Next to rename another displayed track.
78 Pro Tools Reference Guide
✽ To switch tracks in the Track Name/Com-
ments dialog, you can also press Command
(Macintosh) or Control (Windows) and use the
Up/Down Arrows.
4 When you are finished, click OK.
Default Names for Audio Files and
Regions
When recording to an audio track, the resulting file and region names are based on
the name of the track. For instance, after recording for the first time on a track called
“Electric Gtr,” an audio file is written to
your hard drive with the name “Electric
Gtr-01.” In addition, a region appears in
the Audio Regions List with the name
“Electric Gtr-01-00.”
Subsequent record takes on the same track
are named identically but with the first set
of digits (indicating the take number) incremented. The second set of digits is only
used for region naming and indicate a region auto-created from an edit.
☞ The QuickPunch record mode uses a slightly
different method for numbering regions. For
details, see “Region and Take Numbering with
QuickPunch” on page 116.
When recording MIDI tracks, a similar
naming scheme is used, though with only
one set of digits. For instance, after recording to a track called “Synth 1,” a region is
created called “Synth 1-01.” Subsequent regions for that track, generating either from
additional record takes or region edits, are
numbered sequentially.
Recording to Multiple Hard
Drives
To increase system performance, Pro Tools
lets you record each track to different hard
drive.
Since Pro Tools III systems use a Disk I/O
card for SCSI connections, it may not be
necessary to allocate tracks to multiple
drives. However, using Round Robin Allocation can minimize the performance burden on a single drive.
To record to multiple hard drives:
1 Choose Setups > Disk Allocation.
2 In the Disk Allocation dialog, assign a
hard drive for each track by clicking in the
Record Drive column.
3 To automatically distribute any newly
created tracks among the drives connected
to your system, select “Use Round Robin
Allocation for New Tracks.”
If you are using Round Robin Allocation
and want audio to be recorded to your system’s startup drive, select Include System
Volume (see “Recording to the System Volume” on page 80 for details).
4 When you are finished, Click OK.
When recording, each track is routed to the
selected drive. If Round Robin Allocation is
enabled, new tracks are automatically allocated to subsequent hard drives. A folder
with the session name is created on each
hard drive, containing folders for “Audio
Files” and “Fade Files.”
To save Disk Allocation settings for use
with future sessions, save the session as a
template. For details, see “Creating Custom
Session Templates” on page 48.
Disk Allocation and Cross-Platform
Sessions
Pro Tools for Windows supports recording
and playback of audio from multiple hard
drives, but to ensure cross-platform operation, it also requires that Macintosh
Pro Tools sessions and their associated
audio files be on Macintosh-formatted
(HFS) drives.
Disk Allocation dialog
To assign all tracks to the same hard drive,
press Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows)
while selecting a drive name.
Similarly, Windows sessions and their associated audio files must reside on Windowsformatted (FAT16) drives. If you want to
share sessions between Windows and Macintosh platforms, consider these restrictions when allocating tracks to drives.
Chapter 8: Record Setup 79
Reallocating Tracks
When opening a session where some of the
previously assigned hard drives are no
longer available (or don’t match the current session platform), Pro Tools automatically reassigns tracks to the volume where
the session file is stored. In such cases,
Pro Tools gives you the option of reallocating tracks to other drives.
Recording to the System
Volume
Though Pro Tools will let you record to
your system hard drive, this is generally
not recommended. Performance for audio
recording and playback on system drives is
worse than on non-system hard drives.
You should record to system drives only
when absolutely necessary—if your computer system has just the one hard drive, or
if your other hard drives are completely out
of space.
Allocating Hard Drive
Space for Recording
The Operation Preference for Open Ended
Record Allocation determines how much
of your available hard drive space is allocated for recording.
80 Pro Tools Reference Guide
When this preference is set to Use All Available Space, the drive’s entire available
space is allocated. This can slow down the
recording process for hard drives that use
certain file systems, including HFS+ and
NTFS.
In such cases, you can reduce the time it
takes to begin recording by allocating only
a portion of your hard drive.
To allocate a portion of your hard drive for
recording:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Operation.
2 Under the Open Ended Record Alloca-
tion option, select Limit To and enter a
number of minutes to be allocated.
Open Ended Record Allocation, Operation Preference
The number of minutes specified is allocated for each record-enabled track. You
may find it necessary to experiment with
this number to achieve the desired performance for recording.
3 When you are finished, click Done.
Record Modes
For recording audio, Pro Tools has four
record modes:
• Normal Nondestructive Record
• Destructive Record
• Loop Record
• QuickPunch
To enable Destructive Record, Loop
Record, or QuickPunch, select them from
the Operations menu. If none of these
record modes are selected, Pro Tools is in
normal Nondestructive Record mode.
The record mode can also be switched by
Control-clicking (Macintosh) or Rightclicking (Windows) the Record button in
the Transport window. This cycles through
the four modes with the Record button
changing to indicate the currently selected
mode: blank for Nondestructive, “D” for
Destructive, a loop symbol for Loop
Record, and “Q” for QuickPunch.
Destructive Record mode enabled
Nondestructive Record Mode
In normal Nondestructive Record mode,
Pro Tools records audio non-destructively,
which means that if you record over a
track’s existing regions, the audio is not
erased from your hard drive. Both the new
and old audio remain on your hard drive,
available as regions from the Audio Regions
List.
In Nondestructive Record mode, the record
range is defined by selecting a range in the
Ruler or in a track’s playlist, or by specify-
ing start and end points in the Transport
window. If there is no selection, recording
begins from the current cursor location
and continues until the Transport’s Stop
button is clicked.
▲ To set a record range by selecting within a
track’s playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked.
The pre/post-roll settings allow material to
be heard up to and after the start and end
points, which is useful when punch recording (see “Punch Recording Audio” on
page 92 for details).
Destructive Record Mode
In Destructive Record mode, recording
over existing regions replaces the original
audio permanently, which allows you to
preserve hard drive space. However, if you
have sufficient drive space, it is usually best
to use Pro Tools in Nondestructive Record
mode, to avoid losing any previously recorded material.
☞ When working in normal Nondestructive
Record mode, you can preserve disk space by
removing unwanted record takes (see “Removing Unwanted Regions” on page 198) and
compacting audio files (see “Compacting an
Audio File” on page 199).
When defining the record range and setting pre- and post-roll, Destructive Record
mode works the same as Nondestructive
mode.
Unlike the other record modes, it is not
possible to cancel record takes when using
Destructive Record mode (see “Canceling a
Record Take” on page 88).
Chapter 8: Record Setup 81
Loop Record Mode
Loop Record mode allows you to record
take after take (non-destructively) while
the same section of audio repeats. This is a
convenient technique for quickly recording multiple takes of a part without losing
spontaneity.
The time range that is looped and recorded—which must be at least one second
in length—is defined by selecting a range
in the Ruler or in a track’s playlist, or by
specifying start and end points in the
Transport window. The pre-roll setting, if
enabled, is used during the first record pass,
but on each successive loop the pre/postroll times are ignored.
▲ To set a record range by selecting within a
track’s playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked.
When using Loop Record mode, each successive take appears as a region in the Audio Regions List and each is numbered sequentially. The various takes, which are
identical in length and start time, are easily
auditioned and placed in the track at the
correct location with the Takes List pop-up
menu (see “Auditioning Record Takes” on
page 94).
QuickPunch
QuickPunch gives you the ability to instantaneously punch in (initiate recording) and
punch out (stop recording) on record-enabled audio tracks during playback by
clicking the Transport’s Record button. Recording with QuickPunch is nondestructive.
82 Pro Tools Reference Guide
When using QuickPunch, Pro Tools begins
recording a new file when playback begins,
automatically generating regions in that
file at each punch in/out point. Up to 100
of these “running punches” can be performed in a single pass.
Though you can punch record in the other
record modes by manually specifying the
record range, only QuickPunch provides
instantaneous monitor switching on
punch-out.
The Record Modes and MIDI
In addition to the four record modes, there
is also a MIDI Merge button in the Transport window that determines how MIDI is
recorded. When enabled (Merge mode), recording over existing MIDI regions results
in the new data being merged with the old.
When the MIDI Merge button is disabled
(Replace mode), the new material replaces
the old.
MIDI Merge button
MIDI Merge enabled
MIDI recording works the same whether
using Nondestructive or Destructive
Record mode. In addition, QuickPunch
does not need to be enabled to punch on
the fly with MIDI—this capability is available in Nondestructive and Destructive
Record modes.
Unlike audio, MIDI can be loop recorded
when Operations > Loop Playback is enabled. In this mode, the state of the MIDI
Merge toggle determines whether existing
material is replaced or merged.
In almost all instances, recording MIDI is
destructive (though you can undo a MIDI
record pass), either overwriting or adding
to region material. One exception to this
rule is when Loop Record mode is enabled;
in this mode, existing track regions are replaced with new regions when new material is recorded. The old regions remain intact and available from the MIDI Regions
List, and from the Takes List pop-up. In
Loop Record mode, MIDI Merge has no effect, so its button is dimmed.
To enable the click in the Transport:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Trans-
port window, select Display > Transport
Window Shows > MIDI Controls.
Transport Window with MIDI Controls
2 In the Transport window, click the Click
button so it becomes highlighted.
Click button
Recording with the Click
If you intend to work with MIDI tracks in
your session, or if the audio you’re working
with is bar- and beat-oriented, you may
record your tracks while listening to the
click. This ensures that recorded material,
both MIDI and audio, will align with the
session’s bar and beat boundaries.
When your track material lines up with the
beats, you can take advantage of some useful editing functions in Pro Tools, such as
quantizing MIDI and audio regions, quantizing individual MIDI notes, and copying
and pasting measures and song sections in
Grid mode.
Click enabled
3 To use a countoff when recording or play-
ing, click the Countoff button in the Transport window so it too becomes
highlighted.
Countoff button
Countoff enabled
Hearing the countoff before recording is
helpful in getting the feel for the tempo before you begin playing. The Countoff button in the Transport window displays the
number of bars to be counted off.
☞ Material that is recorded without listening to
▲ The countoff is ignored when Pro Tools is
the click can still be aligned to bar and beat
boundaries in Pro Tools with the Identify Beat
command. For details, see “Identify Beat Command” on page 230.
Online and syncing to SMPTE time code.
Chapter 8: Record Setup 83
To configure the click options:
1 Choose MIDI > Click Options.
– or –
Double-click the Click or Countoff button
in the Transport window.
2 In the Click/Countoff Options dialog,
choose from the Output pop-up the port
number (device) and channel that will play
the click.
4 Select whether the click is heard “During
play and record” or “Only during record.”
5 If using a countoff, specify the number of
Bars to be counted off. To hear the countoff
only when recording, select that option.
6 Click OK.
Setting the Default Meter
When opening a new session in Pro Tools,
the meter defaults to 4/4. If you intend to
record with the click and are working with
a different meter, make sure to set the default meter accordingly.
If a session’s meter does not match the music you’re recording, the accented clicks
will not line up with what you’re playing,
and, as a result, the recorded material may
not align with the bars and beats in the Edit
window.
Click/Countoff Options dialog
3 For the accented and unaccented notes,
specify the note, velocity, and duration.
When listening to the click in your
Pro Tools sessions, the accented note
sounds on the first beat of each measure
and the unaccented note sounds on the remaining beats. Make sure the sound assigned to these notes has a sharp, percussive attack.
Meter events, which can occur anywhere
within a Pro Tools session, are stored in the
Meter Track and appear in the Meter Ruler.
Inserting and editing for meter events is
discussed in “Meter Events” on page 233.
To set the default meter for a session:
1 Choose Windows > Show Tempo/Meter.
– or –
Double-click the Meter button in the
Transport window.
Meter button
84 Pro Tools Reference Guide
2 Enter the Meter you will use for the ses-
To insert a default tempo event:
sion and set the Location to 1|1|000 (so the
inserted meter event replaces the default
one).
1 Choose Windows > Show Tempo/Meter.
2 At the top of the Tempo/Meter Change
window, choose Tempo Change from the
pop-up menu.
Tempo/Meter Change window
3 Choose a note value for the number of
Tempo/Meter Change window
clicks to sound in each measure.
3 Enter the BPM value you will use for the
session and set the Location to 1|1|000 (so
the inserted tempo event replaces the default tempo).
4 Click Apply to insert the new meter
event.
Setting the Default Tempo
When opening a new session in Pro Tools,
the tempo defaults to 120 BPM. If you intend to record with the click and are working with a different tempo, make sure to set
the default tempo accordingly. If you know
the tempo you will use for the session, you
can insert a tempo event at the beginning
of the Tempo Track.
Tempo events, which can occur anywhere
within a Pro Tools session, are stored in the
Tempo Track and appear in the Tempo
Ruler. Inserting and editing for tempo
events is discussed in greater detail in
“Tempo Events” on page 227.
4 To base the BPM value on something
other than the default quarter-note, select
the desired note value.
5 Click Apply to insert the new tempo
event.
See “Default Tempo” on page 230 for more
information on the default tempo.
Using Manual Tempo Mode
In Manual Tempo mode, Pro Tools ignores
the tempo events in the Tempo Track and
instead plays back at the tempo displayed
in the Transport window. The manual
tempo can be set with the Tempo slider, or,
if you’re not sure of the actual tempo, by
tapping in the tempo.
Chapter 8: Record Setup 85
▲ While you can adjust the Manual Tempo dur-
ing playback, doing so will momentarily interrupt playback.
To set the manual tempo with the Tempo
slider:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Trans-
port window, select Display > Transport
Window Shows > MIDI Controls.
2 In the Transport window, click the Con-
ductor button so it becomes unhighlighted.
To set the manual tempo with the Tap button:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Trans-
port window, select Display > Transport
Window Shows > MIDI Controls.
2 In the Transport window, click the Con-
ductor button so it becomes unhighlighted. Pro Tools switches to Manual
Tempo mode. In this mode, any tempo
events in the Tempo Track are ignored.
3 Click the Tap button repeatedly at the desired tempo.
Tap button
Conductor button
Manual Tempo mode enabled
Pro Tools switches to Manual Tempo
mode. In this mode, any tempo events in
the Tempo Track are ignored.
3 To enter a new tempo, drag the horizon-
tal Tempo slider in the Transport window.
– or –
Click in the Tempo field so it becomes
highlighted and tap in the tempo by playing a note on your MIDI keyboard controller.
To compute the new tempo, Pro Tools requires at least four taps (each of which is
displayed in the Tap area when received).
The computed BPM value appears in the
Transport’s Tempo field.
Tempo slider
For finer resolution with the Tempo slider,
press Command (Macintosh) or Control
(Windows) while dragging.
4 To base the BPM value on something
other than the default quarter-note, make
the change in the Beat Value pop-up menu
(just to the left of the Tap button).
5 To exit Manual Tempo mode and enable
the Tempo Track, click the Conductor button in the Transport window so it becomes
highlighted.
86 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Tempo Taps as reflected in Transport
To lock in the new tempo, take Pro Tools
out of Manual Tempo mode by clicking the
Conductor button, then insert a tempo
event (with the new tempo) at the beginning of the Tempo Track.
chapter 9
Basic Audio Recording
Recording a Single Audio
Track
When recording from a mono source,
record to a single audio track in Pro Tools.
To configure a new audio track for recording:
4 Rename the new track as desired. Track
names are used to auto-name recorded
audio files and regions. For more information, see “Track Names” on page 78.
5 In the Mix Window, click the audio
track’s Record button to record enable the
track.
2 From the Session Setup window, select
Volume faders for record-enabled audio
tracks turn red to indicate they are functioning as record monitor levels.
the sample rate for your session.
6 In the Mix window, click on the track’s
1 Connect a mono sound source to the ap-
propriate input of your audio hardware.
If using inputs 1 or 2 of an audio interface,
make sure to specify the format (analog or
digital) in the pop-up menu for Ch 1–2.
Input Selector and assign a hardware input.
3 Choose File > New Track and specify 1
Audio Track, then click Create.
Input Selector
7 Adjust the output level of your sound
New Track dialog
✽ To auto-scroll the Track Type pop-up in the
New Track dialog, press Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows) and use the
Up/Down Arrow keys.
source (instrument, mixer, or preamp).
Monitor the track’s meter levels in
Pro Tools to ensure that you get the highest
possible signal without clipping.
8 In the Mix window, adjust the track’s volume and pan faders as desired. These settings are for monitoring purposes only and
do not affect the recorded material.
Chapter 9: Basic Audio Recording 87
To record to the new audio track:
3 Click Play in the Transport window to be-
1 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
gin playback. Adjust the track’s volume
and pan faders as necessary.
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
2 If desired, enable the click and countoff
in the Transport window. Also, make sure
to specify the session’s default meter and
tempo. For details, see “Recording with the
Click” on page 83.
3 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero so the start/end times are cleared. This
ensures that you’ll start recording from the
beginning of the track.
4 Click Record in the Transport window.
The Record button flashes.
Record button
5 When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play. If using a countoff, Pro Tools
counts off the specified number of measures and then begins recording.
6 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
The newly recorded audio is written to disk
and appears as an audio region in the
track’s playlist. The new audio region also
appears in the Audio Regions List.
To play back the new audio track:
1 Click the Record button for the audio
track to take it out of record-enabled mode.
The track’s volume fader now functions as
a playback level control.
2 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero.
88 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Record Shortcuts
You can also begin recording with the following keyboard shortcuts:
• Press F12
• Press Command+Spacebar
• Press 3 on the Numeric Keypad (when
the Numeric Keypad Mode is set to
Transport)
✽ To initiate recording at half-speed, press
Command+Shift+Spacebar (Macintosh) or
Control+Shift+Spacebar (Windows). For details, see “Half-Speed Recording and Playback” on page 118.
Canceling a Record Take
While recording it is possible to discard the
current record take. This removes the audio
(recorded up to that point) from your hard
drive and deletes the region from the
track’s playlist. This capability is not available in Destructive Record mode.
To cancel a record take while recording:
■ Press Command+period (Macintosh) or
Control+period (Windows) before the
Transport is stopped.
If using Loop Record mode, all takes from
each record pass are discarded.
☞ Unlike audio recording, MIDI recordings can
be undone after stopping the Transport. For details, see “Undo and MIDI Recording” on
page 107.
Stereo and Multiple-Track
Recording
Pro Tools can record multiple audio tracks
simultaneously, up to the track recording
limits of your system. To record a stereo
audio signal, record to two audio tracks.
8 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
9 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
1 Connect the left and right outputs from
For each record-enabled track, a new audio
file is written to disk and a new region is
created and appears in the playlist. The
new audio regions also appear in the Audio
Regions List.
your sound source to the appropriate inputs of your audio hardware.
✽ Create an Edit and Mix Group for the stereo
To record audio in stereo:
2 Choose File > New Track and specify 2
Audio Tracks, then click Create.
pair so that edits, fader movements, and
mutes are automatically applied to both
tracks.
3 Click the Record button for the first and
second track to record enable them.
As long as the preference for Latch Record
Enable Buttons is enabled, you can record
enable subsequent audio tracks by clicking
their Record buttons. Other tracks already
record-enabled will remain so.
4 In the Mix window, use the Input Selec-
tor to assign the input for the first track to
the hardware input for the left channel. Assign the second track to the hardware input
for the right channel.
Record Pause Mode
When recording a large number of tracks,
or playing back a large number of tracks
while recording, Pro Tools may take a little
longer to begin recording. To avoid this delay, put Pro Tools in Record Pause mode before beginning to record.
To record from Record Pause mode:
1 Click Record in the Transport window.
5 In the Mix window, set the pan fader for
The Record button flashes.
the first track to 100% left, then set the pan
fader for the second track to 100% right.
2 Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click
6 Adjust the output level of your sound
source (instrument, mixer, or preamp).
Monitor the track’s meter levels in
Pro Tools to ensure that you get the highest
possible signal without clipping.
7 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero so the start/end times are cleared. This
ensures that you’ll start recording from the
beginning of the track.
(Windows) Play in the Transport window
to put Pro Tools in Record Pause mode. The
Play and Record buttons flash.
3 To begin recording instantaneously, click
Play. When you have finished recording,
click Stop in the Transport window.
✽ You can also use Pause mode when record-
ing or playing large numbers of tracks to speed
up lock-up time when syncing to time code.
Chapter 9: Basic Audio Recording 89
Recording Additional Takes
After recording to an audio track, you can
record additional takes into the same track.
However, if you record these additional
takes in Destructive Record mode, the
audio residing on your hard drive from the
previous takes will be permanently lost.
To keep the audio from previous takes,
record the new takes non-destructively in
normal Nondestructive Record mode.
☞ For details on audio file and region names
for new takes, see “Track Names” on page 78.
5 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
6 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
An audio file for the new take is written to
disk and appears as an audio region in the
track’s playlist. The new audio region also
appears in the Audio Regions List.
The audio from the original take remains
on your hard drive, and is still available as
a region in the Audio Regions List.
To destructively record over a previous take:
1 Select Operations > Destructive Record.
To non-destructively record a new take on the
same track:
When using Destructive Record mode, a
“D” appears in the Record button.
1 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
2 Make sure the track containing the previ-
ous take is still record-enabled.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection. This lets you
set the record start time by clicking anywhere in the track’s playlist.
4 To record from the beginning of the
track, click Return to Zero in the Transport
window.
– or –
Click anywhere in the track’s playlist to be
gin recording from that point.
☞ To record a specific track range, with pre-
cise start and end points, see “Punch Recording Audio” on page 92.
90 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Destructive Record mode enabled
2 Make sure the track containing the previous take is still record-enabled.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection. This lets you
set the record start time by clicking anywhere in the track’s playlist.
4 To record from the beginning of the
track, click Return to Zero in the Transport
window.
– or –
Click anywhere in the track’s playlist to be
gin recording from that point.
☞ To record a specific track range, with pre-
cise start and end points, see “Punch Recording Audio” on page 92.
5 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
6 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
The audio for the new take is written to
disk, permanently overwriting the original.
The new material replaces the original material within the existing region.
Appending New Material to the End of
a Track
You can also append new material to the
end of a track. To do this, locate to the end
of the track with the Go to End button in
the Transport window. From there, simply
begin recording and Pro Tools will add the
new material to the end of the track. If using Destructive Record mode, the new
audio is appended to the audio file and region from the first take. In Nondestructive
Record mode, a new file and region are created.
Recording into a New Playlist
Instead of recording over existing audio regions, there is another way to non-destructively record new takes into the same track.
Do this by creating a new playlist for the
track, then record just as before.
Tracks can have multiple edit playlists,
each of which stores a list of regions strung
together in a particular order.
To record into a new playlist for a track:
1 From the track’s Playlist Selector pop-up,
choose New. Enter a name for the new
playlist and click OK.
Playlist Selector
When a new playlist is created, its name replaces the track name. With this playlist active, names for new audio files and regions
are based on its name.
2 Make sure the track is still record-en-
abled.
3 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero.
4 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
5 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
An audio file for the new take is written to
disk and appears as an audio region in the
track’s playlist. The new audio region also
appears in the Audio Regions List.
6 To audition the new take, click Play in
the Transport window.
7 To go back to a previous playlist to com-
pare it to the new take, select the playlist
from the track’s Playlist Selector.
Selecting a playlist recalls its regions as
they previously appeared in the track. At
any time, all regions from all playlists are
available in the Regions List, and can be
mixed and matched between playlists and
tracks.
For more information on playlists and
playlist editing, see “Playlists” on page 141.
Chapter 9: Basic Audio Recording 91
Punch Recording Audio
To replace a portion of a recorded track,
you can punch in by specifying the record
range before recording.
Though there are several ways to set record
and play ranges (see “Setting Punch/Loop
Points” on page 96), perhaps the easiest is
select within the track’s playlist the material to be replaced.
▲ To set a record or play range by selecting
within a playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked.
You can listen to track material up to and
after the punch record range by enabling
pre-and post-roll. Listening to pre-roll is
helpful in getting the feel for playing in the
new material.
During the recording process, playback begins at the pre-roll time (if enabled) and
proceeds to the start time (the punch-in
point), where recording begin. When the
end time (the punch-out point) is reached,
Pro Tools automatically switches out of
record mode and continues playing
through the specified amount of post-roll.
This automated punch-in/out feature is a
powerful and precise way of re-recording a
portion of a track.
▲ If you are recording in normal Nondestruc-
tive Record mode, punches do not permanently replace the source material. If you
actually want to write over the previous data,
erasing it forever, use Destructive Record
mode.
Monitoring during Punch-Ins
When punch recording, you may want to
enable Auto Input Monitoring (by selecting it in the Operations menu). For details,
see “Auto Input Monitoring” on page 75.
To punch record on an audio track:
1 To record non-destructively, make sure
that Operations > Destructive Record is not
selected.
If you do want to permanently record over
the punched record range, select Operations > Destructive Record.
2 Make sure the track containing the previ-
ous take is still record-enabled.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
4 With the Selector, drag in the track’s
playlist until the selection encompasses the
desired punch range.
For other methods of setting the record
range, see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on
page 96.
5 To hear existing track material up to the
start point, or after the end point, enable
and set pre/post-roll times. For details, see
“Setting Pre/Post-Roll” on page 97.
6 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
If pre-roll is enabled, the track material
leading up to the punch-in point plays.
You can start playing during the pre-roll to
get the “feel.” Material is not recorded until
the start point is reached.
When the start point is reached, Pro Tools
begins recording. Recording continues until the end point is reached, unless Stop is
92 Pro Tools Reference Guide
clicked in the Transport window. If postroll is enabled, playback continues for the
specified post-roll amount.
corded takes to the desired length with the
Trimmer tool (see “The Trimmer Tool” on
page 180).
If recording non-destructively, a new audio
file is written to your hard drive and a new
audio region appears in the record track
and Audio Regions List.
When loop recording audio, Pro Tools creates a single audio file that comprises all
takes. Takes appear as individual regions in
the Audio Regions List and are numbered
sequentially. Once you stop recording, you
can audition any of the recorded takes.
If recording in Destructive Record mode,
the new audio overwrites the previous material in the existing audio file and region.
To loop record an audio track:
1 Select Operations > Loop Record. When
Loop Recording Audio
Pro Tools provides a loop recording feature
that allows you to record take after take
while the same section of audio repeats
over and over. This is a convenient technique for quickly recording multiple takes
of a part without losing spontaneity.
When loop recording, you must first specify the start and end points for the loop.
Though there are several ways to set record
and play ranges (see “Setting Punch/Loop
Points” on page 96), perhaps the easiest is
to select within the track’s playlist the material to be looped.
▲ To set a record or play range by selecting
within a playlist, the Edit and Timeline selections must be linked.
The pre-roll setting, if enabled, is used during the first record pass, but on each successive loop, the pre/post-roll times are ignored. To compensate for this, you may
want to make the loop range slightly
longer. Later, you can trim back the re-
Loop Record mode is enabled, a loop symbol appears in the Record button.
Loop Recording enabled
2 Record enable the audio track by clicking
its Record button.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
4 With the Selector, drag in the track’s
playlist until the selection encompasses the
desired loop range.
For other methods of setting the record
range, see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on
page 96.
5 To hear track material up to the start
point of the loop, enable and set the preroll time. For details, see “Setting Pre/PostRoll” on page 97.
6 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
The Record button flashes during the preroll. When the start point is reached,
Pro Tools begins recording. When the end
Chapter 9: Basic Audio Recording 93
point is reached, Pro Tools loops back to
the start time and continues playing and
recording.
Auditioning Record Takes
cording, press Command+period (Macintosh)
or Control+period (Windows).
After recording multiple takes with loop or
punch recording, you can replace the take
currently residing in the track with previous takes to audition them.
7 When you have finished recording, click
To place and audition previous takes:
Stop in the Transport window.
1 In the Edit window, select the current
✽ To cancel all recorded takes while loop re-
If you stop recording before you reach the
midpoint of the loop, Pro Tools discards
that take. If you record more than half of
the looped take, Pro Tools will leave the
take in the track when you stop recording.
take with the Grabber.
2 Command-drag (Macintosh) or Control-
drag (Windows) the take from the Audio
Regions List (all takes are numbered sequentially).
The recorded takes appear as regions in the
Audio Regions List and are numbered sequentially. The most recently recorded take
is left in the record track. For details on auditioning the various takes from the Takes
List pop-up, see “Auditioning from the
Takes List Pop-up Menu” on page 94.
The region replaces the previous take and
snaps precisely to the correct location.
Loop Playback and Audio Recording
Each region resulting from a punch or loop
record pass has an identical start time (the
User Time Stamp). This allows you to easily
select and audition takes from the Takes
List pop-up menu—even while the session
plays or loops.
When Loop Playback is enabled, Pro Tools
will not loop when attempting to record
audio tracks with QuickPunch, Destructive
Record, or Nondestructive Record mode.
To loop record audio tracks in Pro Tools,
you must enable Loop Record mode.
3 Repeat the above steps as desired to audi-
tion other takes.
Auditioning from the Takes List
Pop-up Menu
To select a take from the Takes List pop-up:
1 Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-
click (Windows) with the Selector at the
precise beginning of the loop or punch
range.
– or –
If the take currently residing in the track is
selected, Command-click (Macintosh) or
Control-click (Windows) it with the Selector.
94 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Takes List pop-up
A pop-up menu appears containing a list of
regions that share the same User Time
Stamp.
2 Choose a region from the Takes List pop-
up menu. The region replaces the previous
take and snaps precisely to the correct location.
3 Repeat the above steps as desired to audi-
tion other takes.
One way to ensure that future takes have
the same User Time Stamp (and appear in
the Takes List pop-up) is to store punch and
loop record selections as Memory Locations. Then if you later need to record additional takes, simply recall the Memory Location. For more information, see
“Recalling Punch/Loop Points with Memory Locations” on page 99.
To change the User Time Stamp of other regions so that they appear in the Takes List
pop-up for a certain location, use the Time
Stamp Selected command in the Regions
List pop-up menu. For more information,
see “Time Stamping” on page 361.
Editing Preferences and Take Regions
In addition to having the same User Time
Stamp, regions that appear in the Takes List
pop-up are also restricted according to the
following options in the Editing Preferences:
Take Region Name(s) That Match Track
Names When selected, only regions that
share the same root name with the
track/playlist appear in the Takes List popup menu. For example, the Takes List for a
track named “Gtr.L” would show the regions “Gtr.L-01” and “Gtr.L-02-01,” but
not “Guit.L-01.”
Take Region Lengths That Match When selected, only regions that match the length
of the current selection (even if it is not an
entire region) appear in the Takes List popup menu. If there is no selection, all takes
with the same User Time Stamp are displayed.
Separate Region Operates On All Related
Takes When selected, editing a region with
the Separate Region command also affects
all other related takes with the same User
Time Stamp.
This option helps you compare different
sections from a group of related takes. For
example, you can quickly separate an entire group of related vocal takes into sections, then audition and select the best material from each section independently.
If this option is selected, make sure the
“Take Region Names That Match Track
Names” and “Take Region Lengths that
Match” options are also selected. If they are
not, all regions in the session that have the
same User Time Stamp will be affected.
In most instances, you’ll want to deselect
the “Separate Region Operates On All Related Takes” option, to prevent a large
number of regions from being created
when you use the Separate Region command.
Chapter 9: Basic Audio Recording 95
Setting Punch/Loop Points
The start and end points of a record range
for punch and loop recording can be set by
the following means:
• Select a range in a track’s playlist
• Select a range in a Timebase Ruler
• Drag the Playback Markers in the Ruler
• Enter start and end times in the Transport window
• Recall a Memory Location
To set the record range with a Timeline
selection:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid so
the selection is constrained to the current
Grid value.
2 Drag with the Selector in any Timebase
Ruler until the selection encompasses the
desired record range.
Timeline selection
To set the record range with an Edit
selection:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid so
the selection is constrained to the current
Grid value.
2 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
Playback Markers
When tracks are record-enabled, Playback
Markers for start and end times appear as
red up/down arrows in the Ruler. If no
tracks are record-enabled, the Playback
Markers are blue.
3 With the Selector, drag in a track’s play-
list until the selection encompasses the desired record range.
Playback Markers in Ruler
The Playback Markers can be dragged, either separately or at the same time, to set
record and play ranges.
Playlist selection
– or –
If a region’s start/end points define the
record range, click on the region with the
Grabber.
To set the record range by dragging the
Playback Markers:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid so
the dragged Playback Markers snap to the
current Grid value.
2 Drag the first Playback Marker (down ar-
row) to the start point of the range.
Dragging a Playback Marker (start time) in Ruler
96 Pro Tools Reference Guide
3 Drag the second Playback Marker (up arrow) to the end point of the range.
✽ If the current record range is already the
right length and the range needs only to be
moved, Option-drag (Macintosh) or Alt-drag
(Windows) either Playback Marker to move
both to a new location (while keeping the same
length).
3 Type in the start location and press slash
to enter the value and automatically move
to the end field.
4 Type in the end location and press Enter
to accept the value.
✽ Use the period (.) or Left/Right Arrow keys
to move through the different time fields for
start/end. Use the Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease the numerical values.
Start and End Fields
The Transport window can be resized to
display start, end, and length times, and
pre- and post-roll settings. When setting a
record or play range, it is reflected in these
fields.
Setting Pre/Post-Roll
Pre- and post-roll times appear as flags in
the Ruler. When pre- and post-roll are enabled, the flags are green, otherwise they
are gray.
Green Pre/Post-Roll Flags (enabled) in the Ruler
Transport window with start/end displayed
You can enter locations in the start and
end fields to set the record or play range.
The Playback Markers in the Ruler are updated accordingly.
To set the record range by entering start/end
times in the Transport window:
1 If necessary, resize the Transport window
by clicking in the upper right so the start
and end times are displayed.
2 In the Transport window, click in the
start field.
– or –
Pre- and post-roll amounts can be entered
in the Transport window, set from a track’s
playlist or Timebase Ruler, or by recalling a
Memory Location.
▲ For TDM systems, recording with pre/post-
roll requires two voices for each record-enabled track. In addition, to simultaneously
record on 32 tracks with pre/post-roll on a
Pro Tools 24 MIX system (which allocates
voices to either of two DSP engines, 1–32 and
33–64), the tracks must be evenly distributed
between the two DSPs (for instance, tracks
1–16 assigned to voices 1–16 and tracks
17–32 assigned to voices 33–48).
Press Option-slash (Macintosh) or Alt-slash
(Windows) to select the start field in the
Transport window.
Chapter 9: Basic Audio Recording 97
Setting Pre- and Post-Roll in the
Transport Window
Pre- and post-roll can be enabled and set
from the fields in the Transport window.
3 With the Selector, Option-click (Mac-
intosh) or Alt-click (Windows) in the
track’s playlist before the selection to enable the pre-roll at that location.
4 With the Selector, Option-click (Mac-
To enable and set the pre- and post-roll times
in the Transport window:
1 If necessary, resize the Transport window
by clicking in the upper right so the start
and end times are displayed.
2 In the Transport window, click in the pre-
roll field.
3 Type in the pre-roll amount and press
slash to enter the value and automatically
move to the post-roll field.
4 Type in the post-roll amount and press
Enter to accept the new value.
5 To enable either pre- or post roll, click the
appropriate button so it becomes highlighted.
✽ Use the period (.) or Left/Right Arrow keys
intosh) or Alt-click (Windows) in the
track’s playlist after the selection to enable
the post-roll at that location.
To disable the pre- and post-roll by clicking in
a playlist:
1 With the Selector, Option-click (Mac-
intosh) or Alt-click (Windows) within a
track selection near the start to disable the
pre-roll.
2 With the Selector, Option-click (Mac-
intosh) or Alt-click (Windows) within a
track selection near the end to disable the
pre-roll.
Enabling Pre- and Post-Roll from the
Operations Menu
to move through the different time fields for
start/end. Use the Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease the numerical values.
Pre- and post-roll (as a pair) can also be enable and disabled from the Operations
menu.
Setting Pre- and Post-Roll in a Playlist
To enable both pre- and post-roll from the
Operations menu:
You can use the Selector to enable and disable pre- and post-roll by clicking in a
track’s playlist.
To enable and set the pre- and post-roll by
clicking in a playlist:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
2 With the Selector, drag in the track’s
playlist until the selection encompasses the
desired record range.
98 Pro Tools Reference Guide
■ Select Operations > Pre/Post Roll Playback.
Dragging Pre- and Post-Roll Flags in
the Ruler
The Pre- and Post-Roll Flags can be dragged
in the Ruler, either separately or at the
same time, to set their location.
To set the pre- and post-roll amounts by
dragging in the Ruler:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid so
the dragged flags snap to the current Grid
value.
3 If desired, enable and set the pre/post-roll
amounts in the Transport window, or by
dragging the Pre- and Post-Roll Flags in the
Ruler.
4 Press Enter on the numeric keypad.
2 Drag the Pre-Roll Flag to the desired loca-
5 In the New Memory Location dialog, set
tion in the Ruler.
Time Properties to Selection, and, if desired, under General Properties, select the
option for Pre/Post Roll Times.
Dragging a Pre-Roll Flag in Ruler
3 Drag the Post-Roll Flag to the desired lo-
cation in the Ruler.
✽ To set pre- and post-roll values to the same
amount, Option-drag (Macintosh) or Alt-drag
(Windows) either the Pre- or the Post-Roll Flag
in the Ruler.
Recalling Punch/Loop Points
with Memory Locations
Since Memory Locations recall Edit selections, you can use them to recall record and
play ranges—that is, as long as the Edit and
Timeline selections are linked. Memory Locations can also store and recall pre/postroll settings.
New Memory Location dialog
For more information on Memory Locations, see “Memory Locations and Markers” on page 235.
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link
To save punch/loop points with a Memory
Location:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
2 Set the record range by making a playlist
or Ruler selection, or by entering start and
end times in the Transport window.
6 Enter a name for the new Memory Loca-
tion and click OK to save it.
To recall punch/loop points with a Memory
Location:
Edit and Timeline Selection.
2 Choose Windows > Show Memory Locations.
3 In the Memory Locations window, click
the name or number of the Memory Location.
The start and end times and pre/post-roll
settings stored with the Memory Location
are recalled.
Chapter 9: Basic Audio Recording 99
100 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 10
MIDI Recording
Although recording MIDI in Pro Tools is
similar to recording audio, there are some
important differences.
Unlike audio, MIDI recording is almost
always destructive. See “The Record Modes
and MIDI” on page 82 for details.
◆
Unlike audio, a MIDI recording take can
be undone after stopping the Transport.
For details, see “Undo and MIDI Recording” on page 107.
◆
◆ While multiple audio tracks can be
record-enabled and simultaneously recorded to, only one MIDI track can be
record-enabled at a time. The record-enabled MIDI track can, however, be switched
on the fly while recording.
◆ It is not necessary to use QuickPunch to
punch in on the fly with MIDI tracks. This
capability is available in normal Nondestructive Record Mode, and in Destructive
Record mode.
☞ Refer to the Pro Tools Hardware Installation Guide that came with your system for details on configuring it to record MIDI data.
MIDI Controller Devices
Pro Tools does not support recording multiple MIDI tracks, nor can it record multiple
MIDI channels to a single track. When recording, MIDI received from all devices
and all channels is merged to the current
record track. MIDI tracks in Pro Tools cannot contain multiple channels and always
play back on the track’s assigned device
and channels.
The following Pro Tools options determine
whether you can record from a MIDI controller device:
◆ Devices that are assigned as a MIDI Controller in the Peripherals dialog are ignored
when MIDI tracks are recorded. This is to
avoid recording data from MIDI control
surfaces like the Mackie HUI.
◆ On the Macintosh, only devices that are
enabled in the Input Devices dialog can be
recorded from. For more information, see
“Enabling Input Devices” on page 102.
Chapter 10: MIDI Recording 101
In addition, the following options affect
how MIDI data is recorded in Pro Tools.
◆ The Input Filter allows you to filter out
certain MIDI messages that you may not
want to record, such as polyphonic aftertouch or System Exclusive data. For more
information, see “MIDI Input Filter” on
page 103.
To enable input devices:
1 Choose MIDI > Input Devices.
2 In the Input Devices dialog, select the
MIDI devices you will record from. Also,
make sure any devices that will be used as a
control surface are also selected.
◆ Input Quantize, when enabled, automatically quantizes (time corrects) all MIDI
notes that are recorded. For more information, see “Input Quantize” on page 104.
Enabling Input Devices
(Macintosh Only)
To record from a MIDI controller in
Pro Tools, the device must be enabled in
the Input Devices dialog. You can also use
this dialog to make sure unwanted notes
from certain devices, such as drum machines or arpeggiators, are not recorded.
▲ In order to use control surfaces, like the
Mackie HUI, they must be enabled in the Input
Devices dialog.
▲ In order for Pro Tools to sync to MMC, the
MMC source must be enabled in the Input Devices dialog.
102 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Input Devices dialog
3 Deselect any devices you want to ignore
while recording MIDI.
4 When you are finished, click OK.
MIDI Thru
MIDI Input Filter
To monitor MIDI tracks while recording,
enable MIDI Thru. When enabled,
Pro Tools routes MIDI from your controllers to the device and channels assigned to
the MIDI track currently record-enabled.
Use the MIDI Input Filter to filter out certain MIDI messages from your recordings.
The Input Filter can be set to record “all”
messages, “only” the specified messages, or
“all except” the specified messages.
To enable MIDI Thru:
For instance, to filter out polyphonic
aftertouch and System Exclusive data:
■
Select MIDI > MIDI Thru.
1 Choose MIDI > Input Filter.
2 In the MIDI Input Filter dialog, select the
Only option.
MIDI Thru enabled
When using MIDI Thru, you should disable
Local Control on your MIDI keyboard controller. Otherwise, your keyboard may receive double MIDI notes, which can lead to
stuck notes. If unsure how to disable Local
Control for your instrument, refer to the
manufacturer’s documentation.
▲ When MIDI Thru is enabled, System Exclu-
MIDI Input Filter
sive events are echoed to the MIDI device assigned to the record-enabled track—but only if
the sysex events are smaller than 256 bytes.
3 Make sure the options for Polyphonic Af-
tertouch and System Exclusive are not selected. Leave all other messages selected.
4 Click OK.
When using the Only option, only the
MIDI messages that are selected will be recorded. Conversely, when using the All Except option, the selected messages will not
be recorded.
Chapter 10: MIDI Recording 103
Input Quantize
Wait for Note
When Input Quantize is enabled, all recorded MIDI notes are quantized automatically. To preserve the original “feel” of
your recorded MIDI tracks, make sure to
disable this option.
The Wait for Note button, located in the
Transport window, determines how
Pro Tools begins recording. When enabled,
Pro Tools will not begin recording until a
MIDI event is received. This ensures that
you begin recording when you’re ready to
play, and that the first note, or other MIDI
data, is recorded precisely at the beginning
of the record range (start time).
To enable Input Quantize:
1 Choose MIDI > Input Quantize.
2 In the Input Quantize window, select the
Enable Input Quantize option.
Wait for Note can be used when recording
normally, when punching in, or when loop
recording. If pre-roll is enabled, it occurs after the MIDI event is received and before
recording begins.
To enable Wait for Note:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Trans-
port window, select Display > Transport
Window Shows > MIDI Controls.
Transport window with MIDI Controls
2 In the Transport window, click the Wait
for Note button so it becomes highlighted.
Input Quantize window
Configure the other options in the Input
Quantize window as desired. For details on
the various Quantize options, see “Quantize” on page 214. When finished, close the
Input Quantize window.
For drum machine style loop recording, use
Input Quantize while loop recording MIDI
in Merge mode (see “Loop Recording with
Merge Mode” on page 109).
104 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Wait for Note button
Wait for Note enabled
✽ With the Operation Preference for “Use F11
for Wait for Note” is enabled, you can press
F11 to turn on Wait for Note.
MIDI Merge/Replace
Recording a MIDI Track
The MIDI Merge button, located in the
Transport window, determines how MIDI is
recorded when overdubbing or punching
in. When MIDI Merge is on (Merge mode),
recorded MIDI is merged with existing
track material. When MIDI Merge is off (Replace mode), existing data within the
punched region is replaced by the newly recorded material.
To record MIDI in Pro Tools, first add a new
MIDI track and record enable it.
The MIDI Merge button can be turned on
and off while playing or recording. In Loop
Record mode, MIDI Merge has no effect, so
its button is dimmed.
1 Choose File > New Track and specify 1
✽ To take advantage of the editing capabilities
in Pro Tools, make sure to record with the click
enabled. This ensures that recorded data
aligns with the session’s bar/beat boundaries.
To configure a new MIDI track for recording:
MIDI Track, then click Create.
To enable MIDI Merge:
1 To view the MIDI controls in the Trans-
port window, select Display > Transport
Window Shows > MIDI Controls.
New Track dialog
✽ To auto-scroll the Track Type pop-up in the
New Track dialog, press Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows) and use the
Up/Down Arrow keys.
Transport Window with MIDI Controls
2 In the Transport window, click the MIDI
Merge button so it becomes highlighted.
MIDI Merge button
MIDI Merge enabled
2 Rename the new track as desired. Track
names are used to auto-name recorded
audio files and regions. For more information, see “Track Names” on page 78.
3 In the Mix window, click on the track’s
MIDI Device/Channel Selector and assign a
device and channel from the pop-up
menu. Channels already assigned to another track appear bold in this menu.
MIDI Device/Channel Selector
Chapter 10: MIDI Recording 105
✽ To assign multiple destinations to a single
6 Click Record in the Transport window.
MIDI track, Shift-click the MIDI Device/Channel Selector and select additional channels
from any device.
Record button
4 If desired, assign a default program
change to the track. In the Mix window,
click on the Program button (Prog) and
make the necessary selections for program
and bank select, then click Done.
Default program changes are sent whenever the track is played. For more information, see “Program Changes” on page 208.
5 In the Mix Window, click the MIDI
track’s Record button to record enable the
track.
To record to the new MIDI track:
1 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
2 If desired, enable and configure the click,
and set a default tempo and meter for the
session. For details, see “Recording with the
Click” on page 83.
◆ If using Wait for Note, the Play, Record,
and Wait for Note buttons flash. Recording
begins when a MIDI event is received.
◆ If using Countoff, click Play to start
counting down. The Record and Play buttons flash during the countoff, after which
recording begins.
7 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window.
The newly recorded MIDI data appears as a
MIDI region in the track’s playlist, and in
the MIDI Regions List.
☞ There are several keyboard shortcuts you
can use to begin recording. See “Record
Shortcuts” on page 88 for details.
To play back the recorded MIDI track:
1 Click the Record button for the MIDI
track to take it out of record-enabled mode.
3 If desired, enable Wait for Note or Count-
2 In the Transport window, click Return to
off In the Transport window.
Zero.
4 Make sure MIDI > MIDI Thru is selected,
3 Click Play in the Transport window to be-
then play some notes on your MIDI controller. The MIDI instrument assigned to
the track should sound, and the track’s
meters should register MIDI activity.
gin playback.
5 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero so the start/end times are cleared. This
ensures that you’ll start recording from the
beginning of the track.
106 Pro Tools Reference Guide
The recorded MIDI data plays back through
the track’s assigned instrument and channel.
Undo and MIDI Recording
After recording a MIDI track and the Transport is stopped, you can undo the previous
record take.
Punch Recording MIDI
To replace a portion of a MIDI track, you
can punch in by specifying the record range
before recording.
To undo a MIDI recording:
Once the Transport has been stopped,
choose Edit > Undo MIDI Recording.
■
The track’s playlist is restored to its previous state. However:
◆ If you punched in and out several times
before stopping the Transport, only the last
punch is undone.
If you switched the MIDI record track
during the record pass, only the last MIDI
track recorded to is undone.
◆
When using Loop Record mode, all takes
from each record pass are discarded.
◆
Canceling a Record Take
It is also possible to discard the current
record take before the Transport is stopped.
To cancel a record take while recording:
■ Press Command+period (Macintosh) or
Control-period (Windows) before the
Transport is stopped.
If using Loop Record mode, all takes from
each record pass are discarded.
To punch in on a MIDI track:
1 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
2 If desired, enable and configure the click.
For details, see “Recording with the Click”
on page 83.
3 In the Transport window, disable Wait for
Note and Countoff.
4 Make sure the track containing the previous take is record-enabled.
5 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
6 With the Selector, drag in the track’s
playlist until the selection encompasses the
desired punch range.
For other methods of setting the record
range, see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on
page 96.
7 To hear existing track material up to the
start point, or after the end point, enable
and set pre/post-roll times. For details, see
“Setting Pre/Post-Roll” on page 97.
8 To replace existing track material, disable
MIDI Merge in the Transport window.
9 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
Chapter 10: MIDI Recording 107
If pre-roll is enabled, the track material
leading up to the punch-in point plays.
You can start playing during the pre-roll to
get the “feel.” Material is not recorded until
the start point is reached.
When the start point is reached, Pro Tools
begins recording. Recording continues until the end point is reached, unless Stop is
clicked in the Transport window. If postroll is enabled, playback continues for the
specified post-roll amount.
Punching “on the fly” with MIDI
You don’t have to set a record range to
punch in on a MIDI track. In fact, you can
punch in and out freely at any time during
playback. Unlike audio tracks, it is not necessary to enable QuickPunch to perform
real-time punches.
✽ For Digi 001 systems, you can use a foot-
switch (connected to the I/O box) to punch in
and out when recording MIDI.
To punch on the fly with MIDI:
6 When you reach the punch-in point,
click Record in the Transport window.
– or –
For Digi 001 systems with a connected
footswitch, press the footswitch at the
punch-in point.
The Record button stops flashing and stays
lit during recording.
7 To punch out, click Record again (or
press the footswitch).
Pro Tools exits record mode and continues
playing. You can perform additional
punches during the same pass.
Regions and Punch Recording
Depending on the record range, new regions may be created after punch recording. For instance, Figure 3 shows two existing regions before recording. Since the start
and end times occur within both of the existing regions, a new region is created to fill
the space between them.
before punch record
1 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
2 Record enable the track by clicking its
after punch record
Record button.
3 To replace existing track material, disable
MIDI Merge in the Transport window.
4 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero.
5 Start playback by clicking Play in the
Transport window.
108 Pro Tools Reference Guide
newly recorded
material
new region
Figure 3. Region added after punch record
However, when selecting an entire region,
or a section within a region, before punching, no new regions are created. In this instance, only the material residing within
the existing region changes, with no new
material recorded outside the region.
Unlike audio recording, MIDI recording in
this scenario is destructive. If a region is altered because of a record take, the original
material is lost (unless you choose Edit >
Undo MIDI Recording). If an existing region contains important material, always
make a backup before recording over it.
Loop Recording MIDI
Loop recording with MIDI is supported by
two methods:
• In normal Nondestructive Record mode,
enable Loop Playback and MIDI Merge
for drum machine style loop recording.
– or –
• Use Loop Record mode to record multiple takes on each record pass. This is similar to loop recording audio.
Make sure that MIDI Merge is enabled in
the Transport window, otherwise (in Replace mode) each subsequent take will destructively replace the previous.
✽ You can record enable a different MIDI track
on the fly while loop recording. While pressing
Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows),
use the Up/Down Arrows to record enable the
previous or next MIDI track.
To loop record with MIDI Merge:
1 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
2 Select Operations > Loop Playback.
When Loop Playback is enabled, a loop
symbol appears in the Play button.
Loop Playback enabled
1 Choose File > New Track and specify 1
MIDI Track, then click Create.
2 Record enable the new MIDI track by
clicking its Record button.
Loop Recording with Merge
Mode
For drum machine style loop recording, use
normal Nondestructive Record mode with
Loop Playback and MIDI Merge enabled.
With this method, MIDI is recorded and
merged to the same region with each new
record pass—thereby allowing you to, for
instance, record hi-hats on the first pass
and kick and snare on the next.
3 Make sure no audio tracks are record-en-
abled.
4 In the Transport window, click the MIDI
Merge button so it becomes highlighted.
MIDI Merge button
MIDI Merge enabled
5 If desired, enable Input Quantize to automatically quantize recorded material (see
“Input Quantize” on page 104).
Chapter 10: MIDI Recording 109
6 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
7 With the Selector, drag in the track’s
playlist until the selection encompasses the
desired loop range.
For other methods of setting the record
range, see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on
page 96.
8 To hear track material up to the start
point of the loop, enable and set the preroll time. For details, see “Setting Pre/PostRoll” on page 97.
9 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
The Record button flashes during the preroll. When the start point is reached,
Pro Tools begins recording. When the end
point is reached, Pro Tools loops back to
the start point and continues playing and
recording.
Loop Recording Multiple Takes
When recording MIDI in Loop Record
mode, new regions are created each time
new material is received during a record
pass. This differs somewhat from loop recording audio, where separate audio files
and regions are created with each subsequent record pass.
You can use this method of MIDI loop recording to record successive takes without
stopping the record process, thereby preserving your creative spontaneity. Another
advantage with this method of recording
MIDI, which is nondestructive, is that existing and newly recorded regions remain
intact (and available in the MIDI Regions
List).
To record MIDI in Loop Record mode:
1 Select Operations > Loop Record. When
Loop Record mode is enabled, a loop symbol appears in the Record button.
10 Play some notes on your MIDI control-
ler. Newly recorded MIDI data appears as a
region in the record track. On each successive take, recorded material shows up in
the region, without replacing material
from previous takes.
11 If desired, switch to a new record track.
Loop Recording enabled
1 Choose File > New Track and specify 1
MIDI Track, then click Create.
While pressing Command (Macintosh) or
Control (Windows), use the Up/Down Arrows to record enable the previous or next
MIDI track.
2 Record enable the new MIDI track by
12 When you have finished recording,
4 Make sure to select Operations > Link
clicking its Record button.
3 Make sure no audio tracks are record-en-
abled.
click Stop in the Transport window.
Edit and Timeline Selection.
The newly recorded MIDI data appears as a
MIDI region in the track’s playlist, and in
the MIDI Regions List.
5 With the Selector, drag in the track’s
110 Pro Tools Reference Guide
playlist until the selection encompasses the
desired loop range.
For other methods of setting the record
range, see “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on
page 96.
6 To hear track material up to the start
point of the loop, enable and set the preroll time. For details, see “Setting Pre/PostRoll” on page 97.
7 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
The Record button flashes during the preroll. When the start point is reached,
Pro Tools begins recording. When the end
point is reached, Pro Tools loops back to
the start point and continues playing and
recording.
8 Play some notes on your MIDI controller.
A new MIDI region containing the newly
recorded material is automatically created
and appears in the track’s playlist, replacing the previous region.
Regions are replaced (non-destructively)
during subsequent record passes when new
MIDI material is received.
9 When you have finished recording, click
Stop in the Transport window. The most recently recorded take is left in the record
track.
To audition the various record takes:
1 Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-
click (Windows) with the Selector at the
precise beginning of the loop record range.
– or –
If the take currently residing in the track is
selected, Command-click (Macintosh) or
Control-click (Windows) it with the Selector.
Auditioning loop record takes
A pop-up menu appears containing a list of
regions that share the same User Time
Stamp.
2 Choose a region from the Takes List pop-
up menu. The region replaces the previous
take and snaps precisely to the correct location.
For more information on auditioning and
managing takes, see “Auditioning Record
Takes” on page 94.
The recorded takes appear as regions in the
MIDI Regions List and are numbered sequentially. The takes, which are the same
length and easily interchangeable, can be
auditioned from the Takes List pop-up
menu—even while the session plays or
loops.
Chapter 10: MIDI Recording 111
Recording System
Exclusive Data
Pro Tools supports recording and playing
System Exclusive data (sysex) with MIDI
tracks. This allows you to use MIDI tracks
in Pro Tools to store patch and configuration data for your MIDI devices, or to
record real-time sysex changes for a particular synth parameter (filter cutoff, for instance).
To record a sysex dump at the beginning of a
MIDI track:
1 Make sure that the MIDI OUT for the device sending the sysex is connected to your
MIDI interface’s MIDI IN.
2 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
3 In the MIDI Input Filter, enable record-
ing of System Exclusive data.
1 Choose File > New Track and specify 1
MIDI Track, then click Create.
2 Record enable the new MIDI track by
clicking its Record button.
3 Enable Wait for Note in the Transport
window.
4 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero so the start/end times are cleared. This
ensures that you’ll start recording from the
beginning of the track.
5 When you are ready to begin recording,
click Record in the Transport window.
The Record, Play, and Wait for Note buttons flash, indicating that Pro Tools is waiting for MIDI data.
112 Pro Tools Reference Guide
6 Initiate the sysex transfer from the MIDI
device. When receiving the MIDI data,
Pro Tools automatically begins recording.
7 When the transfer is complete, click Stop
in the Transport window.
The newly recorded MIDI data appears as a
MIDI region in the track’s playlist, and in
the MIDI Regions List. MIDI regions that
contain System Exclusive data appear
blank when the track’s Display Format is
set to Regions.
To see the sysex event blocks, which indicate the location of the data, set the track
to display Sys Ex. For details on moving
and copying of sysex data, see “System Exclusive Events” on page 211.
To resend the sysex from Pro Tools:
1 For the device receiving the System Ex-
clusive data, make sure its MIDI IN is connected to your MIDI interface’s MIDI OUT.
Also, make sure the device is set to receive
sysex. Some devices require that memory
protect be off.
2 For the previously recorded track, click
its Record button to take it out of recordenabled mode.
3 In the Mix window, click on the track’s
MIDI Device/Channel Selector and assign
the device from the pop-up menu.
4 In the Transport window, click Return to
Zero.
5 Click Play in the Transport window to be-
gin playback. Pro Tools begins playing and
transmits the previously recorded sysex to
the assigned MIDI device.
chapter 11
Advanced Recording
Using QuickPunch
Pro Tools features an intelligent on-the-fly
punch capability called QuickPunch.
QuickPunch lets you instantaneously
punch in and out on record-enabled audio
tracks during playback by merely clicking
the Record button in the Transport window.
✽ For Digi 001 systems, you can use a foot-
switch (connected to the I/O box) to punch in
and out when recording with QuickPunch.
QuickPunch Crossfade Length
Pro Tools can automatically write a crossfade for each punch point when using
QuickPunch. The length for these crossfades is set with the QuickPunch Crossfade
Length option in the Editing Preferences.
To set the QuickPunch Crossfade Length:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Ed-
iting.
2 Enter a value (in msec) for the Quick-
Punch CrossFade Length.
When using QuickPunch, Pro Tools starts
recording a new audio file when you begin
playback, automatically defining and naming regions in that file at each punch
in/out point. Up to 100 of these “running
punches” can be performed during a single
pass. Unlike normal punch recording (see
“Punch Recording Audio” on page 92),
QuickPunch provides instantaneous monitor switching on punch-out. All QuickPunch recording is nondestructive.
✽ You don’t need to use QuickPunch to punch
on the fly with MIDI tracks. This capability is
available in normal Nondestructive Record
mode, and in Destructive Record mode.
Editing Preferences
Chapter 11: Advanced Recording 113
A good general-purpose crossfade length
for punches is 4 milliseconds. If you set the
preference to zero, Pro Tools will not create
any crossfades at the punch-in/out points.
3 Click Done.
If a value other than zero is specified for the
QuickPunch Crossfade Length, QuickPunch writes a pre-crossfade at the punchin point (which occurs up to but not into
the punched region boundary), and a postcrossfade at the punch-out point (which
occurs after the punched region).
Even if the QuickPunch Crossfade Length
is set to zero, Pro Tools always executes a
4 millisecond “monitor only” crossfade
(which is not written to disk) to avoid distracting pops or clicks that might occur as
you enter and exit record mode.
☞ QuickPunch crossfades can later be edited
in the same manner as standard crossfades.
For details, see “Using Crossfades” on
page 245.
QuickPunch Guidelines for
TDM Systems
When using QuickPunch on TDM systems,
two voices are required for each record-enabled track. For instance, a Pro Tools 24
system with 32 voices can simultaneously
record on up to 16 tracks with QuickPunch.
114 Pro Tools Reference Guide
If the required number of voices for the
record-enabled tracks is not available when
switching to QuickPunch mode, you’ll be
prompted to free up the necessary voices.
To free up voices on tracks that are not
record-enabled:
• Set the voice assignment for the track to
Off.
– or –
• With Mute Frees Voices enabled in the
Operations menu, mute the track.
▲ The Mute Frees Voices option can cause
Mute lag time and slower monitor switching
when punching. For details, see “Mute Frees
Voice and Mute Lag Time” on page 60.
▲ When using a 64 voice system, such as the
Pro Tools 24 MIX system, voices are allocated
to either of two DSP engines (1–32 and
33–64). Therefore, if you want to use QuickPunch on 32 tracks, these tracks must be
evenly distributed between the two DSPs (for
instance, tracks 1–16 assigned to voices
1–16 and tracks 17–32 assigned to voices
33–48).
As necessary, voices in use by other tracks,
which are not record-enabled, may be stolen while recording with QuickPunch.
QuickPunch Guidelines for
Pro Tools LE
Digi 001 and Audiomedia III
For non-TDM systems, the maximum
number of tracks that can be simultaneously recorded with QuickPunch in a
session with 24 audio tracks is 8.
To simultaneously record more tracks than
this with QuickPunch, you’ll need to reduce the number of tracks in the session.
For instance, a session with 20 audio tracks
can record 10 tracks with QuickPunch, and
a session with 16 audio tracks can record
12.
▲ With Pro Tools LE, QuickPunch uses CPU
processing power, and may reduce the number
of tracks and Plug-Ins you can use.
To punch on the fly with QuickPunch:
1 Select Operations > QuickPunch. When
QuickPunch is enabled, a “P” appears in
the Record button.
3 Record enable the tracks you want to
punch in on. Make sure there are enough
available voices on your system.
• For TDM systems, see “QuickPunch
Guidelines for TDM Systems” on
page 114.
• For non-TDM systems, see “QuickPunch
Guidelines for Pro Tools LE” on
page 115.
4 Prepare to record by cueing Pro Tools to
an appropriate location (if desired, enable a
pre-roll value in the Transport window).
5 Start playback by clicking Play in the
Transport window.
6 When you reach the punch-in point,
click Record in the Transport window.
– or –
For Digi 001 systems with a connected
footswitch, press the footswitch at the
punch-in point.
The Record button stops flashing and stays
lit during recording.
7 To punch out, click Record again (or
press the footswitch).
QuickPunch enabled
2 If desired, configure the QuickPunch
Crossfade Length option in the Editing
Preferences (see “QuickPunch Crossfade
Length” on page 113).
As Pro Tools continues playing, you can
perform additional punches (up to 100).
When recording multiple punches during a
single pass, a single audio file is recorded
from which Pro Tools creates the appropriate regions.
Chapter 11: Advanced Recording 115
QuickPunch with an Edit Selection
If you make an Edit selection and use
QuickPunch, the following rules apply:
If you are not online, recording begins and
stops whenever you click the Record button—regardless of the selection’s start or
end point.
If you are online, punch-in/out behavior is
controlled by the Online Options setting in
the Operations Preferences. If you select
Record Online at Insertion/Selection,
QuickPunch punches in/out only within
the selection (or in the case of an insertion
point, only after the insertion point). If you
select Record Online at Time Code Lock,
QuickPunch disregards the selection and
punches in/out whenever you want (after
Pro Tools has locked to time code).
Region and Take Numbering with
QuickPunch
After recording with QuickPunch, the new
audio regions appear in the Audio Regions
List. This includes the whole-file audio region encompassing all punches from the
record pass, along with the regions derived
for each punch.
Names for the parent audio files end with
“00” and the punch regions are numbered
consecutively starting with “01.” For instance, if QuickPunch is used to punch in
twice on a track called “Lead Gtr,” a region
for the parent audio file appears and is
named “Lead Gtr-01-00,” and two regions
for the punches appear that are named
“Lead Gtr-01-01” and “Lead Gtr-01-02.”
116 Pro Tools Reference Guide
If you stop playback and record additional
punches with QuickPunch, subsequent regions are named by incrementing the first
two digits in the name. For instance, on the
second pass, regions would appear named
as “Lead Gtr-02-00,” “Lead Gtr-02-01,” and
so forth.
Recording from a Digital
Source
If you plan to use a DAT recorder or digitaloutput CD player with your Pro Tools system, make sure it supports the correct digital format. AES/EBU inputs and outputs
should only be connected to other
AES/EBU-equipped devices, and S/PDIF inputs and outputs should only be connected
to other S/PDIF-equipped devices.
On the 888/24 I/O and ADAT Bridge I/O,
both AES/EBU and S/PDIF outputs are active at all times, so you can actually send
digital audio to two different digital devices
simultaneously at mix time. However,
Pro Tools can only receive digital audio
from one digital source (AES or S/PDIF) at a
time.
In addition, although the 888/24 I/O has
four stereo AES input pairs, only input pair
1–2 on the master audio interface, (the first
audio interface connected to your main
DSP card), can accept an external digital
clock source.
To record from a DAT recorder with Pro Tools:
9 Put Pro Tools in normal Nondestructive
1 Connect the digital output of the DAT re-
corder to the appropriate digital input of
your audio hardware.
Record mode. In the Operations menu, deselect Destructive Record, Loop Record,
and QuickPunch.
2 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup.
10 In the Transport window, click Return
From the Sample Rate pop-up menu,
choose the desired sample rate.
to Zero so the start/end times are cleared.
This ensures that you’ll start recording
from the beginning of the track.
11 Click Record in the Transport window.
When you are ready to begin recording,
click Play.
12 Initiate playback on the DAT recorder.
Session Setup window
13 When the material from the DAT re-
3 Choose Setups > Hardware. From the
corder has finished, click Stop in the Transport window.
Ch 1–2 Input pop-up menu, select the appropriate input source.
After a Digital Transfer
If your audio hardware supports both
AES/EBU and S/PDIF, select the format you
will use from the Digital Format pop-up.
4 Click OK to close the Hardware Setup di-
alog.
5 Choose File > New Track and specify 2
Audio Tracks, then click Create.
6 In the Mix window, record enable the
new audio tracks by clicking their Record
buttons.
7 Assign the Input Selectors for the tracks
to Ch 1–2 Inputs. Since this is a digital-domain transfer, you don’t need to worry
about input levels.
After you have finished recording digitally,
set the Sync Mode pop-up menu in the Session Setup window back to Internal. Otherwise, Pro Tools will not switch back to its
own internal clock and will not record or
play audio properly. Failure to switch back
to Internal sync typically results in pitch
problems (fast or slow playback) or DAE errors, since a DAT recorder or CD Recorder
that is idle can default to a different sample
rate or stop outputting a sample rate clock
altogether.
8 Set the pan controls for the tracks to
100% right and 100% left, respectively, to
allow stereo monitoring during playback.
Chapter 11: Advanced Recording 117
Half-Speed Recording and
Playback
Pro Tools lets you play and record at halfspeed. This capability is similar to that of a
tape deck where you can record material at
half-speed and then play it back at normal
speed (up an octave) for special effects.
To record at half-speed:
1 Press Command+Shift+Spacebar (Mac-
intosh) or Control+Shift+Spacebar (Windows). Recording begins and all existing
track material plays at half-speed.
2 When you have finished recording, click
Stop.
When played at normal speed, the material
recorded at half-speed plays twice as fast
(up an octave).
✽ Use half-speed recording to record difficult
to play MIDI tracks. This allows you to hear
audio tracks while recording. Half-speed recording and playback do not affect how MIDI
tracks sound when played.
To play at half-speed
1 Press Shift+Spacebar. Playback begins
and track material plays at half-speed. If
any tracks were recorded at half-speed,
they play at normal speed.
2 Click Stop in the Transport window to
stop playback.
✽ Use half-speed playback to learn or tran-
scribe difficult passages in recorded tracks.
118 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 12
Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI
Importing Audio
In Pro Tools you can import previously recorded audio files and regions from other
sessions. In addition, you can convert and
import audio files that don’t match the session’s supported file type, bit depth, or
sample rate.
Audio files and regions can be imported
onto a new track, or they can be imported
into the Regions List, where they can be
dragged to existing tracks.
Supported audio formats include:
• WAV
• Sound Designer II
• AIFF
• snd Resource (Macintosh only)
If region definitions are present in an audio
file, you can convert and import selected
regions without importing the entire parent audio file.
Supported files, and regions, can also be auditioned before importing.
Importing Audio into a
Session (Macintosh)
When importing into a Macintosh session,
choose File > Import Audio/Track to place
the audio into a new track. To import into
the Audio Regions List, choose Import Audio from the Audio Regions pop-up menu.
Both commands call up the same Import
Audio dialog (see Figure 4 on page 120).
▲ For Pro Tools III systems, the Import Audio
dialog only recognizes hard drives that are connected to the Disk I/O card. To import audio
from hard drives connected to the SCSI bus, or
from networked volumes, use the Convert &
Import command (see “Convert and Import Audio Command” on page 121 for details).
Files imported with either of these commands must be Sound Designer II or AIFF
format, and must also match the session’s
bit depth. If you import an audio file with a
sample rate that doesn’t match the current
session’s sample rate, the file will not play
back at the original pitch.
Chapter 12: Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI 119
▲ Pro Tools does not store waveform overview
data with AIFF files, so it must be recalculated
every time the session is opened. To avoid
this, convert AIFF files to SDII format (see
“Convert and Import Audio Command” on
page 121 for details).
To import files in other formats or bit
depths, or to work with a copy of the
source file, use the Import & Convert command in the Audio Regions List pop-up
menu. For details, see “Convert and Import
Audio Command” on page 121.
To import an audio file or region into a new
track:
1 Choose File > Import Audio/Track.
file, or the “whole-file region.” Importing
this region loads the entire source file into
the session.
3 To audition a selected file or region be-
fore you import it, use the Play and Stop
buttons.
Adjust playback volume with the vertical
slider. To navigate to a particular location
in the file, click in the counter display.
Clicking left moves toward the beginning,
clicking right moves toward the end.
4 To place a file or region in the import list
on the right, select it and click Add, or double-click the file or region.
In the import list, audio files are distinguished from regions by their icons.
Icons for audio files (left) and regions (right)
5 To remove a file or region from the im-
port list on the right, select it and click Remove, or double-click the file or region.
6 Once the audio files and regions have
been added to the import list, click Done.
Figure 4. Import Audio dialog (Macintosh)
2 In the Import Audio dialog, locate the
audio files you want to import.
All Sound Designer II and AIFF files for the
current folder are displayed in the file list
on the left. Click on a file to view its attributes in the lower left.
The center list displays the regions associated with the currently selected audio file.
One region name reflects the original audio
120 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Each of the files and regions from the import list are imported into their own audio
track, and also appear as regions in the Audio Regions List.
If you import stereo interleaved files, they
are imported as separate mono (L and R)
files and saved to the session’s “Audio
Files” folder.
To import audio into the Audio Regions List:
Convert and Import Audio Command
1 Choose Import Audio from the Audio Re-
(Macintosh)
gions List pop-up menu.
To import audio files that don’t match the
session’s file type, bit depth, or sample rate,
use the Convert and Import Audio command. This command is also useful if you
want to work with a copy of an audio file or
region.
Import Audio command (Macintosh)
2 In the Import Audio dialog (see Figure 4),
locate the audio files you want to import.
Sound Designer II and AIFF files for the current folder are displayed in the file list on
the left.
Supported file types that can be converted
include: WAV, AIFF, Sound Designer II,
and snd (Macintosh system sound resource). In addition, stereo interleaved files
can be converted to separate left and right
mono files.
The quality of sample rate conversion used
by Pro Tools is determined by the Preference for Conversion Quality. For details,
see “Conversion Quality” on page 126.
3 Select audio files from the file list on the
left and click Add to place them in the import list on the right.
4 Select regions from the regions list in the
center and click Add to place them in the
import list. Regions for the currently selected audio file (on the left) are displayed
in the center.
5 To remove a file or region from the im-
✽ For Pro Tools III systems, you can use the
Convert and Import Audio command to audition, convert, and import files on hard drives
that are not attached to the Disk I/O card.
To convert and import audio into a session:
1 Choose Convert and Import Audio from
the Audio Regions List pop-up menu.
port list on the right, select it and click Remove, or double-click the file or region.
6 Once the audio files and regions have
been added to the import list, click Done.
Each of the files and regions from the import list are imported and appear in the Audio Regions List. Interleaved stereo files are
imported and saved as two mono files.
Convert and Import Audio command (Macintosh)
Chapter 12: Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI 121
2 In the Convert and Import Audio dialog,
locate the audio files you want to import.
Importing Audio into a
Session (Windows)
When importing into a Windows session,
choose File > Import Audio/Track to place
the audio into a new track. To import into
the Audio Regions List, choose Import and
Convert Audio from the Audio Regions List
pop-up menu. Both commands call up the
same Convert & Import Audio dialog (see
Figure 5 on page 123).
Convert and Import Audio dialog (Macintosh)
3 Select the file types and bit depths you
want to view from the pop-up menus for
File Type Filter and Bit Depth Filter.
4 Select a file to view its attributes in the
lower left. Click Play to audition the file.
5 Select audio files from the file list on the
left and click Add to place them in the import list (on the right), or click Add All to
add all files currently displayed.
With Pro Tools for Windows, you can work
with either Windows or Macintosh session
formats. The session format determines not
only the recorded file types, but the file
types that can be imported (WAV for Windows, and Sound Designer II for Macintosh). Audio files that don’t match the
type supported for the current session must
be converted before importing.
☞ The quality of sample rate conversion used
by Pro Tools is determined by the Preference
for Conversion Quality. For details, see “Conversion Quality” on page 126.
6 To remove a file from the import list, se-
lect it and click Remove.
7 Once the audio files have been added to
the import list, click Done.
Specify a destination for the new files. For
Pro Tools III systems, you must save the
files to a hard drive connected to the
Disk I/O card.
Each of the files from the import list are
converted to the session’s sample rate and
bit depth and appear in the Audio Regions
List.
122 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To import an audio file or region into a new
track:
1 Choose File > Import Audio/Track.
2 In the lower left of the Convert & Import
dialog, choose a file type to display. If importing Macintosh files that do not have
file name extensions, select All Files.
3 Using the toolbar or Folders menu, locate
the audio files you want to import.
All files in the current folder matching the
specified file type are displayed in the file
list on the left. Click on a file to view its attributes (in lower left), associated regions
Figure 5. Convert & Import dialog (Windows)
(in center), and whether it will need to be
converted (in Status Bar at bottom). Rightclick in this list area to change the display
of the folder’s contents.
5 To place an audio file in the import list
The center list displays the regions associated with the currently selected audio file.
One region name reflects the original audio
file, or the “whole-file region.” Importing
this region loads the entire source file into
the session.
To import a copy of the audio file, click Import Files.
4 To audition a selected file or region be-
fore you import it, click Play. To go to a particular location in the selected file or
region, move the Play Position slider. Adjust the playback volume with the vertical
slider on the right.
on the right, select the file and click
Add Files.
– or –
6 To place a region in the import list on the
right, select the region and click Add Region. This button is only available if the region does not need to be converted.
– or –
To import a copy of the region, click Import Region.
Chapter 12: Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI 123
In the import list, audio files are distinguished from regions by their icons.
Icons for audio files (left) and regions (right)
Also indicated in the import list is whether
Pro Tools will use “Add” or “Convert & Import” for the file or region. The latter imports a copy of the audio file or region.
7 To import any recently opened audio
files or regions, choose them from the Files
menu at the top of the Convert & Import
dialog. This places them directly into the
import list.
8 To remove a file or region from the im-
2 In the Convert & Import dialog (see
Figure 5 on page 123), select a file type to
display and locate the audio files you want
to import.
3 Select audio files from the list on the left
and click Add Files to place them in the import list on the right.
– or –
Click Import Files to import a copy of the
selected file.
4 Select regions from the list in the center
and click Add Region to place them in the
import list. This button is only available if
the region does not need to be converted.
– or –
port list, select it and click Remove. To remove all items in the import list, click
Remove All.
Click Import Region to import a copy of
the selected region.
9 Once the audio files and regions have
port list on the right, select it and click Remove. To remove all items in the import
list, click Remove All.
been added to the import list on the right,
click Done.
Each of the files and regions from the import list are imported into their own audio
track, and also appear as regions in the Audio Regions List.
If importing copies of any audio files or regions, or if some files need to be converted,
specify a destination for the new files.
To import audio into the Audio Regions List:
1 Choose Import Audio from the Audio Regions List pop-up menu.
Import Audio command (Windows)
124 Pro Tools Reference Guide
5 To remove a file or region from the im-
6 Once the audio files and regions have
been added to the import list, click Done.
Each of the files and regions from the import list are imported and appear in the Audio Regions List.
If importing copies of any audio files or regions, or if some files need to be converted,
specify a destination for the new files.
Recalculating Waveform
Overviews
Pro Tools converts it to two mono files and
saves them to the “Audio Files” folder for
the current session.
When the Display Preference for “Recompute Invalid Waveforms” is not enabled,
waveforms are not displayed for audio files
that are imported.
Transferring Audio from CD
Waveforms for these files can be displayed
with the Recalculate Waveform Overviews
command.
To display waveforms for an imported audio
region:
1 In the Audio Regions List, select any re-
gions that are not displaying their waveforms.
2 Choose Recalculate Waveform Over-
views from the pop-up menu in the Audio
Regions List.
Loading Audio Files with
Drag & Drop
Pro Tools provides you with a convenient
method of batch loading any number of
audio files into an open session.
To batch load audio files into a session:
1 Open the Pro Tools session.
2 From the desktop, locate the audio files
you want to import. Make sure the files
match the session’s file type, bit depth, and
sample rate.
3 Drag the audio files onto the Pro Tools
application icon.
The audio files are automatically imported
and appear in the Audio Regions List. If a
stereo interleaved file was imported,
(Macintosh Only)
Pro Tools allows you to transfer audio
tracks from an audio CD with the Import
Audio From Movie Audio command. Since
the transfer is made in the digital domain,
there is no signal loss.
The sample rate for audio CDs is 44.1 kHz.
Therefore, if your session’s sample rate is
set to 48 kHz, Pro Tools will convert the
sample rate for the imported audio. Before
importing CD audio, make sure to set the
Conversion Quality Preference accordingly. See “Conversion Quality” on
page 126 for details.
When importing a CD audio track,
Pro Tools first imports it as QuickTime
movie. The imported movie is then converted to Sound Designer II audio files,
which can be used in your Pro Tools session. Before importing CD audio, make
sure your hard disk has enough space for
both the imported movie file and the converted audio files.
To import a CD audio track:
1 Insert the audio CD into your CD-ROM
drive.
2 Choose Movie > Import Audio From
Other Movie.
3 Locate and select the audio track to be
imported, then click Convert.
Chapter 12: Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI 125
4 When the Save dialog appears, click the
Options button.
5 In the Options dialog, select the sample
rate, bit resolution, and stereo format.
Conversion Quality
The Conversion Quality Preference determines the quality of sample rate conversion used when converting and importing
audio into a session, and when importing
CD audio tracks (Macintosh only). There
are five possible settings, ranging from Low
to Tweak Head. The higher the quality, the
longer it will take for the sample rate conversion.
To set the sample rate conversion quality:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences, and click
Editing.
2 From the Conversion Quality pop-up
menu, select the desired quality.
Audio CD Import Options dialog (Macintosh)
6 At the bottom of the Options dialog, set
the range of the audio track to be imported
by adjusting the Start and End times, then
click OK.
7 Specify the destination for the imported
audio track and click Save. Pro Tools imports the CD audio track as a QuickTime
movie and writes it to your hard disk.
8 When the Track Import window appears,
click OK.
Pro Tools converts the audio track to your
session’s sample rate and bit resolution and
imports the selected audio tracks into the
Audio Regions List. From there you can
drag the regions to existing tracks.
126 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Conversion Quality preference
For most applications, the Good or Better
setting will yield very good results. Because
the Best and Tweak Head settings take significantly longer, use them only when
higher fidelity is absolutely essential.
3 Click Done.
Slower computers can take an extremely
long time to perform sample rate conversion, especially at higher-quality settings.
The Tweak Head setting, for instance, can
take as long as several hours to process an
audio file of moderate length.
Exporting Audio
The following sections discuss exporting
regions as audio files, exporting left and
right audio files as stereo interleaved files,
exporting region information, and transferring entire tracks between sessions (Macintosh only).
You can also export audio from Pro Tools
by bouncing or consolidating audio tracks.
For more information, see “Bouncing
Tracks to Disk” on page 313 and “Consolidate Selection Command” on page 196.
Output Options dialog
Exporting a Region as a New
Audio File
For more information on the output parameters, see “Output Options” on
page 315.
You can export regions as audio files with
the Export Selected As Files command. Use
this command if you intend to use a region
in other sessions (or other audio applications) without using its parent source file.
This command also provides a way to convert regions to a different audio format,
sample rate, or bit depth.
To export regions as new audio files:
4 Once the Output Options are configured,
click OK to export the new audio files.
Exporting Stereo Interleaved Files
You can also use the Export Selected As
Files command to export audio regions to
stereo interleaved files. For this to work,
the selected regions must have identical
names with “.L” and “.R” suffixes (for instance, vocals-01.L and vocals-01.R).
1 In the Audio Regions List, select the re-
gions you want to export.
To export regions as a stereo interleaved file:
2 From the Audio Regions List pop-up
1 Select the left and right audio regions in
menu, choose Export Selected As Files.
the Audio Regions List or Edit window.
3 In the Output Options dialog, set the
2 From the Audio Regions List pop-up
files’ format, sample rate, bit depth, and
stereo mode. In addition, specify the Conversion Quality and destination parameters.
menu, choose Export Selected As Files.
3 In the Output Options dialog, select “Ste-
reo from .L/.R” in the Channels pop-up
menu.
4 Configure any other output parameters,
then click OK to export the new stereo interleaved file.
Chapter 12: Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI 127
Exporting Region Definitions
Pro Tools stores region definitions for
audio files within each session. If you want
to use an audio file’s regions in another session, or with another application that supports them, you can export the region information.
The Export Region Definitions command
does not export regions as audio files (unlike the Export Selected As Files command).
Instead, it stores pointers to the regions
within the parent source file.
To export region definitions for an audio file:
1 In the Audio Regions List, select any re-
gions for which you want to export definitions. You do not have to select the audio
region for the region’s parent audio file.
2 Choose Export Region Definitions from
the Audio Regions List pop-up menu.
3 Click Export.
Track Transfer Utility
(Macintosh Only)
The Track Transfer™ utility software (included with your Macintosh Pro Tools system) lets you import, export, or merge entire track entities (including region
definitions) into other sessions. For details,
see the online documentation included
with the Track Transfer software.
128 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Importing MIDI Files
You can import Standard MIDI Files into
your Pro Tools sessions. Use the File > Import MIDI/Track command to place the imported MIDI onto new tracks; or use the
Import MIDI command in the MIDI Regions List pop-up menu to place the data in
the MIDI Regions List, where it can be
dragged to existing tracks.
Pro Tools does not import proprietary sequence files. To use sequences from other
MIDI applications in a Pro Tools session,
you’ll need to first save them as Standard
MIDI Files. Refer to the manufacturer’s documentation for details on saving Standard
MIDI Files.
There are two types of Standard MIDI Files,
both of which are supported by Pro Tools:
◆ Type 0 MIDI files store data for all MIDI
channels in a single track. When importing
these files, Pro Tools separates the data by
channel and places them in separate regions and tracks
◆ Type 1 MIDI files, sometimes referred to
as multitrack MIDI files, contain multiple
tracks of MIDI data. When importing these
files, each track’s data is placed on its own
new MIDI track in the Pro Tools session.
1 Choose File > Import MIDI/Track.
To import a Standard MIDI File into the MIDI
Regions List:
2 Select the MIDI file you want to import.
1 Choose Import MIDI from the MIDI Re-
To import a Standard MIDI File to new tracks:
gions List pop-up menu.
2 Select the MIDI file you want to import.
3 To import the MIDI file’s tempo and
meter tracks, select the option for Import
Tempo From MIDI File.
This option overwrites existing meter and
tempo events in the current session. If you
don’t want this, make sure to instead select
Use Existing Tempo From Session.
Import MIDI dialog
3 To import the MIDI file’s tempo and
meter tracks, select the option for Import
Tempo From MIDI File.
This option overwrites existing meter and
tempo events in the current session. If you
don’t want this, make sure to instead select
Use Existing Tempo From Session.
4 Click Import. If prompted, specify
whether you want to Keep or Discard existing MIDI tracks and regions in the current
session.
The MIDI data is imported to new MIDI
tracks, and also appears as regions in the
MIDI Regions List.
▲ If the Standard MIDI File contains markers,
they are only imported if the current session
does not contain any markers.
5 In the Mix window, click on the MIDI
Device/Channel selector for each new track
and assign a MIDI instrument and channel.
4 Click Import. If prompted, specify
whether you want to Keep or Discard existing MIDI tracks and regions residing in the
current session.
Pro Tools imports the MIDI data as regions
and places them in the MIDI Regions List.
▲ If the Standard MIDI File contains markers,
they are only imported if the current session
does not contain any markers.
5 Drag the new MIDI regions, as desired, to
existing MIDI tracks.
Exporting MIDI Files
To export a session’s MIDI tracks for use in
another MIDI application, or for playback
with an external (hardware) MIDI sequencer, you can save the tracks as a Standard MIDI File.
When exporting, the session tracks can be
merged to a single, multi-channel track
(Type 0), or they can be saved as multiple
tracks (Type 1).
Chapter 12: Importing/Exporting Audio and MIDI 129
To export all MIDI tracks in the current
session:
1 Make sure to unmute any MIDI tracks in
the session that you want to export.
2 Choose File > Export MIDI.
3 Specify a folder destination and name for
the MIDI file.
Export MIDI dialog
4 Select whether the Standard MIDI File
will be Type 0 (merged, single track) or
Type 1 (multi-track).
5 Click Export. Pro Tools exports all MIDI
tracks in the current session to a Standard
MIDI File and writes it to your hard drive.
Exported MIDI includes notes, controller
events, program changes, System Exclusive
data, as well as events for tempo, meter,
and markers.
The SMPTE start time for the session is also
imported. This ensures that the exported
tracks, when played from another MIDI application, will align with the correct SMPTE
frames, and also sync correctly to tape and
video devices, or Pro Tools.
Refer to your third-party MIDI sequencer
documentation to determine whether it
supports importing SMPTE start times from
MIDI files.
130 Pro Tools Reference Guide
What’s Not Exported with MIDI Files
Mute automation and muted regions do
not affect exported MIDI. As long as a track
is not muted by clicking its Mute button,
all of its MIDI data is exported.
When exporting MIDI files from Pro Tools,
device assignments for tracks are not retained (though channel assignments are).
If you therefore export MIDI tracks from
Pro Tools and later re-import them, you’ll
need to reassign the tracks to the desired
devices.
All playlist information for MIDI tracks is
lost when exporting. For instance, tracks
that previously contained dozens of MIDI
regions will be flattened and only contain
single regions after exporting and re-importing.
Part IV
Editing
chapter 13
Editing Basics
Pro Tools Editing
The Edit window in Pro Tools provides a
powerful collection of tools for editing and
assembling audio and MIDI tracks. Track
material can be edited non-destructively
and in real time during playback.
Nondestructive Editing
The vast majority of audio editing in
Pro Tools is nondestructive. Whether cutting, pasting, trimming, separating, or
clearing regions, you are only performing
these functions on a map of the actual
audio data. The source audio files remain
untouched. If a particular process or tool
works destructively (that is, if it can permanently change audio files on your hard
disk), this guide alerts you.
While editing for MIDI tracks is in some instances destructive, with a few precautions
you can keep important MIDI tracks and
regions safe when performing edits (see
“Nondestructive MIDI Editing” on
page 141).
Editing During Playback
Pro Tools lets you perform many editing
tasks while the session plays. This powerful
capability allows you to interactively modify and edit a session, hearing the changes
as you make them. You’ll find many instances where you can use this capability to
increase your productivity when working
with a session.
Following are just a few examples of editing that can be performed while your
tracks loop or play:
• Capture, separate, and trim regions
• Place, spot, or rearrange regions
• Add fades or crossfades to audio regions
• Transpose, quantize, and otherwise modify MIDI tracks
• Nudge audio or MIDI regions
• Audition different playlists
• Adjust or scale automation data
• Process audio with an AudioSuite Plug-In
▲ There are a few things that can not be
changed while Pro Tools plays back. These include assigning audio tracks to TDM Plug-Ins,
routing to sends, and assigning outputs.
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 133
Track Material
Each time you record or import audio and
MIDI, Pro Tools creates regions for the new
track data, which not only indicate where
the material begins and ends, but also provides good feedback on its general shape
and content. When you record additional
takes, or “punch in” on a specific location
within a track, Pro Tools creates additional
regions.
Regions are also created by cutting and
pasting, resizing, separating, and re-capturing existing regions. Regions in a session
are listed in the Audio Regions List and
MIDI Regions List, where they can be
dragged to existing tracks. A track can contain any number of regions, in any arrangement. The order and location of regions in
a track define its playlist.
Following is a description of the different
region types and how they are created:
Whole-File Audio Regions These regions are
created when recording or importing
audio, consolidating existing regions, and
when non-destructively processing with an
AudioSuite Plug-In. These regions reference
an entire audio file that resides on your
hard drive. Whole-file regions are displayed in bold in the Audio Regions List
(see “The Audio and MIDI Regions Lists”
on page 143). Normal regions reference
only a portion of the parent audio file and
are created in the course of editing and, in
some instances, when punch recording.
User-Defined Regions These are regions that
are explicitly defined, such as when you
record or import audio or MIDI; capture,
134 Pro Tools Reference Guide
separate, or consolidate a selection; trim a
whole-file audio region; and rename an existing region.
Auto-Created Regions These regions are automatically created in the course of editing,
and, in some instances, when punch recording over existing regions. Since these
regions can accumulate rapidly in a session, you can hide them so they don’t appear in the Audio and MIDI Regions List
(see “Managing Regions” on page 196).
Auto-created regions can be turned into
user-created regions by renaming them.
Track Display Format
The Display Format for each track determines which data is displayed and edited
in the track’s playlist area.
Audio tracks can be set to Blocks, Waveform,
Volume, Pan, Mute, or any Plug-In parameters that have been automated. Except
when editing automation data, audio
tracks are usually set to Waveform, where
track material is graphically drawn with
amplitude waveforms. This Display Format
provides the necessary detail for important
region edits.
Display Format set to Waveform for audio track
Auxiliary input tracks can be set to Volume,
Pan, Mute, or any Plug-In parameter that
has been automated. Master Fader tracks
can be set to Volume, or any Plug-In parameter that has been automated.
MIDI tracks can be set to Blocks, Regions,
Notes, Volume, Pan, Mute, Velocity, Pitch
Bend, After Touch, Program, Sys Ex, and any
continuous controller type. Except when
editing controller data, program changes,
or sysex events, MIDI tracks are usually set
to Notes or Regions, each of which displays
notes in a “piano roll” format. Use Notes
view for inserting, editing, and copying
and pasting MIDI notes; use Regions view
to arrange, capture, or consolidate regions.
For details on inserting and editing controller data for MIDI tracks, see “Continuous Controller Events” on page 207. For
details on editing automation data for
audio tracks, see Chapter 21: Automation.
To set a track’s Display Format:
■ Click on the Display Format Selector for
the track and choose the format from the
pop-up menu.
Display Format set to Regions for MIDI track
With the Display Format set to Blocks,
audio and MIDI regions are displayed as
empty blocks bearing the region’s name.
This mode is most useful once you have
finished capturing and editing regions at
the waveform or MIDI event level and are
moving and rearranging them. Screen redraws are fastest with this format.
When an audio track is displayed as Volume, Pan, or another automated parameter, or when a MIDI track is set to one of the
continuous controller types (Volume, Pitch
Bend, After Touch), the data for that track
appears in the form of a line graph with a
series of editable breakpoints. The breakpoints can be dragged to modify the automation data, and new breakpoints can be
inserted with the Pencil or Grabber.
Display Format Selector
The track displays the new format. If the
track is part of an Edit Group, all tracks in
the group are set to the new format.
The “Master” View Format
Audio and MIDI tracks have Display Formats that act as “master.” When a track is
displayed in its master format, any edits
performed apply to all data in the track. For
instance, when an audio track is set to
Waveform, copying and pasting affects not
just the waveform information, but all of
the automation data as well.
The display formats that act as master for
audio and MIDI tracks are:
• Audio tracks: Waveform and Blocks
• MIDI tracks: Regions, Blocks, and Notes
(when using the Selector)
✽ Auxiliary Input tracks and Master Fader
tracks do not have a master view.
Display Format set to Pan for audio track
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 135
Track Height
Track Controls and Track Height
Tracks can be viewed in the Edit window at
any of six heights: Mini, Small, Medium,
Large, Jumbo, and Extreme. Larger track
heights are particularly useful for precise
editing. Smaller track heights are useful for
conserving screen space in a large session.
The Track Height affects how the various
track controls appear in the Edit window.
For instance, when a track’s height is set to
Small, most of the buttons are reduced in
size, and the menus for Track Height and
Display format are accessed from the same
pop-up.
You can adjust track heights on an individual track basis or set all tracks to the same
height. Track heights can be adjusted during playback.
To set a track height:
Click on the area just to the right of the
track controls and choose the height from
the Track Height.
■
Track Height set to Small
When the Track Height is set to Mini, only
controls for Mute and Solo appear, and the
menus for Playlist, Track Height, and Display Format are accessed from the same
pop-up.
Track Height pop-up menu
– or –
Click on the small arrow next to the Display Format to get the Track Height popup.
Track Height pop-up menu
The track is resized to the new height. If the
track is part of an Edit Group, all tracks in
the group are set to the new height.
136 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Track Height set to Mini
When the Track Height is set to Large,
Jumbo, or Extreme, all track controls are
displayed at their full size.
Track Height set to Large
Displaying Region Names
and Times
Audio Regions and
Waveforms
Region names can sometimes get in the
way of editing audio waveforms and MIDI
data. In these instances you may want to
disable their display.
When the Display Format for audio tracks
is set to Waveform, Pro Tools draws a waveform diagram of the audio. Audio waveforms tell you several things about the recorded sound.
To disable the display of region names in
playlists:
■ Deselect Display > Display Name In Regions.
You can choose to display region time code
locations in the playlist area. This is extremely useful when working with film and
video.
Display enabled for region names and times
To display region times:
■ From Display > Display Time In Regions,
select one of the following options:
None Disables display of region times.
Current Time Displays start and end times
for regions.
Original Time Stamp Displays the Original
Time Stamp for each region. The Original
Time Stamp is the original time code location for the region when it was first recorded or created.
User Time Stamp Displays the User Time
Stamp for each region. The User Time
Stamp, which default to the Original Time
Stamp, can be redefined with the Time
Stamp Selected command.
Figure 6. Audio waveform of drum loop
Figure 6 shows an audio waveform for a
drum loop. The “peaks” represent places in
the recording (beats) where the attack of
the sound causes the volume to increase
momentarily. These are followed by “valleys,” where the volume decreases.
Different types of sounds produce different
types of waveforms. Drums, for example,
generally produce waveforms with sharp
transients (peaks of short duration) that are
clearly defined. A drum hit has a loud,
sharp attack and a rapid decay.
Other sounds, such as vocals or sustained
keyboard sounds, produce very different
waveforms, ones that have less pronounced peaks and valleys. That’s because
these sounds generally have softer attacks
and longer decays.
Draw Waveforms Rectified Preference
When the Display Preference for Draw
Waveforms Rectified is selected, audio
waveforms are displayed so that their posi-
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 137
tive and negative waveform excursions are
summed together and viewed as a single
positive-value signal.
beat, chances are that you can create rhythmically accurate regions by referring to the
drum’s waveform.
Some important rules to keep in mind
when defining regions:
Audio displayed in rectified mode
◆ Whenever possible, begin a region precisely before a volume peak, and end it immediately before another volume peak.
◆ Whenever possible, make sure a region
starts and ends on exactly the same part of
a beat.
Avoiding Clicks and Pops
Audio displayed in normal mode
Rectified mode displays more detailed
waveforms when using track heights of
Medium or Small, and can be particularly
useful when editing volume automation
data, since it depicts waveform “levels” as
starting at the bottom of the track.
Guidelines for Editing
Waveforms
With the Selector tool in the Edit window,
you can select portions of audio waveforms
and divide them into segments called regions, so that you can rearrange and manipulate them in tracks.
If an edited region begins or ends at a point
of high amplitude, you may hear an unpleasant click when Pro Tools plays from
one region to another. In order to avoid
clicks or pops do any of the following:
◆ Make sure that the start and end points
of your selection are as close as possible to
the point where the amplitude of the waveform tapers down to meet the zero-crossing
line (the center line of the track’s waveform
display). If necessary, use the zooming
tools in the Edit window (see “Zooming”
on page 147) to display waveforms in
greater detail.
While editing, try to create regions that allow you to maintain a consistent beat. If
you always define regions so that they contain a whole number of beats, you’ll be able
to string the regions together and maintain
a smooth, steady rhythm.
Selection that begins and ends at zero crossings
It’s sometimes useful to have a steady, welldefined waveform, such as a drum track, as
a guide when selecting and defining other
regions. If you’ve played in time with the
138 Pro Tools Reference Guide
◆ On Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24
systems, use the AutoFade feature to apply
real-time fade-ins/outs to all region bound-
aries that do not touch or overlap other regions. See “Using the AutoFade Feature” on
page 254 for details.
◆ Apply a crossfade between regions where
a click or pop occurs. See “Creating a Crossfade” on page 251 for details.
Nondestructive Audio Editing
When editing an audio track’s playlist in
Pro Tools, you’re not actually cutting and
moving pieces of sound as you would if
you were cutting and splicing analog tape.
Instead, Pro Tools creates a map of the
audio file on your hard disk, which describes the order in which to play the track
portions.
When trimming audio regions with the
Trimmer tool, or when editing the placement or order of regions within a track, use
multiple playlists to easily return to a
track’s previous state. See “Playlists” on
page 141 for details.
MIDI Regions and MIDI
Data
The two most common Display Formats
you’ll use for MIDI tracks are Notes and Regions. Use Notes view for inserting and editing individual MIDI notes, and for working with and affecting groups of notes.
When you need to experiment with the arrangement of regions, or define new ones,
use Regions view.
MIDI Notes Display
When a MIDI track’s Display Format is set
to Notes, MIDI notes are displayed in a “piano roll” format. Each note is displayed as a
small rectangle with its vertical placement
indicating pitch and its horizontal placement indicating location.
Up arrow
Track note above the
current display
Audio Regions and Automation
Data
Automation data for audio resides in tracks
and not regions. This means that when you
drag an audio region from the Audio Regions List to a new track, no automation
data is placed in the track. However, if you
drag an audio region from an existing track
(that contains automation data) to another
track, the automation from the source
track is placed in the destination track.
keyboard reference
MIDI notes
Down arrow
Figure 7. MIDI track displaying notes
To the left of the MIDI track’s playlist is a
vertical mini-keyboard, complete with octave numbering, for pitch reference. You
can Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-click (Windows) the mini-keyboard to
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 139
audition pitches. Arrows at the top and
bottom of the mini-keyboard (not available
in the smaller track heights) are used to
scroll the Notes display up and down.
The pitch range of MIDI notes that can be
displayed depends on the track height, and
on the current zoom value. Any time a
track’s notes do not fit within its current
height, notes above or below the viewed
area are displayed as single-pixel lines at
the very top and bottom of the range (see
Figure 7).
To scroll the Notes display up or down for a
MIDI track:
Click on either the up or down arrow of
the mini-keyboard.
■
MIDI Regions Display
MIDI tracks can also be viewed as Regions,
which is similar to Waveform view for
audio tracks. While a track’s notes are visible in Regions view, individual note editing
is not available in this view. Instead, all editing occurs across a time range encompassing all track data, including continuous
controller events, program changes, and
System Exclusive events.
Use Regions view to define regions that
represent song sections and clips, or to rearrange or assemble track material.
There are, however, a few things to keep in
mind when selecting, copying and cutting,
and trimming MIDI regions:
◆ When cutting or clearing a region selection that includes a note’s start point, the
entire note is removed. This is even the
case when only a portion of the note (that
includes its start point) is selected.
Scroll arrow for mini-keyboard
– or –
With the Pencil tool selected, press Command+Option+Control (Macintosh) or
Control+Alt+Start (Windows) and drag up
or down.
◆ When copying or cutting a region selection that includes a note’s end point (but
not its start point), the note remains and
overlaps the edge of the region.
Scrolling Notes display by dragging
Using the Edit window tools, notes can be
inserted, transposed, trimmed, and moved.
For more information, see “Manually Editing MIDI Notes” on page 202.
140 Pro Tools Reference Guide
MIDI region with note overlap
◆ Similar rules also apply when MIDI regions are trimmed with the Trimmer tool.
If the MIDI region’s start point is moved beyond a note’s start point, the note is removed. If the region’s end point is trimmed
so that a note’s start point is within the region but its end point is not, the note remains and overlaps the edge of the region.
When moving and placing MIDI regions
with overlapping notes, the notes always
move with the regions. When placing
MIDI regions with overlapping notes next
to or near another region, the overlapping
notes extend into the adjacent region.
Nondestructive MIDI Editing
While editing audio regions is usually nondestructive, this is not always the case for
MIDI regions. For instance, if a MIDI region
resides in just one track at a single location,
editing for that region is destructive. This
means that altering the pitch, duration, or
placement of notes in Notes view permanently alters the region.
However, when editing a MIDI region that
occurs elsewhere, in the same track (at another location or in a different playlist) or
in another track, the editing is nondestructive and occurs to an auto-created region.
To go back to the previous material, drag
the original region from the MIDI Regions
List, or return to a previously saved playlist.
MIDI Regions and Controller
Events
Continuous controller events reside in
MIDI regions and not in tracks. This means
that when dragging regions that contain
controller data from either a track or the
MIDI Regions List, the controller data is
written to the destination track.
Unlike continuous controller events,
which represent nuances that are part of a
MIDI performance, Mute in Pro Tools is an
automation playlist that actually mutes the
MIDI engine. Mute automation does not
correspond to actual MIDI events and is
therefore not exported when saving as a
Standard MIDI File.
Playlists
The ability to create playlists is one of the
most powerful features of Pro Tools, and
one reason why it is infinitely more versatile than traditional multitrack recorders.
Edit playlists allow you to take a snapshot of
a track’s current arrangement of regions,
thereby freeing you to experiment with alternate arrangements, returning as necessary to previously saved playlists.
✽ One way to safely return to a track’s previ-
ous state is with playlists. Before you edit
notes, trim regions, or rearrange the order of
regions, make a duplicate of the track’s existing playlist and instead work with it (see “Playlists” on page 141).
Playlist Selector pop-up
A playlist, which can consist of a single region or many regions, can only be assigned
to a track if it is not in use by another track.
While you can create an almost unlimited
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 141
number of edit playlists, which are shared
among all tracks, each track has its own set
of dedicated automation playlists.
▲ Automation playlists for audio tracks store
data for volume, pan, mute, and Plug-In paramaters. Automation playlists for MIDI tracks,
however, store only mute information; continuous controller events, program changes, and
sysex events are stored in MIDI regions and
therefore reside within edit playlists.
Working with Playlists
When you add a new track to a session, its
playlist is empty until you record or import
material to it, or drag a region to it from the
Audio or MIDI Regions List.
When you edit a track, you can work with a
copy of the track's playlist and keep the
original playlist arrangement intact.
To duplicate a track’s current playlist:
1 Click on the track’s Playlist Selector and
choose Duplicate from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter a name for the new playlist and
click OK.
The duplicated playlist appears in the track
and the track’s name is changed to the
name of the new playlist.
You can also create a new playlist and
record or drag regions to it.
To create a new (empty) playlist:
1 Click on the track’s Playlist Selector and
choose New from the pop-up menu.
2 Enter a name for the new playlist and
click OK.
An empty playlist with the specified name
appears in the track.
As long as a playlist is unassigned, it can be
recalled and assigned to any track. Only
unassigned playlists appear in the Playlist
Selector pop-up.
To recall and assign a playlist:
■ Click on the track’s Playlist Selector and
choose the playlist from the pop-up menu.
The selected playlist appears in the track
and the track’s name is updated to that of
the selected playlist.
Renaming a Playlist
You can rename a playlist by renaming the
track to which it is assigned.
To rename a track’s assigned playlist:
1 Double-click the track’s name.
2 Enter a new name and click OK. Both the
track and playlist names are updated.
Deleting a Playlist
You can delete a playlist from a session entirely. However, since playlists take almost
no disk space, you don’t need to delete
them for space reasons.
To delete the current playlist for a track:
1 Click on the track’s Playlist Selector and
choose Delete Unused from the pop-up
menu.
2 Select the unassigned playlists you want
to delete. Shift-click to select multiple playlists.
3 Click OK to delete the playlists. This op-
eration cannot be undone.
142 Pro Tools Reference Guide
The Audio and MIDI
Regions Lists
All regions that are recorded, imported, or
created by editing appear in the Audio and
MIDI Regions Lists. Regions can be dragged
from either list to tracks and arranged in
any order. Regions can also be auditioned
from the Regions List by Option-clicking
them.
Because region names can become lengthy
(up to 31 characters), the Regions List can
be scrolled or resized as necessary (see
Figure 8). In addition, you can use the popup menu at the top of either list to sort,
search, rename, and clear regions.
Drag to resize width
of Regions Lists
Click for pop-up menus
Drag to resize
height of Regions
Lists
Click to hide
Regions Lists
✽ Use the MIDI Regions List as a bin for stor-
ing your favorite MIDI clips. Save the session
as a template (see “Creating Custom Session
Templates” on page 48) and the regions are
available for future sessions. Since MIDI regions are tick-based (unlike audio regions),
they scale seamlessly for use with any tempo.
Displaying File Info for Audio Regions
In addition to region names, the Audio Regions List can also display information
about the region’s parent audio file:
• File name, which represents the audio
file from which the region originated
• Disk name, which represents the name
of the hard drive on which it resides
• The full directory Pathname of the region’s location
Audio Regions with file info
Pro Tools defaults to displaying just the region portion of a region’s name. To display
file info for audio regions, choose Show File
Names, Show Disk Names, or Show Full
Pathnames from the pop-up menu at the
top of the Audio Regions List.
Figure 8. Audio and MIDI Regions Lists
If the Editing Preference for “Region List
Selection Follows Track Selection” is enabled, clicking a region in the Regions List
highlights it in the track that contains it.
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 143
Sorting and Searching the
Regions Lists
Most sessions will contain many regions,
which may make it difficult to locate a particular region in the Regions Lists. The ability to sort regions and search for them will
help greatly in keeping track of large numbers of regions.
To sort regions in a Regions List:
1 From the Regions List pop-up menu,
Keyboard Selection of Regions
If the Audio Regions List Key focus or MIDI
Regions List Key focus is enabled, you can
type the first few letters of a region’s name
and Pro Tools will automatically locate and
select the region in the Regions List.
To enable and use the Audio Regions List Key
focus or MIDI Regions List Key focus:
1 Click the a-z button in upper right of the
Audio Regions List or MIDI Regions List.
choose Sorting and select the basis for sorting from the submenu.
Audio Regions List Key focus enabled
2 Type the first few letters of the region to
automatically locate and select it. Once a
region is located and selected, it can be
dragged to a track.
Sort attributes for audio regions
MIDI regions can be sorted by name,
length, or timestamp. In addition to these,
audio regions can be sorted by region start
and end times, and by various attributes for
the source audio file.
2 From the Regions List pop-up menu, se-
lect Ascending or Descending to switch the
order of the displayed regions.
144 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Keyboard selection of audio regions locates
regions based on their region name, not on
the names for their parent audio files or the
volumes on which they reside.
Finding Regions
Use the Find command to display all regions in a list whose names contain a particular word or phrase.
To find and display regions that match a word
or phrase:
Edit Modes
Pro Tools has four Edit modes: Shuffle,
Spot, Slip, and Grid. The Edit mode is selected by clicking the desired button in the
upper left of the Edit window.
1 Choose Find from the pop-up menu in
the Audio or MIDI Regions List.
2 Type the name, or any portion of the
name, for the regions you want to find,
then click OK.
Edit mode buttons
✽ You can also use F1 (Shuffle), F2 (Slip), F3
(Spot), and F4 (Grid) to set the Edit mode.
Figure 9. Regions located with Find command
Pro Tools displays all regions whose names
contain the name that was specified.
Figure 9 shows regions found when searching on the word “loop.” When displaying
regions with the Find command, a small diamond appears at the top of the Audio and
MIDI Regions List.
To return the Regions List to displaying all
regions:
■ Choose Display All from the Regions List
pop-up menu.
The Edit mode affects the movement and
placement of audio and MIDI regions (and
individual MIDI notes), how commands
like Copy and Paste function, and also how
the various edit tools (Trimmer, Selector,
Grabber, and Pencil) work.
Shuffle
In Shuffle mode, you can move regions
freely within a track or to other tracks, but
their movement is constrained by other regions. That is, if you place several regions
in a track, they automatically snap to each
other. You can then “shuffle” their order,
but you cannot separate them from each
other and you cannot make them overlap
as in Slip mode. In Shuffle mode, adding
another region to the beginning of a track
moves all subsequent regions to the right
by the length of the region added.
When using the Trimmer in Shuffle mode,
changing a region’s start or end point automatically moves the adjacent regions as
necessary. The placement and insertion of
MIDI notes is not affected by Shuffle mode.
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 145
Slip
In Slip mode, regions can be moved freely
within a track or to other tracks. In this
mode it is possible to place a region so that
there is space between it and other regions
in a track. When the track is played back,
this space is silent. It is also possible to
move a region so that it overlaps or completely covers another region.
Use Slip mode when you want the Trimmer, Selector, Grabber, and Pencil tools to
work without any restrictions to placement
in time.
Spot
Use Spot mode to place regions at precise
locations. This can be particularly useful
when performing post production tasks
around SMPTE frame locations. In this
mode you can specify a frame location (or a
location based on any of the other time formats), capture an incoming Time Code address, or use a region’s time stamps as reference points for spotting.
The actual grid size, chosen from the Grid
Value pop-up in the upper right of the Edit
window, can be based on a time value using the Main Time Scale; or, if Follow Main
Time Scale is deselected, another time format can be used for the grid size.
Grid Value set to 1 second
✽ The current Grid Value is also used for the
Quantize Regions Command.
Also available in the Grid Value pop-up is
an option for Regions/Markers. When selected, events can be placed freely (as in
Slip mode) but will snap to region locations
(start, end, and sync points), Markers, and
Edit selections when placed near them.
▲ Notes inserted with the Pencil tool ignore
In Spot mode, when you move or trim regions, the Spot dialog opens.
the Regions/Markers option, and instead
snap to the time value selected in the Grid
Value pop-up.
Grid
To display the grid lines in the Edit window, enable the Display Preference for
“Draw Grids in Edit Window.”
In Grid mode, regions and MIDI notes that
are moved or inserted “snap” to a user-definable time grid. In addition to placing
material cleanly on the beat, Grid mode is
also useful for making precise Edit and
Timeline selections.
Edit window with grid lines
146 Pro Tools Reference Guide
You can also enable and disable grid lines
by Control-clicking (Macintosh) or Altclicking the Indicator Dot for any Timebase
Ruler.
Control-click (Macintosh) or
Alt-click (Windows) for Grid lines
Press Command+] (Macintosh) or Control+] (Windows). To zoom out, press Command+[ (Macintosh) or Control+[ (Windows).
To zoom in vertically for all audio tracks:
Vertical Zoom button (audio)
Turning on grid lines from Ruler
Zooming
Zooming options in Pro Tools include the
Horizontal and Vertical Zoom buttons, the
Zoomer tool, and the Zoom Preset buttons.
Horizontal and Vertical Zoom
Buttons
Use the Horizontal and Vertical Zoom buttons to zoom in and out on track data. Unlike the horizontal zoom value, the vertical
zoom value for MIDI and audio tracks are
independent, and therefore have separate
buttons.
To zoom in horizontally for all tracks:
Horizontal Zoom button
■ Click the (top) Vertical Zoom button
with the audio waveform. To zoom out,
click the bottom Vertical Zoom button.
– or –
Press Command+Option+] (Macintosh) or
Control+Alt+] (Windows). To zoom out,
press Command+Option+[ (Macintosh) or
Control+Alt+[ (Windows).
To zoom in vertically for all MIDI tracks:
Vertical Zoom button (MIDI)
■ Click the (top) Vertical Zoom button
with the MIDI notes. To zoom out, click the
bottom Vertical Zoom button.
– or –
Press Command+Shift+] (Macintosh) or
Control+Shift+] (Windows). To zoom out,
press Command+Shift+[ (Macintosh) or
Control+Shift+[ (Windows).
Click the right Horizontal Zoom button.
To zoom out, click the other (left) Horizontal Zoom button.
– or –
■
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 147
To return to the previous zoom level:
To zoom into a particular track area:
Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click
(Windows) any of the Horizontal or Vertical Zoom buttons.
– or –
1 Select the Zoomer tool.
Press Command+Option+E (Macintosh) or
Control+Alt+E (Windows).
To zoom horizontally and vertically, press
Command (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows)
while dragging in the track’s playlist.
■
To zoom in on a selection:
2 To zoom horizontally, drag with the
Zoomer in the track’s playlist.
– or –
■ Press Option+F (Macintosh) or Alt+F
(Windows).
To zoom so that all regions are visible and fill
the Edit window:
■ Double-click the Zoomer tool in the toolbar.
– or –
Press Option+A (Macintosh) or Alt+A
(Windows).
Zooming horizontally with Zoomer tool
Zoomer Tool
The zoomed area fills the entire Edit window.
Use the Zoomer tool to zoom in and out
around a particular area within a track.
To zoom around a certain track point:
1 Select the Zoomer tool.
Zooming in the Ruler
To zoom horizontally in the Ruler:
1 Press Command+Control (Macintosh) or
Control+Alt (Windows) and move the cursor into the Ruler area, so the Zoomer appears.
Zoomer tool
2 Click once with the Zoomer at the point
within the track. All tracks are zoomed in
by one level and the Edit window is centered around the zoomed point.
3 To zoom back to the previous level, Op-
tion-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click (Window) with the Zoomer.
148 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Zooming in the Ruler
2 Click once to zoom in one level around a
certain point.
– or –
Drag to zoom in around a particular Ruler
range.
Zoom Preset Buttons
Pro Tools allows you to save up to 5 horizontal zoom presets, which can be recalled
by typing a number or by clicking a Zoom
Preset button.
To store a zoom preset:
1 Using either the Horizontal Zoom but-
tons or the Zoomer tool, navigate to the
zoom level you want to store.
2 While pressing Command (Macintosh)
or Control (Windows), click one of the five
Zoom Preset buttons.
Rulers
Any or all of the following Timebase Rulers
can be displayed at the top of the Edit window:
• Bars:Beats
• Minutes:Seconds
• Time Code (TDM systems only)
• Feet.Frames
• Samples
In addition to providing a timing reference
for track material, the Timebase Rulers are
also used to define Edit selections for track
material, and Timeline selections for record
and play ranges.
✽ With the Selector, drag in any Timebase
Storing a zoom preset
The button flashes, indicating it is being
written to, and then becomes selected.
Ruler to select material across all tracks in the
Edit window. To include the Conductor Tracks
in the selection, press Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows) while dragging.
To recall a zoom preset:
■
Click the Zoom Preset button.
– or –
■ With the Commands Key Focus enabled
(TDM Systems only), type the Zoom Preset’s number on the alpha keyboard.
– or –
While pressing Control (TDM Systems
only), type the Zoom Preset’s number on
the alpha keyboard.
All Rulers displayed
■
Horizontal zoom levels for all tracks are recalled.
✽ Zoom settings can also be stored with
Memory Locations. For details, see “Memory
Locations and Markers” on page 235.
Any or all of the following Conductor Rulers can be displayed:
• Tempo
• Meter
• Markers
The Meter and Tempo Rulers indicate
changes in meter and tempo within the
Session. The Markers Ruler displays Markers to important track locations.
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 149
To display all Rulers:
■
Select Display > Ruler View Shows > All.
To remove a Ruler from the display:
■ Option-click the Ruler’s name (to the left
of the Ruler display).
– or –
■ Deselect the Ruler in Display > Ruler
View Shows.
To display only the Main Time Scale in the
Ruler:
■ Select Display > Ruler View Shows >
None.
To add a specific Ruler to the display, such as
the Markers Ruler, for instance:
■ Select Display > Ruler View Shows >
Markers.
To change the display order for the Rulers:
■ Click on a Ruler’s name and drag up or
down to the new location.
Ruler Options Pop-up Menu
The Ruler display options are also available
from a pop-up menu that is accessed by
clicking just to the right of the Ruler
names.
Ruler Options pop-up menu
150 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Time Scale
While all Timebase Rulers can simultaneously be displayed in the Edit window,
there is only one that represents the Main
Time Scale. The Main Time Scale determines the time format used for:
• The Transport’s Main Counter
• Start, end, and length values
• Pre and post-roll amounts
• Grid and Nudge Values
The Main Time Scale can be set to the following formats:
Bars:Beats Displays the Time Scale in bars
and beats. Use the this Time Scale if you are
working with musical material that must
align with bars and beats.
To ensure your tracks align with the bars
and beats in your session, make sure to
record with the click (see “Recording with
the Click” on page 83).
Material that is recorded without listening
to the click can still be aligned to bar and
beat boundaries in Pro Tools with the Identify Beat command (see “Identify Beat
Command” on page 230).
Minutes:Seconds Displays the Time Scale in
minutes and seconds. As you zoom in farther with the Zoomer, the Time Scale begins to display tenths, hundredths, and
thousandths of a second.
Time Code Displays the Time Scale in
SMPTE frames. The Frame Rate and Session
Start time are set from the Session Setup
window. Pro Tools supports the following
frame rates: 24, 25, 29.97 Non-Drop, 29.97
Drop, 30 Non-Drop, and 30 Drop frames
per second.
Feet.Frames Displays the Time Scale in feet
and frames for referencing audio-for-film
projects. The Feet.Frames time display is
based on the 35 millimeter film format.
With this Time Scale, you can enter a Start
Frame based on an appropriate frame location at the beginning of your project tape.
The Feet.Frames Ruler will then use this
value as its start reference.
The Feet.Frames dialog
To set a start frame for a session:
■ Choose Setups > Feet.Frames and enter
an appropriate start frame and click OK
(negative offsets are not supported). This
value will become the “zero point” in the
Feet.Frames Ruler.
Samples Displays the Time Scale in samples. This format is very useful for high-precision sample editing.
– or –
If a Timebase Ruler is displayed, click its Indicator Dot so it becomes highlighted.
Switching the Main Time Scale in the Ruler
Setting the Sub Time Scale
There is also a Sub Location Indicator displayed below the Main Location Indicator,
and below the Transport’s Main Counter,
which provides an additional timing reference.
To set the Time Scale for the Sub Location
Indicator:
■ Select from the Sub Time Scale pop-up
next to the Location Indicator
– or –
Select from the Sub Time Scale pop-up in
the Transport Window.
Setting the Main Time Scale
To set the Main Time Scale:
■ Select the desired Time Scale at the bottom of the Display menu.
– or –
Select from the Main Time Scale pop-up
next to the Location Indicator (also available in the Transport window).
Sub Time Scale pop-up (Transport window)
✽ While you can click in the Main Counter and
type in a location to automatically locate there,
this is not supported for the Sub Counter.
Main Time Scale pop-up
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 151
Ticks vs. Samples
Tick-Based Timing
Pro Tools is a sample-based program with
an internal resolution of 960,000 pulses per
quarter note (ppq). However, when the
Time Scale is set to Bars:Beats, the display
resolution in Pro Tools is 960 ppq.
In Bars:Beats, Pro Tools is tick-based (960
ticks to a quarter note), which means that
some amount of sample-rounding may occur when placing events at certain locations (see “Sample-Rounding and Edit Operations” on page 152).
When working in Bars:Beats, you’ll often
want to specify tick values for a number of
operations, including:
• Placing and spotting regions
• Setting lengths for regions or MIDI notes
• Locating and setting play and record
ranges (including pre/post-roll)
• Specifying parameters in the Quantize
and Change Duration windows
• Setting the Grid and Nudge values
The Following table lists the number of
ticks for each of the main note sizes:
note value
normal
dotted
triplet
1/2 note
1920
2880
1280
1/4 note
960
1440
640
1/8 note
480
720
320
1/16 note
240
360
160
1/32 note
120
180
80
1/64 note
60
90
40
152 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Audio material in Pro Tools is samplebased. This means that if an audio region is
located at a particular sample (or SMPTE)
location, it will not move from this location if the tempo changes in the session
(though the audio region’s bar and beat location will change).
MIDI data in Pro Tools is bar- and beatbased. This means that if a MIDI region is
located at a particular bar and beat location, it will not move from that location if
the tempo changes in the session—though
its sample location will change, thereby adjusting its relationship to audio.
When creating Markers and Selection
Memory Locations, you can specify
whether they have an Absolute (samplebased) or Bar|Beat (tick-based) reference.
For more information, see “Bar|Beat and
Absolute Reference” on page 236.
Sample-Rounding and Edit Operations
Because audio material in Pro Tools is sample-based, some amount of sample-rounding may occur with some edits when the
Main Time Scale is set to Bars:Beats. This is
most evident when you need audio regions
to fall cleanly on the beat (as when looping) and notice that the material is sometimes a tick or two off. With a few simple
precautions, this can be avoided.
When selecting audio regions to be copied,
duplicated, or repeated, make sure to select
the material with the Selector (enable Grid
Mode for precise selections), or set the selection range by typing in the start and end
points in the Event Edit area. Do not select
the material with the Grabber (or by double-clicking with the Selector). This ensures
that the selection will be precise in terms of
bars and beats (and not based on the length
of the material in samples).
Chapter 13: Editing Basics 153
154 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 14
Playing/Selecting Track Material
Playing Tracks
After recording or importing to tracks,
you’ll want to listen to the material to find
track ranges that require editing, or material that can be turned into regions for use
elsewhere.
You can click anywhere in a track with the
Selector to begin playback from that point
(as long as the Edit and Timeline selections
are linked, see “Separate Edit and Timeline
Selections” on page 161).
The edit cursor, on the other hand, is a
flashing line that appears when you click
with the Selector in a track’s playlist. The
blinking edit cursor indicates the start
point for any editing tasks performed. If
you make a selection and perform an edit,
the selection is the target of the edit.
☞ The selected Scrolling Option determines
how the Edit window scrolls during playback,
and how the playback cursor functions. See
“Scrolling Options” on page 157 for details.
To begin playing from a specific point within a
track:
1 Select Operations > Scrolling Options >
No Auto Scrolling.
Setting a playback point with the Selector
Depending on the selected Scrolling Option, the playback cursor, a solid unblinking
line, moves across the Edit window to indicate the current playback position. The
playback location is displayed in the
Counters in the Transport window, in the
Big Time window, and also in the Location
Indicators.
2 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
3 With the Selector, click in the track
where you want playback to begin.
4 Click Play in the Transport window to be-
gin playback.
5 Click Stop in the Transport window to
stop playback.
To jump to a different location and begin
playing from there, click with the Selector
at that point and click Play in the Transport window.
Transport with Counters displayed
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 155
✽ With the Edit and Timeline selections
linked, you can click on a region or MIDI note
with the Grabber to automatically update the
Timeline with the selection’s start time, allowing you to easily play from that point.
Page Scroll During Playback
You can set Pro Tools to scroll the track display while playing, and have the edit cursor appear wherever playback stops.
To make the track display and the edit cursor
follow playback:
1 Select Operations > Scrolling Options >
Page Scroll During Playback.
2 Choose Setups > Preferences. In the Op-
eration page of the Preferences dialog, select the option for “Timeline Insertion
Follows Playback,” then click Done.
3 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
4 With the Selector, click in the track
where you want playback to begin.
5 Click Play in the Transport window to be-
gin playback. The playback cursor scrolls
across the Edit window, indicating the current playback position.
6 Click Stop in the Transport window to
stop playback. The edit cursor appears at
the location where playback stops.
Locating and Auditioning with Fast
Forward/Rewind
You can use the Fast Forward and Rewind
buttons in the Transport window to locate
material in your tracks. If the Operation
Preference for “Audio During Fast Forward/Rewind” is selected, you’ll actually
hear the scanned audio (similar to a CD
player) when clicking the Fast Forward and
Rewind buttons.
You can also fast forward or rewind incrementally by repeatedly clicking the appropriate button. The size of these increments
is determined by the Main Time Scale:
• Bars:Beats: moves to the beginning of the
previous or next bar
• Min:Sec: moves back or forward in onesecond steps
• Time Code: moves back or forward in
one-second steps (while adjusting for
current SMPTE format)
• Feet.Frames: moves back or forward in
one-foot steps
• Samples: moves back or forward in onesecond steps
Location Indicators
The Location Indicators, in the upper right
of the Edit window, display the current
playback location, and also provide a convenient way to navigate to a specific time
location.
Location Indicators (Main and Sub)
The Main Location Indicator displays the
playback location in the time format for
the Main Time Scale. The Sub Location In156 Pro Tools Reference Guide
dicator can be set to any of the other Time
Scale formats for another timing reference.
Both the Main and Sub indicators also appear in the Transport window when it is set
to display Counters.
To scroll the entire contents of the Edit
window from the Ruler:
■ While pressing Comand+Option+Control (Macintosh) or Control+Alt+Start
(Windows), drag left or right in any of the
Timebase Rulers.
To navigate with the Location Indicators:
1 Click in one of the Location Indicators.
– or –
Press Equal (=) on the numeric keypad to
highlight the Main Location Indicator (or
the Transport Counters or Big Time window, if either are displayed).
2 Type in the new location. Press period (.)
to cycle through to the different time
fields.
3 Press Enter to accept the new value and
automatically locate there.
✽ Choose from the pop-up menus next to the
Main and Sub indicators (in either the Edit window or Transport window) to set their time formats.
Scrolling in the Ruler
You can scroll the contents of the Edit window by clicking and dragging in the Ruler.
While this doesn’t actually update the session’s Current Location, it does let you conveniently shift the display left or right for
the sake of finding and editing material.
This method of scrolling is especially useful
when using Continuous Scroll with Playhead (TDM systems only), which does not
update or follow Timeline selections.
Scrolling in the Ruler
Scrolling Options
Pro Tools offers the following options for
how it scrolls the contents of the Edit window during playback and recording.
Choose Operations > Scrolling Options and
select one of the following from the submenu:
No Auto-Scrolling With this scrolling option, the Edit window does not scroll during or after playback. The playback cursor
moves across the Edit window, indicating
the playback location.
Scroll After Playback Causes the Edit window to scroll to the final playback location
after playback has stopped. In this mode,
the playback cursor moves across the Edit
window, indicating the playback location.
Page Scroll During Playback Causes the Edit
window to scroll during playback. With
this option, the playback cursor moves
across the Edit window, indicating the
playback location. When the right edge of
the Edit window is reached, its entire contents are scrolled, and the playback cursor
continues moving from the left edge of the
window.
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 157
Continuous Scroll During Playback
(TDM Systems Only)
This scrolling option causes the Edit window’s contents to scroll continuously past
the playback cursor, which remains in the
center of the window. With this option,
playback is always based on the Timeline
selection (unlike Continuous Scroll With
Playhead).
Continuous Scroll With Playhead
With the Playhead enabled, you can still
jump to and play an Edit or Timeline selection. For details, see “Playing Edit and
Timeline Selections with the Playhead” on
page 173.
Half-Screen Edit Window
When either Continuous Scroll During
Playback or Continuous Scroll with Playhead is enabled, a half-screen appears at
the far left of the Edit window (before the
beginning of the session).
(TDM Systems Only)
This scrolling option causes the Edit window’s contents to scroll continuously past
the Playhead, which is a blue line in the
center of the window (red when recording).
The Playhead always indicates where playback begins when clicking Play in the
Transport window. The Playhead is completely independent of the Timeline selection; if the Timeline selection changes, the
Playhead will not update its location when
playback is initiated from the Transport.
When recording, however, the Playhead always jumps to the Timeline selection.
Continuous Scroll with Playhead
To move the Playhead to a particular location for playback, scroll there in the Ruler
(see “Scrolling in the Ruler” on page 157),
use the Edit window’s horizontal scroll bar,
or type the location into one of the Location Indicators or one of the Counters.
158 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Half-screen for Continuous Scroll with Playhead
The Scrubber
The Scrubber allows you to “scrub” up to
two tracks of audio in the Edit Window.
Scrubbing is a technique that originated in
tape editing, where the tape was rocked
back and forth past the playhead at slower
than normal speeds to find a particular location (usually for the sake of performing
splices).
While viewing an audio waveform in
Pro Tools can be helpful in visually finding
an edit point, sometimes a waveform (because of its sonic characteristics) may not
reveal the desired spot in the audio material. By scrubbing back and forth over an
edit point in Pro Tools, you can zero in on
the exact edit point you're looking for.
When the Operation Preference for “Edit
Insertion Follows Scrub/Shuttle” is enabled, the edit cursor automatically locates
to the point where scrubbing stops.
When the Scrolling Option is set to Continuous Scroll During Playback or Continuous Scroll with Playhead, clicking with the
Scrubber in a track’s playlist centers the
Edit window around that point, and moves
the Playhead there. With these Scrolling
Options, scrubbed material moves past the
Playhead, which remains stationary and
centered.
✽ You can temporarily switch the Selector to
the Scrubber by Control-clicking (Macintosh) or
Right-clicking (Windows). For finer resolution,
Command-Control-click (Macintosh) or ControlRight-click (Windows).
To scrub up to two audio tracks:
■ With the Scrubber selected, drag between
two adjacent tracks.
▲ Scrubbing is only supported for audio
tracks. MIDI tracks cannot be scrubbed.
To scrub a single audio track:
1 With the Scrubber selected, drag within
the track—left for reverse, right for forward.
Scrubbing between two audio tracks
– or –
Scrub within a selection that contains multiple tracks. Only the first two tracks, however, are heard.
Scrub/Shuttle Mode
Scrubbing an audio track with the Scrubber
The distance and speed with which you
drag (with either the mouse, or an external
MIDI controller wheel) determine the
length and speed of the scrubbed audio.
Audio from the scrubbed track is routed to
its output, along with any effects assigned
to the track.
The resolution for the Scrubber is dependent upon the zoom factor for the
scrubbed track. For finer resolutions without zooming, press Command (Macintosh)
or Control (Windows) while scrubbing.
When scrubbing normally, you can scrub
at normal playback speeds or slower.
Scrub/Shuttle mode, however, lets you
scrub at several times normal speed, which
is helpful in playing through large ranges
and locating material.
To scrub in Shuttle mode (at several times
normal speed):
1 Select the Scrubber tool.
2 While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), drag within the track—left
for reverse, right for forward.The Fast Forward and Rewind buttons in the Transport
window engage.
The distance and speed dragged determine
the speed for the scrubbed audio.
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 159
Shuttle Lock Mode
Numeric Keypad Set to Shuttle
Shuttle Lock mode lets you trigger playback for up to two tracks at varying speeds,
forward and reverse, from the numeric keypad. If multiple tracks are selected, only the
first two tracks are shuttled.
(TDM Systems Only)
To play a track with the shuttle lock:
1 For TDM systems, make sure the Opera-
tion Preference for Numeric Keypad Mode
is not set to Shuttle.
2 With the Selector, click in the track
where you want playback to begin. To shuttle on two tracks, Shift-click in a second
track.
Pro Tools offers another form of shuttling,
different from that of Shuttle Lock Mode.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Shuttle, playback is triggered by pressing
and holding the keys on the numeric keypad—playback stops once the keys are released. Various playback speeds are available in both forward and reverse.
To shuttle with the Numeric Keypad Mode set
to Shuttle:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Operations.
3 Press Control (Macintosh) or the Start
2 Set the Numeric Keypad Mode to Shuttle
key (Windows) and a number on the numeric keypad: 0–9 (9 is fastest, 5 is normal
speed, and 0 stops shuttling).
and click Done.
Once Shuttle Lock mode is initiated, Fast
Forward and Rewind become highlighted
in the Transport window.
4 Press additional keys to change the play-
back speed, or press Plus (+) and Minus (-)
to switch the playback direction (plus for
forward, minus for backward).
5 To stop playback, press Control+0 (Mac-
intosh) or Start+0 (Windows).
3 With the Selector, click in the track
where you want playback to begin. To shuttle on two tracks, Shift-click in a second
track.
4 Press and hold any of the following keys
(or key combinations) on the numeric keypad to trigger playback.
Shuttle Speed
Rewind Key
Forward Key
1 X Speed
4
6
4 X Speed
7
9
1/4 X Speed
1
3
1/2 X Speed
4+5
5+6
2 X Speed
7+8
8+9
6 To exit Shuttle Lock mode, press Stop in
the Transport window.
5 Press a different key to switch the play-
back direction or speed. Release to stop.
160 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Separate Edit and Timeline
Selections
Pro Tools lets you unlink the Edit and
Timeline selections. In doing so, you can
make a selection within a track for editing
purposes that is distinct from the selection
in the Timeline (which determines the
playback and recording range).
By default, the Edit and Timeline selections
are linked. In this mode, selecting in a
track’s playlist (an Edit selection) also defines the play and record range (the Timeline selection).
rial is found, you can then go back to the
Timeline selection and place them within
the context of the scene.
Figure 10 illustrates another reason you’d
want to unlink the Edit and Timeline selections. In this example, the Timeline selection sets a range to be looped on playback,
while a MIDI region (residing within the
loop) is selected for editing purposes. During playback, the Edit selection can be
nudged, quantized, or transposed while the
loop plays back completely independent
and uninterrupted.
To unlink the Edit and Timeline selections:
■ Deselect Operations > Link Edit and
Timeline Selection.
– or –
In the upper left of the Edit window, click
the Linked Selections button so it becomes
unhighlighted.
Figure 10. Edit and Timeline selections unlinked
While you could theoretically do this with
the Edit and Timeline selections linked, as
soon as playback is stopped, the playback
range would then be updated to that of the
more recent edit range.
Linked Selections button, disabled
Playback/Edit Markers
If you are working with a film or video
scene, you may want to unlink the Edit and
Timeline selections to work with material
that is at a different location than the current play range. The scene you’re working
with (defined by the Timeline selection)
may require some sound effects and you
can go to another location in the session to
find and audition them. Edit selections can
be played (choose Operations > Play Edit
Selection) without disrupting the current
Timeline selection. Once the desired mate-
Timeline selections are displayed in the
Ruler with Playback Markers, which appear
as blue arrows (red when recording). In addition, there are Pre- and Post-Roll Flags
(which are green when enabled) indicating
the location for pre/post-roll.
Playback Markers with Pre/Post-Roll Flags
Figure 11. Edit Markers
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 161
When the Edit and Timeline selections are
unlinked, Edit selections are displayed in
the Ruler with Edit Markers, which appear
as black brackets. If the Edit and Timeline
selections are linked, Edit selections are
represented by the blue Playback Markers.
See the following sections for details on
working with Edit and Timeline selections:
• “Selecting Track Material” on page 162
• “Timeline Selections” on page 171
• “Setting Punch/Loop Points” on page 96
• “Setting Pre/Post-Roll” on page 97
Selecting Track Material
Before audio and MIDI material can be edited, it must first be selected. A track’s Display Format determines how the material is
viewed and selected.
When you make a selection, it appears as a
highlighted area of the track, and is also indicated by blue start and end arrows (Playback Markers) in the Ruler at the top of the
Edit window. If any track (audio or MIDI)
in the session is record-enabled, even if it is
hidden, these markers appear red.
Selections and Edit Groups
When making selections on tracks that are
part of an Edit Group, all other tracks
within the group also become selected.
This is especially useful when working with
stereo pairs.
Selections and Hidden Tracks
When editing tracks that are part of an active Edit Group, any tracks within the
group that are hidden are not affected by
the edits. To edit all members of a group,
make sure they are visible by highlighting
their names in the Show/Hide Tracks list.
Selecting Regions
To select a portion of a region:
1 With the Selector, drag within the region
(left or right) to select the material.
Selecting a portion of a region
To select an entire (single) region:
■
Click on the region with the Grabber.
– or –
Double-click the region with the Selector.
Playback Markers indicating Edit selection
To select two regions (and the time range
between them):
☞ If the Edit and Timeline selections are un-
1 With the Grabber, click on the first re-
linked, the Edit selection range is indicated by
Edit Markers in the Ruler. See “Separate Edit
and Timeline Selections” on page 161 for details.
gion.
162 Pro Tools Reference Guide
2 Shift-click on the second the region.
Both regions become selected, along with
the time range between them (including
any other regions).
To select an entire track:
Making Selections While Playing
■
Click in the track with the Selector and
then choose Edit > Select All.
– or –
Pro Tools lets you make on-the-fly selections with the Arrow keys.
Triple-click in the track with the Selector.
To make a selection while playing:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link
To select all regions in all tracks:
Edit and Timeline selection.
1 Select the “All” Edit Group in the Groups
2 With the Selector, click somewhere near
the beginning of the track in which you
want to make the selection.
List.
2 Click in any track with the Selector and
choose Edit > Select All.
– or –
3 Click Play in the Transport window to be-
Triple-click with the Selector in any track.
4 When playback reaches the point where
Selecting All from Timebase Rulers
you want the selection to begin, press the
Down Arrow key.
You can select all regions in all tracks displayed in the Edit window by double-clicking in any Timebase Ruler.
To select all material in all displayed audio
and MIDI tracks:
1 Make sure the Edit and Timeline selec-
tions are linked.
2 Double-click in any Timebase Ruler. All
regions in all displayed audio and MIDI
tracks are selected. Tracks that are hidden
are not selected.
To select all material in all tracks, along with
Conductor events:
1 Make sure the Edit and Timeline selec-
tions are linked.
2 While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Control (Windows), double-click in any
Timebase Ruler. All regions in all displayed
audio and MIDI tracks are selected, along
with all events in each of the Conductor
tracks.
gin playback.
5 Press the Up Arrow key at the point
where you want the selection to end. The
selected range becomes highlighted.
6 To stop playback, click Stop in the Transport window.
To automatically scroll to the beginning of
the selection (or to the location of the onscreen cursor), press the Left Arrow key. To
scroll to the end of the selection, press the
Right Arrow key.
Object Selections
(TDM Systems Only)
You can use the Object Grabber to select
discontiguous regions on one or more
tracks. Discontiguous selections must encompass entire regions. If you want a discontiguous selection to include a portion
of a region, first use the Separation Grabber
to turn the region portion into a region (see
“Separation Grabber” on page 176).
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 163
▲ The Object Grabber is not available when
the Edit mode is set to Shuffle or Spot.
To select discontiguous regions:
1 Make sure the Edit mode is set to either
Slip or Grid.
Converting to an Object selection is useful
when working with large selections, especially across multiple tracks, and want to
remove certain regions from the selection.
Converting to a Time selection is useful if
you want to select all regions between a discontiguous Object selection.
2 Choose the Object Grabber from the
Grabber tool pop-up menu.
To change a Time selection to an Object
selection:
1 Drag with the Selector in any track to de-
Object Grabber
fine a selection. Select in a Timebase Ruler
to select across all tracks.
3 Shift-click each region you want to in-
clude in the selection. The regions can
even reside on different tracks.
2 With the Object Grabber selected, douDiscontiguous selection
Each clicked region becomes surrounded
by a dark rectangle, indicating it is selected.
The Object Grabber ignores Edit Groups
when making selections. For instance, selecting a region on a grouped track does
not cause regions in the other tracks in the
group to become selected.
ble-click the Grabber icon in the toolbar.
The regions falling within the selection
range become selected as objects. Regions
that were partially selected become deselected.
Object to Time Selection (TDM Systems
Only)
You can convert between Time- and Object-based selections. Time selections are
made with the Selector and Time Grabber.
Object selections are made with the Object
Grabber.
164 Pro Tools Reference Guide
✽ To select regions that were partially se-
lected, press the Control key while doubleclicking the Grabber icon.
To change an Object selection to a Time
selection:
To quickly make a lengthy selection:
1 Select any number of regions with the
of the selection.
Object Grabber.
2 Scroll to the end point of the selection
2 Double-click the Selector icon in the
and Shift-click at that point.
toolbar. The time range between the first
and last region becomes selected.
If using the Object Grabber (TDM systems
only), regions on the other tracks in the
group are selected if they fall within the
range of the selected region.
Changing a Selection Length
You can make an existing selection longer
or shorter by pressing the Shift key while
clicking or dragging, or by dragging the
Playback Markers in the Ruler.
To change the length of a selection:
■ With the Selector, position the cursor
over one end of the current selection and
Shift-click or Shift-drag left or right.
– or –
In the Ruler, drag the Playback Marker for
the selection’s start or end point.
1 With the Selector, click at the beginning
To verify the start and end points of a long
selection, press the Left Arrow key to scroll
to the beginning of the selection, or press
the Right Arrow key to scroll to the end.
Nudging a Selection Range
The selection range (not the material
within the selection) can be moved by the
Nudge value.
To nudge a selection range:
1 Configure the Nudge value as desired. For
details, see “Defining the Nudge Value” on
page 187.
2 Make the initial selection with the Selector.
3 While pressing Shift, press Plus or Minus
on the numeric keypad to move the selection range by the Nudge value.
Nudging Selection Start/End Points
Start and end points for selections can be
moved by the nudging them.
Dragging a Playback Marker
– or –
If the Edit and Timeline selections are unlinked, drag the Edit Markers (see Figure 11
on page 161) to change the selection
length.
To move a selection start or end point by the
Nudge value:
1 Configure the Nudge value as desired. For
details, see “Defining the Nudge Value” on
page 187.
2 Make the initial selection with the Selector.
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 165
3 While pressing Option+Shift (Mac-
intosh) or Alt+Shift (Windows), press Plus
or Minus on the numeric keypad to move
the selection’s start point by the Nudge
value.
– or –
While pressing Command+Shift (Macintosh) or Control+Shift (Windows), press
Plus or Minus on the numeric keypad to
move the selection’s end point by the
Nudge value.
To extend a selection to a Marker or Memory
Location:
1 Click in a track with the Selector at the
selection’s start or end point.
– or –
Make a selection with the Selector or Grabber.
2 Shift-click a Marker in the Markers Ruler
(or in the Memory Locations window).
– or –
Extending Selections
Shift-click a Memory Location in the Memory Locations window.
You can extend selections to region start
and end points, to include an adjacent region, or to Markers and Memory Locations.
The selection is extended from the original
Insertion point to the Marker or Memory
Location.
To extend a selection to a region start or end
point:
1 With the Selector, select a portion of a re-
gion, or click anywhere in the region.
2 Press Shift+Tab to extend the selection to
the region’s end point.
– or –
Press Shift+Option+Tab (Macintosh) or
Shift+Control+Tab (Windows) to extend
the selection to the region’s start point.
To extend a selection to include an adjacent
region:
Using the Selection Indicators
to Make a Selection
The Selection Indicators at the top of the
Edit window allow you to make precise selections. Time values for the Selection Indicators use the time format for the Main
Time Scale.
Selection Indicators
1 Select the first region with the Grabber.
To make a selection with the Selection
Indicators:
2 Press Shift+Control+Tab (Macintosh) or
1 Click with the Selector in the track you
Shift+Start+Tab (Windows) to extend the
selection to include the next region.
– or –
want to select.
Press Shift+Control+Option+Tab (Macintosh) or Shift+Start+Control+Tab (Windows) to extend the selection to include
the previous region.
166 Pro Tools Reference Guide
2 Click in the Start field at the top of the
Edit window.
– or –
Press the slash key to select the Start field.
3 Type in the start point for the selection
and press the slash key to enter the value
and automatically move to the end field.
4 Type in the end point for the selection
and press Enter to accept the value.
Numeric Entry Shortcuts for Selection
Indicators
Following is a list of relevant keyboard
shortcuts for entering values in the Selection Indicators:
Press the slash key to cycle through the
three Selection Indicators.
■
Use period (.) or the Left/Right Arrow
keys to move through the different time
fields in each Selection Indicator.
■
Use the Up/Down Arrow keys to increase
or decrease the numerical values.
■
■ Press Plus (+) or Minus (-) along with an
accompanying number to add or subtract
from the current field value.
For example, to add 10 to a current field
value, cycle to the field, press the Plus key,
type “10” and then press Enter.
When using this calculator function with
the Time Scale set to Bars:Beats, it is not
possible to use Minus (-) to subtract from a
value (this allows the possibility of entering negative bar numbers).
Press Escape to exit the Selection Indicators without entering any values.
■
Calculator Entry Mode and Bars:Beats
To use Minus in Calculator mode with the
Time Scale set to Bars:Beats:
1 Highlight the time field you want to
change.
2 While pressing Command (Macintosh)
or Control (Windows), press Minus on the
numeric keypad.
3 Type the amount you want to subtract
from the current time value, then press Enter.
Making a Selection Across
Multiple Tracks
To perform edits across multiple tracks or
all tracks, you must first select the tracks.
Do this by making selections on tracks that
are grouped (see “Grouping Tracks” on
page 62), by extending selections to other
tracks, or by selecting in a Timebase Ruler
(for all tracks).
To extend a selection to another track:
1 Using the Selector or Grabber, make a se-
lection in the first track.
2 Shift-click in additional tracks with the
Selector. An identical range is selected for
each additional track.
To shorten or extend the selection across
each of the tracks, press Shift while dragging to change the range of the selection.
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 167
To select data on All tracks at the same time:
2 With the Selector or Grabber, make a
With the Selector, Option-Shift-drag
(Macintosh) or Alt-Shift-drag (Windows) in
any track.
– or –
track selection.
■
Enable the All Edit Group and make a selection in any track.
– or –
Drag with the Selector in any Timebase
Ruler (make sure the Edit and Timeline Selections are linked).
These selections include all tracks in the
Edit window, but do not include the Conductor Tracks (for Tempo, Meter, and
Markers).
To select data on all tracks, including the
Conductor tracks:
While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), drag with the Selector in
any Timebase Ruler.
■
Moving/Extending Selections
between Tracks
(TDM Systems Only)
With the Commands Key focus enabled
(TDM systems only), Edit selections can be
moved or extended to adjacent tracks.
To move a selection to an adjacent track:
1 Enable the Commands Key focus by
clicking its button in the upper left of the
Edit window.
Commands Key button, enabled
168 Pro Tools Reference Guide
3 Press P on your computer keyboard to
move the selection to the previous track.
– or –
Press semicolon to move the selection to
the next track.
In either instance, the original Edit selection becomes deselected.
To extend a selection to an adjacent track:
1 Enable the Commands Key focus.
2 With the Selector or Grabber, make a
track selection.
3 Press Shift+P to extend the selection to
the previous track.
– or –
Press Shift+semicolon to extend the selection to the next track.
In either instance, the original Edit selection remains selected.
To remove a track from a selection:
■ Press Option+P (Macintosh) or Alt+P
(Windows) to remove the uppermost track.
– or –
Press Option+semicolon (Macintosh) or
Alt+semicolon (Windows) to remove the
lowermost track.
Other Useful Selection
Techniques
In time you will discover your favorite selection techniques. Here are a few to get
you started:
To position the edit cursor precisely at a
region start, end, or sync point:
To slide an Edit selection in the Ruler:
1 With the Selector or Grabber, make a
track selection.
2 While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), move the cursor over either
of the Playback Markers in the Ruler (the
Grabber appears).
1 Click with the Selector in the track.
2 Press Tab to move the cursor to the next
region start, end, or sync point.
– or –
Sliding an Edit selection in the Ruler
3 Drag left or right to move the Edit selec-
Press Option+Tab (Macintosh) or Control+Tab (Windows) to move the cursor to
the previous region start, end, or sync
point.
✽ If the Edit and Timeline selections are un-
To make a selection with the Scrubber:
linked, Option-drag (Macintosh) or Alt-drag
(Windows) the Edit Markers instead.
tion back or forward in time, while preserving its length.
1 Scrub with the Scrubber to find an appro-
priate start point for the selection, then release.
2 Shift-Scrub to an appropriate end point
for the selection, then release. The range
between the initial and final scrub becomes
selected.
To move a selection to an adjacent region on
the same track:
1 Select a region with the Grabber.
2 Press Control+Tab (Macintosh) or
Start+Tab (Windows) to move the selection
to the next region.
– or –
Region List Selection Follows
Track Selection
When the Editing Preference for “Region
List Selection Follows Track Selection” is
enabled, selecting a region in a track also
causes the region to become selected in the
Audio or MIDI Regions List.
Conversely, if the Editing Preference for
“Track Selection Follows Region List Selection” is enabled, selecting a region in the
Audio or MIDI Regions List causes the initial occurrence of that region to become selected within the track.
Press Control+Option+Tab (Macintosh) or
Start+Control+Tab (Windows) to move the
selection to the previous region.
In either instance, the original region becomes deselected.
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 169
Playing Selections
Once an Edit selection is made, you can audition the track range by clicking Play in
the Transport window. If enabled, the preand post-roll amounts play as well.
lows you to quickly check, for instance,
whether the beginning or end of a selection includes any unwanted clicks or pops.
To play a selection:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link
plays start
(for post amount)
Edit and Timeline Selection.
plays end
(for pre amount)
2 With the Selector or Grabber, make a
track selection.
plays pre-roll + start
plays end + post-roll
3 If desired, enable and set the pre- and
Playback ranges for auditioning start/end points
post-roll amounts. For details, see “Setting
Pre/Post-Roll” on page 97.
To audition a selection start point:
4 Click Play in the Transport window.
All tracks plays for the range of the selection, including pre/post-roll if enabled.
■ Press Command+Left Arrow (Macintosh)
or Control+Left Arrow (Windows).
Auditioning Pre- and Post-Roll
When auditioning the beginning of a selection, the selection plays from the start
point for a duration equal to the post-roll
amount.
You can audition and play just the pre-roll
or post-roll material for a selection.
To audition a selection start point with
pre-roll:
To play from the pre-roll point to the start of a
selection, or to the current cursor location:
■ Press Option+Left Arrow (Macintosh) or
Alt+Left Arrow (Windows).
Press Command+Option+Left Arrow
(Macintosh) or Control+Alt+Left Arrow
(Windows).
■
To audition a selection end point:
To play to the post-roll point from the end of a
selection, or from the current cursor location:
■ Press Option+Right Arrow (Macintosh)
or Alt+Right Arrow (Windows).
■ Press Command+Right Arrow (Macintosh) or Control+Right Arrow (Windows).
When auditioning the end of a selection,
playback begins before the end point by
the pre-roll amount.
Auditioning Start and End Points for
Selections
To audition a selection end point with
post-roll:
There may be times when you want to audition the start or end of a selection without hearing the entire selection. This al170 Pro Tools Reference Guide
■ Press Command+Option+Right Arrow
(Macintosh) or Control+Alt+Right Arrow
(Windows).
Looping Playback
When Loop Playback is enabled, the selected track range repeats on playback. If
there is no selection, playback occurs normally from the current cursor location.
Playback begins from the pre-roll point (if
enabled) and continues to the selection’s
end point, where it loops back to the start
point.
5 Click Stop in the Transport window to
stop playback.
▲ A selection must be at least 1 second in
length for it to loop on playback.
Looping playback is a useful way to check
the rhythmic continuity of a selection
when working with musical material. If
you’re working with one-bar selections,
you can loop playback to see if the material
loops cleanly. If it seems to skip, you
should then adjust the length of the selection until it works “musically” within the
context of the playlist and the other tracks.
To loop playback of a selection:
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
2 With the Selector, select the track range
you want to loop.
3 Select Operations > Loop Playback.
When enabled, a loop symbol appears in
the Play button in the Transport window.
Loop Playback enabled
✽ You can also enable Loop Playback by Con-
trol-clicking (Macintosh) or Right-clicking (Windows) the Play button in the Transport window.
Or, with the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, press 4 on the numeric keypad.
Loop Playback and Audio Recording
When Loop Playback is enabled, Pro Tools
will not loop when attempting to record
audio tracks with QuickPunch, Destructive
Record, or Nondestructive Record mode.
To loop record audio tracks in Pro Tools,
you must enable Loop Record mode.
Timeline Selections
With the Edit and Timeline selections unlinked, selections can be made in the Timeline that are distinct and separate from Edit
selections.
With the Edit and Timeline selections
linked, any Edit selections that are made
are mirrored in the Timeline.
Whether the Edit and Timeline selections
are linked or not, the range indicated by
the Playback Markers always determines
the range for playback and recording.
▲ For TDM systems, when Continuous Scroll
with Playhead is enabled, it determines where
playback begins. For details, see “Playing Edit
and Timeline Selections with the Playhead” on
page 173.
4 Click Play in the Transport window.
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 171
To make a Timeline selection with the
Selector:
To set the Timeline selection by typing into
the Transport window:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
1 If necessary, resize the Transport window
by clicking in the upper right so the start
and end times are displayed.
2 Drag with the Selector in any Timebase
2 In the Transport window, click in the
Ruler.
start field.
– or –
Making a Timeline selection with the Selector
The Timeline selection is indicated in the
Ruler by the blue Playback Markers (red if a
track is record-enabled). The start, end, and
length for the Timeline selection is displayed in the corresponding fields in the
Transport window.
✽ To select all tracks, including Conductor
tracks, press Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows) while dragging in a Timebase Ruler with
the Selector.
Press Option-slash (Macintosh) or Alt-slash
(Windows) to select the start field in the
Transport window.
3 Type in the new start location and press
slash to enter the value and automatically
move to the end field.
4 Type in the new end location and press
Enter to accept the value.
✽ Use the period (.) or Left/Right Arrow keys
to move through the different time fields for
start/end. Use the Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease the numerical values.
Sliding a Timeline Selection
To set the Timeline selection by dragging the
Playback Markers:
Like Edit selections, Timeline selections
can be slid in the Ruler.
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain movement to the current Grid
value.
To move a Timeline selection in the Ruler:
2 With the Grabber, drag the first Playback
Alt (Windows), move the cursor over either
of the Playback Markers (the Grabber appears).
Marker (down arrow) to set the start point.
1 While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
2 Drag left or right to move the Timeline
selection back or forward in time, while
preserving its length.
Dragging a Playback Marker
3 Drag the other Playback Marker (up ar-
row) to set the end point.
172 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Timeline Selections to/from Edit
Selections
When the Edit and Timeline selections are
unlinked, you can copy selections between
them.
To copy an Edit selection to the Timeline:
■ Choose Operations > Copy Edit Selection
to Timeline.
4 Choose Operations > Play Edit Selection.
The Playhead jumps to the Edit selection
and plays it from beginning to end, and
then stops.
To play a Timeline selection with the
Playhead enabled:
1 Deselect Operations > Linked Edit and
Timeline Selections.
2 Select Operations > Scroll Options > Con-
To copy a Timeline selection to an Edit
selection:
Choose Operations > Copy Timeline Selection to Edit.
■
tinuous Scroll with Playhead.
3 Drag with the Selector in any Timebase
Ruler to set the play range.
4 Choose Operations > Play Timeline Selection.
Playing Edit and Timeline
Selections with the
Playhead
The Playhead jumps to the Timeline selection and plays it from beginning to end,
and then stops.
(TDM Systems Only)
Moving the Playhead
When Continuous Scroll with Playhead is
enabled, selections in the Timeline do not
determine when playback begins. The Playhead, itself, denotes where playback begins
when clicking Play in the Transport.
When Continuous Scroll with Playhead is
enabled, the Playhead can be moved forward or back to the next region boundary
in the selected track.
The Edit and Timeline selections, however,
can still be played when the Playhead is enabled.
To move the Playhead through a track’s
region boundaries:
1 Click in the track with the Selector.
2 Press Tab to move the Playhead forward
To play an Edit selection with the Playhead
enabled:
to the next region boundary.
– or –
1 Deselect Operations > Linked Edit and
Press Option+Tab (Macintosh) or Control+Tab (Windows) to move the Playhead
back to the previous region boundary.
Timeline Selections.
2 Select Operations > Scroll Options > Con-
tinuous Scroll with Playhead.
3 With the Selector or Grabber, make a
track selection.
Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material 173
174 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 15
Working with Regions and Selections
Because regions are the basic building
block of audio and MIDI tracks, understanding how they are created, edited, and
arranged is essential to taking full advantage of the editing capabilities of Pro Tools.
This chapter covers basic editing functions
as they apply to regions and selections. The
material, for the most part, applies to both
MIDI and audio data.
For editing procedures more specific to
MIDI, see Chapter 16: MIDI Editing. For
more advanced editing procedures, see
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing. You should,
however, become familiar with the information in this chapter before moving on to
the others.
Capture Region Command
The Capture Region command defines a selection as a new region and adds it to the
Regions List. From there, the new region
can be dragged to any existing tracks.
To capture a new region:
1 With the Selector, drag within an exist-
ing region to select the material for the new
region.
Selecting a region portion
2 Choose Edit > Capture Region.
3 Enter a name for the new region and
Creating New Regions
Pro Tools provides you with several commands for creating regions, each of them
having a slightly different effect on the selection. When you create a new region, it
appears in the Regions List and in the
track’s playlist. For details on how these
new regions are automatically named, see
“Auto-Naming Parameters” on page 197.
click OK.
The new region appears in the Regions List.
The selected region portion remains intact
and unchanged.
Separate Region Command
The Separate Region command defines a selection within an existing region as a new
region and separates it from adjacent material. If there is no selection, the region is
split at the insertion point.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 175
Auto-Name Separated Regions
Separation Grabber
With the Auto-Name Separated Regions
option in the Editing Preferences selected,
Pro Tools automatically names separated
regions for you. The name is a numbered
variation of the original region’s name.
(TDM Systems Only)
To separate a new region:
1 With the Selector, drag within an exist-
ing region to select the material for the new
region.
– or –
Click with the Selector at the point where
you want to split the region in two.
You can use the Separation Grabber to automatically separate an edit selection and
move it to another location or another
track.
To separate a selection from a region with the
Separation Grabber:
1 With the Selector, drag within an exist-
ing region to select the material for the new
region.
2 From the Grabber pop-up, choose the
Separation Grabber.
2 Choose Edit > Separate Region.
3 If the Editing Preference for Auto-Name
Separated Regions is disabled, enter a name
for the new region when prompted, then
click OK.
The new region appears in the track in
which it was created, separate from the
data surrounding it. It also appears in the
Regions List. From there it can be dragged
to other tracks.
By separating a region, additional regions
are auto-created from data on either side of
the separation, which have new numbers
assigned to their names.
Separation Grabber
3 Drag the selection to the new location, or
to another track.
before
after
☞ If the Editing Preference for “Separate Re-
gion Operates On All Related Takes” is selected and you are editing a region that is one
of a number of related takes with the same
User Time Stamp (created with loop recording,
for example), the Separate Region command
affects each take. For details see, “Editing
Preferences and Take Regions” on page 95.
176 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Dragging later in track with Separation Grabber
A new region containing the previous selection is created, separate from the original region. New regions are also created
from the material outside the original selection.
To turn a selection into a region without
affecting the original region:
1 With the Selector, drag within an exist-
ing region to select the material for the new
region.
2 From the Grabber pop-up, choose the
Separation Grabber.
3 While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), drag the selection to the
new location, or to another track.
Healing a Separation
The Heal Separation command returns separated regions to their original state—provided the regions are still next to each
other and their relative start/end points haven’t changed since the separation.
If you have trimmed or otherwise changed
the start or end points of the two regions,
or moved them further away from each
other, you won’t be able to repair them
with the Heal Separation command. It is
not possible to heal two regions created
from different audio files.
To heal a separation between two regions:
1 With the Selector, make a selection that
Dragging to another track with Separation Grabber
A new region containing the previous selection is created and placed at the new location. The original selection and region
remain intact.
Trim To Selection Command
The Trim To Selection command removes
data before and after a region or MIDI note
selection, leaving only the selection. This
command provides a handy means of
quickly removing all data in a region (and
in some instances the entire track) except
for the current selection.
To trim unwanted data from a region or note:
1 With the Selector, select a portion of a region or note (or a range of notes).
includes part of the first region, the entire
separation between the regions, and part of
the second region.
2 Choose Edit > Heal Separation.
If the regions won’t heal, there are other
ways to return the separated regions to a
single region.
◆ Delete one of the two separated regions
(make sure you’re in Slip mode so the gap
doesn’t close) and use the Trimmer to expand the remaining region to its original
length. For information on using the Trimmer, see “The Trimmer Tool” on page 180.
– or –
◆ Delete both of the separated regions and
drag the original region from the Regions
List to the original location. For information on placing regions, see “Placing Regions in Tracks” on page 178.
2 Choose Edit > Trim > To Selection to re-
move material outside of the selection.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 177
Placing Regions in Tracks
Once you have created a region, it appears
in the Audio or MIDI Regions List. From
there you can drag it to a track to add to an
existing arrangement of regions, or you can
create a new track and start adding regions
from scratch. The exact placement of regions in a track depends on whether the
Edit mode is set to Shuffle, Slip, Spot, or
Grid (see “Edit Modes” on page 145 for details).
For information on locating regions in the
Regions List by typing the first few letters
of their name, see “Keyboard Selection of
Regions” on page 144.
To place a region in a track:
1 In the Audio or MIDI Regions list, select
the region you want to drag to a track. To
select more than one region, Shift-click
each additional region.
2 Drag the selected regions from the Re-
gions List to a track at the desired point.
• In Grid mode, the dragged region snaps
to the nearest Grid boundary.
• In Slip mode, the regions are placed
freely anywhere in the destination track.
☞ Use the Replace Region function to replace
all occurrences of a region (in all tracks) with a
different region from the Regions List. See
“Replacing Regions” on page 261.
Placing Regions at the Edit
Insertion Point
You can easily place and align a region’s
start, end, or sync point to the Edit insertion point. This technique is useful in post
production applications since it allows you
to set a reference point and quickly place
sound effects while ensuring that their start
point remains consistent.
You can drag a region from the same track,
from another track, or from the Audio or
MIDI Regions List.
▲ For TDM systems, when Continuous Scroll
If dragging multiple regions, the regions
are placed on adjacent tracks. This technique is useful for dragging regions that are
part of a stereo pair onto two tracks, keeping them lined up and in phase.
with Playhead is selected, regions snap to the
playhead, instead of the Edit insertion point.
Regions are placed according to the current
Edit mode:
• In Shuffle mode, existing track regions
are slid as necessary to make room for the
new region.
• In Spot mode, you are prompted by the
Spot dialog to enter a location for the
dragged region (see “Spotting Regions”
on page 184).
1 Click with the Selector in the track at the
desired time location.
178 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To place the start of a region at the Edit
insertion point:
2 While pressing Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows), drag the region
from the Regions list, or from another
track, to the destination track.
– or –
If the region is already in the track, Control-click (Macintosh) or Start-click (Windows) the region with the Grabber.
To place the end of a region at the Edit
insertion point:
To align the start points of regions on
different tracks:
1 Click with the Selector in the track at the
desired time location.
1 With the Grabber, select the region you
2 While pressing Command+Control
2 For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll
(Macintosh) or Control+Start key (Windows), drag the region from the Regions
list, or from another track, to the destination track.
– or –
with Playhead is enabled, move the playhead to the start of the selected region. For
details, see “Moving the Playhead” on
page 173.
If the region is already in the track, Command-Control-click (Macintosh) or Control-Start-click (Windows) the region with
the Grabber.
To place the sync point of a region at the Edit
insertion point:
1 Click with the Selector in the track at the
desired time location.
2 While pressing Shift+Control (Mac-
intosh) or Shift+Start key (Windows), drag
the region from the Regions list, or from
another track, to the destination track.
– or –
If the region is already in the track, ShiftControl-click (Macintosh) or Shift-Startclick (Windows) the region with the Grabber.
want to align to by clicking it.
3 With the Grabber, Control-click (Mac-
intosh) or Start-click (Windows) the region
to be moved.
– or –
Control-drag (Macintosh) or Start-drag
(Windows) a region from the Regions List
to another track.
The start point of the second region is
aligned to the start of the first region.
To align the end point of a region to the start
of another region (on a different track):
1 With the Grabber, select the region you
want to align to by clicking it.
2 For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll
with Playhead is enabled, move the playhead to the start of the selected region. For
details, see “Moving the Playhead” on
page 173.
3 With the Grabber, Command-Control-
Aligning to Region Start Points
The start, end, and sync point of one region can be aligned to the start of a different region on another track.
▲ For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll with
Playhead is enabled, region start, end, and
sync points always align to the playhead.
click (Macintosh) or Control-Start-click
(Windows) the region to be moved.
– or –
Command-Control-drag (Macintosh) or
Control-Start-drag (Windows) a region
from the Regions List to another track.
The end point of the second region is
aligned to the start of the first region.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 179
To align the sync point of a region to the start
of another region (on a different track):
1 With the Grabber, select the region you
want to align to by clicking it.
2 For TDM systems, if Continuous Scroll
with Playhead is enabled, move the playhead to the start of the selected region. For
details, see “Moving the Playhead” on
page 173.
3 With the Grabber, Shift-Control-click
(Macintosh) or Shift-Start-click (Windows)
the region to be moved.
– or –
Use of the Trimmer is affected by the current Edit mode: Shuffle, Slip, Spot, or Grid.
See “Edit Modes” on page 145 for more information.
✽ The Standard Trimmer can also be used to
lengthen and shorten MIDI notes (see “Trimming Note Start and End Times” on
page 204), and also to scale automation and
controller data up or down “Editing Automation” on page 301.
▲ For TDM systems, the Trimmer has three
Shift-Control-drag (Macintosh) or ShiftStart-drag (Windows) a region from the Regions List to another track.
modes: Standard Trimmer (discussed in this
section), Scrub Trimmer (see “The Scrub Trimmer” on page 181), and Time Trimmer (see
“The Time Trimmer” on page 258).
The sync point of the second region is
aligned to the start of the first region.
To trim a region:
1 Select the Trimmer tool.
The Trimmer Tool
Standard Trimmer
Standard Trimmer
With the Trimmer tool, you can quickly
shorten or expand a region (up to the entire length of the source audio file). The
first time you trim a region, Pro Tools automatically adds it to the Regions List as a
new region (with a name derived from the
original) in order to differentiate it from
the original.
▲ For TDM systems, make sure the Standard
The Trimmer is a nondestructive tool and
doesn’t actually modify the original audio
or MIDI data (when working on regions).
To return to the length of the original region, drag it from the Regions List, or resize
the edited region with the Trimmer to its
original length.
180 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Trimmer is selected in the Trimmer pop-up
menu.
2 Move the cursor near the start or end of
the region, so the Trim cursor appears.
Trim cursor
✽ To reverse the direction of the Trim cursor,
press Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows).
3 If trimming the end, drag left to shorten
the region, right to lengthen.
– or –
If trimming the start, drag right to shorten
the region, left to lengthen.
When using Shuffle mode, adjacent regions are slid as necessary to make room for
the edited region. If using Grid mode, the
dragged start/end times snap to the nearest
Grid boundary. If using Spot mode, the
Spot dialog opens, where you can enter the
new location for the region’s start or end
point.
The Scrub Trimmer
(TDM Systems Only)
The Scrub Trimmer is a convenient tool for
auditioning material (on up to two tracks)
to find a trim point. You can click on a
track and drag to hear the audio information, then trim at a specific location by releasing the mouse button.
This action creates a new region. Note that
the cursor changes into a “right trim” or
“left trim” shape as it is placed over the
right or left side of a region. To reverse the
direction of the Scrub Trimmer, press Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows) before
you click on the region.
Scrub playback speed and direction vary
with controller movement. Scrubbed audio
is routed through the track signal path, so
you hear any effects in the signal path.
To scrub trim a track:
1 Click the Scrub Trimmer tool. The cursor
changes to a speaker with a bracket.
2 Drag within a track to the left or right.
Audio from a scrubbed track is routed
through the track signal path, including
any TDM effects. When you locate the desired trim point, release the mouse button
to trim the region.
To scrub trim two tracks, click with the
Scrub Trimmer between two adjacent
tracks and drag.
To scrub with finer resolution (without
having to zoom in), press Command (Macintosh) or Control (Windows) while scrubbing.
Trim To Insertion Command
You can trim a region or MIDI note by automatically removing the material between
the Edit insertion point and the start or end
point.
Scrub Trimmer over a region
Region end trimmed to insertion
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 181
To trim from a start point to insertion:
1 With the Selector, click inside the region
or note where you want the new start point
to be.
2 Choose Edit > Trim > Start To Insertion.
The region’s start point is automatically
trimmed to the insertion point.
To trim from an end point to insertion:
1 With the Selector, click inside the region
Moving Regions
A region or group of selected regions (on
the same track or on multiple tracks) can be
moved with the Grabber tool. This feature
is useful in music and post production applications where the timing of audio events
such as sound effects and dialog need to be
spotted to music, film, or video.
2 Choose Edit > Trim > End To Insertion.
Moving and placing regions is affected by
whether the current Edit mode is set to
Shuffle, Slip, Spot, or Grid. See “Edit
Modes” on page 145 for details.
The region’s end point is automatically
trimmed to the insertion point.
✽ You can drag a copy of a region to another
or note where you want the new end point
to be.
Trimming with Nudge
You can trim the start and end points of a
region by nudging them.
To trim a region’s start or end point by the
Nudge value:
1 Configure the Nudge value as desired. For
details, see “Defining the Nudge Value” on
page 187.
2 With the Grabber, select the region you
want to trim.
3 While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), press Plus or Minus on the
numeric keypad to trim the region’s start
point by the Nudge value.
– or –
While pressing Command (Macintosh) or
Control (Windows), press Plus or Minus on
the numeric keypad to trim the region’s
end point by the Nudge value.
182 Pro Tools Reference Guide
location or track by pressing Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows) while dragging.
Region Sync Points
The placement of regions in Grid and Spot
mode can be based on the definition of a
region sync point. Sync points are used
when a point within a region must be
aligned to the Grid or to a particular SMPTE
or bar/beat location. This capability is important in placing music and sound effects
for film and video work.
For example, suppose you had an audio region for a door slam that included the
creak of the door closing, the actual slam,
and the reverb of the slam. You may want
want to align the “slam” to other locations
within the session.
To identify a region sync point:
To shuffle regions:
1 Set the Edit mode to Slip by clicking its
1 Set the Edit mode to Shuffle by clicking
button in the upper left of the Edit window.
its button in the upper left of the Edit window.
2 With the Selector, click in the region at
the point, usually the peak of the waveform, where you want to define the sync
point.
2 Drag a region from the Regions List to an
3 Choose Edit > Identify Sync Point. A
3 Drag a second region from the Regions
small down arrow appears at the bottom of
the region, indicating the location of the
sync point.
List to the same track, somewhere in the
middle. The start point for the second region snaps to the end of the first region.
empty track. The region snaps to the beginning of the track.
4 With the Grabber, drag the second region
to the beginning of the track.
Sync point defined
To remove a sync point, select the region
and choose Edit > Remove Sync Point.
Shuffling Regions
In Shuffle mode, you can move regions
freely within a track or onto another track,
but their movement is constrained by
other regions. That is, if you place several
regions in a track, their start and end points
automatically snap to each other. You can
then “shuffle” their order, but you cannot
separate them from each other and you
cannot make them overlap as in Slip mode.
In Shuffle mode, adding another region to
the beginning of a track moves all subsequent regions to the right by the length of
the region added.
Regions placed in Shuffle mode
Pro Tools “shuffles” the position of the two
regions. The second region now occurs
first, yet the two still cling together.
Experiment more with Shuffle mode by
dragging additional regions to the track
and rearranging them.
Locked regions (see “Locking Regions” on
page 189), and all regions occurring after
the locked region, are not displaced when
other neighboring regions are moved in
Shuffle mode. If there is not enough room
to place or duplicate a region in front of a
locked region, the insertion area is disabled.
If you place a region in Slip mode and
switch to Shuffle mode, Pro Tools preserves
the relative timing and position of the
slipped region, and any blank space between it and other regions.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 183
Moving Regions in Slip Mode
In Slip mode, regions can be moved with
the Grabber freely within a track, or onto
other tracks. In this mode it is possible to
place a region so that there is space between it and other regions in a track. When
the track is played back, this space is silent.
It is also possible to move a region so that it
overlaps or completely covers another region.
To slip regions:
1 Set the Edit mode to Slip by clicking its
button in the upper left of the Edit window.
☞ For even quicker spotting, if you are using
VITC, use the Auto-Spot Regions command to
spot a region to the current SMPTE frame location with the Grabber. For more information,
see “Auto-Spotting Regions” on page 360.
To spot a region:
1 Set the Edit mode to Spot by clicking its
button in the upper left of the Edit window.
2 Drag a region from the Regions List to an
existing track.
– or –
2 Drag a region from the Regions List to an
Click on a region already in a track with the
Grabber.
empty track.
3 In the Spot dialog, select the desired time
3 Drag a second region from the Regions
format from the Time Scale pop-up menu.
List to the same track, somewhere in the
middle. The second region is placed wherever you release it. It doesn’t snap to the
first region as in Shuffle mode.
Drag the regions to different locations
within the track to get a feel for moving
them in Slip mode. Try placing the second
region so that it slightly overlaps the first
region. Play back the results.
Spotting Regions
Spot mode is useful for sessions in which
you want to spot regions to precise locations based on any of the Time Scales. This
can be particularly useful when performing
post production tasks with SMPTE frame
locations. In Spot mode you can spot a region by specifying a SMPTE frame or
bar/beat location, by capturing an incoming time code address, or by using the region’s time stamps.
184 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Spot dialog
Each of the fields in the Spot dialog are displayed in the chosen Time Scale.
4 If the Time Scale is set to Time Code, se-
lect the Use Subframes option to display
subframes in the fields for great accuracy.
5 Click in the field for Start, Sync Point, or
End and type in a new location.
– or –
Click one of the up arrows next to Original
Time Stamp or User Time Stamp to enter
the associated values into the currently selected field.
– or –
If you are using an external SMPTE time
code source, click the down arrow next to
the Current Time Code display (or press
Equal (=) on the numeric keypad) to capture an incoming time code address.
6 Click OK. The region is moved to the new
location specified for its start or sync point.
✽ If a region does not have a sync point de-
fined, the Sync Point field in the Spot dialog
functions the same as the Start field.
To learn more about using SMPTE with
Pro Tools, refer to Chapter 24: Time Code
Synchronization.
Region Time Stamps
When a region is created, it is time stamped
relative to the SMPTE start time specified
for the session. This Original Time Stamp is
permanently stored with the region and
cannot be changed. If a region is ever
moved, it can easily be placed at its original
position from the Spot dialog.
When the Original Time Stamp for a region
is initially set, this same location is also
used to define the region’s User Time
Stamp.
Unlike the Original Time Stamp, the User
Time Stamp can be redefined with the
Time Stamp Selected command in the Regions List pop-up menu. For more information, see “Time Stamping” on page 361.
Regions with identical User Time Stamps
appear together in the Takes List pop-up
when auditioning takes. For more information, see “Auditioning from the Takes List
Pop-up Menu” on page 94.
Moving Regions in Grid Mode
In Grid mode, the movement and placement of regions is constrained to the current Grid value. Grid boundaries, depending on the Main Time Scale, can be based
on frames, bar and beat values, minutes or
seconds, or a number of samples.
This mode is especially useful for lining up
regions at precise intervals, as when working with a session that is bar/beat based.
For example, if the Grid value is set to quarter-notes (0|1|000), dragging a region to a
new location causes it to snap to the nearest quarter-note boundary.
When the Display Preference for “Draw
Grid in Edit Window” is enabled, vertical
Grid lines appear in the Edit window.
✽ Grid lines in the Edit window can also be en-
abled and disabled by Control-clicking (Macintosh) or Right-clicking (Windows) the
Indicator Dot for any Timebase Ruler.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 185
Defining the Grid Value
To place or move a region while in Grid mode:
In addition to affecting the placement of
regions, the Grid value also constrains Edit
and Timeline selections, and determines
how the Quantize Regions command
works.
1 Configure the Grid value as desired. For
To set the Grid value:
1 From the Display menu, select the Time
Scale you will use for the Grid value.
– or –
To keep the Main Time Scale and use a different time format for the Grid, deselect
Follow Main Timebase in the Grid Value
pop-up in the upper right of the Edit window.
2 From the Grid Value pop-up in the upper
right of the Edit window, select the time
value that will define the Grid boundaries.
details, see “Defining the Grid Value” on
page 186.
2 Drag a region from the Regions List to an
existing track.
– or –
With the Grabber, drag a region already in
a track to a new location.
The region’s start point snaps to the closest
Grid boundary. If the region has a sync
point defined, the sync point snaps to the
Grid boundary.
Nudging
Pro Tools allows you to nudge regions and
selections (or MIDI notes) by precise increments with the Plus and Minus keys on the
numeric keypad. The amount of the nudge
is determined by the value specified in the
Nudge pop-up menu. The Nudge function
can be used in any of the Edit modes.
Nudging can be invaluable for adjusting
the “groove” of a musical phrase or a sound
effect relative to other elements in the session. Since Pro Tools lets you nudge material during playback, you can nudge continuously in real time to adjust the timing
relationship between tracks.
Grid Value pop-up showing Bars:Beats
– or –
To define a Grid based on the session’s
Markers, selections, and region boundaries,
select Regions/Markers from the Grid Value
pop-up.
186 Pro Tools Reference Guide
☞ Nudge can also be used to adjust the place-
ment of automation breakpoints. For more information, see “Editing Automation” on
page 301.
Defining the Nudge Value
To nudge a selection or region:
The Nudge value determines how far regions and selections are moved when
nudging.
1 Configure the Nudge value as desired. For
Start and end points for selections can also
be moved by the Nudge value (see “Nudging Selection Start/End Points” on
page 165). In addition, regions can be
trimmed by the Nudge value (see “Trimming with Nudge” on page 182).
To set the Nudge value:
1 From the Display menu, select the Time
Scale you will use for the Nudge value.
– or –
details, see “Defining the Nudge Value” on
page 187.
2 Using either the Selector or Grabber, se-
lect the track material to be nudged. The selected material can even reside on multiple
tracks.
3 On the numeric keypad, press Plus (+) to
move the selection forward by the Nudge
value.
– or –
Press Minus (-) to move the selection back
by the Nudge Value.
To keep the Main Time Scale and use a different time format for the Nudge value, deselect Follow Main Timebase in the Nudge
pop-up in the upper right of the Edit window.
The Nudge command works the same regardless of the Edit mode. Adjacent regions
are overlapped in Shuffle mode, the Spot
dialog does not appear when in Spot mode,
and shifted material does not snap to the
Grid when in Grid mode.
2 From the Nudge pop-up menu in the upper right of the Edit window, select the
Nudge value.
Nudging by Next Nudge Value (TDM
Systems Only)
In addition to nudging by the current
Nudge Value, you can also nudge by the
next value in the Nudge pop-up.
For example, if the Nudge Value is set to
1 frame and you want to nudge by a larger
valuer, you can nudge by the next Nudge
Value of 10 frames.
Nudge pop-up showing Time Code
To specify a Nudge value not listed in the
Nudge pop-up, click in the Nudge field and
type in the value.
To nudge forward or back by the next Nudge
Value:
1 Enable the Key Commands Focus by
clicking the a-z button in the upper left of
the Edit window.
2 With the Selector or Grabber, select the
regions or notes you want to nudge.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 187
3 Press slash (/) to nudge the selected ma-
2 With the Grabber, select the region
terial forward by the next Nudge Value.
Press M to nudge the selection back.
whose contents you want to nudge.
✽ You can also nudge by the next Nudge Value
without enabling the Commands Key Focus.
While pressing Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows), press slash or M.
3 While pressing Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows), press Plus or Minus on the numeric keypad to move the
material by the Nudge value.
Shift Command
Nudging a Region’s Contents
Often a region’s start point will reside at
the correct location, perhaps at a SMPTE
frame or bar, but the material within the region starts too late or early. You can, in effect, nudge a region’s audio waveform or
MIDI notes without displacing the region’s
start and end points.
This “sliding” of region contents is only
possible if there is material residing outside
the region’s start and end points—from the
region having been trimmed, or perhaps
captured from a larger region.
before
region contents are slid, moving waveform
material into and out of the current region
boundaries
Use the Shift command to move track material forward or back in time by a specified
amount. The Shift command can operate
on regions, MIDI notes, MIDI controller
data, and automation breakpoints.
To shift a selection or region:
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, se-
lect the track material to be shifted. The selected material can even reside on multiple
tracks.
2 Choose Edit > Shift. In the Shift dialog,
select whether the data will be moved Earlier or Later.
3 Click in one of the Timebase fields to
specify the amount the material will be
shifted. Entering a value in one Timebase
field automatically updates the others.
after
Nudging region content
To nudge the contents of a region without
changing the region start/end points:
1 Configure the Nudge value as desired. For
details, see “Defining the Nudge Value” on
page 187.
188 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Shift dialog
4 If desired, select the Use Subframes op-
tion for greater accuracy.
5 Click OK. The material is shifted back or
relationships. To quantize individual MIDI
notes, use the Quantize command in the
MIDI menu (see “Quantize” on page 214).
forward by the specified amount.
If a portion of a region was selected, new regions are created from the selection and
from any material outside of the selection.
The Shift command works the same regardless of the Edit mode. Adjacent regions are
overlapped in Shuffle mode, the Spot dialog does not appear when in Spot mode,
and shifted material does not snap to the
Grid when in Grid mode.
Locking Regions
If you have a region or group of regions
that you want to permanently associate
with a particular location in a track (a beat,
SMPTE frame, or sample location), you can
lock it in place so it will not be accidentally
moved.
To lock a region:
Quantizing Regions
The Quantize Regions command allows
you to adjust the placement of selected
audio and MIDI regions so that their start
points (or sync points, if they contain one)
precisely align to the nearest Grid boundary, which can be based on frames, bar and
beat values, minutes or seconds, or a number of samples.
To quantize one or more regions:
1 Configure the Grid value as desired. For
details, see “Defining the Grid Value” on
page 186.
2 With the Grabber or Selector, select the
region or regions to be quantized.
3 Choose Edit > Quantize Regions. Region
start times (or sync points) are aligned to
the boundaries for the defined Grid.
For MIDI regions, all data contained within
the regions (such as notes) are moved
equally, thereby retaining their rhythmic
1 With the Grabber, select the region or regions to be locked.
2 Choose Edit > Lock Region/Unlock Re-
gion.
Locked audio region
A small lock appears in the region, indicating it has been locked and cannot be
moved. If you attempt to perform edits
that would move a locked region, Pro Tools
alerts you.
In Shuffle mode, locked regions, and all regions occurring after the locked region, are
not displaced when other neighboring regions are moved. If there is not enough
room to place or duplicate a region in front
of a locked region, the insertion area is disabled.
▲ Locking a region prevents it from being
moved only—operations such as recording
and automation editing still affect it.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 189
Muting/Unmuting Regions
Choosing the Mute/Unmute Region command mutes playback of a selected region.
Choosing the command a second time unmutes the region. Regions that are muted
become dimmed to indicate their status.
When cutting or copying track material,
the track’s Display Format determines the
type of data placed on the Clipboard.
When displaying waveforms for audio
tracks, or notes or regions for MIDI tracks,
selections include all underlying automation and controller data. Thus, cutting an
audio region also cuts any Volume, Pan,
Mute, Send, or Plug-In automation that is
also on the track. This saves you from having to individually cut from each automation playlist on the track.
Muted audio region (middle)
To mute a region or regions:
1 With the Grabber, select the region or regions you want to mute.
2 Choose Edit > Mute/Unmute Region. The
Audio waveform data
selected regions become dimmed, indicating they are muted.
To unmute a region, select it and choose
Edit > Mute/Unmute Region.
Automation data (breakpoint-type data)
Edit Commands
Cut, Copy, Clear, and Paste
Use the Cut, Copy and Paste commands to
rearrange and edit track material. Edits can
operate on entire regions selected with the
Grabber, or on track ranges selected with
the Selector. Edits can also work across
multiple tracks (see “Editing across Multiple Tracks” on page 193).
✽ For TDM systems, you can cut, copy, and
paste discontiguous regions selected with the
Object Grabber.
190 Pro Tools Reference Guide
However, when selecting groups of MIDI
notes with the Grabber (by drawing a rectangle around them), only the note data is
placed on the Clipboard. When selecting a
time range of MIDI notes with the Selector,
all controller data in the track is selected
(similar to selecting with the Selector for
audio tracks in Waveform view).
When a track is displaying automation
data or controller data, only that data is
placed on the Clipboard. Also, whenever
you cut or copy automation data, bounding breakpoints are created at each end of
the selected area, in order to preserve the
slope of the automation both inside and
outside the selection.
If tracks are grouped, copying and pasting
on any of the tracks affects each of the
other tracks in the group. Tracks that are
hidden—even if they are part of a group being edited—are not affected by edits.
The current Edit mode affects how material
is selected, copied, and pasted:
• In Slip mode, the Cut command leaves
an empty space corresponding to the
data removed from the track.
• In Shuffle mode, the Cut command
leaves no empty space, since the regions
to the right of the cut slide over, closing
the gap.
• In Slip mode, pasted data can overlap an
adjacent region.
• In Shuffle mode, pasted data causes all
regions to slide over to make room for
the pasted material.
New regions are often auto-created when
performing edits. For instance, when clearing a selection from a region, new regions
are auto-created from the material residing
outside of the selection.
and controller data. If the track is displaying automation data, only the automation
data is affected by the edits.
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to se-
lect the material you want to clear.
– or –
Use the Grabber to select one or more regions (or a group of MIDI notes).
4 Choose Edit > Clear to remove the selec-
tion.
If a portion of a region was cleared, new regions are auto-created from the material residing outside of the selection. If working
in Shuffle mode, adjacent regions are slid
over, as necessary, to fill the blank space.
Cut and Copy Commands
Use the Copy command to place a selection on the Clipboard so it can be pasted to
another track, or to the same track at a different location.
Use the Cut command to place the selection on the Clipboard while also removing
it from the track.
Clear Command
Use the Clear command to remove a selection from a track without placing it on the
Clipboard.
To cut or copy a selection or region:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
To clear a selection or region:
2 Set the Display Format for the tracks you
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
want to edit.
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
When displaying waveforms for audio
tracks, or notes or regions for MIDI tracks,
selections include underlying automation
and controller data. If the track is displaying automation data, only the automation
data is affected by the edits.
2 Set the Display Format for the tracks you
want to edit.
When displaying waveforms for audio
tracks, or notes or regions for MIDI tracks,
selections include underlying automation
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 191
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to se-
lect the material you want to cut or copy.
– or –
Use the Grabber to select one or more regions (or a group of MIDI notes).
Paste Command
Use the Paste command to place the Clipboard’s contents at the Edit insertion point,
overwriting existing material already there.
4 Choose Edit > Cut to remove the selec-
To paste a selection or region:
tion and place it on the Clipboard.
– or –
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
Choose Edit > Copy to place the selection
on the Clipboard, without removing it.
If a portion of a region was cut or copied,
the material on the Clipboard appears as a
new region in the Regions List. If a portion
of a region was cut, new regions are autocreated from the material residing outside
of the selection.
When working in Shuffle mode, adjacent
regions are slid over, as necessary, to fill
blank spaces.
Deleting Underlying Region Data
In Slip mode, Regions can be placed so that
they overlap or completely cover other regions. When removing a region or selection, you can also remove the underlying
region data.
To delete a region or selection along with the
underlying region data:
■
constrain the insertion point or selection
to the current Grid value.
2 With the Selector, click in a track at the
point where you want to paste the material. Press Tab to move the insertion point
forward to region start and end times—to
move back, press Option+Tab (Macintosh)
or Control+Tab (Windows).
– or –
Use the Selector or Grabber to make a selection where the material will be placed.
3 Choose Copy > Paste.
If pasting at an insertion point in Shuffle
mode, material to the right of the paste
point is shifted to the right. In Slip mode,
the material is overwritten with the paste.
If pasting into a selection in Shuffle mode,
the selection is replaced by the Clipboard’s
contents with the adjacent material slid left
or right as necessary. In Slip mode, the selection is also replaced but with the surrounding material remaining unchanged.
Choose Edit > Cut.
☞ For TDM systems, the Fill Paste command
To delete a region or selection without
removing the underlying region data:
■
Choose Edit > Clear.
can be used to fill a selection with the contents of the Clipboard. For details, see “Repeat Paste To Fill Selection” on page 260.
☞ When working with MIDI, you can merge the
contents of the Clipboard with material in the
destination track. For details, see “Merge
Paste Command” on page 195.
192 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Copying and Pasting Automation
Following are two special functions for
copying and pasting automation data.
◆ To copy all automation playlists for a
track, press Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows) when copying from
any of the track’s automation playlists.
This special function also works across
multiple tracks.
To paste from one type of automation
playlist to another similar playlist (for instance, from a volume playlist to a send
level playlist), press Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows) when pasting.
◆
For more information on working with automation data, see Chapter 21: Automation.
Editing across Multiple Tracks
When working with data from multiple
tracks, there are some important points to
remember.
For instance, if any of the selected tracks
are set to display audio or MIDI regions (or
MIDI notes), edits affect not only MIDI and
audio for the selected tracks, but all automation and controller data as well.
Tracks displayed in different data formats
If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, edits only affect the type of
automation data displayed in each track.
Thus, if track 1 displays Pan automation,
track 2 displays Volume automation, and
track 3 displays Mute automation, the Cut
command cuts only pan data from track 1,
volume data from track 2, and mute data
from track 3.
✽ For details on selecting data on multiple
tracks, see “Making a Selection Across Multiple Tracks” on page 167.
When copying only automation or controller data for selected tracks, press Control (Macintosh) or the Start key (Windows) to copy all types of automation on
all selected tracks.
To paste to multiple tracks, place the insertion point in each of the destination tracks
by Shift-clicking in them—or to select all
tracks, Option-Shift-click (Macintosh) or
Alt-Shift-click (WIndows) in a track, or
make a selection in one of the Timebase
Rulers.
When you paste multiple types of data,
whatever data has been copied is pasted
into the correct type of playlist. Automation data is pasted into the appropriate automation playlist (pan, volume, mute and
so on). Audio/MIDI data is pasted into the
audio/MIDI playlist. You don’t need to set
target tracks to the specific type of data being pasted for the paste to work correctly.
If all destination tracks in a multitrack
paste are displayed as automation, the
paste replaces any previous data on the target track without shuffling—regardless of
whether you are in Slip or Shuffle mode.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 193
Duplicate Command
The Duplicate command copies a selection
and places it immediately after the end of
the selection. Though this is similar to using Copy and Paste, Duplicate is more convenient and faster, particularly when working with data on multiple tracks.
To make more than one copy of a selection,
use the Repeat command (see “Repeat
Command” on page 194).
As with the Copy and Paste commands,
certain rules apply when duplicating material on multiple tracks. For details, see “Editing across Multiple Tracks” on page 193.
To duplicate a selection or region:
1 If working with material that is bar- and
beat-based, such as loops, set the Main
Time Scale to Bars:Beats.
2 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
✽ When using Duplicate or Repeat with MIDI
notes that were selected with the Grabber, material is always duplicated one measure later,
and is merged with existing track material (instead of replacing).
Duplicating Audio
When using Duplicate or Repeat for audio
that must fall cleanly on the beat (for
loops), it is important that you select the
audio material with the Selector, or by typing in the start and end points in the Event
Edit area. If you select an audio region with
the Grabber (or by double-clicking it with
the Selector), the material may drift by several ticks because of sample-rounding.
If, on the other hand, you want to Duplicate or Repeat audio that is not bar- and
beat-based, set the Time Scale to any format except Bars:Beats. This ensures that the
duplicated audio material will have the
correct number of samples and will be
placed accordingly.
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to se-
lect the material you want to duplicate.
– or –
Click in the track and enter the start and
end points for the selection in the Event
Edit area.
4 Choose Edit > Duplicate. The material is
placed immediately after the selection’s
end point.
In Shuffle mode, the duplicated data is
placed directly after the end of the selection. Regions occurring after it are slid to
accommodate the duplicated material. In
Slip mode, the duplicated material overlaps
any adjacent data.
194 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Repeat Command
The Repeat command is similar to Duplicate, but allows you to specify the number
of times the selected material is duplicated.
As with the Copy and Paste commands,
certain rules apply when repeating material
on multiple tracks. For details, see “Editing
across Multiple Tracks” on page 193.
To repeat a selection or region:
1 If working with material that is bar- and
beat-based, such as loops, set the Main
Time Scale to Bars:Beats.
2 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
3 Drag with the Selector in the track to se-
lect the material you want to repeat.
– or –
Merge Paste Command
(MIDI Only)
Use the Merge Paste command to merge
MIDI notes from the Clipboard with material already residing in the paste destination. To replace track material, use the
Paste command instead.
To merge MIDI data:
Click in the track and enter the start and
end points for the selection in the Event
Edit area.
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
4 Choose Edit > Repeat. In the Repeat dia-
2 Drag with the Selector in the track to se-
log, enter the number of times you want
the material to repeat, then click OK.
lect the MIDI notes you want to merge.
– or –
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
Use the Grabber to select one or more MIDI
regions (or a group of MIDI notes).
3 Choose Edit > Cut to remove the selec-
tion and place it on the Clipboard.
– or –
Repeat dialog
The material is placed immediately after
the selection’s end point, and duplicated
by the number of times specified.
In Shuffle mode, the repeated data is placed
directly after the end of the selection. Regions occurring after it are slid to accommodate the repeated material. In Slip
mode, the repeated material overlaps any
adjacent data.
Choose Edit > Copy to place the selection
on the Clipboard without removing it.
4 With the Selector, click in a MIDI track at
the point where you want to merge the material.
5 Choose Edit > Merge Paste. The Clip-
board’s contents are pasted at the insertion
point, without removing the existing material already residing there.
If any portion of the material is pasted outside of existing regions, a new region is created for the data.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 195
Consolidate Selection
Command
During the course of normal edit operations, a track may eventually contain many
regions. However, once a track or track
range (such as a verse or chorus) reaches a
satisfactory state, you may want to consolidate its regions into a single region—thus
making the material much more easy to
work with.
When consolidating an audio track, a new
audio file is written that encompasses the
selection range, including any blank space.
To consolidate regions within a track:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the
regions to be consolidated.
– or –
To select all regions in a track, triple-click
in its playlist with the Selector.
2 Choose Edit > Consolidate.
A new, single region is created that replaces
the previously selected regions, including
any blank space. If working with an audio
track, a new audio file is written (with the
Audio Suite Duplicate Plug-In).
When consolidating audio regions with
the Consolidate Selection command, if the
selection contains muted regions, the
muted regions are treated as silence.
Whether or not a track is muted, or contains Mute automation, does not affect the
Consolidate Selection command.
You can delete any unused regions from
the Regions List window. See “Removing
Unwanted Regions” on page 198 for details.
196 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Managing Regions
A typical session can become quite busy
with many tracks and dozens of regions.
There are a number of things you can do,
however, to keep track of and manage a session’s regions, which include:
• Renaming existing regions
• Specifying how auto-created regions are
named
• Hiding auto-created regions
• Removing unused regions
Renaming Regions
In the course of a session you can rename
regions to give them more descriptive
names, or merely to shorten or simplify an
existing name. When renaming a region
that was auto-created from an edit, the region becomes a user-defined region and is
displayed in the Regions List when autocreated regions are hidden.
Perhaps the easiest way to rename a region,
if it resides in a track, is to double-click it
with the Grabber. However, if the region
does not yet reside in a track, or if you want
to rename several regions, use the Rename
Selected command.
To rename one or more regions:
1 If you will be renaming an auto-created
region, make sure to select Display > AutoCreated Regions.
2 Select the region to be renamed in either
the Audio or MIDI Regions List. To rename
more than one region, Shift-click additional regions.
✽ If the Editing Preference for “Regions List
Selection Follows Track Selection” is enabled,
you can highlight a region in the Regions List
by selecting it in a track.
3 Choose Rename Selected from the Re-
gions List pop-up menu.
Auto-Rename Selected dialog
4 When prompted, enter a new name for
Name Determines the root name for the
auto-created regions.
the region. If a whole-file audio region was
selected, specify whether just the region is
renamed, or the region and the disk file.
Auto Number Start Sets the start number for
the sequentially numbered new regions.
Leading Zeros Determines the number of
zeros that occur before the auto numbers.
Rename Selected dialog
5 Click OK to rename the region. If renam-
ing multiple regions, you are prompted,
successively, to rename each region.
Auto-Naming Parameters
You can specify the auto-naming parameters for a region when new regions are created from it in the course of editing.
To set auto-naming parameters for a region:
1 Select a region in the Audio or MIDI Re-
gions List.
2 Choose Auto Rename Selected from the
Suffix Specifies text to be appended to the
end of the name, following the auto numbering.
4 When you are finished, click OK to ac-
cept the new naming parameters.
Hiding and Removing Unwanted
Regions
In the course of editing a session, the Audio
and MIDI Regions Lists can fill up quickly
with regions—ones you’ve created purposely and those that are automatically
created by cutting, pasting, and separating
other regions. Pro Tools allows you to hide
or remove regions in your session so you
don’t have to scroll through unnecessarily
long Regions Lists.
Regions List pop-up menu.
3 In the Auto-Rename dialog, enter the
text to be used when naming regions created from the selected region.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 197
Hiding Auto-Created Regions
Removing Unwanted Regions
You can hide regions that were automatically created during the course of editing.
You can locate and remove any unused regions in a session with the Clear Selected
command.
To hide auto-created regions:
Deselect Display > Display Auto-Created
Regions. With this option deselected, only
user-created regions appear in the Audio
and MIDI Regions List.
■
User-defined regions include:
• Whole-file regions
• Regions created during recording
• Imported regions
• Renamed regions
• Regions created as a result of AudioSuite
processing
• New regions created with Capture Region and Separate Region commands
• Regions created by trimming whole-file
audio regions
When auto-created regions are hidden,
Pro Tools warns you if the number of autocreated regions exceeds a certain threshold,
and gives you the option of deleting them.
If you choose to delete them, all auto-created regions are deleted at the same time.
This prevents a large build-up of auto-created regions, which can affect system performance.
To ensure that you keep a particular autocreated region, turn it into a user-created
region by renaming it. For details, see “Renaming Regions” on page 196.
▲ The Clear Selected command cannot be un-
done and should be used with care.
To find and remove unused regions in a
session:
1 For MIDI regions, choose Select Unused
from the MIDI Regions List pop-up menu.
– or –
For all audio regions, including whole-file
regions, choose Select Unused > Regions
from the Audio Regions List pop-up menu.
– or –
For all audio regions except whole-file regions, choose the Select Unused > Regions
Except Whole Files.
2 After all unused regions are selected,
choose Clear Selected from the Regions List
pop-up menu.
3 Click Remove to remove the unused re-
gions from the session.
– or –
If clearing a whole-file audio region and
you want to permanently remove the
audio file from your hard drive, click Delete.
Clear Selected dialog (audio regions)
198 Pro Tools Reference Guide
When clearing audio files for multiple regions, Pro Tools presents a warning dialog
for each audio file. To bypass repeated
warning dialogs:
■ Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click
(Windows) the Delete button in the Clear
Audio dialog. This permanently deletes
each successive audio file from your hard
drive (for each of the unused regions) without any further warnings.
Use this “power delete mode” with care,
since deletion of these files cannot be undone.
Compacting an Audio File
In a disk-based recording and editing system such as Pro Tools, disk storage is at a
premium. To help you get the most out of
your storage, the Compact Selected command allows you to compact audio files by
removing unused areas in order to conserve disk space. This is done by examining
a selected source audio file and rewriting it
to disk, irretrievably deleting any data that
has not been defined as a region.
If you have auto-created regions hidden in
your session, Pro Tools gives you the option of deleting any that are unused. If you
choose to delete them, all unused auto-created regions are deleted at the same time.
▲ Because it permanently deletes audio data,
this Compact Selected command should be
used only after you have completely finished
your editing and are sure that you have no further use for the unused audio data.
To ensure that you keep a particular autocreated region, you can turn it into a userdefined region by double-clicking it in the
Regions List and entering a name.
The Compact Selected command allows
you to “pad” the regions of the compacted
file by a user-selectable amount. You may
want to do this because Pro Tools requires
extra audio data before and after audio regions in order to create crossfades. So, if
your regions have crossfades, or if you want
to pad the regions for the sake of any future
trimming, you should enter an appropriate
amount of padding (in milliseconds) to account for this.
▲ The Compact Selected command is de-
structive and cannot be undone! It permanently alters the original audio files. There is
no way to recover data deleted with this command.
To compact an audio file:
1 Choose Select Unused >Regions from the
Audio Regions List pop-up menu. All regions that have not been placed in a track
in the current session are highlighted in
the Audio Regions List.
2 To remove all of these unused audio re-
gions, choose Clear Selected from the Audio Regions List pop-up menu. When the
dialog appears, choose Remove.
3 In the Audio Regions List, click on the region (or Shift-click to select multiple regions) that you want to compact.
4 Choose Compact Selected from the Au-
dio Regions List menu.
Chapter 15: Working with Regions and Selections 199
5 Enter the amount of padding in milliseconds that you want to leave around each
region in the file.
6 Click Compact to compact the file or
Cancel to cancel the command.
Once the Compact operation has been
completed, the session is automatically
saved.
200 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 16
MIDI Editing
You can edit individual MIDI notes and
controller events with the Pencil, Trimmer,
and Grabber. You can also use the various
MIDI Operations (Quantize, Transpose,
Change Velocity, and Change Duration) to
transform groups of MIDI notes to affect
pitch, timing, and phrasing. For information on region-specific editing for both
MIDI and audio, see Chapter 15: Working
with Regions and Selections.
3 Set the Time Scale to Bars:Beats. In addi-
Inserting MIDI Notes with
the Pencil Tool
Current Cursor display
In addition to recording and importing
MIDI into Pro Tools, you can manually insert MIDI notes with the Pencil tool.
tion, set the Edit mode to Grid and the Grid
value to quarter notes (0|1|000).
With these settings, quarter notes will be
inserted on the beat.
4 Move the Pencil into the playlist area for
the MIDI track. Use the Edit window’s
Ruler and the track’s mini-keyboard to locate the desired pitch and location.
When using the Pencil, the Current Cursor
display in the upper right of the Edit window provides feedback on its location.
5 When the desired pitch and location are
located, click to insert the note.
To insert a MIDI note with the Pencil:
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Notes.
2 Select the Pencil tool and make sure it is
set to Freehand.
MIDI note inserted with the Pencil
Pencil tool set to Freehand
The velocity for inserted notes is determined by the “Default Note On Velocity”
setting in the MIDI Preferences. The duration of the note is determined by the Edit
window’s Grid value. If the MIDI PreferChapter 16: MIDI Editing 201
ences option for “Play MIDI notes with
Grabber and Pencil Tools” is enabled, each
inserted note will sound.
The Pencil can be dragged after clicking
(and before releasing) to adjust the note’s
pitch or duration.
2 Select the Pencil tool and make sure it is
set to Random.
Pencil tool set to Freehand
3 Set the Time Scale to Bars:Beats. In addi-
tion, set the Edit mode to Grid and the Grid
value to quarter notes (0|1|000).
With these settings, the inserted notes will
be spaced one quarter note apart.
Adjusting the duration for an inserted note
Click and drag right to lengthen the note
without changing its start point, click and
drag left to lengthen the note without
changing its end point.
4 Click at the point where the first note
will be inserted and drag to the right.
✽ With Grid mode enabled, Command-drag
(Macintosh) or Control-drag (Windows) with the
Pencil to snap the note’s end point to the nearest Grid boundary.
Inserting a series of notes with the Pencil
The Pencil tool shapes (Line, Triangle,
Square, and Random) can be used to enter a
series of identical pitches with varying velocities. The length and spacing for the inserted notes is determined by the current
Grid value. The note velocities are determined by the Pencil shape.
Use the Square shape for alternating velocities of loud and soft. Use the Triangle
shape for a ramp up and down of velocities.
The Line shape enters notes with identical
velocities.
To insert a series of notes with random
velocities:
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Notes.
202 Pro Tools Reference Guide
5 When the desired number of notes are
visible, release.
Manually Editing MIDI
Notes
All aspects of a MIDI note can be edited
from the Edit window, including start and
end points, duration, pitch, and velocity.
The Grabber and Selector can operate on
individual notes or groups of notes.
Selecting MIDI Notes
To select a single pitch for the entire length of
a track:
To select a group of MIDI notes:
■ On the mini-keyboard, Command-Shiftclick (Macintosh) or Control-Shift-click the
note.
■
With the Grabber, Shift-click each note.
– or –
With the Grabber, move the cursor to
where there are no notes (the Marquee appears) and click and draw a rectangle
around the group of notes.
■
Selecting a pitch from the mini-keyboard
To remove one or more notes from a
selection:
Selecting notes with the Grabber
When using the Grabber, if any portion of
the rectangle touches a note (either its start
or end point), the note is included in the
selection. Selections made with the Grabber do not include underlying controller
and automation data for the MIDI track.
– or –
■ With the Selector, drag across a range of
notes.
■ With the Grabber, Shift-click the notes so
they become deselected.
Transposing Notes with the Grabber
MIDI notes can be transposed by dragging
up or down with the Grabber. If several
notes are selected before dragging, each is
transposed.
To transpose a MIDI note:
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Notes.
2 Select the Grabber tool.
3 While pressing Shift, drag the note up or
Selecting notes with the Selector
When using the Selector, a note’s start
point must be included in order for it to become selected. When a MIDI track is displaying notes (or regions), selections made
with the Selector include underlying controller and automation data.
down.
Transposing with the Grabber
The Shift key ensures that the transposed
note retains its start point. While dragging,
each new note sounds and the Current
Cursor display indicates the number of
semitones and direction (+/-) for the transpose.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 203
✽ To transpose a copy of the note, leaving the
original unchanged, press Option (Macintosh)
or Control (Windows) while dragging.
To change the end points for a group of MIDI
Notes:
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Notes.
2 Using the Grabber, Shift-click each note
Moving Notes with the Grabber
you want to trim.
Like regions, MIDI notes can be dragged
left or right with the Grabber to change
their start point. If several notes are selected before dragging, each is moved.
3 Select the Trimmer tool.
Trimmer tool set to Standard
To move a MIDI note:
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Notes.
2 With the Grabber, drag the note left or
right (press Shift while dragging to preserve
the note’s pitch).
As the note is dragged, the Current Cursor
display indicates the new start point.
▲ For TDM systems, make sure that the Stan-
dard Trimmer is selected in its pop-up menu.
4 Move the cursor near the end of any of
the highlighted notes, so the Trim cursor
appears. Drag left to shorten the notes,
drag right to lengthen them.
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged
note snaps to the nearest Grid boundary. If
the Edit mode is set to Spot, the Spot dialog
opens.
✽ To copy the selected notes, leaving the orig-
inals intact, press Option (Macintosh) or Control (Windows) while dragging.
☞ The placement of MIDI notes can also be
adjusted with Shift (see “Shift Command” on
page 188) or Nudge (see “Nudging” on
page 186).
Trimming Note Start and End Times
Like regions, start and end points for MIDI
notes can be adjusted with the Trimmer
tool. If several notes are selected when performing the trim, each note is changed.
204 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Changing note end times with the Trimmer
If using Grid mode, the dragged start/end
point snap to the nearest Grid boundary. If
using Spot mode, the Spot dialog opens,
where you can enter the new location for
the note’s start or end point.
Notes can also be trimmed with the Trim
To Selection command (see “Trim To Selection Command” on page 177) and the
Trim To Insertion command (see “Trim To
Insertion Command” on page 181).
Manually Editing Note Velocities
To draw velocity values that fade in:
When a MIDI track’s Display Format is set
to Velocity, each note’s attack velocity is
represented with a velocity stalk. The taller
the velocity stalk, the higher the velocity
value (0-127).
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
To edit a velocity stalk with the Grabber:
Velocity.
2 Select the Pencil tool with the shape set
to Line.
3 Click at the beginning of the note range,
near the bottom of the velocity range, and
drag to the right and up.
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Velocity.
2 Select the Grabber tool.
3 Drag the top (diamond) of the velocity
stalk up or down.
Changing velocities with the Line shape
4 Once the line encompasses the desired
range of notes, along with the desired
steepness of the fade, release.
Dragging a velocity stalk
– or –
If two notes have the same start time (with
velocity stalks on top of each other), Command-drag (Macintosh) or Control-drag
(Windows) the actual note up or down.
Drag up to increase the velocity value,
down to decrease it. While dragging, the
diamond turns blue and the associated
note becomes selected. The dragged velocity values are reflected in the Current Cursor display.
The velocities for a range of notes can be
edited with the Pencil tool, either by Freehand or with any of the Pencil tool shapes.
You can also use the Trimmer tool to scale
the velocities for all selected notes. This is
useful if you like the velocity relationship
between the notes, but want them to be
louder or softer.
To scale velocities with the Trimmer:
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Velocity.
2 Using either the Selector or Grabber, se-
lect the range of notes to be edited.
3 With the Trimmer, click near the range of
selected notes and drag up or down. Dragging up boosts the velocities for each note,
dragging down reduces them.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 205
Typing in Note Attributes
When an individual note is selected with
the Grabber, its attributes are displayed in
the Event Edit area.
A new value in the Start field moves the
first note in the selection to that location,
with all other notes moving with it.
Multiple notes in the Event Edit area
Event Edit Area, Pitch attribute selected
Pitch is listed by note name and octave
number. Attack and release velocities are
listed with their MIDI values (0-127). Times
for Start, End, and Length are displayed in
the Main Time Scale.
Values entered in the pitch and velocity
fields add to or subtract from the values for
all selected notes. For instance, to transpose all selected notes down an octave, enter a value –12 for pitch.
Deleting MIDI Notes
To change an attribute for a MIDI note:
1 In the MIDI track’s playlist area, select
the note with the Grabber.
2 Click in the Attribute’s text box.
In addition to deleting selected notes with
the Clear command in the Edit menu, individual notes can also be deleted with the
Pencil tool.
3 Type in the new value for the note and
press Enter.
– or –
With the pitch or velocity fields selected,
play a note on your MIDI controller to automatically update the value. If the track is
record-enabled, the new value is heard.
Press Enter to accept the new value.
Press the slash key to move between the
fields in the Event Edit area.
Multiple Notes and Event Edit Area
When multiple notes are selected, you can
enter values in the Event Edit area fields to
affect all selected notes.
206 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To delete a group of MIDI notes with the Clear
command:
1 With the Grabber or Selector, select the
notes to be deleted. For details, see “Selecting MIDI Notes” on page 203.
2 Choose Edit > Clear to delete the selected
notes.
▲ When deleting notes selected with the Se-
lector, all underlying controller and automation
data is also deleted.
To delete a single MIDI note with the Pencil:
With the Pencil tool selected, press Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows) so the
tool changes to an Eraser, then click the
note to delete it.
■
Continuous controller events that can be
inserted and edited in Pro Tools include:
• volume
• pan
• pitch bend
• aftertouch (mono)
• MIDI controllers, 0–127
▲ While polyphonic aftertouch can be re-
Deleting a note with Pencil
✽ Program change events and sysex events
can also be deleted by Option-clicking (Macintosh) or Alt-clicking (Windows) them with the
Pencil tool.
Continuous Controller
Events
Continuous controller events for MIDI
tracks are displayed in the form of a line
graph with a series of editable breakpoints.
Controller events for MIDI tracks differ
somewhat from automation data for audio
tracks in that the breakpoints are stepped
(instead of vector-based), where each
breakpoint represents a single controller
event.
corded into Pro Tools, it cannot be viewed or
edited.
MIDI controller #7 (volume) and #10 (pan)
are treated by Pro Tools as automation
data. This means that these controller
events (along with Mutes) can be recorded
and automated from the Mix window; in
addition, each MIDI track’s automation
mode affects how these events are played
back and recorded.
While a MIDI track’s volume and pan (and
mute) events can be suspended, all other
controller events in the track always play.
Continuous controller events (including
volume and pan) can be recorded from an
external MIDI controller (such as a keyboard or control surface), and they can be
inserted in a MIDI track’s playlist with the
Grabber or Pencil.
MIDI track displaying volume events
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 207
Inserting/Editing Controller
Events
Continuous controller events can be edited
with any of the following methods:
◆ Individual breakpoints can be dragged
with the Grabber to adjust their location or
value.
◆ A group of selected breakpoints can be
scaled up or down with the Trimmer.
◆ New controller events can be drawn in
with the Pencil tool to replace existing
events. Events can be drawn with the Pencil set to Freehand, or using any of the
shapes (Line, Triangle, Square, or Random).
Controller events can be copied and
pasted, nudged, and shifted.
◆
For details on these editing procedures, see
Chapter 21: Automation.
✽ Edits to volume data affect all tracks within
an enabled Edit Group. This is not the case,
however, for other controller playlists (such as
pan). To insert and edit other controller types
across all tracks in an Edit Group, press Control (Macintosh) or the Start key (Windows)
while performing the edits.
Resolution for Inserted Controller
Events
When inserting controller events with the
Pencil, the density of the events is determined by the MIDI Preference for “Pencil
Tool Resolution When Drawing Controller
Data.”
To set the Pencil tool resolution:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
MIDI.
208 Pro Tools Reference Guide
2 Enter a value for “Pencil Tool Resolution
When Drawing Controller Data.” The
value range is from 1 to 100 milliseconds.
3 Click OK.
Program Changes
Each MIDI track can have a default program change that is sent each time the
track plays. Additional program changes
can be inserted at any point within the
track.
About Program and Bank Changes
The MIDI protocol lets you choose from a
range of 128 programs (0-127). Most MIDI
instruments have several banks of 128 programs. To specify which bank you’re selecting from, a bank select message must be
sent. Some instruments use Controller 0 to
switch the bank while others use Controller 32 (some use a combination of the two).
The Program Change window in Pro Tools
allows you to use either of these bank select
messages when inserting a program change
event. Check with the manufacturer’s documentation to see which message your device uses.
✽ Some older MIDI devices (such as the Kurz-
weil K1000) use a program change instead of
a Bank Select message to switch banks. For
these devices you may find it necessary to
send two program change messages to access a particular program, where the first sets
the bank and the second sets the program.
OMS Patch Names
2 In the Program Change window, select a
(Macintosh Only)
program number (or name) and, if necessary, specify a bank change value.
If your MIDI devices are subscribed to OMS
patch names, these names will appear in
the Program Change window in Pro Tools,
and also in the inserted program change
events. If not, programs will be selected
and viewed by number.
For details on using the OMS Name Manager, refer to the online OMS Manual included on the Pro Tools CD-ROM.
Default Program Change
The default program change for each MIDI
track is specified by clicking on the Program button, from either the Edit or Mix
window. Once specified, the default program change message is sent to your instrument when playing the track.
To set the default program change for a MIDI
track:
1 From the Edit or Mix window, click on
the Program button.
Program button
Program button, Edit window
The Program button in the Edit window (if
the Track Height is set to Medium or
Larger) displays the name of the default
program, or “none” if one has not yet been
specified. The Program button in the Mix
window (and in the Edit window when the
Track Height is set to Small), is labeled as
“P.”
Program Change window
3 Click Done.
Once selected, the program number (or
name) appears in the Program button in
the Edit window. To clear the default program change, select None in the Program
Change window.
Unlike recorded and inserted program
change events, the default program change
does not appear in the track’s playlist.
Inserting/Editing Program
Changes
Program changes can be inserted into a
track’s playlist with the Pencil tool. Existing program changes can be edited, moved,
and copied and pasted.
✽ On some instruments, changing programs
during playback can interrupt playback. To
avoid this, place program change events in the
track where there are no notes sounding.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 209
To insert a program change with the Pencil:
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Program.
2 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid so
☞ The placement of program changes can
also be adjusted with Shift (see “Shift Command” on page 188) or Nudge (see “Nudging”
on page 186).
the inserted event snaps to the Grid.
3 Click with the Pencil in the track’s play-
To delete a program change event:
list at the point where you want to insert
the program change.
1 With the track’s Display Format set to
4 In the Program Change window, select a
program number (or name) and, if necessary, specify a bank change value.
5 Click Done to insert the program change
event in the track’s playlist.
Notes, click on the program change event
with the Grabber to select it.
– or –
If the region contains other events you
want to delete, select the entire region with
the Grabber (when the track is displaying
regions).
2 Choose Edit > Clear to remove the se-
lected events from the track.
✽ Individual program change events can also
Program change event
To edit a program change event:
be deleted by Option-clicking (Macintosh) or
Alt-clicking (Windows) them with the Pencil.
1 With the Grabber, double-click the pro-
gram change event you want to edit.
2 In the Program Change window, select
the new program number (or name) and, if
necessary, specify a bank change value.
3 Click Done.
Auditioning Programs
When the Program Change window is
open, you can have Pro Tools automatically scroll through the different patches
for a track’s assigned MIDI device.
To move a program change event:
With the Grabber, drag the program
change event left or right.
■
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged
event snaps to the nearest Grid boundary.
If the Edit mode is set to Spot, the Spot dialog opens.
210 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To audition patches from the Program Change
window:
1 To audition patches for a MIDI track
while it plays, click Play in the Transport
window.
2 Open the Program Change window by
clicking the Program button in the Mix
window, or by inserting or editing a program change event in a MIDI track.
3 Click on a program number—the starting
point from which you will scroll through
the patches.
To move a sysex event:
4 If desired, enter a value for the number of
2 With the Grabber, click on the region
seconds that will elapse between each program change.
and drag left or right.
5 Select the option for Increment Patch.
After the specified number of seconds,
Pro Tools selects the next patch and transmits the program change to the track’s assigned MIDI device. As desired, play your
MIDI controller to audition the new
patches.
1 Set the MIDI track’s Display Format to
Sys Ex.
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged
event snaps to the nearest Grid boundary.
If the Edit mode is set to Spot, the Spot dialog opens.
☞ The placement of sysex event blocks can
also be adjusted with Shift (see “Shift Command” on page 188) or Nudge (see “Nudging”
on page 186).
System Exclusive Events
To delete one or more sysex events:
System Exclusive (sysex) events can be recorded to MIDI tracks in Pro Tools (see “Recording System Exclusive Data” on
page 112). Once the events are recorded,
they appear in the track’s playlist as blocks
when the Display Format is set to Sys Ex.
Sys Ex, click on the sysex event with the
Grabber to select it.
1 With the track’s Display Format set to
– or –
If the region contains other sysex events
you want to delete, select the entire region
with the Grabber (when the track is displaying regions).
2 Choose Edit > Clear to remove the se-
lected events from the track.
Sysex event block
While the contents of recorded System Exclusive events cannot be directly edited in
Pro Tools, the events can be moved or
nudged, copied and pasted, or deleted.
✽ Individual sysex event blocks can also be
deleted by Option-clicking (Macintosh) or Altclicking (Windows) them with the Pencil tool.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 211
MIDI Operations Window
The MIDI Operations window opens when
choosing any of the following commands
from the MIDI menu:
• Quantize
• Change Velocity
• Change Duration
• Transpose
• Select Notes
• Split Notes
• Input Quantize
To invoke the command in the MIDI
Operations window:
■ Click Apply or press Enter on the numeric keypad. This invokes the command
and leaves the window in the foreground.
– or –
Press Return (Macintosh) or Enter on the
alpha keyboard (Windows). This invokes
the command and moves the window to
the background.
To undo the command in the MIDI Operations
window:
■
Choose Edit > Undo.
Options in the MIDI Operations
Window
Use the following methods to easily configure the various options, which vary from
command to command, in the MIDI Operations window:
Figure 12. MIDI Operations window
To reconfigure the MIDI Operations window for a different command, select the
command from the MIDI menu or from
the pop-up menu at the top of the window
(see Figure 12).
The MIDI Operations window can be left
open as desired, revisiting it as necessary to
invoke a command, or to try out different
options for a particular command.
To show or hide the MIDI Operations window:
Choose Windows > Show MIDI Operations.
■
212 Pro Tools Reference Guide
◆ To move forward and back through the
various fields, press Tab or Shift+Tab.
◆ Increment or decrement selected fields
with the Up/Down Arrows. Press and hold
these keys to scroll quickly through the values.
◆ Press Command (Macintosh) or Control
(Windows) while adjusting sliders for finer
resolution.
◆ For selected pitch and velocity fields,
play a note on your MIDI controller to automatically enter it.
◆ Changing a value for a particular parameter (such as the Swing Percentage in the
Quantize window), automatically enables
the parameter.
Select Notes
The Select Notes command allows you to
further narrow a selection of MIDI notes
based on pitch. The command can be used
to select a single note or note range for the
entire length of a region or track, or to select the upper or lower voices within
chords.
(hi-hat, for instance), and affect it over the
selected time range with the Quantize,
Transpose, or Change Duration command.
To select only the hi-hats in a General MIDI
drum track:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the
range of MIDI notes that contains the note.
2 Choose MIDI > Select Notes.
3 Select the Notes Between option with the
note range set to F#1 and F#1.
For a General MIDI drum kit, the closed hihat is assigned to F#1 (MIDI note number
42). If the hi-hat for your drumkit is assigned to a different note, make sure to
specify it.
4 Click Apply.
Select Notes window
Options for the Select Notes command include:
All Notes All notes are selected.
Notes Between Selects a range of notes between the specified upper and lower note.
Values for the notes can be entered in pitch
(C-1–G8) or MIDI note numbers (0–127).
Top Selects the highest note or notes in
each chord.
Bottom Selects the lowest note or notes in
each chord.
Selecting Notes in a Chord
Another use for Select Notes is to select
only the upper or lower notes in a chord.
Many times you’ll want to affect only the
upper or lower notes in a chord—to boost
their velocities, or transpose their pitch.
To select only the bass notes in a chord:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the
range of MIDI notes that contains the
chords.
2 Choose MIDI > Select Notes.
3 Select the Bottom option and leave the
number of notes set to 1.
Selecting a Pitch Range of Notes
A common use for Select Notes is to select a
single note for the entire length of a region
or track. This is especially useful if you
want to select a note in a MIDI drum track
4 Click Apply.
▲ In order for notes to be considered a chord,
their start times must be within five ticks of
each other.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 213
Split Notes
The Split Notes command has the same selection criteria as the Select Notes command, but also lets you automatically cut
or copy the selected notes when clicking
Apply.
When the either of the Pitch fields are selected, you can play a pitch on your MIDI
controller to automatically enter it.
4 Click Apply. Notes falling within the
specified pitch range are removed from the
selection and placed on the Clipboard. The
notes can then be pasted or merged to another a track.
Quantize
Split Notes window
One use for this command would be if you
recorded a track with chords in the left
hand and melody in the right. With the
Split Notes command, you could cut the
melody notes and paste them to another
track so you could assign them to play on a
different device or channel. Another use is
to split the various notes (kick, snare, toms
etc.) from a single drum track to separate
tracks.
To cut a specific pitch range of notes:
1 Using the Grabber or Selector, select the
range of MIDI notes that contains the
notes.
2 Choose MIDI > Split Notes.
3 In the Split Notes dialog, select the op-
tion for Notes Between and enter the low
and high notes for the pitch range.
214 Pro Tools Reference Guide
The Quantize command adjusts MIDI note
locations and durations so that timing is
improved, or so that a particular rhythmic
“feel” is achieved. Quantize works by aligning notes to a Quantize Grid, the size of
which is defined in the Quantize window
by a standard note duration.
The Quantize command is not the same as
the Quantize Regions command (in the
Edit menu). The Quantize Regions command adjusts the start point for a selected
region, and its contents are moved along
with the region (with rhythmic relationships remaining intact).
The Quantize command, on the other
hand, affects MIDI notes individually.
Some notes may be moved back in time,
others forward; and, some notes will be
more drastically affected than others.
✽ The settings in the Quantize window are
saved with each session. To store your favorite
settings as the default for use in future sessions, save them as part of a session template (see “Creating Custom Session
Templates” on page 48).
To open the Quantize window, choose
MIDI > Quantize. Each of the Quantize options is discussed in the following sections.
Figure 13 shows how notes are adjusted by
the different What To Quantize options.
before quantize
Quantize window
What to Quantize
The options under “What to Quantize” determine which aspects of the notes are
quantized: attacks, releases, or both.
Attacks When selected, note start points
are quantized.
Releases When selected, note end points
are quantized.
Don’t Change Durations When deselected
with the Attacks option selected, note end
points are not moved. When deselected
with the Releases option selected, note
start points are not moved.
If the options for both Attacks and Releases
are selected, the Don’t Change Durations
option is ignored (and dimmed).
Figure 13. What To Quantize examples
Quantize Grid
The Quantize Grid determines the beat
boundaries to which notes are aligned. Any
size from whole notes to thirty-second
notes (including dotted values) can be selected for the grid size.
Tuplet Select the Tuplet option to quantize
irregular note groupings like triplets or
quintuplets. The Quantize Grid for tuplets
is calculated from the note size selection
and the Tuplet value. For instance, if an
eighth note equals 480 ticks, tuplet eighth
notes with 3 in time of 2 would yield a grid
size of 320 ticks (480 ticks / 3 * 2).
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 215
Offset Grid By Offsets the Quantize Grid
forward or back in time by a specified number of ticks. Use this option to achieve a
pushed (positive values) or laid back (negative values) feel.
falling within the shaded area (equivalent
to an eight note area around each beat) are
quantized.
✽ To Quantize just the backbeats, set the
Quantize Grid to half-notes with an Offset of
960 ticks.
Swing When selected, every other grid
boundary is shifted by the specified percentage value (0-300) to achieve a “swing”
feel. A Swing value of 0% yields no swing,
while 100% yields a triplet feel. With Swing
set to 300%, every other grid boundary is
moved to the next grid point.
0% Swing
(480 ticks)
Every other grid point
shifted by swing
100% Swing
(640 ticks)
Figure 14. Include Within option
Exclude Within When selected, attacks and
releases are not quantized if located within
the specified percentage of the Quantize
Grid. Use this option to preserve the feel of
notes close to the beat, while correcting
others that are drastically away from the
beat.
Figure 15 shows the Quantize Grid set to
quarter notes with the Exclude Within option set to 25%. Attacks and releases falling
within the shaded area (equivalent to a sixteenth note area around each beat) are not
quantized.
100% Swing, eighth note grid
Quantize Options
Additional Quantize options include:
Include Within When selected, attacks and
releases are only quantized if located
within the specified percentage of the
Quantize Grid. Use this option to clean up
downbeats without affecting notes that are
“swung” or wildly off the beat.
Figure 14 shows the Quantize Grid set to
quarter notes with the Include Within option set to 50%. Only attacks and releases
216 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Figure 15. Exclude Within option
Strength When selected, notes are moved a
percentage toward the Quantize Grid.
Lower percentages preserve the original
feel of the notes, higher percentages align
the notes more tightly to the grid.
Randomize When selected, notes are moved
randomly forward or back in time (after the
Quantize occurs). For instance, with the
Quantize Grid set to eighth notes and Randomize set to 50%, notes are placed up to a
32nd note before or after the beat boundary. The Randomize setting also affects
note durations (if Releases is selected).
Quantize Examples
The following examples illustrate some of
the more common uses for the Quantize
command.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to sixteenth notes.
Make sure that the other options for Tuplet, Offset Grid By, and Swing are not selected.
5 Leave the remaining Quantize options
deselected and click Apply.
Quantizing while Preserving the
Original “Feel”
You can quantize less strictly, to preserve
the original feel of your recorded MIDI
tracks:
To quantize while preserving the original feel:
If you intend to loop playback while quantizing, you may want to deselect Operations > Link Edit and Timeline Selection.
This ensures that the play range will not
change when selected notes are moved in
the course of quantizing and undoing.
▲ While you can undo a Quantize operation,
the Quantize command is destructive and permanently affects selected data. To preserve
existing data, duplicate the playlist before
quantizing.
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be
quantized.
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
3 Under What to Quantize, select the At-
tacks option. To quantize note durations as
well, select the Releases option.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to the desired note
size. Make sure that the other options for
Tuplet, Offset Grid By, and Swing are not
selected.
5 Select the Exclude Within option with a
value of 10-15%.
Straight Quantize
To quantize to a straight sixteenth note feel:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be
quantized.
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
3 Under What to Quantize, select the At-
tacks option. To quantize note durations as
well, select the Releases option.
6 Select the Strength option with a value of
70-80%.
7 Leave the remaining Quantize options
deselected and click Apply.
Audition the change and if the desired effect is not achieved, undo the edit and experiment with different values for Exclude
Within and Strength.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 217
Quantizing with Swing
To humanize the rhythmic feel of notes:
If you’re working with hi-hats or bass lines,
you may want to apply more of a swing feel
to the track.
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be
quantized.
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
3 Under What to Quantize, select the At-
To quantize with an eighth note swing feel:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be
tacks option. To quantize note durations as
well, select the Releases option.
quantized.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to the desired note
2 Choose MIDI > Quantize.
size.
3 Under What to Quantize, select the At-
5 Select the Randomize option with a value
tacks option. To quantize note durations as
well, select the Releases option.
of 5%.
4 Set the Quantize Grid to eighth notes.
5 Select the Swing option with the desired
Swing percentage:
• For a light swing, use 12%.
• For a tighter swing-like groove, use 24%.
• For a true “triplet-like” swing feel, use
50–75%.
6 Make sure the options for Tuplet, Offset
Grid By, and Randomize are not selected.
Click Apply.
Audition the change and if the desired effect is not achieved, undo the edit and experiment with a different Swing percentage.
Quantizing with Randomize
You may find that after quantizing, notes
sound too mechanical, too “on the beat.”
You can use the Randomize option in the
Quantize window to make them sound
more natural.
218 Pro Tools Reference Guide
6 Click Apply.
Audition the change and if the desired effect is not achieved, undo the edit and experiment with a different Randomize percentage.
Experimenting with Quantize
When using the Quantize command, you’ll
often have to experiment with many of the
parameters. In fact, you won’t always get
the results you’re expecting. You may have
to try different values for Include and Exclude Within, and Strength; these parameters determine which notes are affected
and how drastically they are changed. In
addition, the Randomize parameter, which
adds a percentage of randomness to the
quantize, can be used to make tracks feel
less mechanical—less perfect.
Although quantize is a wonderful tool for
cleaning up tracks and playing with the
feel of your music, sometimes the recorded
data may not be salvageable. In these instances it is wise not to spend too much
time trying to fix something that should
probably just be rerecorded.
Change Velocity
The Change Velocity command automatically adjusts attack and release velocities
for selected MIDI notes. Use it to make
notes louder or softer, or to create crescendos or decrescendos.
Velocities can also be edited manually with
the Pencil and Grabber Tools (see “Manually Editing Note Velocities” on page 205).
✽ Velocity values usually affect the loudness
of MIDI notes. They may also affect other aspects of an instrument’s sound, such as filter
cutoff, envelopes, and modulations.
✽ The settings in the Change Velocity window
are saved with each session. To store your favorite settings as the default for use in future
sessions, save them as part of a session template (see “Creating Custom Session Templates” on page 48).
Change Velocity window
To open the Change Velocity window,
choose MIDI > Change Velocity. Options
for the Change Velocity are discussed in
the following section.
Subtract Subtracts from existing velocity
values by the specified amount (1–127).
While there are options for adjusting both
the attack and release velocities for notes,
most MIDI devices ignore release velocity
information. To see if your instrument supports release velocities, refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.
Set All To Sets all velocities to the specified
value (1–127).
Add Adds to existing velocity values by the
specified amount (1–127).
Scale By Scales all velocities by a percentage amount (1–400%).
Change Smoothly Allows velocities to
change smoothly from one value to another over time.
Change Smoothly by Percentage Allows velocities to change smoothly from one percentage value to another over time.
The curve for this change can be adjusted
(+/– 99) to affect how gradually the change
occurs.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 219
Limit To When selected, restricts the
Change Velocity command to a minimum
and maximum range.
Randomize When selected, the Change Velocity command is randomized by the
specified percentage value. For instance,
using “Set all to” with a value of 64, along
with a Randomize value of 50%, yields velocities anywhere between 48 and 80
(+/– 25% of the velocity value).
To preserve (somewhat) the existing velocity relationships and still achieve velocity
fades, use the option for Change Smoothly
by Percentage. Figure 16 illustrates the difference between the two Change Smoothly
options.
Original velocities
Velocity Ranges
The valid range for MIDI note velocities is
1–127. The Change Velocity command will
never result in moving velocities outside
this range; 1 will always be the lowest and
127 will always be the highest. This means
that you may reach a state where the
Change Velocity command has no effect
on a particular note.
For instance, if a note with a velocity 64 is
scaled by 200%, the new velocity would be
127. Attempting to scale or increase the velocity any further would yield no change.
Fading Velocities
An interesting musical effect is when velocities get gradually louder or softer over
time. This can be used to make notes fade
in or out, or to provide timbrel variations
in the way that a MIDI instrument sounds.
To change velocities smoothly over time:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be ed-
ited.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Velocity.
3 Select the Change Smoothly option with
the range set from 127 to 0.
4 Click Apply.
220 Pro Tools Reference Guide
After Change Smoothly by Percentage, 100% to 20%
After Change Smoothly, from velocity of 100 to 10
Figure 16. Change Smoothly/by Percentage
Scaling Velocities
Many times existing note velocities will
have the desired relationship between each
other, but will either be too soft or too loud
as a whole. In these instances, use the Scale
By option.
For instance, to make velocities 20% louder:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be ed-
ited.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Velocity.
3 Select the Scale By option with the per-
centage value set to 120.
4 Click Apply.
Change Duration
The Change Duration command adjusts
durations for selected MIDI notes. Use it to
make melodies and phrases more staccato
or detached, or more legato.
✽ The settings in the Change Duration window
are saved with each session. To store your favorite settings as the default for use in future
sessions, save them as part of a session template (see “Creating Custom Session Templates” on page 48).
To open the Change Duration window,
choose MIDI > Change Duration. Each of
the Change Duration options is discussed
in the following section.
Add Adds to the durations by a specified
number of quarter notes and ticks.
Subtract Subtracts from the durations by a
specified number of quarter notes and
ticks.
Scale by Shortens or lengthens durations
based on a percentage value (1–400%).
Move Releases to the Closest Attack Shortens or lengthens durations so that end
times are moved to the closest attack.
Extend Releases to the Next Attack
Lengthens durations so that end times are
extended to the next attack. To limit the
duration change, select either of the Add
No More Than options, using either a percentage value or a number of quarter note
and ticks.
Change Smoothly Allows note lengths to
change smoothly from one duration to another over time. Duration values are specified in quarter notes and ticks.
Change Smoothly by Percentage Allows
note lengths to change smoothly from one
percentage value to another over time.
The curve for this change can be adjusted
(+/– 99) to affect how gradually the change
occurs.
Limit Range When selected, restricts the
Change Duration command to a minimum
and maximum range (in quarter notes and
ticks).
Change Duration window
Set All To Sets all durations to a length
specified in quarter notes and ticks.
Randomize When selected, the Change Duration command is randomized by the
specified percentage value. For instance,
using “Set all to” with a value of 480 ticks,
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 221
along with a Randomize value of 50%,
yields durations anywhere between 360
and 600 (+/– 25% of the duration value).
Change Duration Examples
To make notes more staccato:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be ed-
ited.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Duration.
Transpose
While the Grabber Tool can be used to
manually transpose individual MIDI notes,
or small groups of notes, the Transpose
command can be used for entire MIDI
tracks and regions.
To open the Transpose window, choose
MIDI > Transpose.
3 Select the option for Scale By with a percentage value of 50.
4 Click Apply. The durations for the se-
lected notes are reduced by 50%.
With this option you may have to experiment with the percentage value to achieve
the desired effect.
To make notes more legato:
1 Select the range of MIDI notes to be ed-
ited.
2 Choose MIDI > Change Duration.
3 Select the option “Extend Release to the
Next Attack.”
4 Click Apply. The end points for the se-
lected notes are extended to the start
points of the next note, thereby eliminating the space between each note.
To vary this effect, making it more or less
legato, select the Add No More Than percentage option. Percentage values larger
than 100 extend note end times so that the
notes essentially overlap.
222 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Transpose window
The two options for the Transpose command are:
Transpose by Semitones Transposes chromatically, up or down, by up to 60 semitones. To transpose down by an octave, for
instance, use –12 semitones.
Transpose From – To Transposes by semitones, as expressed by the difference between the source and destination pitches.
Transposing from C4 to C#4, for instance,
transposes the notes up by one semitone.
One of the more common uses for Transpose is to change the key for your MIDI
tracks. You can define an Edit Group for
MIDI tracks that want to transpose, making
sure to exclude any drum tracks from the
group so they aren’t transposed.
To transpose MIDI notes to another key:
1 If you will be transposing a group of
tracks, make sure to enable the Edit Group.
2 With the Selector or Grabber, select the
range of MIDI notes to be transposed.
3 Choose MIDI > Transpose.
4 Select the option for Transpose From–To.
5 Set the “From” and “To” values, for in-
stance, to C4 and E4 to transpose from
C Major to E Major.
With either of the pitch fields selected, you
can play a note on your MIDI controller to
automatically enter it as the pitch value.
Note/Controller Chasing
Note chasing allows long, sustained MIDI
notes to be heard when playing from a
point after their start time. For instance, if a
note’s start time is at 1|1|000 and lasts for 8
measures (until 9|1|000), note chasing lets
you begin playing from bar 5 and still hear
the note that started at 1|1|000 as it continues to sustain until 9|1|000.
Note Chasing is something that can turned
on and off individually for each MIDI
track. By default, new MIDI tracks have
Note Chasing enabled.
To enable Note Chasing for a MIDI track:
■ Click on the track’s Playlist Selector and
select the option for Note Chasing.
6 Click Apply.
It is also common to transpose MIDI tracks
up or down by an octave.
To transpose a MIDI track up by an octave:
1 With the Selector, triple-click in the track
to select all of its notes.
2 Choose MIDI > Transpose.
3 Select the Transpose By option.
4 Enter a value of 12 semitones and then
click Apply.
Note Chasing enabled in Playlist Selector pop-up
Make sure to disable Note Chasing when
working with samplers that are playing
loops. If a MIDI track, for instance, is triggering a 4-bar drum loop and you begin
playing at bar 3, the loop will begin playing
at the wrong time and be out of sync with
the other tracks.
Controller and Program Chasing
Pro Tools always chases continuous controller events and program changes for
MIDI tracks. This ensures that controller
values and patches for MIDI devices are always appropriately set.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 223
For instance, suppose a MIDI track lasting
32 measures starts out with a volume of
127 and in the last bar fades the volume
down to 0. If after playing the track in its
entirety you attempt to play from bar 8, the
initial volume of 127 is chased and sent to
the track’s assigned device—otherwise the
track would not be heard since the most recent volume event sent would have been 0.
Chasing also occurs for a MIDI track’s default program changes, along with any program change events residing within the
track. Therefore, if you have chosen a default program change for a track, when
playing from any point within the track,
the program change event is sent to the
track’s assigned device.
Default Controller Values and Chasing
Though new MIDI tracks appear to have
default values for continuous controller
playlists, this is actually not the case. For
instance, when viewing a MIDI track’s Mod
Wheel playlist, you’ll see that the breakpoint line is set to a default of zero. However, since the modulation wheel on your
synth may purposely be set to a different
value, the default value in the track is not
transmitted when playing.
This can cause some confusion, however, if
you insert a fade (for instance, from 0–90)
in the Mod Wheel playlist towards the end
of the track. If you then play from the beginning of the track, or from anywhere before the fade, the Mod Wheel value on your
synth will be at 90 until the beginning of
the fade data is reached—which is likely
not what you want.
224 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To ensure that the default controller value
for a playlist is sent (and chased), click on
the initial breakpoint at the beginning of
the track, move it slightly, and set it back to
the default value.
MIDI Offset
Pro Tools offers a MIDI offset preference
that allows MIDI tracks to play back earlier
(than audio tracks) by a specified number
of samples. The offset affects playback only
and does not alter in any way how MIDI
data is displayed in the Edit window.
This capability is provided in large part to
compensate for the audio monitoring latency in Pro Tools LE. If you are monitoring the output of your MIDI devices with
an external mixer or sound system (or
headphones), there is no latency. If, however, you are monitoring the output of
your MIDI devices through a Digi 001 (or
Audiomedia III), your MIDI tracks will appear to play slightly later than your audio
tracks. The larger the setting for the Hardware Buffer Size (128, 256, 512, or 1024
samples), the larger the latency.
By configuring a MIDI offset, you can get
your MIDI tracks to play back slightly earlier (by a specified number of samples),
thereby compensating for the latency in
monitoring audio within Pro Tools LE.
To configure the MIDI offset in Pro Tools:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
MIDI.
2 For the “Negative MIDI Playback Offset”
option, enter the number of samples (up to
10000) for the offset.
In general, you should set the offset to a
value that is roughly equivalent to the
Hardware Buffer Size.
3 Click Done.
Stuck Notes
If you encounter stuck notes with any of
your MIDI devices, you can silence them
with the All Notes Off command.
To turn off all stuck notes:
■
Choose MIDI > All Notes Off.
An All Notes Off message is sent to each
channel for all devices in your setup.
MIDI Offsets to Compensate for Slow
MIDI Devices
The MIDI offset in Pro Tools can also be
used to compensate for delays in MIDI devices (i.e. the time it takes to trigger events
on a sampler or synth).
For instance, if you have some kick drums
that are being played by an audio track in
Pro Tools and want them to be perfectly
“in sync” with kick drums that are being
played by a MIDI device, you may need to
use a MIDI offset. In this instance, it will
usually take at least 5 ms to trigger the
MIDI notes, and it could take even longer,
depending on the MIDI device.
You can measure the latency for a MIDI device assigned to a MIDI track by recording
its audio output back into Pro Tools. Compare the sample locations for the recorded
audio events against the original MIDI
notes to calculate the latency.
Chapter 16: MIDI Editing 225
226 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 17
Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations
Inserting Tempo Events
Tempo Events
Tempo events can be inserted at the beginning of a session to replace the default
tempo (of 120 BPM), and they can be inserted anywhere within the session for additional tempo changes. Tempo events are
displayed in the Tempo Ruler.
To display the Tempo Ruler:
■ Select Display > Ruler View Shows >
Tempo.
To insert a tempo event:
1 Click in the Tempo Ruler where you want
to insert the tempo event and then choose
MIDI > Change Tempo.
– or –
Click in the Tempo Ruler where you want
to insert the tempo event and then click
the Change Tempo button in the far left of
the Tempo Ruler.
☞ When in Manual Tempo Mode, the Tempo
Track is ignored and the session plays at the
tempo defined in the Transport window. For details, see “Using Manual Tempo Mode” on
page 85.
Current Tempo
As tempo events are encountered during
playback, the session’s current tempo is displayed in the Transport window.
Change Tempo button
– or –
While pressing Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows), move the cursor into
the Tempo Ruler (cursor changes to the
Grabber with a “+”) and click at the desired
location.
Manually inserting a tempo event
current tempo
Current tempo displayed in Transport window
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 227
2 In the Tempo Change window, enter the
To move a tempo event by dragging:
Location and BPM value for the tempo
change.
In the Tempo Ruler, drag the triangle for
the tempo event left or right.
■
Dragging a tempo event
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged
event snaps to the current Grid value. If using Spot mode, the Spot dialog opens.
Tempo Change window
To edit a tempo event:
Select the Snap To Bar option to place the
inserted tempo event cleanly on the first
beat of the nearest measure.
1 In the Tempo Ruler, double-click the
3 To base the BPM value on something
Location or BPM value for the tempo
event.
other than the default quarter-note, select
a different note value.
tempo event.
2 In the Change Tempo dialog, enter a new
3 Click OK.
4 Click Apply. The new tempo event is in-
serted and appears in the Tempo Ruler.
Inserted tempo event
Each tempo event has a small green triangle next to it that indicates its location.
These triangles can be dragged to move the
tempo event, and they can be doubleclicked to edit the tempo event.
Editing and Moving Tempo Events
Existing tempo events can be moved, edited, deleted, and copied and pasted.
To delete a tempo event:
■ While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), move the cursor over the
tempo event (cursor changes to the Grabber with a “–”) and click to remove it.
To copy and paste several tempo events:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
2 Drag in the Tempo Ruler to select the
range of measures that includes the tempo
events.
Tempo events selected
228 Pro Tools Reference Guide
If the beginning of the selection includes a
tempo event, press Command (Macintosh)
or Control (Windows) so the Selector appears.
✽ Press Command+Option (Macintosh) or
Alt+Control (Windows) while dragging to select
across all Conductor tracks.
3 Choose Edit > Copy.
4 Click in the Tempo Ruler at the point
where you want to paste the tempo events.
5 Choose Edit > Paste. The contents of the
Tempo and MIDI and Audio
When editing or moving tempo events, the
Bars:Beats Ruler expands or shrinks, as necessary, to accurately reflect the placement
of audio regions (which remain constant in
terms of sample location). This, in turn, affects the relative placement of MIDI notes,
and ensures that the visual relationship between MIDI and audio is accurate.
Figure 17 illustrates how MIDI notes shift
and expand in relation to audio after the
tempo is reduced.
Clipboard are pasted from the insertion
point, replacing any existing tempo events.
To extend an Edit selection in a track to the
Tempo Ruler:
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, se-
lect a track range.
Ruler and MIDI
events expand
after tempo
change
2 Shift-click in the Tempo Ruler.
Shift-click again in the Tempo Ruler to remove it from the selection.
To select all tempo events:
Figure 17. Before and after change in tempo
■
Double-click with the Selector in the
Tempo Ruler.
After editing or moving a tempo event:
To clear a range of selected tempo events:
◆ Bar and beat locations for audio regions
(which are sample-based) are adjusted for
the new tempo. The audio region’s sample
and SMPTE locations remain unchanged.
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
2 Drag in the Tempo Ruler to select the
tempo events you want to remove.
3 Choose Edit > Clear to delete the selected
tempo events.
◆ MIDI notes (which are tick-based) remain at the same bar and beat location. In
relation to audio, however, the notes
shrink or expand based on the new tempo,
and result in new sample and SMPTE locations for the note start and end times.
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 229
Default Tempo
New sessions open with a default tempo of
120 BPM. This tempo can be changed by
inserting a tempo event at 1|1|000. However, this is not the same as inserting normal tempo events at other locations. The
tempo event that resides at 1|1|000 is actually a Bar|Beat Marker (notice that it has a
blue triangle).
Bar|Beat Markers look similar to tempo
events, but instead have small blue triangles to indicate their location.
Bar|Beat Marker
The key to accurately defining tempos for a
range of audio with the Identify Beat command is to make sure that the initial selection represents an accurate length of beats
or measures. In fact, you may want to first
loop the selection on playback (see “Looping Playback” on page 171) to see if it plays
cleanly without skipping. To avoid drift, select the audio material with the Time Scale
set to Samples rather than Bars:Beats.
The main distinction is that this Bar|Beat
Marker can be dragged to any location
within the session (such as to align with a
particular SMPTE frame) to redefine where
1|1|000 is. This, in effect, moves everything
else in the session along with it. Any new
bars that precede the default tempo event
are numbered as negative.
▲ Tempo events and Bar|Beat Markers cannot
Identify Beat Command
be mixed. If a session contains tempo events
and you attempt to insert Bar|Beat Markers,
existing tempo events are converted to
Bar|Beat Markers (and vice versa).
Bar|Beat Markers
The Identify Beat command lets you establish a tempo/meter map for audio that was
recorded without listening to the click, or
for imported audio with unknown tempos.
The Identify Beat command analyzes a selection range (usually with a distinct number of beats or measures) and calculates its
tempo based on the specified meter. In doing this, Bar|Beat Markers for the calculated
tempo are inserted and appear in the
Tempo Ruler at the beginning and end of
the selection; in addition, meter events are
inserted into the Meter Ruler.
230 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To add Bar|Beat Markers for a one-bar drum
loop:
1 Place a one-bar drum loop at the begin-
ning of an audio track.
2 Select Display > Samples. This ensures
that the selected audio material will be
sample-accurate.
3 Select the audio region with the Grabber
and choose Edit > Identify Beat.
4 In the Bar|Beat Markers dialog, specify
the start and end points for the inserted
Bar|Beat Markers. Since this example deals
with a one-bar loop, enter 1|1|000 and
2|1|000.
When working with a selection, the Identify Beat command only calculates a single
tempo for the selected range. If the tempo
varies from measure to measure, or beat to
beat, you’ll need to use the Identify Beat
command for each tempo variance (making sure to accurately define a precise selection range or beat location for the tempo
change).
Inserting Bar|Beat Markers One
at a Time
Audio Material with Varying Tempos
Identify Beat dialog
5 If necessary, specify a time signature for
the start and end range.
6 Click OK to automatically calculate the
new tempo and insert the necessary
Bar|Beat Markers and meter events. Any existing tempo and meter events residing
within the selection are deleted.
You can insert Bar|Beat Markers one at a
time by setting an Edit insertion point (instead of making a selection) before using
the Identify Beat command. The ability to
identify each beat, one at a time, is especially useful when working with audio with
varying tempos.
For instance, if you have a measure that accelerates slightly, you could insert a
Bar|Beat Marker on each beat (see
Figure 18) so the tempo is accurately reflected.
Bar|Beat Markers inserted
Once the tempo has been determined for
the audio, you can duplicate the original
audio region with the Repeat command.
Figure 18. Bar|Beat Markers on each beat
After the Bar|Beat Markers are inserted, further adjustments in the tempo map are
possible by dragging each of the Markers,
as necessary, to align with the associated
beat within the audio.
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 231
Dragging Bar|Beat Markers
Bar|Beat Markers can be dragged to new locations so they can align with audio regions that have been moved, or so that
they can align to a slightly different point
within an audio region. This results in
neighboring MIDI data being adjusted to
align with the new tempo map.
Dragging a Bar|Beat Marker
When dragging a Bar|Beat Marker:
• Its BPM value is recalculated along with
the Bar|Beat Marker to its immediate left.
Bar|Beat Markers to the right of the
dragged marker remain unchanged.
• Its bar and beat location is dragged with
the Bar|Beat Marker. If the Bar|Beat
Marker was originally placed at 3|1|000,
it remains there (unless it is edited).
• Its sample and SMPTE locations change,
as calculated for by the new tempo for
the Bar|Beat Marker.
• Neighboring MIDI events, along with
the Bars:Beats Ruler, shrink or expand as
necessary to adjust for the new tempo.
Editing Bar|Beat Markers
Bar|Beat markers and Tempo Events behave
differently when you drag them in the
Tempo Ruler.
A Bar|Beat Marker can be edited to redefine
its bar and beat location, which also redefines the start or end point of the range being analyzed for tempo. This is different
from dragging a Bar|Beat Marker.
When dragging a tempo event:
To edit a Bar|Beat Marker:
• The tempo event is placed at a new bar
and beat location. The sample and
SMPTE locations for the event are updated as well.
• The BPM value for the dragged tempo
event remains constant, as do any other
tempo events in the session.
• Neighboring MIDI events, along with
the Ruler, shrink or expand as necessary
to adjust for the new tempo location.
1 In the Tempo Ruler, double-click the
Tempo Events vs. Bar|Beat Markers
232 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Bar|Beat Marker.
2 In the Identify Beat dialog, enter a new
Location for the Bar|Beat Marker.
3 Click OK to recalculate the new tempo.
Like meter and tempo events, Bar|Beat
Markers can also be deleted.
To delete a Bar|Beat Marker:
■ While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), move the cursor over the
Bar|Beat Marker (cursor changes to the
Grabber with a “-”) and click to remove it.
Meter Events
Meter events can be inserted at the beginning of a session to replace the default
meter (of 4/4), and they can be inserted
anywhere within the session for additional
meter changes. Meter events are displayed
in the Meter Ruler.
While pressing Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows), move the cursor into
the Meter Ruler (cursor changes to the
Grabber with a “+”) and click at the desired
location.
Manually inserting a meter event
2 In the Meter Change window, enter the
To display the Meter Ruler:
Location and Meter for the meter change.
Select Display > Ruler View Shows >
Meter.
■
Current Meter
As meter events are encountered during
playback, the session’s current meter is displayed in the Transport window.
Meter Change window
current meter
Current meter displayed in Transport window
Select the Snap To Bar option if you want
the inserted meter event to fall cleanly on
the first beat of the nearest measure.
Inserting Meter Events
3 Select a note value for the number of
To insert a meter event:
clicks to sound in each measure. If desired,
select the dot (.) option for a dotted click
value.
1 Choose MIDI > Change Meter.
– or –
Click the Change Meter button in the far
left of the Meter Ruler.
Change Meter button
✽ For some meters, it may be desirable to use
a dotted value for the click. For instance, if using a meter of 6/8, a dotted eighth-note click
(yielding two clicks per measure) is more suitable than a straight eighth-note click (six clicks
per measure).
– or –
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 233
4 Click Apply to insert the new meter
event. The new meter event is inserted and
appears in the Meter Ruler.
If the beginning of the selection includes a
meter event, press Command (Macintosh)
or Control (Windows) so the Selector tool
appears.
✽ Press Option+Command (Macintosh) or
Inserted meter event
Each meter event has a small yellow triangle next to it that indicates its location.
These triangles can be selected for copying
and pasting, and they can be doubleclicked to edit the meter event.
Alt+Control (Windows) while dragging to select
across all Conductor tracks.
3 Choose Edit > Copy.
4 Click in the Meter Ruler at the point
where you want to paste the meter events.
5 Choose Edit > Paste. The contents of the
Editing Meter Events
Existing meter events can be edited, deleted, and copied and pasted.
To edit a meter event:
1 In the Meter Ruler, double-click the
meter event.
2 In the Change Meter dialog, enter a new
Clipboard are pasted from the insertion
point, replacing any existing meter events.
To extend an Edit selection in a track to the
Meter Ruler:
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, se-
lect a track range.
2 Shift-click in the Meter Ruler.
3 Click OK.
Shift-click again in the Meter Ruler to remove it from the selection.
To delete a meter event:
To select all meter events:
Location or Meter for the event.
While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), move the cursor over the
meter event (cursor changes to the Grabber
with a “–”) and click to remove it.
■
■ Double-click with the Selector in the
Meter Ruler.
To clear a range of selected meter events:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
To copy and paste several meter events:
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
2 Drag in the Meter Ruler to select the
2 Drag in the Meter Ruler to select the
3 Choose Edit > Clear to delete the selected
range that includes the meter events.
meter events.
Meter events selected
234 Pro Tools Reference Guide
meter events you want to remove.
Partial Measures
Aligning Beat 1 to a SMPTE Location
When scoring to film or video, you will often need to start a section of music at a precise SMPTE location. Since this SMPTE location will usually not fall cleanly at the
beginning of a measure, you can insert a
meter event at the SMPTE location where
the music needs to start.
As necessary, Pro Tools will create a partial
measure to accommodate the inserted
meter event. When a meter event is preceded by a partial measure, the meter event
is displayed in italics in the Meter Ruler.
Memory Locations are viewed and sorted
in the Memory Locations window, where
they can be recalled by clicking the Memory Location.
✽ With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Classic, Memory Locations can be recalled
from the numeric keypad by pressing the Memory Location number followed by period.
✽ With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to Trans-
port or Shuttle, Memory Locations can be recalled from the numeric keypad by pressing
period, the Memory Location number, and period again.
Properties of Memory
Locations
Partial measure of 4/4
Partial measures can also occur when pasting meter events to locations other than
beat one.
When creating a new Memory Location
(see “Creating Memory Locations” on
page 237) you are prompted to define its
Time Properties and General Properties.
Memory Locations and
Markers
Each session can save up to 200 Memory
Locations that can be used to recall:
• Markers to bar and beat locations or
SMPTE frames
• Edit selections across one or more tracks
• Record and play ranges, along with
pre/post-roll times
• Track settings that include Show/Hide
status, Track Heights, and zoom values
• Edit and Mix Groups enables
Memory Location dialog
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 235
Time Properties
Under Time Properties, a Memory Location
can be set to Marker, Selection, or None.
This determines the type of Memory Location that is created. Each of these three
Memory Location types can also save any
combination of General Properties.
Marker Recalls a Timeline location whose
reference can be either Bar|Beat (tick-based)
or Absolute (sample-based). When recalling a Marker Memory Location, the playback
cursor moves to the Marker’s location and
the start and end times in the Transport
window are also updated. If the Edit and
Timeline Selections are linked, the edit cursor also moves to the Marker location.
Markers in the Markers Ruler
Markers appear in the Markers Ruler with a
thin yellow line extending down through
all tracks in the Edit window (to assist in arranging and aligning track material). You
can click on a Marker in the Markers Ruler
to recall its location along with its stored
General Properties.
Selection Recalls an edit selection or edit
cursor location whose reference can be either Bar|Beat (tick-based) or Absolute (sample-based). A Selection Memory Location lets
you store edit selections, for one or more
tracks, that you return to often within a
session. If the Edit and Timeline Selections
are linked, a Selection Memory Location
can recall record and play ranges.
236 Pro Tools Reference Guide
▲ Only contiguous selections can be saved
with Memory Locations. Discontiguous selections, made with the Object Grabber, will be recalled as if the selection were made with the
Time Grabber.
None Recalls no Time Properties and is
therefore referred to as a General Properties
Memory Location.
Bar|Beat and Absolute Reference
The Reference pop-up determines whether
the Marker or Selection Memory Location
is Bar|Beat or Absolute. When set to
Bar|Beat, the Memory Location is tickbased and its bar and beat location remains
constant if the tempo is changed—though
its relation to audio is scaled, resulting in a
new sample location.
When set to Absolute, the Memory Location is sample-based and its bar and beat location shifts if the tempo is changed—
though its sample location remains constant, along with its relation to audio material.
Bar|Beat Marker (left) and Absolute Marker (right)
In the Markers Ruler, Markers that are
Bar|Beat appear as yellow chevrons, and
Markers that are Absolute appear as yellow
diamonds.
General Properties
✽ When creating Memory Locations, the next
Any of the three types of Memory Locations (Marker, Selection, and General Properties) can store and recall any combination of the following properties:
available number is assigned to it (1-200).
This number is used in recalling the Memory
Location from the numeric keypad.
Zoom Settings Recalls the horizontal and
vertical zoom values for both audio and
MIDI tracks.
To create a Marker Memory Location:
Pre/Post Roll Times Recalls pre- and postroll times (but not whether they are enabled). This property can be stored with a
Selection Memory Location to recall record
and play ranges along with pre/post-roll.
Track Show/Hide Recalls which tracks are
hidden. Use this property to display groups
of tracks for editing and mixing.
Track Heights Recalls all Track Heights. Use
this option along with the Zoom Settings
option to recall edit environments that are
suited for particular tasks, such as editing
down to the sample level or trimming
MIDI notes.
Group Enables Recalls which Edit and Mix
Groups are enabled. This option is helpful
in recalling groups for particular edit and
mixing operations, such as muting all
drum tracks or fading a stereo pair.
Creating Memory Locations
Memory Locations can be created by pressing Enter on the numeric keypad, by Control-clicking (Macintosh) or Start-clicking
(Windows) in the Markers Ruler, or by
choosing the Add New Memory Location
command from the pop-up menu in the
Memory Locations window. The method
you use will likely depend on the type of
Memory Location you want to create.
1 Configure any session settings you will
save with the Marker Memory Location,
such as zoom settings, pre/post-roll times,
Show/Hide status for tracks, Track Heights,
and Edit and Mix Group enables.
2 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
3 If the Markers Ruler is not displayed, se-
lect Display > Ruler View Shows > Markers.
4 Click with the Selector at the desired lo-
cation in any track or Ruler. To place a
Marker at the beginning of a region, select
the region with the Grabber. Click the
Marker Well button to the left of the Markers Ruler (or press Enter on the numeric
keypad).
Marker Well button
– or –
While pressing Control (Macintosh) or the
Start key (Windows), move the cursor into
the Markers Ruler (cursor changes to the
Grabber with a “+”) and click at the desired
location.
Manually inserting a Marker
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 237
5 In the New Memory Location dialog, se-
lect the Marker option and specify the Reference as either Bar|Beat or Absolute.
6 If desired, enter a name for the new
Marker and select any General Properties
you want to save with the Marker.
7 Click OK. The Marker is created and ap-
pears in the Markers Ruler, and in the
Memory Locations window.
To create a General Properties Memory
Location:
1 Configure any session settings you will
save with the Selection Memory Location,
such as zoom settings, pre/post-roll times,
Show/Hide status for tracks, Track Heights,
and Edit and Mix Group enables.
2 Press Enter on the numeric keypad.
3 In the Memory Location dialog, select
the None option.
To create a Selection Memory Location:
1 Configure any session settings you will
save with the Selection Memory Location,
such as zoom settings, pre/post-roll times,
Show/Hide status for tracks, Track Heights,
and Edit and Mix Group enables.
2 Select a range of material in one or more
tracks.
3 Press Enter on the numeric keypad.
– or –
From the pop-up menu in the Memory Locations window (click the Name button),
choose Add Memory Location.
4 If desired, enter a name for the new
Memory Location and select any General
Properties you want to save with it.
5 Click OK. The Selection Memory Loca-
tion is created and appears in the Memory
Locations window.
✽ In the New Memory Location dialog, you can
Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows)
any General Property to enable/disable all
properties. You can also Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-click (Windows) any property
to toggle its state and the state of all other
General Properties.
4 In the New Memory Location dialog, se-
lect the Selection option and specify the
Reference as either Bar|Beat or Absolute.
5 If desired, enter a name for the new
Memory Location and select any General
Properties you want to save with it.
6 Click OK. The Selection Memory Loca-
tion is created and appears in the Memory
Locations window.
Creating Memory Locations on the Fly
When the Editing Preference for “AutoName Memory Locations When Playing” is
enabled, Memory Locations can be created
while playing without encountering the
New Memory Location dialog. This option
can also be selected from the pop-up menu
in the Memory Locations window.
This capability is useful if you want to mark
certain locations while listening during a
record pass, or if you want to mark frame
locations while viewing a video scene.
238 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To create a Marker during playback:
To recall a Memory Location:
1 From the pop-up menu in the Memory
1 If the Memory Locations window is not
Locations window, select Default To
Marker. This ensures that new Memory Locations default to being Markers.
already open, choose Windows > Show
Memory Locations to display it.
2 From the pop-up menu in the Memory
2 If recalling a Selection Memory Location
Locations window, select Auto-Name
Memory Locations.
that will define a record or play range,
make sure to select Operations > Link Edit
and Timeline Selection.
3 For inserted Markers to have a Bar|Beat
3 In the Memory Locations window, click
reference, make sure to set the Time Scale
to Bars:Beats.
the Memory Location to recall it.
– or –
4 Click Play in the Transport window.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Classic, press the Memory Location number followed by period.
– or –
5 When the location is reached, press Enter
on the numeric keypad. A Marker is automatically created and appears in the Markers Ruler.
When auto-creating Markers, they are
named and numbered as “Marker 1,”
“Marker 2,” “Marker 3,” etc.
When the option for Default To Marker is
deselected, new Memory Locations default
to whatever type was last created. Therefore, if a Selection Memory Location was
created last, it will be the type that is created on the fly. In this case, the name for
the created Memory Location is based on
the start of the Edit selection using the time
format for the Main Time Scale (such as
“2|2|305” or “0:02.658”).
Recalling Memory Locations
Memory Locations can be recalled from the
Memory Locations window and from the
numeric keypad. In addition, Marker Memory Selections can be recalled by clicking
them in the Markers Ruler.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport or Shuttle, press period, the
Memory Location number, and period
again.
✽ When recalling a Memory Location from the
numeric keypad, the Memory Locations window does not need to be open.
To recall a Marker from the Markers Ruler:
1 If the Markers Ruler is not displayed, se-
lect Display > Ruler View Shows > Markers.
2 Click on the Marker. The playback cursor
locates to the Marker and any General
Properties stored with the Marker are recalled.
✽ Even if the Markers Ruler is not displayed,
Markers can be recalled from the Memory Locations window, or from the numeric keypad.
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 239
Editing Memory Locations
Memory Locations can be renamed, edited,
deleted, and copied and pasted.
To rename a Memory Location:
1 In the Memory Locations window, dou-
ble-click the Memory Location you want to
rename.
– or –
To change a Memory Location from one type
to another:
1 In the Memory Locations window, dou-
ble-click the Memory Location you want to
change.
– or –
If changing a Marker Memory Location,
double-click the Marker in the Markers
Ruler.
If renaming a Marker Memory Location,
double-click the Marker in the Markers
Ruler.
2 In the Memory Location dialog, select either Marker, Selection, or None as the
Memory Location type.
2 Enter the new name for the Memory Lo-
3 Enter a new name for the Memory Loca-
cation and click OK.
tion, if desired, and click OK.
To redefine the General Properties stored
with a Memory Location:
To change the Selection stored with a
Memory Location:
1 As desired, make changes to the session’s
1 If the Memory Locations window is not
zoom settings, pre/post-roll times,
Show/Hide status of tracks, Track Heights,
and Group Enables.
2 In the Memory Locations window, Con-
already open, choose Windows > Show
Memory Locations to display it.
2 Select a range of material in one or more
tracks.
trol-click (Macintosh) or Right-click (Windows) the Memory Location you want to
redefine.
– or –
3 In the Memory Locations window, Con-
If changing a Marker Memory Location,
Control-click (Macintosh) or Right-click
(Windows) the Marker in the Markers
Ruler.
4 Enter a new name for the Memory Loca-
3 In the Memory Location dialog, select
the General Properties you want to save
with the Memory Location.
trol-click (Macintosh) or Right-click (Windows) the Memory Location that you want
to redefine.
tion, if desired, and click OK.
To move a Marker by dragging:
1 In the Markers Ruler, drag the Marker left
or right.
4 Enter a new name for the Memory Loca-
tion, if desired, and click OK.
Dragging a Marker
240 Pro Tools Reference Guide
If the Edit mode is set to Grid, the dragged
event snaps to the current Grid value. If using Spot mode, the Spot dialog opens.
To align a Marker to a different location:
To delete a Marker from the Markers Ruler:
While pressing Option (Macintosh) or
Alt (Windows), move the cursor over the
Marker (cursor changes to the Grabber with
a “–”) and click to remove it.
■
1 Make sure to select Operations > Link
Edit and Timeline Selection.
Copying Marker Memory Locations
2 In any of the Timebase Rulers, click with
To copy and paste a range of Markers:
the Selector at the new location.
– or –
1 If desired, set the Edit mode to Grid to
Click in the playlist for any track. To align
the Marker to the start of a region, select
the region with the Grabber.
3 In the Memory Locations window or the
Markers Ruler, Control-click (Macintosh)
or Right-click (Windows) the Marker Memory Location that you want to redefine.
4 Enter a new name for the Marker, if de-
sired, and click OK.
constrain the selection to the current Grid
value.
2 Drag in the Tempo Ruler to select the
range of measures that includes the Markers.
If the beginning of the selection includes a
Marker, press Command (Macintosh) or
Control (Windows) so the Selector tool appears.
✽ Press Command+Option (Macintosh) or
Deleting Memory Locations
Alt+Control (Windows) while dragging to select
across all Conductor tracks.
To delete a Memory Location:
■ In the Memory Locations window, select
the Memory Location and choose Delete
Memory Location from the pop-up menu.
– or –
3 Choose Edit > Copy.
In the Memory Locations window, Optionclick (Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows)
the Memory Location.
Clipboard are pasted from the insertion
point, replacing any existing Markers.
To delete all Memory Locations:
To extend an Edit selection in a track to the
Markers Ruler:
■ In the Memory Locations Window,
choose Delete All from the pop-up menu.
– or –
Option-Shift-click (Macintosh) or Alt-Shiftclick (Windows) any Memory Location in
the Memory Locations window.
4 Click in the Markers Ruler at the point
where you want to paste the tempo events.
5 Choose Edit > Paste. The contents of the
1 Using either the Selector or Grabber, se-
lect a track range.
2 Shift-click in the Markers Ruler.
Shift-click again in the Tempo Ruler to remove it from the selection.
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 241
To select all tempo events:
Double-click with the Selector in the
Tempo Ruler.
■
Memory Locations Window
Memory Locations are listed, with their
name and assigned number, in the Memory Locations window. To recall a Memory
Location from this window, simply click it.
Marker
Memory Location
Selection
Memory Location
General Properties
Memory Location
Show Markers Only When selected, only
Marker Memory Locations are displayed in
the Memory Locations window. However,
even when Selection Memory Locations
and General Property Memory Locations
are hidden, they can still be recalled from
the numeric keypad.
Show View Filter Icons When selected, the
Memory Locations window provides an
icon-based “view filter” that allows you to
show or hide Memory Locations based on
the properties they contain. To show or
hide Memory Locations containing a specific property, click the appropriate icon.
Marker
Show/Hide
Zoom
Track Heights
Settings
Pre/Post-Roll
Selection
Memory Location
Active
Groups
Memory Locations View Filter
Memory Locations window
You can select viewing and sorting options,
along with commands for creating and removing Memory Locations, from the popup menu in the Memory Locations window
(obtained by clicking the Name button in
the upper left).
If an icon is disabled, all Memory Locations
associated with that property are hidden.
However, if a Memory Location contains
other properties for an icon that is enabled,
it is still displayed. When a view icon is enabled, it appears in color. When it is disabled, it appears gray.
Memory Locations window pop-up menu
The commands and options in this menu
are discussed in the following sections.
242 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Memory Locations window with view filter icons
In addition, the view filter provides a
handy reference for which properties are
stored in each Memory Location (indicated
by a row of icons for each Memory Location).
Default To Marker When selected, new
Memory Locations default to Markers,
though in the New Memory Location dialog you can still define the new Memory
Location as one of the other types.
Show Main/Sub Counter When selected, a
column appears in the Memory Locations
window that displays the locations for
Markers, and the start times for Selection
Memory Locations. General Property
Memory Locations display nothing in this
column.
Auto-Name Memory Location When selected, Memory Locations are created automatically without encountering the New
Memory Location dialog. If the Default To
Marker option is selected, a Marker Memory Location is auto-created. Otherwise,
the Memory Location type is determined
by whatever type (Marker, Selection, or
None) was created last.
Main
Time Scale
Sub
Time Scale
Main/Sub Counters in Memory Locations window
You can click at the top of these columns
for a pop-up menu that will let you change
the Main and Sub Time Scale.
Sort by Time When selected, Markers are
sorted by their order in the Timeline, followed by Selection Memory Locations,
which are listed in the order in which they
were created.
When Sort by Time is deselected, all Memory Locations are listed in the order of their
assigned numbers.
Add Memory Location Choose this command to create a new Memory Location.
Remove Memory Location Deletes the currently selected Memory Location in the
Memory Locations window.
Delete All Deletes all Memory Locations
(Marker, Selection, and General Property)
in the session.
Chapter 17: Conductor Tracks and Memory Locations 243
244 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 18
Advanced Editing
Pro Tools includes a rich advanced editing
feature set, which is covered in this chapter.
Using Crossfades
You can quickly and easily crossfade between two adjacent audio regions. Crossfading is the process of fading two regions
of audio to prevent pops, clicks, or sudden
changes in sound. Crossfades have many
applications, from smoothing transitions
between regions to creating special audio
effects. The crossfade duration, position,
and shape are all user-definable.
Crossfades are computed and written to
disk. Crossfades that are written to disk are
stored in a folder named “Fade Files”
within the session folder. When you play
back your track, Pro Tools reads and plays
back the crossfade file from disk.
✽ Pro Tools 24 and MIX systems also include
an Auto Fade feature that provides real-time
fades without processing them to disk. See
“Using the AutoFade Feature” on page 254.
About Crossfades and Curves
To create a crossfade between two regions,
the regions must be contiguous. Use the Selector to select across the point where the
regions touch. The length of the selection
determines the length of the crossfade.
Though fades may appear to be discrete regions, they cannot actually be separated
from the regions in which they were created. You can, however, create fade-ins and
fade-outs for individual regions (see “Creating Fades at the Beginnings and Ends of Regions” on page 253).
You can use the Fades dialog to select, view,
and manipulate the curves used to perform
the crossfade. Different volume curves can
be assigned to the fade-out and fade-in portions of crossfades. The Fades dialog can
also render a preview of the fade.
The following examples illustrate common
crossfade types, and explain how the type
of selection you make determines the character of the crossfade.
▲ Since crossfades are created by fading be-
tween overlapping audio material, a crossfade
cannot be performed on regions that do not
contain audio material beyond their region
boundaries.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 245
Standard Crossfade (“Centered”)
splice point
region 1
fade out
curve
fade in
curve
Post Crossfade
border of region 1 and 2
region 2
crossfade selection
region 1
region 2
selection range begins just after end of region 1
‘Centered’ crossfade
‘Post’ crossfade
This type of selection creates a crossfade on
both sides of the splice point, which affects
the volume of region 1 and region 2. It is
the most common type of crossfade.
This type of selection creates a crossfade after the splice point. It is useful if you want
to maintain the amplitude of region 1 until
its very end. When making selections for
crossfades that occur on the border of two
regions, you can use the Tab key to move
the cursor to the exact beginning or end of
a region.
This crossfade type requires that region 1
contain audio material beyond its end
point, and region 2 contain audio material
before its start point.
Pre Crossfade
This crossfade type requires that region 1
contain audio material beyond its end
point.
border of region 1 and 2
region 1
region 2
selection range extends just up to beginning of region 2
‘Pre’ crossfade
The Fades Dialog
When choosing the Fades command you
can use the Fades dialog to select, view, and
preview the crossfade, and to edit the
curves used to perform the crossfade.
This type of selection creates a crossfade before the splice point. This lets you maintain
the volume of the very beginning of
region 2 instead of fading across it, which
is useful if there is a strong attack at the beginning of region 2 that you want to preserve. When making selections for crossfades that occur on the border of two
regions, you can use the Tab key to move
the cursor to the exact beginning or end of
a region.
This crossfade type requires that region 2
contain audio material before its start
point.
246 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Fades dialog
The controls in the Fades dialog include:
Audition
Click this button to display the waveforms
of the first two adjacent tracks in a multitrack fade.
Fade Curves Only
Click this button to audition your crossfade. Pro Tools plays the audio in one of
two ways, depending on your system:
• Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 systems allow crossfade auditioning directly
from your audio interface outputs.
• All other Pro Tools systems use Apple’s
Sound Manager to audition crossfades.
Use the Digidesign Sound Drivers (automatically installed with Pro Tools) to audition via your audio interface outputs.
Use the Macintosh Sound Control Panel
to set the Output choice to Digidesign
Sound Drivers. (If you do not use the
Sound Drivers, you will hear crossfades
through the Macintosh’s audio output.)
View First Track
If you are fading between more than one
track, this button allows you to view and
preview the audio of the first pair of adjacent tracks.
View Second Track
Click this button to display the specified
fade curves without showing the actual
audio waveforms. This is the default view
when you open the Fades dialog.
Fade Curves and Separate Waveforms
Click this button to display the specified
fade curves along with separate views of
the fade-in and fade-out waveforms.
Fade Curves and Superimposed Waveforms
Click this button to display the specified
fade curves along with superimposed views
of the fade-in and fade-out waveforms.
Fade Curves and Summed Waveform
Click this button to display the specified
fade curves along with a single waveform
representing the summation of the crossfaded audio.
Zoom In
If you are fading between more than one
track this button allows you to view and
preview the audio of the second pair of adjacent tracks.
View Both Tracks
Click this button to scale the view of the
waveform’s amplitude upwards. Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-click
(Windows) for the default view scale.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 247
Zoom Out
Click this button to scale the view of the
waveform’s amplitude downwards. Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-click
(Windows) for the default view scale.
Fade Out Shape Parameter
◆ Preset Curve 1 keeps region 1 at full volume throughout the crossfade, then immediately drops the volume at the end of the
crossfade.
Preset Curve 1
◆ Preset Curve 2 fades out region 1 relatively slowly, keeping the volume fairly
high throughout the duration of the fade.
Preset Curve 2
Fade Out Shape
The Out Shape parameter allows you to
choose the shape of the fade-out from
region 1.
Standard Selects a single continuous fade
curve. This creates a general-purpose fade
that can be edited by dragging the curve itself.
S-Curve Selects an S-shaped curve, which
inverts its beginning and end characteristics. This makes it possible to fade in faster
at the curve’s start and slower at its end, for
example. S-shaped curves can be useful
with material that is difficult to crossfade
effectively. S-curves can be edited by dragging the curve in the curve editor.
Preset Curves Seven commonly used preset
curves are provided for fast crossfade creation. These can be edited by dragging the
end points of the curve in the curve editor
portion of this dialog. The seven presets are
as follows:
◆ Preset Curve 3 fades out region 1 slightly
faster, keeping the volume slightly lower
during the fade.
Preset Curve 3
◆ Preset Curve 4 fades out region 1 with a
linear fade. This is the default curve.
Preset Curve 4
Preset Curve 5 fades out region 1 quickly
at the beginning of the crossfade.
◆
Preset Curve 5
◆ Preset Curve 6 drops the volume of
region 1 even more quickly at the beginning of the crossfade.
Preset Curve 6
248 Pro Tools Reference Guide
◆ Preset Curve 7 silences region 1 at the beginning of the crossfade.
Preset Curve 7
Link Parameters
None Disables linking between the fade-out
and fade-in curves, and lets you freely adjust them separately, including start and
end points. This option also allows you to
create custom crossfade shapes. To edit
only the fade-in portion of the curve, press
Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows)
while dragging. To edit only the fade-out
portion of the curve, press Command
(Macintosh) or Control (Windows) while
dragging.
Fade Link
The Link parameter links the selected fadeout and fade-in curves. If you adjust one
curve, the corresponding curve also adjusts. This ensures that the resulting crossfade is an equal power or equal gain crossfade, depending on which you select.
Equal Power Recommended for material
that is not phase coherent, as in the case of
a crossfade between two completely different types of material. Use this option to
avoid the volume drop that can occur with
an Equal Gain crossfade. With this fade,
you can Option-click (Macintosh) or Altclick (Windows) the fade curve to reset it to
its default shape.
Equal Gain Recommended for material that
is phase-coherent or nearly phase-coherent, as in the case of a crossfade between
identical regions/instruments (a repeated
drum loop, for example). Use this option to
avoid clipping that can occur when using
an Equal Power crossfade. With this fade,
you can Option-click (Macintosh) or Altclick (Windows) the fade curve to reset it to
its default shape.
Adjusting the end point of a fade curve
Use Dither
Dither option for Fade
The Use Dither option turns on the noiseshaped Dither function, which improves
audio performance when mixing or fading
low-level audio signals. Use this option for
fading in or fading out silence, and crossfading between low amplitude regions.
Dithering is usually not necessary when
fading between two regions of high amplitude. You can disable Dither while editing
your crossfade in the Fades dialog to speed
up previews and fade recalculation, then
re-enable Dither to create the final crossfade.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 249
Fade In Shape Parameters
◆ Preset Curve 2 fades in region 2 quickly
in the beginning, reaching full amplitude
fairly early in the crossfade.
Preset Curve 2
Fade In Shape
◆ Preset Curve 3 fades in region 2 moderately fast.
The In Shape parameter allows you to
choose the shape of the fade-in to region 2.
Standard Selects a single continuous fade
curve. This creates a general-purpose fade
that can be edited by dragging the curve itself.
S-Curve Selects an S-shaped curve, which
inverts its beginning and end characteristics. This makes it possible to fade in faster
at the start of the curve, and slower at the
end. S-shaped curves are useful with material that is difficult to crossfade effectively.
S-curves can be edited by dragging the
curve in the curve editor.
Preset Curve 3
◆ Preset Curve 4 fades in region 2 with a
linear fade curve. This is the default curve.
Preset Curve 4
Preset Curve 5 fades in region 2 slowly at
the beginning of the crossfade.
◆
Preset Curve 5
Preset Curves Seven commonly used preset
curves are provided for fast crossfade creation. These can be edited by dragging the
end points of the curve in the curve editor
portion of this dialog. The seven presets are
as follows:
Preset Curve 1 fades in region 2 at full
volume immediately at the beginning of
the crossfade and keeps it there throughout
the crossfade.
◆
◆ Preset Curve 6 fades in region 2 even
more slowly than the previous curve.
Preset Curve 6
◆ Preset Curve 7 silences region 2 until the
end of the crossfade.
Preset Curve 7
Preset Curve 1
250 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Typical Curve Combinations
Fade and Crossfade Preferences
Following are the available combinations
of fade-out and fade-in curves.
(TDM Systems Only)
Linear Crossfade This is a good general purpose crossfade with a smooth, even transition between region 1 and region 2.
1-out
You can set default fade and crossfade settings. These settings load as your “base”
settings when you use the Create Fades
command, and the Fade to Start and Fade
to End commands.
2-in
To set the crossfade preferences:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Ed-
iting.
Linear Crossfade
2 Set the Pre-Roll and Post-Roll times for
Equal Power Crossfade This is a good general purpose crossfade useful in cases where
a linear crossfade seems to create a noticeable drop in volume across the splice point.
Fade previews.
1-out
2-in
Fade and Crossfade Preferences
3 Click Fade In and set the default shape
for fade-ins, then click OK.
Equal Power Crossfade
Overlap Fade This combination of curves
keeps both regions at full amplitude
throughout the crossfade: region 2 “jumps
in” at the beginning and region 1 “jumps
out” at the end.
4 Click Fade Out and set the default shape
for fade-outs, then click OK.
5 Click Crossfade and set the default shape
for crossfades, then click OK.
6 Click Done.
Creating a Crossfade
1-out
2-in
To create a crossfade between two regions:
1 With the Selector, click at the point
Overlap Crossfade
where you want the crossfade to begin in
the first region and drag to where you want
it to end in the second region.
Two regions must touch or overlap in order
for Pro Tools to generate a crossfade (fadeins and fade-outs do not require this, as
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 251
they occur inside a single region). Crossfade selections can begin and end anywhere in their respective regions.
To remove a crossfade:
3 Use the view buttons to adjust the view
Select the area of the track containing
the crossfades you want to delete and
choose Edit > Fades > Delete Fades.
– or –
of the crossfade. It may take a few moments to calculate the waveform display
for long selections.
Select the crossfade with the Grabber and
press Delete (Macintosh) or Backspace
(Windows).
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
■
4 Select an Out Shape and an In Shape.
5 Choose a Linking option.
6 Click the Audition button, or play the
session, to hear the crossfade. For long
crossfades, it may take Pro Tools a few moments to calculate and load the audio into
playback RAM.
7 Adjust the curves by choosing different
preset shapes with the Out Shape and In
Shape pop-up menus.
– or –
Drag the Fade In/Out curves to the desired
shape. By choosing None as the Linking
option, you can drag the beginning or end
points of a fade curve to adjust its beginning or end point.
8 Click the Audition button, or play the
session, to hear the crossfade again.
9 When the crossfade is right, click OK.
The fade is calculated and written to disk,
but the audio files and regions remain unchanged. Crossfades are stored in the Fades
Folder within the session folder.
After you have created a crossfade, it is still
possible to edit its length by selecting the
crossfade region with the Trimmer and
dragging the start or end points.
To trim a crossfade:
1 Select the crossfade with the Grabber, or
double-click it with the Selector.
2 With the Trimmer, trim either side of the
crossfade. The crossfade is recalculated to
reflect the newly trimmed length.
Pre/Post Crossfade Selections
By making a selection that begins or ends
precisely on the border of two regions, you
can create “pre” or “post” crossfades. Use
the Tab key to place the insertion point at
the exact beginning or end of a region.
To create a pre- or post-crossfade:
1 With the Selector, click in the track that
contains the regions you want to crossfade.
2 Press Tab to move forward to the next re-
gion boundary. Press Option+Tab (Macintosh) or Control+Tab (Windows) to move
back to the previous region boundary.
3 Shift-drag to adjust your selection, or
press Shift+Tab to extend the selection forward to the next region boundary. Press
Option+Shift+Tab (Macintosh) or Control+Shift+Tab (Windows) to extend the selection back to the previous region
boundary.
4 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
5 Choose a fade type and click OK.
252 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Creating Fades at the
Beginnings and Ends of
Regions
In addition to crossfades between regions,
Pro Tools lets you create fade-ins and fadeouts at the beginnings and ends of regions.
On Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 systems, you can also use an automatic fadein/out option, which applies real time fadeins/outs to all regions during playback.
These fades are not written to disk, but automatically applied during playback.
To create a fade-in:
1 Select the beginning of the region that
you want to fade in. The selection must extend to the exact beginning of the region
or a blank area prior to the region in the
track.
Selecting the beginning of a region for a fade-in
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
Choose your fade-in curve and other parameters.
3 Click the Audition button to hear the
fade (or press the Spacebar to start/stop
playback).
Region with a fade-in
Creating Fade-Ins/Outs
4 You can adjust the curve by dragging it or
by choosing a different shape with the In
Shape pop-up menu.
Depending on how you make the selection, you can position a fade-in/out at the
exact beginning or end of a region, or position it so it extends into a blank area of the
track. The length of the selection in the region determines the length of the fadein/out.
5 When you are finished, click OK.
You can also fade to the beginning or end
of a region from an insertion point.
want to fade out. The selection must extend to the exact end of the region or a
blank area after the region in the track.
Pro Tools calculates the fade and writes it
to disk. The chosen fade curve appears in
the region.
To create a fade-out:
1 Select the end of the region that you
Selecting the end of a region for a fade-out
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
Choose your fade-out curve and other parameters.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 253
3 Click the Audition button to hear the
Using the AutoFade Feature
fade (or press the Spacebar to start/stop
playback).
{Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 Only)
4 You can adjust the curve by dragging it or
by choosing a different shape with the Out
Shape pop-up menu.
5 When you are finished, click OK.
Pro Tools calculates the fade and writes it
to disk. The chosen fade curve appears in
the region.
✽ After you have used the Fades command to
create a fade-in/out, you can still edit the
length of the fade by resizing its length with the
Trimmer.
To fade from the insertion point to a region
start point:
1 Place the cursor at the desired location in
the region.
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Fade To Start.
3 The fade is applied based on the Fade In
Preferences.
To fade from the insertion point to a region
end point:
1 Place the cursor at the desired location in
the region.
2 Choose Edit > Fades > Fade To End.
3 The fade is applied based on the Fade Out
Preferences.
254 Pro Tools Reference Guide
On Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 systems, you can choose to have Pro Tools automatically apply real-time fade-ins/outs to
all region boundaries in the session. These
fade-ins/outs are performed during playback and do not appear in the Edit window,
and are not written to disk.
This automatic fade-in /out option also has
an effect on virtual track switching in a session. Whenever a lower-priority virtual
track “pops thru” a silence in a higher-priority track on the same voice, a fade-in and
fade-out is applied to the transition.
This feature is especially useful in post-production situations such as dialogue tracking. For example, you could assign both a
dialogue track and a “room tone” track
with matching background to the same
voice. You could then set the Auto-Fade option to a moderate length (4 ms or so) so
that whenever a silence occurred in the dialog, playback would switch smoothly to
and from the background track without
clicks or pops.
Using automatic fade-ins/fade-outs saves
you the trouble of editing to zero-crossings
or creating numerous rendered fades in order to eliminate clicks or pops in playback.
However, since these autofades are not
written to disk, those clicks or pops still exist in the underlying sound file. Consequently, those anomalies still appear if the
Duplicate AudioSuite Plug-In or the Export
Selected as Sound Files command (from the
Audio Regions List) are used to duplicate
multiple regions as a continuous file. To
render these real-time auto fades to disk,
choose File > Bounce to Disk.
2 Drag to extend the selection to the last
region you want to crossfade. Make sure
that the selection includes the entire region.
To set the length of automatic fade ins/outs:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Operation.
2 Enter a value between 0 and 10 ms for
the Auto Region Fade In/Out Length. A
value of zero means that no auto-fading
will occur.
3 Click Done. The Auto Fade value is saved
with the session, and is automatically applied to all free-standing region boundaries
until you change it.
✽ The default value for this setting is zero.
Creating Fades and
Crossfades in Batches
Selected regions for batch fades
3 Choose Edit > Fades > Create Fades.
4 Select whether you want to Create New
Fades, Create New Fade-Ins and Outs, Adjust existing Fades, or a combination of
these options.
If you select to create new fades and new
fade-ins and outs, new crossfades are created at each region boundary that is bordered by another selected region, a fade-in
is created at the start of the first region, and
a fade-out is created at the end of the last
region.
In “Batch Mode” you can create many
fades at once. You select across several regions and use the Create Fades command
to create crossfades for each region transition. If your selection includes regions that
already have crossfades, this feature allows
you to modify them.
To create crossfades between multiple
regions at once:
1 With the Selector, click in the first region
in which you want to create a crossfade.
Make sure that the selection includes the
entire region.
Batch Fades dialog
5 Choose the placement of your Fades. You
can choose Pre-Splice, Centered, or PostSplice.
6 Enter a crossfade length in milliseconds.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 255
7 Click OK. Pro Tools creates the fades for
the selected regions.
✽ You can edit the length of a fade after you
create it by resizing it with the Trimmer.
Stripping Silence From
Regions
The Strip Silence command examines a selection and removes any areas of silence
(sections where the amplitude level falls
below a pre-defined level for a user-selectable period of time). The Strip Silence command does this by dividing the selected region into smaller regions and removing the
silent regions.
You can use this feature to automatically
divide a track into regions, which can be
useful if you want to quantize your audio
to musical values or SMPTE locations. It
can also be useful if you want to get rid of
silent areas to prepare for compacting
audio (see “Compacting an Audio File” on
page 199).
What Happens to Stripped
Audio?
New regions, with the exception of the
“stripped out” silent regions, appear in the
Audio Regions List. The Strip Silence command is nondestructive and does not actually remove any audio data from the parent
audio file. You can use the Heal Separation
command to mend stripped regions.
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Identifying Silence
You can identify the audio signal that qualifies as “silence” by making a selection of
silence in a track and using the Identify Silence command. The amplitude of the selection is analyzed and stored as a setting
that is recalled whenever you use the Strip
Silence command in the session.
Strip Silence Setting
Strip Silence dialog
The Strip Silence dialog has six parameters:
On Threshold Audio above this dB level remains in the selection and is not stripped
out.
Off Threshold Audio that falls below this dB
level is stripped out.
Combine If Closer Than If the end of one region and the start of the next region are
closer than this time value, they are combined into the same region.
Discard If Shorter Than If a region’s length
is shorter than this time value it is discarded.
Pre-Roll Specifies a time value to add to the
start of regions created with the Strip Silence command. For example, a value of
200 ms of Pre-Roll will add 200 ms to the
beginning of each stripped region. Different values here can be useful for preserving
certain types of data, such as breaths on vocal tracks that would otherwise be stripped
out, resulting in an unnatural, “gated”
sound.
Post-Roll The value that you enter here is
appended to the end of regions created
with the Strip Silence command.
Region Naming
The Strip Silence dialog also contains parameters for how resulting regions are
named. You can choose to use standard
naming conventions, or define your own.
The Custom naming option has four parameters:
For example, if you set the naming parameters to:
• Name = SFX
• Auto Number Start = 23
• Leading Zeros = 1
• Suffix = .Reel1
The names generated for regions created by
the Strip Silence command would be:
• SFX023.Reel1
• SFX024.Reel1
• SFX025.Reel1
• SFX026.Reel1
• SFX027.Reel1
• SFX028.Reel1
To identify silence:
1 Select a portion of silence in a track.
2 Choose Edit > Identify Silence. A dialog
appears displaying the silence’s dB parameters. If these are satisfactory, click OK.
Name Specifies the base name for regions
created with the Strip Silence command.
To strip silence from a selection:
Auto Number Start Specifies the number at
which sequential auto-numbering starts.
2 Choose Edit > Strip Silence.
Leading Zeros Specifies the number of zeroes that occur before the appended auto
numbers.
the silence. If you had previously identified
silence, these parameters are filled in with
the pre-calculated values.
Suffix Specifies any text appended to the
end of the name, following the auto numbering.
4 Choose a naming scheme. If you choose
Custom, enter the desired parameters.
1 Select one or more audio regions.
3 Enter the desired parameters to define
5 Click OK. Pro Tools divides the selection
into regions, stripping out any areas that
meet your specifications for silence.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 257
Inserting Silence
The Insert Silence command is a simple
and convenient way to insert silence in sessions. This command allows you to make a
selection on a track (or tracks) and insert
precisely that amount of silence. In Shuffle
Mode, all data on the track is shuffled later
in the track by an amount equal to the selection.
In Grid Mode, the Insert Silence command
works just like the Clear command.
Shuffle Mode When inserting silence on
multiple tracks in Shuffle mode, the following conditions apply:
◆ If any track is displayed as audio/MIDI
data, the selected duration of silence is inserted into the audio/MIDI data and all underlying automation data on all selected
tracks. All subsequent regions are shuffled
by the amount of silence inserted. On MIDI
tracks, only notes that are selected from the
beginning are affected, so if you have selected the tail of a note and you Insert Silence, the note will remain unchanged.
◆ If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, the selected range is cleared of
automation data only of the type visible on
each track. Regions are not shuffled. Instead, a blank gap appears equal to the
length of the selection.
If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, press Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows) while choosing
the Insert Silence command to inserts silence on all automation playlists for all selected tracks. Regions are not shuffled.
Slip Mode When inserting silence on multiple tracks in Slip mode, the following conditions apply:
◆ If any track is displayed as audio/MIDI
data, the selected range is cleared of
audio/MIDI data and all underlying automation data on all selected tracks.
◆ If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, silence is inserted only into
the automation type visible on each track.
◆ If all selected tracks are displayed as automation data, press Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows) while choosing
the Insert Silence command to insert silence on all automation playlists for all selected tracks.
To insert silence into a track:
1 Make a selection on the desired tracks.
The length of the selection determines the
duration of the silence inserted.
2 Choose Edit > Insert Silence.
Pro Tools inserts the selected amount of silence. In the process, it splits the regions at
the beginning of the insertion point, and
moves the new regions later in the track by
an amount equal to the length of the selection.
The Time Trimmer
◆
258 Pro Tools Reference Guide
(TDM Systems Only)
The Time Trimmer is a convenient tool for
matching an audio region to the length of
another region, a tempo grid, a video
scene, or to practically any other reference
point you want.
To use the Time Trimmer in Grid Mode:
1 Set the Edit mode to Grid.
2 Select “TCE Trimmer” from the Trimmer
pop-up menu.
Time Trimmer over a region
The Time Trimmer works by using the
Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite
Plug-In to create a new audio file. You use
the Time Trimmer by dragging the region’s
start or end point to expand or compress
the region.
Time Compression/Expansion Plug-In
Preferences
You can select settings for the Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite Plug-In by
choosing from the pop-up list in the Processing Preferences, under “Default TC/E
Settings.” The settings available are presets
included with Pro Tools; in addition, if you
save your own presets for the Time Compression/Expansion Plug-In, they also appear.
☞ Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for
more information about AudioSuite Plug-Ins.
Using the Time Trimmer in Grid Mode
The Time Trimmer can be used in Grid
Mode to match a region to the tempo of a
session or a section of a session. For example, you might import a one-bar drum loop
with a tempo of 90 BPM into a session with
a tempo of 120 BPM. In Grid Mode, you
can use the Time Trimmer to simply and
quickly “compress” the drum loop to the
length of one measure, with minimal loss
of audio fidelity.
Trimmer set to TCE
3 With the Time Trimmer, drag the region’s
start or end point to compress or expand
the region to the grid (for example, by
quarter notes). The region is automatically
processed using the Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite Plug-In. The new region appears in the playlist and in the
Regions List.
Using the Time Trimmer in Slip Mode
To use the Time Trimmer in Slip Mode:
1 Set the Edit mode to Slip.
2 Select “TCE Trimmer” from the Trimmer
pop-up menu.
3 With the Time Trimmer, drag the region’s
start or end point to compress or expand
the region freely. A new region is automatically processed using the Time Compression/Expansion AudioSuite Plug-In. The
new region appears in the playlist and in
the Regions List.
Using the Time Trimmer in Spot Mode
In Spot Mode, clicking with the Time trimmer in a region opens the Spot Dialog. You
can specify the location you want the region to start or end at, or the duration of
the region, and the region is automatically
compressed or expanded as specified.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 259
To use the Time Trimmer in Spot Mode:
1 Set the Edit mode to Spot.
2 Select “TCE Trimmer” from the Trimmer
pop-up menu.
3 Click on the region, near its start or end
point. The Spot Dialog opens. Using any
Time Scale, enter a new start or end time
(or duration) for the region, then click OK.
A new region is automatically processed using the Time Compression/Expansion
AudioSuite Plug-In. The new region appears in the playlist and in the Regions List.
Fitting an Audio Region to an Edit
Selection
Regions can be dragged from the Audio Regions List to fit within an Edit selection.
The dragged region is compressed or expanded to fit within the selection. This feature uses the Time Compression/Expansion Plug-In to expand or compress the
audio region.
To fit an audio region to an Edit selection:
1 With the Selector, select the desired time
range in an audio track.
2 Command-Option-drag (Macintosh) or
Compress/Expand Edit To
Play
(TDM Systems Only)
Control-Alt-drag (Windows) the region
from the Audio Regions List to the track
with the selection. The start of the region is
positioned at the selection start, and the region is compressed or expanded to match
the length of the selection.
When the Edit and Timeline selections are
unlinked, you can compress or expand an
audio selection to fit the Timeline selection. This feature works by using the Time
Compression/Expansion Plug-In to expand
or compress the selected audio material.
Repeat Paste To Fill
Selection
To fit an Edit selection to the Timeline:
(TDM Systems Only)
1 Deselect Operations > Link Edit and
The Repeat Paste To Fill Selection command allows you to automatically fill a selection with audio or MIDI data without requiring you to duplicate the regions
manually. To use Repeat Paste, copy an
audio or MIDI region, then make a selection and use the command to fill the selection. When pasting audio regions, you are
prompted to specify a crossfade to be used
for the pasted regions.
Timeline Selection.
2 With the Selector, select the audio mate-
rial to be compressed or expanded.
3 In any Timebase Ruler, select the time
range where you want to fit the audio material.
4 Choose Edit > Compress/Expand Edit To
Play. The Edit selection is compressed or
expanded to the length of the Timeline selection.
260 Pro Tools Reference Guide
If you fill an area that is an exact multiple
of the copied region size (for example, filling 16 bars with a 4-bar loop), the copied
selection is pasted in exactly as many times
as it takes to fill the selection. If you fill an
area that is not an exact multiple of the
copied region size (for example, filling 15
seconds of a track with a 2 second atmosphere or room noise region), the remaining selection area is filled with an automatically trimmed version of the original
selection.
This is also useful in music production if
you want to replace a certain loop or sample (for example, a drum beat) with a new
one. You can use this compositionally, if
you know the tempo of a section or session,
to create a scratch piece with “rough” regions of the correct length, and later replace them with “final” regions of the same
length.
To fill a selection with Fill Paste:
1 Select the audio or MIDI region you want
to copy and choose Edit > Copy.
2 Select the area you want to fill using the
Selector and choose Edit > Repeat Paste To
Fill Selection.
3 If pasting audio regions, the Batch Fades
dialog opens. Configure the dialog as desired to insert crossfades between each
pasted region, then click OK.
– or –
If you do not want crossfades for the pasted
audio, click Cancel in the Batch Fades dialog.
Replace Region dialog
Replacing Regions
(TDM Systems Only)
You can use the Replace Region function to
replace multiple instances of a region in a
playlist with another region that you Command-drag (Macintosh) or Control-drag
(Windows) from the Regions List.
This is useful in post-production if you use
a sound effect, room noise, or atmosphere
region many times in a session, and later
decide to replace one or all of the original
regions with a different region.
The following options are available in the
Replace Region dialog:
Replace Original Region Replaces only the
selected region with the replacement region dragged from the Regions List.
Replace All Regions That Match Original Replaces all regions that fit the Match criteria
and the Find Match On criteria with the replacement region from the Regions List.
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 261
Match: Start Position Replaces all regions
that have the same original start time as the
selected region. This includes regions that
may have been auto-created when trimming end points.
Fit to: Original Selection Length When the
playlist selection extends beyond the original region, the replacement region (if larger
than the original region) is trimmed to fit
within the selection.
Match: End Position Replaces all regions
that have the same original end time as the
selected region. This includes regions that
may have been auto-created when trimming start points.
Fit to: Replacement Region Length The replacement region is placed in its entirety,
regardless of the length of the original region or selection.
Match: Region Name Replaces all regions
that have the same name as the selected region.
✽ Region matching uses all specified Match
criteria. For example, if you select Start Position and End Position, all regions from the
same original audio file as your selection with
the same original start and end times will be
replaced.
Find Match On: Target Track Replaces regions that fit the Match criteria and are on
the same track as the original region.
Find Match On: All Tracks Replaces regions
that fit the Match criteria for all tracks in
the session.
Fit to: Original Region Length If the replacement region is smaller than the original region, the region is placed in the playlist
and any remaining audio from the original
region is removed.
If the replacement region is larger than the
selection, it is placed in the playlist and
trimmed to fit within the length of the
original region.
262 Pro Tools Reference Guide
▲ The Replace Region function only works on
a selection that includes a single region on
one track. The function is not available when
the playlist selection includes the start points
for two or more regions. Also, if the selection
is across several tracks, only the selection in
the first (top) track is used.
To replace regions:
1 Select a region in a track’s playlist that
you want to replace. If desired, the selection can extend beyond the region’s end
point, to include material from the replacement region that is longer than the original
region.
2 Command-drag (Macintosh) or Control-
drag (Windows) the replacement region
from the Regions List to the selected region. The Replace Region dialog opens.
3 If you only want to replace only the original region, select Replace Original Region.
– or –
If you want to replace multiple regions, select Replace All Regions That Match Original, and set the Match criteria.
4 Select whether to apply the replacement
to all tracks, or only to the track with the
current selection.
5 Select whether to fit the replacement re-
gions to the current selection, the entire region, or the entire replacement region
regardless of the destination length.
6 When you have set all the options, click
OK.
Before using the Pencil tool, it is recommended that you create a backup copy of
the target audio. You can do this by using
the AudioSuite Duplicate Plug-In.
To make a backup copy of an audio region:
1 Select the source region in the track’s
playlist.
Processing Audio with
AudioSuite Plug-Ins
The AudioSuite Plug-Ins included with
your Pro Tools system can be used to process and modify an audio region or entire
audio file. You may do this in order to apply a specific AudioSuite process, such as
Normalization or DC Offset Removal, that
you know you will always want applied to
the audio.
☞ Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for
more information about AudioSuite Plug-Ins.
2 Choose AudioSuite > Duplicate.
3 In the AudioSuite dialog, make sure that
“Playlist” is the processing preference, and
that Use In Playlist is selected.
4 Click the Process button.
The AudioSuite Duplicate Plug-In creates a
new audio file that is a duplicate of the
original. The duplicate replaces the original
on the track, and it is automatically named
with the region name and the suffix
“DUPL.”
To destructively edit an audio waveform with
the Pencil tool:
1 Locate the area you want to edit. Adjust
Waveform Repair with the
Pencil Tool
The Pencil tool allows you to destructively
“redraw” waveform data. This tool is most
commonly used to repair a pop or click in
an audio file. A pop or click appears as a
sudden sharp spike in a waveform. This
tool only becomes active when the Edit
window is zoomed in to the sample level.
▲ The Pencil tool is a destructive editing tool
that permanently modifies the audio file on
disk and should be used with caution.
the Track Height, as necessary, to edit the
waveform with greater precision.
2 Using the Zoomer tool or the Vertical
Zoom buttons, zoom down to the sample
level so the waveform appears as a continuous thin line.
✽ You can recall zoom levels with the Zoom
Preset buttons (see “Zoom Preset Buttons” on
page 149), or with Memory Locations (see
“Memory Locations and Markers” on
page 235).
3 Select the Pencil tool.
Pencil tool
Chapter 18: Advanced Editing 263
4 Carefully draw with the Pencil by drag-
ging over the desired area of the waveform.
Don’t over-edit or the results may be undesirable. You can use the Undo command to
undo your previous edit.
Repairing a “pop” with the Pencil tool
Try to limit editing to smoothing over a
very small problem area, and keep the
“fixes” in character with the shape of the
surrounding wave.
264 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Part V
Mixing
chapter 19
Basic Mixing
The following chapters cover the various
steps in mixing a session, such as creating
inserts and sends, adding effects, using automation, and bouncing tracks, all of
which lead to the final mixdown.
Although the mixing process typically begins when you finish recording and editing, many mixing tasks can occur any time
during a recording session.
Using a Control Surface with
Pro Tools
Creating Inserts and Sends
Pro Tools allows you to add both Inserts
and Sends to tracks in your session. An Insert routes the signal from the channel to
the effect of your choice and automatically
returns it to the same channel. A Send also
routes the signal from the channel to the
destination of your choice, but to return
the signal to the mix you must route it back
into the session, either with an Auxiliary
Input or by recording it onto a new track.
There are several optional control surfaces
for Pro Tools:
The Inserts/Sends Editor
TDM-equipped Pro Tools systems can
use Digidesign ProControl, a dedicated
controller that provides access to all
Pro Tools recording, mixing, editing, signal
routing, Plug-In control, and automation
features.
When you add an Insert or Send to a track,
the Inserts/Sends Editor appears. This floating window allows you to edit Inserts and
Sends for any track.
◆
All Pro Tools systems support MIDI control surfaces, including the Mackie HUI
(Human User Interface), JL Cooper CS-10,
Peavey PC-1600, and Penny & Giles MM16 controllers.
◆
☞ For more information on using MIDI control
surfaces with Pro Tools, refer to the Pro Tools
MIDI Controllers Guide.
Track Selector
Insert/Send Type Selector
Insert/Send Selector
Settings Pop-up
Bypass/Mute
Compare
Librarian Pop-up
Automation Enable
Inserts/Sends Editor
Chapter 19: Basic Mixing 267
Track Selector Provides access to any Audio, Auxiliary Input, or Master Fader track.
Insert/Send Selector Provides access to any
Insert or Send on the displayed track.
Insert/Send Type Selector Allows you to select any Hardware I/O channel, real-time
Plug-In, or send destination for the displayed track.
Settings Pop-Up menu Provides access to
commands for saving and importing PlugIn settings.
Librarian Pop-Up Menu Recalls settings files
for real-time Plug-Ins.
Compare Button If you edit the settings of a
Plug-In, this button allows you to compare
the saved and edited settings.
Bypass/Mute Button On Inserts, this disables the currently displayed Plug-In, allowing you to hear the track with and without the effect. On Sends, this mutes the
currently displayed Send.
Inserts do not alter the original audio
source files, but process audio in real time,
during playback. You can permanently apply real-time effects to tracks by recording
or bouncing the effect to disk. When more
than one Insert is used on a channel, they
are processed in series, with each effect being added to the previous one, from top to
bottom in the Mix window.
Because Pro Tools Inserts are pre-fader, you
can cause clipping if you boost their gain to
extremes, especially on tracks recorded at
high amplitude. Watch on-screen metering
to avoid clipping.
Plug-In Inserts
Plug-In Inserts are software inserts that process audio material on a track in real time.
The EQ, Dynamics, and Mod Delay PlugIns supplied with your Pro Tools system are
real-time Plug-In Inserts. Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for details on using
these Plug-Ins.
Automation Enable Button (Real-time PlugIns only) Allows you to enable individual
Plug-In parameters for automation recording. For more information, see “Automating Plug-Ins” on page 296.
Real-Time Plug-In Insert (1-band EQ shown)
Inserts
Pro Tools allows you to place up to five
unity-gain, pre-fader Inserts on each audio
track, Auxiliary Input track, or Master
Fader. (In the case of Master Faders, Inserts
are post-fader only.) There are two types of
Inserts, Plug-In Inserts and Hardware I/O Inserts.
268 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Additional real-time Plug-Ins are available
from Digidesign and from many thirdparty developers.
Hardware I/O Inserts
Hardware I/O Inserts allow you to route
audio through an external device connected to the inputs and outputs of your
Audio Interface. You can process the audio
material on a track with a hardware Insert
in real time. For details, see “Hardware I/O
Inserts and Sends” on page 277.
A Hardware I/O Insert
Mono and Stereo Inserts
Inserts can be either mono or stereo. Stereo
versions of Plug-Ins become available when
you use them on a stereo channel. A stereo
Hardware I/O Insert, which sends the signal to an input/output pair, can also be created on a stereo channel.
In addition, certain Plug-Ins (such as Mod
Delay) allow you to generate stereo output
from a mono channel. A channel made
into stereo in this way has pan controls for
each channel of the stereo signal. Any inserts that occur on a channel after a stereo
insert are automatically used in stereo as
well.
Assigning Inserts to Tracks
As shared resources An Insert can be used
as a shared resource in a send-and-return
arrangement, by bussing signals from several tracks to an Auxiliary Input, and then
applying the Insert to the Auxiliary Input
track. With such an arrangement, you can
control the Send level for each track, and
the overall level of the effect can be controlled from the Auxiliary Input track.
Shared arrangements allow you to make
more efficient use of your system’s processing power. For more information, see “Applying an Insert to a Submix” on page 280.
To show Inserts in the Mix Window:
If Inserts are not visible on your tracks,
select Display > Mix Window Shows > Inserts View.
■
To add an Insert to a track:
■ Click an Insert button on the track and
choose an Insert from the pop-up menu.
Selecting a Hardware I/O Insert
Inserts can be used in two ways:
On single tracks An Insert can be applied to
an individual audio track or Auxiliary Input using the Inserts pop-up menu on that
track.
With in-line Inserts, you control the level
of effect by adjusting the controls of the
Plug-In or external device.
Selecting a Plug-In
Chapter 19: Basic Mixing 269
To remove an Insert from a track:
Click the Insert button on the track and
choose No Insert from the pop-up menu.
■
To select a different Plug-In on the same
track:
■ Click the Insert Type Selector button and
choose a Plug-In from the pop-up menu.
Removing an Insert
☞ For details on the Plug-Ins included with
your Pro Tools system, refer to the DigiRack
Plug-Ins Guide.
Selecting a Plug-In from the Inserts Editor
To add another Plug-In to the same track:
Using the Inserts Editor
In addition to the Inserts View in the Mix
and Edit Windows, you can access the controls for Inserts directly from the Inserts/Sends Editor. The following examples
show the Inserts/Sends Editor for a realtime Plug-In.
■ Click the Insert Selector button and
choose an available Insert from the pop-up
menu, then click the Insert Type Selector
button and choose a Plug-In from the popup menu.
To adjust the parameters for a Plug-In on a
different track:
■ Click the Track Selector button and
choose a track from the pop-up menu.
Selecting an Insert from the Inserts/Sends Editor
To bypass a Plug-In Insert:
Click the bypass button in the Inserts/Sends Editor
– or –
■
Selecting a track from the Inserts Editor
■ Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click
(Windows) the Plug-In button in the Inserts View of the Mix window.
▲ You cannot bypass hardware inserts from
Pro Tools. To monitor playback without a hardware insert, either set the Insert Type Selector
to “No Insert” or use a bypass switch on the
hardware device itself.
270 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Sends
Pro Tools allows you place up to five Sends
on each audio or Auxiliary Input track. You
can set Sends to be either pre- or post-fader.
When you create a new Send, its output
level is automatically set to –∞.
✽ You can set the Send output level to zero by
Option-clicking (Macintosh) or Alt-clicking (Windows) the Send fader.
Sends are typically returned to the mix by
means of an Auxiliary Input. They can also
be recorded directly onto another track.
There are two types of destinations for
Sends: Internal Mix Busses and Hardware I/O
Sends.
Mute, and Send Pan (for stereo Sends) parameters are fully automatable. See “Automating Sends” on page 295.
Assigning Sends to Tracks
To show Sends in the Mix Window:
1 If Sends are not currently visible on your
tracks, select Display > Mix Window Shows
> Sends View.
2 Select Display > Sends View Shows > As-
signments to show all the Sends buttons on
the tracks.
To add a Send to a track:
1 Click the Sends button on the track and
choose a Send from the pop-up menu.
Internal Mix Busses
Pro Tools TDM systems provide 32 busses
and Pro Tools LE systems provide 16 busses
for routing signals internally to other destinations, including real-time Plug-Ins.
Hardware I/O Sends
Hardware I/O Sends are often used for
headphone cue mixes or for sending signals to external effects processors. See
“Hardware I/O Inserts and Sends” on
page 277.
Assigning a hardware stereo Send
The Send can be either a mono or stereo
Send, and can have a destination of an internal mix bus or a hardware I/O output.
2 Set the output level of the Send.
To remove a Send from a track:
■ Click the Sends button on the track and
choose No Send from the pop-up menu.
Mono and Stereo Sends
Sends can be either mono or stereo. When
you click the Sends button on a channel,
you can choose from a list of mono or stereo outputs or busses. Send level, Send
Removing a Send
Chapter 19: Basic Mixing 271
Using the Sends Editor
In addition to the Sends View in the Mix
and Edit Windows, you can access the controls for Sends directly from the Inserts/Sends Editor.
To display the controls for a different Send on
the same channel:
■ Click the Send Selector button and
choose the desired Send from the pop-up
menu.
To display Sends for a different track:
■ Click the Track Selector button and
choose a track from the pop-up menu.
Accessing another Send from the Sends Editor
Displaying Send Controls
Selecting a track from the Sends Editor
To select a different send destination for a
track:
■ Click the Send Destination Selector button and choose a send destination from the
pop-up menu.
You can display all the parameters of an individual Send in the Sends area of the Mix
and Edit Windows, allowing full access to
all controls for that Send on all channels.
When you display the controls for an individual Send, you also have the option of
displaying Send level meters.
To display the controls for an individual Send
across all channels:
1 If Sends are not currently visible on your
Selecting a send destination from the Sends Editor
To add an additional Send to the same track:
channels, choose Display > Mix Window
Shows > Sends View.
2 Choose Display > Sends View Shows and
choose an individual Send.
■ Click the Send Selector button and
choose the desired Send from the pop-up
menu, then click the Send Destination selector and choose a destination from the
pop-up menu.
Sends view controls for an individual stereo Send
272 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To display Send level meters when viewing
individual Sends:
To copy a track’s current control settings to a
Send on that track:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
1 Select the tracks you want to edit by
Display.
2 Select Show Meters in Sends View and
clicking on the track names to highlight
them.
click OK.
2 Choose Edit > Copy To Send.
Send level meters show peak values and indicate clipping that occurs while the meter
is displayed (if a Send clips any time before
its meter is displayed, this is not shown).
To clear a Send meter’s clip indicator, click
on it.
✽ If you are using a slower computer, hiding
Send level meters can improve screen redraw
times.
The Copy to Send dialog
3 In the Copy to Send dialog, select Cur-
Copying Track Control Settings
to Sends
(TDM Systems Only)
Sometimes you may want Send settings to
match the settings in the track itself—for
example, to send a headphone mix based
on the main mix. You can quickly copy a
track’s volume fader, pan slider, or mute
button position to the corresponding controls for a Send on that track.
In addition, you can copy the entire automation playlist for the selected control to
the corresponding playlist for the Send. See
“Copying Track Automation to Sends” on
page 295.
rent Value to copy the current position of
the track controls.
4 Choose the controls you want to copy.
5 Choose which Send to copy the settings
to, and click OK.
Auxiliary Inputs
Auxiliary Inputs function as inputs for
both internally bussed signals and external
sources such as tape machines or live
sources. They also function as returns for
shared internal Plug-In effects and external
effects processors.
You can automate the level, muting, and
panning of an Auxiliary input track, and
you can apply Inserts and Sends to it as
well.
Chapter 19: Basic Mixing 273
Auxiliary Inputs do not provide an input
gain stage, so if you are using them as inputs for external sources, you must match
levels between the external devices and
your Audio Interfaces. When you create a
new Auxiliary Input, its main fader level is
automatically set to –∞.
5 Click the Output selector of the Auxiliary
Input channel and choose an output.
6 Set the Auxiliary Input level.
Using an Auxiliary Input as an
Auxiliary Return
You can use an Auxiliary Input to return a
signal sent to an internal mix bus or to an
external device.
To create an Auxiliary Return for an internal
mix bus:
1 Set the send destinations on the source
tracks to a mix bus (for a mono Send) or a
bus pair (for a stereo Send).
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 Choose the matching type (mono or stereo) of Auxiliary Input from the pop-up
menu, and click Create.
3 Click the Input Selector of the Auxiliary
Auxiliary Input used as an input for external sources
You can create mono or stereo Auxiliary Inputs, depending on which type of signal
you are working with.
Input channel and set it to the bus you
want to return.
4 Add a real-time Plug-In Insert or a Hard-
ware I/O Insert to the Auxiliary Input track.
5 Click the Output Selector of the Auxiliary
Input channel and choose an output.
To create an Auxiliary Input:
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 Choose the type of Auxiliary Input
(mono or stereo) from the pop-up menu.
3 Enter the number of tracks and click Cre-
ate.
4 Click the Input selector of the Auxiliary
Input channel and choose an input source.
274 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Set the Plug-In effect or external device
controls to “100% wet.” You can then adjust the level of the processed signal in the
mix with the main fader of the Auxiliary
Input track.
Generating Stereo Output from a
Mono Send/Return
4 Click the Output Selector of the Auxiliary
You can use an Auxiliary Return arrangement to generate a stereo output from a
mono Send. Set the send destination to a
mono Auxiliary Input track and place a stereo Plug-In on the Auxiliary Input. The
output of the Auxiliary Input becomes stereo.
Set the effect on the external device to
“100% wet.” You can then adjust the level
of the processed signal in the mix with the
main fader of the Auxiliary Input track.
Real-time Plug-In applied to Inser t A
Input channel and choose an output.
Send to external device
Input set to device’s return
Output set to main mix outs 1-2
Send to bus 1
Aux In input set to bus 1
Controls level of dry signal
Output set to main mix outs 1-2
Controls level of effect
Controls level of dry signal
Send/return setup for an external device
Controls level of effect
Master Faders
Send/return setup for a Internal Mix Bus
To create an Auxiliary Return for an external
device:
1 Set the send destinations on the source
tracks to a Send output (for a mono Send)
or a Send output pair (for a stereo Send).
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 Choose the type (mono or stereo) of Auxiliary Input from the pop-up menu, and
click Create.
3 Click the Input Selector of the Auxiliary
Input channel and set it to the Hardware
I/O channel that you want to return.
Master Faders allow you to control the master output levels of two types of signals in a
Pro Tools system:
• Signals sent to the outputs of the Audio
Interface
• Signals sent to any of the internal busses
Master Faders can be either mono or stereo
and have many applications, including:
• Controlling output mix levels
• Monitoring an output (such as a bus or
hardware output) to see if it is clipping
• Controlling submix levels
• Controlling effects sends levels
Chapter 19: Basic Mixing 275
• Controlling submaster (bussed tracks)
levels while bouncing to disk in real time
• Applying Dither to an entire mix
3 Enter the number of tracks and click Cre-
ate.
4 Click the Master Fader’s Output selector
and choose the output that you want to
control. You can choose either Audio Interface outputs or internal busses. If the Master Fader is a stereo fader, you can control
the level of a pair of outputs.
To use Master Faders as a master volume
control for all channels in a session:
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 Choose the type of Master Fader from the
pop-up menu.
3 Click Create.
4 Set the output of the Master Fader to the
Master Fader used to control master levels of Audio
Interface outputs
Unlike Inserts on Audio or Auxiliary Input
tracks, Master Fader Inserts are post-fader.
This allows you to insert a DSP dither PlugIn, such as Digidesign’s noise-shaped
dither, to your master mix, and dither the
signal properly during a fade.
☞ Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for de-
tails about using Dither.
On both TDM and LE-based systems, you
can use Master Faders freely to control submix levels, send level masters and other
outputs because they do not consume any
of your system’s audio processing power.
To create a Master Fader:
1 Choose File > New Track.
2 Choose the type of Master Fader (mono
or stereo) from the pop-up menu.
276 Pro Tools Reference Guide
output channels to outputs 1–2.
5 Set the outputs of all audio tracks in the
session to outputs 1–2 and set the panning
of each track.
The Master Fader controls the output levels
of all tracks routed to it. You can write automation for the Master Fader and it applies to your entire session.
chapter 20
Advanced Mixing
Hardware I/O Inserts and
Sends
You can connect external devices, such as
reverb or effects processors, to your
Pro Tools system and use them as inserts or
make them the destination for effects sends
and returns.
You can also label the connections so that
the device name appears in the I/O pop-up
menus in Pro Tools.
Connecting External Devices
Pro Tools TDM and Digi 001 systems allow
you to create dedicated connections to external analog or digital devices. The number and type of connections depends on
what kind of system you have.
You can also use the inputs and outputs of
an Audiomedia III card to connect external
devices. You can send and return an analog
signal using the analog connectors on the
card, and monitor through a DAT machine
connected to the digital output. You can
also send and return a digital signal to an
external device that supports digital I/O
(such as a reverb unit), and monitor with
the analog outputs.
To connect an external device to a Pro Tools
system:
1 Connect an unused output (or pair of
outputs for a stereo device) of your
Pro Tools system to an input of the external
signal processor.
2 Connect the output of the external signal
processor to an unused input (or pair of inputs for a stereo device) of your Pro Tools
system.
If you plan to use a device as an Insert, be
sure to connect the device to matching inputs and outputs on your system.
☞ For details on connecting external devices,
refer to the Pro Tools Hardware Installation
Guide that came with your system.
Chapter 20: Advanced Mixing 277
To label hardware I/O Inserts or Sends:
1 Choose Setups > I/O Labels.
To set up a digital send to an external device,
do the following for your system:
TDM Systems
1 Choose Setups > Hardware Setup.
2 Do one of the following:
On an 888/24 I/O Interface, choose Setups > Hardware, click Other Options, and
set the channel pair to Digital.
◆
The I/O Labels dialog
◆ On an 882/20 I/O or 1622 I/O Interface,
choose Setups > Hardware and set Channel
1–2 input to Digital.
3 Choose Internal from the Sync Mode
2 Under Display, click Inserts (for hardware
inserts), or Outputs (for hardware sends)
and name the connections carrying signal
to the external device (for example, Reverb.L and Reverb.R).
3 Click Inputs and name the connections
carrying signal from the device in the same
manner (for example, Reverb Return.L and
Reverb Return.R).
4 When you have finished, click OK.
For more information on I/O labels, see
“Assigning Track Inputs” on page 53 and
“Assigning Track Outputs” on page 54.
Connecting Effects Units
Digitally
If you want to use the digital inputs and
outputs on your Pro Tools system as effects
sends and returns to a digital effects device,
Pro Tools should be the clock master in
most cases. Set your digital effects device to
accept an external digital clock so that it
synchronizes to Pro Tools.
278 Pro Tools Reference Guide
pop-up menu.
4 Click OK.
Digi 001 Systems
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine and
click Other Options.
2 Do one of the following:
◆ If the external device is connected to the
S/PDIF RCA jacks, deselect S/PDIF Mirroring. (When S/PDIF Mirroring is on, digital
output at the S/PDIF RCA jacks exactly mirrors the output of analog Channels 1–2.)
◆ If the external device is connected to the
Optical ports, choose a format (most likely
S/PDIF for an effects device) from the Optical Format pop-up menu.
3 Choose Internal from the Sync Mode
pop-up menu.
4 Click OK.
5 Choose Setups > I/O Labels.
6 Under Display, click Outputs and then
click Factory Reset to update the output label configuration. Enter new names for the
Output I/O labels.
7 Click Inputs and then click Factory Reset
to update the input label configuration.
Enter new names for the Input I/O labels.
8 Click OK.
In an expanded TDM system, connect to
the digital input on Channels 1–2 of the
master Audio Interface. This is the Audio
Interface connected to the first MIX, d24,
or Disk I/O card in your system.
▲ If you set the Optical Format to S/PDIF,
Pro Tools will watch the Optical port for any
audio input on the S/PDIF RCA jacks.
Audiomedia III Systems
1 Choose Setups > Playback Engine and de-
select S/PDIF Mirroring. (When S/PDIF Mirroring is on, digital output at the S/PDIF
RCA jacks exactly mirrors the output of analog Channels 1–2.)
2 Choose Internal from the Sync Mode pop
up menu.
3 Click OK.
4 Choose Setups > I/O Labels.
5 Under Display, click Outputs and then
☞ Refer to the Pro Tools TDM System Installa-
tion Guide to determine correct card order and
Audio Interface connections for TDM systems.
To select an external clock source for a TDM
system:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware.
2 Set the Sync Mode to Digital.
3 Choose the Digital Format for the input.
Digi 001 Systems
Pro Tools can receive external clock from
the optical input (on the Digi 001 PCI card)
or S/PDIF input (on the Digi 001 I/O box).
click Factory Reset to update the output label configuration. Enter new names for the
Output I/O labels.
To select an external clock source for a
Digi 001 system:
6 Click OK.
2 Set the Sync Mode to match the type of
1 Choose Setups > Hardware.
input.
Using external clock sources
Pro Tools uses the digital input on Channels 1–2 as its clock master. To synchronize
your system to an external clock source,
connect the external source to digital inputs 1–2 of your system.
TDM Systems
If you choose Optical, make sure the Optical Format matches the type of optical input you are sending to your Pro Tools system.
▲ If you set the Optical Format to S/PDIF,
Pro Tools will watch the Optical port for external clock, and ignore any clock input on the
S/PDIF RCA jacks.
Pro Tools can receive external clock from
Channels 1–2, using either the AES/EBU
(on the 888/24 I/O) or S/PDIF connectors
on your Audio Interface.
Chapter 20: Advanced Mixing 279
Audiomedia III Systems
Pro Tools can receive external clock from
the S/PDIF input on the Audiomedia III
card.
To select an external clock source for an
Audiomedia III system:
1 Choose Setups > Hardware.
2 Set the Sync Mode to match the type of
The Auxiliary Input track controls the output levels of all tracks routed to it. You can
apply mix automation to the Volume, Pan,
Mute, and Send Level, Send Pan, and Send
Mute controls of the Auxiliary Input.
You can also bounce a submix to disk to
free up the voices for use by other tracks.
See “Recording a Submix to Disk” on
page 282.
input.
Soloing Tracks in a Submix
Creating a Submix
You can use an Auxiliary Input to create a
submix by sending the output of several
tracks to the Auxiliary Input instead of to
the main mix outputs of your session.
When you want to solo any tracks in a submix, you can solo-safe the Auxiliary Input
track. This allows you to solo tracks that are
bussed to the Auxiliary Input without having to solo the Auxiliary Input as well.
To solo-safe an Auxiliary Input:
You can then apply real-time Plug-Ins to
the submix or send the submix to an external processor by using Inserts or Sends on
the Auxiliary Input track.
■ Command-click (Macintosh) or Controlclick (Windows) the Solo button on the
Auxiliary Input track.
The following example illustrates how to
create a stereo submix group.
Applying an Insert to a Submix
To create a submix:
1 Choose File > New Track and choose Aux
Input (stereo) from the pop-up menu.
2 Set the output of the tracks you want to
include in the submix to a bus pair and set
the panning of each track.
3 Set the input of the Auxiliary Input track
to the same bus pair.
4 Set the output of the Auxiliary Input
track to your main stereo mix outputs (typically, outputs 1–2).
5 Set the Auxiliary Input level.
280 Pro Tools Reference Guide
You can use a real-time Plug-In or a hardware I/O insert as a shared resource for all
tracks included in a submix. This allows
you to control an effect such as EQ on multiple tracks (such as stereo pairs) with a single set of controls. This also makes the most
efficient use of your system’s processing
power, as it saves you from having to apply
the same Plug-In to each track separately.
To apply an Insert to all tracks in a stereo
submix:
1 Choose File > New Track and choose Aux
Input (stereo) from the pop-up menu.
2 Set the output of the tracks you want to
include in the submix to a bus pair and set
the panning of each track.
3 Set the input of the Auxiliary Input track
You can apply real-time Plug-Ins to the
audio signal or route it through an external
device by using the Inserts or Sends on the
Auxiliary Input track. You can also apply
mix automation to the Volume, Pan, Mute,
Send Level, Send Pan, and Send Mute controls of the Auxiliary Input just as you can
with an audio track.
to the same bus pair.
4 Set the output of the Auxiliary Input to
the main mix outputs.
5 On the Auxiliary Input track, click the In-
serts pop-up and select a Plug-In.
6 In the Inserts/Sends Editor, set the pa-
rameters of the DSP Plug-In.
Using an Auxiliary Input to
Mix an External Source
You can use an Auxiliary Input to bring an
external audio source (such as tape, instruments, or any live source) into a Pro Tools
mix.
To use Auxiliary Inputs to bring external audio
sources into a mix:
1 Connect the audio outputs of your exter-
nal audio source to available inputs on
your system.
2 Choose File > New Track and choose the
type of Auxiliary Input (mono or stereo)
from the pop-up menu, then click Create.
3 Set the input of the Auxiliary Input track
to the system input.
4 Click the Output selector of the Auxiliary
Input channel and choose an output.
Creating a Master Send
Level Control
You can use a Master Fader to control the
send level of multiple tracks being sent to
an Auxiliary Input or to an external signal
processor.
To create a Master send level control:
1 Choose File > New Track and choose Master Fader (mono or stereo) from the pop-up
menu, then click Create.
2 Do one of the following:
◆ Set the output of the Master Fader to
match the bus (or bus pair) that you are using to send to an Auxiliary Input track containing a Plug-In.
◆ Set the output of the Master Fader to
match the output destination (or output
pair) that you have chosen for your effects
send.
You can then set the relative send levels on
each of the source tracks, and use the Master Fader as a master level control for the
signal you are sending to an Auxiliary Input with a Plug-In or external hardware device.
5 Set the Auxiliary Input level.
Chapter 20: Advanced Mixing 281
Printing Effects to Disk
By using the Bounce to Disk command, or
by bussing tracks with effects to audio track
inputs, you can print effects to disk. This is
the technique of permanently adding an
effect, such as EQ or reverb, to an audio
track by re-recording it to disk with the effect added. The original audio is preserved,
so you can return to the source track at any
time.
This method of adding effects is useful
when you have a limited number of tracks
or effects devices.
When you print an effect to disk, you can
control the amount of the effect by adjusting any of the following:
◆ Settings of the Sends on the original dry
tracks
◆ Level of the Auxiliary Input being used as
a return
◆ Wet/dry control on the Plug-In or effects
device
Recording a Submix to
Disk
You can create a submix in your Pro Tools
session and re-record it to available tracks
in the same session. Recording a submix to
disk in this way requires an available voice
for each track that you want to re-record.
Make sure you have enough voices available to play back all tracks that you want to
re-record and enough voices available to
record the destination tracks.
This technique lets you add live input
(such as vocals or MIDI instruments) to the
mix, as well as allowing you to manually
control volume, pan, mute, and other controls during the recording process.
In contrast, the Bounce to Disk command
allows you to bounce all available voices to
disk without holding any in reserve, but
you cannot manually change any controls
during the bounce. See “Bouncing Tracks
to Disk” on page 313 for more information.
You can print effects to disk in two ways:
By bouncing the output of your session
using the Bounce to Disk command. For
details, see “Bouncing Tracks to Disk” on
page 313.
◆
◆ By creating a submix in your session and
re-recording it to disk. See “Recording a
Submix to Disk” on page 282.
To print effects to disk by bouncing a submix:
1 Apply any Plug-Ins or external processors
you want to add to your audio tracks or
Auxiliary Inputs before you record.
2 Set the output of the tracks you want to
include in the submix to a bus or bus pair.
If you are recording in stereo, set the panning of each track.
3 Choose File > New Track and choose Audio Track from the pop-up. If you are recording in stereo, create two new tracks.
282 Pro Tools Reference Guide
4 If you are recording in stereo, set the panning of the new tracks to full left and right.
5 Set the input of each destination track to
match the bus or bus pair to which you are
recording.
Pro Tools III The 16-bit Optimized Mixer is
installed by default. When you run your
Pro Tools Installer, a copy of the 24-bit Optimized Mixer is placed in the folder “PlugIns (Unused)”.
7 Position the playback cursor or make a
The Pro Tools Session Setup window indicates which of the two Mixer Plug-Ins is
currently installed.
selection where you want to begin playback.
Mixer Plug-In Features
6 Set the output of your new tracks to your
main output pair.
8 Record enable the new tracks and click
Record in the Transport window.
9 Click Play in the Transport window to be-
gin recording the submix.
10 Click Stop when you are finished re-
cording.
TDM Mixer Plug-Ins
(TDM Systems Only)
Pro Tools TDM systems come with two different Mixer Plug-Ins: 16-bit Optimized
and 24-bit Optimized. In most cases, the
Mixer Plug-In that was automatically installed with your system is the best one for
all around use. The Mixer Plug-In that is installed depends on which Pro Tools system
you have:
Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 The 24bit Optimized Mixer Plug-In is installed by
default. When you run your Pro Tools Installer, a copy of the 16-bit Optimized
Mixer is placed in the folder “Plug-Ins (Unused)”.
The 24-bit Optimized Mixer
The 24-bit Optimized Mixer provides:
◆ Optimized performance for recording
and mixing 24-bit audio
◆ 24-bit digital output mix result from an
Audio Interface output or when bouncing
to disk. Mixing level scaling stores 48-bit
results using a 56-bit accumulator for maximum precision.
◆ Fewer mixing channels (On TDM systems, 26 x 2 mixing channels can be created per DSP)
◆
30 dB of mix headroom
◆ Input and Output clip indication: Master
Fader meters simultaneously indicate clipping at both the input summing stage and
the output level stage.
The 16-bit Optimized Mixer
The 16-bit Optimized Mixer provides:
◆ Optimized performance for recording
and mixing 16-bit audio
◆ 24-bit digital output mix result from an
Audio Interface output, or when bouncing
to disk
Chapter 20: Advanced Mixing 283
◆ More mixing channels (On TDM systems, 36 x 2 mixing channels can be created per DSP)
◆
18 dB of mix headroom
◆ Output clip indication: Master Fader
meters indicate clipping at the input summing stage only.
However, the 16-bit Optimized Mixer internal mix bus still processes signals with
24-bit precision, and can produce a 24-bit
digital output mix result from an Audio Interface digital output or when bouncing to
disk.
Switching TDM Mixer Plug-Ins
Choosing a Mixer Plug-In
To Switch TDM mixer Plug-Ins:
Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 Always
use the 24-bit Optimized Plug-In with
Pro Tools 24 MIX systems, regardless of the
bit depth of your session.
1 Quit Pro Tools.
Pro Tools III In most cases, use the 24-bit
Optimized Plug-In when working with 24bit audio and the 16-bit Optimized Plug-In
when working with 16-bit audio.
3 Open the “Plug-Ins (Unused)” folder, lo-
Using the 16-Bit Optimized Mixer for
24-bit Recording or Mixing
2 Open the DAE Folder. The DAE folder is
installed at the root level of the System
Folder.
cate the Mixer Plug-In that is not in use,
and drag it to the Plug-Ins folder.
4 Open the Plug-Ins folder, locate the other
mixer Plug-In, and drag it to the “Plug-Ins
(Unused)” folder.
5 Launch Pro Tools.
(Pro Tools III Systems Only)
In cases where you want to maximize the
channel capacity of in a Pro Tools III session, you can use the 16-bit Optimized
Plug-In for mixing 20- or 24-bit audio.
Every mixer connection in a Pro Tools session, including internal bussing and sends,
uses processing capacity. Since the 16-bit
Optimized Mixer uses less processing
power per mixing channel, you can use it
to maximize the number of mixer channels
in your session.
If the 16-bit Optimized Mixer receives an
input signal with greater than 20-bit resolution from an Audio Interface, its input
level scaling processes only the most-significant 20 bits, and ignores the bottom
four bits.
284 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Preventing Clipping
The 24-bit Optimized and the 16-bit Optimized Mixer Plug-Ins indicate clipping differently.
24-bit Optimized Mixer With the 24-bit Optimized mixer, the Master Fader meters indicate clipping at both the input summing
stage and the output level stage at all times.
With this mixer, you could lower the Master Fader to reduce your output level, but
the Master Fader meters could still indicate
clipping at the input stage.
16-bit Optimized Mixer With the 16-bit Optimized Mixer, the Master Fader meters indicate clipping only for the output level
stage of the mixer. With this mixer, you
could lower the Master Fader to reduce
your output level, but any clipping at the
input stage would not be indicated.
If reducing the output level has no effect
on clipping, it could be occurring in one of
the following places:
◆ At the input summing stage. To prevent
clipping at the input stage, trim the input
summing levels.
◆ At an insert on the Master Fader. If you
are using a Plug-In on the Master Fader, its
meters show the levels on the Insert. To
prevent clipping at the Insert, trim levels
on any Plug-Ins or Hardware Inserts on the
Master Fader.
Trimming Input Summing Levels
With many inputs that contain hi-level signals, it is possible to clip the input summing stage of the 16-bit Optimized Mixer.
(This is less likely to happen on the 24-bit
Optimized Mixer because of its much
greater available headroom.)
To reduce the levels going into the input
summing stage of the Mixer Plug-In, lower
the fader levels of all track faders using the
All Mix/Edit group. If you are using mix automation, you will need to use Automation
Trim mode or the Trim tool to lower the
overall volume of all tracks until the levels
are low enough to not overload the Master
Faders.
Chapter 20: Advanced Mixing 285
286 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 21
Automation
Pro Tools features dynamic automation of
volume, pan, and mute controls for audio
tracks, Sends, and MIDI tracks, as well as
real-time Plug-In parameters. In Pro Tools,
you can write automation moves in real
time during playback of your session. You
can also edit automation data with the
same techniques you use to edit audio and
MIDI data.
Using Control Surfaces
ProControl Digidesign’s ProControl supports all automation features in Pro Tools.
ProControl DigiFaders™ provide 10-bit accuracy, or 1,024 steps of resolution.
Pro Tools interpolates this ProControl input and provides 24-bit resolution of Volume and Send automation on playback.
☞ For details on using ProControl to create mix
automation, refer to the ProControl User’s
Guide.
MIDI Controllers Most MIDI control surfaces have 8-bit resolution, or 128 steps;
the Mackie HUI has 9-bit resolution, or 512
steps. Pro Tools interpolates this input to a
much higher resolution on playback, resulting in fader automation that is smooth
enough to satisfy professional requirements.
Automation Playlists
Each Pro Tools track contains a single automation playlist for each automatable control.
On audio tracks, these controls include:
• Volume
• Pan
• Mute
• Send Volume, Pan, and Mute
• Plug-In parameters
On MIDI tracks, these controls include:
• Volume
• Pan
• Mute
You can display and edit each of these automatable parameters individually from
Pro Tools, even during playback.
In addition, you can display and edit other
continuous MIDI controller data (such as
Mod Wheel, Breath Controller, Foot Controller, or Sustain) in a similar manner. For
more information on editing MIDI data,
see “Continuous Controller Events” on
page 207.
Chapter 21: Automation 287
Edit Playlists and Automation
Pro Tools handles audio regions and playlists differently from MIDI regions and playlists.
Audio Tracks
On audio tracks, automation data resides
on a separate playlist from audio data and
regions. Each edit playlist on an audio track
shares the same automation data.
When you trim audio regions with the
Trim tool, the underlying automation data
remains unchanged.
MIDI Tracks
On MIDI tracks, all controller automation
data except for Mute data is contained in the
MIDI region that it was recorded in. Each
edit playlist on a MIDI track is separate,
and represents a distinct performance,
complete with controller automation.
When you trim MIDI regions with the Trim
tool, the controller automation data is
trimmed with the other MIDI data.
▲ Mute data is independent of the MIDI data
in a MIDI region. This allows you to mute playback of individual MIDI tracks in Pro Tools without altering the controller data.
Multiple Edit Playlists and Audio
Tracks
All edit playlists on a single audio track
share the same automation data. When
you copy or cut audio data from a track
while it is in Waveform view, the underlying automation data is cut or copied with
it. If you paste audio data from other locations or tracks into an edit playlist, you
may change the underlying automation
data on the track.
If you are using multiple edit playlists to assemble different versions of your audio
tracks, you can avoid problems with automation by editing and assembling the
audio tracks before applying automation to
them.
Automation Modes
Automation modes control how automation data is written and played back.
Auto Off
Auto Off mode turns off automation for all
automatable controls:
• Volume
• Pan
• Mute
• Send Volume, Pan, and Mute
• Plug-In parameters
• MIDI Volume
• MIDI Pan
• MIDI Mute
In Auto Off mode, automation data for
these parameters is ignored during playback. All other MIDI controller data is sent.
288 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Auto Read
Auto Read mode plays the automation that
was previously written for a track.
Auto Touch
Auto Touch mode writes automation only
while a fader or switch is touched or clicked
with the mouse. When the fader is released, the writing of automation stops and
the fader returns to any previously automated position, at a rate determined by the
AutoMatch and Touch Timeout settings.
See “AutoMatch” and “Touch Timeout”
under “Automation Preferences” on
page 291.
In Auto Touch mode, certain control surfaces start writing automation as soon as
you touch them. These include:
◆ Touch-sensitive motorized fader controllers, such as Digidesign ProControl, or the
Mackie HUI.
Continuous-belt controllers, such as the
Penny & Giles DC16/MM16.
◆
This mode is particularly useful for automating Pan controls, Plug-Ins, or for using
a MIDI control surface, since it does not
time out and revert to its previous position
if you release a control.
Auto Write
Auto Write mode writes automation from
the time playback starts to the time it stops,
erasing any previously written automation
for the duration of the automation pass.
After an automation pass, Pro Tools automatically switches from Auto Write mode
to Auto Touch mode. This prevents you
from accidentally overwriting automation
data on later playback. On TDM systems,
you can turn off this behavior and remain
in Auto Write mode. See “Write Switches
To Touch After Pass” on page 292 for details.
Trim Mode
(TDM Systems Only)
With other control surfaces in Auto Touch
mode, writing of automation does not begin until the fader hits the pass-through
point, or the previously automated position. Once you reach pass-through point
with the fader, writing of automation begins and continues until you stop moving
the fader.
Pro Tools TDM systems allow you to adjust
(or trim) existing track Volume and Send
Level automation data in real time. Pan
and Plug-In automation cannot be
trimmed in this manner. Trim mode is useful when you want to preserve all of your
volume automation moves, but need to
make levels a bit louder or softer to balance
a mix.
Auto Latch
When editing automation in Trim mode,
fader moves write relative rather than absolute values. The existing automation data is
changed by the amount of increase or decrease (or the delta value) indicated by the
faders. When trimming, a track’s Volume
Auto Latch mode works in the same way as
Auto Touch mode, writing automation
only if you touch or move a control. However, unlike Auto Touch, writing of automation continues until you stop playback.
Chapter 21: Automation 289
indicator or Send Level indicator shows the
delta values being written rather than the
absolute value.
Trim mode works with the other automation modes (Auto Read, Auto Touch, Auto
Latch, Auto Write) to affect how delta values are written to existing automation
data. When Trim mode is enabled, nontrimmable controls behave in the same
manner as in the standard automation
modes, with the exception of Trim/Auto
Write mode, where non-trimmable controls operate as in Auto Touch mode.
Trim/Auto Off
Trim/Auto Off mode turns off automation
and trimming for a track. All automation
moves are ignored during playback.
Trim/Auto Read
In Trim/Auto Read mode, Volume and
Send faders follow the previously written
automation. When one of the faders is
touched, the trim moves (delta values) are
played back, but are not written into the
automation data. This allows you to audition trim moves without affecting existing
automation.
When this mode is enabled, non-trimmable controls (all controls other than track
Volume and Send Level) behave as if they
are in regular Read mode—no automation
data is written.
Trim/Auto Touch
In Trim/Auto Touch mode, when playback
begins, Volume and Send faders follow the
previously written automation. When one
of the faders is touched, real-time trimming begins. Fader moves write delta values (an increase or decrease in existing automation data).
When the fader is released, trimming stops
and the fader returns to a zero delta value
and continues to follow the previously
written automation. The rate of the fader’s
return to a zero delta value is determined
by the AutoMatch Time specified in the
Automation Preferences.
When this mode is enabled, non-trimmable controls (all controls other than track
Volume and Send Level) behave as if they
are in regular Auto Touch mode—they follow the previously written automation until touched. When they are touched, their
absolute positions are written until the
control is released or until playback stops.
Trim/Auto Latch
In Trim/Auto Latch mode, when playback
begins, Volume and Send faders follow the
previously written automation. When one
of the faders is touched, real-time trimming begins. Any fader moves after trimming begins increase or decrease existing
automation data accordingly. Trimming of
the touched control continues until playback stops.
When this mode is enabled, non-trimmable controls (all controls other than track
Volume and Send Level) behave as if they
are in regular Latch mode—they follow the
previously written automation until
290 Pro Tools Reference Guide
touched. When they are touched, their absolute positions are written until playback
is stopped.
Trim/Auto Write
In Trim/Auto Write mode, the Volume and
Send Level faders are disengaged from displaying the existing automation data, so
you don’t have to chase them during playback. Faders are automatically positioned
at 0 dB, where no trimming occurs (they
start with a delta value of zero). From this
reference point you can then set the initial
delta values before initiating playback.
Automation Preferences
Pro Tools gives you several options for controlling the writing and playback of automation data.
To display Automation Preferences:
■ Choose Setups > Preferences, and click
Automation.
In this mode, as soon as playback begins,
delta values are applied to the existing automation data. Trimming continues until
playback stops.
When Trim/Auto Write mode is enabled,
non-trimmable controls (all controls other
than track Volume and Send Level) are not
in Write mode, but behave as if they are in
regular Auto Touch mode (no automation is
written unless a control is touched). This is
to prevent the controls from overwriting
all of their automation data on every pass
in Trim mode.
▲ In Trim Mode, tracks do not automatically
change from Trim/Auto Write to Trim/Auto
Touch after an automation pass. Be sure to
switch out of Auto Write when you leave Trim
mode to avoid overwriting automation data.
Automation Preferences dialog
Moving Faders During Playback When this
option is selected, on-screen faders move if
automation has been written for them.
When this option is deselected, automation still operates, but on-screen faders do
not move. Turning this option off can help
speed up screen redraws and processing if
you are using a slower computer.
Mutes Follow Mix Groups When this option
is selected, muting a track/channel that belongs to a group mutes all other members
of the group. When this option is deselected, tracks/channels must be muted on
an individual basis. When this option is seChapter 21: Automation 291
lected, you can still mute/unmute individual group members by Control-clicking
(Macintosh) or Right-clicking (Windows)
the mute button of the channel you want
to affect individually.
Touch Timeout If you are writing automation in Auto Touch mode and you stop
moving a non-touch sensitive control,
Pro Tools continues to write automation
for the Touch Timeout period.
Solos Follow Mix Groups When this option
is selected, soloing a track/channel that belongs to a group solos all other members of
the group. When this option is deselected,
tracks/channels must be soloed on an individual basis. When this option is selected,
you can still solo/unsolo individual group
members by Control-clicking (Macintosh)
or Right-clicking (Windows) the solo button of the channel you want to affect individually.
After the Touch Timeout period, writing of
automation stops and the automation data
returns to its previous automation value at
the rate specified in the AutoMatch Time
setting.
Smooth and Thin Data After Pass When this
option is selected, Pro Tools automatically
smoothes and then applies the specified
amount of thinning to the automation
data created in an automation pass.
Write Switches To Touch After Pass (TDM
Systems Only) After an automation pass in
Auto Write mode, Pro Tools automatically
switches to Auto Touch mode. On TDM
systems, you can choose to stay in Auto
Write mode by deselecting this option.
▲ Write Switches to Touch After Pass does not
affect Trim Mode. In Trim Mode, channels do
not automatically change from Trim/Auto Write
to Trim/Auto Touch after an automation pass.
Degree of Thinning Specifies the amount of
thinning performed on automation data
when you use the Thin Automation command, or if you have selected the Smooth
and Thin Data After Pass option in this dialog.
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AutoMatch Time If you are writing automation in Auto Touch mode, when you release a fader or control, writing of automation stops and the automation data returns
to its previous automation value. The rate
of return to the previous value is the AutoMatch Time. See “About AutoMatch” on
page 293.
About Smoothing
When you perform automation moves
with a continuous control, Pro Tools
records the move as a series of very small
steps, resulting in a staircase pattern with
many breakpoints. Smoothing intelligently resolves this staircase pattern into a
single, smooth ramp from one breakpoint
to the next. (Smoothing does not apply to
switched controls such as mutes or Plug-In
bypasses.) With smoothing enabled, the resulting automation is often a more accurate
representation of actual automation
moves.
About Thinning
AutoMatch Indicators
Thinning automatically reduces the overall
number of breakpoints in the automation
playlist in order to improve system performance. The amount of thinning applied is
determined by the Degree of Thinning setting in the Automation Preferences. When
using high amounts of thinning, the resulting automation may differ noticeably from
the original automation moves. Thinning
only applies to audio tracks, and does not
affect MIDI tracks. For more information,
see “Thinning Automation” on page 299.
There are triangular AutoMatch indicators
at the bottom left of each channel strip in
the Mix window. These indicate the direction you need to move a fader in order to
match the original automation level of that
fader.
Triangular AutoMatch Indicators on a channel strip
Viewing Automation
About AutoMatch
When you write automation in Auto
Touch Mode, if you release a fader during
playback, Pro Tools returns to the level of
any automation still on the track by ramping up or down over a certain amount of
time, called the AutoMatch Time. This time
value is set in the Automation Preferences.
The AutoMatch feature works with continuous controls (such as Volume or Pan) by
ramping their values back to previously automated levels. There are some stepped
controls (for example, the EQ type in the 1band EQ Plug-In) that provide more than
two discrete steps over their operational
range. AutoMatch has no effect on these
controls.
Pro Tools creates a separate Playlist for each
type of automation you write. This data
can be viewed and edited in the same way
as audio and MIDI data.
To show automation data:
■ Click the Track Display Format selector
for a track and choose the type of automation data to view from the pop-up menu.
Displaying automation data
Chapter 21: Automation 293
Writing Automation
You can write automation for all automatable controls by moving those controls
during playback.
To write additional automation to a previous
pass:
1 In the Edit window, make a selection or
place the cursor in a location where you
want to write automation.
2 Choose Auto Touch or Auto Latch mode
To write automation on a track:
on the tracks you want to automate.
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
3 Click Play to begin writing automation.
sure the automation type is write-enabled.
Move the controls you want to automate.
2 Choose an automation mode for each
4 When you have finished, click Stop.
track you want to automate. For an initial
automation pass, choose Auto Write.
✽ If you write automation in Auto Touch mode
with Loop Playback enabled, writing of automation will automatically stop at the end of the
looped selection. At the beginning of each successive loop, you can then touch or move the
control again to write new data.
Storing an Initial Controller Position
Choosing an automation mode
3 Click Play to begin writing automation.
Move the controls you want to automate.
4 When you have finished, click Stop.
After the first automation pass, you can
write additional automation to the track
without completely erasing the previous
pass by choosing Auto Touch mode or Auto
Latch mode. These modes add new automation only when you actually move the
control for that parameter.
294 Pro Tools Reference Guide
When you create a new audio track, Auxiliary Input, or MIDI track, it is automatically placed into Auto Read mode. Even
though the track is in Auto Read mode, you
can set the initial position of any automatable control, and it is saved with your session.
In this initial state, only a single automation breakpoint appears at the beginning of
each automation playlist. If you move the
control without writing automation, this
breakpoint will move to the new value.
You can permanently store the initial position of an automatable control by doing
one of the following:
◆ Place the track in Auto Write mode and
press Play to write a few seconds of automation data to the track
◆ Manually place a breakpoint on the automation playlist somewhere after the initial
breakpoint.
Automating Switched Controls
Automating Sends
Pro Tools allows dynamic automation of
Send Level, Send Mute, and for stereo
Sends, Send Pans. This feature makes it easy
to control effects levels and stereo placement during mixdown with great precision.
To automate a Send Level, Mute or Pan:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
sure the automation type is write-enabled.
Pro Tools treats switched controls (such as
mutes and Plug-In bypasses) as touch sensitive controls. Automation data is written
for as long as the switch or button for that
control is pressed or touched.
2 Choose an automation mode for each
For example, if you have just written a series of mute on/off states on a channel in
quick succession, the manual method for
clearing this automation data would require you to move to the Edit window,
choose automation playlist for Mute, select
the mute automation data, and delete it.
4 Click the Send to open the Inserts/Sends
Editor for the Send that you want to automate.
– or –
In Pro Tools, you don't have to perform all
of these steps. Instead, you can perform another automation pass on the track and
hold down the Mute button when it
reaches the state you want to keep. As long
as you hold down the button, Pro Tools
overwrites the underlying mute data on the
track with the current state of the switch
until you press Stop.
5 Click Play to begin writing automation.
track you want to automate. For an initial
automation pass, choose Auto Write.
3 Select Windows > Mix Window Shows >
Sends View.
Choose Display > Sends View Shows and
select the individual Send from the submenu.
Move the controls you want to automate.
6 When you have finished, click Stop.
Copying Track Automation to Sends
(TDM Systems Only)
There may be times where you want a
track’s Send automation to mirror automation in the track itself, for example, when
an effect level needs to follow the levels in
a main mix. To do this, you can copy the
entire automation playlist for the selected
control to the corresponding playlist for
the Send.
Chapter 21: Automation 295
To copy a track’s automation to a Send on
that track:
To enable Plug-In parameters for automation:
1 Select the tracks you want to edit by
serts/Sends Editor window for the Plug-In.
1 Click the Automation button in the In-
clicking on the track names to highlight
them.
2 Choose Edit > Copy To Send.
Accessing the Plug-In Automation dialog
2 Choose the parameters to automate and
click Add. If there are multiple Plug-Ins on
the same track, you can select from among
these by clicking their buttons in the Inserts section of this dialog.
The Copy To Send dialog
3 In the Copy to Send dialog, select Auto-
mation to copy the entire automation playlist for the corresponding controls.
4 Choose the controls you want to copy.
5 Choose the Sends to copy the automa-
tion to, and click OK.
Choosing which Plug-In parameters to automate
You can undo the results of this command
by choosing Edit > Undo.
To automate a Plug-In:
✽ When overwriting automation, Pro Tools pre-
sure that Plug-In automation is enabled.
sents a confirmation dialog. To suppress this
dialog, press Option (Macintosh) or Alt (Windows) while choosing the command.
2 Choose an automation mode for each
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
track you want to automate. For an initial
automation pass, choose Auto Write.
3 Click OK to close the Plug-In Automation
Automating Plug-Ins
You can create dynamic automation for
virtually all parameters of the TDM PlugIns included with your Pro Tools system.
Automating a Plug-In is slightly different
from other automation procedures in that
you must first enable automation parameters for the Plug-In.
296 Pro Tools Reference Guide
dialog.
4 Click Play to begin writing automation.
Adjust the Plug-In parameters.
5 When you have finished, click Stop.
Enabling or Suspending
Automation
From the Automation Enable window, you
can enable or suspend writing for the following automation parameters across all
tracks:
• Volume
• Pan
• Mute
• Plug-In
• Send Level
• Send Pan
• Send Mute
To suspend writing of automation on all
tracks:
1 Choose Windows > Show Automation
Enable.
2 Do one of the following:
To suspend writing of all automation on
all tracks, click the Auto Suspend button.
■
To suspend writing of a specific type of
automation on all tracks, click the button
for that automation type (Volume, Mute,
Pan, Plug-In, Send Level, Send Mute, or
Send Pan).
■
Suspending Automation Playback
You can suspend playback of automation
parameters for tracks by clicking on the on
the track’s Display Format Selector.
To suspend playback (and writing) of
automation on individual tracks:
1 In the Edit window, set the Track Display
Format Selector pop-up to the automation
parameter you want to suspend.
2 Do one of the following:
◆ To suspend writing and playback of only
the displayed automation parameter, Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-click
(Windows) the parameter name in the
Track Display Format Selector.
To suspend writing and playback of all
automation parameters, Command-Shiftclick (Macintosh) or Control-Shift-click
(Windows) the name of any automation
parameter in the Track Display Format Selector.
◆
◆ To suspend writing and playback of an
automation parameter on all tracks, Command-Option-click (Macintosh) or Control-Alt-click (Windows) the name of the
automation parameter in the Track Display
Format Selector.
▲ Enabling and suspending automation from
the Edit window obeys Edit Groups. This
grouped behavior can be suppressed by Control-clicking (Macintosh) or Start-clicking (WIndows) the parameter name.
Automation Enable window
Chapter 21: Automation 297
Automation Enable Guidelines
The following rules determine whether automation is written or played back for a
track:
◆ Although Pro Tools shows a single automation mode for each track, all controls associated with that track are not necessarily
in the same automation mode.
If automation is globally suspended in
the Automation Enable window, all controls behave as if they were in Auto Off
mode, regardless of the track’s current automation mode.
◆
If an automation parameter is suspended
by Command-clicking (Macintosh) or
Control-clicking its name in the Display
Format Selector, that parameter behaves as
if it were in Auto Off mode, regardless of
the track’s current automation mode.
◆
◆ If an automation parameter is suspended
in the Automation Enable window, that parameter behaves as if it is in Auto Read
mode when the track is in a recordable automation mode (Auto Touch, Auto Latch,
or Auto Write mode).
of the remaining data. For details, see “Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Automation”
on page 304.
To remove automation data, display the
automation parameter you want to edit by
selecting it from the Track Display Format
Selector, and do one of the following:
To remove a single breakpoint:
■ With the Grabber or the Pencil Tool, Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click (Windows) the breakpoint.
To remove several breakpoints at once:
Use the Selector to select a range that
contains the breakpoints, and press Delete
(Macintosh) or Backspace (Windows).
■
To remove all automation data of the
displayed type:
■ Click with the Selector in the track and
choose Edit > Select All, then press Delete
(Macintosh) or Backspace (Windows).
To remove all automation for all automation
playlists on a track:
1 Use the Selector to select a range of data
to be removed.
Deleting Automation
2 Press Control+Delete (Macintosh) or
Automation data takes the form of a line
graph with editable breakpoints. The easiest way to remove automation in a track or
selection is to manually delete breakpoints
from the automation playlist.
All automation data within the selection is
removed for all automation playlists on
that track, regardless of whether automation is write-enabled for those parameters.
Removing data in this manner is different
from using the Cut command, which creates anchor breakpoints at the boundaries
298 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Control+Backspace (Windows).
Thinning Automation
Pro Tools writes a maximum density of automation data during an automation pass,
in the form of breakpoints. Since Pro Tools
creates ramps between breakpoints, it may
not need all of the captured points to create
a sonically accurate representation of the
automation moves that you have made.
Each breakpoint takes up space in memory
allocated for automation, so thinning data
can allow you to maximize efficiency and
CPU performance.
Pro Tools provides two different ways to
thin automation data and remove unneeded breakpoints: the “Smooth and Thin
Data After Pass” option and the Thin Automation command.
Using the “Smooth and Thin
Data After Pass” Option
When this option is selected in the Automation Preferences, Pro Tools automatically thins the automation breakpoint data
after each automation pass.
In most cases, this setting yields optimum
performance while providing an accurate
reproduction of your automation moves.
If you choose None, Pro Tools writes the
maximum possible number of breakpoints.
You can still perform thinning at any time
with the Thin Automation command. For
more information on smoothing automation data, see “About Smoothing” on
page 292.
Using the Thin Automation
Command
The Thin Automation command allows
you to selectively thin areas in a track
where automation data is too dense. You
can use the Undo command to audition
the results of thinning before you apply it
permanently.
To use the Thin Automation command:
1 In the Edit window, click a Track Display
Format button to display the automation
type you want to thin.
2 With the Selector, highlight the automation data you want to thin. To thin all automation of the selected type in the track,
click the Selector in the track and choose
the Select All command.
3 Choose Edit > Thin Automation to thin
The Smooth and Thin Data After Pass Option
In the default settings for new sessions, the
Smooth and Thin Data After Pass option is
selected, with the “Some” setting chosen.
the selected automation by the amount
you have selected in the Automation Preferences.
Chapter 21: Automation 299
Drawing Automation
You can use the Pencil tool to create automation events for audio and MIDI tracks by
drawing them directly in any automation
or MIDI controller playlist.
The Pencil tool can be set to draw a series of
automation events with the following
shapes:
Square Draws a square pattern that repeats
at a rate based on the current Grid value.
Amplitude is controlled by vertical movement of the Pencil tool.
Random Draws a random pattern of levels
that change at a rate based on the current
Grid value. Amplitude is controlled by vertical movement of the Pencil tool.
Using Pencil Tool Shapes
You can draw automation for audio as well
as MIDI tracks. For example, you can use
the Triangle pattern to control continuous
functions, or the Square pattern to control
a switched function such as Mute or Bypass.
Choosing a Pencil Tool Shape
Free Hand Draws any shape. In audio
tracks, the shape has the number of breakpoints needed to smoothly interpolate and
reproduce the automation shape. In MIDI
tracks, the shape is reproduced as a series of
steps, according to the resolution setting in
the MIDI preferences.
Line Draws a straight line. In audio tracks,
the line has a single breakpoint at either
end. In MIDI tracks, the controller value
changes in steps according to the resolution setting in the MIDI preferences.
Triangle Draws a sawtooth pattern that repeats at a rate based on the current Grid
value. In audio tracks, the pattern has a single breakpoint at each extreme. In MIDI
tracks, the controller value changes in steps
according to the resolution setting in the
MIDI preferences. Amplitude is controlled
by vertical movement of the Pencil tool.
300 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Since the pencil draws these shapes using
the current Grid value, you can use it to
perform panning in tempo with a music
track, or on-frame scene changes when
working in post-production.
Resolution of MIDI Controller Data
When using the Pencil tool to draw MIDI
automation, the data is drawn as a series of
discrete steps. You can control the density
of these steps to help manage the amount
of MIDI data sent for a given MIDI controller move.
To set the resolution for the Pencil tool:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
MIDI.
2 Enter a value for “Pencil Tool Resolution
When Drawing Controller Data.” The
value can range from 1 to 100 milliseconds.
The illustrations below show the same
MIDI controller automation drawn with
different Pencil Tools resolution settings.
MIDI Data drawn with resolution of 10 ms
Graphical Editing of Automation
Data
Automation data takes the form of a line
graph with editable breakpoints. By dragging these breakpoints, you can modify the
automation data directly in the Edit window. When you drag an automation breakpoint up or down, the change in value is
numerically or textually indicated. Dragging an automation breakpoint to the left
or right adjusts the timing of the automation event.
Using the Grabber
MIDI Data drawn with resolution of 100 ms
You may want to choose a smaller value for
MIDI controls that need higher resolution
(such as MIDI Volume), and a larger value
for controls that may not require such a
high resolution (such as Pan).
Editing Automation
Pro Tools provides several ways to edit automation data for any track in your session.
You can edit automation data graphically,
by adjusting breakpoints on the automation playlist of a track. You can also cut,
copy, and paste automation data in the
same manner as audio and MIDI data.
The Grabber allows you to create new
breakpoints by clicking on the graph line,
or adjust existing breakpoints by dragging
them. Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click
(Windows) breakpoints with the Grabber
to remove them.
Using the Grabber to create a new breakpoint
Using the Pencil Tool
The Pencil tool allows you to create new
breakpoints by clicking once on the graph
line. Option-click (Macintosh) or Alt-click
(Windows) breakpoints with the Pencil
tool to remove them.
Using the Pencil to delete a breakpoint
Chapter 21: Automation 301
Using the Trimmer
Editing Mute Automation
The Trimmer allows you to adjust all selected breakpoints up or down by dragging
anywhere within that selection.
Drag the breakpoint down to mute a section. Drag a breakpoint up to unmute the
section. Drag a breakpoint to the left or
right to adjust the timing of the mute.
Using the Trimmer to move breakpoints
Track mute automation
Editing Automation Types
Each automatable control has its own automation playlist, which can be displayed by
choosing it from the Track Display Format
Selector. See “Viewing Automation” on
page 293.
Editing Volume Automation
Drag a Volume automation breakpoint up
or down to change the dB value. Drag a
breakpoint to the left or right to adjust the
timing of the volume change.
Editing Stepped Control Automation
Automation for certain controls, such as
MIDI controllers values or Plug-In settings,
appears as a stepped pattern on the breakpoint line. Drag a breakpoint up or down to
a different step to change to a new control
value. Drag a breakpoint to the left or right
to adjust the timing of the stepped control
change.
Stepped control automation
Editing Automation Breakpoints
Track Volume automation
Editing Pan Automation
Drag a breakpoint down to pan right, and
up to pan left. Drag a breakpoint to the left
or right to adjust the timing of the panning
moves.
Track Pan automation
302 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To edit automation breakpoints, display
the automation parameter you want to edit
by selecting it from the Track Display Format selector, then do one of the following:
To create a new breakpoint:
■ Click with the Grabber (or the Pencil) on
the line graph.
To edit a breakpoint:
Click an existing point on the line graph
with the Grabber and drag it to a new position.
■
To edit several breakpoints at once:
Use the Selector to select a range in the
automation playlist that contains the
breakpoints, and do one of the following:
■
To move the breakpoints earlier or later
in the track, press the Plus key (+) to nudge
them later (to the right) or the Minus key
(–) to move them earlier (to the left). The
breakpoints move by the current Nudge
value.
◆
◆ If you create new automation breakpoints on a grouped track (with the Grabber or Pencil), other members of the group
have breakpoints placed relative to that
track.
◆ If you move Volume or Send automation
on a grouped track (with the Trimmer),
other members of the group have their Volume or Send breakpoints trimmed relative
to that track. This allows you to trim entire
sections of a mix.
◆ To adjust the breakpoint values, click
with the Trimmer in the selection and drag
the breakpoints up or down.
Trimming automation on an active grouped track
✽ When you use the Trimmer to edit a selec-
tion containing breakpoints, new anchor breakpoints are created before and after the
selected area. To suppress creation of anchor
breakpoints, press Option (Macintosh) or Alt
(Windows) while using the Trimmer.
To individually edit a member of a group
without affecting the other members, do
one of the following:
◆ Disable the group by deselecting its
name in the Groups List.
To edit all breakpoint values in a region:
◆ Choose Suspend All Groups from the
Groups List pop-up menu.
■ Click in the region with the Trimmer and
drag the breakpoints up or down.
◆ Press Control (Macintosh) or the Start
key (Windows) while you perform the edit.
▲ When editing automation, audio and MIDI
Editing Automation on Grouped
Tracks
When you edit automation on a track that
is a member of an active Edit Group, the
same type of automation (with the exception of audio and MIDI Pan controls) is also
edited on all tracks that are part of that
group. This occurs even if that parameter is
not currently displayed on the other
grouped tracks.
Pan controls work opposite from the way all
other controls work. When you edit or trim Pan
breakpoints, Edit Groups are not obeyed. For
grouped Pan behavior, press Control (Macintosh) or the Start key (Windows) while trimming.
Chapter 21: Automation 303
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting
Automation
Cutting automation data is different from
deleting it, and yields different results. Copying automation leaves the original automation data intact.
You delete automation data by selecting a
range of breakpoints and pressing Delete
(Macintosh) or Backspace (Windows). See
“Deleting Automation” on page 298 for details.
You cut automation data by selecting a
range of breakpoints from an automation
playlist and selecting the Cut command.
When you cut automation data and when
you paste it into a new location, anchor
breakpoints are added to the beginning
and end points of the data. This is done to
preserve the true slope (of continuous controls, such as Volume faders or pans) or
state (of switched or stepped controls, such
as Mutes) of the automation data both inside and outside the selection.
The following illustrations show the difference between cutting and deleting automation data. In Figure 19, a track is set to display Volume automation, and a range of
automation data is selected.
If the Cut command is chosen, anchor
breakpoints are created at each end of the
selection, and the automation slope on either side of the cut data is preserved, as
shown in Figure 20.
Figure 20. After cutting the automation data
If the data is deleted by pressing Delete
(Macintosh) or Backspace (Windows), the
automation data is removed, and automation values span the gap between pre-existing breakpoints, as in Figure 21.
Figure 21. After deleting the automation data
In addition, if cut or copied data is pasted
elsewhere in a track, breakpoints are created at the end points of the pasted data to
preserve its value and slope, as shown in
Figure 22.
Figure 22. After pasting the automation data in
another location
Figure 19. Selecting automation data
304 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Editing and Track Display Formats
Tips for Cutting, Copying and Pasting
Audio and MIDI tracks each have a Track
Display Format that acts as the main format for purposes of editing. When the
main format is displayed, any edits performed on the track apply to all data in the
track.
On audio tracks, when you are in waveform view and cut or copy a section of the
waveform, any automation data associated
with the waveform is also cut or copied.
The main display formats are:
• Audio Tracks: Waveform and Blocks
• MIDI Tracks: Regions, Blocks, and Notes
For example, when an audio track is set to
Waveform or Blocks, cutting, copying and
pasting affects the audio data and all types
of automation data on that track. If the
track is set to show Pan automation, only
the Pan data is affected.
When a selection includes multiple tracks,
if any of those tracks is in its main display
format, all data on all selected tracks is affected.
To edit all automation types on an Auxiliary Input or Master Fader track, do one of
the following:
◆ Make an edit selection that includes at
least one audio or MIDI track that is displayed in its main format.
Press Control while cutting or copying
the automation data.
◆
◆
◆ On audio tracks, when you are in waveform view and cut audio data from a track
also containing automation data, breakpoints are automatically created at the
boundaries of the remaining automation
data.
◆ On audio tracks, pasting waveform data
also pastes any associated automation data.
◆ On Auxiliary Input or Master Fader
tracks, only the displayed automation data
is cut or copied. To cut or copy all automation data on these types of tracks, press
Control while cutting or copying.
◆ In tracks where an automation playlist
contains no data (when there is only a single breakpoint at the very beginning of the
track), if you cut data, no new breakpoints
are created.
◆ In cases where regions overlap (such as
when moving regions in Slip mode) and an
overlapping region is removed, any overlapped automation breakpoints are lost.
◆ If cut or copied data contains a type of
automation not currently on the target
track, Pro Tools prompts you before allowing you to paste the data.
Cut or copied automation data for PlugIns or Sends that do not exist on the target
track is ignored when pasted.
◆
Chapter 21: Automation 305
Special Paste Function for
Automation Data
Normally, when you copy and paste automation data, it is pasted in an automation
playlist of the exact same type (for example, Left Pan data is pasted into the Left Pan
playlist).
However, there may be times when you
want to paste from one data type to another (for example, pasting Send 1 level
data into the Send 2 level playlist, or track
Mute data into the Send Mute playlist).
Writing Automation to the
Start, End or All of a
Selection
(TDM Systems Only)
Pro Tools allows you to write current automation values from any insertion point
forward (or backward) to the end (or beginning) of a selection or track, or to an entire
selection or track, while performing an automation pass.
To paste data into a different automation
playlist:
■ Press Control (Macintosh) or the Start
key (Windows) when choosing Edit > Paste.
For this special paste mode to function, the
following must be true:
Every track selected for pasting must be
currently displayed as automation data.
◆
◆ There must be only one automation
playlist on the Clipboard for each target
track. (The Special Paste function cannot
copy multiple automation playlists for
each track.)
▲ You cannot interchange automation data be-
tween audio and MIDI tracks, or between continuous controls (such as faders or pans) and
switched or stepped controls (such as or mute
or MIDI controllers).
The Write to Start/All/End buttons in the Automation
Enable window
The Write to Start/All/End command does
not operate when the Pro Tools transport is
stopped. It only affects those automation
parameters that are currently write-enabled
and currently writing automation data. For
an automation parameter to write automation data, the associated track must be in
one of the following automation modes
and meet the following conditions:
Latch mode The automation parameter
must be changed (touched) during the automation pass.
Touch mode The automation parameter
must be changed (touched).
Write mode All automation parameters on
that track must be in Auto Write mode.
This command can be undone by choosing
Edit > Undo.
306 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To write current automation values to the
beginning/end/all of a track or selection:
4 Click Play to begin playback.
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
lection that contains the trim setting (delta
value) you want to apply, click the Write to
Start, Write to All, or Write to End button
in the Automation Enable window.
sure that the automation type is write-enabled.
2 Click in a track at an insertion point.
– or –
Drag with the Selector to select a portion of
the track.
3 Click Play to begin playback.
5 When you reach a point in the track/se-
The relative changes to the track Volume
and Send Levels at that point are written to
the corresponding area of the track/selection.
4 When you reach a point in the track/se-
lection that contains the automation data,
click Write to Start, Write to All, or Write to
End in the Automation Enable window.
Trimming Automation
(TDM Systems Only)
The current values of all write-enabled automation at that point are written to the
corresponding area of the track/selection.
Trim Mode
Using Trim mode, it is also possible to write
trim delta values for track Volume and
Send Levels to the beginning, end or all of
a track.
If you have already written automation,
you can modify automation data for track
Volume and Send Levels in real time by using Trim mode. When a track is trim-enabled, you are not recording absolute fader
positions, but relative changes in the existing automation. See “Trim Mode” on
page 289 for more information.
To enable Trim mode:
To write current trim delta values to the
beginning/end/all of a track or selection:
■ Click the Automation Mode selector and
choose Trim from the pop-up menu.
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
sure that the automation type (track Volume or Send Level) is write-enabled.
2 Click the Automation Mode selector on
the track. Select Trim from the pop-up
menu to enable Trim mode. The track Volume and Send Level faders turn yellow.
3 Click in a track at an insertion point.
– or –
Drag with the Selector to select a portion of
the track.
Enabling Trim mode
When trim mode is enabled for a track, its
Volume and Send Level faders turn yellow,
and its automation mode button is outChapter 21: Automation 307
lined in yellow. This outline flashes to indicate that the track is trim-enabled, and appears solid whenever trimming is occurring
on the track’s Volume or Send Levels.
To trim Track Volume or Send Levels in real
time:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
sure the automation type (Volume or Send
Level) is write-enabled.
2 Click the Automation Mode selector on
the tracks you want to automate and select
Trim from the pop-up menu.
3 Click the Automation Mode selector a
second time and choose an automation
mode:
◆ Use Auto Touch or Auto Latch to have
the faders follow existing automation, so
you can “chase” them during the automation pass.
◆ Use Auto Write if you want to disengage
the faders from existing automation.
4 Click Play to begin trimming automa-
tion, and move the Volume or Send Level
faders.
5 When you have finished, click Stop.
To a selection Automation data is written
to the selected area. Anchor breakpoints
are placed just before and after the selection so that data outside the selection is
not affected.
To a cursor location Automation data is
written at the insertion point. After the insertion point, the automation ramps to the
next breakpoint value, or if no breakpoints
exist, remains at the newly written value
for the remainder of the session.
For more information on copying automation data within a session, see “Writing Automation to the Start, End or All of a Selection” on page 306.
To write snapshot automation:
1 In the Edit window, click the Track Dis-
play Format button to show the automation you want to edit.
2 In the Automation Enable window, make
sure that the automation parameters you
want to edit are write-enabled. Disable any
parameters you want to preserve.
3 With the Selector, select the area where
you want to apply the automation.
– or –
Place the cursor at an insertion point.
Creating Snapshot
Automation
4 Adjust the controls for the parameters
you want to automate.
(TDM Systems Only)
5 Choose Edit > Write Automation and do
one of the following:
Pro Tools lets you write automation data
values for multiple parameters in a single
step. You can write snapshot automation
in two ways:
◆ To write the current value to only the
currently displayed automation parameter,
choose To Current Parameter.
308 Pro Tools Reference Guide
◆ To write the current settings for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation Enable window, choose To All Enabled
Parameters.
Adding Snapshot Automation to
Empty Automation Playlists
When you use the Write Automation command on an automation playlist with no
previously written automation data, the selected value is written to the entire playlist
and not just the selected area.
This is because a playlist with no automation data contains only a single automation breakpoint that corresponds to the
current position of the control. The position of the breakpoint is updated whenever
the parameter value is changed.
If you do not want the Write Automation
command to write the selected automation
value to the entire playlist, you can:
◆ Anchor the automation data by placing
the cursor at the end of the session (or any
other endpoint) and choosing Write Automation To Current Parameter.
– or –
Click with the Grabber on each side of
the selection.
◆
This allows the Write Automation command to write only to the selected area.
To write snapshot automation over existing
data:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
sure that the automation parameters you
want to edit are write-enabled. Disable any
parameters you want to preserve.
2 Adjust the controls for the parameters
you want to automate.
3 Suspend the automation parameters you
want to automate:
• For an automation parameter on a single
track, Command-click (Macintosh) or
Control-click (Windows) he name of the
automation type in the track’s Display
Format Selector.
• For an automation parameter on all
tracks, Command-Shift-click (Macintosh) or Control-Alt-click (Windows)
the name of the automation type in the
Display Format Selector for any track.
• To suspend all automation on a track,
Command-Shift-click (Macintosh) or
Control-Shift-click (Windows) the name
of the automation type in the track's Display Format Selector.
4 With the Selector, select the location
where you want to apply the automation.
Writing Snapshot Automation over
Existing Automation Data
When you move the playback cursor, the
automated controls in Pro Tools update on
the screen to reflect the automation data
that is already on the track. To keep the settings you have made for a snapshot, you
can suspend the desired automation parameters to prevent the controls from updating.
5 Enable the automation parameters previously suspended.
6 Choose Edit > Write Automation and se-
lect one of the following from the submenu:
• To write the current value to only the automation parameter currently displayed
in the Edit window, choose To Current
Parameter.
• To write the current settings for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation Enable window, choose To All
Enabled Parameters.
Chapter 21: Automation 309
Capturing Automation and Applying it
Elsewhere
4 With the Selector, select the location
The Write Automation command can also
be used to capture automation states at specific locations in a session and apply them
to other locations. This differs from simply
copying and pasting automation data in
that you can set any selection length for
the application of the captured automation
data.
5 Enable the automation parameters previously suspended.
To capture and apply automation:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
sure that the automation parameters you
want to edit are write-enabled. Disable any
parameters you want to preserve.
2 Click the Selector at the location with the
automation you want to capture. All automated controls update to reflect the automation at that location. (If you make a
selection, the controls update to reflect the
automation at the beginning of the selection.)
3 Suspend the automation parameters you
want to automate:
• For an automation parameter on a single
track, Command-click (Macintosh) or
Control-click (Windows) he name of the
automation type in the track’s Display
Format Selector.
• For an automation parameter on all
tracks, Command-Shift-click (Macintosh) or Control-Alt-click (Windows)
the name of the automation type in the
Display Format Selector for any track.
• To suspend all automation on a track,
Command-Shift-click (Macintosh) or
Control-Shift-click (Windows) the name
of the automation type in the track's Display Format Selector.
310 Pro Tools Reference Guide
where you want to apply the automation.
6 Choose Edit > Write Automation and se-
lect one of the following from the submenu:
• To write the current value to only the automation parameter currently displayed
in the Edit window, choose To Current
Parameter.
• To write the current settings for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation Enable window, choose To All
Enabled Parameters.
Snapshot Automation and
Trimming of Automation Data
Pro Tools allows you to use trim values as
snapshots and apply the relative changes
(delta values) to the selected automation
by using the Trim Automation command.
This works in much the same way as the
Write Automation, except that it writes
delta values instead of absolute values to
automation data.
You can use trim values in writing snapshot automation to any automatable parameter.
To create a snapshot of relative changes in
automation data:
1 In the Automation Enable window, make
sure that the automation parameters you
want to edit are write-enabled. Disable any
parameters you want to preserve.
2 Select the area of the track you want to
edit. All automated controls update to reflect the automation at the beginning of
the selection.
3 Move the controls for the parameter up
or down by the amount you want to
change the data.
4 Choose Edit > Trim Automation and do
one of the following:
◆ To write the current delta value to only
the currently displayed automation parameter, choose To Current Parameter.
◆ To write the current delta value for all automation parameters enabled in the Automation Enable window, choose To All
Enabled Parameters.
Setting the Automation
Buffer Size
Pro Tools allows you to specify the size of
the memory buffer used to write automation. If you are working on a large session
or writing a very large number of automation moves, you may want to increase this
value.
About Processing Bandwidth
Meters in the Automation Enable window
indicate how much of your system’s processing power is being used in processing
audio, and when writing and playing back
automation. On Pro Tools LE-based systems, these meters show System Load and
CPU processing capacity; on Pro Tools
TDM systems, they show System Load and
PCI bus traffic.
As these meters approach their limits, recording or playback of automation data
may be affected. If CPU Load or PCI Load
are high, a System error may occur. If System Load is high, Pro Tools may miss playback of some of your automation data during particularly dense periods of activity.
In both cases, to reduce processing load,
you can first try deselecting the Moving
Faders During Playback option in the Automation Preferences.
You can also reduce the density of automation in places where it shows the most activity. For details, see “Thinning Automation” on page 299.
To set the Automation Buffer size:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Automation.
Load Meters in the Automation Enable Window
2 For the option “Amount of memory to
reserve for automation recording,” enter a
value between 200 and 3000K for this option (the default value for a new session is
200K.)
3 Relaunch Pro Tools for this change to
take effect.
Chapter 21: Automation 311
312 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 22
Mixdown and Mastering
Pro Tools lets you re-record or bounce tracks
to disk, for purposes of creating a submix or
a final mixdown. You can master your final
mix directly to disk or use an external mastering recorder.
Bouncing Tracks to Disk
The Bounce to Disk command lets you mix
down with all available voices on your system. Since it records to separate audio files,
you don’t have to reserve any tracks for a
bounce.
You can use the Bounce to Disk command
to create a submix and automatically import the bounced tracks into your session.
You can also use it to create a final mono or
stereo mix in any of several audio file formats.
When you bounce a track to disk, the
bounced mix will include the following:
Automation All read-enabled automation is
played back and incorporated in the
bounced mix.
Inserts and sends All active inserts, including real-time Plug-Ins and hardware inserts, are applied to the bounced mix.
Selection or track length If you make a selection in a track, the bounced mix will be
the length of the selection. If there is no selection in any track, the bounce will be the
length of the longest audible track in the
session.
Time stamp information Bounced material is
automatically time stamped so that you
can drag it into a track and place it at the
same location as the original material. For
more information about time stamping,
see “Time Stamping” on page 361.
Pro Tools bounces are done in real time, so
you hear audio playback of your mix during the bounce process.
Audible tracks All audible tracks are included in the bounce. Any muted tracks do
not appear in the bounce. If you solo a
track or region, only the soloed elements
appear in the bounced mix.
Chapter 22: Mixdown and Mastering 313
Bounce Parameters
When you use the Bounce to Disk command, you can set several parameters that
affect the bounced audio.
Stereo file Creates a single interleaved stereo file. This allows you to use the file in
applications that support an interleaved
stereo file format. In an interleaved stereo
bounce, tracks assigned to odd-numbered
outputs are sent to the left channel, and
tracks assigned to even-numbered outputs
are sent to the right channel.
▲ Pro Tools cannot work with stereo inter-
leaved files without first converting them into
split stereo files. If you plan to use bounced
tracks in Pro Tools, choose Split Stereo files.
Import Into Session After
Bounce
Bounce dialog
Bounce Type
This parameter allows you to select between three audio file types:
Mono file Creates a single audio file. A composite monophonic mix of all audible
tracks in the session is written to this file.
All stereo image information (panning) is
disregarded.
Split Stereo file Creates two mono audio
files with “.L” and “.R” appended to the
filename (for left and right, respectively).
This file type lets you use bounced material
in your Pro Tools session.
In a split stereo bounce, tracks assigned to
odd-numbered outputs are sent to the left
channel, and tracks assigned to even-numbered outputs are sent to the right channel.
314 Pro Tools Reference Guide
The Import Into Session After Bounce option automatically imports the newly
bounced files into the Audio Regions List
so you can place them in tracks. If your
newly bounced files are split stereo files,
they are listed together in the Audio Regions List.
✽ The Import Into Session After Bounce op-
tion is only available if the target bit depth for
the bounce is the same as the bit depth of the
current session.
Convert After Bounce
The Convert After Bounce option automatically performs file type, sample rate and
bit resolution conversion on the newly
bounced files, based on the settings in the
Output Options dialog.
Resolution
This parameter allows you to select between three different bit resolutions for the
bounced file:
8-bit This resolution is often used in multimedia applications. If the material you are
working with is relatively simple, you can
use the Pro Tools “Squeezer” feature for optimal results. See “Use Squeezer” on
page 320 for details.
Output Options
If you select Convert After Bounce, you can
then click Settings to set Pro Tools output
options.
16-bit This is the Compact Disc standard
bit resolution.
24-bit If you plan to use the bounced file
with a Pro Tools 24 MIX or Pro Tools 24
system, you can take advantage of the
greater resolution and headroom afforded
by this higher bit rate. You can also archive
a master stereo mixdown or bounce audio
material at this resolution for future use on
a 24-bit system.
Bounce Source
This parameter allows you to select the output pair or bus pair that carries the audio
you want to bounce. Before you perform a
bounce, make sure that all of the tracks you
want to include in the bounce are routed to
the pair that you choose here.
Bounce Output Options
File Format
Sound Designer II
This is the native format for Macintoshbased Pro Tools systems. Select this to use
the bounced audio with any Digidesign application for Macintosh.
AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)
Files in this format do not have to be converted to be used in Pro Tools, but you
must still import them into a session with
the Import Audio command or the Convert
and Import Audio command. AIFF waveform overview data cannot be stored in the
file, so the overview is recalculated every
time the session is opened. The AIFF format
is useful if you plan to use bounced audio
in applications that do not support the
Sound Designer II format.
Chapter 22: Mixdown and Mastering 315
WAV (Windows Audio File Format)
RealAudio G2 (Macintosh Only)
This is the native format for Windowsbased Pro Tools systems. The WAV format
is supported by many Windows applications and some Macintosh applications. To
use a WAV file on Macintosh-based
Pro Tools systems, you must use the Convert and Import Audio command.
RealAudio G2 is the latest version of the
format created by Real Networks for
streaming audio over the Internet. The RealAudio encoder file is stored in a folder
named Codecs inside the DAE folder.
SND resource (Macintosh Only)
This file type is supported by some Macintosh software applications and also by
Macintosh System Software. Pro Tools does
not directly support this type of file in its
sessions. To use a SND file within
Pro Tools, use the Convert and Import Audio command. The SND format is useful if
you plan to use your audio with other Macintosh applications that do not support
Sound Designer II or AIFF formats. To save
a bounced file as a System alert sound, save
it in this format and then drag it onto the
Macintosh System File.
When you select this format, the Resolution and Sample Rate pop-up menus in the
Pro Tools Output Options dialog are unavailable, because resolution and sample
rate are set by the encoder.
The RealAudio G2 format allows multiple
streams with different bit rates to be encoded into a single file. During playback,
the RealAudio G2 server and the RealPlayer
G2 client continuously adjust the bit rate
to make the best use of available bandwidth. The RealPlayer G2 is available on
the Real Networks website, www.real.com.
QuickTime (Macintosh Only)
This is Apple’s audio file format for QuickTime-based multimedia. Pro Tools does
not directly support this type of file in its
sessions. To use a QuickTime audio file
within Pro Tools, use the Convert and Import Audio command or Import Audio
from Other Movie command. The QuickTime format is best if you plan to use your
audio in multimedia applications that support QuickTime, such as Adobe Premiere™
or Macromedia Director™.
316 Pro Tools Reference Guide
RealAudio G2 Output Options
When you export or bounce to RealAudio
G2 format, you can set the following options:
Media Clip Information Type the title, author, and copyright information for your
RealAudio clip. This information is displayed on the RealPlayer G2 as the clip
plays back.
Copy Protection These settings determine
how the clip is handled by the RealPlayer
client.
■ To allow RealPlayer Plus users to save
your clip using the RealPlayer Plus recording feature, select Allow Recording.
■ To allow RealPlayer users to download
your clip to their hard drive, select Allow
Download.
If you don’t want to allow RealPlayer users
to make copies your clip, deselect both of
these options.
Audio Format From the pop-up menu, select the setting that best matches the type
of audio you are bouncing. A brief explanation of each format is displayed.
Target Audience Select the connection
speed that most users downloading your
clip are likely to have. This setting determines the bit rate at which the audio will
be encoded. Depending on the file type
you choose (see below), you can choose
more than one connection speed.
File Type This option determines the compatibility of the output file with different
RealAudio servers and clients.
If you select SureStream, you can select
more than one connection speed under
Target Audience. With this file type, multiple bit rate streams are encoded into a single output file. Files encoded with the SureStream option are larger than Single Rate
files, and can only be played back from G2
servers.
Select the “Include RealPlayer 5.0 Compatible Stream” option to include a backward
compatible stream that can be played on
older version 5.0 RealPlayers. (This backward compatibility is only available for
SureStream-encoded files.)
If you select Single Rate, you can only select one connection speed under Target Audience. With this file type, a single stream
is encoded into the output file. Files encoded with the Single Rate option can be
played back from either a standard web
server or a G2 server.
Auditioning RealAudio clips
If you are using Digidesign Sound Drivers
and want to use a RealAudio player while
running Pro Tools, make sure that Operations > Active in Background is not selected
so the player can use the Digidesign hardware.
MP3
The MPEG Layer 3 compression format
(MP3) is used for streaming and downloading audio over the Internet, and for playback on portable devices.
The MP3 encoder file is stored in a folder
named Codecs inside the DAE folder. This
version of the encoder uses the latest technology from the developer of the MP3 format, the Fraunhofer Institute. It features
improved processing speed and quality,
and supports both constant and variable
bit rate encoding.
The MP3 encoder installed with Pro Tools
is a fully functional 30-day demo version.
To purchase the full version of the MP3 encoder, visit Digidesign’s website.
Chapter 22: Mixdown and Mastering 317
When you select this format, the Resolution and Sample Rate pop-up menus in the
Pro Tools Output Options dialog are unavailable, because resolution and sample
rate are set by the encoder.
◆ Constant Bit Rate (CBR) encodes the file
at a single bit rate that you choose from the
CBR pop-up menu. Because the bit rate is
fixed, the quality of the encoded audio will
vary depending on the nature of the material being compressed. This option is best
for streaming over the Internet, since it has
predictable bandwidth requirements.
◆ Variable Bit Rate (VBR) encodes the file at
a varying bit rate to maintain the level of
encoding quality you choose from the VBR
pop-up menu. The bit rate varies automatically depending on the nature of the material being compressed. This option is best
for personal jukebox applications.
MP3 Output Options
When you export or bounce to MP3 format, you can set the following options:
Encoding Quality Determines the audio
quality of the bounced file. The higher the
quality, the longer it will take to process
the audio. The three options, in ascending
order of quality, are Fastest Encoding, Medium Encoding, and Highest Quality.
The Highest Quality setting can take up to
five times longer to process audio than the
Fastest Encoding setting, so you should use
it only when the highest fidelity is essential
and you have a considerable amount of
time to devote to the encoding process.
You should experiment with the other encoding quality settings, since they can provide acceptable quality with a significantly
shorter encoding time.
Encoding Method Two encoding methods
are available:
318 Pro Tools Reference Guide
ID3 Tag Type The ID3 tag stores data about
the encoded audio file that is used by MP3
players to display information about the
file. Pro Tools supports three versions of
this tag, in order to provide backward compatibility with older MP3 players:
ID3 v1.0: Appears at the end of a streaming MP3 file, so tag information is only displayed when streaming is finished.
◆
◆ ID3 v1.1: Same as version 1.0 but adds
track number information to the tag.
◆ ID3 v2.3: Appears at the front of a
streaming MP3 file, so tag information is
displayed when streaming begins.
▲ While ID3 v2.3 is becoming the standard
MP3 format, not all MP3 players currently support ID3 v2.3. Contact the developer of your
player software for compatibility information.
ID3 Tag Information Type the title, artist,
and other information for the MP3 file.
This information is displayed by many
MP3 players.
Genre Choose a genre for the file. This information is displayed by many MP3 players, and can appear in searchable catalogs
and databases.
Track Number If you select ID3 tag type
v1.1 or v2.3, you can enter a CD track number for the file. This information is displayed by many MP3 players.
Year Enter a year for the file. This information is displayed by many MP3 players.
Advanced Settings
The options listed under Advanced Settings, under normal situations, do not need
to be changed from their default values.
Pad To Match Bit Rate Exactly This option
determines whether MP3 frames are padded to maintain bit rate very precisely. You
should only select this option if you need a
file with an exact bit rate, for applications
like synchronous transmission over an
ISDN line.
▲ Padding of MP3 frames can cause problems
with some versions of Internet streaming software. If your files are destined for desktop or
Internet delivery, do not select this option.
Allow Intensity Stereo Coding This option
determines whether the encoder takes into
account the frequency of a signal when encoding its phase characteristics, allowing
for more compression at low bit rates. In
most cases, you should leave this option selected. However, if you are working with
highly phase-dependent material, such as
Dolby Surround, you may want to deselect
this option.
Write CRC Checksums This option adds error-detection data to the MP3 file, which
isn’t necessary for most computer and Internet applications, and also takes away
from the space available for audio data. Select this option only if you are sure your delivery mode requires error correction.
Copyrighted This option sets a bit in the
MP3 data stream to indicate that the audio
is copyrighted. Not all MP3 players use this
information. Selecting this option does not
guarantee that the audio file will not be
copied.
Original This option sets a bit in the MP3
data stream to indicate that the audio is the
original media for the track, rather than a
copy. This setting is not widely used.
Private This option sets a bit in the MP3
data stream that is interpreted differently
by various applications. It is not normally
used.
Mac File information If you expect your file
to be used on a Macintosh, you can enter
the Macintosh file type and creator. This
will allow users to double-click the file to
open their MP3 player.
Defaults To restore all settings in this dialog
to their default values, click Defaults.
Auditioning MP3 clips
If you are using Digidesign Sound Drivers
and want to use an MP3 player to audition
an MP3 file while running Pro Tools, make
sure that Operations > Active in Background is not selected so your MP3 player
can use the Digidesign hardware.
Chapter 22: Mixdown and Mastering 319
Resolution
This option in the Pro Tools Output Options dialog sets a bit resolution for the
converted audio file. See “Resolution” on
page 315 for explanations of each resolution setting.
Channels
This option appears in the Pro Tools Output Options dialog only when you are exporting selected audio as files, not when
you are bouncing to disk.
Mono Saves all selected regions as individual files.
Stereo from .L/.R Saves all matching region
pairs from a selection as stereo interleaved
files. Regions that don’t have matching
.L/.R named pairs are not exported.
Sample Rate
This option in the Pro Tools Output Options dialog lets you save to any of several
sample rates. If you choose a sample rate
that differs from the original sample rate of
the session, Pro Tools performs sample rate
conversion on the bounced files. See “Conversion Quality” on page 321 for information on setting the quality of this sample
rate conversion.
48000 This is the standard sample rate for
consumer-level DAT decks.
44100 This is the standard sample rate for
compact discs and pro-level DAT decks. It is
also used for high-fidelity audio destined
320 Pro Tools Reference Guide
for playback on newer Macintosh computers with 16-bit audio playback capability,
as well as on Windows computers.
22050 and 11025 These sample rates are
commonly used for lower-fidelity audio
destined for playback on newer Macintosh
computers with 16-bit audio playback capability, as well as on Windows computers.
22254 and 11127 These sample rates are
commonly used for lower-fidelity audio
destined specifically for playback on older
Macintosh computers not equipped with
16-bit audio playback capability.
Custom This allows you to choose a sample
rate other than the choices above.
Use Squeezer
The Use Squeezer option uses a proprietary
DSP algorithm specifically designed for
performing 8-bit conversion of simple
source files such as voice-overs. It optimizes the dynamics of the audio by preprocessing it using compression, limiting, and
gating before conversion to 8-bit resolution. This results in greater apparent loudness in the signal, and improved intelligibility. If you are converting a more
complex 16-bit audio file to 8-bit resolution, test this option before converting all
of your material.
Conversion Quality
The Conversion Quality option sets the
quality of sample rate conversion used to
create the converted file. The higher the
quality of sample rate conversion, the
longer it takes to convert the file after the
bounce has taken place. There are five possible settings, ranging from Low to Tweakhead. For most applications, the Better setting yields satisfactory results.
Because the Best and Tweak-head settings
take significantly longer than the others,
use them only in cases where the highest fidelity is essential and you have a considerable amount of time to devote to this process.
Using Dither on an Output
Mix
Pro Tools includes a real-time Dither PlugIn that improves 16-, 18-, or 20-bit performance and reduces quantization noise
when mixing or fading low-level signals.
The Dither Plug-In has no user-selectable
parameters other than Bit Resolution and
Noise Shaping controls.
☞ For more information about the Dither plug-
In, refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide.
To use the Dither Plug-In on a main stereo
output mix:
1 Choose File > New Track and choose Master Fader (stereo) from the pop-up menu.
3 Set the outputs of all audio tracks in the
session to outputs 1-2. The Master Fader
now controls the output levels of all tracks
routed to it.
4 On the Master Fader, click an Insert but-
ton and choose the Digidesign Dither PlugIn.
5 In the Dither Plug-In window, choose an
output Bit Resolution and Noise Shaping
setting.
When you use the Bounce to Disk command, the output will be processed by the
Dither Plug-In.
When to Use the Dither Plug-In
You should use the Dither Plug-In when
mastering to a 16-bit file with the Bounce
To Disk command, or when mastering to
an external device that records at 16-bit.
This is even necessary when using 16-bit
sessions.
Generally, dithering is necessary when reducing the bit depth for digital audio.
Even though 16-bit sessions use 16-bit files,
they are still being processed internally at a
higher bit rate:
• 24-bit for Pro Tool TDM systems
• 32-bit floating for Pro Tools LE systems
For this reason, whether you are using a
16-bit session or a 24-bit session, it is recommended that you use the Dither Plug-In
when mastering to 16-bits.
When mastering to 24-bits, it is not necessary to use the Dither Plug-In.
2 Set the output of the Master Fader to outputs 1-2.
Chapter 22: Mixdown and Mastering 321
Creating a Submix
You can create a submix with the Bounce to
Disk command by muting tracks or bypassing inserts that are not part of the submix
group, and selecting the part of the session
you want to bounce.
You can also create a submix by re-recording tracks directly into your session. For details, see “Recording a Submix to Disk” on
page 282.
To bounce a submix to disk and bring it into
the session:
1 Adjust track output levels, finalize any
mix automation, and choose an automation mode for the tracks you are going to
bounce.
2 Adjust any real-time Plug-In and effects
settings and automation on the tracks you
are going to bounce. If you don’t want to
apply a Plug-In or effect to a track, click its
Bypass button in the Inserts/Sends Editor
window.
3 Mute all the tracks you want to exclude
from the submix.
4 Assign the output of each of the tracks
you want to include in your bounce to the
same output pair.
5 Do one of the following:
◆ To bounce the entire session, click Return to Zero in the Transport window to go
to the beginning of the session.
To bounce a portion of the session, make
a selection in the Edit window.
◆
6 Choose File > Bounce to Disk.
8 Make sure the bit resolution for the
bounced file matches the bit resolution of
the session.
9 Select the Import into Session After
Bounce option.
10 In the Bounce Source pop-up menu,
choose the output pair that carries the
audio that you want to bounce.
11 Click Bounce.
12 Select a destination for the new audio
file, enter a name, and click Save.
Pro Tools bounces are done in real time, so
you hear audio playback of your mix during the bounce process.
To bring bounced files back into tracks:
1 Do one of the following:
If the newly bounced audio was automatically imported into the session, drag
the new files from the Audio Regions List to
open tracks in your session.
◆
◆ If the bounced files are not available in
the Audio Regions List, import them into
the session by choosing File > Import Audio/Track (Macintosh) or File > Convert
and Import Audio (Windows).
✽ If you are placing both channels of a split
stereo file, keep both channels in phase with
each other by Shift-selecting them in the Regions List, and dragging them simultaneously
into open tracks in your session.
2 When working with stereo tracks, set the
pan controls hard left/right.
3 Mute or turn off the voices of original
7 Choose either Mono or Split Stereo for
source tracks so that you don’t double
monitor your audio material.
the Bounce Type.
4 Click Play in the Transport window to
hear the results of the bounce.
322 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Final Mixdown
In final mixdown, you create a mix that includes all your edits, automation, and effects processing.
◆ To convert the bounced audio file to another format, bit resolution, or sample rate,
select Convert After Bounce, then click the
Settings button and choose the output options.
9 Choose the bit resolution for the
To bounce a final mix to disk:
bounced file.
1 Adjust track output levels, finalize any
10 In the Bounce Source pop-up menu,
mix automation, and choose an automation mode for each track in the session.
choose the output pair that carries the
audio that you want to bounce.
2 Adjust any real-time Plug-In and effects
11 Click Bounce.
settings and automation for each track in
the session.
12 Select a destination for the new audio
3 Make sure that all of the tracks you want
to include in the bounce are audible (not
muted).
4 Assign the output of each of the tracks
you want to include in your bounce to the
same output pair.
5 Do one of the following:
◆ To bounce the entire session, click Return to Zero in the Transport window to go
to the beginning of the session.
◆ To bounce a portion of the session, make
a selection in the Edit window.
6 Choose File > Bounce to Disk.
7 In the Bounce dialog, choose the Bounce
Type.
8 Select one of the following Bounce Op-
tions:
To bounce the file to the same file format, bit resolution and sample rate as the
current session, select None.
◆
◆ To import the bounced file into the current session, select Import into Session After Bounce (this option is not available if
you are bouncing to a different bit resolution).
file, enter a name, and click Save.
Mastering
In the final mastering process, you might
record directly to disk, to a CD recorder, to
a stereo mastering recorder, or for surround
mixing, directly to a multi-channel recorder.
Once you have created a digital master of
your session, you can transfer it to a portable medium for duplication. You may
transfer the stereo master file to CD-R, DAT
or 8 mm DDP tape to be used as a master
for pressing compact discs.
Mastering to a Digital Recorder
Although it is usually best to master sessions directly to hard disk, Pro Tools also
allows you to master digitally, direct to any
AES/EBU or S/PDIF-equipped digital recorder such as a DAT deck.
Chapter 22: Mixdown and Mastering 323
24-bit Input and Output with
Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24
Systems
Pro Tools 24 MIX and Pro Tools 24 are full
24-bit audio recording and mixing environments, supporting record, playback,
mixing, and processing of 24-bit audio
files. You can record to and from other
24-bit recording systems without any bitdepth conversion.
Analog Input and Output PCI-based
Pro Tools III Systems support full 24-bit
A/D and D/A from the 888/24 I/O Audio
Interface; 20-bit A/D and D/A from the
882/20 Audio Interface; and 18-bit A/D and
D/A from both the 888 I/O and 882 I/O Audio Interfaces. To obtain best results when
recording to disk, you may want to dither
your audio inputs.
☞ For more information about the Dither plug-
In, refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide.
24-bit Input and Output with
Pro Tools III Systems
Pro Tools III TDM systems are capable of
24-bit mixing. The only 16-bit restriction is
on recording and playback of audio files.
Digital Input and Output Because PCI-based
Pro Tools III cards are capable of 24-bit
data transfer, your system can send and receive digital audio with a sample size up to
24-bits directly through the digital inputs
and outputs of an 888/24 I/O, 882/20 I/O,
888 I/O, or 882 I/O Audio Interface. In addition, mixing within the Pro Tools III environment (both disk tracks and live inputs
to the audio interfaces) produces a 24-bit
output word. This result can be dithered
down to 16-bits if you are outputting to a
16-bit recorder (such as a DAT machine).
This 24-bit mixing capability is useful if
you work with digital devices such as audio
converters, mastering recorders, or effects
devices that support 20-bit or 24-bit input
and output. It allows you to mix your audio
within Pro Tools with the full 24-bit resolution of the TDM mixing environment, providing greater dynamic range and a lower
noise floor.
324 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Mastering and Audio Compression
Although audio compression is often an indispensable tool in analog recording, it can
present problems in the digital domain. If
you compress an input signal at a very high
ratio, you create a signal that contains a
much higher overall power level compared
to its transients. By recording a number of
such signals at the highest possible level on
multiple tracks, you create a scenario that
is more likely to clip the mixed output signal.
High-power compressed signals, when
mixed together, create an extremely highlevel output. This output may rise above
the full-code level, resulting in clipping. To
avoid this problem, watch the overall level
of your program material—use a meter on a
Master Fader, or use an external mastering
deck’s meters to help avoid clipping. If you
are mastering to hard disk, avoid mixing
full-code audio signals together at unity or
“0” level, as this invariably causes clipping.
Mastering and Error-Correcting Media
Random access media (such as hard disks,
optical cartridges, Bernoulli cartridges or
WORM drives) can produce a true digital
copy of your data, because every bit value is
maintained. Sequential media (such as
DAT tapes) use error correction schemes to
fix the occasional bad data that is received
in a digital transfer. These corrections are
deviations from the actual data, and with
successive reproductions, represent a subtle
form of generation loss.
You can avoid this loss by creating and
maintaining masters on random-access
digital media (such as a hard drive) and
transferring them to sequential digital media (such as DAT tapes) only as needed.
To configure Pro Tools for direct digital stereo
mastering:
1 Connect your digital recorder to your
system’s digital outputs.
2 In Pro Tools set the appropriate digital
format and output from the Hardware
Setup or Playback Engine dialog.
3 On your digital recorder, choose the ap-
propriate digital format for the connections.
4 In Pro Tools, set all audio tracks you want
to master to outputs 1-2.
5 Click Return to Zero in the Transport
window to go to the beginning of the session.
6 Press Record on your digital recorder.
7 Start playback of your session.
8 When your session has finished playing,
stop the digital recorder.
Chapter 22: Mixdown and Mastering 325
326 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Part VI
Synchronization
chapter 23
Synchronization Concepts
Time code and synchronization (sync) are
complex topics. This section is designed to
give you a basic understanding synchronization as it relates to your work with
Pro Tools.
However, if you are using a device that
sends or receives time code, such as a video
tape recorder, you need to understand how
that device generates or receives time code,
and how to configure its options. Refer to
the manufacturer’s instructions for operational details.
Your Sync Requirements
We strongly recommend that you research
what your synchronization requirements
are. For instance, if you’re using Pro Tools
to accomplish audio post-production work
for video, consult with your video engineer
or editor to determine what time code format is being used. There may be other time
code-related issues that affect how you use
synchronization. Your Digidesign dealer
may also be able to offer suggestions about
using sync with your studio.
Aspects of Sync
Synchronization has two components,
which can be expressed as the following
questions:
◆ “Where are we?” This is called the positional reference.
◆ “How fast are we going?” This is called
the clock reference.
To sync Pro Tools accurately over an extended period of time to another device
such as a tape machine or VTR, Pro Tools
needs to know where the device is and at
what speed it’s running. Some peripherals
can provide only one of these references;
for example, a black burst generator or
house sync provides only a clock reference.
Some peripherals, like the Digidesign Universal Slave Driver (USD), can do both.
Chapter 23: Synchronization Concepts 329
Syncing Pro Tools
Pro Tools requires a clock reference—in addition to time code—in order to maintain
synchronization over time.
You can resolve Pro Tools to an external
clock reference without locking it to a positional reference. For instance, you can use a
USD to resolve the Pro Tools sample clock
to house sync, without synchronizing
Pro Tools to external time code. You
should do this if you need all your work in
Pro Tools to match the speed of all other
machines in your facility.
Let’s explore this a little further using a typical sync situation, with Pro Tools being
slaved, using a Universal Slave Driver
(USD), to a video tape recorder, with both
machines referenced to the same house
sync or black burst source:
1 When you start the videotape, time code
(LTC or VITC) is read off the tape and
routed to the USD.
2 The USD sends Pro Tools the address of
the first instance of time code it receives
(positional reference). At the same time,
based on the house sync or black burst
clock reference, the USD sends Super Clock
information to Pro Tools (clock reference).
3 Pro Tools takes the first time code address
it receives, and calculates the sample location in the session that corresponds to the
address. Though you can work with
Pro Tools using any standard time code format, it calculates in terms of sample numbers—which means that it translates the
time code address to an exact sample number.
330 Pro Tools Reference Guide
4 Assuming that the time code address corresponds to a sample number that is within
the Pro Tools session, Pro Tools converts
the time code address to a sample number
within the session, and begins playing back
from that point. The point that playback
starts from is the trigger point. The clock reference is used by both machines to keep
them in sync with each other’s clocks.
5 At this point, if the videotape is stopped,
rewound, and started again, the entire process is repeated, based upon a newly calculated trigger point.
In this way, Pro Tools uses time code for
positional information, and a clock reference to maintain synchronization.
About Positional References
Time Code and Bi-phase
The “Where are we?” question refers to relative position. To describe position, many
professional audio, video, and multimedia
devices and programs use SMPTE (Society
of Motion Picture & Television Engineers)
time code.
There are two basic techniques used to
record SMPTE time code onto magnetic
tape: LTC (Linear Time Code) and VITC
(Vertical Interval Time Code). LTC is recorded on an audio channel or a dedicated
time code track of the audio or video device. VITC is recorded within the video signal in the video “blanking area” of each
video frame. VITC cannot be recorded on
audio tracks, so it has no application when
working with audio tape recorders, but it
does offer powerful features for post-production professionals who work with
video.
There is also a non-SMPTE form of time
code called MIDI Time Code (MTC) that
some devices use to send timing information.
Time code is timing information in the
form of a data stream that can be recorded
on magnetic tape as an audio or video signal. Time code can be used to synchronize
the playback and recording of your
Pro Tools system with another machine’s
transport, such as an analog multitrack
tape machine or a video tape recorder
(VTR).
Time code is based on hours, minutes, seconds, frames, and subframes (1/100th of a
frame). The frame is used as a unit of time
measurement due to SMPTE time code’s origin in film and video applications. Depending on the SMPTE frame rate, one
frame is equal to 1/24th, 1/25th, 1/29.97th,
or 1/30th of a second. For instance, a videotape time code reading of “01:12:27:15”
would tell us that we were at a position of
one hour, twelve minutes, twenty-seven
seconds, and fifteen frames.
Because SMPTE stores an absolute time reference on the tape in the form of time
code, any location on that tape can be precisely located by devices that read time
code. Once the time code has been recorded or “striped” on a tape, it provides a
permanent time reference that allows
Pro Tools to link the playback of an event
to an exact tape location. For example,
with time code sync, a gun shot sound effect can be played at the precise instant
that the gun’s flash appears on-screen.
LTC (Linear Time Code)
LTC is time code that is recorded and
played back in the form of an analog audio
signal. LTC is supported by many audio
and video tape recorders.
LTC Speed Usage
LTC can be read at high tape shuttle
speeds, allowing a machine’s time code
reader to communicate with synchronizers
at rewind or fast forward speeds exceeding
50 times playback speed (provided the tape
recorder is able to reproduce the time code
at this speed). However, LTC cannot be
read at very slow shuttle speeds (such as
when you are “crawling” the tape frame by
frame) or when the machine is paused.
With LTC, the VTR must be running (usually at a minimum speed of about 1/10th
normal playback speed) in order to capture
a SMPTE time address.
VITC (Vertical Interval Time
Code)
VITC is a type of time code that’s recorded
and played as an invisible part of a video
signal. VITC is commonly used in professional video editing and audio-for-picture
applications. Because VITC is recorded as
part of each video frame, it must be recorded at the same time as the video signal—it cannot be added later as LTC can.
Since VITC cannot be recorded on audio
tracks, it is never used to synchronize
audio-only recorders. As a result, LTC is
more commonly used in audio-only applications.
Chapter 23: Synchronization Concepts 331
VITC Speed Usage
VITC’s ability to capture a time code value
when moving a VTR transport at slow
speeds or when the VTR is paused makes it
more useful in audio post-production environments than LTC.
When VITC is used, Pro Tools captures the
current SMPTE time from the VTR when it
is paused or in “crawl” mode. However, if
you are using additional external transport
synchronizers in your setup, most synchronizers cannot read VITC at speeds exceeding about 10 times playback speed, preventing slaved machines from maintaining
synchronization during rewind and fast
forward.
LTC/VITC Auto-Switching
Many synchronizers and devices support
automatic switching between LTC and
VITC, depending on the speed, to get the
best of both worlds. For example, VITC
might be used when a VTR is paused, or
crawling frame-by frame, while the synchronizer might automatically switch to
LTC when fast-forwarding.
phase/tach source to deduce positional information from a starting “address point.”
The difference between bi-phase and tach
formats is that bi-phase encodes rate and
direction on a pair of signals using a format
called phase-quadrature, while tach encodes rate on one signal and direction on
the other.
SMPTE Frame Formats
Six different formats of SMPTE time code
exist, and Pro Tools can sync to any format
with a compatible sync peripheral. The
supported SMPTE frame rates are:
• 30 FPS (frames per second), also called
30 Non-Drop
• 30 FPS Drop frame
• 29.97 FPS, also called 29.97 Non-Drop
• 29.97 FPS Drop frame
• 25 FPS (also called EBU)
• 24 FPS
✽ When you work with NTSC video (the stan-
dard in North America), you will generally work
with the NTSC color video standard: either
29.97 FPS Non-Drop or 29.97 FPS Drop frame.
Bi-Phase/Tach
This electronic pulse stream is used by film
mag recorders, film editing stations, and
film projectors. You can use this format to
synchronize Pro Tools if you have a USD.
Unlike time code, bi-phase/tach doesn’t actually contain absolute location information. It simply supplies speed (based upon
the frequency of the pulses) and direction,
and therefore, relative position. Since the
USD can “count” both the speed and direction of the stream of pulses, it can use a bi332 Pro Tools Reference Guide
30 FPS Frame Format
This format is based on a frame rate of 30
frames per second. This is the original
SMPTE format developed for monochrome
(black & white) video, and is commonly
used in audio-only applications. This format is often referred to as 30 Non-Drop
frame format.
30 FPS Drop Frame Format
This format is used for sound recordings
done for film-originated programs that are
destined for NTSC broadcast.
29.97 Non-Drop Frame Format
This format is used with NTSC color video.
It runs at a rate of 29.97 FPS.
29.97 Drop Frame Format
NTSC color video has an actual frame rate
of 29.97 FPS, so an hour’s worth of frames
(108,000) running at 29.97 FPS Non-Drop
will take slightly longer than one hour of
real-time to play. This makes calculating
the actual length of a program difficult
when using 29.97 Non-Drop time code. A
program which spans one hour of 29.97
Non-Drop time code addresses (e.g. from
1:00:00:00 to 2:00:00:00) is actually 60
minutes, 3 seconds and 18 frames long.
To make working with 29.97 time code easier for broadcasters, the SMPTE committee
created 29.97 Drop Frame time code,
which runs at exactly the same speed as
29.97 Non-Drop (non-drop frame) time
code, but compensates for the slower speed
by “dropping” (omitting) two frames at the
top of each minute, with the exception of
every 10th minute. For this reason, the
time code address of 1:01:00:00 does not
exist in drop frame code because it has
been skipped.
At the end of a program which spans precisely one hour of drop frame time code
(1:00:00;00 to 2:00:00;00 for example), exactly one hour of real time has elapsed.
Although it sounds complicated, drop
frame time code allows broadcasters to rely
on time code values when calculating the
true length of programs, facilitating accurate program scheduling.
25 FPS Frame Format
This format is used with the European PAL
video standard, which runs at a 25 FPS
frame rate. This format is also called the
EBU (European Broadcast Union) format
because it’s used by broadcasters throughout most of Europe.
24 FPS Frame Format
This format is used exclusively for film applications. Film is typically photographed
and projected at a 24 FPS frame rate, so this
SMPTE format is useful when one time
code frame should equal one film frame.
Working with FilmOriginated Material
When you do post-production work in
Pro Tools, you will usually work with video
material. However, it is possible that the
video you are working on was shot on film.
Film footage and production sound go
through separate conversion processes before they reach video, and the audio postproduction stage. The film is transferred to
video using a process called Telecine, using
a method called 3:2 Pulldown. Audio can
also be pulled down during the transfer, or
you might end up working with audio that
has not been adjusted (production sound).
Chapter 23: Synchronization Concepts 333
Typically during the Telecine process, a
master digital video tape is created, along
with a work copy on 3/4” analog video tape
for the picture editor to use. At the same
time, a new audio master may be created by
slowing down, or “pulling down” by 0.1%,
to compensate for the change in speed
from film to NTSC video.
Guide Tracks
In the Video editing process, the audio
track produced by the video editor (the
“guide track”) is rough and needs to be enhanced and improved by the audio engineer. For this reason, the audio engineer
will need to re-edit the original sound elements in a process known as conforming.
Telecine machine
converts film frames
to video fields using
3:2 Pulldown
Digital video
master
29.97 FPS
A film clip that lasts 1000 seconds consists
of 24,000 film frames (pictures). If you
want to transfer that film to 1000 seconds
worth of NTSC color video, you have to
“fit” 24,000 film frames into 29,970.02997
video frames.
If we use the black and white NTSC video
standard (30 FPS) instead of 29.97 FPS, the
process of converting film frames to video
frames is greatly simplified. Now instead of
any fractional frames, we have 24,000 film
frames going into 30,000 video frames
(60,000 video fields). In the Telecine process (for NTSC color video), each odd film
frame is copied to two video fields, and
each even film frame is copied to three
video fields, creating what is called a
3:2 Pulldown. The speed of the film is also
“pulled down” to 23.976 FPS in order to accommodate the slower speed of NTSC color
video compared to NTSC black and white
video (29.97 FPS compared to 30 FPS.
Film frames
1
Analog video
“work tape”
29.97 FPS
Production audio
30 FPS Non-Drop
Sample rate conversion
48 kHz
or A-D-A (analog stage)
3:2 Pulldown
2
3
4
Telecine
“simo” DAT
29.97 FPS
48 kHz
The Telecine stage of video post-production
11 12 23 33 44
Video fields
How film frames translate to video fields in a
3:2 Pulldown
334 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Film Speed Differs from NTSC
Video Speed
The new NTSC Telecine master tapes will
always run at 29.97 FPS during post-production, so the original production sound
rolls (at 30 FPS) will be too fast, and therefore out of sync with the video. Some adjustment of this audio may be required.
When spotting audio to video that was
transferred from film to NTSC video, there
are two important terms to keep in mind:
film speed and video speed.
Film Speed Film speed refers to audio that
was recorded and plays back in synchronization with the film camera. This audio
comes from production reels recorded on a
Nagra® recorder or a field DAT recorder,
and is usually striped with 30 Non-Drop
time code. Film speed audio runs at the
same speed as the film camera or projector,
and is therefore out of sync with 29.97
video.
Video Speed Video speed refers to audio
that is running at the NTSC color standard
of 29.97 FPS. Video speed is 0.1% slower
than film speed, so audio that is still at film
speed is out of sync with the video. Usually, you will be working at video speed,
though Digidesign and Avid do provide
several options for film speed (24 FPS) support.
Pull Up and Pull Down
Pull Up and Pull Down are terms used to refer to the deliberate recalibration of the
audio sample rate clock (speed, or musical
pitch) in order to compensate for a speed
change. Pro Tools can be used to Pull Down
or Pull Up audio for use with NTSC video.
Pro Tools does not support Pull Up or Pull
Down sample rates for PAL video.
Pull Up and Pull Down are based on the
concept of matching the change in audio
speed to the change in video speed. Because film that has been transferred to
NTSC videotape has been slowed down by
0.1%, the same varispeed (or “pull-down”)
must be applied—at some stage of the
audio production process—to any production sound, to maintain sync.
Using Pro Tools in Pull Up or Pull Down
modes requires a USD, SSD, or a third-party
synchronizer that supports 256x clock output and Pull Up and Pull Down sample
rates. The VSD can be used for Pull Down,
but does not support Pull Up mode.
When to Pull Up or Pull Down
There are many ways to get audio into
Pro Tools for post-production. Consider
your source audio and your final destination format carefully. In some cases, audio
will already be pulled down for you. In
other cases, audio will have to be temporarily pulled down. In still other cases, you
may choose to pull down your audio
source, like a DAT deck, then use a D-A-D
(digital-to-analog-to-digital) conversion to
record the audio into Pro Tools at the
proper sample rate. Or you may choose
only to pull Pro Tools up or down on delivery of the audio. Refer to the online document FilmSync.pdf installed with your
Pro Tools documentation, for detailed PullUp/Pull-Down workflow information.
Chapter 23: Synchronization Concepts 335
Final Audio Destination: Film
If your final destination is film, your source
audio is at film speed, and your goal is to
edit and mix audio in Pro Tools and then
lay back to a device that runs at film speed
(such as Mag or Time Code DAT), you can
temporarily Pull Down the audio in
Pro Tools for NTSC video work, then return
the audio back to film speed when you’re
finished.
For example, film speed audio from a Nagra
machine that is referenced to 30 FPS time
code is recorded into your Pro Tools system
at a sample rate of 44.1 or 48 kHz. Keeping
in mind that film speed is faster than video
speed, select 30 FPS in your Session Setup
window in Pro Tools, and record in your
audio online and referenced to the time
code on the Nagra.
Once all the audio has been recorded, and
you are locked to a video work print (at
“video speed”), set up Pull Down. If you are
using a Digidesign USD, SSD, or VSD, select
Pull Down in the Session Setup window.
(You also have to select Pull Down manually on the front of the VSD.) If your synchronizer is not a Digidesign product, select Pull Down on the front of your
synchronizer, then enable Pull Down in
the Pro Tools Session Setup Window. At
this point, it is highly recommended that
you verify whether the video you’re working with is striped with 29.97 Drop Frame
or Non-Drop Frame time code. While in
Pull Down mode, you can work with your
reference video and everything will remain
in sync and run at the proper speed (assuming your system is completely resolved).
336 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Once you are ready to lay back your completed project to an audio device running
at film speed, deselect Pull Down in the
Session Setup Window, and from your synchronizer if it is not a USD or SSD. Then
change your time code frame rate in the
Pro Tools session back to 30 FPS. Once Pull
Down has been deselected, the audio
played back from Pro Tools will synchronize perfectly with the edited film.
Alternately, you can pull down the source
audio deck while recording audio into
Pro Tools, work at 29.97 FPS with no PullDown selected in Pro Tools, and then
switch to 30 Non-Drop frame format, and
select Pull Up during the delivery stage.
You will have to perform a sample rate conversion the audio either digitally or by using an analog stage (D-A-D).
Final Audio Destination: Video
If you are working with video that was
transferred from film, your audio source is
at film speed, and the final layback destination is NTSC video (or television), and you
would like to provide a digital transfer to
your clients, you will need to alter the
above recipe slightly. Keep in mind that
when you are working in Pull Down mode,
your active sample rate is 44.056 kHz (if the
audio was recorded at 44.1 kHz) or 47.952
kHz (if the audio was recorded at 48 kHz).
Pull Down the Audio Source
Note on Sample Rate Conversion
Some professional DAT machines will let
you Pull Down the sample rate to 44.056
kHz, then you can record this audio into
Pro Tools using a D-A-D (digital-to-analogto-digital) process. Then your audio will be
at the correct speed for the remainder of
the project, since the final destination is
video, and no Pull Down or Pull Up is necessary.
In many cases, you have to perform a sample rate conversion at some point, either
digitally, or by recording in audio using an
analog stage (D-A-D). The only situation
where sample rate conversion never has to
be performed is when you are working with
film speed audio and your final destination
format is film. Then you can simply Pull
Down Pro Tools while you work with the
video, then deselect Pull Down to set the
audio back to film speed.
Pull Up Pro Tools While Recording
If you cannot Pull Down your source, you
can accomplish the same thing by Pulling
Up Pro Tools, and setting your SMPTE
frame format to 30 FPS, before recording in
the production sound. First select 30 FPS as
the frame format in the Session Setup Window. Then select Pull Up in the Session
Setup window (and on your synchronizer if
it isn’t a USD or SSD) before you record in
the production audio. In this case, while
the production audio is running at 44.1 or
48 kHz, Pro Tools is running (and recording) at a rate of 44.144 or 48.048 kHz. After
all the production audio has been recorded
into Pro Tools, deselect Pull Up in the Session Setup window and on your hardware
synchronizer if it is not a USD or SSD. After
you deselect Pull Up, the recorded audio
will play back 0.1% slower, synchronized
with the video, while achieving a true playback sample rate of 44.1 or 48 kHz. Note
that this process is designed for a final destination of video; to bring this audio back
up to film speed you would have to Pull Up
Pro Tools and record to a destination that
is not Pulled Up.
Using Digital Input
Do not set Pro Tools channels 1 and 2 to
Digital Input format while working with
Pull Up or Pull Down. This will override
any clock reference information, such as
the Reference Video information from a
USD.
Chapter 23: Synchronization Concepts 337
338 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 24
Time Code Synchronization
Synchronization (sync) allows connected
systems or devices to start and stop their
transports together, and, in some cases, to
adjust transport speeds to maintain accurate synchronization of audio and video
material during playback. Pro Tools is synchronized to other devices using SMPTE
time code or MIDI Time Code. For a discussion of different SMPTE formats, and other
concepts related to time code, refer to
Chapter 23: Synchronization Concepts.
SMPTE Trigger with an
Externally Resolved Peripheral
(TDM Systems Only)
This solution uses a Universal Slave Driver
(USD), Video Slave Driver (VSD), or equivalent third-party device, resolved with a
black burst or “house sync” generator, or
using external word clock, to control playback and recording speed in Pro Tools. Accurate long-term sync can be achieved
when all transports within the system are
resolved to a common sync source.
Pro Tools Sync Options
You have four choices for synchronizing
Pro Tools to an external source:
SMPTE Trigger only
This solution is useful for short projects,
but may result in timing errors if you are
working with lengthy program material
and an unstable sync source. This is the
only option available on Pro Tools LE systems.
SMPTE Trigger with an External
Peripheral Slaved to LTC
SMPTE Trigger can be used with the optional USD, SMPTE Slave Driver (SSD), or
equivalent third-party device to resolve
Pro Tools recording/playback speed while
slaving to LTC. This enables long-term, accurate synchronization by resolving to any
variations in incoming time code.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 339
SMPTE Resolved with USD
(TDM Systems Only)
You can use the optional USD, or an equivalent third-party device, to resolve
Pro Tools recording/playback speed with
any of the following clock reference
sources while slaving Pro Tools to LTC:
• Video source
• Video “blackburst” or “house” sync
• VITC
• 1x Word Clock
• AES/EBU “null” clock
• 256x slave clock
• Pilot Tone
• Bi-Phase
This enables long-term, high-fidelity synchronization when all transports within
the system are resolved to this common
sync source, or by resolving to any variations in incoming time code while slaving
to LTC.
ates the time code through the SMPTE Out
connector. This signal can be passed along
to other slave devices.
☞ For instructions on connecting an external
sync peripheral to your Pro Tools system, refer
to the instructions in the Pro Tools Hardware
Installation Guide.
The Session Setup Window
The Session Setup window allows you to
configure various time code-related parameters on your system. The following settings can be adjusted in this window:
Session Setup Window
Sample Rate
Other USD and SSD Sync
Options
By adding a USD or SSD to your Pro Tools
TDM system, you can use Pro Tools as the
master device in your synchronization
setup. All other devices are then slaved to
Pro Tools.
You can use Pro Tools in conjunction with
either the USD or SSD to generate SMPTE
LTC, MIDI Time Code, Slave Clock, or
MMC messages. When either the SSD or
USD is reading incoming SMPTE time code
from the SMPTE In connector, it regener-
340 Pro Tools Reference Guide
This allows you to set the sample rate for
the current session. Choices are 48,000 Hz
(48 kHz) or 44,100 Hz (44.1 kHz).
44,100 Hz is the sample rate used on audio
compact discs.
Bit Depth
This display-only area indicates the bit
depth for the current session.
Mixer
This area indicates the type of the Pro Tools
mixer in use. On TDM systems, the mixer
field will display the current mixer in use:
either 16-bit Optimized or 24-bit Optimized. “CPU Mixer” is displayed in this
field on a Pro Tools LE system.
Ch 1-2 Input
(TDM Systems Only)
This allows you to choose an audio input
format (analog or digital) for channels 1
and 2 of your master Audio Interface.
Sync Mode
This allows you to choose the clock mode
for your master Audio Interface, Audiomedia III card, or Digi 001. Choices are Internal or Digital on an Audio Interface or Audiomedia III card, and Internal, Optical, or
S/PDIF (RCA) on the Digi 001.
Internal Sync Mode In internal sync mode,
your system will reference your Digidesign
card or peripheral’s quartz crystal oscillator
and play back at the sample rate selected in
the Sample Rate field.
Digital Sync Mode (including Optical and
S/PDIF on Digi 001) In digital sync mode,
your system’s sample rate is adjusted to
match the sample rate received from the selected digital peripheral. In digital sync
mode, your Pro Tools sync rate must match
the rate received by your digital peripheral.
Incorrectly set peripheral devices will result
in incorrect playback speeds when your
system is set back to internal sync mode.
With TDM systems, the Session Setup window provides a source link feature that toggles the sync mode of your audio interface
when you switch your input source from
analog to digital. This helps to ensure that
the clock source for your system will match
the digital input source when you are
working.
You can override this toggled behavior by
changing the pop-ups to the opposite
choice. For example, if you are using a master AES/EBU null clock or video black burst
signal source as the master sync source for
all digital audio devices in your studio
setup, your Sync Mode pop-up should be
set to digital at all times. In this case,
Pro Tools uses this master sync source as a
reference.
Session Start
This allows you to specify a SMPTE start
frame location for your session. The SMPTE
value that you enter here will be used to
trigger playback and record when Pro Tools
is online. See “Setting a SMPTE Start
Frame” on page 344.
Current Time
This displays incoming time code.
Frame Rate
This allows you to set the SMPTE frame rate
for the current session.
Generate Time Code
This allows Pro Tools to output time code
using a USD (communicating directly via a
serial port), or using a SSD (communicating
via a serial port or using MIDI sys-ex via a
designated OMS destination port). Generating time code is covered in the section
“Generating Time Code” on page 347.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 341
Using Peripheral This option outputs time
code from the Device type selected in the
Synchronization page of the Peripherals dialog.
Pull Up This speeds up the current sample
rate to 100.1%. A 48 kHz sample rate is
sped up to 48.048 kHz. A 44.1 kHz sample
rate is sped up to 44.144 kHz.
MTC to Port This option outputs MIDI
Time Code to the MIDI destination selected in the pop-up menu.
Pull Down This slows the current sample
rate to 99.9%. A 48 kHz sample rate is
slowed to 47.952 kHz. A 44.1 kHz sample
rate is slowed to 44.056 kHz.
Time Code Freewheel
This allows Pro Tools to continue playback
if time code is interrupted or corrupted.
Use this to protect against errors that can
occur if your SMPTE time code source has
“drop outs” or temporary lost signals.
Frames This option allows you to freewheel
from 1 to 120 frames. This value defaults to
8 frames which is the recommended setting for most applications.
Jam Sync This option allows Pro Tools to
trigger sync to incoming time code, and
continue to play back even if time code input is completely interrupted. It can be useful if time code is damaged, or has been accidentally erased from your source tape.
Sample Rate Pull Up/Down
When Pro Tools is used in conjunction
with a SSD, VSD, USD, or third-party synchronizer that supports 256x clock output
and Pull Down sample rates, this option allows you to “pull up” or “pull down” the
current sample rate. This is used with filmoriginated material when working with
NTSC-standard SMPTE frame rates only.
For a full explanation of film-originated
scenarios, see “Working with Film-Originated Material” on page 333.
342 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Sync Offset
This field allows you to set a “trigger offset”
for incoming MIDI Time Code (anywhere
from –100000 to +100000 samples). This
allows you to create a permanent offset to
fine-tune the point at which Pro Tools
syncs relative to incoming time code. For
example, a value of -50 makes an event in
Pro Tools occur 50 samples before the same
event in the incoming MIDI Time Code.
Use this to compensate for timing differences between various SMPTE-to-MIDI
Time Code converters or analog-to-digital/digital-to-analog converters.
▲ For TDM systems, recording with a Sync Off-
set requires two voices for each record-enabled track. In addition, to simultaneously
record on 32 tracks with a Sync Offset on a
Pro Tools 24 MIX system (which allocates
voices to either of two DSP engines, 1–32 and
33–64), the tracks must be evenly distributed
between the two DSPs, (for instance, tracks
1–16 assigned to voices 1–16 and tracks
17–32 assigned to voices 33–48).
Variable Speed Override
Determining SMPTE Frame Rate
Variable Speed Override (VSO) requires a
USD (or SSD). When a USD is connected to
Pro Tools, the Session Setup window expands to display additional controls for
VSO, clock, and Positional Reference (see
Figure 23).
Of course, it’s always best to determine the
SMPTE frame rate through labeling procedures or communication, but this is not always possible.
If you do not know the frame rate of a tape,
the SSD and USD show incoming frame
rate on their front panel LED indicators.
These devices cannot distinguish between
29.97 fps and 30 fps, but they can determine whether the incoming frame rate is
drop frame or non-drop frame. With NTSC
video, the frame rate is most likely 29.97
fps Drop or 29.97 fps Non-Drop.
Figure 23. Session Setup window with USD
Refer to the Universal Slave Driver User's
Guide for instructions on using VSO to
varispeed Pro Tools playback.
Configuring Pro Tools for
SMPTE
✽ MachineControl is supported on TDM sys-
tems only.
Preparing to Work with
SMPTE
The first step when preparing to work with
SMPTE is to choose an appropriate SMPTE
frame rate.
SMPTE Formats
Pro Tools supports all standard SMPTE
frame rates. For a full explanation of these
SMPTE frame rates, see “SMPTE Frame Formats” on page 332.
Synchronization and MachineControl™
system parameters are set in the Pro Tools
Peripherals dialog box. These parameters,
such as sync peripheral setups, MIDI Machine Control, MachineControl, and machine pre-roll, are system settings, and remain constant regardless of the particular
session you are working on.
Other parameters, which are configured in
the Session Setup Window, such as the session frame rate, the session start frame, and
time display format, are session-specific parameters. These parameters can only be
configured when a session is open.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 343
Selecting a SMPTE Format
To set a SMPTE Start Frame for your session:
1 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup.
To choose a SMPTE format:
1 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup.
2 In the pop-up Frame Rate menu, select
the SMPTE frame format appropriate to
your session.
3 Enter the Time Code Freewheel frames (if
any) in the designated box. See “Time Code
Freewheel” on page 342 for more information.
2 Enable playback of your SMPTE time
code source. Any SMPTE-to-MTC converter
device you are using should indicate that it
is properly receiving time code via its indicators. If Pro Tools is receiving MTC (or
proprietary sync code via the USD), the
Current Time counter will update its display (in bold numbers) to match the incoming code.
Setting a SMPTE Start Frame
Current Time displayed in Session Setup window
The Session Setup window also allows you
to set a SMPTE Start Frame for your session.
Video work tapes are rarely striped beginning at a SMPTE frame address of
00:00:00:00. You can quickly enter a start
time for your session based on an appropriate frame number from your project tape.
The Pro Tools SMPTE-related functions
(such as Spot mode) will then use this value
as their reference for the session’s start
point.
Start Time When Striping Tape
If you are generating time code, it is a good
practice to stripe your time code beginning
at 01:00:00:00. This prevents problems that
can occur with some synchronizers when
the striped time code crosses from
23:59:59:29 to 00:00:00:00 (commonly referred to as the “midnight” boundary).
344 Pro Tools Reference Guide
This display is useful for troubleshooting
time code problems, and it should update
regardless of the current Pro Tools Session
Start time.
3 Enter a SMPTE frame number in the Session Start field.
– or –
4 To capture an incoming SMPTE address,
press the Equal key (=). You can then edit
the captured address. The session uses the
frame number you enter as its SMPTE start
frame when online.
If there are existing regions on the tracks
and you are changing the original SMPTE
start frame to a later time (from
00:00:00:00 to 01:00:00:00, for example),
all existing regions on tracks will remain in
their relative positions, but will start later
by the time value added to the start frame.
5 If there are existing regions on the tracks
and you are changing the original SMPTE
start frame to an earlier time, do one of the
following:
To set the Main Time Scale to SMPTE Time
Code:
■ Click Maintain Time Code to place the
additional session time at the start of the
session, and keep existing regions in their
original time code locations.
– or –
■ Click the Main Time Format selector in
the Edit window, and select Time Code.
Click Maintain Relative Position to place
the additional session time at the start of
the session, and maintain the relative position of existing regions to the new start
frame. For example, if you change the session start frame from 01:00:00:00 to
00:59:00:00, Pro Tools adds one minute of
session time to accommodate the new start
frame, and moves all existing regions earlier in time to maintain their relative position to the start frame.
■
Displaying Time in SMPTE
Frames
(TDM Systems Only)
You can set the Main Current Location Indicator to Time Code to. Though Pro Tools
will still synchronize to incoming SMPTE
time code if the Time Scale is displayed in
Bars|Beats, Minutes:Seconds, or
Feet.Frames, it is usually more useful to use
SMPTE Time Code as your reference.
■
Choose Display > Time Code
– or –
Selecting a Time Scale format
Pro Tools will display time code values in
the currently selected SMPTE frame rate.
Sub Time Scale Display
You can also display a Sub Time Scale. For
example, if your Main Time Format is set to
Time Code, and you want to compare
SMPTE time to “wall clock,” when you are
using 29.97 Non-Drop frame rate, you can
select Min:Secs as the Sub Time Format display.
Configuring Pull Up/Pull Down
using a USD or SSD
If you have a Digidesign USD or SSD and
are working with material that has been
pulled down or up, do the following:
To work with a pull down/up sample rate:
1 Choose Setups > Peripherals and click
Synchronization.
2 Choose the Universal Slave Driver or
SMPTE Slave Driver from the Device popup menu and select the appropriate port
from the Port pop-up menu.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 345
3 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup.
Notice the additional field for the SSD or
USD at the bottom of this window.
Putting Pro Tools Online
To trigger playback or recording from an
external source, you put Pro Tools online, or
set it to look for incoming time code.
To put Pro Tools online:
1 Choose Operations > Online. The Cur-
Session Setup window showing the SSD enabled
rent Position Indicator at the upper right of
the Pro Tools window will display incoming Time Code as soon as Online playback
begins.
2 Click the Online button at the far left of
the Transport. The button blinks until
Pro Tools locks to Time Code, then is highlighted. Pro Tools now waits for a SMPTE
frame to trigger playback. The Current
Time field in the Session Setup Window
will indicate incoming time code.
Session Setup window showing the USD enabled
4 Choose the frame rate for your session
from the pop-up menu. This frame rate
might be 30 FPS (Drop or Non-Drop) or
29.97 FPS (Drop or Non-Drop) depending
on the requirements of your material. See
“When to Pull Up or Pull Down” on
page 335 for more information.
5 In the Sample Rate Pull Up/Down field,
enable the Pull Up or Pull Down option as
appropriate.
This procedure will also work with a VSD or
a third-party synchronizer that supports
256x Super Clock and Pull Up/Pull Down,
with the following exceptions:
• You have to enable Pull Up or Pull Down
in the Session Setup window and on the
front of your synchronizer, and
• The VSD does not support Pull Up sample rates.
346 Pro Tools Reference Guide
You can take Pro Tools offline by choosing
Operations > Online a second time.
Recording Online
The Operation page of the Preferences dialog (Setups > Preferences) contains two options that affect how Pro Tools initiates recording when online.
Record Online At Insertion/Selection Online recording begins wherever you have
placed the insertion point in a track. Recording then continues until Pro Tools
stops receiving time code. If you make a selection in a track, Pro Tools will record online only for the length of the selection.
Record Online at Time Code (or ADAT) Lock
3 On a Macintosh, make sure your SSD is
Online recording begins as soon as
Pro Tools receives and locks to time code or
ADAT sync. In this case, you don’t need to
make an insertion or selection in a track to
designate a start point.
powered on and connected to the Modem
or Printer port. Also, make sure that the
Mac Port/MIDI Port switch on the back of
the SSD is set to Mac Port. On a Windows
PC, connect the MTC OUT connector on
the SSD to a MIDI IN connector on your
MIDI interface, then connect to MIDI in
connector on the SSD to a MIDI OUT connector on your MIDI interface. If you are
using Windows, skip to step 14.
Online recording options
4 On a Macintosh, choose Setups > OMS
Generating Time Code
This section describes how you generate
time code from Pro Tools using the SSD or
the USD.
Studio Setup.
5 Choose Setup > MIDI Cards and Inter-
faces, and click Update Setup.
6 Select the port that the SSD is connected
to, then click Search.
To generate time code using the SSD:
7 Confirm that “Std. Interface” appears in
1 On a Macintosh, make sure the OMS
the OMS Studio Setup window. Save the
document and make it your current setup.
Standard Interface Driver is installed in the
OMS Folder inside your System Folder. If
necessary, run the Pro Tools Installer to install OMS with the OMS Standard Interface
Driver. On a Windows PC, make sure your
MIDI interface is installed correctly.
2 Connect the SMPTE OUT connector of
the SSD to the SMPTE IN connector of the
device(s) you are slaving. If you are slaving
a device that recognizes MTC and you wish
to use MTC instead of SMPTE, connect the
MTC OUT connector of the SSD to the
MIDI IN connector of the device you are
slaving.
8 Double-click the “Std. Interface” icon.
9 Set it to 1 MHz, and deselect the Synchro-
nizer option.
10 Choose Studio > New Device, and name
the device “SSD.”
11 Deselect “Is controller” and “Is multi-
timbral,” and enable both “Sends” and
“Receives” MIDI Time Code, then click OK.
12 In the OMS Setup window, connect the
SSD icon to the “Std. Interface” icon.
13 Choose Setups > Preferences. Be sure
both the “Use Serial DMA driver when
available” and “Report serial overrun and
framing errors” options are deselected, and
click OK. If you have to change this setting,
you must restart your computer.
14 In Pro Tools, choose Setups > Peripher-
als, and select the Macintosh port or MIDI
interface port that the SSD is connected to.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 347
15 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup
To generate time code using a USD:
and choose the appropriate frame and sample rates.
1 Connect the SMPTE out of the USD to
16 In the Generate Time Code field, select
the “Using SSD” option.
17 Select the desired Clock Reference mode
from the Clock Reference pop-up menu in
the Session Setup window.
the SMPTE in connector on the device(s)
you are slaving. Refer to the Universal Slave
Driver User’s Guide to determine how to
make these connections for your system. If
you are slaving a device that recognizes
MTC and you wish to use MTC instead of
SMPTE, connect the MTC OUT connector
of the USD to the MIDI IN connector of the
slaved device.
2 Make sure your USD is powered on.
Selecting the Clock Reference for the SSD
18 Put Pro Tools online (see “Putting
Pro Tools Online” on page 118) and click
Play.
When playback begins, Pro Tools generates
time code via the SSD. If Pro Tools detects
incoming time code on its sync peripheral,
it locks to the incoming code (as in normal
online operation).
3 In Pro Tools, choose Setups > Peripherals
and click Synchronization.
4 Select USD from the Device pop-up.
5 Select the Macintosh port or Windows serial port where the USD is connected.
6 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup,
and choose the appropriate frame and sample rates.
7 In the Generate Time Code field, select
the “Using USD” option.
Generating SMPTE or MIDI Time
Code Using a USD
Using a USD, Pro Tools can generate
SMPTE or MTC. You can then make
Pro Tools a master synchronization source
with other devices slaved to it.
8 Click on the Clock Reference pop-up
menu to show USD modes. Select the desired clock reference.
– or –
On the front panel of the USD, set the desired clock reference mode.
▲ The USD cannot generate 24 FPS time code
while it is locked to a video clock signal. If you
set Pro Tools to generate 24 FPS time code
while the USD is locked to a video clock signal,
the USD will actually generate at the NTSC
color standard 29.97 Non-Drop Frame rate.
Pro Tools can generate time code at non-NTSC
frame rates if you use the USD’s internal clock
as a sync source.
348 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Selecting the Clock Reference for the USD
9 Close the Session Setup window. Con-
firm that your chosen parameters have
been received by the USD. If not, check
your connections and the settings in the
Session Setup Window.
10 Click the Online button on the Trans-
port, then click Play. Pro Tools generates
and outputs time code from the USD.
To slave an OMS-compatible MIDI sequencer
to Pro Tools:
1 Make sure the OMS IAC Driver is in-
stalled in the OMS Folder inside your System Folder. If necessary, run the Pro Tools
Installer to install OMS with the OMS IAC
driver. (Refer to the Pro Tools Software
Installation Guide for details.)
In OMS Setup:
Syncing a Sequencer to
Pro Tools on the Macintosh
A common application for generating time
code with Pro Tools is slaving an OMScompatible sequencer to a Pro Tools session.
Setting the Clock Master
The exact synchronization setup your sequencer requires will vary depending on
the software and your OMS setup, but
Pro Tools must be the clock master. Since
Pro Tools provides the audio sample clock
for your system, synchronization errors
will occur over time if Pro Tools is not designated as the master.
The following instructions describe the
general procedure, using Opcode’s Vision
software as an example and Pro Tools as
the master.
2 Choose Setups > Preferences, and make
sure the “Use Apple Serial DMA driver
when available” option is not selected.
Click OK.
▲ Always make sure the Apple Serial DMA
driver is not being used by OMS. It can prevent
proper communication with MIDI devices. You
must restart your computer any time you enable or disable the Apple Serial DMA driver.
3 Choose Setups > OMS MIDI Setup, and
select the “Run MIDI in background” option.
4 Choose Studio > MIDI Cards & Inter-
faces, click Update Setup, enable the appropriate ports, then click Search.
5 Confirm that the OMS IAC driver appears
in the OMS Studio Setup window. If it does,
save the document and make it your current setup.
✽ You can also use Pro Tools MMC to synchro-
nize with an OMS/MMC-compatible sequencer
or an external MMC-compatible device such as
an ADAT or DA-88. See “Controlling External
Devices using MMC” on page 351.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 349
6 In the OMS Studio Setup window, define
an IAC Bus by double-clicking the IAC
Driver icon, and typing IAC1, for example,
in the first field (this provides a unique
name for this particular IAC bus).
In Pro Tools:
15 Select Operations > Active in Back-
ground.
16 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup.
17 In the Session Setup window, choose an
appropriate frame rate.
18 Select the SMPTE Start Frame to match
the offset in Vision. If the sequence starts at
the very beginning you could set the
Pro Tools Session to start earlier (for example, at 00:59:58:00) to allow some pre-roll.
19 Enable the MTC to Port option in the
IAC Driver icon in the OMS Studio Setup
Output Time Code box. In the pop-up
menu just below the MTC to Port option,
choose IAC1.
In Opcode Vision:
20 Close the Session Setup window.
7 In the Enable Input Devices window in
21 Click Play or press the Spacebar to start
playback. Pro Tools will send MIDI Time
Code to Vision via the IAC port and trigger
synchronized playback for Vision. Click
Stop in the Transport or press the Space bar
again to stop playback.
the Setups menu, enable IAC1 (the IAC bus
you defined/named previously).
8 Choose Operations > Sync Options.
9 In the Sync Options dialog, set the Re-
ceive Sync Mode pop-up to MIDI Time
Code.
10 Next, set the Receive Sync Device pop-
up to IAC1.
11 Select the SMPTE Format (frame rate)
that will match Pro Tools (29.97 non drop,
for example). Click OK to close the Sync
Options dialog.
12 In Vision’s Control bar, set the sequence
start time, for example, at one hour
(01:00:00:00). The Offset at the top of the
Sequence window should usually match
the Offset in Pro Tools.
13 Select Wait Note in the Transport.
14 Click Play or press the Spacebar. Vision
should now be ready to start synchronized
playback.
350 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Once synchronized playback is operating
correctly, you can record new takes in
Pro Tools while listening to MIDI playback
from your sequencer. Follow the procedure
described above for synchronized playback, then record new material in
Pro Tools by following the recording procedures in the Recording section of this manual.
You should also be able to record new MIDI
tracks while the sequencer is slaved to
Pro Tools. See your sequencer documentation for details on recording while the sequencer is in an external synchronization
mode.
Syncing a Sequencer to
Pro Tools in Windows
Using MIDI Machine
Control
To synchronize Pro Tools to a Windows
sequencer:
Pro Tools provides the capability to transmit location information to external devices, and to control their transports, using
MIDI Machine Control (MMC).
1 Make sure your MIDI interface is cor-
rectly installed and configured. You must
do this before proceeding.
2 Choose one pair of input/output ports
on your MIDI interface to use as your sync
“loop” for application-to-application MIDI
communication.
Controlling External Devices
using MMC
output to the same port’s input (for example, port 1 out to port 1 in).
Any device which supports MMC (such as
an Alesis ADAT or Tascam DA-88) can be
controlled directly from within Pro Tools,
with either the device or Pro Tools acting as
clock master.
4 In Pro Tools, select the appropriate in/out
ports when making your selections for
MIDI source and/or destination ports.
• If you are slaving your sequencer to
Pro Tools, select the appropriate port in
the Session Setup window’s MTC to Port
pop-up menu.
• If you are slaving Pro Tools to your sequencer, select the appropriate port in
the Pro Tools Peripherals > Synchronization window.
The external devices supported by
Pro Tools implement “open loop” communications only. Because of this, while
Pro Tools is the transport master, any direct operation of the receiving device’s
transport will not be communicated back
to Pro Tools. Instead, you can use the
Transport pop-up to select the external device (MMC in the pop-up) and use the
Pro Tools on-screen transport controls to
drive the device.
3 Connect a MIDI cable from that port’s
5 In your sequencer, select the appropriate
in/out ports for MTC source/destination.
Pro Tools does not support remote track
arming of MMC-controlled external devices. You need to manually arm tracks for
recording on the external device.
✽ Digidesign’s MachineControl option does
support remote track arming. See “Remote
Track Arming” on page 353.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 351
Macintosh
Pro Tools on the Macintosh uses OMS to facilitate MIDI Machine Control. In order to
use MMC with Pro Tools you must configure your MMC device as an OMS device
and enable MMC as an attribute of the device in OMS. For an example of this, see
“Using MMC to Sync an ADAT to Pro Tools
on the Macintosh” on page 354.
3 Select the appropriate port for synchroni-
zation information. This is the port to
which your synchronization peripheral is
attached.
4 Click the Machine Control button at the
top of the window to open this page of the
Peripherals dialog.
✽ By using the OMS IAC bus, you can also
make a MIDI sequencer act as location master. Refer to your OMS and MMC-compatible
device documentation for details.
Windows
Pro Tools in Windows uses your Multimedia Setup to determine which MIDI devices
are available, and what their properties are.
Refer to your device’s installation and usage documentation to properly configure
the device.
Enabling MIDI Machine Control
in Pro Tools
To enable MIDI Machine Control:
1 Choose Setups > Peripherals, then click
Synchronization.
2 Select your synchronization peripheral
from the Synchronization/Device pop-up.
If you are using a MIDI interface, select
“Generic MTC Reader.”
If using a USD or SSD, set the Port to Any.
352 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Machine Control page of the Peripherals dialog
5 In the MIDI Machine Control section,
enable MMC.
6 Select your external device from the Send
To pop-up. The list of available devices is
determined by the OMS devices configured
in your OMS Studio Setup (Macintosh), or
by your Windows Multimedia setup.
The port on which this information will be
transmitted is set in the “ID” field. MMC
commands contain an ID number to identify which machine should respond to the
MMC command. There are 128 MMC ID
numbers, from 0-127. The default of ID
#127 is a special setting that broadcasts to
all 128 MMC IDs. With this setting, any device on the specified port will respond to
MMC commands.
7 Set a preroll time for your MMC device.
Preroll is needed to provide Pro Tools with
sufficient time to lock to the incoming
time code. This value will vary depending
on the external device. If the preroll time is
insufficient, Pro Tools may not be ready to
lock until after the current time code position has passed.
8 Click OK to close the Peripherals dialog.
Pro Tools will now be able to control the selected device’s transport.
Operating the Pro Tools Transport
with MMC
To control external devices from the
Pro Tools Transport:
■ Select either Pro Tools or MMC from the
Transport pop-up in the Pro Tools Transport window. The selected item will act as
Transport Master.
Choosing a Transport Master
When the Transport Master is set to
Pro Tools, the playback position is governed by the on-screen cursor in Pro Tools.
Machine Transport Settings
When using MMC, you can set the following options for machine transport behavior
in the Operation page of the Preferences dialog.
Machine Chases Memory Location With
this option enabled, navigating to a specific location in a session with a Memory
Location causes a connected transport to
chase to that location.
Machine Follows Edit Insertion/Scrub With
this option enabled, navigating to a specific location in a session by moving the selection point or by scrubbing a track causes
a connected transport to chase to that location.
Remote Track Arming
Digidesign’s MachineControl™ option for
Pro Tools allows you to remotely arm tracks
on supported 9-pin or V-LAN decks. Without MachineControl, Pro Tools does not
support remote track arming of external
devices. MachineControl is a DAE Extension which allows Pro Tools to act as the
master or slave to external Sony 9-pin or VLAN machines, in addition to providing remote track arming from within Pro Tools.
Contact your Digidesign Dealer for information about the MachineControl option.
When the Transport Master is set to MMC,
the playback position is governed by the
external device’s play position
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 353
Setting Minimum Sync Delay
Lock up delay is the amount of time your
system’s devices need to achieve synchronization “lock.” This amount varies for
each device. Pro Tools lock up delay is set
by entering a value for Minimum Sync Delay in the Synchronization window of the
Peripherals dialog. The minimum delay is
15 frames. Find the shortest possible lockup time that your equipment can operates
at consistently, and set this as the Minimum Sync Delay. On some machines, enabling the Use Serial time code setting will
make machines lock up much faster.
Configuring Minimum Sync Delay for External
MMC Devices Locked to House Sync
When controlling a house-synced device
from Pro Tools via MMC, the device will
first lock to the MMC location and then
align the color framing. Within house sync
code are 4 frames for ensuring color frame
lock. If the minimum synchronization set
up time is less than the time required to
achieve both location and color frame lock,
playback will begin before the device has
aligned the color frames. In this scenario,
you should set the Minimum Sync Delay to
be more than the time required for color
frame lock. This is not a problem with the
USD, which will drop out of lock until the
color frame is locked.
354 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Using MMC to Sync an ADAT to
Pro Tools on the Macintosh
The following section presents an example
of how you can use MMC to slave an ADAT
to Pro Tools on a Macintosh using OMS.
Setup Description:
Hardware: Pro Tools system (Macintosh),
Opcode Studio 64X MIDI Interface,
JL Cooper DataMaster, Alesis ADAT.
Software: Pro Tools, OMS
Cable Connections: The Studio 64X’s
Mac/Serial port is connected to one of the
CPU serial ports (Modem or Printer). MIDI
In and MIDI OUT connections are made
between the appropriate ports of the 64X
and the MIDI IN/MIDI OUT ports of the JL
Cooper DataMaster. Sync (9-pin) In/Out
connections are made between the JL Cooper DataMaster and the ADAT.
In OMS Setup:
1 Make sure the OMS IAC Driver is in-
stalled and configured. See “Syncing a Sequencer to Pro Tools on the Macintosh” on
page 349 for more information.
2 Define a new device for the JL Cooper
DataMaster and the ADAT.
3 Configure the JL Cooper device by dou-
ble-clicking its icon in the OMS Studio
Setup window. For the JL Cooper DataMaster, enable Is Controller, then enable
both Sends and Receives MIDI Time Code.
(Be sure to leave Is Multitimbral unchecked.) Select channel 1 as the Receive
Channel.
4 Configure the ADAT OMS device by dou-
14 Click Play or press the Spacebar. The
ble-clicking its icon. Leave Is Controller
and Is Multitimbral unchecked (disabled).
Enable both Sends and Receives MIDI Time
Code and MIDI Machine Control. You do
not need to have any Receive channels enabled.
ADAT will cue to the play point and begin
playing back in sync with Pro Tools. You do
not need to put Pro Tools online to control
the ADAT.
5 Save/Make Current and then close the
new OMS Studio Setup.
15 To control the ADAT from the Pro Tools
Transport, select MMC from the Transport
pop-up (in the Transport window). Pressing
Play, Rewind, FFWD, RTZ or Go To End will
cause the ADAT to respond accordingly.
In Pro Tools
6 Choose Setups > Peripherals and click
External Hardware Configuration
Synchronization.
This example uses the JL Cooper DataMASTER, which must be configured correctly for the above to work. Configure the
ADAT as a slave (not master), enable MTC
as the sync source, and enable MIDI Machine Control. The ADAT must be set to Internal mode. Consult the documentation
that came with these devices for more details. If you are using a Digidesign ADAT
Bridge I/O, refer to the ADAT Bridge I/O
User’s Guide for additional information.
7 Select Generic MTC Reader as the Syn-
chronization device (this represents the
64X), then select the port to which your
MIDI Interface is connected to (in this example, the port choice would appear as
“Studio64X / Printer.”)
8 Open the Machine Control window of
the Peripherals dialog. In the MIDI Machine Control section, enable MMC, then
select JLCooper DataMaster as the Send To
destination.
9 Set the ID to 127 (this is the “broadcast to
all” setting, and the Pro Tools default setting for MMC device ID).
10 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup.
Syncing Pro Tools to an
OMS-Compatible
Sequencer using MMC
11 In the Session Setup Window, set the
frame rate and start frame as appropriate.
(Macintosh Only)
12 Enable the MTC to Port option (click in
You can “lock” a MIDI sequencer to
Pro Tools for synchronized operation,
while using the sequencer as the transport
and location master. In this case, Pro Tools
is still the system clock master, while the
sequencer is the transport/location master.
the box so that it is enabled), then select JLCooper DataMaster in the pop-up next to
MTC to Port. This routes MIDI Time Code
from Pro Tools to the JLCooper. device,
which then sends the data on to the ADAT.
13 Close the Session Setup window.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 355
MMC and OMS Synchronization
When using MIDI Machine Control, you
must have the OMS-compatible sequencer
configured to synchronize to Pro Tools using the OMS IAC Driver (see “Syncing a Sequencer to Pro Tools on the Macintosh” on
page 349). When controlled by a sequencer
via MMC, Pro Tools serves as clock master
for the sequencer.
Pro Tools also serves as a transport and location slave to the sequencer. When starting and stopping playback in the sequencer, the sequencer sends out location
information to Pro Tools via MMC commands. Pro Tools then cues to the location,
begins playback, and sends MIDI Time
Code back to the sequencer. The sequencer
then locks to the MIDI Time Code from
Pro Tools for synchronized playback.
The following instructions describe the
general steps that you should take, using
Opcode’s Vision software as an example
and Pro Tools as transport and cueing
slave. The exact synchronization setup
your sequencer requires will vary depending on the software and your specific OMS
setup.
To slave the Pro Tools transport to an OMScompatible MIDI sequencer using MIDI
Machine Control:
1 Make sure the OMS IAC Driver is in-
stalled in the OMS Folder inside your System Folder. If necessary, run the OMS
Installer and choose Custom Install to install the OMS IAC driver.
2 In Pro Tools, choose Setups > OMS Studio
Setup to launch the OMS Setup application.
In OMS Setup:
3 Choose Setups > Preferences, make sure
the “Use Serial DMA driver when available”
option is deselected, and click OK.
4 Choose Setups > OMS MIDI Setup, make
sure the “Run MIDI in background” option
is selected, and click OK.
5 Choose Setup > MIDI Cards and Inter-
faces, and click Update Setup.
6 Select the port that the MIDI interface is
connected to, then click Search.
7 Confirm that the OMS IAC driver appears
in the OMS Studio Setup window. Save the
setup document and make it your current
setup.
8 In the OMS Studio Setup window, define
two IAC busses by double-clicking the IAC
Driver, then naming the first field “IAC1”
and the second field “MMC.”
In Vision:
9 Choose Setups > Enable Input Devices,
and select the IAC bus (“IAC1”).
10 Choose Options > Sync Options
356 Pro Tools Reference Guide
11 In the Sync Options dialog, set the Re-
20 First, select Generic MTC Reader as the
ceive Sync Mode pop-up to MTC/Machine
Control, set the Receive Sync Device popup to IAC1, and enable Remote Start.
(Leave the Send Sync option set to None.)
Also, configure the frame rate to match
your Pro Tools session. Click OK to close
the Sync Options dialog.
synchronization device, and select Any as
the port.
12 Set the sequence start time (01:00:00:00
for example). The Offset at the top of the
Sequence window should usually match
the Offset in Pro Tools.
13 Select Wait Note in the Transport.
14 Click the Play button. Vision should
now be ready to start synchronized playback.
In Pro Tools:
15 Choose MIDI > Enable Input Devices.
Select the IAC bus transmitting the MMC
messages and click OK.
16 Choose Operations > Active in Back-
ground.
17 Choose Windows > Show Session Setup,
and choose the appropriate frame rate and
SMPTE Start Frame to match the offset
(start time) in Vision.
18 In the Output Time Code section of the
Session Setup Window, enable the MTC to
Port option. In the pop-up menu just below the MTC to Port option, choose IAC1.
You can now close the Session Setup Window, or leave it open (settings are active as
soon as they are enabled in the Session
Setup Window).
21 Next, click to Enable Control of
Pro Tools via MMC, and set the ID to 0.
▲ If MMC is also currently enabled in the
Pro Tools Peripherals > Machine Control dialog, you must assign a unique ID number in
both of the corresponding MMC ID# fields. If
not, an MMC feedback loop will occur. This can
also happen if you use the default “broadcast
to all” ID number of 127 in both places. If you
are only slaving Pro Tools to a sequencer via
MMC, without an external device requiring
MMC from Pro Tools, you should disable MMC
entirely in the Machine Control window.
In Vision:
22 Engage any of the following Transport
functions in Vision: Play, Stop, Fast Forward, Rewind, Record, or Locate (Cue). Vision will send MIDI Machine Control
commands to Pro Tools via the IAC bus,
and Pro Tools will follow.
When starting and stopping playback in
the sequencer, Vision will send out location information to Pro Tools via MIDI Machine Control commands. Pro Tools will
then cue to the location, begin playback,
and in turn send MIDI Time Code back to
Vision. Vision will then lock to the MIDI
Time Code from Pro Tools for synchronized playback.
19 Next, choose Setups > Peripherals, and
open the Synchronization page of the Peripherals dialog.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 357
MIDI Beat Clock
Some MIDI devices such as drum machines, hardware sequencers, and arpeggiators can only sync to MIDI Beat Clock. To
sync these devices to Pro Tools, you can
transmit MIDI Beat Clock to them.
To transmit MIDI Beat Clock:
1 Choose MIDI > MIDI Beat Clock.
2 In the MIDI Beat Clock dialog, select the
Enable MIDI Beat Clock option.
Spotting Regions to SMPTE
Frame Locations
▲ Spotting to SMPTE time code is available on
TDM systems only.
Spotting is the process of assigning music
and sound cues to specific SMPTE frame locations in a film or video. This function
can be used to spot:
Entire regions, selected with the Grabber.
Multiple regions can also be selected, and
Pro Tools will reference the first region in
your selection.
◆
◆ A specific location within a region, by
clicking with the Selector at that location,
and choosing Edit > Identify Sync Point.
Spot Mode
Beat Clock dialog
3 Select the devices you want to receive
MIDI Beat Clock. If your MIDI interface
does not support transmitting MIDI Beat
Clock to separate ports, only the interface
appears as a destination.
4 Click OK.
358 Pro Tools Reference Guide
In Spot mode, a region in a track can be
quickly spotted by simply clicking it with
the Grabber.
You can also drag a region from the Regions List into a track while in Spot mode.
The Spot Dialog
The Spot Regions Dialog appears when you
drag a region to a track or click a region
with the Grabber in Spot Mode. The numeric fields function as both data displays
and editing controls for the currently selected regions.
the SMPTE hours:minutes:seconds:frames
box, which appears as the far right time
field when enabled. Use a period to separate subframe values from whole frames.
✽ Subframe measurements are not available
in the Current Time Code field.
Spot dialog
Information in these fields is displayed in
SMPTE Time Code, Minutes:Seconds,
Feet.Frames, Samples, or Bars & Beats, depending on which Time Scale format is selected.
A highlighted numeric field indicates the
current active field for numeric entry editing. Entering a value in a field allows you to
move a selected parameter to the time location that you enter. The Start, Sync Point
and End fields are accessible when the
Grabber is active. Only the Start or End (depending on where you click the mouse)
and Duration fields are active when the
Trimmer is active (see “Using the Trimmer
in Spot Mode” on page 360).
✽ To increase or decrease SMPTE values in
the Spot dialog by a specific number of
frames, press “+” or “–” on your numeric keypad, enter a number, and press the Enter key.
Subframes
A subframe is 1/100th of a frame. The Use
Subframes option enables you to use these
smaller units for greater accuracy. This
command adds an additional time field in
Additional time field appears with “Use Subframes”
enabled
Capturing Time Code
Pro Tools also allows you to easily “capture” frame locations on the fly in this dialog by pressing the “=” key, or by clicking
the Current Time code button while valid
time code is being received by Pro Tools.
With VITC, you can accurately capture a
paused or “crawling” VTR’s SMPTE location.
When SMPTE Time Code is selected for the
Time Scale, pressing “=” captures the incoming time code. When Bars & Beat is selected for the Time Scale, pressing the “=”
key will capture to the nearest measure.
Although the Capture Time Code button
works with free-running Linear Time Code
(LTC) or VITC, frame numbers of a paused
frame can only be captured with VITC.
The USD is the only current Digidesign
hardware that can read VITC. Also, you can
use the optional MachineControl software
to read the current time code address over
9-pin or V-LAN.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 359
To spot a region to a specific SMPTE frame:
1 Choose Display > Show Edit Window.
2 Choose Display > Time Code.
3 Click the Spot button at the top left of
the Edit window to put Pro Tools into Spot
mode.
Spot Mode button
Auto-Spotting Regions
The Pro Tools Auto-Spot Regions option
simplifies the task of spotting regions even
further. If you are using VITC with this option enabled, or MachineControl software,
you can pause your video at an appropriate
SMPTE frame location, click on a region
with the Grabber, and the region will be automatically spotted to the current time
code location.
4 Identify the SMPTE frame location where
you wish to trigger playback of your region
by pausing your video deck on that frame.
To Auto-Spot a region:
5 With the Grabber, click a region in a
2 If you are using VITC, identify the SMPTE
track (or drag a region from the Region’s
List into a track). The Spot dialog appears.
6 Enter the desired SMPTE frame location.
frame location where you wish to trigger
playback of your region by pausing your
video deck on that frame.
7 If you are using VITC, you can press the
3 Click the desired region with the Grab-
“=” key on your numeric keypad, or click
Current Time Code to enter a paused VTR’s
current SMPTE location.
ber. The region will be automatically spotted to the current time code location (or
machine location).
8 If you are using LTC, when SMPTE Time
Code is selected for the Time Scale, press
the “=” key on the numeric keypad to capture the incoming time code. When Bars &
Beats is selected for the Time Scale, press
the “=” key to capture to the nearest measure.
9 If you recorded the region while online,
you can use the Original Time Stamp button to recall and enter the SMPTE frame location at which the region was originally
recorded. You can also access a user-defined
Time Stamp in the same fashion. See “Time
Stamping” on page 133 for more information.
10 Click OK to close this dialog. The region
spotted to the chosen SMPTE frame location. When the session is online, this frame
number will trigger playback of the region.
360 Pro Tools Reference Guide
1 Choose Operations > Auto-Spot Regions.
✽ Clicking a region with the Trimmer will allow
you to trim the region to the current time code
location.
✽ Auto-spotted regions are spotted by their
start times, unless you have identified a Sync
Point (see “Identifying a Sync Point” on
page 362). If the region contains a Sync Point,
the region is spotted to it.
Using the Trimmer in Spot Mode
You can use the Spot dialog to trim your regions, including start/end/duration times
and referencing incoming time code addresses. If you click a region with the Trimmer in Spot mode, the Spot dialog will appear, allowing you to enter a value in the
Start or End and Duration fields to specify
exactly where you wish to trim the region’s
beginning or end. Use this to edit the
length of a region to correspond to a particular visual “hit point.”
Trimming a region which contains a Sync
Point (see “Identifying a Sync Point” on
page 362) will not affect the SMPTE location of the Sync Point, unless the region is
trimmed past the Sync Point.
Time Stamping
Pro Tools time stamps every region recorded online with the original SMPTE
time at which audio was recorded. You can
recall this original SMPTE time for a region
by clicking the Original Time Stamp button
in the Spot dialog.
values in SMPTE dialogs. Use a period to
separate subframe values from whole
frames.
Show Original Time Code in
Regions
This command displays the original “time
stamped” SMPTE times in all regions currently placed in tracks. This SMPTE frame
number represents the time at which the
region was originally recorded online with
Pro Tools, and does not necessarily reflect
the region’s current SMPTE location in a
track.
To display the original time stamps in regions:
1 Choose Display > Display Time in Re-
gions > Original Time Stamp.
2 To hide Original Time Stamps, choose
Display > Display Time in Regions > None.
Time Stamp Selected
Original Time Stamp button in the Spot dialog
You can also spot a region to a separate
user-defined SMPTE time stamp, defined
using the Time Stamp Selected command.
Once the region is time stamped using this
command, you can click the User Time
Stamp button to re-spot a region to its userdefined SMPTE location.
The Use Subframes option in the Spot dialog enables you to work with subframe accuracy by adding an additional time field
in the SMPTE hours:minutes:seconds:frames box. This additional time field
appears as the far right time field when enabled, and allows you to enter subframe
If you wish to create a separate user-defined
SMPTE time stamp, you can use the Time
Stamp Selected command in the Regions
List pop-up menu. This command allows
you to select a region (or regions) and redefine its SMPTE time stamp. The original
time stamp and the user-defined time
stamp are then stored with your session.
When audio is first recorded, the user-defined time stamp will match the original
time stamp, but you can change the userdefined time stamp at any time using the
Time Stamp Selected command. This feature is particularly useful in post-production situations where the SMPTE time code
on video “work prints” often changes from
one edit revision to another.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 361
To time stamp a region (or regions) with a
new SMPTE frame number:
To display the user time stamps in regions:
1 Choose Display > Display Time in Re-
1 In a track, select the region that you wish
gions > User Time Stamp.
to time stamp.
2 To hide User Time Stamps, choose Dis-
2 From the Regions List pop-up menu,
play > Display Time in Regions > None.
choose the Time Stamp Selected command.
Using a Region with its Time Stamp in
Another Session
Time Stamp Selected command
3 Enter a new SMPTE time. You can do this
in three ways: enter the numbers manually
(with the help of the arrow keys); click the
Current Time Code button (or press the =
key), if you wish to capture the incoming
time code address; or click the Current Selection button if you wish to enter the start
time of the current on-screen selection.
Pro Tools saves time stamp information for
each region as part of a session—not as part
of the audio file itself. If you wish to use a
time-stamped audio file in another session,
keeping its time stamps intact, do the following:
1 Open the session that contains the origi-
nal time-stamped region.
2 Select the desired region in the Audio Re-
gions List.
3 Choose Export Selected from the Regions
List pop-up menu. The region can now be
used in other sessions with its original time
stamp references intact.
4 Click OK to close this dialog.
This command can be used in “batch
mode” to set new time stamps for several
regions at a time. To do this, simply select
several regions and choose the Time Stamp
Selected command. One after another, a dialog will open for each region, allowing
you to quickly enter new values.
Once entered, the user time stamps can be
displayed in all regions currently placed in
tracks.
362 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Identifying a Sync Point
The Pro Tools Identify Sync Point command allows you to identify a specific
point within a region for audio spotting
purposes.
Imagine the following sound effects spotting scenario: You have a single sound effect that consists of a creaky door slamming shut, followed by a few seconds of
ambient reverberation. The slam portion of
the effect—which you must precisely
match to picture—occurs neither at the
very beginning of the audio file nor at the
very end. It is somewhere in the middle,
making it tough to spot.
In this scenario, use the Identify Sync Point
command to create a point in the region
and sync that point to a SMPTE frame.
When you choose this command, the current SMPTE time is automatically entered
as the SMPTE location for the Sync Point.
To create a sync point in a region:
1 Click with the Selector at the point in the
region that you wish to synchronize to a
SMPTE frame location.
Tips for Locating and Spotting to Sync
Points
■ To place a region’s start point at the current edit cursor location, Control-drag
(Macintosh) or Start-drag (Windows) the
region from the Region List.
■ To place a region’s Sync point at the current edit cursor location, Option+Controldrag (Macintosh) or Alt+Start-drag a region
from the Region List .
■ To move to the next region boundary or
sync point, press Tab.
Removing a Sync Point
2 Choose Edit > Identify Sync Point. A
marker appears in the audio region indicating the location of this Sync Point.
To remove a Sync point from a region:
1 Select the entire region with the Grabber.
2 Choose Edit > Remove Sync Point.
Troubleshooting Sync
Identifying a Sync Point in a region
Getting SMPTE synchronization to work
properly can seem like a formidable task at
times. The following suggestions may help
you troubleshoot and solve common problems.
Changing a Sync Point
To change the location of a Sync point in a
region:
Click with the Selector in the region and
choose Edit > Identify Sync Point. The new
location will then be identified as the Sync
Point.
■
Use the Current TC field in the Session
Setup Window as a Reference
The Current TC field in the Session Setup
Window indicates whether or not
Pro Tools is receiving time code. If this field
appears to be inactive when inputting time
code into your time code reading device,
check your hardware device settings, the
device’s connection to your computer, and
your OMS Setup (Macintosh) or Multimedia Setup (Windows).
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 363
Stripe SMPTE Before You Record
All tapes in your setup (both audio and
video) must be striped with SMPTE Time
Code before any audio is recorded onto
them or to Pro Tools. If tapes aren’t striped,
your system may seem to work, but synchronization will never properly occur. The
machines and Pro Tools will drift farther
and farther apart the longer they run.
The same problem occurs when audio is recorded into Pro Tools without a resolved
SMPTE source (if it was recorded before the
current session, for example.) The audio
cannot be accurately synchronized with an
analog tape recorder or video tape deck,
since the Pro Tools audio was not recorded
referenced to the SMPTE Time Code from
the analog tape deck or video tape deck.
Resolve All Components of Your
System
When striping time code, make sure that
the time code generator and the video
record deck are resolved to the same crystal
reference. For example, when striping
29.97 Drop Frame time code onto a VTR,
both the SMPTE generator and the VTR
should be resolved to the same “black
burst” or house sync generator. During
playback, the master deck should be resolved to “black burst” or house sync.
This convention provides compatibility for
your tape between the record and playback
passes, and when it’s played back in other
facilities on different equipment. This also
means that when playing back a tape
striped with time code, the playback deck
should be resolved to the same sync rate as
the record deck was resolved to at the time
364 Pro Tools Reference Guide
of the striping. When you stripe an audio
transport with time code, it should be
“free-running” and unresolved, but should
be resolved with a house sync-referenced
synchronizer during playback.
Know the True Frame Rate on Your
Work Tape
If you get your video tapes from a production company instead of recording them
yourself, be absolutely sure that they indicate the SMPTE frame rate used on the tape
correctly.
The Digidesign SSD and USD (and some
third-party products) can be used to determine frame rate. See “Determining SMPTE
Frame Rate” on page 343.
29.97 FPS Non-Drop Rate Can Pose
Problems
29.97 FPS Non-Drop is a slightly slower
version of 30 FPS Non-Drop time code.
When used with color video, each video
frame now matches up with each SMPTE
frame without having to use a drop-frame
coding. This makes any frame number
mathematics much simpler, since no frame
numbers are dropped.
Unfortunately, some hardware and software devices do not recognize 29.97 NonDrop as a separate frame rate. For example,
any standard SMPTE-to MTC-converter
does not explicitly recognize it. The user
must tell the convertor to expect 30 FPS
Non-Drop instead. In fact, many devices
that read SMPTE work acceptably by reading 29.97 Non-Drop if they are set to expect 30 FPS Non-Drop.
Any SMPTE reader that uses the time code
numbers to make real-time calculations (as
Pro Tools does when it tries to trigger and
sync to SMPTE) also needs to know that the
frame format is 29.97 and not 30 FPS. Since
Pro Tools allows this choice of frame rate
this does not really pose a problem. The
problem exists because many users cannot
readily distinguish 29.97 from 30 FPS.
More importantly, some production companies will distribute video work prints
striped with 29.97 FPS but mark them as
“30 FPS NTSC,” by which they actually
mean 29.97 FPS Non-Drop. By the time
you get the tape, you may have no idea
what’s actually on it. Feeding 29.97 NonDrop to Pro Tools when it’s set for 30 FPS
Non-Drop will result in timing errors of
about 1.8 frames per minute, causing audio
playback to trigger out of sync.
On a Macintosh, Disable AppleTalk,
Network Connections, Screen Savers,
and Power Saving Features
These types of software can cause the Macintosh to ignore MIDI data (such as MIDI
Time Code) coming into its serial ports.
Make sure AppleTalk is inactive in the
Chooser, disconnect AppleTalk cables, and
remove any INIT-based network software
from your System Folder.
On a Windows Computer, Disable
Screen Savers and Power
Management Features
These types of software can cause your
computer to ignore MIDI data (such as
MIDI Time Code).
Be Careful When Changing Frame
Rates
If you change time code rates in the middle
of a session, many SMPTE-to-MIDI Time
Code converters need to be turned off and
turned on again to be able to recognize the
new frame rate.
Use a Consistent Clock Source
A sound file should be played back using
the same peripheral and sample rate it was
recorded with, if at all possible. This assures
the closest match between record and playback sample rates. For example, if an audio
file was recorded at 44.1 kHz with the
Pro Tools Audio Interface then the Sample
Rate should be set to 44.1 kHz during playback with the Audio Interface as well.
Chapter 24: Time Code Synchronization 365
366 Pro Tools Reference Guide
chapter 25
Working with QuickTime Movies
You can use Pro Tools to import QuickTime™ movies and audio, perform audio
post-production tasks, and export the finished product as a new QuickTime movie.
fast, random-access visual reference for
“sweetening” the movie by adding sound
effects, music, Foley, dialog, or other audio.
▲ QuickTime™ movie features in Pro Tools are
supported on Macintosh systems only.
Movie Track displayed as picons
About QuickTime
QuickTime is digital video technology designed to produce compact video files for
multimedia use.
Movie Window
Using QuickTime Movies in
Pro Tools
Pro Tools allows you to import QuickTime™ movies into your Pro Tools sessions.
Once imported into Pro Tools, a QuickTime movie is displayed in its own Movie
track in the Edit window, and in a floating
Movie window. This floating window can
be viewed on a second monitor with appropriate video hardware. With a QuickTIme
movie in the session, Pro Tools serves as a
Pro Tools provides precise, frame-accurate
audio and video synchronization. This
means you can use your Pro Tools system
as an off-line audio editing system, leaving
the video editing suite free for video editing.
With Pro Tools, you can:
◆ import a QuickTime movie into a session.
◆ import audio from a QuickTime movie
(or audio from a CD or a CD-ROM).
Chapter 25: Working with QuickTime Movies 367
◆ synchronize audio events to a QuickTime movie, using the Pro Tools editing
features to spot and nudge regions to video
frames.
◆ scrub audio elements in tandem with a
QuickTime movie.
◆ use the Pro Tools Bounce to Movie command to compile a new “flattened” QuickTime movie file that can be read by any
QuickTime-compatible application.
Because Pro Tools has no video editing capabilities of its own, if you wish to edit or
in any other way modify a movie, return to
your video capture/assembly environment
(for example, Adobe Premiere) for editing,
then import the edited movie into
Pro Tools.
✽ You can capture (but not edit) Avid-compati-
ble video in Pro Tools with AVoption .
Video Capture/Playback Cards
For professional applications where fullscreen, 25/30 frames-per-second playback
is critical, we recommend that you invest
in a Digidesign-approved third-party video
capture and playback card. For the most
up-to-date information about such products, contact your Digidesign dealer or visit
Digidesign’s website.
If You Are New to Audio Post
Production
If you are new to digital video, time code,
or audio-for-post production, the following
suggestions will help you manage your session’s audio/video requirements. Not all of
these may apply to every project.
368 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Plan ahead Think through your entire
project before you start capturing your
video. For best results when working with
SMPTE time code, make sure that time
code is burned into a window in the movie.
Try to anticipate compatibility and configuration issues that may arise.
Conform Your Movie Be sure to conform
your captured QuickTime movie to the desired frame rate. Consult your video capture software’s documentation for information on how to ensure frame-accurate
captures. We recommend that you do this
to all video captures to ensure accurate
playback in Pro Tools.
Destined for video or film? What is the ultimate destination of your work? Is it for TV,
film, audio CD or CD-ROM? This will determine such things as the best sample rate
to use, the correct frame rate, pull-down or
pull-up rates, and so on. Double-check the
time code frame rate. You must make absolutely sure that you know the correct frame
rate of the video source.
Storage Make sure you have enough disk
space on your drive, and optimize your
hard drive(s) regularly.
Video compatibility If you are not digitizing
the video material yourself (if the material
is already on hard disk) check into the type
of video capture/playback system that was
used and make sure you can accommodate
that format’s compression method. Check
whether or not time code is “burned into”
or superimposed over a small area of the
video.
QuickTime Requirements
Pro Tools supports playback of QuickTime
videos without additional hardware. However, performance will vary in terms of
maximum movie size, frame-rate, and
smoothness of playback. Capture of 30/25
FPS (frames per second), 60/50 fields-persecond video requires a Digidesign-approved video capture card, and associated
software and hardware.
About Frame Length and QuickTime
Movies
Not all video capture software can guarantee consistent frame lengths. Consult your
video capture software documentation for
information on ensuring frame-accurate
captures, and on conforming your video to
proper frame boundaries.
To take advantage of Pro Tools QuickTime
movie playback capabilities you will need
the following:
◆ The most recent version of Apple’s
QuickTime System Extension (included
with Pro Tools). To install QuickTime, run
the Custom Install option in the Pro Tools
installer.
◆ Apple’s QuickTime PowerPlug system extension, if you are using a Power Macintosh.
◆ QuickTime movie playback and editing
software (such as Adobe Premiere, AVID
VideoShop, Macromedia Director, or Apple
MoviePlayer) to edit and compile QuickTime movies.
◆ QuickTime movie capture hardware and
software to digitize your own movies from
a videotape or video camera source.
◆ An Apple CD-ROM drive running at 2x
speed or faster to take advantage of commercially-available QuickTime movies and
sound clips.
Movie Playback Quality
Options
Pro Tools supports three options for movie
playback performance: Normal Priority
Playback, Medium Priority Playback, and
Highest Priority Playback. In most cases,
you should leave the priority choice set to
Normal Priority Playback. If you are running QuickTime Movies natively, that is,
without a capture card, you may need to
use one of the other playback priority options. If this does note apply to you, leave
movie playback priority set to Normal Priority Playback. This is the default setting.
Hard Drive Tips for Best Performance
For best movie playback performance,
make sure that the hard drive you are using
for video capture and playback is not on
the same SCSI bus as your audio files, if
possible. This allows the least amount of
interference between drives when
Pro Tools requests audio and video data.
With most capture cards, and moderate
data capture rates (800 kilobytes per second
or less), this should provide good performance.
Optionally, you may also need:
Chapter 25: Working with QuickTime Movies 369
Blue & White G3 Macintosh computers
have an internal IDE system drive. Audio
and video should be stored on SCSI drives,
connected to the computer with a Digidesign-approved SCSI interface card.
Some recent Macintosh computers have
two SCSI busses, an internal SCSI bus, and a
separate external SCSI bus. The internal bus
is often a SCSI Fast-compatible bus which
can yield better disk performance. The external bus is a narrow SCSI bus, which is
slower. For best performance use an internal drive which connects to the internal
fast SCSI bus.
For G3 Macintosh models that have only a
single, narrow SCSI bus, you should use a
SCSI accelerator for the audio drive, and
use the narrow bus for QuickTime video.
To import a QuickTime movie into Pro Tools:
1 Launch Pro Tools and create a new ses-
sion, or open an existing one.
2 Check the time code parameters of the
session to make sure they match those of
the movie you wish to import, and save the
session.
3 Choose Movie > Import Movie.
4 Locate the desired movie. When you se-
lect a movie in the Import Movie dialog,
you can view a preview frame by enabling
the Show Preview check box. The preview
corresponds to the first frame of the movie.
If you have not yet created a preview, you
can do so by selecting the desired movie
and clicking Update in this dialog.
Contact your Digidesign dealer or visit the
Digidesign website for compatibility information.
Import Movie dialog
Importing a QuickTime
Movie
Before you import a movie, you should digitize your video material and know the correct frame rate and sample rate when applicable.
5 Select the desired movie and click Open.
Pro Tools imports the movie and displays it
in its own Movie track in the Edit window
as well as in a floating Movie window. The
first frame of the movie is automatically
synchronized to the start time of your session.
▲ If a video card with video compression was
used to create the QuickTime movie, Pro Tools
cannot play the movie without the compression hardware. Make sure the video card is installed and configured correctly before starting
your session.
370 Pro Tools Reference Guide
The movie track “VideoSpot” appears above the
“Rhythm Guitar” track
About the Movie Track
Scrubbing the Movie Track
Once a movie is imported into Pro Tools it
appears in the Edit Window in its own
Movie Track. This picon (picture-icon)
track displays a “thumbnail” overview of
the frames of the movie it represents. The
Movie track will show greater or lesser detail depending on your current zoom level
in the Edit window — the closer in you
zoom, the greater the number of individual
frames that are displayed in the Movie
track; the farther out you zoom, the fewer
the number of individual frames that are
visible. The Movie track appears only in the
Edit window.
You can use the Audio Scrubber tool to
scrub the Movie track with full frame accuracy. If you scrub directly on the Movie
track, only the movie will scrub (no audio
will play). If you scrub on an audio track,
audio and the movie will scrub simultaneously.
The Movie track behaves much as a
Pro Tools audio or MIDI track in that you
can move the Movie region with the Grabber or other editing tools. This allows you
to offset the movie to any start point. However, you cannot edit the Movie track by
trimming it or capturing regions from
within it.
and drag the Scrubber.
Only one QuickTime movie can be associated with a session at a time. If you wish to
import a different movie into a session, repeat the previous steps. The new movie will
replace the original in the session.
Scrubbing a movie
To scrub the movie track:
1 Select the Audio Scrubber.
2 Click the movie track at the desired point
3 To scrub with finer precision, hold down
the Command key while scrubbing.
About the Movie Window
The Movie window displays the movie
playback or the current frame if playback is
paused or stopped. You can drag the Movie
window anywhere on your computer
screen.
A Movie Track takes its name from its associated Movie file and cannot be independently renamed.
Movie window
To display the Movie window:
Choose Movie > Show Movie Window. If a
movie has already been imported, the
Movie window will appear.
Chapter 25: Working with QuickTime Movies 371
Using a 14-inch monitor for playback
If you capture 320 x 240 (NTSC) movies
and have a second monitor with 640 x 480
resolution (a standard 14-inch monitor),
clicking on the Movie window will route
movie playback to that monitor. The
Movie will “bounce” over to the second
monitor, and will be pixel-doubled so that
it takes up the whole screen.
Tips for Optimizing Movie Playback
Since Pro Tools uses Apple’s QuickTime
technology to play movies, the quality of
the playback is dependent on the speed of
your Macintosh CPU and hard drive, the
size (in pixels) of the movie, and the quality of the video hardware used to capture
and playback the digitized video. While
QuickTime doesn’t produce broadcastquality playback, it is frame accurate when
spotting to picture.
On PCI-based computers, Pro Tools continuously re-syncs the movie. The movie resolves to the audio sample clock. This allows the movie to smoothly track the audio
even when your system is varispeeded.
For more consistently smooth movie playback, here are some suggestions:
Use a Digidesign-approved video capture/playback card for 25/30 frames-persecond full-screen movie playback.
◆
◆ Display the movie on a separate monitor
driven by a video capture/playback card.
◆ If you don’t have a video capture/playback card, set the movie playback priority
to Medium Priority Playback or High Priority Playback using one of these commands
372 Pro Tools Reference Guide
in Movie menu. This gives priority to
movie playback, rather than other screen
graphics tasks such as moving faders.
◆
Use the fastest CPU possible.
◆ Capture and play QuickTime video from
a separate hard drive other than your
Pro Tools audio drive(s).
◆ Remove unneeded System software Extensions and Control Panel items.
◆ Disable AppleTalk and other background
tasks on the CPU, such as File Sharing,
screen savers, Calculate Folder Size and any
fax or electronic mail software.
◆ Disable Moving Faders During Playback
in the Automation Preferences.
◆ Set No Auto Scrolling in Operations >
Scroll Options.
◆ Reduce the size of the Edit window to the
smallest possible size.
◆
Close unnecessary windows.
◆ Reduce the overall length of the SCSI
chain of your computer system for improved throughput.
◆ Reduce the pixel size of the movie (e.g.
reduce it from 640 x 480 pixels to
320 x 240 pixels).
Setting the Movie Start
Time: Movie Offset
When you import a movie into your session, the first frame of the movie defaults
to the start time of your session. In some
cases, however, you may need to offset the
movie by some amount forwards or backwards so that you can accurately spot audio
to the movie.
Since a movie can be moved inside the
Movie track, it is fairly easy to match these
two times. In fact, you may not have to
move the Movie track at all.
For finer adjustment of a movie’s start
time, you can use the Set Movie Sync Offset
command to offset your movie in 1/4frame increments. This is more accurate
than dragging the movie track, and is especially useful in cases where your movie
track happens to begin with a partial frame.
To set the movie start time:
9 Enter the time code number displayed in
the window-burn of the frame you are
spotting to (if your movie has a SMPTE
time code window burned into it) and click
OK to close the Move Region To dialog.
10 The movie’s sync point moves to the
SMPTE location you entered.
11 To fine-tune the movie start time,
choose Movie > Set Movie Sync Offset, enter the desired offset value, and click OK.
12 Lock the movie in place by choosing
Edit > Lock/Unlock Region.
1 Double-check that your session’s SMPTE
frame rate matches that of your movie.
2 If you haven’t already done so, set the
Pro Tools Time Scale to SMPTE time code
by choosing Display > Time Code.
3 In the Edit Window, enable Grid mode.
4 Set the Grid resolution to frames by se-
lecting frames from the Nudge/Grid popup.
5 With the Selector, click in the Movie
Track to place the cursor where you wish to
create a Sync Point. Often, the best spot
will be the “2 beep” two seconds before the
first action frame (the start of the video).
You can use the plus and minus keys on
your computer keyboard to nudge the cursor and the Movie one frame at a time.
6 Choose Edit > Identify Sync Point to
place a Sync Point at the current cursor location.
7 Put Pro Tools into Spot mode by clicking
the Spot button in the Edit window.
8 Click on the Movie track with the Grab-
ber. The Move Region To dialog appears.
Spotting Audio to a
QuickTime Movie
For accurate spotting, Grid Mode provides
you with an effective tool for quick and accurate selection of waveforms, and alignment of regions in tracks. When Grid Mode
is enabled, the Selector will snap to the currently selected grid mode value, and regions selected with the Grabber and
dragged onto a track will also line up with
the selected value.
Conforming Your Movie
Before you spot audio to a movie, you
should conform the movie file so each
frame starts and ends at valid frame boundaries.
For example, Adobe Premiere contains a
Conform Movie tool for destructively editing the lengths of each frame to the grid of
the current frame rate. You should conform the movie to a frame rate that
Pro Tools can work with (30 FPS or
29.97 FPS).
Chapter 25: Working with QuickTime Movies 373
Consult your video capture software documentation for more information.
More Tips for Spotting Audio
◆ Specify your Movie size up front. For purposes of spotting audio, 320 x 240 is usually adequate. If you are displaying the
movie on a 2nd monitor with 640 x 480
resolution, with pixel doubling, it will fill
the screen.
◆ Try to work with a window burn in your
Movie, since it will help you spot material.
You can produce your own window burns
for your capture using Digidesign's Universal Slave Driver.
◆ Use a continuous scrolling option.
Pro Tools includes two scrolling options
that are particularly useful in post-production: Continuous Scroll During Playback,
and Continuous Scroll with Playhead. Enable either of these scrolling options by selecting them from the Operations > Scroll
Options submenu. For more information,
see Chapter 14: Playing/Selecting Track Material.
Using Grid Mode to Spot and
Nudge Regions with Frame
Accuracy
Grid Mode allows you to constrain the
movement of regions so that they snap to
SMPTE-based measurements (minutes, seconds, frames, or subframes).
374 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To spot audio to a movie:
1 Make sure no regions are selected on
screen, and click the Grid button at the upper left corner of the Edit window. This ensures that your audio will be always be
aligned to a frame boundary.
2 Set your Grid to Time Code using the
pop-up menu.
3 Choose a desirable Grid unit setting.
Note that you can set your Grid units independently of your Main Time display.
4 Using the Selector, place the insertion
cursor at the desired location in the movie.
If you wish, use the Nudge Units pop-up to
set the nudge units to frames. You can then
use the plus and minus keys on your computer keyboard to nudge the insertion
point frame by frame.
5 Hold down the Control key and drag the
desired region from the Regions List to the
appropriate track. Pro Tools will automatically spot the region to the same time location as the cursor.
▲ To spot your elements directly to locations
in the movie, use the technique described
above. In this scenario, Auto Spot mode is not
recommended, since it uses incoming MTC for
location information.
Importing QuickTime Audio
Pro Tools allows you to import audio directly from a QuickTime movie. You can
import audio from a movie currently
loaded into a session, or from a different
movie. The procedure is the same for both.
Sample Rate Conversion
Quality
Importing Audio from a
QuickTime Movie
If you import QuickTime audio that was
not originally recorded at your session’s
current sample rate, the sample rate is converted to match the audio to your session.
Pro Tools allows you to choose the quality
of the sample rate conversion via the Conversion Quality parameter in the Editing
Preferences. The higher the quality of sample rate conversion that you choose, the
longer it takes to perform the sample rate
conversion.
This procedure allows you to use the Import Audio From Current Movie and Import Audio From Other Movie commands
to import audio tracks either from a QuickTime movie currently imported into your
session or from other QuickTime movies
on your hard disk. You can also use the Import Audio From Other Movie command to
import audio files of a different bit resolution or sample rate into your session.
The five conversion settings range from
“Low” to “Tweak-head.” The Low setting
provides results that are considerably better
than the Macintosh’s built-in sample rate
conversion. For most applications, the Better setting will yield excellent results.
Because the Best and Tweak-head settings
take significantly longer than the others,
we recommend that you use these only in
cases where the highest fidelity is absolutely essential and you have a considerable amount of time. The Tweak-head setting in particular can take several hours to
perform sample rate conversion on moderate-length files.
To import audio tracks from a QuickTime
movie:
1 If you wish to import audio from a
QuickTime movie that is already in your
session, choose Movie > Import Audio
From Current Movie.
– or –
2 If you wish to import audio from a
QuickTime movie that is not imported into
your session, choose Movie > Import Audio
From Other Movie. Select the QuickTime
movie from which you wish to import
audio. The Track Import dialog appears,
listing information about the audio tracks.
To set the sample rate conversion quality:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click Ed-
iting.
2 Click the Conversion Quality pop-up
menu and choose the desired setting.
Track Import Window showing audio tracks in a
QuickTime movie
Chapter 25: Working with QuickTime Movies 375
3 Select the desired audio tracks by clicking
them. To select multiple tracks contiguously in this dialog, Shift-click them. To select discontiguous tracks, Command-click
them.
4 Click OK. The audio is converted to your
session’s sample rate setting and bit resolution, and a new region appears in the Audio Regions List for each imported file (2
regions appear for each imported stereo
file). The regions are listed in the Audio Regions List with the region name, the number of the originating track, and the
number of the region from the track.
5 Drag the imported regions from the Au-
dio Regions List into the desired track(s).
2 Make sure that all of the tracks you wish
to include in the bounce are audible (not
muted).
3 Assign the output of each of the tracks
you wish to include in your bounce to the
same output pair.
4 If you wish to bounce the entire session,
press the Return to Zero button on the
Transport to go to the beginning of the session. The new movie file will include all the
video and audio material in the session,
even if the duration of the video material is
longer than the audio or vice versa. If you
only wish to bounce a portion of a session,
open the Edit window and select the section that you wish to include in the
bounce.
5 Choose Movie > Bounce to Movie.
Bouncing to a new Movie
When you have finished your final mix
and synchronized your audio events to the
movie, you can use the Pro Tools Bounce to
Movie command to compile a new QuickTime movie with your bounced audio embedded in the QuickTime movie file as the
soundtrack. As a QuickTime file, the new
movie is supported by all software applications that support QuickTime video.
6 Select the file format for your movie
audio. Choose Mono to combine the left
and right channel output of your session
into a mono movie soundtrack. Choose
Stereo to retain the stereo mix of your session for the movie audio.
To create a new QuickTime movie with
bounced audio embedded as the soundtrack:
1 Adjust track output levels and finalize
your mix. Any Inserts and/or effects settings that are active on your tracks will be
permanently written to the bounced
track(s). If you don’t wish to apply a PlugIn Insert to the bounce, click the Bypass
button in the Inserts/Sends Editor window.
376 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Bounce Tracks dialog
7 Select the resolution for your movie
audio. Red Book audio CDs are always 16bit, while many multimedia presentations
and CD-ROMs use 8-bit resolution. You
cannot create a QuickTime movie with 24bit audio; audio from 24-bit sessions is converted to 16-bit or 8-bit audio, depending
on what you choose.
✽ Pro Tools sample rate and bit resolution
conversions use large amounts of processing
power. Save time by selecting a lower sample
rate conversion quality in the Editing Preferences.
8 If you intend to convert your session to
8-bit resolution for use in multimedia, use
the Squeezer option (click the Convert after Bounce option, then the Settings button to access this feature) to improve the
fidelity of the converted 8-bit audio. This
option uses a proprietary DSP algorithm
that preprocesses the audio using compression, limiting and gating before converting
to 8-bit resolution. We recommend this option for optimal results.
9 Select the Sample Rate for your movie
audio (click the Convert after Bounce option, then the Settings button to access this
parameter). The default audio sample rate
is 44100 (44.1kHz) which is the standard
sample rate for audio CDs. Multimedia presentations and CD-ROMs may use a sample
rate of 11025 (11.025kHz) or 22050
(22.050kHz).
10 Click Bounce, name the new movie,
and choose where to save it.
11 The audio tracks are converted to the selected sample rate and bit resolution, and a
new flattened movie is created incorporating the audio. You can open and play the
flattened movie in any software application that supports QuickTime.
Chapter 25: Working with QuickTime Movies 377
378 Pro Tools Reference Guide
appendix a
DSP-Induced Delays in Mixing
In all digital systems, signal processing incurs signal delays of varying amounts.
These delays can vary from as short as several microseconds to as long as several milliseconds, depending on the type of processing being performed.
Use of Inserts & Sends
Delay Factors
Use of Hardware Inserts
In Pro Tools, delay is incurred when you
perform the following processes:
When an Audio Interface peripheral is used
on an Insert, there are two sources of delay:
the samples incurred in using an Insert,
and a delay introduced by going through
the D/A and A/D converter pair (for analog
devices) or digital I/O connection (for digital devices) on the Audio Interface.
Bouncing Tracks
Bus-based bounces When you bus a track
to another track and record the result, the
following delays are incurred:
Bus-based bounce delays for each Pro Tools system
Pro Tools Hardware
Delay
Pro Tools 24
8 samples
Pro Tools 24 MIX
10 samples
The following delays are incurred when
you add an Insert or Send to a track:
• Insert: 2 samples
• Post-fader Send: 6 samples
• Pre-fader Send: 3 samples
On the 888/24 I/O, the Digital I/O delay incurred when using AES/EBU or S/PDIF is
identical.
Audio Interface Delay Characteristics
Bounce to Disk The File > Bounce To Disk
command causes no delay on a TDMequipped system since delay compensation
for the bounce function is built in. This
form of bouncing may be more desirable
than bus-based bouncing.
Interface
A/D/A delay
Digital I/O
888/24 I/O
81 samples
17 samples
882/20 I/O
75 samples
17 samples
1622 I/O
75 samples
17 samples
379
Compensating for Delays
If you wish to compensate for offsets incurred by these delays, there are two different methods you can use: apply samplelevel delay to tracks with the TimeAdjuster
Plug-In, or physically adjust tracks in the
Edit window by the appropriate number of
samples.
Using the TimeAdjuster Plug-In
You can use the TimeAdjuster TDM Plug-In
provided with your Pro Tools system to apply an exact number of samples of delay to
the signal path of the tracks you are working with. Up to 2048 samples of delay are
available.
Digidesign TDM Plug-Ins display their delay values in the channel delay indicators
in the Mix window. TimeAdjuster can be
used to match these delay values for tracks
that need to remain in phase (such as instruments recorded with multiple microphones or stereo pairs).
In the Mix window, Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-click (Windows) the
Track Level Indicator to toggle between
Level (which appears on the display as
“vol”), Peak (“pk”) and Channel Delay
(“dly”) indications. Delay values are shown
in samples.
380 Pro Tools Reference Guide
To use TimeAdjuster to compensate for a
time delay:
1 Apply the TimeAdjuster Plug-In to the
track whose delay you want to increase,
and Command-click (Macintosh) or Control-click (Windows) its Track Level indicator until the Channel Delay value is
displayed for that track.
2 Change the delay time in TimeAdjuster
by moving the Delay slider or entering a
value in the Delay field, until the channel
delay value matches that of the first track.
You can test the delay values by duplicating an audio track and reversing its phase
while compensating for delay.
If you are using a Plug-In whose delay factor are you not familiar with, you can set
the delay by ear using one of two methods:
◆ If you are working with phase-coherent
track pairs, or tracks that had been multimiked, you can “null out” the delay. Invert
the phase of the target track using the
TimeAdjuster Phase Invert button, and adjust the Plug-In delay time until the signal
disappears. (When they are perfectly synchronized, duplicate signals of opposite polarity cancel each other out.) When you are
finished, disengage the Phase Invert button.
◆ You can also change the delay while listening to the signal in phase, adjusting until any comb-filter effects cancel out.
Nudging Audio Tracks
On audio tracks, you can use the Pro Tools
Nudge feature, which supports single-sample increments, to nudge the affected regions to preserve phase coherency. If it is
necessary to nudge a region by a large number of samples, you may want to calculate
the equivalent value in milliseconds and
nudge the Region in millisecond increments. If the value doesn’t divide evenly,
you can switch the Nudge value back to
samples and use these smaller increments
for the remainder.
The disadvantage of using this method is
that it only works with disk tracks (not live
inputs), and the timing relationship between tracks is permanently altered, which
can affect editing.
Sample Rate and How it Affects Delay
The delay in samples caused by TDM processing is the same regardless of the sample
rate because a sample is tied to the rate of
the sample clock for the entire system.
However, when samples are converted into
a time value (milliseconds or microseconds), the sample rate (44.1 versus 48 kHz)
must be taken into account.
To convert from samples to milliseconds (and
vice-versa) use this formula:
• milliseconds = samples / sample rate (in
kHz)
• samples = milliseconds X sample rate (in
kHz)
There are 44 samples per millisecond @
44.1 kHz, and 48 samples/ms. @ 48 kHz.
✽ There are actually 44.1 samples/ms at
44.1 kHz, so Pro Tools rounds down to 44
samples/ms. One time in ten, Pro Tools
rounds off to 45 samples/ms. At 48 kHz, no
rounding occurs.
Here’s an example of how to compensate
for a delay:
Imagine that you have used a hardware insert on the 888/24 I/O. According to the
guidelines given previously, the total
amount of delay introduced is:
Insert = 2 samples
888/24 I/O A/D/A = 79 samples
Total = 81 samples
If you are working at 44.1 kHz, set
Nudge/Grid to milliseconds and nudge the
region backwards (earlier in time) 2 ms (2 x
44 = 88 samples). Then set Nudge/Grid to
samples, and nudge it forward (later in
time) 7 samples for a total of 81 samples.
381
Typical Delay Scenarios
Example 3, Pro Tools 24 MIX System
A bus-based TDM bounce with no Plug-Ins
adds 10 samples of delay:
Below are some typical delay scenarios that
you may encounter in a Pro Tools session.
The more complex a session becomes, the
greater the TDM delay factors may become.
Track 1 routed to Bus 1-2, with pan set
<100 = 2 samples
Once you know the delay for your session,
set the Nudge Value to that amount (in
samples) and nudge the affected regions to
compensate for the delay.
Record to Track 2 with input set to Bus 1
= 3 samples
◆
Through Bus 1-2 Mixer and back out to
TDM = 5 samples
◆
◆
Total: 10 samples
Example 1, Pro Tools 24 System
A bus-based TDM bounce with no Plug-Ins
adds 8 samples of delay:
◆ Track 1 routed to Bus 1-2, with pan set
<100 = 2 samples
◆ Through Bus 1-2 Mixer and back out to
TDM = 3 samples
◆ Record to Track 2 with input set to Bus 1
= 3 samples
Example 2, Pro Tools 24 MIX System
A slightly different bounce adds 14 samples
of delay because it involves use of a Send:
Track 1/Send 1 (post-fader) routed to Bus
1 = 6 samples
◆
Through Bus 1-2 Mixer and back out to
TDM = 5 samples
◆
Record to Track 2 with input set to Bus 1
= 3 samples
◆
Total: 8 samples
Total: 14 samples
Example 2, Pro Tools 24 System
A slightly different bounce adds 11 samples
of delay because it involves use of a Send:
• Track 1/Send 1 (post-fader) routed to Bus
1 = 5 samples
• Through Bus 1-2 Mixer and back out to
TDM = 3 samples
• Record to Track 2 with input set to Bus 1
= 3 samples
Total: 11 samples
382 Pro Tools Reference Guide
appendix b
TDM Mixing and DSP Usage
Pro Tools TDM Technology
DSP Allocation
(TDM Systems Only)
(TDM Systems Only)
Digidesign’s TDM (or time division multiplexing) technology is based on the concept
of a single, high-speed data highway, or
bus. In Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus,
Pro Tools 24 and Pro Tools III systems, individual channels from sources such as disk
tracks, sends, or busses are sent out from
Digidesign audio cards, and combined together or multiplexed onto the TDM bus. At
the receiving end, the audio cards can listen to any connection on the bus, and take
whatever data they need.
Digital Signal Processing (or DSP) capability is one of the most powerful elements of
your Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus,
Pro Tools 24 or Pro Tools III system. The
DSP chips in your system provide the realtime processing power for your TDM Mixer
and Plug-Ins. There is a limit, depending
on your system, to how many functions a
single DSP chip can power at once. This
section contains some guidelines for getting the most from your available DSP capacity.
With Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus,
Pro Tools 24 or Pro Tools III systems, you
can choose how to allocate the processing
power of your system. In most cases, you’ll
start the allocation process by configuring
your mixer, then assigning Plug-In effects
according to how much remaining processing power you have.
DSP Allocation Basics
As in the analog world, every send bus or
output mix that you use demands that a
summing mixer exist for that group. On an
analog console, the number of these summing mixers is fixed by the physical layout
of the console. In the Pro Tools mix environment, this number is variable, and depends on the number of output mixes or
sends that you choose to create. Pro Tools
allocates DSP power as it is needed to build
the mixers for each session.
Appendix B: TDM Mixing and DSP Usage 383
We refer to certain mixing or signal processing functions as “using one DSP” or
“using two DSPs.” This refers to the fact
that there are a certain number of DSP
chips on a card (six on a MIX card, or four
on a DSP Farm card), each of which can
only power a certain number of processing
functions. If you have a single MIX card or
DSP Farm card, and you create a big
enough TDM mixer and use enough Sends
or Plug-Ins, you will eventually use up or
“max out” all DSPs and will be at your limit
for mixing and processing (unless you add
more cards to your system).
Mixing and DSP Usage
Pro Tools builds a TDM mixer every time a
session is opened. Note that the term
“mixer channel” applies to Audio tracks
(including virtual tracks) and Auxiliary Input tracks, as well as sends and returns that
use any of the 32 TDM internal busses.
When you go beyond a certain number of
mixer channels, Pro Tools will use another
DSP to create additional mixer capacity.
With Pro Tools 24 and Pro Tools III systems, Pro Tools does not always automatically free up all unused DSP power when
you delete unneeded mixer channel. On
these systems, to reclaim all DSP power after a change in your session configuration,
close your session and reopen it. Pro Tools
will rebuild your new mixer configuration
to use DSP power with maximum efficiency.
DSP Manager
(Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus Systems Only)
Pro Tools software (version 4.3 and higher)
includes DSP Manager, a software component that optimizes the use of DSP capacity
on Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus systems.
When you have a MIX card in your system,
if your current DSP usage is approaching
the capacity of the card, and you then try
to add a mixer channel or instantiate a
Plug-In, the DSP Manager will automatically try to make room for the new mixer or
Plug-In on the MIX card. It does this by reallocating the existing TDM mixers and
Plug-Ins to use the available DSP capacity
on the MIX card as efficiently as possible.
Monitoring DSP Usage
To monitor the usage of DSP resources during a Pro Tools session, choose Windows >
Show DSP Usage.
To display DSP resources in different formats, choose Display > DSP Usage Window
Shows and choose a format from the Display menu.
As you allocate DSP to mixing or processing with Plug-Ins, the DSP Usage window
indicates when DSP chips are available and
when they are in use. Green indicates a
chip is free. Red indicates a chip is in use.
DSP Usage window showing Large format
384 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Setting up Sessions to use DSP
Efficiently
The dynamically configurable mixing environment in Pro Tools lets you make
choices based on the type of setup you wish
to have—such as how many inputs you
want for your mixer, how many Plug-Ins
you want to use, or how many sends you
need.
DSP Usage window showing Detailed format
For example, you could allocate all of your
DSP power to create a large mixer with dozens of channels—but you wouldn’t be able
to use as many busses, sends, or TDM PlugIns. Alternatively, you could create a mixer
with a smaller number of mixer channels
plus some Sends and Auxiliary Inputs for
returns, and TDM Plug-Ins on several
tracks.
✽ AudioSuite Plug-Ins do not use DSP and are
always available. Refer to your DigiRack PlugIns Guide for more information.
DSP Usage Window showing Gas Meter format
The Detailed and Gas Meter formats show
the percentage of each DSP chip in use.
With these indicators as your guide, you
can try different mixer setups and different
arrangements of Plug-Ins, Sends, and Auxiliary Inputs to maximize your use of available DSP power.
You can set up your session by choosing
one of the session templates supplied with
your system as a starting point, or by building it from scratch. If you are starting from
scratch, a good rule of thumb is to start by
building your mixer first, since at least one
of the DSPs in your system is automatically
dedicated to mixing. Start with Audio
tracks, then add Sends and Auxiliary Inputs, and finally add Plug-Ins as available
DSP allows. Master Faders do not use additional DSP power.
Appendix B: TDM Mixing and DSP Usage 385
DSP Usage with TDM
Mixers
Understanding Mixers
DSP allocation for mixing in a Pro Tools
TDM system is based on the concept of DSP
summing mixers. Every send bus or output
mix that you use demands that a summing
mixer exist for that group. Each pair of outputs or busses that you use requires its own
mixer.
An “input” can be a disk track, a send, or an
internal bus connection. Adding a pair of
outputs or busses adds the requirement for
more DSP power.
The important concept here is that every
pair of outputs (whether they are I/O or bus
outputs) requires that a mixer exists for
that output pair. This means that creating a
send to bus 1 requires that a mixer be created for the bus 1-2 outputs, and that mixer
will have one input.
Types of Mixers
Pro Tools offers two different mixer plugins: a “24-bit optimized” mixer and a “16bit optimized” mixer. These mixer modules
use DSP power at slightly different rates on
DSP Farms, but at the same rate on MIX
cards, as shown below:
DSP Farm:
A MIX card has six DSP chips, and a DSP
Farm card has four DSP chips, each of
which can power a certain number of signal processing tasks. DSP resources are dynamically allocated as the number of mixers and/or inputs increases.
16-bit Optimized mixer: 36x2 per chip
The TDM mixer provides basic building
blocks by which applications such as Pro
Tools can create a wide variety of mixer
configurations. Each TDM mixer is of the
dimensions “N x 2,” meaning that it mixes
a variable number of inputs to an output
pair.
24-bit Optimized mixer: 59x2 per chip
For example: a session with 6 tracks routed
to output 1–2 would require a single 6 x 2
mixer. If one of the tracks is assigned to
output 3-4, however, 2 mixers are required—one 5x2 mixer routed to output
1–2, and one 1x2 mixer routed to output
3–4.
24-bit Optimized mixer: 25x2 per chip
MIX Card:
16-bit Optimized mixer: 59x2 per chip
If the DSP is also being used for I/O processing, then some of the chip’s capacity will
be devoted to I/O, yielding slightly lower
mixer count (these figures represent maximum numbers when I/O is declared in the
Hardware Setup dialog):
DSP Farm with one I/O declared:
16-bit Optimized mixer: 30x2 per chip
24-bit Optimized mixer: 20x2 per chip
MIX card with one I/O declared:
16-bit Optimized mixer: 51x2 per chip
24-bit Optimized mixer: 51x2 per chip
386 Pro Tools Reference Guide
MIX card with two I/Os declared:
16-bit Optimized mixer: 43x2 per chip
24-bit Optimized mixer: 43x2 per chip
Submixing
When there is no space remaining on any
DSP for a single mixer to increase the number of inputs, summing mixers must be created. For example, on a Pro Tools 24 system, when a 24-bit Optimized mixer needs
to grow to more than 26 inputs, a summing
mixer is created along with another 1 x 2
mixer to handle the 27th input. Both the
original 26 x 2 mixer and the new 1 x 2
mixer are routed to the new summing
mixer, whose outputs go to the desired destination (such as output 1-2).
Keep in mind that any delays inherent in
creating the summing mixer are equal.
Since input signals are delayed equally,
phase coherency is preserved.
The number of virtual tracks supported by
your particular Pro Tools configuration will
ultimately determine the maximum number of channels for your TDM mixer.
Sends, Busses, and Master Faders
Each send will add an input to the destination output pair. For example, a send to
output 1 will add another input to the output 1–2 mixer. If the send destination
doesn’t already have a mixer for its output
pair, then a new mixer will be created. A
send to bus 3 will make a 1x2 mixer for bus
3–4 if no other bus 3–4 sources have been
created yet.
In addition, adding a new track and assigning its input to a bus source will create a
mixer for that bus pair if there isn’t one already. For example, creating a new Auxiliary Input track and setting its input to bus
5 will create a 1x2 mixer for bus 5–6, even if
no sources have been created yet.
Mixing Guidelines
The following conditions apply to mixing
with Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus,
Pro Tools 24 and Pro Tools III systems.
One DSP chip is automatically dedicated to
mixing in the TDM environment.
As you reach the basic mixer limits for a
single DSP chip, the system will automatically begin allocating DSP resources from
another chip (if available), making it unavailable for Plug-Ins.
◆
◆ Each bus or send connection requires
DSP to mix signals. This means that each
Send or Auxiliary Input that you create will
use available DSP.
◆ On Pro Tools 24 systems, the 16-bit Optimized Mixer can power more channels per
DSP chip than the 24-bit Optimized Mixer
Plug-In. There may be cases where using
the 16-bit Optimized mixer will help conserve enough DSP power to allow for additional Plug-Ins.
On Pro Tools 24 MIX/MIXplus systems,
there is no advantage to using the 16-bit
Optimized mixer, so you should always use
the 24-bit Optimized mixer.
Appendix B: TDM Mixing and DSP Usage 387
DSP Usage with TDM
Plug-Ins
Some basic guidelines for DSP usage on
Pro Tools systems follow:
◆ TDM-equipped systems running
Pro Tools 4.3 or higher software use Digidesign’s MultiShell technology, which allows
any MultiShell compatible Plug-In to share
DSP chips on both MIX cards and DSP
Farm cards. Up to five types of MultiShell
compatible Plug-Ins can share a single DSP
chip.
☞ Refer to the DigiRack Plug-Ins Guide for de-
tails on MultiShell Plug-In counts.
◆ Stereo DSP Plug-Ins generally use up
twice as much DSP as mono Plug-Ins.
◆ Master Faders don’t require additional
DSP. Use them freely to control submix levels, send/bus output levels, and the master
output level of your session.
The session templates provided with your
system include several useful preconfigured session setups that make efficient use
of DSP resources.
If your computer has unused slots, you can
always increase your available DSP resources by adding additional MIX Farm or
DSP Farm cards to your system.
or MIXplus systems) or DSP Farm
(Pro Tools 24 or Pro Tools III systems) is
automatically allocated to mixing and input/output tasks.
Even though this is only a small portion of
the DSP power available on the chip, it effectively dedicates the entire chip to mixing tasks, making it unavailable for PlugIns.
If you have an additional Audio Interface
assigned to a DSP Farm or MIX Farm card,
Pro Tools will use a DSP chip on that card
for mixing and I/O tasks as well.
If you are not currently using your additional interface, you can free up DSP and
use it for additional Plug-Ins.
To reallocate I/O capacity on a DSP Farm or
MIX Farm card:
3 Choose Setups > Playback Engine.
4 From the Card pop-up menu, select the
MIX Farm or DSP Farm whose DSP you
want to reallocate.
5 From the Interface pop-up, select No In-
terface.
6 Click OK to close this dialog. When the
session reopens, the DSP that was allocated
to I/O is available for mixing or Plug-Ins.
DSP Usage and I/O
Allocation
On TDM-equipped Pro Tools systems with
a single Audio Interface, at least one DSP
chip on your MIX card (Pro Tools 24 MIX
388 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Reallocating I/O in the Playback Engine dialog
appendix c
Keyboard Shortcuts
Global Key Commands
This section shows keyboard shortcuts that apply to many functions in Pro Tools.
Channel Strip/Track functions
•
•
•
•
Changing automation mode
Enabling playlists
Adding Plug-Ins
Record enabling, soloing, muting tracks
•
•
•
•
Assigning Inputs, Outputs, and Sends
Toggling volume/peak delay display
Clearing meters
Changing track heights
Command
Macintosh
Windows
Apply action to all channel strips/tracks
Option + action
Alt + action
Apply action to selected channel strips/tracks
Option-Shift + action
Alt-Shift + action
List and Parameter selection
• Selection of tracks in Show/Hide List
• Enabling of groups in Groups List
• Automation Enable window parameters
• Setting memory location parameters
Command
Macintosh
Windows
Toggle item & set all others to same new state
Option-click item
Alt-click item
Toggle item & set all others to opposite state
Command-click item
Control-click item
Controls and Editing Tools
◆
Use to move Plug-In controls, faders and sliders, the Scrubber, and automation data
Command
Macintosh
Windows
Fine adjustment of sliders, knobs & breakpoints
Command-click item
Control-click item
Appendix C: Keyboard Shortcuts 389
Commands Key Focus
Numeric Keypad Modes
(TDM Systems Only)
The Operation preference for Numeric Keypad Mode determines how the numeric
keypad functions.
The Commands Key Focus provides a wide
range of single-key commands from the alpha keyboard for controlling editing and
playback.
Pro Tools TDM systems include a set of keyboard stickers that show the single-key
commands and other modifier keys.
To enable the Commands Key Focus:
Click the a-z button in upper left of the
Edit window.
■
No matter which Numeric Keypad Mode is
selected, you can always use the numeric
keypad to select and enter values in the
Event Edit Area, Location Indicators, and
Transport fields.
To set the Numeric Keypad Mode:
1 Choose Setups > Preferences and click
Operation.
2 Under the option for Numeric Keypad
Mode, select on of the following modes,
then click Done.
Classic
Commands
Key focus
Commands Key focus enabled
You can temporarily invoke single-key
commands even when Commands Key focus is not enabled by pressing Control
(Macintosh) or the Start key (Windows)
while pressing the appropriate key.
☞ Refer to the Quick Reference Card that
came with your Pro Tools package (TDM systems only) for a complete list of keyboard
shortcuts. This card is also available in PDF
format in the Release Notes and Documentation folder.
390 Pro Tools Reference Guide
This mode represents how Pro Tools has always worked in versions earlier than 5.0.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Classic, you can:
• Play up to two tracks of audio in Shuttle
Lock mode. Press Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows), followed by 0-9
for different play speeds. Press Plus or Minus to reverse direction.
• Recall Memory Locations by typing the
Memory Location number, followed by
period.
Transport
Shuttle
This mode allows you to set a number of
record and play functions, and also operate
the Transport from the numeric keypad.
(TDM Systems Only)
:
Function
Key
Click on/off
7
Countoff on/off
8
MIDI Merge/Replace mode
9
Loop Playback mode on/off
4
Loop Record mode on/off
5
QuickPunch mode on/off
6
Rewind
1
Fast Forward
2
Record
3
Play/Stop
0
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Transport, you can also:
• Play up to two tracks of audio in Shuttle
Lock mode. Press Control (Macintosh) or
the Start key (Windows), followed by 0-9
for different play speeds. Press Plus or Minus to reverse direction.
• Recall Memory Locations by typing period, the Memory Location number, and
period again.
Pro Tools offers another form of shuttling,
different from that of Shuttle Lock Mode.
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Shuttle, playback is triggered by pressing
and holding the keys on the numeric keypad—playback stops once the keys are released. Various playback speeds are available in both forward and reverse.
:
Function
Key
1 X Forward
6
1 X Rewind
4
4 X Forward
9
4 X Rewind
7
1/4 X Forward
3
1/4 X Rewind
1
1/2 X Forward
5+6
1/2 X Rewind
5+4
2 X Forward
8+9
2 X Rewind
8+7
1/16 X Forward
2+3
1/16 X Rewind
2+1
Loop Selection
0
With the Numeric Keypad Mode set to
Shuttle, you can also:
• Recall Memory Locations by typing period, the Memory Location number, and
period again.
▲ Shuttle Lock mode is not available when the
Numeric Keypad Mode is set to Shuttle.
Appendix C: Keyboard Shortcuts 391
392 Pro Tools Reference Guide
appendix d
Troubleshooting
Backing up your work
Common Issues
It is highly recommended that you back up
your work on a regular basis, and especially
before making changes to your system configuration.
Pro Tools software won’t
authorize
Back up your session data
Problem:
Back up your session and audio data frequently. There are a variety of media that
are suited to back up projects of various
sizes, from automated tape backup systems
to high-capacity optical drives, to desktop
CD-R burners.
You are unable to authorize Pro Tools TDM
software on a Macintosh Blue & White G3
using the authorization key disk.
The best way to back up a session is to use
the Save Session Copy In command to save
the session file and all of its associated files
to a new location.
Back up your system setup
Macintosh Back up your System Folder before upgrading your OS.
Windows Create a system recovery disk after
you have finished configuring your system
and installing software. This is more useful
than a recovery disk for an unconfigured
system.
(Macintosh TDM Systems)
Possible Solution:
◆ Check to be sure you have the latest versions of the Imation floppy disk drivers and
the Pace Floppy Enabler, which are required for authorization of Pro Tools TDM
Software on Blue & White G3 computers.
The latest versions of these drivers are automatically installed on applicable Macintosh models by the Pro Tools Installer.
If the disk drivers and enabler are not installed in the proper location, use your
Pro Tools Installer disc to install them.
Appendix D: Troubleshooting 393
Pro Tools won’t launch
Problem:
When you double-click the Pro Tools application or a Pro Tools session file, Pro Tools
doesn’t launch.
Possible Solutions:
◆ (TDM systems only) Turn off your computer and check to be sure your cables are
properly and securely connected to the correct Pro Tools cards and to your Audio Interfaces.
◆ (Digi 001 systems only) Turn off your
computer and check to be sure your cable is
properly and securely connected to the
Digi 001 PCI card and to the Digi 001 I/O
Box.
◆ Turn off your computer and check all
Pro Tools cards installed in your computer
to be sure they are properly seated in their
PCI slots, and that any TDM ribbon cables
are connected properly.
◆ Verify that Pro Tools cards are installed
in the correct slot order in your computer
or Expansion Chassis.
◆ Check to be sure your computer has the
required amount of RAM to launch
Pro Tools.
◆ (Macintosh Only) Verify that the DAE
application is installed in the proper location. It should be in the DAE Folder inside
your System Folder. If DAE is not installed
in the proper location, use your Pro Tools
Installer disc to install it.
394 Pro Tools Reference Guide
◆ (Macintosh Only) Verify that the DigiSystem INIT is installed in the Extensions
folder, inside the System Folder. If it is not,
use your Pro Tools Installer disc to install it.
◆ (Macintosh Only) Verify that Virtual
Memory is turned off. On the Macintosh,
open the Memory Control Panel. If Virtual
Memory is turned on, turn it off and restart
your computer.
Problem:
You get an error message when you try to
start the Pro Tools application.
Possible Solutions:
◆ (Macintosh) Make sure the default set of
Mac OS System Extensions is enabled,
along with the OMS, DigiSystem Init, and
DSP Manager Extensions.
Try a complete restart. (Turn off your Audio Interfaces, computer peripherals and
your computer, and then turn them on
again in the proper sequence.)
◆
◆ Use the DigiTest application (installed in
the Pro Tools Utilities folder) as a diagnostic tool to verify that your Digidesign cards
are operational. You need to restart your
computer before and after using the DigiTest utility.
Audio Interface isn’t recognized
Possible Solutions:
(TDM Systems Only)
Turn off your computer and check to be
sure your cables are properly and securely
connected to the Disk I/O card and to the
hard drive.
Problem:
When you launch Pro Tools it does not recognize an Audio Interface, or a connected
Audio Interface is not available.
Possible Solutions:
Turn off your computer and check to be
sure your cables are properly and securely
connected to the correct Pro Tools cards
and to your Audio Interfaces.
◆
Verify that your Hardware Setup is correct; check to see that you have selected the
correct Interfaces for each I/O card.
◆
◆ If you only have one interface, make sure
it is connected to the Disk I/O card
(Pro Tools III), d24 card (Pro Tools 24), or
MIX Core card (Pro Tools 24 MIX).
◆ Make sure SuperClock connections to
your Audio Interface are correct. Disconnect the SuperClock source from the interface and see if the problem persists.
Audio drive doesn’t appear on
the Desktop
◆
◆ Check the hard drive for proper termination.
◆ Make sure that the Mt. Digi Scan Time is
set to its highest setting.
◆ Be sure to turn on the hard drive and let
it come up to speed before you turn on
your Macintosh. Allow at least ten seconds
for the drive to come up to speed.
◆ Verify that Virtual Memory is turned off.
Open the Memory Control Panel. If Virtual
Memory is turned on, turn it off and restart
your computer.
◆ Check that the drive is initialized for
Macintosh. If it is not, disconnect the drive
from the Pro Tools Disk I/O, connect it to a
Macintosh SCSI port, and initialize it with
the formatting software included with your
system. (If the drive appears on the Desktop as soon as you connect it to the Macintosh SCSI port, then it is already
initialized for Macintosh.)
◆ Verify that the SCSI ID of the drive is set
to an ID number less than 7.
(Pro Tools III Systems Only)
Problem:
With a Pro Tools III system, the Pro Tools
audio drive doesn’t appear on your Desktop when you start your Macintosh.
Appendix D: Troubleshooting 395
Using DigiTest As a
Diagnostic Tool
The DigiTest utility performs diagnostic
tests on the Pro Tools cards in your system.
To use DigiTest:
1 Refer to the DigiTest ReadMe file for the
latest operational information.
2 Restart your computer.
3 Turn down any audio outputs on your
system.
4 Locate and open DigiTest.
5 Click the Run button.
DigiTest will run a diagnostic test on your
Pro Tools cards. When the test has been
completed, the Status field will indicate
whether each card has passed or failed.
6 If DigiTest reports that any of your cards
have failed, click the Info button next to
that card. Write down the information that
appears and report it to your local Digidesign dealer or a Digidesign Technical Support Representative.
Performance Factors
There are several conditions that may adversely affect the performance of Pro Tools.
These include:
Network Connections Close any network
connections unless you are using them for
network interchange of audio data.
Background Applications Any software utilities that run in the background or generate
disk activity, such as virus protection software, disk optimizers, or file savers, should
be turned off or removed.
Screen Savers Screen saver software should
be completely removed from your computer before running Pro Tools.
Power Saver Features Some automatic
power saver features, such as those that
spin down the system hard drive, can affect
Pro Tools performance. These features
should be turned off.
Virtual Memory (Macintosh Only)
Pro Tools will not launch if Virtual Memory is active. Deactivate Virtual Memory
and restart your Macintosh.
CD-ROM Extensions/Control Panels Some
CD-ROM and removable media Extensions
and Control Panels have been linked to
audio quality problems. Deactivate any
performance-enhancing Extension or Control Panels for such media, and restart your
computer.
396 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Before You Call Digidesign
Technical Support
Register your System
As a registered owner of a new Digidesign
product under warranty, you are eligible to
receive Digidesign Technical Support. Fill
out and sign your Registration Form and
mail or fax it to the address supplied with
the registration materials.
Refer to the registration materials that
came with your system for details on warranty coverage and the range of services
available.
Use Digidesign Resources
In addition to the Pro Tools Guides, your
system includes following sources of information:
ReadMe files These contain late-breaking
information and known issues pertaining
to Pro Tools software and hardware configurations. ReadMe files are installed in the
Release Notes and Documentation folder
when you install Pro Tools.
Gather Important Information
Digidesign wants to help you resolve problems as quickly and efficiently as possible.
If you have the following information
handy when you contact Technical Support, it will make the diagnosis of your
problem easier. Take a few minutes to collect this basic information in one place.
System Information
Computer
◆
Make, Model, processor speed
◆
Amount of system RAM
◆ Operating system (version of Mac OS or
Windows)
◆ Any Drivers, Extensions, Control Panels,
Disk Utilities, or other system-related applications you may have installed.
Digidesign Hardware
◆
Type of cards, interfaces, or peripherals
◆
Where the cards are installed
◆
PCI card order in computer or chassis
◆
Interfaces connected to each card
Hard Drives
Answerbase This is a database of common
problems and DAE errors, and their solutions based on the latest information from
Digidesign Technical Support. This database is installed in the Digidesign folder
when you install Pro Tools.
◆
Make, Model
◆
Speed (RPM)
◆
Type of SCSI Connection (narrow, wide)
◆
Pro Tools software version
Website The Digidesign website includes
an area for Technical Support, as well as a
User Conference that includes technical
discussions. Visit www.digidesign.com and
go to the Support area or the User Conference area.
◆
(Macintosh) DAE and DSI versions
◆
Plug-In versions
◆
Other Digidesign software
Digidesign Software
◆ Additional Plug-Ins from Digidesign Development Partners
Appendix D: Troubleshooting 397
Other Hardware
If you are using additional hardware, refer
to the manufacturer’s documentation for
operational details.
The most common hardware additions include the following:
◆ SCSI Accelerators (manufacturer, model,
settings)
◆ Expansion Chassis (manufacturer,
model, bridge chip type)
◆ Video Capture cards (manufacturer,
model)
Refer to Digidesign’s compatibility documents or contact your Digidesign dealer to
verify that the hardware has been qualified
for use with your Pro Tools system.
Other Software
If you are using other audio or video applications, refer to the manufacturer’s documentation for operational details.
Make note of any other software that were
running when a problem occurred.
Diagnostic Information
DigiTest
If you ran DigiTest on your system and it
generated any errors, be sure to make a
note of any error codes or messages.
Other Information
Note any DAE errors or other error codes
you encounter. Also make a note of the
ability to reproduce the problem under different conditions, such as with another session, or after changing settings such as the
DAE Preferred Memory Size (Macintosh) or
the Hardware Buffer Size (Pro Tools LE).
398 Pro Tools Reference Guide
index
Numerics
11025 sample rate 320
11127 sample rate 320
16-bit Optimized Mixer 283
clipping 284
for 24-bit recording 284
22050 sample rate 320
22254 sample rate 320
24 FPS 333
24-bit Optimized Mixer 283
clipping 284
25 FPS (EBU) 333
29.97 FPS Drop 333
29.97 FPS Non-Drop 333, 364
3:2 Pulldown 334
30 FPS Drop 333
30 FPS Non-Drop 332
44100 sample rate 320
48000 sample rate 320
A
ADAT, syncing to 354
adding
a new playlist 142
audio tracks 87
Auxiliary Input tracks 274
Inserts 269
Master Fader tracks 276
MIDI tracks 105
Sends 271
tracks 51
AIFF file format 315
All Notes Off command 225
all tracks
hiding 53
selecting 168
selecting all regions in 163
selecting in Timebase Rulers 168
showing 53
allocating
DSP 383, 385
I/O capacity 388
voices 14
Audio CD Import Options dialog (Macintosh) 126
Audio During Fast Forward/Rewind option 156
audio files 10
batch loading with drag & drop 125
compacting 199
default names 78
formats 315
importing 119
locating 67
naming 69
audio interfaces 5, 6
input channels 11
Other Options 40, 41
audio regions 137
and automation 139
fitting to an Edit selection 260
stripping silence from 256
whole-file 134
Audio Regions List 32, 143
displaying file info for audio regions 143
dragging from 178
finding regions 145
sorting 144
Audio Regions List Key focus 36, 144
Index 399
Audio Regions List menu 32, 361
Auto Rename Selected command 197
Clear Selected command 198
Compact Selected command 199
Convert and Import Audio command
Macintosh 121
Windows 124
Display All command 145
Export Region Definitions command 128
Export Selected As Files command 127
Find command 145
Import Audio command (Macintosh) 121
Rename Selected command 197
Selected Unused command 198
Show Disk Names option 143
Show File Names option 143
Show Full Pathnames option 143
Sorting option 144
Time Stamp Selected command 185
audio tracks
and tempo changes 229
bouncing to disk 313
channel strips 16
configuring for recording 87
creating a tempo map for 230
loop recording 93
punch recording 92
recording multiple 89
Waveform view 25, 134, 137
Audiomedia III 7
QuickPunch 115
AudioSuite Plug-Ins 263
auditioning
fades 247
pre/post-roll 170
programs 210
selection start/end points 170
takes 94
Auto Input Monitoring option 75
Auto Region Fade In/Out Length option 255
Auto Rename Selected command 197
auto-created regions 134
hiding 198
renaming 196
auto-fades 254
AutoMatch Indicators 293
AutoMatch Time option 292, 293
400 Pro Tools Reference Guide
automating
Plug-Ins 296
Sends 295
switched controls 295
automation
and audio regions 139
breakpoints 302
buffer size 311
capture & apply 310
cutting, copying, and pasting 304
deleting 298
drawing with Pencil 300
editing 301
editing with Smart Tool 30
enabling, suspending 297
for grouped tracks 303
playlists 142, 287, 293
smoothing 292
snapshot 308
special Paste mode 306
stepped 302
thinning 293, 299
Trim mode 289
trimming 307
writing 294
Automation Enable window 297
System/CPU/PCI Load 311
Automation Mode Selector 19
automation modes
Auto Latch 289
Auto Off 288
Auto Read 289
Auto Touch 289
Auto Write 289
Trim/Auto Latch 290
Trim/Auto Off 290
Trim/Auto Read 290
Trim/Auto Touch 290
Trim/Auto Write 291
Automation Preferences
AutoMatch Time option 292, 293
Degree Of Thinning option 292
Memory for Automation Recording option 311
Moving Faders During Playback option 291
Mutes Follow Mix Groups 291
Mutes Follow Mix Groups option 60
Smooth and Thin Data After Pass option 292,
299
Solos Follow Mix Groups option 60, 292
Touch Timeout option 292
Auto-Name Memory Locations While Playing option
238
Auto-Name Separated Regions option 176
auto-naming
and Strip Silence 257
audio files and regions 78
QuickPunch regions 116
separated regions 176
takes 78
tracks 78
Auto-Spot Regions command 360
Auxiliary Inputs 273, 281
adding 274
and DSP usage 387
Auxiliary Returns 274
Auxiliary Send level, and Master Fader 281
B
bank select 13, 208
Bar|Beat Markers
and tempo events 232
audio with varying tempos 231
editing 232
moving 232
Bars:Beats Time Scale 150
Batch Fades dialog 255
Bi-Phase/Tach 332
bit depth, for session 44, 340
black burst 364
Blocks view 135
Bounce to Disk command 314
Bounce dialog 314
Output Options 315
Bounce to Movie command 376
bouncing
printing effects to disk 282
to a stereo mix 323
to a submix 322
to QuickTime movies 376
breakpoints 302
Buffer Size 76
C
Calculator mode for numeric entry 167
Calibration Mode 74
cancelling record takes 88, 107
Capture Region command 175
capturing time code 359
CDs, importing audio from 125
centered crossfade 246
Change Duration command 221
Change Duration window 221
Change Meter command 233
Change Meter window 233
Change Tempo command 227
Change Tempo window 228
Change Velocity command 219
Change Velocity window 219
Channel Delay Indicator 21
channel strips 11
audio tracks 16
MIDI tracks 18
chasing
controller events 223
MIDI notes 223
program changes 224
Classic, Numeric Keypad mode 390
Clear command 191
Clear Selected command 198
click 35
configuring 84
enabling 83
Click Options command 84
Click/Countoff Options dialog 84
clicks and pops, avoiding 138
clipping 73
and 16-bit Optimized Mixer 284
and 24-bit Optimized Mixer 284
input sum levels 285
Close Session command 50
Color Code options 62
Commands Key focus 36, 390
Commands Key Focus button 26
Comments View 23
Compact Selected command 199
comping related takes 95
Compress/Expand Edit To Play command 260
Conductor button 35
Index 401
Conductor Rulers 149
including in selections 168
configuring
click options 84
MMC 352
Pull Up/Down 345
SMPTE 343
conforming QuickTime movies 373
connecting
effects units 278
external audio devices 277
external clock sources 279
Consolidate Selection command 196
Continuous Scroll During Playback option 158
and half-screen 158
Continuous Scroll with Playhead option 158
and half-screen 158
control surfaces (see MIDI control surfaces)
controller events 13, 207
and MIDI regions 141
chasing 223
editing 208
editing with Smart Tool 30
inserting 208
Conversion Quality option 126, 321, 375
Tweak-head setting 321
Convert and Import Audio command
Macintosh 121
Windows 124
Convert and Import Audio dialog
Macintosh 122
Windows 123
Copy command 191
Copy Edit Selection to Timeline command 173
Copy Timeline Selection to Edit command 173
Copy To Send command 273, 296
Copy To Send dialog 296
copying
all automation playlists for a track 193
MIDI notes with the Split command 214
selections and regions 191
track automation to Sends 295
track control settings to Sends 273
countoff 35, 83
CPU Load 311
Create Fades command 252
402 Pro Tools Reference Guide
creating
crossfades 251
fade-ins/outs 253
groups 65
Markers and Memory Locations 237
regions 175
sessions 42
Crossfade Preference for Pre/Post-Roll option 251
crossfades 245
creating with Smart Tool 30
equal gain 249
equal power 249, 251
Fades dialog 246
in batches 255
linear 251
overlap 251
pre/post 252
removing 252
trimming 252
types 245
with dither 249
Current Cursor Display
location 32
value 32
current meter 35, 233
current tempo 35, 227
custom sample rates 320
Cut command 191
cutting
automation 304
MIDI notes with the Split command 214
selections and regions 191
D
DAC Muting option 40
DAE 9
Playback Buffer size 41
DAT recorder, recording from 117
default meter 84
Default Note On Velocity option 201
Default Program button 21
default program change 209
default tempo 85, 230
default track names 78
Degree Of Thinning option 292
delays (see DSP delays)
Delete Fades command 252
Delete Selected Groups command 64
Delete Selected Tracks command 52
deleting
automation 298, 304
groups 65
Memory Locations 241
MIDI notes 206
playlists 142
program changes 210
sysex events 211
tracks 52
underlying region data 192
unused regions 198
destructive editing
compacting audio files 199
Destructive Record mode 81, 90
destructive recording 90
Digi 001 7
punching with footswitch 108, 113
QuickPunch 115
Digidesign Audio Engine (see DAE)
digital clipping 73
digital mastering 323
digital signal processing (see DSP)
DigiTest 394
as a diagnostic tool 396
discontiguous selections 163
disk allocation
and cross-platform sessions 79
and system volume 80
Disk Allocation command 79
Disk Allocation dialog 79
Display All command 145
Display Auto-Created Regions option 198
Display Format 25, 134
Blocks view 135
Notes view 135, 139
Regions view 135, 140
Sys Ex view 211
Velocity view 205
Waveform view 25, 134, 137
Display menu
Display Auto-Created Regions option 198
Display Name In Regions option 137
Display Time In Regions option 137
DSP Usage Window Shows option 384
Edit Window Shows option 23
Mix Window Shows option 15
Narrow Mix Window option 61
Ruler View Shows option 150
Sends View Shows option 271
Display Name In Regions option 137
Display Preferences
Color Code options 62
Draw Grids in Edit Window option 146
Draw Waveforms Rectified option 137
Peak Hold options 22
Show Meters in Sends View option 273
Display Time In Regions option 137
displaying
all regions 145
all Rulers 150
file info for audio regions 143
Meter Ruler 233
Original Time Stamps 361
region names 137
region times 137
Sends View 271
Tempo Ruler 227
User Time Stamps 362
dithering
for fades/crossfades 249
on Master Faders 321
Draw Grids in Edit Window option 146
Draw Waveforms Rectified option 137
drum machine style loop recording 109
DSP 383
allocating 383, 385
and Auxiliary Inputs 387
and I/O capacity 388
and Master Faders 388
and mixing 384, 386
and Sends 387
and TDM Plug-Ins 388
monitoring usage 384
reclaiming DSP capacity 384
DSP delays 379
compensating for 380
DSP Manager 384
DSP Usage window 384
DSP Usage Window Shows option 384
Duplicate command 194
duplicating
MIDI note selections 194
playlists 142
selections and regions 194
Index 403
durations, for MIDI notes
editing with Change Duration command 221
making more legato 222
making more staccato 222
randomizing 221
dynamic voice allocation 55
E
Edit and Timeline selections, unlinked 161
edit commands 190
and Edit mode 191
clear 191
cut 191
paste 192
edit cursor 155
and scrubbing 159
moving to region boundaries 169
Edit Groups 32
and selections 162
Edit Groups list 32
Edit Insertion Follows Scrub/Shuttle option 159
Edit insertion point
placing regions at 178
trimming regions to 181
Edit Markers 162
and selection length 165
Edit menu 230
Capture Region command 175
Clear command 191
Compress/Expand Edit To Play command 260
Consolidate Selection command 196
Copy command 191
Copy To Send command 273, 296
Create Fades command 252
Cut command 191
Delete Fades command 252
Duplicate command 194
Fade To End command 254
Fade To Start command 254
Heal Separation command 177
Identify Silence command 256
Identify Sync Point command 183, 363
Insert Silence command 258
Lock/Unlock Regions command 189
Merge Paste command 195
Mute/Unmute Region command 190
Paste command 192
Quantize Regions command 189
404 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Remove Sync Point command 183
Repeat command 194
Repeat Paste To Fill Selection command 260
Select All command 163
Separate Region command 175
Shift command 188
Strip Silence command 256
Thin Automation command 299
Trim Automation command 311
Trim End To Insertion command 182
Trim Start To Insertion command 182
Trim To Selection command 177
Write Automation command 308, 310
Edit mode buttons 145
Edit modes 145
and edit commands 191
and placing regions 178
Grid 26, 146
Shuffle 26, 145
Slip 26, 146
Spot 26, 146, 358
edit playlists 141
Edit selections
auditioning with Playhead enabled 173
copied from Timeline selection 173
copied to Timeline selection 173
sliding in the Ruler 169
start, end, and length fields 31
Edit tools 27
Edit window 24
Edit tools 27
half-screen 158
scrolling from the Ruler 157
track controls 23
Edit Window Shows option 23
editing
across multiple tracks 193
and Edit modes 145
automation 301
Bar|Beat Markers 232
breakpoints 302
controller events 208
during playback 133
Grid mode 146
Markers 240
Memory Locations 240
meter events 234
MIDI notes 202
MIDI regions 140
nondestructive 133
non-destructively for audio 139
non-destructively for MIDI 141
note attributes 206
note durations 221
note velocities 205, 219
program changes 210
Shuffle mode 145
Slip mode 146
Spot mode 146
tempo events 228
waveforms 138
Editing Preferences
Auto-Name Memory Locations While Playing
option 238
Auto-Name Separated Regions option 176
Conversion Quality option 126
Crossfade Preference for Pre/Post-Roll option
251
QuickPunch Crossfade Length option 113
Region List Selection Follows Track Selection
option 143, 169
Separate Region Operates On All Related
Takes option 95, 176
Take Region Lengths That Match 95
Take Region Names That Match Track Names
option 95
Track Selection Follows Region List Selection
option 169
enabling
automation 297
groups 16, 32, 64
MIDI input devices 102
equal gain crossfades 249
equal power crossfades 249, 251
Event Edit Area 31
note attributes 206
Exit command (Windows) 50
Export MIDI command 130
Export Region Definitions command 128
Export Selected As Files command 127
exporting
audio 127
audio and Output Options 127
audio from regions 127
MIDI tracks 129
region definitions 128, 362
stereo interleaved files 127
extending selections 166
to adjacent tracks 167, 168
to include adjacent regions 166
to Markers and Memory Locations 166
to region boundaries 166
Extensions 396
external clock sources 279
F
Fade To End command 254
Fade To Start command 254
fade-in shapes 250
fade-out shapes 248
faders, moving during playback 291
fades 253
auto-fades 254
creating 253
creating with Smart Tool 30
in batches 255
with dither 249
Fades dialog 246
In Shape 250
Link option 249
Out Shape 248
Use Dither option 249
Fast Forward
incrementally 156
locating with 156
Fast Forward button 34
Feet.Frames command 151
Feet.Frames Time Scale 151
file formats (audio) 315
AIFF 315
MP3 317
QuickTime 316
RealAudio 316
SND resource 316
Sound Designer II 315
WAV 316
Index 405
File menu
Close Session command 50
Delete Selected Tracks command 52
Exit command (Windows) 50
Export MIDI command 130
Group Selected Tracks command 65
Import Audio/Track command
Macintosh 120
Windows 122
Import MIDI/Track command 129
New Session command 43
New Track command 44, 51, 87, 105
Open Session command 45
Quit command (Macintosh) 50
Rename Selected Tracks command 52
Revert to Saved command 46
Save Session As command 46
Save Session command 46
Save Session Copy In command 48
film speed 335
final mixdown 323
Find command 145
finding regions 145
freewheeling time code 342
G
generating time code 341, 347
Go to End button 34
Grabber tool 28
editing breakpoints with 301
Object Grabber 164
selecting MIDI notes with 203
Separation Grabber 176
Grid mode 26, 146
and moving regions 185
Draw Grids in Edit Window option 146
Grid Value pop-up menu 146
Regions/Markers option 146
setting the Grid value 186
Grid value 31, 186
Group Selected Tracks command 65
groups
and automation editing 303
and hidden tracks 15
and selecting tracks 16
changing members 65
creating 65
deleting 65
406 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Edit Groups 32
enabling 16, 32, 64
Mix Groups 16
renaming 65
unlinking Edit and Mix Groups 66
Groups List 63
Groups List Key focus 36, 64
Groups pop-up menu 63
Delete Selected Groups command 64
Display command 63
New Group command 63
Suspend All Groups command 63
H
H/W Buffer Size 76
half-screen 158
half-speed playback 118
half-speed recording 118
hard disk recording 9
hard drives
and QuickTime movies 369
recording to multiple 79
recording to system volume 80
Round Robin Allocation 79
Hardware command 39, 40
hardware I/O Inserts 268
hardware I/O Sends 271
Hardware Setup dialog 39, 40
Buffer Size 76
DAC Muting option 40
Heal Separation command 177
hidden tracks
and groups 15
and selections 162
hiding
all tracks 53
auto-created regions 198
tracks 53
Highest Priority Playback option 369
Horizontal Zoom buttons 147
I
I/O capacity
allocating 388
and DSP usage 388
I/O Labels command 278
I/O View 20
Identify Beat command 230
Identify Beat dialog 231
Identify Silence command 256
Identify Sync Point command 183, 363
Import Audio command (Macintosh) 121
Import Audio dialog (Macintosh) 120
Import Audio from Current Movie command 375
Import Audio From Other Movie command 125
Import Audio/Track command
Macintosh 120
Windows 122
Import MIDI command 129
Import MIDI/Track command 129
Import Movie command 370
Import Movie dialog 370
importing
audio 119
audio and Conversion Quality 126
audio from CDs 125
audio from QuickTime movies 375
audio into a session (Macintosh) 119
audio into a session (Windows) 122
audio with drag & drop 125
MIDI tracks 128
QuickTime movies 370
input connections 73
and digital sources 116
Input Devices command 102
Input Devices dialog 102
Input Filter command 103
MIDI Input Filter dialog 103
Input Only Monitoring option 76
Input Quantize command 104
Input Quantize window 104
Input Selector 20
inputs 11
assigning 53
levels 73
Insert controls 22
Insert Silence command 258
and Shuffle Mode 258
and Slip Mode 258
inserting
controller events 208
meter events 233
MIDI notes 201
program changes 210
tempo events 227
Inserts 268
adding 269
as a shared bus 269
assigning Plug-Ins 270
assigning to tracks 269
editing 270
for hardware I/O 268
for Plug-Ins 268
labeling 278
mono or stereo 269
on single tracks 269
removing 270
shared within a submix 280
Inserts View 22
Inserts/Sends Editor 267
Inserts 270
Sends 272
J
Jam Sync 342
K
keyboard focus 36
Audio Regions List Key focus 36, 144
Commands Key focus 26, 36, 390
Groups List Key focus 36, 64
MIDI Regions List Key focus 36, 144
keyboard shortcuts 389
global key commands 389
numeric entry 167
recording 88
L
labeling
Inserts and Sends 278
Latch Record Enable Buttons option 75
latency
for recording and monitoring 76
length, for selections 165
level faders
Sends 23
tracks 21
Level Indicator 21
Index 407
level meters
clearing 22
for audio tracks 21
for MIDI tracks 22
for Sends 23
linear crossfades 251
Link Edit and Timeline Selection option 161
Linked Selections button 26, 161
Local Control 13, 103
locating
with Fast Forward/Rewind 156
with Location Indicators 157
Location Indicators 31, 156
locating with 157
locations, for MIDI notes
dragging 204
quantizing 217
randomizing 217, 218
Lock/Unlock Regions command 189
locking regions 189
Loop Playback option 171
and audio recording 94
and Auto Touch mode 294
loop points 96
and Playback Markers 96
recalling with Memory Location 99
Loop Record mode 82, 93
loop recording
and pre/post-roll 93
audio 93
MIDI 109
drum machine style 109
multiple takes 110
looping selections 171
Low Latency Monitoring option 77
LTC (Linear Time Code) 331
M
Machine Chases Memory Location option 353
Machine Follows Edit Insertion/Scrub option 353
Main Time Scale 151, 345
managing regions 196
Manual Tempo mode 35, 85
408 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Markers 236
creating 237
creating on the fly 238
deleting 241
editing 240
extending selections to 166
moving 240
sorting 243
tick-based and sample-based 236
viewing options 242
Master Faders 275
adding 276
and DSP usage 388
as master send level control 281
master view for tracks 135, 305
mastering
digitally 323
to disk 323
measures, partial 235
Medium Priority Playback option 369
Memory for Automation Recording option 311
Memory Location dialog 235
Memory Locations 235, 236
creating 237
creating on the fly 238
deleting 241
deleting all 241
editing 240
extending selections to 166
Markers 236
recalling 239
renaming 240
Selection Memory Locations 236
storing punch/loop points 99
Memory Locations window 242
view filter 242
viewing options for Markers 242
Merge mode (see MIDI Merge mode)
Merge Paste command 195
meter
current 233
default 84
meter events 233
editing 234
inserting 233
Meter Ruler
displaying 233
extending an Edit selection to 234
MIDI 12
common misconceptions 14
MIDI Beat Clock command 358
MIDI channels 13
assigning 59
MIDI clips and Regions List 143
MIDI control surfaces 13, 267
MIDI controller devices 13, 101
Local Control 13, 103
MIDI Device/Channel Selector 20, 59, 105
MIDI devices 13
MIDI files (see Standard MIDI Files)
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) 351
configuring in Pro Tools 352
controlling external devices with 351
remote track arming 353
syncing to a sequencer with 356
syncing to an ADAT 354
MIDI menu
All Notes Off command 225
Change Duration command 221
Change Meter command 233
Change Tempo command 227
Change Velocity command 219
Click Options command 84
Input Devices command 102
Input Filter command 103
Input Quantize command 104
MIDI Beat Clock command 358
MIDI Thru option 103
Quantize command 214
Select Notes command 213
Split Notes command 214
Transpose command 222
MIDI Merge mode 35, 82, 105
MIDI notes
attributes for 31, 206
chasing 223
deleting 206
duplicating selected 194
editing 202
durations 221
pitch 203
velocities 205, 219
inserting 201
lengths in ticks 152
moving 204
quantizing 214
selecting 203, 213
splitting 214
transposing 203, 222
trimming start/end points 204
MIDI offset 224
MIDI Operations window 212
parameter options 212
MIDI Preferences
Default Note On Velocity option 201
Negative MIDI Playback Offset option 224
Pencil Tool Resolution When Drawing Controller
Data option 208, 300
MIDI recording 101
cancelling takes 107
enabling input devices 102
Input Filter 103
Merge/Replace mode 105
monitoring with MIDI Thru 103
quantizing on input 104
System Exclusive data 112
undoing a take 107
Wait for Note 104
MIDI regions 139
and controller events 141
and Merge Paste command 195
and punch recording 108
guidelines for editing 140
MIDI Regions List 33, 143
and MIDI clips 143
dragging from 178
finding regions 145
sorting 144
MIDI Regions List Key focus 36, 144
MIDI Regions List menu 33
Auto Rename Selected command 197
Clear Selected command 198
Display All command 145
Find command 145
Import MIDI command 129
Rename Selected command 197
Select Unused command 198
Sorting option 144
Time Stamp Selected command 185, 361
MIDI Replace mode 35, 82, 105
MIDI Thru option 103
Index 409
MIDI tracks
and MIDI offset 224
and tempo changes 229
assigning to multiple channels 106
channel strips 18
configuring for recording 105
default program change 209
exporting 130
loop recording 109
Merge Paste command 195
note chasing 223
Notes view 135, 139
punch recording 107
punching on the fly 108
record enabling 74
recording 101, 105
Regions view 135, 140
selecting a pitch range in 213
Sys Ex view 211
Velocity view 205
Minimum Sync Delay option 354
Minutes:Seconds Time Scale 150
mix busses 271
Mix Groups 16
Mix Groups list 16
Mix window 15, 17
track controls 18
track width 61
Mix Window Shows option 15
mixer channels 11
mixing and DSP usage 384, 386
mixing down to stereo 323
MMC (see MIDI Machine Control)
monitoring
during punch recording 92
MIDI recording with MIDI Thru 103
record and playback levels 76
monitoring latency 76
monitoring modes 75
Auto Input Monitoring 75
Input Only Monitoring 76
Movie menu
Bounce to Movie command 376
Highest Priority Playback option 369
Import Audio from Current Movie command
375
Import Audio From Other Movie command 125
Import Movie command 370
410 Pro Tools Reference Guide
Medium Priority Playback option 369
Normal Priority Playback option 369
Set Movie Sync Offset command 373
Show Movie Window command 371
Movie Tracks 371
scrubbing 371
setting sync point 373
Movie window 371
movies (see QuickTime movies)
moving
Bar|Beat Markers 232
Markers 240
MIDI notes 204
program changes 210
regions 182
sysex events 211
Moving Faders During Playback option 291
MP3 file format 317
MTC (MIDI Time Code) 331
outputting 342
multiple tracks
editing across 193
extending selections to 167, 168
pasting to 193
selecting 167
MultiShell 388
Mute automation 302
Mute button 19, 61
Mute Frees Voice option 60, 61
Mute/Unmute Region command 190
Mutes Follow Mix Groups option 60, 291
muting
regions 190
tracks 61
N
Narrow Mix Window option 61
Negative MIDI Playback Offset option 224
network connections 396
New Group command 63
New Session command 43
New Track command 44, 51, 87, 105
New Track dialog 87
No Auto-Scrolling option 157
nondestructive editing 133
for audio 139
for MIDI 141
Nondestructive Record mode 81
nondestructive recording 90
recording to a new playlist 91
with QuickPunch 113
Normal Priority Playback option 369
Note Chasing option 223
notes (see MIDI notes)
Notes view 135, 139
mini-keyboard 139
scrolling up or down 140
Nudge value 31, 187
trimming regions by 182
nudging 186
by next Nudge Value 187
region contents 188
selection range 165
selection start/end points 165
selections and regions 187
setting the Nudge value 187
numeric entry
Calculator mode 167
shortcuts 167
Numeric Keypad modes 390
Classic 390
Shuttle 160, 391
Transport 391
O
Object Grabber 164
and Edit Groups 164
Object selections 163
OMS patch names 209
Online button 33
Online option 346
online recording 346
on-the-fly punch recording
MIDI tracks 108
QuickPunch 82, 113
Open Ended Record Allocation option 80
Open Session command 45
Operation Preferences
Audio During Fast Forward/Rewind option 156
Auto Region Fade In/Out Length option 255
Edit Insertion Follows Scrub/Shuttle option
159
Latch Record Enable Buttons option 75
Machine Chases Memory Location option 353
Machine Follows Edit Insertion/Scrub option
353
Open Ended Record Allocation option 80
Record Online option 346
Use F11 for Wait for Note 104
Operations menu
Auto Input Monitoring option 75
Auto-Spot Regions command 360
Calibration Mode 74
Copy Edit Selection to Timeline command 173
Copy Timeline Selection to Edit command 173
Destructive Record mode 90
Input Only Monitoring option 76
Link Edit and Timeline Selection option 161
Loop Playback option 171
Loop Record mode 93
Low Latency Monitoring option 77
Mute Frees Voice option 60, 61
Online option 346
Play Edit Selection command 173
Play Timeline Selection command 173
Pre/Post Roll Playback command 98
Pre/Post-Fader Metering option 22
Scrolling Options 157
Original Time Stamp 185, 361
Other Options dialog 40, 41
Output Options 127, 315
Channels 320
Conversion Quality option 321
File Format 315
Resolution 320
Sample Rate 320
Use Squeezer option 320
Output Selector 20
outputs
assigning 54
overlap crossfades 251
P
Page Scroll During Playback option 157
Pan automation 302
Pan Indicator 21
Pan Slider 21
Panning 59
Index 411
partial measures 235
Paste command 192
pasting
automation 306
between automation playlists 193
multiple data types 193
selections and regions 192
to multiple tracks 193
with Merge Paste command (MIDI) 195
with Repeat Paste To Fill Selection command
260
PCI Load 311
Peak Hold options 22
Peak Indicator 21
Pencil tool 28
as Eraser 207
drawing automation with 300
editing breakpoints with 301
inserting MIDI notes with 201
repairing waveforms with 263
resolution for inserted controller events 208
shapes 300
Pencil Tool Resolution When Drawing Controller
Data option 208, 300
pitch, for MIDI notes
transposing with Grabber 203
transposing with Transpose command 222
Play button 33
Play Edit Selection command 173
Play Timeline Selection command 173
playback and Scrolling Options 157
playback cursor 155
Playback Engine 12
changing 41
Playback Engine command 41
Playback Markers 96, 161
and Edit selections 162
and selection length 165
and Timeline selections 172
Playhead 158
and Edit selections 173
and Timeline selections 173
moving to region boundaries 173
412 Pro Tools Reference Guide
playing
and on-the-fly selections 163
at half-speed 118
Edit selections with Playhead enabled 173
from a track point 155
selections 170
Timeline selections with Playhead enabled 173
tracks 155
Playlist Selector 25
playlists 10, 141
adding new 142
and nondestructive MIDI editing 141
assigning 142
automation playlists 142, 287, 293
deleting 142
duplicating 142
edit playlists 14, 141
naming 69
recalling 142
recording to new 91
renaming 142
setting pre/post-roll in 98
Plug-In Inserts 268
Plug-Ins
assigning to Inserts 270
automating 296
positional reference 330
post crossfade 246
post crossfades 252
pre crossfade 246
pre crossfades 252
Pre/Post Roll Playback command 98
Pre/Post-Fader Metering option 22
pre/post-roll
and loop recording 93
and punch recording 92
auditioning 170
setting 97
Pre/Post-Roll Flags 98, 161
printing effects to disk 282
Pro Tools 24 systems 5
auto-fades 254
file management 67
Pro Tools III systems 5
24-bit input and output 324
file management 67
importing audio 119, 121
voice management 57
Pro Tools LE 7
Pro Tools MIX systems 5
24-bit input and output 324
auto-fades 254
file management 67
pre/post-roll 97
QuickPunch 114
Pro Tools TDM 6
processing bandwidth 311
Program Change window 209
program changes 13, 208
and bank select 208
auditioning 210
chasing 224
default, for MIDI tracks 209
deleting 210
editing 210
inserting 210
moving 210
patch names 209
Pull Up/Down 335
3:2 Pulldown 334
configuring 345
punch points 96
and Playback Markers 96
recalling with Memory Location 99
punch recording
and monitoring 92
and pre/post-roll 92
audio 92
MIDI 107
MIDI on the fly 108
Q
Quantize command 214
experimenting with 218
Quantize window 215
Quantize Regions command 189
and Grid value 186
Quantize window 215
Quantize Grid 215
Quantize Options 216
What to Quantize 215
quantizing
MIDI notes 214
attacks vs. releases 215
MIDI on input 104
regions 189
QuickPunch 82, 113
crossfades 113
non-TDM systems 115
region/take numbering 116
TDM systems 114
QuickPunch Crossfade Length option 113
QuickTime file format 316
QuickTime movies 367
bouncing to 376
conforming 368, 373
frame length 369
importing 370
importing audio from 375
offsetting 372
optimizing for playback 372
playback quality 369
requirements 369
setting start time 373
spotting 373
Quit command (Macintosh) 50
R
randomizing
note durations 221
note locations 217
note velocities 220
RealAudio file format 316
real-time editing 133
Record button 34, 81
Record Enable button 18
record enabling tracks 74
record modes 81
and MIDI 82
Destructive Record mode 81
Loop Record mode 82
Nondestructive Record mode 81
QuickPunch 82
switching with Record button 81
Record Online option 346
Record Pause mode 89
Record Safe mode 18, 75
Index 413
recording
a MIDI track 105
a single audio track 87
a submix to disk 282
additional takes 90
at half-speed 118
bouncing to disk 313
cancelling takes 88
destructively 90
from a digital source 116
from Record Pause mode 89
in stereo 89
keyboard shortcuts 88
monitoring latency 76
multiple audio tracks 89
non-destructively 9, 90
non-linear 9
online 346
System Exclusive data 112
to a new playlist 91
to multiple hard drives 79
to the system volume 80
with a countoff 83
with Round Robin Allocation 79
with the click 83
Red Book Audio CDs 377
region boundaries
extending selections to 166
moving edit cursor to 169
moving Playhead to 173
region definitions 128, 362
Region List Selection Follows Track Selection
option 143, 169
regions 10
aligning to region start points 179
auto-created 134
auto-naming parameters 197
auto-spotting 360
capturing 175
clearing 191
consolidating 196
copying 191
creating 175
crossfading between 251
cutting 191
default names 78
deleting underlying 192
displaying all 145
displaying names 137
414 Pro Tools Reference Guide
displaying times 137
dragging from Regions List 178
duplicating 194
exporting as audio files 127
extending selections to include 166
finding 145
healing separations 177
hiding auto-created 198
inserting silence into 258
locking 189
managing 196
moving 182
moving in Grid mode 186
muting 190
naming 69
nudging 187
Original Time Stamp 185
pasting 192
placing at Edit insertion point 178
placing in tracks 178
quantizing 189
removing unused 198
renaming 196
repeating 195
replacing 261
selecting 162
selecting all in a track 163
separating 175
separating with Separation Grabber 176
shifting 188
shuffling 183
slipping 184
sorting 144
spotting 184, 360
spotting to movies 374
sync points 182, 362
time stamping 361
trimming by Nudge Value 182
trimming start/end points 180
trimming to Edit insertion point 181
trimming unwanted data from 177
User Time Stamp 185
user-defined 134, 196, 198
whole-file audio regions 134
Regions view 135, 140
related takes 94
and Separate Region command 95
preferences for 95
remote track arming 353
Remove Sync Point command 183
removing
crossfades 252
Inserts 270
Sends 271
sync points 363
Rename Selected command 197
Rename Selected Tracks command 52
renaming
auto-created regions 196
groups 65
Memory Locations 240
playlists 142
regions 196
tracks 78
Repeat command 194
Repeat Paste To Fill Selection command 260
repeating
selections and regions 195
Replace mode
Replace Regions command 261
Replace Regions dialog 261
resolving sync 364
Return to Zero button 33
Revert to Saved command 46
Rewind
incrementally 156
locating with 156
Rewind button 33
Round Robin Allocation 79
Ruler View Shows option 150
Rulers
changing display order 150
Conductor Rulers 149
displaying all 150
scrolling in 157
Timebase Rulers 149
zooming in 148
S
sample delays (see DSP delays)
sample rate conversion quality 126, 375
sample rate formats 320
custom 320
Samples Time Scale 151
Save Session As command 46
Save Session command 46
Save Session Copy In command 47, 48
scaling note velocities 205, 220
screen savers 396
Scroll After Playback option 157
scrolling
in the Ruler 157
Notes view up or down 140
Scrub Trimmer 181
Scrubber tool 28, 158
in Shuttle mode 159
selecting with 169
scrubbing 158
a single audio track 159
and edit cursor 159
in Shuttle Lock mode 160
Movie Tracks 371
on two audio tracks 159
playback speed and direction 159
resolution 159
with Scrub Trimmer 181
with the Selector 159
SCSI
ID 395
Select All command 163
Select Notes command 213
Select Notes window 213
Select Unused Regions command 198
selecting
a pitch range of notes 213
across multiple tracks 167
all regions in a track 163
all regions in all tracks 163
discontiguous regions 163
during playback 163
grouped tracks 16, 32
MIDI notes 203, 213
notes in a chord 213
on all tracks 168
regions 162
track material 162
with Scrubber 169
with Selection Indicators 166
Selection Indicators 31, 166
and numeric entry shortcuts 167
making selections with 166
Selection Memory Location 236
moving stored selection 240
Index 415
selections
and Edit Groups 162
and hidden tracks 162
and Playback Markers 162
auditioning start/end points 170
changing length of 165
clearing 191
consolidating 196
copying 191
cutting 191
discontiguous 163
duplicating 194
extending 166
extending to the Meter Ruler 234
extending to the Tempo Ruler 229, 241
including Conductor Rulers 168
looping 171
moving to adjacent tracks 168
moving to the next/previous region 169
nudging 165, 187
nudging start/end points 165
Object 163
on-the-fly 163
pasting 192
playing 170
removing a track from 168
repeating 195
shifting 188
storing with Memory Locations 236
useful techniques 169
Selector tool 28
scrubbing with 159
selecting MIDI notes with 203
Send controls 22
showing 45
Send level faders 23
Send level meters 23
Send mute 23
Send pan 23
Sends 271
adding 271
and DSP usage 387
assigning to tracks 272
automating 295
Auxiliary Returns 274
copying track automation to 295
displaying 271
displaying controls for 23, 272
editing 272
416 Pro Tools Reference Guide
for hardware I/O 271
for mix busses 271
labeling 278
mono or stereo 271
removing 271
Sends View 22
Sends View Shows option 271
Separate Region command 175
and related takes 95
Separate Region Operates On All Related Takes
option 95, 176
Separation Grabber 176
Session Setup window 340
Current TC 363
session templates 48
sessions 10
bit depth 44, 340
closing 50
creating 42
default tempo 230
frame rate 341
opening 45
sample rate 340
saving 46
start frame 341
Set Movie Sync Offset command 373
Setups menu
Disk Allocation command 79
Feet.Frames command 151
Hardware command 39, 40
I/O Labels command 278
Playback Engine command 41
Shift command 188
Shift dialog 188
Show Disk Names option 143
Show File Names option 143
Show Full Pathnames option 143
Show Meters in Sends View option 273
Show MIDI Operations command 212
Show Movie Window command 371
Show/Hide Tracks list 15
Shuffle mode 26, 145
and locked regions 189
and moving regions 183
Shuttle Lock mode 160
Shuttle, Numeric Keypad mode 160, 391
Slip mode 26, 146
and moving regions 184
Smart Tool 29
and audio tracks 29
and MIDI tracks 30
creating crossfades with 30
creating fades with 30
editing automation with 30
editing controller events with 30
Smooth and Thin Data After Pass option 292, 299
smoothing automation 292
SMPTE
configuration 343
frame formats 332
start frame for session 341
SMPTE Slave Driver (SSD) 340
generating time code with 347
snapshot automation 308
adding to empty automation playlists 309
and trim values 310
writing over existing automation 309
SND resource file format 316
Solo button 18, 60
Solo Safe mode 19, 61
soloing
tracks 61
tracks in a submix 280
Solos Follow Mix Groups option 60, 292
sorting
Markers 243
regions 144
Sorting option 144
Sound Designer II file format 315
Split Notes command 214
Split Notes dialog 214
Spot dialog 184, 359
Use Subframes option 359, 361
User Time Stamp button 361
Spot mode 26, 146, 358
and moving regions 184
trimming regions in 360
spotting
auto-spotting 360
QuickTime movies 373
regions 184, 358, 360
Standard MIDI Files 128
exporting 129
importing 128
Type 0 128
Type 1 128
Standard Trimmer 180
start frame, for sessions 341
stepped control automation 302
stereo interleaved files, exporting 127
stereo recording 89
Stop button 33
Strip Silence command 256
and region naming 257
Strip Silence dialog 256
stuck notes 225
Sub Time Scale 151, 345
subframes 359
submixes 280
applying an Insert to 280
bouncing to 322
bouncing to disk 282
soloing tracks in 280
Suspend All Groups command 63
suspending automation 297
swing 216, 218
sync 329
3:2 Pulldown 334
and film 333
Bi-Phase/Tach 332
black burst 364
film speed vs. video speed 335
guide tracks 334
LTC 331
MIDI Beat Clock 358
MMC 351
options 339
positional reference 330
Pull Up/Down 335
resolving 364
SMPTE frame formats 332
time code 330
troubleshooting 363
VITC 331
Sync Mode 341
Sync Offset 342
sync points 362
for QuickTime movie 373
for regions 182
identifying 183, 363
Index 417
syncing to a sequencer
Macintosh 349
Windows 351
with MMC 356
syncing to an ADAT 354
Sys Ex view 211
System Exclusive data 13, 211
and MIDI Thru 103
deleting 211
moving 211
recording 112
System Load 311
T
Take Region Lengths That Match option 95
Take Region Names That Match Track Names
option 95
takes
auditioning 94
auditioning from Takes List 94
default names 78
numbering for QuickPunch 116
recording additional 90
Takes List pop-up menu 94
tapping in the tempo 86
TDM 383
TDM Mixer Plug-Ins 283
switching 284
TDM Plug-Ins
and DSP usage 388
MultiShell 388
TDM systems 5
audio interfaces 6
pre/post-roll 97
QuickPunch 114
voice and track limits 6
tempo
current 227
default 85, 230
effects on Markers and Memory Locations 236
effects on MIDI and audio 229
Manual Tempo mode 85
tapping in 86
tempo events 227
and Bar|Beat Markers 232
editing 228
inserting 227
418 Pro Tools Reference Guide
tempo map
from Identify Beat command 230
Tempo Ruler
displaying 227
extending an Edit selection to 229, 241
Thin Automation command 299
thinning automation 293, 299
tick-based and sample-based 236
tick-based timing 152
time code 330
and Jam Sync 342
capturing 359
freewheeling 342
generating 341, 347
Time Code Time Scale 150
Time Scale 150
Main 151, 345
Sub 151, 345
Time Stamp Selected command 95, 185, 361
Time Trimmer 258
Timebase Rulers 149
and selecting on all tracks 168
and Timeline selections 172
Edit Markers 162
Playback Markers 161
Pre/Post-Roll Flags 161
sliding Edit selections 169
sliding Timeline selections 172
Timeline selections 171
and Playback Markers 172
auditioning with Playhead enabled 173
copied from Edit selection 173
copied to Edit selection 173
in Timebase Rulers 172
sliding in the Ruler 172
start, end, and length fields 34
tools 27
Touch Timeout option 292
track controls
Edit window 23
Mix window 18
showing 45
track data 134
Track Height 25, 136
track level faders 21
track level meters 21
Track Name/Comments dialog 44, 78
Track Selection Follows Region List Selection
option 169
Track Transfer™ utility software 128
track width 61
tracks 11
adding to selection 167, 168
adding to session 44, 51
and Record Safe mode 75
appending new material to end of 91
assigning inputs 53
assigning outputs 54
assigning Sends 272
color coding 62
deleting 52
Display Format 25, 134
grouping 62
hiding 53
locating with Fast Forward/Rewind 156
master view 135, 305
moving selections between 168
muting 61
names 22, 78
placing regions in 178
playback priority 56
playing 155
record enabling 74
removing from a selection 168
renaming 52
selecting across multiple 167
selecting all regions in 163
selecting all regions in all tracks 163
selecting material in 162
selecting on all 168
soloing 61
Track Height 25, 136
transferring between sessions 128
transposing 222
trimming unwanted data from 177
virtual tracks 11, 14, 54
Transport Master 353
Transport window 33
MIDI controls 35
pre/post-roll 34, 98
start, end, and length fields 34, 97
transport controls 33
Transport, Numeric Keypad mode 391
Transpose command 222
Transpose window 222
transposing 222
by octave 223
key 223
MIDI notes 203
tracks 222
Trim Automation command 311
Trim End To Insertion command 182
Trim Start To Insertion command 182
Trim To Selection command 177
Trimmer tool 27, 180
Scrub Trimmer 181
Time Trimmer 258
trimming
automation breakpoints 302, 307
crossfades 252
input sum levels 285
note start/end points 204
region start/end points 180
regions by Nudge Value 182
regions to Edit insertion point 181
regions with Scrub Trimmer 181
unwanted region and track data 177
Tweak-head setting 321
U
Undo and MIDI recording 107
Universal Slave Driver (USD) 339
and VSO
generating time code with 348
resolving with 340
sync options 340
unlinked Edit and Timeline selection 161
Use F11 for Wait for Note option 104
Use Squeezer option 320
Use Subframes option 359, 361
User Time Stamp 185, 362
user-defined regions 134, 196, 198
Index 419
V
Variable Speed Override 343
velocities, for MIDI notes
default for inserted 201
dragging velocity stalks 205
drawing with Pencil 205
editing 205, 219
fading 220
randomizing 220
scaling 220
scaling with Trimmer 205
Velocity view 205
Vertical Zoom buttons 147
video capture/playback cards 368
video speed 335
views
Comments View 23
I/O View 20
Inserts View 22
Sends View 22
Virtual Memory 396
virtual tracks 11, 14, 54
VITC (Vertical Interval Time Code) 331
Voice Selector 19
voices 11, 19
allocating 14, 55
and track priority 56
auto-assignment of ascending 55
Volume automation 302
VSO (see Variable Speed Override)
W
Wait for Note 35, 104
WAV file format 68, 316
AES31/Broadcast compliant 68
Waveform view 25, 134, 137
waveforms 137
and zero-crossing 138
avoiding clicks and pops 138
drawn rectified 137
guidelines for editing 138
repairing with Pencil tool 263
whole-file audio regions 134
Write Automation command 308, 310
Write to Start/All/End buttons 306
420 Pro Tools Reference Guide
writing
automation 294
automation to start, end, or all 306
snapshot automation 308
Z
zero-crossing 138
Zoom buttons 26
Zoom Preset buttons 27, 149
Zoomer tool 27, 148
zooming 147
a track area 148
all the way out 148
around a track point 148
horizontally for all tracks 147
in the Ruler 148
recalling zoom levels 149
storing zoom levels 149
vertically for all audio tracks 147
vertically for all MIDI tracks 147