Watchguard V10.0 User guide

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Firebox Vclass
User Guide
®
™
Vcontroller 4.0
Notice to Users
Information in this guide is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are
fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc.
Copyright, Trademark, and Patent Information
Copyright© 1998 - 2002 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Notice to Users
Information in this guide is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are
fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc.
Copyright, Trademark, and Patent Information
Copyright© 1998 - 2003 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
AppLock®, AppLock®/Web, Designing peace of mind®, Firebox®, Firebox® 1000, Firebox® 2500, Firebox® 4500,
Firebox® II, Firebox® II Plus, Firebox® II FastVPN, Firebox® III, Firebox® SOHO, Firebox® SOHO 6, Firebox®
SOHO 6tc, Firebox® SOHO|tc, Firebox® V100, Firebox® V80, Firebox® V60, Firebox® V10, LiveSecurity®,
LockSolid®, RapidStream®, RapidCore®, ServerLock®, WatchGuard®, WatchGuard® Technologies, Inc., DVCP™
technology,, Enforcer/MUVPN™, FireChip™, HackAdmin™, HostWatch™, Make Security Your Strength™,
RapidCare™, SchoolMate™, ServiceWatch™, Smart Security. Simply Done.™, Vcontroller™, VPNforce™ are either
registered trademarks or trademarks of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. in the United States and/or other
countries.Smart Security. Simply Done., SpamScreen, Vcontroller are either registered trademarks or trademarks of
WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. in the United States and/or other courtries.
© Hi/fn, Inc. 1993, including one or more U.S. Patents: 4701745, 5016009, 5126739, and 5146221 and other
patents pending.
Microsoft®, Internet Explorer®, Windows® 95, Windows® 98, Windows NT® and Windows® 2000 are either
registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
Netscape and Netscape Navigator are registered trademarks of Netscape Communications Corporation in the United
States and other countries.
RC2 Symmetric Block Cipher, RC4 Symmetric Stream Cipher, RC5 Symmetric Block Cipher, BSAFE, TIPEM, RSA
Public Key Cryptosystem, MD, MD2, MD4, and MD5 are either trademarks or registered trademarks of RSA Data
Security, Inc. Certain materials herein are Copyright © 1992-1999 RSA Data Security, Inc. All rights reserved.
RealNetworks, RealAudio, and RealVideo are either a registered trademark or trademark of RealNetworks, Inc. in the
United States and/or other countries.
Java and all Jave-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United
States and other countries. All right reserved.
© 1995-1998 Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft). All rights reserved.
© 1998-2000 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgment:
"This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://
www.openssl.org/)"
4. The names "OpenSSL Toolkit" and "OpenSSL Project" must not be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without prior written permission. For written permission, please contact openssl-core@openssl.org.
5. Products derived from this software may not be called "OpenSSL" nor may "OpenSSL" appear in their names without
prior written permission of the OpenSSL Project.
6. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following acknowledgment: "This product includes software
developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/)"
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE OpenSSL PROJECT ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE OpenSSL
PROJECT OR ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young
(eay@cryptsoft.com). This product includes software written by Tim
Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
© 1995-1998 Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
All rights reserved.
This package is an SSL implementation written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com).
The implementation was written so as to conform with Netscapes SSL.
This library is free for commercial and non-commercial use as long as the following conditions are aheared to. The
following conditions apply to all code found in this distribution, be it the RC4, RSA, lhash, DES, etc., code; not just the
SSL code. The SSL documentation included with this distribution is covered by the same copyright terms except that
the holder is Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
Copyright remains Eric Young's, and as such any Copyright notices in the code are not to be removed. If this package is
used in a product, Eric Young should be given attribution as the author of the parts of the library used. This can be in
the form of a textual message at program startup or in documentation (online or textual) provided with the package.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgement:
"This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)" The word 'cryptographic'
can be left out if the routines from the library being used are not cryptographic related :-).
4. If you include any Windows specific code (or a derivative thereof) from the apps directory (application code) you
must include an acknowledgement: "This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com)"
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS
BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE
OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
The licence and distribution terms for any publicly available version or derivative of this code cannot be changed. i.e.
this code cannot simply be copied and put under another distribution licence [including the GNU Public Licence.]
The mod_ssl package falls under the Open-Source Software label because it's distributed under a BSD-style license. The
detailed license information follows.
Copyright (c) 1998-2001 Ralf S. Engelschall. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgment:
"This product includes software developed by Ralf S. Engelschall <rse@engelschall.com> for use in the mod_ssl
project (http://www.modssl.org/)."
4. The names "mod_ssl" must not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without prior
written permission. For written permission, please contact rse@engelschall.com.
5. Products derived from this software may not be called "mod_ssl" nor may "mod_ssl" appear in their names without
prior written permission of Ralf S. Engelschall.
6. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following acknowledgment: "This product includes software
developed by Ralf S. Engelschall <rse@engelschall.com> for use in the mod_ssl project (http://www.modssl.org/)."
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY RALF S. ENGELSCHALL ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
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AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL RALF S.
ENGELSCHALL OR HIS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
The Apache Software License, Version 1.1
Copyright (c) 2000 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. The end-user documentation included with the redistribution, if any, must include the following acknowledgment:
"This product includes software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/)." Alternately,
this acknowledgment may appear in the software itself, if and wherever such third-party acknowledgments normally
appear.
4. The names "Apache" and "Apache Software Foundation" must not be used to endorse or promote products derived
from this software without prior written permission. For written permission, please contact apache@apache.org.
5. Products derived from this software may not be called "Apache", nor may "Apache" appear in their name, without
prior written permission of the Apache Software Foundation.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING,
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE APACHE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION
OR ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
This software consists of voluntary contributions made by many individuals on behalf of the Apache Software
Foundation. For more information on the Apache Software Foundation, please see <http://www.apache.org/>.
Portions of this software are based upon public domain software originally written at the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
PLEASE NOTE: Some components of the WatchGuard Vclass software incorporate source code covered under the
GNU General Public License (GPL). To obtian the source code covered under the GPL, please contact WatchGuard
Technical Support at:
877.232.3531 in the United States and Canada
+1.360.482.1083 from all other countries
This source code is free to download. There is a $35 charge to ship the CD.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
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of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
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means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
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your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
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Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
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either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
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All other trademarks or trade names mentioned herein, if any, are the property of their respective owners.
Part No: 0150-000
WatchGuard Technologies, Inc.
Firebox Vclass Software
End-User License Agreement
IMPORTANT - READ CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING WATCHGUARD SOFTWARE:
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4. Limited Warranty. WATCHGUARD makes the following limited warranties for a period of ninety (90) days from
the date you obtained the SOFTWARE PRODUCT from WATCHGUARD or an authorized dealer:
(A) Media. The disks and documentation will be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use. If
the disks or documentation fail to conform to this warranty, you may, as your sole and exclusive remedy, obtain a
replacement free of charge if you return the defective disk or documentation to WATCHGUARD with a dated proof of
purchase.
(B) SOFTWARE PRODUCT. The SOFTWARE PRODUCT will materially conform to the documentation that
accompanies it. If the SOFTWARE PRODUCT fails to operate in accordance with this warranty, you may, as your sole
and exclusive remedy, return all of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT and the documentation to the authorized dealer from
whom you obtained it, along with a dated proof of purchase, specifying the problems, and they will provide you with a
new version of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT or a full refund, at their election.
Disclaimer and Release. THE WARRANTIES, OBLIGATIONS AND LIABILITIES OF WATCHGUARD, AND YOUR
REMEDIES, SET FORTH IN PARAGRAPHS 4, 4(A) AND 4(B) ABOVE ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN
SUBSTITUTION FOR, AND YOU HEREBY WAIVE, DISCLAIM AND RELEASE ANY AND ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, OBLIGATIONS AND LIABILITIES OF WATCHGUARD AND ITS LICENSORS AND ALL OTHER
RIGHTS, CLAIMS AND REMEDIES YOU MAY HAVE AGAINST WATCHGUARD AND ITS LICENSORS,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ARISING BY LAW OR OTHERWISE, WITH RESPECT TO ANY NONCONFORMANCE
OR DEFECT IN THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY
OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY ARISING
FROM COURSE OF PERFORMANCE, COURSE OF DEALING, OR USAGE OF TRADE, ANY WARRANTY OF
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NONINFRINGEMENT, ANY WARRANTY THAT THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT WILL MEET YOUR
REQUIREMENTS, ANY WARRANTY OF UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR-FREE OPERATION, ANY OBLIGATION,
LIABILITY, RIGHT, CLAIM OR REMEDY IN TORT, WHETHER OR NOT ARISING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE
(WHETHER ACTIVE, PASSIVE OR IMPUTED) OR FAULT OF WATCHGUARD AND ITS LICENSORS AND ANY
OBLIGATION, LIABILITY, RIGHT, CLAIM OR REMEDY FOR LOSS OR DAMAGE TO, OR CAUSED BY OR
CONTRIBUTED TO BY, THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT).
Limitation of Liability. WATCHGUARD'S LIABILITY (WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE; AND
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY FAULT, NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY OR PRODUCT LIABILITY) WITH
REGARD TO THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT WILL IN NO EVENT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE PAID BY YOU
FOR SUCH PRODUCT. THIS SHALL BE TRUE EVEN IN THE EVENT OF THE FAILURE OF AN AGREED
REMEDY. IN NO EVENT WILL WATCHGUARD BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY, WHETHER
ARISING IN CONTRACT (INCLUDING WARRANTY), TORT (INCLUDING ACTIVE, PASSIVE OR IMPUTED
NEGLIGENCE AND STRICT LIABILITY AND FAULT), FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS,
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THIS WARRANTY OR THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT, EVEN IF
WATCHGUARD HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THIS SHALL BE TRUE
EVEN IN THE EVENT OF THE FAILURE OF AN AGREED REMEDY.
5.United States Government Restricted Rights. The SOFTWARE PRODUCT is provided with Restricted Rights. Use,
duplication or disclosure by the U.S. Government or any agency or instrumentality thereof is subject to restrictions as
set forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.2277013, or in subdivision (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software -- Restricted Rights Clause at 48 C.F.R.
52.227-19, as applicable. Manufacturer is WatchGuard Technologies, Inc., 505 5th Ave. South, Suite 500, Seattle,
WA 98104.
6.Export Controls. You agree not to directly or indirectly transfer the SOFTWARE PRODUCT or documentation to
any country to which such transfer would be prohibited by the U.S. Export Administration Act and the regulations
issued thereunder.
7.Termination. This license and your right to use the SOFTWARE PRODUCT will automatically terminate if you fail
to comply with any provisions of this AGREEMENT, destroy all copies of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT in your
possession, or voluntarily return the SOFTWARE PRODUCT to WATCHGUARD. Upon termination you will destroy
all copies of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT and documentation remaining in your control or possession.
8.Miscellaneous Provisions. This AGREEMENT will be governed by and construed in accordance with the substantive
laws of Washington excluding the 1980 United National Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods,
as amended. This is the entire AGREEMENT between us relating to the SOFTWARE PRODUCT, and supersedes any
prior purchase order, communications, advertising or representations concerning the SOFTWARE PRODUCT AND BY
USING THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT YOU AGREE TO THESE TERMS. IF THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT IS BEING
USED BY AN ENTITY, THE INDIVIDUAL INDICATING AGREEMENT TO THESE TERMS REPRESENTS AND
WARRANTS THAT (A) SUCH INDIVIDUAL IS DULY AUTHORIZED TO ACCEPT THIS AGREEMENT ON
BEHALF OF THE ENTITY AND TO BIND THE ENTITY TO THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT; (B) THE
ENTITY HAS THE FULL POWER, CORPORATE OR OTHERWISE, TO ENTER INTO THIS AGREEMENT AND
PERFORM ITS OBLIGATIONS UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND; (C) THIS AGREEMENT AND THE
PERFORMANCE OF THE ENTITY’S OBLIGATIONS UNDER THIS AGREEMENT DO NOT VIOLATE ANY THIRDPARTY AGREEMENT TO WHICH THE ENTITY IS A PARTY. No change or modification of this AGREEMENT will
be valid unless it is in writing and is signed by WATCHGUARD.
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Contents
Introduction
..................................................... 1
Welcome to WatchGuard® ............................................1
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass Components ...................... 2
Minimum Requirements for the
WatchGuard Vcontroller ............................................. 2
Software License Keys .................................................... 4
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass Appliance Options ............. 5
High Availability ............................................................ 5
Mobile User VPN ..........................................................5
About This Guide ........................................................... 6
CHAPTER 1
Service and Support
...................................... 7
Benefits of LiveSecurity® Service ................................... 7
LiveSecurity® Broadcasts ............................................... 8
Activating the LiveSecurity® Service ..............................9
LiveSecurity® Self Help Tools ....................................... 11
Interactive Support Forum ........................................... 12
Product Documentation ............................................... 13
CHAPTER 2
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Assisted Support
.......................................................... 13
LiveSecurity® Program ............................................... 14
LiveSecurity® Gold Program ....................................... 14
Firebox Vclass Installation Services .............................. 15
VPN Installation Services ............................................. 15
Training and Certification ............................................. 15
Using the Online Help ................................................. 16
Getting Started
............................................ 17
Gathering Network Information ................................... 18
Setting up the Management Station ........................... 18
Installing the Vcontroller on a Windows workstation ...... 18
Installing the Vcontroller on a Solaris workstation .......... 19
Installing the Vcontroller on a Linux workstation ........... 20
Cabling the Appliance ................................................. 22
Turning on a Firebox Vclass Security Appliance .......... 22
If problems occur ....................................................... 23
Using Appliance Discovery .......................................... 23
If no appliance is discovered ....................................... 24
If an appliance is discovered ....................................... 25
Setting the IP address of Interface 0 (Private) ................ 26
Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard ................. 27
Before You Begin ....................................................... 27
Starting the Installation Wizard .................................... 28
Edit the General information ....................................... 29
Configure the Interfaces ............................................. 31
Configure Routing ...................................................... 34
Define the DNS servers ............................................... 35
Define a Default Firewall Policy ................................... 37
Using Dynamic Network Address Translation (DNAT) .... 40
Change the Password ................................................. 40
Deploying the Firebox Vclass into your Network ........ 43
CHAPTER 3
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Firebox Vclass Basics
.................................. 45
What is a Firebox Vclass Appliance? ............................45
Firebox Vclass Features ................................................ 46
Where the Information is Stored .................................. 47
Launching the WatchGuard Vcontroller ....................... 47
The Vcontroller Main Page ........................................... 49
Activities column buttons ............................................ 49
Policy column buttons .................................................50
Administration column buttons .................................... 51
Page-top buttons ........................................................53
The status viewer ........................................................53
Logging out of the Vcontroller ..................................... 54
Shutting Down and Rebooting ..................................... 55
Restarting the appliance .............................................. 57
Upgrading and Downgrading the Software Version .... 57
The Upgrade History ................................................... 59
Transferring from the Vcontroller to WatchGuard CPM 60
CHAPTER 4
System Configuration
................................. 61
General Configuration .................................................. 61
Interface Configuration ................................................ 63
Configuring Interface 0 ................................................ 65
Configuring Interface 1 ................................................ 67
Configuring Interface 2 or 3 ......................................... 69
Configuring the HA Interfaces ...................................... 70
Routing Configuration .................................................. 72
Configuring static routing ............................................ 72
Configuring dynamic routing ....................................... 74
DNS Configuration ....................................................... 75
SNMP Configuration .................................................... 77
Log Configuration ........................................................79
Certificate Configuration .............................................. 79
CHAPTER 5
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................................ 85
LDAP Server Configuration .......................................... 87
NTP Server Configuration ............................................ 88
Advanced Configuration .............................................. 90
Hacker Prevention Options .......................................... 92
CPM Management Configuration ................................ 95
Managing Software Licenses ....................................... 97
VLAN Forwarding Option .......................................... 100
High Availability Configuration .................................. 103
Importing a certificate or CRL file
Using Account Manager
.......................... 105
Configuring Accounts ................................................ 105
End-user accounts for authentication ......................... 108
Managing accounts .................................................. 109
External Access for Remote Management ................. 111
Account Access Conflicts ........................................... 111
Resolving login conflicts ........................................... 112
CHAPTER 6
About Security Policies
............................ 113
About Security Policies .............................................. 113
Security policy components ...................................... 114
Types of policies ....................................................... 115
Using Policy Manager ................................................ 117
Applying system-wide QoS port shaping ................... 120
Using tunnel switching .............................................. 121
Using Policy Checker ................................................ 121
How policy order governs policy application .............. 123
Default policies ........................................................ 124
Defining a Security Policy .......................................... 125
Defining source and destination ................................ 125
Defining an address group ........................................ 126
Defining a service ..................................................... 128
Defining the incoming interface ................................ 131
CHAPTER 7
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Using Tenants
.............................................................131
About VLANs and tenants ......................................... 132
User domain tenant authentication ............................. 133
Defining tenants ....................................................... 134
Using the Firewall Options ......................................... 136
Defining the firewall action ........................................136
Using Quality of Service (QoS) ................................... 137
Defining a QoS action ...............................................138
Activating TOS marking ............................................. 139
About NAT ................................................................. 140
Static NAT ................................................................ 141
Dynamic NAT ........................................................... 142
About Load Balancing ................................................ 142
Defining a NAT Action ...............................................143
Defining a Load-Balancing Action .............................. 145
Using Policy Schedules ...............................................146
Defining a Schedule .................................................. 147
Using the Advanced Settings ..................................... 149
Security Policy Examples
......................... 153
Firewall Policy Examples ............................................. 153
Example 1: Allowing Internet access ..........................153
Example 2: Restricting Internet access ........................ 154
CHAPTER 8
Example 3: Allowing unlimited access for
authorized users ................................................... 156
Example 4: Allowing communication between
branch offices ....................................................... 158
Example 5: Defining policies for an ISP ....................... 160
Example 6: Controlling access at corporate
headquarters ........................................................ 161
VLAN Policy Examples
...............................................164
Using a Firebox Vclass appliance in a VLAN setting ..... 166
Creating policies for user-domain tenants ...................166
An example of a user-domain policy in use ................. 167
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QoS Policy Examples ................................................. 168
Example 1: .............................................................. 168
Example 2: .............................................................. 168
Static NAT Policy Examples ....................................... 169
Example 1: Translating IP addresses into aliases ......... 169
Example 2: Preventing conflicts between IP addresses 170
Load Balancing Policy Examples ............................... 172
Configuring Load Balancing for a Web Server ............ 172
Configuring Load Balancing for an E-commerce Site ... 173
Using Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
. 177
About VPN Policies .................................................... 178
VPN policies and IPSec actions .................................. 179
About Authentication and Encryption ....................... 180
Defining an IKE Policy ................................................ 180
Defining an IKE action .............................................. 183
Defining a VPN Security Policy .................................. 185
Defining an IPSec action ........................................... 186
Using Tunnel Switching .............................................. 194
Enabling tunnel switching ......................................... 197
CHAPTER 9
Creating a Remote User VPN Policy
... 199
About Remote User VPNs .......................................... 199
Requirements ........................................................... 200
High-level view of remote user policies ...................... 201
Configuring Remote Users ......................................... 201
Using an internal authentication database .................. 204
Using a RADIUS authentication database ................... 206
Editing and deleting a user group profile ................... 208
Removing the backup server ..................................... 208
Defining a IKE and Security Policies for
Remote Users ........................................................ 209
Controlling a remote user’s access privileges .............. 211
Monitoring Remote User Activity ............................... 211
CHAPTER 10
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Monitoring the Firebox Vclass
............... 215
Using the Real-Time Monitor ..................................... 215
Defining probes ........................................................ 217
Monitoring configured probes ................................... 218
A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters ....... 220
System Counters ....................................................... 220
Aggregate counters for all VPN end-point pairs ......... 226
IPSec counters per VPN end-point pair ...................... 226
Policy counters for all policies .................................... 227
Policy counters per policy .......................................... 228
CHAPTER 11
Using Alarm Manager
.............................. 231
Alarm Definitions ........................................................ 231
Defining a single-condition alarm ............................... 233
Defining a multiple-condition alarm ........................... 235
Managing alarm definitions ....................................... 238
Responding to an Alarm Notification ......................... 239
CHAPTER 12
Using Log Manager
.................................. 243
Viewing the Logs ........................................................ 244
Filtering a current log ................................................ 246
Log Settings ............................................................... 247
Activating the remote logging feature ........................ 248
Log Archiving .............................................................250
CHAPTER 13
System Information ................................... 253
General Information ................................................... 253
VPN Tunnel Information ............................................. 254
Viewing tunnel details ...............................................256
Traffic Information ......................................................256
Route Information ......................................................258
RAS User Information ................................................. 258
Viewing RAS user information and tunnel details ......... 259
Interface 1 (Public) Information .................................. 261
CHAPTER 14
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DHCP Server Information
CHAPTER 15
.......................................... 262
Backing Up and Restoring
Configurations ........................................... 263
Create a Backup File .................................................. 264
Restoring an Archived Configuration ......................... 265
Restoring to the Factory Default ................................ 266
Exporting and Importing Configuration Files ............ 267
Importing a configuration file using Appliance
Discovery ............................................................ 269
Editing an exported configuration file ........................ 270
Using the Diagnostics/CLI Feature ...... 273
Using Connectivity to Test Network Connections ..... 273
Using the Support Features ....................................... 275
Configuring debugging support ................................ 275
Saving a Policy to a text file ....................................... 277
Executing a CLI Script ................................................ 278
Saving Diagnostic Information ................................... 280
CHAPTER 16
CHAPTER 17
Setting Up a High Availability System
Index
................................................................ 295
283
Prerequisites for a High Availability System ............... 284
Connecting the Appliances ....................................... 285
Configuring a Standby Appliance .............................. 285
Customizing HA System Parameters ......................... 289
Checking your HA System Status .............................. 292
Detailed system status .............................................. 292
Additional Preparation for Failover ............................ 293
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CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Welcome to WatchGuard
®
The WatchGuard Firebox Vclass series of security appliances brings high
speed network security to enterprise-class businesses, remote offices,
service providers, and data centers.
In the past, a connected enterprise needed a complex set of tools, systems,
and personnel for access control, authentication, virtual private
networking, network management, and security analysis. These costly
systems were difficult to integrate and not easy to update. The
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass appliance combines firewall security, VPN
support, and powerful traffic management with Fast Ethernet and Gigabit
Ethernet connections. The Vclass security ASIC architecture delivers
scalable support up to 20,000 VPN tunnels. An Install Wizard and Device
Discovery utility shorten the installation time to minutes. Firebox Vclass
security appliances include an intuitive, multi-platform Java®-based GUI
management console for flexible and effective centralized management.
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WatchGuard Firebox Vclass Components
All Firebox Vclass models are fully IPSec-compliant, with built-in core
software and management tools designed to provide consistent network
security. Every Firebox Vclass is a system made up of the following
components:
• Firebox Vclass appliance
•
•
WatchGuard Vcontroller™–a comprehensive management and
monitoring software suite
LiveSecurity Service–a security-related broadcast service
RapidCore™ hardware ensemble
A well-integrated chip set and memory system powers every
Firebox Vclass appliance in its primary duties: protecting your
network and efficiently managing legitimate data.
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass Operating System™ (OS)
Every Firebox Vclass security appliance is preinstalled with the
latest version of the Firebox Vclass Operating System–which is
identified on the packaging by a version number. This operating
system includes all the software resources that make the
appliance fully functional.
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass administrative client applications
The WatchGuard Vcontroller (or the companion WatchGuard
CPM client software) gives you full control of all the customizable
operating system parameters, including basic system
configurations, security policies, maintenance, and activity
logging.
Minimum Requirements for the WatchGuard Vcontroller
This section describes the minimum hardware and software requirements
necessary to successfully install, run, and administer the WatchGuard
Vcontroller.
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Minimum Requirements for the WatchGuard Vcontroller
NOTE
For the most current information on Vclass hardware and operating
system requirements, see the Readme file on the Firebox Vcontroller CD.
In addition, updates are frequently posted on the WatchGuard Web site.
Windows workstation
Operating System
Windows 98/ME/NT 4.0/2000/XP
CPU
Pentium II or later
Processor speed
500 MHz or faster
Memory
64 MB minimum (128 MB is recommended)
Input device
CD-ROM or DVD
Hard disk space
10 MB minimum
Additional space as required for log files
Additional space as required for backup and archive
configuration files
Network interface
NICs or embedded network connections
Linux workstation
Operating system
Linux kernel v2.2.12 and glibc v2.1.2-11 or later. The officially
supported Linux platform for JRE 1.3.1 is RedHat Linux 6.2.
Because of localization issues involving Linux platforms, see the
Sun Web site.
CPU
Pentium II or later
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Processor speed
500 MHz or faster
Memory
64 MB minimum (128 MB is recommended)
Input device
CD-ROM or DVD
Hard disk space
10 MB minimum
Network interface
NICs or embedded network connections
Sun/Solaris workstation
Operating system
Solaris v2.6 or later
Memory
64 MB minimum (128 MB recommended)
Input device
CD-ROM or DVD
Hard disk space
10 MB minimum
Network interface
NICs or embedded network connections
Software License Keys
Keep track of your license key certificates. Your WatchGuard Firebox
Vclass comes with a LiveSecurity Service key that activates your
subscription to the LiveSecurity Service. For more information on this
service, see “Service and Support” on page 7.
Some features of the WatchGuard Firebox Vclass series of appliances
must be licensed for use, and others can be expanded by licensing
additional capacity. Licensing increases or extends the Firebox Vclass
capability in three ways:
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WatchGuard Firebox Vclass Appliance Options
•
•
•
Adding new functionality through optional products
Increasing the capacity of a particular feature
Extending the duration of a limited-term feature or service
High Availability and WatchGuard Mobile User VPN are optional
products, and you receive those license keys upon purchase. For more
information on optional products, see “WatchGuard Firebox Vclass
Appliance Options” on page 5. For more information on increasing the
capacity or lengthening the duration of a feature, see the WatchGuard
Web site.
For information on adding and managing software licenses, see
“Managing Software Licenses” on page 97.
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass Appliance Options
The WatchGuard Firebox Vclass appliance is enhanced by several
optional products. For more information on any of these options, see the
WatchGuard Web site at www.watchguard.com.
High Availability
WatchGuard High Availability software lets you install a second, standby
Firebox on your network. If your primary Firebox fails, the second
Firebox automatically takes over to give your customers, business
partners, and employees virtually uninterrupted access to your protected
network.
Mobile User VPN
Mobile User VPN is the WatchGuard IPSec implementation of remote
user virtual private networking. Mobile User VPN connects an employee
on the road or working from home to the trusted and optional networks
behind a Firebox Vclass using a standard Internet connection, without
compromising security. VPN traffic is encrypted using DES or 3DES.
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About This Guide
The purpose of this guide is to help users of the WatchGuard Firebox
Vclass appliance set up and configure a basic network security system
and maintain, administer, and enhance the configuration of their network
security.
The audience for this guide represents a wide range of experience and
expertise in network management and security. The end user of the
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass is generally a network administrator for a
large enterprise with multiple offices around the world.
The following conventions are used in this guide:
• Within procedures, visual elements of the user interface, such as
buttons, drop list items, dialog boxes, fields, and tabs, appear in
boldface.
• Drop list items separated by arrows (=>) are selected in sequence from
subsequent drop lists. For example, File => Open =>
Configuration File means to select Open from the File drop list, and
then Configuration File from the Open drop list.
• URLs and email addresses appear in sans serif font; for example, wgusers@watchguard.com.
• Code, messages, and file names appear in monospace font; for
example:.wgl and.idx files
• In command syntax, variables appear in italics; for example: fbidsmate
import_passphrase
•
6
Optional command parameters appear in square brackets.
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CHAPTER 2
Service and Support
No Internet security solution is complete without systematic updates and
security intelligence. From the latest hacker techniques to the most
recently discovered operating system bug, the daily barrage of new
threats poses a perpetual challenge to any network security solution.
LiveSecurity® Service keeps your security system up-to-date by providing
solutions directly to you.
In addition, the WatchGuard Technical Support team and Training
department offer a wide variety of methods to answer your questions and
assist you with improving the security of your network.
®
Benefits of LiveSecurity Service
As the frequency of new attacks and security advisories continues to
surge, the task of ensuring that your network is secure becomes an even
greater challenge. The WatchGuard Rapid Response Team, a dedicated
group of network security experts, helps absorb this burden by
monitoring the Internet security landscape for you in order to identify
new threats as they emerge.
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Threat alerts and expert advice
After a new threat is identified, you’ll receive a LiveSecurity broadcast via
an email message from our Rapid Response Team that alerts you to the
threat. Each alert includes a complete description of the nature and
severity of the threat, the risks it poses, and what steps you should take to
make sure your network remains continuously protected.
Easy software updates
Your WatchGuard LiveSecurity Service subscription saves you time by
providing the latest software to keep your WatchGuard Firebox Vclass
up-to-date. You receive installation wizards and release notes with each
software update for easy installation. These ongoing updates ensure that
your WatchGuard Firebox Vclass remains state-of-the-art, without your
having to take time to track new releases.
Access to technical support and training
When you have questions about your WatchGuard Firebox Vclass, you
can quickly find answers using our extensive online support resources, or
by talking directly to one of our support representatives. In addition, you
can access WatchGuard courseware online to learn about WatchGuard
Vclass features.
®
LiveSecurity Broadcasts
The WatchGuard LiveSecurity Rapid Response Team periodically sends
broadcasts and software information directly to your desktop via email.
Broadcasts are divided into channels to help you immediately recognize
and process incoming information.
Information Alert
Information Alerts provide timely analysis of breaking news and
current issues in Internet security combined with system
configuration recommendations necessary to protect your
network.
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LiveSecurity® Broadcasts
Threat Response
After a newly discovered threat is identified, the Rapid Response
Team transmits an update specifically addressing this threat to
make sure your network is protected.
Software Update
You receive functional software enhancements on an ongoing
basis that cover your entire WatchGuard Firebox Vclass.
Editorial
Leading security experts join the WatchGuard Rapid Response
Team in contributing useful editorials to provide a source of
continuing education on this rapidly changing subject.
Foundations
Articles specifically written for novice security administrators,
non-technical co-workers, and executives.
Loopback
A monthly index of LiveSecurity Service broadcasts.
Support Flash
These technical tutorials provide tips for managing the
WatchGuard Firebox Vclass. Support Flashes supplement other
resources such as FAQs and Known Issues on the Technical
Support Web site.
Virus Alert
In cooperation with McAfee, WatchGuard issues weekly
broadcasts that provide the latest information on new computer
viruses.
New from WatchGuard
To keep you abreast of new features, product upgrades, and
upcoming programs, WatchGuard first announces their
availability to our existing customers.
®
Activating the LiveSecurity Service
The LiveSecurity Service can be activated through the activation section
of the WatchGuard LiveSecurity Web pages.
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To activate the LiveSecurity Service through the Web:
1
Be sure that you have the Firebox Vclass serial number handy. You
will need this during the activation process.
- The Firebox Vclass serial number is displayed in two locations: a
small silver sticker on the outside of the shipping box, and a
sticker on the back of the Firebox Vclass just below the UPC bar
code
2
Using your Web browser, go to:
http:\\www.watchguard.com\activate
NOTE
You must have JavaScript enabled on your browser to be able to activate
LiveSecurity Service.
3
Complete the Account Profile page. Move through the fields on the
form using either the TAB key or the mouse.
All of the fields are required for successful registration. The profile information
helps WatchGuard target information and updates to your needs.
4
Click Register.
5
Select your product and click Next.
6
Verify that your email address is valid. You will receive your
activation confirmation mail and all of your LiveSecurity broadcasts
at this address.
7
8
9
Enter the serial number of your product.
The Product Selection page appears.
The Activation page appears.
Select the language you prefer.
Review the EULA and click Continue.
The Feature Key page appears.
10 The Feature Key page displays the unique feature key for your unit.
NOTE
To enable VPN 3DES encryption for your unit, you must copy this feature
key information into the Vclass Vcontroller software. For information on
copying the feature key into the Vcontroller software, see “Importing
LiveSecurity Feature Key” on page 11
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LiveSecurity® Self Help Tools
11 Click Continue. The Confirmation Web page appears.
Importing LiveSecurity Feature Key
To import a feature key from the LiveSecurity Service Web site to the
Vcontroller software:
1
2
3
4
Launch the Vcontroller software.
5
Copy the feature key information generated on Feature Key page
from the LiveSecurity Service Web site.
Click System Configuration.
Click on the License tab.
Click Add.
The Import License window appears.
NOTE
If you closed the Feature Key page, you can regenerate your Feature Key
by logging back into LiveSecurity Service on the WatchGuard Web site at:
https://www3.watchguard.com/archive/login.asp
Once logged into the LiveSecurity Service, you can regenerate your unit’s
unique Feature Key by selecting Get Feature Key.
6
7
Click Paste in the Import License window.
Click Import License to add the license.
You completed importing the LiveSecurity feature key. Click Active
Features to check what features are activated.
LiveSecurity® Self Help Tools
Online support services help you get the most out of your WatchGuard
products.
NOTE
You must register for LiveSecurity Service before you can access the
online support services.
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Advanced FAQs (frequently asked questions)
Detailed information about configuration options and
interoperability.
Known Issues
Confirmed issues and fixes for current software.
Interactive Support Forum
A moderated Web board about WatchGuard products.
Online Training
Information on product training, certification, and a broad
spectrum of publications about network security and
WatchGuard products. These courses are designed to guide users
through all components of WatchGuard products. These courses
are modular in design, allowing you to use them in a manner
most suitable to your learning objectives. For more information,
go to:
www.watchguard.com/training/courses_online.asp
Learn About
A listing of all resources available for specific products and
features.
Product Documentation
A listing of current product documentation from which you can
open.pdf files.
To access the online support services:
1
From your Web browser, go to http://www.watchguard.com/ and select
Support.
2
Log in to LiveSecurity Service.
Interactive Support Forum
The WatchGuard Interactive Support forum is an online group in which
the users of the WatchGuard Firebox Vclass and Firebox System exchange
ideas, questions, and tips regarding all aspects of the product, including
configuration, compatibility, and networking. This forum is categorized
and searchable, and is moderated, during regular business hours, by
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Product Documentation
WatchGuard engineers and Technical Support personnel. However, this
forum should not be used for reporting support issues to WatchGuard
Technical Support. Instead, contact WatchGuard Technical Support
directly via the Web interface or telephone.
Joining the WatchGuard users forum
To join the WatchGuard users forum:
1
Go to www.watchguard.com. Click Support. Log into LiveSecurity
Service.
2
3
4
Under Self-Help Tools, click Interactive Support Forum.
5
When you are done, click anywhere outside the box to dismiss it.
Click Create a user forum account.
Enter the required information in the form. Click Create.
The username and password should be of your own choosing. They should not be the
same as that of your LiveSecurity Service.
Product Documentation
WatchGuard products are fully documented on our Web site at:
http://help.watchguard.com/documentation/default.asp.
Assisted Support
WatchGuard offers a variety of technical support services for your
WatchGuard products. Several support programs, described throughout
this section, are available through WatchGuard Technical Support. For a
summary of the current technical support services offered, please refer to
the WatchGuard Web site at:
http://support.watchguard.com/aboutsupport.asp
NOTE
You must register for LiveSecurity Service before you can receive
technical support.
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®
LiveSecurity Program
WatchGuard LiveSecurity Technical Support is included with every new
Firebox Vclass. This support program is designed to assist you in
maintaining your enterprise security system involving our Firebox Vclass,
Firebox System, SOHO, ServerLock, AppLock, and VPN products.
Hours
WatchGuard LiveSecurity Technical Support business hours are
4:00 AM to 7:00 PM PST (GMT - 7), Monday through Friday.
(Exception: SOHO Program is 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.)
Phone Contact
877.232.3531 in U.S. and Canada
+1.360.482.1083 all other countries
Web Contact
http://www.watchguard.com/support
Response Time
Four (4) business hours maximum target
Type of Service
Technical assistance for specific issues concerning the installation
and ongoing maintenance of Firebox Vclass, Firebox System,
SOHO, and ServerLock enterprise systems
Single Incident Priority Response Upgrade (SIPRU) and Single Incident
After-hours Upgrade (SIAU) are available. For more information, please
refer to WatchGuard Web site at:
http://support.watchguard.com/lssupport.asp
®
LiveSecurity Gold Program
This premium program is designed to meet the aggressive support needs
of companies that are heavily dependent upon the Internet for Web-based
commerce or VPN tunnels.
WatchGuard Gold LiveSecurity Technical Support offers support
coverage 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Our Priority Support Team is
available continuously from 7 PM Sunday to 7 PM Friday Pacific Time
(GMT — 7), and can help you with any technical issues you might have
during these hours.
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Training and Certification
We target a one-hour maximum response time for all new incoming cases.
If a technician is not immediately available to help you, a support
administrator will log your call in our case response system and issue a
support incident number.
Firebox Vclass Installation Services
WatchGuard Remote Firebox Vclass Installation Services are designed to
provide you with comprehensive assistance for basic Firebox Vclass
installation. You can schedule a dedicated two-hour time slot with one of
our WatchGuard technicians to help you review your network and
security policy, install the LiveSecurity software and Firebox Vclass
hardware, and build a configuration in accordance with your company
security policy. VPN setup is not included as part of this service.
VPN Installation Services
WatchGuard Remote VPN Installation Services are designed to provide
you with comprehensive assistance for basic VPN installation. You can
schedule a dedicated two-hour time slot with one of our WatchGuard
technicians to review your VPN policy, help you configure your VPN
tunnels, and test your VPN configuration. This service assumes you have
already properly installed and configured your Firebox Vclass appliances.
Training and Certification
WatchGuard offers training, certification, and a broad spectrum of
publications to customers and partners who want to learn more about
network security and WatchGuard products. No matter where you are
located or which products you own, we have a training solution for you.
WatchGuard classroom training is available worldwide through an
extensive network of WatchGuard Certified Training Partners (WCTPs).
WCTPs strengthen our relationships with our partners and customers by
providing top-notch instructor-led training in a local setting.
WatchGuard offers product and sales certification, focusing on
acknowledging the skills necessary to configure, deploy and manage
enterprise security solutions.
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Using the Online Help
Online help is available from almost all WatchGuard Vcontroller
windows. Because the online help uses Web browsers for display, you
should be aware of a problem in opening help in Netscape browsers.
If you use a Netscape browser on a workstation running any
Microsoft Windows operating system, version 4.7.3 or later is
required for online help to work properly.
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CHAPTER 3
Getting Started
The Firebox Vclass appliance acts as a barrier between your networks and
the public Internet, protecting them from security threats. This chapter
explains how to install the Firebox Vclass appliance into your network.
You must complete the following steps in the installation process:
• “Gathering Network Information” on page 18
• “Setting up the Management Station” on page 18
• “Cabling the Appliance” on page 22
• “Turning on a Firebox Vclass Security Appliance” on page 22
• “Using Appliance Discovery” on page 23
• “Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard” on page 27
• “Deploying the Firebox Vclass into your Network” on page 43
For a quick summary of this information, see the WatchGuard Firebox
Vclass QuickStart Guide included with your Firebox Vclass appliance.
This chapter is intended for new WatchGuard Firebox Vclass installations
only. If you have a previously installed appliance with a prior software
version, connect to it with Vcontroller, and then follow the upgrade
instructions as described in “Upgrading and Downgrading the Software
Version” on page 57.
If you already have one or more operational Firebox Vclass appliances in
your network with the current software version, you can shortcut the
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installation and configuration process on a new factory-default appliance.
For more information, see “Importing a Profile into a New Appliance” on
page 55.
Before installing the Firebox Vclass appliance, verify the package
contents. Consult the Firebox Vclass Hardware Guide to make sure you have
received all of the proper contents.
Gathering Network Information
One good way to set up your network is to create two worksheets: the
first worksheet represents your network now–before deploying the
Firebox Vclass appliance–and the second represents your network after
the Firebox Vclass appliance is deployed.
Setting up the Management Station
The Management Station runs the Vcontroller software, which is the
primary administrative access to the appliance. The Management Station
can also be used to archive log messages generated by the Log
Manager. For more information on the Log Manager, see “Using Log
Manager” on page 243.
You can designate any computer or computers on your network as
Management Stations.
Installing the Vcontroller on a Windows workstation
Before you install the Vcontroller software, make sure you have gathered
all of the network addressing information that represents your new
Firebox Vclass security appliance. Use the worksheet you filled out in the
previous section, “Gathering Network Information” on page 18.
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Setting up the Management Station
NOTE
Review the release notes included with this package for information about
Windows-Java issues, including the Windows and JRE versions. For
additional updates, check the WatchGuard Web site.
To install Vcontroller, follow these steps:
1
Remove the Vcontroller CD from the package and insert it in the
workstation CD-ROM.
2
Locate and double-click the CD-ROM drive icon (usually found in the
My Computer window). If AutoRun is enabled on the CD drive, the
Installer launches automatically.
3
When the CD window contents appear, double-click the Windows
folder.
4
When that window’s contents appear, double-click the setup.exe icon
to start the installation of the Vcontroller software.
5
The installer may detect older versions of the Java Run-time
Environment (JRE) and the Java Development Kit (JDK) or a version it
cannot verify. WatchGuard recommends installing the version
included on your CD over any existing versions.
6
When the process is finished, a window appears, prompting you to
start Vcontroller.
Installing the Vcontroller on a Solaris workstation
Before you install the Vcontroller software, make sure you have gathered
all of the network addressing information that will represent your new
Firebox Vclass security appliance. Use the worksheet you filled out in the
previous section, “Gathering Network Information” on page 18.
NOTE
Be sure to review the release notes that were included in this package for
information about Solaris-Java issues, including the Solaris and JRE
versions. For additional updates, check the WatchGuard Web site.
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To install the Vcontroller, follow these steps:
1
Insert the WatchGuard CD into the CD-ROM. (Under Solaris, the CD
should automatically mount at /cdrom).
2
Execute the installer application by entering the following commands:
cd /cdrom/watchguard
./setup.sh
3
The installer asks whether you have already installed the latest
versions of the Java Run-time Environment (JRE) and JDK. If you
have, type Y and then type the pathways of the JRE and JDK
directories.
NOTE
If you have an older version of JDK, the installer asks whether you prefer
to use it instead of a more recent version. WatchGuard recommends that
you install the most recent version.
4
If you have not installed JRE or JDK, type N. The installer quits, but
provides information on where to obtain the most current versions of
JRE and JDK software from the Sun Web site.
5
When the JRE and JDK software have been installed and any required
Solaris updates are completed, execute the installer application again
by entering the following commands:
cd /cdrom/watchguard
./setup.sh
6
When asked by the installation script for the directory location of the
JRE and JDK software, enter the appropriate pathway.
7
Vcontroller installation is complete. To launch Vcontroller execute the
following command: Vcontroller
Be certain the directory containing the Vcontroller software is listed in the PATH
environment variable.
Installing the Vcontroller on a Linux workstation
Before proceeding with the following, make sure you have all of the
network addressing information that represents your new Firebox Vclass
security appliance. Use the worksheet you filled out in the previous
section, “Gathering Network Information” on page 18.
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Setting up the Management Station
NOTE
Be sure to review the release notes that were included in this package for
information about Linux-Java issues, including the Linux and JRE
versions. For additional updates, check the WatchGuard Web site.
To install the Vcontroller, follow these steps:
1
2
Insert the WatchGuard CD into the CD-ROM.
Execute the installer application by entering the following commands:
mount /dev/cdrom -t iso9660 /mnt/cdrom
cd /mnt/cdrom
./setup.sh
3
The installer asks whether you have already installed the latest
versions of the Java Run-time Environment (JRE) and JDK. If you
have, type Y and then type the pathways of the JRE and JDK
directories.
NOTE
If you have an older version of JDK, the installer asks whether you prefer
to use it instead of a more recent version. WatchGuard recommends that
you install the most recent version.
4
If you have not installed JRE or JDK, type N. The installer quits, but
provides information on where to obtain the most current versions of
JRE and JDK software from the Sun Web site.
5
When the JRE and JDK software has been installed and any required
Linux updates are completed, execute the installer application again
by entering the following commands:
cd /cdrom/watchguard
./setup.sh
6
When asked by the installation script for the directory location of the
JRE and JDK, enter the appropriate pathway.
7
Vcontroller installation is complete. To launch Vcontroller execute the
following command: Vcontroller
Be certain the directory containing the Vcontroller software is listed in the PATH
environment variable.
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NOTE
Some versions of the JRE and JDK for Linux may display fonts
incorrectly. In addition, you may encounter a “font not found” error.
Cabling the Appliance
The next procedure in the installation process is cabling the appliance to
the Management Station. Refer to the Firebox Vclass Hardware Guide to
make sure you have received all of the necessary cables.
1
2
Remove the Firebox Vclass appliance from its packaging.
3
Connect the appliance through interface 0 (Private) to the
Management Station using the red crossover Ethernet cable (or
corresponding optical cable depending upon the Firebox model).
4
Connect the appliance to a nearby power source using the power
cord. If connecting the appliance to a UPS device, be sure to use the
WatchGuard-supplied cable to connect the two devices through their
respective RS-232 ports.
Place the appliance on any stable flat surface near the Management
Station.
Turning on a Firebox Vclass Security Appliance
After you have placed the appliance on a surface near the Management
Station and have made the network connections, you can power up the
Firebox Vclass appliance. The following instructions are for all models
except the Firebox V10. After you have plugged in the appliance, turn the
appliance on using the switch on the back. The Ready LED will blink
while the appliance initializes itself. When the appliance is ready, the light
will stop blinking and remain solidly lit. This may take two or three
minutes.
When the appliance has been fully powered up and initialized, the
following lights on the front of the device should be lit:
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Using Appliance Discovery
•
•
•
The Power LED
The Ready LED
One of the Private, Public, and DMZ interface speed indicator lights,
if those connections have been made.
If problems occur
If the expected indicators are not active, check the following:
• If the Power LED is not lit, disconnect and reconnect the power cord.
• If the Ready LED is still blinking after more than five minutes, use the
power switch on the back of the appliance to cut the power, and then
restore power and reinitiate the startup process.
• Make sure all data cables and the power cord are fully seated in their
sockets.
Using Appliance Discovery
After the WatchGuard Vcontroller is installed on the Management
Station, you can use Vcontroller to discover any new factory default
appliance on the network.
This appliance must be connected to the same LAN segment or subnet as
the Management Station through interface 0 (Private).
1
Launch Vcontroller.
2
Click the binoculars icon to the right of the Server/IP Name drop list.
The Vcontroller and Login dialog boxes appear.
The WatchGuard Security Appliance Discovery dialog box appears.
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3
Click Find to start the process.
If the Management Station has more than one NIC, you must select the IP
address of the appropriate card from the drop list before proceeding.
A status dialog box appears and remains open until the discovery process
is complete.
If no appliance is discovered
If no appliances are discovered, a Devices Not Found dialog box appears.
Check the Firebox Vclass appliance for the following:
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Using Appliance Discovery
- Verify that the appliance has been properly connected to the
network.
- Verify that all cable connections are secure.
- Make sure that the appliance has fully powered up. The Ready
LED should be steadily lit.
Click Find Again to attempt another discovery.
If an appliance is discovered
When an appliance is discovered, the Devices Found dialog box appears,
displaying all discovered appliances with their models and serial
numbers.
•
•
This window provides the following features:
A large list area that displays all of the appliances discovered in the
local subnet. In this case, only your new Firebox Vclass appliance will
be listed. You can set interface 0 (Private) IP addresses or import
profiles into more than one appliance at the same time.
A collection of options that enable you to set the identity of a selected
appliance’s Private interface or import an existing appliance profile
into a selected device.
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You set the IP address of the Interface 0 as described in the following
section. This is the task you perform with a new appliance.
NOTE
If you have already installed and configured at least one Firebox Vclass
appliance, you can import its configurations into a new factory default
appliance using an XML-format profile. For more information, see
“Exporting and Importing Configuration Files” on page 267.
Setting the IP address of Interface 0 (Private)
You must now define a temporary IP address to interface 0 (Private) for
use in the initial configuration. After this is complete, you can log in with
Vcontroller and perform further configuration.
26
1
From the Devices Found field, select the appliance you want to
configure.
2
Click the Set Interface 0 IP button.
3
In the Interface 0 IP field, type an unused IP address from the same
subnet as the Management Station.
4
5
In the Interface 0 Mask field, type the subnet mask for this IP address.
6
If there are no more appliances to be set, click Apply All.
Click Update.
If more than one appliance is listed in this window, you can set an IP address for
each appliance at this time, prior to clicking Apply All.
A confirmation window appears.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
7
Click Yes to proceed.
8
Wait for the Result window to display “ALL DONE” and then click
Close to restart the appliance and return to the Set Interface window.
The Result window appears.
The appliance will restart; restarting lasts a minute or two.
9
After restarting is complete, click Cancel to close the Devices Found
window.
You can now use the Vcontroller Login window to log into this appliance
using the newly assigned IP address and continue the installation process.
Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
This section guides you through the Installation Wizard, a component of
the Vcontroller application. The Installation Wizard provides the basic
configuration for a new appliance and prepares the Vcontroller software
for use with this and other Firebox Vclass appliances.
Before You Begin
To complete the initial installation of a new Firebox Vclass appliance, you
need the following network address information:
• The IP addresses and network masks to assign to the interfaces of this
appliance
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•
•
•
•
•
A domain name for this appliance
Any basic network routing information (static and dynamic)
The IP addresses of all DNS servers that will be used by this appliance
The IP addresses of any SNMP management stations
The VPN client user name and password (for Firebox V10 setup)
If you need to make any changes to the configuration at a later date, you
can do so with the System Configuration dialog box, as described in
“System Configuration” on page 61.
Starting the Installation Wizard
1
2
Power up the Firebox Vclass appliance.
3
Type the IP address or host name of the Firebox Vclass in the Server
IP/Name field or select it from the drop list.
4
Type your administrator login name and password in the appropriate
fields. The default name and password for the Firebox Vclass
appliance is admin.
Launch Vcontroller and click Login.
The Login dialog box appears.
NOTE
All data traffic between the Management Station and the Firebox Vclass
appliance, including all configuration exchanges, is protected by SSL,
using 128-bit RC4 and SHA1.
5
28
Click OK.
The Installation Wizard Welcome screen appears.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
6
Read the qualifications and instructions.
Edit the General information
1
Click Next to proceed.
The General Information screen appears.
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2
In the System Name field, type either the assigned DNS name for the
appliance or another arbitrary name.
3
In the System Location field, type a description of where your
appliance will be used. This can be a building, floor number, office
name, or other simple description.
4
In the System Contact field, enter the name and phone number or
email address of the principal administrator or department
responsible for management of the appliance.
Changing the System Time, Date and Time Zone
Click Change to open the Date, Time, and Time Zone window. Make any
necessary adjustments, and click OK.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
Configure the Interfaces
1
Click Next.
The Interface Information screen appears.
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32
2
Enter the IP address and network mask for interface 0 (Private) in the
appropriate fields.
3
If you want to enable the appliance as a DHCP server, click Enable
DHCP Server.
4
Enter the maximum number of potential clients that will be assigned
IP addresses in the Number of Clients field.
5
6
Select either Days or Hours from the Leasing Time drop list.
Type the number of hours or days that an IP address will be loaned to
a DHCP client.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
7
To configure Interface 1 (Public) for Static, DHCP, or PPPoE
addressing, enable the appropriate interface option and provide the
relevant entries as follows:
Static IP
Enter the IP address and network mask in the appropriate fields.
DHCP
Enter the IP address or DNS host name of the DHCP server
assigned by your ISP in the Host ID field. (This entry is optional.)
PPPoE
Enter the user name and password assigned to you by your ISP in
the appropriate fields.
8
To configure Interface 2 (DMZ), enter the IP address and network
mask in the appropriate fields.
9
When you have finished with the Interface screen entries, click Next.
The Interface Change dialog box appears providing two options, Save Only and
Apply.
10 Select Save Only. Click OK to proceed.
WatchGuard recommends selecting Save Only in order to continue with the
Installation Wizard.
If you select Apply, and then click OK, the Wizard prompts you to
stop the installation process and restart the Firebox Vclass appliance
to apply the changes. You will need to login again, using the new IP
address information, to continue configuring the appliance. For
information on configuring the appliance without using the
Installation Wizard, see “System Configuration” on page 61.
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Configure Routing
1
From the Interface Information window, click Next.
The Routing screen appears.
NOTE
All entries made to configure routing are optional for completing the
Installation Wizard and are dependent upon your network environment.
1
Type the IP address of the default gateway in the Specify Default
Route field.
2
If you want to enter any additional network routes for this appliance,
click Add.
The Add Route dialog box appears.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
3
Type the destination IP address, network mask, and gateway of the
route in the appropriate fields.
4
Select the interface–0, 1, or 2–through which traffic will be
exchanged, from the Interface/Port drop list.
5
6
7
Type the Metric number in the appropriate field.
Click OK.
Repeat this process as needed.
Define the DNS servers
1
When you have finished adding routes, click Next to proceed to the
next step of the Installation Wizard. If you added any new routes, a
confirmation window appears, click OK.
The Setup DNS Servers screen appears.
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NOTE
All entries made to configure DNS servers are optional for completing the
Installation Wizard, and will differ based on your network configuration.
1
Type the domain name of the Firebox Vclass appliance in the
appropriate field.
2
To add a DNS server, click Insert.
3
Type the DNS server IP address in the appropriate field and then click
Add.
The DNS Server window appears.
Repeat this process if needed to add more DNS servers.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
Define a Default Firewall Policy
1
When you have finished listing the DNS servers, click Next to
proceed.
The Default Firewall Policy screen appears.
NOTE
All entries made to configure the default firewall policy are optional for
completing the Installation Wizard and are dependent upon your network
environment.
2
Determine your default firewall policy or select the No Change
option.
3
If you decide to activate the default firewall policy, click to select the
Select the predefined Firewall Policies checkbox and then determine
which of the following predefined policies you want to enable.
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Allow ping to the device
Allows ping traffic to the private interface of this appliance from
other workstations within the network.
Allow all Out-bound traffic from the Private Port
Allows all internal network users to have unlimited access to all
external network connections.
Deny all In-bound traffic from the Public Port
Blocks all incoming traffic from external networks to Interface 1
(Public). If you want to permit particular types of traffic to gain
access to part or all of your network, activate the relevant policy.
You can later customize your firewall policies to provide further
protections. For more information on configuring firewall
policies, see “About Security Policies” on page 113.
NOTE
If you do not activate any predefined policy, you must configure a
customized security policy. Otherwise, the Firebox Vclass appliance will
not permit any traffic to pass through in any direction.
4
To enable a variety of measures to counteract hackers, click the
Hacker Prevention button at the bottom of the screen.
The Hacker Prevention dialog box appears.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
Denial of service preventions
These options safeguard your servers from Denial of Service (DoS)
attacks. Denial of Service attacks flood your network with requests for
information, clogging your servers and possibly shutting down your
sites.
ICMP Flood Attack
Protects against a sustained flood of ICMP pings. Enable this
option, then type the threshold number in the text field.
SYN Flood Attack
Protects against a sustained flood of TCP SYN requests without
the corresponding ACK response. Enable this option, then type
the threshold number in the text field.
UDP Flood Attack
Protects against a sustained flood of UDP packets. Enable this
option, then type the threshold number in the text field.
Ping of Death
Protects against user-defined large data-packet pings.
IP Source Route
Protects against a flood of false client IP addresses, designed to
bypass firewall security.
Distributed denial of service options
As a subset of Denial of Service attacks, Distributed DoS (DDoS)
attacks occur when hackers coordinate a number of compromised
computers for malicious purposes and program them to
simultaneously assault a network with information requests. If this
type of attack is allowed to pass through, your servers can be
overwhelmed, causing a crash.
Per Server Quota
Safeguards your servers against attacks from any client to any
single server. Enable this option, then type the threshold number
in the text field. The number here represents the maximum
request capacity per second of the server. If more than the
specified number of connection requests are received, the Firebox
Vclass appliance drops the excess requests.
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Per Client Quota
Restricts the number of connection requests from a single client in
one second. Enable this option, then type the threshold number in
the appropriate text field. This number represents the maximum
number of requests per second from a single client. If more than
the specified number of connection requests are received, the
Firebox Vclass appliance drops the excess requests.
For a brief overview of the distributed denial-of-service options, click
How does this work? An online Help window displays more information
about these options.
Using Dynamic Network Address Translation (DNAT)
1
When you have configured the preferred levels of hacker defense,
click OK to close this window, and click Next to proceed.
If you enabled the Allow all outbound traffic from the Interface 0 (private) option,
a DNAT window appears.
2
If you want to use dynamic NAT, click Yes.
A default dynamic NAT policy is added to the outbound traffic policy.
Change the Password
The Change Password screen appears. This step requires you to replace
the default root admin account password with a new, secure password of
your choosing.
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Running the Vcontroller Installation Wizard
1
Type a new password in the appropriate field.
2
3
Confirm the password by retyping it in the provided field.
Passwords must be between 6 and 20 characters, can include letters or numbers,
and are case-sensitive.
When you have finished, click Next to proceed.
The completion window appears.
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4
5
Click Finish.
If you changed the IP address for interface 0 (Private), a window
appears, asking if you want to restart the Firebox Vclass appliance.
Click Yes.
The Firebox Vclass appliance reboots and reinitializes itself.
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Deploying the Firebox Vclass into your Network
Deploying the Firebox Vclass into your Network
After the appliance has rebooted, restart the Vcontroller and perform a
complete shutdown of the appliance. When the shutdown is complete,
you can power down the appliance and move it to a permanent network
setting.
1
2
Launch Vcontroller.
Type the IP address of interface 0 (Private) or the host name in the
appropriate field.
The Vcontroller remembers the IP addresses of all appliances and stores them in
this drop list. You will, however, need to remember all the separate passwords.
3
4
5
Type admin in the Name field.
6
7
Click Shut down.
Type your newly created secure password in the Password field.
Click OK to connect to the appliance.
The main Vcontroller window appears.
When the shutdown confirmation window appears, click OK.
The appliance performs a full shutdown. The Ready LED blinks for a short interval
and then turns off when shutdown is complete.
NOTE
Do not power down the appliance until the Power and Ready LEDs have
been off for 30 seconds.
8
Turn off the power switch on the back of the appliance, or, for a V10
appliance, disconnect the power cord, to complete the shutdown.
9
Disconnect all the cables and move the appliance to its permanent
network setting.
After you place the appliance in its permanent location and make the
necessary physical network connections, you can turn it back on.
• Use the power cord to connect the appliance to a UPS device or to a
protected outlet. This will power up the V10 appliance.
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•
44
Turn on the power switch on the back of the appliance.
When the appliance has fully powered up, the Ready LED blinks
while the initialization process occurs. When initialization is
complete, the Ready LED remains lit.
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CHAPTER 4
Firebox Vclass Basics
This chapter provides an overview of the Firebox Vclass hardware and
the companion Vcontroller software.
What is a Firebox Vclass Appliance?
Every Firebox Vclass appliance is a combination of powerful networkmonitoring hardware and software policies that you, the administrator,
set up and maintain. With every incoming or outgoing data stream that it
detects, the appliance performs a two-stage task:
• It analyzes the initial packet for key traffic specifications, including
source, destination, type of service, and specific appliance interface
used by the data stream.
• If the data matches all the specifications established in a given policy,
the appliance takes action–directing that packet and the stream that
follows to the desired destination. It can also block the traffic.
A policy can also prompt the Firebox Vclass appliance to take other
actions with the same data stream, as dictated by the policy.
You can create policies for the Firebox Vclass that watch for varying
combinations of traffic specifications. After a set of traffic specifications
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are defined, you can set up one or more actions that the Firebox Vclass
appliance should take with any qualifying data.
Firebox Vclass Features
The Firebox appliances provide the following features:
Firewall
Protects your network from unauthorized access and use.
Load balancing (except the V10 model)
Distributes incoming data to specific internal destinations.
Quality of Service
Makes data exchanges more efficient. Prioritizes and enhances
user-specified data exchange.
Anti-hacker protection
Protects your network from a variety of potentially destructive
hacker attacks.
VPN (Virtual Private Networking)
Provides secure communications with remote sites.
Dynamic NAT (Network Address Translation)
Also called IP Masquerading. Maps outgoing private IP addresses
to the Firebox’s external IP address, meaning outgoing source IP
addresses are translated into the IP address of the box’s external
interface. Incoming packets are translated from the external
interface's IP address into the appropriate private IP address.
Static NAT (except the V10 model)
Also called port forwarding. Assigns a port specific to a given
service (such as port 80 for HTTP) to another port internally, so
that originators of incoming traffic never know which host is
actually receiving the packets.
Multi-tenant domains (except the V10 model)
Manages traffic routed to and from both kinds of multiple-tenant
virtual domains: user domains and VLANs.
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Where the Information is Stored
Where the Information is Stored
When you use the Vcontroller to connect to a Firebox Vclass appliance,
the Vcontroller accesses a specialized database stored in the Firebox
Vclass appliance. This storage capacity is an integral part of the appliance
hardware. All your configuration and policy entries are stored in this
database.
Certain files, such as backup configuration files, log files, and archive
files, can be stored in a location of your choosing, such as the
Management Station hard drive or a syslog server.
Changes or additions to the configuration settings in the Vcontroller
reside on the Management Station and are not automatically applied to
the appliance.
Launching the WatchGuard Vcontroller
The WatchGuard Vcontroller can be used to administer one or more
Firebox Vclass appliances as well as any legacy RapidStream security
appliances. This Java application offers a basic set of system indicators
and three collections of button-activated features that provide complete
control over all the operations of a Firebox Vclass appliance.
1
Launch the Vcontroller according to the operating system you are
using:
Microsoft Windows
Double-click the WatchGuard Vcontroller icon on the desktop, or
select Start => Programs => WatchGuard Vcontroller =>
WatchGuard Vcontroller.
Solaris/Linux
Navigate to the appropriate directory and type Vcontroller at
the command prompt.
The Vcontroller launches and a login window appears.
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If you have used the Vcontroller before to access a Firebox Vclass appliance, the
Server IP/Name field displays the IP address or host name of the last accessed
appliance.
The IP addresses or host names of other previously accessed devices are listed in
the Server IP/Name drop list.
2
Type the IP address or host name of the Firebox Vclass in the Server
IP/Name field or select it from the drop list.
3
Type your administrator login name in the Name field.
NOTE
For information on creating administrator accounts, see “Using Account
Manager” on page 105.
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4
Type the password for your administrator account in the Password
field.
5
Click OK.
The Vcontroller main page appears.
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The Vcontroller Main Page
The Vcontroller Main Page
This section describe the buttons displayed in the Vcontroller.
Activities column buttons
The Activities column contains a series of buttons that, when clicked,
provide dialog boxes that update you on system activities. This includes
outstanding alarms, recent events, and the current status of the appliance.
You can also open a dialog box that displays system logs and another
dialog box with a set of useful diagnostic tools.
Alarm
Click this button to open the Alarm Manager window, in which
you can define a set of alarms to be triggered when system or
policy thresholds are exceeded. This window also allows you to
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view newly triggered alarms, diagnose alarm conditions, and
clear resolved alarms. For more information, see “Using Alarm
Manager” on page 231.
Monitor
Click this button to open the Real-time Monitor dialog box,
which provides a detailed view of the security appliance
activities. You can use existing probes, or create your own, to
measure system activity as well as to gauge data and policy usage.
For more information, see “Monitoring the Firebox Vclass” on
page 215.
Log Manager
Click this button to open the Log Manager dialog box, which
enables you to activate log files that record certain types and
levels of system activity. You can also use this dialog box to view
a particular log, and then archive your logs as text files for future
reference. For more information, see “Using Log Manager” on
page 243.
System Information
Click this button to open the System Information dialog box,
which provides several distinct views of the current appliance’s
status and activity. The various tabbed displays are detailed in
separate chapters within this guide, depending upon your choice
of view. For more information, see “Monitoring the Firebox
Vclass” on page 215.
Policy column buttons
The Policy column contains a series of buttons that, when clicked, enable
you to create, apply, and manage the security policies used by the Firebox
Vclass appliance. For more information on creating policies, see “About
Security Policies” on page 113.
Security Policy
Click this button to open the Policy Manager window, which lists
the current catalog of security policies. This window allows you to
view, edit, add, and remove policies.
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The Vcontroller Main Page
IKE Policy
Click this button to open another view of the Policy Manager
window that lists the current catalog of IKE policies.
Address Group
Click this button to open a dialog box that shows all the existing
address group objects. These are used by both security and IKE
policies in determining traffic specifications.
IPSec Action
Click this button to open a dialog box that lists all of the existing
IPSec actions, used by security policies to enforce encryption/
authentication protections.
NAT/LB Action (Network Address Translation/Load Balancing
Action)
Click this button to open a dialog box that lists all the existing
NAT action objects, which are used in policies that affect dynamic
IP, virtual IP, and other load-balancing actions on data.
Remote Users
Click this button to open the RAS Configuration dialog box,
which assists in the setup of remote access service (RAS)
connections. This feature is not available on the V10 model.
Policy Checker
Click this button to open a dialog box that enables you to check
which policy is applied when a simulated data stream is detected.
This dialog box can be used to verify the search order of security
policies listed in the Policy Manager window.
Administration column buttons
This column lists a series of buttons that, when clicked, can help
customize, monitor, and maintain a Firebox Vclass appliance.
System Configuration
Click this button to open the System Configuration dialog box,
which helps you change the system configurations of a Firebox
Vclass appliance. For more information, see “System
Configuration” on page 61.
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Install Wizard
Click this button to reopen the Installation Wizard, which you can
use to reestablish the basic configuration for a Firebox Vclass
appliance if required. For more information, see “Getting Started”
on page 17.
Account
Click this button to open the Account Manager dialog box, which
you can use to modify or add new administrative accounts as well
as end-user accounts to allow internal users to bypass any firewall
policies you create. For more information, see “Using Account
Manager” on page 105.
Backup/Restore
Click this button to open the Backup/Restore dialog box, which
enables you to back up the current system configuration. You can
also use this dialog box to restore previously archived
configurations as needed. For more information, see “Backing Up
and Restoring Configurations” on page 263.
Upgrade
Click this button to open the Upgrade dialog box, which allows
you to view the current software version, download and install
any recent upgrades, and view the recent upgrade history.
You can also use this dialog box’s features to downgrade an
appliance to a previous software version. For more information
about the Upgrade dialog box, see “Upgrading and Downgrading
the Software Version” on page 57.
Shutdown/Reboot
Click this button to open a dialog box from which you can restart
the software, reboot the appliance, or completely shut down the
appliance. For more information, see “Shutting Down and
Rebooting” on page 55.
Diagnostics/CLI
Click this button to open the Diagnostics dialog box, which
includes testing tools, connectivity probes, and a workspace for
importing CLI scripts. For more information, see “Monitoring the
Firebox Vclass” on page 215.
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The Vcontroller Main Page
Page-top buttons
The page-top title area includes the Log Out and Help buttons, as well as
an alarm indicator that is displayed when an alarm has been triggered.
Log Out
Click this button to log out of Vcontroller and disconnect the
Management Station from the Firebox Vclass appliance.
Help
Click this button to open the main online Help window.
Alarm Bell
If you see an animated ringing bell, this indicates that an alarm
condition was triggered. Click the alarm bell icon to open the
Alarm Manager window. For more information, see “Using Alarm
Manager” on page 231.
The status viewer
When you log into the Vcontroller, the status area in the lower-left corner
provides a snapshot of the system status, including interface link status
and active VPN connections.
From the main Vcontroller page, look for the status indicators in the
lower-left corner.
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The system name assigned to this appliance
The refresh button
The current status indicators for the
interfaces—green indicates active, red indicates
inactive
The total number of currently active tunnels
The total time this appliance has been in
continuous operation
The names and IP addresses of the
interfaces
This panel is automatically refreshed every sixty seconds; however, you
can click the blue star button to refresh manually.
Logging out of the Vcontroller
Make sure you properly log out of a Firebox Vclass appliance after you
finish with administrative tasks. Otherwise, you may have trouble
logging in again later because a previous session may still be active.
54
1
From the Vcontroller main page, click Log Out.
2
Click Yes.
The Logout confirmation dialog box appears.
If you have made any changes, a Flush dialog box appears requesting to save these
to the permanent data storage.
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Shutting Down and Rebooting
3
To save the changes, click Yes.
4
Click OK.
An Information dialog box appears indicating that the save was successful.
You can now exit Vcontroller or click Log In to reconnect to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
Shutting Down and Rebooting
To perform a software shutdown prior to turning off the appliance, follow
these instructions:
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Shutdown/Reboot.
2
Click Shutdown and then click Yes.
A Confirmation dialog box appears.
This prompts the Firebox Vclass appliance to quit all software operations and
perform a preliminary shutdown of the appliance. While the appliance is shutting
down, the Ready LED blinks. After the Ready LED is off, wait 30 seconds.
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NOTE
Do not disconnect the power before 30 seconds have elapsed.
Disconnecting the appliance too quickly can cause serious damage.
3
After 30 seconds have elapsed, turn off the power switch on the back
of the appliance. For the V10 model, simply disconnect the power
cord.
4
Unplug the power cord from the Firebox Vclass appliance.
NOTE
Do not remove the cover on the power supply switch on the back of any
appliances and use that switch to cut power. This can damage the
appliance.
Once you have fully shut down the Firebox Vclass appliance, you can
restart it by following these steps:
• Connect the Firebox Vclass appliance to a power source.
• Press the Power switch on the back of the appliance.
- The Power LED light illuminates, and the Ready LED light starts
to blink when the appliance is initializing.
- When the blinking has stopped and the Ready LED is steadily
lit, initialization is complete.
• You can now start the Vcontroller and log into the appliance to
perform any administrative work.
To restart the appliance software only, follow these instructions:
• From the main Vcontroller page, click Shutdown/Reboot.
• Click Restart the WatchGuard Security Appliance software only and
then click Yes.
A status dialog box appears and remains on screen until the reboot is complete.
After some time elapses, the Vcontroller Login dialog box reappears.
To reboot an appliance without turning off the power, follow these
instructions:
• From the main Vcontroller page, click Shutdown/Reboot.
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Upgrading and Downgrading the Software Version
•
Click Reboot the system and then click Yes.
A status dialog box appears and remains on screen until the reboot is complete.
After a long interval, the Vcontroller Login dialog box reappears.
Restarting the appliance
You can force a restart by inserting a straight pin into the recessed Reset
button opening on the front of the appliance.
Upgrading and Downgrading the Software Version
When new versions of the Firebox Vclass operating system software
become available, the Vcontroller provides a simple way to perform an
upgrade procedure.
To upgrade the software version, follow these instructions:
1
Verify that the Management Station has an active Internet connection.
2
From the main Vcontroller page, click Upgrade.
3
Note the current version number as reported in the Upgrade tab.
You need an Internet connection to check the WatchGuard Web site for the latest
software updates.
The Upgrade dialog box appears.
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4
Click Check our Web site to verify whether a more recent version of
the Vcontroller software is available.
Your web browser appears and connects to the WatchGuard Web site.
5
When this connection is complete, you can quickly verify the version
number of the latest available upgrade against the version number
listed in the Upgrade tab.
Do not upgrade your appliance until you have backed up the current configuration
file. For information on backing up your configuration, see “Backing Up and
Restoring Configurations” on page 263.
6
Review the instructions on this Web page. If a newer upgrade is
available, click Download.
7
When the download is complete, close the browser window and
continue with the upgrade procedure.
8
Return to the Upgrade dialog box and click Upgrade Now.
9
Locate and select the downloaded upgrade file and then click Select.
The Select the upgrading file dialog box appears.
When the upgrade is complete, a confirmation dialog box appears.
10 Click OK to proceed.
The Vclass appliance automatically restarts. When the restart is complete, you can
log into the appliance and use the Vcontroller to check the upgraded appliance.
To downgrade the software version, follow these instructions:
1
58
Click the Downgrade tab.
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Upgrading and Downgrading the Software Version
2
Read the instructions on the screen and then click Downgrade Now.
3
Click OK.
A confirmation dialog box appears.
The appliance performs the downgrade, and then reboots itself. After the appliance
completes the reboot, the Login dialog box automatically appears.
At this time, you may need to restore the last backup of policies and
configurations that you saved when this version of the software was in
effect. Because a Firebox Vclass appliance stores a maximum of two
versions of software, you can only downgrade to the previous version of
the software. After this downgrade is complete, your appliance will be
using an earlier version of software with the configurations and policies
that were in effect at that time. All subsequent entries and changes will be
lost.
For information about restoring older settings, see “Restoring an
Archived Configuration” on page 265.
The Upgrade History
The Upgrade History tab notes the dates, times, and version numbers of
all occasions when the Firebox Vclass appliance has been upgraded or
downgraded. The upgrade history remains even if the Vclass appliance is
restored to the factory default.
To view the upgrade history:
1
2
Launch Vcontroller and log into the appliance.
3
Click the Upgrade History tab.
Click Upgrade.
The Upgrade dialog box appears.
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Transferring from the Vcontroller to WatchGuard CPM
If you need to transfer the management of the Firebox Vclass from the
Vcontroller to the WatchGuard CPM, consider the following differences
between the two environments:
• Vcontroller provides management access to more built-in
functionality in Firebox Vclass appliances than CPM. For example,
you cannot use the Firebox Vclass appliance for RAS user
authentication in CPM as you can with Vcontroller; only a RADIUS
server can be used. However, if you have five or more Firebox Vclass
appliances, CPM is the preferred global management tool.
• You cannot use both Vcontroller and CPM to manage the same
appliances. If you use CPM to deploy a complete profile, any changes
that are made later with Vcontroller will be erased when a new or
updated profile is deployed to that appliance from CPM.
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System Configuration
CHAPTER 5
Use the System Configuration dialog box to enter or edit system settings.
This dialog box, a key component of the Vcontroller, provides one-stop
access to a wide spectrum of controls, ranging from network connection
parameters to an array of hacker prevention options.
General Configuration
Use the General tab to fill in general information about the Vclass name,
location, and owner, and to set the system time.
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click System Configuration.
2
Click the General tab.
The System Configuration dialog box appears.
The General system settings are displayed.
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Configure the following system settings:
System Name
Type a name to represent this appliance.
System Location
Type the location of your Firebox Vclass appliance. The location
can be a building and floor number, or a simple identifier such as
“LAN Room.”
System Contact
Type the name, phone number, or email address of the principal
system administrator or the person responsible for maintenance
of the Firebox Vclass system.
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Interface Configuration
System Time
Displays the current date and time. To change the date and time
currently displayed, click Change. The Date, Time, and Time
Zone dialog box appears.
- Click the Date & Time tab and then type the appropriate time
and date for your system. Select AM or PM from the drop list.
- Click the TimeZone tab to update the geographic location of
your system. Select the appropriate location from the list and
then click OK to return to the General tab.
When you have finished configuring the system settings, click one of the
following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
Interface Configuration
The Interface tab is used to make changes to the IP addresses and subnet
masks of the interfaces. Different combinations of interfaces are displayed
according to the model of Firebox Vclass appliance you are configuring.
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•
•
Click the Interface tab.
The Interface settings are displayed. In this example, the interfaces for the V60
and V80 models are shown.
Both the Accelerated Interfaces and the HA (High Availability)
Interfaces are listed:
Interface 0
This represents interface 0, which should be used for all private,
or trusted, network traffic.
Interface 1
This represents interface 1, which should be used for all public, or
external, network traffic.
Interface 2
Interface 2 should be assigned to any DMZ network traffic. This
interface is not available on the V10 or V100 models.
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Interface Configuration
Interface 3
Interface 3 should be assigned to any DMZ network traffic. This
interface is not available on the V10 or V100 models.
Interfaces HA1 and HA2
Certain Firebox Vclass appliance models include two HA ports,
HA1 and HA2. HA ports are used with the High Availability
feature, which allows for redundancy and transparent failover in
the case of a hardware failure. HA ports are connected between
Vclass appliances, and not to the network. The HA2 ports can be
connected to each other for greater redundancy, or you can use
the HA2 ports as direct management connections. For more
information, see “Setting Up a High Availability System” on
page 283.
This interface is not available on the V10 model.
If you need to make any changes to the configuration of the interfaces, use
the following instructions.
Configuring Interface 0
To edit the interface settings, follow these steps:
1
Select the interface entry and then double-click.
The Edit Interface dialog box appears.
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2
Type the IP address and network mask in the appropriate fields.
3
Type a MTU to determine the maximum size of each packet. The
default is 1500.
4
If you want to enable the appliance as a DHCP server, click the
checkbox labeled Enable DHCP Server.
The interface Hardware Address (MAC address) is displayed beneath these fields.
This option is not available if you are using High Availability.
5
Type the maximum number of potential clients that will be assigned
IP addresses in the Number of Clients field.
6
7
Select either Days or Hours from the Leasing Time drop list.
8
66
Type the number of hours or days that an IP address will be loaned to
a DHCP client.
Click the Link Speed Configuration option you want to use for this
interface. The default is Auto Negotiate. This default value is the only
option available on the V100 model.
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Interface Configuration
9
Click OK to close the Edit Interface dialog box and return to the
Interface tab.
Configuring Interface 1
To edit the interface settings, follow these steps:
1
Select the interface entry and then double-click.
The Edit Interface dialog box appears.
Interface 1 (Public) allows you to choose from the following three
network addressing options:
Static
Type the IP address and network mask in the appropriate fields.
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DHCP
Type the host name or the IP address of your DHCP server in the
Host ID field.
This option is not available when using High Availability.
PPPoE
Type the user name and password in the appropriate fields. Type
the password again to confirm it. Select the Always On or Dialon-Demand option and then type the desired time interval in the
appropriate field.
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Interface Configuration
This option is not available when using High Availability.
2
Type a MTU to determine the maximum size of each packet. The
default is 1500.
3
Click the Link Speed Configuration option you want to use for this
interface. The default is Auto Negotiate. This default value is the only
option available on the V100 model.
4
Click OK to close the Edit Interface dialog box and return to the
Interface tab.
Configuring Interface 2 or 3
To edit the interface settings, follow these steps:
1
Select the interface entry and then double-click.
The Edit Interface dialog box appears.
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2
Type the IP address and network mask in the appropriate fields.
3
Type a MTU to determine the maximum size of each packet. The
default is 1500.
4
Click the Link Speed Configuration option you want to use for this
interface. The default is Auto Negotiate. This default value is the only
option available on the V100 model.
5
Click OK to close the Edit Interface dialog box and return to the
Interface tab.
The interface Hardware Address (MAC address) is displayed beneath these fields.
Configuring the HA Interfaces
For more information on setting up and managing these HA interfaces,
see “Setting Up a High Availability System” on page 283.
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Interface Configuration
To edit High Availability settings, follow these steps:
1
Select the interface entry and then double-click.
2
Type the IP address and network mask in the appropriate fields.
3
Type a MTU to determine the maximum size of each packet. The
default is 1500.
4
Click OK to close the Edit Interface dialog box and return to the
Interface tab.
The Edit Interface dialog box appears.
The interface Hardware Address (MAC address) is displayed beneath these fields.
When you have finished configuring the interfaces, click one of the
following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration
Save Only
To save the settings to the Management Station and apply them to
the Firebox Vclass appliance when it is restarted. When you are
finished, click Close.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
A Warning dialog box appears alerting you that this action forces a restart of the
system.
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- Click Yes to proceed.
The appliance immediately restarts in order to apply the new interface
configurations. The System Configuration dialog box closes and the Vcontroller
displays the Log In dialog box.
NOTE
If you have changed the Interface 0 (Private) settings, be sure to use the
new IP address when next logging in to Vcontroller.
Routing Configuration
Use the Routing tab to record static routes or set up dynamic routing
using RIP, RIP version 2, and OSPF.
Configuring static routing
To add static routes, follow these steps:
1
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Click the Routing tab.
Both the static and dynamic routing settings are displayed.
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Routing Configuration
2
To configure a static route, click Add.
3
Type the destination, network mask, gateway, and metric in the
appropriate fields. Select the interface from the drop list and then
click OK.
The Add Route dialog box appears.
Repeat this process to add other static route entries.
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4
To modify an existing route, select the entry and click Edit.
5
Click OK.
The Edit Route dialog box appears
Configuring dynamic routing
To configure dynamic routing follow these steps:
1
To enable dynamic routing, click Yes.
2
Click Paste to insert a preconfigured dynamic routing configuration
file into the text field or click Browse to locate the file on your
management station.
If you later decide to disable dynamic routing, click No.
It is possible that dynamic routing can go down. If this occurs, the Current
Gated Status displays “Not Running.”
1
Click Restart.
2
Click Yes to restart.
A Confirmation dialog box appears.
When you have finished configuring routing, click one of the following
options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Save Only
To save the settings to the Management Station and apply them to
the Firebox Vclass appliance when it is restarted. When you are
finished, click Close.
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DNS Configuration
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
A Warning dialog box appears.
- Click Yes to proceed.
At this time, the Firebox Vclass checks your entries for accuracy. If the
entry is correct, a green checkmark appears to the left of the new routing
table entry. If the entry is incorrect, a red X appears.
If an entry displays a red X, click the Routing Table Edit button to open
the Edit Route dialog box. The box allows you to check the text for errors.
DNS Configuration
Use the DNS tab to configure the Firebox Vclass appliance with a host
domain name and DNS server entries.
To configure a system domain name, follow these steps:
1
Click the DNS tab.
The DNS settings are displayed.
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2
Type the domain name of the Firebox Vclass appliance in the
appropriate field.
To add a DNS server, follow these steps:
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1
Click Insert.
2
Type the IP address in the appropriate field.
The DNS Server dialog box appears.
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SNMP Configuration
3
Click Add.
The DNS Server dialog box closes and the new server IP address appears in the
DNS Server list.
To manage the DNS server entries, follow these instructions:
• To edit a DNS server IP address, select the entry from the DNS Server
List and click Edit.
• To delete a DNS server IP address, select the entry from the DNS
Server List and click Delete.
• If you have more than one server in the list, you can reorganize the
search order by choosing a server entry and then clicking Up or
Down.
When you have finished configuring the DNS settings, click one of the
following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
SNMP Configuration
Use the SNMP tab to add the IP addresses of management stations that
will be monitoring this appliance. You also use these fields to record the
relevant SNMP community string. For a complete list of supported MIBs
for Firebox Vclass appliances, review the MIB files that are stored on the
WatchGuard CD.
Because Firebox Vclass appliances support the SNMP version 1 protocol,
you can assign an SNMP community to this Firebox Vclass appliance so
that it can be managed through SNMP management stations. You can also
configure this appliance so that an SNMP trap will be sent to all related
management stations when an alarm is triggered. However, to retrieve
SNMP MIB counters from a Firebox Vclass appliance, you must first
create and apply a security policy that allows SNMP traffic to pass
through the appliance.
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To configure SNMP traps, follow these steps:
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1
Click the SNMP tab.
2
Click Add.
3
4
Type the IP address in the appropriate field.
The SNMP settings are displayed.
The SNMP Management Station dialog box appears.
Click Add.
Repeat this process to record the IP addresses of all other management stations.
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Log Configuration
5
Type the password that will identify the appliance to the
Management Station or stations in the Community String field.
This step is optional.
6
Click Enable SNMP Trap.
NOTE
Although no traps are sent if the Enable SNMP Trap option is disabled,
triggered alarms are still logged by the appliance.
When you have finished configuring the SNMP management stations,
click one of the following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
Log Configuration
Use the Log tab to configure the logging settings. For information on
configuring these settings, see “Log Settings” on page 247.
Certificate Configuration
If you plan to use this Firebox Vclass appliance to manage VPN
connections that incorporate automatic (IKE) key exchanges, you must
purchase an x.509 authorization certificate from a Certificate Authority
(CA) server (such as Verisign or Entrust), and then import it into your
Firebox Vclass appliance. Use the Certificate tab to configure these
certificates.
In addition, this tab assists in the importing of Certificate Revocation Lists
(CRLs), which the authorizing source will send to you on occasion. A CRL
effectively cancels any certificates that have been compromised by
hackers.
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Before initiating a certificate request, you must obtain the following:
• The encryption key cosigning authority’s name and web site URL
• A payment method for all requested certificates, preferably credit
card
• Any root certificates provided by this authority
To import certificates, follow these steps:
1
Click the Certificate tab.
The Certificate fields are displayed. A default WatchGuard certificate is
imported by default.
2
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To request a new x.509 certificate, click Create Request.
The Certificate Request dialog box appears.
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Certificate Configuration
3
Type the following information:
Name
The name of the Firebox Vclass appliance. This is the same as the
system name configured in the General settings. See “General
Configuration” on page 61.
Department Name
The group or department name that administers this appliance.
This field is optional.
Company Name
The company name.
Country
The name of the country in which this appliance and the
certificate will be used.
4
Click Next.
The next certificate request dialog box appears, as shown in the following figure.
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5
Fill in the following information and click Next.
Subject Name
This field is automatically updated with processed data from your
first step entries. You can make any deletions or changes in this
text field if you know the proper formatting for all the elements.
DNS Name
Type the appliance name or domain name–for example,
“wg001.corporation.com”.
IP Address
Type the IP address of interface 0 (Public). This step is optional.
User Domain Name
Type the user name of this appliance. This step is optional.
Algorithm
Click the preferred option for this certificate.
Length
Click the preferred option.
Key Usage
Click the preferred option. (If you chose DSA as the algorithm,
you can only select Signature for key usage.)
6
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Click Next.
The Certificate Signing Request (CSR) is displayed.
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Certificate Configuration
7
8
9
Select the text in the dialog box and then press Control+a.
Click Copy.
Open a Web browser and connect to the Web site of your key cosigning authority.
10 Open the key co-signing authority certificate request form and paste
the text into the appropriate field.
11 Provide any other required payment information.
12 Submit the request and then close the browser window.
13 Return to the Certificate Request dialog box and click Next.
The final step is displayed.
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14 Review the information displayed in the Certificate Request dialog
box, and then click Finish.
The Certificate Request dialog box closes and the System Configuration dialog box
returns. A new entry appears in the Certificate list representing the pending
certificate request.
To view specific information about a pending certificate, follow these
steps:
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1
2
Select the entry from the Certificates list.
3
Click Review CSR to view the Certificate Signing Request.
Click Detail.
A Certificate dialog box appears that summarizes all the relevant certificate
information.
The Review CSR dialog box appears.
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Certificate Configuration
4
Click Copy/Close to return to the Review CSR dialog box.
5
Click OK when you are finished.
A copy of the CSR is sent to the clipboard.
You must wait for the certificate to arrive in the form of a text file from the
co-signing authority. When you have received it, follow the instructions
in the next procedure.
Importing a certificate or CRL file
If this is your first certificate import, you must import the root certificate
before importing the actual certificate, or the new x.509 certificate (and
any others you subsequently import) will not be usable.
To import the root certificate, follow these steps:
1
2
Make sure that the root certificate file is present in a local directory.
3
4
Click Load the certificate from a file.
Click Import Certificate/CRL.
The Import Certificate/CRL dialog box appears.
Locate and select the root certificate file.
NOTE
If you prefer, you can also use a text editor to open the file. Then copy and
paste the text.
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5
When the certificate text is displayed, click Import Certificate.
6
Repeat this process to import any other certificates into the Firebox
Vclass appliance.
This imports the certificate into the Firebox Vclass appliance. After the import is
complete, the dialog box closes and the newly imported certificate appears in the
Certificates list.
At regular intervals, your key cosigning authority will issue a Certificate
Revocation List (CRL), which nullifies any existing certificates that have
been compromised. You can import these lists so that your system will
not attempt to use any revoked certificates for key exchanges.
To import a CRL, follow these steps:
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1
2
Open the Import Certificate/CRL dialog box.
3
4
5
Click Browse.
6
To remove an entry from the Certificate list, select the entry and click
Remove.
Click the Import a CRL tab.
Locate and select the appropriate CRL file.
When the file path appears in the File Name field, click Import CRL.
This imports the CRL into the Firebox Vclass appliance. After the import is
complete, the dialog box closes and the newly imported CRL name appears in the
Certificates list.
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LDAP Server Configuration
LDAP Server Configuration
Use the LDAP tab to set up a connection between a Firebox Vclass
appliance and any LDAP server on which Certificate Revocation List
(CRL) files are centrally stored. After this configuration has been set up,
the Firebox Vclass appliance can verify every certificate it uses against the
CRLs stored in the server. This provides additional protection against
compromised certificates.
1
Click the LDAP tab.
2
3
Click the checkbox labeled Use LDAP Server.
The LDAP settings are displayed.
Type the IP address or domain name of the LDAP server in the
appropriate field.
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4
If the LDAP server is not using the default port number 389, type the
correct port number in the appropriate field.
When you have finished configuring the LDAP server settings, click one
of the following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
NTP Server Configuration
Use the NTP tab to configure the Firebox Vclass to contact a NTP server.
A NTP server uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize
computer clock times.
To configure the NTP settings, follow these instructions:
1
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Click the NTP tab.
The page refreshes then displays the NTP Server settings.
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NTP Server Configuration
2
To enable NTP, click Yes.
3
Enter the IP address of an NTP server.
If you later decide to disable NTP, click No.
It is possible that the connection to a NTP server can be broken. If this
occurs, the Current NTP Status displays “Not Running.”
1
Click Restart.
A Confirmation dialog box appears.
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2
Click Yes to restart NTP.
When you have finished configuring the NTP server settings, click one of
the following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
Advanced Configuration
The Advanced tab allows you to configure global policy settings. These
settings will apply to all security policies you create. However, you can
configure each policy to use a per-policy setting instead of these global
settings. For more information regarding the configuration of the
advanced settings and security policies, see “Using the Advanced
Settings” on page 149.
• Click the Advanced tab.
The Advanced configuration settings are displayed.
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Advanced Configuration
The following global policy settings are displayed:
TCP Syn Checking
This option enables the inspection of a proper TCP three-way
handshake. It provides an extra layer of protection against illegal
TCP connections.
- To enable TCP SYN checking, click the Enable Syn Checking
checkbox.
VPN
These options concern the fragmentation of encrypted packets
and the ability to allow IPSec users to connect to a different
appliance.
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- To ignore a DF bit (Don’t Fragment) during an IPSec
transmission, click the Ignore DF for IPSec checkbox.
- To allow IPSec traffic to pass through to an internal address that
is using NAT, click the IPSec pass-through checkbox.
ICMP Error Handling
Regular network traffic may include various ICMP error
messages. You can allow all of these messages or select the
specific messages.
- Select Allow All ICMP Error Messages or Allow Specified
ICMP Error Messages.
- If you selected to allow only specified ICMP error messages,
enable the error messages you want to allow.
When you have finished configuring the advanced settings, click one of
the following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
Hacker Prevention Options
If you have not already used the Installation Wizard to set up these
options, you can do so now with the Hacker Prevention tab’s features. If
you have made these entries, you can edit them by using this tab’s
features.
1
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Click the Hacker Prevention tab.
The Hacker Prevention settings are displayed.
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Hacker Prevention Options
2
You can customize and apply the following two groups of options at
this time:
“Denial-of-service” options: These options safeguard your servers from
denial-of-service (DOS) attacks. These attacks flood your network
with requests for information, clogging servers and possibly shutting
down your site. After you activate these options and set threshold
numbers, the Firebox Vclass appliance prevents such attacks. If more
than the specified number of requests are received (per second), the
Firebox Vclass appliance drops the specified excess number of
requests within the same second while permitting the specified
acceptable number of requests to pass through. This protects your
servers from becoming overwhelmed by too many requests within a
short period of time.
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ICMP Flood Attack
Safeguards your network from a sustained flood of ICMP pings.
After clicking the checkbox, enter the threshold number in the text
field that will trigger the denial-of-service protection.
SYN Flood Attack
Safeguards your network from a sustained flood of TCP SYN
requests without the corresponding ACK response. After clicking
the checkbox, enter the threshold number in the text field that will
trigger the denial-of-service protection.
UDP Flood Attack
Safeguards your network from a sustained flood of UDP packets.
After clicking the checkbox, enter the threshold number in the text
field that will trigger the denial-of-service protection.
Ping of Death
Safeguards your network from user-defined large data-packet
pings. Click the checkbox to activate this denial-of-service
protection.
IP Source Route
Safeguards your network from a flood of false client IP addresses,
designed to bypass firewall security. Click the checkbox to
activate this denial-of-service protection.
“Distributed Denial-of-service” options: As a subset of denial-of-service
attacks, distributed DOS attacks occur when hackers coordinate a
number of “borrowed” computers for malicious purposes and
program them to simultaneously assault a network with information
requests. If allowed to pass through, they can overwhelm and crash
your Web servers. Your options include the following:
PerServer Quota
Safeguards your servers from coordinated denial-of-service
attacks from any client to any single server. After clicking this
checkbox, enter a threshold number in the text field that
represents the maximum request capacity (per second) of that
server. If more than the specified number of connection requests
are received within a second, the Firebox Vclass appliance drops
the excess requests within that same second. This will protect
your server from being overwhelmed by too many connection
requests in a short period of time.
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Per Client Quota
Restricts the number of connection requests from a single client
within a second. After clicking this checkbox, enter a threshold
number in the text field that represents the maximum number of
requests (per second) from a single client. If more than the
specified number of connection requests are received within a
second, the Firebox Vclass appliance drops the excess requests
within that same second.
When you have finished configuring the Hacker Prevention settings, click
one of the following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
CPM Management Configuration
Use the CPM Management tab to allow a specified CPM server to
manage the Firebox Vclass appliance.
1
Click the CPM Management tab.
The CPM Management settings are displayed.
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96
2
3
4
Click the Enable CPM Management checkbox.
5
To change the CPM management password, click Password.
Type the CPM server IP address in the appropriate field.
Type the CPM server port in the appropriate field.
The default port is 7850.
The Change CPM Management Password dialog box appears.
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Managing Software Licenses
6
7
Type the new password and retype it in the appropriate fields.
Click OK.
When you have finished configuring the CPM Management settings, click
one of the following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
Managing Software Licenses
Use the Licenses tab to import licenses, which you obtain from
WatchGuard, and add extra features. For more information about
licensing additional features and capacity for your Firebox Vclass
appliance, visit the WatchGuard Web site.
To add additional licenses, follow these steps:
1
Click the License tab.
The Licences list is displayed.
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To import a new license, follow these steps:
2
98
Click Add.
The Import License dialog box appears.
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Managing Software Licenses
3
4
Click Load the license from a file.
Locate and select the license file.
NOTE
If you prefer, you can also use a text editor to open the file. Then copy and
paste the text.
5
When the license text is displayed, click Import License.
6
Repeat this process to import any other certificates into the Firebox
Vclass appliance.
7
To remove a license, select the entry and click Remove.
8
Click OK.
This imports the license into the Firebox Vclass appliance. After the import is
complete, the dialog box closes and the newly imported license appears in the
license list.
A confirmation dialog box appears.
The entry is removed from the License list.
To view the details of a particular license, follow these steps:
1
2
Select an entry from the Licenses list.
Click Detail.
The License Detail dialog box appears.
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3
4
Review the license information.
When you are finished, click Close.
To see which features are currently active, follow these steps:
1
Click Show Active Features.
2
3
4
Review the active features along with their capacity and status.
The Active Features dialog box appears.
Click Refresh to update the feature list.
When you are finished, click Close.
VLAN Forwarding Option
Your network may include a number of VLANs. As a result, you may
need to create security policies to route traffic between two separate
VLANs and this security appliance. In such a situation, which is known as
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VLAN Forwarding Option
VLAN forwarding, you can create security policies for VLAN traffic, but
you must activate the related hardware functionality beforehand, as
detailed in this section. This permits the appliance to manage traffic
exchanges between two VLANs sharing this appliance, or traffic routed
between two VLANs, one using this appliance, and another, separate
VLAN behind another appliance, all connected to the same switch.
This function enables you to use an IT management workstation in VLAN
1 to connect through the local gateway appliance and to monitor and
maintain a Web server assigned to VLAN 3–which entails inter-VLAN
connections.
VLAN forwarding is a feature built into Firebox Vclass appliances, and is
inactive by default.
To activate VLAN forwarding, follow these steps:
1
Click the VLAN Forwarding tab.
The VLAN Forwarding fields are displayed.
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NOTE
If this tab is not visible, this Firebox Vclass appliance does not
incorporate these VLAN-forwarding features.
2
Click the checkbox labeled Activate VLAN Forwarding.
When you have finished configuring the VLAN Forwarding settings, click
one of the following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
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High Availability Configuration
High Availability Configuration
Use the High Availability tab to configure all of the necessary features to
connect, link, and run a high-availability system using two HA-ready
Firebox Vclass appliances. This provides continuous network
management in the event of a security appliance failure.
For complete information on using this tab, see “Setting Up a High
Availability System” on page 283.
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CHAPTER 6
Using Account Manager
This chapter shows you how to create three separate types of access
accounts.
Admin and super admin accounts enable users to connect to a Firebox
Vclass appliance so that they can monitor and manage the system. A
super admin account grants the user a wide range of controls over the
appliance and policies, while the admin account restricts its user to status
checks, the policy checker tool, and alarm resolution.
The end user account allows users to connect through a firewall to
external networks or the Internet, where such access is blocked by the
firewall. It primarily affects internal network users.
Configuring Accounts
Configure system access accounts for any number of users acting in three
basic roles.
super admin
This account is given complete control of the entire system. When
a user logs into the Vcontroller as a super admin, he or she has
access to all the Manager window features and can add to or edit
all the settings and policies.
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NOTE
Vcontroller provides one default super admin account with primary
master privileges. Only one user can be logged in as default super admin
at any time, and this connection bars all other secondary super admin
account users. See “Account Access Conflicts” on page 111 for more
information.
admin
This account is given read-only access to the Vcontroller features,
with the exception of the Outstanding Alarms feature. The user of
an admin account can open the Vcontroller to check on the status
of the system but is not able to change or delete settings. If,
however, an alarm is detected, the admin user can log in and both
investigate and clear an active alarm. The admin user can also
open and use the Policy Checker to help troubleshoot user
problems.
For more information about the prioritization of super admin and
admin accounts, see “Account Access Conflicts” on page 111.
end user
This account is related to firewall access and can be used to grant
internal users access to external networks or the Internet.
Use the following procedure to configure accounts:
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From the main Vcontroller page, click Account.
The Account Manager dialog box appears.
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Configuring Accounts
2
Click Add.
3
Type an account name in the appropriate field.
4
Type a brief description for the account in the Description field. This
field is optional.
5
Type a password in the appropriate field.
6
7
Retype the password in the appropriate field.
8
Click Apply.
The account settings become active.
The account name must be between 2 and 8 characters.
The password must be between 6 and 20 characters.
Select the appropriate role from those displayed in the Unselected
list. Click Add to move the role to the Selected column.
A new account entry appears below the appropriate user account header on the
left.
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9 Repeat this process to add more accounts.
10 When you have finished, click Close.
End-user accounts for authentication
You can configure a security policy to block internal users from
connecting through the Firebox Vclass appliance to the Internet or to
other external networks. If, however, a number of inside users need
external access, you can grant it to them by creating end-user accounts
and configuring a policy to allow authenticated users to bypass the
firewall. For more information of creating security policies, see “About
Security Policies” on page 113.
Using a Web browser to authenticate
After you have created end-user accounts, contact prospective users and
provide them with their end-user account name and password.
Communicate the following process for using a Web browser to make a
connection.
1
2
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Launch a Web browser.
Type the IP address of interface 0 (Private) of the Firebox Vclass
appliance as in this example:
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Configuring Accounts
https://10.10.10.27
3
Press Return.
4
Click Yes/OK to accept the certificate.
5
6
7
Type the end-user account name in the User ID field.
A Security Alert dialog box should appear, according to the browser used.
A Login page appears in the Web browser, similar to this example:
Type the end-user password in the Password field.
Click Log In.
If the entries are accepted, a status message appears in the browser, confirming
the connection. The user can now connect to Web sites.
NOTE
All end-user connections have an idle timeout of two hours. If the user
does not maintain active connections for two hours, the end-user
connection is disconnected, and the end user must log in again.
Managing accounts
Showing and hiding accounts
You can hide accounts in the Account Manager window by doubleclicking the minus (—) box at the top of the role mini-icon.
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This hides the list of accounts from view, and replaces the minus box with
a plus box.
If you need to see all those accounts at a later time, double-click the plus
box.
The complete list of accounts appears in the Account Manager window. If
needed, you can edit or delete any of the listed accounts, as described in
the following sections.
Modifying an existing account
To change an account by adding or removing an access privilege, follow
these steps:
1
2
Open the Account Manager, and expand the category list on the left.
3
To add a new role to this account, select the appropriate role in the
Unselected column, then click Add to move that item into the
Selected column.
4
To remove a role from this account, select the appropriate role in the
Selected column, then click Delete.
5
When you have finished, click Apply.
6
Click Close to save your entries and quit the Account Manager.
Select the account to be edited.
The current access roles of this account appear in the Selected column to the right.
The Account Manager window displays the results under each of the roles in the
left-hand column.
To remove an access account, follow these steps:
1 Determine which account will be deleted. The default super admin
account cannot be deleted.
2 Select the account and then click Delete.
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External Access for Remote Management
3
When you have finished, click Close to save your changes and close
the Account Manager.
External Access for Remote Management
In most instances, you use the Vcontroller to manage a Firebox Vclass
appliance through the interface 0 (Private)–this is the default setup and
requires the installation of the Vcontroller on a Management Station
located on the same private network as the appliance.
In certain settings, a Management Station may be located on a network
external from the Firebox Vclass appliance and you must gain external
access through interface 1 (Public). To enable remote management, you
must create a security policy that allows incoming HTTPS traffic through
the interface 1 (Public), while also creating an address group for the IP
address of the Management Station. For information on creating a
security policy, see “About Security Policies” on page 113.
After a security policy has been configured, you can use an admin
account for authentication to the Firebox Vclass just as you would an enduser account. When you have gained external access, you can then use
Vcontroller to remotely manage the appliance.
Account Access Conflicts
If you create several super admin access accounts, remember that Firebox
Vclass appliances allow only one super admin account to connect at any
time with full administrative privileges. If another non-root super admin
account user attempts to log in after a root super admin user has already
logged in, the second user is granted access to the system, but with admin
privileges only.
If someone logs in as a super admin user and a second person then
attempts to log in as the default super admin, the second person is given
the option of killing (logging out) the first non-default super admin user
and taking over full super admin privileges.
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As for all other admin access accounts (which can only be used to check
the status and clear new alarms), any number of account users can log in
at the same time.
If you attempt to log in as a secondary admin user and the root super
admin account is already in use, a warning window appears.
You can still click OK to complete the login, but when the Vcontroller
appears, you do not have any super admin privileges.
Resolving login conflicts
You can, on occasion, try to log in as the default super admin, and see the
Kill Login dialog box:
This window appears in the following circumstances:
• You were recently logged in as a super admin user and your
computer froze or crashed, terminating the administrative session, or
you simply exited the Vcontroller and did not log out correctly.
• Another person was already logged in as a non-default super admin
user when you attempted to log in with the default super admin
account. The appliance gives you the opportunity to quit or to
disconnect access for the other user.
You can click OK to close a previous session (or to bump a secondary
super admin user) and to connect as the root super admin.
When the Vcontroller appears, you have full access to all the features.
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CHAPTER 7
About Security Policies
The purpose of a Firebox Vclass appliance is to determine whether data is
to be passed or blocked and, if passed, what action will be taken with the
data. The set of rules by which data is evaluated and managed is called a
security policy.
About Security Policies
Every security policy operates in a similar way: it lists qualifications that
the Firebox Vclass appliance uses as it analyzes the initial packets of a
new stream of data. The sources of data can be your internal network or
any external networks including the Internet. Then, if the packets match
the traffic specifications of a given policy, the appliance can take several
types of actions: firewall actions, IPSec actions (involving manual-key or
automatic-key encryption and authentication), a variety of NAT/loadbalancing actions, and QoS actions.
You can use Vcontroller to create and combine any number of policies on
a Firebox Vclass appliance, enabling that appliance to fully protect and
enhance your network traffic.
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Security policy components
Every security policy is composed of two basic components: the traffic
specifications and an action.
Traffic specifications
The traffic specification is one of the basic components of a security
policy. It defines the source, destination, and other attributes of every
data stream traveling through the Firebox.
Traffic specifications incorporate the following components:
Source
Refers to the origin of a stream of data whether it originates in
your private network, the DMZ, or an external network.
Destination
Refers to the final destination for traffic that will be passed
through the Firebox Vclass appliance by that policy. It can refer to
a particular interface.
Service
The type of traffic in this data. For example, HTTP, email, FTP, or
Telnet.
Incoming interface
Which interface on the Firebox Vclass appliance the data is
coming into: Public, Private, or DMZ.
Tenant
Which tenant is affected, whether a VLAN or user-defined
domain tenant.
Policy actions
A policy action prompts the Firebox Vclass appliance to perform certain
management tasks with data that matches qualifying traffic specifications.
Your appliance can take one or more of the following actions:
• Protect your private networks from unauthorized intrusions, if the
traffic is external.
• Perform IP address swapping through dynamic and static Network
Address Translation.
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About Security Policies
•
•
•
•
Encrypt and authenticate your data for secure transmission through
insecure networks.
Enable various types of load balancing for designated servers.
Provide various types of network address translation for internal
networks.
Apply Quality of Service (QoS) controls to qualifying data traffic.
You can often combine several actions in the same policy, as described in
“Policies with multiple actions” on page 116.
Types of policies
You can use the Vcontroller to create as few or as many policies as are
needed by your particular network, with each policy applying one or
more compatible actions to qualifying traffic. The range of policies
includes the following:
Firewall
Firewall policies block unwanted traffic (including hacker attacks)
while permitting valid traffic to proceed to a destination inside
your network. You can start with the default firewall policy that
blocks every type of traffic, and then insert other policies that
permit access by certain types of traffic to specific network
destinations.
VPN
Virtual Private Networks create secure tunnels through both
internal networks or through the Internet, so that encrypted data
can be sent efficiently and securely from one device to the other.
VPN policies can be applied to both site-to-site traffic and remoteclient-to-site traffic.
Network Address Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT), has three key applications
in a Firebox Vclass appliance:
Dynamic Network Address Translation allows you to set up a single
IP address so that a large number of internal network users can
gain access to the Internet.
Static NAT policies allow you to substitute an alias IP address for a
real IP address. For example, you could mask a Web server IP
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address behind an alias with SNAT, so that the alias is the only
network ID visible to external users.
Virtual IP load balancing uses a single legitimate IP address, and
then evenly distributes data requests to any number of servers all
mirroring the same information. Your assets are not limited to a
single server with a single IP address.
Traffic Shaping
Quality of Service policies assign priorities to qualified data. This
can be useful if, for example, an executive wants a particularly fast
Web browsing experience. You can create a policy that prioritizes
HTTP traffic going to his or her computer’s IP address while
scaling down the capacity of other traffic.
Hacker Defense
Your Firebox Vclass appliance comes with a suite of options to
protect your network against coordinated floods of malicious data
requests. You can set threshold values for different types of
protection so that the Firebox Vclass appliance automatically
dumps the excess traffic and protects your systems from stalling
or crashing.
Multi-tenant
You can route VLAN traffic through a Firebox Vclass appliance,
including inter-VLAN forwarding, or you can establish a number
of user domains to virtually define restricted groups of network
tenants and then route traffic to and from the members of that
domain.
Scheduling
You can establish hours and days for specific actions that your
appliance will take with certain data, while allowing other data to
pass unimpeded or unaffected.
Policies with multiple actions
You can combine one or more actions in a policy. For example, suppose
you created a VPN policy that permits two server-farm sites to share data
with one another. You might also want to implement load balancing, so
that the data is distributed equally among several servers. The required
policy would focus on the two gateway appliances as source and
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Using Policy Manager
destination and then apply both an IPSec action and a load-balancing
action.
Not all actions can be combined. The following table shows the
combinations of actions that can be applied in a single policy.
Firewall
IPSec
Virtual IP/
NAT
Dynamic
NAT
Static
NAT
QoS
Firewall
na
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
IPSec
YES
na
YES
YES
YES
YES
Virtual IP/
a
NAT
YES
YES
na
NO
NO
YES
Dynamic NAT
YES
YES
NO
na
NO
YES
Static NAT
YES
YES
NO
NO
na
YES
QoS
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
na
a.
Using Policy Manager
Policy Manager allows you to create and edit a detailed security policy.
Within the security policy, you can create a variety of actions as well as
define schedules, address groups, tenants, and other components for
security policies. You can also use the Policy Checker to make sure you
have defined your policy correctly.
From the main Vcontroller page, click Security Policy. The Policy
Manager window appears.
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•
Click Address Group to view the list of defined entries.
The Address Group dialog box appears.
•
- To create a new Address Group, click New. For instructions on
defining the entry, see “Defining an address group” on page 126.
- To edit an address group, select the entry and click Edit.
- To delete an address group, select the entry and click Delete.
- When you are finished, click Close.
Click Service to view the list of defined entries.
•
- To create a new Service, click New. For instructions on defining
the entry, see “Defining a service” on page 128.
- To edit a service, select the entry and click Edit.
- To delete a service, select the entry and click Delete.
- When you are finished, click Close.
Click IPSec Action to view the list of defined entries.
The Service dialog box appears.
The IPSec Action dialog box appears.
- To create a new IPSec action, click New. For instructions on
defining the entry, see “Defining an IPSec action” on page 186.
- To edit an IPSec action, select the entry and click Edit.
- To delete an IPSec action, select the entry and click Delete.
- When you are finished, click Close.
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Using Policy Manager
•
Click QoS Action to view the list of defined entries.
The QoS Action dialog box appears.
•
- To create a new QoS action, click New. For instructions on
defining the entry, see “Defining a QoS action” on page 138.
- To edit a QoS action, select the entry and click Edit.
- To delete a QoS action, select the entry and click Delete.
- When you are finished, click Close.
Click NAT/LB Action to view the list of defined entries.
•
- To create a new NAT or Load Balancing action, click New. For
instructions on defining the entry, see “About Load Balancing”
on page 142.
- To edit a NAT or Load Balancing action, select the entry and
click Edit.
- To delete a NAT or Load Balancing action, select the entry and
click Delete.
- When you are finished, click Close.
Click Schedule to view the list of defined entries.
•
- To create a new schedule, click New. For instructions on
defining the entry, see “Defining a Schedule” on page 147.
- To edit a schedule, select the entry and click Edit.
- To delete a schedule, select the entry and click Delete.
- When you are finished, click Close.
Click Tenant to view the list of defined entries.
•
•
•
The NAT/LB Action dialog box appears.
The Schedule dialog box appears.
The Tenant dialog box appears.
- To create a new tenant, click New. For instructions on defining
the entry, see “Defining tenants” on page 134.
- To edit a tenant, select the entry and click Edit.
- To delete a tenant, select the entry and click Delete.
- When you are finished, click Close.
To create a duplicate entry, select a policy and click Clone.
To edit a particular entry, select the policy and click Edit.
To delete a particular entry, select the policy and click Delete.
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•
•
•
To save the settings to the Management Station and apply them to the
Firebox Vclass appliance when it is restarted, click OK.
To close the Policy Manager window without saving or applying any
changes, click Cancel.
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass appliance,
click Apply.
The Commit dialog box appears.
•
•
- To flush any active connections that may be affected by the
changes, click the appropriate checkbox and then click Commit.
Click Help to launch the online help system within your browser
window.
Click Security Policy or IKE Policy to toggle between these two
displays.
Applying system-wide QoS port shaping
If your Firebox Vclass appliance sends data to a network device–such as
a modem, router, or hub–that has a lower throughput speed, you may
want to adjust the throughput speed of the Firebox Vclass appliance, so
that it does not flood the other device with excessive data. You can set
bandwidth constraints for both Private and Public interfaces. This only
affects outgoing packets.
This system-wide setting does not directly affect any QoS actions that you
may define. Port-shaping settings control overall outgoing throughput,
while individual policy actions prioritize specific data.
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Using Policy Manager
Follow these steps to apply system-wide QoS port shaping:
1
Click System QoS.
2
To configure QoS for either the Public or Private interfaces, click the
checkbox labeled Enable QoS.
3
4
Select either Kbps or Mbps from the drop lists.
The System QoS dialog box appears.
Click Done.
Using tunnel switching
For information on using tunnel switching with VPN policies, see “Using
Tunnel Switching” on page 194.
Using Policy Checker
As you compile and insert new policies in the Policy Manager window,
you can use the Security Policy Checker window to find and apply the
correct policy. This limited test verifies that the policy is in the proper sort
order and that it will be activated when qualifying data is detected.
Follow these steps to test a security policy:
1
Click Policy Checker.
The Security Policy Checker dialog box appears.
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2
Type the IP address of the external device from which the expected
source traffic will arrive in the Source field.
3
Type the IP address of the internal device to which the expected
source traffic will arrive in the Destination field.
4
Select the appropriate interface at which the expected traffic will
arrive from the Incoming Interface drop list.
5
From the Preference drop list, select one of the following:
Use Service Group
If you select this item, the Service drop list is your only active option.
Use Protocol and Port
If you select this item, the Protocol and Service Port features become
active (and the Service drop list becomes inactive.)
6
From the Service drop list (if active), select the service this policy
should check for.
7
8
From the Protocol drop list (if active), select the protocol to be used.
9
Enter the Tenant ID, if this test will verify a policy for multi-tenant
domain traffic.
In the Server Port field (if active), type the port number for this
protocol.
10 Click Done.
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Using Policy Manager
The Policy Checker starts at the top of the policy list and checks your test
parameters against every rule. If it finds a match, the first policy affected
by such traffic is highlighted in the Policy Manager list. This is
particularly helpful when you have a long list of policies and you want to:
• Change the order of policies.
• Edit each policy to change any overlapping settings
If no match is found, either your newly created policy contained errors, or
the test scenario you hoped to validate had errors in the settings. To
examine the rule and its settings, follow these steps:
1
Resort the policies in the window and use the Security Policy Checker
again to test the sort order (after verifying your test traffic entries).
2
If no matching policy is found, select the policy that should have been
applied to the test traffic, and double-click Edit.
The Edit Security Policy dialog box appears.
3
Because this dialog box has the same features as the Insert Security
Policy dialog box, you can check all the configuration options, drop
lists, text fields, and checkboxes to find the incorrect entry.
4
After you are finished, reopen the Security Policy Checker dialog box,
re-enter the test scenario settings, and try again.
How policy order governs policy application
Vcontroller applies policies to new data in the order you set. This order
can be critical to the proper operation of your Firebox Vclass appliance.
For example, suppose you define a policy that admits HTTP packet
streams, and you list this policy second in order. However, suppose the
first policy in the list blocks all HTTP traffic from entry. Because the first
policy blocks all HTTP traffic, the second policy is not applied.
Because policies can make use of wildcards or nested address groups,
make sure you define and list all of your policy rules in the proper order.
After you have created a number of policies and tested them, you may
need to move one or more policies out of their current place to another, to
permit them to be used before or after other existing policies. To do this,
use the arrow buttons to the left of the policy list in the Policy Manager
window.
• Select the policy to be moved, as shown below in row 1.
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•
•
Click the Up or Down arrow key, as shown above, depending on
which direction the move is to occur.
Continue to click until the selected policy appears in the desired
location, as shown here. This illustration shows the selected policy has
been moved from row 1 to row 4.
Default policies
When you first install the Vcontroller, three preinstalled policies are put
into effect.
PRIVATE_HTTPS
Permits incoming HTTPS traffic access to interface 0 (Private).
Vcontroller uses HTTPS traffic, so this policy allows management
connections to the private interface.
Allow_PING_FROM_PVT
Permits you to ping interface 0 (Private). This allows you to
troubleshoot your connection to the private interface.
HOST_OUT
Permits all outgoing traffic, regardless from which internal
interface the traffic originates, access to external networks such as
the Internet.
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Defining a Security Policy
Defining a Security Policy
The Insert Security Policy dialog box allows you to combine traffic
specifications and policy actions. You use this dialog box to define all
security policies regardless of type.
Select an entry point among the list of policies and then click Insert. The
Insert Security Policy dialog box appears.
Defining source and destination
The default sources and destinations are as follows:
ANY
This represents any possible source or destination. It is useful
when selecting sources or destinations outside your network.
PRIVATE_PORT_IP
The IP address of the Private interface.
PUBLIC _PORT_IP
The IP address of the Public interface.
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DMZ_PORT_IP
The IP address of the DMZ interface.
DMZ2_PORT_IP
The IP address of the second DMZ interface.
INTERFACE_IPS
The IP addresses of all interfaces.
If none of the listed items represent the source or destination you want to
use for a policy, you must define a new address group, as described in the
next section.
Defining an address group
Follow these steps to define an address group:
126
1
Click New, next to the Source or Destination drop list.
2
Type a name and brief description for the address group in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
3
Click New.
The New Address Group dialog box appears.
The New Address Group Member window appears.
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4
From the Type drop list, select the category of members that will be
the source or destination of traffic. The options include the following:
Host IP Address
A single host (or a single networked device).
IP Network Address
A particular subnet.
IP Address Range
A series of sequentially numbered IP addresses.
Address Group
An existing address group.
5
If you chose Host IP Address, in the Host IP Address text field, type
the host computer’s IP address.
If you chose IP Network Address, type the subnet address and subnet
mask for this network.
If you chose IP Address Range, type the starting and ending IP
addresses for the range.
If you chose Address Group, from the Address Group drop list, select
the appropriate item. This drop list lists every address group created
for use with the Firebox Vclass appliance.
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6
When you are finished, click Done.
7
8
Repeat this process until you have defined all the required members.
The new member name is displayed in the Address Group Members list of the New
Address Group dialog box.
After you have added all the required group members, click Done to
close the New Address Group dialog box.
When the Insert New Policy dialog box reappears, the Source or Destination drop
list automatically displays the newly created address group.
NOTE
You can nest address groups as “members” within other address groups,
as suggested by the Address Group drop list in the New Address Group
Member dialog box. This does require, however, the creation of each
group before you can do so. For example, you could create an address
group representing employee departments or employees within a subnet,
then, in a separate process, create a master address group, “Employees,”
that contains, as members, all the other staff address groups.
Defining a service
The service component of a traffic specification enables you to designate
one or more network protocols that will be used by the source device for a
particular data stream. Your service selection will be a service group, which
can consist of any combination of the following attributes:
• A single service for a particular type of data traffic, which includes a
single protocol and port number.
• A range of port numbers used by a single service or application.
• An existing service group, which includes two more related services.
You can assemble a service group of one or more services for use in a
single policy to save you from having to create a separate policy for each
service. Although a comprehensive set of protocols is included in the
Service drop list, you can create a new service group using the procedure
in the next section.
Follow these steps to create a new service group:
1
128
Click New, next to the Service drop list.
The New Service dialog box appears.
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Defining a Security Policy
2
Type a name and brief description for the service in the appropriate
fields. The Description field is optional.
3
Click New.
4
5
From the Type drop list, select the appropriate option.
The New Service Item dialog box appears.
To create a service group combining a protocol and port number,
follow these steps:
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- Select Single Service from the Type drop list.
- From the Protocol drop list, make the appropriate selection.
- In the Server Port field, type the port number used by this
protocol.
- Click Done.
6
To create a service group containing a single protocol and a range of
port numbers, follow these steps:
- Select Service Range from the Type drop list.
- From the Protocol drop list, make the appropriate selection.
- In the Start Server Port field, type the lowest port number used
by this protocol.
- In the End Server Port field, type the highest port number.
- Click Done.
7
To combine two or more existing services into a convenient group,
follow these steps:
- Select Service Group from the Type drop list.
- From the Protocol drop list, select the first service you want to
add to this group.
- The New Service dialog box reappears, listing your new service
group.
- Click New, and repeat the Type and Service Group selection
process to add another service to this group.
- Repeat this process until all your intended services appear in the
Service Items list in the Service Items field.
8
When the group is complete, click Done.
When the Insert Security Policy dialog box reappears, the Service drop list
automatically displays this new group as your selection.
NOTE
If this group is for use in a policy that blocks traffic of some type,
remember that blocking a service group effectively blocks all the service
items in that group. Before doing so, you must make sure this is indeed
your intent. You’ll only rarely need to block an entire service group;
instead, you should block only the relevant service items.
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Using Tenants
Defining the incoming interface
The final component of a traffic specification is the incoming interface,
which represents the actual Ethernet interface at which data packets are
detected by the Firebox Vclass appliance. The choices for the incoming
interface are as follows:
0 (Private)
Also considered the “trusted” interface. This interface receives
traffic originating from your internal networks.
1 (Public)
Also considered the “external” interface. This interface receives
traffic originating from external networks, such as the Internet.
2 (DMZ)
Also considered an “optional” interface. This interface receives
traffic originating from both external networks as well as your
internal networks. This interface is not available on the V10 or
V100 models.
3 (DMZ2)
Also considered an “optional” interface. This interface receives
traffic originating from both external networks as well as your
internal networks. This interface is not available on the V10 or
V100 models.
Internal
The traffic originates from within the appliance itself. For
example, you would use this option if you created a policy that
permits RADIUS query traffic to go to a VLAN network.
Using Tenants
Using Vcontroller, you can create policies that direct traffic in a multitenant network environment. Generally used in a service provider
environment, a customer’s tenant assets are segregated into separate
Virtual LANs (VLANs). This provides a secured environment for tenants
because all network traffic between different VLANs is separated by
VLAN switches.
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All Vclass security appliances support IEEE 802.1q VLAN packets, which
allows a network administrator to create separate policies for each tenant
using a single shared security appliance. This reduces the cost of
providing firewall and VPN services to all tenants.
In addition to VLAN-type tenants, all Vclass security appliances allow
administrators to apply security policies to VLAN-like tenants in a nonVLAN environment. This type of tenancy is called a user domain. By
logging on and providing a user ID, password, and domain name to a
Vclass security appliance, an end user can access the Internet or use VPN
policies defined for his or her specified domain. Creating user-domain
tenant policies is an easy way to achieve multi-tenant application without
the need for VLAN hardware. This is especially useful when tenants
cannot be distinguished by different IP subnets.
About VLANs and tenants
VLANs have become increasingly popular for both corporate networks
and service providers as a way of partitioning a network into discrete
regions. VLANs can also be used to segregate a number of users who
need to remain separate from one another.
The Firebox Vclass appliance permits you to use VLAN tags or IDs as part
of the traffic specification in a policy, so that your appliance can route
traffic to and from a VLAN segment by means of a VLAN switch. This
permits bidirectional traffic from the VLAN segment to other segments,
network regions, or to the Internet.
To assist network administrators in creating security policies for use in a
VLAN-enabled environment, the Vcontroller allows definitions of VLAN
tenants, which can be used as part of the traffic specification in security
policies. The VLAN tenant entry represents the VLAN ID embedded in a
data stream packet that will be used by the VLAN switch.
Conceptually, security policies that incorporate the same VLAN object
will be grouped into the same policy domain. Although Vcontroller does
not require all policies with the same VLAN object to be grouped together
in the Policy Manager security policy table, WatchGuard recommends
that you do so for better policy management.
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Using Tenants
NOTE
The current line of Firebox Vclass appliances recognize VLAN/802.1Q
headers in data for routing purposes.
User domain tenant authentication
Two types of tenant authentication can be applied in a user domain multitenant policy:
Manual authentication
The client user supplies three required entries by means of a Web
browser form: a user name, a password, and a domain name.
Certificate-based authentication
A pre-installed VPN certificate automatically supplies the client
user name and domain name. The password must be manually
entered by the user. This certificate must be imported by an IT
administrator into the client system’s Web browser (which is
required for all secure access).
After the three entries are supplied to the Firebox Vclass appliance, the
appliance initiates a RADIUS system authentication request to check the
user name and password. Note, however, that Firebox Vclass appliances
cannot perform tenant authentication because they have no database for
this purpose.
After a user domain tenancy is established for relevant users, and the
RADIUS system is loaded with authentication data for the potential users,
the actual network connections are managed in this manner:
• The user opens his or her browser and attempts to connect to the
Firebox Vclass appliance.
• When the connection is made, a Login form appears in the browser.
• The user clicks in each of the three text entry fields and types the
required information.
• The browser displays either a Confirmation message, indicating that
the connection is complete and ready for use, or an Invalid Entry alert,
allowing the user to try reentering his or her login information.
• The user can now perform any network tasks with this connection.
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Defining tenants
Follow these steps to create VLAN tenants:
1
Click New next to the Tenant drop list.
2
Type a name and brief description for the tenant in the appropriate
fields. The Description field is optional.
3
Type the IP address and netmask of the public interface in the
appropriate field, or click Use Default to use the default IP address
and netmask.
4
Enable either the VLAN or User Domain option.
The New Tenant dialog box appears.
The dialog box refreshes and fields are displayed relevant to the VLAN or User
Domain option enabled.
Follow these steps to configure the VLAN option:
1
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Type the pre-assigned number (between 1 and 4094) that will identify
this VLAN traffic in the VLAN ID field.
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2
Select the interface that connects to the VLAN network from the
Interface drop list.
3
In the VLAN IP field, type the IP address that is assigned to the
interface on the specified VLAN network.
This IP address can also be used as a default gateway address for the devices on
the specified VLAN network.
4
In the VLAN Mask field, type the mask associated with the VLAN IP
address.
5
In the Gateway field, type the gateway address for traffic going to the
specified VLAN network.
This entry must be in the same subnet as defined by the VLAN IP address and
subnet mask.
6
7
Click Done.
Repeat this process as needed to create additional VLAN tenant
entries.
Follow these steps to configure the User Domain option:
1
In the Tenant ID field, type a number (5001 or higher) to identify this
particular tenant’s traffic.
2
In the Idle Time Out field, type the number of minutes a tenant user’s
connection can remain idle before it is automatically terminated.
3
4
In the RADIUS IP field, type the IP address of the RADIUS server.
5
If the RADIUS server is not using the default UDP port (shown in the
RADIUS Port field), click to clear the checkbox labeled Use Default.
In the RADIUS Port field, type the correct port number.
6
In the Request Time Out field, type the number of seconds that
determine when an unanswered authentication request to the
RADIUS system will be dropped. Two seconds is the recommended
value.
7
In the Request Retry field, type the number of retries that this
appliance will make in requesting authentication from the RADIUS
system if the initial attempts go unanswered.
8
In the Secondary RADIUS IP field, type the IP address of any
available backup RADIUS server. This step is optional.
In the RADIUS Secret field, type the password used by this Firebox
to gain access to the RADIUS system. In the Confirm Secret field,
retype the same RADIUS password.
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9
In the Secondary RADIUS Secret field, type the password used by
this Firebox to gain access to any available backup RADIUS system. In
the Confirm Secret field, retype the same RADIUS password. This
step is optional.
10 If the Secondary RADIUS server is not using the default UDP port
(shown in the Backup RADIUS Port field), click to clear the checkbox
marked Use Default. In the Backup RADIUS Port field, type the
correct port number. This step is optional.
11 Click Done.
12 Repeat the process as needed to additional user-domain tenants.
Using the Firewall Options
A Firebox Vclass security appliance protects network assets by means of a
firewall policy. This type of policy blocks unwanted traffic while
permitting valid traffic to enter your network. For example, you can
define a firewall policy to block all types of service requests, such as FTP,
while permitting authorized external traffic to a group of servers
connected to interface 2 (DMZ).
You can define multiple firewall policies to work in conjunction with each
other. For example, in addition to the policy described previously, you
could define a separate policy that grants HTTP access to the Internet for
internal users.
You can also define a firewall policy for internal traffic, to block internal
network users from unauthorized Internet access, such as Web browsing.
Defining the firewall action
The firewall action is defined in the section directly below the traffic
specifications, as shown in the following figure. Select one of the
following options to define what you want the firewall to do with the
traffic defined by the traffic specification.
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Using Quality of Service (QoS)
Pass
Permits all qualifying external traffic through the firewall.
Block
Prevents all qualifying traffic from gaining access to your
network.
Reject
Blocks incoming traffic from the source and sends a TCP reset
message back to that source’s interface.
Authenticate
Requires that internal users authenticate to the Firebox Vclass
appliance before they are granted access through the firewall to
external networks.
If you select the Authenticate option, you must create end user accounts
for use by authorized users. For more instructions on using the
Authenticate option, see “End-user accounts for authentication” on
page 108.
Using Quality of Service (QoS)
In an extensive network with a large number of host computers, the
volume of data moving through the Internet can be immense. When the
traffic is more than the network can sustain, data packets are simply
dropped as a result of congestion. In short, the network does not have
enough bandwidth to deliver all the traffic when it enters the network.
When severe network congestion occurs, all traffic is affected equally.
The Firebox Vclass security appliance offers two Quality-of-Service (QoS)
features that enable you to assign more bandwidth to your most valuable
traffic.
The QoS features implemented in Firebox Vclass appliances include
Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ), Type of Service (TOS) marking, and port
shaping.
The WFQ algorithm
This data queueing technique allows you to assign a relative
bandwidth ratio for specific types of traffic with different weights.
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For example, data exchanges between the corporate center and
branch offices can be allotted a weight of 20 while Internet traffic
is given a weight of 4. During periods of extreme network
congestion, the traffic between HQ and branch offices will benefit
from five times more bandwidth than that allowed to outbound
Internet data.
TOS marking
This allows you to overwrite the TOS byte value in the IP header
of qualified packets. These TOS values can be used by routers that
recognize TOS precedence/DTR bits or by routers that implement
Differentiate Services Code Point (DCP) so that they can prioritize
packets during routing.
Port shaping
This allows you to restrict the bandwidth of outgoing traffic
directed through interface 0 or interface 1. Typically, interface 0 is
connected to the private network with higher capacity
connections than interface 1, which is usually connected to the
Internet through a lower-capacity T1 line. In such a case, packets
in outgoing traffic are dropped due to the physical limitations of
the internal-to-external connection. With port shaping, you can
restrict the overall capacity of interface 1 to match the actual
bandwidth of the physical connection. If a huge volume of traffic
comes from the private network to interface 1, packets are
transmitted according to the weight defined in a QoS policy
action–with no unnecessary loss of packets.
Defining a QoS action
Follow these steps to define a QoS action:
1
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Click New, next to the QoS Action drop list.
The New QoS Action dialog box appears.
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Using Quality of Service (QoS)
2
Type a name and brief description for the QoS action in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
3
From the QoS Type drop list, select Weighted Fair Queue. This is the
only selection available at this time.
4
In the Bandwidth Weight field, type the percentage of bandwidth
you want to assign to qualifying data.
You can type a value ranging from 1 to 100. Note that traffic with a weight of 20
will be given five times more bandwidth than traffic with weight of 4 during periods
of network congestion.
5
Click Done.
Activating TOS marking
You can now activate and customize the TOS Marking values, which
enables this policy to overwrite the TOS byte in the IP header of qualified
incoming packets. Before doing so, make sure you know the direction of
traffic that will be affected by this policy, so you can determine whether
marking will be forward, reverse, or both.
Follow these steps to activate TOS marking:
1
Click TOS Marking.
The TOS Marking dialog box appears.
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2
Click one of the following TOS marking options: TOS Precedence,
TOS Precedence and DTR, or DiffServe CodePoint.
3
Enable either Forward, Reverse, or both.
Forward
The policy will mark the packets that are transmitted in the same
direction as this policy.
Reverse
The policy will mark packets sent in the reverse direction of this
policy.
4
Depending on your TOS choice, a number of Bit fields become active.
If TOS Precedence is your choice, the first three fields (0, 1, and 2)
become active. If you selected either of the remaining TOS options,
the first six fields–0 through 5–become active.
To toggle a particular field’s bit to ON, click the 0 in a field, which will
automatically turn into a 1. To reverse this setting, click the 1 to
restore it to 0.
5
Click Done.
About NAT
Network address translation (NAT) takes IP addresses used on one
network and translates them into IP addresses used within another
network. Also called IP masquerading or port forwarding, you use NAT
to hide network addresses from hosts on another network. Hosts
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About NAT
elsewhere only see outgoing packets from the Firebox Vclass appliance
itself. You can improve security by mapping inside (private or trusted)
addresses to outside (public or optional) addresses. Using NAT also
conserves the number of global IP addresses your company needs. More
importantly, with NAT you can use a single public IP address for all
outgoing and incoming communication, which keeps your trusted
addresses secure.
Static NAT
You may have situations in which you want a subnet, a server, or a group
of users to be associated with a different IP address than the one actually
assigned to them. Whether you want to maintain privacy for a number of
client users or hide internal assets from external view, you can do so with
static network address translation (static NAT).
The most important parameters necessary for creation of a static NAT
policy are:
• The internal IP address of the private network asset/client
• The external IP address to which this internal device’s IP address will
be mapped
You can apply one-to-one, many-to-many, or subnet-to-subnet static NAT
policies to qualifying traffic. All types of static NAT action are described
in this section.
Before you proceed, you should be aware of the following constraints on
static NAT policies as applied by a Firebox Vclass appliance:
• Static NAT policies are limited in that they can translate only IP
addresses.
• Static NAT policies do not support VIP load balancing.
• If a VPN policy includes a static NAT action, the peer tunnel IP
address cited in the IPSec action must be the primary interface 0 IP
address, not any of the secondary addresses assigned to this interface.
• If IP addresses that are to be mapped are not in the same subnet as
interface 1 (Public), proper routing must be configured to ensure that
traffic to these mapped IP addresses is routed to interface 1 of this
appliance.
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Dynamic NAT
If you have a number of employees or other private network users whose
client computers have been assigned IP addresses for internal use, you
can grant all of them full access to the Internet using dynamic Network
Address Translation (dynamic NAT).
You can insert policies into a Firebox Vclass security appliance that apply
dynamic NAT to qualified traffic in the following ways:
Public IP
This action substitutes the IP address of the 0 (Public) interface on
the appliance for all internal use IP addresses. This allows internal
users to gain one-way access to the Internet using the IP address
of the appliance’s Public interface.
User assigned IP
This action substitutes a publicly routable IP address of your
choosing for internal use IP addresses. This option is particularly
useful if this appliance will be managing more than 55,000
simultaneous sessions using the IP address of the Public interface.
About Load Balancing
As an efficient traffic management scheme, load balancing enables you to
distribute incoming data requests to an array of servers. Additionally, you
can fine-tune the distribution, directing a percentage of the overall traffic
to specific servers according to the capacity of those devices. With the
Vcontroller and a security appliance, you can create a policy that lists each
server, and then assigns a percentage of total requests to that server
(based on its capacity in comparison to other servers). After you apply
this policy to your network traffic, your Firebox Vclass security appliance
distributes new data requests to additional servers in the queue after
previous servers have been fully utilized.
Load balancing also makes use of a virtual IP address (a form of dynamic
Network Address Translation), to which all requests are directed, and
through which the security appliance will distribute the overall load. All
load balancing policies must use the Public interface of the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
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Defining a NAT Action
Defining a NAT Action
To create a Dynamic NAT action using a Public IP address:
• Select Dynamic NAT from the NAT/Load Balancing drop list. This
automatically establishes the IP address of interface 1 (Public) of the
Firebox Vclass appliance as the translation address.
Follow these steps to create a Dynamic NAT action using a user-defined
IP address:
1
Select either 0 (Private), 2 (DMZ), or 3 (DMZ2) from the Incoming
Interface drop list.
You cannot apply dynamic NAT to interface 1 (Private).
2
If a VLAN or user domain tenant is affected by this action, select the
appropriate entry from the Tenant drop list.
3
4
Select Dynamic NAT from the NAT/Load Balancing drop list.
5
Type a name and brief description for the dynamic NAT action in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
6
7
Select Dynamic NAT from the NAT Type drop list.
Click New from the right of the NAT/Load Balancing drop list.
The New Load Balancing/NAT Action dialog box appears.
Click New.
The New Mapping dialog box appears.
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8
9
Type the publicly routable IP address in the IP Address field.
Click Done to close the New Mapping dialog box and return to the
New Load Balancing/NAT Action dialog box.
10 Click Done to close the New Load Balancing/NAT Action dialog box.
Follow these steps to configure a Static NAT action:
1
Click New from the right of the NAT/Load Balancing drop list.
2
Type a name and brief description for the dynamic NAT action in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
3
4
Select Static NAT from the NAT Type drop list.
5
Select an address group from the External Address Group and
Internal Address Group drop lists.
6
If you have not yet created an address group for the external or
internal address, click New.
The New Load Balancing/NAT Action dialog box appears.
Click New.
The New Mapping dialog box appears.
For information on creating an address group, see “Defining an address group” on
page 126.
7
Click Done to close the New Mapping dialog box and return to the
New Load Balancing/NAT dialog box.
The new mapping entry is displayed.
8
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Click Done.
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Defining a Load-Balancing Action
Defining a Load-Balancing Action
Follow these steps to define a load-balancing action:
1
Click New from the right of the NAT/Load Balancing drop list.
2
Type a name and brief description for the load balancing action in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
3
4
Select Virtual IP from the NAT Type drop list.
The New Load Balancing/NAT Action dialog box appears.
Select on of the following options from the Load Balancing
Algorithm drop list:
Round Robin
Each server is treated with equal priority.
Weighted Round Robin
Each server is given priority based on its ability to deliver specific
applications.
Random
Traffic is randomly distributed to a series of servers.
Weighted Random
Algorithm weights are assigned to servers based on server
capacity limitations.
Least Connection
When new traffic is sent to the servers, an algorithm determines
which server has the least number of connections.
Weighted Least Connection
When new traffic is sent to the servers, an algorithm determines
the least number of connection and weights that can be assigned.
If you chose Weighted Round Robin, Weighted Random, or Weighted
Least Connection from the Load Balancing drop list, you can assign
specific weights to particular IP addresses or address groups.
Follow these steps to assign weights:
1
Click New.
The New Mapping dialog box appears and the Weight field is active.
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2
Enable one of these options and follow these instructions:
Address Group
Select an option from the drop list.
IP Address
Type the IP address of a server in this field.
3
4
Type a port number in the Port field.
Type the number that represents the percentage of load you want to
direct to this server in the Weight field.
The percentages should be related to the total number of servers and their
individual capacities.
5
6
Click Done.
Repeat this process as needed to distribute traffic loads to other
servers.
Up to 16 servers can be included in a single load-balancing policy.
7
When you are finished, click Done to close the New Load Balancing/
NAT Action dialog box.
Using Policy Schedules
After a policy is defined and applied, it is in effect immediately, 24 hours
a day, seven days a week. However, you can modify a policy such that it
is active only during specific times of the day or certain days of the week.
For any given day in a week, you can choose up to four periods that a
policy will be activated. Outside of that time period, the Firebox Vclass
appliance will not apply this policy. Schedules can be formulated within a
policy while you create it, or created separately and applied to an existing
policy.
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Using Policy Schedules
Defining a Schedule
Follow these steps to define a schedule:
1
Click New from the right of the Schedule drop list.
2
Type a name and brief description for the schedule in the appropriate
fields. The Description field is optional.
3
If you do not want the policy scheduler to make use of these
schedules right away, click to clear the checkbox marked Enable
Scheduler. You can reopen this schedule and reactivate the Scheduler
at a later time.
The New Schedule dialog box appears.
Follow these steps to create weekly schedules:
1
2
3
Select the Weekly option.
Select the appropriate day you want to schedule.
Click Edit Day Schedule.
The Edit (Day) Schedule dialog box appears.
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4
5
Click to select the checkbox labeled Period 1.
Type the values in the From and To fields, or use the arrow buttons to
adjust the values.
NOTE
Remember to type afternoon and evening hours in military time. For
example, 1:00 PM must be entered as 13:00.
6
7
8
Repeat this process for the remaining periods, as needed.
9
Click Done.
Click Done.
Repeat this process until a complete week’s schedule has been
recorded.
If you want to create a daily schedule that affects every day of the week,
follow these steps:
1
148
Select the Daily option.
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Using the Advanced Settings
2
Click Edit Day Schedule.
3
4
Click to select the checkbox labeled Period 1.
The Edit Day Schedule dialog box appears.
Type the values in the From and To fields, or use the arrow buttons to
adjust the values.
NOTE
Remember to type afternoon and evening hours in military time. For
example, 1:00 PM must be entered as 13:00.
5
6
Repeat this process for the remaining periods, as needed.
7
Click Done.
Click Done to close the Edit Day Schedule dialog box and return to
the New Schedule dialog box.
Using the Advanced Settings
Use the advanced policy settings to create global settings or per policy
settings for ICMP error message handling as well as a per policy logging.
Follow these steps to configure the advanced settings:
1
Click Advanced.
The Advanced Policy Settings dialog box appears.
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2
Click one of the following options:
Use Global Settings
Selecting this option enables the ICMP error handling global
policy settings configured using the System Configuration button.
For more information, see “Advanced Configuration” on page 90.
Use Per-Policy Settings
Selecting this option allows you to define ICMP error handling
parameters particularly for this security policy, effectively
overriding any global settings you may have configured. Click
one of the following options: Allow All ICMP Errors or Allow
Specified ICMP Errors. Selecting the latter allows you to define
which ICMP error messages will be allowed through the Firebox
Vclass appliance.
3
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Click the Log tab.
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Using the Advanced Settings
4
To enable the Firebox Vclass appliance to log for this particular
security policy, click Enable Per-policy Log.
The traffic log setting must also be enabled. For more information on configuring
logging, see “Log Settings” on page 247.
5
When you have finished, click Done.
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CHAPTER 8
Security Policy Examples
This chapter includes examples of Vclass Firewall policies, VLAN
policies, Quality of Service policies, NAT policies, and Load Balancing
policies. You can use these polices as a guide when designing your system
security policies.
Firewall Policy Examples
The following sections describe different types of networks and how to
create firewall policies to meet their security objectives.
Example 1: Allowing Internet access
Westchester Inc. has a small branch office with a limited number of
publicly routable IP addresses. This office requires a simple set of firewall
policies that allows users to access the Internet while protecting the
network from external traffic.
This illustration shows the internal, private network (with private IP
addresses assigned to the three computers) as connected to the Private
interface of the Firebox Vclass appliance. This interface has its own IP
address, and the Public interface (through which all communications with
the external networks are routed) has a separate IP address.
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You would meet this objective by doing the following:
1
Create two firewall policies with these parameters:
# Name
Src
Dst
Service
Intrfc
Action
NAT/LB
1
Allow_Private
ANY
ANY
ANY
0
Pass
DYNAMIC_NAT
2
Deny_Public
ANY
ANY
ANY
1
Block
2
Have all the users in the private network reconfigure their computers’
default gateway to the IP address of the Private interface on the
Firebox Vclass appliance.
Note that Dynamic NAT is applicable only to firewall policies for
outgoing traffic.
Example 2: Restricting Internet access
Stillbrook Corporation has a branch office similar to that in example 1: it
has a limited number of public IP addresses. However, this company also
wants to set the following restrictions on how internal users access the
Internet:
• No web surfing (HTTP traffic) during office hours
• Only Web services and email traffic are passed by the Firebox Vclass
appliance to the Internet
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Firewall Policy Examples
This example uses the pair of firewall policies created in Example 1.
Dynamic NAT provides Internet access for internal users, while another
policy protects the private network from external users.
This network also requires two new policies. The first additional policy
denies HTTP traffic from the private network using a schedule such that
the policy action takes effect only from 9am to 5pm. The second new
policy uses the same traffic specifications but passes all HTTP traffic
(using dynamic NAT) without any schedule restrictions.
NOTE
If you create a security policy that applies an action according to a
schedule, it is a good practice to create an exact duplicate of that policy,
with the opposite firewall action without a schedule, that is listed
immediately following the scheduled policy. Having such a pair of policies
ensures that the same traffic is permitted after the specified schedule
expires.
1
Using the Insert Security Policy dialog box, set up the following
policies, one at a time.
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2
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Firewall
NAT/LB
Schedule
1
Deny_
HTTP
ANY
ANY
HTTP
0
Block
DNAT
9to5M-F
2
Allow_
HTTP
ANY
ANY
HTTP
0
Pass
DNAT
3
Allow_
MAIL
ANY
ANY
POP3
0
Pass
DNAT
4
Deny_
Private
ANY
ANY
ANY
0
Block
5
Deny_
Public
ANY
ANY
ANY
1
Block
Create a schedule with these parameters:
NAME
9 to 5, Monday - Friday
DESCRIPTION
Schedule for 9:00am - 5:00pm, Monday - Friday
ENABLE SCHEDULER
Checked
TYPE
Weekly
DAYS/HOURS
Monday - Friday, From 9:00 To 17:00
Example 3: Allowing unlimited access for authorized users
Chambers Enterprises, like the company in the previous example, wants
to block Internet access during working hours. However, it wants to make
exceptions for certain authorized users.
To achieve this, you would make use of the user-authentication firewall
feature and replace the “Deny_HTTP” policy with a scheduled
“Allow_User” policy. When this revised policy is in effect (during office
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Firewall Policy Examples
hours), only authorized users are allowed to gain external access.
Unauthorized users are still blocked.
1
Use the Account Manager to create end-user access accounts for each
individual to be allowed Internet access during working hours.
2
Distribute login IDs, passwords, and connection instructions to these
users so that they can connect through the firewall.
3
Create an “Allow_User” firewall policy using the parameters shown
below.
:
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Firewall
NAT/LB
Schedule
Allow_
User
ANY
ANY
HTTP
0
Authenticate
Dynamic
NAT
9to5M-F
Allow_
HTTP
ANY
ANY
HTTP
0
Pass
Dynamic
NAT
Allow_
MAIL
ANY
ANY
POP3
0
Pass
Dynamic
NAT
Deny_
Private
ANY
ANY
ANY
0
Block
Deny_
Public
ANY
ANY
ANY
0
Block
4
Add the “9to5M-F” schedule from Example 2 to this policy so that it
takes effect only between 9am and 5pm, Monday through Friday. This
permits the “Allow_HTTP” policy to be active outside the specified
office hours, at which time all users can surf the Internet.
5
Before this group of authorized users can access the Internet, they
must first authenticate their access request so that they can proceed
through the firewall. They would do so by entering the following
URL in their Web browser: https://126.20.20.1/user.html
In this URL, the “126.20.20.1” entry represents the IP address of
interface 0.
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Example 4: Allowing communication between branch
offices
Appleby Incorporated has two branch offices, each with a separate
Firebox Vclass appliance. These branch offices need separate sets of
firewall policies to enable all users in the offices to communicate with the
other branch office.
To achieve such control over inter-branch traffic, you must create policies
on both Firebox Vclass appliances. The following figure illustrates this
situation.
A separate policy must be created on each Firebox Vclass appliance so
that the users in the private net of the first branch office can access the
computers in the private network of the second branch office. The policy
on Firebox Vclass appliance 1 specifies the traffic coming in from the
private interface, while the policy on Firebox Vclass appliance 2 specifies
the traffic coming in from the public interface. Also note that the source,
destination, and service have to be exactly the same in both policies.
158
1
Configure all computers in Branch 1 to use the Private interface of
Firebox Vclass appliance 1 as the default gateway.
2
Configure all computers in Branch 2 to use the Private interface of
Firebox Vclass appliance 2 as the default gateway.
3
Create two separate address groups to represent the computers in
each branch office, using the following entries in the New Address
Group dialog box:
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Firewall Policy Examples
Address Group 1:
Name: Branch_1, Member type: IP Network, Addresses:
128.100.1.0, Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Address Group 2:
Name: Branch_2, Member type: IP Network, Addresses:
176.14.1.0, Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
4
5
6
Create the following policy on Appliance 1:
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Firewall
Branch_1to2
Branch_1
Branch_2
ANY
0
Pass
Create the following policy on Appliance 2:
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Firewall
Branch_1to2
Branch_1
Branch_2
ANY
1
Pass
If you want to allow the users in the private network of branch 2 office
to access the computers in the private network of branch 1 office,
create two more policies on that appliance to permit such traffic. The
final list of policies used by the appliances should look like this:
Policies on Appliance 1
Name
Src
Dest
Service
Incoming
Firewall
Branch_1to2
Branch_1
Branch_2
ANY
0
Pass
Branch_2to1
Branch_2
Branch_1
ANY
1
Pass
Policies on Appliance 2
Name
Src
Dest
Service
Incoming
Firewall
Branch_1to2
Branch_1
Branch_2
ANY
1
Pass
Branch_2to1
Branch_2
Branch_1
ANY
0
Pass
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Example 5: Defining policies for an ISP
ConnectYouUp.com is an ISP with a firewall that both protects all internal
private network assets while permitting access by subscribers to servers
in a DMZ, reading and sending email, surfing the Internet, and taking
advantage of FTP services.
In such a network environment, you may want to create a number of
complementary policies that permit access by certain users to a limited set
of assets (servers), while permitting free external access to all internal
users.
1
Open the System Configuration dialog box and use the Route tab
features to add a new route to the appliance. The new route
represents the default gateway, which is the remote access server/
router.
.
160
Destination
Net Mask
Gateway
Interface
Metric
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
128.100.0.1
1
1
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Firewall Policy Examples
2
Reconfigure all of the computers in the private network to use a
default gateway corresponding to interface 0 of the Firebox Vclass
appliance. In this example, the gateway is 126.20.20.1.
3
Create three separate policies, permitting access to different servers in
the DMZ network.
4
Define an email service for the DMZ interface, enabling subscribers to
send email.
5
Create a policy to allow all employees on the Private interface to
access the Internet.
When you have finished, the complete set of policies should resemble this
list, and be listed in exactly this order in the Policies table:
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Firewall
Allow_Public_
Webserver
ANY
127.10.10.4*
HTTP
1
Pass
Allow_Subscribers_
Email
ANY
127.10.10.3*
Email
1
Pass
Allow_DMZ_
SendMail
127.10.10.3*
ANY
Email
2
Pass
Allow_Subscribers_
FTP
ANY
127.10.10.2*
FTP
1
Pass
Allow_Outbound
ANY
ANY
ANY
0
Pass
NOTE
IP addresses are shown for these examples. You must define a separate
address group entry for each policy.
Example 6: Controlling access at corporate headquarters
Lubec Corporation wants to augment an existing corporate firewall to
provide the following access controls:
• Only authorized internal network users can surf the Internet during
working hours. All other users have access only during non-work
hours.
• All other types of Internet connections are permitted.
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•
Everyone from the outside world can send email to the Mail server
(accessible through interface 2).
1
Open the System Configuration dialog box and use the Route tab
features to add a new route to the appliance. The new route
represents the default gateway, which will be the remote access
server.
Destination
Netmask
Gateway
Interface
Metric
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
128.100.0.1
1
1
2
All of the computers in the private network must be reconfigured
with a default gateway that represents the Private interface of the
Firebox Vclass appliance, which in the example is 126.20.20.1.
3
Create a new address group that represents the subnet connected to
the private interface of the Firebox Vclass appliance, using these
specifications.
Address group 1
Name: HQ
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Firewall Policy Examples
Member type
IP Network Addresses
Address
126.20.20.0
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
4
Create a schedule called “9to5M-F”, as described in “Example 2:
Restricting Internet access” on page 154.
5
Create the necessary end-user accounts for all of the authorized users,
as described in “Example 3: Allowing unlimited access for authorized
users” on page 156.
6
Create the following security policies in the exact order shown. Note
that the user-authenticated firewall policy (the first one to be created)
will apply policy actions only to authorized users, while blocking all
unauthorized users who are sources of the same type of traffic.
.
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Firewall
Schedule
1
Allow_
User_
http
HQ
ANY
HTTP
0
Authenticate
9to5M-F
2
Allow_
All_
HTTP
HQ
ANY
HTTP
0
Pass
3
Allow_
Private_
Any
ANY
ANY
ANY
0
Pass
4
Allow_
Public_
Email
ANY
127.10.10.3
Email
1
Pass
5
Deny_
Public
ANY
ANY
ANY
1
Block
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VLAN Policy Examples
The following figure shows how a Firebox Vclass appliance can manage
traffic to and from a typical VLAN.
This example consists of an ASP site that hosts two customers’ assets:
• Customer ABC’s servers are in network 10.1.1.0/255.255.255.0, which
has been assigned VLAN ID 3.
• Customer XYZ’s servers are in network 10.1.2.0/255.255.255.0, which
has been assigned VLAN ID 25.
To make this work, the needed VPN policies are applied in the ASP’s
security appliance to allow Company ABC and XYZ to access their assets
in the ASP through secure VPN tunnels. Because the ASP should not be
allowed to access Company ABC and XYZ’s private networks, unidirectional VPN policies on the WatchGuard appliances are necessary.
The following address groups and VLAN objects for use by that appliance
are required:
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Address groups
ABC_Net
IP Address: 192.168.1.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
XYZ_Net:
IP Address: 205.118.17.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Tenant_ABC:
IP Address: 10.1.1.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Tenant_XYZ:
IP Address: 10.1.2.0
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
VLAN tenant entries
ABC:
VLAN id = 3
interface 0 (Private)
VLAN IP/mask: 10.1.1.1/255.255.255.0
XYZ:
VLAN id = 25
interface 0 (Private)
VLAN IP/mask: 10.1.2.1/255.255.255.0
The requisite VPN policies on “ASP” should have the following
parameters:
SRC
Dest
Service
In
Tenant
Firewall
IPSec
ABC_Net
Tenant_ABC
ANY
1
ABC
Pass
—> ipsec_ABC
XYZ_Net
Tenant_XYZ
ANY
1
XYZ
Pass
—>ipsec_XYZ
At the Company ABC site, a new policy should be applied to “ABC” with
the following parameters:
SRC
Dest
Service
In
ABC_Net
Tenant_ABC
ANY
0
Tenant
Firewall
IPSec
Pass
<— ipsec_ABC
At the Company XYZ site, a new policy should be applied to “XYZ” with
the following parameters:
Src
Dest
Service
In
XYZ_Net
Tenant_XYZ
ANY
0
Firebox Vclass User Guide
Tenant
Firewall
IPSec
Pass
<— ipsec_XYZ
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Using a Firebox Vclass appliance in a VLAN setting
If your SNMP management stations, DNS servers, OSPF routers, RADIUS
servers, and mail servers are located in a VLAN-enabled network, you
must explicitly define separate policies that allow Firebox Vclass
appliances to send traffic to those devices. Otherwise, some Firebox
Vclass features, such as SNMP trap notification and DNS lookup, will not
work. Here is an example of a policy that allows SNMP traps sent from a
Firebox Vclass security appliance to a SNMP management station in
VLAN 20.
Src
Dest
Service
In
Tenant
Firewall
PRIVATE_
PORT_IP
SNMP_
STATION
SNMP trap
Internal
VLAN_20
Pass
Creating policies for user-domain tenants
In addition to VLAN tenant-specific policies, the Vcontroller permits you
to set up user domain—specific policies, which enable the appliance to
perform traffic management for multi-tenant domains without the
attendant VLAN hardware.
The concept behind the definition of a user domain tenant involves
identifying the tenant and establishing the means of authenticating that
tenant. For example, the Vcontroller administrator first defines a new user
domain tenant (as described in this section). At this time, the
administrator must link this entry to the relevant RADIUS system to
provide authentication services. Next, the administrator can create the
policies necessary for this user domain (and the tenants).
When a user domain tenant wants to initiate an Internet or other external
network connection through the Firebox Vclass appliance, he or she
would first log into the appliance using the user name, password, and
domain name previously defined in the tenant record. After this is
verified by the RADIUS system, the Firebox appliance associates the user
(IP address) to the relevant domain. Any traffic from the user will then be
covered by policies that incorporate that domain.
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VLAN Policy Examples
An example of a user-domain policy in use
As noted previously, the key element in user-domain tenant policies is
user authentication. This is how traffic pertaining to a specific tenant is
identified. For example:
• The Vcontroller administrator creates a user-domain tenant record for
“Engineering” domain users that uses a RADIUS server for user
authentication.
• Policies are created to manage traffic for an external network,
originating from “Engineering.”
• When one of the tenant users wants to make an external connection,
he or she opens a Web browser and logs into the Firebox appliance.
The user’s IP address is also noted by the appliance.
• After the user provides a user name, password, and domain name
(specified in the Tenant entry as referenced by the policy), his or her
name and password are validated by the RADIUS system.
• The user is granted access to the external network.
• The appliance now classifies packets from the user’s computer as
traffic from the “Engineering” domain tenant.
• Finally, after a set idle time expires, the connection is broken, and that
user will have to log in and re-authenticate before being granted
access to the external network again.
One of the advantages of creating and applying user-domain tenants to
policies is that there is no strict relationship between a tenant and the
originating computer’s IP address. The computer used by a tenant user is
noted dynamically by the appliance during the authentication process;
the user name, password, and domain are the key, and the IP address
simply becomes a temporary location for the duration of the connection.
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QoS Policy Examples
When using QoS actions within your policies to prioritize your network
traffic, remember that any traffic streams not included in explicit QoS
actions will be affected by a default QoS action with WFQ set to 5. The
following example shows how this works in conjunction with other QoS
policies.
Example 1:
Policy 1: QoS action A with WFQ weight = 5
Policy 2: No QoS
Policy 3: No QoS
Policy 4: QoS action B with WFQ weight = 10
Policy 5: No QoS
In this case, the ratio between all three QoS actions is 5 (default), 5 (QoS
A), and 10 (QoS B). When the network bandwidth is fully utilized,
policy 1 traffic will use 25% of the bandwidth, policy 4 will use 50%, and
all other traffic will share the remaining 25%.
Example 2:
Policy 1: QoS action A with WFQ weight = 15
Policy 2: No QoS
Policy 3: No QoS
Policy 4: QoS action B with WFQ weight = 5
Policy 5: No QoS
Policy 6: QoS action B with WFQ weight = 5
In this case, the ratio between all three QoS actions is 5 (default), 15 (QoS
A), and 5 (QoS B) which is a 1:3:1 ratio. Therefore, when the network
capacity is fully utilized, policy 1 traffic will use 60% of the total
bandwidth (3/5), policy 4 and policy 6 traffic will share 20% (1/5) of the
bandwidth, and all other traffic will share the remaining 20% (1/5) of
bandwidth.
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Static NAT Policy Examples
Static NAT Policy Examples
The following sections describe different examples of static NAT
applications.
Example 1: Translating IP addresses into aliases
If one region of your network is protected from unauthorized internal use
connections, it may rely on a pool of internal-use IP addresses that are
also used in other network regions. You can set up a static NAT policy
that translates the existing IP addresses into aliases, for use in establishing
connections with other regions of the network without fear of IP address
conflicts.
192.168.24.(X)
192.168.12.(X)
192.168.12.(X)
192.168.12.(X)
The policies would incorporate these entries:.
Name
Source
Dest
Service
In
Static
NAT
action
1
Inbound
static NAT
ANY
Alias
ANY
1
static
NAT_1
2
Outbound
static NAT
Internal_Net
ANY
ANY
0
static
NAT_1
The two address groups would include these entries:
Internal_net
192.168.12.0/24
Alias
192.168.24.0/24
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The static NAT action would reflect these entries:
static NAT_1
Internal = Internal_net
External = Alias
Example 2: Preventing conflicts between IP addresses
If your extended network relies on VPN connections between gateway
appliances at remote sites, you can set up address translation to prevent
conflicts between the common pools used in the internal networks behind
each appliance.
144.120.55.11
144.120.55.12
144.120.55.13
144.120.55.14
144.120.55.15
192.168.12.11
192.168.12.12
192.168.12.13
192.168.12.14
192.168.12.15
192.168.12.11
192.168.12.12
192.168.12.13
192.168.12.14
192.168.12.15
These address groups must first be entered in Vcontroller in the
respective locations:
For Site A
Net_A: 192.168.12.0/24
Alias_A: 212.12.3.0/24
Net_B: 144.120.55.0/24
For Site B:
Net_B: 192.168.12.0/24
Alias_B: 144.120.55.0/24
Net_A: 212.12.3.0/24
The following static NAT actions must be entered in Vcontroller in the
respective locations:
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Static NAT Policy Examples
For Site A
static NAT_A
Internal: Net_A
External: Alias_A
For Site B
static NAT_B
Internal: Net_B
External: Alias_B
The policies in the Site A security appliance would include these settings:
1
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Static
NAT
action
SITE_
A-B
Net_A
Net_B
ANY
0 (pvt)
static
NAT_A
IPSec_A-B
(<->)
The policies in the Site B security appliance would include these settings:
1
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
static
NAT
action
SITE_
B-A
Net_B
Net_A
ANY
0 (pvt)
static
NAT_b
Firebox Vclass User Guide
IPSec_A-B
(<->)
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Load Balancing Policy Examples
Configuring Load Balancing for a Web Server
1
After starting the Vcontroller application, click Security Policy in the
Policy column.
The Policy Manager window appears.
2
Click any existing policy entries (or click the last row) in the Security
Policies list.
Your new policy appears in the row you selected and moves the existing policy
down a row.
NOTE
If your Firebox Vclass appliance is already using a “block all external
traffic” firewall policy, this new load-balancing policy must be listed
above the firewall policy.
3
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Click the Insert button at the bottom of the window.
The Insert Security Policy dialog box appears.
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4
Type a name and brief description for the policy in the appropriate
fields. The Description field is optional.
Configuring Load Balancing for an E-commerce Site
The following example shows how a Firebox Vclass appliance can
function as a load balancing accessory to evenly distribute data requests
to a series of Web servers. This scenario can be adapted to full effect in ecommerce sites that use a large number of servers to manage the growing
number of consumers.
An e-commerce site may get several hundred thousand hits a day. A
Firebox Vclass appliance can be strategically placed in the network to
function as both a firewall that protects internal network assets and a load
balancer for the Web servers.
In this scenario, any number of external client users will be trying to
connect to a Web site with a URL that points solely to a single, publicly
routable IP address, 128.100.0.2. This address cannot be shared by all the
existing Web servers, each of which has its own internal IP address. The
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challenge is to evenly distribute each new data request to a different
server, although the requests originally expect 128.100.0.2 to answer.
1
Open the System Configuration dialog box and use the Route tab to
either add a default gateway or change the existing default gateway to
128.100.0.1.
2
Open the Insert Security Policy dialog box and make the following
entries.
1
Name
Source
Destination
Service
Incoming
Firewall
Allow_HTTP
ANY
127.10.10.0
HTTP
1
Pass
Consider what would happen if the above firewall policy is the only one
implemented. Clients attempting to access Web servers in the DMZ
network will endure long wait times. The existing Web servers cannot
share the total load of HTTP requests. If one of the Web servers is
overloaded with requests, the other two Web servers will not pick up the
excess requests automatically.
A load balancing policy fixes these problems. Because all clients use the
publicly routable IP address (128.100.0.2), the Firebox Vclass appliance
automatically receives all such requests and distributes them to the Web
servers in the DMZ net, regardless of what IP addresses each Web server
is assigned.
In this example, the site’s publicly routable IP address will be assigned to
the appliance’s Public interface. The resulting load balancing policy will
distribute HTTP requests to each of the Web servers in turn:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Reopen the firewall policy.
Change the Destination to “128.100.0.2”.
Click the New button to the right of the NAT/LB Action drop list.
When the New NAT Action dialog box appears, enter a name for the
new action, such as Web-load.
From the NAT Type drop list, select Virtual IP.
From the Load Balancing Algorithm, select Weighted Least
Connection.
The Firebox Vclass appliance will route incoming HTTP traffic to the Web server
that has the least number of active requests among the three servers.
7
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Click New to the right of the Servers list.
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Load Balancing Policy Examples
8
When the New Server dialog box appears, select IP Address and type
“127.10.10.2” in the accompanying text field.
9
In the Port field, type “80”, unless there is another port number for
this server.
10 In the Weight field, type “1”.
Weight establishes the load/capacity of all the Web servers in proportion
to each other. The specific number can be determined using the following
formula, as shown in these two examples:
Load/Capacity
First Web server1
Second Web server2 (twice as much as the first Web server)
Third Web server3 (three times as much as the first Web server)
The weight distribution for these Web servers would be 1:2:3.
Load/Capacity
First Web server1
Second Web server1 (same as the first Web server)
Third Web server2 (twice as much as the first Web server)
The weight distribution for these Web servers would be 1:1:2.
11 Click Done to save the new server entry.
12 Repeat the New Server dialog box process two more times and enter
the separate IP addresses of the other two Web servers. Use the
Weight numbers “2” and “3” in each case.
13 When you have saved all three server entries, click Done to save this
NAT/LB action.
14 Save your new policy and then apply it in the Policy Manager
window.
The final load balancing policy will have these settings:
1
Name
Src
Dest
Service
In
Firewall
NAT/LB
Allow_HTTP
ANY
128.100.0.2
HTTP
1
Pass
Web-Load
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CHAPTER 9
Using Virtual Private
Networks (VPN)
The Internet is a technical and social development that puts a multitude of
information at your fingertips. On this worldwide system of networks, a
user at one computer can get information from any other computer. The
benefits of using the Internet to exchange information and conduct
business are enormous. Unfortunately, so are the risks. Because data
packets traveling the Internet are transported in plain text, potentially
anyone can read them and place the security of your network in jeopardy.
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Virtual private networking technology counters this threat by using the
Internet’s vast capabilities while reducing its security risk. A virtual
private network (VPN) allows communication to flow across the Internet
between two networks or between a host and a network in a secure
manner. The networks and hosts at the endpoints of a VPN are typically
corporate headquarters, branch offices, remote users, telecommuters, and
traveling employees. User authentication verifies the identity of both the
sender and the receiver. Data sent by way of the Internet is encrypted
such that only the sender and the receiver of the message can see it in a
clearly readable state.
About VPN Policies
To establish VPN connections between your present site and other remote
sites, you must create and apply VPN policies in security appliances on
each end. These policies specify the required levels of authentication and
encryption to protect the data. In addition, you can also create VPN
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About VPN Policies
policies that permit secure communications between a site and authorized
clients.
VPN policies and IPSec actions
A VPN security policy always includes an IPSec action, regardless of
whether you are creating a manual key or automatic key policy. The IPSec
action determines what type of authentication and encryption is used to
protect traffic governed by this policy. VPN policies can incorporate
different kinds of keys (manual or automatic) and different types of
encryption and authentication algorithms to be applied to the data
stream. If a VPN policy has no IPSec action, the data will be sent as clear
text.
Three major qualifications are established in an IPSec action:
Mode
Tunnel mode is used when Firebox Vclass appliances act as
security gateways on both ends or when a remote Firebox Vclass
VPN client connects to a Firebox Vclass security appliance. Data
packets are encrypted and tunnelled from one appliance to the
other, where decryption takes place and the data is forwarded to
its final destination. The IP address of each tunnel peer must be
specified.
Transport mode is usually applied in end-to-end secured
communications.
Key Management
This specifies whether the key is automatically or manually
created. Automatic key management is done in accordance with
IKE, an IETF standard protocol. Using IKE, encryption keys are
automatically negotiated and selected by two connected security
appliances. This provides the easiest, most efficient key
management.
Encryption/authentication
Two principal types of security protocols exist to protect data
packets in Internet communications. AH (Authentication Header)
protocol is applied to IP packets for authentication, while ESP
(Encapsulating Security Payload) can be applied to IP packets for
both encryption and authentication.
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About Authentication and Encryption
The Firebox Vclass security appliance supports the following algorithms:
Authentication Header (AH)
MD5, SHA
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
DES, 3DES
When an automatic key is configured in an IPSec action, authentication
and encryption must be selected. These keys are created by the
administrator. Using a manual key provides more flexibility regarding
which authentication methods and encryption algorithms are used.
This flexibility is expressed in the form of proposals incorporated into the
IPSec action. For example, one proposal may use ESP with 3DES for
encryption and SHA for authentication. A second proposal uses ESP with
DES for encryption and AH with MD5 for authentication. When a Firebox
Vclass appliance negotiates with another appliance to select an automatic
key, the initiating appliance sends a list of proposals to the other, starting
a negotiation process at the end of which a protocol and algorithm are
chosen and used.
NOTE
You must activate your LiveSecurity Service to enable 3DES encryption.
To activate your LiveSecurity Service, go to:
http:\\www.watchguard.com\activate
For more information on LiveSecurity Service, see “Service and Support”
on page 7.
Defining an IKE Policy
Follow these steps to define an IKE policy:
1
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From the main Vcontroller page, click IKE Policy.
The IKE Policy dialog box appears.
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Defining an IKE Policy
2
Select an entry point among the list of policies and then click Insert.
3
Type a name and brief description for the IKE policy in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
The Insert IKE Policy dialog box appears.
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4
Select a preconfigured address group from the Peer Address Group
drop list or click New to create a new address group. For information
on creating an address group, see “Defining an address group” on
page 126.
5
Select a preconfigured IKE Action from the drop list or click New to
create a new IKE action. For information on creating an IKE action,
see “Defining an IKE action” on page 183.
6
From the Peer Authentication ID field, select one of the following
options:
Address Group
Select the address group of the remote gateway from the drop list,
or click New to create a new address group. For information on
creating an address group, see “Defining an address group” on
page 126.
Domain Name
Type the domain name of the remote gateway.
User Domain Name
Type the user domain name of the remote gateway.
X.500 Name
Type the X.500 certificate name used by the remote gateway.
Any
This allows any traffic from the remote gateway to initiate the IKE
policy. No ID will be verified.
182
7
If you previously selected an IKE action that incorporates RSA or DSA
as the authentication type, the Local Certificates options become
active and the RSA or DSA drop lists become active. From the drop
list, select the appropriate certificate. Next, select the Local ID Type
from the drop list. This should be one that the peer system can
validate with a copy of your certificate sent to the peer system as well
as settings in their own policy.
8
If you previously selected an IKE action that incorporates the preshared key authentication type, the Pre-Shared Key options become
active.
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NOTE
This key will be shared among all participating peer IKE systems. If a
remote peer does not use the same key, or if a different authentication is
used, negotiations will fail.
9
Click either String or Hex, and then type and confirm the key in the
fields.
The key can consist of any combination of letters and numbers, but it cannot
contain blank spaces.
10 Click Done to return to the IKE Policy page.
Defining an IKE action
Your choice of IKE action defines how IKE peers authenticate each other
and which encryption is used to protect the negotiation process.
1
From the right of the IKE Action drop list, click New.
2
Type a name and brief description for the IKE action in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
3
From the Mode drop list, select one of these options:
The New IKE Action dialog box appears.
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Main
A slower mode that provides greater security. This is the
recommended mode.
Aggressive
A faster, less secure mode. If you choose this mode, you can
include only one IKE transform.
4
If you selected the Main mode from the drop list, you can enable
Extended User Authentication by clicking the appropriate
checkbox.
5
Select an IKE transform from the list or click New to create a new IKE
transform.
The New IKE Transform dialog box appears.
.
6
7
Select an Authentication Type from the drop list
Select a DH Group from the drop list.
DH (Diffie-Helman) groups enable two peer systems to publicly exchange and agree
on a shared secret key. The numbers available on the drop list (768 and 1024) are
the number of bits used for exponentiation to generate private and public keys. The
larger the number, the greater the protection.
8 Select an Encryption Algorithm from the drop list.
9 Select a Hash Algorithm from the drop list.
10 Type the number of hours or minutes that the transform will remain
active in the Lifetimes field.
11 Select Hours or Minutes from the Lifetime drop list.
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12 Type the maximum size in kilobytes in the Life Length field. This
field is optional.
13 Click Done.
The transform is added to the IKE transforms list.
14 Repeat this process to add any other transforms.
Aggressive mode permits only a single transform.
15 When all the required transforms are listed, you can shuffle the order,
if necessary, by selecting a transform and clicking the Up or Down
arrows to the left of the list.
The order in which transforms are listed establishes the preference order of all
listed transforms during phase one negotiations.
16 Click Done.
Defining a VPN Security Policy
This section provides information on defining a VPN security policy that
creates a VPN connection between two Firebox Vclass appliances.
NOTE
If you want to permit connections that exchange traffic in both directions,
you must create a single bidirectional VPN policy. You cannot create two
mirroring unidirectional VPN policies, one that permits inbound traffic
and one for outbound traffic.
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Security Policy.
2
Select an entry point among the list of policies and then click Insert.
3
Type a name and brief description for the security policy in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
4
Select a preconfigured address group from the Source drop list
corresponding to the remote appliance or click New to create a new
address group. For information on creating an address group, see
“Defining an address group” on page 126.
5
Select a preconfigured address group from the Destination drop list
corresponding to the local appliance or click New to create a new
The Security Policy dialog box appears.
The Insert Security Policy dialog box appears.
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address group. For information on creating an address group, see
“Defining an address group” on page 126.
6
Select a preconfigured Service from the drop list or click New to
create a new service. For information on creating a service, see
“Defining a service” on page 128.
7
Select an Incoming Interface from the drop list.
NOTE
If this a bidirectional policy, make sure that the incoming interface
selection is 0 or 2, and not 1.
Defining an IPSec action
Follow these steps to define an IPSec action:
1
186
At the right of the IPSec drop list, click New.
The New IPSec Action dialog box appears.
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2
Type a name and brief description for the IPSec action in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
3
Select an option from the Mode drop list:
Tunnel
This policy prompts the Firebox Vclass appliance to hide any
information about the original sender of data, representing the
Firebox Vclass appliance as the original sender. This option is
preferred for site-to-site connections, in which the traffic goes
through the Firebox Vclass appliance.
Transport
No additional identity masking is applied. This option is
generally used in secured communication directed to this Firebox
Vclass appliance, such as SNMP traffic.
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4
If you selected Tunnel, you have two options:
- Click the Peer Tunnel Address Group option and then select
the address group that represents the peer IP address of the
tunnel from the drop list.
- Click the Peer Tunnel IP Address option and then type the
peer IP address.
5
From the Key Management drop list, select one of the following
options:
Automatic (IKE)
This key management process regularly replaces existing keys
with randomly generated keys that are created by the Firebox
Vclass system. For information on creating an automatic key, see
“Defining an automatic key” on page 189.
Manual
Manual key mode requires that the administrator of each security
appliance manually enter the text of a key on each system that
exactly matches the other system’s key. The drawbacks to manual
keys are potential errors in entry, the need to manually replace
keys on a regular basis, and the vulnerability of a fixed key to
hacking attempts.
For information on creating a manual key, see “Defining a manual
key” on page 193.
6
If you want to permit connections initiated in both directions, click the
checkbox labeled Gateway to Gateway VPN.
NOTE
If this a bidirectional policy, make sure that the incoming interface
selection is 0 or 2, and not 1.
188
7
For information on configuring the remaining options of the policy
(QoS action, TOS Marking, NAT/Load Balancing, Scheduling, and
the Advanced Settings) see those sections in chapter 7, “About
Security Policies” on page 113.
8
9
Click Done.
When you have finished configuring VPN policies, click Apply to
save the settings to the Firebox Vclass appliance.
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Defining an automatic key
Automatic key mode requires use of the Internet Key Exchange protocol
(IKE) to generate new keys when needed. Keys and encryption and
authentication algorithms are first negotiated, and then chosen and used
by the two participating security appliances.
Follow these steps to define an automatic key:
1
2
Select Automatic (IKE) from the Key Management drop list.
3
If you selected Perfect Forward Secrecy, select a DH Group from the
drop list.
If you choose, enable Perfect Forward Secrecy.
If you select this checkbox, this policy uses new key material every time it
generates a replacement key. If you do not select this checkbox, key replacement
uses the source key material that generated previous keys.
DH (Diffie-Helman) groups enable two peer systems to publicly exchange and agree
on a shared secret key. The numbers available on the drop list (768 and 1024) are
the number of bits used for exponentiation to generate private and public keys. The
larger the number, the greater the protection.
4
Review the default encryption options listed in the Unselected
Proposals list, select any options that your new IPSec action requires,
and click Add.
The proposal is displayed in the Selected Proposals field.
If none of the unselected proposals meets the requirements of this
automatic key IPSec action, you can create your own proposals.
1
Click New.
The New IPSec Proposal dialog box appears.
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2
Type a name and brief description for the IPSec proposal in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
3
Select an option from the Anti-Replay window.
These options can protect your system from replay attacks.
You can now add an ESP transform, AH transform, or both to this
proposal. A transform defines the encryption and authentication
algorithms used by the Firebox Vclass appliance along with setting the
lifetime of any given key. ESP transforms are recommended because they
incorporate both encryption and authentication of your data.
Follow these steps to define an ESP transform:
1
2
190
Select the checkbox labeled ESP.
Click New from the ESP field.
The New ESP Transform dialog box appears
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3
Type the number of hours or minutes a key will be in effect in the
Lifetime field.
If you type zero, this key will have an unlimited lifetime.
4
5
Select either Hours or Minutes from the Lifetime drop list.
Type the maximum number of kilobytes of traffic that would be
encrypted by this key before it expires in the Life Length field.
If you type zero, there is no maximum limit to the amount of traffic encrypted by
this key.
NOTE
Either Lifetime or Life Length must be a non-zero entry.
6
7
8
Select an Encryption Algorithm from the drop list.
Select an Authentication Algorithm from the drop list.
Click Done.
NOTE
You cannot choose None for both encryption and authentication when
creating an ESP transform.
9 Repeat this process to create additional ESP transforms.
10 You can use the arrow keys to the left of the transforms list to
reorganize your newly listed transforms into the proper order of
application. Click a transform to move and click the up or down
arrow until it appears in the proper place.
The order of transforms represents the preference of the encryption/authentication
algorithm and lifetime of keys in this security protocol. Only one of the transforms
is chosen when negotiation is complete. If none of the transforms are matched by
the peer appliance, the proposal is rejected.
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11 When you are finished, click Done.
Follow these steps to define an AH transform:
1
Select the checkbox marked AH. Click New to open the New AH
Transform dialog box.
2
Type the number of hours or minutes a key will be in effect in the
Lifetime field.
If you type zero, this key will have an unlimited lifetime.
3
4
Select either Hours or Minutes from the Lifetime drop list.
Type the maximum number of kilobytes of traffic that would be
encrypted by this key before it expires in the Life Length field.
If you type zero, there is no maximum limit to the amount of traffic encrypted by
this key.
NOTE
Either Lifetime or Life Length must be a non-zero entry.
5
6
7
8
9
Select an Encryption Algorithm from the drop list.
Select an Authentication Algorithm from the drop list.
Click Done.
Repeat this process to create additional AH transforms.
You can use the arrow keys to the left of the transforms list to
reorganize your newly listed transforms into the proper order of
application. Click a transform to move and click the up or down
arrow until it appears in the proper place.
The order of transforms represents the preference of the encryption/authentication
algorithm and lifetime of keys in this security protocol. Only one of the transforms
is chosen when negotiation is complete. If none of the transforms are matched by
the peer appliance, the proposal is rejected.
10 When you are finished, click Done.
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Defining a manual key
Follow these steps to define a manual key:
1
2
Select Automatic (IKE) from the Key Management drop list.
Click the Manual Key.
The New Manual Key dialog box appears.
You can configure the manual key to use ESP (Encapsulated Security
Payload), AH (Authenticated Headers), or both.
1
2
Enable the ESP checkbox.
Type a unique number between 256 and 65535 in the Local SPI
(Security Parameter Index) field.
This SPI entry is used to identify this manual key in the local Firebox Vclass
appliance.
3
Type the unique number of the remote appliance in the Peer SPI
field.
4
5
Select the Encryption Algorithm from the drop list.
6
7
8
Type and confirm the key in the appropriate fields.
9
Select either String or Hex for the Encryption Key to specify the key
text to be used, either character or hexadecimal notation.
Select the Authentication Algorithm from the drop list.
Select either String or Hex for the Authentication Key to specify the
key text to be used, either character or hexadecimal notation.
Type and confirm the key in the appropriate fields.
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10 Click to select the AH checkbox.
11 Type a unique number between 256 and 65535 in the Local SPI
(Security Parameter Index) field.
This SPI entry is used to identify this manual key in the local Firebox Vclass
appliance.
12 Type the unique number of the remote appliance in the Peer SPI
field.
NOTE
If both ESP and AH are activated for this manual key, the local SPI for
both ESP and AH must share the same unique number. Similarly, the peer
SPI of both ESP and AH must also share a unique number.
13 Select the Authentication Algorithm from the drop list.
14 Select either String or Hex for the Authentication Key to specify the
key text to be used, either character or hexadecimal notation.
15 Type and confirm the key in the appropriate fields.
Using Tunnel Switching
Maintaining and managing VPN tunnels can be complicated and laborintensive. This is particularly true when using a fully meshed topology in
which a VPN tunnel is created between all sites. As the number of VPN
sites increases, managing and maintaining tunnels among all the sites
becomes much more difficult. The situation gets even more complicated
after remote users establish their own VPN connections to the corporate
network and to branch offices. The following figure depicts a fully
meshed configuration.
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Using Tunnel Switching
A more efficient way to manage a complex corporate VPN with numbers
of sites and remote users is to use a hub-and-spoke configuration, in
which all branch offices connect to corporate headquarters (or any
centralized site) with a single VPN tunnel. All communications between
branch offices pass through the designated central site. Remote users, too,
can dial into headquarters to access branch offices without the need to
establish additional VPN tunnels. This topology, shown in the following
figure, dramatically reduces the effort of managing a VPN.
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To make such a hub-and-spoke topology effective and efficient, Firebox
Vclass security appliances provide tunnel switching capabilities. Such a
setup means that Site A can communicate with site B by sending traffic to
the central office, which then switches this traffic from one tunnel (site A
/ central office) to another tunnel (site B / central office). All tunnel
switching is performed in the Firebox Vclass appliance, which prevents
any degradation of network performance.
The greatest benefit gained from tunnel switching is the reduction in cost
of managing corporate VPNs. If a new branch office is added to the
corporate VPN network, the administrator only needs to add a new policy
in the Firebox Vclass appliance at headquarters. No additional
configuration is needed for the branch offices.
Before you enable tunnel switching, make sure you have:
• Certificates for both ends of the IKE exchange, if RSA or DSS
authentication is used.
• Agreements on other exchange parameters.
NOTE
Tunnel switching is not available on the V10 model.
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Enabling tunnel switching
Before you set up individual VPN policies for site-to-site tunnel
switching, you must activate tunnel switching in the Firebox Vclass
appliance hardware (which is disabled by default). To do so, follow these
steps:
1
2
Open the Policy Manager window.
3
4
Click the checkbox labeled Enabled.
Click the Tunnel Switch button in the left margin.
The System Tunnel Switching dialog box appears.
Click OK.
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CHAPTER 10
Creating a Remote User VPN
Policy
With easy access to the Internet from home offices or on the road,
employees and consultants are now able to connect to a corporate
network from almost anywhere in the world. These connections require
implementation of a VPN at corporate sites to guarantee the security of all
data exchanges.
About Remote User VPNs
The Remote User VPN feature, also known as Remote Access Service
(RAS), is built into every Firebox Vclass appliance and provides the
following benefits:
• With proper policy configuration, users of remote VPN client
connections must perform user-specific authentication, in addition to
the regular computer-based authentication (using IKE phase one
authentication).
• Internal IP addresses for VPN client use can be dynamically assigned
to clients by Firebox Vclass appliances, which makes address
management efficient and effective.
• Administrators can limit the duration of VPN client sessions and
establish idle-timeout limits.
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•
•
•
Remote users can be associated with different user groups through
which network administrators can establish group-wide parameters
for all VPN client sessions, such as IP address assignment, session
time limit, and idle timeout.
A detailed remote user log is provided to the network administrator
with information on all VPN client sessions. These logs now report on
the times of user logon and logoff, where a user logs in from, which IP
address is assigned to each user, and the amount of traffic generated
by a user.
A comprehensive monitor assists administrators in viewing the
current list of VPN client sessions and detailed information on each
client session. You can also use this monitor to disconnect active
sessions.
The current implementation of the RAS VPN feature supports two
different types of user authentication databases; the Firebox Vclass
appliance's built-in user database (which you must configure) or an
existing RADIUS server with current user records.
Requirements
Before creating a new remote user VPN policy, you need to do the
following:
• Determine which user authentication database will be used–a
database stored in a RADIUS server or an internal user database
created and stored on a Firebox Vclass appliance.
• If you will be using a RADIUS server database, you’ll need to know
whether the authentication protocol is PAP or SecurID.
• If using a RADIUS database, you’ll need the IP addresses of the
primary and the backup RADIUS servers, if applicable.
• If you will be creating an internal-appliance database, you’ll need to
know each user’s ID and password for inclusion in a user account.
• If a new IP address is going to be assigned to each remote user,
determine the range of IP addresses that will be set aside for remote
users. The set of IP addresses that will be applied to remote users
should not include any that are currently assigned to existing network
assets or users.
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•
•
To complete the VPN policy, you’ll need to create the specific IKE
policy that will be used by the remote access connections.
Determine which areas or assets of a network will be made accessible
to the users and which services will be permitted, including email, ftp,
HTTP, and so on. In addition, you must provide Firebox Vclass VPN
client software to external users, along with instructions for secure
connections.
High-level view of remote user policies
This section presents a high-level view of how to create remote user
policies. For specific procedures, see the subsequent sections.
1
Use the RAS Configuration dialog box to do the following:
- Select the remote user validation from either an internal
database or a RADIUS server
- Create the user group profiles required
- Add all the individual user accounts and link them to the
appropriate group profiles
2
Use Policy Manager to create an IKE policy for user in remote user
connections.
3
Use Policy Manager to create a VPN policy for remote access use.
To start with remote access configuration, decide which authentication
database you want to use–Firebox Vclass-appliance internal or
RADIUS–and see the appropriate section:
• “Configuring Remote Users” on page 201.
• “Using an internal authentication database” on page 204.
Configuring Remote Users
Before creating a VPN policy to manage remote user traffic, you must first
choose the user authentication database your appliance will use. Next, if
you want to use Vcontroller to assign internal IP addresses, you must set
up the user group profiles required.
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To configure remote users, first define a user group profile:
202
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Remote Users.
2
To the right of the Default User Group drop list, click New.
3
Type a name and brief description for the user group in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
4
Select one of the following options from the Address Assignment
drop list:
The RAS Configuration dialog box appears.
The New User Group Profile dialog box appears.
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None
Remote users belonging to this group will not be assigned an
internal IP address when a connection is made.
Internal
Each remote user will be assigned an internal IP address when a
connection is made. You must then select a preconfigured address
group from the Address Pool drop list or click New to create a
new address group. For information on creating an address
group, see “Defining an address group” on page 126.
5
Type the IP address of the DNS server to be assigned to remote users
in the DNS Server field.
6
Type the IP address of the WINS server to be assigned to remote users
in the WINS Server field.
7
Type the appropriate number or hours or minutes until a user session
expires in the Session Time Limit field.
8
9
Select either Hours or Minutes from the Session Time Limit drop list.
Type the appropriate number of hours or minutes in the Idle Timeout
field.
10 Select either Hours or Minutes from the Idle Timeout drop list.
11 Type the maximum number of logins to be permitted in the
Concurrent Logins field.
12 Click Done.
This new user group profile is displayed in the User Group entry list.
13 Click Apply.
The Commit dialog box appears.
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14 To flush any active connections that may be affected by the changes,
click the appropriate checkbox and then click Commit.
To continue configuring remote users, select an authentication method:
Internal database
For information on using this option to authenticate remote users,
see “Using an internal authentication database,” below.
RADIUS Server
For information on using this option to authenticate Remote
Users, see “Using a RADIUS authentication database” on
page 206.
Using an internal authentication database
To set up an internal RAS user database, follow these steps:
1
2
Enable the Internal database option.
Click the Internal Database tab.
The RAS users list is displayed.
.
3
204
To create a new user entry, click New.
The New RAS User dialog box appears.
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4
Type the User Name in the appropriate field.
5
Type the full name of the RAS user and a brief description in the
appropriate fields. The Description field is optional.
6
7
Select a user group profile from the drop list.
8
If you want, you can override the Password Expiry, Account Expiry,
and Concurrent Logins default values to apply custom limitations to
this account.
User names are case-sensitive and must consist of 1 – 15 characters.
Type a password and confirm it in the appropriate fields.
Passwords are case-sensitive and consist of six to eight characters.
NOTE
The Enabled checkbox in the New RAS User dialog box controls whether
or not this user account is active. If you need to temporarily disable an
entry, select the user from the list of entries and click Edit. Click to clear
the Enabled checkbox. You can reactivate this account at any time by
clicking the Enabled checkbox again.
9
Click Done.
This entry is displayed among the RAS users entry list.
Repeat the previous steps to add other RAS users to the internal database.
10 When you are finished, click Apply.
The Commit dialog box appears.
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11 To flush any active connections that may be affected by the changes,
click the appropriate checkbox and then click Commit.
12 To edit a RAS user entry, select the entry and click Edit.
13 To delete a RAS user entry, select the entry and click Delete.
Using a RADIUS authentication database
To use a database stored on a RADIUS server, follow these steps:
1
2
Enable the RADIUS Server option.
3
4
5
Type the IP address of the RADIUS server in the IP Address field.
6
Click Done.
7
Select either PAP or SecurID from the Authentication Method drop
list.
8
Click Done.
9
Click Apply.
To the right of Primary Radius, click Edit.
The RADIUS Server dialog box appears.
Type the secret and confirm it in the appropriate fields.
To change the port number, disable the checkbox labeled Use default
port, and then type the number in the Port field.
Repeat the previous steps to configure a connection to a backup RADIUS server.
The IP address of the server is displayed.
The Commit dialog box appears.
10 To flush any active connections that may be affected by the changes,
click the appropriate checkbox and then click Commit.
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NOTE
Depending on how the RADIUS servers area is configured, you might
encounter a situation where the internal IP address and DNS server IP
address information might be available on both the RADIUS server and
the Firebox Vclass security appliance. In this case, the Firebox Vclass
appliance automatically yields precedence to the RADIUS server when a
user is being authenticated.
Resetting an expired password
After a remote user account password has expired, you can reset or
replace it by following these steps:
1
Click the Internal Database tab.
Any users with expired passwords show a checkmark under the Password Expired
column.
2
Select the RAS user entry, and click Edit.
3
Click the checkbox labeled Reset Password.
4
Type a password and confirm it in the appropriate fields.
5
6
Click Done.
7
To flush any active connections that may be affected by the changes,
click the appropriate checkbox and then click Commit.
The Edit RAS User dialog box appears. The Password fields are inactive.
The password fields become active.
Passwords are case-sensitive and consist of six to eight characters.
Click Apply.
The Commit dialog box appears.
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Reactivating an expired user
After a remote user account has expired, you can reactivate it by resetting
the account expiration.
1
Click the Internal Database tab.
2
3
4
Select the expired user and then click Account Renewal.
5
To flush any active connections that may be affected by the changes,
click the appropriate checkbox and then click Commit.
Any expired users are labeled as such under the Status column.
Click Done.
Click Apply.
The Commit dialog box appears.
Editing and deleting a user group profile
If needed, you can reopen an existing user group profile and change any
of the settings by selecting an existing user group profile and clicking
Edit. Note, however, that if any address management parameters are
changed (from None to Internal or vice versa), then all existing user
connections belonging to this user group are disconnected. Any changes
made to a policy are enforced immediately.
Similarly, if the address group used to store internal-use IP addresses is
changed, then all user connections currently using IP addresses that are
no longer valid are disconnected immediately. Note, however, that any
change of default idle timeout does not affect existing user connections.
Removing the backup server
As described in “Configuring Remote Users” on page 201, you have the
option to connect a Firebox Vclass appliance to both a primary and
backup RADIUS server. The backup server may at some time become
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Defining a IKE and Security Policies for Remote Users
unavailable–temporarily or permanently. In this situation, you should
remove the backup server setting.
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Remote Users.
2
Click Clear, to the right of the backup RADIUS entry.
3
Click OK.
4
Click Apply.
5
To flush any active connections that may be affected by the changes,
click the appropriate checkbox and then click Commit.
The RAS Configuration dialog box appears.
A confirmation window appears.
The Backup RADIUS status message reads “Not configured”.
The Commit dialog box appears.
If the backup server is made available at a later time, you can repeat the
process described in “Configuring Remote Users” on page 201 to reestablish the Firebox Vclass appliance connection to this server.
Defining a IKE and Security Policies for Remote Users
After you have decided which authentication database will be used and
created any user group profiles required, you must define an IKE and
Security policy that will be applied to the remote users. The process is the
same as that of creating a other policies, but with these adjustments:
Observe these considerations when creating the security policies:
• If no internal IP addresses are to be assigned to remote users, the
Source should be an address group with a membership of ANY.
• If, however, internal IP addresses will be automatically assigned to all
remote users, the Source should then be the address group you
created earlier in the User Group Profile dialog box.
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•
•
•
The Destination will be only those network resources accessible by
remote access users.
The Services will be limited to those that remote users will use,
whether a few or a wide range of services.
The Incoming Interface must be 0 (Public).
Form more information on configuring security policies, see “Defining a
Security Policy” on page 125.
Observe these considerations when creating the IPSec action:
• You cannot specify a fixed IP address in the Peer Tunnel IP Address
field. You should select this option, but leave the text field empty.
•
Select Automatic (IKE) from the Key Management drop list.
Form more information on configuring IPSec actions, see “Defining an
IPSec action” on page 186.
Observe these considerations when creating the IKE policy:
• Because the remote clients can connect from anywhere on the
Internet, the Peer Address Group must be set to ANY.
• Make sure this policy is listed below all other policies, at the bottom of
the IKE Policy table. This will prevent the remote user policy from
being applied to other policies.
Form more information on configuring IKE policies, see “Defining an IKE
Policy” on page 180.
Observe this consideration when creating the IKE action:
• The Extended Authentication checkbox in the New IKE Action
dialog box must be selected.
Form more information on configuring IKE policies, see “Defining an IKE
action” on page 183.
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Monitoring Remote User Activity
Controlling a remote user’s access privileges
In addition to authenticating remote users, Firebox Vclass appliances can
also be configured to assign a temporary internal IP address to a remote
user. Typically, a remote user can be assigned to a specific user group.
Each user group can be associated with an address group, which provides
a pool of IP addresses for assignment.
After a remote user has been assigned an IP address, this address is
subject to the security policies defined within the Policy Manager.
Therefore, by controlling the network address assignment for a group of
users, a network administrator can establish different levels of access
privileges for whole groups of users.
Associating an address group to a user group allows you to control which
part of the corporate networks can be accessed by users in a particular
user group. This capability allows network administrators to set up
different user groups for different levels of remote access.
Monitoring Remote User Activity
WatchGuard recommends that you take advantage of the Log Manager
features. You can track and record remote access connections and system
use.
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You can also get a basic summary of a particular user’s recent connection
history (not the current one) by opening the RAS Configuration dialog
box’s Internal Database tab, choosing a listed user, and clicking Details,
as shown here.
A RAS User Detail dialog box appears, summarizing the most recent
connection history of that user.
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Monitoring Remote User Activity
•
You can click Active Users to monitor currently active users.
The System Information dialog box appears displaying a list of active RAS users.
For more information on monitoring active RAS users, see “RAS User
Information” on page 258.
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CHAPTER 11
Monitoring the Firebox Vclass
For detailed status reports of the Firebox Vclass appliance you can use the
Real-time Monitor.
You can activate the self-reporting capabilities by setting up and applying
custom probes in the Real-time Monitor window. Then you can open the
Real-time Chart window and watch the custom probes as they
dynamically track the activities of the appliance and its network traffic.
Using the Real-Time Monitor
A comprehensive system monitoring feature is available for your use in
the Real-time Monitor window. This window provides a set of probes,
which you can customize and apply, that generate real-time reports on
usage of the system. The probes can then be viewed in a graphic display
in the Real-time Chart window, which provides a visual “cardiogram” of
the system’s health.
A real-time probe measures specific activity in a Firebox Vclass appliance,
using counters to do so. To review a detailed catalog of available counters,
see “A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters” on page 220.
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From the main Vcontroller page, click Monitor.
The Real-time Monitor window appears.
The following categories of system activity can be defined and monitored:
Policy
Policy probes observe and report on the activities of selected
policies. For example, you can set up a probe to monitor the
number of packets governed by a specific policy.
System
System probes provide snapshots of the operational status. For
example, you can create separate probes that track both CPU and
memory use, total throughput for the entire system, and amount
of free space available for log files.
VPN End-point Pair
VPN End-point Pair probes report on specific encryption and
authentication activity, as well as assessing traffic between a
designated pair of security appliances. A “VPN End-point Pair”
indicates a pair of appliances actively exchanging traffic through
any number of IPSec tunnels, whether one or several.
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Using the Real-Time Monitor
Interface
Interface probes observe and report on the activities of selected
interfaces. For example, you can set up a probe to monitor the
number of packets received by a specific interface.
Defining probes
To define a probe for any of the categories, follow these steps:
1
Click Add.
2
From the Probe Category drop list, select a category.
3
From the Polling Time Interval drop list, select an appropriate time
interval for this probe. The range is between 5 and 60 seconds.
4
Click the checkbox labeled Enabled to active this probe as soon as you
close the window. Otherwise, the probe will not be active.
The Select Probe window appears.
After you select a probe category, the window refreshes and displays fields relevant
to the category you select.
A checkmark appears.
5
Click Add when you are finished configuring this probe.
6
Repeat these steps to add more probes. Click Done when you are
finished.
The Select Probe window closes and the new probe is displayed in the appropriate
tab list.
To edit the settings of an existing probe, follow these steps:
1
2
Select the probe. Click Edit.
When the Select Counter window appears, you can use its features to
switch counters as needed. If you need to add a second counter to
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monitor a specific policy, you may need to click Add to create an new
probe.
3
When the probe has been edited, you can test it. Click Show Monitor
(in the Real-time Monitor window) and then click Start Monitoring to
activate the graphic display.
To disable an existing probe, follow these steps:
1
2
Click the tab for the probe you want to disable.
Click the checkbox on the right labeled Enabled.
The checkmark disappears. Disabling a probe is temporary; you can re-enable a
probe at any time.
To delete an existing probe, follow these steps:
1
2
Click the relevant tab for the probe you want to delete.
Select the probe you want to delete and then click Delete.
Monitoring configured probes
To view the actual level of activity of all the listed probes in one of the
tabs, follow these steps:
1
2
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Click the tab for the probes you want to monitor.
Click Show Monitor.
The Real-time Charts window appears.
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Using the Real-Time Monitor
3
Click Start Monitoring.
4
5
When you are finished monitoring, click Stop Monitoring.
After a brief pause, which reflects the Interval times previously selected, the
activity measured by each probe is displayed. The graph changes according to the
per second interval you configured.
Click Close.
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To conserve system resources, you can temporarily disable any probes
until the next time you want to monitor that particular system activity. At
that time, you can re-enable the probe and observe the results in the RealTime Chart window.
A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters
System Counters
220
Counter Name
Function
CPU Util. (%)
System CPU utilization
Memory Util. (%)
System memory utilization
Interface 1(Public)Status (1=up)
Interface 1 status (1-up; 0-down)
Interface 0(Private)Status (1=up)
Interface 0 status (1-up; 0-down)
Interface 2(DMZ)Status (1=up)
Interface 2 status (1-up; 0-down)
System Throughput bytes/sec
Number of bytes processed per second
Packets Recv/sec
Packets received rate (packets/second)
Packets Sent/sec
Packets sent rate (packets/second)
IPSec Throughput bytes/sec
IPSec traffic throughput (bytes/sec)
IPSec Packets/sec
IPSec traffic throughput (packets/sec)
Total IPSec Tunnels
Total number of active IPSec tunnels
Interface 1(Public)Recv.
(Bytes)
Number of bytes received from Interface
1 (bytes)
Interface 1(Public)Sent
(Bytes)
Number of bytes sent from Interface 1
(bytes)
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A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters
Counter Name
Function
Interface 1(Public)Recv.
(Packets)
Number of packets received from
Interface 1 (packets)
Interface 1(Public)Sent
(Packets)
Number of packets sent from Interface 1
(packets)
Interface 1(Public)Recv
Throughput, (Bytes/sec)
Rate of bytes received from Interface 1
(bytes/sec)
Interface 1(Public)Sent
Throughput, (Bytes/sec)
Rate of bytes sent from Interface 1
(bytes/sec)
Interface 1(Public)Recv
Throughput, (Packets/sec)
Rate of packets received from Interface
1 (packets/sec)
Interface 1(Public)Sent
Throughput, (Packets/sec)
Rate of packets sent from Interface 1
(packets/sec)
Interface 0(Private)
Received (Bytes)
Number of bytes received from Interface
0 (bytes)
Interface 0(Private)
Sent (Bytes)
Number of bytes sent from Interface 0
(bytes)
Interface 0(Private) Recv.
(Packets)
Number of packets received from
Interface 0 (packets)
Interface 0(Private) Sent
(Packets)
Number of packets sent from Interface 0
(packets)
Interface 0(Private) Recv.
Throughput, (Bytes/sec)
Rate of bytes received from Interface 0
(bytes/sec)
Interface 0(Private) Sen
Throughput, (Bytes/sec)
Rate of bytes sent from Interface 0
(bytes/sec)
Interface 0(Private) Recv.
Throughput, (Packets/sec)
Rate of packets received from Interface
0 (packets/sec)
Interface 0(Private) Sent
Throughput, (Packets/sec)
Rate of packets sent from Interface 0
(packets/sec)
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222
Counter Name
Function
Interface 2(DMZ)Recv.
(Bytes)
Number of bytes received from Interface
2 (bytes)
Interface 2(DMZ)Sent
(Bytes)
Number of bytes sent from Interface 2
(bytes)
Interface 2(DMZ)Recv.
(Packets)
Number of packets received from
Interface 2 (packets)
Interface 2(DMZ)Sent
(Packets)
Number of packets sent from Interface 2
(packets)
Interface 2(DMZ)Recv.
Throughput, (Bytes/sec)
Rate of bytes received from Interface 2
(bytes/sec)
Interface 2(DMZ)Sent
Throughput, (Bytes/sec)
Rate of bytes sent from Interface 2
(bytes/sec)
Interface 2(DMZ)Recv.
Throughput, (Packets/sec)
Rate of packets received from Interface
2 (packets/sec)
Interface 2(DMZ)Sent
Throughput, (Packets/sec)
Rate of packets sent from Interface 2
(packets/sec)
Log Disk Total (KB)
Total disk space for log files in Kbytes
Log Disk Used (KB)
Total disk space used for log files in
Kbytes
Log Disk Free (KB)
Total disk space available for log files in
Kbytes
Log Disk Used (%)
Percentage of disk space used for log
files
Log Disk Free (%)
Percentage of disk space available for
log files
Log Directory Size(KB)
Total size of the directory containing log
files in Kbytes
Event Log Size (KB)
Event log file size in Kbytes
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A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters
Counter Name
Function
Traffic Log Size (KB)
Traffic log file size in Kbytes
Alarm Log Size (KB)
Alarm log file size in Kbytes
Event Log Increment (KB)
Event log file size increment per interval
Traffic Log Increment (KB)
Traffic log file size increment per
interval
Alarm Log Increment (KB)
Alarm log file size increment per interval
Event Log Growth
Rate (KB/sec)
Event log file size increment rate
(Kbytes/second)
Traffic Log Growth
Rate (KB/sec)
Traffic log file size increment rate
(Kbytes/second)
Alarm Log Growth
Rate (KB/sec)
Alarm log file size increment rate
(Kbytes/second)
Phase One SA Log
Size (KB)
Phase one SA log file size in Kbytes
Phase Two SA Log
Size (KB)
Phase two SA log file size in Kbytes
Remote User Log
Size (KB)
Remote user log file size in Kbytes
Incoming Stream Requests
Number of incoming stream requests
Interface 1(Public)
Stream Requests
Number of incoming stream requests
from Interface 1
Interface 0(Private)
Stream Requests
Number of incoming stream requests
from Interface 0
Interface 2(DMZ)
Stream Requests
Number of incoming stream requests
from Interface 2
Incoming Stream
Req./sec
Rate of incoming stream requests
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224
Counter Name
Function
Interface 1(Public)
Stream Req./sec
Rate of incoming stream requests from
Interface 1
Interface 0(Private)
Stream Req./sec
Rate of incoming stream requests from
Interface 0
Interface 2(DMZ)
Stream Req./sec
Rate of incoming stream requests from
Interface 2
Incoming Stream
Requests Denied
Number of denied stream requests
Interface 1(Public)
Stream Requests
Denied
Number of denied stream requests from
Interface 1
Interface 0(Private) Stream
Requests Denied
Number of denied stream requests from
Interface 0
Interface 2(DMZ)Stream
Requests Denied
Number of denied stream requests from
Interface 2
Incoming Stream Req.
Denied/sec
Rate of denied stream requests
Interface 1(Public)Stream
Requests Denied/sec
Rate of denied stream requests from
Interface 1
Interface 0(Private)Stream
Requests Denied/sec
Rate of denied stream requests from
Interface 0
Interface 2(DMZ)Stream
Requests Denied/sec
Rate of denied stream requests from
Interface 2
Total Bytes Recv.
Number of bytes received
Total Bytes Sent
Number of bytes sent
Total Packets Recv.
Number of packets received
Total Packets Sent.
Number of packets sent
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A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters
Counter Name
Function
Total IPSEC
Traffic (bytes)
IPSEC traffic in bytes
Total IPSEC Packets
IPSEC packets
Total Tunnel Mode SA
Number of tunnel mode SA in the system
currently
Total Transport Mode SA
Number of transport mode SA in the
system currently
Total ESP SA
Number of ESP protocol SA in the
system currently
Total AH SA
Number of AH protocol SA in the system
currently
Total Manual Key SA
Number of SA using manual key in the
system currently
Total Auto Key SA
Number of SA using auto (IKE) key in
the system currently
Total Expired SA
Total number of expired SA since start of
system
HA1 Port Status (1=up)
HA1 interface status (1=up; 0=down)
HA2 Port Status (1=up)
HA2 interface status (1=up; 0=down)
Active User Sessions
Number of remote users’ sessions
Remote Users Logon
Number of remote user logon’s since last
poll
Remote Users Logoff
Number of remote user logoff’s since last
poll
Remote Users
Authentication Failed
Number of remote user logon’s failed
since last poll
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Aggregate counters for all VPN end-point pairs
Counter Name
Description of Counter’s Function
Total Inbound SA
Total number of inbound SA
Total Outbound SA
Total number of outbound SA
Total SA
Total number of SA
Total Inbound Bytes/sec
Traffic rate through inbound SA
Total Outbound Bytes/sec
Traffic rate through outbound SA
Total Inbound Pkts/sec
Packet rate through inbound SA
Total Outbound Pkts/sec
Packet rate through outbound SA
Total Decryption Error Rate (%)
Total Decryption Error Packet Rate
Total Authentication Error Rate (%) Total Authentication Error Packet Rate
Total Inbound SA
Total number of inbound SA
IPSec counters per VPN end-point pair
226
Counter Name
Description of Counter’s Function
Inbound SA
number of inbound SA of a VPN endpoint pair
Outbound SA
number of outbound SA of a VPN endpoint pair
Inbound Bytes/sec
Traffic rate through inbound SA of a
VPN end-point pair
Outbound Bytes/sec
Traffic rate through outbound SA of a
VPN end-point pair
Inbound Pkts/sec
Traffic rate through inbound SA of a
VPN end-point pair
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A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters
Counter Name
Description of Counter’s Function
Outbound Pkts/sec
Traffic rate through outbound SA of a
VPN end-point pair
Decryption Error Rate (%)
Decryption error packet rate of a VPN
end-point pair
ESP Authentication Error Rate (%)
ESP authentication error packet rate of
a VPN end-point pair
AH Authentication Error Rate (%)
AH authentication error packet rate of a
VPN end-point pair
Replay Error Rate (%)
Replay error packet rate of a VPN endpoint pair
Inbound Bytes
Number of inbound bytes of a VPN endpoint pair
Outbound Bytes
Number of outbound bytes of a VPN endpoint pair
Inbound Packets
Number of inbound packets of a VPN
end-point pair
Outbound Packets
Number of outbound packets of a VPN
end-point pair
Policy counters for all policies
Counter Name
Description of Counter’s Function
Number of Policies
Total number of policies
Packets Disc. by Firewall
Total number of packets discarded by
Firewall policies
Packets Disc. at
Interface 1(Public)(%)
Percentage of packets discarded at
Interface 1
Packets Disc. at
Interface 0(Private)(%)
Percentage of packets discarded at
Interface 0
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Counter Name
Description of Counter’s Function
Packets Disc. at Interface
2(DMZ)(%)
Percentage of packets discarded at
Interface 2
Packets Disc. by IPSEC Error (%)
Percentage of packets discarded by
IPSEC errors (decryption error,
authentication error, replay error).
Packets Disc. by Decryption
Error (%)
Percentage of packets discarded by
Decryption errors
Packets Disc. by Authentication
Error (%)
Percentage of packets discarded by
Authentication errors
Packets Disc. by Replay Error (%)
Percentage of packets discarded by
Replay errors
Policy counters per policy
228
Counter Name
Description of Counter’s Function
Traffic (Bytes)
Number of bytes handled by a policy
Traffic (Packets)
Number of packets handled by a policy
Throughput (Bytes/sec)
Throughput in bytes/sec of a policy
Throughput (Pkts/sec)
Throughput packets/sec of a policy
Number of SA
Number of SA belongs to a policy
Packet Disc. (%)
Packet discarded rate of a policy
Decryption Error Packets
Number of packets handled by a policy
with decryption error
Authentication Error Packets
Number of packets handled by a policy
with authentication error
Replay Error Packets
Number of error packets handled by a
policy with replay error.
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A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters
Counter Name
Description of Counter’s Function
Decryption Error Rate (%)
Decryption error rate of a policy
Authentication Error Rate (%)
Authentication error rate of a policy
Replay Error Rate (%)
Replay error rate of a policy
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Using Alarm Manager
CHAPTER 12
The Vcontroller Alarm Manager allows you to define alarms that can alert
the appropriate parties when certain system or policy conditions occur.
You can configure alarm notifications for basic system processes such as
the log file reaching a certain size, or you can configure alarms that alert
the on-duty system administrator when critical conditions have been
detected. You can establish single-condition or multiple-condition alarms
for any level of complexity that your system might encounter.
You can also use the Alarm Manager window to view the current status of
the system and clear all current alarms that have been detected.
Alarm Definitions
To define a specific alarm condition, follow these steps:
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Alarm.
The Alarm Manager window appears.
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2
Click the Alarm Definitions tab to view the current list of alarm
definitions.
This tab lists pre-defined default alarms along with indications of their severity and
whether or not they have been enabled.
3
232
Click Add.
The Alarm Definition dialog box appears.
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Alarm Definitions
4
5
6
Type a name for the alarm in the appropriate field.
Click the Severity slider and move it to the point on the scale that
matches the value of this alarm: Low, Medium, or High.
Decide whether the alarm will have more than one triggering
condition.
Defining a single-condition alarm
1
Click the Condition(s) to trigger the Alarm field where <counter>
appears. This field acts as a button.
The Select a Counter dialog box appears.
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2
Select the appropriate option from the Probe Category drop list:
System, Policy, or VPN End-point Pairs.
The display changes depending upon your choice of Probe Category.
Policy
Select the policy of your choice and then select the counter you
want to use for the alarm. Selecting For All Policies displays a
different list of counters.
System
Select the counter you want to use for the alarm.
VPN End-point Pairs
Select the IPSec pair of your choice and then select the counter you
want to use for the alarm.
234
3
Click Select. For more information about the counters and their
capabilities, see “A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters” on
page 220.
4
From the Alarm Definition window, select the option of your choice
from the drop list.
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Alarm Definitions
<
Indicates “less than”
>
Indicates “greater than”
=
Indicates “equal to”
<=
Indicates “less than or equal to”
>=
Indicates “greater than or equal to”
!=
Indicates “not equal to becomes”
becomes >
Condition will be true if the counter value
becomes greater than the threshold value
becomes <
Condition will be true if the counter value
becomes less than the threshold value
becomes =
Condition will be true if the counter value
becomes equal to the threshold value
5
Delete the text in the <threshold> field and type a number value for
this counter. This value can be a whole number or a percentage.
6
To keep a record of all instances of this alarm, enable the Alarm Log
response option.
7
To initiate an SNMP trap, enable the SNMP Trap response option.
When this alarm is triggered, a message is sent to the Management
Station.
8
To activate email notification, enable the Email Notification response
option. Type the email address in the appropriate field. To send an
email notification to more than one email address, type each address
using a space to separate them.
9
Click OK when finished.
The new alarm definition appears in the list of Alarm Definitions. Repeat this
process to create other single-condition alarms.
Defining a multiple-condition alarm
1
2
Click the Alarm Definitions tab and then click Add.
Click More.
Two condition options appear.
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3
Click Add.
1
Click the text field where <counter> appears. This field acts as a
button.
The Select Condition dialog box appears.
The Select a Counter dialog box appears.
2
Select the appropriate option from the Probe Category drop list:
System, Policy, or VPN End-point Pairs.
The display changes depending upon your choice of Probe Category.
Policy
Select the policy of your choice and then select the counter you
want to use for the alarm. Selecting For All Policies displays a
different list of counters.
System
Select the counter you want to use for the alarm.
VPN End-point Pairs
Select the IPSec pair of your choice and then select the counter you
want to use for the alarm.
3
Click Select. For more information about the counters and their
capabilities, see “A Catalog of Real-time Monitor Probe Counters” on
page 220.
The selected conditions appear in the Select Condition dialog box.
4
236
Select the appropriate option of your choice from the drop list.
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Alarm Definitions
5
Delete the text in the <threshold> field, type the value (either a whole
number or a percentage) for this counter and then click OK.
The newly created condition appears in the Counter/Instance list.
6
Repeat this process to define more conditions for this specific alarm.
7
When you have completed your list of conditions, enable one of the
two options:
- All conditions must hold to trigger the alarm
- Any condition holds to trigger the alarm
8
To keep a record of all instances of this alarm, enable the Alarm Log
response option.
9
To initiate an SNMP trap, enable the SNMP Trap response option.
When this alarm is triggered, a message is sent to the Management
Station.
As a result, more than one condition will be listed in the Counter/Instance list
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10 To activate email notification, enable the Email Notification response
option. Type the email address in the appropriate field. To send an
email notification to more than one email address, type multiple
addresses separated by spaces.
11 Click OK when finished.
The new alarm definition appears in the list of Alarm Definitions. Repeat this
process to create other multi-condition alarms.
Managing alarm definitions
You can update an alarm definition, enable or disable a current alarm, or
delete an alarm definition that is no longer needed in the Alarm Manager
window.
To Update an alarm definition:
238
1
2
Open the Alarm Manager window. Click the Alarm Definitions tab.
3
4
5
Make the changes to the severity and response options.
Select the alarm that is to be updated and click Edit.
The Alarm Definition dialog box appears.
Click OK when finished to return to the Alarm Manager window.
Click Close.
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Responding to an Alarm Notification
To enable or disable an alarm:
1
2
Open the Alarm Manager window. Click the Alarm Definitions tab.
3
Click Close when finished.
Locate the alarm to enable or disable. Enable or Disable the alarm by
clicking the box.
To delete an unwanted alarm definition:
1
2
Open the Alarm Manager window. Click the Alarm Definitions tab.
3
Click Close when finished.
Select the alarm that to delete and click Delete.
The alarm definition is removed from the list.
Responding to an Alarm Notification
Alarm notifications come in several forms:
• An animated alarm bell icon appears at the top of the WatchGuard
Vcontroller main page.
• The red, Alarm LED illuminates on the front of the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
• A notice appears in the Outstanding Alarms tab of the Alarm
Manager window.
• You receive a SNMP trap message.
• You receive an email or pager notification.
The relative severity of the alarm determines which contact method is
used. If the alarm trigger is of a low severity, you may want to let the
appliance display a notice in the Alarm Manager window and merely add
it to the Alarm log. If, however, the alarm trigger is serious, you can
configure the Firebox Vclass to add an SNMP trap or send an email
notification.
In every alarm situation, the animated alarm bell appears in the upperright corner of the Vcontroller main page to give administrators instant
notice of a new alarm condition.
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To view outstanding alarms:
1
From the Vcontroller main page, click the animated alarm bell or click
the Alarm button.
The Alarm Manager window appears, listing the current alarms at the Outstanding
Alarms tab.
2
Review the list of alarm notices. If you would like more information
about a specific alarm notice, double-click the listing or select it and
click Detail.
The Alarm Details dialog box appears.
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Responding to an Alarm Notification
3
Review the information displayed. This includes important
information such as time, date, severity, and conditions (the counter
used in this alarm).
4
5
Click OK to close the Alarm Detail dialog box.
To clear an outstanding alarm, select the alarm notice and click Clear.
To clear all outstanding alarms, click Clear All.
The Alarm Manager removes the alarm notice from the Outstanding Alarms tab.
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CHAPTER 13
Using Log Manager
The Vcontroller can log an extensive array of system activities and save all
logs into text files that can be preserved for future reference. You can
activate logging to record the following categories of system activities:
Event log
Records all the events such as key negotiation activities, denial-ofservice attacks, device failures, and administrative activities.
Traffic log
Records all the traffic going through the appliance, and whether
or not this data is passed or blocked according to the current set of
policies.
Alarm log
Records a history of all alarms that have been triggered by various
events or occurrences.
RAS User log
Records a history of every RAS client connection made through
this appliance, including user name, origin of the connection,
when the user logged in (and out), and a summary of connection
statistics.
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Phase One SA and Phase Two SA logs
Records the creation and expiration histories for each phase of
security associations pertaining to VPN tunnels established in the
system.
A Firebox Vclass appliance has a limited file-storage capacity. Log files
are limited to 200 kilobytes (200 KB), except the Traffic log, which can be
as large as 1 megabyte (1 MB).
When a log file exceeds the preset limit, the oldest entries are deleted to
make room for the most recent entries. To help you manage your log files
to prevent losing any entries, a predefined alarm, “LOG_FILE_FULL,”
alerts you when a specific log file is getting too big. At that time, you can
back up the log file for future reference.
WatchGuard recommends the use of remote logging, using syslog, as
described in “Activating the remote logging feature” on page 248.
Viewing the Logs
Use Log Manager to view your logs at any time. When the Log Manager
window is opened, the Vcontroller contacts the Firebox Vclass appliance
and extracts the latest logs. The 500 most recent entries are listed.
1
244
From the main Vcontroller page, click Log Manager.
The Log Manager window appears.
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Viewing the Logs
2
3
4
5
6
Click each tab to review the entries for that category.
If the log has more than 500 entries, as noted in the status message in
the lower-left corner, click Next to download the next group of
records.
Click Prev to display earlier listings.
To update the screen with the latest entries, click Refresh.
To increase or decrease the number of entries displayed, click
Number of Entries in the lower-right corner of this window.
A counter pop-up appears in the tab.
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- Move the slider to the desired number and then click outside of
the pop-up to close it.
Filtering a current log
When viewing a log, you may see a lot of entries you consider to be
irrelevant. You can use the Filter feature to view only those activities or
reports that you want to see.
1
After selecting the appropriate tab, right-click a specific column
header to open the Filter pop-up window.
Right-clicking different column headers displays different filter choices relevant to
the header.
2
Select a search option or type a text string in the Search field and then
click Filter. You can use shift+select for more than one search option.
Vcontroller filters out only those records matching the search options and displays
them in the tab. The column header you filtered displays an asterisk to the left of
the title.
NOTE
Following a filtering action, you can right-click other column headings
and repeat this process to further filter the entries until you have the exact
records that you want.
3
To undo the filtering, reopen the Filter pop-up and click Disable
Filter.
Vcontroller restores the previously visible log entries that were filtered out of view.
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Log Settings
Log Settings
You can use four separate log files to monitor and record almost any level
of Firebox Vclass system activities.
To configure the logging settings, follow these steps:
1
Click Settings.
2
To enable the Traffic log, click the checkbox labeled Enable Traffic
Log.
The System Configuration dialog box appears displaying the log settings.
The Firebox Vclass appliance begins logging traffic.
NOTE
If you leave this option disabled, you can still use the Log Manager
window to view information about other system activity. For more
information, see “Viewing the Logs” on page 244.
3
To enable the Event Log, click the checkbox labeled Enable Event
Logging.
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4
To change the amount of information recorded in the Event log, click
the Event Log Level options slider and move it to the logging level
you want.
NOTE
The system purges the oldest log files when they reach a certain size. The
more events you include, the more frequently the log content is deleted.
The Vcontroller provides a default alarm that notifies you when a log file
is almost full.
Activating the remote logging feature
If you have a syslog server accessible through the network, you can
designate that server as the default destination for all future log archive
files. This is the preferred method for storing log files.
The Firebox Vclass appliance can record all the event, alarm, RAS user,
phase one and phase two SA, and traffic logs to any designated remote
server that supports the remote syslog mechanism. To make this possible,
the remote logging features on the Firebox Vclass appliance must be
linked to the log server, as described in the following instructions. In
addition, the syslog daemon process on the server must be set to enable
log traffic from other systems. The user documentation for the server
should provide information on configuring such a link.
To store your log files on a remote server, follow these steps:
1
2
3
248
Click the checkbox labeled Remote Logging.
Type the IP address of the syslog server in the appropriate field.
Click Detail.
The Remote Log Detail dialog box appears.
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Log Settings
4
Select the Facility and Priority from the drop lists for each log
category. To use the default settings, click Default.
5
Click Done.
When you have finished configuring the logging settings, click one of the
following options:
Reset
To return the settings to the previous configuration.
Apply
To immediately commit the settings to the Firebox Vclass
appliance.
When you are finished, click Close.
The System Configuration dialog box closes.
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Log Archiving
When your log files are sufficiently full, or if your organizational
archiving policy dictates, you can archive your log files to a text file. This
file will be archived to a specific directory on your workstation:
Windows workstations:
c:\rs\log
UNIX workstations:
users home directory
Log files are assigned a name in this format:
<type>_<date>.rsl
For example, a traffic log file that was archived at 10:30 am on May 19,
2001 would be named:
traffic_20010519_1030.rsl
To archive your log files, follow these steps:
250
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Log Manager.
2
Click the Log Archiving tab.
3
Click the checkboxes–Alarms, Events, Traffic, RAS Users, Phase
One SA, and Phase Two SA–to select the log category to archive.
The Log Manager window appears.
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Log Archiving
4
Click Archive Now to archive a file to the default directory location:
C:\WatchGuard\Log\ or click Browse to select a different directory.
When the archiving is complete, a dialog box appears.
5
Click OK.
NOTE
You cannot set up the Firebox Vclass appliance to automatically archive
logs.
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System Information
CHAPTER 14
The System Information dialog box provides accurate and up-to-date
information on your system’s current status. This dialog box contains a
number of tabs that provide information on a variety of system
components.
General Information
For general information on Firebox Vclass appliance status, use the
System Information dialog box’s General tab.
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click System Information.
2
Click the General tab.
The System Information dialog box appears.
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This tab allows you to access some general information, such as the model number,
current system software version, serial number, contact person, and location of the
appliance.
3
When you are finished, click Close.
VPN Tunnel Information
You can view tunnels and traffic statistics, delete specific tunnels, or
delete all tunnels and purge the appliance of all residual tunnel records.
Remember that tunnels are not always closed when the connection is
broken.
• From the main Vcontroller page, click System Information.
The System Information dialog box appears.
•
•
Click the Tunnels tab.
Click one of the following two display categories:
By IPSec Peers
Displays a list of currently active IPSec peers. The total count of
tunnels may include some that are not in active use, but are still
on record within the database.
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VPN Tunnel Information
By Policies
Displays a list of all policies you have created and the number of
VPN tunnels established by each policy.
•
to view the traffic statistics and the associated tunnels for a particular
IPSec peer or policy, select the entry from the IPSec Peer list.
The display refreshes and the statistics are displayed on the right. if
there are any tunnels associated with this entry, the tunnel list
displays them.
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•
•
•
•
•
Click Delete Tunnels to remove all established tunnels associated
with this IPSec peer or policy and force the creation of new tunnels. If
there are no established tunnels this button is unavailable.
Click Refresh to remove the Statistics information from the IPSec Peer
List field.
To delete a specific tunnel associated with an IPSec Peer or Policy and
force the creation of a new tunnel, select the entry from the tunnel list
and click Delete.
To update the tunnel list with the most recent information, click
Refresh.
When you are finished, click Close.
Viewing tunnel details
To view a detailed report of a specific tunnel, follow these steps:
• Select an entry from the tunnel list and then click Details.
The Detail Tunnel Information dialog box appears.
•
Click Refresh to update the current SAs list with the most recent
information. When you are finished, click Close to return to the
System Information dialog box, Tunnels tab.
Traffic Information
To view traffic activity information, follow these steps:
• From the main Vcontroller page, click System Information.
The System Information dialog box appears.
• Click the Traffic tab.
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Traffic Information
The following information is displayed on the Traffic tab:
Total Packets
Total number of packets processed since the last reboot of this
appliance. This includes packets that pass through this appliance
and those that are discarded by firewall policies.
Total Bytes
Data traffic in total bytes processed through this appliance since
the last reboot.
IPSec Packets
IPSec activity in total number of packets that have been encrypted
or decrypted, since the last system startup.
IPSec Bytes
IPSec encryption/decryption activity in bytes.
Total Tunnels
Number of VPN tunnels.
•
•
Click Refresh to update the display with the most recent information.
Click Reset Connections to disconnect all current connections. This
will flush the Firebox Vclass appliance of all residual data
connections that may be hampering performance.
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•
When you are finished, click Close.
Route Information
To view the routing table information, follow these steps:
1
Click the Routes tab.
2
3
Click Refresh to update the display with the most recent information.
When you are finished, click Close.
RAS User Information
After you have set up Remote Access Service (RAS) and implemented
VPN policies, you can monitor and manage the current remote user
connections using the System Information window.
1
258
Click the RAS User tab.
This currently active RAS users are displayed.
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RAS User Information
2
Click Disconnect to break the selected user connection, including any
established tunnels. If an internal IP address was assigned to this user,
it will be returned to the system for future use.
3
Click Refresh to update the Active RAS Users display with the most
recent information.
4
When you are finished, click Close.
Viewing RAS user information and tunnel details
You can view a real-time snapshot of a user connection, including
information about the properties of a user, properties of tunnels being
used by this user, and detailed traffic statistics.
1
Select a user entry from the Active RAS Users list and then click
Detail.
The RAS User Information dialog box appears.
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The User Information and Statistics areas provide extensive information about this
user and the current connection. The Tunnel List catalogs the tunnels currently in
use.
2
Click Refresh to update the Statistics display with the most recent
information.
3
Click Disconnect to break the selected user connection, including any
established tunnels. If an internal IP address was assigned to this user,
it will be returned to the system for future use.
4
To delete a specific tunnel associated with a RAS user and force the
creation of a new tunnel, select the entry from the tunnel list and click
Delete.
5
To update the tunnel list with the most recent information, click
Refresh.
6
To view a detailed report of a specific tunnel, select an entry from the
tunnel list and then click Details. Most of the time, a RAS User
connection will have only a single tunnel.
The Detail Tunnel Information dialog box appears.
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Interface 1 (Public) Information
- Click Refresh to update the Current SAs list with the most
recent information. When you are finished, click Close to return
to the System Information, Tunnels tab.
- When you are finished, click Close to return to the RAS User
Information window.
Interface 1 (Public) Information
This tab displays the status of interface 1 (Public) and the IP addressing
mode in use–Static, DHCP, or PPPoE.
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click System Information.
2
Click the Interface 1 (Public) tab.
3
4
Click Refresh to update the display with the most recent information.
The System Information dialog box appears.
The Interface 1 (Public) information is displayed.
When you are finished, click Close.
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DHCP Server Information
If you have configured the Firebox Vclass appliance to act as a DHCP
server, you can use this tab to view the DHCP lease information.
262
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click System Information.
2
Click the DHCP Server tab.
3
4
Click Refresh to update the display with the most recent information.
The System Information dialog box appears.
THe DHCP server lease information is displayed.
When you are finished, click Close.
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CHAPTER 15
Backing Up and Restoring
Configurations
The WatchGuard Vcontroller offers an array of built-in archiving and
data restoration capabilities. You can save all your configuration settings
and policies in anticipation of a severe data loss, and then reapply that
data, when needed, to restore a system.
NOTE
x.509 certificates and software licenses are not archived. You must
reimport the original files into an appliance when necessary.
Three scenarios require that you restore your security appliance database:
• The Firebox Vclass appliance crashes and corrupts the current set of
configurations and policies.
• A recently modified set of policies is compromised.
• You create and apply a different configuration, and then later want to
restore the previous configuration.
Unless you establish a regular schedule of Vcontroller database backups,
you risk having to re-create all your configuration entries or policies.
Make a habit of keeping regular archive sets available.
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Create a Backup File
264
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Back Up/Restore.
2
3
4
Click the Backup tab.
The Backup/Restore dialog box appears.
To use the default file name and directory, click Backup Now.
To use a different directory of your choosing, click Browse.
The Select Backup File dialog box appears.
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Restoring an Archived Configuration
5
Browse to the directory, type a file name of your choosing in the
appropriate field, and then click Select.
The newly created file path appears in the file name field.
6
Click Backup Now.
It is strongly recommended that you copy the archived file into a safe
location.
Restoring an Archived Configuration
You can restore the Vclass configuration from any previous configuration
that you have backed up. Make sure that you are restoring the correct
configuration to the appropriate appliance. For example, a backup
configuration for a V80 model cannot be used to restore a different
Firebox Vclass model.
To restore an archived configuration file:
1
Click the Restore tab.
2
Click Browse.
The Select the file to restore dialog box appears. This dialog box should
automatically open to the directory containing all previous archived files.
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3
Select the appropriate backup file and then click Select.
4
Click Restore Now.
5
To restore the appliance, click OK; otherwise, click Cancel.
6
Click OK to proceed.
7
Click the Log In button to log into your newly restored Firebox Vclass
appliance.
The backup file name appears in the File Name field.
A Warning dialog box appears.
After the restoration is complete, another dialog box appears.
Another dialog box appears reporting that the server is restarting. This dialog box
closes itself when restart is complete.
Restoring to the Factory Default
The Vcontroller enables you to revert a Firebox Vclass appliance to the
initial factory configuration. This enables you to start over with an
appliance as if it just came out of the box.
NOTE
Perform this task only when all other diagnostics or troubleshooting
efforts fail.
1
266
Click the Factory Default tab.
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Exporting and Importing Configuration Files
2
Read the displayed text. If you want to complete the process, click
Restore to Factory Default.
A confirmation dialog box appears, asking if you want to erase all the current
settings and policies.
3
If you want to continue, click OK.
The Firebox Vclass appliance applies the original factory default settings and
reboots.
For information on configuring a Firebox Vclass appliance in a factory
default state, see “Getting Started” on page 17.
Exporting and Importing Configuration Files
You can export a complete, ready-to-use profile, in XML format, from an
active, fully configured Firebox Vclass appliance. You can use this file as
an efficient way to store your settings, and later import it to restore your
Vclass configuration. After this is done, you may need to make a few
adjustments to the file and import any needed CA certificates.
1
Click the Export/Import tab.
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To export an XML file containing the complete configuration settings and
policies:
1
Click Export.
2
3
Open the destination directory and name the export file.
4
Click OK.
A Save dialog box appears.
Click Save.
When the process is complete, a confirmation dialog box appears.
To import an XML file containing the complete configuration settings and
policies:
268
1
Click Import.
2
3
Locate and select the appropriate file.
4
Click OK.
An Open dialog box appears.
Click Open.
When the process is complete, a confirmation dialog box appears.
The Firebox Vclass appliance reboots.
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Exporting and Importing Configuration Files
Importing a configuration file using Appliance Discovery
Instead of the usual configuration and setup process, you can import a
complete appliance profile as part of the device discovery process.
NOTE
No international or high ASCII characters can be extracted and
incorporated into the XML file. Only ASCII characters or umbers are
permitted in a Firebox Vclass appliance’s XML profile.
1
When the Devices Found dialog box appears, select the entry of the
appliance to configure.
2
Click Import a Profile.
3
Click Browse.
4
Locate and select the XML configuration file you want to apply to this
appliance.
Some additional options are displayed in the dialog box, as shown in the following
illustration.
The Open dialog box appears.
Only files with “.xml” extensions are displayed in this dialog box.
5
If needed, in both the Temporary IP and Mask fields, type the
appropriate entries. This temporary IP address must be in the same
subnet as your administrative workstation.
The Temporary IP and Mask entries are used to configure interface 0 (Private) of
the target Vclass appliance so that the XML file can be transferred to that
appliance. The entries are temporary because the interface will be reconfigured
with the IP address information defined in the XML file after the appliance has
been restarted.
6
Click Update.
7
Review the messages and then click Close.
After the profile is imported, the Results dialog box appears.
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8
When the Devices Found dialog box reappears, click Cancel to close
it.
9
You can now use the Login dialog box to log in to this appliance using
the newly assigned IP address.
Editing an exported configuration file
If the exported file is intended for use in other Firebox Vclass appliances,
you can make changes to its contents, as described in this section. Because
the configuration file is in XML format, you can open it with any text or
XML editor to make changes to the contents. After this is done and you
have saved the changes, you can then import the configuration file into a
Firebox Vclass appliance.
NOTE
Do not attempt to alter or delete the login/TEXT password text. This text
is encrypted during the export process. You must use Vcontroller to
change your password after the import has been successfully concluded.
The following illustration shows the beginning of a typical configuration
file in an XML format.
<?xml version="1.0" standalone="yes"?>
<!--DOCTYPE rs-profile SYSTEM "profile.dtd"-->
<profile>
<product-grade>2</product-grade>
<rs-version>1036706512</rs-version>
<using-cpm-profile>0</using-cpm-profile>
<for-version>4.0</for-version>
<for-model>V100</for-model>
<account-list>
<account>
<id>admin</id>
<password>rsyXAP3ZJEP0M</password>
<description>super admin account</description>
<role-list>
<role>super admin</role>
</role-list>
</account>
<account>
<id>admin2k2</id>
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Exporting and Importing Configuration Files
<password>rsgnJUYuNVmbw</password>
<description></description>
<role-list>
<role>admin</role>
</role-list>
</account>
</account-list>
The contents are organized within pairs of parameter tags. You can edit
included text as required, though you should edit carefully. An erroneous
entry can make the appliance unreliable or inoperable.
If the policies include VPN or IPSec policies that rely on automatic IKE
exchanges, you must use the System Configuration dialog box to initiate
a new certificate request process. When the certificate is delivered, import
the new certificate into the Vcontroller. Edit the IKE policies to
incorporate the new certificate. The IKE exchanges are now enabled.
If you have imported a configuration file into a Firebox Vclass appliance
that contains certificates, a default IKE action is automatically inserted
into the configuration file. Any IKE policies that refer to the missing
certificate will use a default PSK instead.
The default values of the IKE action are as follows:
Name
DEFAULT_PSK
Description
Default PSK-only IKE action
Preshared Key
Default
Mode
Main
PFS
Yes
IKE transform
-------Authentication
Preshared key
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Encryption algorithm
DES
Authentication algorithm
MD5
Lifetime
8 hours
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Using the Diagnostics/CLI
Feature
CHAPTER 16
This chapter describes a variety of useful troubleshooting features that
can help you identify and resolve problems.
Using Connectivity to Test Network Connections
If network connections appear to be broken, you can use the Firebox
Vclass appliance to test the hardware and cabling:
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Diagnostics/CLI.
The Diagnostics dialog box appears.
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2
3
4
274
Click the Connectivity tab.
Type the IP address or DNS host name in the appropriate field.
Click Ping.
The Ping History table displays the result. This entry describes the time of the test,
the address you attempted to ping and the result, either OK or Failed.
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Using the Support Features
5
If this test has verified that the device is responding to Ping packets
from the Firebox Vclass appliance, the physical connection is
working.
If this test fails, check all physical connections, cables, hubs, and other
hardware components.
NOTE
To obtain WatchGuard Technical Support, visit the WatchGuard Web site
at the following URL:
http://www.watchguard.com
For more information on technical support, see “Service and Support” on
page 7.
Using the Support Features
The debugging support features are helpful in troubleshooting possible
malfunctions, but only in conjunction with technical support. A technical
support representative may ask you to use these features and then
forward the results to WatchGuard for analysis.
Configuring debugging support
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Diagnostics/CLI.
2
Click the Support tab.
The Diagnostics dialog box appears.
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276
3
Click Configuration.
4
Under the direction of technical support, move the sliders to the
requested locations.
5
6
Click Apply.
The Debugging Support dialog box appears.
Click Save Debug Information.
The Select the File dialog box appears.
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Using the Support Features
7
Browse to the proper directory and then click Save.
8
Click OK.
A confirmation dialog box appears.
Saving a Policy to a text file
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Diagnostics/CLI.
2
Click the Support tab.
The Diagnostics dialog box appears.
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3
Click Save Policy.
4
Browse to the proper directory and click Select.
5
Click OK.
The Select the file dialog box appears.
A confirmation dialog box appears.
Executing a CLI Script
The CLI (Command Line Interface) feature in Vcontroller can be used to
execute an update, maintenance, or other script on your Vclass device.
NOTE
This is not an actual command line interface window.
After you have received the script from a network administrator or other
personnel and stored it on your file system, you can follow these steps to
execute it on your appliance.
1
278
From the main Vcontroller page, click Diagnostics/CLI.
The Diagnostics dialog box appears.
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Executing a CLI Script
2
Click the CLI tab.
3
Click Open.
4
5
Browse to the proper directory and select the CLI script.
The Open dialog box appears.
Click Open to execute the script.
After the script has been executed, a Confirmation/Restart dialog box appears,
informing you that you must now restart the appliance for changes to take effect.
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6
Click OK.
The appliance reboots.
Saving Diagnostic Information
Saving diagnostic information is helpful in troubleshooting possible
malfunctions, but only in conjunction with technical support. A technical
support representative may ask you to save diagnostic information and
then forward the file to WatchGuard for analysis.
280
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click Diagnostics/CLI.
2
Click the Diagnostic Information tab.
3
Click Save.
The Diagnostics dialog box appears.
The Save dialog box appears.
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Saving Diagnostic Information
4
5
Browse to the proper directory and select the appropriate file.
6
Click OK.
Click Select.
A confirmation dialog box appears.
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CHAPTER 17
Setting Up a High Availability
System
In a WatchGuard High Availability (HA) system, two Firebox Vclass
appliances are connected so that one serves as a ready backup to the other
if the main appliance fails while managing network traffic. This chapter
guides you in connecting, linking, and running such a high availability
(HA) system using two Firebox Vclass appliances in a Primary and
Standby relationship.
There are two High Availability modes: Active/Standby and Active/
Active. Active/Standby is available for all models that have an HA
interface. Active/Active requires the purchase of a software upgrade
license, and requires V80 or V100 hardware. Please refer to the
WatchGuard Web site for information on purchasing software upgrade
licenses:
https://www.watchguard.com/upgrade
Active/Standby
Active/Standby means that when a Primary appliance fails, the
passive appliance comes online with a full copy of the state table,
to provide maximum uptime and network availability.
Active/Active
The Active/Active option works with two Vclass appliances
paired together using redundant High Availability (HA) Ethernet
ports. Active/Active uses transparent state failover, which
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provides a seamless transition if one of the boxes fails and the
other must take over. System configuration, policies and firewall,
and VPN connections are shared between the two active
appliances, so if one fails, the other is fully aware of the state of all
connections and can continue carrying the load without dropping
any packets.
This chapter discusses High Availability Active/Standby mode. To learn about
High Availability Active/Active mode, see the High Availability Guide that
comes with the license key when you purchase the HA Active/Active
upgrade option.
In HA Active/Standby mode, you configure the Standby appliance to
mirror the Primary appliance. The Standby appliance will be functionally
inactive, waiting for a signal from the Primary that it has failed. If this
occurs, the Standby appliance takes over all network management tasks
within a very short interval, replacing the failed device.
The WatchGuard High Availability (HA) system is both automatic and
transparent. Switching to a backup appliance occurs almost
instantaneously.
When active, the Primary appliance regularly sends a “heartbeat” to the
standby appliance. If the Primary appliance fails, the heartbeat ceases.
When the standby appliance detects three consecutive missed heartbeats,
it assumes full network functions and operations within a few seconds.
Prerequisites for a High Availability System
To set up a High Availability Active/Standby system, you need the
following:
• Two Firebox Vclass appliances.
• The appliance you use as the Standby appliance must be in the factory
default configuration. If you just unpacked this appliance, it is in a
factory default state. If the appliance that will be used as the Standby
device has already been configured, you must reset it to the factory
default configuration using Vcontroller or the Command Line
Interface.
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Connecting the Appliances
Connecting the Appliances
To set up a high availability system, you must connect two Firebox Vclass
appliances through the HA port.
• Connect the Private interface (0) of the Primary appliance to a hub or
switch.
• Connect the Private interface (0) of the Standby appliance to the same
hub or switch.
• Connect all other interfaces that are being used in the same way.
Every interface connection from the Primary appliance to a hub or
switch must be matched with a connection from the Standby
appliance to the same hub or switch.
• Connect the HA interfaces with crossover cables.
• Connect the Management Station to a hub that is connected to
interface 0 (private) on both appliances. The Management Station can
also be connected to an HA2 port.
Configuring a Standby Appliance
Use the High Availability tab to configure the standby appliance.
1
From the main Vcontroller page, click System Configuration.
2
Click the High Availability tab.
The System Configuration dialog box appears.
The High Availability settings are displayed.
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3
4
286
Click the checkbox labeled Enable High Availability.
Select the Active/Standby checkbox.
The following HA options are displayed.
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Configuring a Standby Appliance
These default HA settings include the following:
- All of the appliance’s interfaces will be monitored. If any
interface is detected as “LINK-DOWN,” the Secondary
appliance will take over.
- The HA heartbeat interval is set to one beat every second.
- The HA Group ID, which uniquely identifies this group (pair) of
Firebox Vclass appliances currently backing each other up, is
recorded as 3.
- The HA heartbeat is sent through the HA1 interface.
- The appliance you are currently logged into will be configured
as the primary.
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NOTE
Make sure that the connection links both HA1 ports on the primary and
secondary appliances, and that you are using a crossover cable. If the
appliance cannot detect the secondary appliance, check the connection
and restart the secondary appliance. When this is done, click the Refresh
button to redetect the secondary appliance.
5
Type the System Name of the Primary appliance in the appropriate
field.
6
If desired, click Encrypt all HA Communication, and type and
confirm a shared secret.
This feature is optional, and can be left blank if you do not need to encrypt
information sent between these appliances during normal operation. Encryption is
not necessary if the HA1 interfaces are connected directly with a crossover cable.
NOTE
For better performance, leave the HA secret blank. This shared secret is
used to encrypt HA state-sync information. VPN tunnel information is
always encrypted, even if this encryption is disabled.
7
From the far right of the Interface list, click the Monitoring
checkboxes to active monitoring on specific interfaces. You may have
to scroll the Interfaces list to see this column.
8
To apply the default HA configuration to the Primary appliance, click
Apply.
9
If you need to perform Advanced configuration tasks, such as setting
up HA2 as an HA port, or changing the default primary and standby
appliance HA port IP addresses, click Advanced. See “Customizing
HA System Parameters” on page 289 for more information.
10 Click HA Sync to copy the entire configuration and policy database
from the Primary appliance to the Standby appliance.
This button is active only if the status indicator in the High Availability tab
displays an “OK” message. If this button is not active, make sure that the Standby
appliance has been turned on and that all HA interface connections are secure.
A status dialog box appears. When the synchronization is complete, a confirmation
dialog box appears. Both appliances are now ready for standby protection.
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Customizing HA System Parameters
NOTE
The first time you perform an HA Sync, the standby appliance must be in
factory default configuration.
NOTE
Remember to perform HA Sync every time you make any changes to
configurations or to the policy database, to assure total operational
consistency between Primary and Standby appliances.
Customizing HA System Parameters
You can customize a number of HA parameters using the Advanced HA
Parameters dialog box. At this level, you can configure the following:
• Send the HA heartbeat to the secondary appliance’s HA2
management interface.
• Change the HA group ID.
In addition, you can manually trigger a Failover or Restart event on the
Primary or Secondary appliance.
To change any of these settings, follow these steps:
1
Click Advanced.
The Advanced HA Parameters dialog box appears.
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2
To activate monitoring through the HA ports, click to select the
checkbox marked Enable HA on HA1 Port and/or Enable HA on
HA2 Port.
Note that if HA is enabled on the HA2 interface, that interface cannot be used for
management access. If you already configured the HA2 interface for management
access in the Interface tab of the System Configuration dialog box, reopen that
dialog box and undo those entries.
3
If specific IP addresses have been assigned to the HA ports, type the
IP addresses and netmasks in each of the two HA Interface fields–
Primary and Standby. Otherwise the default addresses are adequate.
You can enter different IP addresses so these ports can be accessed through your
local area network.
4
290
If you plan to set up more than one Primary/Standby system in this
subnet, delete the “3” in the HA Group ID field and type a number
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Customizing HA System Parameters
that uniquely identifies this system within the network context. (The
number can range between 3 and 255.)
HA Group IDs are used to identify High Availability Active/Standby pairs on your
network. Each HA Active/Standby pair should have a separate Group ID. You need
to change this number only if other devices are running the VRRP protocol (using
the same VRRP ID) on the networks connected to this appliance. VRRP allows
both HA security appliances to share the same MAC and IP addresses.
5
When you have finished, click OK to save the parameter entries and
close the Advanced HA Parameters dialog box.
6
When the High Availability tab reappears, click HA Sync to
synchronize your appliances.
7
When you have finished configuring High Availability settings, click
Apply to apply the settings, or Reset to reset the settings.
8
When you have finished, click Close.
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Checking your HA System Status
The HA monitor tells you which appliance you are logged into, whether it
is Primary or Secondary, and whether it is Active or Failover.
Detailed system status
Detailed HA system status is shown in the System Configuration/High
Availability dialog box. This status includes the HA role, status, DB
timestamp, and failure reason (if one exists) for both systems.
To view detailed system status, open the System Configuration dialog
box and click the High Availability tab. You can view the HA status of
both the Primary and Standby appliances at the same time. The following
list describes the possible Status messages you might see.
292
Active
The current appliance is active
Standby
The current appliance is standing by
Failed
The current appliance has failed (for example, the link is down)
Takeover
The peer appliance has failed and the current system takes over
Admin
Administration mode
Unavailable
When then current appliance cannot detect its peer appliance, it
shows this state in the peer HA status
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Additional Preparation for Failover
Additional Preparation for Failover
Make sure, in anticipation of a failover, that you open and edit the
existing Event Alarm definition so that you are notified by an SNMP trap,
email alert, or both. You should also make sure that all SNMP stations
have been registered in the appliances, as can be done in the System
Configuration dialog box’s SNMP tab.
For more information on defining alarms, see “Using Alarm Manager” on
page 231.
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Index
A
access accounts. See accounts
access privileges
adding 110
for remote users 211
removing 110
Account button 52
Account Manager dialog box 106
account manager, using 105–112
accounts
changing existing 110
reactivating expired 208
removing unwanted 110
showing, hiding 109
types of (see also admin, super user, and end
user accounts) 105
actions. See policy actions
Activate VLAN Forwarding checkbox 102
Active Features dialog box 100
Add Route dialog box 34, 73
Address Group button 51
Address Group dialog box 118
address groups
creating new 126
nesting 128
admin accounts
described 105, 106
Advanced HA Parameters dialog box 289
Advanced Policy Settings dialog box 149
AH 179
alarm bell icon 53
Alarm button 49
Alarm Definition dialog box 232, 238
Alarm Details dialog box 240
Alarm log 243
Alarm Manager window 231
alarms
activating email notification for 235, 238
changing definition of 238
clearing 241
defining 231–238
defining severity of 233
defining single-condition 233
selecting conditions for
setting SNMP trap for 235, 237
Firebox Vclass User Guide
appliances, configuring standby 285
Authentication Header 179
automatic key mode 189
automatic key VPN policies
authentication type 184
perfect forward secrecy 189
protecting against replay attacks 190
B
Backup/Restore button 52
Backup/Restore dialog box 264
backups
of policy database 264
when required 263
buttons
Account 52
Address Group 51
Alarm 49
Backup/Restore 52
Diagnostics/CLI 52
Help 53
IKE Policy 51
Install Wizard 52
IPSec Action 51
Log Manager 50
Log Out 53
Monitor 50
NAT/LB Action 51
Policy Checker 51
Remote Users 51
Security Policy 50
Shutdown/Reboot 52
System Configuration 51
System Information 50
Upgrade 52
C
cabling 22
Certificate Request dialog box 80
Certificate Revocation List, importing 85
certificates
importing 85
nullifying 85
requesting 80
requirements for requesting 80
specifying options for 79
changing date and time 30
CLI update script, importing 278
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configuration files
exporting, importing 267
importing using appliance discovery 269
restoring 265
context-sensitive help 13
CPM-Vcontroller conflicts 60
CRL, importing 85
D
date & time, changing 30
Date, Time, and Time Zone dialog box 63
Debugging Support dialog box 276
debugging support options, using 275, 280
Default Firewall Policy tab 37
default gateway 34
denial-of-service options 93
Detail Tunnel Information dialog box 256, 260
Devices Found dialog box 25, 269
Devices Not Found dialog box 24
DH groups 184, 189
DHCP server, enabling 32, 66
diagnostic information, saving 280
Diagnostics dialog box 273, 275, 277, 278, 280
Diagnostics/CLI button 52
dialog boxes
Account Manager 106
Active Features 100
Add Route 34, 73
Address Group 118
Advanced HA 289
Advanced HA Parameters 289
Advanced Policy Settings 149
Alarm Definition 232, 238
Alarm Details 240
Backup/Restore 264
Certificate Request 80
Date, Time, and Time Zone 63
Debugging Support 276
Detail Tunnel Information 256, 260
Devices Found 25, 269
Diagnostics 273, 275, 277, 278, 280
DNS Server 76
Edit (Name) Schedule 147
Edit Daily Schedule 149
Edit Interface 65
Edit RAS User 207
Edit Security Policy 123
Hacker Prevention 38
IKE Policy 180
Import Certificate/CRL 85
296
Import License 98
Insert IKE Policy 181
Insert Security Policy 125, 172
IPSec Action 118
Kill Login 112
License Detail 99
Login 59
NAT/LB Action 119
New Address Group 126
New Address Group Member 126
New ESP Transform 190
New IKE Action 183
New IKE Transform 184
New IPSec Action 186
New IPSec Proposal 189
New Load Balancing/NAT Action 145
New Mapping 143, 144
New QoS Action 138
New RAS User dialog box 204
New Schedule 147
New Server 145
New Service 128, 130
New Service Item 129
New Tenant 134
New User Group Profile 202
QoS Action 119
RADIUS Server 206
RAS Configuration 202, 209
RAS User Detail 212
RAS User Information 259
Remote Log Detail 248
Results 269
Review CSR 84
Schedule 119
Security Policy Checker 121
Select a Counter 233, 236
Select Backup File 264
Select Condition 236
Select the File 276
Service 118
SNMP Management Station 78
System Configuration 247, 285
System Information 253, 254
System QoS 121
System Tunnel Switching 197
Tenant 119
TOS Marking 139
Upgrade 57, 59
Vcontroller Login 56
Diffie-Hellman groups 184, 189
distributed denial-of-service attacks 94
DNS options, configuring 75
DNS Server dialog box 76
DNS servers, adding 36
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Domain Name field 36
dynamic NAT
described 142
example firewall policy for 154
dynamic NAT policies
user-defined IP 143
dynamic routes, configuring 74
E
Edit (Name) Schedule dialog box 147
Edit Daily Schedule dialog box 149
Edit Interface dialog box 65
Edit RAS User dialog box 207
Edit Security Policy dialog box 123
email notification of alarm 235, 238
Encapsulating Security Payload 179
encryption
described 180
end user accounts
delivering to users 108
described 105, 106
setting up 108
ESP 179
Event log
activating 247
described 243
examples
load balancing policy 173
QoS policies 168
static NAT policy 169
VLANs 164
F
factory defaults, restoring to 266
failover appliance, configuring 285
FAQs 12
features, viewing currently licensed 100
Firebox Installation Services 15
Firebox Vclass
components of 2
features of 1
options 5
Firebox Vclass appliances, described 45
Firebox Vclass Operating System 2
Fireboxes
assigning name to 62
cabling 22
Firebox Vclass User Guide
database 47
discovering 23
enabling as DHCP server 32, 66
features of 46
forcing a restart 57
installing 17–22
installing multiple 17
interfaces 64
location of 62
logging off 54
managing remotely 111
monitoring 215–220
moving to permanent location 43
package contents 18
resetting all connections of 257
restoring to factory defaults 266
shutting down 55
system contact for 62
turning on 22
firewall policies 37
corporate HQ policy example 163
defining policy actions for 136
described 136
for internal traffic 136
multiple 136
using schedules with 155
forced restarts 57
fully meshed topology 194
G
Global Policy settings 90
H
HA. See High Availability
HA2/Management interface, configuring 70
Hacker Prevention dialog box 38
hacker prevention options
denial-of-service options 93
described 92
distributed denial-of-service attacks 94
ICMP flood attack 94
IP source route attack 94
ping of death attack 94
SYN flood attack 94
UDP flood attack 94
hardware requirements 2
Help button 53
High Availability 5, 283
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Active/Active
described 283
Active/Standby
described 283
prerequisites for 284
additional preparation for failover 293
checking system status 292
configuring options for 286
configuring standby appliance 285
connecting appliances for 285
connecting appliances to network 285
customizing parameters 289
customizing parameters for 289
default settings 287
described 103, 283
system quick check 292
hub-and-spoke configuration 195
I
ICMP flood attack 94
IKE policies
creating 180
for remote users 209
IKE Policy button 51
IKE Policy dialog box 180
Import Certificate/CRL dialog box 85
Import License dialog box 98
incoming data interface, described 131
Insert IKE Policy dialog box 181
Insert Security Policy dialog box 125, 172
Install Wizard button 52
Installation Wizard
default gateway 34
described 27
gathering information for 27
interface 1 entries 33
Interface page 31
leasing time 32, 66
Routing screen 34
running 28
starting 28
interface 1 entries 33
Interface 1, configuring 67
Interface 2, configuring 69
Internet Key Exchange protocol. See IKE
IP Address field 32
IP addresses
in example network 18
private interface 26
IP source route attack 94
298
IPSec Action button 51
IPSec Action dialog box 118
K
Kill Login dialog box 112
known issues 12
L
LDAP servers, configuring options for 87–88
Least Connection 145
License Detail dialog box 99
license key certificates 4
licenses
importing 98
obtaining 97
viewing current 100
licensing 4
Linux
installing Vcontroller onto 3, 20
starting Vcontroller with 47
LiveSecurity Gold Program 14
LiveSecurity Service
activating 9
benefits of 7
broadcasts 8
Rapid Response Team 8
load balancing
algorithms 145
described 142
load balancing policies
creating 142–??
described 142
example 173
location, moving Firebox to permanent 43
log files
archiving 250
purging 244
Log Manager button 50
Log Manager window 244, 250
Log Out button 53
logging
configuring 79
enabling remote 248
setting options for 247
logging off 54
login conflicts 112
Login dialog box 59
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logs
changing number displayed 245
filtering entries 246
types of 243
viewing 244
M
New User Group Profile dialog box 202
Number of Clients field 66
Number of IP Addresses field 32
O
online support services
accessing 12
described 11
optional products 5
Management Station
described 18
setting up 18
manual key mode 188
manual key VPN policies
overview 185
Microsoft Windows, starting Vcontroller with 47
passwords
Mobile User VPN 5
changing 40
Monitor button 50
resetting for remote users 207
monitoring
Perfect
Forward Secrecy 189
current system activity 218
Phase One SA log 244
probes 216, 217
Phase Two SA log 244
RAS users 258, 261, 262
Ping History table 274
multi-tenant policies
ping of death attack 94
authentication 133
policy actions
described 131
for firewall policies 136
MUVPN 5
for QoS policies 138
for Web server load balancing policy 145
Policy Checker 121–124
Policy Checker button 51
policy database, backing up 264
NAT policies, creating 143
Policy Manager, using 117
NAT/LB Action button 51
policy. See security policy
NAT/LB Action dialog box 119
port shaping
network connections, testing 273
applying 120–121
New Address Group dialog box 126
described 138
New Address Group Member dialog box 126
PPPoE, IP address assigned using 33
New ESP Transform dialog box 190, 192
probes
New IKE Action dialog box 183
defining 217
New IKE Transform dialog box 184
described 215
New IPSec Action dialog box 186
real-time monitor 220–229
types of 216, 217
New IPSec Proposal dialog box 189
New Load Balancing/NAT Action dialog box 145 profiles, editing 270
New Mapping dialog box 143, 144
New QoS Action dialog box 138
New RAS User dialog box 204
New Schedule dialog box 147
New Server dialog box 145
QoS Action dialog box 119
New Service dialog box 128, 130
QoS policies
defining action 138
New Service Item dialog box 129
described 137
New Tenant dialog box 134
P
N
Q
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examples of 168
Quality-of-Service policies. See QoS policies
R
RADIUS server
removing appliance from backup 208
using for authentication 206
RADIUS Server dialog box 206
Random (load balancing algorithm) 145
Rapid Response Team 7, 8
RapidCore hardware ensemble 2
RAS Configuration dialog box 202, 209
RAS User Detail dialog box 212
RAS User Information dialog box 259
RAS User log 243
RAS users, monitoring 258, 261, 262
Ready LED 22
Real-time Chart window 215, 218
real-time monitor probe counters 220–229
Real-time Monitor window 215, 216
described 215
Remote Log Detail dialog box 248
remote logging, activating 248
remote management 111
remote user VPN policies
creating IKE policy 209
described 199
disabling an account 205
disconnecting from backup RADIUS
server 209
idle timeout for 203
maximum number of users for 203
requirements for 200
session time limit for 203
using nternal authentication database 204
Remote User VPNs, benefits of 199
remote users
controlling access privileges of 211
editing user group profile 208
reactivating expired account 208
resetting passwords for 207
reviewing connections of 259
viewing activity of 211
Remote Users button 51
replay attacks, protecting against 190
requirements, system 2
Results dialog box 269
Review CSR dialog box 84
Round Robin 145
300
routes
adding 72, 75, 78
configuring dynamic 74
described 72
routing, options 72
S
Schedule dialog box 119
schedules
creating daily 148
creating weekly 147
security policies
actions 114
components of 114
creating text file of 277
defining 125–131
described 113
examples of 153–175
exporting, importing 267
order of 123
preinstalled 124
schedules for 146
search order 123
testing 121–124
traffic specifications. See also traffic
specifications 114
types of 115–116
with multiple actions 116
Security Policy button 50
Security Policy Checker dialog box 121
Security Policy dialog box 185
segregating tenants into user domains
creating VLAN tenant policies 132–??
Select a Counter dialog box 233, 236
Select Backup File dialog box 264
Select Condition dialog box 236
Select Counter window 217
Select Probe window 217
Select the File dialog box 276
Server/IP Name window 23
Service dialog box 118
service groups
blocking 130
creating new 129
with range of port numbers 130
services 128
Shutdown/Reboot button 52
shutting down a Firebox 57
SNMP Management Station dialog box 78
SNMP options, configuring 77–79
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SNMP trap, setting alarm for 235, 237
software requirements 2
software upgrades, checking for 57
Solaris, installing Vcontroller onto 4, 19
Solaris, starting Vcontroller with 47
SpamScreen 5
static NAT
and VPNs 141
described 141
static NAT policies
constraints on 141
described 141
examples 169
super admin accounts
conflicts with 111
described 105
SYN flood attack 94
System Configuration button 51
System Configuration dialog box 61–103, 247,
traffic shaping. See load balancing
traffic specifications
and VLANs 132
components of 114
described 114
incoming data interface 131
service component of 128
sources and destinations 125
transforms, described 190
troubleshooting 273–281
tunnel switching
configuring 197
described 196
requirements for 196
tunnels. See VPN tunnels
Type of Service marking 138
System Contact field 30
System Information button 50
System Information dialog box 253, 254
System Location field 30
System Name field 30
System QoS dialog box 121
system requirements 2
system time, setting 63
System Tunnel Switching dialog box 197
UDP flood attack 94
Upgrade button 52
Upgrade dialog box 57, 59
upgrade history 59
user domains 132
285
T
Technical Support
assisted support 13
described 7
Firebox Installation Services 15
frequently asked questions 7
LiveSecurity Gold Program 14
LiveSecurity Program 14
users forum 12
VPN Installation Services 15
Tenant dialog box 119
tenants 131
time zones 63
time, setting 63
TOS marking 138, 139
TOS Marking dialog box 139
Traffic log
activating 247
described 243
Firebox Vclass User Guide
U
V
Vcontroller
described 2, 47
installing (Linux) 20
installing (Solaris) 19
installing (Windows) 18
launching 47
logging out 54
starting 47–48
user interface 49–53
viewing status 53
Vcontroller Login dialog box 56
Vcontroller-CPM conflicts 60
virus alerts 9
VLAN forwarding
activating 101
described 100
enabling 101
VLAN tenants
creating 134
described 132
VLANs
and traffic specifications 132
301
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described 131, 132
examples 164
VPN Installation Services 15
VPN policies
and IPSec actions 179
described 178
encryption/authentication 179
key management 179
transport mode 179
tunnel mode 179
VPN tunnels
reviewing current 259
reviewing details about 256
viewing existing 255
VPNs
and static NAT 141
described 178
fully meshed topology 194
hub-and-spoke topology 195
remote access services 199
remote user VPN policy. See remote user
VPN policy
remote users. See remote user VPN policies
W
WatchGuard users forum
described 12
joining 13
WatchGuard Vcontroller. See Vcontroller
Web server load balancing policy
creating 172
defining an action for 145
weighted fair queuing 137
Weighted Least Connection 145
Weighted Random 145
Weighted Round Robin 145
WFQ algorithm 137
What’s This? help 13
Windows, installing Vcontroller onto 18
Windows,installing Vcontroller onto 3
302
Vcontroller 4.0